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Sample records for fiber multibarrel electrodes

  1. Experimental characterization of PZT fibers using IDE electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, Nicholas; Ben Atitallah, Hassene; Ounaies, Zoubeida

    2016-04-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibers are mainly used in active fiber composites (AFC) where they are embedded in a polymer matrix. Interdigitated electrodes (IDE) along the direction of the fibers are used to achieve planar actuation, hereby exploiting the d33 coefficient of PZT. When embedded in the AFC, the PZT fibers are subjected to mechanical loading as well as non-uniform electric field as a result of the IDEs. Therefore, it is important to characterize the electrical and electromechanical behavior of these fibers ex-situ using the IDE electrodes to assess the impact of nonuniform electric field on the properties of the fibers. For that reason, this work aims at quantifying the impact of IDE electrodes on the electrical and electromechanical behavior of PZT fibers, which is necessary for their successful implementation in devices like AFC. The tested fibers were purchased from Advanced Cerametrics and they have an average diameter of 250 micrometers. The IDE electrodes were screen printed on an acrylic substrate. The PZT fibers were subjected to frequency sweeps at low voltages to determine permittivity for parallel and interdigitated electrodes. The piezoelectric e33 constant is determined from electromechanical testing of PZT fibers in parallel electrodes to compare the electromechanical behavior for PZT in bulk and fiber form. The dielectric constant and e33 were found to be lower for the IDE and parallel electrodes compared to bulk but comparable to results published in literature.

  2. Activated Carbon Fiber Monoliths as Supercapacitor Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelines Moreno-Fernandez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACF are interesting candidates for electrodes in electrochemical energy storage devices; however, one major drawback for practical application is their low density. In the present work, monoliths were synthesized from two different ACFs, reaching 3 times higher densities than the original ACFs’ apparent densities. The porosity of the monoliths was only slightly decreased with respect to the pristine ACFs, the employed PVDC binder developing additional porosity upon carbonization. The ACF monoliths are essentially microporous and reach BET surface areas of up to 1838 m2 g−1. SEM analysis reveals that the ACFs are well embedded into the monolith structure and that their length was significantly reduced due to the monolith preparation process. The carbonized monoliths were studied as supercapacitor electrodes in two- and three-electrode cells having 2 M H2SO4 as electrolyte. Maximum capacitances of around 200 F g−1 were reached. The results confirm that the capacitance of the bisulfate anions essentially originates from the double layer, while hydronium cations contribute with a mixture of both, double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance.

  3. Simulation of multipolar fiber selective neural stimulation using intrafascicular electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, J.H.; Meier, Jan H.; Rutten, Wim; Zoutman, Arne E.; Boom, H.B.K.; Bergveld, Piet

    1992-01-01

    A realistic, quantitative model for the excitation of myelinated nerve fibers by intrafascicular electrodes is presented. It predicts the stimulatory regions of any configuration of any number of electrodes, positioned anywhere inside the fascicle. The model has two parts. First, the nerve fiber is

  4. Polymer solution, fiber mat, and nanofiber membrane-electrode-assembly therewith, and method of fabricating same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    of fibers. The fibers may further include particles of a catalyst. The fiber mat may be used to form an electrode or a membrane. In a further aspect, a fuel cell membrane-electrode-assembly has an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, and a membrane disposed between the anode electrode and the cathode...... electrode. Each of the anode electrode, the cathode electrode and the membrane may be formed with a fiber mat....

  5. Nanomechanical Optical Fiber with Embedded Electrodes Actuated by Joule Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Zhenggang; Segura, Martha; Podoliak, Nina; Feng, Xian; White, Nicholas; Horak, Peter

    2014-07-31

    Nanomechanical optical fibers with metal electrodes embedded in the jacket were fabricated by a multi-material co-draw technique. At the center of the fibers, two glass cores suspended by thin membranes and surrounded by air form a directional coupler that is highly temperature-dependent. We demonstrate optical switching between the two fiber cores by Joule heating of the electrodes with as little as 0.4 W electrical power, thereby demonstrating an electrically actuated all-fiber microelectromechanical system (MEMS). Simulations show that the main mechanism for optical switching is the transverse thermal expansion of the fiber structure.

  6. Nanomechanical Optical Fiber with Embedded Electrodes Actuated by Joule Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Zhenggang; Segura, Martha; Podoliak, Nina; Feng, Xian; White, Nicholas; Horak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Nanomechanical optical fibers with metal electrodes embedded in the jacket were fabricated by a multi-material co-draw technique. At the center of the fibers, two glass cores suspended by thin membranes and surrounded by air form a directional coupler that is highly temperature-dependent. We demonstrate optical switching between the two fiber cores by Joule heating of the electrodes with as little as 0.4 W electrical power, thereby demonstrating an electrically actuated all-fiber microelectromechanical system (MEMS). Simulations show that the main mechanism for optical switching is the transverse thermal expansion of the fiber structure. PMID:28788148

  7. Electroretinography in dogs using a fiber electrode prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We compared two electroretinography (ERG electrodes in dogs using ERG standards of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV. Ten healthy Yorkshire terrier dogs (mean age, 2.80 ± 1.42 years; 6 females weighing 5.20 ± 1.56 kg were evaluated using an ERG system for veterinary use. Dark- and light-adapted ERG responses were recorded using an ERG-Jet electrode and a fiber electrode prototype. The examinations were performed during 2 visits, 3 weeks apart. Both electrodes (ERG-Jet or fiber prototype were used on each animal and the first eye to be recorded (OD × OS was selected randomly. Three weeks later the examination was repeated on the same animal switching the type of electrode to be used that day and the first eye to be examined. The magnitude and waveform quality obtained with the two electrode types were similar for all ERG responses. ERG amplitudes and implicit times obtained from dogs using the fiber electrode prototype were comparable to those obtained with the ERG-Jet electrode for rod, maximal rod-cone summed, cone, and 30-Hz flicker responses. The fiber electrode prototype is a low-cost device, available as an alternative instrument for clinical veterinary ERG recording for retinal function assessment.

  8. Electroretinography in dogs using a fiber electrode prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Pereira

    Full Text Available We compared two electroretinography (ERG electrodes in dogs using ERG standards of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV. Ten healthy Yorkshire terrier dogs (mean age, 2.80 ± 1.42 years; 6 females weighing 5.20 ± 1.56 kg were evaluated using an ERG system for veterinary use. Dark- and light-adapted ERG responses were recorded using an ERG-Jet electrode and a fiber electrode prototype. The examinations were performed during 2 visits, 3 weeks apart. Both electrodes (ERG-Jet or fiber prototype were used on each animal and the first eye to be recorded (OD × OS was selected randomly. Three weeks later the examination was repeated on the same animal switching the type of electrode to be used that day and the first eye to be examined. The magnitude and waveform quality obtained with the two electrode types were similar for all ERG responses. ERG amplitudes and implicit times obtained from dogs using the fiber electrode prototype were comparable to those obtained with the ERG-Jet electrode for rod, maximal rod-cone summed, cone, and 30-Hz flicker responses. The fiber electrode prototype is a low-cost device, available as an alternative instrument for clinical veterinary ERG recording for retinal function assessment.

  9. Electroretinography in dogs using a fiber electrode prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, A.L.; Montiani-Ferreira, F.; Santos, V.R.; Salomão, S.R.; Souza, C.; Berezovsky, A.

    2013-01-01

    We compared two electroretinography (ERG) electrodes in dogs using ERG standards of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). Ten healthy Yorkshire terrier dogs (mean age, 2.80 ± 1.42 years; 6 females) weighing 5.20 ± 1.56 kg were evaluated using an ERG system for veterinary use. Dark- and light-adapted ERG responses were recorded using an ERG-Jet electrode and a fiber electrode prototype. The examinations were performed during 2 visits, 3 weeks apart. Both electrodes (ERG-Jet or fiber prototype) were used on each animal and the first eye to be recorded (OD × OS) was selected randomly. Three weeks later the examination was repeated on the same animal switching the type of electrode to be used that day and the first eye to be examined. The magnitude and waveform quality obtained with the two electrode types were similar for all ERG responses. ERG amplitudes and implicit times obtained from dogs using the fiber electrode prototype were comparable to those obtained with the ERG-Jet electrode for rod, maximal rod-cone summed, cone, and 30-Hz flicker responses. The fiber electrode prototype is a low-cost device, available as an alternative instrument for clinical veterinary ERG recording for retinal function assessment

  10. Electrospinning of aligned fibers with adjustable orientation using auxiliary electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arras, Matthias M L; Grasl, Christian; Schima, Heinrich; Bergmeister, Helga

    2012-01-01

    A conventional electrospinning setup was upgraded by two turnable plate-like auxiliary high-voltage electrodes that allowed aligned fiber deposition in adjustable directions. Fiber morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). The auxiliary electric field constrained the jet bending instability and the fiber deposition became controllable. At target speeds of 0.9 m s −1 90% of the fibers had aligned within 2°, whereas the angular spread was 70° without the use of auxiliary electrodes. It was even possible to orient fibers perpendicular to the rotational direction of the target. The fiber diameter became smaller and its distribution narrower, while according to the FTIR-ATR measurement the molecular orientation of the polymer was unaltered. This study comprehensively documents the feasibility of directed fiber deposition and offers an easy upgrade to existing electrospinning setups. (paper)

  11. Long Life Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Cells: Fiber Substrates Nickel Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Howard H.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of nickel fiber mat electrodes were investigated over a wide range of fiber diameters, electrode thickness, porosity and active material loading levels. Thickness' were 0.040, 0.060 and 0.080 inches for the plaque: fiber diameters were primarily 2, 4, and 8 micron and porosity was 85, 90, and 95%. Capacities of 3.5 in. diameter electrodes were determined in the flooded condition with both 26 and 31% potassium hydroxide solution. These capacity tests indicated that the highest capacities per unit weight were obtained at the 90% porosity level with a 4 micron diameter fiber plaque. It appeared that the thinner electrodes had somewhat better performance, consistent with sintered electrode history. Limited testing with two-positive-electrode boiler plate cells was also carried out. Considerable difficulty with constructing the cells was encountered with short circuits the major problem. Nevertheless, four cells were tested. The cell with 95% porosity electrodes failed during conditioning cycling due to high voltage during charge. Discharge showed that this cell had lost nearly all of its capacity. The other three cells after 20 conditioning cycles showed capacities consistent with the flooded capacities of the electrodes. Positive electrodes made from fiber substrates may well show a weight advantage of standard sintered electrodes, but need considerably more work to prove this statement. A major problem to be investigated is the lower strength of the substrate compared to standard sintered electrodes. Problems with welding of leads were significant and implications that the electrodes would expand more than sintered electrodes need to be investigated. Loading levels were lower than had been expected based on sintered electrode experiences and the lower loading led to lower capacity values. However, lower loading causes less expansion and contraction during cycling so that stress on the substrate is reduced.

  12. Coaxial fiber supercapacitor using all-carbon material electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Viet Thong; Kim, Heetae; Ghosh, Arunabha; Kim, Jaesu; Chang, Jian; Vu, Quoc An; Pham, Duy Tho; Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Young Hee

    2013-07-23

    We report a coaxial fiber supercapacitor, which consists of carbon microfiber bundles coated with multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a core electrode and carbon nanofiber paper as an outer electrode. The ratio of electrode volumes was determined by a half-cell test of each electrode. The capacitance reached 6.3 mF cm(-1) (86.8 mF cm(-2)) at a core electrode diameter of 230 μm and the measured energy density was 0.7 μWh cm(-1) (9.8 μWh cm(-2)) at a power density of 13.7 μW cm(-1) (189.4 μW cm(-2)), which were much higher than the previous reports. The change in the cyclic voltammetry characteristics was negligible at 180° bending, with excellent cycling performance. The high capacitance, high energy density, and power density of the coaxial fiber supercapacitor are attributed to not only high effective surface area due to its coaxial structure and bundle of the core electrode, but also all-carbon materials electrodes which have high conductivity. Our coaxial fiber supercapacitor can promote the development of textile electronics in near future.

  13. Homemade battery-operated multi-barreled muzzle-loading gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiah, R; Thirunavukkarasu, G

    2003-11-01

    In a recent shootout by a terrorist group against a law enforcement agency, some unusual firearms were seized. On examination, these firearms were found to be homemade, battery-operated, multi-barreled muzzle-loading guns, analogous to a repeater. Reference to battery-operated firearms is rather scanty in the literature. Hence, the unique design features, electrical circuit, and the operation system of these unusual guns are described.

  14. High power nickel - cadmium cells with fiber electrodes (FNC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschka, F.; Schlieck, D.

    1986-01-01

    Nickel cadmium batteries differ greatly in their mechanical design and construction of the electrodes. Using available electrode constructions, batteries are designed which meet the requirements of specific applications and offer optimum performance. Pocket- and tubular cells are basically developed with the technology of the year 1895. Since then some improvements with todays technology have been made. The sintered cells use the technology of the 1930's and they are still limited to high power application. With this knowledge and the technology of today the fiber-structured nickel electrode (FNC) was developed at DAUG laboratory, a subsidiary company of Mercedes-Benz and Volkswagen. After ten years of experience in light weight prototype batteries for electric vehicles (1-2), the system was brought into production by a new company, DAUG-HOPPECKE. Characteristics of fiber electrodes: thickness and size can be easily changed; pure active materials are used; high conductor density; high elasticity of the structure; high porosity. Since 1983 NiCd-batteries with fiber-structured nickel electrodes (FNC) have been in production. Starting with the highly demanded cell-types for low, medium and high performance called L, M and H according to IEC 623 for low, medium and high performance applications, the program was recently completed with the X-type cell for very high power, as an alternative to sintered cells

  15. Carbon nanotube fiber mats for microbial fuel cell electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delord, Brigitte; Neri, Wilfrid; Bertaux, Karen; Derre, Alain; Ly, Isabelle; Mano, Nicolas; Poulin, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Novel carbon nanotube based electrodes of microbial fuel cells (MFC) have been developed. MFC is a promising technology for the wastewater treatment and the production of electrical energy from redox reactions of natural substrates. Performances of such bio-electrochemical systems depend critically on the structure and properties of the electrodes. The presently developed materials are made by weaving fibers solely comprised of carbon nanotubes. They exhibit a large scale porosity controlled by the weaving process. This porosity allows an easy colonization by electroactive bacteria. In addition, the fibers display a nanostructuration that promotes excellent growth and adhesion of the bacteria at the surface of the electrodes. This unique combination of large scale porosity and nanostructuration allows the present electrodes to perform better than carbon reference. When used as anode in a bioelectrochemical reactor in presence of Geobacter sulfurreducens bacteria, the present electrodes show a maximal current density of about 7.5mA/cm 2 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Metal adsorption process in activated carbon fiber from textile PAN fiber aim electrode production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Aline Castilho; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento; Silva, Elen Leal da; Marcuzzo, Jossano Saldanha; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro; Cuna, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Carbon fibers have a variety of applications in industry and have been increasingly studied to explore their various characteristics. Studies show that the activated carbon fiber has been effective in removing small contaminants as well as activated carbon, because of its characteristic porosity. Other studies relate carbonaceous materials to the electrical conductivity devices application. This work is based on the use of an activated carbon fiber from textile polyacrylonitrile (PAN) for metallic ion adsorption from aqueous solution. Consequently, it improves the electrical characteristics and this fact show the possibility to use this material as electrode. The work was performed by adsorption process in saline solution (NO 3 Ag and ClPd) and activated carbon fiber in felt form as adsorbent. The metal adsorption on activated carbon fiber was characterized by textural analysis, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM-EDX), Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was observed that activated carbon fiber showed good adsorption capacity for the metals used. At the end of the process, the activated carbon fiber samples gained about 15% by weight, related to metallic fraction incorporated into the fiber and the process of adsorption does not changed the structural, morphological and chemistry inertness of the samples. The results indicate the feasibility of this metal incorporation techniques activated carbon fiber for the production of electrodes facing the electrochemical area. (author)

  17. Metal adsorption process in activated carbon fiber from textile PAN fiber aim electrode production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Aline Castilho; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento, E-mail: alinerodrigues_1@msn.com [Instituto Tecnologico Aeroespacial (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, Elen Leal da; Marcuzzo, Jossano Saldanha; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Cuna, Andres [Faculdade de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica (Uruguay)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Carbon fibers have a variety of applications in industry and have been increasingly studied to explore their various characteristics. Studies show that the activated carbon fiber has been effective in removing small contaminants as well as activated carbon, because of its characteristic porosity. Other studies relate carbonaceous materials to the electrical conductivity devices application. This work is based on the use of an activated carbon fiber from textile polyacrylonitrile (PAN) for metallic ion adsorption from aqueous solution. Consequently, it improves the electrical characteristics and this fact show the possibility to use this material as electrode. The work was performed by adsorption process in saline solution (NO{sub 3}Ag and ClPd) and activated carbon fiber in felt form as adsorbent. The metal adsorption on activated carbon fiber was characterized by textural analysis, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM-EDX), Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was observed that activated carbon fiber showed good adsorption capacity for the metals used. At the end of the process, the activated carbon fiber samples gained about 15% by weight, related to metallic fraction incorporated into the fiber and the process of adsorption does not changed the structural, morphological and chemistry inertness of the samples. The results indicate the feasibility of this metal incorporation techniques activated carbon fiber for the production of electrodes facing the electrochemical area. (author)

  18. Activated carbon fiber obtained from textile PAN fiber to electrodes for supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Elen Leal da; Marcuzzo, Jossano Saldanha; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro; Cuna, Andres; Rodrigues, Aline Castilho; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Supercapacitors are devices for electrical energy storage with application in distribution power generation, electric vehicles, electronic equipment, among others. Current challenges in the development of supercapacitors focuses on making an increasing on system density of energy. An increase of energy accumulated in the supercapacitor electrode can be achieved by developing materials with high specific electrical capacitance and low electrical resistance. Furthermore, it is expected that the electrode material present a simple procedure for obtaining, low cost and environmentally friendly. Carbon fibers are interesting materials for use as a supercapacitor electrode. Among them are carbon fibers from polyacrylonitrile (PAN). In this work were studied activated carbon fibers obtained from textile polyacrylonitrile (ACF-PAN) with deposition of Fe particles aiming to use as active material of supercapacitor electrodes. ACFPAN and ACF-PAN-Fe were characterized by textural analysis, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM-EDX), Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The behavior of the activated carbon fibers as a supercapacitor electrode was evaluated by galvanostatic charge and discharge curves, cyclic voltammetry and a electrochemical impedance using a symmetrical two-electrode Swagelok®-type cell and sulfuric acid as electrolyte. ACF-PAN had a high specific surface area, which makes it an interesting material for electrodes of supercapacitors. The electrical capacitance for the ACF-PAN is 96 F/g and ACF-PAN-Fe is 106 F/g both at a current density of 0.30 A/g. This increase in electrical capacitance can be related to the presence of iron oxides which are deposited on the activated carbon fiber. (author)

  19. Hydrothermally Activated Graphene Fiber Fabrics for Textile Electrodes of Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Huang, Tieqi; Gao, Weiwei; Xu, Zhen; Chang, Dan; Zhang, Chunxiao; Gao, Chao

    2017-11-28

    Carbon textiles are promising electrode materials for wearable energy storage devices owing to their conductive, flexible, and lightweight features. However, there still lacks a perfect choice for high-performance carbon textile electrodes with sufficient electrochemical activity. Graphene fiber fabrics (GFFs) are newly discovered carbon textiles, exhibiting various attractive properties, especially a large variability on the microstructure. Here we report the fabrication of hierarchical GFFs with significantly enlarged specific surface area using a hydrothermal activation strategy. By carefully optimize the activation process, the hydrothermally activated graphene fiber fabrics (HAGFFs) could achieve an areal capacitance of 1060 mF cm -2 in a very thin thickness (150 μm) and the capacitance is easily magnified by overlaying several layers of HAGFFs, even up to a record value of 7398 mF cm -2 . Meanwhile, a good rate capability and a long cycle life are also attained. As compared with other carbon textiles, including the commercial carbon fiber cloths, our HAGFFs present much better capacitive performance. Therefore, the mechanically stable, flexible, conductive, and highly active HAGFFs have provided an option for high-performance textile electrodes.

  20. Preparation of Electrospun Polymer Fibers Using a Copper Wire Electrode in a Capillary Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinbo, Kazunari; Onozuka, Shintaro; Hoshino, Rikiya; Mizuno, Yoshinori; Ohdaira, Yasuo; Baba, Akira; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    2010-04-01

    Polymer fibers were prepared by an electrospinning method utilizing a copper wire electrode in a capillary tube. The morphology of electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibers was observed, and was found to be dependent on the wire electrode tip position in the capillary tube, the concentration of the polymer solution, the distance between the electrodes, and the applied voltage. By using the wire electrode, the experimental setup is simple and the distance between the electrodes and the applied voltage can be easily reduced. Furthermore, the preparation of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) fibers was carried out. P3HT fibers were successfully prepared by mixing poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) in P3HT solution. Orientation control was also carried out by depositing the fibers on a rotating collector electrode, and the alignment of the P3HT:PEO fibers was confirmed. Anisotropy of the optical absorption spectra was also observed for the aligned fibers.

  1. High performance methanol-oxygen fuel cell with hollow fiber electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor); Ingham, John D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A methanol/air-oxygen fuel cell including an electrode formed by open-ended ion-exchange hollow fibers having a layer of catalyst deposited on the inner surface thereof and a first current collector in contact with the catalyst layer. A second current collector external of said fibers is provided which is immersed along with the hollow fiber electrode in an aqueous electrolyte body. Upon passage of air or oxygen through the hollow fiber electrode and introduction of methanol into the aqueous electrolyte, a steady current output is obtained. Two embodiments of the fuel cell are disclosed. In the first embodiment the second metal electrode is displaced away from the hollow fiber in the electrolyte body while in the second embodiment a spiral-wrap electrode is provided about the outer surface of the hollow fiber electrode.

  2. Carbon nanofibers grown on activated carbon fiber fabrics as electrode of supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, T-H; Hung, K-H; Tzeng, S-S; Shen, J-W; Hung, C-H

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were grown directly on activated carbon fiber fabric (ACFF), which was then used as the electrode of supercapacitors. Cyclic voltammetry and ac impedance were used to characterize the electrochemical properties of ACFF and CNF/ACFF electrodes in both aqueous and organic electrolytes. ACFF electrodes show higher specific capacitance than CNF/ACFF electrodes due to larger specific surface area. However, the spaces formed between the CNFs in the CNF/ACFF electrodes are more easily accessed than the slit-type pores of ACFF, and much higher electrical-double layer capacitance was obtained for CNF/ACFF electrodes

  3. Solid-state, polymer-based fiber solar cells with carbon nanotube electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dianyi; Zhao, Mingyan; Li, Yan; Bian, Zuqiang; Zhang, Luhui; Shang, Yuanyuan; Xia, Xinyuan; Zhang, Sen; Yun, Daqin; Liu, Zhiwei; Cao, Anyuan; Huang, Chunhui

    2012-12-21

    Most previous fiber-shaped solar cells were based on photoelectrochemical systems involving liquid electrolytes, which had issues such as device encapsulation and stability. Here, we deposited classical semiconducting polymer-based bulk heterojunction layers onto stainless steel wires to form primary electrodes and adopted carbon nanotube thin films or densified yarns to replace conventional metal counter electrodes. The polymer-based fiber cells with nanotube film or yarn electrodes showed power conversion efficiencies in the range 1.4% to 2.3%, with stable performance upon rotation and large-angle bending and during long-time storage without further encapsulation. Our fiber solar cells consisting of a polymeric active layer sandwiched between steel and carbon electrodes have potential in the manufacturing of low-cost, liquid-free, and flexible fiber-based photovoltaics.

  4. Stretchable Fiber Supercapacitors with High Volumetric Performance Based on Buckled MnO2 /Oxidized Carbon Nanotube Fiber Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingyang; Zu, Mei; Yu, Jinshan; Cheng, Haifeng; Li, Qingwen

    2017-03-01

    A stretchable fiber supercapacitor (SC) based on buckled MnO 2 /oxidized carbon nanotube (CNT) fiber electrode is fabricated by a simple prestraining-then-buckling method. The prepared stretchable fiber SC has a specific volumetric capacitance up to 409.4 F cm -3 , which is 33 times that of the pristine CNT fiber based SC, and shows the outstanding stability and repeatability in performance as a stretchable SC. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Effect of Surface Treatment on Performance of Electrode Material Based on Carbon Fiber Cloth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Jian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The carbon fiber cloth was treated by surface treatment, and then it was used as the electrode substrate. The electrode material based on carbon fibers was synthesized by a galvanostatic electrodeposition method. The interface resistivity, electrochemical property and corrosion resistance of the CF/β-PbO2 electrode were characterized by four-probe method and electrochemical workstation, respectively. The results show that the surface roughness and chemical activity of the carbon fibers can be significantly improved through surface treatment. The carbon fibers possess the best chemical activity on the surface at the hot-air oxidation temperature of 400℃. Joint hot-air and liquid-phase oxidations show that the chemical activity of the carbon fibers on the surface is further improved, the grooves and pits on the surface of the carbon fibers are more obvious, after this treatment, the interface resistivity of the CF/β-PbO2 electrode reaches the minimum value of 6.19×10-5Ω·m, meanwhile, the conductivity and the electrochemical property of the CF/β-PbO2 electrode reaches the best, and with the best corrosion resistance, the corrosion rate is only 1.44×10-3g·cm-2·h-1.Thus, the interface resistivity, electrochemical property and corrosion resistance of the CF/β-PbO2 electrode depend on the the interface structure of the CF/β-PbO2 electrode obtained under different surface treatments.

  6. Enhanced performance of electrospun carbon fibers modified with carbon nanotubes: promising electrodes for enzymatic biofuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, A Both; Cherifi, A; Tingry, S; Cornu, D; Peigney, A; Laurent, Ch

    2013-06-21

    New nanostructured electrodes, promising for the production of clean and renewable energy in biofuel cells, were developed with success. For this purpose, carbon nanofibers were produced by the electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile solution followed by convenient thermal treatments (stabilization followed by carbonization at 1000, 1200 and 1400° C), and carbon nanotubes were adsorbed on the surfaces of the fibers by a dipping method. The morphology of the developed electrodes was characterized by several techniques (SEM, Raman spectroscopy, electrical conductivity measurement). The electrochemical properties were evaluated through cyclic voltammetry, where the influence of the carbonization temperature of the fibers and the beneficial contribution of the carbon nanotubes were observed through the reversibility and size of the redox peaks of K3Fe(CN)6 versus Ag/AgCl. Subsequently, redox enzymes were immobilized on the electrodes and the electroreduction of oxygen to water was realized as a test of their efficiency as biocathodes. Due to the fibrous and porous structure of these new electrodes, and to the fact that carbon nanotubes may have the ability to promote electron transfer reactions of redox biomolecules, the new electrodes developed were capable of producing higher current densities than an electrode composed only of electrospun carbon fibers.

  7. PAN-based carbon fiber negative electrodes for structural lithium-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Hellqvist Kjell, Maria; Jacques, Eric; Zenkert, Dan; Behm, Mårten; Lindbergh, Göran

    2011-01-01

    Several grades of commercially-available polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers have been studied for structural lithium-ion batteries to understand how the sizing, different lithiation rates and number of fibers per tow affect the available reversible capacity, when used as both current collector and electrode, for use in structural batteries. The study shows that at moderate lithiation rates, 100 mA g-1, most of the carbon fibers display a reversible capacity close to or above 100 mAh ...

  8. Textile electrodes woven by carbon nanotube-graphene hybrid fibers for flexible electrochemical capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huhu; Dong, Zelin; Hu, Chuangang; Zhao, Yang; Hu, Yue; Qu, Liangti; Chen, Nan; Dai, Liming

    2013-04-21

    Functional graphene-based fibers are promising as new types of flexible building blocks for the construction of wearable architectures and devices. Unique one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2D graphene (CNT/G) hybrid fibers with a large surface area and high electrical conductivity have been achieved by pre-intercalating graphene fibers with Fe3O4 nanoparticles for subsequent CVD growth of CNTs. The CNT/G hybrid fibers can be further woven into textile electrodes for the construction of flexible supercapacitors with a high tolerance to the repeated bending cycles. Various other applications, such as catalysis, separation, and adsorption, can be envisioned for the CNT/G hybrid fibers.

  9. Core-Shell Composite Fibers for High-Performance Flexible Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Shen, Chen; Zhang, Zeyang; Barrios, Elizabeth; Zhai, Lei

    2018-01-31

    Core-shell nanofibers containing poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and manganese oxide nanoparticles as the core and polypyrrole (PPy) as the shell were fabricated through electrospinning the solution of PAA and manganese ions (PAA/Mn 2+ ). The obtained nanofibers were stabilized by Fe 3+ through the interaction between Fe 3+ ions and carboxylate groups. Subsequent oxidation of Mn 2+ by KMnO 4 produced uniform manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) nanoparticles in the fibers. A PPy shell was created on the fibers by immersing the fibers in a pyrrole solution where the Fe 3+ ions in the fiber polymerized the pyrrole on the fiber surfaces. In the MnO 2 @PAA/PPy core-shell composite fibers, MnO 2 nanoparticles function as high-capacity materials, while the PPy shell prevents the loss of MnO 2 during the charge/discharge process. Such a unique structure makes the composite fibers efficient electrode materials for supercapacitors. The gravimetric specific capacity of the MnO 2 @PAA/PPy core-shell composite fibers was 564 F/g based on cyclic voltammetry curves at 10 mV/s and 580 F/g based on galvanostatic charge/discharge studies at 5 A/g. The MnO 2 @PAA/PPy core-shell composite fibers also present stable cycling performance with 100% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles.

  10. Enhanced electrochemical activity using vertically aligned carbon nanotube electrodes grown on carbon fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Augusto de Morais

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes were successfully grown on flexible carbon fibers by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The diameter of the CNT is controllable by adjusting the thickness of the catalyst Ni layer deposited on the fiber. Vertically aligned nanotubes were grown in a Plasma Enhanced Chemical Deposition system (PECVD at a temperature of 630 ºC, d.c. bias of -600 V and 160 and 68 sccm flow of ammonia and acetylene, respectively. Using cyclic voltammetry measurements, an increase of the surface area of our electrodes, up to 50 times higher, was observed in our samples with CNT. The combination of VACNTs with flexible carbon fibers can have a significant impact on applications ranging from sensors to electrodes for fuel cells.

  11. Electroadsorption desalination with carbon nanotube/PAN-based carbon fiber felt composites as electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhou, Junbo

    2014-01-01

    The chemical vapor deposition method is used to prepare CNT (carbon nanotube)/PCF (PAN-based carbon fiber felt) composite electrodes in this paper, with the surface morphology of CNT/PCF composites and electroadsorption desalination performance being studied. Results show such electrode materials with three-dimensional network nanostructures having a larger specific surface area and narrower micropore distribution, with a huge number of reactive groups covering the surface. Compared with PCF electrodes, CNT/PCF can allow for a higher adsorption and desorption rate but lower energy consumption; meanwhile, under the condition of the same voltage change, the CNT/PCF electrodes are provided with a better desalination effect. The study also found that the higher the original concentration of the solution, the greater the adsorption capacity and the lower the adsorption rate. At the same time, the higher the solution's pH, the better the desalting; the smaller the ions' radius, the greater the amount of adsorption.

  12. Direct growth of vanadium nitride nanosheets on carbon nanotube fibers as novel negative electrodes for high-energy-density wearable fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiabin; Zhang, Qichong; Sun, Juan; Li, Chaowei; Zhao, Jingxin; Zhou, Zhenyu; He, Bing; Wang, Xiaona; Man, Ping; Li, Qiulong; Zhang, Jun; Xie, Liyan; Li, Mingxing; Yao, Yagang

    2018-04-01

    Significant efforts have been recently devoted to constructing high-performance fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitors. However, it is still a paramount challenge to develop high-energy-density fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitors for practical applications in portable and wearable electronics. This work reports a simple and efficient method to directly grow vanadium nitride nanosheets on carbon nanotube fibers as advanced negative electrodes with a high specific capacitance of 188 F/cm3 (564 mF/cm2). Taking advantage of their attractive structure, we successfully fabricated a fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor device with a maximum operating voltage of 1.6 V by assembling the vanadium nitride/carbon nanotube fiber negative electrode with the Zinc-Nickel-Cobalt ternary oxides nanowire arrays positive electrode. Due to the excellent synergistic effects between positive and negative electrodes, a remarkable specific capacitance of 50 F/cm3 (150 mF/cm2) and an outstanding energy density of 17.78 mWh/cm3 (53.33 μWh/cm2) for our fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor can be achieved. Furthermore, the as-assembled fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor device has excellent mechanical flexibility in that 91% of the capacitance retained after bending 90° for 3000 times. Thus, this work exploits a pathway to construct high-energy-density fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor for next-generation portable and wearable electronics.

  13. Boron-doped MnO{sub 2}/carbon fiber composite electrode for supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Hong Zhong, E-mail: hzchi@hdu.edu.cn [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhu, Hongjie [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Gao, Linhui [Center of Materials Engineering, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Interstitial ion in MnO{sub 2} lattice. • Porous film composed by interlocking worm-like nanostructure. • Boron-doped birnessite-type MnO{sub 2}/carbon fiber composite electrode. • Enhanced capacitive properties through nonmetal element doping. - Abstract: The boron-doped MnO{sub 2}/carbon fiber composite electrode has been prepared via in situ redox reaction between potassium permanganate and carbon fibers in the presence of boric acid. The addition of boron as dopant results in the increase of growth-rate of MnO{sub 2} crystal and the formation of worm-like nanostructure. Based on the analysis of binding energy, element boron incorporates into the MnO{sub 2} lattice through interstitial mode. The doped electrode with porous framework is beneficial to pseudocapacitive reaction and surface charge storage, leading to higher specific capacitance and superior rate capability. After experienced 1000 cycles, the boron-doped MnO{sub 2} still retain a higher specific capacitance by about 80% of its initial value. The fall in capacitance is blamed to be the combination of the formation of soluble Mn{sup 2+} and the absence of active site on the outer surface.

  14. Asymmetric Electrodes Constructed with PAN-Based Activated Carbon Fiber in Capacitive Deionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhe Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Capacitive deionization (CDI method has drawn much attention for its low energy consumption, low pollution, and convenient manipulation. Activated carbon fibers (ACFs possess high adsorption ability and can be used as CDI electrode material. Herein, two kinds of PAN-based ACFs with different specific surface area (SSA were used for the CDI electrodes. The CDI performance was investigated; especially asymmetric electrodes’ effect was evaluated. The results demonstrated that PAN-based ACFs showed a high electrosorption rate (complete electrosorption in less than half an hour and moderate electrosorption capacity (up to 0.2 mmol/g. CDI experiments with asymmetric electrodes displayed a variation in electrosorption capacity between forward voltage and reverse voltage. It can be attributed to the electrical double layer (EDL overlap effect and inner pore potential; thus the ions with smaller hydrated ionic radius can be adsorbed more easily.

  15. Development of a Micro-Fiber Nickel Electrode for Nickel-Hydrogen Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a high specific energy battery is one of the objectives of the lightweight nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) program at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen fuel cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active materials. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at different discharge levels followed by half-cell cycle testing at 80 percent depth-of-discharge in a low Earth orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flightweight designs are built and tested.

  16. Structure of Polymer Fibers Fabricated by Electrospinning Method Utilizing a Metal Wire Electrode in a Capillary Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Shintaro; Hoshino, Rikiya; Mizuno, Yoshinori; Shinbo, Kazunari; Ohdaira, Yasuo; Baba, Akira; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    We fabricated electrospun poly (vinylalcohol) (PVA) fibers using a copper wire electrode in Teflon capillary tube, and the SEM images were observed. The apparatus in this method is reasonable, and needed volume of polymer solution and distance between the electrodes can be largely reduced compared to conventional method. The wire electrode tip position in the capillary tube is also important in this method and should be close to the polymer solution surface.

  17. Enhanced dopamine detection sensitivity by PEDOT/graphene oxide coating on in vivo carbon fiber electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, I Mitch; Robbins, Elaine M; Catt, Kasey A; Cody, Patrick A; Happe, Cassandra L; Cui, Xinyan Tracy

    2017-03-15

    Dopamine (DA) is a monoamine neurotransmitter responsible for regulating a variety of vital life functions. In vivo detection of DA poses a challenge due to the low concentration and high speed of physiological signaling. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFEs) is an effective method to monitor real-time in vivo DA signaling, however the sensitivity is somewhat limited. Electrodeposition of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/graphene oxide (GO) onto the CFE surface is shown to increase the sensitivity and lower the limit of detection for DA compared to bare CFEs. Thicker PEDOT/GO coatings demonstrate higher sensitivities for DA, but display the negative drawback of slow adsorption and electron transfer kinetics. The moderate thickness resulting from 25 s electrodeposition of PEDOT/GO produces the optimal electrode, exhibiting an 880% increase in sensitivity, a 50% decrease in limit of detection and minimally altered electrode kinetics. PEDOT/GO coated electrodes rapidly and robustly detect DA, both in solution and in the rat dorsal striatum. This increase in DA sensitivity is likely due to increasing the electrode surface area with a PEDOT/GO coating and improved adsorption of DA's oxidation product (DA-o-quinone). Increasing DA sensitivity without compromising electrode kinetics is expected to significantly improve our understanding of the DA function in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Carbon felt and carbon fiber - A techno-economic assessment of felt electrodes for redox flow battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minke, Christine; Kunz, Ulrich; Turek, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Carbon felt electrodes belong to the key components of redox flow batteries. The purpose of this techno-economic assessment is to uncover the production costs of PAN- and rayon-based carbon felt electrodes. Raw material costs, energy demand and the impact of processability of fiber and felt are considered. This innovative, interdisciplinary approach combines deep insights into technical, ecologic and economic aspects of carbon felt and carbon fiber production. Main results of the calculation model are mass balances, cumulative energy demands (CED) and the production costs of conventional and biogenic carbon felts supplemented by market assessments considering textile and carbon fibers.

  19. Biaxially stretchable supercapacitors based on the buckled hybrid fiber electrode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Zhou, Weiya; Zhang, Qiang; Luan, Pingshan; Cai, Le; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Xiao; Fan, Qingxia; Zhou, Wenbin; Xiao, Zhuojian; Gu, Xiaogang; Chen, Huiliang; Li, Kewei; Xiao, Shiqi; Wang, Yanchun; Liu, Huaping; Xie, Sishen

    2015-07-01

    fibers endow the supercapacitor with 100% stretchability along all directions. In addition, the supercapacitor exhibited good transparency, as well as excellent electrochemical properties and stability after being stretched 5000 times. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images of the twist-first hybrid fiber, TEM images of SWCNT/PEDOT hybrid bundles, Raman spectra and FTIR spectra of the hybrid electrodes, CVs of the pristine, bended and wound supercapacitor, transmittance spectra of the pristine and stretched supercapacitor, demo video of the supercapacitor. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03027g

  20. Fiber-based tissue identification for electrode placement in deep brain stimulation neurosurgery (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaoli, Damon T.; Lapointe, Nicolas; Goetz, Laurent; Parent, Martin; Prudhomme, Michel; Cantin, Léo.; Galstian, Tigran; Messaddeq, Younès.; Côté, Daniel C.

    2016-03-01

    Deep brain stimulation's effectiveness relies on the ability of the stimulating electrode to be properly placed within a specific target area of the brain. Optical guidance techniques that can increase the accuracy of the procedure, without causing any additional harm, are therefore of great interest. We have designed a cheap optical fiber-based device that is small enough to be placed within commercially available DBS stimulating electrodes' hollow cores and that is capable of sensing biological information from the surrounding tissue, using low power white light. With this probe we have shown the ability to distinguish white and grey matter as well as blood vessels, in vitro, in human brain samples and in vivo, in rats. We have also repeated the in vitro procedure with the probe inserted in a DBS stimulating electrode and found the results were in good agreement. We are currently validating a second fiber optic device, with micro-optical components, that will result in label free, molecular level sensing capabilities, using CARS spectroscopy. The final objective will be to use this data in real time, during deep brain stimulation neurosurgery, to increase the safety and accuracy of the procedure.

  1. The electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate in water on Pd/Sn-modified activated carbon fiber electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Qu, Jiuhui; Wu, Rongcheng; Lei, Pengju

    2006-03-01

    The Pd/Sn-modified activated carbon fiber (ACF) electrodes were successfully prepared by the impregnation of Pd2+ and Sn2+ ions onto ACF, and their electrocatalytic reduction capacity for nitrate ions in water was evaluated in a batch experiment. The electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The capacity for nitrate reduction depending on Sn content on the electrode and the pH of electrolyte was discussed at length. The results showed that at an applied current density of 1.11 mA cm(-2), nitrate ions in water (solution volume: 400 mL) were reduced from 110 to 3.4 mg L(-1) after 240 min with consecutive change of intermediate nitrite. Ammonium ions and nitrogen were formed as the main final products. The amount of other possible gaseous products (including NO and N2O) was trace. With the increase of Sn content on the Pd/Sn-modified ACF electrode, the activity for nitrate reduction went up to reach a maximum (at Pd/Sn = 4) and then decreased, while the selectivity to N2 was depressed. Higher pH value of electrolyte exhibited more suppression effect on the reduction of nitrite than that of nitrate. However, no significant influence on the final ammonia formation was observed. Additionally, Cu ion in water was found to cover the active sites of the electrode to make the electrode deactivated.

  2. Nanostructured cobalt sulfide-on-fiber with tunable morphology as electrodes for asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Alhebshi, Nuha; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2014-01-01

    Porous cobalt sulfide (Co9S8) nanostructures with tunable morphology, but identical crystal phase and composition, have been directly nucleated over carbon fiber and evaluated as electrodes for asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors. As the morphology is changed from two-dimensional (2D) nanoflakes to 3D octahedra, dramatic changes in supercapacitor performance are observed. In three-electrode configuration, the binder-free Co9S82D nanoflake electrodes show a high specific capacitance of 1056 F g-1at 5 mV s-1vs. 88 F g-1for the 3D electrodes. As sulfides are known to have low operating potential, for the first time, asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors are constructed from Co9S8nanostructures and activated carbon (AC), providing an operation potential from 0 to 1.6 V. At a constant current density of 1 A g-1, the 2D Co9S8, nanoflake//AC asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor exhibits a gravimetric cell capacitance of 82.9 F g-1, which is much higher than that of an AC//AC symmetric capacitor (44.8 F g-1). Moreover, the asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor shows an excellent energy density of 31.4 W h kg-1at a power density of 200 W Kg-1and an excellent cycling stability with a capacitance retention of ∼90% after 5000 cycles. This journal is

  3. Nanocomposites based on hierarchical porous carbon fiber@vanadium nitride nanoparticles as supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Fen; Wu, Yage; Jiang, Minghuan; Tan, Yongtao; Liu, Ying; Kong, Lingbin; Kang, Long; Chen, Shaowei

    2018-03-28

    In this study, a hybrid electrode material for supercapacitors based on hierarchical porous carbon fiber@vanadium nitride nanoparticles is fabricated using the method of phase-separation mediated by the PAA-b-PAN-b-PAA tri-block copolymer. In the phase-separation procedure, the ionic block copolymer self-assembled on the surface of carbon nanofibers, and is used to adsorb NH 4 VO 3 . Thermal treatment at controlled temperatures under an NH 3  : N 2 atmosphere led to the formation of vanadium nitride nanoparticles that are distributed uniformly on the nanofiber surface. By changing the PAN to PAA-b-PAN-b-PAA ratio in the casting solution, a maximum specific capacitance of 240.5 F g -1 is achieved at the current density of 0.5 A g -1 with good rate capability at a capacitance retention of 72.1% at 5.0 A g -1 in an aqueous electrolyte of 6 mol L -1 KOH within the potential range of -1.10 to 0 V (rN/A = 1.5/1.0). Moreover, an asymmetric supercapacitor is assembled by using the hierarchical porous carbon fiber@vanadium nitride as the negative electrode and Ni(OH) 2 as the positive electrode. Remarkably, at the power density of 400 W kg -1 , the supercapacitor device delivers a better energy density of 39.3 W h kg -1 . It also shows excellent electrochemical stability, and thus might be used as a promising energy-storage device.

  4. Optimal Electrode Selection for Electrical Resistance Tomography in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona Galvis, Luis Waldo; Diaz-Montiel, Paulina; Venkataraman, Satchi

    2017-01-01

    Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) offers a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique that takes advantage of the inherent electrical properties in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites for internal damage characterization. This paper investigates a method of optimum selection of sensing configurations for delamination detection in thick cross-ply laminates using ERT. Reduction in the number of sensing locations and measurements is necessary to minimize hardware and computational effort. The present work explores the use of an effective independence (EI) measure originally proposed for sensor location optimization in experimental vibration modal analysis. The EI measure is used for selecting the minimum set of resistance measurements among all possible combinations resulting from selecting sensing electrode pairs. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is applied to obtain a spectral representation of the resistance measurements in the laminate for subsequent EI based reduction to take place. The electrical potential field in a CFRP laminate is calculated using finite element analysis (FEA) applied on models for two different laminate layouts considering a set of specified delamination sizes and locations with two different sensing arrangements. The effectiveness of the EI measure in eliminating redundant electrode pairs is demonstrated by performing inverse identification of damage using the full set and the reduced set of resistance measurements. This investigation shows that the EI measure is effective for optimally selecting the electrode pairs needed for resistance measurements in ERT based damage detection. PMID:28772485

  5. Metal-free polymer/MWCNT composite fiber as an efficient counter electrode in fiber shape dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abid; Mujtaba Shah, Syed; Bozar, Sinem; Kazici, Mehmet; Keskin, Bahadır; Kaleli, Murat; Akyürekli, Salih; Günes, Serap

    2016-09-01

    Highly aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) as fiber were modified with a conducting polymer via a simple dip coating method. Modified MWCNT exhibited admirable improvement in electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of tri-iodide in dye sensitized solar cells. Scanning electron microscopy images confirm the successful deposition of polymer on MWCNT. Cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies were carried out to investigate the inner mechanism for the charge transfer behaviour. Results from bare and modified electrodes revealed that the MWCNT/(poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) composite electrode is much better at catalysing the {{{{I}}}3}-/{{{I}}}- redox couple compared to the pristine fiber electrode. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of 5.03% for the modified MWCNT electrodes was comparable with that of the conventional Pt-based electrode. The scientific results of this study reveal that MWCNT/PEDOT:PSS may be a better choice for the replacement of cost intensive electrode materials such as platinum. Good performance even after bending up to 90° and in-series connection to enhance the output voltage were also successfully achieved, highlighting the practical application of this novel device.

  6. Vertically aligned cobalt hydroxide nano-flake coated electro-etched carbon fiber cloth electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Han; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2014-11-01

    We describe preparation and characterization of nanostructured electrodes using Co(OH)2 nano-flakes and carbon fiber cloth for supercapacitors. Nanostructured Co(OH)2 flakes are produced by electrodeposition and they are coated onto the electro-etched carbon fiber cloth. A highest specific capacitance of 3404.8 F g-1 and an area-normalized specific capacitance of 3.3 F cm-2 have been obtained from such electrodes. Morphology and structure of the nanostructured electrodes have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical properties have been studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), constant-current charge and discharge, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and long-time cycling.

  7. Effect of electrolyte concentration on performance of supercapacitor carbon electrode from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farma, R.; Awitdrus,; Taer, E.; Deraman, M.; Talib, I. A.; Omar, R.; Ishak, M. M.; Basri, N. H.; Dolah, B. N. M.

    2015-01-01

    Fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches were used to produce self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG). The SACG green monoliths were carbonized in N 2 environment at 800°C to produce carbon monoliths (CM) and the CM was CO 2 activated at 800°C for 4 hour to produce activated carbon monolith electrodes (ACM). The physical properties of the CMs and ACMs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. ACMs were used as electrode to fabricate symmetry supercapacitor cells and the cells which used H 2 SO 4 electrolyte at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 M were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge standard techniques. In this paper we report the physical properties of the ACM electrodes and the effect of electrolyte concentration on the electrochemical properties the ACM electrodes

  8. Evaluation of contact resistance between carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminate and printed silver electrode for damage monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Eun Beom; Kim, Hak Sung; Takahashi, Kosuke

    2014-01-01

    An addressable conducting network (ACN) makes it possible to monitor the condition of a structure using the electrical resistance between electrodes on the surface of a carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) structure. To improve the damage detection reliability of the ACN, the contact resistances between the electrodes and CFRP laminates needs to be minimized. In this study, silver nanoparticle electrodes were fabricated via printed electronics techniques on a CFRP composite. The contact resistance between the silver electrodes and CFRP were measured with respect to various fabrication conditions such as the sintering temperature of the silver nano-ink and the surface roughness of the CFRP laminates. The interfaces between the silver electrode and carbon fibers were observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on this study, it was found that the lowest contact resistance of 0.3664Ω could be achieved when the sintering temperature of the silver nano-ink and surface roughness were 120 degree C and 0.230 a, respectively.

  9. Insertion of linear 8.4 μm diameter 16 channel carbon fiber electrode arrays for single unit recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Paras R.; Na, Kyounghwan; Zhang, Huanan; Kozai, Takashi D. Y.; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Yoon, Euisik; Chestek, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Single carbon fiber electrodes (d=8.4 μm) insulated with parylene-c and functionalized with PEDOT:pTS have been shown to record single unit activity but manual implantation of these devices with forceps can be difficult. Without an improvement in the insertion method any increase in the channel count by fabricating carbon fiber arrays would be impractical. In this study, we utilize a water soluble coating and structural backbones that allow us to create, implant, and record from fully functionalized arrays of carbon fibers with ~150 μm pitch. Approach Two approaches were tested for the insertion of carbon fiber arrays. The first method used a PEG coating that temporarily stiffened the fibers while leaving a small portion at the tip exposed. The small exposed portion (500 μm – 1 mm) readily penetrated the brain allowing for an insertion that did not require the handling of each fiber by forceps. The second method involved the fabrication of silicon support structures with individual shanks spaced 150 μm apart. Each shank consisted of a small groove that held an individual carbon fiber. Main results Our results showed that the PEG coating allowed for the chronic implantation of carbon fiber arrays in 5 rats with unit activity detected at 31 days post-implant. The silicon support structures recorded single unit activity in 3 acute rat surgeries. In one of those surgeries a stacked device with 3 layers of silicon support structures and carbon fibers was built and shown to readily insert into the brain with unit activity on select sites. Significance From these studies we have found that carbon fibers spaced at ~150 μm readily insert into the brain. This greatly increases the recording density of chronic neural probes and paves the way for even higher density devices that have a minimal scarring response. PMID:26035638

  10. Free-standing 3D polyaniline-CNT/Ni-fiber hybrid electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Fang, Yuzhu; Liu, Hong; Wu, Xiaoming; Lu, Yong

    2012-04-01

    Free-standing 3D macroscopic polyaniline (PANi)-carbon nanotube (CNT)-nickel fiber hybrids have been developed, and they deliver high specific capacitance (725 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1) and high energy density at high rates (~22 W h kg-1 at 2000 W kg-1, based on total electrode mass) with good cyclability.Free-standing 3D macroscopic polyaniline (PANi)-carbon nanotube (CNT)-nickel fiber hybrids have been developed, and they deliver high specific capacitance (725 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1) and high energy density at high rates (~22 W h kg-1 at 2000 W kg-1, based on total electrode mass) with good cyclability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details on preparation, characterization, and electrochemical testing; Fig. S1-S8, Schemes S1 and S2. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30252g

  11. Mathematical Modeling of an Active-Fiber Composite Energy Harvester with Interdigitated Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jemai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of active-fiber composites (AFC instead of traditional ceramic piezoelectric materials is motivated by flexibility and relatively high actuation capacity. Nevertheless, their energy harvesting capabilities remain low. As a first step toward the enhancement of AFC’s performances, a mathematical model that accurately simulates the dynamic behavior of the AFC is proposed. In fact, most of the modeling approaches found in the literature for AFC are based on finite element methods. In this work, we use homogenization techniques to mathematically describe piezoelectric properties taking into consideration the composite structure of the AFC. We model the interdigitated electrodes as a series of capacitances and current sources linked in parallel; then we integrate these properties into the structural model of the AFC. The proposed model is incorporated into a vibration based energy harvesting system consisting of a cantilever beam on top of which an AFC patch is attached. Finally, analytical solutions of the dynamic behavior and the harvested voltage are proposed and validated with finite element simulations.

  12. Electrode patterning of ITO thin films by high repetition rate fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, H.K., E-mail: HKLin@mail.npust.edu.tw; Hsu, W.C.

    2014-07-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films are deposited on glass substrates using a radio frequency magnetron sputtering system. As-deposited ITO thin film was 100 nm in thickness and a transmittance of ITO film on glass substrate was 79% at 550 nm. Conductive electrodes are then patterned on the ITO films using a high repetition rate fiber laser system followed by a wet chemical etching process. The electrical, optical and structural properties of the patterned samples are evaluated by means of a four-point probe technique, spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the samples annealed with a pulse repetition rate of 150 kHz or 400 kHz have a low sheet resistivity of 21 Ω/□ and a high optical transmittance of 90%. In addition, it is shown that a higher pulse repetition rate reduces both the residual stress and the surface roughness of the patterned specimens. Therefore, the present results suggest that a pulse repetition rate of 400 kHz represents the optimal processing condition for the patterning of crack-free ITO-coated glass substrates with good electrical and optical properties.

  13. Electrode patterning of ITO thin films by high repetition rate fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H.K.; Hsu, W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films are deposited on glass substrates using a radio frequency magnetron sputtering system. As-deposited ITO thin film was 100 nm in thickness and a transmittance of ITO film on glass substrate was 79% at 550 nm. Conductive electrodes are then patterned on the ITO films using a high repetition rate fiber laser system followed by a wet chemical etching process. The electrical, optical and structural properties of the patterned samples are evaluated by means of a four-point probe technique, spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the samples annealed with a pulse repetition rate of 150 kHz or 400 kHz have a low sheet resistivity of 21 Ω/□ and a high optical transmittance of 90%. In addition, it is shown that a higher pulse repetition rate reduces both the residual stress and the surface roughness of the patterned specimens. Therefore, the present results suggest that a pulse repetition rate of 400 kHz represents the optimal processing condition for the patterning of crack-free ITO-coated glass substrates with good electrical and optical properties.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of a nanometer-sized optical fiber electrode based on selective chemical etching for scanning electrochemical/optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Kenichi; Ohkawa, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Sho; Ueda, Akio; Niwa, Osamu; Suzuki, Koji

    2006-03-15

    We have already reported a method for fabricating ultramicroelectrodes (Suzuki, K. JP Patent, 2004-45394, 2004). This method is based on the selective chemical etching of optical fibers. In this work, we undertake a detailed investigation involving a combination of etched optical fibers with various types of tapered tip (protruding-shape, double- (or pencil-) shape and triple-tapered electrode) and insulation with electrophoretic paint. Our goal is to establish a method for fabricating nanometer-sized optical fiber electrodes with high reproducibility. As a result, we realized pencil-shaped and triple-tapered electrodes that had radii in the nanometer range with high reproducibility. These nanometer-sized electrodes showed well-defined sigmoidal curves and stable diffusion-limited responses with cyclic voltammetry. The pencil-shaped optical fiber, which has a conical tip with a cone angle of 20 degrees , was effective for controlling the electrode radius. The pencil-shaped electrodes had higher reproducibility and smaller electrode radii (r(app) etched optical fiber electrodes. By using a pencil-shaped electrode with a 105-nm radius as a probe, we obtained simultaneous electrochemical and optical images of an implantable interdigitated array electrode. We achieved nanometer-scale resolution with a combination of scanning electrochemical microscopy SECM and optical microscopy. The resolution of the electrochemical and optical images indicated sizes of 300 and 930 nm, respectively. The neurites of living PC12 cells were also successfully imaged on a 1.6-microm scale by using the negative feedback mode of an SECM.

  15. In vivo monitoring of glial scar proliferation on chronically implanted neural electrodes by fiber optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yijing; Martini, Nadja; Hassler, Christina; Kirch, Robert D.; Stieglitz, Thomas; Seifert, Andreas; Hofmann, Ulrich G.

    2014-01-01

    In neural prosthetics and stereotactic neurosurgery, intracortical electrodes are often utilized for delivering therapeutic electrical pulses, and recording neural electrophysiological signals. Unfortunately, neuroinflammation impairs the neuron-electrode-interface by developing a compact glial encapsulation around the implants in long term. At present, analyzing this immune reaction is only feasible with post-mortem histology; currently no means for specific in vivo monitoring exist and most applicable imaging modalities can not provide information in deep brain regions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a well established imaging modality for in vivo studies, providing cellular resolution and up to 1.2 mm imaging depth in brain tissue. A fiber based spectral domain OCT was shown to be capable of minimally invasive brain imaging. In the present study, we propose to use a fiber based spectral domain OCT to monitor the progression of the tissue's immune response through scar encapsulation progress in a rat animal model. A fine fiber catheter was implanted in rat brain together with a flexible polyimide microelectrode in sight both of which acts as a foreign body and induces the brain tissue immune reaction. OCT signals were collected from animals up to 12 weeks after implantation and thus gliotic scarring in vivo monitored for that time. Preliminary data showed a significant enhancement of the OCT backscattering signal during the first 3 weeks after implantation, and increased attenuation factor of the sampled tissue due to the glial scar formation. PMID:25191264

  16. Self-Supported Biocarbon-Fiber Electrode Decorated with Molybdenum Carbide Nanoparticles for Highly Active Hydrogen-Evolution Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zheye; Lv, Qiying; Jing, Feng; Chi, Kai; Wang, Shuai

    2017-07-12

    Devising and facilely synthesizing an efficient noble metal-free electrocatalyst for the acceleration of the sluggish kinetics in the hydrogen-evolution reaction (HER) is still a big challenge for electrolytic water splitting. Herein, we present a simple one-step approach for constructing self-supported biocarbon-fiber cloth decorated with molybdenum carbide nanoparticles (BCF/Mo 2 C) electrodes by a direct annealing treatment of the Mo oxyanions loaded cotton T-shirt. The Mo 2 C nanoparticles not only serve as the catalytic active sites toward the HER but also enhance the hydrophilicity and conductivity of resultant electrodes. As an integrated three-dimensional HER cathode catalyst, the BCF/Mo 2 C exhibits outstanding electrocatalytic performance with extremely low overpotentials of 88 and 115 mV to drive a current density of 20 mA cm -2 in alkaline and acidic media, respectively. In addition, it can continuously work for 50 h with little decrease in the cathodic current density in both alkaline and acidic solutions. Even better, self-supported tungsten carbide and vanadium carbide based electrodes also can be prepared by a similar synthesis process. This work will illuminate an entirely new avenue for the preparation of various self-supported three-dimensional electrodes made of transition-metal carbides for various applications.

  17. Effect of electrolyte concentration on performance of supercapacitor carbon electrode from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farma, R.; Awitdrus,; Taer, E. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Departement of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Riau, 28293 Pekanbaru, Riau (Indonesia); Deraman, M., E-mail: madra@ukm.my; Talib, I. A.; Omar, R.; Ishak, M. M.; Basri, N. H.; Dolah, B. N. M. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-16

    Fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches were used to produce self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG). The SACG green monoliths were carbonized in N{sub 2} environment at 800°C to produce carbon monoliths (CM) and the CM was CO{sub 2} activated at 800°C for 4 hour to produce activated carbon monolith electrodes (ACM). The physical properties of the CMs and ACMs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. ACMs were used as electrode to fabricate symmetry supercapacitor cells and the cells which used H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 M were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge standard techniques. In this paper we report the physical properties of the ACM electrodes and the effect of electrolyte concentration on the electrochemical properties the ACM electrodes.

  18. A study on electrochemical redox behavior of nitric acid by using a glassy carbon fiber column electrode system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. W.; Song, K. C.; Lee, I. H.; Choi, I. K.; You, J. H.

    1999-01-01

    Electrochemical redox behaviors of nitric acid were studied by using a glassy carbon fiber column electrode system, and its reaction mechanism was analyzed in several ways. The electrochemical reaction in less than 2.0 M nitric acid was not observed, but in more than 2.0 M nitric acid, the reduction rate of nitric acid to produce nitrous acid was slow so that the nitric acid solution had to be contacted with electrode enough in order for a apparent reduction current of nitric acid to nitrous acid be to observed. The nitrous acid generated in more than 2.0 M nitric acid was rapidly and easily reduced to NOx through an autocatalytic reaction. Sulfamic acid was confirmed to be effective to destroy the nitrous acid. The sulfamic acid of at least 0.05M was necessary to remove the nitrous acid generated in 3.5 M nitric acid

  19. Prismatic sealed nickel-cadmium batteries utilizing fiber structured electrodes. II - Applications as a maintenance free aircraft battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman, Menahem; Benczur-Urmossy, Gabor; Haschka, Friedrich

    Test data on prismatic sealed Ni-Cd batteries utilizing fiber structured electrodes (sealed FNC) is discussed. It is shown that, under a voltage limited charging scheme, the charge acceptance of the sealed FNC battery is far superior to that of the standard vented aircraft Ni-Cd batteries. This results in the sealed FNC battery maintaining its capacity over several thousand cycles without any need for electrical conditioning or water topping. APU start data demonstrate superior power capabilities over existing technologies. Performance at low temperature is presented. Abuse test results reveal a safe fail mechanism even under severe electrical abuse.

  20. A layered shell containing patches of piezoelectric fibers and interdigitated electrodes: Finite element modeling and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bjerregaard; Nielsen, Martin S.; Santos, Ilmar

    2017-01-01

    The work gives a theoretical and experimental contribution to the problem of smart materials connected to double curved flexible shells. In the theoretical part the finite element modeling of a double curved flexible shell with a piezoelectric fiber patch with interdigitated electrodes (IDEs......) is presented. The developed element is based on a purely mechanical eight-node isoparametric layered element for a double curved shell, utilizing first-order shear deformation theory. The electromechanical coupling of piezoelectric material is added to all elements, but can also be excluded by setting...... the piezoelectric material properties to zero. The electrical field applied via the IDEs is aligned with the piezoelectric fibers, and hence the direct d33 piezoelectric constant is utilized for the electromechanical coupling. The dynamic performance of a shell with a microfiber composite (MFC) patch...

  1. Electrochemical corrosion of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic-metal electrode couples in corrosion media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukalovskaya, T.V.; Shcherbakov, A.I.; Chigirinskaya, L.A.; Bandurkin, V.V.; Medova, I.L.; Chukalovskij, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Polarization diagrams, obtained for carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic(cathode)-metallic material(anode) contact couples are analyzed to predict the corrosion behaviour of some technical metals and alloys (carbon steel, stainless steels, brass, aluminium, titanium) in contact with carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic in differen agressive media (H 2 SO 4 , HCl, H 3 PO 4 , NaOH solutions in wide temperature and concentration range, synthetic seawater at 30 and 50 deg C). The predicted behaviour was supported by direct investigation into carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic-titanium and carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic-aluminium contact couples at different square ratios. 6 refs.; 4 figs

  2. The equivalent circuit of single crab muscle fibers as determined by impedance measurements with intracellular electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, R S

    1967-07-01

    The input impedance of muscle fibers of the crab was determined with microelectrodes over the frequency range 1 cps to 10 kc/sec. Care was taken to analyze, reduce, and correct for capacitive artifact. One dimensional cable theory was used to determine the properties of the equivalent circuit of the membrane admittance, and the errors introduced by the neglect of the three dimensional spread of current are discussed. In seven fibers the equivalent circuit of an element of the membrane admittance must contain a DC path and two capacitances, each in series with a resistance. In two fibers, the element of membrane admittance could be described by one capacitance in parallel with a resistance. In several fibers there was evidence for a third very large capacitance. The values of the elements of the equivalent circuit depend on which of several equivalent circuits is chosen. The circuit (with a minimum number of elements) that was considered most reasonably consistent with the anatomy of the fiber has two branches in parallel: one branch having a resistance R(e) in series with a capacitance C(e); the other branch having a resistance R(b) in series with a parallel combination of a resistance R(m) and a capacitance C(m). The average circuit values (seven fibers) for this model, treating the fiber as a cylinder of sarcolemma without infoldings or tubular invaginations, are R(e) = 21 ohm cm(2); C(e) = 47 microf/cm(2); R(b) = 10.2 ohm cm(2); R(m) = 173 ohm cm(2); C(m) = 9.0 microf/cm(2). The relation of this equivalent circuit and another with a nonminimum number of circuit elements to the fine structure of crab muscle is discussed. In the above equivalent circuit R(m) and C(m) are attributed to the sarcolemma; R(e) and C(e), to the sarcotubular system; and R(b), to the amorphous material found around crab fibers. Estimates of actual surface area of the sarcolemma and sarcotubular system permit the average circuit values to be expressed in terms of unit membrane area. The

  3. Carbon Fiber Ultramicrodic Electrode Electrodeposited with Over-Oxidized Polypyrrole for Amperometric Detection of Vesicular Exocytosis from Pheochromocytoma Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vesicular exocytosis is ubiquitous, but it is difficult to detect within the cells’ communication mechanism. For this purpose, a 2 µm ultramicrodic carbon fiber electrode was fabricated in this work based on electrodeposition with over-oxidized polypyrrole nanoparticle (PPyox-CFE, which was applied successfully for real-time monitoring of quantal exocytosis from individual pheochromocytoma (PC12 cells. PPyox-CFE was evaluated by dopamine (DA solutions through cyclic voltammetry and amperometry electrochemical methods, and results revealed that PPyox-CFE improved the detection limit of DA. In particular, the sensitivity of DA was improved to 24.55 µA·µM−1·µm−2 using the PPyox-CFE. The ultramicrodic electrode combined with the patch-clamp system was used to detect vesicular exocytosis of DA from individual PC12 cells with 60 mM K+ stimulation. A total of 287 spikes released from 7 PC12 cells were statistically analyzed. The current amplitude (Imax and the released charge (Q of the amperometric spikes from the DA release by a stimulated PC12 cell is 45.1 ± 12.5 pA and 0.18 ± 0.04 pC, respectively. Furthermore, on average ~562,000 molecules were released in each vesicular exocytosis. PPyox-CFE, with its capability of detecting vesicular exocytosis, has potential application in neuron communication research.

  4. Dilute NiO/carbon nanofiber composites derived from metal organic framework fibers as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ying; Yang, Feng; Hu, Hongru; Lee, Sungsik; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Hairui; Zeng, Dehong; Zhou, Biao; Hao, Shijie

    2017-01-01

    A new type of carbon nanofiber (CNF) dominated electrode materials decorated with dilute NiO particles (NiO/CNF) has been in situ fabricated by direct pyrolysis of Ni, Zn-containing metal organic framework fibers, which are skillfully constructed by assembling different proportional NiCl2·6H2O and Zn(Ac)2·2H2O with trimesic acid in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide. With elegant combination of advantages of CNF and evenly dispersed NiO particles, as well as successful modulation of conductivity and porosity of final composites, our NiO/CNF composites display well-defined capacitive features. A high capacitance of 14926 F g–1 was obtained in 6 M KOH electrolyte when the contribution from 0.43 wt% NiO was considered alone, contributing to over 35% of the total capacitance (234 F g–1 ). This significantly exceeds its theoretical specific capacitance of 2584 F g–1. It has been established from the Ragone plot that a largest energy density of 33.4 Wh kg–1 was obtained at the current density of 0.25 A g–1. Furthermore, such composite electrode materials show good rate capability and outstanding cycling stability up to 5000 times (only 10% loss). The present study provides a brand-new approach to design a high capacitance and stable supercapacitor electrode and the concept is extendable to other composite materials. Keywords: Metal organic framework; Nickel oxide; Carbon nanofiber; In situ synthesis; Capacitance

  5. Field-Effect-Transistor Behavior of a Multiwall Carbon Nano Fiber Directly Grown on Nickel Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. W. Chang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwall carbon nanofibers (MWCNFs were directly grown across the catalyst electrodes fabricated through photolithography by a microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD method. The conductivities were measured repeatedly at various ranges of the drain-source voltage VDS at low temperatures which shows clearly the nonlinear behavior in electrical conductance. The electric-charging energy increases as the length and diameter of the floated carbon nanowire increases in accord with the theoretical estimation for capacitive charging as further verified from the experimentally nonlinear I-V characterization. The oscillation of the I-V curves is tacitly assumed to be embodied in the irregular variation of conductance rewarding the tremendous applications of single-electron devices for MWCNFs. The directly lateral growth of MWCNFs across electrodes allows a high contact current in spite of the existence of tunneling barriers between the wire and electrodes. The high absorption capacity of environment gases of this device is expecting it to have a pragmatic use in gas sensing.

  6. Multilayer core-shell structured composite paper electrode consisting of copper, cuprous oxide and graphite assembled on cellulose fibers for asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Caichao; Jiao, Yue; Li, Jian

    2017-09-01

    An easily-operated and inexpensive strategy (pencil-drawing-electrodeposition-electro-oxidation) is proposed to synthesize a novel class of multilayer core-shell structured composite paper electrode, which consists of copper, cuprous oxide and graphite assembled on cellulose fibers. This interesting electrode structure plays a pivotal role in providing more active sites for electrochemical reactions, facilitating ion and electron transport and shorting their diffusion pathways. This electrode demonstrates excellent electrochemical properties with a high specific capacitance of 601 F g-1 at 2 A g-1 and retains 83% of this capacitance when operated at an ultrahigh current density of 100 A g-1. In addition, a high energy density of 13.4 W h kg-1 at the power density of 0.40 kW kg-1 and a favorable cycling stability (95.3%, 8000 cycles) were achieved for this electrode. When this electrode was assembled into an asymmetric supercapacitor with carbon paper as negative electrode, the device displays remarkable electrochemical performances with a large areal capacitances (122 mF cm-2 at 1 mA cm-2), high areal energy density (10.8 μW h cm-2 at 402.5 μW cm-2) and outstanding cycling stability (91.5%, 5000 cycles). These results unveil the potential of this composite electrode as a high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors.

  7. Fiber optical laser spot microscope: A new concept for photoelectrochemical characterization of semiconductor electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Per; Holmström, Bertil; Uosaki, Kohei; Kita, Hideaki

    1988-01-01

    A fiber optical laser spot microscope, which allows the simultaneous measurements of photocurrent and reflected light intensity or the measurement of laser spot photocurrent under the illumination of other light sources, has been developed to study semiconductor/electrolyte interfaces. The capability of this microscope was demonstrated on as-cleaved and Pt-treated p-InSe. The Pt treatment increased the photocurrent and improved the lateral resolution due to the increase of surface reaction ra...

  8. Interconnecting Carbon Fibers with the In-situ Electrochemically Exfoliated Graphene as Advanced Binder-free Electrode Materials for Flexible Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuqin; Wang, Shuangyin

    2015-07-07

    Flexible energy storage devices are highly demanded for various applications. Carbon cloth (CC) woven by carbon fibers (CFs) is typically used as electrode or current collector for flexible devices. The low surface area of CC and the presence of big gaps (ca. micro-size) between individual CFs lead to poor performance. Herein, we interconnect individual CFs through the in-situ exfoliated graphene with high surface area by the electrochemical intercalation method. The interconnected CFs are used as both current collector and electrode materials for flexible supercapacitors, in which the in-situ exfoliated graphene act as active materials and conductive "binders". The in-situ electrochemical intercalation technique ensures the low contact resistance between electrode (graphene) and current collector (carbon cloth) with enhanced conductivity. The as-prepared electrode materials show significantly improved performance for flexible supercapacitors.

  9. Carbon fiber brush electrode as a novel substrate for atmospheric solids analysis probe (ASAP) mass spectrometry: Electrochemical oxidation of brominated phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopalová, Jana; Barták, Petr; Bednář, Petr; Tomková, Hana; Ingr, Tomáš; Lorencová, Iveta; Kučerová, Pavla; Papoušek, Roman; Borovcová, Lucie; Lemr, Karel

    2018-01-25

    A carbon fiber brush electrode (CFBE) was newly designed and used as a substrate for both controlled potential electrolysis and atmospheric solids analysis probe (ASAP) mass spectrometry. Electropolymerized and strongly adsorbed products of electrolysis were directly desorbed and ionized from the electrode surface. Electrochemical properties of the electrode investigated by cyclic voltammetry revealed large electroactive surface area (23 ± 3 cm 2 ) at 1.3 cm long array of carbon fibers with diameter 6-9 μm. Some products of electrochemical oxidation of pentabromophenol and 2,4,6-tribromophenol formed a compact layer on the carbon fibers and were analyzed using ASAP. Eleven new oligomeric products were identified including quinones and biphenoquinones. These compounds were not observed previously in electrolyzed solutions by liquid or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The thickness around 58 nm and 45 nm of the oxidation products layers deposited on carbon fibers during electrolysis of pentabromophenol and 2,4,6-tribromophenol, respectively, was estimated from atomic force microscopy analysis and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxygen-rich hierarchical porous carbon made from pomelo peel fiber as electrode material for supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Wenlong; Xiao, Dan; Wang, Xinhui

    2017-09-01

    Oxygen-rich hierarchical porous carbon has been fabricated using pomelo peel fiber as a carbon source via an improved KOH activation method. The morphology and chemical composition of the obtained carbon materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), electron microscopy (EM), Raman spectra and elemental analysis. The unique porous structure with abundant oxygen functional groups is favorable to capacitive behavior, and the as-prepared carbon material exhibits high specific capacitance of 222.6 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 in 6 M KOH and superior stability over 5000 cycles. This work not only describes a simple way to prepare high-performance carbon material from the discarded pomelo peel, but also provides a strategy for its disposal issue and contributes to the environmental improvement.

  11. Biosensing hydrogen peroxide utilizing carbon paste electrodes containing peroxidases naturally immobilized on coconut (Cocus nucifera L.) fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozan, J V B; Silva, R P; Serrano, S H P; Lima, A W O; Angnes, L

    2007-05-22

    A novel unmediated hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on the incorporation of fibrous tissue of coconut fruit in carbon paste matrix is presented. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry were utilized to characterize the main electrochemical parameters and the performance of this new biosensor under different preparation and operation conditions. The resulting H2O2-sensitive biosensors respond rapidly (7 s to attain 90% of the signal), was operated at -0.15 V, presented linear response between 2.0x10(-4) and 3.4x10(-3) mol L(-1), the detection limit was estimated as 4.0x10(-5) mol L(-1). Its operation potential was situated between -0.2 and 0.1 V and the best pH was determined as 5.2. Electrodes containing 5% (w/w) of coconut fiber presented the best signal and their lifetime was extended to 3 months. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant KM(app) and Vmax were estimated to be 8.90 mmol L(-1) and 6.92 mmol L(-1) microA(-1), respectively. The results obtained for determination of hydrogen peroxide in four pharmaceutical products (antiseptic solution, contact lenses cleaning solution, hair coloring cream and antiseptic dental rinse solution) were in agreement with those obtained by the spectrophotometric method. An additional advantage of these biosensors is the capacity to measure hydrogen peroxide even in samples with relatively low pH. To demonstrate the enzymatic activity of the coconut tissue, a very simple way was created during this work. Coconut fibers were immersed in H2O2 solution between two glass slides. Sequential images were taken to show the rapid generation of O2, attesting the high activity of the enzymes.

  12. Optimum Electrode Configurations for Two-Probe, Four-Probe and Multi-Probe Schemes in Electrical Resistance Tomography for Delamination Identification in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Waldo Escalona-Galvis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Internal damage in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP composites modifies the internal electrical conductivity of the composite material. Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT is a non-destructive evaluation (NDE technique that determines the extent of damage based on electrical conductivity changes. Implementation of ERT for damage identification in CFRP composites requires the optimal selection of the sensing sites for accurate results. This selection depends on the measuring scheme used. The present work uses an effective independence (EI measure for selecting the minimum set of measurements for ERT damage identification using three measuring schemes: two-probe, four-probe and multi-probe. The electrical potential field in two CFRP laminate layups with 14 electrodes is calculated using finite element analyses (FEA for a set of specified delamination damage cases. The measuring schemes consider the cases of 14 electrodes distributed on both sides and seven electrodes on only one side of the laminate for each layup. The effectiveness of EI reduction is demonstrated by comparing the inverse identification results of delamination cases for the full and the reduced sets using the measuring schemes and electrode sets. This work shows that the EI measure optimally reduces electrode and electrode combinations in ERT based damage identification for different measuring schemes.

  13. Interconnecting Carbon Fibers with the In-situ Electrochemically Exfoliated Graphene as Advanced Binder-free Electrode Materials for Flexible Supercapacitor

    OpenAIRE

    Yuqin Zou; Shuangyin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Flexible energy storage devices are highly demanded for various applications. Carbon cloth (CC) woven by carbon fibers (CFs) is typically used as electrode or current collector for flexible devices. The low surface area of CC and the presence of big gaps (ca. micro-size) between individual CFs lead to poor performance. Herein, we interconnect individual CFs through the in-situ exfoliated graphene with high surface area by the electrochemical intercalation method. The interconnected CFs are us...

  14. The effects of carbon nanotube addition and oxyfluorination on the glucose-sensing capabilities of glucose oxidase-coated carbon fiber electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Ji Sun; Yun, Jumi; Kim, Jong Gu [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, BK21-E2 M, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Tae-Sung [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, BK21-E2 M, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young-Seak, E-mail: youngslee@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, BK21-E2 M, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Glucose-sensing electrodes were constructed from carbon fibers by electrospinning and heat treatment. By controlling the pore size, the specific surface area and pore volume of the electrospun carbon fibers were increased for efficient immobilization of the glucose oxidase. Carbon nanotubes were embedded as an electrically conductive additive to improve the electrical property of the porous carbon fibers. In addition, the surface of the porous carbon fibers was modified with hydrophilic functional groups by direct oxyfluorination to increase the affinity between the hydrophobic carbon surface and the hydrophilic glucose oxidase molecules. The porosity of the carbon fibers was improved significantly with approximately 28- and 35-fold increases in the specific surface area and pore volume, respectively. The number of chemical bonds between carbon and oxygen were increased with higher oxygen content during oxyfluorination based on the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results. Glucose sensing was carried out by current voltagram and amperometric methods. A high-performance glucose sensor was obtained with high sensitivity and rapid response time as a result of carbon nanotube addition, physical activation and surface modification. The mechanism of the highly sensitive prepared glucose sensor was modeled by an enzyme kinetics study using the Michaelis-Menten equation.

  15. A facile one-step approach for the fabrication of polypyrrole nanowire/carbon fiber hybrid electrodes for flexible high performance solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sanqing; Han, Yichuan; Lyu, Siwei; Lin, Wenzhen; Chen, Peishan; Fang, Shaoli

    2017-10-01

    Wearable electronics are in high demand, requiring that all the components are flexible. Here we report a facile approach for the fabrication of flexible polypyrrole nanowire (NPPy)/carbon fiber (CF) hybrid electrodes with high electrochemical activity using a low-cost, one-step electrodeposition method. The structure of the NPPy/CF electrodes can be easily controlled by the applied electrical potential and electrodeposition time. Our NPPy/CF-based electrodes showed high flexibility, conductivity, and stability, making them ideal for flexible all-solid-state fiber supercapacitors. The resulting NPPy/CF-based supercapacitors provided a high specific capacitance of 148.4 F g-1 at 0.128 A g-1, which is much higher than for supercapacitors based on polypyrrole film/CF (38.3 F g-1) and pure CF (0.6 F g-1) under the same conditions. The NPPy/CF-based supercapacitors also showed high bending and cycling stability, retaining 84% of the initial capacitance after 500 bending cycles, and 91% of the initial capacitance after 5000 charge/discharge cycles.

  16. A facile one-step approach for the fabrication of polypyrrole nanowire/carbon fiber hybrid electrodes for flexible high performance solid-state supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sanqing; Han, Yichuan; Lyu, Siwei; Lin, Wenzhen; Chen, Peishan; Fang, Shaoli

    2017-10-27

    Wearable electronics are in high demand, requiring that all the components are flexible. Here we report a facile approach for the fabrication of flexible polypyrrole nanowire (NPPy)/carbon fiber (CF) hybrid electrodes with high electrochemical activity using a low-cost, one-step electrodeposition method. The structure of the NPPy/CF electrodes can be easily controlled by the applied electrical potential and electrodeposition time. Our NPPy/CF-based electrodes showed high flexibility, conductivity, and stability, making them ideal for flexible all-solid-state fiber supercapacitors. The resulting NPPy/CF-based supercapacitors provided a high specific capacitance of 148.4 F g -1 at 0.128 A g -1 , which is much higher than for supercapacitors based on polypyrrole film/CF (38.3 F g -1 ) and pure CF (0.6 F g -1 ) under the same conditions. The NPPy/CF-based supercapacitors also showed high bending and cycling stability, retaining 84% of the initial capacitance after 500 bending cycles, and 91% of the initial capacitance after 5000 charge/discharge cycles.

  17. Electroplating of polyaniline on carbon fiber cloth in a simple two electrode system: Application for the electrochemical filter in wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thien Khanh; Tran, Hoai Nam; Nguyen, Thuy Linh; Leu, Hoang Jyn

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, the pollution of water environment has become a significant problem that really requires a long term solution to deal with. In this study, we provide a simple method to create a capable electrode for electrochemical treatment of wastewater or even can be used as a filter by a physical method. Carbon fiber clothes 300×700 mm were chosen to carry on experiments of Polyaniline (PANI) electrodeposition. Generally, PANI was used to be deposited by three electrodes electrochemical system, however, our samples we obtained here are created by a simple two-electrode electrochemical system. Nevertheless, the product fiber cloth is controlled with a thickness of 0.19 mm and the mass density of 0.44g/cm3, the whole process was carried out under simple lab scale condition at Ton Duc Thang University. To clarify the properties of our products, there was some measurement applied, such as SEM for surface monographic investigation, thermal conductivity by DSC, electrical conductivity by CV and material properties by XRD and EDS measurement. In that manner, we believe that there is still more room for this method to improve in the near future and a bright chance to apply to industrial processes.

  18. Cellulose-coupled graphene/polypyrrole composite electrodes containing conducting networks built by carbon fibers as wearable supercapacitors with excellent foldability and tailorability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Shaoyi; Chang, Huanjun; Fu, Feng; Hu, La; Huang, Jingda; Wang, Siqun

    2016-09-01

    A paper-based wearable supercapacitor with excellent foldability and tailorability is fabricated from a chopped carbon fiber (CCF)-reinforced cellulose paper electrode material by coating with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and polypyrrole (PPy) via in situ polymerization. The CCFs not only form an interpenetrating conducting network that acts as highly conductive electron transfer highways for the RGO/PPy layer in the paper electrode, but also endow the resulting electrode with an excellent areal capacitance of 363 mF cm-2 and a volumetric energy density of 0.28 mW h cm-3. Further, the CCFs give the electrode remarkable mechanical robustness, guaranteeing foldability and tailorability, with only slight loss of capacitance after repeated folding 600 times. Even after being subjected to severe cut-in fracture, the capacitance retention is up to 84%, indicating outstanding damage tolerance. The present study reveals a promising candidate for flexible wearable energy storage devices that are required to function in harsh environments.

  19. Preparation of nitrogen-doped cotton stalk microporous activated carbon fiber electrodes with different surface area from hexamethylenetetramine-modified cotton stalk for electrochemical degradation of methylene blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunquan Li

    Full Text Available Cotton-stalk activated carbon fibers (CSCFs with controllable micropore area and nitrogen content were prepared as an efficient electrode from hexamethylenetetramine-modified cotton stalk by steam/ammonia activation. The influence of microporous area, nitrogen content, voltage and initial concentration on the electrical degradation efficiency of methylene blue (MB was evaluated by using CSCFs as anode. Results showed that the CSCF electrodes exhibited excellent MB electrochemical degradation ability including decolorization and COD removal. Increasing micropore surface area and nitrogen content of CSCF anode leaded to a corresponding increase in MB removal. The prepared CSCF-800-15-N, which has highest N content but lowest microporous area, attained the best degradation effect with 97% MB decolorization ratio for 5 mg/L MB at 12 V in 4 h, implying the doped nitrogen played a prominent role in improving the electrochemical degradation ability. The electrical degradation reaction was well described by first-order kinetics model. Overall, the aforesaid findings suggested that the nitrogen-doped CSCFs were potential electrode materials, and their electrical degradation abilities could be effectively enhanced by controlling the nitrogen content and micropore surface area. Keywords: Cotton stalk, Nitrogen content, Electrode, Surface area, Methylene blue

  20. LiFePO_4_−_xN_y thin-film electrodes coated on carbon fiber-modified current collectors for pseudocapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Kuo-Feng; Su, Shih-Hsuan; Leu, Hoang-Jyh; Huang, Wei-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    LiFePO_4_−_xN_y thin films were sputter-deposited on micron carbon fibers (MCFs) under a gas mixture of N_2/Ar/H_2 as electrode materials in pseudocapacitors. The MCFs were fabricated by thermal chemical vapor deposition on stainless steel substrates as current collectors. Various amounts of N_2 were introduced by controlling the flow ratios of N_2 to Ar/H_2. The LiFePO_4_−_xN_y thin films coated on the surfaces of MCFs were observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of the LiFePO_4_−_xN_y thin films were characterized using cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge processes. The LiFePO_4_−_xN_y thin-film electrode deposited under the optimal N_2 contents exhibited a high specific capacitance of 722 F/g at 1 A/g. Even at a current of 20 A/g, the electrode delivered a capacitance of 298 F/g. The pseudocapacitors using LiFePO_4_−_xN_y thin-film electrodes showed no significant capacitance fading after 1000 cycles at 1 A/g. The results indicated that nitrogen doping improved the electrochemical performances of LiFePO_4, demonstrating the potential of LiFePO_4_−_xN_y as an active material in pseudocapacitors. - Highlights: • LiFePO_4_−_xN_y thin films were sputter-deposited on micron carbon fibers (MCFs). • MCFs only act as a three-dimensional current collector in this system. • The pseudocapacitor exhibits a high specific capacitance.

  1. Method Of Bonding A Metal Connection To An Electrode Including A Core Having A Fiber Or Foam Type Structure For An Electrochemical Cell, An

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loustau, Marie-Therese; Verhoog, Roelof; Precigout, Claude

    1996-09-24

    A method of bonding a metal connection to an electrode including a core having a fiber or foam-type structure for an electrochemical cell, in which method at least one metal strip is pressed against one edge of the core and is welded thereto under compression, wherein, at least in line with the region in which said strip is welded to the core, which is referred to as the "main core", a retaining core of a type analogous to that of the main core is disposed prior to the welding.

  2. Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meals instead of white rice. Add beans (kidney, black, navy, and pinto) to rice dishes for even more fiber. Spice up salads with berries and almonds, chickpeas, cooked artichokes, and beans (kidney, black, navy, or pinto). Use whole-grain (corn or ...

  3. Activated Carbon Fibers with Hierarchical Nanostructure Derived from Waste Cotton Gloves as High-Performance Electrodes for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chao; Yu, Jianlin; Yang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Guoqing

    2017-12-01

    One of the most challenging issues that restrict the biomass/waste-based nanocarbons in supercapacitor application is the poor structural inheritability during the activating process. Herein, we prepare a class of activated carbon fibers by carefully selecting waste cotton glove (CG) as the precursor, which mainly consists of cellulose fibers that can be transformed to carbon along with good inheritability of their fiber morphology upon activation. As prepared, the CG-based activated carbon fiber (CGACF) demonstrates a surface area of 1435 m 2  g -1 contributed by micropores of 1.3 nm and small mesopores of 2.7 nm, while the fiber morphology can be well inherited from the CG with 3D interconnected frameworks created on the fiber surface. This hierarchically porous structure and well-retained fiber-like skeleton can simultaneously minimize the diffusion/transfer resistance of the electrolyte and electron, respectively, and maximize the surface area utilization for charge accumulation. Consequently, CGACF presents a higher specific capacitance of 218 F g -1 and an excellent high-rate performance as compared to commercial activated carbon.

  4. Activated Carbon Fibers with Hierarchical Nanostructure Derived from Waste Cotton Gloves as High-Performance Electrodes for Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chao; Yu, Jianlin; Yang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Guoqing

    2017-06-01

    One of the most challenging issues that restrict the biomass/waste-based nanocarbons in supercapacitor application is the poor structural inheritability during the activating process. Herein, we prepare a class of activated carbon fibers by carefully selecting waste cotton glove (CG) as the precursor, which mainly consists of cellulose fibers that can be transformed to carbon along with good inheritability of their fiber morphology upon activation. As prepared, the CG-based activated carbon fiber (CGACF) demonstrates a surface area of 1435 m2 g-1 contributed by micropores of 1.3 nm and small mesopores of 2.7 nm, while the fiber morphology can be well inherited from the CG with 3D interconnected frameworks created on the fiber surface. This hierarchically porous structure and well-retained fiber-like skeleton can simultaneously minimize the diffusion/transfer resistance of the electrolyte and electron, respectively, and maximize the surface area utilization for charge accumulation. Consequently, CGACF presents a higher specific capacitance of 218 F g-1 and an excellent high-rate performance as compared to commercial activated carbon.

  5. Centrifugal spinning: A novel approach to fabricate porous carbon fibers as binder-free electrodes for electric double-layer capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Fu, Kun; Zhang, Shu; Li, Ying; Chen, Chen; Zhu, Jiadeng; Yanilmaz, Meltem; Dirican, Mahmut; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs), among various carbonaceous candidates for electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) electrodes, draw extensive attention because their one-dimensional architecture offers both shortened electron pathways and high ion-accessible sites. Creating porous structures on CNFs yields larger surface area and enhanced capacitive performance. Herein, porous carbon nanofibers (PCNFs) were synthesized via centrifugal spinning of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solutions combined with thermal treatment and were used as binder-free EDLC electrodes. Three precursor fibers with PAN/PMMA weight ratios of 9/1, 7/3 and 5/5 were prepared and carbonized at 700, 800, and 900 °C, respectively. The highest specific capacitance obtained was 144 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 with a rate capability of 74% from 0.1 to 2 A g-1 by PCNFs prepared with PAN/PMMA weight ratio of 7/3 at 900 °C. These PCNFs also showed stable cycling performance. The present work demonstrates that PCNFs are promising EDLC electrode candidate and centrifugal spinning offers a simple, cost-effective strategy to produce PCNFs.

  6. Effect of carbonization temperature on the physical and electrochemical properties of supercapacitor electrode from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishak, M. M.; Deraman, M., E-mail: madra@ukm.my; Talib, I. A.; Basri, N. H.; Omar, R.; Nor, N. S. M.; Dolah, B. N. M. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Awitdrus,; Farma, R.; Taer, E. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Riau, 28293 Pekanbaru, Riau (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG) was prepared from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches. The SACG green monoliths were carbonized in N{sub 2} environment at 400, 500, 600 and 700°C to produce carbon monoliths labeled as CM1, CM2, CM3 and CM4 respectively. The CMs were activated in CO{sub 2} surrounding at 800°C for 1 hour to produce activated carbon monolith electrodes (ACM1, ACM2, ACM3 and ACM4). The physical properties of the CMs and ACMs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherm techniques. ACMs were used as electrode to fabricate symmetry supercapacitor cells and the cells’ performances were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) standard techniques. In this paper we report the physical and electrochemical properties of the ACM electrodes by analyzing the influence of the carbonization temperature on these properties.

  7. Effect of carbonization temperature on the physical and electrochemical properties of supercapacitor electrode from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, M. M.; Deraman, M.; Talib, I. A.; Basri, N. H.; Omar, R.; Nor, N. S. M.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Awitdrus,; Farma, R.; Taer, E.

    2015-01-01

    Self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG) was prepared from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches. The SACG green monoliths were carbonized in N 2 environment at 400, 500, 600 and 700°C to produce carbon monoliths labeled as CM1, CM2, CM3 and CM4 respectively. The CMs were activated in CO 2 surrounding at 800°C for 1 hour to produce activated carbon monolith electrodes (ACM1, ACM2, ACM3 and ACM4). The physical properties of the CMs and ACMs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherm techniques. ACMs were used as electrode to fabricate symmetry supercapacitor cells and the cells’ performances were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) standard techniques. In this paper we report the physical and electrochemical properties of the ACM electrodes by analyzing the influence of the carbonization temperature on these properties

  8. Conformal coating of Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes on carbon fibers by chemical bath deposition for efficient supercapacitor electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Alhebshi, Nuha

    2013-01-01

    A novel supercapacitor electrode structure has been developed in which a uniform and conformal coating of nanostructured Ni(OH)2 flakes on carbon microfibers is deposited in situ by a simple chemical bath deposition process at room temperature. The microfibers conformally coated with Ni(OH) 2 nanoflakes exhibit five times higher specific capacitance compared to planar (non-conformal) Ni(OH)2 nanoflake electrodes prepared by drop casting of Ni(OH)2 powder on the carbon microfibers (1416 F g-1vs. 275 F g-1). This improvement in supercapacitor performance can be ascribed to the preservation of the three-dimensional structure of the current collector, which is a fibrous carbon fabric, even after the conformal coating of Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes. The 3-D network morphology of the fibrous carbon fabric leads to more efficient electrolyte penetration into the conformal electrode, allowing the ions to have greater access to active reaction sites. Cyclic stability testing of the conformal and planar Ni(OH)2 nanoflake electrodes, respectively, reveals 34% and 62% drop in specific capacitance after 10 000 cycles. The present study demonstrates the crucial effect that electrolyte penetration plays in determining the pseudocapacitive properties of the supercapacitor electrodes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Photoelectrocatalytic decomposition of ethylene using TiO2/activated carbon fiber electrode with applied pulsed direct current square-wave potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Sheng-ying; Zheng, Sen-hong; Song, Xian-liang; Luo, Shu-can

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ethylene was decomposed by a photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) process. • A pulsed direct current square-wave (PDCSW) potential was applied to the PEC cell. • An electrode of TiO 2 or modified TiO 2 and activated carbon fiber (ACF) was used. • TiO 2 /ACF photocatalyst electrodes were modified by gamma radiolysis. • Efficiencies of the PEC process were higher than those of the process using DC. - Abstract: Removing ethylene (C 2 H 4 ) from the atmosphere of storage facilities for fruits and vegetable is one of the main challenges in their postharvest handling for maximizing their freshness, quality, and shelf life. In this study, we investigated the photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) degradation of ethylene gas by applying a pulsed direct current DC square-wave (PDCSW) potential and by using a Nafion-based PEC cell. The cell utilized a titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) photocatalyst or γ-irradiated TiO 2 (TiO 2 * ) loaded on activated carbon fiber (ACF) as a photoelectrode. The apparent rate constant of a pseudo-first-order reaction (K) was used to describe the PEC degradation of ethylene. Parameters of the potential applied to the PEC cell in a reactor that affect the degradation efficiency in terms of the K value were studied. These parameters were frequency, duty cycle, and voltage. Ethylene degradation by application of a constant PDCSW potential to the PEC electrode of either TiO 2 /ACF cell or TiO 2 * /ACF cell enhanced the efficiency of photocatalytic degradation and PEC degradation. Gamma irradiation of TiO 2 in the electrode and the applied PDCSW potential synergistically increased the K value. Independent variables (frequency, duty cycle, and voltage) of the PEC cell fabricated from TiO 2 subjected 20 kGy γ radiation were optimized to maximize the K value by using response surface methodology with quadratic rotation–orthogonal composite experimental design. Optimized conditions were as follows: 358.36 Hz frequency, 55.79% duty cycle, and 64.65 V

  10. Paper-based energy-storage devices comprising carbon fiber-reinforced polypyrrole-cladophora nanocellulose composite electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razaq, Aamir; Sjoedin, Martin; Stroemme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert [Nanotechnology and Functional Materials, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden); Nyholm, Leif [Department of Chemistry, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    Composites of polypyrrole (PPy) and Cladophora nanocellulose, reinforced with 8 {mu}m-thick chopped carbon filaments, can be used as electrode materials to obtain paper-based energy-storage devices with unprecedented performance at high charge and discharge rates. Charge capacities of more than 200 C g{sup -1} (PPy) are obtained for paper-based electrodes at potential scan rates as high as 500 mV s{sup -1}, whereas cell capacitances of {proportional_to}60-70 F g{sup -1} (PPy) are reached for symmetric supercapacitor cells with capacitances up to 3.0 F (i.e.,0.48 F cm{sup -2}) when charged to 0.6 V using current densities as high as 31 A g{sup -1} based on the PPy weight (i.e., 99 mA cm{sup -2}). Energy and power densities of 1.75 Wh kg{sup -1} and 2.7 kW kg{sup -1}, respectively, are obtained when normalized with respect to twice the PPy weight of the smaller electrode. No loss in cell capacitance is seen during charging/discharging at 7.7 A g{sup -1} (PPy) over 1500 cycles. It is proposed that the nonelectroactive carbon filaments decrease the contact resistances and the resistance of the reduced PPy composite. The present straightforward approach represents significant progress in the development of low-cost and environmentally friendly paper-based energy-storage devices for high-power applications. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Hierarchical NiCo-LDH@NiOOH core-shell heterostructure on carbon fiber cloth as battery-like electrode for supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Haoyan; Lin, Jinghuang; Jia, Henan; Chen, Shulin; Qi, Junlei; Cao, Jian; Lin, Tiesong; Fei, Weidong; Feng, Jicai

    2018-02-01

    Constructing rational structure and utilizing distinctive components are two important keys to promote the development of high performance supercapacitor. Herein, we adopt a facile two-step method to develop an in-situ heterostructure with NiCo-LDH nanowire as core and NiOOH nanosheets as shell on carbon fiber cloth. The resultant NiCo-LDH@NiOOH electrode exhibites a high specific capacitance of about 2622 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and good cycling stability (88.5% remain after 10000 cycles). This reinforced electrochemical performance is benefit from the distinct core-shell structure, and takes advantage of the synergetic effect to supply more electrochemical active spots and pathways to accelerate electron and ion transport. Furthermore, the fabricated asymmetric supercapacitor of optimized NiCo-LDH@NiOOH//AC device displays a high energy density of 51.7 Wh kg-1 while the power density is 599 W kg-1 and presents a satisfying cycling performance.

  12. A study on enhancement of Np extraction by TBP through the electrochemical adjustment of Np valance by using a glassy carbon fiber column electrode system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. W.; Song, K. C.; Lee, I. H.; Choi, I. K.; Yoo, J. H.

    1999-01-01

    The Np valance state in nitric acid and the effect of nitrous acid on the Np valance composition were studied through ways of absorbance by spectrophotometer, extraction by TBP, and electrochemistry. Enhancement of Np extraction to 30 vol.% TBP was carried out through adjustment of Np valance state by using a glassy carbon fiber column electrode system. The Np solution used in this work consisted of only Np(V) and Np(VI) without Np(IV). The composition of Np(V) in the range of 0.5M ∼ 5.5 M nitric acid was 32% ∼ 19%. The electrolytic oxidation of Np(V) coexisting with Np(VI) in the solution enhanced Np extraction by 30 vol.% TBP about five times more than the one without the electrolytic oxidation. The facts were confirmed that the nitrous acid of less than about 10 -5 M acted as a catalyst to accelerate the chemical oxidation reaction of Np(V) to Np(VI) and the nitrous acid of more than 10 -3 M reduced Np(VI) to Np(V) reversely

  13. Simultaneous quantification of arginine, alanine, methionine and cysteine amino acids in supplements using a novel bioelectro-nanosensor based on CdSe quantum dot/modified carbon nanotube hollow fiber pencil graphite electrode via Taguchi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Sara; Es'haghi, Zarrin

    2017-11-30

    A number of four amino acids have been simultaneously determined at CdSe quantum dot-modified/multi-walled carbon nanotube hollow fiber pencil graphite electrode in different bodybuilding supplements. CdSe quantum dots were synthesized and applied to construct a modified carbon nanotube hollow fiber pencil graphite electrode. FT-IR, TEM, XRD and EDAX methods were applied for characterization of the synthesized CdSe QDs. The electro-oxidation of arginine (Arg), alanine (Ala), methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys) at the surface of the modified electrode was studied. Then the Taguchi's method was applied using MINITAB 17 software to find out the optimum conditions for the amino acids determination. Under the optimized conditions, the differential pulse (DP) voltammetric peak currents of Arg, Ala, Met and Cys increased linearly with their concentrations in the ranges of 0.287-33670μM and detection limits of 0.081, 0.158, 0.094 and 0.116μM were obtained for them, respectively. Satisfactory results were achieved for calibration and validation sets. The prepared modified electrode represents a very good resolution between the voltammetric peaks of the four amino acids which makes it suitable for the detection of each in presence of others in real samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Validation of a new fiber electrode prototype for clinical electroretinography Validação de protótipo de um novo eletrodo de fibra para eletrorretinografia clínica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Berezovsky

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To validate a new fiber electrode prototype for clinical electroretinography (ERG. METHODS: A recently developed prototype of a disposable reference-coupled fiber electrode (patent pending Brazilian Institute of Industrial Property # PI0602186-7, including one fiber for corneal signals and a second fiber acting as reference was tested in a group of 20 healthy volunteers (17-31 years; mean 22.7 ± 4.5; 8 males. Standard electroretinography rod and cone responses were recorded from a fully dilated pupil simultaneously in both eyes with a reference-coupled fiber electrode prototype in one randomly assigned eye and a DTL® electrode in the other eye after 30 min of dark-adaptation. After presenting dark- and light-adapted stimuli, each response was analyzed for a- and b-wave amplitude and implicit time. The VERIS 5.1.9 system was used for electroretinography data acquisition and analysis. Electroretinography outcomes were analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. Slit-lamp examination was performed in both eyes right after electroretinography session to evaluate possible adverse effects. RESULTS: Responses recorded with reference-coupled fiber electrode prototypes were comparable to commercially available DTL® fiber electrodes. On a qualitative analysis, reference-coupled fiber electrodes provided recordings with less amount of noise. On average, scotopic electroretinography amplitude and b-wave implicit time recorded using DTL® were, respectively, 287.6 µV and 36.3 ms with similar findings for the reference-coupled fiber electrode prototype (287.9 µV and 36.3 ms. Under photopic conditions DTL® mean amplitude and implicit time were, respectively 108.9 µV and 24.5 ms with similar results for the reference-coupled fiber electrodes prototypes (116.4 µV and 24.5 ms. No corneal abrasions or any other significant adverse effects were found after electroretinography recording with both electrodes. CONCLUSIONS: The reference-coupled fiber electrode

  15. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  16. Microfabricated disposable nanosensor based on CdSe quantum dot/ionic liquid-mediated hollow fiber-pencil graphite electrode for simultaneous electrochemical quantification of uric acid and creatinine in human samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooshmand, Sara; Es' haghi, Zarrin, E-mail: eshaghi@pnu.ac.ir

    2017-06-15

    In this research, a novel sensitive electrochemical nanosensor based on the cadmium selenide quantum dots (QDs)/ionic liquid mediated hollow fiber-pencil graphite electrode (HF-PGE) was prepared and applied for simultaneous determination of uric acid (UA) and creatinine (Crn) in urine and serum samples. The electrocatalytic oxidation of the analytes was investigated via differential pulse (DPV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The experiments were designed, in two different steps, according to Taguchi's method; OA9 L9 (3{sup 3}) and OA9 L9 (3{sup 4}) orthogonal array to optimize experimental runs. The results revealed that the electrode response was initially influenced by the types of sensor and types of ionic liquids and their ratios. The amount of QD, buffer pH, equilibration time and scan rate also influenced electrode response efficiency. According to the results of Taguchi analysis, the amount of tetra phenyl phosphonium chloride (TPPC) and QD were the most influencing parameters on the yield response of the modified electrodes. Linear ranges were obtained between 0.297–2.970 × 10{sup 3} and 0.442–8.840 × 10{sup 3} μM, with the detection limits of 0.083 and 0.229 μM and relative standard deviations (RSD) of 2.4% and 1.8%, for UA and Crn, respectively. Finally, the proposed method was successfully examined for simultaneous determination of UA and Crn in human urine and serum samples. - Highlights: • Sensor based on modified CdSe quantum dot/ionic liquid mediated hollow fiber graphite electrode. • One-step simultaneous purification, pre-concentration, extraction, back-extraction and determination of electroactive analytes. • Target analyte uric acid (UA) and creatinine (Crn) in urine and serum samples. • Disposable nature of sensor reduced risk of carry-over.

  17. Photovoltaic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiana, Russell; Eckert, Robert; Cardone, John; Ryan, James; Montello, Alan

    2006-08-01

    It was realized early in the history of Konarka that the ability to produce fibers that generate power from solar energy could be applied to a wide variety of applications where fabrics are utilized currently. These applications include personal items such as jackets, shirts and hats, to architectural uses such as awnings, tents, large covers for cars, trucks and even doomed stadiums, to indoor furnishings such as window blinds, shades and drapes. They may also be used as small fabric patches or fiber bundles for powering or recharging batteries in small sensors. Power generating fabrics for clothing is of particular interest to the military where they would be used in uniforms and body armor where portable power is vital to field operations. In strong sunlight these power generating fabrics could be used as a primary source of energy, or they can be used in either direct sunlight or low light conditions to recharge batteries. Early in 2002, Konarka performed a series of proof-of-concept experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of building a photovoltaic cell using dye-sensitized titania and electrolyte on a metal wire core. The approach taken was based on the sequential coating processes used in making fiber optics, namely, a fiber core, e.g., a metal wire serving as the primary electrode, is passed through a series of vertically aligned coating cups. Each of the cups contains a coating fluid that has a specific function in the photocell. A second wire, used as the counter electrode, is brought into the process prior to entering the final coating cup. The latter contains a photopolymerizable, transparent cladding which hardens when passed through a UV chamber. Upon exiting the UV chamber, the finished PV fiber is spooled. Two hundred of foot lengths of PV fiber have been made using this process. When the fiber is exposed to visible radiation, it generates electrical power. The best efficiency exhibited by these fibers is 6% with an average value in the 4

  18. High Antifouling Property of Ion-Selective Membrane: toward In Vivo Monitoring of pH Change in Live Brain of Rats with Membrane-Coated Carbon Fiber Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jie; Xiao, Tongfang; Wu, Fei; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2016-11-15

    In vivo monitoring of pH in live brain remains very essential to understanding acid-base chemistry in various physiological processes. This study demonstrates a potentiometric method for in vivo monitoring of pH in the central nervous system with carbon fiber-based proton-selective electrodes (CF-H + ISEs) with high antifouling property. The CF-H + ISEs are prepared by formation of a H + -selective membrane (H + ISM) with polyvinyl chloride polymeric matrixes containing plasticizer bis(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate, H + ionophore tridodecylamine, and ion exchanger potassium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)borate onto carbon fiber electrodes (CFEs). Both in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that the H + ISM exhibits strong antifouling property against proteins, which enables the CF-H + ISEs to well maintain the sensitivity and reversibility for pH sensing after in vivo measurements. Moreover, the CF-H + ISEs exhibit a good response to pH changes within a narrow physiological pH range from 6.0 to 8.0 in quick response time with high reversibility and selectivity against species endogenously existing in the central nervous system. The applicability of the CF-H + ISEs is illustrated by real-time monitoring of pH changes during acid-base disturbances, in which the brain acidosis is induced by CO 2 inhalation and brain alkalosis is induced by bicarbonate injections. The results demonstrate that brain pH value rapidly decreases in the amygdaloid nucleus by ca. 0.14 ± 0.01 (n = 5) when the rats breath in pure CO 2 gas, while increases in the cortex by about 0.77 ± 0.12 (n = 3) following intraperitoneal injection of 5 mmol/kg NaHCO 3 . This study demonstrates a new potentiometric method for in vivo measurement of pH change in the live brain of rats with high reliability.

  19. Construct hierarchical electrode with NixCo3-xS4 nanosheet coated on NiCo2O4 nanowire arrays grown on carbon fiber paper for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liujun; Tang, Gang; Mei, Jun; Liu, Hao

    2017-08-01

    In order to boost the energy density of supercapacitors, the strategy of using advanced pseudo-capacitive electrode and asymmetric device architecture is feasible and effective. Herein, we report a significant advance in the design and synthesis of a new hierarchically nanostructures with a series of controllable Ni/Co molar ratios of NixCo3-xS4 (i.e., NiCo2S4 and Ni2CoS4) nanosheets coatings have in situ grown on NiCo2O4 nanowires arrays on a flexible carbon fiber paper (CFP). Remarkably, the hybrid Ni2CoS4@NiCo2O4 composite electrode delivers the highest discharge gravimetric capacitance of 1501 F g-1, and areal capacitance of 1.86 F cm-2 at 1 mA cm-2. Furthermore, coupled with nitrogen-doped carbon xerogels anode, we have fabricated a 1.6 V asymmetric supercapacitor (Ni2CoS4@NiCo2O4//nitrogen-doped carbon xerogels), such device delivers a maximum energy and power densities of 32.2 Wh kg-1 and 2.5 kW kg-1 in 1.0 M KOH electrolyte, respectively, and an excellent cycling stability (∼87.6% retention after 10,000 cycles).

  20. Synthesis of ultrathin mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanosheets on carbon fiber paper as integrated high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fangze; Yu, Lin; Cheng, Gao; Lin, Ting; Sun, Ming; Ye, Fei; Li, Yongfeng

    2014-04-01

    Two-dimensional ultrathin mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanosheets on carbon fiber paper (CFP) are synthesized through a facile solvothermal method combined with a post thermal treatment. The well interconnected ultrathin NiCo2O4 nanosheets directly grown on the carbon nanofibers could allow for easy diffusion of the electrolyte, shorten the transport path of ion and electron and accommodate the strain during cycling. As a result, superior pseudocapacitive performance is achieved with large specific capacitance of 999 F g-1 at a high current density of 20 A g-1. The capacitance loss is 15.6% after 3000 cycles at a current density of 10 A g-1, displaying good cycle ability and high rate capability.

  1. Fractals in several electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chunyong, E-mail: zhangchy@njau.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Environment and Biosafety, Suzhou Academy of Southeast University, Dushuhu lake higher education town, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wu, Jingyu [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Fu, Degang [Suzhou Key Laboratory of Environment and Biosafety, Suzhou Academy of Southeast University, Dushuhu lake higher education town, Suzhou 215123 (China); State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Fractal geometry was employed to characterize three important electrode materials. • The surfaces of all studied electrodes were proved to be very rough. • The fractal dimensions of BDD and ACF were scale dependent. • MMO film was more uniform than BDD and ACF in terms of fractal structures. - Abstract: In the present paper, the fractal properties of boron-doped diamond (BDD), mixed metal oxide (MMO) and activated carbon fiber (ACF) electrode have been studied by SEM imaging at different scales. Three materials are self-similar with mean fractal dimension in the range of 2.6–2.8, confirming that they all exhibit very rough surfaces. Specifically, it is found that MMO film is more uniform in terms of fractal structure than BDD and ACF. As a result, the intriguing characteristics make these electrodes as ideal candidates for high-performance decontamination processes.

  2. Liquid electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  3. electrode array

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    A geoelectric investigation employing vertical electrical soundings (VES) using the Ajayi - Makinde Two-Electrode array and the ... arrangements used in electrical D.C. resistivity survey. These include ..... Refraction Tomography to Study the.

  4. Plasma enhanced modification of TMP fiber and its effect on tensile strength of wood fiber/PP composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangyeob Lee; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse

    2009-01-01

    Plasma-assisted surface treatment on thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fiber and polypropylene (PP) film was investigated to obtain interfacial adhesion at the wood fiber and PP interface. A metal plate between electrodes prevented thermal damage to the TMP fiber handsheets and PP film. Oxygen-plasma treatment provided better surface activation on the TMP fiber and...

  5. Cermet electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskalick, Nicholas J.

    1988-08-30

    Disclosed is a cermet electrode consisting of metal particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or alloys or mixtures thereof immobilized by zirconia stabilized in cubic form which contains discrete deposits of about 0.1 to about 5% by weight of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof. The solid oxide electrode can be made by covering a substrate with particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixtures thereof, growing a stabilized zirconia solid oxide skeleton around the particles thereby immobilizing them, contacting the skeleton with a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, and heating the skeleton to a temperature of at least 500.degree. C. The electrode can also be made by preparing a slurry of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixture and a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, depositing the slurry on a substrate, heating the slurry to dryness, and growing a stabilized zirconia skeleton around the metal particles.

  6. Fiber webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell; James S. Han; Von L. Byrd

    2005-01-01

    Wood fibers can be used to produce a wide variety of low-density three-dimensional webs, mats, and fiber-molded products. Short wood fibers blended with long fibers can be formed into flexible fiber mats, which can be made by physical entanglement, nonwoven needling, or thermoplastic fiber melt matrix technologies. The most common types of flexible mats are carded, air...

  7. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid partides being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention is the provision of a material capable of withstanding a high-temperature, corrosive and erosive environment for use as a ceramic-metal composite electrode current collector in the channel of a magnetohydrodynamic generator. (U.K.)

  9. Electrode Processes in Porous Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-26

    F104470 2.0 MASS SPECTROMETRY One part of activity for this year is an investigation of the behavior of silver electrodes through the distribution of...al. (2)). These, in some cases, involve tedious and time comsuming procedures and discrepencies of as much as 15% have been observed in the results. As

  10. Deriving muscle fiber diameter from recorded single fiber potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Ewa

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate muscle fiber diameters through analysis of single muscle fiber potentials (SFPs) recorded in the frontalis muscle of a healthy subject. Our previously developed analytical and graphic method to derive fiber diameter from the analysis of the negative peak duration and the amplitude of SFP, was applied to a sample of ten SFPs recorded in vivo. Muscle fiber diameters derived from the simulation method for the sample of frontalis muscle SFPs are consistent with anatomical data for this muscle. The results confirm the utility of proposed simulation method. Outlying data could be considered as the result of a contribution of other fibers to the potential recorded using an SFEMG electrode. Our graphic tool provides a rapid estimation of muscle fiber diameter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Highly Conductive Graphene/Ag Hybrid Fibers for Flexible Fiber-Type Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sang Su; Lee, Kang Eun; Cha, Hwa-Jin; Seong, Dong Gi; Um, Moon-Kwang; Byun, Joon-Hyung; Oh, Youngseok; Oh, Joon Hak; Lee, Wonoh; Lee, Jea Uk

    2015-11-09

    Mechanically robust, flexible, and electrically conductive textiles are highly suitable for use in wearable electronic applications. In this study, highly conductive and flexible graphene/Ag hybrid fibers were prepared and used as electrodes for planar and fiber-type transistors. The graphene/Ag hybrid fibers were fabricated by the wet-spinning/drawing of giant graphene oxide and subsequent functionalization with Ag nanoparticles. The graphene/Ag hybrid fibers exhibited record-high electrical conductivity of up to 15,800 S cm(-1). As the graphene/Ag hybrid fibers can be easily cut and placed onto flexible substrates by simply gluing or stitching, ion gel-gated planar transistors were fabricated by using the hybrid fibers as source, drain, and gate electrodes. Finally, fiber-type transistors were constructed by embedding the graphene/Ag hybrid fiber electrodes onto conventional polyurethane monofilaments, which exhibited excellent flexibility (highly bendable and rollable properties), high electrical performance (μh = 15.6 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), Ion/Ioff > 10(4)), and outstanding device performance stability (stable after 1,000 cycles of bending tests and being exposed for 30 days to ambient conditions). We believe that our simple methods for the fabrication of graphene/Ag hybrid fiber electrodes for use in fiber-type transistors can potentially be applied to the development all-organic wearable devices.

  12. Photorefractive Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuzyk, Mark G

    2003-01-01

    ... scope of the project. In addition to our work in optical limiting fibers, spillover results included making fiber-based light-sources, writing holograms in fibers, and developing the theory of the limits of the nonlinear...

  13. Ultrasmall and customizable multichannel electrodes for extracellular recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piironen, Arto; Weckström, Matti; Vähäsöyrinki, Mikko

    2011-03-01

    Increasing demand exists for smaller multichannel electrodes that enable simultaneous recordings of many neurons in a noninvasive manner. We report a novel method for manufacturing ultrasmall carbon fiber electrodes with up to seven closely spaced recording sites. The electrodes were designed to minimize damage to neuronal circuitry and to be fully customizable in three dimensions so that their dimensions can be optimally matched to those of the targeted neuron population.

  14. All-fiber polarization switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knape, Harald; Margulis, Walter

    2007-03-01

    We report an all-fiber polarization switch made out of silica-based microstructured fiber suitable for Q-switching all-fiber lasers. Nanosecond high-voltage pulses are used to heat and expand an internal electrode to cause λ/2-polarization rotation in less than 10 ns for 1.5 μm light. The 10 cm long component has an experimentally measured optical insertion loss of 0.2 dB and a 0-10 kHz repetition frequency capacity and has been durability tested for more than 109 pulses.

  15. Fiber dielectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipowicz, P.J.; Yeh, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis is the motion of uncharged particles in nonuniform electric fields. We find that the theoretical dielectrophoretic velocity of a conducting fiber in an insulating medium is proportional to the square of the fiber length, and is virtually independent of fiber diameter. This prediction has been verified experimentally. The results point to the development of a fiber length classifier based on dielectrophoresis. (author)

  16. Fiber Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The chapter provides a discussion of optical fiber amplifiers and through three sections provides a detailed treatment of three types of optical fiber amplifiers, erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), Raman amplifiers, and parametric amplifiers. Each section comprises the fundamentals including...... the basic physics and relevant in-depth theoretical modeling, amplifiers characteristics and performance data as a function of specific operation parameters. Typical applications in fiber optic communication systems and the improvement achievable through the use of fiber amplifiers are illustrated....

  17. Multi-electrode double layer capacitor having single electrolyte seal and aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph; Dispennette, John M.; Blank, Edward; Kolb, Alan C.

    1999-01-19

    A single cell, multi-electrode high performance double layer capacitor includes first and second flat stacks of electrodes adapted to be housed in a closeable two-part capacitor case which includes only a single electrolyte seal. Each electrode stack has a plurality of electrodes connected in parallel, with the electrodes of one stack being interleaved with the electrodes of the other stack to form an interleaved stack, and with the electrodes of each stack being electrically connected to respective capacitor terminals. A porous separator sleeve is inserted over the electrodes of one stack before interleaving to prevent electrical shorts between the electrodes. The electrodes are made by folding a compressible, low resistance, aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth, made from activated carbon fibers, around a current collector foil, with a tab of the foils of each electrode of each stack being connected in parallel and connected to the respective capacitor terminal. The height of the interleaved stack is somewhat greater than the inside height of the closed capacitor case, thereby requiring compression of the interleaved electrode stack when placed inside of the case, and thereby maintaining the interleaved electrode stack under modest constant pressure. The closed capacitor case is filled with an electrolytic solution and sealed. A preferred electrolytic solution is made by dissolving an appropriate salt into acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN). In one embodiment, the two parts of the capacitor case are conductive and function as the capacitor terminals.

  18. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph; Dispennette, John M.

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg.

  19. Cell with scrolled electrodes. Uzumaki jo denkyokutai wo sonaeta denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamibayashi, M.; Morioka, Y. (Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1990-10-03

    Non-sintered electrode plates produced by direct filling of paste state active materials in metal fiber felt type porous body are proposed recently for use as electrode plates for alkali cells and the like. Although this type of electrode plates can be produced with a simple facility because sintering process is not required, it has a shorcoming of internal short circuiting because metal fibers pass through the separator due to fuzzing of metal fiber. According to this invention, a sheet comprising metallic fibers oriented at right angles against the scrolled direction of the electrode plate is stacked on the surface of the metal fiber felt type porous body sheet when it is scrolled with the interposed separator. As the result, fibers are not bent and does not protrude from the surface of sheet to pass through the separator because each metallic fiber comprising the metallic sheet on the surface are arranged at a right angle against the direction of scrolling of the porous sheet. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Voltammetric detection of biological molecules using chopped carbon fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Kazuharu; Yugami, Asako; Kojima, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Voltammetric detection of biological molecules was carried out using chopped carbon fibers produced from carbon fiber reinforced plastics that are biocompatible and inexpensive. Because chopped carbon fibers normally are covered with a sizing agent, they are difficult to use as an electrode. However, when the surface of a chopped carbon fiber was treated with ethanol and hydrochloric acid, it became conductive. To evaluate the functioning of chopped carbon fibers, voltammetric measurements of [Fe(CN)(6)](3-) were carried out. Redoxes of FAD, ascorbic acid and NADH as biomolecules were recorded using cyclic voltammetry. The sizing agents used to bundle the fibers were epoxy, polyamide and polyurethane resins. The peak currents were the greatest when using the chopped carbon fibers that were created with epoxy resins. When the electrode response of the chopped carbon fibers was compared with that of a glassy carbon electrode, the peak currents and the reversibility of the electrode reaction were sufficient. Therefore, the chopped carbon fibers will be useful as disposable electrodes for the sensing of biomolecules.

  1. Nanofiber electrode and method of forming same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintauro, Peter N.; Zhang, Wenjing

    2018-02-27

    In one aspect, a method of forming an electrode for an electrochemical device is disclosed. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of mixing at least a first amount of a catalyst and a second amount of an ionomer or uncharged polymer to form a solution and delivering the solution into a metallic needle having a needle tip. The method further includes the steps of applying a voltage between the needle tip and a collector substrate positioned at a distance from the needle tip, and extruding the solution from the needle tip at a flow rate such as to generate electrospun fibers and deposit the generated fibers on the collector substrate to form a mat with a porous network of fibers. Each fiber in the porous network of the mat has distributed particles of the catalyst. The method also includes the step of pressing the mat onto a membrane.

  2. Helium Ion Microscopy of proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrode structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiriaev, Serguei; Dam Madsen, Nis; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2017-01-01

    electrode interface structure dependence on ionomer content, systematically studied by Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM). A special focus was on acquiring high resolution images of the electrode structure and avoiding interface damage from irradiation and tedious sample preparation. HIM demonstrated its....... In the hot-pressed electrodes, we found more closed contact between the electrode components, reduced particle size, polymer coalescence and formation of nano-sized polymer fiber architecture between the particles. Keywords: proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs); Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM...

  3. Nano-yarn carbon nanotube fiber based enzymatic glucose biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhigang; Burugapalli, Krishna; Moussy, Francis; Song, Wenhui; Li Yali; Zhong Xiaohua

    2010-01-01

    A novel brush-like electrode based on carbon nanotube (CNT) nano-yarn fiber has been designed for electrochemical biosensor applications and its efficacy as an enzymatic glucose biosensor demonstrated. The CNT nano-yarn fiber was spun directly from a chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) gas flow reaction using a mixture of ethanol and acetone as the carbon source and an iron nano-catalyst. The fiber, 28 μm in diameter, was made of bundles of double walled CNTs (DWNTs) concentrically compacted into multiple layers forming a nano-porous network structure. Cyclic voltammetry study revealed a superior electrocatalytic activity for CNT fiber compared to the traditional Pt-Ir coil electrode. The electrode end tip of the CNT fiber was freeze-fractured to obtain a unique brush-like nano-structure resembling a scale-down electrical 'flex', where glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was immobilized using glutaraldehyde crosslinking in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). An outer epoxy-polyurethane (EPU) layer was used as semi-permeable membrane. The sensor function was tested against a standard reference electrode. The sensitivities, linear detection range and linearity for detecting glucose for the miniature CNT fiber electrode were better than that reported for a Pt-Ir coil electrode. Thermal annealing of the CNT fiber at 250 deg. C for 30 min prior to fabrication of the sensor resulted in a 7.5 fold increase in glucose sensitivity. The as-spun CNT fiber based glucose biosensor was shown to be stable for up to 70 days. In addition, gold coating of the electrode connecting end of the CNT fiber resulted in extending the glucose detection limit to 25 μM. To conclude, superior efficiency of CNT fiber for glucose biosensing was demonstrated compared to a traditional Pt-Ir sensor.

  4. Nano-yarn carbon nanotube fiber based enzymatic glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhigang; Song, Wenhui; Burugapalli, Krishna; Moussy, Francis; Li, Ya-Li; Zhong, Xiao-Hua

    2010-04-01

    A novel brush-like electrode based on carbon nanotube (CNT) nano-yarn fiber has been designed for electrochemical biosensor applications and its efficacy as an enzymatic glucose biosensor demonstrated. The CNT nano-yarn fiber was spun directly from a chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) gas flow reaction using a mixture of ethanol and acetone as the carbon source and an iron nano-catalyst. The fiber, 28 µm in diameter, was made of bundles of double walled CNTs (DWNTs) concentrically compacted into multiple layers forming a nano-porous network structure. Cyclic voltammetry study revealed a superior electrocatalytic activity for CNT fiber compared to the traditional Pt-Ir coil electrode. The electrode end tip of the CNT fiber was freeze-fractured to obtain a unique brush-like nano-structure resembling a scale-down electrical 'flex', where glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was immobilized using glutaraldehyde crosslinking in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). An outer epoxy-polyurethane (EPU) layer was used as semi-permeable membrane. The sensor function was tested against a standard reference electrode. The sensitivities, linear detection range and linearity for detecting glucose for the miniature CNT fiber electrode were better than that reported for a Pt-Ir coil electrode. Thermal annealing of the CNT fiber at 250 °C for 30 min prior to fabrication of the sensor resulted in a 7.5 fold increase in glucose sensitivity. The as-spun CNT fiber based glucose biosensor was shown to be stable for up to 70 days. In addition, gold coating of the electrode connecting end of the CNT fiber resulted in extending the glucose detection limit to 25 µM. To conclude, superior efficiency of CNT fiber for glucose biosensing was demonstrated compared to a traditional Pt-Ir sensor.

  5. High performance cermet electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Zymboly, Gregory E.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of increasing the operating cell voltage of a solid oxide electrochemical cell having metal electrode particles in contact with an oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte. The metal electrode is heated with the cell, and oxygen is passed through the oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte to the surface of the metal electrode particles so that the metal electrode particles are oxidized to form a metal oxide layer between the metal electrode particles and the electrolyte. The metal oxide layer is then reduced to form porous metal between the metal electrode particles and the ceramic electrolyte.

  6. Glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrodes for evoked potential recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes M.F.D.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Current methods for recording field potentials with tungsten electrodes make it virtually impossible to use the same recording electrode also as a lesioning electrode, for example for histological confirmation of the recorded site, because the lesioning procedure usually wears off the tungsten tip. Therefore, the electrode would have to be replaced after each lesioning procedure, which is a very high cost solution to the problem. We present here a low cost, easy to make, high quality glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrode that shows resistive, signal/noise and electrochemical coupling advantages over tungsten electrodes. Also, currently used carbon fiber microelectrodes often show problems with electrical continuity, especially regarding electrochemical applications using a carbon-powder/resin mixture, with consequent low performance, besides the inconvenience of handling such a mixture. We propose here a new method for manufacturing glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrodes with several advantages when recording intracerebral field potentials

  7. Preparation of electrodes on cfrp composites with low contact resistance comprising laser-based surface pre-treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Almuhammadi, Khaled Hamdan

    2016-12-29

    Various examples are provided related to the preparation of electrodes on carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites with low contact resistance. Laser-based surface preparation can be used for bonding to CFRP composites. In one example, a method includes preparing a pretreated target area on a CFRP composite surface using laser pulsed irradiation and bonding an electrode to exposed fibers in the pretreated target area. The surface preparation can allow the electrode to have a low contact resistance with the CFRP composite.

  8. Carbon fiber on polyimide ultra-microelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Winthrop F.; Lissandrello, Charles A.; Shen, Jun; Pearre, Ben W.; Mertiri, Alket; Deku, Felix; Cogan, Stuart; Holinski, Bradley J.; Chew, Daniel J.; White, Alice E.; Otchy, Timothy M.; Gardner, Timothy J.

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Most preparations for making neural recordings degrade over time and eventually fail due to insertion trauma and reactive tissue response. The magnitudes of these responses are thought to be related to the electrode size (specifically, the cross-sectional area), the relative stiffness of the electrode, and the degree of tissue tolerance for the material. Flexible carbon fiber ultra-microelectrodes have a much smaller cross-section than traditional electrodes and low tissue reactivity, and thus may enable improved longevity of neural recordings in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Only two carbon fiber array designs have been described previously, each with limited channel densities due to limitations of the fabrication processes or interconnect strategies. Here, we describe a method for assembling carbon fiber electrodes on a flexible polyimide substrate that is expected to facilitate the construction of high-density recording and stimulating arrays. Approach. Individual carbon fibers were aligned using an alignment tool that was 3D-printed with sub-micron resolution using direct laser writing. Indium deposition on the carbon fibers, followed by low-temperature microsoldering, provided a robust and reliable method of electrical connection to the polyimide interconnect. Main results. Spontaneous multiunit activity and stimulation-evoked compound responses with SNR  >10 and  >120, respectively, were recorded from a small (125 µm) peripheral nerve. We also improved the typically poor charge injection capacity of small diameter carbon fibers by electrodepositing 100 nm-thick iridium oxide films, making the carbon fiber arrays usable for electrical stimulation as well as recording. Significance. Our innovations in fabrication technique pave the way for further miniaturization of carbon fiber ultra-microelectrode arrays. We believe these advances to be key steps to enable a shift from labor intensive, manual assembly to a more automated

  9. Soft capacitor fibers using conductive polymers for electronic textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jian Feng; Gorgutsa, Stephan; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2010-11-01

    A novel, highly flexible, conductive polymer-based fiber with high electric capacitance is reported. In its cross section the fiber features a periodic sequence of hundreds of conductive and isolating plastic layers positioned around metallic electrodes. The fiber is fabricated using the fiber drawing method, where a multi-material macroscopic preform is drawn into a sub-millimeter capacitor fiber in a single fabrication step. Several kilometers of fibers can be obtained from a single preform with fiber diameters ranging between 500 and 1000 µm. A typical measured capacitance of our fibers is 60-100 nF m-1 and it is independent of the fiber diameter. Analysis of the fiber frequency response shows that in its simplest interrogation mode the capacitor fiber has a transverse resistance of 5 kΩ m L-1, which is inversely proportional to the fiber length L and is independent of the fiber diameter. Softness of the fiber materials, the absence of liquid electrolyte in the fiber structure, ease of scalability to large production volumes and high capacitance of our fibers make them interesting for various smart textile applications ranging from distributed sensing to energy storage.

  10. Soft capacitor fibers using conductive polymers for electronic textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Jian Feng; Gorgutsa, Stephan; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2010-01-01

    A novel, highly flexible, conductive polymer-based fiber with high electric capacitance is reported. In its cross section the fiber features a periodic sequence of hundreds of conductive and isolating plastic layers positioned around metallic electrodes. The fiber is fabricated using the fiber drawing method, where a multi-material macroscopic preform is drawn into a sub-millimeter capacitor fiber in a single fabrication step. Several kilometers of fibers can be obtained from a single preform with fiber diameters ranging between 500 and 1000 µm. A typical measured capacitance of our fibers is 60–100 nF m −1 and it is independent of the fiber diameter. Analysis of the fiber frequency response shows that in its simplest interrogation mode the capacitor fiber has a transverse resistance of 5 kΩ m L −1 , which is inversely proportional to the fiber length L and is independent of the fiber diameter. Softness of the fiber materials, the absence of liquid electrolyte in the fiber structure, ease of scalability to large production volumes and high capacitance of our fibers make them interesting for various smart textile applications ranging from distributed sensing to energy storage

  11. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  12. The Composite Insertion Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlung, Sven; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; West, Keld

    1984-01-01

    The specific energy obtainable by discharge of porous insertion electrodes is limited by electrolyte depletion in thepores. This can be overcome using a solid ion conductor as electrolyte. The term "composite" is used to distinguishthese electrodes from porous electrodes with liquid electrolyte...

  13. Near-Electrode Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathke, Jerome W.; Klingler, Robert J.; Woelk, Klaus; Gerald, Rex E.,II

    1999-05-01

    An apparatus, near-electrode imager, for employing nuclear magnetic resonance imaging to provide in situ measurements of electrochemical properties of a sample as a function of distance from a working electrode. The near-electrode imager use the radio frequency field gradient within a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator to provide high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectral information on electrolyte materials.

  14. Stimulating the Comfort of Textile Electrodes in Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation. However, the stimulation comfort of textile electrodes and the mechanism behind stimulation discomfort is still unknown. In this study, a textile stimulation electrode was developed using conductive fabrics and then its impedance spectroscopy, stimulation thresholds, and stimulation comfort were quantitatively assessed and compared with those of a wet textile electrode and a hydrogel electrode on healthy subjects. The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain. Our results showed that the wet textile electrode could achieve similar stimulation performance as the hydrogel electrode in motor threshold and stimulation comfort. However, the dry textile electrode was found to have very low pain threshold and induced obvious cutaneous painful sensations during stimulation, in comparison to the wet and hydrogel electrodes. Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers. Future work will be done to make textile electrodes have similar stimulation performance and comfort as hydrogel electrodes.

  15. Stimulating the Comfort of Textile Electrodes in Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Lu, Yi; Chen, Wanzhen; Wu, Zhen; Zou, Haiqing; Krundel, Ludovic; Li, Guanglin

    2015-01-01

    Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation. However, the stimulation comfort of textile electrodes and the mechanism behind stimulation discomfort is still unknown. In this study, a textile stimulation electrode was developed using conductive fabrics and then its impedance spectroscopy, stimulation thresholds, and stimulation comfort were quantitatively assessed and compared with those of a wet textile electrode and a hydrogel electrode on healthy subjects. The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain. Our results showed that the wet textile electrode could achieve similar stimulation performance as the hydrogel electrode in motor threshold and stimulation comfort. However, the dry textile electrode was found to have very low pain threshold and induced obvious cutaneous painful sensations during stimulation, in comparison to the wet and hydrogel electrodes. Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers. Future work will be done to make textile electrodes have similar stimulation performance and comfort as hydrogel electrodes. PMID:26193273

  16. Novel electric double-layer capacitor with a coaxial fiber structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuli; Qiu, Longbin; Ren, Jing; Guan, Guozhen; Lin, Huijuan; Zhang, Zhitao; Chen, Peining; Wang, Yonggang; Peng, Huisheng

    2013-11-26

    A coaxial electric double-layer capacitor fiber is developed from the aligned carbon nanotube fiber and sheet, which functions as two electrodes with a polymer gel sandwiched between them. The unique coaxial structure enables a rapid transportation of ions between the two electrodes with a high electrochemical performance. These energy storage fibers are also flexible and stretchable, and can be woven into and widely used for electronic textiles. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Natural cellulose fiber as substrate for supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Zhe; Zhu, Hongli; Gillette, Eleanor; Han, Xiaogang; Rubloff, Gary W; Hu, Liangbing; Lee, Sang Bok

    2013-07-23

    Cellulose fibers with porous structure and electrolyte absorption properties are considered to be a good potential substrate for the deposition of energy material for energy storage devices. Unlike traditional substrates, such as gold or stainless steel, paper prepared from cellulose fibers in this study not only functions as a substrate with large surface area but also acts as an interior electrolyte reservoir, where electrolyte can be absorbed much in the cellulose fibers and is ready to diffuse into an energy storage material. We demonstrated the value of this internal electrolyte reservoir by comparing a series of hierarchical hybrid supercapacitor electrodes based on homemade cellulose paper or polyester textile integrated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by simple solution dip and electrodeposited with MnO2. Atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 onto the fiber surface was used to limit electrolyte absorption into the fibers for comparison. Configurations designed with different numbers of ion diffusion pathways were compared to show that cellulose fibers in paper can act as a good interior electrolyte reservoir and provide an effective pathway for ion transport facilitation. Further optimization using an additional CNT coating resulted in an electrode of paper/CNTs/MnO2/CNTs, which has dual ion diffusion and electron transfer pathways and demonstrated superior supercapacitive performance. This paper highlights the merits of the mesoporous cellulose fibers as substrates for supercapacitor electrodes, in which the water-swelling effect of the cellulose fibers can absorb electrolyte, and the mesoporous internal structure of the fibers can provide channels for ions to diffuse to the electrochemical energy storage materials.

  18. Comparison of unusual carbon-based working electrodes for electrochemiluminescence sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noman, Muhammad; Sanginario, Alessandro; Jagadale, Pravin; Demarchi, Danilo; Tagliaferro, Alberto

    2017-06-01

    In this work, unconventional carbon-based materials were investigated for use in electrochemiluminescence (ECL) working electrodes. Precursors such as bamboo, pistachio shells, kevlar ® fibers and camphor were differently treated and used as working electrodes in ECL experiments. After a proper process they were assembled as electrodes and tested in an electrochemical cell. Comparison among them and with a commercial glassy carbon electrode (GCE) shows a very good response for all of them thus demonstrating their potential use as disposable low-cost electrodes for early detection electrochemical analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Method of making a multi-electrode double layer capacitor having single electrolyte seal and aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph; Dispennette, John M.; Blank, Edward; Kolb, Alan C.

    2002-09-17

    A single cell, multi-electrode high performance double layer capacitor includes first and second flat stacks of electrodes adapted to be housed in a closeable two-part capacitor case which includes only a single electrolyte seal. Each electrode stack has a plurality of electrodes connected in parallel, with the electrodes of one stack being interleaved with the electrodes of the other stack to form an interleaved stack, and with the electrodes of each stack being electrically connected to respective capacitor terminals. A porous separator is positioned against the electrodes of one stack before interleaving to prevent electrical shorts between the electrodes. The electrodes are made by folding a compressible, low resistance, aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth, made from activated carbon fibers, around a current collector foil, with a tab of the foils of each electrode of each stack being connected in parallel and connected to the respective capacitor terminal. The height of the interleaved stack is somewhat greater than the inside height of the closed capacitor case, thereby requiring compression of the interleaved electrode stack when placed inside of the case, and thereby maintaining the interleaved electrode stack under modest constant pressure. The closed capacitor case is filled with an electrolytic solution and sealed. A preferred electrolytic solution is made by dissolving an appropriate salt into acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN). In one embodiment, the two parts of the capacitor case are conductive and function as the capacitor terminals.

  20. Two Fiber Optical Fiber Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mathew R.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Breeding, Shawn P.

    2000-01-01

    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose sensing tip is given a metallic coating. The sensing tip of the fiber is essentially an isothermal cavity, so the emission from this cavity will be approximately equal to the emission from a blackbody. Temperature readings are obtained by measuring the spectral radiative heat flux at the end of the fiber at two wavelengths. The ratio of these measurements and Planck's Law are used to infer the temperature at the sensing tip. Optical fiber thermometers have high accuracy, excellent long-term stability and are immune to electromagnetic interference. In addition, they can be operated for extended periods without requiring re-calibration. For these reasons. it is desirable to use optical fiber thermometers in environments such as the International Space Station. However, it has recently been shown that temperature readings are corrupted by emission from the fiber when extended portions of the probe are exposed to elevated temperatures. This paper will describe several ways in which the reading from a second fiber can be used to correct the corrupted temperature measurements. The accuracy and sensitivity to measurement uncertainty will be presented for each method.

  1. Uncharged positive electrode composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi

    1977-03-08

    An uncharged positive-electrode composition contains particulate lithium sulfide, another alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound other than sulfide, e.g., lithium carbide, and a transition metal powder. The composition along with a binder, such as electrolytic salt or a thermosetting resin is applied onto an electrically conductive substrate to form a plaque. The plaque is assembled as a positive electrode within an electrochemical cell opposite to a negative electrode containing a material such as aluminum or silicon for alloying with lithium. During charging, lithium alloy is formed within the negative electrode and transition metal sulfide such as iron sulfide is produced within the positive electrode. Excess negative electrode capacity over that from the transition metal sulfide is provided due to the electrochemical reaction of the other than sulfide alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound.

  2. Handbook of reference electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  3. Patterned functional carbon fibers from polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Marcus A [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Brown, Rebecca H [ORNL; Kumbhar, Amar S [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Patterned, continuous carbon fibers with controlled surface geometry were produced from a novel melt-processible carbon precursor. This portends the use of a unique technique to produce such technologically innovative fibers in large volume for important applications. The novelties of this technique include ease of designing and fabricating fibers with customized surface contour, the ability to manipulate filament diameter from submicron scale to a couple of orders of magnitude larger scale, and the amenable porosity gradient across the carbon wall by diffusion controlled functionalization of precursor. The geometry of fiber cross-section was tailored by using bicomponent melt-spinning with shaped dies and controlling the melt-processing of the precursor polymer. Circular, trilobal, gear-shaped hollow fibers, and solid star-shaped carbon fibers of 0.5 - 20 um diameters, either in self-assembled bundle form, or non-bonded loose filament form, were produced by carbonizing functionalized-polyethylene fibers. Prior to carbonization, melt-spun fibers were converted to a char-forming mass by optimizing the sulfonation on polyethylene macromolecules. The fibers exhibited distinctly ordered carbon morphologies at the outside skin compared to the inner surface or fiber core. Such order in carbon microstructure can be further tuned by altering processing parameters. Partially sulfonated polyethylene-derived hollow carbon fibers exhibit 2-10 fold surface area (50-500 m2/g) compared to the solid fibers (10-25 m2/g) with pore sizes closer to the inside diameter of the filaments larger than the sizes on the outer layer. These specially functionalized carbon fibers hold promise for extraordinary performance improvements when used, for example, as composite reinforcements, catalyst support media, membranes for gas separation, CO2 sorbents, and active electrodes and current collectors for energy storage applications.

  4. Electrical characteristic of the titanium mesh electrode for transcutaneous intrabody communication to monitor implantable artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Eiji; Kikuchi, Sakiko; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a tissue-inducing electrode using titanium mesh to obtain mechanically and electrically stable contact with the tissue for a new transcutaneous communication system using the human body as a conductive medium. In this study, we investigated the electrical properties of the titanium mesh electrode by measuring electrode-tissue interface resistance in vivo. The titanium mesh electrode (Hi-Lex Co., Zellez, Hyogo, Japan) consisted of titanium fibers (diameter of 50 μm), and it has an average pore size of 200 μm and 87 % porosity. The titanium mesh electrode has a diameter of 5 mm and thickness of 1.5 mm. Three titanium mesh electrodes were implanted separately into the dorsal region of the rat. We measured the electrode-electrode impedance using an LCR meter for 12 weeks, and we calculated the tissue resistivity and electrode-tissue interface resistance. The electrode-tissue interface resistance of the titanium mesh electrode decreased slightly until the third POD and then continuously increased to 75 Ω. The electrode-tissue interface resistance of the titanium mesh electrode is stable and it has lower electrode-tissue interface resistance than that of a titanium disk electrode. The extracted titanium mesh electrode after 12 weeks implantation was fixed in 10 % buffered formalin solution and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Light microscopic observation showed that the titanium mesh electrode was filled with connective tissue, inflammatory cells and fibroblasts with some capillaries in the pores of the titanium mesh. The results indicate that the titanium mesh electrode is a promising electrode for the new transcutaneous communication system.

  5. Electrode stabilizing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Odom, Susan A.

    2015-11-03

    An electrolyte includes a polar aprotic solvent; an alkali metal salt; and an electrode stabilizing compound that is a monomer, which when polymerized forms an electrically conductive polymer. The electrode stabilizing compound is a thiophene, a imidazole, a anilines, a benzene, a azulene, a carbazole, or a thiol. Electrochemical devices may incorporate such electrolytes.

  6. Durable fuel electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    the composite. The invention also relates to the use of the composite as a fuel electrode, solid oxide fuel cell, and/or solid oxide electrolyser. The invention discloses a composite for an electrode, comprising a three-dimensional network of dispersed metal particles, stabilised zirconia particles and pores...

  7. Transforming Pristine Carbon Fiber Tows into High Performance Solid-State Fiber Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dingshan; Zhai, Shengli; Jiang, Wenchao; Goh, Kunli; Wei, Li; Chen, Xudong; Jiang, Rongrong; Chen, Yuan

    2015-09-02

    A facile activation strategy can transform pristine carbon fiber tows into high-performance fiber electrodes with a specific capacitance of 14.2 F cm(-3) . The knottable fiber supercapacitor shows an energy density of 0.35 mW h cm(-3) , an ultrahigh power density of 3000 mW cm(-3) , and a remarkable capacitance retention of 68%, when the scan rate increases from 10 to 1000 mV s(-1) . © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Method for making thin carbon foam electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekala, Richard W.; Mayer, Steven T.; Kaschmitter, James L.; Morrison, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    A method for fabricating thin, flat carbon electrodes by infiltrating highly porous carbon papers, membranes, felts, metal fibers/powders, or fabrics with an appropriate carbon foam precursor material. The infiltrated carbon paper, for example, is then cured to form a gel-saturated carbon paper, which is subsequently dried and pyrolyzed to form a thin sheet of porous carbon. The material readily stays flat and flexible during curing and pyrolyzing to form thin sheets. Precursor materials include polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polymethylacrylonitrile (PMAN), resorcinol/formaldehyde, catechol/formaldehyde, phenol/formaldehyde, etc., or mixtures thereof. These thin films are ideal for use as high power and energy electrodes in batteries, capacitors, and fuel cells, and are potentially useful for capacitive deionization, filtration and catalysis.

  9. Low-fiber diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... residue; Low-fiber diet; Fiber restricted diet; Crohn disease - low fiber diet; Ulcerative colitis - low fiber diet; ... them if they do not contain seeds or pulp: Yellow squash (without seeds) Spinach Pumpkin Eggplant Potatoes, ...

  10. Implantable electrode for recording nerve signals in awake animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, I.; Yonezawa, Y.; Wilson, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    An implantable electrode assembly consisting of collagen and metallic electrodes was constructed to measure simultaneously neural signals from the intact nerve and bioelectrical noises in awake animals. Mechanical artifacts, due to bodily movement, were negligibly small. The impedance of the collagen electrodes, measured in awake cats 6-7 days after implantation surgery, ranged from 39.8-11.5 k ohms at a frequency range of 20-5 kHz. Aortic nerve activity and renal nerve activity, measured in awake conditions using the collagen electrode, showed grouped activity synchronous with the cardiac cycle. Results indicate that most of the renal nerve activity was from postganglionic sympathetic fibers and was inhibited by the baroceptor reflex in the same cardiac cycle.

  11. Electrode-electrolyte interface model of tripolar concentric ring electrode and electrode paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollaholhosseini, Seyed Hadi; Steele, Preston; Besio, Walter G

    2016-08-01

    Electrodes are used to transform ionic currents to electrical currents in biological systems. Modeling the electrode-electrolyte interface could help to optimize the performance of the electrode interface to achieve higher signal to noise ratios. There are previous reports of accurate models for single-element biomedical electrodes. In this paper we develop a model for the electrode-electrolyte interface for tripolar concentric ring electrodes (TCRE) that are used to record brain signals.

  12. Preparation of electrodes on cfrp composites with low contact resistance comprising laser-based surface pre-treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Almuhammadi, Khaled Hamdan; Lubineau, Gilles; Alfano, Marco Francesco; Buttner, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Various examples are provided related to the preparation of electrodes on carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites with low contact resistance. Laser-based surface preparation can be used for bonding to CFRP composites. In one example, a

  13. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  14. Hydrogen storage alloy electrode for nickel-hydrogen storage battery use; Nikkeru-suiso chikudenchiyo suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagase, H.; Tadokoro, M.

    1995-06-16

    In the conventional hydrogen storage alloy electrode, water soluble polymer is employed as for the binder. Employing the water soluble polymer as for the binder may cause the film formation on the surface of the hydrogen storage alloy to hinder the hydrogen absorption at the alloy surface, resulting in the decrease in activity of electrode and in the discharge characteristic at a low temperature. This invention proposes the addition of Vinylon fiber in the binder of the hydrogen storage alloy electrode made by kneading the hydrogen storage alloy and the binder. The Vinylon fiber improves the strength of the electrode, as it forms a network in the electrode. Furthermore, the point contact between the alloy and the Vinylon fiber in the electrode prevents the film formation which hinders the oxygen absorption and chemical reaction on the surface of the alloy. As for the binder, carboxymethyl cellulose is used. The preferable size of Vinylon fiber is fiber diameter of 0.1 - 0.5 denier and fiber length of 0.5 - 5.0 mm. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Application Specific Optical Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Bishnu P.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we have attempted to provide a unified summary description of the most important propagation characteristics of an optical fiber followed by discussion on several variety of special fibers for realizing fiber amplifiers, dispersion compensating fibers, microstructured optical fibers, and so on. Even though huge progress has been made on development of optical fibers for telecom application, a need for developing special fibers, not necessarily for telecom alone, has arisen. Th...

  16. Flexible fiber batteries for applications in smart textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim; Semenikhin, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate flexible fiber-based Al–NaOCl galvanic cells fabricated using fiber drawing process. Aluminum and copper wires are used as electrodes, and they are introduced into the fiber structure during drawing of the low-density polyethylene microstructured jacket. NaOCl solution is used as electrolyte, and it is introduced into the battery after the drawing process. The capacity of a 1 m long fiber battery is measured to be ∼10 mAh. We also detail assembly and optimization of the electrical circuitry in the energy-storing fiber battery textiles. Several examples of their applications are presented including lighting up an LED, driving a wireless mouse and actuating a screen with an integrated shape-memory nitinol wire. The principal advantages of the presented fiber batteries include: ease of fabrication, high flexibility, simple electrochemistry and use of widely available materials in the battery design. (paper)

  17. Electrodeposited manganese dioxide nanostructures on electro-etched carbon fibers: High performance materials for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazemi, Sayed Habib, E-mail: habibkazemi@iasbs.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center for Research in Climate Change and Global Warming (CRCC), Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maghami, Mostafa Ghaem [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kiani, Mohammad Ali [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Research Center of Iran, P.O. Box 14335-186, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We report a facile method for fabrication of MnO{sub 2} nanostructures on electro-etched carbon fiber. • MnO{sub 2}-ECF electrode shows outstanding supercapacitive behavior even at high discharge rates. • Exceptional cycle stability was achieved for MnO{sub 2}-ECF electrode. • The coulombic efficiency of MnO{sub 2}-ECF electrode is nearly 100%. - Abstract: In this article we introduce a facile, low cost and additive/template free method to fabricate high-rate electrochemical capacitors. Manganese oxide nanostructures were electrodeposited on electro-etched carbon fiber substrate by applying a constant anodic current. Nanostructured MnO{sub 2} on electro-etched carbon fiber was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The electrochemical behavior of MnO{sub 2} electro-etched carbon fiber electrode was investigated by electrochemical techniques including cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A maximum specific capacitance of 728.5 F g{sup −1} was achieved at a scan rate of 5 mV s{sup −1} for MnO{sub 2} electro-etched carbon fiber electrode. Also, this electrode showed exceptional cycle stability, suggesting that it can be considered as a good candidate for supercapacitor electrodes.

  18. Electrodeposited manganese dioxide nanostructures on electro-etched carbon fibers: High performance materials for supercapacitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazemi, Sayed Habib; Maghami, Mostafa Ghaem; Kiani, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We report a facile method for fabrication of MnO 2 nanostructures on electro-etched carbon fiber. • MnO 2 -ECF electrode shows outstanding supercapacitive behavior even at high discharge rates. • Exceptional cycle stability was achieved for MnO 2 -ECF electrode. • The coulombic efficiency of MnO 2 -ECF electrode is nearly 100%. - Abstract: In this article we introduce a facile, low cost and additive/template free method to fabricate high-rate electrochemical capacitors. Manganese oxide nanostructures were electrodeposited on electro-etched carbon fiber substrate by applying a constant anodic current. Nanostructured MnO 2 on electro-etched carbon fiber was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The electrochemical behavior of MnO 2 electro-etched carbon fiber electrode was investigated by electrochemical techniques including cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A maximum specific capacitance of 728.5 F g −1 was achieved at a scan rate of 5 mV s −1 for MnO 2 electro-etched carbon fiber electrode. Also, this electrode showed exceptional cycle stability, suggesting that it can be considered as a good candidate for supercapacitor electrodes

  19. Porous electrode preparation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1983-10-18

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity. 2 figs.

  20. Chronic in vivo stability assessment of carbon fiber microelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Paras R.; Zhang, Huanan; Robbins, Matthew T.; Nofar, Justin B.; Marshall, Shaun P.; Kobylarek, Michael J.; Kozai, Takashi D. Y.; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Chestek, Cynthia A.

    2016-12-01

    Objective. Individual carbon fiber microelectrodes can record unit activity in both acute and semi-chronic (∼1 month) implants. Additionally, new methods have been developed to insert a 16 channel array of carbon fiber microelectrodes. Before assessing the in vivo long-term viability of these arrays, accelerated soak tests were carried out to determine the most stable site coating material. Next, a multi-animal, multi-month, chronic implantation study was carried out with carbon fiber microelectrode arrays and silicon electrodes. Approach. Carbon fibers were first functionalized with one of two different formulations of PEDOT and subjected to accelerated aging in a heated water bath. After determining the best PEDOT formula to use, carbon fiber arrays were chronically implanted in rat motor cortex. Some rodents were also implanted with a single silicon electrode, while others received both. At the end of the study a subset of animals were perfused and the brain tissue sliced. Tissue sections were stained for astrocytes, microglia, and neurons. The local reactive responses were assessed using qualitative and quantitative methods. Main results. Electrophysiology recordings showed the carbon fibers detecting unit activity for at least 3 months with average amplitudes of ∼200 μV. Histology analysis showed the carbon fiber arrays with a minimal to non-existent glial scarring response with no adverse effects on neuronal density. Silicon electrodes showed large glial scarring that impacted neuronal counts. Significance. This study has validated the use of carbon fiber microelectrode arrays as a chronic neural recording technology. These electrodes have demonstrated the ability to detect single units with high amplitude over 3 months, and show the potential to record for even longer periods. In addition, the minimal reactive response should hold stable indefinitely, as any response by the immune system may reach a steady state after 12 weeks.

  1. Sandwich-type electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Tong P.; Garcia, Earl R.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is an improvement on a method of making an electrode wherein a suspension in a liquid is prepared of a powdered catalyst containing a noble metal, carbon powder and a binder, and the suspension is poured over a carbon substrate dried, compressed and sintered to form a solid catalyst layer bonded to the carbon substrate. The improvement is placing a carbon paper on the catalyst layer prior to compressing. The improved electrode can be used as either a cathode or an anode in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer in a process for producing hydrogen from water.

  2. Ion-selective electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhelson, Konstantin N. [St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). Ion-Selective Electrode Laboratory

    2013-06-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. Based on his profound experience as a researcher in ISEs and a course instructor, the author summarizes current knowledge for advanced teaching and training purposes with a particular focus on ionophore-based ISEs. Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. The principles of constructing ISEs are outlined, and the transfer of methods into routine analysis is considered.

  3. Single Electrode Heat Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Broers, G. H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The heat evolution at a single irreversibly working electrode is treated onthe basis of the Brønsted heat principle. The resulting equation is analogous to the expression for the total heat evolution in a galvanic cellwith the exception that –DeltaS is substituted by the Peltier entropy, Delta......SP, of theelectrode reaction. eta is the overvoltage at the electrode. This equation is appliedto a high temperature carbonate fuel cell. It is shown that the Peltier entropyterm by far exceeds the heat production due to the irreversible losses, and thatthe main part of heat evolved at the cathode is reabsorbed...

  4. Ion-selective electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhelson, Konstantin N

    2013-01-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. Based on his profound experience as a researcher in ISEs and a course instructor, the author summarizes current knowledge for advanced teaching and training purposes with a particular focus on ionophore-based ISEs. Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. The principles of constructing I

  5. Virtual electrodes for high-density electrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela, Carlos J.; Lazzi, Gianluca

    2015-10-13

    The present embodiments are directed to implantable electrode arrays having virtual electrodes. The virtual electrodes may improve the resolution of the implantable electrode array without the burden of corresponding complexity of electronic circuitry and wiring. In a particular embodiment, a virtual electrode may include one or more passive elements to help steer current to a specific location between the active electrodes. For example, a passive element may be a metalized layer on a substrate that is adjacent to, but not directly connected to an active electrode. In certain embodiments, an active electrode may be directly coupled to a power source via a conductive connection. Beneficially, the passive elements may help to increase the overall resolution of the implantable array by providing additional stimulation points without requiring additional wiring or driver circuitry for the passive elements.

  6. Laser-based surface preparation of composite laminates leads to improved electrodes for electrical measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Almuhammadi, Khaled; Selvakumaran, Lakshmi; Alfano, Marco; Yang, Yang; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Lubineau, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a low-cost, fast and effective structural health monitoring technique that can be used on carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP). Electrodes are a key component of any EIT system and as such they should feature low resistivity as well as high robustness and reproducibility. Surface preparation is required prior to bonding of electrodes. Currently this task is mostly carried out by traditional sanding. However this is a time consuming procedure which can also induce damage to surface fibers and lead to spurious electrode properties. Here we propose an alternative processing technique based on the use of pulsed laser irradiation. The processing parameters that result in selective removal of the electrically insulating resin with minimum surface fiber damage are identified. A quantitative analysis of the electrical contact resistance is presented and the results are compared with those obtained using sanding.

  7. Laser-based surface preparation of composite laminates leads to improved electrodes for electrical measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Almuhammadi, Khaled

    2015-10-19

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a low-cost, fast and effective structural health monitoring technique that can be used on carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP). Electrodes are a key component of any EIT system and as such they should feature low resistivity as well as high robustness and reproducibility. Surface preparation is required prior to bonding of electrodes. Currently this task is mostly carried out by traditional sanding. However this is a time consuming procedure which can also induce damage to surface fibers and lead to spurious electrode properties. Here we propose an alternative processing technique based on the use of pulsed laser irradiation. The processing parameters that result in selective removal of the electrically insulating resin with minimum surface fiber damage are identified. A quantitative analysis of the electrical contact resistance is presented and the results are compared with those obtained using sanding.

  8. A high-performance dual-scale porous electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. L.; Zeng, Y. K.; Zhu, X. B.; Wei, L.; Zhao, T. S.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present a simple and cost-effective method to form a dual-scale porous electrode by KOH activation of the fibers of carbon papers. The large pores (∼10 μm), formed between carbon fibers, serve as the macroscopic pathways for high electrolyte flow rates, while the small pores (∼5 nm), formed on carbon fiber surfaces, act as active sites for rapid electrochemical reactions. It is shown that the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area of the carbon paper is increased by a factor of 16 while maintaining the same hydraulic permeability as that of the original carbon paper electrode. We then apply the dual-scale electrode to a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) and demonstrate an energy efficiency ranging from 82% to 88% at current densities of 200-400 mA cm-2, which is record breaking as the highest performance of VRFB in the open literature.

  9. Flexible electrode belt for EIT using nanofiber web dry electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tong In; Kim, Tae Eui; Yoon, Sun; Kim, Kap Jin; Woo, Eung Je; Sadleir, Rosalind J

    2012-10-01

    Efficient connection of multiple electrodes to the body for impedance measurement and voltage monitoring applications is of critical importance to measurement quality and practicality. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) experiments have generally required a cumbersome procedure to attach the multiple electrodes needed in EIT. Once placed, these electrodes must then maintain good contact with the skin during measurements that may last several hours. There is usually also the need to manage the wires that run between the electrodes and the EIT system. These problems become more severe as the number of electrodes increases, and may limit the practicality and portability of this imaging method. There have been several trials describing human-electrode interfaces using configurations such as electrode belts, helmets or rings. In this paper, we describe an electrode belt we developed for long-term EIT monitoring of human lung ventilation. The belt included 16 embossed electrodes that were designed to make good contact with the skin. The electrodes were fabricated using an Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web and metallic threads. A large contact area and padding were used behind each electrode to improve subject comfort and reduce contact impedances. The electrodes were incorporated, equally spaced, into an elasticated fabric belt. We tested the electrode belt in conjunction with the KHU Mark1 multi-frequency EIT system, and demonstrate time-difference images of phantoms and human subjects during normal breathing and running. We found that the Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web electrodes were suitable for long-term measurement because of their flexibility and durability. Moreover, the contact impedance and stability of the Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web electrodes were found to be comparable to similarly tested Ag/AgCl electrodes.

  10. Helium Ion Microscopy of proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrode structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Chiriaev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of composite materials with microscopy techniques is an essential route to understanding their properties and degradation mechanisms, though the observation with a suitable type of microscopy is not always possible. In this work, we present proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrode interface structure dependence on ionomer content, systematically studied by Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM. A special focus was on acquiring high resolution images of the electrode structure and avoiding interface damage from irradiation and tedious sample preparation. HIM demonstrated its advantages in surface imaging, which is paramount in studies of the interface morphology of ionomer covered or absorbed catalyst structures in a combination with electrochemical characterization and accelerated stress test. The electrode porosity was found to depend on the ionomer content. The stressed electrodes demonstrated higher porosity in comparison to the unstressed ones on the condition of no external mechanical pressure. Moreover, formation of additional small grains was observed for the electrodes with the low ionomer content, indicating Pt redeposition through Ostwald ripening. Polymer nanofiber structures were found in the crack regions of the catalyst layer, which appear due to the internal stress originated from the solvent evaporation. These fibers have fairly uniform diameters of a few tens of nanometers, and their density increases with the increasing ionomer content in the electrodes. In the hot-pressed electrodes, we found more closed contact between the electrode components, reduced particle size, polymer coalescence and formation of nano-sized polymer fiber architecture between the particles.

  11. Protected electrodes for plasma panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    A metal oxide coating is applied between the conductive base and the magnesium oxide dielectric of the input and/or erase electrode(s) in a plasma display device to prevent break-down of the dielectric

  12. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1985-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 7 is a collection of papers that covers the applications of electrochemical sensors, along with the versatility of ion-selective electrodes. The coverage of the text includes solid contact in membrane ion-selective electrodes; immobilized enzyme probes for determining inhibitors; potentiometric titrations based on ion-pair formation; and application of ion-selective electrodes in soil science, kinetics, and kinetic analysis. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  13. Packaging of active fiber composites for improved sensor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnykowycz, M; Barbezat, M; Koller, R; Brunner, A J

    2010-01-01

    Active fiber composites (AFC) composed of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibers embedded in an epoxy matrix and sandwiched between two interdigitated electrodes provide a thin and flexible smart material device which can act as a sensor or actuator. The thin profiles of AFC make them ideal for integration in glass or carbon fiber composite laminates. However, due to the low tensile limit of the PZT fibers, AFC can fail at strains below the tensile limit of many composites. This makes their use as a component in an active laminate design somewhat undesirable. In the current work, tensile testing of smart laminates composed of AFC integrated in glass fiber laminates was conducted to assess the effectiveness of different packaging strategies for improving AFC sensor performance at high strains relative to the tensile limit of the AFC. AFC were encased in carbon fiber, silicon, and pre-stressed carbon fiber to improve the tensile limit of the AFC when integrated in glass fiber laminates. By laminating AFC with pre-stressed carbon fiber, the tensile limit and strain sensor ability of the AFC were significantly improved. Acoustic emission monitoring was used and the results show that PZT fiber breakage was reduced due to the pre-stressed packaging process

  14. Electrodes of carbonized MWCNT-cellulose paper for supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaogang; Cai, Manyuan; Chen, Long; Qiu, Zhiwen; Liu, Zhenghong

    2017-07-01

    A flexible composite paper of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and cellulose fiber (CF) were fabricated by traditional paper-making method. Then, the MWCNT/CF papers were carbonized at high temperature in vacuum to remove organic component. The carbonized MWCNT/CF (MWCNT/CCF) papers are consisted of MWCNT and carbon fiber. The papers were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and four-point probe resistance meter. The electrochemical performances of the supercapacitors were tested by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge >with 1 moL/L LiPF6 as electrolyte. The MWCNT/CCF electrode yielded a specific capacitance of 156F/g at a current density of 50 mA/g by galvanostatic charge/discharge measurement, which is 1.29 times higher than MWCNT/CF electrode of 68F/g. The MWCNT/CCF electrodes also displayed an excellent specific capacitance retention of 84% after 2000 continuous charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 400 mA/g. The increase of specific capacitance can be attributed to enhanced electrical conductivity of MWCNT/CCF papers and improved contact interface between electrolyte and electrodes.

  15. Fiber-shaped energy harvesting and storage devices

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Huisheng

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive book covers flexible fiber-shaped devices in the area of energy conversion and storage. The first part of the book introduces recently developed materials, particularly, various nanomaterials and composite materials based on nanostructured carbon such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, metals and polymers for the construction of fiber electrodes. The second part of the book focuses on two typical twisted and coaxial architectures of fiber-shaped devices for energy conversion and storage. The emphasis is placed on dye-sensitized solar cells, polymer solar cells, lithium-ion b

  16. Tunable Fiber Bragg Grating Ring Lasers using Macro Fiber Composite Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddis, Demetris L.; Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2006-01-01

    The research reported herein includes the fabrication of a tunable optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) fiber ring laser (FRL)1 from commercially available components as a high-speed alternative tunable laser source for NASA Langley s optical frequency domain reflectometer (OFDR) interrogator, which reads low reflectivity FBG sensors. A Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) actuator invented at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) was selected to tune the laser. MFC actuators use a piezoelectric sheet cut into uniaxially aligned rectangular piezo-fibers surrounded by a polymer matrix and incorporate interdigitated electrodes to deliver electric fields along the length of the piezo-fibers. This configuration enables MFC actuators to produce displacements larger than the original uncut piezoelectric sheet. The FBG filter was sandwiched between two MFC actuators, and when strained, produced approximately 3.62 nm of wavelength shift in the FRL when biasing the MFC actuators from 500 V to 2000 V. This tunability range is comparable to that of other tunable lasers and is adequate for interrogating FBG sensors using OFDR technology. Three different FRL configurations were studied. Configuration A examined the importance of erbium-doped fiber length and output coupling. Configuration B demonstrated the importance of the FBG filter. Configuration C added an output coupler to increase the output power and to isolate the filter. Only configuration C was tuned because it offered the best optical power output of the three configurations. Use of Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) FBG s holds promise for enhanced tunability in future research.

  17. Flexible all solid-state supercapacitors based on chemical vapor deposition derived graphene fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinming; Zhao, Tianshuo; Chen, Qiao; Li, Peixu; Wang, Kunlin; Zhong, Minlin; Wei, Jinquan; Wu, Dehai; Wei, Bingqing; Zhu, Hongwei

    2013-11-07

    Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors based on graphene fibers are demonstrated in this study. Surface-deposited oxide nanoparticles are used as pseudo-capacitor electrodes to achieve high capacitance. This supercapacitor electrode has an areal capacitance of 42 mF cm(-2), which is comparable to the capacitance for fiber-based supercapacitors reported to date. During the bending and cycling of the fiber-based supercapacitor, the stability could be maintained without sacrificing the electrochemical performance, which provides a novel and simple way to develop flexible, lightweight and efficient graphene-based devices.

  18. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1983-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 5 is a collection of articles that covers ion-speciation. The book aims to present the advancements of the range and capabilities of selective ion-sensors. The topics covered in the selection are neutral carrier based ion-selective electrodes; reference electrodes and liquid junction effects in ion-selective electrode potentiometry; ion transfer across water/organic phase boundaries and analytical; and carbon substrate ion-selective electrodes. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  19. Electrostatic Levitator Electrode Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Schematic of Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) electrodes and controls system. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  20. Fibered F-Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Kleyn, Aleks

    2007-01-01

    The concept of F-algebra and its representation can be extended to an arbitrary bundle. We define operations of fibered F-algebra in fiber. The paper presents the representation theory of of fibered F-algebra as well as a comparison of representation of F-algebra and of representation of fibered F-algebra.

  1. Photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  2. Photonic crystal fibers -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2002-01-01

    . Such micro-structured fibers are the ones most often trated in literature concerning micro-structured fibers. These micro-structured fibers offer a whole range of novel wave guiding characteristics, including the possibility of fibers that guide only one mode irrespective of the frequency of light...

  3. Flexible transparent electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Moorehead, David; Bratcher, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the properties of the EclipseTECTM transparent conductor. EclipseTECTM is a room temperature deposited nanostructured thin film coating system comprised of metal-oxide semiconductor elements. The system possesses metal-like conductivity and glass-like transparency in the visible region. These highly conductive TEC films exhibit high shielding efficiency (35dB at 1 to 100GHz). EclipseTECTM can be deposited on rigid or flexible substrates. For example, EclipseTECTM deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is extremely flexible that can be rolled around a 9mm diameter cylinder with little or no reduction in electrical conductivity and that can assume pre-extension states after an applied stress is relieved. The TEC is colorless and has been tailored to have high visible transmittance which matches the eye sensitivity curve and allows the viewing of true background colors through the coating. EclipseTECTM is flexible, durable and can be tailored at the interface for applications such as electron- or hole-injecting OLED electrodes as well as electrodes in flexible displays. Tunable work function and optical design flexibility also make EclipseTECTM well-suited as a candidate for grid electrode replacement in next-generation photovoltaic cells.

  4. Fiber optic connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajic, Slobodan; Muhs, Jeffrey D.

    1996-01-01

    A fiber optic connector and method for connecting composite materials within which optical fibers are imbedded. The fiber optic connector includes a capillary tube for receiving optical fibers at opposing ends. The method involves inserting a first optical fiber into the capillary tube and imbedding the unit in the end of a softened composite material. The capillary tube is injected with a coupling medium which subsequently solidifies. The composite material is machined to a desired configuration. An external optical fiber is then inserted into the capillary tube after fluidizing the coupling medium, whereby the optical fibers are coupled.

  5. Electrode structures of polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). An electron microscopy approach to the characterization of the electrode structure of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheiba, Frieder

    2009-01-28

    catalyst and catalyst support, but that it forms a complex structure consisting of fiber and film like structures in the pores of the electrode. In addition, the EF-TEM result delivered a strong indication for the infiltration of catalyst agglomerates by the polymer electrolyte. Furthermore, a new concept for the investigation of multi-component structures, consisting of the membrane, electrodes and gas di1usion layers (GDL) was developed. Thus it was possible to provide evidence for the intrusion of individual carbon fibers from the GDL into the electrode. In addition the influence of GDL structure on delamination of the electrode could be demonstrated. Another part of the work deals with the characterization of a novel platinum catalyst deposited on hydrous ruthenium oxide coated carbon nanotubes (CNT), which was developed in close cooperation with a Chinese partner at Tsinghua University (Beijing). (orig.)

  6. A highly permeable and enhanced surface area carbon-cloth electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. L.; Zhao, T. S.; Zeng, Y. K.; An, L.; Wei, L.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a high-performance porous electrode, made of KOH-activated carbon-cloth, is developed for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The macro-scale porous structure in the carbon cloth formed by weaving the carbon fibers in an ordered manner offers a low tortuosity (∼1.1) and a broad pore distribution from 5 μm to 100 μm, rendering the electrode a high hydraulic permeability and high effective ionic conductivity, which are beneficial for the electrolyte flow and ion transport through the porous electrode. The use of KOH activation method to create nano-scale pores on the carbon-fiber surfaces leads to a significant increase in the surface area for redox reactions from 2.39 m2 g-1 to 15.4 m2 g-1. The battery assembled with the present electrode delivers an energy efficiency of 80.1% and an electrolyte utilization of 74.6% at a current density of 400 mA cm-2, as opposed to an electrolyte utilization of 61.1% achieved by using a conventional carbon-paper electrode. Such a high performance is mainly attributed to the combination of the excellent mass/ion transport properties and the high surface area rendered by the present electrode. It is suggested that the KOH-activated carbon-cloth electrode is a promising candidate in redox flow batteries.

  7. Microfluidic Actuation of Carbon Nanotube Fibers for Neural Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercosa, Daniel G.

    Implantable devices to record and stimulate neural circuits have led to breakthroughs in neuroscience; however, technologies capable of electrical recording at the cellular level typically rely on rigid metals that poorly match the mechanical properties of soft brain tissue. As a result these electrodes often cause extensive acute and chronic injury, leading to short electrode lifetime. Recently, flexible electrodes such as Carbon Nanotube fibers (CNTf) have emerged as an attractive alternative to conventional electrodes and studies have shown that these flexible electrodes reduce neuro-inflammation and increase the quality and longevity of neural recordings. Insertion of these new compliant electrodes, however, remains challenge. The stiffening agents necessary to make the electrodes rigid enough to be inserted increases device footprint, which exacerbates brain damage during implantation. To overcome this challenge we have developed a novel technology to precisely implant and actuate high-performance, flexible carbon nanotube fiber (CNTf) microelectrodes without using a stiffening agents or shuttles. Instead, our technology uses drag forces within a microfluidic device to drive electrodes into tissue while minimizing the amount of fluid that is ejected into the tissue. In vitro experiments in brain phantoms, show that microfluidic actuated CNTf can be implanted at least 4.5 mm depth with 30 microm precision, while keeping the total volume of fluid ejected below 0.1 microL. As proof of concept, we inserted CNTfs in the small cnidarian Hydra littoralis and observed compound action potentials corresponding to contractions and in agreement with the literature. Additionally, brain slices extracted from transgenic mice were used to show that our device can be used to record spontaneous and light evoked activity from the cortex and deep brain regions such as the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN). Overall our microfluidic actuation technology provides a platform for

  8. Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per

    2004-01-01

    Despite the general recession in the global economy and the collapse of the optical telecommunication market, research within specialty fibers is thriving. This is, more than anything else, due to the technology transition from standard all-glass fibers to photonic crystal fibers, which, instead....... The freedom to design the dispersion profile of the fibers is much larger and it is possible to create fibers, which support only a single spatial mode, regardless of wavelength. In comparison, the standard dispersion-shifted fibers are limited by a much lower index-contrast between the core and the cladding...... in 1996, and are today on their way to become the dominating technology within the specialty fiber field. Whether they will replace the standard fiber in the more traditional areas like telecommunication transmission, is not yet clear, but the nonlinear photonic crystal fibers are here to stay....

  9. Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing

    CERN Document Server

    Yablon, Andrew D

    2005-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.

  10. Transparent Electrodes for Efficient Optoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Masis, Monica

    2017-03-30

    With the development of new generations of optoelectronic devices that combine high performance and novel functionalities (e.g., flexibility/bendability, adaptability, semi or full transparency), several classes of transparent electrodes have been developed in recent years. These range from optimized transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), which are historically the most commonly used transparent electrodes, to new electrodes made from nano- and 2D materials (e.g., metal nanowire networks and graphene), and to hybrid electrodes that integrate TCOs or dielectrics with nanowires, metal grids, or ultrathin metal films. Here, the most relevant transparent electrodes developed to date are introduced, their fundamental properties are described, and their materials are classified according to specific application requirements in high efficiency solar cells and flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This information serves as a guideline for selecting and developing appropriate transparent electrodes according to intended application requirements and functionality.

  11. Transparent Electrodes for Efficient Optoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Masis, Monica; De Wolf, Stefaan; Woods-Robinson, Rachel; Ager, Joel W.; Ballif, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    With the development of new generations of optoelectronic devices that combine high performance and novel functionalities (e.g., flexibility/bendability, adaptability, semi or full transparency), several classes of transparent electrodes have been developed in recent years. These range from optimized transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), which are historically the most commonly used transparent electrodes, to new electrodes made from nano- and 2D materials (e.g., metal nanowire networks and graphene), and to hybrid electrodes that integrate TCOs or dielectrics with nanowires, metal grids, or ultrathin metal films. Here, the most relevant transparent electrodes developed to date are introduced, their fundamental properties are described, and their materials are classified according to specific application requirements in high efficiency solar cells and flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This information serves as a guideline for selecting and developing appropriate transparent electrodes according to intended application requirements and functionality.

  12. Electrode for disintegrating metallic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persang, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    A graphite electrode is provided for disintegrating and removing metallic material from a workpiece, e.g., such as portions of a nuclear reactor to be repaired while in an underwater and/or radioactive environment. The electrode is provided with a plurality of openings extending outwardly, and a manifold for supplying a mixture of water and compressed gas to be discharged through the openings for sweeping away the disintegrated metallic material during use of the electrode

  13. Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2000-01-01

    Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...

  14. Electrochemical behavior of pitch-based activated carbon fibers for electrochemical capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hye-Min; Kwac, Lee-Ku; An, Kay-Hyeok; Park, Soo-Jin; Kim, Byung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors were developed using pitch-based activated carbon fibers with steam activation. • Activated carbon fibers showed enhanced specific surface area from 1520 to 3230 m 2 /g. • The increase in the specific capacitance of the samples was determined by charged pore structure during charging and discharging. - Abstract: In the present study, electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors were developed using pitch-based activated carbon fibers with steam activation. The surface and structural characteristics of activated carbon fibers were observed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. Pore characteristics were investigated using N 2 /77 K adsorption isotherms. The activated carbon fibers were applied as electrodes for electrical double-layer capacitors and analyzed in relation to the activation time. The specific surface area and total pore volume of the activated carbon fibers were determined to be 1520–3230 m 2 /g and 0.61–1.87 cm 3 /g, respectively. In addition, when the electrochemical characteristics were analyzed, the specific capacitance was confirmed to have increased from 1.1 F/g to 22.5 F/g. From these results, it is clear that the pore characteristics of pitch-based activated carbon fibers changed considerably in relation to steam activation and charge/discharge cycle; therefore, it was possible to improve the electrochemical characteristics of the activated carbon fibers.

  15. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1982-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 3, provides a review of articles on ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). The volume begins with an article on methods based on titration procedures for surfactant analysis, which have been developed for discrete batch operation and for continuous AutoAnalyser use. Separate chapters deal with detection limits of ion-selective electrodes; the possibility of using inorganic ion-exchange materials as ion-sensors; and the effect of solvent on potentials of cells with ion-selective electrodes. Also included is a chapter on advances in calibration procedures, the d

  16. Field testing of sulphide electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, P.R.; Gaonkar, K.B.; Gadiyar, H.S.

    1993-01-01

    Sulphide ion selective electrodes have been developed at BARC, for determination of Ag + and S - ions directly and Cl - and CN - ions indirectly. The electrodes were tested for their use in sulphide environments in the EAD (Effluent After Dilution) stream at the Heavy Water Plant, Kota. The electrodes are suitable in the concentration range of 16000 ppm to 0.002 ppm, with a slope of 29-31 mV per decade change in the sulphide ion concentration. The response time is less than 10 seconds. These electrodes are reliable for continuous on-line use for a long period. (author). 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  17. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian [Newton, MA; Chen, Jinghua [Chestnut Hill, MA; Huang, Zhongping [Belmont, MA; Wang, Dezhi [Wellesley, MA

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  18. Microbial electrode sensor for alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikuma, M [Ajinomoto Co., Inc., Kawasaki, Japan; Kubo, T; Yasuda, T; Karube, I; Suzuki, S

    1979-10-01

    A microbial electrode consisting of immobilized microorganisms, a gas permeable Teflon membrane, and an oxygen electrode was prepared for the continuous determination of methyl and ethyl alcohols. Immobilized Trichosporon brassicae was employed for a microbial electrode sensor for ethyl alcohol. When a sample solution containing ethyl alcohol was injected into a microbial electrode system, the current of the electrode decreased markedly with time until a steady state was reached. The response time was within 10 min by the steady state method and within 6 min by the pulse method. A linear relationship was observed between the current decrease and the concentration of ethyl alcohol below 22.5 mg/liter. The current was reproducible within +- 6% of the relative error when a sample solution containing 16.5 mg/liter ethyl alcohol. The standard deviation was 0.5 mg/liter in 40 experiments. The selectivity of the microbial electrode sensor for ethyl alcohol was satisfactory. The microbial electrode sensor was applied to a fermentation broth of yeasts and satisfactory comparative results were obtained (correlation coefficient 0.98). The current output of the microbial electrode sensor was almost constant for more than three weeks and 2100 assays. A microbial electrode sensor using immobilized bacteria for methyl alcohol was also described.

  19. Highly transparent, low-haze, hybrid cellulose nanopaper as electrodes for flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuezhu Xu; Jian Zhou; Long Jiang; Gilles Lubineau; Tienkhee Ng; Boon S. Ooi; Hsien-Yu Liao; Chao Shen; Long Chen; Junyong Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Paper is an excellent candidate to replace plastics as a substrate for flexible electronics due to its low cost, renewability and flexibility. Cellulose nanopaper (CNP), a new type of paper made of nanosized cellulose fibers, is a promising substrate material for transparent and flexible electrodes due to its potentially high transparency and high mechanical strength....

  20. Lithium alloy negative electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Robert A.

    The 1996 announcement by Fuji Photo Film of the development of lithium batteries containing convertible metal oxides has caused a great deal of renewed interest in lithium alloys as alternative materials for use in the negative electrode of rechargeable lithium cells. The earlier work on lithium alloys, both at elevated and ambient temperatures is briefly reviewed. Basic principles relating thermodynamics, phase diagrams and electrochemical properties under near-equilibrium conditions are discussed, with the Li-Sn system as an example. Second-phase nucleation, and its hindrance under dynamic conditions plays an important role in determining deviations from equilibrium behavior. Two general types of composite microstructure electrodes, those with a mixed-conducting matrix, and those with a solid electrolyte matrix, are discussed. The Li-Sn-Si system at elevated temperatures, and the Li-Sn-Cd at ambient temperatures are shown to be examples of mixed-conducting matrix microstructures. The convertible oxides are an example of the solid electrolyte matrix type. Although the reversible capacity can be very large in this case, the first cycle irreversible capacity required to convert the oxides to alloys may be a significant handicap.

  1. A diamond-based electrode for detection of neurochemicals in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E. Bennet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS, a surgical technique to treat certain neurologic and psychiatric conditions, relies on pre-determined stimulation parameters in an open-loop configuration. The major advancement in DBS devices is a closed-loop system that uses neurophysiologic feedback to dynamically adjust stimulation frequency and amplitude. Stimulation-driven neurochemical release can be measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV, but existing FSCV electrodes rely on carbon fiber, which degrades quickly during use and is therefore unsuitable for chronic neurochemical recording. To address this issue, we developed durable, synthetic boron-doped diamond-based electrodes capable of measuring neurochemical release in humans. Compared to carbon fiber electrodes, they were more than two orders-of-magnitude more physically-robust and demonstrated longevity in vitro without deterioration. Applied for the first time in humans, diamond electrode recordings from thalamic targets in patients (n=4 undergoing DBS for tremor produced signals consistent with adenosine release at a sensitivity comparable to carbon fiber electrodes.

  2. Gas sensor with multiple internal reference electrodes and sensing electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a potentiometric gas sensor, or potentiometric gas detection element, with multiple internal reference electrodes and multiple sensing electrodes for determining the concentrations of gas components in a gaseous mixture. The sensor for gas detection comprises: a solid...

  3. Anisotropic D-EAP Electrodes and their Application in Spring Roll Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaomeng

    Electroactive polymers (EAPs) exhibit shape change when subjected to an electric field. They are lightweight, soft, and inexpensive, while they are easy to process, shape, and tune to offer a broad range of mechanical and electrical properties. Dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP) constitute a class of EAPs with great potential. D-EAPs consist of physically or chemically cross-linked macromolecular networks and are mechanically isotopic. Therefore, in most actuator applications that require directional electromechanical response, it is necessary to use other complex means to direct the stress/strain in the preferred direction. In this work, a simple carbon nanotube (CNT) based electrode for D-EAP actuators is demonstrated that vastly improves directional strain response originating from the mechanical anisotropy of the electrode material. Using this novel approach, the mechanical anisotropy, defined as the ratio of initial modulus in fiber direction and that in cross-fiber direction, of the CNT electroded VHB actuators, ranges from 7.9 to 11.2. Hence, the CNT-VHB flat film actuators show high directed linear actuation strain in cross-fiber direction of greater than 25% meanwhile almost no strain in fiber direction at a relatively low electric field (120 V mum-1). The morphology of the CNT sheets has critical influence on their mechanical properties and resultant actuator performance. The results demonstrate the efficacy of microcombing and selective laser etching processes to improve the CNT fiber alignment to produce pure unidirectional strain of 33% at a relatively moderate electric field. Unidirectional D-EAP composite laminates using polyurethane and polyamide monofilaments are also employed in spring roll actuators to investigate their directional mechanical and electromechanical properties. While CNT electroded D-EAP spring roll actuators were found to have about the same performance as actuators with carbon grease electrodes (6.5% strain in CNT

  4. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  5. Steel fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, S.U.

    2005-01-01

    Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete is constructed by adding short fibers of small cross-sectional size .to the fresh concrete. These fibers reinforce the concrete in all directions, as they are randomly oriented. The improved mechanical properties of concrete include ductility, impact-resistance, compressive, tensile and flexural strength and abrasion-resistance. These uniqlte properties of the fiber- reinforcement can be exploited to great advantage in concrete structural members containing both conventional bar-reinforcement and steel fibers. The improvements in mechanical properties of cementitious materials resulting from steel-fiber reinforcement depend on the type, geometry, volume fraction and material-properties of fibers, the matrix mix proportions and the fiber-matrix interfacial bond characteristics. Effects of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete have been investigated in this paper through a comprehensive testing-programme, by varying the fiber volume fraction and the aspect-ratio (Lid) of fibers. Significant improvements are observed in compressive, tensile, flexural strength and impact-resistance of concrete, accompanied by marked improvement in ductility. optimum fiber-volume fraction and aspect-ratio of steel fibers is identified. Test results are analyzed in details and relevant conclusions drawn. The research is finally concluded with future research needs. (author)

  6. Catoptric electrodes: transparent metal electrodes using shaped surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, Pieter G

    2014-09-01

    An optical electrode design is presented that theoretically allows 100% optical transmission through an interdigitated metallic electrode at 50% metal areal coverage. This is achieved by redirection of light incident on embedded metal electrode lines to an angle beyond that required for total internal reflection. Full-field electromagnetic simulations using realistic material parameters demonstrate 84% frequency-averaged transmission for unpolarized illumination across the entire visible spectral range using a silver interdigitated electrode at 50% areal coverage. The redirection is achieved through specular reflection, making it nonresonant and arbitrarily broadband, provided the electrode width exceeds the optical wavelength. These findings could significantly improve the performance of photovoltaic devices and optical detectors that require high-conductivity top contacts.

  7. Fiber optics in adverse environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyous, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation effects in optical fibers are considered, taking into account recent progress in the investigation of radiation resistant optical fibers, radiation damage in optical fibers, radiation-induced transient absorption in optical fibers, X-ray-induced transient attenuation at low temperatures in polymer clad silica (PCS) fibers, optical fiber composition and radiation hardness, the response of irradiated optical waveguides at low temperatures, and the effect of ionizing radiation on fiber-optic waveguides. Other topics explored are related to environmental effects on components of fiber optic systems, and radiation detection systems using optical fibers. Fiber optic systems in adverse environments are also discussed, giving attention to the survivability of Army fiber optics systems, space application of fiber optics systems, fiber optic wavelength multiplexing for civil aviation applications, a new fiber optic data bus topology, fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control, and application of fiber optics in high voltage substations

  8. Spiral ganglion cell site of excitation I: comparison of scala tympani and intrameatal electrode responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartee, Lianne A; Miller, Charles A; van den Honert, Chris

    2006-05-01

    To determine the site of excitation on the spiral ganglion cell in response to electrical stimulation similar to that from a cochlear implant, single-fiber responses to electrical stimuli delivered by an electrode positioned in the scala tympani were compared to responses from stimuli delivered by an electrode placed in the internal auditory meatus. The response to intrameatal stimulation provided a control set of data with a known excitation site, the central axon of the spiral ganglion cell. For both intrameatal and scala tympani stimuli, the responses to single-pulse, summation, and refractory stimulus protocols were recorded. The data demonstrated that summation pulses, as opposed to single pulses, are likely to give the most insightful measures for determination of the site of excitation. Single-fiber summation data for both scala tympani and intrameatally stimulated fibers were analyzed with a clustering algorithm. Combining cluster analysis and additional numerical modeling data, it was hypothesized that the scala tympani responses corresponded to central excitation, peripheral excitation adjacent to the cell body, and peripheral excitation at a site distant from the cell body. Fibers stimulated by an intrameatal electrode demonstrated the greatest range of jitter measurements indicating that greater fiber independence may be achieved with intrameatal stimulation.

  9. Evaluation of the tripolar electrode stimulation method by numerical analysis and animal experiments for cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, S; Sakajiri, M; Ifukube, T; Matsushima, J

    1997-01-01

    We have proposed the Tripolar Electrode Stimulation Method (TESM) which may enable us to narrow the stimulation region and to move continuously the stimulation site for the cochlear implants. We evaluated whether or not TESM works according to a theory based on numerical analysis using the auditory nerve fiber model. In this simulation, the sum of the excited model fibers were compared with the compound actions potentials obtained from animal experiments. As a result, this experiment showed that TESM could narrow a stimulation region by controlling the sum of the currents emitted from the electrodes on both sides, and continuously move a stimulation site by changing the ratio of the currents emitted from the electrodes on both sides.

  10. Fiber Optics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various applications of fiber optics technology: information systems, industrial robots, medicine, television, transportation, and training. Types of jobs that will be available with fiber optics training (such as electricians and telephone cable installers and splicers) are examined. (CT)

  11. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  12. Shaped fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnan, Mark K.; Roach, Dennis P.

    2017-12-05

    A composite article is disclosed that has non-circular fibers embedded in a polymer matrix. The composite article has improved damage tolerance, toughness, bending, and impact resistance compared to composites having traditional round fibers.

  13. Advances in Fiber Lasers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morse, T

    1999-01-01

    Most of the time of this contract has been devoted toward improvements in optical fiber lasers and toward gathering experience to improve our program in high power, cladding pumped optical fiber lasers...

  14. Light addressable gold electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Waqas

    2011-07-01

    The main objective carried out in this dissertation was to fabricate Light Amplified Potentiometric sensors (LAPS) based upon the semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) instead of its bulk form. Quantum dots (QDs) were opted for this device fabrication because of their superior fluorescent, electric and catalytic properties. Also in comparison to their bulk counterparts they will make device small, light weighted and power consumption is much lower. QDs were immobilized on a Au substrate via 1,4 benzene dithiol (BDT) molecule. Initially a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of BDT was established on Au substrate. Because of SAM, the conductivity of Au substrate decreased dramatically. Furthermore QDs were anchored with the help of BDT molecule on Au substrate. When QDs immobilized on Au substrate (QD/Au) via BDT molecule were irradiated with UV-visible light, electron-hole pairs were generated in QDs. The surface defect states in QDs trapped the excited electrons and long lived electron-hole pairs were formed. By the application of an appropriate bias potential on Au substrate the electrons could be supplied or extracted from the QDs via tunneling through BDT. Thus a cathodic or anodic current could be observed depending upon bias potential under illumination. However without light illumination the QD/Au electrode remained an insulator. To improve the device different modifications were made, including different substrates (Au evaporated on glass, Au evaporated on mica sheets and Au sputtered on SiO{sub 2}/Si) and different dithiol molecules (capped and uncapped biphenyl 4,4' dithiol and capped and uncapped 4,4' dimercaptostilbenes) were tried. Also different QD immobilization techniques (normal incubation, spin coating, layer by layer assembly (LbL) of polyelectrolytes and heat immobilization) were employed. This device was able to detect electrochemically different analytes depending upon the QDs incorporated. For example CdS QDs were able to detect 4

  15. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    in the natural lotus and silver ragwort leaves. Figure 4. Examples of electrospun bio-mimics of natural hierarchical structures. (A) Lotus leaf...B) pillared poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) electrospun fiber mimic; (C) silver ragwort leaf; (D) electrospun fiber mimic made from nylon 6 and...domains containing the protein in the surrounding EVA fibers [115]. A wide variety of core-shell fibers have been generated, including PCL/ gelatin

  16. Superlattice Microstructured Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Ming-Leung Vincent; Liu, Zhengyong; Cho, Lok-Hin; Lu, Chao; Wai, Ping-Kong Alex; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2014-01-01

    A generic three-stage stack-and-draw method is demonstrated for the fabrication of complex-microstructured optical fibers. We report the fabrication and characterization of a silica superlattice microstructured fiber with more than 800 rhomboidally arranged air-holes. A polarization-maintaining fiber with a birefringence of 8.5 × 10−4 is demonstrated. The birefringent property of the fiber is found to be highly insensitive to external environmental effects, such as pressure. PMID:28788693

  17. EDM Electrode for Internal Grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, V.; Werner, A.

    1985-01-01

    Electroerosive process inexpensive alternative to broaching. Hollow brass electrodes, soldered at one end to stainless-steel holding ring, held in grooves in mandrel. These electrodes used to machine grooves electrically in stainless-steel tube three-eights inch (9.5 millimeters) in diameter. Tool used on tubes already in place in equipment.

  18. Making EDM Electrodes By Stereolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlas, Philip A.

    1988-01-01

    Stereolithography is computer-aided manufacturing technique. Used to make models and molds of electrodes for electrical-discharge machining (EDM). Eliminates intermediate steps in fabrication of plastic model of object used in making EDM electrode to manufacture object or mold for object.

  19. Surface-modified electrodes (SME)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, J.P.G.M.; Barendrecht, E.

    1984-01-01

    This review deals with the literature (covered up to August 1983), the characterization and the applications of Surface-Modified Electrodes (SME). As a special class of SME's, the Enzyme-Modified Electrode (EME) is introduced. Three types of modification procedures are distinguished; i.e. covalent

  20. Storage-battery electrodes. [preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-12-29

    Two incompatible thermoplastic resins are mixed with a powdered electrochemical active substance. The substance may be, for example, an oxide of cadmium, iron, lead, or zinc or nickel hydroxide. After the mixture is shaped into elements which are inserted into conducting sheaths for an electrode, the one resin is washed out to form a porous electrode. (RWR)

  1. Electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, Terje A.

    1984-01-01

    Improved electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

  2. Improved photovoltaic cells and electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1983-06-29

    Improved photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

  3. Multi electrode semiconductors detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Amendolia, S R; Bertolucci, Ennio; Bosisio, L; Bradaschia, C; Budinich, M; Fidecaro, F; Foà, L; Focardi, E; Giazotto, A; Giorgi, M A; Marrocchesi, P S; Menzione, A; Ristori, L; Rolandi, Luigi; Scribano, A; Stefanini, A; Vincelli, M L

    1981-01-01

    Detectors with very high space resolution have been built in this laboratory and tested at CERN in order to investigate their possible use in high energy physics experiments. These detectors consist of thin layers of silicon crystals acting as ionization chambers. Thin electrodes, structured in strips or in more fancy shapes are applied to their surfaces by metal coating. The space resolution which could be reached is of the order of a few microns. An interesting feature of these solid state detectors is that they can work under very high or low external pressure or at very low temperature. The use of these detectors would strongly reduce the dimensions and the cost of high energy experiments. (3 refs).

  4. Multi electrode semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Batignani, G.; Bertolucci, E.; Bosisio, L.; Budinich, M.; Bradaschia, C.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giazotto, A.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Rolandi, L.; Scribano, A.; Stefanini, A.; Vincelli, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Detectors with very high space resolution have been built in the laboratory and tested at CERN in order to investigate their possible use in high energy physics experiments. These detectors consist of thin layers of silicon crystals acting as ionization chambers. Thin electrodes, structured in strips or in more fancy shapes are applied to their surfaces by metal coating. The space resolution which could be reached is of the order of a few microns. An interesting feature of these solid state detectors is that they can work under very high or low external pressure or at very low temperature. The use of these detectors would strongly reduce the dimensions and the cost of high energy experiments. (Auth.)

  5. Adsorption at electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, A.T.; Ping Gao

    1991-01-01

    Surface electrochemical studies are described and summarized in which atomic, ionic or molecular layers were allowed to form from aqueous solutions at well-defined Pt(111) surfaces. The resulting adsorbed layers were chemisorbed in most cases and stable in vacuum, permitting identification and quantitation by Auger spectroscopy, EELS, LEED and electrochemistry. Adsorbed atomic, ionic, or molecular layers formed at metal-solution interfaces frequently display long-range order. Molecular properties of the adsorbed layers correlate with their electrochemical properties. The molecular orientation of organic adsorbates was deduced from packing density measurements, supplemented with vibrational spectra. Interfacial variables such as electrode potential have a strong influence on interfacial structure along with the nature and mode of surface attachment of adsorbates. The angular distribution of Auger electron emission from metal single crystals and atomic adsorbed layers has proved to be useful for direct imaging of surface crystal and interfacial structure. (author). 14 refs, 11 figs

  6. Gel electrolytes and electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Sven; Bunte, Christine; Mikhaylik, Yuriy V.; Viner, Veronika G.

    2017-09-05

    Gel electrolytes, especially gel electrolytes for electrochemical cells, are generally described. In some embodiments, the gel electrolyte layers comprise components a) to c). Component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer comprising polymerized units of: a1) at least one monomer containing an ethylenically unsaturated unit and an amido group and a2) at least one crosslinker. Component b) may be at least one conducting salt and component c) may be at least one solvent. Electrodes may comprise the components a), d) and e), wherein component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein. Component d) may be at least one electroactive layer and component e) may be at least one ceramic layer. Furthermore, electrochemical cells comprising component a) which may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein, are also provided.

  7. Numerical Characterization of Intraoperative and Chronic Electrodes in Deep Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra ePaffi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative electrode is used in the Deep Brain stimulation (DBS technique to pinpoint the brain target and to choose the best parameters for the stimulating signal. However, when the intraoperative electrode is replaced with the chronic one, the observed effects do not always coincide with predictions.To investigate the causes of such discrepancies, in this work, a 3D model of the basal ganglia has been considered and realistic models of both intraoperative and chronic electrodes have been developed and numerically solved.Results of simulations on the electric potential and the activating function along neuronal fibers show that the different geometries and sizes of the two electrodes do not change shapes and polarities of these functions, but only the amplitudes. A similar effect is caused by the presence of different tissue layers (edema or glial tissue in the peri-electrode space. On the contrary, a not accurate positioning of the chronic electrode with respect to the intraoperative one (electric centers not coincident may induce a complete different electric stimulation on some groups of fibers.

  8. High-fiber foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000193.htm High-fiber foods To use the sharing features on this page, ... Read food labels carefully to see how much fiber they have. Choose foods that have higher amounts of fiber, such as ...

  9. Resonant filtered fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present our recent result on utilizing resonant/bandgap fiber designs to achieve high performance ytterbium doped fiber amplifers for achieving diffraction limited beam quality in large mode area fibers, robust bending performance and gain shaping for long wavelength operation...

  10. Fiber Singular Optics

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Volyar

    2002-01-01

    The present review is devoted to the optical vortex behavior both in free space and optical fibers. The processes of the vortex transformations in perturbed optical fibers are analyzed on the base of the operator of the spin – orbit interaction in order to forecast the possible ways of manufacturing the vortex preserving fibers and their applications in supersensitive optical devices.

  11. Vanadium oxide nanowire-carbon nanotube binder-free flexible electrodes for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, Sanjaya D.; Patel, Bijal; Seitz, Oliver; Ferraris, John P.; Balkus, Kenneth J. Jr. [Department of Chemistry and the Alan G. MacDiarmid Nanotech Institute, 800 West Campbell Rd, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Nijem, Nour; Roodenko, Katy; Chabal, Yves J. [Laboratory for Surface and Nanostructure Modification, Department of Material Science and Engineering, 800 West Campbell Rd, University of Texas Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) layered nanostructures are known to have very stable crystal structures and high faradaic activity. The low electronic conductivity of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} greatly limits the application of vanadium oxide as electrode materials and requires combining with conducting materials using binders. It is well known that the organic binders can degrade the overall performance of electrode materials and need carefully controlled compositions. In this study, we develop a simple method for preparing freestanding carbon nanotube (CNT)-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanowire (VNW) composite paper electrodes without using binders. Coin cell type (CR2032) supercapacitors are assembled using the nanocomposite paper electrode as the anode and high surface area carbon fiber electrode (Spectracarb 2225) as the cathode. The supercapacitor with CNT-VNW composite paper electrode exhibits a power density of 5.26 kW Kg{sup -1} and an energy density of 46.3 Wh Kg{sup -1}. (Li)VNWs and CNT composite paper electrodes can be fabricated in similar manner and show improved overall performance with a power density of 8.32 kW Kg{sup -1} and an energy density of 65.9 Wh Kg{sup -1}. The power and energy density values suggest that such flexible hybrid nanocomposite paper electrodes may be useful for high performance electrochemical supercapacitors. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Electrode for a lithium cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M [Naperville, IL; Vaughey, John T [Elmhurst, IL; Dees, Dennis W [Downers Grove, IL

    2008-10-14

    This invention relates to a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell or battery, and to an electrochemical cell or battery; the invention relates more specifically to a positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell or battery when the electrode is used therein. The positive electrode includes a composite metal oxide containing AgV.sub.3O.sub.8 as one component and one or more other components consisting of LiV.sub.3O.sub.8, Ag.sub.2V.sub.4O.sub.11, MnO.sub.2, CF.sub.x, AgF or Ag.sub.2O to increase the energy density of the cell, optionally in the presence of silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrode and to improve the power capability of the cell or battery.

  13. Bismuth oxide nanotubes-graphene fiber-based flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalsamy, Karthikeyan; Xu, Zhen; Zheng, Bingna; Huang, Tieqi; Kou, Liang; Zhao, Xiaoli; Gao, Chao

    2014-07-01

    Graphene-bismuth oxide nanotube fiber as electrode material for constituting flexible supercapacitors using a PVA/H3PO4 gel electrolyte is reported with a high specific capacitance (Ca) of 69.3 mF cm-2 (for a single electrode) and 17.3 mF cm-2 (for the whole device) at 0.1 mA cm-2, respectively. Our approach opens the door to metal oxide-graphene hybrid fibers and high-performance flexible electronics.Graphene-bismuth oxide nanotube fiber as electrode material for constituting flexible supercapacitors using a PVA/H3PO4 gel electrolyte is reported with a high specific capacitance (Ca) of 69.3 mF cm-2 (for a single electrode) and 17.3 mF cm-2 (for the whole device) at 0.1 mA cm-2, respectively. Our approach opens the door to metal oxide-graphene hybrid fibers and high-performance flexible electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Equations and characterization. SEM images of GGO, XRD and XPS of Bi2O3 NTs, HRTEM images and EDX Spectra of Bi2O3 NT5-GF, CV curves of Bi2O3NT5-GF, Bi2O3 NTs and bismuth nitrate in three-electrode system (vs. Ag/AgCl). CV and GCD curves of Bi2O3 NT1-GF and Bi2O3 NT3-GF. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02615b

  14. Integration of Microchip Electrophoresis with Electrochemical Detection Using an Epoxy-Based Molding Method to Embed Multiple Electrode Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alicia S.; Selimovic, Asmira; Martin, R. Scott

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the use of epoxy-encapsulated electrodes to integrate microchip-based electrophoresis with electrochemical detection. Devices with various electrode combinations can easily be developed. This includes a palladium decoupler with a downstream working electrode material of either gold, mercury/gold, platinum, glassy carbon, or a carbon fiber bundle. Additional device components such as the platinum wires for the electrophoresis separation and the counter electrode for detection can also be integrated into the epoxy base. The effect of the decoupler configuration was studied in terms of the separation performance, detector noise, and the ability to analyze samples of a high ionic strength. The ability of both glassy carbon and carbon fiber bundle electrodes to analyze a complex mixture was demonstrated. It was also shown that a PDMS-based valving microchip can be used along with the epoxy embedded electrodes to integrate microdialysis sampling with microchip electrophoresis and electrochemical detection, with the microdialysis tubing also being embedded in the epoxy substrate. This approach enables one to vary the detection electrode material as desired in a manner where the electrodes can be polished and modified in a similar fashion to electrochemical flow cells used in liquid chromatography. PMID:22038707

  15. Graphene-based fibers for supercapacitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lianlian; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Nan; Qu, Liangti; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Energy conversion and storage devices play an important role in industry and society with the rapid growth of energy consumption. Supercapacitors are very attractive due to their superior power density, fast charge/discharge rates and long cycle lifetime. Graphene fiber (GF), a fascinating material, has drawn considerable attention and shown great potential as an active material in the field of supercapacitors owing to its unique and tunable nanostructure, high electrical conductivity, excellent mechanical flexibility, light weight, and ease of functionalization. This review focuses on the recent significant advances in the fabrication and application of graphene-based fiber as electrode material in supercapacitors. The synthetic strategies and application in the supercapacitor are presented, accompanied with the summary and outlook for the future development of GFs. (topical review)

  16. Superconducting tin core fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  17. Airclad fiber laser technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes

    2011-01-01

    High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last 5 years. Many of the traditional manufacturers of gas and solid-state lasers are now pursuing the fiber-based systems, which are displacing the conventional technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser systems...... require reliable fibers with large cores, stable mode quality, and good power handling capabilities-requirements that are all met by the airclad fiber technology. In the present paper we go through many of the building blocks needed to build high-power systems and we show an example of a complete airclad...... laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 100 m single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to megawatt power levels. Furthermore, we describe the novel airclad-based pump combiners and their use in a completely...

  18. Airclad fiber laser technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes

    2008-01-01

    High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last five years, and many of the traditional manufactures of gas and solid-state lasers are pursuing the attractive fiber-based systems, which are now displacing the old technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser...... systems require specially designed fibers with large cores and good power handling capabilities - requirements that are all met by the airclad fiber technology. In the present paper we go through many of the building blocks needed to build high-power systems and we show an example of a complete airclad...... laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 70 μm single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to MW power levels. Furthermore we describe the novel airclad based pump combiners and their use in a completely monolithic 350...

  19. Flexible all-fiber electrospun supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinhua; Naylor Marlow, Max; Cooper, Samuel J.; Song, Bowen; Chen, Xiaolong; Brandon, Nigel P.; Wu, Billy

    2018-04-01

    We present an all-fiber flexible supercapacitor with composite nanofiber electrodes made via electrospinning and an electrospun separator. With the addition of manganese acetylacetonate (MnACAC) to polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a precursor for the electrospinning process and subsequent heat treatment, the performance of pure PAN supercapacitors was improved from 90 F g-1 to 200 F g-1 (2.5 mV s-1) with possible mass loadings of MnACAC demonstrated as high as 40 wt%. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that after thermal treatment, the MnACAC was converted to MnO, meanwile, the thermal decomposition of MnACAC increased the graphitic degree of the carbonised PAN. Scanning electron microscopy and image processing showed that static electrospinning of pure PAN and PAN-Mn resulted in fiber diameters of 460 nm and 480 nm respectively after carbonisation. Further analysis showed that the fiber orientation exhibited a slight bias which was amplified with the addition of MnACAC. Use of focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy tomography also showed that MnO particles were evenly distributed through the fiber at low MnACAC concentrations, while at a 40 wt% loading the MnO particles were also visible on the surface. Comparison of the electrospun separators showed improved performance relative to a commercial Celgard separator (200 F g-1 vs 141 F g-1).

  20. Method for imparting improved surface properties to carbon fibers and composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, S.; Kamata, H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention provides a means for solving the problem of poor affinity between the surface of carbon fibers and a synthetic resin in a resin-based composite material reinforced with the carbon fibers. The method comprises subjecting the surface of the carbon fibers in advance to exposure to low temperature plasma in a low pressure atomosphere of an inorganic gas generated by applying an electric voltage between electrodes. It was unexpectedly discovered that the discharge voltage between the electrodes is very critical and satisfactory results can be obtained when the peak-to-peak value of the discharge voltage between electrodes is 4000 volts or higher. The composition of the atmospheric inorganic gas is also important and the gas is preferably oxygen gas or a gaseous mixture containing at least 10% by volume of oxygen

  1. Implantable optical-electrode device for stimulation of spinal motoneurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, M V; Erofeev, A I; Zakharova, O A; Vlasova, O L; Pyatyshev, E N; Kazakin, A N

    2016-01-01

    Recent years, optogenetic method of scientific research has proved its effectiveness in the nerve cell stimulation tasks. In our article we demonstrate an implanted device for the spinal optogenetic motoneurons activation. This work is carried out in the Laboratory of Molecular Neurodegeneration of the Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, together with Nano and Microsystem Technology Laboratory. The work of the developed device is based on the principle of combining fiber optic light stimulation of genetically modified cells with the microelectrode multichannel recording of neurons biopotentials. The paper presents a part of the electrode implant manufacturing technique, combined with the optical waveguide of ThorLabs (USA). (paper)

  2. ELECTROD FLUOR-SELECTIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DÎRU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A fost preparat un senzor anionic specific, bazat pe pivalatul trinuclear al cromului(III ca material electro­activ încorporat în membrana PVC plastifiată. Senzorul prezintă răspuns Nernstian (55,78 mV/decadă în intervalul de concentrație 10-1-10-4 mol/L cu limita de detecție 2,0∙10-5 mol/L pentru anionul fluorură. Domeniul optim de pH de funcţionare a electrodului asamblat este ˃5. Senzorul dat are un timp de răspuns de 30-60 s și reproductibilitatea rezultatelor se menține timp de 3 luni. Coeficienții potențiometrici ai selectivității au fost determinați prin metoda soluțiilor separate. A fost realizată aplicarea acestor electrozi la analiza pastei de dinți ce conține fluorură și rezultatele experimentale au fost comparate cu datele de pe prospect.FLUORIDE-SELECTIVE ELECTRODEA specific anionic sensor has been prepared, based on trinuclearchromium(III pivalate as sensing material incorpo­rated into the plasticized PVC-membrane. The sensor exhibited Nernstian response (55,78 mV/decade in the region between 10-1-10-4 mol/L with a detection limit of 2,0∙10-5 mol/L for fluoride. The working pH of the electrode was in the 5-6 range. The sensor has a response time 30-60 s and can be used for least 3 month. The potentiometric selectivity coefficients were determined by separate solution method. Application of these electrodes to the analysis of toothpaste containing fluoride has been realized and experimental results have been compared with the data on the prospectus.

  3. Capacitance enhancement via electrode patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Tuan A.; Striolo, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The necessity of increasing the energy density in electric double layer capacitors to meet current demand is fueling fundamental and applied research alike. We report here molecular dynamics simulation results for aqueous electrolytes near model electrodes. Particular focus is on the effect of electrode patterning on the structure of interfacial electrolytes, and on the potential drop between the solid electrodes and the bulk electrolytes. The latter is estimated by numerically integrating the Poisson equation using the charge densities due to water and ions accumulated near the interface as input. We considered uniform and patterned electrodes, both positively and negatively charged. The uniformly charged electrodes are modeled as graphite. The patterned ones are obtained by removing carbon atoms from the top-most graphene layer, yielding nanoscopic squares and stripes patterns. For simplicity, the patterned electrodes are effectively simulated as insulators (the charge remains localized on the top-most layer of carbon atoms). Our simulations show that the patterns alter the structure of water and the accumulation of ions at the liquid-solid interfaces. Using aqueous NaCl solutions, we found that while the capacitance calculated for three positively charged electrodes did not change much, that calculated for the negatively charged electrodes significantly increased upon patterning. We find that both water structure and orientation, as well as ion accumulation affect the capacitance. As electrode patterning affects differently water structure and ion accumulation, it might be possible to observe ion-specific effects. These results could be useful for advancing our understanding of electric double layer capacitors, capacitive desalination processes, as well as of fundamental interfacial electrolytes properties

  4. Studies of pyrrole black electrodes as possible battery positive electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengoli, G.; Musiani, M.M.; Fleischmann, M.; Pletcher, D.

    1984-05-01

    It is shown that a polypyrrole, pyrrole black, may be formed anodically in several aqueous acids. The polypyrrole film shows a redox couple at less positive potentials than that required to form the film and the charge associated with these reduction and oxidation processes together with their stabilty to cycling varies with the anion in solution and the potential where the polypyrrole is formed; over-oxidation of the film caused by taking its potential too positive has a particularly disadvantageous affect. In the acids HBr and HI, the polypyrrole films can act as a storage medium for Br/sub 2/ or I/sub 2/ so that they may be used as a substrate for a X/sub 2//X/sup -/ electrode. Such electrodes may be charge/discharge cycled and the pyrrole/Br/sub 2/ electrode shows promise as a battery positive electrode.

  5. The applications of carbon nanomaterials in fiber-shaped energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingxia; Hong, Yang; Wang, Bingjie

    2018-01-01

    As a promising candidate for future demand, fiber-shaped electrochemical energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries have obtained considerable attention from academy to industry. Carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotube and graphene, have been widely investigated as electrode materials due to their merits of light weight, flexibility and high capacitance. In this review, recent progress of carbon nanomaterials in flexible fiber-shaped energy storage devices has been summarized in accordance with the development of fibrous electrodes, including the diversified electrode preparation, functional and intelligent device structure, and large-scale production of fibrous electrodes or devices. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21634003, 21604012).

  6. Selective detection and recovery of gold at tannin-immobilized non-conducting electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banu, Khaleda, E-mail: kbanu@ucla.edu [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Venture Business Laboratory, Center for Advanced Science and Innovation, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shimura, Takayoshi [Venture Business Laboratory, Center for Advanced Science and Innovation, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Sadeghi, Saman, E-mail: samsadeghi@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Selective detection of gold at non-conducting (NC) polymer modified electrode. • Mimosa tannin oxidized on glassy carbon electrode surface as NC polymeric film. • Permselective diffusion and mediated electron transfer at NC electrode surface. • Chemical recovery of gold is due to the reducing ability of the NC polymeric film. • Adsorption capacity of Au(III) on carbon fiber was 29 ± 1.45 mg g{sup −1} at 60 °C. - Abstract: A tannin-immobilized glassy carbon electrode (TIGC) was prepared via electrochemical oxidation of the naturally occurring polyphenolic mimosa tannin, which generated a non-conducting polymeric film (NCPF) on the electrode surface. The fouling of the electrode surface by the electropolymerized film was evaluated by monitoring the electrode response of ferricyanide ions as a redox marker. The NCPF was permselective to HAuCl{sub 4}, and the electrochemical reduction of HAuCl{sub 4} to metallic gold at the TIGC electrode was evaluated by recording the reduction current during cyclic voltammetry measurement. In the mixed electrolyte containing HAuCl{sub 4} along with FeCl{sub 3} and/or CuCl{sub 2}, the NCPF remained selective toward the electrochemical reduction of HAuCl{sub 4} into the metallic state. The chemical reduction of HAuCl{sub 4} into metallic gold was also observed when the NCPF was inserted into an acidic gold solution overnight. The adsorption capacity of Au(III) on tannin-immobilized carbon fiber was 29 ± 1.45 mg g{sup −1} at 60 °C. In the presence of excess Cu(II) and Fe(III), tannin-immobilized NCPF proved to be an excellent candidate for the selective detection and recovery of gold through both electrochemical and chemical processes.

  7. Selective detection and recovery of gold at tannin-immobilized non-conducting electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banu, Khaleda; Shimura, Takayoshi; Sadeghi, Saman

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Selective detection of gold at non-conducting (NC) polymer modified electrode. • Mimosa tannin oxidized on glassy carbon electrode surface as NC polymeric film. • Permselective diffusion and mediated electron transfer at NC electrode surface. • Chemical recovery of gold is due to the reducing ability of the NC polymeric film. • Adsorption capacity of Au(III) on carbon fiber was 29 ± 1.45 mg g −1 at 60 °C. - Abstract: A tannin-immobilized glassy carbon electrode (TIGC) was prepared via electrochemical oxidation of the naturally occurring polyphenolic mimosa tannin, which generated a non-conducting polymeric film (NCPF) on the electrode surface. The fouling of the electrode surface by the electropolymerized film was evaluated by monitoring the electrode response of ferricyanide ions as a redox marker. The NCPF was permselective to HAuCl 4 , and the electrochemical reduction of HAuCl 4 to metallic gold at the TIGC electrode was evaluated by recording the reduction current during cyclic voltammetry measurement. In the mixed electrolyte containing HAuCl 4 along with FeCl 3 and/or CuCl 2 , the NCPF remained selective toward the electrochemical reduction of HAuCl 4 into the metallic state. The chemical reduction of HAuCl 4 into metallic gold was also observed when the NCPF was inserted into an acidic gold solution overnight. The adsorption capacity of Au(III) on tannin-immobilized carbon fiber was 29 ± 1.45 mg g −1 at 60 °C. In the presence of excess Cu(II) and Fe(III), tannin-immobilized NCPF proved to be an excellent candidate for the selective detection and recovery of gold through both electrochemical and chemical processes

  8. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

  9. Electrode materials for rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouimrane, Ali; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-14

    Selenium or selenium-containing compounds may be used as electroactive materials in electrodes or electrochemical devices. The selenium or selenium-containing compound is mixed with a carbon material.

  10. Composite Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jun; Yang, QuanMin; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Manganese dioxide nanofibers with length ranged from 0.1 to 1 μm and a diameter of about 4–6 nm were prepared by a chemical precipitation method. Composite electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors were fabricated by impregnation of the manganese dioxide nanofibers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) into porous Ni plaque current collectors. Obtained composite electrodes, containing 85% of manganese dioxide and 15 mass% of MWCNT, as a conductive additive, with to...

  11. Highly-wrinkled reduced graphene oxide-conductive polymer fibers for flexible fiber-shaped and interdigital-designed supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Cheng, Jianli; Wang, Zhuanpei; Li, Yinchuan; Ni, Wei; Wang, Bin

    2018-02-01

    Flexible supercapacitors have attracted great interest due to outstanding flexibility and light weight. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) fibers have the great potential in using as electrodes for flexible supercapacitors due to the good flexibility. However, the reported conductivity and specific capacitance of these PEDOT: PSS fibers are not very high, which limit their electrochemical performances. In this work, composite fibers of reduced graphene oxide(rGO)-PEDOT: PSS with a highly-wrinkled structure on the surface and pores inside are prepared by wet spinning. The fibers with different ratios of graphene to PEDOT:PSS show a distinctly enhanced conductivity up to ca. 590 S·cm-1 and high strength up to ca. 18.4 MPa. Meanwhile, the composite fibers show an improved electrochemical performances, including a high specific areal capacitance of 131 mF cm-2 and high specific areal energy density of 4.55 μWh·cm-2. The flexible supercapacitors including fiber-shaped supercapacitors and interdigital designed supercapacitors not only could work in different bending states without obvious capacitance decay, but also have small leakage current. The interdigital design can further improve the performances of composite fibers with high capacitance and high utilization compared with traditional parallel connected structure.

  12. Boundary element analysis of the directional sensitivity of the concentric EMG electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, K A; Plonsey, R

    1993-07-01

    Assessment of the motor unit architecture based on concentric electrode motor unit potentials requires a thorough understanding of the recording characteristics of the concentric EMG electrode. Previous simulation studies have attempted to include the effect of EMG electrodes on the recorded waveforms by uniformly averaging the tissue potential at the coordinates of one- or two-dimensional electrode models. By employing the boundary element method, this paper improves earlier models of the concentric EMG electrode by including an accurate geometric representation of the electrode, as well as the mutual electrical influence between the electrode surfaces. A three-dimensional sensitivity function is defined from which information about the preferential direction of sensitivity, blind spots, phase changes, rate of attenuation, and range of pick-up radius can be derived. The study focuses on the intrinsic features linked to the geometry of the electrode. The results show that the cannula perturbs the potential distribution significantly. The core and the cannula electrodes measure potentials of the same order of magnitude in all of the pick-up range, except adjacent to the central wire, where the latter dominates the sensitivity function. The preferential directions of sensitivity are determined by the amount of geometric offset between the individual sensitivity functions of the core and the cannula. The sensitivity function also reveals a complicated pattern of phase changes in the pick-up range. Potentials from fibers located behind the tip or along the cannula are recorded with reversed polarity compared to those located in front of the tip. Rotation of the electrode about its axis was found to alter the duration, the peak-to-peak amplitude, and the rise time of waveforms recorded from a moving dipole.

  13. Amodiaquine polymeric membrane electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malongo, T Kimbeni; Blankert, B; Kambu, O; Amighi, K; Nsangu, J; Kauffmann, J-M

    2006-04-11

    The construction and electrochemical response characteristics of two types of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane sensors for the determination of amodiaquine hydrochloride (ADQ.2HCl) are described. The sensing membrane comprised an ion-pair formed between the cationic drug and sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB) or potassium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl) borate (KTCPB) in a plasticized PVC matrix. Eight PVC membrane ion-selective electrodes were fabricated and studied. Several plasticizers were studied namely, dioctyl phthalate (DOP), 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), dioctyl phenylphosphonate (DOPP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (EHA). The sensors display a fast, stable and near-Nernstian response over a relative wide ADQ concentration range (3.2 x 10(-6) to 2.0 x 10(-2) M), with slopes comprised between 28.5 and 31.4 mV dec(-1) in a pH range comprised between pH 3.7 and 5.5. The assay of amodiaquine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage forms using one of the proposed sensors gave average recoveries of 104.3 and 99.9 with R.S.D. of 0.3 and 0.6% for tablets (Malaritab) and a reconstituted powder containing ADQ.2HCl, respectively. The sensor was also used for dissolution profile studies of two drug formulations. The sensor proved to have a good selectivity for ADQ.2HCl over some inorganic and organic compounds, however, berberine chloride interfered significantly. The results were validated by comparison with a spectrophotometric assay according to the USP pharmacopoeia.

  14. Utility of a tripolar stimulating electrode for eliciting dopamine release in the rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, B P; Garris, P A

    1999-03-01

    The present study evaluated tripolar stimulating electrodes for eliciting dopamine release in the rat brain in vivo. Stimulating electrodes were placed either in the medial forebrain bundle or in the ventral mesencephalon associated with the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra. The concentration of extracellular dopamine was monitored in dopamine terminal fields at 100-ms intervals using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes. To characterize the stimulated area, recordings were collected in several striatal regions including the caudate putamen and the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens. The tripolar electrode was equally effective in stimulating dopamine release in medial and lateral regions of the striatum. In contrast, responses evoked by a bipolar electrode were typically greater in one mediolateral edge versus the other. The added size of the tripolar electrode did not appear to cause complications as signals were stable over the course of the experiment (3 h). Subsets of mesostriatal dopamine neurons could also be selectively activated using the tripolar electrode in excellent agreement with previously described topography. Taken together, these results suggested that the tripolar stimulating electrode is well suited for studying the regulation of midbrain dopamine neurons in vivo.

  15. Tungsten oxide@polypyrrole core-shell nanowire arrays as novel negative electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengmei; Zhan, Xueying; Cheng, Zhongzhou; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Qisheng; Xu, Kai; Safdar, Muhammad; He, Jun

    2015-02-11

    Among active pseudocapacitive materials, polypyrrole (PPy) is a promising electrode material in electrochemical capacitors. PPy-based materials research has thus far focused on its electrochemical performance as a positive electrode rather than as a negative electrode for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). Here high-performance electrochemical supercapacitors are designed with tungsten oxide@PPy (WO3 @PPy) core-shell nanowire arrays and Co(OH)2 nanowires grown on carbon fibers. The WO3 @PPy core-shell nanowire electrode exhibits a high capacitance (253 mF/cm2) in negative potentials (-1.0-0.0 V). The ASCs packaged with CF-Co(OH)2 as a positive electrode and CF-WO3 @PPy as a negative electrode display a high volumetric capacitance up to 2.865 F/cm3 based on volume of the device, an energy density of 1.02 mWh/cm3 , and very good stability performance. These findings promote the application of PPy-based nanostructures as advanced negative electrodes for ASCs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Fiber optics in SHIVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severyn, J.; Parker, J.

    1978-01-01

    SHIVA is a twenty arm laser which is controlled with a network of fifty computers, interconnected with digital fiber optic links. Three different fiber optic systems employed on the Shiva laser will be described. Two of the systems are for digital communications, one at 9600 baud and the other at 1 megabaud. The third system uses fiber optics to distribute diagnostic triggers with subnanosecond jitter

  17. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fareed, Ali [Honeywell Advanced Composites Inc. (HACI), Newark, DE (United States); Craig, Phillip A. [Honeywell Advanced Composites Inc. (HACI), Newark, DE (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  18. Voltammetry at micro-mesh electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadhawan Jay D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The voltammetry at three micro-mesh electrodes is explored. It is found that at sufficiently short experimental durations, the micro-mesh working electrode first behaves as an ensemble of microband electrodes, then follows the behaviour anticipated for an array of diffusion-independent micro-ring electrodes of the same perimeter as individual grid-squares within the mesh. During prolonged electrolysis, the micro-mesh electrode follows that behaviour anticipated theoretically for a cubically-packed partially-blocked electrode. Application of the micro-mesh electrode for the electrochemical determination of carbon dioxide in DMSO electrolyte solutions is further illustrated.

  19. The kinetics of porous insertion electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlung, S; West, K [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada)

    1989-05-01

    The principles of porous electrodes are discussed as well as the discharge of the insertion compound, the working potential, transport in the electrolyte, the time dependence of the electrolyte concentration, and modeling of the porous electrode. The simulation of a TiS2 porous electrode and the composite insertion electrode are considered as well. The influence of electrode thickness and porosity in a typical porous TiS2 electrode is revealed. It is shown that the use of insertion compounds as battery electrodes is limited by the requirement that the inserted ion must be distributed in the interior of the insertion compound particle. 15 refs.

  20. Stimulation and recording electrodes for neural prostheses

    CERN Document Server

    Pour Aryan, Naser; Rothermel, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers with basic principles of the electrochemistry of the electrodes used in modern, implantable neural prostheses. The authors discuss the boundaries and conditions in which the electrodes continue to function properly for long time spans, which are required when designing neural stimulator devices for long-term in vivo applications. Two kinds of electrode materials, titanium nitride and iridium are discussed extensively, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The influence of the counter electrode on the safety margins and electrode lifetime in a two electrode system is explained. Electrode modeling is handled in a final chapter.

  1. Agave Americana Leaf Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Hulle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing environmental problems, the problem of waste disposal and the depletion of non-renewable resources have stimulated the use of green materials compatible with the environment to reduce environmental impacts. Therefore, there is a need to design products by using natural resources. Natural fibers seem to be a good alternative since they are abundantly available and there are a number of possibilities to use all the components of a fiber-yielding crop; one such fiber-yielding plant is Agave Americana. The leaves of this plant yield fibers and all the parts of this plant can be utilized in many applications. The “zero-waste” utilization of the plant would enable its production and processing to be translated into a viable and sustainable industry. Agave Americana fibers are characterized by low density, high tenacity and high moisture absorbency in comparison with other leaf fibers. These fibers are long and biodegradable. Therefore, we can look this fiber as a sustainable resource for manufacturing and technical applications. Detailed discussion is carried out on extraction, characterization and applications of Agave Americana fiber in this paper.

  2. Scalable air cathode microbial fuel cells using glass fiber separators, plastic mesh supporters, and graphite fiber brush anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2011-01-01

    The combined use of brush anodes and glass fiber (GF1) separators, and plastic mesh supporters were used here for the first time to create a scalable microbial fuel cell architecture. Separators prevented short circuiting of closely-spaced electrodes, and cathode supporters were used to avoid water gaps between the separator and cathode that can reduce power production. The maximum power density with a separator and supporter and a single cathode was 75±1W/m3. Removing the separator decreased power by 8%. Adding a second cathode increased power to 154±1W/m3. Current was increased by connecting two MFCs connected in parallel. These results show that brush anodes, combined with a glass fiber separator and a plastic mesh supporter, produce a useful MFC architecture that is inherently scalable due to good insulation between the electrodes and a compact architecture. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Extraction electrode geometry for a calutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veach, A.M.; Bell, W.A. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved geometry for the extraction electrode and the ground electrode utilized in the operation of a calutron. The improved electrodes are constructed in a partial-picture-frame fashion with the slits of both electrodes formed by two tungsten elongated rods. Additional parallel spaced-apart rods in each electrode are used to establish equipotential surfaces over the rest of the front of the ion source

  4. Studies of doped negative valve-regulated lead-acid battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micka, K. [J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, ASCR, 182 23 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Calabek, M.; Baca, P.; Krivak, P.; Labus, R.; Bilko, R. [Department of Electrotechnology, University of Technology, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2009-06-01

    Accelerated cycling in the partial state of charge regime showed conclusively that the improvement in cycle life of negative lead accumulator electrodes can be brought about not only by the addition of various sorts of powdered carbon into the active mass but also by the addition of other powdered inert materials like glass fibers, alumina, or titanium dioxide. Steric hindrance of the crystallization of lead sulfate in the electrode pores evidenced by ESEM microphotographs is considered as the main reason for this effect. The added powdered substances were practically without influence on the hydrogen overpotential; and their effect on the active material resistance was also negligible. (author)

  5. Cochlear pathology following reimplantation of a multichannel scala tympani electrode array in the macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, R K; Clark, G M; Xu, S A; Pyman, B C

    1995-03-01

    The histopathologic consequence of removing and reimplanting intracochlear electrode arrays on residual auditory nerve fibers is an important issue when evaluating the safety of cochlear prostheses. The authors have examined this issue by implanting multichannel intracochlear electrodes in macaque monkeys. Macaques were selected because of the similarity of the surgical technique used to insert electrodes into the cochlea compared to that in humans, in particular the ability to insert the arrays into the upper basal turn. Five macaques were bilaterally implanted with the Melbourne/Cochlear banded electrode array. Following a minimum implant period of 5 months, the electrode array on one side of each animal was removed and another immediately implanted. The animals were sacrificed a minimum of 5 months following the reinsertion procedure, and the cochleas prepared for histopathologic analysis. Long-term implantation of the electrode resulted in a relatively mild tissue response within the cochlea. Results also showed that inner and outer hair cell survival, although significantly reduced adjacent to the array, was normal in 8 of the 10 cochleas apicalward. Moreover, the electrode reinsertion procedure did not appear to adversely affect this apical hair cell population. Significant new bone formation was frequently observed in both control and reimplanted cochleas close to the electrode fenestration site and was associated with trauma to the endosteum and/or the introduction of bone chips into the cochlea at the time of surgery. Electrode insertion trauma, involving the osseous spiral lamina or basilar membrane, was more commonly observed in reimplanted cochleas. This damage was usually restricted to the lower basal turn and resulted in a more extensive ganglion cell loss. Finally, in a number of cochleas part of the electrode array was located within the scala media or scala vestibuli. These electrodes did not appear to evoke a more extensive tissue response or

  6. USDA Flax fiber utilization research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States is pursuing natural fibers as sustainable, environmentally friendly sources for a variety of industrial applications. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) fiber offers many possibilities towards this goal. Research on flax fiber production, processing, and standards development is urgen...

  7. Ultrafine PBI fibers and yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, J. R.; Tan, M.

    1979-01-01

    Gentle precisely controlled process is used to draw polybenzimidazole (PBI) fibers to denier as low as 0.17 per fiber. Yarns of lightweight fibers could be useful in applications where lightweight textiles must withstand high temperatures, corrosion, or radiation.

  8. Applications of nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    2008-01-01

    * The only book describing applications of nonlinear fiber optics * Two new chapters on the latest developments: highly nonlinear fibers and quantum applications* Coverage of biomedical applications* Problems provided at the end of each chapterThe development of new highly nonlinear fibers - referred to as microstructured fibers, holey fibers and photonic crystal fibers - is the next generation technology for all-optical signal processing and biomedical applications. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to incorporate these key technology developments.The bo

  9. Multimode optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre

    2014-11-04

    A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).

  10. Fiber Lasers V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes

    2008-01-01

    laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 70 μm single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to MW power levels. Furthermore we describe the novel airclad based pump combiners and their use in a completely monolithic 350...

  11. Fiber Sensor Technology Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotate, Kazuo

    2006-08-01

    Fiber sensor technologies are overviewed. Since the early 1970s, this field has been developed, on the basis of the same devices and photonic principles as fiber communication technologies. Besides simple configurations, in which the fiber acts only as a data transmission line, sophisticated configurations have also been developed, in which the fiber is used as a device to realize unique sensing mechanisms. The fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) is a good example, and has been developed as an absolute rotation sensor used, for example, for navigation and/or attitude control applications. Compared with traditional spinning-mass gyroscopes, the FOG has advantages, such as a short warming-up time, a light weight, and easy handling. A Japanese satellite, which was launched in August 2005 with a mission to observe the aurora, is controlled with a FOG. The FOG has also been used in consumer applications, such as the camera stabilizer, radio-controlled (RC) helicopter navigation, and the control of humanoid robots. Recently, distributed and multiplexed sensing schemes, in particular, have been studied and developed, in which a long fiber acts like a “nerve” for feeling the strain and/or the temperature distribution along the fiber. Performances of artificial nerve systems have markedly improved within the last couple of years, in spatial resolution and measurement speed. By embedding the “fiber-optic nerve system” in aircraft wings, bridges and tall buildings, these materials and structures can sense damage to prevent disasters.

  12. Ways to Boost Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help to lower cholesterol. Third, it helps prevent constipation and diverticulosis. And fourth, adequate fiber from food ... is similar to a new sponge; it needs water to plump up pass smoothly. If you ... or constipation. Before you reach for the fiber supplements, consider ...

  13. Quartz fiber calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akchurin, N.; Doulas, S.; Ganel, O.; Gershtein, Y.; Gavrilov, V.; Kolosov, V.; Kuleshov, S.; Litvinsev, D.; Merlo, J.-P.; Onel, Y.; Osborne, D.; Rosowsky, A.; Stolin, V.; Sulak, L.; Sullivan, J.; Ulyanov, A.; Wigmans, R.; Winn, D.

    1996-01-01

    A calorimeter with optical quartz fibers embedded into an absorber matrix was proposed for the small angle region of the CMS detector at LHC (CERN). This type of calorimeter is expected to be radiation hard and to produce extremely fast signal. Some results from beam tests of the quartz fiber calorimeter prototype are presented. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of joint torque evoked with monopolar and tripolar-cuff electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarler, Matthew D; Mortimer, J Thomas

    2003-09-01

    Using a self-sizing spiral-cuff electrode placed on the sciatic nerve of the cat, the joint torque evoked with stimulation applied to contacts in a monopolar configuration was judged to be the same as the torque evoked by stimulation applied to contacts in a tripolar configuration. Experiments were carried out in six acute cat preparations. In each experiment, a 12-contact electrode was placed on the sciatic nerve and used to effect both the monopolar and tripolar electrode configurations. The ankle torque produced by electrically evoked isometric muscle contraction was measured in three dimensions: plantar flexion, internal rotation, and inversion. Based on the recorded ankle torque, qualitative and quantitative comparisons were performed to determine if any significant difference existed in the pattern or order in which motor nerve fibers were recruited. No significant difference was found at a 98% confidence interval in either the recruitment properties or the repeatability of the monopolar and tripolar configurations. Further, isolated activation of single fascicles within the sciatic nerve was observed. Once nerve fibers in a fascicle were activated, recruitment of that fascicle was modulated over the full range before "spill-over" excitation occurred in neighboring fascicles. These results indicate that a four contact, monopolar nerve-cuff electrode is a viable substitute for a 12 contact, tripolar nerve-cuff electrode. The results of this study are also consistent with the hypothesis that multicontact self-sizing spiral-cuff electrodes can be used in motor prostheses to provide selective control of many muscles. These findings should also apply to other neuroprostheses employing-cuff electrodes on nerve trunks.

  15. High-density multicore fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takenaga, K.; Matsuo, S.; Saitoh, K.

    2016-01-01

    High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber.......High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber....

  16. Green insulation: hemp fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2011-09-15

    Indian hemp (Cannabis indica) is known for its psychotropic values and it is banned in most countries. However, industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is known for its tough fibers. Several manufactures in Europe including, small niche players, have been marketing hemp insulation products for several years. Hemp is a low environmental impact material. Neither herbicide nor pesticide is used during the growth of hemp. The fibers are extracted in a waste-free and chemical-free mechanical process. Hemp can consume CO2 during its growth. In addition, hemp fiber can be disposed of harmlessly by composting or incineration at the end of its life. Hemp fibers are processed and treated only minimally to resist rot and fungal activity. There is little health risk when producing and installing the insulation, thanks to the absence of toxic additive. Its thermal resistance is comparable to mineral wool. But the development and marketing of hemp fibers may be restricted in North America.

  17. Raman fiber lasers

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book serves as a comprehensive, up-to-date reference about this cutting-edge laser technology and its many new and interesting developments. Various aspects and trends of Raman fiber lasers are described in detail by experts in their fields. Raman fiber lasers have progressed quickly in the past decade, and have emerged as a versatile laser technology for generating high power light sources covering a spectral range from visible to mid-infrared. The technology is already being applied in the fields of telecommunication, astronomy, cold atom physics, laser spectroscopy, environmental sensing, and laser medicine. This book covers various topics relating to Raman fiber laser research, including power scaling, cladding and diode pumping, cascade Raman shifting, single frequency operation and power amplification, mid-infrared laser generation, specialty optical fibers, and random distributed feedback Raman fiber lasers. The book will appeal to scientists, students, and technicians seeking to understand the re...

  18. Birefringent hollow core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, John

    2007-01-01

    Hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF), fabricated according to a nominally non-birefringent design, shows a degree of un-controlled birefringence or polarization mode dispersion far in excess of conventional non polarization maintaining fibers. This can degrade the output pulse in many...... applications, and places emphasis on the development of polarization maintaining (PM) HC-PCF. The polarization cross-coupling characteristics of PM HC-PCF are very different from those of conventional PM fibers. The former fibers have the advantage of suffering far less from stress-field fluctuations...... and an increased overlap between the polarization modes at the glass interfaces. The interplay between these effects leads to a wavelength for optimum polarization maintenance, lambda(PM), which is detuned from the wavelength of highest birefringence. By a suitable fiber design involving antiresonance of the core...

  19. Fiber optic hydrophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Davis, Donald T.

    1994-01-01

    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optic fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends.

  20. Robust high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders

    Platinum is the most widely used material in high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes. However, platinum is expensive and the platinum electrode may, under certain conditions, suffer from poisoning, which is detrimental for an oxygen sensor. The objective of this thesis is to evaluate electrode...... materials as candidates for robust oxygen sensor electrodes. The present work focuses on characterising the electrochemical properties of a few electrode materials to understand which oxygen electrode processes are limiting for the response time of the sensor electrode. Three types of porous platinum......-Dansensor. The electrochemical properties of the electrodes were characterised by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the structures were characterised by x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. At an oxygen partial pressures of 0.2 bar, the response time of the sensor electrode was determined by oxygen...

  1. Electrostatic Assembly of Nanomaterials for Hybrid Electrodes and Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Paula

    2015-03-01

    Electrostatic assembly methods have been used to generate a range of new materials systems of interest for electrochemical energy and storage applications. Over the past several years, it has been demonstrated that carbon nanotubes, metals, metal oxides, polymeric nanomaterials, and biotemplated materials systems can be incorporated into ultrathin films to generate supercapacitors and battery electrodes that illustrate significant energy density and power. The unique ability to control the incorporation of such a broad range of materials at the nanometer length scale allows tailoring of the final properties of these unique composite systems, as well as the capability of creating complex micron-scale to nanoporous morphologies based on the scale of the nanomaterial that is absorbed within the structure, or the conditions of self-assembly. Recently we have expanded these capabilities to achieve new electrodes that are templated atop electrospun polmer fiber scaffolds, in which the polymer can be selectively removed to achieve highly porous materials. Spray-layer-by-layer and filtration methods of functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes and polyaniline nanofibers enable the generation of electrode systems with unusually high surface. Incorporation of psuedocapacitive nanoparticles can enhance capacitive properties, and other catalytic or metallic nanoparticles can be implemented to enhance electrochemical or catalytic function.

  2. RETGEM with polyvinylchloride (PVC) electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Razin, V I; Reshetin, A I; Filippov, S N

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new design of the RETGEM (Resistive Electrode Thick GEM) based on electrodes made of a polyvinylchloride material (PVC). Our device can operate with gains of 10E5 as a conventional TGEM at low counting rates and as RPC in the case of high counting rates without of the transit to the violent sparks. The distinct feature of present RETGEM is the absent of the metal coating and lithographic technology for manufacturing of the protective dielectric rms. The electrodes from PVC permit to do the holes by a simple drilling machine. Detectors on a RETGEM basis could be useful in many fields of an application requiring a more cheap manufacturing and safe operation, for example, in a large neutrino experiments, in TPC, RICH systems.

  3. Composite Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang QuanMin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Manganese dioxide nanofibers with length ranged from 0.1 to 1 μm and a diameter of about 4–6 nm were prepared by a chemical precipitation method. Composite electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors were fabricated by impregnation of the manganese dioxide nanofibers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT into porous Ni plaque current collectors. Obtained composite electrodes, containing 85% of manganese dioxide and 15 mass% of MWCNT, as a conductive additive, with total mass loading of 7–15 mg cm−2, showed a capacitive behavior in 0.5-M Na2SO4 solutions. The decrease in stirring time during precipitation of the nanofibers resulted in reduced agglomeration and higher specific capacitance (SC. The highest SC of 185 F g−1 was obtained at a scan rate of 2 mV s−1 for mass loading of 7 mg cm−2. The SC decreased with increasing scan rate and increasing electrode mass.

  4. Composite Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Yang, Quan Min; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2010-03-01

    Manganese dioxide nanofibers with length ranged from 0.1 to 1 μm and a diameter of about 4-6 nm were prepared by a chemical precipitation method. Composite electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors were fabricated by impregnation of the manganese dioxide nanofibers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) into porous Ni plaque current collectors. Obtained composite electrodes, containing 85% of manganese dioxide and 15 mass% of MWCNT, as a conductive additive, with total mass loading of 7-15 mg cm-2, showed a capacitive behavior in 0.5-M Na2SO4 solutions. The decrease in stirring time during precipitation of the nanofibers resulted in reduced agglomeration and higher specific capacitance (SC). The highest SC of 185 F g-1 was obtained at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1 for mass loading of 7 mg cm-2. The SC decreased with increasing scan rate and increasing electrode mass.

  5. Method for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, and carbon fibers made thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Amit Kumar; Hunt, Marcus Andrew; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-08-04

    Methods for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, wherein the polyolefin fiber precursor is partially sulfonated and then carbonized to produce carbon fiber. Methods for producing hollow carbon fibers, wherein the hollow core is circular- or complex-shaped, are also described. Methods for producing carbon fibers possessing a circular- or complex-shaped outer surface, which may be solid or hollow, are also described.

  6. Fiber supercapacitors utilizing pen ink for flexible/wearable energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongping; Cai, Xin; Wu, Hongwei; Lv, Zhibin; Hou, Shaocong; Peng, Ming; Yu, Xiao; Zou, Dechun

    2012-11-08

    A novel type of flexible fiber/wearable supercapacitor that is composed of two fiber electrodes - a helical spacer wire and an electrolyte - is demonstrated. In the carbon-based fiber supercapacitor (FSC), which has high capacitance performance, commercial pen ink is directly utilized as the electrochemical material. FSCs have potential benefits in the pursuit of low-cost, large-scale, and efficient flexible/wearable energy storage systems. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Fiber supercapacitors utilizing pen ink for flexible/wearable energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yongping; Cai, Xin; Wu, Hongwei; Lv, Zhibin; Hou, Shaocong; Peng, Ming; Yu, Xiao; Zou, Dechun [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Physics of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2012-11-08

    A novel type of flexible fiber/wearable supercapacitor that is composed of two fiber electrodes - a helical spacer wire and an electrolyte - is demonstrated. In the carbon-based fiber supercapacitor (FSC), which has high capacitance performance, commercial pen ink is directly utilized as the electrochemical material. FSCs have potential benefits in the pursuit of low-cost, large-scale, and efficient flexible/wearable energy storage systems. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Electrodes for Semiconductor Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Pil

    2017-01-01

    The electrodes of semiconductor gas sensors are important in characterizing sensors based on their sensitivity, selectivity, reversibility, response time, and long-term stability. The types and materials of electrodes used for semiconductor gas sensors are analyzed. In addition, the effect of interfacial zones and surface states of electrode–semiconductor interfaces on their characteristics is studied. This study describes that the gas interaction mechanism of the electrode–semiconductor interfaces should take into account the interfacial zone, surface states, image force, and tunneling effect. PMID:28346349

  9. Nanofiber membrane-electrode-assembly and method of fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintauro, Peter N.; Ballengee, Jason; Brodt, Matthew

    2018-01-23

    In one aspect of the present invention, a method of fabricating a fuel cell membrane-electrode-assembly (MEA) having an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, and a membrane disposed between the anode electrode and the cathode electrode, includes fabricating each of the anode electrode, the cathode electrode, and the membrane separately by electrospinning; and placing the membrane between the anode electrode and the cathode electrode, and pressing then together to form the fuel cell MEA.

  10. Luminescent sensing and imaging of oxygen: fierce competition to the Clark electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfbeis, Otto S

    2015-08-01

    Luminescence-based sensing schemes for oxygen have experienced a fast growth and are in the process of replacing the Clark electrode in many fields. Unlike electrodes, sensing is not limited to point measurements via fiber optic microsensors, but includes additional features such as planar sensing, imaging, and intracellular assays using nanosized sensor particles. In this essay, I review and discuss the essentials of (i) common solid-state sensor approaches based on the use of luminescent indicator dyes and host polymers; (ii) fiber optic and planar sensing schemes; (iii) nanoparticle-based intracellular sensing; and (iv) common spectroscopies. Optical sensors are also capable of multiple simultaneous sensing (such as O2 and temperature). Sensors for O2 are produced nowadays in large quantities in industry. Fields of application include sensing of O2 in plant and animal physiology, in clinical chemistry, in marine sciences, in the chemical industry and in process biotechnology. © 2015 The Author. Bioessays published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Drop detachment and motion on fuel cell electrode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Eric; Hellstern, Thomas; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G; Benziger, Jay

    2012-02-01

    Liquid water is pushed through flow channels of fuel cells, where one surface is a porous carbon electrode made up of carbon fibers. Water drops grow on the fibrous carbon surface in the gas flow channel. The drops adhere to the superficial fiber surfaces but exhibit little penetration into the voids between the fibers. The fibrous surfaces are hydrophobic, but there is a substantial threshold force necessary to initiate water drop motion. Once the water drops begin to move, however, the adhesive force decreases and drops move with minimal friction, similar to motion on superhydrophobic materials. We report here studies of water wetting and water drop motion on typical porous carbon materials (carbon paper and carbon cloth) employed in fuel cells. The static coefficient of friction on these textured surfaces is comparable to that for smooth Teflon. But the dynamic coefficient of friction is several orders of magnitude smaller on the textured surfaces than on smooth Teflon. Carbon cloth displays a much smaller static contact angle hysteresis than carbon paper due to its two-scale roughness. The dynamic contact angle hysteresis for carbon paper is greatly reduced compared to the static contact angle hysteresis. Enhanced dynamic hydrophobicity is suggested to result from the extent to which a dynamic contact line can track topological heterogeneities of the liquid/solid interface.

  12. Fiber Pulling Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Sue; Adcock, Leonard

    1998-01-01

    The fiber optics industry has grown into a multi-billion marketplace that will continue to grow into the 21st century. Optical fiber communications is currently dominated by silica glass technology. Successful efforts to improve upon the low loss transmission characteristics of silica fibers have propelled the technology into the forefront of the communications industry. However, reaching the theoretical transmission capability of silica fiber through improved processing has still left a few application areas in which other fiber systems can provide an influential role due to specific characteristics of high theoretical transmission in the 2 - 3 micron wavelength region. One of the other major materials used for optical fibers is the systems based upon Heavy Metal Fluoride Glass (HMFG). Commercial interest is driven primarily by the potential for low loss repeaterless infrared fibers. An example of the major communications marketplace which would benefit from the long distance repeaterless capability of infrared fibers is the submarine cables which link the continents. When considering commercial interests, optical fiber systems provide a healthy industrial position which continues to expand. Major investments in the systems used for optical fiber communications have continued to increase each year and are predicted to continue well into the next century. Estimates of 8.5% compounded annually are predicted through 1999 for the North American market and 1 1 % worldwide. The growth for the optical fiber cable itself is expected to continue between 44 and 50 per cent of the optical fiber communications budget through 1999. The total budget in 1999 world-wide is expected to be in the neighborhood of $9 billion. Another survey predicts that long haul telecommunications represents 15% of a world-wide fiber optics market in 1998. The actual amount allotted to cable was not specified. However, another market research had predicted that the cable costs alone represents more

  13. Fiber Optic Microphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y. C.; George, Thomas; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Research into advanced pressure sensors using fiber-optic technology is aimed at developing compact size microphones. Fiber optic sensors are inherently immune to electromagnetic noise, and are very sensitive, light weight, and highly flexible. In FY 98, NASA researchers successfully designed and assembled a prototype fiber-optic microphone. The sensing technique employed was fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometry. The sensing head is composed of an optical fiber terminated in a miniature ferrule with a thin, silicon-microfabricated diaphragm mounted on it. The optical fiber is a single mode fiber with a core diameter of 8 micron, with the cleaved end positioned 50 micron from the diaphragm surface. The diaphragm is made up of a 0.2 micron thick silicon nitride membrane whose inner surface is metallized with layers of 30 nm titanium, 30 nm platinum, and 0.2 micron gold for efficient reflection. The active sensing area is approximately 1.5 mm in diameter. The measured differential pressure tolerance of this diaphragm is more than 1 bar, yielding a dynamic range of more than 100 dB.

  14. Simulation and optimization of a polymer directional coupler electro-optic switch with push pull electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chuan-Tao; Ma, Chun-Sheng; Yan, Xin; Wang, Xian-Yin; Zhang, Da-Ming

    2008-07-01

    Structural model and design technique are proposed for a polymer directional coupler electro-optic switch with rib waveguides and push-pull electrodes, of which the electric field distribution is analyzed by the conformal transforming method and image method. In order to get the minimum mode loss and the minimum switching voltage, the parameters of the waveguide and electrode are optimized, such as the core with, core thickness, buffer layer between the core and the electrode, coupling gap between the waveguides, electrode thickness, electrode width and electrode gap. Switching Characteristics are analyzed, which include the output power, insertion loss, and crosstalk. To realize normal switching function, the fabrication error, spectrum shift, and coupling loss between a single mode fiber (SMF) and the waveguide are discussed. Simulation results show that the coupling length is 3082 μm, push-pull switching voltage is 2.14 V, insertion loss is less than 1.17 dB, and crosstalk is less than -30 dB for the designed device.

  15. Characterisation of nano-interdigitated electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjolding, L H D; Ribayrol, A; Montelius, L [Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Spegel, C [Department of Analytical Chemistry Lund University, Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Emneus, J [MIC - Department of Micro and Nanotechnology, DTU - Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)], E-mail: lars_henrik.daehli_skjolding@ftf.lth.se

    2008-03-15

    Interdigitated electrodes made up of two individually addressable interdigitated comb-like electrode structures have frequently been suggested as ultra sensitive electrochemical biosensors. Since the signal enhancement effects due to cycling of the reduced and oxidized species are strongly dependent on the inter electrode distances, since the nature of the enhancement is due to overlying diffusion layers, interdigitated electrodes with an electrode separation of less then one micrometer are desired for maximum signal amplification. Fabrication of submicron structures can only be made by advanced lithography techniques. By use of electron beam lithography we have fabricated arrays of interdigitated electrodes with an electrode separation distance of 200 nm and an electrode finger width of likewise 200 nm. The entire electrode structure is 100 micrometre times 100 micrometre, and the active electrode area is dictated by the opening in the passivation layer, that is defined by UV lithography. Here we report measurements of redox cycling of ferrocyanide by coupled cyclic voltammograms, where the potential at one of the working electrodes are varied and either an oxidising or reducing potential is applied to the complimentary interdigitated electrode. The measurements show fast conversion and high collection efficiency round 87% as expected for nano-interdigitated electrodes.

  16. Preparation of Janus Particles and Alternating Current Electrokinetic Measurements with a Rapidly Fabricated Indium Tin Oxide Electrode Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Liang; Jiang, Hong-Ren

    2017-06-23

    This article provides a simple method to prepare partially or fully coated metallic particles and to perform the rapid fabrication of electrode arrays, which can facilitate electrical experiments in microfluidic devices. Janus particles are asymmetric particles that contain two different surface properties on their two sides. To prepare Janus particles, a monolayer of silica particles is prepared by a drying process. Gold (Au) is deposited on one side of each particle using a sputtering device. The fully coated metallic particles are completed after the second coating process. To analyze the electrical surface properties of Janus particles, alternating current (AC) electrokinetic measurements, such as dielectrophoresis (DEP) and electrorotation (EROT)- which require specifically designed electrode arrays in the experimental device- are performed. However, traditional methods to fabricate electrode arrays, such as the photolithographic technique, require a series of complicated procedures. Here, we introduce a flexible method to fabricate a designed electrode array. An indium tin oxide (ITO) glass is patterned by a fiber laser marking machine (1,064 nm, 20 W, 90 to 120 ns pulse-width, and 20 to 80 kHz pulse repetition frequency) to create a four-phase electrode array. To generate the four-phase electric field, the electrodes are connected to a 2-channel function generator and to two invertors. The phase shift between the adjacent electrodes is set at either 90° (for EROT) or 180° (for DEP). Representative results of AC electrokinetic measurements with a four-phase ITO electrode array are presented.

  17. Hollow optical fiber induced solar cells with optical energy storage and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jie; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Duan, Jialong; Duan, Yanyan; Tang, Qunwei

    2017-11-09

    Hollow optical fiber induced dye-sensitized solar cells are made by twisting Ti wire/N719-TiO 2 nanotube photoanodes and Ti wire/Pt (CoSe, Pt 3 Ni) counter electrodes, yielding a maximized efficiency of 0.7% and good stability. Arising from optical energy storage ability, the solar cells can generate electricity without laser illumination.

  18. Optical fiber spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Weixin; Tian Guocheng; Ye Guoan; Zhou Zhihong; Cheng Weiwei; Huang Lifeng; Liu Suying; Tang Yanji; Hu Jingxin; Zhao Yonggang

    1998-12-01

    A method called 'Two Arm's Photo out and Electricity Send-back' is introduced. UV-365 UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer has been reequipped by this way with 5 meters long optical fiber. Another method called 'One Arm's Photo out and Photo Send-back' is also introduced. λ 19 UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer has been reequipped by this way with 10 meters long optical fiber. Optical fiber spectrophotometer can work as its main set. So it is particularly applicable to radio activity work

  19. Progress in understanding SOFC electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hansen, Karin Vels; Jørgensen, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The literature of SOFC electrode kinetics and mechanisms is full of contradicting details in case of both the SOFC anode and cathode processes. Only weak patterns may be identified. One interpretation is that each of the reported data sets reflects a laboratory specific nature of each of the elec...

  20. Anodized Steel Electrodes for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagu, Jagdeep S; Wijayantha, K G Upul; Bohm, Mallika; Bohm, Siva; Kumar Rout, Tapan

    2016-03-09

    Steel was anodized in 10 M NaOH to enhance its surface texture and internal surface area for application as an electrode in supercapacitors. A mechanism was proposed for the anodization process. Field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) studies of anodized steel revealed that it contains a highly porous sponge like structure ideal for supercapacitor electrodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements showed that the surface of the anodized steel was Fe2O3, whereas X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that the bulk remained as metallic Fe. The supercapacitor performance of the anodized steel was tested in 1 M NaOH and a capacitance of 18 mF cm(-2) was obtained. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed that there was a large psueudocapacitive contribution which was due to oxidation of Fe to Fe(OH)2 and then further oxidation to FeOOH, and the respective reduction of these species back to metallic Fe. These redox processes were found to be remarkably reversible as the electrode showed no loss in capacitance after 10000 cycles. The results demonstrate that anodization of steel is a suitable method to produce high-surface-area electrodes for supercapacitors with excellent cycling lifetime.

  1. Advanced screening of electrode couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, J. D.; Cahill, K.

    1980-01-01

    The chromium (Cr(3+)/Cr(2+)) redox couple (electrolyte and electrode) was investigated to determine its suitability as negative electrode for the iron (Fe(3+)/Fe(2+))-chromium (Cr(3+)/Cr(2+)) redox flow battery. Literature search and laboratory investigation established that the solubility and stability of aqueous acidic solutions of chromium(3) chloride and chromium(2) chloride are sufficient for redox battery application. Four categories of electrode materials were tested; namely, metals and metalloid materials (elements and compounds), alloys, plated materials, and Teflon-bonded materials. In all, the relative performance of 26 candidate electrode materials was evaluated on the basis of slow scan rate linear sweep voltammetry in stirred solution. No single material tested gave both acceptable anodic an acceptable cathodic performance. However, the identification of lead as a good cathodic electrocatalyst and gold as a good anodic electrocatalyst led to the invention of the lead/gold combination electrocatalyst. This type of catalyst can be fabricated in several ways and appears to offer the advantages of each metal without the disadvantages associated with their use as single materials. This lead/gold electrocatalyst was tested by NASA-Lewis Research Center in complete, flowing, redox batteries comprising a stack of several cells. A large improvement in the battery's coulombic and energy efficiency was observed.

  2. Chemistry Research of Optical Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-27

    BROADENING IN OPTICAL FIBERS Herbert B. Rosenstock* Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375 ABSTRACT A light pulse transmitted through a fiber...Marcatili, Marcuse , and Personick, "Dispersion Properties of Fibers" (Ch. 4 in "Optical Fiber Telecommunications," S. E. Miller and A. C. Chynoweth, eds

  3. Nanowire modified carbon fibers for enhanced electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvo, Mohammad Arif Ishtiaque; (Bill) Tseng, Tzu-Liang; Ashiqur Rahaman Khan, Md.; Karim, Hasanul; Morton, Philip; Delfin, Diego; Lin, Yirong

    2013-09-01

    The study of electrochemical super-capacitors has become one of the most attractive topics in both academia and industry as energy storage devices because of their high power density, long life cycles, and high charge/discharge efficiency. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the development of multifunctional structural energy storage devices such as structural super-capacitors for applications in aerospace, automobiles, and portable electronics. These multifunctional structural super-capacitors provide structures combining energy storage and load bearing functionalities, leading to material systems with reduced volume and/or weight. Due to their superior materials properties, carbon fiber composites have been widely used in structural applications for aerospace and automotive industries. Besides, carbon fiber has good electrical conductivity which will provide lower equivalent series resistance; therefore, it can be an excellent candidate for structural energy storage applications. Hence, this paper is focused on performing a pilot study for using nanowire/carbon fiber hybrids as building materials for structural energy storage materials; aiming at enhancing the charge/discharge rate and energy density. This hybrid material combines the high specific surface area of carbon fiber and pseudo-capacitive effect of metal oxide nanowires, which were grown hydrothermally in an aligned fashion on carbon fibers. The aligned nanowire array could provide a higher specific surface area that leads to high electrode-electrolyte contact area thus fast ion diffusion rates. Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction measurements are used for the initial characterization of this nanowire/carbon fiber hybrid material system. Electrochemical testing is performed using a potentio-galvanostat. The results show that gold sputtered nanowire carbon fiber hybrid provides 65.9% higher energy density than bare carbon fiber cloth as super-capacitor.

  4. Robust fiber clustering of cerebral fiber bundles in white matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xufeng; Wang, Yongxiong; Zhuang, Songlin

    2014-11-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking (DTI-FT) has been widely accepted in the diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases. During the rendering pipeline of specific fiber tracts, the image noise and low resolution of DTI would lead to false propagations. In this paper, we propose a robust fiber clustering (FC) approach to diminish false fibers from one fiber tract. Our algorithm consists of three steps. Firstly, the optimized fiber assignment continuous tracking (FACT) is implemented to reconstruct one fiber tract; and then each curved fiber in the fiber tract is mapped to a point by kernel principal component analysis (KPCA); finally, the point clouds of fiber tract are clustered by hierarchical clustering which could distinguish false fibers from true fibers in one tract. In our experiment, the corticospinal tract (CST) in one case of human data in vivo was used to validate our method. Our method showed reliable capability in decreasing the false fibers in one tract. In conclusion, our method could effectively optimize the visualization of fiber bundles and would help a lot in the field of fiber evaluation.

  5. Redundancy or heterogeneity in the electric activity of the biceps brachii muscle? Added value of PCA-processed multi-channel EMG muscle activation estimates in a parallel-fibered muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staudenmann, D.; Stegeman, D.F.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional bipolar EMG provides imprecise muscle activation estimates due to possibly heterogeneous activity within muscles and due to improper alignment of the electrodes with the muscle fibers. Principal component analysis (PCA), applied on multi-channel monopolar EMG yielded substantial

  6. Carbonized chicken eggshell membranes with 3D architectures as high-performance electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Li; Amirkhiz, Babak Shalchi; Tan, Xuehai; Xu, Zhanwei; Wang, Huanlei; Olsen, Brian C.; Holt, Chris M.B.; Mitlin, David [Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); National Institute for Nanotechnology (NINT), NRC, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2012-04-15

    Supercapacitor electrode materials are synthesized by carbonizing a common livestock biowaste in the form of chicken eggshell membranes. The carbonized eggshell membrane (CESM) is a three-dimensional macroporous carbon film composed of interwoven connected carbon fibers containing around 10 wt% oxygen and 8 wt% nitrogen. Despite a relatively low surface area of 221 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, exceptional specific capacitances of 297 F g{sup -1} and 284 F g{sup -1} are achieved in basic and acidic electrolytes, respectively, in a 3-electrode system. Furthermore, the electrodes demonstrate excellent cycling stability: only 3% capacitance fading is observed after 10 000 cycles at a current density of 4 A g{sup -1}. These very attractive electrochemical properties are discussed in the context of the unique structure and chemistry of the material. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Integration of UV-cured Ionogel Electrolyte with Carbon Paper Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Flores Zopf

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A test bed with a coplanar architecture is employed to investigate the integration of an in situ cross-linked, polymer-supported ionogel with several commercially available, high surface area carbon paper electrodes. Specifically, a UV-cured poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA-supported ionogel electrolyte film is formed in situ against a variety of porous electrodes comprising: a carbon fiber paper, a carbon aerogel paper, and four carbon nanotube-based papers. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that the relative performance of a particular carbon paper with the neat ionic liquid is not necessarily indicative of its behavior when integrated with the solid ionogel electrolyte. The coplanar test bed can therefore serve as a useful tool to help guide the selection of suitable carbon-based electrode structures for supercapacitors that incorporate UV-cured ionogels created in situ for wearable energy storage applications.

  8. Operation of a Segmented Hall Thruster with Low-sputtering Carbon-velvet Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Y.; Staack, D.; Dunaevsky, A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon fiber velvet material provides exceptional sputtering resistance properties exceeding those for graphite and carbon composite materials. A 2 kW Hall thruster with segmented electrodes made of this material was operated in the discharge voltage range of 200-700 V. The arcing between the floating velvet electrodes and the plasma was visually observed, especially, during the initial conditioning time, which lasted for about 1 h. The comparison of voltage versus current and plume characteristics of the Hall thruster with and without segmented electrodes indicates that the magnetic insulation of the segmented thruster improves with the discharge voltage at a fixed magnetic field. The observations reported here also extend the regimes wherein the segmented Hall thruster can have a narrower plume than that of the conventional nonsegmented thruster

  9. Depositing bulk or micro-scale electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kedar G.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.; Tolosa, Vanessa; Tooker, Angela C.; Sheth, Heeral J.; Felix, Sarah H.; Delima, Terri L.

    2016-11-01

    Thicker electrodes are provided on microelectronic device using thermo-compression bonding. A thin-film electrical conducting layer forms electrical conduits and bulk depositing provides an electrode layer on the thin-film electrical conducting layer. An insulating polymer layer encapsulates the electrically thin-film electrical conducting layer and the electrode layer. Some of the insulating layer is removed to expose the electrode layer.

  10. Detection of EEG electrodes in brain volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Juan P; Gómez, M Eugenia; Bustos, José J

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method to detect 128 EEG electrodes in image study and to merge with the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance volume for better diagnosis. First we propose three hypotheses to define a specific acquisition protocol in order to recognize the electrodes and to avoid distortions in the image. In the second instance we describe a method for segmenting the electrodes. Finally, registration is performed between volume of the electrodes and NMR.

  11. Recovery of fluoride ion selective electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, R.P.G.

    1988-01-01

    A recovery procedure of fluoride ion selective electrode based upon the body radiography of inactive electrode and introduction of suitable internal regeneration solution, is developed. The recovered electrode was tested in standard solutions of fluoride ions (10 sup5) to 10 -1M showing as good performance as the new one. The fluor determination by potentiometric measurements with selective electrode is used in nuclear fuel cycle for quality control of thorium and uranium mixed oxide pellets and pellets of uranium dioxides. (author) [pt

  12. Alkali metal ion battery with bimetallic electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Jiang, Kai; Kim, Hojong; Ortiz, Luis A; Sadoway, Donald R; Tomaszowska, Alina A; Wei, Weifeng; Wang, Kangli

    2015-04-07

    Electrochemical cells having molten electrodes having an alkali metal provide receipt and delivery of power by transporting atoms of the alkali metal between electrode environments of disparate chemical potentials through an electrochemical pathway comprising a salt of the alkali metal. The chemical potential of the alkali metal is decreased when combined with one or more non-alkali metals, thus producing a voltage between an electrode comprising the molten the alkali metal and the electrode comprising the combined alkali/non-alkali metals.

  13. Fiber optics standard dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Weik, Martin H

    1997-01-01

    Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

  14. Fiber Optics: No Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A campus computer center at Hofstra University (New York) that holds 70 terminals for student use was first a gymnasium, then a language laboratory. Strands of fiber optics are used for the necessary wiring. (MLF)

  15. Fiber optic gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

  16. Photonic Crystal Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kristiansen, Rene E

    2005-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Crystal Fibre A/S as follows: Crystal Fibre will conduct research and development of large mode area, dual clad multi-core Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber...

  17. Fiber Laser Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    ...., field-dependent, loss within the coupled laser array. During this program, Jaycor focused on the construction and use of an experimental apparatus that can be used to investigate the coherent combination of an array of fiber lasers...

  18. Robust Fiber Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goettler, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The highly desired ceramic matrix composite is the one in which the high strength and strain-to-failure is achieved through judicious selection of a fiber coating that can survive the high-temperature...

  19. Fiber Optic Bragg Gratings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Battiato, James

    1998-01-01

    Coupled mode theory was used to model reflection fiber gratings. The effects of experimental parameters on grating characteristics were modeled for both uniform and non-uniform grating profiles using this approach...

  20. Cerenkov fiber sampling calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrington, K.; Kefford, D.; Kennedy, J.; Pisani, R.; Sanzeni, C.; Segall, K.; Wall, D.; Winn, D.R.; Carey, R.; Dye, S.; Miller, J.; Sulak, L.; Worstell, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Savin, A.; Shmakov, K.; Tarkovsky, E.

    1994-01-01

    Clear optical fibers were used as a Cerenkov sampling media in Pb (electromagnetic) and Cu (hadron) absorbers in spaghetti calorimeters, for high rate and high radiation dose experiments, such as the forward region of high energy colliders. The fiber axes were aligned close to the direction of the incident particles (1 degree--7 degree). The 7 λ deep hadron tower contained 2.8% by volume 1.5 mm diameter core clear plastic fibers. The 27 radiation length deep electromagnetic towers had packing fractions of 6.8% and 7.2% of 1 mm diameter core quartz fibers as the active Cerenkov sampling medium. The energy resolution on electrons and pions, energy response, pulse shapes and angular studies are presented

  1. Electrospun fibrous electrodes with tunable microstructure made of polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube suspension for all-solid-state supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Junsheng; Su, Shijie; Fang, Xu; Wang, Dazhi; Xu, Shuangchao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrospun PANI/MWCNT fibrous electrodes for supercapacitor were prepared. • Microstructure of electrodes is tunable by changing the electrospin parameters. • Fiber-diameter dependence of the electrode performance was observed. • High performance and good stability of electrospun electrodes were obtained. - Abstract: Electrospinning technique was used to prepare high performance fibrous electrodes with tunable microstructure for all-solid-state electrochemical supercapacitor. Symmetrically sandwiched supercapacitors consisting of flexible electrospun polyaniline (PANI)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/sulfuric acid (H_2SO_4) gel electrolyte were assembled. Tunable microstructure of the fibrous electrode was obtained by changing the electrospinning parameters including the collector–needle distance (CND) and the suspension flow rate (SFR). Results show that, higher CND combining with lower SFR can result in a smaller average diameter of the electrospun fibers and hence improve the electrode performance. When the CND changes from 80 to 140 mm, the average fiber diameter will decrease from 2.89 to 1.21 μm, and the specific surface area of the electrode can increase from 57 to 83 m"2·g"−"1. The corresponding specific capacitance of the electrospun electrode will therefore increase from 129.5 to 180 F·g"−"1, leading to a synchronous improvement of the energy density of the supercapacitor from 18 to 25 Wh·kg"−"1. On the other hand, the supercapacitors using fibrous electrodes in this work also show good rate capability and cycling stability. Using the electrode with an average fiber diameter of 1.21 μm, the specific capacitances can maintain 131 F·g"−"1 at a current density of 4 A·g"−"1, which is 73% of the specific capacitance of the same sample at a current density of 0.5 A·g"−"1. And the specific capacitance of the electrode can retain 89% after 1500 charge/discharge cycles.

  2. Electrospun fibrous electrodes with tunable microstructure made of polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube suspension for all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Junsheng; Su, Shijie; Fang, Xu [Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Technology and System of Liaoning Province, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Wang, Dazhi, E-mail: d.wang@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Technology and System of Liaoning Province, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-traditional Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Xu, Shuangchao [Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-traditional Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Electrospun PANI/MWCNT fibrous electrodes for supercapacitor were prepared. • Microstructure of electrodes is tunable by changing the electrospin parameters. • Fiber-diameter dependence of the electrode performance was observed. • High performance and good stability of electrospun electrodes were obtained. - Abstract: Electrospinning technique was used to prepare high performance fibrous electrodes with tunable microstructure for all-solid-state electrochemical supercapacitor. Symmetrically sandwiched supercapacitors consisting of flexible electrospun polyaniline (PANI)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) gel electrolyte were assembled. Tunable microstructure of the fibrous electrode was obtained by changing the electrospinning parameters including the collector–needle distance (CND) and the suspension flow rate (SFR). Results show that, higher CND combining with lower SFR can result in a smaller average diameter of the electrospun fibers and hence improve the electrode performance. When the CND changes from 80 to 140 mm, the average fiber diameter will decrease from 2.89 to 1.21 μm, and the specific surface area of the electrode can increase from 57 to 83 m{sup 2}·g{sup −1}. The corresponding specific capacitance of the electrospun electrode will therefore increase from 129.5 to 180 F·g{sup −1}, leading to a synchronous improvement of the energy density of the supercapacitor from 18 to 25 Wh·kg{sup −1}. On the other hand, the supercapacitors using fibrous electrodes in this work also show good rate capability and cycling stability. Using the electrode with an average fiber diameter of 1.21 μm, the specific capacitances can maintain 131 F·g{sup −1} at a current density of 4 A·g{sup −1}, which is 73% of the specific capacitance of the same sample at a current density of 0.5 A·g{sup −1}. And the specific capacitance of the electrode can retain 89

  3. Minimizing electrode contamination in an electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Zelenay, Piotr; Johnston, Christina

    2014-12-09

    An electrochemical cell assembly that is expected to prevent or at least minimize electrode contamination includes one or more getters that trap a component or components leached from a first electrode and prevents or at least minimizes them from contaminating a second electrode.

  4. An ionization chamber with magnetic levitated electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Kawaguchi, T

    1999-01-01

    A new type of ionization chamber which has magnetically levitated electrodes has been developed. The electrodes are supplied voltages for the repelling of ions by a battery which is also levitated with the electrodes. The characteristics of this ionization chamber are investigated in this paper.

  5. Fiber optics welder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R.W.; Robichaud, R.E.

    A system is described for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45/sup 0/ angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  6. FIBER OPTIC LIGHTING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir BATUR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently there have been many important and valuable developments in the communication industry. The huge increase in the sound, data and visual communications has caused a parallel increase in the demand for systems with wider capacity, higher speed and higher quality. Communication systems that use light to transfer data are immensely increased. There have recently many systems in which glass or plastic fiber cables were developed for light wave to be transmitted from a source to a target place. Fiber optic systems, are nowadays widely used in energy transmission control systems, medicine, industry and lighting. The basics of the system is, movement of light from one point to another point in fiber cable with reflections. Fiber optic lighting systems are quite secure than other lighting systems and have flexibility for realizing many different designs. This situation makes fiber optics an alternative for other lighting systems. Fiber optic lighting systems usage is increasing day-by-day in our life. In this article, these systems are discussed in detail.

  7. Electrospun amplified fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario

    2015-03-11

    All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ∼20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm(-1)). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics.

  8. Unconventional supercapacitors from nanocarbon-based electrode materials to device configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lili; Niu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun

    2016-07-25

    As energy storage devices, supercapacitors that are also called electrochemical capacitors possess high power density, excellent reversibility and long cycle life. The recent boom in electronic devices with different functions in transparent LED displays, stretchable electronic systems and artificial skin has increased the demand for supercapacitors to move towards light, thin, integrated macro- and micro-devices with transparent, flexible, stretchable, compressible and/or wearable abilities. The successful fabrication of such supercapacitors depends mainly on the preparation of innovative electrode materials and the design of unconventional supercapacitor configurations. Tremendous research efforts have been recently made to design and construct innovative nanocarbon-based electrode materials and supercapacitors with unconventional configurations. We review here recent developments in supercapacitors from nanocarbon-based electrode materials to device configurations. The advances in nanocarbon-based electrode materials mainly include the assembly technologies of macroscopic nanostructured electrodes with different dimensions of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers, graphene, mesoporous carbon, activated carbon, and their composites. The electrodes with macroscopic nanostructured carbon-based materials overcome the issues of low conductivity, poor mechanical properties, and limited dimensions that are faced by conventional methods. The configurational design of advanced supercapacitor devices is presented with six types of unconventional supercapacitor devices: flexible, micro-, stretchable, compressible, transparent and fiber supercapacitors. Such supercapacitors display unique configurations and excellent electrochemical performance at different states such as bending, stretching, compressing and/or folding. For example, all-solid-state simplified supercapacitors that are based on nanostructured graphene composite paper are able to maintain 95% of the original capacity at

  9. The study of hydrogen electrosorption in layered nickel foam/palladium/carbon nanofibers composite electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowronski, J.M.; Czerwinski, A.; Rozmanowski, T.; Rogulski, Z.; Krawczyk, P.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, the process of hydrogen electrosorption occurring in alkaline KOH solution on the nickel foam/palladium/carbon nanofibers (Ni/Pd/CNF) composite electrodes is examined. The layered Ni/Pd/CNF electrodes were prepared by a two-step method consisting of chemical deposition of a thin layer of palladium on the nickel foam support to form Ni/Pd electrode followed by coating the palladium layer with carbon nanofibers layer by means of the CVD method. The scanning electron microscope was used for studying the morphology of both the palladium and carbon layer. The process of hydrogen sorption/desorption into/from Ni/Pd as well as Ni/Pd/CNF electrode was examined using the cyclic voltammetry method. The amount of hydrogen stored in both types of composite electrodes was shown to increase on lowering the potential of hydrogen sorption. The mechanism of the anodic desorption of hydrogen changes depending on whether or not CNF layer is present on the Pd surface. The anodic peak corresponding to the removal of hydrogen from palladium is lower for Ni/Pd/CNF electrode as compared to that measured for Ni/Pd one due to a partial screening of the Pd surface area by CNF layer. The important feature of Ni/Pd/CNF electrode is anodic peak appearing on voltammetric curves at potential ca. 0.4 V more positive than the peak corresponding to hydrogen desorption from palladium. The obtained results showed that upon storing the hydrogen saturated Ni/Pd/CNF electrode at open circuit potential, diffusion of hydrogen from carbon to palladium phase occurs due to interaction between carbon fibers and Pd sites on the nickel foam support

  10. Electrophysiological characteristics of motor units and muscle fibers in trained and untrained young male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duez, Lene; Qerama, Erisela; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that the amplitudes of compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and interference pattern analysis (IPA) would be larger in trained subjects compared with untrained subjects, possibly due to hypertrophy of muscle fibers and/or increased central drive. Moreover, we hypothesized...... and untrained subjects in IPA power spectrum and turns per second or amplitude of the CMAPs obtained by DMS. Muscle fiber hypertrophy and/or altered central drive may account for our results, but there was no indication of changes in muscle fiber excitability. Muscle Nerve, 2010....... that the untrained muscle is less excitable compared with the trained muscle. An electromyographic (EMG) needle electrode was used to record the IPA at maximal voluntary effort. The CMAP was obtained by stimulating the musculocutaneous nerve and recording the brachial biceps muscle using surface electrodes. CMAPs...

  11. Continuous Natural Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites by Fiber Surface Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharat Wongsriraksa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic materials are expected to replace inorganic fiber reinforced thermosetting materials. However, in the process of fabricating the composite, it is difficult to impregnate the thermoplastic resin into reinforcement fiber because of the high melt viscosity. Therefore, intermediate material, which allows high impregnation during molding, has been investigated for fabricating continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite by aligning resin fiber alongside reinforcing fiber with braiding technique. This intermediate material has been called “microbraid yarn (MBY.” Moreover, it is well known that the interfacial properties between natural fiber and resin are low; therefore, surface treatment on continuous natural fiber was performed by using polyurethane (PU and flexible epoxy (FLEX to improve the interfacial properties. The effect of surface treatment on the mechanical properties of continuous natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites was examined. From these results, it was suggested that surface treatment by PU with low content could produce composites with better mechanical properties.

  12. Finite element modeling of piezoelectric elements with complex electrode configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, R; Schläpfer, B

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the material properties of piezoelectric materials strongly depend on the state of polarization of the individual element. While an unpolarized material exhibits mechanically isotropic material properties in the absence of global piezoelectric capabilities, the piezoelectric material properties become transversally isotropic with respect to the polarization direction after polarization. Therefore, for evaluating piezoelectric elements the material properties, including the coupling between the mechanical and the electromechanical behavior, should be addressed correctly. This is of special importance for the micromechanical description of piezoelectric elements with interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). The best known representatives of this group are active fiber composites (AFCs), macro fiber composites (MFCs) and the radial field diaphragm (RFD), respectively. While the material properties are available for a piezoelectric wafer with a homogeneous polarization perpendicular to its plane as postulated in the so-called uniform field model (UFM), the same information is missing for piezoelectric elements with more complex electrode configurations like the above-mentioned ones with IDEs. This is due to the inhomogeneous field distribution which does not automatically allow for the correct assignment of the material, i.e. orientation and property. A variation of the material orientation as well as the material properties can be accomplished by including the polarization process of the piezoelectric transducer in the finite element (FE) simulation prior to the actual load case to be investigated. A corresponding procedure is presented which automatically assigns the piezoelectric material properties, e.g. elasticity matrix, permittivity, and charge vector, for finite element models (FEMs) describing piezoelectric transducers according to the electric field distribution (field orientation and strength) in the structure. A corresponding code has been

  13. Flexible and stretchable lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors based on electrically conducting carbon nanotube fiber springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Bai, Wenyu; Cheng, Xunliang; Ren, Jing; Weng, Wei; Chen, Peining; Fang, Xin; Zhang, Zhitao; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-12-22

    The construction of lightweight, flexible and stretchable power systems for modern electronic devices without using elastic polymer substrates is critical but remains challenging. We have developed a new and general strategy to produce both freestanding, stretchable, and flexible supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries with remarkable electrochemical properties by designing novel carbon nanotube fiber springs as electrodes. These springlike electrodes can be stretched by over 300 %. In addition, the supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries have a flexible fiber shape that enables promising applications in electronic textiles. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Controlled functionalization of carbonaceous fibers for asymmetric solid-state micro-supercapacitors with high volumetric energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dingshan; Goh, Kunli; Zhang, Qiang; Wei, Li; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Wenchao; Chen, Yuan

    2014-10-22

    A 1.8 V asymmetric solid-state flexible micro-supercapacitor is designed with one MnO2 -coated reduced graphene oxide/single-walled carbon nanotube (rGO/SWCNT) composite fiber as positive electrode and one nitrogen-doped rGO/SWCNT fiber as negative electrode, which demonstrates ultrahigh volumetric energy density, comparable to some thin-film lithium batteries, along with high power density, long cycle life, and good flexibility. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy using a muzzle brake fiber tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Thomas C.; Gonzalez, David A.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2017-02-01

    The Thulium fiber laser (TFL) is being explored as an alternative to Holmium:YAG laser for lithotripsy. TFL beam profile allows coupling of higher power into smaller fibers than multimode Holmium laser beam, without proximal fiber tip degradation. A smaller fiber provides more space in ureteroscope working channel for increased saline irrigation and allows maximum ureteroscope flexion. However, distal fiber tip burnback increases as fiber diameter decreases. Previous studies utilizing hollow steel sheaths around recessed distal fiber tips reduced fiber burnback, but increased retropulsion. In this study, a "fiber muzzle brake" was tested for reducing fiber burnback and stone retropulsion. TFL lithotripsy studies were performed at 1908 nm, 35 mJ, 500 μs, and 300 Hz using a 100-μm-core fiber. The optimal stainless steel muzzle brake tip tested consisted of a 1-cm-long, 560-μm-OD, 360-μm-ID tube with 275-μm thru hole located 250-μm from the distal end. The fiber tip was recessed a distance of 500 μm. Stone phantom retropulsion, fiber tip burnback, and calcium oxalate stone ablation studies were performed, ex vivo. Small stones with a mass of 40 +/- 4 mg and 4-mm-diameter were ablated over a 1.5-mm sieve in 25 +/- 4 s (n=10), without distal fiber tip burnback. Reduction in stone phantom retropulsion distance by 50% and 85% was observed when using muzzle brake tips versus 100-μm-core bare fibers and hollow steel tip fibers. The muzzle brake fiber tip provided efficient stone ablation, reduced stone retropulsion, and minimal fiber degradation during TFL lithotripsy.

  16. Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL; Liu, Jun [Naperville, IL; Vissers, Donald R [Naperville, IL; Lu, Wenquan [Darien, IL

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to non-aqueous electrolytes having electrode stabilizing additives, stabilized electrodes, and electrochemical devices containing the same. Thus the present invention provides electrolytes containing an alkali metal salt, a polar aprotic solvent, and an electrode stabilizing additive. In some embodiments the additives include a substituted or unsubstituted cyclic or spirocyclic hydrocarbon containing at least one oxygen atom and at least one alkenyl or alkynyl group. When used in electrochemical devices with, e.g., lithium manganese oxide spinel electrodes or olivine or carbon-coated olivine electrodes, the new electrolytes provide batteries with improved calendar and cycle life.

  17. CARBONIZED STARCH MICROCELLULAR FOAM-CELLULOSE FIBER COMPOSITE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Rutledge

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of microporous carbon foams from renewable starch microcellular foam-fiber (SMCF-Fiber composites is described. Carbon foams are used in applications such as thermal insulation, battery electrodes, filters, fuel cells, and medical devices. SMCF-Fiber compos-ites were created from an aquagel. The water in the aquagel was exchanged with ethanol and then dried and carbonized. Higher amylose content starches and fiber contents of up to 4% improved the processability of the foam. The SMCF structure revealed agglomerates of swollen starch granules connected by a web of starch with pores in the 50-200 nanometer range. Heating the SMCF-fiber in a nitrogen atmosphere to temperatures between 350-700˚C produced carbon foams with a three-dimensional closed cell foam structure with cell diameters around 50 microns and pore walls around 1-3 microns. The stress versus strain compression data for carbonized samples displayed a linear elastic region and a plateau indicative of brittle crushing, typical of an elastic-brittle foam. The carbon foam products from these renew-able precursors are promising carbon structures with moderate strength and low density.

  18. Cellulosic Fibers: Effect of Processing on Fiber Bundle Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Madsen, Bo; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2011-01-01

    A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding, and cotto......A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding...

  19. Study on basalt fiber parameters affecting fiber-reinforced mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, A. A.; Chernykh, T. N.; Sashina, A. V.; Bogusevich, D. V.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the effect of different dosages and diameters of basalt fibers on tensile strength increase during bending of fiberboard-reinforced mortar samples. The optimal dosages of fiber, providing maximum strength in bending are revealed. The durability of basalt fiber in an environment of cement, by means of microscopic analysis of samples of fibers and fiberboard-reinforced mortar long-term tests is examined. The article also compares the behavior of basalt fiber in the cement stone environment to a glass one and reveals that the basalt fiber is not subject to destruction.

  20. Optical fiber stripper positioning apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Richard W.; Sanchez, Jr., Amadeo

    1990-01-01

    An optical fiber positioning apparatus for an optical fiber stripping device is disclosed which is capable of providing precise axial alignment between an optical fiber to be stripped of its outer jacket and the cutting blades of a stripping device. The apparatus includes a first bore having a width approximately equal to the diameter of an unstripped optical fiber and a counter bore axially aligned with the first bore and dimensioned to precisely receive a portion of the stripping device in axial alignment with notched cutting blades within the stripping device to thereby axially align the notched cutting blades of the stripping device with the axis of the optical fiber to permit the notched cutting blades to sever the jacket on the optical fiber without damaging the cladding on the optical fiber. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus further includes a fiber stop which permits determination of the length of jacket to be removed from the optical fiber.

  1. Piercing by composite electrode tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukarimov, Eh.T.; Krakov, B.G.; Saidinov, S.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    The construction of the electrode consisting of a dielectric shell, where a working liquid enters, and a metal rod is designed for precision super-deep piercing by the electroerosion treatment method. Technological parameters of piercing with small diameter (0.5-1.9 mm) for 12Kh18N10T steel, copper and tungsten are presented. A possibility to use a new tool for treating components of any form and sizes is marked

  2. Redox electrode materials for supercapatteries

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Linpo; Chen, George Z.

    2016-01-01

    Redox electrode materials, including transition metal oxides and electronically conducting polymers, are capable of faradaic charge transfer reactions, and play important roles in most electrochemical energy storage devices, such as supercapacitor, battery and supercapattery. Batteries are often based on redox materials with low power capability and safety concerns in some cases. Supercapacitors, particularly those based on redox inactive materials, e.g. activated carbon, can offer high power...

  3. Analytic Potentials for Realistic Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, Stephan E.; Taylor, Aimee E.; Swanson, Kenneth R.

    2002-01-01

    Finite difference algorithms are widely used to numerically solve Laplace's equation for electrode structures that are not amendable to analytic treatment. This includes essentially all real situations. However, in many cases, it is desirable to have the solution in an analytic form. A common practice is to 'fit' the numerical solution either by least squares or cubic spline approach. Neither of these approaches is really accurate, nor do they produce unique results. These limitations are avoided by our approach.

  4. Potentiometric titration with polarized electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikryzova, E.G.

    1977-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the works carried out during 1911-75 consideration is given to the present state of the method of potentiometric titration with polarized electrodes. The material is generalized in the tabular form indicating the elments of interest, titration conditions and the objects to be analyzed. The list and classification of the potentiometric titration methods intended for determining organic and inorganic substances are presented

  5. Surface modification of recording electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iaci Miranda Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne Polyurethanes (PUs are a family of polymers that contains urethane linkages synthesized in an aqueous environment and are thus free of organic solvents. Recently, waterborne PUs have been extensively studied for biomedical applications because of their biocompatibility. The present work investigates the following: (1 the impact on electrical performance of electrode materials (platinum and silicon modified chemically by a layer of waterborne PU, and (2 the behavior of rat cardiac fibroblasts and rat cardiomyocytes when in contact with an electrode surface. Diisocyanate and poly(caprolactone diol were the main reagents for producing PUs. The electrochemical impedance of the electrode/electrolyte interface was accessed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The cellular viability, proliferation, and morphology changes were investigated using an MTT assay. Cardiomyocyte adherence was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The obtained surface was uniform, flat, and transparent. The film showed good adhesion, and no peeling was detected. The electrochemical impedance decreased over time and was influenced by the ionic permeability of the PU layer. The five samples did not show cytotoxicity when in contact with neonatal rat cells.

  6. Modeling of Changing Electrode Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, Geoffrey Allen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials and Molecular Research Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1980-12-01

    A model for simulating the transient behavior of solid electrodes undergoing deposition or dissolution has been developed. The model accounts for ohmic drop, charge transfer overpotential, and mass transport limitations. The finite difference method, coupled with successive overrelaxation, was used as the basis of the solution technique. An algorithm was devised to overcome the computational instabilities associated with the calculations of the secondary and tertiary current distributions. Simulations were performed on several model electrode profiles: the sinusoid, the rounded corner, and the notch. Quantitative copper deposition data were obtained in a contoured rotating cylinder system, Sinusoidal cross-sections, machined on stainless steel cylinders, were used as model geometries, Kinetic parameters for use in the simulation were determined from polarization curves obtained on copper rotating cylinders, These parameters, along with other physical property and geometric data, were incorporated in simulations of growing sinusoidal profiles. The copper distributions on the sinusoidal cross-sections were measured and found to compare favorably with the simulated results. At low Wagner numbers the formation of a slight depression at the profile peak was predicted by the simulation and observed on the profile. At higher Wagner numbers, the simulated and experimental results showed that the formation of a depression was suppressed. This phenomenon was shown to result from the competition between ohmic drop and electrode curvature.

  7. Natural Fiber Composites: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, Matthew P.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Laddha, Sachin; Kafentzis, Tyler A.

    2010-03-07

    The need for renewable fiber reinforced composites has never been as prevalent as it currently is. Natural fibers offer both cost savings and a reduction in density when compared to glass fibers. Though the strength of natural fibers is not as great as glass, the specific properties are comparable. Currently natural fiber composites have two issues that need to be addressed: resin compatibility and water absorption. The following preliminary research has investigated the use of Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus, as a possible glass replacement in fiber reinforced composites.

  8. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures

  9. Fiber-optic technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    A history of fiber technology is presented. The advantages of fiber optics are discussed (bandwidth, cost, weight and size, nonmetallic construction and isolation). Some aspects of the disadvantages of fiber systems briefly discussed are fiber and cable availability, fiber components, radiation effects, receivers and transmitters, and material dispersion. Particular emphasis over the next several years will involve development of fibers and systems optimized for use at wavelengths near 1.3 μm and development of wavelengths multiplexers for simultaneous system operation at several wavelengths

  10. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

    1993-11-30

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures.

  11. Lithium manganese oxide spinel electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Robert Mason

    Batteries based oil intercalation eletrodes are currently being considered for a variety of applications including automobiles. This thesis is concerned with the simulation and experimental investigation of one such system: spinel LiyMn2O4. A mathematical model simulating the behavior of an electrochemical cell containing all intercalation electrode is developed and applied to Li yMn2O4 based systems. The influence of the exchange current density oil the propagation of the reaction through the depth of the electrode is examined theoretically. Galvanostatic cycling and relaxation phenomena on open circuit are simulated for different particle-size distributions. The electrode with uniformly sized particles shows the best performance when the current is on, and relaxes towards equilibrium most quickly. The impedance of a porous electrode containing a particle-size distribution at low frequencies is investigated with all analytic solution and a simplified version of the mathematical model. The presence of the particle-size distribution leads to an apparent diffusion coefficient which has all incorrect concentration dependence. A Li/1 M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate (PC)/ LiyMn 2O4 cell is used to investigate the influence of side reactions oil the current-potential behavior of intercalation electrodes. Slow cyclic voltammograms and self-discharge data are combined to estimate the reversible potential of the host material and the kinetic parameters for the side reaction. This information is then used, together with estimates of the solid-state diffusion coefficient and main-reaction exchange current density, in a mathematical model of the system. Predictions from the model compare favorably with continuous cycling results and galvanostatic experiments with periodic current interruptions. The variation with respect to composition of' the diffusion coefficient of lithium in LiyMn2O4 is estimated from incomplete galvanostatic discharges following open-circult periods. The

  12. Anisotropic elliptic optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soon Ahm

    1991-05-01

    The exact characteristic equation for an anisotropic elliptic optical fiber is obtained for odd and even hybrid modes in terms of infinite determinants utilizing Mathieu and modified Mathieu functions. A simplified characteristic equation is obtained by applying the weakly guiding approximation such that the difference in the refractive indices of the core and the cladding is small. The simplified characteristic equation is used to compute the normalized guide wavelength for an elliptical fiber. When the anisotropic parameter is equal to unity, the results are compared with the previous research and they are in close agreement. For a fixed value normalized cross-section area or major axis, the normalized guide wavelength lambda/lambda(sub 0) for an anisotropic elliptic fiber is small for the larger value of anisotropy. This condition indicates that more energy is carried inside of the fiber. However, the geometry and anisotropy of the fiber have a smaller effect when the normalized cross-section area is very small or very large.

  13. Ultrathin Coaxial Fiber Supercapacitors Achieving High Energy and Power Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Caiwei; Xie, Yingxi; Sanghadasa, Mohan; Tang, Yong; Lu, Longsheng; Lin, Liwei

    2017-11-15

    Fiber-based supercapacitors have attracted significant interests because of their potential applications in wearable electronics. Although much progress has been made in recent years, the energy and power densities, mechanical strength, and flexibility of such devices are still in need of improvement for practical applications. Here, we demonstrate an ultrathin microcoaxial fiber supercapacitor (μCFSC) with high energy and power densities (2.7 mW h/cm 3 and 13 W/cm 3 ), as well as excellent mechanical properties. The prototype with the smallest reported overall diameter (∼13 μm) is fabricated by successive coating of functional layers onto a single micro-carbon-fiber via a scalable process. Combining the simulation results via the electrochemical model, we attribute the high performance to the well-controlled thin coatings that make full use of the electrode materials and minimize the ion transport path between electrodes. Moreover, the μCFSC features high bending flexibility and large tensile strength (more than 1 GPa), which make it promising as a building block for various flexible energy storage applications.

  14. Aligned and Electrospun Piezoelectric Polymer Fiber Assembly and Scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Carnell, Lisa A. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Leong, Kam W. (Inventor); Kulangara, Karina (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A scaffold assembly and related methods of manufacturing and/or using the scaffold for stem cell culture and tissue engineering applications are disclosed which at least partially mimic a native biological environment by providing biochemical, topographical, mechanical and electrical cues by using an electroactive material. The assembly includes at least one layer of substantially aligned, electrospun polymer fiber having an operative connection for individual voltage application. A method of cell tissue engineering and/or stem cell differentiation uses the assembly seeded with a sample of cells suspended in cell culture media, incubates and applies voltage to one or more layers, and thus produces cells and/or a tissue construct. In another aspect, the invention provides a method of manufacturing the assembly including the steps of providing a first pre-electroded substrate surface; electrospinning a first substantially aligned polymer fiber layer onto the first surface; providing a second pre-electroded substrate surface; electrospinning a second substantially aligned polymer fiber layer onto the second surface; and, retaining together the layered surfaces with a clamp and/or an adhesive compound.

  15. Schiff Base modified on CPE electrode and PCB gold electrode for selective determination of silver ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leepheng, Piyawan; Suramitr, Songwut; Phromyothin, Darinee

    2017-09-01

    The schiff base was synthesized by 2,5-thiophenedicarboxaldehyde and 1,2,4-thiadiazole-3,5-diamine with condensation method. There was modified on carbon paste electrode (CPE) and Printed circuit board (PCB) gold electrode for determination silver ion. The schiff base modified electrodes was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The electrochemical study was reported by cyclic voltammetry method and impedance spectroscopy using modified electrode as working electrode, platinum wire and Ag/AgCl as counter electrode and reference electrode, respectively. The modified electrodes have suitable detection for Ag+. The determination of silver ions using the modified electrodes depended linearly on Ag+ concentration in the range 1×10-10 M to 1×10-7 M, with cyclic voltammetry sensitivity were 2.51×108 μAM-1 and 1.88×108 μAM-1 for PCB gold electrode and CPE electrode, respectively, limits of detection were 5.33×10-9 M and 1.99×10-8 M for PCB gold electrode and CPE electrode, respectively. The modified electrodes have high accuracy, inexpensive and can applied to detection Ag+ in real samples.

  16. Hybrid Fiber Layup and Fiber-Reinforced Polymeric Composites Produced Therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnell, Thomas J. (Inventor); Garrigan, Sean P. (Inventor); Rauscher, Michael D. (Inventor); Dietsch, Benjamin A. (Inventor); Cupp, Gary N. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Embodiments of a hybrid fiber layup used to form a fiber-reinforced polymeric composite, and a fiber-reinforced polymeric composite produced therefrom are disclosed. The hybrid fiber layup comprises one or more dry fiber strips and one or more prepreg fiber strips arranged side by side within each layer, wherein the prepreg fiber strips comprise fiber material impregnated with polymer resin and the dry fiber strips comprise fiber material without impregnated polymer resin.

  17. Selective detection and recovery of gold at tannin-immobilized non-conducting electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Khaleda; Shimura, Takayoshi; Sadeghi, Saman

    2015-01-01

    A tannin-immobilized glassy carbon electrode (TIGC) was prepared via electrochemical oxidation of the naturally occurring polyphenolic mimosa tannin, which generated a non-conducting polymeric film (NCPF) on the electrode surface. The fouling of the electrode surface by the electropolymerized film was evaluated by monitoring the electrode response of ferricyanide ions as a redox marker. The NCPF was permselective to HAuCl4, and the electrochemical reduction of HAuCl4 to metallic gold at the TIGC electrode was evaluated by recording the reduction current during cyclic voltammetry measurement. In the mixed electrolyte containing HAuCl4 along with FeCl3 and/or CuCl2, the NCPF remained selective toward the electrochemical reduction of HAuCl4 into the metallic state. The chemical reduction of HAuCl4 into metallic gold was also observed when the NCPF was inserted into an acidic gold solution overnight. The adsorption capacity of Au(III) on tannin-immobilized carbon fiber was 29±1.45 mg g(-1) at 60°C. In the presence of excess Cu(II) and Fe(III), tannin-immobilized NCPF proved to be an excellent candidate for the selective detection and recovery of gold through both electrochemical and chemical processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Water-activated graphite felt as a high-performance electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabtamu, Daniel Manaye; Chen, Jian-Yu; Chang, Yu-Chung; Wang, Chen-Hao

    2017-02-01

    A simple, green, novel, time-efficient, and potentially cost-effective water activation method was employed to enhance the electrochemical activity of graphite felt (GF) electrodes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The GF electrode prepared with a water vapor injection time of 5 min at 700 °C exhibits the highest electrochemical activity for the VO2+/VO2+ couple among all the tested electrodes. This is attributed to the small, controlled amount of water vapor that was introduced producing high contents of oxygen-containing functional groups, such as sbnd OH groups, on the surface of the GF fibers, which are known to be electrochemically active sites for vanadium redox reactions. Charge-discharge tests further confirm that only 5 min of GF water activation is required to improve the efficiency of the VRFB cell. The average coulombic efficiency, voltage efficiency, and energy efficiency are 95.06%, 87.42%, and 83.10%, respectively, at a current density of 50 mA cm-2. These voltage and energy efficiencies are determined to be considerably higher than those of VRFB cells assembled using heat-treated GF electrodes without water activation and pristine GF electrodes.

  19. Graphene fiber: a new trend in carbon fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Xu; Chao Gao

    2015-01-01

    New fibers with increased strength and rich functionalities have been untiringly pursued by materials researchers. In recent years, graphene fiber has arisen as a new carbonaceous fiber with high expectations in terms of mechanical and functional performance. In this review, we elucidated the concept of sprouted graphene fibers, including strategies for their fabrication and their basic structural attributes. We examine the rapid advances in the promotion of mechanical/functional properties o...

  20. Electrode phenomena, tensor conductivity and electrode heating in seeded argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croitoru, Z.; de Montardy, A.

    1963-04-15

    Contact potential drops along the electrodes often prevent measurements of ionized gas conductivity. In order to avoid such potential drops, a measurement cell using double probe technique was realized. By adding a third probe, it is also possible to measure the conductivity tensor components. Formulas commonly used are shown to be incorrect. In order to evaluate non- equilibrium conductivity, the excitation temperature of the seed is to be considered, rather than electron temperature, especially in small scale experiments, where charged particle losses by ambipolar diffusion are to be expected. (auth)

  1. Optical fiber switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2002-01-01

    Optical fiber switches operated by electrical activation of at least one laser light modulator through which laser light is directed into at least one polarizer are used for the sequential transport of laser light from a single laser into a plurality of optical fibers. In one embodiment of the invention, laser light from a single excitation laser is sequentially transported to a plurality of optical fibers which in turn transport the laser light to separate individual remotely located laser fuel ignitors. The invention can be operated electro-optically with no need for any mechanical or moving parts, or, alternatively, can be operated electro-mechanically. The invention can be used to switch either pulsed or continuous wave laser light.

  2. Fiber Optic Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudy, C.; Bayliss, S.; Bracken, D.; Bush, J.; Davis, P.

    1997-01-01

    A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using optical fibers for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processes to allow phase shifts as small as 1 microradian (microrad) to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 radians (rad) of phase shift per milliwatt of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% 240 Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium

  3. Femtosecond Fiber Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Katherine J.

    This thesis focuses on research I have done on ytterbium-doped femtosecond fiber lasers. These lasers operate in the near infrared region, lasing at 1030 nm. This wavelength is particularly important in biomedical applications, which includes but is not limited to confocal microscopy and ablation for surgical incisions. Furthermore, fiber lasers are advantageous compared to solid state lasers in terms of their cost, form factor, and ease of use. Solid state lasers still dominate the market due to their comparatively high energy pulses. High energy pulse generation in fiber lasers is hindered by either optical wave breaking or by multipulsing. One of the main challenges for fiber lasers is to overcome these limitations to achieve high energy pulses. The motivation for the work done in this thesis is increasing the output pulse peak power and energy. The main idea of the work is that decreasing the nonlinearity that acts on the pulse inside the cavity will prevent optical wave breaking, and thus will generate higher energy pulses. By increasing the output energy, ytterbium-doped femtosecond fiber lasers can be competitive with solid state lasers which are used commonly in research. Although fiber lasers tend to lack the wavelength tuning ability of solid state lasers, many biomedical applications take advantage of the 1030 microm central wavelength of ytterbium-doped fiber lasers, so the major limiting factor of fiber lasers in this field is simply the output power. By increasing the output energy without resorting to external amplification, the cavity is optimized and cost can remain low and economical. During verification of the main idea, the cavity was examined for possible back-reflections and for components with narrow spectral bandwidths which may have contributed to the presence of multipulsing. Distinct cases of multipulsing, bound pulse and harmonic mode-locking, were observed and recorded as they may be of more interest in the future. The third

  4. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    This PhD thesis considers higher order modes (HOMs) in optical fibers. That includes their excitation and characteristics. Within the last decades, HOMs have been applied both for space multiplexing in optical communications, group velocity dispersion management and sensing among others......-radial polarization as opposed to the linear polarization of the LP0X modes. The effect is investigated numerically in a double cladding fiber with an outer aircladding using a full vectorial modesolver. Experimentally, the bowtie modes are excited using a long period grating and their free space characteristics...... and polarization state are investigated. For this fiber, the onset of the bowtie effect is shown numerically to be LP011. The characteristics usually associated with Bessel-likes modes such as long diffraction free length and selfhealing are shown to be conserved despite the lack of azimuthal symmetry...

  5. Fiber optic calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudy, C.R.; Bayliss, S.C.; Bracken, D.S.; Bush, I.J.; Davis, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using optical fibers for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processing to allow phase shifts as small as 1 microrad to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 rad of phase shift per mW of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% 240 Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium

  6. Fiber optic calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudy, C.; Bayliss, S.; Bracken, D.; Bush, J.; Davis, P.

    1998-01-01

    A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using fiber for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processing to allow phase shifts as small as 1 microradian (μrad) to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 radians (rad) of phase shift per milliwatt of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% 240 Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium

  7. Multibeam fiber laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber......-laser cutting have until now limited its application to metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle Studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness and short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multibeam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W...

  8. Influence of gamma irradiation exposure on the performance of supercapacitor electrodes made from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Nor, Najah Syahirah; Deraman, Mohamad; Omar, Ramli; Awitdrus,; Farma, Rakhmawati; Basri, Nur Hamizah; Mohd Dolah, Besek Nurdiana; Mamat, Nurul Fatin; Yatim, Baharudin; Md Daud, Mohd Norizam

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-monolith electrodes for supercapacitors were prepared from GMs (green monoliths) made from pre-carbonized fibers of oil palm EFB (empty fruit bunches) and GMs of pre-carbonized EFB fibers exposed to gamma radiation at 5 kGy, 15 kGy, and 20 kGy. GMs and irradiated GMs were carbonized and activated to prepare ACM (activated-carbon-monolith) electrodes. The gamma radiation affected the pore structure of the ACM electrodes and the electrochemical performance of the supercapacitors; irradiation doses of 0 kGy, 5 kGy, 15 kGy and 20 kGy produced specific capacitances of 121 F g −1 , 196 F g −1 , 11 F g −1 , and 12 F g −1 , respectively. The irradiation dose of 5 kGy appears to be optimum and produces a specific power and specific energy of 236 W kg −1 and 5.45 W h kg −1 , respectively, representing 34% and 60% increases over ACM electrodes prepared from non-irradiated GMs. - Highlights: • Green monoliths were prepared from pre-carbonized fibers of oil palm fruit bunches. • Green monoliths were irradiated with gamma rays at doses from 5 to 20 kGy. • Green monoliths were carbonized and activated to prepare activated carbon electrodes. • A 5 kGy dosage produce the best supercapacitor electrode. • Specific power and energy improved of 34% and 60%, respectively, were obtained after the 5 kGy dosage

  9. Bifunctional electrodes for unitised regenerative fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, Sebastian; Kaz, Till; Friedrich, Kaspar Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Different oxygen electrode configurations for the operation in a unitised reversible fuel cell were tested. → Polarisation curves and EIS measurements were recorded. → The mixture of catalysts performs best for the present stage of electrode development. → Potential improvements for the different compositions are discussed. - Abstract: The effects of different configurations and compositions of platinum and iridium oxide electrodes for the oxygen reaction of unitised regenerative fuel cells (URFC) are reported. Bifunctional oxygen electrodes are important for URFC development because favourable properties for the fuel cell and the electrolysis modes must be combined into a single electrode. The bifunctional electrodes were studied under different combinations of catalyst mixtures, multilayer arrangements and segmented configurations with single catalyst areas. Distinct electrochemical behaviour was observed for both modes and can be explained on the basis of impedance spectroscopy. The mixture of both catalysts performs best for the present stage of electrode development. Also, the multilayer electrodes yielded good results with the potential for optimisation. The influence of ionic and electronic resistances on the relative performance is demonstrated. However, penalties due to cross currents in the heterogeneous electrodes were identified and explained by comparing the performance curves with electrodes composed of a single catalyst. Potential improvements for the different compositions are discussed.

  10. 3D Printed Dry EEG Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachunov, Sammy; Casson, Alexander J

    2016-10-02

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is a procedure that records brain activity in a non-invasive manner. The cost and size of EEG devices has decreased in recent years, facilitating a growing interest in wearable EEG that can be used out-of-the-lab for a wide range of applications, from epilepsy diagnosis, to stroke rehabilitation, to Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI). A major obstacle for these emerging applications is the wet electrodes, which are used as part of the EEG setup. These electrodes are attached to the human scalp using a conductive gel, which can be uncomfortable to the subject, causes skin irritation, and some gels have poor long-term stability. A solution to this problem is to use dry electrodes, which do not require conductive gel, but tend to have a higher noise floor. This paper presents a novel methodology for the design and manufacture of such dry electrodes. We manufacture the electrodes using low cost desktop 3D printers and off-the-shelf components for the first time. This allows quick and inexpensive electrode manufacturing and opens the possibility of creating electrodes that are customized for each individual user. Our 3D printed electrodes are compared against standard wet electrodes, and the performance of the proposed electrodes is suitable for BCI applications, despite the presence of additional noise.

  11. 3D Printed Dry EEG Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Krachunov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG is a procedure that records brain activity in a non-invasive manner. The cost and size of EEG devices has decreased in recent years, facilitating a growing interest in wearable EEG that can be used out-of-the-lab for a wide range of applications, from epilepsy diagnosis, to stroke rehabilitation, to Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI. A major obstacle for these emerging applications is the wet electrodes, which are used as part of the EEG setup. These electrodes are attached to the human scalp using a conductive gel, which can be uncomfortable to the subject, causes skin irritation, and some gels have poor long-term stability. A solution to this problem is to use dry electrodes, which do not require conductive gel, but tend to have a higher noise floor. This paper presents a novel methodology for the design and manufacture of such dry electrodes. We manufacture the electrodes using low cost desktop 3D printers and off-the-shelf components for the first time. This allows quick and inexpensive electrode manufacturing and opens the possibility of creating electrodes that are customized for each individual user. Our 3D printed electrodes are compared against standard wet electrodes, and the performance of the proposed electrodes is suitable for BCI applications, despite the presence of additional noise.

  12. HVDC Ground Electrodes and Tectonic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, P. F.; Pereira, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Ground electrodes in HVDC transmission are huge grounding systems for the DC part of the converter substation, about 1 km wide, sized to inject in the ground DC currents up to 3.5 kA. This work presents an analysis of how the tectonic setting at converter substation location is determinant for the search of the best electrode location (Site Selection) and on its design and performance. It will briefly present the author experience on HVDC electrode design, summarized as follows: Itaipu - Foz do Iguaçu electrodes (transmitter side) located in the middle of Paraná Sedimentary Basin, and Ibiúna electrodes (receiving side) on the border of the basin, 6 km from the geological strike, where the crystalline basement outcrops in São Paulo state; Madeira River - North electrodes (transmitting side) located on the Northwest border of South Amazon Craton, where the crystalline basement is below a shallow sediments layer, and South electrodes (receiving side) located within Paraná Sedimentary Basin; Chile - electrodes located on the Andean forearc, where the Nazca Plate plunges under the South American Plate; Kenya - Ethiopia - electrodes located in the African Rift; Belo Monte - North electrodes (transmitter side) located within the Amazonian Sedimentary Basin, about 35 km of its South border, and South electrodes (receiving side) within Paraná Sedimentary Basin (bipole 1) and on crystalline metamorphic terrain "Brasília Belt" (bipole 2). This diversity of geological conditions results on ground electrodes of different topologies and dimensions, with quite different electrical and thermal performances. A brief study of the geology of the converter stations regions, the so-called Desktop Study, allows for the preview of several important parameters for the site selection and design of the electrodes, such as localization, type, size and estimate of the interference area, which are important predictors of the investment to be made and indications of the design to be

  13. Monolithic Yb-fiber femtosecond laser using photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate, both experimentally and theoretically, an environmentally stable monolithic all-PM modelocked femtosecond Yb-fiber laser, with laser output pulse compressed in a spliced-on low-loss hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Our laser provides direct fiber-end delivery of 4 nJ pulses...

  14. K3-fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds II, singular fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    In part I of this paper we constructed certain fibered Calabi-Yaus by a quotient construction in the context of weighted hypersurfaces. In this paper look at the case of K3 fibrations more closely and study the singular fibers which occur. This differs from previous work since the fibrations we discuss have constant modulus, and the singular fibers have torsion monodromy.

  15. Single fiber pullout from hybrid fiber reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markovich, I.; Van Mier, J.G.M.; Walraven, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid fiber reinforcement can be very efficient for improving the tensile response of the composite. In such materials, fibers of different geometries can act as bridging mechanisms over cracks of different widths. The fiber bridging efficiency depends on the interface properties, which makes

  16. Fluoride glass fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Ishwar D

    1991-01-01

    Fluoride Glass Fiber Optics reviews the fundamental aspects of fluoride glasses. This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the wide range of fluoride glasses with an emphasis on fluorozirconate-based compositions. The structure of simple fluoride systems, such as BaF2 binary glass is elaborated in Chapter 2. The third chapter covers the intrinsic transparency of fluoride glasses from the UV to the IR, with particular emphasis on the multiphonon edge and electronic edge. The next three chapters are devoted to ultra-low loss optical fibers, reviewing methods for purifying and

  17. Nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    2012-01-01

    Since the 4e appeared, a fast evolution of the field has occurred. The 5e of this classic work provides an up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers, the basis of all our telecommunications infastructure as well as being used in the medical field. Reflecting the big developments in research, this new edition includes major new content: slow light effects, which offers a reduction in noise and power consumption and more ordered network traffic-stimulated Brillouin scattering; vectorial treatment of highly nonlinear fibers; and a brand new chapter o

  18. Altering Anode Thickness To Improve Power Production in Microbial Fuel Cells with Different Electrode Distances

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Yongtae

    2013-01-17

    A better understanding of how anode and separator physical properties affect power production is needed to improve energy and power production by microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Oxygen crossover from the cathode can limit power production by bacteria on the anode when using closely spaced electrodes [separator electrode assembly (SEA)]. Thick graphite fiber brush anodes, as opposed to thin carbon cloth, and separators have previously been examined as methods to reduce the impact of oxygen crossover on power generation. We examined here whether the thickness of the anode could be an important factor in reducing the effect of oxygen crossover on power production, because bacteria deep in the electrode could better maintain anaerobic conditions. Carbon felt anodes with three different thicknesses were examined to see the effects of thicker anodes in two configurations: widely spaced electrodes and SEA. Power increased with anode thickness, with maximum power densities (604 mW/m 2, 0.32 cm; 764 mW/m2, 0.64 cm; and 1048 mW/m2, 1.27 cm), when widely spaced electrodes (4 cm) were used, where oxygen crossover does not affect power generation. Performance improved slightly using thicker anodes in the SEA configuration, but power was lower (maximum of 689 mW/m2) than with widely spaced electrodes, despite a reduction in ohmic resistance to 10 Ω (SEA) from 51-62 Ω (widely spaced electrodes). These results show that thicker anodes can work better than thinner anodes but only when the anodes are not adversely affected by proximity to the cathode. This suggests that reducing oxygen crossover and improving SEA MFC performance will require better separators. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  19. Altering Anode Thickness To Improve Power Production in Microbial Fuel Cells with Different Electrode Distances

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Yongtae; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    A better understanding of how anode and separator physical properties affect power production is needed to improve energy and power production by microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Oxygen crossover from the cathode can limit power production by bacteria on the anode when using closely spaced electrodes [separator electrode assembly (SEA)]. Thick graphite fiber brush anodes, as opposed to thin carbon cloth, and separators have previously been examined as methods to reduce the impact of oxygen crossover on power generation. We examined here whether the thickness of the anode could be an important factor in reducing the effect of oxygen crossover on power production, because bacteria deep in the electrode could better maintain anaerobic conditions. Carbon felt anodes with three different thicknesses were examined to see the effects of thicker anodes in two configurations: widely spaced electrodes and SEA. Power increased with anode thickness, with maximum power densities (604 mW/m 2, 0.32 cm; 764 mW/m2, 0.64 cm; and 1048 mW/m2, 1.27 cm), when widely spaced electrodes (4 cm) were used, where oxygen crossover does not affect power generation. Performance improved slightly using thicker anodes in the SEA configuration, but power was lower (maximum of 689 mW/m2) than with widely spaced electrodes, despite a reduction in ohmic resistance to 10 Ω (SEA) from 51-62 Ω (widely spaced electrodes). These results show that thicker anodes can work better than thinner anodes but only when the anodes are not adversely affected by proximity to the cathode. This suggests that reducing oxygen crossover and improving SEA MFC performance will require better separators. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. Carbon nanopipette electrodes for dopamine detection in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Hillary R; Anderson, Sean E; Privman, Eve; Bau, Haim H; Venton, B Jill

    2015-04-07

    Small, robust, sensitive electrodes are desired for in vivo neurotransmitter measurements. Carbon nanopipettes have been previously manufactured and used for single-cell drug delivery and electrophysiological measurements. Here, a modified fabrication procedure was developed to produce batches of solid carbon nanopipette electrodes (CNPEs) with ∼250 nm diameter tips, and controllable lengths of exposed carbon, ranging from 5 to 175 μm. The electrochemical properties of CNPEs were characterized with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) for the first time. CNPEs were used to detect the electroactive neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and octopamine. CNPEs were significantly more sensitive for serotonin detection than traditional carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs). Similar to CFMEs, CNPEs have a linear response for dopamine concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 μM and a limit of detection of 25 ± 5 nM. Recordings with CNPEs were stable for over 3 h when the applied triangle waveform was scanned between -0.4 and +1.3 V vs Ag/AgCl/Cl(-) at 400 V/s. CNPEs were used to detect endogenous dopamine release in Drosophila larvae using optogenetics, which verified the utility of CNPEs for in vivo neuroscience studies. CNPEs are advantageous because they are 1 order of magnitude smaller in diameter than typical CFMEs and have a sharp, tunable geometry that facilitates penetration and implantation for localized measurements in distinct regions of small organisms, such as the Drosophila brain.

  1. Silicon photonics for multicore fiber communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Kamchevska, Valerija; Dalgaard, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    We review our recent work on silicon photonics for multicore fiber communication, including multicore fiber fan-in/fan-out, multicore fiber switches towards reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers. We also present multicore fiber based quantum communication using silicon devices.......We review our recent work on silicon photonics for multicore fiber communication, including multicore fiber fan-in/fan-out, multicore fiber switches towards reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers. We also present multicore fiber based quantum communication using silicon devices....

  2. Cobalt phthalocyanine modified electrodes utilised in electroanalysis: nano-structured modified electrodes vs. bulk modified screen-printed electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Christopher W; Pillay, Jeseelan; Metters, Jonathan P; Banks, Craig E

    2014-11-19

    Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) compounds have been reported to provide electrocatalytic performances towards a substantial number of analytes. In these configurations, electrodes are typically constructed via drop casting the CoPC onto a supporting electrode substrate, while in other cases the CoPC complex is incorporated within the ink of a screen-printed sensor, providing a one-shot economical and disposable electrode configuration. In this paper we critically compare CoPC modified electrodes prepared by drop casting CoPC nanoparticles (nano-CoPC) onto a range of carbon based electrode substrates with that of CoPC bulk modified screen-printed electrodes in the sensing of the model analytes L-ascorbic acid, oxygen and hydrazine. It is found that no "electrocatalysis" is observed towards L-ascorbic acid using either of these CoPC modified electrode configurations and that the bare underlying carbon electrode is the origin of the obtained voltammetric signal, which gives rise to useful electroanalytical signatures, providing new insights into literature reports where "electrocatalysis" has been reported with no clear control experiments undertaken. On the other hand true electrocatalysis is observed towards hydrazine, where no such voltammetric features are witnessed on the bare underlying electrode substrate.

  3. Cobalt Phthalocyanine Modified Electrodes Utilised in Electroanalysis: Nano-Structured Modified Electrodes vs. Bulk Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. Foster

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC compounds have been reported to provide electrocatalytic performances towards a substantial number of analytes. In these configurations, electrodes are typically constructed via drop casting the CoPC onto a supporting electrode substrate, while in other cases the CoPC complex is incorporated within the ink of a screen-printed sensor, providing a one-shot economical and disposable electrode configuration. In this paper we critically compare CoPC modified electrodes prepared by drop casting CoPC nanoparticles (nano-CoPC onto a range of carbon based electrode substrates with that of CoPC bulk modified screen-printed electrodes in the sensing of the model analytes L-ascorbic acid, oxygen and hydrazine. It is found that no “electrocatalysis” is observed towards L-ascorbic acid using either of these CoPC modified electrode configurations and that the bare underlying carbon electrode is the origin of the obtained voltammetric signal, which gives rise to useful electroanalytical signatures, providing new insights into literature reports where “electrocatalysis” has been reported with no clear control experiments undertaken. On the other hand true electrocatalysis is observed towards hydrazine, where no such voltammetric features are witnessed on the bare underlying electrode substrate.

  4. Flexible Lithium-Ion Fiber Battery by the Regular Stacking of Two-Dimensional Titanium Oxide Nanosheets Hybridized with Reduced Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshide, Tatsumasa; Zheng, Yuanchuan; Hou, Junyu; Wang, Zhiqiang; Li, Qingwen; Zhao, Zhigang; Ma, Renzhi; Sasaki, Takayoshi; Geng, Fengxia

    2017-06-14

    Increasing interest has recently been devoted to developing small, rapid, and portable electronic devices; thus, it is becoming critically important to provide matching light and flexible energy-storage systems to power them. To this end, compared with the inevitable drawbacks of being bulky, heavy, and rigid for traditional planar sandwiched structures, linear fiber-shaped lithium-ion batteries (LIB) have become increasingly important owing to their combined superiorities of miniaturization, adaptability, and weavability, the progress of which being heavily dependent on the development of new fiber-shaped electrodes. Here, we report a novel fiber battery electrode based on the most widely used LIB material, titanium oxide, which is processed into two-dimensional nanosheets and assembled into a macroscopic fiber by a scalable wet-spinning process. The titania sheets are regularly stacked and conformally hybridized in situ with reduced graphene oxide (rGO), thereby serving as efficient current collectors, which endows the novel fiber electrode with excellent integrated mechanical properties combined with superior battery performances in terms of linear densities, rate capabilities, and cyclic behaviors. The present study clearly demonstrates a new material-design paradigm toward novel fiber electrodes by assembling metal oxide nanosheets into an ordered macroscopic structure, which would represent the most-promising solution to advanced flexible energy-storage systems.

  5. Piezo-Electrochemical Energy Harvesting with Lithium-Intercalating Carbon Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Eric; Lindbergh, Göran; Zenkert, Dan; Leijonmarck, Simon; Kjell, Maria Hellqvist

    2015-07-01

    The mechanical and electrochemical properties are coupled through a piezo-electrochemical effect in Li-intercalated carbon fibers. It is demonstrated that this piezo-electrochemical effect makes it possible to harvest electrical energy from mechanical work. Continuous polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibers that can work both as electrodes for Li-ion batteries and structural reinforcement for composites materials are used in this study. Applying a tensile force to carbon fiber bundles used as Li-intercalating electrodes results in a response of the electrode potential of a few millivolts which allows, at low current densities, lithiation at higher electrode potential than delithiation. More electrical energy is thereby released from the cell at discharge than provided at charge, harvesting energy from the mechanical work of the applied force. The measured harvested specific electrical power is in the order of 1 μW/g for current densities in the order of 1 mA/g, but this has a potential of being increased significantly.

  6. Fiber-optic seismic sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G. W.; Udd, E.

    1985-01-01

    A vibration sensor is constructed by providing two preferably matched coils of fiber-optic material. When the sensor experiences vibration, a differential pressure is exerted on the two fiber coils. The differential pressure results in a variation in the relative optical path lengths between the two fibers so that light beams transmitted through the two fibers are differently delayed, the phase difference therebetween being a detectable indication of the vibration applied to the sensor

  7. Tunable femtosecond Cherenkov fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Svane, Ask Sebastian; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate electrically-tunable femtosecond Cherenkov fiber laser output at the visible range. Using an all-fiber, self-starting femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser as the pump source and nonlinear photonic crystal fiber link as the wave-conversion medium, ultrafast, milliwatt-level, tunable...... and spectral isolated Cherenkov radiation at visible wavelengths are reported. Such a femtosecond Cherenkov laser source is promising for practical biophotonics applications....

  8. Freestanding eggshell membrane-based electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors and oxygen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jing; Wu, Hao; Al-Enizi, Abdullah M.; Elzatahry, Ahmed A.; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2015-08-01

    A type of freestanding, light-weight eggshell membrane-based electrode is demonstrated for supercapacitors and for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysis. As a widely available daily waste, eggshell membranes have unique porous three-dimensional grid-like fibrous structures with relatively high surface area and abundant macropores, allowing for effective conjugation of carbon nanotubes and growth of NiCo2O4 nanowire arrays, an effective supercapacitor material and OER catalyst. The three-dimensional fibrous eggshell membrane frameworks with carbon nanotubes offer efficient pathways for charge transport, and the macropores between adjacent fibers are fully accessible for electrolytes and bubble evolution. As a supercapacitor, the eggshell membrane/carbon nanotube/NiCo2O4 electrode shows high specific capacitances at current densities from 1 to 20 A g-1, with excellent capacitance retention (>90%) at 10 A g-1 for over 10 000 cycles. When employed as an OER catalyst, this eggshell membrane-based electrode exhibits an OER onset potential of 1.53 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), and a stable catalytic current density of 20 mA cm-2 at 1.65 V vs. the RHE.A type of freestanding, light-weight eggshell membrane-based electrode is demonstrated for supercapacitors and for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysis. As a widely available daily waste, eggshell membranes have unique porous three-dimensional grid-like fibrous structures with relatively high surface area and abundant macropores, allowing for effective conjugation of carbon nanotubes and growth of NiCo2O4 nanowire arrays, an effective supercapacitor material and OER catalyst. The three-dimensional fibrous eggshell membrane frameworks with carbon nanotubes offer efficient pathways for charge transport, and the macropores between adjacent fibers are fully accessible for electrolytes and bubble evolution. As a supercapacitor, the eggshell membrane/carbon nanotube/NiCo2O4 electrode shows high specific

  9. Electrochemical cell and negative electrode therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell with the positive and negative electrodes separated by a molten salt electrolyte with the negative electrode comprising a particulate mixture of lithium-aluminum alloy and electrolyte and an additive selected from graphitized carbon, Raney iron or mixtures thereof. The lithium-aluminum alloy is present in the range of from about 45 to about 80 percent by volume of the negative electrode, and the electrolyte is present in an amount not less than about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode. The additive of graphitized carbon is present in the range of from about 1 to about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode, and the Raney iron additive is present in the range of from about 3 to about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode.

  10. Lithium-aluminum-magnesium electrode composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendres, Carlos A.; Siegel, Stanley

    1978-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary, high-temperature electrochemical cell. The cell also includes a molten salt electrolyte of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides and a positive electrode including a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent and a magnesium-aluminum alloy as a structural matrix. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, magnesium, and aluminum are formed but the electrode composition in both its charged and discharged state remains substantially free of the alpha lithium-aluminum phase and exhibits good structural integrity.

  11. Silver manganese oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2006-05-09

    This invention relates to electrodes for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries with silver manganese oxide positive electrodes, denoted AgxMnOy, in which x and y are such that the manganese ions in the charged or partially charged electrodes cells have an average oxidation state greater than 3.5. The silver manganese oxide electrodes optionally contain silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrodes and to improve the power capability of the cells or batteries. The invention relates also to a method for preparing AgxMnOy electrodes by decomposition of a permanganate salt, such as AgMnO4, or by the decomposition of KMnO4 or LiMnO4 in the presence of a silver salt.

  12. Graphene electrodes for stimulation of neuronal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerbitzer, Berit; Nick, Christoph; Thielemann, Christiane; Krauss, Peter; Yadav, Sandeep; Schneider, Joerg J

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has the ability to improve the electrical interface between neuronal cells and electrodes used for recording and stimulation purposes. It provides a biocompatible coating for common electrode materials such as gold and improves the electrode properties. Graphene electrodes are also prepared on SiO 2 substrate to benefit from its optical properties like transparency. We perform electrochemical and Raman characterization of gold electrodes with graphene coating and compare them with graphene on SiO 2 substrate. It was found that the substrate plays an important role in the performance of graphene and show that graphene on SiO 2 substrate is a very promising material combination for stimulation electrodes. (paper)

  13. In-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Libo; Yang, Jun; Liu, Zhihai; Sun, Jiaxing

    2006-09-15

    A novel fiber-optic in-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer has been proposed and demonstrated. It consists of a segment of two-core fiber with a mirrored fiber end. The sensing characteristics based on the two-core fiber bending, corresponding to the shift of the phase of the two-core in-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer, are investigated.

  14. Transient attenuation in optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, A.A.; Kelly, R.E.; Looney, L.D.; Lyons, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    Low and high energy pulsed electron beams were used to generate radiation-induced transient attenuation in high-OH, Suprasil core, PCS fibers, demonstrating the energy dependence of the radiation damage and recovery mechanisms. A radiation resistant low-OH fiber was studied and its performance contrasted to that of high-OH materials. Several fibers with differing core compositions were also studied

  15. Fiber Optics and Library Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Michael

    1984-01-01

    This article examines fiber optic technology, explains some of the key terminology, and speculates about the way fiber optics will change our world. Applications of fiber optics to library systems in three major areas--linkage of a number of mainframe computers, local area networks, and main trunk communications--are highlighted. (EJS)

  16. Water-core Fresnel fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martelli, C.; Canning, J.; Lyytikainen, K.; Groothoff, N.

    2005-01-01

    A water core photonic crystal Fresnel fiber exploiting a hole distribution on zone plates of a cylindrical waveguide was developed and characterized. This fiber has similar guiding properties as the pristine air-hole guiding fiber although a large loss edge ~900nm is observed indicating that the

  17. Optical fibers for FTTH application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzowski, Bartlomiej; Tosik, Grzegorz; Lisik, Zbigniew; Bedyk, Michal; Kubiak, Andrzej

    2013-07-01

    In this paper the specifics of FTTH (Fiber To The Home) networks in terms of requirements for optical fibers has been presented. Optical fiber samples used in FTTH applications acquired from the worldwide leading manufacturers were subjected to small diameter mandrel wraps tests. The detailed procedures of performed tests and the measurement results has been presented.

  18. Photonic-crystal fibers gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Muse Haider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proposed to use of a photonic crystal fiber with an inner hollow defect. The use of such fibers is not affected by a material medium on the propagation of optical radiation. Photonic crystal fibers present special properties and capabilities that lead to an outstanding potential for sensing applications

  19. Thermal properties of Fiber ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Nielsen, Ole Wennerberg; Oland, Espen

    There is a trend within the oil and gas market to shift from steel wire ropes to fiber ropes for lifting, hoisting and mooring applications. The cost of fiber ropes is about 2-3 times that of steel wire ropes, but the natural buoyancy of fiber ropes reduces the overall weight resulting in smaller...

  20. Shedding Light on Fiber Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    Explains the principles of fiber optics as a medium for light-wave communication. Current uses of fiber systems on college campuses include voice, video, and local area network applications. A group of seven school districts in Minnesota are linked via fiber-optic cables. Other uses are discussed. (MLF)

  1. Fabrication of Optical Fiber Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Miguel V.

    In this paper we present the main research activities of the Laboratorio de Fibras Opticas del Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales de la Universidad de Valencia. We show some of the main results obtained for devices based on tapered fibers, fiber Bragg gratings, acousto-optic effects and photonic crystal fibers.

  2. Microstructured Fibers: Design and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes

    2006-01-01

    Holey fibers, in which airholes are introduced in the cladding region and extended in the axial direction of the fiber, have been known since the early days of silica waveguide research. Early work demonstrated the first low-loss fibers, which featured very small silica cores held in air by thin...

  3. Illustrative white matter fiber bundles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, R.J.G.; Vilanova, A.; Wetering, van de H.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) has made feasible the visualization of the fibrous structure of the brain whitematter. In the last decades, several fiber-tracking methods have been developed to reconstruct the fiber tracts fromDTI data. Usually these fiber tracts are shown individually based on some

  4. Investigation of Imbalanced Activated Carbon Electrode Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Tieshi He; Xue Ren; Junping Nie; Jun Ying; Kedi Cai

    2015-01-01

    Imbalanced supercapacitor was constructed by using various ratio of activated carbon (AC) of positive to negative electrode. The electrochemical behavior of imbalanced supercapacitor was investigated using 1.0 M spiro-(1,1′)-bipyrrolidinium tetrafluoroborate electrolyte in propylene carbonate. The results showed that there are some factors that influenced the imbalanced supercapacitor with different AC ratio of positive to negative electrode, the utilization of AC, electrode potential distrib...

  5. Electrocatalytic activity of bismuth doped silver electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Amjad, M

    2002-01-01

    Investigation of redox reactions on silver, and bismuth doped silver electrodes in aqueous KOH solutions, by using potentiostatic steady-state polarization technique, has been carried out. The redox wave potential and current displacements along with multiplicity of the latter have been examined. These electrodes were employed for the oxidation of organic molecules such as ethylamine in alkaline media. Subsequently, these electrodes were ranked with respect to their activity for the redox reactions. (author)

  6. Electrochemical Oxidation of EDTA in Nuclear Wastewater Using Platinum Supported on Activated Carbon Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Zhu, Wenkun; Mu, Tao; Hu, Zuowen; Duan, Tao

    2017-01-01

    A novel Pt/ACF (Pt supported on activated carbon fibers) electrode was successfully prepared with impregnation and electrodeposition method. Characterization of the electrodes indicated that the Pt/ACF electrode had a larger effective area and more active sites. Electrochemical degradation of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) in aqueous solution with Pt/ACF electrodes was investigated. The results showed that the 3% Pt/ACF electrode had a better effect on EDTA removal. The operational parameters influencing the electrochemical degradation of EDTA with 3% Pt/ACF electrode were optimized and the optimal removal of EDTA and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 94% and 60% after 100 min on condition of the electrolyte concentration, initial concentration of EDTA, current density and initial value of pH were 0.1 mol/L, 300 mg/L, 40 mA/cm2 and 5.0, respectively. The degradation intermediates of EDTA in electrochemical oxidation with 3% Pt/ACF electrode were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS). PMID:28754016

  7. Electrochemical Oxidation of EDTA in Nuclear Wastewater Using Platinum Supported on Activated Carbon Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Zhu, Wenkun; Mu, Tao; Hu, Zuowen; Duan, Tao

    2017-07-21

    A novel Pt/ACF (Pt supported on activated carbon fibers) electrode was successfully prepared with impregnation and electrodeposition method. Characterization of the electrodes indicated that the Pt/ACF electrode had a larger effective area and more active sites. Electrochemical degradation of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) in aqueous solution with Pt/ACF electrodes was investigated. The results showed that the 3% Pt/ACF electrode had a better effect on EDTA removal. The operational parameters influencing the electrochemical degradation of EDTA with 3% Pt/ACF electrode were optimized and the optimal removal of EDTA and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 94% and 60% after 100 min on condition of the electrolyte concentration, initial concentration of EDTA, current density and initial value of pH were 0.1 mol/L, 300 mg/L, 40 mA/cm² and 5.0, respectively. The degradation intermediates of EDTA in electrochemical oxidation with 3% Pt/ACF electrode were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS).

  8. Bluebonnet Fiber Collages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Joan

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a lesson that uses stitching and applique techniques to create a fiber collage in which every child is successful with high-quality work. This lesson was inspired by Tomie dePaola's "The Legend of the Bluebonnet." The back cover had a lovely illustration of the bluebonnet flower the author thought would translate easily to a…

  9. The dentate mossy fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Morten; Zimmer, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Hippocampal mossy fibers are the axons of the dentate granule cells and project to hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells and mossy cells of the dentate hilus (CA4) as well as a number of interneurons in the two areas. Besides their role in hippocampal function, studies of which are still evolving...

  10. Optical Fiber Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    F&S Inc. developed and commercialized fiber optic and microelectromechanical systems- (MEMS) based instrumentation for harsh environments encountered in the aerospace industry. The NASA SBIR programs have provided F&S the funds and the technology to develop ruggedized coatings and coating techniques that are applied during the optical fiber draw process. The F&S optical fiber fabrication facility and developed coating methods enable F&S to manufacture specialty optical fiber with custom designed refractive index profiles and protective or active coatings. F&S has demonstrated sputtered coatings using metals and ceramics and combinations of each, and has also developed techniques to apply thin coatings of specialized polyimides formulated at NASA Langley Research Center. With these capabilities, F&S has produced cost-effective, reliable instrumentation and sensors capable of withstanding temperatures up to 800? C and continues building commercial sales with corporate partners and private funding. More recently, F&S has adapted the same sensing platforms to provide the rapid detection and identification of chemical and biological agents

  11. Optical Fiber Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1999-01-01

    This is the final report of work done on NASA Grant NAG-1-443. The work covers the period from July 1, 1992 to December 1, 1998. During this period several distinct but related research studies and work tasks were undertaken. These different subjects are enumerated below with a description of the work done on each of them. The focus of the research was the development of optical fibers for use as distributed temperature and stress sensors. The initial concept was to utilize the utilize the temperature and stress dependence of emission from rare earth and transition metal ions substitutionally doped into crystalline or glass fibers. During the course of investigating this it became clear that fiber Bragg gratings provided a alternative for making the desired measurements and there was a shift of research focus on to include the photo-refractive properties of germano-silicate glasses used for most gratings and to the possibility of developing fiber laser sources for an integrated optical sensor in the research effort. During the course of this work several students from Christopher Newport University and other universities participated in this effort. Their names are listed below. Their participation was an important part of their education.

  12. Fiber and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meals instead of white rice. Add beans (kidney, black, navy, and pinto) to rice dishes for even more fiber. Spice up salads with berries and almonds, chickpeas, artichoke hearts, and beans (kidney, black, navy, or pinto). Use whole-grain (corn or ...

  13. Construction of implantable optical fibers for long-term optogenetic manipulation of neural circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparta, Dennis R; Stamatakis, Alice M; Phillips, Jana L; Hovelsø, Nanna; van Zessen, Ruud; Stuber, Garret D

    2011-12-08

    In vivo optogenetic strategies have redefined our ability to assay how neural circuits govern behavior. Although acutely implanted optical fibers have previously been used in such studies, long-term control over neuronal activity has been largely unachievable. Here we describe a method to construct implantable optical fibers to readily manipulate neural circuit elements with minimal tissue damage or change in light output over time (weeks to months). Implanted optical fibers readily interface with in vivo electrophysiological arrays or electrochemical detection electrodes. The procedure described here, from implant construction to the start of behavioral experimentation, can be completed in approximately 2-6 weeks. Successful use of implantable optical fibers will allow for long-term control of mammalian neural circuits in vivo, which is integral to the study of the neurobiology of behavior.

  14. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Tran, Tri D.; Feikert, John H.; Mayer, Steven T.

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  15. Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Kaschmitter, James L.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome.

  16. Electrode assemblies, plasma apparatuses and systems including electrode assemblies, and methods for generating plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D

    2013-09-17

    Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.

  17. Study of electrochemical behavior of desatinib using hanging mercury drop electrode and gold disc electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Kateřina; Navrátil, Tomáš; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Jakl, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2015), s. 116-116 ISSN 1336-7242 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : electrochemistry * hanging mercury drop electrode * gold electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  18. Polymer-Derived Ceramic Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    SiC-based ceramic fibers are derived from polycarbosilane or polymetallocarbosilane precursors and are classified into three groups according to their chemical composition, oxygen content, and C/Si atomic ratio. The first-generation fibers are Si-C-O (Nicalon) fibers and Si-Ti-C-O (Tyranno Lox M) fibers. Both fibers contain more than 10-wt% oxygen owing to oxidation during curing and lead to degradation in strength at temperatures exceeding 1,300°C. The maximum use temperature is 1,100°C. The second-generation fibers are SiC (Hi-Nicalon) fibers and Si-Zr-C-O (Tyranno ZMI) fibers. The oxygen content of these fibers is reduced to less than 1 wt% by electron beam irradiation curing in He. The thermal stability of these fibers is improved (they are stable up to 1,500°C), but their creep resistance is limited to a maximum of 1,150°C because their C/Si atomic ratio results in excess carbon. The third-generation fibers are stoichiometric SiC fibers, i.e., Hi-Nicalon Type S (hereafter Type S), Tyranno SA, and Sylramic™ fibers. They exhibit improved thermal stability and creep resistance up to 1,400°C. Stoichiometric SiC fibers meet many of the requirements for the use of ceramic matrix composites for high-temperature structural application. SiBN3C fibers derived from polyborosilazane also show promise for structural applications, remain in the amorphous state up to 1,800°C, and have good high-temperature creep resistance.

  19. Asymmetric Supercapacitor Electrodes and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Nitin; Li, Chao; Moore, Julian; Nagaiah, Narasimha; Zhai, Lei; Jung, Yeonwoong; Thomas, Jayan

    2017-06-01

    The world is recently witnessing an explosive development of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices that demand more-reliable power sources that combine higher energy density and longer-term durability. Supercapacitors have become one of the most promising energy-storage systems, as they present multifold advantages of high power density, fast charging-discharging, and long cyclic stability. However, the intrinsically low energy density inherent to traditional supercapacitors severely limits their widespread applications, triggering researchers to explore new types of supercapacitors with improved performance. Asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) assembled using two dissimilar electrode materials offer a distinct advantage of wide operational voltage window, and thereby significantly enhance the energy density. Recent progress made in the field of ASCs is critically reviewed, with the main focus on an extensive survey of the materials developed for ASC electrodes, as well as covering the progress made in the fabrication of ASC devices over the last few decades. Current challenges and a future outlook of the field of ASCs are also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Polystyrene Based Silver Selective Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Agarwal

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Silver(I selective sensors have been fabricated from polystyrene matrix membranes containing macrocycle, Me6(14 diene.2HClO4 as ionophore. Best performance was exhibited by the membrane having a composition macrocycle : Polystyrene in the ratio 15:1. This membrane worked well over a wide concentration range 5.0×10-6–1.0×10-1M of Ag+ with a near-Nernstian slope of 53.0 ± 1.0 mV per decade of Ag+ activity. The response time of the sensor is <15 s and the membrane can be used over a period of four months with good reproducibility. The proposed electrode works well in a wide pH range 2.5-9.0 and demonstrates good discriminating power over a number of mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. The sensor has also been used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of silver(II ions against NaCl solution. The sensor can also be used in non-aqueous medium with no significant change in the value of slope or working concentration range for the estimation of Ag+ in solution having up to 25% (v/v nonaqueous fraction.

  1. Fabrication of Stretchable Copper Coated Carbon Nanotube Conductor for Non-Enzymatic Glucose Detection Electrode with Low Detection Limit and Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Jiang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for wearable glucose sensing has stimulated growing interest in stretchable electrodes. The development of the electrode materials having large stretchability, low detection limit, and good selectivity is the key component for constructing high performance wearable glucose sensors. In this work, we presented fabrication of stretchable conductor based on the copper coated carbon nanotube sheath-core fiber, and its application as non-enzymatic electrode for glucose detection with high stretchability, low detection limit, and selectivity. The sheath-core fiber was fabricated by coating copper coated carbon nanotube on a pre-stretched rubber fiber core followed by release of pre-stretch, which had a hierarchically buckled structure. It showed a small resistance change as low as 27% as strain increasing from 0% to 500% strain, and a low resistance of 0.4 Ω·cm−1 at strain of 500%. This electrode showed linear glucose concentration detection in the range between 0.05 mM and 5 mM and good selectivity against sucrose, lactic acid, uric acid, acrylic acid in phosphate buffer saline solution, and showed stable signal in high salt concentration. The limit of detection (LOD was 0.05 mM, for the range of 0.05–5 mM, the sensitivity is 46 mA·M−1. This electrode can withstand large strain of up to 60% with negligible influence on its performance.

  2. Effect of Twisted Fiber Anisotropy in Cardiac Tissue on Ablation with Pulsed Electric Fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xie

    Full Text Available Ablation of cardiac tissue with pulsed electric fields is a promising alternative to current thermal ablation methods, and it critically depends on the electric field distribution in the heart.We developed a model that incorporates the twisted anisotropy of cardiac tissue and computed the electric field distribution in the tissue. We also performed experiments in rabbit ventricles to validate our model. We find that the model agrees well with the experimentally determined ablation volume if we assume that all tissue that is exposed to a field greater than 3 kV/cm is ablated. In our numerical analysis, we considered how tissue thickness, degree of anisotropy, and electrode configuration affect the geometry of the ablated volume. We considered two electrode configurations: two parallel needles inserted into the myocardium ("penetrating needles" configuration and one circular electrode each on epi- and endocardium, opposing each other ("epi-endo" configuration.For thick tissues (10 mm and moderate anisotropy ratio (a = 2, we find that the geometry of the ablated volume is almost unaffected by twisted anisotropy, i.e. it is approximately translationally symmetric from epi- to endocardium, for both electrode configurations. Higher anisotropy ratio (a = 10 leads to substantial variation in ablation width across the wall; these variations were more pronounced for the penetrating needle configuration than for the epi-endo configuration. For thinner tissues (4 mm, typical for human atria and higher anisotropy ratio (a = 10, the epi-endo configuration yielded approximately translationally symmetric ablation volumes, while the penetrating electrodes configuration was much more sensitive to fiber twist.These results suggest that the epi-endo configuration will be reliable for ablation of atrial fibrillation, independently of fiber orientation, while the penetrating electrode configuration may experience problems when the fiber orientation is not consistent

  3. Effect of Twisted Fiber Anisotropy in Cardiac Tissue on Ablation with Pulsed Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fei; Zemlin, Christian W

    2016-01-01

    Ablation of cardiac tissue with pulsed electric fields is a promising alternative to current thermal ablation methods, and it critically depends on the electric field distribution in the heart. We developed a model that incorporates the twisted anisotropy of cardiac tissue and computed the electric field distribution in the tissue. We also performed experiments in rabbit ventricles to validate our model. We find that the model agrees well with the experimentally determined ablation volume if we assume that all tissue that is exposed to a field greater than 3 kV/cm is ablated. In our numerical analysis, we considered how tissue thickness, degree of anisotropy, and electrode configuration affect the geometry of the ablated volume. We considered two electrode configurations: two parallel needles inserted into the myocardium ("penetrating needles" configuration) and one circular electrode each on epi- and endocardium, opposing each other ("epi-endo" configuration). For thick tissues (10 mm) and moderate anisotropy ratio (a = 2), we find that the geometry of the ablated volume is almost unaffected by twisted anisotropy, i.e. it is approximately translationally symmetric from epi- to endocardium, for both electrode configurations. Higher anisotropy ratio (a = 10) leads to substantial variation in ablation width across the wall; these variations were more pronounced for the penetrating needle configuration than for the epi-endo configuration. For thinner tissues (4 mm, typical for human atria) and higher anisotropy ratio (a = 10), the epi-endo configuration yielded approximately translationally symmetric ablation volumes, while the penetrating electrodes configuration was much more sensitive to fiber twist. These results suggest that the epi-endo configuration will be reliable for ablation of atrial fibrillation, independently of fiber orientation, while the penetrating electrode configuration may experience problems when the fiber orientation is not consistent across the

  4. Organic electrochemistry and carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, N.

    1983-01-01

    Carbons are often used in organic electrosynthesis and are critical as anodes or cathodes to certain reactions. Too often the surface properties of carbons have been left uncharacterized in relation to the reaction; however, these physical and chemical properties of carbons are important to the nature of the products, and the selectivity. Examples presented include the Kolbe reaction, the oxidation of aromatics in presence of carboxylate salts, electrofluorination of organics, acetamidation of aromatics, the hydrodimerization of formaldehyde and the oxidation of carbon fibers. These reactions apparently involve special surface characteristics: structure, surface area, stabilized surface sites, and the presence or absence of significant ''oxide'' functionality

  5. Improved Optical Fiber Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egalon, Claudio O.; Rogowski, Robert S.

    1994-01-01

    Calculations, based on exact theory of optical fiber, have shown how to increase optical efficiency sensitivity of active-core, step-index-profile optical-fiber fluorosensor. Calculations result of efforts to improve efficiency of optical-fiber chemical sensor of previous concept described in "Making Optical-Fiber Chemical Sensors More Sensitive" (LAR-14525). Optical fiber chemical detector of enhanced sensitivity made in several configurations. Portion of fluorescence or chemiluminescence generated in core, and launched directly into bound electromagnetic modes that propagate along core to photodetector.

  6. Solid fiber Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1989-01-01

    One- and two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic computations have been performed to study the behavior of solid deuterium fiber Z-pinch experiments performed at Los Alamos and the Naval Research Laboratory. The computations use a tabulated atomic data base and ''cold-start'' initial conditions. The computations predict that the solid fiber persists longer in existing experiments than previously expected and that the discharge actually consists of a relatively low-density, hot plasma which has been ablated from the fiber. The computations exhibit m = 0 behavior in the hot, exterior plasma prior to complete ablation of the solid fiber. The m = 0 behavior enhances the fiber ablation rate. 10 refs., 5 figs

  7. Introduction to optical fiber sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moukdad, S.

    1991-01-01

    Optical fiber sensors have many advantages over other types of sensors, for example: Low weight, immunity from EMI, electrical isolation, chemical passivity, and high sensitivity. In this seminar, a brief explanation of the optical fiber sensors, their use, and their advantages will be given. After, a description of the main optical fiber sensor components will be presented. Principles of some kinds of optical fiber sensors will be presented, and the principle of the fiber-optic rotation sensor and its realization will be discussed in some details, as well as its main applications. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  8. All solid-state V2O5-based flexible hybrid fiber supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; He, Jin; Cao, Xin; Kang, Liping; He, Xuexia; Xu, Hua; Shi, Feng; Jiang, Ruibin; Lei, Zhibin; Liu, Zong-Huai

    2017-12-01

    Vanadium pentoxide/single-walled carbon nanotube (V2O5-SWCNT) hybrid fibers with good electrochemical performance and flexibility are firstly prepared by using wet-spinning method. V2O5 nanobelt suspension is obtained by mixing V2O5 bulk, 30% H2O2, H2O and followed by hydrothermally treating at 190 °C for 15 h. SWCNT suspension is suspended into V2O5 nanobelt suspension under vigorous stirring, the V2O5-SWCNT homogenous suspension is obtained. It is injected into a coagulation bath composed of 5 wt % CaCl2 ethanol-water solution using syringe pump, V2O5-SWCNT hybrid fibers are prepared by washing with deionized water and drying at room temperature. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-SWCNT hybrid fibers are also prepared by the similar wet-spinning approach and followed by reducing GO-SWCNT hybrid fibers in an aqueous solution of hydriodic acid. All solid-state asymmetric V2O5/SWCNT//RGO/SWCNT fiber supercapacitors are assembled with V2O5-SWCNT fiber as positive electrode and RGO-SWCNT fiber as negative electrode by using PVA-H3PO4 as gel electrolyte. The assembled device not only shows maximum volumetric energy density of 1.95 mW h cm-3 at a volumetric power density of 7.5 mW cm-3, superior rate performance and cycling stability, but also exhibits remarkable flexibility to tolerate long-term and repeated bending. This work will open a new application filed of V2O5-based fibers in wearable energy storage devices.

  9. Bonding Properties of Basalt Fiber and Strength Reduction According to Fiber Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jeong-Il; Lee, Bang

    2015-01-01

    The basalt fiber is a promising reinforcing fiber because it has a relatively higher tensile strength and a density similar to that of a concrete matrix as well as no corrosion possibility. This study investigated experimentally the bonding properties of basalt fiber with cementitious material as well as the effect of fiber orientation on the tensile strength of basalt fiber for evaluating basalt fiber?s suitability as a reinforcing fiber. Single fiber pullout tests were performed and then th...

  10. Fiber-array based optogenetic prosthetic system for stimulation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ling; Cote, Chris; Tejeda, Hector; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2012-02-01

    Recent advent of optogenetics has enabled activation of genetically-targeted neuronal cells using low intensity blue light with high temporal precision. Since blue light is attenuated rapidly due to scattering and absorption in neural tissue, optogenetic treatment of neurological disorders may require stimulation of specific cell types in multiple regions of the brain. Further, restoration of certain neural functions (vision, and auditory etc) requires accurate spatio-temporal stimulation patterns rather than just precise temporal stimulation. In order to activate multiple regions of the central nervous system in 3D, here, we report development of an optogenetic prosthetic comprising of array of fibers coupled to independently-controllable LEDs. This design avoids direct contact of LEDs with the brain tissue and thus does not require electrical and heat isolation, which can non-specifically stimulate and damage the local brain regions. The intensity, frequency, and duty cycle of light pulses from each fiber in the array was controlled independently using an inhouse developed LabView based program interfaced with a microcontroller driving the individual LEDs. While the temporal profile of the light pulses was controlled by varying the current driving the LED, the beam profile emanating from each fiber tip could be sculpted by microfabrication of the fiber tip. The fiber array was used to stimulate neurons, expressing channelrhodopsin-2, in different locations within the brain or retina. Control of neural activity in the mice cortex, using the fiber-array based prosthetic, is evaluated from recordings made with multi-electrode array (MEA). We also report construction of a μLED array based prosthetic for spatio-temporal stimulation of cortex.

  11. Active control of structures using macro-fiber composite (MFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalovs, A; Barkanov, E; Gluhihs, S [Institute of Materials and Structures, Riga Technical University, 16/20 Azenes Str., Riga, LV-1048 (Latvia)

    2007-12-15

    This paper presents the use of macro-fiber composites (MFC) for vibration reduces of structures. The MFC consist of polyimid films with IDE-electrodes that are glued on the top and the bottom of rectangular piezoceramic fibers. The interdigitated electrodes deliver the electric field required to activate the piezoelectric effect in the fibers and allows to invoke the stronger longitudinal piezoelectric effect along the length of the fibers. When this actuator embedded in a surface or attached to flexible structures, the MFC actuator provides distributed solid-state deflection and vibration control. The major advantages of the piezoelectric fibre composite actuators are their high performance, flexibility, and durability when compared with the traditional piezoceramic (PZT) actuators. In addition, the ability of MFC devices to couple the electrical and mechanical fields is larger than in monolithic PZT. In this study, we showed the experimental results that an MFC could be used as actuator to find modal parameters and reduce vibration for structures such as an aluminium beam and metal music plate. Two MFC actuators were attached to the surfaces of test subjects. First MFC actuator used to supply a signal as exciter of vibration and second MFC show his application for reduction of vibration in the range of resonance frequencies. Experimental results of aluminium beam with MFC actuators compared with finite element model which modelled in ANSYS software. The applied voltage is modelled as a thermal load according to thermal analogy for MFC. The experimental and numerical results presented in this paper confirm the potential of MFC for use in the vibration control of structures.

  12. Active control of structures using macro-fiber composite (MFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalovs, A; Barkanov, E; Gluhihs, S

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the use of macro-fiber composites (MFC) for vibration reduces of structures. The MFC consist of polyimid films with IDE-electrodes that are glued on the top and the bottom of rectangular piezoceramic fibers. The interdigitated electrodes deliver the electric field required to activate the piezoelectric effect in the fibers and allows to invoke the stronger longitudinal piezoelectric effect along the length of the fibers. When this actuator embedded in a surface or attached to flexible structures, the MFC actuator provides distributed solid-state deflection and vibration control. The major advantages of the piezoelectric fibre composite actuators are their high performance, flexibility, and durability when compared with the traditional piezoceramic (PZT) actuators. In addition, the ability of MFC devices to couple the electrical and mechanical fields is larger than in monolithic PZT. In this study, we showed the experimental results that an MFC could be used as actuator to find modal parameters and reduce vibration for structures such as an aluminium beam and metal music plate. Two MFC actuators were attached to the surfaces of test subjects. First MFC actuator used to supply a signal as exciter of vibration and second MFC show his application for reduction of vibration in the range of resonance frequencies. Experimental results of aluminium beam with MFC actuators compared with finite element model which modelled in ANSYS software. The applied voltage is modelled as a thermal load according to thermal analogy for MFC. The experimental and numerical results presented in this paper confirm the potential of MFC for use in the vibration control of structures

  13. Fiber optics: A brief introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruchalla, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    A basic introduction into the principles of fiber optics is presented. A review of both the underlying physical principles and the individual elements of typical fiber-optic systems are presented. The optical phenomenon of total internal reflection is reviewed. The basic construction of the optical fiber is presented. Both step-index and graded-index fiber designs are reviewed. Multimode and single-mode fiber constructions are considered and typical performance parameters given. Typical optical-fiber bandwidth and loss characteristics are compared to various common coaxial cables, waveguides, and air transmission. The constructions of optical-fiber cables are reviewed. Both loose-tube and tightly-buffered designs are considered. Several optical connection approaches are presented. Photographs of several representative optical connectors are included. Light Emitting Diode and Laser Diode emitters for fiber-optic applications are reviewed, and some advantages and shortcomings of each are considered. The phenomenon of modal noise is briefly explained. Both PIN and Avalanche photodetectors are reviewed and their performance parameters compared. Methods of data transmission over optical fiber are introduced. Principles of Wavelength, Frequency, and Time Division Multiplexing are briefly presented. The technology of fiber-optic sensors is briefly reviewed with basic principles introduced. The performance of a fiber-optic strain sensor is included as a practical example. 7 refs., 10 figs

  14. All-Fiber Raman Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, Anna Chiara

    by means of fiber components. Assuming the possibility to use a fiber laser with a fundamental radiation at 1064nm, in-fiber efficient second harmonic generation is achieved by optically poling the core of the waveguide delivering the excitation light to the sample. In this way, Raman spectroscopy...... in the visible range can be performed. The simultaneous delivery of the excitation light and collection of the Raman signal from the sample are achieved by means of a doubleclad fiber, whose core and inner cladding act as \\independent" transmission channels. A double-clad fiber coupler allows for the recovery...... of the collected Raman scattering from the inner-cladding region of the double-clad fiber, thus replacing the bulk dichroic component normally used to demultiplex the pump and Raman signal. A tunable Rayleigh-rejection filter based on a liquid filled-photonic bandgap fiber is also demonstrated in this work...

  15. Remote Fiber Laser Cutting System for Dismantling Glass Melter - 13071

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsui, Takashi; Miura, Noriaki [IHI Corporation, 1 Shin-Nakahara-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Oowaki, Katsura; Kawaguchi, Isao [IHI Inspection and Instrumentation Co., Ltd, 1 Shin-Nakahara-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Miura, Yasuhiko; Ino, Tooru [Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, 4-108, Aza Okitsuke, Oaza Obuchi, Rokkasho-Mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Since 2008, the equipment for dismantling the used glass melter has been developed in High-level Liquid Waste (HLW) Vitrification Facility in the Japanese Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). Due to the high radioactivity of the glass melter, the equipment requires a fully-remote operation in the vitrification cell. The remote fiber laser cutting system was adopted as one of the major pieces of equipment. An output power of fiber laser is typically higher than other types of laser and so can provide high-cutting performance. The fiber laser can cut thick stainless steel and Inconel, which are parts of the glass melter such as casings, electrodes and nozzles. As a result, it can make the whole of the dismantling work efficiently done for a shorter period. Various conditions of the cutting test have been evaluated in the process of developing the remote fiber cutting system. In addition, the expected remote operations of the power manipulator with the laser torch have been fully verified and optimized using 3D simulations. (authors)

  16. Development of lightweight THUNDER with fiber composite layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kwang J.; Shin, Sukjoon; Kim, Jusik; Park, Hoon C.; Kwak, Moon K.

    2000-06-01

    This paper is concerned with design, manufacturing and performance test of lightweight THUNDER using a top fiber composite layer with near-zero CTE, a PZT ceramic wafer and a bottom glass/epoxy layer with high CTE. The main point of this design is to replace the heavy metal layers of THUNDER by the lightweight fiber reinforced plastic layers without losing capabilities to generate high force and displacement. It is possible to save weight up to about 30 percent if we replace the metallic backing materials by the light fiber composite layer. We can also have design flexibility by selecting the fiber direction and the size of prepreg layers. In addition to the lightweight advantage and design flexibility, the proposed device can be manufactured without adhesive layers when we use epoxy resin prepreg system. Glass/epoxy prepregs, a ceramic wafer with electrode surfaces, and a graphite/epoxy prepreg were simply stacked and cured at an elevated temperature by following autoclave bagging process. It was found that the manufactured composite laminate device had a sufficient curvature after detaching form a flat mold. From experimental actuation tests, it was observed that the developed actuator could generate larger actuation displacement than THUNDER.

  17. Electrochemical Oxidation of Glycerol Using Gold Electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Rozali Othman; Amirah Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry, potential linear V and chronocuolometry methods were carried out to gain electrochemical behavior of glycerol at a gold electrode. Potassium hydroxide and sulfuric acid were chosen to be the electrolyte for the electro-oxidation of this organic compound. Besides gold plate electrode, gold composite electrode (Au-PVC) was also used as the working electrode. The Au-PVC composite electrode was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to determine its morphological aspects before and after used in electrochemical oxidation of glycerol. In alkaline solution, the adsorption of hydroxide species onto the surface of both gold plate and composite Au-PVC electrodes occurs at potential around 500 mV vs SCE. However, at gold plate electrode, there was a small, broad peak before the drastic escalation of current densities which indicates the charge transfer of the chemisorbed OH - anion. In acidic media, the gold oxide was formed after potential 1.0 V. From the cyclic voltammogram glycerol undergo oxidation twice in potassium hydroxide at gold plate and Au-PVC composite electrodes, while in sulfuric acid, oxidation reaction happened once for glycerol on the gold plate electrode. Overall, electrochemical oxidation of glycerol was more effective in alkaline media. Tafel graph which plotted from potential linear V method shows that Au-PVC composite electrode is better than gold plate electrode for the electro-oxidation of glycerol in alkaline solution. Electrochemical oxidation of glycerol products as analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) produced several carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds. (author)

  18. Modelling the impact of altered axonal morphometry on the response of regenerative nervous tissue to electrical stimulation through macro-sieve electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellmer, Erik R.; MacEwan, Matthew R.; Moran, Daniel W.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Regenerated peripheral nervous tissue possesses different morphometric properties compared to undisrupted nerve. It is poorly understood how these morphometric differences alter the response of the regenerated nerve to electrical stimulation. In this work, we use computational modeling to explore the electrophysiological response of regenerated and undisrupted nerve axons to electrical stimulation delivered by macro-sieve electrodes (MSEs). Approach. A 3D finite element model of a peripheral nerve segment populated with mammalian myelinated axons and implanted with a macro-sieve electrode has been developed. Fiber diameters and morphometric characteristics representative of undisrupted or regenerated peripheral nervous tissue were assigned to core conductor models to simulate the two tissue types. Simulations were carried out to quantify differences in thresholds and chronaxie between undisrupted and regenerated fiber populations. The model was also used to determine the influence of axonal caliber on recruitment thresholds for the two tissue types. Model accuracy was assessed through comparisons with in vivo recruitment data from chronically implanted MSEs. Main results. Recruitment thresholds of individual regenerated fibers with diameters  >2 µm were found to be lower compared to same caliber undisrupted fibers at electrode to fiber distances of less than about 90-140 µm but roughly equal or higher for larger distances. Caliber redistributions observed in regenerated nerve resulted in an overall increase in average recruitment thresholds and chronaxie during whole nerve stimulation. Modeling results also suggest that large diameter undisrupted fibers located close to a longitudinally restricted current source such as the MSE have higher average recruitment thresholds compared to small diameter fibers. In contrast, large diameter regenerated nerve fibers located in close proximity of MSE sites have, on average, lower recruitment thresholds

  19. Domestic wastewater treatment using multi-electrode continuous flow MFCs with a separator electrode assembly design

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Yongtae

    2012-10-11

    Treatment of domestic wastewater using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) will require reactors with multiple electrodes, but this presents unique challenges under continuous flow conditions due to large changes in the chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration within the reactor. Domestic wastewater treatment was examined using a single-chamber MFC (130 mL) with multiple graphite fiber brush anodes wired together and a single air cathode (cathode specific area of 27 m2/m3). In fed-batch operation, where the COD concentration was spatially uniform in the reactor but changed over time, the maximum current density was 148 ± 8 mA/m2 (1,000 Ω), the maximum power density was 120 mW/m2, and the overall COD removal was >90 %. However, in continuous flow operation (8 h hydraulic retention time, HRT), there was a 57 % change in the COD concentration across the reactor (influent versus effluent) and the current density was only 20 ± 13 mA/m2. Two approaches were used to increase performance under continuous flow conditions. First, the anodes were separately wired to the cathode, which increased the current density to 55 ± 15 mA/m2. Second, two MFCs were hydraulically connected in series (each with half the original HRT) to avoid large changes in COD among the anodes in the same reactor. The second approach improved current density to 73 ± 13 mA/m2. These results show that current generation from wastewaters in MFCs with multiple anodes, under continuous flow conditions, can be improved using multiple reactors in series, as this minimizes changes in COD in each reactor. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  20. Ultrahigh-rate supercapacitors with large capacitance based on edge oriented graphene coated carbonized cellulous paper as flexible freestanding electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guofeng; Li, Shiqi; Fan, Zhao-Xia; Hoque, Md Nadim Ferdous; Fan, Zhaoyang

    2016-09-01

    Large-capacitance and ultrahigh-rate electrochemical supercapacitors (UECs) with frequency response up to kilohertz (kHz) range are reported using light, thin, and flexible freestanding electrodes. The electrode is formed by perpendicularly edge oriented multilayer graphene/thin-graphite (EOG) sheets grown radially around individual fibers in carbonized cellulous paper (CCP), with cellulous carbonization and EOG deposition implemented in one step. The resulted ∼10 μm thick EOG/CCP electrode is light and flexible. The oriented porous structure of EOG with large surface area, in conjunction with high conductivity of the electrode, ensures ultrahigh-rate performance of the fabricated cells, with large areal capacitance of 0.59 mF cm-2 and 0.53 mF cm-2 and large phase angle of -83° and -80° at 120 Hz and 1 kHz, respectively. Particularly, the hierarchical EOG/CCP sheet structure allows multiple sheets stacked together for thick electrodes with almost linearly increased areal capacitance while maintaining the volumetric capacitance nearly no degradation, a critical merit for developing practical faraday-scale UECs. 3-layers of EOG/CCP electrode achieved an areal capacitance of 1.5 mF cm-2 and 1.4 mF cm-2 at 120 Hz and 1 kHz, respectively. This demonstration moves a step closer to the goal of bridging the frequency/capacitance gap between supercapacitors and electrolytic capacitors.

  1. APPLICATIONS OF A SINGLE CARBON ELECTRODE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Page 1 ... ABSTRACT: A single carbon electrode used with a common arc welder has been successfully used on steel to weld, to surface harden, to spot weld sheet, to pierce holes and to do simple brazing. ... applications: welding, spot welding, hole piercing, etc. The metal tube holding the carbon electrodes is banded with ...

  2. Low Energy Desalination Using Battery Electrode Deionization

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Taeyoung

    2017-09-21

    New electrochemical technologies that use capacitive or battery electrodes are being developed to minimize energy requirements for desalinating brackish waters. When a pair of electrodes is charged in capacitive deionization (CDI) systems, cations bind to the cathode and anions bind to the anode, but high applied voltages (>1.2 V) result in parasitic reactions and irreversible electrode oxidation. In the battery electrode deionization (BDI) system developed here, two identical copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF) battery electrodes were used that release and bind cations, with anion separation occurring via an anion exchange membrane. The system used an applied voltage of 0.6 V, which avoided parasitic reactions, achieved high electrode desalination capacities (up to 100 mg-NaCl/g-electrode, 50 mM NaCl influent), and consumed less energy than CDI. Simultaneous production of desalinated and concentrated solutions in two channels avoided a two-cycle approach needed for CDI. Stacking additional membranes between CuHCF electrodes (up to three anion and two cation exchange membranes) reduced energy consumption to only 0.02 kWh/m3 (approximately an order of magnitude lower than values reported for CDI), for an influent desalination similar to CDI (25 mM decreased to 17 mM). These results show that BDI could be effective as a very low energy method for brackish water desalination.

  3. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes bridging metal electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlar, M.; Vojs, M.; Marton, M.; Vesel, M.; Redhammer, R.

    2012-01-01

    In our work we demonstrate growth of carbon nanotubes that can conductively bridge the metal electrodes. The role of different catalysts was examined. Interdigitated metal electrodes are made from copper and we are using bimetal Al/Ni as catalyst for growth of carbon nanotubes. We are using this catalyst composition for growth of the single-walled carbon nanotube network. (authors)

  4. Reverse electrodialysis : evaluation of suitable electrode systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, J.; Saakes, M.; Metz, S. J.; Harmsen, G. J.

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a method for directly extracting electrical energy from salinity gradients, especially from sea and river water. For the commercial implementation of RED, the electrode system is a key component. In this paper, novel electrode systems for RED were compared with

  5. Doped graphene electrodes for organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyesung; Kim, Ki Kang; Bulovic, Vladimir; Kong, Jing; Rowehl, Jill A

    2010-01-01

    In this work graphene sheets grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with controlled numbers of layers were used as transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. It was found that for devices with pristine graphene electrodes, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is comparable to their counterparts with indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Nevertheless, the chances for failure in OPVs with pristine graphene electrodes are higher than for those with ITO electrodes, due to the surface wetting challenge between the hole-transporting layer and the graphene electrodes. Various alternative routes were investigated and it was found that AuCl 3 doping on graphene can alter the graphene surface wetting properties such that a uniform coating of the hole-transporting layer can be achieved and device success rate can be increased. Furthermore, the doping both improves the conductivity and shifts the work function of the graphene electrode, resulting in improved overall PCE performance of the OPV devices. This work brings us one step further toward the future use of graphene transparent electrodes as a replacement for ITO.

  6. Organic conductive films for semiconductor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Arthur J.

    1984-01-01

    According to the present invention, improved electrodes overcoated with conductive polymer films and preselected catalysts are provided. The electrodes typically comprise an inorganic semiconductor overcoated with a charge conductive polymer film comprising a charge conductive polymer in or on which is a catalyst or charge-relaying agent.

  7. Microneedle array electrode for human EEG recording.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüttge, Regina; van Nieuwkasteele-Bystrova, Svetlana Nikolajevna; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria; Vander Sloten, Jos; Verdonck, Pascal; Nyssen, Marc; Haueisen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Microneedle array electrodes for EEG significantly reduce the mounting time, particularly by circumvention of the need for skin preparation by scrubbing. We designed a new replication process for numerous types of microneedle arrays. Here, polymer microneedle array electrodes with 64 microneedles,

  8. mwnts composite film modified glassy carbon electrode

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: A poly p-aminosalicylic acid (Poly(p-ASA)) and multiwall carbon nanotubes. (MWCNTs) composite modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode was constructed by casting the MWNTs on the GC electrode surface followed by electropolymerization of the p-ASA on the MWCNTs/GCE. The electrochemical behaviours ...

  9. Nanometer-spaced electrodes with calibrated separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kervennic, Y.V.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Morpurgo, A.F.; Gurevich, L.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.

    2002-01-01

    We have fabricated pairs of platinum electrodes with separation between 20 and 3.5 nm. Our technique combines electron beam lithography and chemical electrodeposition. We show that the measurement of the conductance between the two electrodes through the electrolyte provides an accurate and

  10. Substitution of thoriated tungsten electrodes in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, H.; Piller, G.

    2006-01-01

    Thoriated tungsten electrodes are frequently used for inert gas welding (TIG/WIG). The use of these electrodes can lead to doses which are well above the limit for the general population (1mSv/year). This has been shown by different investigations, for example from the ''Berufsgenossenschaft''. With these findings in mind, the regulatory authorities (Swiss Federal Office of Public Health (SFOPH) and Swiss National Accident Insurance Association (Suva)) started in 1999 to examine the justification of thoriated tungsten electrodes and a possible substitution with products containing no radioactive material. Up to this time, the use of thoriated tungsten electrodes could be justified since no thorium-free products leading to comparable results were available on the market. This was also the reason why the SFOPH approved several types of these electrodes. Discussions with formation centers for welding and inquiries made at welding shops, trading companies and producers showed that in the mean-time thorium-free products with comparable welding specifications and results became available on the market. Since the 1 January 2004, thoriated tungsten electrodes can only be used if the user has obtained the corresponding license from the SFOPH. The use of thoriated tungsten electrodes is thus not completely forbidden, but very strict conditions have to be fulfilled. Up to now and due to the involvement of the relevant partners, the substitution process has not met any problem. Neither trading companies nor users made any opposition and no request for obtaining a license for thoriated tungsten electrodes was made. (orig.)

  11. A Piezoelectroluminescent Fiber-Optical Sensor for Diagnostics of the 3D Stress State in Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan'kov, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The mathematical model of a piezoelectroluminescent fiber-optical sensor is developed for diagnostics of the 3D stress state of composite structures. The sensor model is a coaxial sector-compound layered cylinder consisting of a central optical fiber with electroluminescent and piezoelectric layers and an external uniform elastic buffer layer. The electroluminescent and piezoelectric layers are separated by radial-longitudinal boundaries, common for both layers, into geometrically equal six "measuring elements" — cylindrical two-layered sectors. The directions of 3D polarization of the piezoelectric phases and the frequencies of luminous efficacy of the electroluminescent phases are different in each sector. In the sensor, a thin translucent "internal" controlling electrode is located between the optical fiber and the electroluminescent layer, and the piezoelectric layer is coated by a thin "external" controlling electrode. The results of numerical modeling of the nonuniform coupled electroelastic fields of the piezoelectroluminescent fiber-optical sensor in the loaded "representative volume" of a composite, taking into account the action of the controlling voltage on the internal and external electrodes, of a numerical calculation of "informative and controlling coefficients" of the sensor, and of testing of an arbitrary 3D stress of state of a unidirectional glass-fiber plastic by the finite-element method are presented.

  12. Preparation of activated carbon hollow fibers from ramie at low temperature for electric double-layer capacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xuan; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Yi; Wang, Chengyang; Chen, Mingming; Qi, Tao; Hua, Chao; Ma, Mingguo

    2013-12-01

    Activated carbon hollow fibers (ACHFs) with high surface area were prepared from inexpensive, renewable ramie fibers (RFs) by a single-step activation method under lower temperature than that of other reports. The effects of activation conditions on the pore structure and turbostratic structure of ACHFs were investigated systematically. The results show that ACHFs surface area decreased but micropore volume and conductivity increased as the increase of activation temperature and activation time. The electrochemical measurements of supercapacitors fabricated from these ACHFs electrodes reveal that the electrochemical properties improved with the enhancing of activation degree. However, too high activation temperature can make the ion diffusion resistance increase. It suggests that pore structure and conductivity are as important as surface area to decide the electrochemical performances of ACHFs electrode materials. A maximum capacity of 287 F g(-1) at 50 mA g(-1) was obtained for the ACHFs electrode prepared under suitable conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bipolar Electrode Sample Preparation Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi (Inventor); Song, Hongjun (Inventor); Pant, Kapil (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An analyte selection device can include: a body defining a fluid channel having a channel inlet and channel outlet; a bipolar electrode (BPE) between the inlet and outlet; one of an anode or cathode electrically coupled with the BPE on a channel inlet side of the BPE and the other of the anode or cathode electrically coupled with the BPE on a channel outlet side of the BPE; and an electronic system operably coupled with the anode and cathode so as to polarize the BPE. The fluid channel can have any shape or dimension. The channel inlet and channel outlet can be longitudinal or lateral with respect to the longitudinal axis of the channel. The BPE can be any metallic member, such as a flat plate on a wall or mesh as a barrier BPE. The anode and cathode can be located at a position that polarizes the BPE.

  14. Carbonaceous electrode materials for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Long; Li, Xianglong; Zhi, Linjie

    2013-07-26

    Supercapacitors have been widely studied around the world in recent years, due to their excellent power density and long cycle life. As the most frequently used electrode materials for supercapacitors, carbonaceous materials attract more and more attention. However, their relatively low energy density still holds back the widespread application. Up to now, various strategies have been developed to figure out this problem. This research news summarizes the recent advances in improving the supercapacitor performance of carbonaceous materials, including the incorporation of heteroatoms and the pore size effect (subnanopores' contribution). In addition, a new class of carbonaceous materials, porous organic networks (PONs) has been managed into the supercapacitor field, which promises great potential in not only improving the supercapacitor performances, but also unraveling the related mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Chemically modified carbon fibers and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolenko, I.N.; Lyubliner, I.P.; Gulko, N.V.

    1990-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive review about chemically modified carbon fibers (e.g. by incorporation of other elements) and is structured as follows: 1. Types of carbon fibers, 2. Structure of carbon fibers, 3. Properties of carbon fibers, 4. The cellulose carbonization process, 5. Formation of element-carbon fiber materials, 6. Surface modification of carbon fibers, and 7. Applications of carbon fibers (e.g. adsorbents, catalysts, constituents of composites). (MM)

  16. Holey nickel hydroxide nanosheets for wearable solid-state fiber-supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peipei; Chen, Rong; Li, Li; An, Jianing; Hua, Li; Zhou, Jinyuan; Liu, Bin; Chen, Peng; Huang, Wei; Sun, Gengzhi

    2018-03-28

    Holey nickel hydroxide (Ni(OH) 2 ) nanosheets with a mean thickness of 2 nm are facilely synthesized, and then embedded in carbon nanotube (CNT) scaffolds to construct a hybrid fiber electrode, which shows a high volumetric capacitance of 335.9 F cm -3 at 0.8 A cm -3 and superior rate performance. The hybrid supercapacitor made from the Ni(OH) 2 /CNT fiber can deliver a high specific capacitance of 24.8 F cm -3 and an energy density of 5.8 mW h cm -3 with outstanding mechanical stability under repeated bending conditions.

  17. Controlling the set of carbon-fiber embedded cement with electric current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattus, Alfred J.

    2004-06-15

    A method for promoting cement or concrete set on demand for concrete that has been chemically retarded by adding carbon fiber to the concrete, which enables it to become electrically conductive, sodium tartrate retardant, and copper sulfate which forms a copper tartrate complex in alkaline concrete mixes. Using electricity, the concrete mix anodically converts the retarding tartrate to an insoluble polyester polymer. The carbon fibers act as a continuous anode surface with a counter electrode wire embedded in the mix. Upon energizing, the retarding effect of tartrate is defeated by formation of the polyester polymer through condensation esterification thereby allowing the normal set to proceed unimpeded.

  18. A family of fiber-optic based pressure sensors for intracochlear measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Elizabeth S.; Nakajima, Hideko H.

    2015-02-01

    Fiber-optic pressure sensors have been developed for measurements of intracochlear pressure. The present family of transducers includes an 81 μm diameter sensor employing a SLED light source and single-mode optic fiber, and LED/multi-mode sensors with 126 and 202 μm diameter. The 126 μm diameter pressure sensor also has been constructed with an electrode adhered to its side, for coincident pressure and voltage measurements. These sensors have been used for quantifying cochlear mechanical impedances, informing our understanding of conductive hearing loss and its remediation, and probing the operation of the cochlear amplifier.

  19. Conducting polymer coated neural recording electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alexander R.; Morgan, Simeon J.; Chen, Jun; Kapsa, Robert M. I.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Paolini, Antonio G.

    2013-02-01

    Objective. Neural recording electrodes suffer from poor signal to noise ratio, charge density, biostability and biocompatibility. This paper investigates the ability of conducting polymer coated electrodes to record acute neural response in a systematic manner, allowing in depth comparison of electrochemical and electrophysiological response. Approach. Polypyrrole (Ppy) and poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) doped with sulphate (SO4) or para-toluene sulfonate (pTS) were used to coat iridium neural recording electrodes. Detailed electrochemical and electrophysiological investigations were undertaken to compare the effect of these materials on acute in vivo recording. Main results. A range of charge density and impedance responses were seen with each respectively doped conducting polymer. All coatings produced greater charge density than uncoated electrodes, while PEDOT-pTS, PEDOT-SO4 and Ppy-SO4 possessed lower impedance values at 1 kHz than uncoated electrodes. Charge density increased with PEDOT-pTS thickness and impedance at 1 kHz was reduced with deposition times up to 45 s. Stable electrochemical response after acute implantation inferred biostability of PEDOT-pTS coated electrodes while other electrode materials had variable impedance and/or charge density after implantation indicative of a protein fouling layer forming on the electrode surface. Recording of neural response to white noise bursts after implantation of conducting polymer-coated electrodes into a rat model inferior colliculus showed a general decrease in background noise and increase in signal to noise ratio and spike count with reduced impedance at 1 kHz, regardless of the specific electrode coating, compared to uncoated electrodes. A 45 s PEDOT-pTS deposition time yielded the highest signal to noise ratio and spike count. Significance. A method for comparing recording electrode materials has been demonstrated with doped conducting polymers. PEDOT-pTS showed remarkable low fouling during

  20. Multispot fiber laser welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schutt Hansen, Klaus

    This dissertation presents work and results achieved in the field of multi beam fiber laser welding. The project has had a practical approach, in which simulations and modelling have been kept at a minimum. Different methods to produce spot patterns with high power single mode fiber lasers have...... been examined and evaluated. It is found that both diamond turned DOE’s in zinc sulphide and multilevel etched DOE’s (Diffractive Optical Elements) in fused silica have a good performance. Welding with multiple beams in a butt joint configuration has been tested. Results are presented, showing it has...... been possible to control the welding width in incremental steps by adding more beams in a row. The laser power was used to independently control the keyhole and consequently the depth of fusion. An example of inline repair of a laser weld in butt joint configuration was examined. Zinc powder was placed...

  1. Fiber optic fluid detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  2. Fiber optic fluid detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, S. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  3. Optical fiber communications

    CERN Document Server

    Keiser, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    The fourth edition of this popular text and reference book presents the fundamental principles for understanding and applying optical fiber technology to sophisticated modern telecommunication systems. Optical-fiber-based telecommunication networks have become a major information-transmission-system, with high capacity links encircling the globe in both terrestrial and undersea installations. Numerous passive and active optical devices within these links perform complex transmission and networking functions in the optical domain, such as signal amplification, restoration, routing, and switching. Along with the need to understand the functions of these devices comes the necessity to measure both component and network performance, and to model and stimulate the complex behavior of reliable high-capacity networks.

  4. Fabrication of dual porosity electrode structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.L.; Kucera, E.H.

    1991-02-12

    A substantially entirely fibrous ceramic is described which may have dual porosity of both micro and macro pores. Total porosity may be 60-75% by volume. A method of spraying a slurry perpendicularly to an ambient stream of air is disclosed along with a method of removing binders without altering the fiber morphology. Adding fine ceramic particulates to the green ceramic fibers enhances the sintering characteristics of the fibers. 3 figures.

  5. Lithium-aluminum-iron electrode composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary electrochemical cell. The cell also includes an electrolyte with lithium ions such as a molten salt of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides that can be used in high-temperature cells. The cell's positive electrode contains a a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent in an alloy of aluminum-iron. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, aluminum and iron are formed. The lithium within the intermetallic phase of Al.sub.5 Fe.sub.2 exhibits increased activity over that of lithium within a lithium-aluminum alloy to provide an increased cell potential of up to about 0.25 volt.

  6. Emerging Novel Metal Electrodes for Photovoltaic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haifei; Ren, Xingang; Ouyang, Dan; Choy, Wallace C H

    2018-04-01

    Emerging novel metal electrodes not only serve as the collector of free charge carriers, but also function as light trapping designs in photovoltaics. As a potential alternative to commercial indium tin oxide, transparent electrodes composed of metal nanowire, metal mesh, and ultrathin metal film are intensively investigated and developed for achieving high optical transmittance and electrical conductivity. Moreover, light trapping designs via patterning of the back thick metal electrode into different nanostructures, which can deliver a considerable efficiency improvement of photovoltaic devices, contribute by the plasmon-enhanced light-mattering interactions. Therefore, here the recent works of metal-based transparent electrodes and patterned back electrodes in photovoltaics are reviewed, which may push the future development of this exciting field. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Investigation of Imbalanced Activated Carbon Electrode Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieshi He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Imbalanced supercapacitor was constructed by using various ratio of activated carbon (AC of positive to negative electrode. The electrochemical behavior of imbalanced supercapacitor was investigated using 1.0 M spiro-(1,1′-bipyrrolidinium tetrafluoroborate electrolyte in propylene carbonate. The results showed that there are some factors that influenced the imbalanced supercapacitor with different AC ratio of positive to negative electrode, the utilization of AC, electrode potential distribution, and life cycle. The imbalanced supercapacitor with an AC weight ratio of 80 : 120 of positive to negative electrode has an average potential distribution in each electrode, and it revealed the best electrochemical performance: specific capacitor was 39.6 F·g−1, while the charge-discharge efficiency was 97.2% after 2000 life cycle tests.

  8. Pierce electrodes for a multigap accelerating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydenko, V.I.; Ivanov, A.A.; Kotelnikov, I.A.; Tiunov, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    A well-known Pierce's solution that allows to focus a beam of charged particles using properly shaped electrodes outside the beam is generalized to the case of multigap accelerating system. Simple parametric formulae for Pierce electrodes are derived for an accelerating system with current density, limited either by space charge or by emitting property of the cathode. As an example of general approach, Pierce electrodes shape is analyzed for a system with two accelerating gaps. It is shown that precise Pierce's solution exists if acceleration rate within second gap is lower than within first gap. In the opposite case quasi-Pierce solution can be implemented using non-equipotential electrode between the gaps, and guidelines, based on numerical simulations, for the design of equipotential focusing electrodes are given

  9. Stable fiber interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmajlov, G.N.; Nikolaev, F.A.; Ozolin, V.V.; Grigor'yants, V.V.; Chamorovskij, Yu.K.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of construction the long-base Michelson interferometer for gravitational wave detection is discussed. Possible sources of noise and instability are considered. It is shown that evacuation of fiber interferometer, the winding of its arms on the glass ceramic bases, stabilization of radiation source frequency and seismic isolation of the base allow one to reduce its instability to the level, typical of mirror interferometer with the comparable optical base. 10 refs.; 2 figs

  10. Fabrication and Characterization of a Pressure Sensor using a Pitch-based Carbon Fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Sin; Kang, Bo Seon; Lee, Dong Weon

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports fabrication and characterization of a pressure sensor using a pitch-based carbon fiber. Pitch-based carbon fibers have been shown to exhibit the piezoresistive effect, in which the electric resistance of the carbon fiber changes under mechanical deformation. The main structure of pressure sensors was built by performing backside etching on a SOI wafer and creating a suspended square membrane on the front side. An AC electric field which causes dielectrophoresis was used for the alignment and deposition of a carbon fiber across the microscale gap between two electrodes on the membrane. The fabricated pressure sensors were tested by applying static pressure to the membrane and measuring the resistance change of the carbon fiber. The resistance change of carbon fibers clearly shows linear response to the applied pressure and the calculated sensitivities of pressure sensors are 0.25∼0.35 and 61.8 Ω/kΩ·bar for thicker and thinner membrane, respectively. All these observations demonstrated the possibilities of carbon fiber-based pressure sensors

  11. Carbon fiber reinforced asphalt concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahromi, Saeed G.

    2008-01-01

    Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. For many years, they have been utilized extensively in numerous applications in civil engineering. Fiber-reinforcement refers to incorporating materials with desired properties within some other materials lacking those properties. Use of fibers is not a new phenomenon, as the technique of fiber-reinforced bitumen began early as 1950. In all industrialized countries today, nearly all concretes used in construction are reinforced. A multitude of fibers and fiber materials are being introduced in the market regularly. The present paper presents characteristics and properties of carbon fiber-reinforced asphalt mixtures, which improve the performance of pavements. To evaluate the effect of fiber contents on bituminous mixtures, laboratory investigations were carried out on the samples with and without fibers. During the course of this study, various tests were undertaken, applying Marshall Test indirect tensile test, creep test and resistance to fatigue cracking by using repeated load indirect tensile test. Carbon fiber exhibited consistency in results and as such it was observed that the addition of fiber does affect the properties of bituminous mixtures, i.e. an increase in its stability and decrease in the flow value as well as an increase in voids in the mix. Results indicate that fibers have the potential to resist structural distress in pavement, in the wake of growing traffic loads and thus improve fatigue by increasing resistance to cracks or permanent deformation. On the whole, the results show that the addition of carbon fiber will improve some of the mechanical properties like fatigue and deformation in the flexible pavement. (author)

  12. The Preparation of Carbon Nanotube/MnO2 Composite Fiber and Its Application to Flexible Micro-Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, flexible electronic devices pursued for potential applications. The design and the fabrication of a novel flexible nanoarchitecture by coating electrical conductive MWCNT fiber with ultrathin films of MnO2 to achieve high specific capacitance, for micro-supercapacitors electrode applications, are demonstrated here. The MWCNT/MnO2 composite fiber electrode was prepared by the electrochemical deposition which was carried out through using two different methods: cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic methods. The cyclic voltammetry method can get “crumpled paper ball” morphology MnO2 which has bigger specific capacitances than that achieved by potentiostatic method. The flexible micro-supercapacitor was fabricated by twisting two aligned MWCNT fibers and showed an area specific capacitance of 2.43 mF/cm2. The flexible micro-supercapacitors also enable promising applications in various fields.

  13. Ionization detector, electrode configuration and single polarity charge detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z.

    1998-07-07

    An ionization detector, an electrode configuration and a single polarity charge detection method each utilize a boundary electrode which symmetrically surrounds first and second central interlaced and symmetrical electrodes. All of the electrodes are held at a voltage potential of a first polarity type. The first central electrode is held at a higher potential than the second central or boundary electrodes. By forming the first and second central electrodes in a substantially interlaced and symmetrical pattern and forming the boundary electrode symmetrically about the first and second central electrodes, signals generated by charge carriers are substantially of equal strength with respect to both of the central electrodes. The only significant difference in measured signal strength occurs when the charge carriers move to within close proximity of the first central electrode and are received at the first central electrode. The measured signals are then subtracted and compared to quantitatively measure the magnitude of the charge. 10 figs.

  14. Analysis of polypyrrole-coated stainless steel electrodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis of polypyrrole-coated stainless steel electrodes - Estimation of specific ... is carried out on stainless steel electrodes using -toluene sulphonic acid. ... The feasibility of the electrode for supercapacitor applications is investigated.

  15. Monolithic femtosecond Yb-fiber laser with photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    We demonstrate a monolithic stable SESAM-modelocked self-starting Yb-fiber laser. A novel PM all-solid photonic bandgap fiber is used for intra-cavity of dispersion management. The ex-cavity final pulse compression is performed in a spliced-on PM hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. The laser...... directly delivers 9 nJ pulses of 275 fs duration with pulse repetition of 26.7MHz....

  16. Electrode assembly for a lithium ion battery, process for the production of such electrode assembly, and lithium ion battery comprising such electrode assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, F.M.; Wagemaker, M.

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides an electrode assembly for a lithium ion battery, the electrode assembly comprising a lithium storage electrode layer on a current collector, wherein the lithium storage electrode layer is a porous layer having a porosity in the range of -35 %, with pores having pore widths in

  17. Fabrication of a polyvinylidene difluoride fiber with a metal core and its application as directional air flow sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Yixiang; Liu, Rongrong; Hui, Shen

    2016-09-01

    We fabricated a sensitive air flow detector that mimic the sensing mechanism found at the tail of some insects. [see Y. Yang, A. Klein, H. Bleckmann and C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2) (2011); J. J. Heys, T. Gedeon, B. C. Knott and Y. Kim, J. Biomech. 41(5), 977 (2008); J. Tao and X. Yu, Smart Mat. Struct. 21(11) (2012)]. Our bionic airflow sensor uses a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) microfiber with a molybdenum core which we produced with the hot extrusion tensile method. The surface of the fiber is partially coated with conductive silver adhesive that serve as surface electrodes. A third electrode, the metal core is used to polarize polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) under the surface electrodes. The cantilever beam structure of the prepared symmetric electrodes of metal core piezoelectric fiber (SMPF) is used as the artificial hair airflow sensor. The surface electrodes are used to measure output voltage. Our theoretical and experimental results show that the SMPF responds fast to air flow changes, the output charge has an exponential correlation with airflow velocity and a cosine relation with the direction of airflow. Our bionic airflow sensor with directional sensing ability can also measure air flow amplitude. [see H. Droogendijk, R. G. P. Sanders and G. J. M. Krijnen, New J. Phys. 15 (2013)]. By using two surface electrodes, our sensing circuit further improves sensitivity.

  18. Physically-based impedance modeling of the negative electrode in All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries: insight into mass transport issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zago, M.; Casalegno, A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Performance losses induced by migration though the porous electrode are negligible. •Convection at carbon fiber results in a linear branch at low frequency in Nyquist plot. •When the reaction is concentrated, diffusion losses though the electrode diminishes. •Diffusion process in the pores becomes more limiting at high current. •Charge transfer resistance decreases with increasing current. -- Abstract: Mass transport of the electrolyte over the porous electrode is one of the most critical issues hindering Vanadium Redox Flow Battery commercialization, leading to increased overpotential at high current and limiting system power density. In this work, a 1D physically based impedance model of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery negative electrode is developed, taking into account electrochemical reactions, convection at carbon fiber, diffusion in the pores and migration and diffusion through electrode thickness. The model is validated with respect to experimental data measured in a symmetric cell hardware, which allows to keep the State of Charge constant during the measurement. The physically based approach permits to elucidate the origin of different impedance features and quantify the corresponding losses. Charge transfer resistance decreases with increasing current and is generally lower compared to the ones related to mass transport phenomena. Migration losses through the porous electrode are negligible, while convection at carbon fiber is relevant and in Nyquist plot results in a linear branch at low frequency. In presence of significant convection losses the reaction tends to concentrate close to the channel: this leads to a reduction of diffusion losses through the electrode, while diffusion process in the pores becomes more limiting.

  19. Effect of Porosity on the Thick Electrodes for High Energy Density Lithium Ion Batteries for Stationary Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of 250–350 μ m-thick single-sided lithium ion cell graphite anodes and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC cathodes with constant area weight, but varying porosity were prepared. Over this wide thickness range, micron-sized carbon fibers were used to stabilize the electrode structure and to improve electrode kinetics. By choosing the proper porosities for the anode and cathode, kinetic limitations and aging losses during cell cycling could be minimized and energy density improved. The cell (C38%-A48% exhibits the highest energy density, 441 Wh/L at the C/10 rate, upon cycling at elevated temperature and different C-rates. The cell (C38%-A48% showed 9% higher gravimetric energy density at C/10 in comparison to the cell with as-coated electrodes.

  20. Lithium battery electrodes with ultra-thin alumina coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Se-Hee, Lee; George, Steven M.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Yoon Seok, Jung; Dillon, Anne C.

    2015-11-24

    Electrodes for lithium batteries are coated via an atomic layer deposition process. The coatings can be applied to the assembled electrodes, or in some cases to particles of electrode material prior to assembling the particles into an electrode. The coatings can be as thin as 2 .ANG.ngstroms thick. The coating provides for a stable electrode. Batteries containing the electrodes tend to exhibit high cycling capacities.

  1. Homogenization of long fiber reinforced composites including fiber bending effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a homogenization method, which accounts for intrinsic size effects related to the fiber diameter in long fiber reinforced composite materials with two independent constitutive models for the matrix and fiber materials. A new choice of internal kinematic variables allows...... of the reinforcing fibers is captured by higher order strain terms, resulting in an accurate representation of the micro-mechanical behavior of the composite. Numerical examples show that the accuracy of the proposed model is very close to a non-homogenized finite-element model with an explicit discretization...

  2. Freestanding eggshell membrane-based electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors and oxygen evolution reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jing; Wu, Hao; Al-Enizi, Abdullah M; Elzatahry, Ahmed A; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2015-09-14

    A type of freestanding, light-weight eggshell membrane-based electrode is demonstrated for supercapacitors and for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysis. As a widely available daily waste, eggshell membranes have unique porous three-dimensional grid-like fibrous structures with relatively high surface area and abundant macropores, allowing for effective conjugation of carbon nanotubes and growth of NiCo2O4 nanowire arrays, an effective supercapacitor material and OER catalyst. The three-dimensional fibrous eggshell membrane frameworks with carbon nanotubes offer efficient pathways for charge transport, and the macropores between adjacent fibers are fully accessible for electrolytes and bubble evolution. As a supercapacitor, the eggshell membrane/carbon nanotube/NiCo2O4 electrode shows high specific capacitances at current densities from 1 to 20 A g(-1), with excellent capacitance retention (>90%) at 10 A g(-1) for over 10,000 cycles. When employed as an OER catalyst, this eggshell membrane-based electrode exhibits an OER onset potential of 1.53 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), and a stable catalytic current density of 20 mA cm(-2) at 1.65 V vs. the RHE.

  3. A Compact Closed-Loop Optogenetics System Based on Artifact-Free Transparent Graphene Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiology is a decades-old technique widely used for monitoring activity of individual neurons and local field potentials. Optogenetics has revolutionized neuroscience studies by offering selective and fast control of targeted neurons and neuron populations. The combination of these two techniques is crucial for causal investigation of neural circuits and understanding their functional connectivity. However, electrical artifacts generated by light stimulation interfere with neural recordings and hinder the development of compact closed-loop systems for precise control of neural activity. Here, we demonstrate that transparent graphene micro-electrodes fabricated on a clear polyethylene terephthalate film eliminate the light-induced artifact problem and allow development of a compact battery-powered closed-loop optogenetics system. We extensively investigate light-induced artifacts for graphene electrodes in comparison to metal control electrodes. We then design optical stimulation module using micro-LED chips coupled to optical fibers to deliver light to intended depth for optogenetic stimulation. For artifact-free integration of graphene micro-electrode recordings with optogenetic stimulation, we design and develop a compact closed-loop system and validate it for different frequencies of interest for neural recordings. This compact closed-loop optogenetics system can be used for various applications involving optogenetic stimulation and electrophysiological recordings.

  4. Nanoporous carbon derived from agro-waste pineapple leaves for supercapacitor electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodtipinta, Jedsada; Amornsakchai, Taweechai; Pakawatpanurut, Pasit

    2017-09-01

    By using KOH as the chemical activating agent in the synthesis, the activated carbon derived from pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) was prepared. The structure, morphology, and the surface functional groups of the as-prepared activated carbon were investigated using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior and performance of the as-synthesized activated carbon electrode were measured using the cyclic voltammetry and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte solution in three-electrode setup. The activated carbon electrode exhibited the specific capacitance of 131.3 F g-1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1 with excellent cycling stability. The capacitance retention after 1000 cycles was about 97% of the initial capacitance at a scan rate of 30 mV s-1. Given these good electrochemical properties along with the high abundance of PALF, this activated carbon electrode has the potential to be one of the materials for future large-scale production of the electrochemical capacitors. Invited talk at 5th Thailand International Nanotechnology Conference (Nano Thailand-2016), 27-29 November 2016, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.

  5. Progress in the Development of Lightweight Nickel Electrode for Nickel-Hydrogen Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1999-01-01

    Development of a high specific energy battery is one of the objectives of the lightweight nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) program at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active material. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at five different discharge levels, C/2, 1.0 C, 1.37 C, 2.0 C, and 2.74 C. The electrodes are life cycle tested using a half-cell configuration at 40 and 80% depths-of-discharge (DOD) in a low-Earth-orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle-tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flight weight design are built and tested.

  6. Highly Flexible Freestanding Porous Carbon Nanofibers for Electrodes Materials of High-Performance All-Carbon Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhou, Jinyuan; Chen, Lulu; Zhang, Peng; Fu, Wenbin; Zhao, Hao; Ma, Yufang; Pan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhenxing; Han, Weihua; Xie, Erqing

    2015-10-28

    Highly flexible porous carbon nanofibers (P-CNFs) were fabricated by electrospining technique combining with metal ion-assistant acid corrosion process. The resultant fibers display high conductivity and outstanding mechanical flexibility, whereas little change in their resistance can be observed under repeatedly bending, even to 180°. Further results indicate that the improved flexibility of P-CNFs can be due to the high graphitization degree caused by Co ions. In view of electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors, this type of porous nanostructure and high graphitization degree could synergistically facilitate the electrolyte ion diffusion and electron transportation. In the three electrodes testing system, the resultant P-CNFs electrodes can exhibit a specific capacitance of 104.5 F g(-1) (0.2 A g(-1)), high rate capability (remain 56.5% at 10 A g(-1)), and capacitance retention of ∼94% after 2000 cycles. Furthermore, the assembled symmetric supercapacitors showed a high flexibility and can deliver an energy density of 3.22 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 600 W kg(-1). This work might open a way to improve the mechanical properties of carbon fibers and suggests that this type of freestanding P-CNFs be used as effective electrode materials for flexible all-carbon supercapacitors.

  7. Influence of morphology of ceramic fibers in catalytic combustion of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabarelli, A.C.; Alves, A.K.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2012-01-01

    Methane, considered as the main constituent of natural gas has been widely used as an energy source. During its combustion are produced pollutants that cause concern and necessity to eliminate or reduce the emission of these agents in the atmosphere. One of the main means of controlling emissions is the use of catalysts. In order to contribute to the development of new catalysts, this study analyzed the morphology of ceramic fibers of cerium oxide (ceria) doped with copper fabricated by electrospinning, in order to verify their effects on catalytic activity. Parameters were varied in distance from the electrodes, the diameter of the capillary and applied voltage between electrodes. The characterizations were performed: scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, BET and Xray diffraction (DXR). The results indicate that after the thermal treatment there was a reduction of approximately 40% fiber diameter and specific surface area ranging between 28.929 and 34.501 m 2 /g. (author)

  8. Raman fiber distributed feedback lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Paul S; Abedin, Kazi S; Nicholson, Jeffrey W; Kremp, Tristan; Porque, Jerome

    2011-08-01

    We demonstrate fiber distributed feedback (DFB) lasers using Raman gain in two germanosilicate fibers. Our DFB cavities were 124 mm uniform fiber Bragg gratings with a π phase shift offset from the grating center. Our pump was at 1480 nm and the DFB lasers operated on a single longitudinal mode near 1584 nm. In a commercial Raman gain fiber, the maximum output power, linewidth, and threshold were 150 mW, 7.5 MHz, and 39 W, respectively. In a commercial highly nonlinear fiber, these figures improved to 350 mW, 4 MHz, and 4.3 W, respectively. In both lasers, more than 75% of pump power was transmitted, allowing for the possibility of substantial amplification in subsequent Raman gain fiber. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  9. Point Electrode Studies of the Solid Electrolyte-Electrode Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben

    the equivalent capacity, $C^{1/\\alpha}$, plotted against the contact area during an experimental period of 2 weeks. The contact area is calculated from the electrolyte resistance as $A=1/(4\\pi(\\sigma R_{YSZ})^2)$. After the electrode has been allowed to touch the electrolyte an increasing capacity proportional......$C in air. The different perturbations are indicated on the graph by numbers. 1-2\\hfill\\parbox[t]{7.3cm}{Thermal cycle at equilibrium. Determination of activation energies.} 3-4\\hfill\\parbox[t]{7.3cm}{ Potential step to -0.150\\,V for 5 hours. Activation.} 5-6\\hfill\\parbox[t]{7.3cm}{ Potential staircase 0...... $\\rightarrow$ -0.150 $\\rightarrow$ 0.050$\\rightarrow$ -0.150 0V. Potential dependence of parameters.} 6-7\\hfill\\parbox[t]{7.3cm}{ Potential step to 0.050\\,V for 4 hours. Activation.} 8-9\\hfill\\parbox[t]{7.3cm}{ As 5-6.} 9-10\\hfill\\parbox[t]{7.3cm}{Thermal cycle at -0.150\\,V. Activation energies.} 11-12\\hfill...

  10. Behavioral and cellular consequences of high-electrode count Utah Arrays chronically implanted in rat sciatic nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, H. A. C.; Mathews, K. S.; Normann, R. A.; Fernandez, E.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Before peripheral nerve electrodes can be used for the restoration of sensory and motor functions in patients with neurological disorders, the behavioral and histological consequences of these devices must be investigated. These indices of biocompatibility can be defined in terms of desired functional outcomes; for example, a device may be considered for use as a therapeutic intervention if the implanted subject retains functional neurons post-implantation even in the presence of a foreign body response. The consequences of an indwelling device may remain localized to cellular responses at the device-tissue interface, such as fibrotic encapsulation of the device, or they may affect the animal more globally, such as impacting behavioral or sensorimotor functions. The objective of this study was to investigate the overall consequences of implantation of high-electrode count intrafascicular peripheral nerve arrays, High Density Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (HD-USEAs; 25 electrodes mm-2). Approach. HD-USEAs were implanted in rat sciatic nerves for one and two month periods. We monitored wheel running, noxious sensory paw withdrawal reflexes, footprints, nerve morphology and macrophage presence at the tissue-device interface. In addition, we used a novel approach to contain the arrays in actively behaving animals that consisted of an organic nerve wrap. A total of 500 electrodes were implanted across all ten animals. Main results. The results demonstrated that chronic implantation (⩽8 weeks) of HD-USEAs into peripheral nerves can evoke behavioral deficits that recover over time. Morphology of the nerve distal to the implantation site showed variable signs of nerve fiber degeneration and regeneration. Cytology adjacent to the device-tissue interface also showed a variable response, with some electrodes having many macrophages surrounding the electrodes, while other electrodes had few or no macrophages present. This variability was also seen along the length

  11. Flexible optical fiber sensor based on polyurethane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaysir, Md Rejvi; Stefani, Alessio; Lwin, Richard

    Polyurethane (PU) based hollow core fibers are investigated as optical sensors. The flexibility of PU fibers makes it suitable for sensing mechanical perturbations. We fabricated a PU fiber using the fiber drawing method, characterized the fiber and experimentally demonstrated a simple way...... to measure deformation, in the form of applied pressure....

  12. A fiber-optic polarimetric demonstration kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftimov, T; Dimitrova, T L; Ivanov, G

    2012-01-01

    A simple and multifunctional fiber-optic polarimetric kit on the basis of highly birefringent single-mode fibers is presented. The fiber-optic polarimetric kit allows us to perform the following laboratory exercises: (i) fiber excitation and the measurement of numerical aperture, (ii) polarization preservation and (iii) obtain polarization-sensitive fiberized interferometers.

  13. Dynamic drainage of froth with wood fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; Freya Tan

    2005-01-01

    Understanding froth drainage with fibers (or simply called fiber drainage in froth) is important for improving fiber yield in the flotation deinking operation. In this study, the data of water and fiber mass in foams collected at different froth heights were used to reconstruct the time dependent and spatially resolved froth density and fiber volumetric concentration...

  14. Fiber optic sensor and method for making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartuli, James Scott; Bousman, Kenneth Sherwood; Deng, Kung-Li; McEvoy, Kevin Paul; Xia, Hua

    2010-05-18

    A fiber optic sensor including a fiber having a modified surface integral with the fiber wherein the modified surface includes an open pore network with optical agents dispersed within the open pores of the open pore network. Methods for preparing the fiber optic sensor are also provided. The fiber optic sensors can withstand high temperatures and harsh environments.

  15. Silver Fiber Fabric as the Current Collector for Preparation of Graphene- Based Supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrabi-Matin, Bahareh; Shahrokhian, Saeed; Iraji-zad, Azam

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • For the first time, silver fiber fabric (SFF) is employed as a current collector.. • rGO is electrophoretically deposited on the surface of SFF. • The electrodes are prepared in various EP deposition times. • The rGO/SFF-10 shows a higher capacitive performance of 172 mF/cm 2 at 4 mA/cm 2 . • The rGO/SFF-10 exhibits of 97% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles. - Abstract: During the past few years, a considerable attention has been devoted to the development of textile- based energy storage devices and wearable electronics applications. In this paper, for the first time, we report a flexible high performance graphene-based supercapacitor using silver fiber fabric as the current collector. The silver fiber fabric offers remarkable advantages such as light weight, mechanical flexibility and ease of integration with electronic textiles, which well-suited for wearable energy storage devices. A new hybrid material of graphene-silver fiber fabric (rGO/SFF) was prepared through a facile electrophoretic deposition of graphene and being used as a binder-free flexible supercapacitor electrode. In order to obtain the optimum condition, the effect of deposition time was investigated and a duration time of 10 minute was selected as an optimum condition. The as-prepared binder-free electrode based on rGO/SFF-10 showed excellent electrochemical performance in the three-electrode configuration using KOH (3 M) as the supporting electrolyte, with the highest capacity of 172 mF/cm 2 at 4 mA/cm 2 and a capacitance retention of 97% after 5000 charge−discharge cycles. The high performance of rGO/SFF electrode is associated to the superior conductivity, high mechanical flexibility as well as good electrochemical stability of the silver fiber fabrics. The results suggest that the prepared electrode is a promising candidate for wearable energy storage applications due to its advantageous properties and the ease of preparation.

  16. Electrochromic fiber-shaped supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuli; Lin, Huijuan; Deng, Jue; Zhang, Ye; Sun, Xuemei; Chen, Peining; Fang, Xin; Zhang, Zhitao; Guan, Guozhen; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-12-23

    An electrochromic fiber-shaped super-capacitor is developed by winding aligned carbon nanotube/polyaniline composite sheets on an elastic fiber. The fiber-shaped supercapacitors demonstrate rapid and reversible chromatic transitions under different working states, which can be directly observed by the naked eye. They are also stretchable and flexible, and are woven into textiles to display designed signals in addition to storing energy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. System for testing optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, John E. [Olathe, KS; Looney, Larry D. [Los Alamos, NM; Lyons, Peter B. [Los Alamos, NM; Nelson, Melvin A. [Santa Barbara, CA; Davies, Terence J. [Santa Barbara, CA

    1980-07-15

    A system for measuring a combination of optical transmission properties of fiber optic waveguides. A polarized light pulse probe is injected into one end of the optical fiber. Reflections from discontinuities within the fiber are unpolarized whereas reflections of the probe pulse incident to its injection remain polarized. The polarized reflections are prevented from reaching a light detector whereas reflections from the discontinuities reaches the detector.

  18. Nickel hydrogen bipolar battery electrode design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, V. J.; Russell, P.; Verrier, D.; Hall, A.

    1985-01-01

    The preferred approach of the NASA development effort in nickel hydrogen battery design utilizes a bipolar plate stacking arrangement to obtain the required voltage-capacity configuration. In a bipolar stack, component designs must take into account not only the typical design considerations such as voltage, capacity and gas management, but also conductivity to the bipolar (i.e., intercell) plate. The nickel and hydrogen electrode development specifically relevant to bipolar cell operation is discussed. Nickel oxide electrodes, having variable type grids and in thicknesses up to .085 inch are being fabricated and characterized to provide a data base. A selection will be made based upon a system level tradeoff. Negative (hydrpogen) electrodes are being screened to select a high performance electrode which can function as a bipolar electrode. Present nickel hydrogen negative electrodes are not capable of conducting current through their cross-section. An electrode was tested which exhibits low charge and discharge polarization voltages and at the same time is conductive. Test data is presented.

  19. Electrode systems for in situ vitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelt, James L.; Carter, John G.; Eschbach, Eugene A.; FitzPatrick, Vincent F.; Koehmstedt, Paul L.; Morgan, William C.; Oma, Kenton H.; Timmerman, Craig L.

    1990-01-01

    An electrode comprising a molybdenum rod is received within a conductive collar formed of graphite. The molybdenum rod and the graphite collar may be physically joined at the bottom. A pair of such electrodes are placed in soil containing buried waste material and an electric current is passed therebetween for vitrifying the soil. The graphite collar enhances the thermal conductivity of the combination, bringing heat to the surface, and preventing formation of a cold cap of material above the ground surface. The annulus between the molybdenum rod electrode and the graphite collar is suitably filled with a conductive ceramic powder that sinters upon the molybdenum rod, protecting the same from oxidation as graphite material is consumed, or a metal powder which liquefies at operating temperatures. The center of the molybdenum rod, used with a collar of separately, can be hollow and filled with a powdered metal, such as copper, which liquefies at operating temperatures. Connection to electrodes can be provided below ground level to avoid open circuit due to electrode deterioration, or sacrificial electrodes may be employed when operation is started. Outboard electrodes cna be utilized to square up a vitrified area.

  20. Rational design of new electrodes for electrochemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spugnini, E P; Citro, G; Porrello, A

    2005-06-01

    Electrochemotherapy associates the local delivery of anticancer drugs with the administration of permeabilizing electric pulses that support the antiblastic action. The basic instrumentation for this therapy is constituted by a pulse generator and various specific electrodes. While many efforts have been profuse by researchers in this field to obtain the standardization of the pulse generating equipment over the past 15 years, the delivery apparatus still needs refinements in order to reach most of the body districts, to control the homogeneity and stability of the electric fields and to further reduce morbidity. With the aim to develop innovative electrodes able to satisfy, at least partially, these requirements, extensive studies on pet patients with spontaneous neoplasms have been conducted, leading to the manufacturing of several different prototypes. In this paper we discuss the rationale of 11 different electrodes, briefly summarize the results obtained and their experimental validation, also presenting five paradigmatic clinical cases. In particular, it is shown that the caliper electrodes are more suited for the treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions, while the needle arrays are more efficacious in intraoperative settings. Furthermore, relevant peculiarities of unipolar electrodes are examined with a particular focus on the irregular current paths that they produce and on the potentialities of this feature. Remarkably, the decrease of the steric encumbrance turned out to be a stronger factor in electrode design than the containment of the total number of electric fields covered in serial ECT sessions. In the conclusions, perspectives and new challenges of electrode design for electrochemotherapy are illustrated.