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Sample records for fiber metal laminates

  1. An experimental investigation of glare and restructured fiber metal laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Adelina Vanessa

    Fiber Metal Laminates (FMLs) are a group of materials fabricated by bonding glass/epoxy layers within metal layers. This class of materials can provide good mechanical properties, as well as weight savings. An FML known as Glass Laminate Aluminum Reinforced Epoxy (GLARE) was studied. An experimental investigation comprising of microscopy and tensile testing was carried out using different grades of GLARE. Microscopy revealed the construction details of GLARE, while tensile testing provided means of measuring and analyzing its stress-strain responses. Next, different metal surface pretreatment methods were explored. These included sandblasting, Phosphoric Acid Anodizing (PAA), and AC-130 Sol-Gel treatment. Woven S-2 glass, an epoxy adhesive, and aluminum alloy sheet metal were used to fabricate restructured FMLs using time and cost effective procedures. Additional microscopy and tensile testing allowed for comparisons with GLARE and aircraft grade aluminum alloys. The restructured FMLs showed similar behaviors to GLARE with potential significant improvements in fabrication efficiency.

  2. Fatigue crack growth in fiber-metal laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, YuE; Xia, ZhongChun; Xiong, XiaoFeng

    2014-01-01

    Fiber-metal laminates (FMLs) consist of three layers of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 and two layers of glass/epoxy prepreg, and it (it means FMLs) is laminated by Al alloy and fiber alternatively. Fatigue crack growth rates in notched fiber-metal laminates under constant amplitude fatigue loading were studied experimentally and numerically and were compared with them in monolithic 2024-T3 Al alloy plates. It is shown that the fatigue life of FMLs is about 17 times longer than monolithic 2024-T3 Al alloy plate; and crack growth rates in FMLs panels remain constant mostly even when the crack is long, unlike in the monolithic 2024-T3 Al alloy plates. The formula to calculate bridge stress profiles of FMLs was derived based on the fracture theory. A program by Matlab was developed to calculate the distribution of bridge stress in FMLs, and then fatigue growth lives were obtained. Finite element models of FMLs were built and meshed finely to analyze the stress distributions. Both results were compared with the experimental results. They agree well with each other.

  3. Analytical and Experimental Characterization of Thick-Section Fiber-Metal Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    laminate . The model individually models each layer of the laminate and predicts stiffness degradation as metal layers plastically deform and as prepreg ...eliminating four of the possible ECM laminates . Additionally, since at least four individual layers (two aluminum and two prepreg ) are used in FML an...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2013-0023 Analytical and Experimental Characterization of Thick- Section Fiber-Metal Laminates Dr. Rene

  4. A Theoretical Model for Estimation of Yield Strength of Fiber Metal Laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sunil; Nagesh, Suresh; Umesh, C. K.; Narayanan, S.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents a theoretical model for estimation of yield strength of fiber metal laminate. Principles of elasticity and formulation of residual stress are employed to determine the stress state in metal layer of the laminate that is found to be higher than the stress applied over the laminate resulting in reduced yield strength of the laminate in comparison with that of the metal layer. The model is tested over 4A-3/2 Glare laminate comprising three thin aerospace 2014-T6 aluminum alloy layers alternately bonded adhesively with two prepregs, each prepreg built up of three uni-directional glass fiber layers laid in longitudinal and transverse directions. Laminates with prepregs of E-Glass and S-Glass fibers are investigated separately under uni-axial tension. Yield strengths of both the Glare variants are found to be less than that of aluminum alloy with use of S-Glass fiber resulting in higher laminate yield strength than with the use of E-Glass fiber. Results from finite element analysis and tensile tests conducted over the laminates substantiate the theoretical model.

  5. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Metal Type and Thickness Effects on the Impact Resistance of Fiber Metal Laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadighi, M.; Pärnänen, T.; Alderliesten, R.C.; Sayeaftabi, M.; Benedictus, R.

    2012-01-01

    The impact response of fiber metal laminates (FMLs), has been investigated with experiments and numerical simulations, which is reported in this article. Low-velocity impacts were carried out to study the effects of metal type and thickness within FMLs. Glare5-3/2 laminates with two aluminum layer

  6. Behavior of fiber reinforced metal laminates at high strain rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newaz, Golam; Sasso, Marco; Amodio, Dario; Mancini, Edoardo

    2018-05-01

    Carbon Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Laminate (CARALL) is a good system for energy absorption through plastic deformation in aluminum and micro-cracking in the composite layers. Moreover, CARALL FMLs also provide excellent impact resistance due to the presence of aluminum layer. The focus of this research is to characterize the CARALL behavior under dynamic conditions. High strain rate tests on sheet laminate samples have been carried out by means of direct Split Hopkinson Tension Bar. The sample geometry and the clamping system were optimized by FEM simulations. The clamping system has been designed and optimized in order reduce impedance disturbance due to the fasteners and to avoid the excessive plastic strain outside the gauge region of the samples.

  7. Static and Dynamic Behavior of High Modulus Hybrid Boron/Glass/Aluminum Fiber Metal Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Po-Ching

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation presents the investigation of a newly developed hybrid fiber metal laminates (FMLs) which contains commingled boron fibers, glass fibers, and 2024-T3 aluminum sheets. Two types of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs are developed. The first, type I hybrid FMLs, contained a layer of boron fiber prepreg in between two layers of S2-glass fiber prepreg, sandwiched by two aluminum alloy 2024-T3 sheets. The second, type II hybrid FMLs, contained three layer of commingled hybrid boron/glass fiber prepreg layers, sandwiched by two aluminum alloy 2024-T3 sheets. The mechanical behavior and deformation characteristics including blunt notch strength, bearing strength and fatigue behavior of these two types of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs were investigated. Compared to traditional S2-glass fiber reinforced aluminum laminates (GLARE), the newly developed hybrid boron/glass/aluminum fiber metal laminates possess high modulus, high yielding stress, and good blunt notch properties. From the bearing test result, the hybrid boron/glass/aluminum fiber metal laminates showed outstanding bearing strength. The high fiber volume fraction of boron fibers in type II laminates lead to a higher bearing strength compared to both type I laminates and traditional GLARE. Both types of hybrid FMLs have improved fatigue crack initiation lives and excellent fatigue crack propagation resistance compared to traditional GLARE. The incorporation of the boron fibers improved the Young's modulus of the composite layer in FMLs, which in turn, improved the fatigue crack initiation life and crack propagation rates of the aluminum sheets. Moreover, a finite element model was established to predict and verify the properties of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs. The simulated results showed good agreement with the experimental results.

  8. Damage detection in multilayered fiber-metal laminates using guided-wave phased array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoodi, Ameneh; Ohadi, Abdolrezap; Sadighi, Mojtaba; Amindavar, Hamidreza [Amirkabir University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study employs the Lamb wave method to detect damage in Fiber-metal laminates (FMLs). The method is based on quasiisotropic behavior approximation and beam forming techniques. Delay and sum and minimum variance distorsionless response beam formers are applied to a uniform linear phased array. The simulation in finite element software is conducted to evaluate the performance of the presented procedure. The two types of damage studied are the following: (1) Delamination between fiber-epoxy and metal layers and (2) crack on the metal layer. The present study has the following important contributions: (1) Health monitoring of multi-damaged FMLs using Lamb waves and beam forming technique, (2) detection of damage type, (3) detection of damage size by 1D phased array, and (4) identification of damages that occurred very close to the laminate edges or close to each other.

  9. Fatigue crack initiation in hybrid boron/glass/aluminum fiber metal laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, P.-Y.; Yeh, P.-C.; Yang, J.-M.

    2008-01-01

    The fatigue crack initiation behavior of a high modulus and hybrid boron/glass/aluminum fiber/metal laminate (FML) was investigated experimentally and analytically. Two types of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs were fabricated and studied, which consisted of aluminum alloy sheets as the metal layers and a mixture of boron fibers and glass fibers as the composite layers. For the first type, the boron fiber/prepreg and the glass fiber/prepreg were used separately in the composite layers, and for the second type, the boron fibers and the glass fibers were mingled together to form a hybrid boron/glass/prepreg composite layer. These hybrid FMLs were consolidated using an autoclave curing process. The incorporation of the boron fibers improved the Young's modulus of the composite layer in FMLs, which in turn, would improve the fatigue crack initiation life of the Al sheet. The experimental results clearly showed that the fatigue crack initiation lives for both types of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs were superior to the monolithic aluminum alloy under the same loading condition. An analytical approach was proposed to calculate the fatigue crack initiation lives of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs based on the classical laminate theory and the small-crack theory. A good correlation was obtained between the predictions and the experimental results

  10. Effects of Constituents and Lay-up Configuration on Drop-Weight Tests of Fiber-Metal Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanxiong; Liaw, Benjamin

    2010-02-01

    Impact responses and damage of various fiber-metal laminates were studied using a drop-weight instrument with the post-impact damage characteristics being evaluated through ultrasonic and mechanical sectioning techniques. The first severe failure induced by the low-velocity drop-weight impact occurred as delamination between the aluminum and fiber-epoxy layers at the non-impact side. It was followed by a visible shear crack in the outer aluminum layer on the non-impact face. Through-thickness shear cracks in the aluminum sheets and severe damage in the fiber laminated layers (including delamination between adjacent fiber-epoxy laminae with different fiber orientations) developed under higher energy impacts. The impact properties of fiber-metal laminates varied with different constituent materials and fiber orientations. Since it was punched through easily, the aramid-fiber reinforced fiber-metal laminates (ARALL) offered poorer impact resistance than the glass-fiber reinforced fiber-metal laminates (GLARE). Tougher and more ductile aluminum alloys improved the impact resistance. GLARE made of cross-ply prepregs provided better impact resistance than GLARE with unidirectional plies.

  11. Effect of Thermal Cycling on the Tensile Behavior of CF/AL Fiber Metal Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farhan Noor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research work was to estimate the effect of thermal cycling on the tensile behavior of CARALL composites. Fiber metal laminates (FMLs, based on 2D woven carbon fabric and 2024-T3 Alclad aluminum alloy sheet, was manufactured by pressure molding technique followed by hand layup method. Before fabrication, aluminum sheets were anodized with phosphoric acid to produce micro porous alumina layer on surface. This micro-porous layer is beneficial to produce strong bonding between metal and fiber surfaces in FMLs. The effect of thermal cycling (-65 to +70ºC on the tensile behavior of Cf/Al based FML was studied. Tensile strength was increased after 10 thermal cycles, but it was slightly decreased to some extent after 30, and 50 thermal cycles. Tensile modulus also shown the similar behavior as that of tensile strength.

  12. Fracture toughness of Ceramic-Fiber-Reinforced Metallic-Intermetallic-Laminate (CFR-MIL) composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecchio, Kenneth S.; Jiang, Fengchun

    2016-01-01

    Novel Ceramic-Fiber-Reinforced-Metal-Intermetallic-Laminate (CFR-MIL) composites, Ti–Al 3 Ti–Al 2 O 3 –Al, were synthesized by reactive foil sintering in air. Microstructure controlled material architectures were achieved with continuous Al 2 O 3 fibers oriented in 0° and 90° layers to form fully dense composites in which the volume fractions of all four component phases can be tailored. Bend fracture specimens were cut from the laminate plates in divider orientation, and bend tests were performed to study the fracture behavior of CFR-MIL composites under three-point and four-point bending loading conditions. The microstructures and fractured surfaces of the CFR-MIL composites were examined using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to establish a correlation between the fracture toughness, fracture surface morphology and microstructures of CFR-MIL composites. The fracture and toughening mechanisms of the CFR-MIL composites are also addressed. The present experimental results indicate that the fracture toughness of CFR-MIL composites determined by three- and four-point bend loading configurations are quite similar, and increased significantly compared to MIL composites without ceramic fiber reinforcement. The interface cracking behavior is related to the volume fraction of the brittle Al 3 Ti phase and residual ductile Al, but the fracture toughness values appear to be insensitive to the ratio of these two phases. The toughness appears to be dominated by the ductility/strength of the Ti layers and the strength and crack bridging effect of the ceramic fibers.

  13. A Study on Flexural Properties of Sandwich Structures with Fiber/Metal Laminate Face Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dariushi, S.; Sadighi, M.

    2013-10-01

    In this work, a new family of sandwich structures with fiber metal laminate (FML) faces is investigated. FMLs have benefits over both metal and fiber reinforced composites. To investigate the bending properties of sandwich beams with FML faces and compare with similar sandwich beams with fibrous composite faces, 6 groups of specimen with different layer arrangements were made and tested. Results show that FML faces have good resistance against transverse local loads and minimize stress concentration and local deformations of skin and core under the loading tip. In addition, FML faces have a good integrity even after plateau region of foam cores and prevent from catastrophic failures, which cannot be seen in fibrous composite faces. Also, FML faces are lighter than metal faces and have better connection with foam cores. Sandwich beams with FML faces have a larger elastic region because of simultaneous deformation of top and bottom faces and larger failure strain thanks to good durability of FMLs. A geometrical nonlinear classical theory is used to predict force-deflection behavior. In this model an explicit formula between symmetrical sandwich beams deflections and applied force which can be useful for designers, is derived. Good agreement is obtained between the analytical predictions and experimental results. Also, analytical results are compared with small deformation solution in a parametric study, and the effects of geometric parameters on difference between linear and nonlinear results are discussed.

  14. Evaluation of Workpiece Temperature during Drilling of GLARE Fiber Metal Laminates Using Infrared Techniques: Effect of Cutting Parameters, Fiber Orientation and Spray Mist Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giasin, Khaled; Ayvar-Soberanis, Sabino

    2016-01-01

    The rise in cutting temperatures during the machining process can influence the final quality of the machined part. The impact of cutting temperatures is more critical when machining composite-metal stacks and fiber metal laminates due to the stacking nature of those hybrids which subjects the composite to heat from direct contact with metallic part of the stack and the evacuated hot chips. In this paper, the workpiece surface temperature of two grades of fiber metal laminates commercially know as GLARE is investigated. An experimental study was carried out using thermocouples and infrared thermography to determine the emissivity of the upper, lower and side surfaces of GLARE laminates. In addition, infrared thermography was used to determine the maximum temperature of the bottom surface of machined holes during drilling GLARE under dry and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) cooling conditions under different cutting parameters. The results showed that during the machining process, the workpiece surface temperature increased with the increase in feed rate and fiber orientation influenced the developed temperature in the laminate. PMID:28773757

  15. Free Vibration Analysis of Fiber Metal Laminate Annular Plate by State-Space Based Differential Quadrature Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional elasticity theory by means of a state-space based differential quadrature method is presented for free vibration analysis of fiber metal laminate annular plate. The kinds of composite material and metal layers are considered to be S2-glass and aluminum, respectively. A semianalytical approach which uses state-space in the thickness and differential quadrature in the radial direction is implemented for evaluating the nondimensional natural frequencies of the annular plates. The influences of changes in boundary condition, plate thickness, and lay-up direction on the natural frequencies are studied. A comparison is also made with the numerical results reported by ABAQUS software which shows an excellent agreement.

  16. Computed vs. conventional radiography for detecting fatigue cracks in riveted lap joints of aeronautical grade hybrid fiber-metal laminate Glare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarpani, J.R.; Hideki Shinohara, A.; Da Silva, R.R.; Do Val Lacerda, N.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the capability of three different radiographic approaches (two computed or digital, and one conventional or analogous) for imaging fatigue cracks in riveted lap joints of composite fiber-metal laminate Glare. These structural joints are unique in the sense that fatigue cracks develop mainly at the faying surfaces of Glare sheets, so that visual detection is largely prevented and nondestructive inspection becomes mandatory. For this purpose, a round-robin programme comprising several industrial and research centers that employ X-ray radiography routinely to inspect high-demanding equipments, components and structures was conducted. (authors)

  17. Tenacidade à fratura translaminar dinâmica de um laminado híbrido metal-fibra para uso em elevadas temperaturas Translaminar dynamic fracture toughness of a hybrid fiber-metal laminate devised to high-temperature applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Tarpani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A tenacidade à fratura translaminar dinâmica do laminado híbrido metal-fibra titânio-grafite com matriz termoplástica foi determinada sob as velocidades de impacto de 2,25 e 5,52 m/s, no intervalo de temperaturas de -196 a +180 °C, e comparada à de laminados compósitos convencionais de fibras de carbono e resina epóxi. Constatou-se que o laminado híbrido exibe uma tenacidade à iniciação da fratura inferior à dos compósitos tradicionais com fibras na forma de fita unidirecional, porém superior à dos laminados convencionais com fibras na forma de tecido bidirecional. Os ensaios de impacto revelaram que, comparativamente ao desempenho mecânico dos laminados carbono-epóxi, o emprego do laminado híbrido metal-fibra se justifica mais pela sua resistência à propagação do que à iniciação da fratura dinâmica.The translaminar dynamic fracture toughness of titanium-graphite hybrid fiber-metal laminate with thermoplastic matrix has been determined at the impact velocities of 2.25 and 5.52 m/s, within the temperature range from -196 to +180 ºC, and compared to that of conventional carbon-epoxy composite laminates. The hybrid laminate exhibits lower initiation fracture toughness than traditional unidirectional tape composites though it is tougher than conventional woven fabric laminates. Impact tests revealed that, if compared to the mechanical performance of conventional carbon-epoxy laminates, the fiber-metal laminate application must rely on its resistance to dynamic fracture propagation rather than on fracture initiation.

  18. Degradation Behavior of Epoxy Resins in Fibre Metal Laminates Under Thermal Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, G.; Xiao, Y.; Yang, Y.; Wang, J.; Sun, B.; Boom, R.

    2012-01-01

    GLARE (glass fibre/epoxy reinforced aluminum laminate) is a member of the fiber metal laminate (FML) family, and is built up of alternating metal and fiber layers. About 500m2 GLARE is employed in each Airbus A380 because of the superior mechanical properties over the monolithic aluminum alloys,

  19. Structural Laminate Aluminum-Glass-Fiber Materials 1441-Sial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestov, V. V.; Antipov, V. V.; Senatorova, O. G.; Sidel'nikov, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    The structure, composition and set of properties of specimens and components, and some parameters of the process of production of a promising FML class of metallic polymers based on sheets of high-modulus ( E 79 GPa) alloy 1441 with reduced density ( d 2.6 g/cm3) and an optimized glued prepreg reinforced with fibers of high-strength high-modulus VMPglass are described. Results of fire and fatigue tests of a promising 1441-SIAL structural laminate are presented.

  20. Developments of DPF systems with mesh laminated structures. Performances of DPF systems which consist of the metal-mesh laminated filter combustion with the alumina-fiber mesh, and the combustion device of trapped diesel particles; Mesh taso kozo no DPF no kaihatsu. Kinzokusen to arumina sen`i mesh ni yoru fukugo filter to filter heiyo heater ni yoru DPF no seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, T; Tange, A; Matsuda, K [NHK Spring Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    For the purpose of continuous run without any maintenance, new DPF (diesel particulate filter)systems laminated by both metal-wire mesh and alumina-fiber mesh alternately, are under the developments. The perfect combustion of trapped diesel particulate can be achieved by a couple of the resistance heating devices inserted into the filter. 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Analytical and Mathematical Modeling and Optimization of Fiber Metal Laminates (FMLs subjected to low-velocity impact via combined response surface regression and zero-One programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Ashenai Ghasemi

    Full Text Available This paper presents analytical and mathematical modeling and optimization of the dynamic behavior of the fiber metal laminates (FMLs subjected to low-velocity impact. The deflection to thickness (w/h ratio has been identified through the governing equations of the plate that are solved using the first-order shear deformation theory as well as the Fourier series method. With the help of a two degrees-of-freedom system, consisting of springs-masses, and the Choi's linearized Hertzian contact model the interaction between the impactor and the plate is modeled. Thirty-one experiments are conducted on samples of different layer sequences and volume fractions of Al plies in the composite Structures. A reliable fitness function in the form of a strict linear mathematical function constructed. Using an ordinary least square method, response regression coefficients estimated and a zero-one programming technique proposed to optimize the FML plate behavior subjected to any technological or cost restrictions. The results indicated that FML plate behavior is highly affected by layer sequences and volume fractions of Al plies. The results also showed that, embedding Al plies at outer layers of the structure significantly results in a better response of the structure under low-velocity impact, instead of embedding them in the middle or middle and outer layers of the structure.

  2. An Investigation on Tensile Properties of Glass Fiber/Aluminium Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadighi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea of combining low weight and good mechanical properties has led to efforts to develop a new light fiber/metal laminate (FML in the last decade. FMLs are hybrid composites consisting of alternating thin layers of metal sheets and fiber-reinforced epoxy prepregs. In this study, the effect of fiber orientation on tensile properties of this material is investigated both analytically and experimentally. An analytical constitutive model based on classical lamination theory by using Kirchhoff-Love assumption, which incorporates the elastic-plastic behavior of the aluminium alloy was applied. Test results show that fiber sheet, with zero angle in laminates, improve the tensile strength. The composite layers with different fiber orientation change specimens' mode of fracture. Good agreement is obtained between the model predictions and experimental results.

  3. Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepedat, Karin; Wagner, Robert; Lang, Jürgen

    The use of phenolic resin for the impregnation of a carrier material such as paper or fabric based on either organic or inorganic fibers was and still is one of the most important application areas for liquid phenolic resins. Substrates like paper, cotton, or glass fabric impregnated with phenolic resins are used as core layers for decorative and technical laminates and for many other different industrial applications. Nowadays, phenolic resins for decorative laminates used for furniture, flooring, or in the construction and transportation industry have gained significant market share. The Laminates chapter mainly describes the manufacture of decorative laminates especially the impregnation and pressing process with special emphasis to new technological developments and recent trends. Moreover, the different types of laminates are introduced, combined with some brief comments as they relate to the market for decorative surfaces.

  4. On Subsurface Crack Growth in Fibre Metal Laminate Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Randall, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth in fibre metal laminates (FMLs) is significantly more complex than in monolithic materials due to the interaction of various physical mechanisms that govern the growth of cracks in laminates...

  5. Fatigue and fracture of fibre metal laminates

    CERN Document Server

    Alderliesten, René

    2017-01-01

    This book contributes to the field of hybrid technology, describing the current state of knowledge concerning the hybrid material concept of laminated metallic and composite sheets for primary aeronautical structural applications. It is the only book to date on fatigue and fracture of fibre metal laminates (FMLs). The first section of the book provides a general background of the FML technology, highlighting the major FML types developed and studied over the past decades in conjunction with an overview of industrial developments based on filed patents. In turn, the second section discusses the mechanical response to quasi-static loading, together with the fracture phenomena during quasi-static and cyclic loading. To consider the durability aspects related to strength justification and certification of primary aircraft structures, the third section discusses thermal aspects related to FMLs and their mechanical response to various environmental and acoustic conditions.

  6. Process monitoring of glass reinforced polypropylene laminates using fiber Bragg gratings

    KAUST Repository

    Mulle, Matthieu; Wafai, Husam; Yudhanto, Arief; Lubineau, Gilles; Yaldiz, R.; Schijve, W.; Verghese, N.

    2015-01-01

    Hot-press molding of glass-fiber-reinforced polypropylene (GFPP) laminates was monitored using longitudinally and transversely embedded fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) at different locations in unidirectional laminates. The optical sensors proved

  7. Fabrication, interfacial characterization and mechanical properties of continuous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic fiber reinforced Ti/Al{sub 3}Ti metal-intermetallic laminated (CCFR-MIL) composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yuqiang; Lin, Chunfa; Han, Xiaoxiao; Chang, Yunpeng; Guo, Chunhuan, E-mail: guochunhuan@hrbeu.edu.cn; Jiang, Fengchun, E-mail: fengchunjiang@hrbeu.edu.cn

    2017-03-14

    Continuous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic fiber reinforced Ti/Al{sub 3}Ti metal-intermetallic laminated (CCFR-MIL) composite was fabricated using a vacuum hot pressing (VHP) sintering method and followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The microstructure characteristics of the interfaces between Ti and Al{sub 3}Ti, as well as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} fiber and Al{sub 3}Ti intermetallic were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Elemental distribution in the interfacial reaction zones were quantitatively examined by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The phases in the composite were identified by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The mechanical properties of the CCFR-MIL composite were measured using compression and tensile tests under quasi-static strain rate. The experimental results indicated that the residual Al was found in Al{sub 3}Ti intermetallic layer of CCFR-MIL composite. The interfacial reactions occurred during HIP and the reaction products were determined to be Al{sub 2}Ti, TiSi{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} phases. Compared to Ti/Al{sub 3}Ti MIL composite without fiber reinforcement, both the strength and failure strain of CCFR-MIL composite under both compressive and tensile stress states increased due to the contribution of the continuous ceramic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} fiber.

  8. The performance of integrated active fiber composites in carbon fiber laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnykowycz, M; Brunner, A J

    2011-01-01

    Piezoelectric elements integrated into fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix laminates can provide various functions in the resulting adaptive or smart composite. Active fiber composites (AFC) composed of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibers can be used as a component in a smart material system, and can be easily integrated into woven composites. However, the impact of integration on the device and its functionality has not been fully investigated. The current work focuses on the integration and performance of AFC integrated into carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates, focusing on the strain sensor performance of the AFC–CFRP laminate under tensile loading conditions. AFC were integrated into cross-ply CFRP laminates using simple insertion and interlacing of the CFRP plies, with the AFC always placed in the 90° ply cutout area. Test specimens were strained to different strain levels and then cycled with a 0.01% strain amplitude, and the resulting signal from the AFC was monitored. Acoustic emission monitoring was performed during tensile testing to provide insight to the failure characteristics of the PZT fibers. The results were compared to those from past studies on AFC integration; the strain signal of AFC integrated into CFRP was much lower than that for AFC integrated into woven glass fiber laminates. However, the profiles of the degradations of the AFC signal resulting from the strain were nearly identical, showing that the PZT fibers fragmented in a similar manner for a given global strain. The sensor performance recovered upon unloading, which is attributed to the closure of cracks between PZT fiber fragments

  9. Low pressure process for continuous fiber reinforced polyamic acid resin matrix composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druyun, Darleen A. (Inventor); Hou, Tan-Hung (Inventor); Kidder, Paul W. (Inventor); Reddy, Rakasi M. (Inventor); Baucom, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A low pressure processor was developed for preparing a well-consolidated polyimide composite laminate. Prepreg plies were formed from unidirectional fibers and a polyamic acid resin solution. Molding stops were placed at the sides of a matched metal die mold. The prepreg plies were cut shorter than the length of the mold in the in-plane lateral direction and were stacked between the molding stops to a height which was higher than the molding stops. The plies were then compressed to the height of the stops and heated to allow the volatiles to escape and to start the imidization reaction. After removing the stops from the mold, the heat was increased and 0 - 500 psi was applied to complete the imidization reaction. The heat and pressure were further increased to form a consolidated polyimide composite laminate.

  10. Characterisation of fibre metal laminates under thermomechanical loadings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenbeek, M.

    2005-01-01

    Fibre metal laminates, such as Arall or Glare, can offer improved properties compared to monolithic materials. Glare for example shows improved fatigue, residual strength, burn-through, impact and corrosion properties with respect to aluminium 2024, together with a considerable weight reduction and

  11. Resin infusion of layered metal/composite hybrid and resulting metal/composite hybrid laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Grimsley, Brian W. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method of fabricating a metal/composite hybrid laminate is provided. One or more layered arrangements are stacked on a solid base to form a layered structure. Each layered arrangement is defined by a fibrous material and a perforated metal sheet. A resin in its liquid state is introduced along a portion of the layered structure while a differential pressure is applied across the laminate structure until the resin permeates the fibrous material of each layered arrangement and fills perforations in each perforated metal sheet. The resin is cured thereby yielding a metal/composite hybrid laminate.

  12. Development of High Performance CFRP/Metal Active Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, Hiroshi; Haga, Osamu; Imori, Masataka

    This paper describes development of high performance CFRP/metal active laminates mainly by investigating the kind and thickness of the metal. Various types of the laminates were made by hot-pressing of an aluminum, aluminum alloys, a stainless steel and a titanium for the metal layer as a high CTE material, a unidirectional CFRP prepreg as a low CTE/electric resistance heating material, a unidirectional KFRP prepreg as a low CTE/insulating material. The aluminum and its alloy type laminates have almost the same and the highest room temperature curvatures and they linearly change with increasing temperature up to their fabrication temperature. The curvature of the stainless steel type jumps from one to another around its fabrication temperature, whereas the titanium type causes a double curvature and its change becomes complicated. The output force of the stainless steel type attains the highest of the three under the same thickness. The aluminum type successfully increased its output force by increasing its thickness and using its alloys. The electric resistance of the CFRP layer can be used to monitor the temperature, that is, the curvature of the active laminate because the curvature is a function of temperature.

  13. Quasi-Static Indentation Analysis of Carbon-Fiber Laminates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); English, Shawn Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Nelson, Stacy Michelle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    A series of quasi - static indentation experiments are conducted on carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminates with a systematic variation of thicknesses and fixture boundary conditions. Different deformation mechanisms and their resulting damage mechanisms are activated b y changing the thickn ess and boundary conditions. The quasi - static indentation experiments have been shown to achieve damage mechanisms similar to impact and penetration, however without strain rate effects. The low rate allows for the detailed analysis on the load response. Moreover, interrupted tests allow for the incremental analysis of various damage mechanisms and pr ogressions. The experimentally tested specimens are non - destructively evaluated (NDE) with optical imaging, ultrasonics and computed tomography. The load displacement responses and the NDE are then utilized in numerical simulations for the purpose of model validation and vetting. The accompanying numerical simulation work serves two purposes. First, the results further reveal the time sequence of events and the meaning behind load dro ps not clear from NDE . Second, the simulations demonstrate insufficiencies in the code and can then direct future efforts for development.

  14. Feasibility on fiber orientation detection on unidirectional CFRP composite laminates using nondestructive evaluation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, In-Young; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Cha, Cheon-Seok; Lee, Kil-Sung; Hsu, David K.; Im, Kwang-Hee

    2007-07-01

    In particular, CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastics) composite materials have found wide applicability because of their inherent design flexibility and improved material properties. CFRP composites were manufactured from uni-direction prepreg sheet in this paper. It is important to assess fiber orientation, material properties and part defect in order to ensure product quality and structural integrity of CFRP because strength and stiffness of composites depend on fiber orientation. It is desirable to perform nondestructive evaluation which is very beneficial. An new method for nondestructively determining the fiber orientation in a composite laminate is presented. A one-sided pitch-catch setup was used in the detection and evaluation of flaws and material anomalies in the unidirectional CFRP composite laminates. Two Rayleigh wave transducers were joined head-to-head and used in the pitch-catch mode on the surface of the composites. The pitch-catch signal was found to be more sensitive than normal incidence backwall echo of longitudinal wave to subtle flaw conditions in the composite. Especially, ultrasonic waves were extensively characterized in the CFRP composite laminates both normal to fiber and along to fiber with using a one-sided direction of Rayleigh wave transducers. Also, one-sided ultrasonic measurement was made with using a Rayleigh wave transducers and a conventional scanner was used in an immersion tank for extracting fiber orientation information from the ultrasonic reflection in the unidirectional laminate. Therefore, it is thought that the proposed method is useful to evaluate integrity of CFRP laminates.

  15. Smart damping of laminated fuzzy fiber reinforced composite shells using 1–3 piezoelectric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundalwal, S I; Suresh Kumar, R; Ray, M C

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the investigation of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) of smart laminated continuous fuzzy fiber reinforced composite (FFRC) shells. The distinct constructional feature of a novel FFRC is that the uniformly spaced short carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are radially grown on the circumferential surfaces of the continuous carbon fiber reinforcements. The constraining layer of the ACLD treatment is considered to be made of vertically/obliquely reinforced 1–3 piezoelectric composite materials. A finite element (FE) model is developed for the laminated FFRC shells integrated with the two patches of the ACLD treatment to investigate the damping characteristics of the laminated FFRC shells. The effect of variation of the orientation angle of the piezoelectric fibers on the damping characteristics of the laminated FFRC shells has been studied when the piezoelectric fibers are coplanar with either of the two mutually orthogonal vertical planes of the piezoelectric composite layer. It is revealed that radial growth of CNTs on the circumferential surfaces of the carbon fibers enhances the attenuation of the amplitude of vibrations and the natural frequencies of the laminated FFRC shells over those of laminated base composite shells without CNTs. (paper)

  16. LAMINATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökay Nemli

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood based panel producers afford to present their products either in sized semi-finished form or as covered in general by the in additional investments realized. The fact that the laminated material has a certain market share as well as the increase in demand for furniture types finished in various profiles have put the laminated sheets which provide very comprehensive design facilities at the top place and caused such boards to spread over the market rather more quickly. In line with this development, great developments have also been recorded during recent years in laminate utilization in furniture factoring sector and fast steps taken towards a more rational working environment. In this study, laminates types and manufacturing technologies were investigated.

  17. Incorporation of tungsten metal fibers in a metal and ceramic matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožek, Vlastimil; Vokáč, M.; Kolísko, J.; Pokorný, P.; Kubatík, Tomáš František

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, 1-2 (2017), s. 79-82 ISSN 0543-5846 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tungsten wires * tungsten fibers * plasma spraying * metallic coatings * ceramic coatings Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics http://hrcak.srce.hr/168890

  18. Welding of a metal-polymer laminate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gower, H.L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the weldability of a metal polymer sandwich structure. The welding of the sandwich material proceeds first by welding of the skin layer. The material selected for this research is Steelite, a sandwich structure developed by Corus, with 0.12 mm thick mild

  19. Embedding piezoresistive pressure sensors to obtain online pressure profiles inside fiber composite laminates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Maryam Kahali; Breede, Arne; Brauner, Christian; Lang, Walter

    2015-03-27

    The production of large and complex parts using fiber composite materials is costly due to the frequent formation of voids, porosity and waste products. By embedding different types of sensors and monitoring the process in real time, the amount of wastage can be significantly reduced. This work focuses on developing a knowledge-based method to improve and ensure complete impregnation of the fibers before initiation of the resin cure. Piezoresistive and capacitive pressure sensors were embedded in fiber composite laminates to measure the real-time the pressure values inside the laminate. A change of pressure indicates resin infusion. The sensors were placed in the laminate and the resin was infused by vacuum. The embedded piezoresistive pressure sensors were able to track the vacuum pressure in the fiber composite laminate setup, as well as the arrival of the resin at the sensor. The pressure increase due to closing the resin inlet was also measured. In contrast, the capacitive type of sensor was found to be inappropriate for measuring these quantities. The following study demonstrates real-time monitoring of pressure changes inside the fiber composite laminate, which validate the use of Darcy's law in porous media to control the resin flow during infusion.

  20. Effect of stacking angles on mechanical properties and damage propagation of plain woven carbon fiber laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Weimin; Ao, Wenhong

    2018-03-01

    Damage propagation induced failure is a predominant damage mechanism. This study is aimed at assessing the damage state and damage propagation induced failure with different stacking angles, of woven carbon fiber/epoxy laminates subjected to quasi-static tensile and bending load. Different stages of damage processing and damage behavior under the bending load are investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The woven carbon fiber/epoxy laminates which are stacked at six different angles (0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°) with eight plies have been analyzed: [0]8, [15]8, [30]8, [45]8, [60]8, [75]8. Three-point bending test and quasi-static tensile test are used in validating the woven carbon fiber/epoxy laminates’ mechanical properties. Furthermore, the damage propagation and failure modes observed under flexural loading is correlated with flexural force and load-displacement behaviour respectively for the laminates. The experimental results have indicated that [45]8 laminate exhibits the best flexural performance in terms of energy absorption duo to its pseudo-ductile behaviour but the tensile strength and flexural strength drastically decreased compared to [0]8 laminate. Finally, SEM micrographs of specimens and fracture surfaces are used to reveal the different types of damage of the laminates with different stacking angles.

  1. Studies in Cup Drawing Behavior of Polymer Laminated Sheet Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnagmi, M.; Jain, M.; Bruhis, M.; Nielsen, K.

    2011-08-01

    Axisymmetric deep drawing behavior of a polymer laminated sheet metal (PLSM) is investigated using an axisymmetric cup drawing test. PLSMs are of interest as a replacement for painted finishes for automotive applications as they have the potential to achieve good quality long lasting and aesthetically appealing surfaces on stamped parts. However, there is limited understanding of PLSMs in automotive deep drawing situations to produce complex 3-D parts. The tests are carried out using well-controlled, laboratory-based, dual-action, servo-hydraulic forming presses under blank-holder force and punch displacement control conditions. An optical strain mapping system is used to measure the surface strains (and to construct 3D strain maps) from the film side of the deformed samples for a range of forming conditions. Deep drawing characteristics such as punch load versus punch displacement traces, strain distribution along the cup profile, flange wrinkling and fracture characteristics are experimentally assessed for stainless steel-plastic film laminated sheet materials. Also the effect of lamination pressure on wrinkling and delamination is investigated for a decorative pressure sensitive adhesive film affixed to the stainless steel sheet.

  2. Concurrent material-fabrication optimization of metal-matrix laminates under thermo-mechanical loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Morel, M. R.; Chamis, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology is developed to tailor fabrication and material parameters of metal-matrix laminates for maximum loading capacity under thermomechanical loads. The stresses during the thermomechanical response are minimized subject to failure constrains and bounds on the laminate properties. The thermomechanical response of the laminate is simulated using nonlinear composite mechanics. Evaluations of the method on a graphite/copper symmetric cross-ply laminate were performed. The cross-ply laminate required different optimum fabrication procedures than a unidirectional composite. Also, the consideration of the thermomechanical cycle had a significant effect on the predicted optimal process.

  3. Guided wave and damage detection in composite laminates using different fiber optic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fucai; Murayama, Hideaki; Kageyama, Kazuro; Shirai, Takehiro

    2009-01-01

    Guided wave detection using different fiber optic sensors and their applications in damage detection for composite laminates were systematically investigated and compared in this paper. Two types of fiber optic sensors, namely fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) and Doppler effect-based fiber optic (FOD) sensors, were addressed and guided wave detection systems were constructed for both types. Guided waves generated by a piezoelectric transducer were propagated through a quasi-isotropic carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminate and acquired by these fiber optic sensors. Characteristics of these fiber optic sensors in ultrasonic guided wave detection were systematically compared. Results demonstrated that both the FBG and FOD sensors can be applied in guided wave and damage detection for the CFRP laminates. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of guided wave signal captured by an FOD sensor is relatively high in comparison with that of the FBG sensor because of their different physical principles in ultrasonic detection. Further, the FOD sensor is sensitive to the damage-induced fundamental shear horizontal (SH(0)) guided wave that, however, cannot be detected by using the FBG sensor, because the FOD sensor is omnidirectional in ultrasound detection and, in contrast, the FBG sensor is severely direction dependent.

  4. Analysis of metal-matrix composite structures. I - Micromechanics constitutive theory. II - Laminate analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenburg, R. T.; Reddy, J. N.

    1991-01-01

    The micromechanical constitutive theory is used to examine the nonlinear behavior of continuous-fiber-reinforced metal-matrix composite structures. Effective lamina constitutive relations based on the Abouli micromechanics theory are presented. The inelastic matrix behavior is modeled by the unified viscoplasticity theory of Bodner and Partom. The laminate constitutive relations are incorporated into a first-order deformation plate theory. The resulting boundary value problem is solved by utilizing the finite element method. Attention is also given to computational aspects of the numerical solution, including the temporal integration of the inelastic strains and the spatial integration of bending moments. Numerical results the nonlinear response of metal matrix composites subjected to extensional and bending loads are presented.

  5. Computational Fatigue Life Analysis of Carbon Fiber Laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Shrimukhi G.; Chandrashekara, C. V., Dr.

    2018-02-01

    In the present scenario, many traditional materials are being replaced by composite materials for its light weight and high strength properties. Industries like automotive industry, aerospace industry etc., are some of the examples which uses composite materials for most of its components. Replacing of components which are subjected to static load or impact load are less challenging compared to components which are subjected to dynamic loading. Replacing the components made up of composite materials demands many stages of parametric study. One such parametric study is the fatigue analysis of composite material. This paper focuses on the fatigue life analysis of the composite material by using computational techniques. A composite plate is considered for the study which has a hole at the center. The analysis is carried on (0°/90°/90°/90°/90°)s laminate sequence and (45°/-45°)2s laminate sequence by using a computer script. The life cycles for both the lay-up sequence are compared with each other. It is observed that, for the same material and geometry of the component, cross ply laminates show better fatigue life than that of angled ply laminates.

  6. Modeling the Mechanical Behavior of Aluminum Laminated Metal Composites During High Temperature Deformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grishber, R

    1997-01-01

    A constitutive model for deformation of a novel laminated metal composite (LMC) which is comprised of 21 alternating layers of Al 5182 alloy and Al 6090/SiC/25p metal matrix composite (MMC) has been proposed...

  7. Methods for evaluating tensile and compressive properties of plastic laminates reinforced with unwoven glass fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl Romstad

    1964-01-01

    Methods of obtaining strength and elastic properties of plastic laminates reinforced with unwoven glass fibers were evaluated using the criteria of the strength values obtained and the failure characteristics observed. Variables investigated were specimen configuration and the manner of supporting and loading the specimens. Results of this investigation indicate that...

  8. Influence of porosity on the interlaminar shear strength of fibre-metal laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes, C.S.; Remmers, J.J.C.; Gürdal, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Structures manufactured in fibre-metal laminates (e.g. Glare) have been designedconsidering ideal mechanical properties determined by the Classical Lamination Theory. Thismeans that among other assumptions, perfect bonding conditions between layers are assumed.However, more than often, perfect

  9. Flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams Retrofitted with Corrugated Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, N.; Samanta, Amiya K.; Roy, Dilip Kr. Singha; Thanikal, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Strengthening the structural members of old buildings using advanced materials is a contemporary research in the field of repairs and rehabilitation. Many researchers used plain Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) sheets for strengthening Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams. In this research work, rectangular corrugated GFRP laminates were used for strengthening RC beams to achieve higher flexural strength and load carrying capacity. Type and dimensions of corrugated profile were selected based on preliminary study using ANSYS software. A total of twenty one beams were tested to study the load carrying capacity of control specimens and beams strengthened with plain sheets and corrugated laminates using epoxy resin. This paper presents the experimental and theoretical study on flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams using corrugated GFRP laminates and the results are compared. Mathematical models were developed based on the experimental data and then the models were validated.

  10. Thermographic Non-Destructive Evaluation for Natural Fiber-Reinforced Composite Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers, including mineral and plant fibers, are increasingly used for polymer composite materials due to their low environmental impact. In this paper, thermographic non-destructive inspection techniques were used to evaluate and characterize basalt, jute/hemp and bagasse fibers composite panels. Different defects were analyzed in terms of impact damage, delaminations and resin abnormalities. Of particular interest, homogeneous particleboards of sugarcane bagasse, a new plant fiber material, were studied. Pulsed phase thermography and principal component thermography were used as the post-processing methods. In addition, ultrasonic C-scan and continuous wave terahertz imaging were also carried out on the mineral fiber laminates for comparative purposes. Finally, an analytical comparison of different methods was given.

  11. Self-Monitoring Strengthening System Based on Carbon Fiber Laminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Krzywon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Externally bonded composites reinforced with high-strength fibers are increasingly popular in construction, especially in structures’ strengthening, where the best possible mechanical properties are required. At the same time the ability to autodetect threats is one of the most desirable features of contemporary structures. The authors of the paper have developed an intelligent fabric, wherein the carbon fibers play the role of not only tensile reinforcement but also strain sensor. The idea is based on the construction of the strain gauge, where the thread of carbon fibers arranged in zig-zag pattern works as electrical conductor and is insulated by parallel thread of glass or acrylic fibers. Preliminary laboratory tests were designed to create effective measurement techniques and assess the effectiveness of the strengthening of selected building structures, as reinforced concrete and timber beams. Presented in the paper, selected results of these studies are very promising, although there were some noted problems to be considered in next steps. The main problem here is the control of the cross section of the fibers tow, affecting the total resistance of the fabric. One of the main deficiencies of the proposed solution is also sensitivity to moisture.

  12. Autoclave processing for composite material fabrication. 1: An analysis of resin flows and fiber compactions for thin laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    High quality long fiber reinforced composites, such as those used in aerospace and industrial applications, are commonly processed in autoclaves. An adequate resin flow model for the entire system (laminate/bleeder/breather), which provides a description of the time-dependent laminate consolidation process, is useful in predicting the loss of resin, heat transfer characteristics, fiber volume fraction and part dimension, etc., under a specified set of processing conditions. This could be accomplished by properly analyzing the flow patterns and pressure profiles inside the laminate during processing. A newly formulated resin flow model for composite prepreg lamination process is reported. This model considers viscous resin flows in both directions perpendicular and parallel to the composite plane. In the horizontal direction, a squeezing flow between two nonporous parallel plates is analyzed, while in the vertical direction, a poiseuille type pressure flow through porous media is assumed. Proper force and mass balances have been made and solved for the whole system. The effects of fiber-fiber interactions during lamination are included as well. The unique features of this analysis are: (1) the pressure gradient inside the laminate is assumed to be generated from squeezing action between two adjacent approaching fiber layers, and (2) the behavior of fiber bundles is simulated by a Finitely Extendable Nonlinear Elastic (FENE) spring.

  13. Thickness optimization of fiber reinforced laminated composites using the discrete material optimization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Nørgaard; Lund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This work concerns a novel large-scale multi-material topology optimization method for simultaneous determination of the optimum variable integer thickness and fiber orientation throughout laminate structures with fixed outer geometries while adhering to certain manufacturing constraints....... The conceptual combinatorial/integer problem is relaxed to a continuous problem and solved on basis of the so-called Discrete Material Optimization method, explicitly including the manufacturing constraints as linear constraints....

  14. Distinct Fiber Type Signature in Mouse Muscles Expressing a Mutant Lamin A Responsible for Congenital Muscular Dystrophy in a Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Barateau

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Specific mutations in LMNA, which encodes nuclear intermediate filament proteins lamins A/C, affect skeletal muscle tissues. Early-onset LMNA myopathies reveal different alterations of muscle fibers, including fiber type disproportion or prominent dystrophic and/or inflammatory changes. Recently, we identified the p.R388P LMNA mutation as responsible for congenital muscular dystrophy (L-CMD and lipodystrophy. Here, we asked whether viral-mediated expression of mutant lamin A in murine skeletal muscles would be a pertinent model to reveal specific muscle alterations. We found that the total amount and size of muscle fibers as well as the extent of either inflammation or muscle regeneration were similar to wildtype or mutant lamin A. In contrast, the amount of fast oxidative muscle fibers containing myosin heavy chain IIA was lower upon expression of mutant lamin A, in correlation with lower expression of genes encoding transcription factors MEF2C and MyoD. These data validate this in vivo model for highlighting distinct muscle phenotypes associated with different lamin contexts. Additionally, the data suggest that alteration of muscle fiber type identity may contribute to the mechanisms underlying physiopathology of L-CMD related to R388P mutant lamin A.

  15. Study of the Formability of Laminated Lightweight Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girjob Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to test the formability of laminated materials. Laminated materials are considered a good choice when parts with reduced weight are considered. Thus, a laminated material, aluminum - polypropylene - aluminum (Al-PP-Al, as sheet 1.2 mm and 1.4 mm thickness was used. Before processing the material by means of unconventional plastic deformation, its formability was determined by running the Nakajima test. After obtaining the forming limit curves, the material was machined by means of incremental forming.

  16. Process monitoring of glass reinforced polypropylene laminates using fiber Bragg gratings

    KAUST Repository

    Mulle, Matthieu

    2015-12-29

    Hot-press molding of glass-fiber-reinforced polypropylene (GFPP) laminates was monitored using longitudinally and transversely embedded fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) at different locations in unidirectional laminates. The optical sensors proved to efficiently characterize some material properties; for example, strain variations could be related physical change of the laminate, revealing key transition points such as the onset of melt or solidification. These results were confirmed through some comparison with traditional techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry. After the GFPP plate was released from the mold, residual strains were estimated. Because cooling rate is an important process parameter in thermoplastics, affecting crystallinity and ultimately residual strain, two different conditions (22 and 3 °C/min) were investigated. In the longitudinal direction, results were nearly identical while in the transverse direction results showed a 20% discrepancy. Coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) were also identified during a post-process heating procedure using the embedded FBGs and compared to the results of a thermo-mechanical analysis. Again, dissimilarities were observed for the transverse direction. With regards to through the thickness properties, no differences were observed for residual strains or for CTEs.

  17. Fracture morphology of carbon fiber reinforced plastic composite laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Srinivasa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP composites have been extensively used in fabrication of primary structures for aerospace, automobile and other engineering applications. With continuous and widespread use of these composites in several advanced technology, the frequency of failures is likely to increase. Therefore, to establish the reasons for failures, the fracture modes should be understood thoroughly and unambiguously. In this paper, CFRP composite have been tested in tension, compression and flexural loadings; and microscopic study with the aid of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM has been performed on failed (fractured composite surfaces to identify the principle features of failure. Efforts have been made in correlating the fracture surface characteristics to the failure mode. The micro-mechanics analysis of failure serves as a useful guide in selecting constituent materials and designing composites from the failure behavior point of view. Also, the local failure initiation results obtained here has been reliably extended to global failure prediction.

  18. Method and Apparatus for High-Permeability Magnetostrictive/Piezo-Fiber Laminates Having Colossal, Near-Ideal Magnetoelectricity

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    An ME composite laminate of at least one (1-3) piezo-fiber layer coupled with high-permeability alloy magnetostrictive layers, optionally formed of FeBSiC or equivalent. The composite laminate alternates the (1-3) piezo-fiber and high-permeability alloy magnetostrictive layers in a stacked manner. Optionally, the magnetization direction of the high-permeability alloy magnetostrictive layers and polarization direction of the piezo-fiber layer are an (L-L) arrangement. Optionally, thin film pol...

  19. Determination of maximum negative Poisson's ratio for laminated fiber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokrieh, M.M.; Assadi, A. [Composites Research Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department, Center of Excellence in Experimental Solid Mechanics and Dynamics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Contrary to isotropic materials, composites always show complicated mechanical behavior under external loadings. In this article, an efficient algorithm is employed to obtain the maximum negative Poisson's ratio for laminated composite plates. We try to simplify the problem based on normalization of parameters and some manufacturing constraints to overlook the additional constraint of the optimization procedure. A genetic algorithm is used to find the optimal thickness of each lamina with a specified fiber direction. It is observed that the laminated composite with the configuration of (15/60/15) has the maximum negative Poisson's ratio. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. On Poisson's ratio for metal matrix composite laminates. [aluminum boron composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herakovich, C. T.; Shuart, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The definition of Poisson's ratio for nonlinear behavior of metal matrix composite laminates is discussed and experimental results for tensile and compressive loading of five different boron-aluminum laminates are presented. It is shown that there may be considerable difference in the value of Poisson's ratio as defined by a total strain or an incremental strain definition. It is argued that the incremental definition is more appropriate for nonlinear material behavior. Results from a (0) laminate indicate that the incremental definition provides a precursor to failure which is not evident if the total strain definition is used.

  1. Properties of composite laminates based on basalt fibers with epoxidized vegetable oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samper, M.D.; Petrucci, R.; Sanchez-Nacher, L.; Balart, R.; Kenny, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New environmentally friendly composites from biobased epoxies and basalt fibers. • Improved performance with conventional silane treatment on basalt fabrics. • Composites with excellent appearance due to basalt shiny brown color. • Potential applications as substitute of glass fiber reinforced composites in engineering design. • Processing with conventional resin transfer molding (RTM) techniques. - Abstract: This paper deals with the development of polymeric materials derived from epoxidized vegetable oils which have been used in the manufacture of laminated composite materials with basalt fabrics. Epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) and epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) were used as biobased matrices. The basalt fabrics were modified with amino-silane and glycidyl-silane to increase fiber–matrix interactions. The curing behavior of both resins was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and oscillatory rheometry (OR). The evaluation of mechanical properties was made by tensile, flexural and Charpy tests. The extent of the fiber–matrix interactions among interface was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained results revealed that surface modification of basalt fibers with glycidyl-silane clearly improves the mechanical properties of the composites. The use of the ELO resin as matrix for composite laminates improved substantially the mechanical performance compared to composites made with ESBO

  2. Laser cutting of metal laminates: analysis and experimental validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, R.F.; Meijer, J.

    2000-01-01

    Laser cutting has been investigated for a number of aluminum–synthetic laminates, newly developed materials for the aeronautic and automotive industry. The materials consist of alternating aluminum and synthetic layers. It is shown that these materials can be cut at the same speed as homogeneous

  3. THERMOPLASTIC MATRIX SELECTION FOR FIBRE METAL LAMINATE USING FUZZY VIKOR AND ENTROPY MEASURE FOR OBJECTIVE WEIGHTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. ISHAK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to define the suitable thermoplastic matrix for fibre metal laminate for automotive front hood utilisation. To achieve the accurate and reliable results, the decision making process involved subjective and objective weighting where the combination of Fuzzy VIKOR and entropy method have been applied. Fuzzy VIKOR is used for ranking purpose and entropy method is used to determine the objective weighting. The result shows that polypropylene is the best thermoplastic matrix for fibre metal laminate by satisfying two compromise solutions with validation using least VIKOR index value scored 0.00, compared to low density polyethylene, high density polyethylene and polystyrene. Through a combination of Fuzzy VIKOR and entropy, it is proved that this method gives a higher degree of confidence to the decision maker especially for fibre metal laminate thermoplastic matrix selection due to its systematic and scientific selection method involving MCDM.

  4. Determination of CTOD C in Fibre Metal Laminates by ASTM and Schwalbe Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Castrodeza

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibre Metal Laminates (FMLs have arisen as a demand of the aeronautical industry to use thin sheets with high resistance to fatigue crack growth, high damage tolerance, corrosion resistance and high specific strength. Considering these requirements, FMLs are an advantageous choice when compared to metal alloys currently used. In order to employ FMLs in aircraft structures, designers must hold a deep knowledge of a wide set of their properties including fracture toughness. The aim of this work was to evaluate the available methodologies to measure fracture toughness at instability (CTOD C in unidirectional fibre metal laminates reinforced with aramid fibres (ARALL®. To achieve this, tests were performed to obtain traditional and Schwalbe CTODs by using experimental ASTM based techniques, especially adapted to these laminates. Results achieved point out that Schwalbe method is more appropriate and also that there are differences between both CTOD parameters.

  5. Verification and Validation of Carbon-Fiber Laminate Low Velocity Impact Simulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, Shawn Allen; Nelson, Stacy Michelle; Briggs, Timothy; Brown, Arthur A.

    2014-10-01

    Presented is a model verification and validation effort using low - velocity impact (LVI) of carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminate experiments. A flat cylindrical indenter impacts the laminate with enough energy to produce delamination, matrix cracks and fiber breaks. Included in the experimental efforts are ultrasonic scans of the damage for qualitative validation of the models. However, the primary quantitative metrics of validation are the force time history measured through the instrumented indenter and initial and final velocities. The simulations, whi ch are run on Sandia's Sierra finite element codes , consist of all physics and material parameters of importance as determined by a sensitivity analysis conducted on the LVI simulation. A novel orthotropic damage and failure constitutive model that is cap able of predicting progressive composite damage and failure is described in detail and material properties are measured, estimated from micromechanics or optimized through calibration. A thorough verification and calibration to the accompanying experiment s are presented. Specia l emphasis is given to the four - point bend experiment. For all simulations of interest, the mesh and material behavior is verified through extensive convergence studies. An ensemble of simulations incorporating model parameter unc ertainties is used to predict a response distribution which is then compared to experimental output. The result is a quantifiable confidence in material characterization and model physics when simulating this phenomenon in structures of interest.

  6. Inorganic Nanoparticle-Modified Poly(Phenylene Sulphide/ Carbon Fiber Laminates: Thermomechanical Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Díez-Pascual

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber (CF-reinforced high-temperature thermoplastics such as poly(phenylene sulphide (PPS are widely used in structural composites for aerospace and automotive applications. The porosity of CF-reinforced polymers is a very important topic for practical applications since there is a direct correlation between void content and mechanical properties. In this study, inorganic fullerene-like tungsten disulphide (IF-WS2 lubricant nanoparticles were used to manufacture PPS/IF-WS2/CF laminates via melt-blending and hot-press processing, and the effect of IF-WS2 loading on the quality, thermal and mechanical behaviour of the hybrid composites was investigated. The addition of IF-WS2 improved fiber impregnation, resulting in lower degree of porosity and increased delamination resistance, compression and flexural properties; their reinforcement effect was greater at temperatures above the glass transition (Tg. IF-WS2 contents higher than 0.5 wt % increased Tg and the heat deflection temperature while reduced the coefficient of thermal expansion. The multiscale laminates exhibited higher ignition point and notably reduced peak heat release rate compared to PPS/CF. The coexistence of micro- and nano-scale fillers resulted in synergistic effects that enhanced the stiffness, strength, thermal conductivity and flame retardancy of the matrix. The results presented herein demonstrate that the IF-WS2 are very promising nanofillers to improve the thermomechanical properties of conventional thermoplastic/CF composites.

  7. Sustainability of fiber reinforced laminate and honeycomb composites in manufacturing industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmatulu, Eylem; Alonayni, Abdullah; Alamir, Mohammed; Rahman, Muhammad M.

    2018-03-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites provide a lot of benefits, including strength-to-weight ratio / light weight, superior mechanical properties, low maintenance, prolonged service life, as well as corrosion, fatigue and creep resistance. However, sustainability of the FRP composites have not been studied in detail in terms of long term productions in various industries, such as aerospace, wind energy, automotive and defense. Carbon fibers are relatively expensive because of the energy intensive production systems, and lack of easy production options, which forces many companies to recycle and reuse the FRP composites in the same or different manufacturing industries. This study mainly deals with two important issues, including the disposal of composite wastes generated during the manufacturing of composite parts, and the disposal of the products at the end of their useful life. It is believed that the carbon fibers in the used composites will have still high mechanical strengths to use in different composite manufacturing after its end of life. The major manufacturing costs come from the labor and raw materials, so using the recycled carbon fibers will make sustainable composite productions in other industries. This paper presents the current status and outlook of the FRP composite recycling and re-manufacturing techniques in the same or different industries. A future vision of the FRP composites will be investigated with sustainability point of views. This study will also mention about the sustainability issues in laminate and honeycomb composites, new product design and developments and potential applications in different manufacturing industries.

  8. Development of active CFRP/metal laminates and their demonstrations in complicated forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, H.; Nakata, T.; Tanaka, T.; Imori, M.; Haga, O.

    2006-03-01

    This paper describes development of high performance CFRP/metal active laminates and demonstrations of them in complicated forms. Various types of the laminates were made by hot-pressing of an aluminum, aluminum alloys, a stainless steel and a titanium for the metal layer as a high CTE material, a unidirectional CFRP prepreg as a low CTE/electric resistance heating material, a unidirectional KFRP prepreg as a low CTE/insulating material. The aluminum and its alloy type laminates have almost the same and the highest room temperature curvatures and they linearly change with increasing temperature up to their fabrication temperature. The curvature of the stainless steel type jumps from one to another around its fabrication temperature, whereas the titanium type causes a double curvature and its change becomes complicated. The output force of the stainless steel type attains the highest of the three under the same thickness. The aluminum type successfully increased its output force by increasing its thickness and using its alloys. The electric resistance of the CFRP layer can be used to monitor the temperature, that is, the curvature of the active laminate because the curvature is a function of temperature. The aluminum type active laminate was made into complicated forms, that is, a hatch, a stack, a coil and a lift types, and their actuation performances were successfully demonstrated.

  9. Fatigue Crack and Delamination Growth in Fibre Metal Laminates under Variable Amplitude Loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, S.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the investigation into the fatigue propagation and delamination growth of Fibre Metal Laminates under variable amplitude loading. As explained in the first chapter, the motivation of the research is twofold: first, to obtain a clear understanding and detailed characterization of

  10. Multiple-site damage crack growth behaviour in Fibre Metal Laminate structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, W.

    2017-01-01

    Fibre metal laminates (FMLs)were developed and refined for their superior crack growth resistance and critical damage size that complimented the damage tolerance design philosophy utilized in the aerospace sector. Robust damage tolerance tools have been developed for FMLs. However, they tend to

  11. Numerical simulating and experimental study on the woven carbon fiber-reinforced composite laminates under low-velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanyang; Tang, Zhanwen; Pan, Lingying; Zhao, Weidong; Sun, Baogang; Jiang, Wenge

    2016-05-01

    Impact damage has been identified as a critical form of the defects that constantly threatened the reliability of composite structures, such as those used in the aerospace structures and systems. Low energy impacts can introduce barely visible damage and cause the degradation of structural stiffness, furthermore, the flaws caused by low-velocity impact are so dangerous that they can give rise to the further extended delaminations. In order to improve the reliability and load carrying capacity of composite laminates under low-velocity impact, in this paper, the numerical simulatings and experimental studies on the woven fiber-reinforced composite laminates under low-velocity impact with impact energy 16.7J were discussed. The low velocity impact experiment was carried out through drop-weight system as the reason of inertia effect. A numerical progressive damage model was provided, in which the damages of fiber, matrix and interlamina were considered by VUMT subroutine in ABAQUS, to determine the damage modes. The Hashin failure criteria were improved to cover the failure modes of fiber failure in the directions of warp/weft and delaminations. The results of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) were compared with the experimental results of nondestructive examination including the results of ultrasonic C-scan, cross-section stereomicroscope and contact force - time history curves. It is found that the response of laminates under low-velocity impact could be divided into stages with different damage. Before the max-deformation of the laminates occurring, the matrix cracking, fiber breakage and delaminations were simulated during the impactor dropping. During the releasing and rebounding period, matrix cracking and delaminations areas kept increasing in the laminates because of the stress releasing of laminates. Finally, the simulating results showed the good agreements with the results of experiment.

  12. The effects of embedded piezoelectric fiber composite sensors on the structural integrity of glass-fiber-epoxy composite laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konka, Hari P.; Wahab, M. A.; Lian, K.

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric fiber composite sensors (PFCSs) made from micro-sized lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibers have many advantages over the traditional bulk PZT sensors for embedded sensor applications. PFCSs as embedded sensors will be an ideal choice to continuously monitor the stress/strain levels and health conditions of composite structures. PFCSs are highly flexible, easily embeddable, have high compatibility with composite structures, and also provides manufacturing flexibility. This research is focused on examining the effects of embedding PFCS sensors (macro-fiber composite (MFC) and piezoelectric fiber composite (PFC)) on the structural integrity of glass-fiber-epoxy composite laminates. The strengths of composite materials with embedded PFCSs and conventional PZT sensors were compared, and the advantages of PFCS sensors over PZTs were demonstrated. Initially a numerical simulation study is performed to understand the local stress/strain field near the embedded sensor region inside a composite specimen. High stress concentration regions were observed near the embedded sensor corner edge. Using PFCS leads to a reduction of 56% in longitudinal stress concentration and 38% in transverse stress concentration, when compared to using the conventional PZTs as embedded sensors. In-plane tensile, in-plane tension-tension fatigue, and short beam strength tests are performed to evaluate the strengths/behavior of the composite specimens containing embedded PFCS. From the tensile test it is observed that embedding PFCS and PZT sensors in the composite structures leads to a reduction in ultimate strength by 3 and 6% respectively. From the fatigue test results it is concluded that both embedded PFCS and PZT sensors do not have a significant effect on the fatigue behavior of the composite specimens. From the short beam strength test it is found that embedding PFCS and PZT sensors leads to a reduction in shear strength by 7 and 15% respectively. Overall the pure PZT sensors

  13. An Experimental Study of the Influence of in-Plane Fiber Waviness on Unidirectional Laminates Tensile Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cong; Xiao, Jun; Li, Yong; Chu, Qiyi; Xu, Ting; Wang, Bendong

    2017-12-01

    As one of the most common process induced defects of automated fiber placement, in-plane fiber waviness and its influences on mechanical properties of fiber reinforced composite lack experimental studies. In this paper, a new approach to prepare the test specimen with in-plane fiber waviness is proposed in consideration of the mismatch between the current test standard and actual fiber trajectory. Based on the generation mechanism of in-plane fiber waviness during automated fiber placement, the magnitude of in-plane fiber waviness is characterized by axial compressive strain of prepreg tow. The elastic constants and tensile strength of unidirectional laminates with in-plane fiber waviness are calculated by off-axis and maximum stress theory. Experimental results show that the tensile properties infade dramatically with increasing magnitude of the waviness, in good agreement with theoretical analyses. When prepreg tow compressive strain reaches 1.2%, the longitudinal tensile modulus and strength of unidirectional laminate decreased by 25.5% and 57.7%, respectively.

  14. Use of metallic fibers in concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kherbache Souad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The addition of a waste (fibers in construction materials, particularly, the concretes is a technique increasingly used, for several reasons, either ecological, or economic, or to improve some properties in a fresh or hardened state. In our work we studied the behavior of the concrete and the mortar containing metallic fibers resulting from the unit BCR which is in Bordj-Menaiel in Algeria (metallic fibers resulting from the rejection at the end of the domestic operation of silvering of the tools and which is stored in plastic bags which are preserved in metal containers. Our work consists to study the behavior of the concretes and the mortars containing these fibers of cement substitution. We noted that the use of these fibers in the concretes in substitution of cement decreases its of compressive strength and flexural strength but to 10% of waste these strength remain acceptable.

  15. Electrical impedance spectroscopy for measuring the impedance response of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer composite laminates

    KAUST Repository

    Almuhammadi, Khaled

    2017-02-16

    Techniques that monitor the change in the electrical properties of materials are promising for both non-destructive testing and structural health monitoring of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs). However, achieving reliable monitoring using these techniques requires an in-depth understanding of the impedance response of these materials when subjected to an alternating electrical excitation, information that is only partially available in the literature. In this work, we investigate the electrical impedance spectroscopy response at various frequencies of laminates chosen to be representative of classical layups employed in composite structures. We clarify the relationship between the frequency of the electrical current, the conductivity of the surface ply and the probing depth for different CFRP configurations for more efficient electrical signal-based inspections. We also investigate the effect of the amplitude of the input signal.

  16. Experimental study on fatigue crack propagation rate of RC beam strengthened with carbon fiber laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peiyan; Liu, Guangwan; Guo, Xinyan; Huang, Man

    2008-11-01

    The experimental research on fatigue crack propagation rate of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with carbon fiber laminate (CFL) is carried out by MTS system in this paper. The experimental results show that, the main crack propagation on strengthened beam can be summarized into three phases: 1) fast propagation phase; 2) steady propagation and rest phase; 3) unsteady propagation phase. The phase 2-i.e. steady propagation and rest stage makes up about 95% of fatigue life of the strengthened beam. The propagation rate of the main crack, da/dN, in phase 2 can be described by Paris formula, and the constant C and m can be confirmed by the fatigue crack propagation experiments of the RC beams strengthened with CFL under three-point bending loads.

  17. Reversible dielectric property degradation in moisture-contaminated fiber-reinforced laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Luis A.; García, Carla; Fittipaldi, Mauro; Grace, Landon R.

    2016-03-01

    The potential for recovery of dielectric properties of three water-contaminated fiber-reinforced laminates is investigated using a split-post dielectric resonant technique at X-band (10 GHz). The three material systems investigated are bismaleimide (BMI) reinforced with an eight-harness satin weave quartz fabric, an epoxy resin reinforced with an eight- harness satin weave glass fabric (style 7781), and the same epoxy reinforced with a four-harness woven glass fabric (style 4180). A direct correlation between moisture content, dielectric constant, and loss tangent was observed during moisture absorption by immersion in distilled water at 25 °C for five equivalent samples of each material system. This trend is observed through at least 0.72% water content by weight for all three systems. The absorption of water into the BMI, 7781 epoxy, and 4180 epoxy laminates resulted in a 4.66%, 3.35%, and 4.01% increase in dielectric constant for a 0.679%, 0.608%, and 0.719% increase in water content by weight, respectively. Likewise, a significant increase was noticed in loss tangent for each material. The same water content is responsible for a 228%, 71.4%, and 64.1% increase in loss tangent, respectively. Subsequent to full desorption through drying at elevated temperature, the dielectric constant and loss tangent of each laminate exhibited minimal change from the dry, pre-absorption state. The dielectric constant and loss tangent change after the absorption and desorption cycle, relative to the initial state, was 0.144 % and 2.63% in the BMI, 0.084% and 1.71% in the style 7781 epoxy, and 0.003% and 4.51% in the style 4180 epoxy at near-zero moisture content. The similarity of dielectric constant and loss tangent in samples prior to absorption and after desorption suggests that any chemical or morphological changes induced by the presence of water have not caused irreversible changes in the dielectric properties of the laminates.

  18. Experimental and Numerical Study on the Tensile Behaviour of UACS/Al Fibre Metal Laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jia; Wang, Wen-Xue; Zhang, Jia-Zhen; Wu, Su-Jun; Li, Hang

    2015-10-01

    A new fibre metal laminate fabricated with aluminium sheets and unidirectionally arrayed chopped strand (UACS) plies is proposed. The UACS ply is made by cutting parallel slits into a unidirectional carbon fibre prepreg. The UACS/Al laminate may be viewed as aluminium laminate reinforced by highly aligned, discontinuous carbon fibres. The tensile behaviour of UACS/Al laminate, including thermal residual stress and failure progression, is investigated through experiments and numerical simulation. Finite element analysis was used to simulate the onset and propagation of intra-laminar fractures occurring within slits of the UACS plies and delamination along the interfaces. The finite element models feature intra-laminar cohesive elements inserted into the slits and inter-laminar cohesive elements inserted at the interfaces. Good agreement are obtained between experimental results and finite element analysis, and certain limitations of the finite element models are observed and discussed. The combined experimental and numerical studies provide a detailed understanding of the tensile behaviour of UACS/Al laminates.

  19. A Novel Differential Time-of-Arrival Estimation Technique for Impact Localization on Carbon Fiber Laminate Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Marino Merlo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Composite material structures are commonly used in many industrial sectors (aerospace, automotive, transportation, and can operate in harsh environments where impacts with other parts or debris may cause critical safety and functionality issues. This work presents a method for improving the accuracy of impact position determination using acoustic source triangulation schemes based on the data collected by piezoelectric sensors attached to the structure. A novel approach is used to estimate the Differential Time-of-Arrival (DToA between the impact response signals collected by a triplet of sensors, overcoming the limitations of classical methods that rely on amplitude thresholds calibrated for a specific sensor type. An experimental evaluation of the proposed technique was performed with specially made circular piezopolymer (PVDF sensors designed for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM applications, and compared with commercial piezoelectric SHM sensors of similar dimensions. Test impacts at low energies from 35 mJ to 600 mJ were generated in a laboratory by free-falling metal spheres on a 500 mm × 500 mm × 1.25 mm quasi-isotropic Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP laminate plate. From the analysis of many impact signals, the resulting localization error was improved for all types of sensors and, in particular, for the circular PVDF sensor an average error of 20.3 mm and a standard deviation of 8.9 mm was obtained.

  20. Viscoelastic characterization and self-heating behavior of laminated fiber composite driveshafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Todd C.; Bakis, Charles E.; Smith, Edward C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon fiber composites with different matrix moduli were manufactured. • The composites are of interest for flexible driveshaft applications. • The composites are viscoelastically characterized using dynamic mechanical analysis. • The viscoelastic properties are used to predict self-heating in spinning shafts. • Measured and predicted temperatures of shafts agreed within 0.7 °C. - Abstract: The high cyclic strain capacity of fiber reinforced polymeric composites presents an opportunity to design driveshafts that can transmit high power under imperfect alignment conditions without the use of flexible couplers. In weight sensitive applications such as rotorcraft, the design of highly optimized driveshafts requires a general modeling capability that can predict a number of shaft performance characteristics—one of which is self-heating due to dynamic loading conditions. The current investigation developed three new flexible matrix composite materials of intermediate matrix modulus that, together with previously developed composites, cover the full range of material properties that are of potential interest in driveshaft design. An analytical model for the self-heating of spinning, misaligned, laminated composite shafts was refined to suit the full range of materials. Inputs to the model include ply-level dynamic material properties of the composite, cyclic strain amplitude and frequency, and various heat transfer constants related to conduction, radiation, and convection. Predictions of the surface temperature of spinning shafts correspond well with experimental measurements for bending strains of up to 2000 με, which encompasses the range of strains expected in rotorcraft driveshaft applications

  1. The mechanical behavior of GLARE laminates for aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guocai; Yang, J.-M.

    2005-01-01

    GLARE (glass-reinforced aluminum laminate) is a new class of fiber metal laminates for advanced aerospace structural applications. It consists of thin aluminum sheets bonded together with unidirectional or biaxially reinforced adhesive prepreg of high-strength glass fibers. GLARE laminates offer a unique combination of properties such as outstanding fatigue resistance, high specific static properties, excellent impact resistance, good residual and blunt notch strength, flame resistance and corrosion properties, and ease of manufacture and repair. GLARE laminates can be tailored to suit a wide variety of applications by varying the fiber/resin system, the alloy type and thickness, stacking sequence, fiber orientation, surface pretreatment technique, etc. This article presents a comprehensive overview of the mechanical properties of various GLARE laminates under different loading conditions.

  2. The coupled effect of fiber volume fraction and void fraction on hydraulic fluid absorption of quartz/BMI laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurdelbrink, Keith R.; Anderson, Jacob P.; Siddique, Zahed; Altan, M. Cengiz

    2016-03-01

    Bismaleimide (BMI) resin with quartz (AQ581) fiber reinforcement is a composite material frequently used in aerospace applications, such as engine cowlings and radomes. Various composite components used in aircrafts are exposed to different types of hydraulic fluids, which may lead to anomalous absorption behavior over the service life of the composite. Accurate predictive models for absorption of liquid penetrants are particularly important as the composite components are often exposed to long-term degradation due to absorbed moisture, hydraulic fluids, or similar liquid penetrants. Microstructural features such as fiber volume fraction and void fraction can have a significant effect on the absorption behavior of fiber-reinforced composites. In this paper, hydraulic fluid absorption characteristics of quartz/BMI laminates fabricated from prepregs preconditioned at different relative humidity and subsequently cured at different pressures are presented. The composite samples are immersed into hydraulic fluid at room temperature, and were not subjected to any prior degradation. To generate process-induced microvoids, prepregs were conditioned in an environmental chamber at 2% or 99% relative humidity at room temperature for a period of 24 hours prior to laminate fabrication. To alter the fiber volume fraction, the laminates were fabricated at cure pressures of 68.9 kPa (10 psi) or 482.6 kPa (70 psi) via a hot-press. The laminates are shown to have different levels of microvoids and fiber volume fractions, which were observed to affect the absorption dynamics considerably and exhibited clear non-Fickian behavior. A one-dimensional hindered diffusion model (HDM) was shown to be successful in predicting the hydraulic fluid absorption. Model prediction indicates that as the fabrication pressure increased from 68.9 kPa to 482.6 kPa, the maximum fluid content (M∞) decreased from 8.0% wt. to 1.0% wt. The degree of non-Fickian behavior, measured by hindrance coefficient (

  3. Modeling the Non-Linear Response of Fiber-Reinforced Laminates Using a Combined Damage/Plasticity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuecker, Clara; Davila, Carlos G.; Pettermann, Heinz E.

    2008-01-01

    The present work is concerned with modeling the non-linear response of fiber reinforced polymer laminates. Recent experimental data suggests that the non-linearity is not only caused by matrix cracking but also by matrix plasticity due to shear stresses. To capture the effects of those two mechanisms, a model combining a plasticity formulation with continuum damage has been developed to simulate the non-linear response of laminates under plane stress states. The model is used to compare the predicted behavior of various laminate lay-ups to experimental data from the literature by looking at the degradation of axial modulus and Poisson s ratio of the laminates. The influence of residual curing stresses and in-situ effect on the predicted response is also investigated. It is shown that predictions of the combined damage/plasticity model, in general, correlate well with the experimental data. The test data shows that there are two different mechanisms that can have opposite effects on the degradation of the laminate Poisson s ratio which is captured correctly by the damage/plasticity model. Residual curing stresses are found to have a minor influence on the predicted response for the cases considered here. Some open questions remain regarding the prediction of damage onset.

  4. Retrofit of hollow concrete masonry infilled steel frames using glass fiber reinforced plastic laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakam, Zeyad Hamed-Ramzy

    2000-11-01

    This study focuses on the retrofit of hollow concrete masonry infilled steel frames subjected to in-plane lateral loads using glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) laminates that are epoxy-bonded to the exterior faces of the infill walls. An extensive experimental investigation using one-third scale modeling was conducted and consisted of two phases. In the first phase, 64 assemblages, half of which were retrofitted, were tested under various combined in-plane loading conditions similar to those which different regions of a typical infill wall are subjected to. In the second phase, one bare and four masonry-infilled steel frames representative of a typical single-story, single-bay panel were tested under diagonal loading to study the overall behavior and the infill-frame interaction. The relative infill-to-frame stiffness was varied as a test parameter by using two different steel frame sections. The laminates altered the failure modes of the masonry assemblages and reduced the variability and anisotropic nature of the masonry. For the prisms which failed due to shear and/or mortar joint slip, significant strength increases were observed. For those exhibiting compression failure modes, a marginal increase in strength resulted. Retrofitting the infilled frames resulted in an average increase in initial stiffness of two-fold compared to the unretrofitted infilled frames, and seemed independent of the relative infill-to-frame stiffness. However, the increase in the load-carrying capacity of the retrofitted frames compared to the unretrofitted counterparts was higher for those with the larger relative infill-to-frame stiffness parameter. Unlike the unretrofitted infill walls, the retrofitted panels demonstrated almost identical failure modes that were characterized as "strictly comer crushing" in the vicinity of the loaded comers whereas no signs of distress were evident throughout the remainder of the infill. The laminates also maintained the structural integrity of

  5. Analysis of Parameters Assessment on Laminated Rubber-Metal Spring for Structural Vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, M.A.; Putra, A.; Mansor, M.R.; Musthafah, M.T.; Akop, M.Z.; Abdullah, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of parameter assessment on laminated rubber-metal spring (LR-MS) for vibrating structure. Three parameters were selected for the assessment which are mass, Young's modulus and radius. Natural rubber materials has been used to develop the LR-MS model. Three analyses were later conducted based on the selected parameters to the LR-MS performance which are natural frequency, location of the internal resonance frequency and transmissibility of internal resonance. Results of the analysis performed were plotted in frequency domain function graph. Transmissibility of laminated rubber-metal spring (LR-MS) is changed by changing the value of the parameter. This occurrence was referred to the theory from open literature then final conclusion has been make which are these parameters have a potential to give an effects and trends for LR-MS transmissibility. (paper)

  6. Interface detection in poly-ethylene terephthalate-metal laminates using variable energy positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar Galindo, R.; Schut, H.; Veen, A. van; Rastogi, R.; Vellinga, W.P.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Thin coatings of poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) on metal ('laminates') have been studied with a variable energy positron annihilation technique. A correlation between PET crystallinity and the positron annihilation parameter S related to the free volume in the polymer is found. It is shown that buried interfaces in these systems may be detected provided the S parameter of the polymer coating is lower than that of the substrate and higher than that of the surface. Also it is found that large positron diffusion lengths in the substrate favour interface detection. Further, changes in S parameter of PET-metal laminates were measured during uniaxial deformation and shown to be in qualitative accordance with a very simple model description that accounts for changes in free volume in PET during plastic deformation as well as the area fraction of cracks occurring in the PET

  7. Finite Element Simulation of Aluminium/GFRP Fibre Metal Laminate under Tensile Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzuki, M. N. M.; Rejab, M. R. M.; Romli, N. K.; Bachtiar, D.; Siregar, J.; Rani, M. F.; Salleh, Salwani Mohd

    2018-03-01

    The response of a fibre metal laminate (FML) model to the tensile loading is predicted through a computational approach. The FML consisted with layers of aluminum alloy and embedded with one layer of composite material, Glass fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP). The glass fibre and aluminium alloy 2024-0 was laminated by using thermoset epoxy. A compression moulding technique was used in the process of a FML fabrication. The aluminium has been roughen by a metal sanding method which to improve the bonding between the fibre and metal layer. The main objective of this paper is to determine the failure behaviour of the FML under the tensile loading. The responses on the FML under the tensile loading were numerically performed. The FML was modelled and analysed by using Abaqus/CAE 6.13 version. Based on the experimental and FE data of the tensile, the ultimate tensile stress is 120 MPa where delamination and fibre breakage happened. A numerical model was developed and agreed well with the experimental results. The laminate has an inelastic respond to increase the tensile loads which due to the plasticity of the aluminium layers.

  8. Numerical Predictions of Damage and Failure in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Laminates Using a Thermodynamically-Based Work Potential Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan Jorge; Waas, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    A thermodynamically-based work potential theory for modeling progressive damage and failure in fiber-reinforced laminates is presented. The current, multiple-internal state variable (ISV) formulation, referred to as enhanced Schapery theory (EST), utilizes separate ISVs for modeling the effects of damage and failure. Consistent characteristic lengths are introduced into the formulation to govern the evolution of the failure ISVs. Using the stationarity of the total work potential with respect to each ISV, a set of thermodynamically consistent evolution equations for the ISVs are derived. The theory is implemented into a commercial finite element code. The model is verified against experimental results from two laminated, T800/3900-2 panels containing a central notch and different fiber-orientation stacking sequences. Global load versus displacement, global load versus local strain gage data, and macroscopic failure paths obtained from the models are compared against the experimental results.

  9. Assessment of damage in composite laminates through dynamic, full-spectral interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propst, A; Peters, K; Zikry, M A; Schultz, S; Kunzler, W; Zhu, Z; Wirthlin, M; Selfridge, R

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the full-spectral interrogation of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor at 535 Hz. The sensor is embedded in a woven, graphite fiber–epoxy composite laminate subjected to multiple low-velocity impacts. The measurement of unique, time dependent spectral features from the FBG sensor permits classification of the laminate lifetime into five regimes. These damage regimes compare well with previous analysis of the same material system using combined global and local FBG sensor information. Observed transient spectral features include peak splitting, wide spectral broadening and a strong single peak at the end of the impact event. Such features could not be measured through peak wavelength interrogation of the FBG sensor. Cross-correlation of the measured spectra with the original embedded FBG spectrum permitted rapid visualization of average strains and the presence of transverse compressive strain on the optical fiber, but smeared out the details of the spectral profile

  10. Metallization of Kevlar fibers with gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Brian K; Li, Yunfeng; Cammarata, V; Broughton, R; Mills, G

    2011-06-01

    Electrochemical gold plating processes were examined for the metallization of Kevlar yarn. Conventional Sn(2+)/Pd(2+) surface activation coupled with electroless Ni deposition rendered the fibers conductive enough to serve as cathodes for electrochemical plating. The resulting coatings were quantified gravimetrically and characterized via adhesion tests together with XRD, SEM, TEM; the coatings effect on fiber strength was also probed. XRD data showed that metallic Pd formed during surface activation whereas amorphous phases and trace amounts of pure Ni metal were plated via the electroless process. Electrodeposition in a thiosulfate bath was the most efficient Au coating process as compared with the analogous electroless procedure, and with electroplating using a commercial cyanide method. Strongly adhering coatings resulted upon metallization with three consecutive electrodepositions, which produced conductive fibers able to sustain power outputs in the range of 1 W. On the other hand, metallization affected the tensile strength of the fiber and defects present in the metal deposits make questionable the effectiveness of the coatings as protective barriers. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. Improvement of the mode II interface fracture toughness of glass fiber reinforced plastics/aluminum laminates through vapor grown carbon fiber interleaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Huiming; Li, Yuan; Hu, Ning; Cao, Yanping; Yan, Cheng; Azuma, Takesi; Peng, Xianghe; Wu, Liangke; Li, Jinhua; Li, Leilei

    2014-06-01

    The effects of acid treatment, vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF) interlayer and the angle, i.e., 0° and 90°, between the rolling stripes of an aluminum (Al) plate and the fiber direction of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) on the mode II interlaminar mechanical properties of GFRP/Al laminates were investigated. The experimental results of an end notched flexure test demonstrate that the acid treatment and the proper addition of VGCF can effectively improve the critical load and mode II fracture toughness of GFRP/Al laminates. The specimens with acid treatment and 10 g m -2 VGCF addition possess the highest mode II fracture toughness, i.e., 269% and 385% increases in the 0° and 90° specimens, respectively compared to those corresponding pristine ones. Due to the induced anisotropy by the rolling stripes on the aluminum plate, the 90° specimens possess 15.3%-73.6% higher mode II fracture toughness compared to the 0° specimens. The improvement mechanisms were explored by the observation of crack propagation path and fracture surface with optical, laser scanning and scanning electron microscopies. Moreover, finite element analyses were carried out based on the cohesive zone model to verify the experimental fracture toughness and to predict the interface shear strength between the aluminum plates and GFRP laminates.

  12. Uptake of Radionuclide Metals by SPME Fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

    2006-08-01

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ( 239/240 Pu, 238 U, 237 Np, 85 Sr, 133 Ba, 137 Cs, 60 Co and 226 Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection

  13. Laminated exfoliated graphite composite-metal compositions for fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-05-20

    An electrically conductive laminate composition for fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate applications. The laminate composition comprises at least a thin metal sheet having two opposed exterior surfaces and a first exfoliated graphite composite sheet bonded to the first of the two exterior surfaces of the metal sheet wherein the exfoliated graphite composite sheet comprises: (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite and (b) a binder or matrix material to bond the expanded graphite for forming a cohered sheet, wherein the binder or matrix material is between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the first exfoliated graphite composite sheet. Preferably, the first exfoliated graphite composite sheet further comprises particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon in the amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the non-expandable particles and the expanded graphite. Further preferably, the laminate comprises a second exfoliated graphite composite sheet bonded to the second surface of the metal sheet to form a three-layer laminate. Surface flow channels and other desired geometric features can be built onto the exterior surfaces of the laminate to form a flow field plate or bipolar plate. The resulting laminate has an exceptionally high thickness-direction conductivity and excellent resistance to gas permeation.

  14. Plasma electrolytic polishing of metalized carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko Böttger-Hiller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficient lightweight structures require intelligent materials that meet versatile functions. Especially, carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs are gaining relevance. Their increasing use aims at reducing energy consumption in many applications. CFRPs are generally very light in weight, while at the same time being extremely stiff and strong (specific strength: CFRPs: 1.3 Nm kg–1, steel: 0.27 Nm kg–1; specific stiffness: CFRPs: 100 Nm kg–1, steel: 25 Nm kg–1. To increase performance and especially functionality of CFRPs, the integration of microelectronic components into CFRP parts is aspired. The functionalization by sensors, actuators and electronics can enable a high lightweight factor and a new level of failure-safety. The integration of microelectronic components for this purpose requires a working procedure to provide electrical contacts for a reliable connection to energy supply and data interfaces. To overcome this challenge, metalized carbon fibers are used. Metalized fibers are, similar to the usual reinforcing fibers, able to be soldered and therefore easy to incorporate into CFRPs. Unfortunately, metalized fibers have to be pre-treated by flux-agents. Until now, there is no flux which is suitable for mass production without destroying the polymer of the CFRP. The process of plasma electrolytic polishing (PeP could be an option, but is so far not available for copper. Thus, in this study, plasma electrolytic polishing is transferred to copper and its alloys. To achieve this, electrolytic parameters as well as the electrical setup are adapted. It can be observed that the gloss and roughness can be adjusted by means of this procedure. Finally, plasma electrolytic polishing is used to treat thin copper layers on carbon fibers.

  15. Study of fatigue crack propagation in laminated metal composites alluminium 1100/alluminium 2024

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, R.I.

    1984-01-01

    A study has been made of fatigue crack propagation in laminated metal composites with different volume fraction of constituents. The composites were produced by hot rolling, combining 1100 and 2024 aluminum alloys in crack divider orientation. Mechanical and metallurgical properties of the composites and original alloys sheets have been evaluated. Paris type relationship, corresponding to stage II of fatigue crack propagation curves, has been determined by two different methods, wich have shown to be equivalent. A computer software in FORTRAN language was developed for all the mathematical manipulation of fatigue data including statistical analysis and graphics. (Author) [pt

  16. Electrical impedance spectroscopy for measuring the impedance response of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer composite laminates

    KAUST Repository

    Almuhammadi, Khaled; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    impedance spectroscopy response at various frequencies of laminates chosen to be representative of classical layups employed in composite structures. We clarify the relationship between the frequency of the electrical current, the conductivity of the surface

  17. Improved compression molding technology for continuous fiber reinforced composite laminates. Part 2: AS-4/Polyimidesulfone prepreg system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucom, Robert M.; Hou, Tan-Hung; Kidder, Paul W.; Reddy, Rakasi M.

    1991-01-01

    AS-4/polyimidesulfone (PISO2) composite prepreg was utilized for the improved compression molding technology investigation. This improved technique employed molding stops which advantageously facilitate the escape of volatile by-products during the B-stage curing step, and effectively minimize the neutralization of the consolidating pressure by intimate interply fiber-fiber contact within the laminate in the subsequent molding cycle. Without the modifying the resin matrix properties, composite panels with both unidirectional and angled plies with outstanding C-scans and mechanical properties were successfully molded using moderate molding conditions, i.e., 660 F and 500 psi, using this technique. The size of the panels molded were up to 6.00 x 6.00 x 0.07 in. A consolidation theory was proposed for the understanding and advancement of the processing science. Processing parameters such as vacuum, pressure cycle design, prepreg quality, etc. were explored.

  18. Evaluation of contact resistance between carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminate and printed silver electrode for damage monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Eun Beom; Kim, Hak Sung; Takahashi, Kosuke

    2014-01-01

    An addressable conducting network (ACN) makes it possible to monitor the condition of a structure using the electrical resistance between electrodes on the surface of a carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) structure. To improve the damage detection reliability of the ACN, the contact resistances between the electrodes and CFRP laminates needs to be minimized. In this study, silver nanoparticle electrodes were fabricated via printed electronics techniques on a CFRP composite. The contact resistance between the silver electrodes and CFRP were measured with respect to various fabrication conditions such as the sintering temperature of the silver nano-ink and the surface roughness of the CFRP laminates. The interfaces between the silver electrode and carbon fibers were observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on this study, it was found that the lowest contact resistance of 0.3664Ω could be achieved when the sintering temperature of the silver nano-ink and surface roughness were 120 degree C and 0.230 a, respectively.

  19. A genetic algorithm for the optimization of fiber angles in composite laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Shun Fa; Hsu, Ya Chu; Chen, Yuder

    2014-01-01

    A genetic algorithm for the optimization of composite laminates is proposed in this work. The well-known roulette selection criterion, one-point crossover operator, and uniform mutation operator are used in this genetic algorithm to create the next population. To improve the hill-climbing capability of the algorithm, adaptive mechanisms designed to adjust the probabilities of the crossover and mutation operators are included, and the elite strategy is enforced to ensure the quality of the optimum solution. The proposed algorithm includes a new operator called the elite comparison, which compares and uses the differences in the design variables of the two best solutions to find possible combinations. This genetic algorithm is tested in four optimization problems of composite laminates. Specifically, the effect of the elite comparison operator is evaluated. Results indicate that the elite comparison operator significantly accelerates the convergence of the algorithm, which thus becomes a good candidate for the optimization of composite laminates.

  20. Interfacial fracture of the fibre-metal laminates based on fibre reinforced thermoplastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, M.R.; Prawoto, Y.; Cantwell, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    As the adhesion quality plays an important role in determining the mechanical performance and environmental stability of most types of fibre-metal laminates (FMLs), investigating the interfacial fracture properties becomes one of the key factors for the improvement. Adhesion of a self-reinforced polypropylene (SRPP) and glass fibre reinforced polypropylene (GFPP) based FML is evaluated experimentally. Single Cantilever Beam (SCB) tests were performed to access interfacial fracture energy (G c ) of the bi-material laminates and their associated interlayer materials. Simulations mimicking the experiments were also performed. The energy needed to fracture was obtained experimentally and also via stress intensity factor from the simulations. The test results show that good adhesion between the aluminium and fibre reinforced thermoplastics can be achieved using a sulphuric acid anodising surface pre-treatment. Further examination has shown that the edges of the test samples highlighted the presence of significant fibre bridging in the SRPP and plastics deformation in the GFPP. - Highlights: • Adhesion of a self-reinforced polypropylene and glass fibre reinforced polypropylene is evaluated. • Single Cantilever Beam tests were performed to access interfacial fracture energy. • The energy needed to fracture was obtained experimentally and also via stress intensity factor from the simulations. • The test results show that best adhesion is achieved using a sulphuric acid anodizing surface pre-treatment

  1. A review of strategies for improving the degradation properties of laminated continuous-fiber/epoxy composites with carbon-based nanoreinforcements

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles

    2012-06-01

    Continuous-fiber/epoxy-matrix laminated composites are a key structural material for aeronautical and aerospace applications. Introducing nanoscale reinforcements to these materials is a possible way to achieve improved mechanical properties. To date, much work has been done on nano-reinforced polymers. However, few systematic studies concerning the effect of the nanoreinforcements on the mechanical properties on laminated composites were conducted. This paper presents a systematic review of the mechanisms of degradation in laminated structures and considers various nanoreinforcement strategies in the light of well-known mechanisms of degradation and phenomenologies in classical laminated composites. We also discuss various nanoreinforcement strategies in terms of their potential to reduce degradation on every scale. In addition, we review studies conducted on the role that nanoreinforcements play in mechanical properties involved in structural simulation and design. The degradation mechanisms are systematically considered to provide a full picture of each reinforcement strategy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Validation of formability of laminated sheet metal for deep drawing process using GTN damage model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yongbin; Cha, Wan-gi; Kim, Naksoo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Sinsu-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul, 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Sangjin [Mold/die and forming technology team, Product prestige research lab, LG electronics, 222, LG-ro, Jinwi-myeon, Pyeongtaek-si, Gyeonggi-do, 451-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-16

    In this study, we studied formability of PET/PVC laminated sheet metal which named VCM (Vinyl Coated Metal). VCM offers various patterns and good-looking metal steel used for appliances such as refrigerator and washing machine. But, this sheet has problems which are crack and peeling of film when the material is formed by deep drawing process. To predict the problems, we used finite element method and GTN (Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman) damage model to represent damage of material. We divided the VCM into 3 layers (PET film, adhesive and steel added PVC) in finite element analysis model to express the crack and peeling phenomenon. The material properties of each layer are determined by reverse engineering based on tensile test result. Furthermore, we performed the simple rectangular deep drawing and simulated it. The simulation result shows good agreement with drawing experiment result in position, punch stroke of crack occurrence. Also, we studied the fracture mechanism of PET film on VCM by comparing the width direction strain of metal and PET film.

  3. Joining strength performances of metal skin and CFRP core laminate structures realized by compression-curing process, with supporting experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliato, Luca; Jang, Changsoon; Kim, Naksoo

    2018-05-01

    In the recent years, the trend of lightening vehicles and structures of every kind has become an ever-growing issue, both for university and industrial researchers. As demonstrated in previous authors' works, laminate structures made of metal skin (MS) and carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) core show high specific bending strength properties while granting considerable weight reduction but, so far, no investigations have been carried out on the hole sensitivity and joinability of these hybrid structures. In the present research work, the hole size sensitivity of MS-CFRP structure has been studied by means of uniaxial tensile test on 160mm (length), 25mm (width), 2.0mm (average thickness) specimens bored with Ø06mm, Ø9mm, and Ø12mm holes. The specimen thickness is composed of two metal skins of 0.4mm thickness each, 8×0.2mm CFRP stacked layers and two thin epoxy-based adhesive layers. The specimens have been manufactured by means of a compression-curing process in which the different materials are stacked and, thanks to die pressure and temperature, the curing process is completed in a relatively short time (15˜20 minutes). The specimens have been tested by means of simple tension test showing that, for the MS-CFRP material, the smaller the hole the smaller the maximum bearable load. Moreover, specimens with the same hole sizes have been bolted together with class 12 resistance bolts and tested by means of tensile test, allowing to determine the maximum transferable load between the two MS-CFRP plates. Aiming to prove the improvement in the specific transferable load, experiments on only-steel specimens with the same weight of the MS-CFRP ones and joined with the same method and bolts have been carried out, allowing to conclude that, for the 9mm hole bolted plates, the proposed material has a specific maximum transferable 27% higher than that of the steel composing their skins.

  4. Critical assessment of the mandrel peel test for fiber reinforced thermoplastic laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grouve, Wouter Johannes Bernardus; Warnet, Laurent; Akkerman, Remko

    2013-01-01

    The applicability of the mandrel peel test for thermoplastic composites was investigated experimentally by comparing the fracture toughness to the values obtained by the double cantilever beam (DCB) and end loaded split (ELS) beam test. Two laminates were considered: a unidirectionally carbon-PPS

  5. Design feasibility study of a divertor component reinforced with fibrous metal matrix composite laminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, J.-H.

    2005-01-01

    Fibrous metal matrix composites possess advanced mechanical properties compared to conventional alloys. It is expected that the application of these composites to a divertor component will enhance the structural reliability. A possible design concept would be a system consisting of tungsten armour, copper composite interlayer and copper heat sink where the composite interlayer is locally inserted into the highly stressed domain near the bond interface. For assessment of the design feasibility of the composite divertor concept, a non-linear multi-scale finite element analysis was performed. To this end, a micro-mechanics algorithm was implemented into a finite element code. A reactor-relevant heat flux load was assumed. Focus was placed on the evolution of stress state, plastic deformation and ductile damage on both macro- and microscopic scales. The structural response of the component and the micro-scale stress evolution of the composite laminate were investigated

  6. Design feasibility study of a divertor component reinforced with fibrous metal matrix composite laminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, J.-H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: j.h.you@ipp.mpg.de

    2005-01-01

    Fibrous metal matrix composites possess advanced mechanical properties compared to conventional alloys. It is expected that the application of these composites to a divertor component will enhance the structural reliability. A possible design concept would be a system consisting of tungsten armour, copper composite interlayer and copper heat sink where the composite interlayer is locally inserted into the highly stressed domain near the bond interface. For assessment of the design feasibility of the composite divertor concept, a non-linear multi-scale finite element analysis was performed. To this end, a micro-mechanics algorithm was implemented into a finite element code. A reactor-relevant heat flux load was assumed. Focus was placed on the evolution of stress state, plastic deformation and ductile damage on both macro- and microscopic scales. The structural response of the component and the micro-scale stress evolution of the composite laminate were investigated.

  7. Model-Based Fatigue Prognosis of Fiber-Reinforced Laminates Exhibiting Concurrent Damage Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbetta, M.; Sbarufatti, C.; Saxena, A.; Giglio, M.; Goebel, K.

    2016-01-01

    Prognostics of large composite structures is a topic of increasing interest in the field of structural health monitoring for aerospace, civil, and mechanical systems. Along with recent advancements in real-time structural health data acquisition and processing for damage detection and characterization, model-based stochastic methods for life prediction are showing promising results in the literature. Among various model-based approaches, particle-filtering algorithms are particularly capable in coping with uncertainties associated with the process. These include uncertainties about information on the damage extent and the inherent uncertainties of the damage propagation process. Some efforts have shown successful applications of particle filtering-based frameworks for predicting the matrix crack evolution and structural stiffness degradation caused by repetitive fatigue loads. Effects of other damage modes such as delamination, however, are not incorporated in these works. It is well established that delamination and matrix cracks not only co-exist in most laminate structures during the fatigue degradation process but also affect each other's progression. Furthermore, delamination significantly alters the stress-state in the laminates and accelerates the material degradation leading to catastrophic failure. Therefore, the work presented herein proposes a particle filtering-based framework for predicting a structure's remaining useful life with consideration of multiple co-existing damage-mechanisms. The framework uses an energy-based model from the composite modeling literature. The multiple damage-mode model has been shown to suitably estimate the energy release rate of cross-ply laminates as affected by matrix cracks and delamination modes. The model is also able to estimate the reduction in stiffness of the damaged laminate. This information is then used in the algorithms for life prediction capabilities. First, a brief summary of the energy-based damage model

  8. Hygrotermal effects evaluation using the losipescu shear test for glare laminates

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Edson Cocchieri [UNESP; Rezende, Mirabel C.; Pardini, Luis Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Fiber-metal laminates (FML) composed of alternating layers of unidirectional fibers-reinforced plastic (FRP) laminae and aluminum-alloy sheets offer some superior mechanical properties, compared with either conventional laminates consisting of only, FRP laminae or high-strength monolithic aluminum alloys. The environmental factors can limit the applications of composites by deteriorating the mechanical properties during service. Usually, polymeric matrix absorbs moisture when exposed to humid...

  9. Hygrotermal effects evaluation using the iosipescu shear test for glare laminates

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Edson C.; Rezende, Mirabel C.; Pardini, Luis Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Fiber-metal laminates (FML) composed of alternating layers of unidirectional fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) laminae and aluminum-alloy sheets offer some superior mechanical properties, compared with either conventional laminates consisting of only FRP laminae or high-strength monolithic aluminum alloys. The environmental factors can limit the applications of composites by deteriorating the mechanical properties during service. Usually, polymeric matrix absorbs moisture when exposed to humid e...

  10. The effects of embedded piezoelectric fiber composite sensors on the structural integrity of glass-fiber–epoxy composite laminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konka, Hari P; Wahab, M A; Lian, K

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric fiber composite sensors (PFCSs) made from micro-sized lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibers have many advantages over the traditional bulk PZT sensors for embedded sensor applications. PFCSs as embedded sensors will be an ideal choice to continuously monitor the stress/strain levels and health conditions of composite structures. PFCSs are highly flexible, easily embeddable, have high compatibility with composite structures, and also provides manufacturing flexibility. This research is focused on examining the effects of embedding PFCS sensors (macro-fiber composite (MFC) and piezoelectric fiber composite (PFC)) on the structural integrity of glass-fiber–epoxy composite laminates. The strengths of composite materials with embedded PFCSs and conventional PZT sensors were compared, and the advantages of PFCS sensors over PZTs were demonstrated. Initially a numerical simulation study is performed to understand the local stress/strain field near the embedded sensor region inside a composite specimen. High stress concentration regions were observed near the embedded sensor corner edge. Using PFCS leads to a reduction of 56% in longitudinal stress concentration and 38% in transverse stress concentration, when compared to using the conventional PZTs as embedded sensors. In-plane tensile, in-plane tension–tension fatigue, and short beam strength tests are performed to evaluate the strengths/behavior of the composite specimens containing embedded PFCS. From the tensile test it is observed that embedding PFCS and PZT sensors in the composite structures leads to a reduction in ultimate strength by 3 and 6% respectively. From the fatigue test results it is concluded that both embedded PFCS and PZT sensors do not have a significant effect on the fatigue behavior of the composite specimens. From the short beam strength test it is found that embedding PFCS and PZT sensors leads to a reduction in shear strength by 7 and 15% respectively. Overall the pure PZT

  11. Reinforced carbon fiber laminates with oriented carbon nanotube epoxy nanocomposites: Magnetic field assisted alignment and cryogenic temperature mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuxin; Yang, Song; Liu, Hu; Shao, Qian; Chen, Qiuyu; Lu, Chang; Jiang, Yuanli; Liu, Chuntai; Guo, Zhanhu

    2018-05-01

    The epoxy nanocomposites with ordered multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used to influence the micro-cracks resistance of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy (CF/EP) laminate at 77 K, Oxidized MWCNTs functionalized with Fe 3 O 4 (Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs) with good magnetic properties were prepared by co-precipitation method and used to modify epoxy (EP) for cryogenic applications. Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs reinforced carbon fiber epoxy composites were also prepared through vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). The ordered Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs were observed to have effectively improved the mechanical properties of epoxy (EP) matrix at 77 K and reduce the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of EP matrix. The ordered Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs also obviously improved the micro-cracks resistance of CF/EP composites at 77 K. Compared to neat EP, the CTE of ordered Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs modified CF/EP composites was decreased 37.6%. Compared to CF/EP composites, the micro-cracks density of ordered Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs modified CF/EP composites at 77 K was decreased 37.2%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Embedding Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors to Obtain Online Pressure Profiles Inside Fiber Composite Laminates

    OpenAIRE

    Kahali Moghaddam, Maryam; Breede, Arne; Brauner, Christian; Lang, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The production of large and complex parts using fiber composite materials is costly due to the frequent formation of voids, porosity and waste products. By embedding different types of sensors and monitoring the process in real time, the amount of wastage can be significantly reduced. This work focuses on developing a knowledge-based method to improve and ensure complete impregnation of the fibers before initiation of the resin cure. Piezoresistive and capacitive pressure sensors were embedde...

  13. Effect of surface treatment on the corrosion properties of magnesium-based fibre metal laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Ma, Q. Y.; Dai, Y.; Hu, F. P.; Wei, G. B.; Xu, T. C.; Zeng, Q. W.; Wang, S. Z.; Xie, W. D.

    2017-02-01

    The surface roughness, weight of phosphating film and wettability of magnesium alloy substrates after abrasion and phosphating treatment were investigated in this work. The interfacial bonding and corrosion properties of a magnesium-based fibre metal laminate (MgFML) were analysed. The results showed that the wettability of the magnesium alloy was greatly influenced by the surface roughness, and the rough surface possessed a larger surface energy and better wettability. The surface energy and wettability of the magnesium alloy were significantly improved by the phosphating treatment. After phosphating for 5 min, a phosphating film with a double-layer structure was formed on the magnesium substrate, and the weight of the phosphating film and the surface energy reached their maximum values. The surface energies of the phosphated substrate after abrasion with #120 and #3000 grit abrasive papers were 84.31 mJ/m2 and 83.65 mJ/m2, respectively. The wettability of the phosphated magnesium was significantly better than the abraded magnesium. The phosphated AZ31B sheet had a better corrosion resistance than the abraded AZ31B sheet within short times. The corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy was greatly increased by being composited with glass fibre/epoxy prepregs.

  14. Real-time inspection of metal laminates by means of CNNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preciado, Victor M.; Guinea, Domingo; Montufar-Chaveznava, Rodrigo; Vicente, Jose

    2001-04-01

    Analog CNN array computer arises as an alternative to traditional digital processors in many industrial inspection like visual quality control of metal laminants, capable of make in a single chip Tera equivalent operations per second. A 4096 analog CNN processor array is able to perform complex space-time image analysis, being much faster than a camera- computer system in continuous inspection applications. Both chips have been implemented in CMOS technology and they are managed by a 32-bit high-performance low-cost micro- controller that closes the pan, tilt, lighting, focus and zoom loops required in the implementation of the active vision strategies. Several convolution masks for the Cellular Processors has been selected to detect particular changes in the texture, size, direction or orientation of the image entities, reprogramming `on the fly' the pixel resolution of shape when necessary. Laboratory results present these Cellular Processors and multiple resolution imager circuits as a promising architecture for visual inspection of industrial processes in real time.

  15. Influence of the Hybrid Combination of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Oxide on Interlaminar Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, J. A.; Rubio-González, C.; Jiménez-Mora, M.; Ramos-Galicia, L.; Velasco-Santos, C.

    2017-10-01

    An effective strategy to improve the mode I and mode II interlaminar fracture toughness (G IC and G IIC ) of unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy (CF/E) laminates using a hybrid combination of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene oxide (GO) is reported. Double cantilever beam (DCB) and end notched flexure (ENF) tests were conducted to evaluate the G IC and G IIC of the CF/E laminates fabricated with sprayed MWCNTs, GO and MWCNTs/GO hybrid. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to observe the fracture surfaces of tested DCB and ENF specimens. Experimental results showed the positive effect on the G IC and G IIC by 17% and 14% improvements on CF/E laminates with 0.25 wt.% MWCNTs/GO hybrid content compared to the neat CF/E. Also, the interlaminar shear strength value was increased for MWCNTs/GO-CF/E laminates. A synergetic effect between MWCNTs and GO resulted in improved interlaminar mechanical properties of CF/E laminates made by prepregs.

  16. Non-destructive evaluation of impact damage on carbon fiber laminates: Comparison between ESPI and Shearography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagliarulo, V., E-mail: v.pagliarulo@isasi.cnr.it; Ferraro, P. [CNR National Research Council, ISASI, Institute of Applied Sciences and Intelligent Systems, via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078 Pozzuoli, NA (Italy); Lopresto, V.; Langella, A. [Dpt. Of Chemicals, Materials and Production Engin., University of Naples “Federico II”, P.leTecchio 80, Naples (Italy); Antonucci, V.; Ricciardi, M. R. [CNR National Research Council, IPCB, Institute of Polymer Composites and Biomedical Materials, P.E. Fermi, Portici (Italy)

    2016-06-28

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the ability of two different interferometric NDT techniques to detect and evaluate barely visible impact damage on composite laminates. The interferometric techniques allow to investigate large and complex structures. Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) works through real-time surface illumination by visible laser (i.e. 532 nm) and the range and the accuracy are related to the wavelength. While the ESPI works with the “classic” holographic configuration, that is reference beam and object beam, the Shearography uses the object image itself as reference: two object images are overlapped creating a shear image. This makes the method much less sensitive to external vibrations and noise but with one difference, it measures the first derivative of the displacement. In this work, different specimens at different impact energies have been investigated by means of both methods. The delaminated areas have been estimated and compared.

  17. Metal adsorption process in activated carbon fiber from textile PAN fiber aim electrode production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Aline Castilho; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento; Silva, Elen Leal da; Marcuzzo, Jossano Saldanha; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro; Cuna, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Carbon fibers have a variety of applications in industry and have been increasingly studied to explore their various characteristics. Studies show that the activated carbon fiber has been effective in removing small contaminants as well as activated carbon, because of its characteristic porosity. Other studies relate carbonaceous materials to the electrical conductivity devices application. This work is based on the use of an activated carbon fiber from textile polyacrylonitrile (PAN) for metallic ion adsorption from aqueous solution. Consequently, it improves the electrical characteristics and this fact show the possibility to use this material as electrode. The work was performed by adsorption process in saline solution (NO 3 Ag and ClPd) and activated carbon fiber in felt form as adsorbent. The metal adsorption on activated carbon fiber was characterized by textural analysis, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM-EDX), Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was observed that activated carbon fiber showed good adsorption capacity for the metals used. At the end of the process, the activated carbon fiber samples gained about 15% by weight, related to metallic fraction incorporated into the fiber and the process of adsorption does not changed the structural, morphological and chemistry inertness of the samples. The results indicate the feasibility of this metal incorporation techniques activated carbon fiber for the production of electrodes facing the electrochemical area. (author)

  18. Metal adsorption process in activated carbon fiber from textile PAN fiber aim electrode production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Aline Castilho; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento, E-mail: alinerodrigues_1@msn.com [Instituto Tecnologico Aeroespacial (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, Elen Leal da; Marcuzzo, Jossano Saldanha; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Cuna, Andres [Faculdade de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica (Uruguay)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Carbon fibers have a variety of applications in industry and have been increasingly studied to explore their various characteristics. Studies show that the activated carbon fiber has been effective in removing small contaminants as well as activated carbon, because of its characteristic porosity. Other studies relate carbonaceous materials to the electrical conductivity devices application. This work is based on the use of an activated carbon fiber from textile polyacrylonitrile (PAN) for metallic ion adsorption from aqueous solution. Consequently, it improves the electrical characteristics and this fact show the possibility to use this material as electrode. The work was performed by adsorption process in saline solution (NO{sub 3}Ag and ClPd) and activated carbon fiber in felt form as adsorbent. The metal adsorption on activated carbon fiber was characterized by textural analysis, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM-EDX), Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was observed that activated carbon fiber showed good adsorption capacity for the metals used. At the end of the process, the activated carbon fiber samples gained about 15% by weight, related to metallic fraction incorporated into the fiber and the process of adsorption does not changed the structural, morphological and chemistry inertness of the samples. The results indicate the feasibility of this metal incorporation techniques activated carbon fiber for the production of electrodes facing the electrochemical area. (author)

  19. A study of an influence of a fiber arrangement of a laminate ply on the distribution and values of stresses in the multi-layered composite material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbuś Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work are presented studies related with the influence of a fiber arrangement of a laminate ply on the distribution and values of stresses in the multi-layered composite material. For this purpose, the characteristics of the three-point bending test, according to the standard PN-EN ISO 7438, of specimens made from the composite material, where a single ply is a composition of epoxy resin and glass fibres, was mapped. The modelling process of the multi-layered composite material and its strength verification was performed in the PLM Siemens NX system. Based on the results of performed numerical studies, the relation between the value of the main angle of an arrangement of fibers in each plies of the laminate, and the distribution and values of stresses, occurring in the examined specimens has been determined.

  20. The usage of optical fibers for damage detection in ballistic protection composite laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Irena D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the procedure of embedding fiber optic sensors in laminar thermoplastic composite material, as well as damage investigation after ballistic loading. Thermoplastic-reinforced composite materials were made for increased material damage resistance during ballistic loading. Damage inside the composite material was detected by observing the intensity drop of the light signal transmitted through the optical fibers. Experimental testing was carried out in order to observe and analyze the response of the material under various load conditions. Different types of Kevlar reinforced composite materials (thermoplastic, thermo reactive and thermoplastic with ceramic plate as the impact face were made. Material damage resistance during ballistic loading was investigated and compared. Specimens were tested under multiple load conditions. The opto-electronic part of the measurement system consists of two light-emitting diodes as light sources for the optical fibers, and two photo detectors for the light intensity measurement. The output signal was acquired from photo detectors by means of a data acquisition board and personal computer. The measurements showed an intensity drop of the transmitted light signal as a result of the applied loading on composite structure for all the optical fibers. All the diagrams show similar behavior of the light signal intensity. In fact, all of them may be divided into three zones: the zone of penetration of the first composite layer, the bullet traveling zone through the composite material till its final stop, and the material relaxation zone. The attenuation of the light signal intensity during impact is caused by the influence of the applied dynamic stress on the embedded optical fibers. The applied stress caused micro bending of the optical fiber, changes in the shape of the cross-section and the unequal changes of the indices of refraction of the core and cladding due to the stress-optic effect. The

  1. Rotor losses in laminated magnets and an anisotropic carbon fiber sleeve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Geest, M.; Wolmarans, J.J.; Polinder, H.; Ferreira, J.A.; Zeilstra, D.

    2012-01-01

    High speed fault tolerant permanent magnet machines have strong asynchronous airgap harmonics, making them susceptible to rotor eddy-current losses. These losses can be reduced by using novel high resistivity materials like plastic bonded magnets and carbon fiber reinforced retaining sleeves. This

  2. Compressive yielding of tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, B.; Lee, S.-Y.; Uestuendag, E.; Aydiner, C.C.; Conner, R.D.; Bourke, M.A.M

    2003-07-15

    In-situ uniaxial compression tests were conducted on four tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass matrix composites using neutron diffraction. The results were interpreted with a finite element model. Both phases were seen to approximately obey the von Mises yield criterion. The fibers were observed to yield first and then transfer load to the matrix.

  3. Compressive yielding of tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, B.; Lee, S.-Y.; Uestuendag, E.; Aydiner, C.C.; Conner, R.D.; Bourke, M.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    In-situ uniaxial compression tests were conducted on four tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass matrix composites using neutron diffraction. The results were interpreted with a finite element model. Both phases were seen to approximately obey the von Mises yield criterion. The fibers were observed to yield first and then transfer load to the matrix

  4. Experimental characterization of interlaminar fracture toughness of composite laminates assembled with three different carbon fiber lamina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Gentile

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the fracture resistance of a carbon fiber composite under mode I and mode II loading have been experimentally determined. For the mode I and II, the energy release rate G has been determinate for each material. In some cases, only a single estimation of G was possible due to problems in the propagation such as extensive fiber bridging and loss of planarity of the running crack. The experimental results relative to DCB tests have been analyzed in order to derive statistical trends. Only the samples for which more than three crack advance data points have been collected are considered in the analysis. The G values are those obtained with the compliance calibration method (CC. For ENF test, determination of critical GII, in addition to the value calculated with the relationship given in the prescription EN6034, other two values, the non linear and visual non linear, are also given. The crack propagation resulted to be unstable for all specimens tested and only a single value of GII could be determined

  5. Specific features of implosion of metallized fiber arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrofanov, K. N., E-mail: mitrofan@triniti.ru; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Grabovski, E. V.; Frolov, I. N.; Laukhin, Ya. N.; Breshkov, S. S. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    Implosion of metallized fiber arrays was studied experimentally at the Angara-5-1 facility. The use of such arrays makes it possible to investigate the production and implosion dynamics of plasmas of various metals (such as tin, indium, and bismuth) that were previously unavailable for such studies. The plasma production rates m-dot (in μg/(cm{sup 2} ns)) for different metals were determined and quantitatively compared. Varying the thickness of the metal layer deposited on kapron fibers (the total linear mass of the metal coating being maintained at the level of 220 μg/cm), the current and velocity of the plasma precursor were studied as functions of the thickness of the metal coating. The strong difference in the rates of plasma production from the metal coating and kapron fibers results in the redistribution of the discharge current between the Z-pinch and the trailing fiber plasma. The outer boundary of the plasma produced from the metal coating is found to be stable against instabilities typical of the final stage of implosion of conventional wire arrays.

  6. On the thermally-induced residual stresses in thick fiber-thermoplastic matrix (PEEK) cross-ply laminated plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shoufeng; Nairn, John A.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical method for calculating thermally-induced residual stresses in laminated plates is applied to cross-ply PEEK laminates. We considered three cooling procedures: slow cooling (uniform temperature distribution); convective and radiative cooling; and rapid cooling by quenching (constant surface temperature). Some of the calculated stresses are of sufficient magnitude to effect failure properties such as matrix microcracking.

  7. Laminated composite based on polyester geotextile fibers and polyurethane resin for coating wood structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Andrey Olivato Assagra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available New environmental laws have restricted the use of hardwood trees in overhead power lines structures, such as, poles and cross-arms, leading companies to seek alternative materials. Reforested wood coated with polymeric resin has been proposed as an environmental friendly solution, with improved electrical properties and protection against external agents, e.g. moisture, ultraviolet radiation and fungi. However, the single thin layer of resin, normally applied on such structures reveal to be inefficient, due to be easily damage during handling. In this paper, we present a composite coating, based on geotextile fibers and polyurethane resin that is suitable for wooden structures. Results obtained from two different tree species (from managed and reforested areas coated with the composite reveal that the additional layer not only provided a stronger adhesion between wood and ccoating layer but also a further improvement in the electrical properties and better protection against abrasion and moisture.

  8. Weather ability studies of phenolic resin coated woods and glass fiber reinforced laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, A.; Hussain, R.; Rizvi, M.H.; Ahmed, F.

    1997-01-01

    Phenolic resins have made a major breakthrough in the field of high technology in 80's. These are now active participants of h igh tech' areas ranging from electronics, computers, communication, outer space, aerospace, advanced materials, bio materials and technology. A phenol - formaldehyde (1:1.5) resin having resin content of 70% synthesized in the laboratory has been applied for wood coating and reinforcing glass fiber. The weatherability and solvent resistance of these items have been studied and results discussed keeping in view the envisaged application for structural materials and chemical equipment. The toxic materials released during contact with solvents for chemical applications and during degradation general have been monitored. The results are discussed with reference to environmental pollution due to these resins and their composites under different conditions. (authors)

  9. Electrically tunable Brillouin fiber laser based on a metal-coated single-mode optical fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Popov

    Full Text Available We explore tunability of the Brillouin fiber laser employing Joule heating. For this purpose, 10-m-length of a metal-coated single-mode optical cavity fiber has been directly included into an electrical circuit, like a conductor wire. With the current up to ∼3.5 A the laser tuning is demonstrated over a spectrum range of ∼400 MHz. The observed laser line broadening up to ∼2 MHz is explained by frequency drift and mode-hoping in the laser caused by thermal noise. Keywords: Brillouin fiber laser, Metal-coated optical fiber, Laser tuning, Fiber sensors

  10. Strain evolution after fiber failure in a single-fiber metal matrix composite under cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanan, Jay C. [Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)]. E-mail: jay.hanan@okstate.edu; Mahesh, Sivasambu [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Uestuendag, Ersan [Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)]. E-mail: ersan@caltech.edu; Beyerlein, Irene J. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Swift, Geoffrey A. [Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Clausen, Bjorn [Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Brown, Donald W. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Bourke, Mark A.M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    The evolution of in situ elastic strain with cyclic tensile loading in each phase of a single Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-fiber/aluminum-matrix composite was studied using neutron diffraction (ND). An analytical model appropriate for metal matrix composites (MMCs) was developed to connect the measured axial strain evolution in each phase with the possible micromechanical events that could occur during loading at room temperature: fiber fracture, interfacial slipping, and matrix plastic deformation. Model interpretation showed that the elastic strain evolution in the fiber and matrix was governed by fiber fracture and interface slipping and not by plastic deformation of the matrix, whereas the macroscopic stress-strain response of the composite was influenced by all three. The combined single-fiber composite model and ND experiment introduces a new and quick engineering approach for qualifying the micromechanical response in MMCs due to cyclic loading and fiber fracture.

  11. Strain evolution after fiber failure in a single-fiber metal matrix composite under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, Jay C.; Mahesh, Sivasambu; Uestuendag, Ersan; Beyerlein, Irene J.; Swift, Geoffrey A.; Clausen, Bjorn; Brown, Donald W.; Bourke, Mark A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of in situ elastic strain with cyclic tensile loading in each phase of a single Al 2 O 3 -fiber/aluminum-matrix composite was studied using neutron diffraction (ND). An analytical model appropriate for metal matrix composites (MMCs) was developed to connect the measured axial strain evolution in each phase with the possible micromechanical events that could occur during loading at room temperature: fiber fracture, interfacial slipping, and matrix plastic deformation. Model interpretation showed that the elastic strain evolution in the fiber and matrix was governed by fiber fracture and interface slipping and not by plastic deformation of the matrix, whereas the macroscopic stress-strain response of the composite was influenced by all three. The combined single-fiber composite model and ND experiment introduces a new and quick engineering approach for qualifying the micromechanical response in MMCs due to cyclic loading and fiber fracture

  12. Enhanced Schapery Theory Software Development for Modeling Failure of Fiber-Reinforced Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Waas, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    Progressive damage and failure analysis (PDFA) tools are needed to predict the nonlinear response of advanced fiber-reinforced composite structures. Predictive tools should incorporate the underlying physics of the damage and failure mechanisms observed in the composite, and should utilize as few input parameters as possible. The purpose of the Enhanced Schapery Theory (EST) was to create a PDFA tool that operates in conjunction with a commercially available finite element (FE) code (Abaqus). The tool captures the physics of the damage and failure mechanisms that result in the nonlinear behavior of the material, and the failure methodology employed yields numerical results that are relatively insensitive to changes in the FE mesh. The EST code is written in Fortran and compiled into a static library that is linked to Abaqus. A Fortran Abaqus UMAT material subroutine is used to facilitate the communication between Abaqus and EST. A clear distinction between damage and failure is imposed. Damage mechanisms result in pre-peak nonlinearity in the stress strain curve. Four internal state variables (ISVs) are utilized to control the damage and failure degradation. All damage is said to result from matrix microdamage, and a single ISV marks the micro-damage evolution as it is used to degrade the transverse and shear moduli of the lamina using a set of experimentally obtainable matrix microdamage functions. Three separate failure ISVs are used to incorporate failure due to fiber breakage, mode I matrix cracking, and mode II matrix cracking. Failure initiation is determined using a failure criterion, and the evolution of these ISVs is controlled by a set of traction-separation laws. The traction separation laws are postulated such that the area under the curves is equal to the fracture toughness of the material associated with the corresponding failure mechanism. A characteristic finite element length is used to transform the traction-separation laws into stress-strain laws

  13. Experimental investigation of span length for flexural test of fiber reinforced polymer composite laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Mehndiratta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Testing and evaluation of mechanical properties for FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer composite parts play a significant role to qualify it for the end use. Among the mechanical properties, the flexural strength is significant and vital as it may vary with specimen depth, temperature and the test span length. The flexural strength varies for different materials with varying the test span length hence the current work aims to find an optimum span length to test flexural strength for the specimens made of Glass (7781, EC9756 and Carbon (HTA7, G801 prepreg materials. Experiments are conducted as per the ASTM Standard D 790 for flexural test by varying the span lengths to understand the behavior of the flexural strength and flexural modulus. The experimental data were compared with those obtained from the finite element program software Altair Hyper works 14.0. The results indicate that flexural modulus increases with the span length to a point and then it decreases. Thereby, an optimum span length can be obtained for testing flexural strength, which will be useful to the designers and the composite manufacturers to accomplish better standard testing procedures.

  14. Response of fiber Bragg gratings bonded on a glass/epoxy laminate subjected to static loadings

    KAUST Repository

    Mulle, Matthieu

    2015-04-22

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) may be used to monitor strain over the surface of a structure as an alternative technology to conventional strain gauges. However, FBG bonding techniques have still not been established to yield satisfactory surface measurements. Here, two adhesives were investigated, one with low viscosity and the other with high viscosity for bonding FBGs on glass/epoxy sandwich skins. First, instrumented elementary specimens were tested under tension. FBG strain results were analyzed together with digital image correlation (DIC) measurements. The influence of the bonding layer on the measured strain and on the integrity of the sensor was investigated by considering different regions of interest. Next, an instrumented structural sandwich beam was tested under four-point bending. FBG rosettes were compared to conventional strain gauge rosettes. The high viscosity adhesive demonstrated behaviors that affected FBG accuracy. Brittleness of the bonding layer and poor interface adhesion were observed using DIC and X-ray tomography. By contrast, the low viscosity adhesive demonstrated satisfactory results. The FBG strain measurements appeared to be consistent with those of DIC. The accuracy is also adequate as the FBGs and the conventional strain gauges had similar results in three directions, under tension and under compression.

  15. Effect of different lay-ups on the microstructure, mechanical properties and neutron transmission of neutron shielding fibre metal laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Xuelong; Tang, Xiaobin; Hu, Yubing; Li, Huaguan; Tao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    A novel neutron shielding fibre metal laminates (NSFMLs) with different lay-ups, composed of stacking layers of AA6061 plates, neutron shielding composite and carbon fibre reinforced polyimide (CFRP), were fabricated using hot molding process in atmospheric environments. The microstructure, mechanical properties and neutron transmission of the NSFMLs were evaluated, respectively. The results indicated that the NSFMLs possessed good mechanical properties owing to the good interfacial adhesion of the components. Tensile strength and elastic modulus of the NSFMLs increased with the numbers of lay-ups, while the elongation to fracture exhibited obvious declining tendency. Flexural strength and modulus of the NSFMLs were improved obviously with the increasing of stacking layers. Neutron transmission of the NSFMLs decreased obviously with increasing the number of lay-ups, owing to the increase of "1"0B areal density. Besides, the effect of carbon fibres on the neutron shielding performance of the NSFMLs was also taken into consideration. - Highlights: • A novel neutron shielding fibre metal laminates (NSFMLs) with different lay-ups was successfully fabricated using hot molding process. • Mechanical properties of the NSFMLs were performed in accordance with relative standards. • Neutron transmission of the NSFMLs was conducted according to the testing results. • The effect of carbon fibres on the neutron transmission of the NSFMLs was also investigated.

  16. Effect of different lay-ups on the microstructure, mechanical properties and neutron transmission of neutron shielding fibre metal laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xuelong [College of Material Science & Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Nanjing, 211100 (China); Department of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Jiangsu Polytechnic of Finance & Economics, Huai' an, 223003 (China); Tang, Xiaobin; Hu, Yubing; Li, Huaguan [College of Material Science & Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Nanjing, 211100 (China); Tao, Jie, E-mail: taojie@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Material Science & Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Nanjing, 211100 (China)

    2016-07-15

    A novel neutron shielding fibre metal laminates (NSFMLs) with different lay-ups, composed of stacking layers of AA6061 plates, neutron shielding composite and carbon fibre reinforced polyimide (CFRP), were fabricated using hot molding process in atmospheric environments. The microstructure, mechanical properties and neutron transmission of the NSFMLs were evaluated, respectively. The results indicated that the NSFMLs possessed good mechanical properties owing to the good interfacial adhesion of the components. Tensile strength and elastic modulus of the NSFMLs increased with the numbers of lay-ups, while the elongation to fracture exhibited obvious declining tendency. Flexural strength and modulus of the NSFMLs were improved obviously with the increasing of stacking layers. Neutron transmission of the NSFMLs decreased obviously with increasing the number of lay-ups, owing to the increase of {sup 10}B areal density. Besides, the effect of carbon fibres on the neutron shielding performance of the NSFMLs was also taken into consideration. - Highlights: • A novel neutron shielding fibre metal laminates (NSFMLs) with different lay-ups was successfully fabricated using hot molding process. • Mechanical properties of the NSFMLs were performed in accordance with relative standards. • Neutron transmission of the NSFMLs was conducted according to the testing results. • The effect of carbon fibres on the neutron transmission of the NSFMLs was also investigated.

  17. High performance flexible metal oxide/silver nanowire based transparent conductive films by a scalable lamination-assisted solution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Flexible MoO3/silver nanowire (AgNW/MoO3/TiO2/Epoxy electrodes with comparable performance to ITO were fabricated by a scalable solution-processed method with lamination assistance for transparent and conductive applications. Silver nanoparticle-based electrodes were also prepared for comparison. Using a simple spin-coating and lamination-assisted planarization method, a full solution-based approach allows preparation of AgNW-based composite electrodes at temperatures as low as 140 °C. The resulting flexible AgNW-based electrodes exhibit higher transmittance of 82% at 550 nm and lower sheet resistance about 12–15 Ω sq−1, in comparison with the values of 68% and 22–25 Ω sq−1 separately for AgNP based electrodes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Atomic force microscopy (AFM reveals that the multi-stacked metal-oxide layers embedded with the AgNWs possess lower surface roughness (<15 nm. The AgNW/MoO3 composite network could enhance the charge transport and collection efficiency by broadening the lateral conduction range due to the built of an efficient charge transport network with long-sized nanowire. In consideration of the manufacturing cost, the lamination-assisted solution-processed method is cost-effective and scalable, which is desire for large-area fabrication. While in view of the materials cost and comparable performance, this AgNW-based transparent and conductive electrodes is potential as an alternative to ITO for various optoelectronic applications.

  18. Investigations on the Broadband Shielding Effectiveness of Metallized Glass Fiber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coburn, William

    1998-01-01

    ...) is an E-glass fiber metallized with Al and processed into a nonwoven mat. When formed into a mat, the MGFs lead to an effective sample conductivity, sigma eff, which is the parameter of interest for electromagnetic shielding in the RF region...

  19. High density thoria-silica-metal (III) oxide fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Transparent refractory fibers, at least 50% thoria and additionally containing silica and metal(III) oxides, particularly Al 2 O 3 and B 2 O 3 or Cr 2 O 3 are made by shaping and dehydratively gelling, particularly by extruding in air, viscous aqueous thoria solutions or sols containing colloidal silica with boric acid-stabilized aluminum acetate, or additionally chromium acetate or colloidal Cr 2 O 3 , and heating the resulting gelled fibers in a controlled manner to decompose and volatilize undesired constituents and convert fibers to refractory fibers which are useful to form, for example, refractory fabrics, or as reinforcement for composites. The fabrics are heat resistant. A special application is X-ray protective clothing

  20. An experimental investigation of the effect of shear-induced diffuse damage on transverse cracking in carbon-fiber reinforced laminates

    KAUST Repository

    Nouri, Hedi

    2013-12-01

    When subjected to in-plane loading, carbon-fiber laminates experience diffuse damage and transverse cracking, two major mechanisms of degradation. Here, we investigate the effect of pre-existing diffuse damage on the evolution of transverse cracking. We shear-loaded carbon fiber-epoxy pre-preg samples at various load levels to generate controlled configurations of diffuse damage. We then transversely loaded these samples while monitoring the multiplication of cracking by X-ray radiography. We found that diffuse damage has a great effect on the transverse cracking process. We derived a modified effective transverse cracking toughness measure, which enabled a better definition of coupled transverse cracking/diffuse damage in advanced computational models for damage prediction. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Metal matrix coated fiber composites and the methods of manufacturing such composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, J.K. Jr.; Gensse, C.

    1993-09-14

    A fiber coating which allows ceramic or metal fibers to be wetted by molten metals is disclosed. The coating inhibits degradation of the physical properties caused by chemical reaction between the fiber and the coating itself or between the fiber and the metal matrix. The fiber coating preferably includes at least a wetting layer, and in some applications, a wetting layer and a barrier layer between the fiber and the wetting layer. The wetting layer promotes fiber wetting by the metal matrix. The barrier layer inhibits fiber degradation. The fiber coating permits the fibers to be infiltrated with the metal matrix resulting in composites having unique properties not obtainable in pure materials. 8 figures.

  2. Characterizing the influence of matrix ductility on damage phenomenology in continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastic laminates undergoing quasi-static indentation

    KAUST Repository

    Yudhanto, Arief

    2017-12-12

    The use of thermoplastic matrix was known to improve the impact properties of laminated composites. However, different ductility levels can exist in a single family of thermoplastic matrix, and this may consequently modify the damage phenomenology of thermoplastic composites. This paper focuses on the effect of matrix ductility on the out-of-plane properties of thermoplastic composites, which was studied through quasi-static indentation (QSI) test that may represent impact problem albeit the speed difference. We evaluated continuous glass-fiber reinforced polypropylene thermoplastic composites (GFPP), and selected homopolymer PP and copolymer PP that represent ductile and less ductile matrices, respectively. Several cross-ply laminates were selected to study the influence of ply thicknesses and relative orientation of interfaces on QSI properties of GFPP. It is expected that GFPP with ductile matrix improves energy absorption of GFPP. However, the damage mechanism is completely different between GFPP with ductile and GFPP with less ductile matrices. GFPP with ductile matrix exhibits smaller damage zone in comparison to the one with less ductile matrix. Higher matrix ductility inhibits the growth of ply cracking along the fiber, and this causes the limited size of delamination. The stacking sequence poses more influence on less ductile composites rather than the ductile one.

  3. Cure Cycle Design Methodology for Fabricating Reactive Resin Matrix Fiber Reinforced Composites: A Protocol for Producing Void-free Quality Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tan-Hung

    2014-01-01

    For the fabrication of resin matrix fiber reinforced composite laminates, a workable cure cycle (i.e., temperature and pressure profiles as a function of processing time) is needed and is critical for achieving void-free laminate consolidation. Design of such a cure cycle is not trivial, especially when dealing with reactive matrix resins. An empirical "trial and error" approach has been used as common practice in the composite industry. Such an approach is not only costly, but also ineffective at establishing the optimal processing conditions for a specific resin/fiber composite system. In this report, a rational "processing science" based approach is established, and a universal cure cycle design protocol is proposed. Following this protocol, a workable and optimal cure cycle can be readily and rationally designed for most reactive resin systems in a cost effective way. This design protocol has been validated through experimental studies of several reactive polyimide composites for a wide spectrum of usage that has been documented in the previous publications.

  4. Remarkably enhanced gas separation by partial self-conversion of a laminated membrane to metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Pan, Jia Hong; Wang, Nanyi; Steinbach, Frank; Liu, Xinlei; Caro, Jürgen

    2015-03-02

    Separation methods based on 2D interlayer galleries are currently gaining widespread attention. The potential of such galleries as high-performance gas-separation membranes is however still rarely explored. Besides, it is well recognized that gas permeance and separation factor are often inversely correlated in membrane-based gas separation. Therefore, breaking this trade-off becomes highly desirable. Here, the gas-separation performance of a 2D laminated membrane was improved by its partial self-conversion to metal-organic frameworks. A ZIF-8-ZnAl-NO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH) composite membrane was thus successfully prepared in one step by partial conversion of the ZnAl-NO3 LDH membrane, ultimately leading to a remarkably enhanced H2 /CH4 separation factor and H2 permeance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A Comparative Study of Natural Fiber and Glass Fiber Fabrics Properties with Metal or Oxide Coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusis, Andrej; Pentjuss, Evalds; Bajars, Gunars; Sidorovicha, Uljana; Strazds, Guntis

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly growing global demand for technical textiles industries is stimulated to develop new materials based on hybrid materials (yarns, fabrics) made from natural and glass fibres. The influence of moisture on the electrical properties of metal and metal oxide coated bast (flax, hemp) fibre and glass fibre fabrics are studied by electrical impedance spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The bast fibre and glass fiber fabrics are characterized with electrical sheet resistance. The method for description of electrical sheet resistance of the metal and metal oxide coated technical textile is discussed. The method can be used by designers to estimate the influence of moisture on technical data of new metal coated hybrid technical textile materials and products

  6. The Influence of GI and GII on the Compression After Impact Strength of Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Laminates and Sandwich Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Scharber, L. L.

    2017-01-01

    This study measured the compression after impact strength of IM7 carbon fiber laminates made from epoxy resins with various mode I and mode II toughness values to observe the effects of these toughness values on the resistance to damage formation and subsequent residual compression strength-carrying capabilities. Both monolithic laminates and sandwich structure were evaluated. A total of seven different epoxy resin systems were used ranging in approximate GI values of 245-665 J/sq m and approximate GII values of 840-2275 J/sq m. The results for resistance to impact damage formation showed that there was a direct correlation between GII and the planar size of damage, as measured by thermography. Subsequent residual compression strength testing suggested that GI had no influence on the measured values and most of the difference in compression strength was directly related to the size of damage. Thus, delamination growth assumed as an opening type of failure mechanism does not appear to be responsible for loss of compression strength in the specimens examined in this study.

  7. Invertebrate lamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melcer, Shai; Gruenbaum, Yosef; Krohne, Georg

    2007-01-01

    Lamins are the main component of the nuclear lamina and considered to be the ancestors of all intermediate filament proteins. They are localized mainly at the nuclear periphery where they form protein complexes with integral proteins of the nuclear inner membrane, transcriptional regulators, histones and chromatin modifiers. Studying lamins in invertebrate species has unique advantages including the smaller number of lamin genes in the invertebrate genomes and powerful genetic analyses in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. These simpler nuclear lamina systems allow direct analyses of their structure and functions. Here we give an overview of recent advances in the field of invertebrate nuclear lamins with special emphasis on their evolution, assembly and functions

  8. Optical and mechanical excitation thermography for impact response in basalt-carbon hybrid fiber-reinforced composite laminates

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hai; Sfarra, Stefano; Sarasini, Fabrizio; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Perilli, Stefano; Fernandes, Henrique; Duan, Yuxia; Peeters, Jeroen; Avelidis, Nicholas P; Maldague, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, optical and mechanical excitation thermography were used to investigate basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP), carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and basalt-carbon fiber hybrid specimens subjected to impact loading. Interestingly, two different hybrid structures including sandwich-like and intercalated stacking sequence were used. Pulsed phase thermography (PPT), principal component thermography (PCT) and partial least squares thermography (PLST) were used to pro...

  9. Laminated articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgway, P.C.; Case, D.F.

    1979-01-01

    In a method of bonding laminations of a magnetic core, photo-resist material consisting of a co-polymer is applied as a film to a sheet of magnetic material to define lamination shapes to enable the laminations to be formed by etching. The film of photo-resist material on the laminations is then utilised to bond the laminations together in a stack. In order to permit the core to operate at temperatures higher than the softening temperature of the photo-resist material, the bonded stack is irradiated with 1 - 2 Mer gamma radiation to a dose of 1 - 5 Mrads in 2 - 10 hrs to cause changes to the bonding material such that the material does not soften at the operating temperature of the core. (U.K.)

  10. Thermoelectrically induced nonlinear free vibration analysis of piezo laminated composite conical shell panel with random fiber orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Achchhe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the free vibration response of piezo laminated composite geometrically nonlinear conical shell panel subjected to a thermo-electrical loading. The temperature field is assumed to be a uniform distribution over the shell surface and through the shell thickness and the electric field is assumed to be the transverse component E2 only. The material properties are assumed to be independent of the temperature and the electric field. The basic formulation is based on higher order shear deformation plate theory (HSDT with von-Karman nonlinearity. A C0 nonlinear finite element method based on direct iterative approach is outlined and applied to solve nonlinear generalized eigenvalue problem. Parametric studies are carried out to examine the effect of amplitude ratios, stacking sequences, cone angles, piezoelectric layers, applied voltages, circumferential length to thickness ratios, change in temperatures and support boundary conditions on the nonlinear natural frequency of laminated conical shell panels. The present outlined approach has been validated with those available results in the literature.

  11. Multifunctional Metal/Polymer Composite Fiber for Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Small Business Innovation Research Phase I Program, Syscom Technology, Inc. (STI) will fabricate a metallized multifunctional composite fiber from a...

  12. The electrolytic plating of compositionally modulated alloys and laminated metal nano-structures based on an automated computer-controlled dual-bath system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NabiRahni, D.M.A.; Tang, Peter Torben; Leisner, Peter

    1996-01-01

    -controlled plating system for producing large-scale CMA coatings and laminated nano-structures of metals. Electroplating bath constituent concentrations, pH, temperature, mode of agitation, etc, as well as galvanostatic modes, e.g. direct current (d.c.) versus pulsed and/or pulse reversal currents, were optimized......). Effort was also expended in the generation of CMA structures from single electroplating baths where the two metals of interest were present. The characterization results, as elucidated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic absorption spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence and diffraction methods...

  13. A Study on the Interlaminar Shear Strength of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Depending on the Lamination Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Min Sang Lee; Hee Jae Shin; In Pyo Cha; Sun Ho Ko; Hyun Kyung Yoon; Hong Gun Kim; Lee Ku Kwac

    2015-01-01

    The prepreg process among the CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) forming methods is the short term of ‘Pre-impregnation’, which is widely used for aerospace composites that require a high quality property such as a fiber-reinforced woven fabric, in which an epoxy hardening resin is impregnated the reality. However, that this process requires continuous researches and developments for its commercialization because the delamination characteristically develops between th...

  14. Incorporation of tungsten metal fibers in a metal and ceramic matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Brozek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten fibers have high tensile strength but a poor oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. Using this first characteristic and to prevent oxidation of tungsten coated composite materials in which the primary requirement: reinforcement against destruction or deformation, was studied on tungsten fibers and tungsten wires which were coated by applying the metal and ceramic powders via plasma spraying device in plasma generator WSP®. Deposition took place in an atmosphere of Ar + 7 % H2, sufficient to reduce the oxidized trace amounts of tungsten.

  15. Use of Vegetable Fibers for PRB to Remove Heavy Metals from Contaminated Aquifers-Comparisons among Cabuya Fibers, Broom Fibers and ZVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayacela Rojas, Celia Margarita; Rivera Velásquez, María Fernanda; Tavolaro, Adalgisa; Molinari, Antonio; Fallico, Carmine

    2017-06-24

    The Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) is the material most commonly used for permeable reactive barriers (PRB). For technical and economic reasons, hoter reactive substances usable in alternative to ZVI are investigated. The present study takes into account a vegetable fibers, the cabuya, investigating its capacity to retain heavy metals. The capacity of the cabuya fibers to adsorb heavy metals was verified in laboratory, by batch and column tests. The batch tests were carried out with cabuya and ZVI, using copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The results obtained by the cabuya fibers showed a very high adsorption capacity of heavy metals and resulted very similar to those obtained for the broom fibers in a previous study. The high value of the absorption capacity of the cabuya fibers was also confirmed by the analogous comparison made with the results of the batch tests carried out with ZVI. Column tests, using copper, zinc and cadmium, allowed to determine for the cabuya fibers the maximum removal percentage of the heavy metals considered, the corresponding times and the time ranges of the release phase. For each metal considered, for a given length and three different times, the constant of degradation of cabuya fibers was determined, obtaining values very close to those reported for broom fibers. The scalar behavior of heavy metal removal percentage was verified. An electron microscope analysis allowed to compare, by SEM images, the characteristics of the cabuya and broom fibers. Finally, to investigate the chemical structure of cabuya and broom fibers, the FTIR technique was used, obtaining their respective infrared spectra.

  16. Study of the Production of a Metallic Coating on Natural Fiber Composite Through the Cold Spray Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astarita, Antonello; Boccarusso, Luca; Durante, Massimo; Viscusi, Antonio; Sansone, Raffaele; Carrino, Luigi

    2018-02-01

    The deposition of a metallic coating on hemp-PLA (polylactic acid) laminate through the cold spray technique was studied in this paper. A number of different combinations of the deposition parameters were tested to investigate the feasibility of the process. The feasibility of the process was proved when processing conditions are properly set. The bonding mechanism between the substrate and the first layer of particles was studied through scanning electron microscope observations, and it was found that the polymeric matrix experiences a huge plastic deformation to accommodate the impinging particles; conversely a different mechanism was observed when metallic powders impact against a previously deposited metallic layer. The difference between the bonding mechanism and the growth of the coating was also highlighted. Depending on the spraying parameters, four different processing conditions were highlighted and discussed, and as a result the processing window was defined. The mechanical properties of the composite panel before and after the deposition were also investigated. The experiments showed that when properly carried out, the deposition process does not affect the strength of the panel; moreover, no improvements were observed because the contribution of the coating is negligible with respect to one of the reinforcement fibers.

  17. Effects of mold geometry on fiber orientation of powder injection molded metal matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Faiz, E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Aslam, Muhammad, E-mail: klaira73@gmail.com; Altaf, Khurram, E-mail: khurram.altaf@petronas.com.my; Shirazi, Irfan, E-mail: irfanshirazi@hotmail.com [Mechanical Engineering Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Fiber orientations in metal matrix composites have significant effect on improving tensile properties. Control of fiber orientations in metal injection molded metal composites is a difficult task. In this study, two mold cavities of dimensions 6x6x90 mm and 10x20x180 mm were used for comparison of fiber orientation in injection molded metal composites test parts. In both mold cavities, convergent and divergent flows were developed by modifying the sprue dimensions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine the fiber orientations within the test samples. The results showed highly aligned fiber in injection molded test bars developed from the convergent melt flow. Random orientation of fibers was noted in the composites test bars produced from divergent melt flow.

  18. Sweep gas membrane distillation in a membrane contactor with metallic hollow fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukla, Sushumna; Benes, Nieck Edwin; Vankelecom, I.F.J.; Mericq, J.P.; Belleville, M.P.; Hengl, N.; Sanchez Marcano, Jose

    2015-01-01

    This work revolves around the use of porous metal hollow fibers in membrane distillation. Various stages are covered, starting from membrane synthesis up to the testing of a pilot scale membrane module. Mechanically stable metal hollow fibers have been synthesized by phase inversion of a stainless

  19. Modeling Bistable Composite Laminates for Piezoelectric Morphing Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Darryl V. Murray; Oliver J. Myers

    2013-01-01

    A sequential modeling effort for bistable composite laminates for piezoelectric morphing structures is presented. Thin unsymmetric carbon fiber composite laminates are examined for use of morphing structures using piezoelectric actuation. When cooling from the elevated cure temperature to room temperature, these unsymmetric composite laminates will deform. These postcure room temperature deformation shapes can be used as morphing structures. Applying a force to these deformed laminates will c...

  20. Electrochemical corrosion of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic-metal electrode couples in corrosion media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukalovskaya, T.V.; Shcherbakov, A.I.; Chigirinskaya, L.A.; Bandurkin, V.V.; Medova, I.L.; Chukalovskij, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Polarization diagrams, obtained for carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic(cathode)-metallic material(anode) contact couples are analyzed to predict the corrosion behaviour of some technical metals and alloys (carbon steel, stainless steels, brass, aluminium, titanium) in contact with carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic in differen agressive media (H 2 SO 4 , HCl, H 3 PO 4 , NaOH solutions in wide temperature and concentration range, synthetic seawater at 30 and 50 deg C). The predicted behaviour was supported by direct investigation into carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic-titanium and carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic-aluminium contact couples at different square ratios. 6 refs.; 4 figs

  1. Simulation of delamination crack growth in composite laminates: application of local and non-local interface damage models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijaz, H.; Asad, M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of composite laminates is increasing in these days due to higher strength and low density values in comparison of metals. Delamination is a major source of failure in composite laminates. Damage mechanics based theories are employed to simulate the delamination phenomena between composite laminates. These damage models are inherently local and can cause the concentration of stresses around the crack tip. In the present study integral type non-local damage formulation is proposed to avoid the localization problem associated to damage formulation. A comprehensive study is carried out for the models and classical local damage model are performed and results are compared with available experimental data for un IMS/924 Carbon/fiber epoxy composite laminate. (author)

  2. Hydrogen storage evaluation based on investigations of the catalytic properties of metal/metal oxides in electrospun carbon fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Ji Sun; Lee, Young-Seak [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea); Park, Soo-Jin [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea); Kim, Taejin [Core Technology Research Center for Fuel Cell, Jeollabuk-do 561-844 (Korea)

    2009-05-15

    In order to investigate the catalytic capacity of metals and metal oxides based on electrospun carbon fibers for improving hydrogen storage, electrospinning and heat treatments were carried out to obtain metal/metal oxide-embedded carbon fibers. Although the fibers were treated with the same activation procedure, they had different pore structures, due to the nature of the metal oxide. When comparing the catalytic capacity of metal and metal oxide, metal exhibits better performance as a catalyst for the improvement of hydrogen storage, when considering the hydrogen storage system. When a metal oxide with an m.p. lower than the temperature of heat treatment was used, the metal oxide was changed to metal during the heat treatment, developing a micropore structure. The activation process produced a high specific surface area of up to 2900 m{sup 2}/g and a pore volume of up to 2.5 cc/g. The amount of hydrogen adsorption reached approximately 3 wt% at 100 bar and room temperature. (author)

  3. Optical resonance analysis of reflected long period fiber gratings with metal film overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guiju; Cao, Bing; Wang, Chinua; Zhao, Minfu

    2008-11-01

    We present the experimental results of a novel single-ended reflecting surface plasma resonance (SPR) based long period fiber grating (LPFG) sensor. A long period fiber grating sensing device is properly designed and fabricated with a pulsed CO2 laser writing system. Different nm-thick thin metal films are deposited on the fiber cladding and the fiber end facet for the excitation of surface plasma waves (SPWs) and the reflection of the transmission spectrum of the LPFG with doubled interaction between metal-dielectric interfaces of the fiber to enhance the SPW of the all-fiber SPR-LPFG sensing system. Different thin metal films with different thicknesses are investigated. The effect of the excited SPW transmission along the fiber cladding-metal interface with silver and aluminum films is observed. It is found that different thicknesses of the metal overlay show different resonant behaviors in terms of resonance peak situation, bandwidth and energy loss. Within a certain range, thinner metal film shows narrower bandwidth and deeper peak loss.

  4. High energy ballistic and fracture comparison between multilayered armor systems using non-woven curaua fabric composites and aramid laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Oliveira Braga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For personal protection against high kinetic energy projectiles, multilayered armor systems (MAS are usually the best option. They combine synergistically the properties of different materials such as ceramics, composites and metals. In the present work, ballistic tests were performed to evaluate multilayered armor systems (MAS using curaua non-woven fabric epoxy composites as second layer. A comparison to a MAS using aramid (Kevlar™ fabric laminates was made. The results showed that the curaua non-woven fabric composites are suitable to the high ballistic applications, and are promising substitutes for aramid fabric laminates. Keywords: Composite, Natural fiber, Curaua fiber, Non-woven fabric, Aramid laminate, Ballistic test

  5. Catalytic activity of laminated compounds of graphite with transitions metals in decomposition of alcohols and formic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, Yu.N.; Lapkina, N.D.; Vol'pin, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    The catalytic activity is studied of laminated graphite compounds with Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, W and Mn both in the reduced and oxidized forms in gas phase decomposition reactions of isopropyl, n-butyl, cyclohexyl, and 4-tret-butylcyclohexyl alcohols, and also formic acid. All the catalysts are shown to be active in the reactions where isopropyl and n-butyl alcohols undergo decomposition. The laminated compounds of graphite with Co and Ni both in the oxidized and reduction form are the most active catalysts of the selective decomposition of alcohols to aldehydes and ketones, and also formic acid to CO 2 and H 2 . The kinetics of a number of reactions is found to obey the second order equation with allowance made for the system volume

  6. All-metal coupling and package of semiconductor laser and amplifier with optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Fenglan; Li Lina; Zhang Yueqing

    1992-01-01

    The semiconductor laser and optical amplifier made by Changchun Institute of Physics coupled with optical fiber by use of all-metal coupling are represented. The net gain of semiconductor laser amplifier with optical fiber is 14 ∼18 dB

  7. Laser cutting of Kevlar laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanCleave, R.A.

    1977-09-01

    An investigation has been conducted of the use of laser energy for cutting contours, diameters, and holes in flat and shaped Kevlar 49 fiber-reinforced epoxy laminates as an alternate to conventional machining. The investigation has shown that flat laminates 6.35 mm thick may be cut without backup by using a high-powered (1000-watt) continuous wave CO/sub 2/ laser at high feedrates (33.87 mm per second). The cut produced was free of the burrs and delaminations resulting from conventional machining methods without intimate contact backup. In addition, the process cycle time was greatly reduced.

  8. Reliability and Sensitivity Analysis for Laminated Composite Plate Using Response Surface Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seokje; Kim, Ingul; Jang, Moonho; Kim, Jaeki; Moon, Jungwon

    2013-01-01

    Advanced fiber-reinforced laminated composites are widely used in various fields of engineering to reduce weight. The material property of each ply is well known; specifically, it is known that ply is less reliable than metallic materials and very sensitive to the loading direction. Therefore, it is important to consider this uncertainty in the design of laminated composites. In this study, reliability analysis is conducted using Callosum and Meatball interactions for a laminated composite plate for the case in which the tip deflection is the design requirement and the material property is a random variable. Furthermore, the efficiency and accuracy of the approximation method is identified, and a probabilistic sensitivity analysis is conducted. As a result, we can prove the applicability of the advanced design method for the stabilizer of an underwater vehicle

  9. Reliability and Sensitivity Analysis for Laminated Composite Plate Using Response Surface Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seokje; Kim, Ingul [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Moonho; Kim, Jaeki; Moon, Jungwon [LIG Nex1, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Advanced fiber-reinforced laminated composites are widely used in various fields of engineering to reduce weight. The material property of each ply is well known; specifically, it is known that ply is less reliable than metallic materials and very sensitive to the loading direction. Therefore, it is important to consider this uncertainty in the design of laminated composites. In this study, reliability analysis is conducted using Callosum and Meatball interactions for a laminated composite plate for the case in which the tip deflection is the design requirement and the material property is a random variable. Furthermore, the efficiency and accuracy of the approximation method is identified, and a probabilistic sensitivity analysis is conducted. As a result, we can prove the applicability of the advanced design method for the stabilizer of an underwater vehicle.

  10. A review of strategies for improving the degradation properties of laminated continuous-fiber/epoxy composites with carbon-based nanoreinforcements

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles; Rahaman, Ariful

    2012-01-01

    . To date, much work has been done on nano-reinforced polymers. However, few systematic studies concerning the effect of the nanoreinforcements on the mechanical properties on laminated composites were conducted. This paper presents a systematic review

  11. Characterizing the influence of matrix ductility on damage phenomenology in continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastic laminates undergoing quasi-static indentation

    KAUST Repository

    Yudhanto, Arief; Wafai, Husam; Lubineau, Gilles; Yaldiz, R.; Verghese, N.

    2017-01-01

    The use of thermoplastic matrix was known to improve the impact properties of laminated composites. However, different ductility levels can exist in a single family of thermoplastic matrix, and this may consequently modify the damage phenomenology

  12. Comparison of Open-Hole Compression Strength and Compression After Impact Strength on Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Laminates for the Ares I Composite Interstage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Andrew J.; Nettles, Alan T.; Jackson, Justin R.

    2011-01-01

    Notched (open hole) composite laminates were tested in compression. The effect on strength of various sizes of through holes was examined. Results were compared to the average stress criterion model. Additionally, laminated sandwich structures were damaged from low-velocity impact with various impact energy levels and different impactor geometries. The compression strength relative to damage size was compared to the notched compression result strength. Open-hole compression strength was found to provide a reasonable bound on compression after impact.

  13. Characterization of metal-coated fiber tip for NSOM lithography by tip-to-tip scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicova, I.; Pudis, D.; Suslik, L.; Skriniarova, J.

    2011-01-01

    For the optical field characterization, a tip-to-tip scan of two metal-coated fiber tips with circular aperture at the apex was performed. The optical field irradiated from the fiber probe in illumination mode was analyzed by NSOM represented by fiber probe in collection mode. The near-field intensity profile of the source fiber tip in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the tip was taken. Experimental stage requires high resolution 3D motion system controlled by computer (Fig. 1). The source and the detector fiber tip were placed on the moving and static part of the 3D nanoposition system, respectively. As a light source, a modulated 473 nm DPSS laser was used. After the source fiber tip characterization, the NSOM lithography was performed. In the experimental setup from Fig. 1, the detector fiber tip was replaced by a sample fixed in a vacuum holder. As a sample, a 600 nm positive photoresist AZ 5214E was spin-coated on a GaAs substrate. Exposure was carried out by irradiation of the sample at desired positions through the fiber tip aperture. The sample was developed in AZ 400K developer for 30 s and rinsed in DI water. A promising tip-to-tip scanning technique for characterization of metal-coated fiber tips with aperture at the apex was presented. Nearly-circular aperture shapes were documented from NSOM measurements with diameter estimated to be less than 460 nm. By knowing the source-detector distance and the FWHM of the near-field intensity profile, the tip-to-tip scan proves an easy and fast method to analyze the fiber tip aperture properties. The fiber tip resolution was confirmed by preparation of 2D planar structures in thin photoresist layer, where the NSOM lithography uses the metal-coated fiber tip characterized in previous section. (authors)

  14. Metal-coated optical fibers for high temperature sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidelus, Janusz D.; Wysokiński, Karol; Stańczyk, Tomasz; Kołakowska, Agnieszka; Nasiłowski, Piotr; Lipiński, Stanisław; Tenderenda, Tadeusz; Nasiłowski, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    An novel low-temperature method was used to enhance the corrosion resistance of copper or gold-coated optical fibers. A characterization of the elaborated materials and reports on selected studies such as cyclic temperature tests together with tensile tests is presented. Gold-coated optical fibers are proposed as a component of optical fiber sensors working in oxidizing atmospheres under temperatures exceeding 900 °C.

  15. Fatigue damage and fracture behavior of tungsten fiber reinforced Zr-based metallic glassy composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, Z.F. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)]. E-mail: zhfzhang@imr.ac.cn; Wang, Z.G. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Qiu, K.Q. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, H.F. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zang, Q.S. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Hu, Z.Q. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2006-02-25

    The fatigue life, damage and fracture behavior of tungsten fiber reinforced metallic glass Zr{sub 41.25}Ti{sub 13.75}Ni{sub 10}Cu{sub 12.5}Be{sub 22.5} composites are investigated under cyclic push-pull loading. It is found that the fatigue life of the composite increases with increasing the volume fraction of tungsten fibers. Similar to crystalline metals, the regions of crack initiation, propagation and overload fracture can be discerned on the fracture surface of the specimen. Fatigue crack normally initiates in the metallic glass matrix at the outer surface of the composite specimen and propagates predominantly in the matrix. Different crack front profile around the tungsten fibers and fiber pullout demonstrate that fatigue crack may propagate around the fiber, leading to bridging of the crack faces by the unbroken fiber and hence improved fatigue crack-growth resistance. Locally decreased effective stiffness in the region where fiber distribution is sparse may provide preferential crack path in the composite. A proposed model was exercised to elucidate different tungsten fiber fracture morphologies in the fatigue crack propagation and overload fracture regions in the light of Poisson's ratio effect during fatigue loading.

  16. Fatigue damage and fracture behavior of tungsten fiber reinforced Zr-based metallic glassy composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Zhang, Z.F.; Wang, Z.G.; Qiu, K.Q.; Zhang, H.F.; Zang, Q.S.; Hu, Z.Q.

    2006-01-01

    The fatigue life, damage and fracture behavior of tungsten fiber reinforced metallic glass Zr 41.25 Ti 13.75 Ni 10 Cu 12.5 Be 22.5 composites are investigated under cyclic push-pull loading. It is found that the fatigue life of the composite increases with increasing the volume fraction of tungsten fibers. Similar to crystalline metals, the regions of crack initiation, propagation and overload fracture can be discerned on the fracture surface of the specimen. Fatigue crack normally initiates in the metallic glass matrix at the outer surface of the composite specimen and propagates predominantly in the matrix. Different crack front profile around the tungsten fibers and fiber pullout demonstrate that fatigue crack may propagate around the fiber, leading to bridging of the crack faces by the unbroken fiber and hence improved fatigue crack-growth resistance. Locally decreased effective stiffness in the region where fiber distribution is sparse may provide preferential crack path in the composite. A proposed model was exercised to elucidate different tungsten fiber fracture morphologies in the fatigue crack propagation and overload fracture regions in the light of Poisson's ratio effect during fatigue loading

  17. Development of Surface-Modified Polyacrylonitrile Fibers and Their Selective Sorption Behavior of Precious Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areum Lim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to design a powerful fibrous sorbent for recovering precious metals such as Pd(II and Pt(IV, and moreover for identifying its selectivity toward Pd(II or Pt(IV from a binary metal solution. For the development of the sorbent, polyacrylonitrile (PAN was selected as a model textile because its morphological property (i.e., thin fiber form is suitable for fast adsorption processes, and a high amount of PAN has been discharged from industrial textile factories. The PAN fiber was prepared by spinning a PAN–dimethylsulfoxide mixture into distilled water, and then its surface was activated through amidoximation so that the fiber surface could possess binding sites for Pd(II and Pt(IV. Afterwards, by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses, it was confirmed that the amidoximation reaction successfully occurred. The surface-activated fiber, designated as PAN–oxime fiber, was used to adsorb and recover precious metals. In the experiment results, it was clearly observed that adsorption capacity of PAN–oxime fiber was significantly enhanced compared to the raw material form. Actually, the raw material does not have sorption capacity for the metals. In a comparison study with commercial sorbent (Amberjet™ 4200, it was found that adsorption capacity of PAN–oxime was rather lower than that of Amberjet™ 4200, however, in the aspects of sorption kinetics and metal selectivity, the new sorbent has much faster and better selectivity.

  18. Fiber optic/cone penetrometer system for subsurface heavy metals detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saggese, S.; Greenwell, R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop an integrated fiber optic sensor/cone penetrometer system to analyze the heavy metals content of the subsurface. This site characterization tool will use an optical fiber cable assembly which delivers high power laser energy to vaporize and excite a sample in-situ and return the emission spectrum from the plasma produced for chemical analysis. The chemical analysis technique, often referred to as laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), has recently shown to be an effective method for the quantitative analysis of contaminants soils. By integrating the fiber optic sensor with the cone penetrometer, we anticipate that the resultant system will enable in-situ, low cost, high resolution, real-time subsurface characterization of numerous heavy metal soil contaminants simultaneously. There are several challenges associated with the integration of the LIBS sensor and cone penetrometer. One challenge is to design an effective means of optically accessing the soil via the fiber probe in the penetrometer. A second challenge is to develop the fiber probe system such that the resultant emission signal is adequate for quantitative analysis. Laboratory techniques typically use free space delivery of the laser to the sample. The high laser powers used in the laboratory cannot be used with optical fibers, therefore, the effectiveness of the LIBS system at the laser powers acceptable to fiber delivery must be evaluated. The primary objectives for this project are: (1) Establish that a fiber optic LIBS technique can be used to detect heavy metals to the required concentration levels; (2) Design and fabricate a fiber optic probe for integration with the penetrometer system for the analysis of heavy metals in soil samples; (3) Design, fabricate, and test an integrated fiber/penetrometer system; (4) Fabricate a rugged, field deployable laser source and detection hardware system; and (6) Demonstrate the prototype in field deployments

  19. The effects of high temperature and fiber diameter on the quasi static compressive behavior of metal fiber sintered sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Weidong, E-mail: swdgh@bit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Liu, Ge [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Jianzhong; Tang, Huiping [State Key Laboratory of Porous Metal Materials, Northwest Institute for Non-ferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China)

    2017-04-06

    The compressive mechanical properties of the sintered sheets of continuous stainless steel fibers with different fiber diameters (8 µm, 12 µm, 28 µm) are investigated at temperatures from 298 K to 1073 K. The stress-strain curves of metal fiber sintered sheet (MFSS) are obtained by testing under uniaxial compression and 0.2% offset yield stress are determined. Inner micro-structures of the material are revealed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and microscopic computer tomography. The results indicates that fabrication technique and porosity are two principle factors affecting the yield strength of MFSS and the strength of MFSS is insensitive to the temperature below 873 K while softening occurs at temperature 1073 K. At relative high porosity (e.g. 77%), the material with small diameter fibers tends to have higher yield strength while at low porosity, MFSS's yield strength becomes high with the increase of the fiber diameter, which is probably attributed to the joint size, the surface appearance of fibers and prehardening generated during the manufacturing of MFSS. A simplified structure model taking joint size into consideration is established to explain the influence of the joint size on the yield strength of MFSS.

  20. Criterion for matrix cracking in glass fiber reinforced cross-ply laminates. GFRP chokko sekisoban ni okeru matrix kiretsu no hattatsu kijun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motoki, S.; Fukuda, T. (Osaka City Univ., Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Tanaka, M. (Kobe City College of Technology, Kobe (Japan))

    1992-05-15

    In this research, with regard to GFRP cross-ply laminates, which were the most basic lamination composition, the factors governing the progress of matrix cracks at the 90{degree} layer were studied, in particular the criterion for not depending on the thickness of the 90{degree} layer was examined. For the experiment concerning the above, GFRP prepreg was laminated and three kinds of cross-ply laminates were made for use. A quasistatic tensile load was applied to these specimens and a load-displacement curve was measured, and at the same time, the matrix crack numbers generated in the 90{degree} layer were counted. As a result, it was found that the maximum value of the vertical stress in the loading direction of 90{degree} layer did not depend on the lamination composition, hence could become the criterion for the crack progress. Also it was found that in case when this stress surpassed a certain threshold value, cracks were formed, but in case when it was smaller than the threshold value, no crack was formed. 12 refs., 14 figs.

  1. Moisture Absorption/Desorption Effects on Flexural Property of Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Polyester Laminates: Three-Point Bending Test and Coupled Hygro-Mechanical Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Influence of moisture absorption/desorption on the flexural properties of Glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP laminates was experimentally investigated under hot/wet aging environments. To characterize mechanical degradation, three-point bending tests were performed following the ASTM test standard (ASTM D790-10A. The flexural properties of dry (0% Mt/M∞, moisture unsaturated (30% Mt/M∞ and 50% Mt/M∞ and moisture saturated (100% Mt/M∞ specimens at both 20 and 40 °C test temperatures were compared. One cycle of moisture absorption-desorption process was considered in this study to investigate the mechanical degradation scale and the permanent damage of GFRP laminates induced by moisture diffusion. Experimental results confirm that the combination of moisture and temperature effects sincerely deteriorates the flexural properties of GFRP laminates, on both strength and stiffness. Furthermore, the reducing percentage of flexural strength is found much larger than that of E-modulus. Unrecoverable losses of E-modulus (15.0% and flexural strength (16.4% for the GFRP laminates experiencing one cycle of moisture absorption/desorption process are evident at the test temperature of 40 °C, but not for the case of 20 °C test temperature. Moreover, a coupled hygro-mechanical Finite Element (FE model was developed to characterize the mechanical behaviors of GFRP laminates at different moisture absorption/desorption stages, and the modeling method was subsequently validated with flexural test results.

  2. Constitutional tolerance to heavy metals of a fiber crop, ramie (Boehmeria nivea), and its potential usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Zhou, M.; Shu, W.S.; Lan, C.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Ye, Z.H., E-mail: lssyzhh@mail.sysu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Qiu, R.L. [Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, and School of Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Jie, Y.C. [Institute of Bast Fiber Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changsha 410205 (China); Cui, G.X. [Ramie Research Institute, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.h [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2010-02-15

    It is observed that ramie (Boehmeria nivea), an economic fiber crop, can establish and colonize metal-contaminated sites in China. Metal tolerance and accumulation by ramie originating from 13 metal-contaminated and 4 'clean' sites in China were compared under field and hydroponic conditions. All selected populations and germplasms displayed good growth performance under diverse metal-contaminated habitats; while growth responses, metal accumulation and tolerance were similar among the 8 populations and 2 germplasms when exposed to solutions containing elevated As, Cd, Pb, or Zn in the laboratory. These revealed that ramie possesses a certain degree of constitutional metal tolerance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of constitutional metal tolerance possessed by a fiber crop. Ramie can be considered as a good candidate for both fiber production and phytoremediation of sites contaminated by multi-metals, as it accumulates relative low metal concentrations, but possesses both high biomass and high economic value. - Ramie possesses economic and environmental values in phytoremediation

  3. Effect of length to thickness ratio on free vibration analysis of thick fiber reinforced plastic skew cross-ply laminate with circular cutout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srividya, K.; Reddy, Ch. Kishore; Sumanth, Ch. Mohan; Krishnaiah, P. Gopala; Kishan, V. Mallikharjuna

    2018-04-01

    The present investigation deals with the free vibration analysis of a thick four-layered symmetric cross-ply skew laminated composite plate with a circular cutout. Three dimensional finite element models (FEM) which use the elasticity theory for the determination of stiffness matrices are modeled in ANSYS software to evaluate first five natural frequencies of the laminate. The variations of the first five natural frequencies with respect to length to thickness ratio (S) for different diameter to length ratios (d/l) are presented. It is observed that, the natural frequencies decreases with increase of thickness ratio(S).

  4. Determination of Metal Contents of Various Fibers Used in Textile Industry by MP-AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şana Sungur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Tl, and Zn in various textile fibers (cotton, acrylic, polyester, nylon, viscose, and polypropylene of different colors (red, white, green, blue, yellow, orange, black, brown, purple, pink, navy, burgundy, beige, and grey were determined by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (MP-AES. Textile fibers were collected from the various textile plants in Gaziantep-Kahramanmaraş, Turkey. Heavy metals concentrations in all examined textile fibers after wet digestion were found to be high, whereas in the artificial sweat extract they were low. The only lead concentrations in textile fibers analyzed after extraction in the artificial sweat solution were found higher than limit values given by Oeko-Tex.

  5. Wear Characterization of Aluminium/Basalt Fiber Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites - A Novel Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Amuthakkannan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum alloy based metal matrix composite participate have a wider applications in wear resistance applications. Attempt made in current study is that, basalt fiber reinforced aluminum metal matrix composite have been prepared using stir casting method. Different weight percentage of basalt fiber reinforced with Al (6061 metal matrix composites are used to study the wear resistance of the composites. For wear study, percentage of reinforcement, normal load and sliding velocity are the considered as important parameters. To study the effect of basalt fiber reinforcement on the dry sliding wear of Al6061 alloy composites the Pin On wear tester is used. Initially hardness of the composites was tested, it was found that increasing reinforcement in the composite hardness value of the composites also increased. Based on the Grey relation analysis (GRA the effects of wear resistance of the composites were studied.

  6. Penetration resistance and ballistic-impact behavior of Ti/TiAl3 metal/intermetallic laminated composites (MILCs: A computational investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Snipes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive computational engineering analysis is carried out in order to assess suitability of the Ti/TiAl3 metal/intermetallic laminated composites (MILCs for use in both structural and add-on armor applications. This class of composite materials consists of alternating sub-millimeter thick layers of Ti (the ductile and tough constituent and TiAl3 (the stiff and hard constituent. In recent years, this class of materials has been investigated for potential use in light-armor applications as a replacement for the traditional metallic or polymer-matrix composite materials. Within the computational analysis, an account is given to differing functional requirements for candidate materials when used in structural and add-on ballistic armor. The analysis employed is of a transient, nonlinear-dynamics, finite-element character, and the problem investigated involves normal impact (i.e. under zero obliquity angle of a Ti/TiAl3 MILC target plate, over a range of incident velocities, by a fragment simulating projectile (FSP. This type of analysis can provide more direct information regarding the ballistic limit of the subject armor material, as well as help with the identification of the nature and the efficacy of various FSP material-deformation/erosion and kinetic-energy absorption/dissipation phenomena and processes. The results obtained clearly revealed that Ti/TiAl3 MILCs are more suitable for use in add-on ballistic, than in structural armor applications.

  7. Coupling fiber optics to a permeation liquid membrane for heavy metal sensor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueberfeld, Jörn; Parthasarathy, Nalini; Zbinden, Hugo; Gisin, Nicolas; Buffle, Jacques

    2002-02-01

    We present the first sensing system for metal ions based on the combination of separation/preconcentration by a permeation liquid membrane (PLM) and fluorescence detection with an optical fiber. As a model, a system for the detection of Cu(II) ions was developed. The wall of a polypropylene hollow fiber serves as support for the permeable liquid membrane. The lumen of the fiber contains the strip solution in which Cu(II) is accumulated. Calcein, a fluorochromic dye, acts as stripping agent and at the same time as metal indicator. The quenching of the calcein fluorescence upon metal accumulation in the strip phase is detected with a multimode optical fiber, which is incorporated into the lumen. Fluorescence is excited with a blue LED and detected with a photon counter. Taking advantage of the high selectivity and sensitivity of PLM preconcentration, a detection limit for Cu(II) of approximately 50 nM was achieved. Among five tested heavy metal ions, Pb(II) was the only major interfering species. The incorporation of small silica optical fibers into the polypropylene capillary allows for real-time monitoring of the Cu(II) accumulation process.

  8. Integrating Fiber Optic Strain Sensors into Metal Using Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Norfolk, Mark; Wenning, Justin; Sheridan, John; Leser, Paul; Leser, Patrick; Newman, John A.

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing, a rather new three-dimensional (3D) printing technology, uses ultrasonic energy to produce metallurgical bonds between layers of metal foils near room temperature. This low temperature attribute of the process enables integration of temperature sensitive components, such as fiber optic strain sensors, directly into metal structures. This may be an enabling technology for Digital Twin applications, i.e., virtual model interaction and feedback with live load data. This study evaluates the consolidation quality, interface robustness, and load sensing limits of commercially available fiber optic strain sensors embedded into aluminum alloy 6061. Lastly, an outlook on the technology and its applications is described.

  9. Fabrication and physical properties of glass-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics for non-metal-clasp dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagakura, Manamu; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Norihiro

    2017-11-01

    Recently, non-metal-clasp dentures (NMCDs) made from thermoplastic resins such as polyamide, polyester, polycarbonate, and polypropylene have been used as removable partial dentures (RPDs). However, the use of such RPDs can seriously affect various tissues because of their low rigidity. In this study, we fabricated high-rigidity glass-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics (GFRTPs) for use in RPDs, and examined their physical properties such as apparent density, dynamic hardness, and flexural properties. GFRTPs made from E-glass fibers and polypropylene were fabricated using an injection-molding. The effects of the fiber content on the GFRTP properties were examined using glass-fiber contents of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mass%. Commercially available denture base materials and NMCD materials were used as controls. The experimental densities of GFRTPs with various fiber contents agreed with the theoretical densities. Dynamic micro-indentation tests confirmed that the fiber content does not affect the GFRTP surface properties such as dynamic hardness and elastic modulus, because most of the reinforcing glass fibers are embedded in the polypropylene. The flexural strength increased from 55.8 to 217.6 MPa with increasing glass-fiber content from 0 to 50 mass%. The flexural modulus increased from 1.75 to 7.42 GPa with increasing glass-fiber content from 0 to 50 mass%, that is, the flexural strength and modulus of GFRTP with a fiber content of 50 mass% were 3.9 and 4.2 times, respectively, those of unreinforced polypropylene. These results suggest that fiber reinforcement has beneficial effects, and GFRTPs can be used in NMCDs because their physical properties are better than those of controls. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2254-2260, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The development and mechanical characterization of aluminium copper-carbon fiber metal matrix hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, M. U.; Feroze, M.; Ahmad, T.; Kamran, M.; Butt, M. T. Z.

    2018-04-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) come under advanced materials that can be used for a wide range of industrial applications. MMCs contain a non-metallic reinforcement incorporated into a metallic matrix which can enhance properties over base metal alloys. Copper-Carbon fiber reinforced aluminium based hybrid composites were prepared by compo casting method. 4 weight % copper was used as alloying element with Al because of its precipitation hardened properties. Different weight compositions of composites were developed and characterized by mechanical testing. A significant improvement in tensile strength and micro hardness were found, before and after heat treatment of the composite. The SEM analysis of the fractured surfaces showed dispersed and embedded Carbon fibers within the network leading to the enhanced strength.

  11. Investigation into the Fiber Orientation Effect on the Formability of GLARE Materials in the Stamp Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shichen; Lang, Lihui; Sherkatghanad, Ehsan; Wang, Yao; Xu, Wencai

    2018-04-01

    Glass-reinforced aluminum laminate (GLARE) is a new class of fiber metal laminates (FMLs) which has the advantages such as high tensile strength, outstanding fatigue, impact resistance, and excellent corrosion properties. GLARE has been extensively applied in advanced aerospace and automobile industries. However, the deformation behavior of the glass fiber during forming must be studied to the benefits of the good-quality part we form. In this research, we focus on the effect of fiber layer orientation on the GLARE laminate formability in stamp forming process. Experimental and numerical analysis of stamping a hemisphere part in different fiber orientation is investigated. The results indicate that unidirectional and multi-directional fiber in the middle layer make a significant effect on the thinning and also surface forming quality of the three layer sheet. Furthermore, the stress-strain distribution of the aluminum alloy and the unique anisotropic property of the fiber layer exhibit that fiber layer orientation can also affect the forming depths as well as the fracture modes of the laminate. According to the obtained results, it is revealed that multi-directional fiber layers are a good alternative compared to the unidirectional fibers especially when a better formability is the purpose.

  12. Synthesis of novel cellulose- based antibacterial composites of Ag nanoparticles@ metal-organic frameworks@ carboxymethylated fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chao; Meng, Jingru; Wang, Xinqi; Meng, Xin; Sun, Xiaole; Xu, Yongjian; Zhao, Wei; Ni, Yonghao

    2018-08-01

    A novel cellulose-based antibacterial material, namely silver nanoparticles@ metal-organic frameworks@ carboxymethylated fibers composites (Ag NPs@ HKUST-1@ CFs), was synthesized. The results showed that the metal-organic frameworks (HKUST-1) were uniformly anchored on the fiber's surfaces by virtue of complexation between copper ions in HKUST-1 and carboxyl groups on the carboxymethylated fibers (CFs). The silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were immobilized and well-dispersed into the pores and/or onto the surfaces of HKUST-1 via in situ microwave reduction, resulting in the formation of novel Ag NPs@ HKUST-1@ CFs composites. The antibacterial assays showed that the as-prepared composites exhibited a much higher antibacterial activity than Ag NPs@ CFs or HKUST-1@ CFs samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimal Performance Simulation of a Metal Fiber Filter for Capturing Radioactive Aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Uk; Lee, Chan Hyun; Park, Min Chan; Lee, Jaek Eun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the metal fiber filter used for removing radioactive aerosol is systematically dissected and studied in order to figure out the optimal design which can be applied to the actual operation conditions in nuclear heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for particle collection. In order to derive the optimal design for metal fiber HEPA filter, a numerical model is developed and its results are compared to experimental data to test reliability. Moreover, sensitivity analysis is performed using important parameters to determine which parameters have large influence on the filter performance. Using the model developed in this study, optimal design parameters for pleated metal fiber filters are derived which include fiber diameter less than 4 μm, solidity larger than 0.2, filter thickness larger than 1 mm, and face velocity lower than 5 cm/s. With these conditions, the metal filter qualified for the HEPA filter standard which specified 99.97% efficiency in the 0.3 μm particle size range.

  14. Membrane distillation with porous metal hollow fibers for the concentration of thermo-sensitive solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukla, Sushumna

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an original approach for the concentration of thermo-sensitive solutions: the Sweep Gas Membrane Distillation (SGMD) process. A new membrane contactor with metallic hollow fibers has been designed and allows the distillation process to be operational at low temperature. Heat is

  15. Overall mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced metal matrix composites for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, J.H.; Bolt, H.

    2002-01-01

    The high-temperature strength and creep properties are among the crucial criteria for the structural materials of plasma facing components (PFC) of fusion reactors, as they will be subjected to severe thermal stresses. The fiber-reinforced metal matrix composites are a potential heat sink material for the PFC application, since the combination of different material properties can lead to versatile performances. In this article, the overall mechanical properties of two model composites based on theoretical predictions are presented. The matrix materials considered were a precipitation hardened CuCrZr alloy and reduced activation martensitic steel 'Eurofer'. Continuous SiC fibers were used for the reinforcement. The results demonstrate that yield stress, ultimate tensile strength, work hardening rate and creep resistance could be extensively improved by the fiber reinforcement up to fiber content of 40 vol.%. The influence of the residual stresses on the plastic behavior of the composites is also discussed

  16. Direct transfer of metallic photonic structures onto end facets of optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinping; Liu, Feifei; Lin, Yuanhai

    2016-07-01

    We present a flexible approach to transfer metallic photonic crystals (MPCs) onto end facets of optical fibers. The MPCs were initially fabricated on a glass substrate with a spacer layer of indium tin oxide (ITO), which was used as a buffer layer in the transferring process. The fiber ends were firstly welded on the top surface of the MPCs by a drop of polymer solution after the solvent evaporated. The ITO layer was then etched by hydrochloric acid (HCl), so that the MPCs got off the substrate and were transferred to the fiber ends. Alternatively, the MPCs may be also etched off the substrate first by immersing the sample in HCl. The ultra-thin MPC sheet consisting of gold nanolines interlaced with photoresist gratings was then transferred to cap the fiber ends. In the later approach, we can choose which side of the MPCs to be used as the contact with the fiber facet. Such methods enabled convenient nanostructuring on optical fiber tips and achieving miniaturized MPC devices with compact integration, extending significantly applications of MPCs. In particular, the fabrications presented in this manuscript enrich the lab-on-fiber engineering techniques and the resultant devices have potential applications in remote sensing and detection systems.

  17. Direct transfer of metallic photonic structures onto end facets of optical fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinping Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a flexible approach to transfer metallic photonic crystals (MPCs onto end facets of optical fibers. The MPCs were initially fabricated on a glass substrate with a spacer layer of indium tin oxide (ITO, which was used as a buffer layer in the transferring process. The fiber ends were firstly welded on the top surface of the MPCs by a drop of polymer solution after the solvent evaporated. The ITO layer was then etched by hydrochloric acid (HCl, so that the MPCs got off the substrate and were transferred to the fiber ends. Alternatively, the MPCs may be also etched off the substrate first by immersing the sample in HCl. The ultra-thin MPC sheet consisting of gold nanolines interlaced with photoresist gratings was then transferred to cap the fiber ends. In the later approach, we can choose which side of the MPCs to be used as the contact with the fiber facet. Such methods enabled convenient nanostructuring on optical fiber tips and achieving miniaturized MPC devices with compact integration, extending significantly applications of MPCs. In particular, the fabrications presented in this manuscript enrich the lab-on-fiber engineering techniques and the resultant devices have potential applications in remote sensing and detection systems.

  18. Microstructure of Vacuum-Brazed Joints of Super-Ni/NiCr Laminated Composite Using Nickel-Based Amorphous Filler Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qunshuang; Li, Yajiang; Wu, Na; Wang, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Vacuum brazing of super-Ni/NiCr laminated composite and Cr18-Ni8 stainless steel was carried out using Ni-Cr-Si-B amorphous filler metal at 1060, 1080, and 1100 °C, respectively. Microstructure and phase constitution were investigated by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and micro-hardness tester. When brazed at 1060-1080 °C, the brazed region can be divided into two distinct zones: isothermally solidified zone (ISZ) consisting of γ-Ni solid solution and athermally solidified zone (ASZ) consisting of Cr-rich borides. Micro-hardness of the Cr-rich borides formed in the ASZ was as high as 809 HV50 g. ASZ decreased with increase of the brazing temperature. Isothermal solidification occurred sufficiently at 1100 °C and an excellent joint composed of γ-Ni solid solution formed. The segregation of boron from ISZ to residual liquid phase is the reason of Cr-rich borides formed in ASZ. The formation of secondary precipitates in diffusion-affected zone is mainly controlled by diffusion of B.

  19. Influence of bress laminate volume fraction on electromechanical properties of externally laminated coated conductor tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautista, Zhierwinjay M.; Shin, Hyung Seop [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Hun; Lee, Hun Ju; Moon, Seung Hyun [SuNAM Co Ltd., Anseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The enhancement of mechanical properties of coated conductor (CC) tapes in practical application are usually achieved by reinforcing through lamination or electroplating metal layers on either sides of the CC tape. Mechanical or electromechanical properties of the CC tapes have been largely affected by the lamination structure under various loading modes such as tension, bending or even cyclic. In this study, the influence of brass laminate volume fraction on electromechanical properties of RCE-DR processed Gadolinium-barium-copper-oxide (GdBCO) CC tapes was investigated. The samples used were composed of single-side and both-side laminate of brass layer to the Cu-stabilized CC tape and their Ic behaviors were compared to those of the Cu-stabilized CC tape without external lamination. The stress/strain dependences of Ic in laminated CC tapes under uniaxial tension were analyzed and the irreversible stress/strain limits were determined. As a result, the increase of brass laminate volume fraction initially increased the irreversible strain limit and became gradual. The corresponding irreversible stress limit, however, showed no difference even though the brass laminate volume fraction increased to 3.4. But the irreversible load limit linearly increased with the brass laminate volume fraction.

  20. Effects of ductile phase volume fraction on the mechanical properties of Ti-Al3Ti metal-intermetallic laminate (MIL) composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Richard D.; Jiang Fengchun; Kulin, Robb M.; Vecchio, Kenneth S.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Residual Al improves the mechanical properties of Ti-Al 3 Ti MIL composites. → Residual Al can eliminate intermetallic centerline delaminations in MILs. → Low levels of residual Al increase fracture toughness in MIL composites. → MIL stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness can be optimized at low Al levels. - Abstract: Metal-intermetallic laminate (MIL) composites consisting of alternating layers of Ti, Al, and the intermetallic Al 3 Ti have been fabricated by reactive foil sintering in open air. Six initially identical stacks of alternating Ti-3Al-2.5 V and 1100-Al foils were processed for different lengths of time, yielding specimens with different metal and intermetallic volume fractions. Their mechanical properties have been investigated with an emphasis on the effect of residual Al at the intermetallic centerline on composite strength and fracture toughness, as well as fracture and failure modes. Samples were cut from each composite plate (in layer orientations parallel and perpendicular to the intended load direction) for mechanical testing in compression and four-point bending under quasi-static and high-rate loading conditions. Examination of the damaged specimens and their fracture surfaces by optical and scanning electron microscopy was performed to establish a correlation between the failure mechanisms present, composite strength, and microstructure. Results indicated that regardless of loading direction, cracks always initiated in the intermetallic region, rarely at the centerline, and crack propagation and failure were heavily influenced by the thickness of the residual aluminum layers. There is an ideal residual aluminum volume fraction that represents the amount of ductile reinforcement that maximizes the combined properties of strength, toughness and stiffness.

  1. Commercial Production of Heavy Metal Fluoride Glass Fiber in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1998-01-01

    International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) will provide a platform not only for materials research but also a possible means to produce products in space which cannot be easily produced on the ground. Some products may even be superior to those now produced in unit gravity due to the lack of gravity induced convection effects. Our research with ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN glass) has shown that gravity does indeed play a major role in the crystallization behavior of this material. At the present time ZBLAN is being produced on earth in fiber optic form for use in surgical lasers and fiber optic lasers among other applications. High attenuation coefficients, however, have kept this material from being used in other applications such as long haul data transmission links. The high attenuation coefficients are due to impurities which can be removed through improved processing techniques and crystals which can only be removed or prevented from forming by processing in a reduced gravity environment.

  2. Plasmonic excitations on metallic nanowires embedded in silica photonic crystal fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prill Sempere, Luis

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the theoretical and experimental investigation of metal-filled photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) and their fabrication. The thesis explains how to overcome the obstacles when infiltrating molten metals into sub-micron holes in fused silica (SiO 2 ) PCF. The optical properties of such filled fibers are theoretically and experimentally investigated, focusing on the coupling between the core mode of the fibers and the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on the metal wires. The thesis introduces the ideas, physical challenges and results of two new filling techniques: the pressure cell technique and the splicing technique. These techniques make it possible for the first time to fill different fiber structures with sub-micron sized holes, such as PCFs and single-hole capillaries, with different metals like gold (Au) and silver (Ag). Samples with hole diameters between 120 nm and 20 μm and aspect ratios as high as 75000 have been realized. Theoretical simulations and models have been developed in order to understand the optical behavior of these novel structures. The light guided in the core of the filled PCF structure will couple to SPP modes on the wires. Several measurements have been performed to determine the resonance wavelengths and losses of such filled PCF structures. Also, different phenomena such as the shift of the resonance position with the wire diameter or pitch and the polarization dependence of SPP in polarization maintaining (PM)-PCF have been investigated. The fabrication of free standing metal arrays was another focus of this work. The critical question was how to remove the surrounding SiO 2 from the metal wires. Two different approaches have been tried: etching of the SiO 2 and cleaving the PCF. (orig.)

  3. Plasmonic excitations on metallic nanowires embedded in silica photonic crystal fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prill Sempere, Luis

    2010-06-17

    This thesis describes the theoretical and experimental investigation of metal-filled photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) and their fabrication. The thesis explains how to overcome the obstacles when infiltrating molten metals into sub-micron holes in fused silica (SiO{sub 2}) PCF. The optical properties of such filled fibers are theoretically and experimentally investigated, focusing on the coupling between the core mode of the fibers and the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on the metal wires. The thesis introduces the ideas, physical challenges and results of two new filling techniques: the pressure cell technique and the splicing technique. These techniques make it possible for the first time to fill different fiber structures with sub-micron sized holes, such as PCFs and single-hole capillaries, with different metals like gold (Au) and silver (Ag). Samples with hole diameters between 120 nm and 20 {mu}m and aspect ratios as high as 75000 have been realized. Theoretical simulations and models have been developed in order to understand the optical behavior of these novel structures. The light guided in the core of the filled PCF structure will couple to SPP modes on the wires. Several measurements have been performed to determine the resonance wavelengths and losses of such filled PCF structures. Also, different phenomena such as the shift of the resonance position with the wire diameter or pitch and the polarization dependence of SPP in polarization maintaining (PM)-PCF have been investigated. The fabrication of free standing metal arrays was another focus of this work. The critical question was how to remove the surrounding SiO{sub 2} from the metal wires. Two different approaches have been tried: etching of the SiO{sub 2} and cleaving the PCF. (orig.)

  4. Etching of fused silica fiber by metallic laser-induced backside wet etching technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vass, Cs., E-mail: vasscsaba@physx.u-szeged.hu [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 9 (Hungary); Kiss, B.; Kopniczky, J.; Hopp, B. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 9 (Hungary)

    2013-08-01

    The tip of multimode fused silica fiber (core diameter: 550 μm) was etched by metallic laser-induced backside wet etching (M-LIBWE) method. Frequency doubled, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ = 532 nm; τ{sub FWHM} = 8 ns) was used as laser source. The laser beam was coupled into the fiber by a fused silica lens with a focal length of 1500 mm. The other tip of the fiber was dipped into liquid gallium metallic absorber. The etching threshold fluence was measured to be 475 mJ/cm{sup 2}, while the highest fluence, which resulted etching without breaking the fiber, was 1060 mJ/cm{sup 2}. The progress of etching was followed by optical microscopy, and the etch rate was measured to be between 20 and 37 nm/pulse depending on the applied laser energy. The surface morphologies of the etched tips were studied by scanning electron microscopy. A possible application of the structured fibers was also tested.

  5. Etching of fused silica fiber by metallic laser-induced backside wet etching technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vass, Cs.; Kiss, B.; Kopniczky, J.; Hopp, B.

    2013-01-01

    The tip of multimode fused silica fiber (core diameter: 550 μm) was etched by metallic laser-induced backside wet etching (M-LIBWE) method. Frequency doubled, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ = 532 nm; τ FWHM = 8 ns) was used as laser source. The laser beam was coupled into the fiber by a fused silica lens with a focal length of 1500 mm. The other tip of the fiber was dipped into liquid gallium metallic absorber. The etching threshold fluence was measured to be 475 mJ/cm 2 , while the highest fluence, which resulted etching without breaking the fiber, was 1060 mJ/cm 2 . The progress of etching was followed by optical microscopy, and the etch rate was measured to be between 20 and 37 nm/pulse depending on the applied laser energy. The surface morphologies of the etched tips were studied by scanning electron microscopy. A possible application of the structured fibers was also tested.

  6. Modeling delamination of FRP laminates under low velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z.; Wen, H. M.; Ren, S. L.

    2017-09-01

    Fiber reinforced plastic laminates (FRP) have been increasingly used in various engineering such as aeronautics, astronautics, transportation, naval architecture and their impact response and failure are a major concern in academic community. A new numerical model is suggested for fiber reinforced plastic composites. The model considers that FRP laminates has been constituted by unidirectional laminated plates with adhesive layers. A modified adhesive layer damage model that considering strain rate effects is incorporated into the ABAQUS / EXPLICIT finite element program by the user-defined material subroutine VUMAT. It transpires that the present model predicted delamination is in good agreement with the experimental results for low velocity impact.

  7. Numerical Modeling of Fiber-Reinforced Metal Matrix Composite Processing by the Liquid Route: Literature Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoste, Eric; Arvieu, Corinne; Mantaux, Olivier

    2018-04-01

    One of the technologies used to produce metal matrix composites (MMCs) is liquid route processing. One solution is to inject a liquid metal under pressure or at constant rate through a fibrous preform. This foundry technique overcomes the problem of the wettability of ceramic fibers by liquid metal. The liquid route can also be used to produce semiproducts by coating a filament with a molten metal. These processes involve physical phenomena combined with mass and heat transfer and phase change. The phase change phenomena related to solidification and also to the melting of the metal during the process notably result in modifications to the permeability of porous media, in gaps in impregnation, in the appearance of defects (porosities), and in segregation in the final product. In this article, we provide a state-of-the-art review of numerical models and simulation developed to study these physical phenomena involved in MMC processing by the liquid route.

  8. Hierarchical Chitin Fibers with Aligned Nanofibrillar Architectures: A Nonwoven-Mat Separator for Lithium Metal Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joong-Kwon; Kim, Do Hyeong; Joo, Se Hun; Choi, Byeongwook; Cha, Aming; Kim, Kwang Min; Kwon, Tae-Hyuk; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Kang, Seok Ju; Jin, Jungho

    2017-06-27

    Here, we introduce regenerated fibers of chitin (Chiber), the second most abundant biopolymer after cellulose, and propose its utility as a nonwoven fiber separator for lithium metal batteries (LMBs) that exhibits an excellent electrolyte-uptaking capability and Li-dendrite-mitigating performance. Chiber is produced by a centrifugal jet-spinning technique, which allows a simple and fast production of Chibers consisting of hierarchically aligned self-assembled chitin nanofibers. Following the scrutinization on the Chiber-Li-ion interaction via computational methods, we demonstrate the potential of Chiber as a nonwoven mat-type separator by monitoring it in Li-O 2 and Na-O 2 cells.

  9. Residual strain evolution during the deformation of single fiber metal matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanan, J.C.; Uestuendag, E.; Clausen, B. [Dept. of Materials Science, California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Sivasambu, M.; Beyerlein, I.J. [Theoretical Div., Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, D.W.; Bourke, M.A.M. [Materials Science and Technology Div., Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Successful application of metal matrix composites often requires strength and lifetime predictions that account for the deformation of each phase. Yet, the deformation of individual phases in composites usually differs significantly from their respective monolithic behaviors. An approach is presented that quantifies the deformation parameters of each phase using neutron diffraction measurements before, during, and after failure under tensile loading in model composites consisting of a single alumina fiber embedded in an aluminum matrix. The evolution of residual strains after loading was examined including the effects of fiber failure. (orig.)

  10. Thermally sprayed prepregs for thixoforging of UD fiber reinforced light metal MMCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Martin; Wenzelburger, Martin; Gadow, Rainer

    2007-04-01

    Low density and good mechanical properties are the basic requirements for lightweight structures in automotive and aerospace applications. With their high specific strength and strain to failure values, aluminum alloys could be used for such applications. Only the insufficient stiffness and thermal and fatigue strength prevented their usage in high-end applications. One possibility to solve this problem is to reinforce the light metal with unidirectional fibers. The UD fiber allows tailoring of the reinforcement to meet the direction of the component's load. In this study, the production of thermally sprayed prepregs for the manufacturing of continuous fiber reinforced MMC by thixoforging is analysed. The main aim is to optimize the winding procedure, which determines the fiber strand position and tension during the coating process. A method to wind and to coat the continuous fibers with an easy-to-use handling technique for the whole manufacturing process is presented. The prepregs were manufactured by producing arc wire sprayed AlSi6 coatings on fibers bundles. First results of bending experiments showed appropriate mechanical properties.

  11. Highly stretchable and conductive fibers enabled by liquid metal dip-coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Roach, Devin J.; Geng, Luchao; Chen, Haosen; Qi, H. Jerry; Fang, Daining

    2018-03-01

    Highly stretchable and conductive fibers have been fabricated by dip-coating of a layer of liquid metal (eutectic gallium indium, EGaIn) on printed silicone elastomer filaments. This fabrication method exploits a nanolayer of oxide skin that rapidly forms on the surface of EGaIn when exposed to air. Through dip-coating, the sticky nature of the oxide skin leads to the formation of a thin EGaIn coating (˜5 μm thick) on the originally nonconductive filaments and renders these fibers excellent conductivity. Electrical characterization shows that the fiber resistance increases moderately as the fiber elongates but always maintains conductivity even when stretched by 800%. Besides this, these fibers possess good cyclic electrical stability with little degradation after hundreds of stretching cycles, which makes them an excellent candidate for stretchable conductors. We then demonstrate a highly stretchable LED circuit as well as a conductive stretchable net that extends the 1D fibers into a 2D configuration. These examples demonstrate potential applications for topologically complex stretchable electronics.

  12. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  13. Specific-heat measurement of single metallic, carbon, and ceramic fibers at very high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradere, C.; Goyheneche, J.M.; Batsale, J.C.; Dilhaire, S.; Pailler, R.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to present a method for measuring the specific heat of single metallic, carbon, and ceramic fibers at very high temperature. The difficulty of the measurement is due to the microscale of the fiber (≅10 μm) and the important range of temperature (700-2700 K). An experimental device, a modelization of the thermal behavior, and an analytic model have been developed. A discussion on the measurement accuracy yields a global uncertainty lower than 10%. The characterization of a tungsten filament with thermal properties identical to those of the bulk allows the validation of the device and the thermal estimation method. Finally, measurements on carbon and ceramic fibers have been done at very high temperature

  14. Etching of semiconductors and metals by the photonic jet with shaped optical fiber tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierron, Robin; Lecler, Sylvain; Zelgowski, Julien; Pfeiffer, Pierre; Mermet, Frédéric; Fontaine, Joël

    2017-10-01

    The etching of semiconductors and metals by a photonic jet (PJ) generated with a shaped optical fiber tip is studied. Etched marks with a diameter of 1 μm have been realized on silicon, stainless steel and titanium with a 35 kHz pulsed laser, emitting 100 ns pulses at 1064 nm. The selection criteria of the fiber and its tip are discussed. We show that a 100/140 silica fiber is a good compromise which takes into account the injection, the working distance and the energy coupled in the higher-order modes. The energy balance is performed on the basis of the known ablation threshold of the material. Finally, the dependence between the etching depth and the number of pulses is studied. Saturation is observed probably due to a redeposition of the etched material, showing that a higher pulse energy is required for deeper etchings.

  15. Experimental Investigation of Thermal Properties in Glass Fiber Reinforced with Aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irudaya raja, S. Joseph; Vinod Kumar, T.; Sridhar, R.; Vivek, P.

    2017-03-01

    A test method of a Guarded heat flow meter are used to measure the thermal conductivity of glass fiber and filled with a aluminum powder epoxy composites using an instrument in accordance with ASTM. This experimental study reveals that the incorporation of aluminum and glass fiber reinforced results in enhancement of thermal conductivity of epoxy resin and thereby improves its heat transfer capability. Fiber metal laminates are good candidates for advanced automobile structural applications due to their high categorical mechanical and thermal properties. The most consequential factor in manufacturing of these laminates is the adhesive bonding between aluminum and FRP layers. Here several glass-fiber reinforced aluminum were laminates with different proportion of bonding adhesion were been manufactured. It was observed that the damage size is more preponderant in laminates with poor interfacial adhesion compared to that of laminates with vigorous adhesion between aluminum and glass layers numerically calculated ones and it is found that the values obtained for various composite models using experimental testing method.

  16. Lamination cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E.; Kobayashi, Daryl M.

    2005-10-11

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a lamination cooling system including a stack of laminations, each defining a plurality of apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define a plurality of cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack, and gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed to prevent a liquid cooling fluid in the passageways from escaping between the laminations. The gaps are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. The apertures of each lamination can be coincident with the same-sized apertures of adjacent laminations to form straight passageways, or they can vary in size, shape and/or position to form non-axial passageways, angled passageways, bidirectional passageways, and manifold sections of passageways that connect a plurality of different passageway sections. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  17. Robust cladding light stripper for high-power fiber lasers using soft metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babazadeh, Amin; Nasirabad, Reza Rezaei; Norouzey, Ahmad; Hejaz, Kamran; Poozesh, Reza; Heidariazar, Amir; Golshan, Ali Hamedani; Roohforouz, Ali; Jafari, S Naser Tabatabaei; Lafouti, Majid

    2014-04-20

    In this paper we present a novel method to reliably strip the unwanted cladding light in high-power fiber lasers. Soft metals are utilized to fabricate a high-power cladding light stripper (CLS). The capability of indium (In), aluminum (Al), tin (Sn), and gold (Au) in extracting unwanted cladding light is examined. The experiments show that these metals have the right features for stripping the unwanted light out of the cladding. We also find that the metal-cladding contact area is of great importance because it determines the attenuation and the thermal load on the CLS. These metals are examined in different forms to optimize the contact area to have the highest possible attenuation and avoid localized heating. The results show that sheets of indium are very effective in stripping unwanted cladding light.

  18. Mechanical properties of permeable materials with an organized structure on the base of continuous metal fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpinos, D.M.; Rutkovskij, A.E.; Zorin, V.A.; Ivanchuk, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanical properties were studied for permeable fibrous materials with an organized structure on the base of continuous metal fibers (from Kh18N9T steel) subjected to preliminary reprocessing volumetric net half-finished products. The effect of geometrical parameters of the net half-finished products and of their orientation in packing are shown to affect the mechanical properties within a wide range of porosities

  19. Macro-mechanical material model for fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    CERN Document Server

    Banks-Sills, L

    1999-01-01

    The stress-strain behavior of a metal matrix composite reinforced with unidirectional, continuous and periodic fibers is investigated. Three-dimensional micro-mechanical analyses of a unit cell by means of the finite element method $9 and homogenization-localization are carried out. These calculations allow the determination of material behavior of the in-plane, as well as the fiber directions. The fibers are assumed to be elastic and the matrix elasto-plastic. $9 The matrix material is governed by a von Mises yield surface, isotropic hardening and an associated flow rule. With the aid of these analyses, the foundation to a macro-mechanical material model is presented which is employed to $9 consider an elementary problem. The model includes an anisotropic yield surface with isotropic hardening and an associated flow rule. A beam in bending containing square fibers under plane strain conditions is analyzed by means of $9 the model. Two cases are considered: one in which the fibers are symmetric with respect t...

  20. Repair of olecranon fractures using fiberWire without metallic implants: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okawa Atsushi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Olecranon fractures are a common injury in fractures. The tension band technique for olecranon fractures yields good clinical outcomes; however, it is associated with significant complications. In many patients, implants irritate overlying soft tissues and cause pain. This is mostly due to protrusion of the proximal ends of the K-wires or by the twisted knots of the metal wire tension band. Below we described 2 cases of olecranon fractures treated with a unique technique using FiberWire without any metallic implants. Technically, the fragment was reduced, and two K-wires were inserted from the dorsal cortex of the distal segment to the tip of the olecranon. K-wire was exchanged for a suture retriever, and 2 strands of FiberWire were retrieved twice. Each of the two FiberWires was manually tensioned and knotted on the posterior surface of the olecranon. Bony unions could be achieved, and patients had no complaint of pain and skin irritation. There was only a small loss of flexion and extension in comparison with that of the contralateral side, and the patient did not feel inconvenienced in his daily life. Using the method described, difficulty due to K-wire or other metallic implants was avoided.

  1. Repair of olecranon fractures using fiberWire without metallic implants: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimura, Akimoto; Nakagawa, Teruhiko; Wakabayashi, Yoshiaki; Sekiya, Ichiro; Okawa, Atsushi; Muneta, Takeshi

    2010-10-12

    Olecranon fractures are a common injury in fractures. The tension band technique for olecranon fractures yields good clinical outcomes; however, it is associated with significant complications. In many patients, implants irritate overlying soft tissues and cause pain. This is mostly due to protrusion of the proximal ends of the K-wires or by the twisted knots of the metal wire tension band. Below we described 2 cases of olecranon fractures treated with a unique technique using FiberWire without any metallic implants. Technically, the fragment was reduced, and two K-wires were inserted from the dorsal cortex of the distal segment to the tip of the olecranon. K-wire was exchanged for a suture retriever, and 2 strands of FiberWire were retrieved twice. Each of the two FiberWires was manually tensioned and knotted on the posterior surface of the olecranon. Bony unions could be achieved, and patients had no complaint of pain and skin irritation. There was only a small loss of flexion and extension in comparison with that of the contralateral side, and the patient did not feel inconvenienced in his daily life. Using the method described, difficulty due to K-wire or other metallic implants was avoided.

  2. A fast response hydrogen sensor with Pd metallic grating onto a fiber's end-face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haitao; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Qiu-Ze; Cao, Jingxiao; Han, Dao-Fu; Hao, Hui; Wang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated an integrated hydrogen sensor with Pd metallic grating fabricated on a fiber end-face. The grating consists of three thin metal layers in stacks, Au, WO3 and Pd. The WO3 is used as a waveguide layer between the Pd and Au layer. The Pd layer is etched by using a focused ion beam (FIB) method, forming a Pd metallic grating with period of 450 nm. The sensor is experimentally exposed to hydrogen gas environment. Changing the concentration from 0% to 4% which is the low explosive limit (LEL), the resonant wavelength measured from the reflection experienced 28.10 nm spectral changes in the visible range. The results demonstrated that the sensor is sensitive for hydrogen detection and it has fast response and low temperature effect.

  3. [An optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer for soil non-metallic nutrient determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong-xian; Hu, Juan-xiu; Lu, Shao-kun; He, Hou-yong

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve rapid, convenient and efficient soil nutrient determination in soil testing and fertilizer recommendation, a portable optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer including immersed fiber sensor, flat field holographic concave grating, and diode array detector was developed for soil non-metallic nutrient determination. According to national standard of ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer with JJG 178-2007, the wavelength accuracy and repeatability, baseline stability, transmittance accuracy and repeatability measured by the prototype instrument were satisfied with the national standard of III level; minimum spectral bandwidth, noise and excursion, and stray light were satisfied with the national standard of IV level. Significant linear relationships with slope of closing to 1 were found between the soil available nutrient contents including soil nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, available phosphorus, available sulfur, available boron, and organic matter measured by the prototype instrument compared with that measured by two commercial single-beam-based and dual-beam-based spectrophotometers. No significant differences were revealed from the above comparison data. Therefore, the optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer can be used for rapid soil non-metallic nutrient determination with a high accuracy.

  4. Strength and deformability of concrete beams reinforced by non-metallic fiber and composite rebar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudyakov, K. L.; Plevkov, V. S.; Nevskii, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Production of durable and high-strength concrete structures with unique properties has always been crucial. Therefore special attention has been paid to non-metallic composite and fiber reinforcement. This article describes the experimental research of strength and deformability of concrete beams with dispersed and core fiber-based reinforcement. As composite reinforcement fiberglass reinforced plastic rods with diameters 6 mm and 10 mm are used. Carbon and basalt fibers are used as dispersed reinforcement. The developed experimental program includes designing and production of flexural structures with different parameters of dispersed fiber and composite rebar reinforcement. The preliminary testing of mechanical properties of these materials has shown their effectiveness. Structures underwent bending testing on a special bench by applying flexural static load up to complete destruction. During the tests vertical displacements were recorded, as well as value of actual load, slippage of rebars in concrete, crack formation. As a result of research were obtained structural failure and crack formation graphs, value of fracture load and maximum displacements of the beams at midspan. Analysis of experimental data showed the effectiveness of using dispersed reinforcement of concrete and the need for prestressing of fiberglass composite rebar.

  5. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous phases using chemically modified waste Lyocell fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bediako, John Kwame; Wei, Wei; Kim, Sok; Yun, Yeoung-Sang, E-mail: ysyun@jbnu.ac.kr

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Waste Lyocell fiber was chemically modified into cellulose xanthate. • The sorbent showed high affinity for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions. • The sorbent also showed strong Cu(II) selectivity in Pb(II)–Cd(II)–Cu(II) ternary metal solutions. - Abstract: In this study, an outstanding performance of chemically modified waste Lyocell for heavy metals treatment is reported. The sorbent, which was prepared by a simple and concise method, was able to bind heavy metals such as Pb(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II), with very high efficiencies. The binding mechanisms were studied through adsorption and standard characterization tests such as scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analyses. Adsorption kinetics was very fast and attained equilibrium within 5 min in all metals studied. The maximum single metal uptakes were 531.29 ± 0.28 mg/g, 505.64 ± 0.21 mg/g, and 123.08 ± 0.26 mg/g for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II), respectively. In ternary metal systems, Cu(II) selectivity was observed and the underlying factors were discussed. The sorbent by its nature, could be very effective in treating large volumes of wastewater with the contact of very little amount.

  6. An improved compression molding technology for continuous fiber reinforced composite laminate. Part 1: AS-4/LaRC-TPI 1500 (HFG) Prepreg system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tan-Hung; Kidder, Paul W.; Reddy, Rakasi M.

    1991-01-01

    Poor processability of fiber reinforced high performance polyimide thermoplastic resin composites is a well recognized issue which, in many cases, prohibits the fabrication of composite parts with satisfactorily consolidated quality. Without modifying the resin matrix chemistry, improved compression modeling procedures were proposed and investigated with the AS-4/LaRC-TPI 1500 High Flow Grade (HFG) prepreg system. Composite panels with excellent C-scans can be consistently molded by this method under 700 F and a consolidation pressure as low as 100 psi. A mechanism for the consolidation of the composite under this improved molding technique is discussed. This mechanism reveals that a certain degree of matrix shear and tow filament slippage and nesting between plies occur during consolidation, which leads to a reduction of the consolidating pressure necessary to offset the otherwise intimate inter fiber-fiber contact and consequently achieves a better consolidation quality. Outstanding short beam shear strength and flexural strength were obtained from the molded panels. A prolonged consolidation step under low pressure, i.e., 100 psi at 700 F for 75 minutes, was found to significantly enhance the composite mechanical properties.

  7. Monitoring concept for structural integration of PZT-fiber arrays in metal sheets: a numerical and experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossel, Welf-Guntram; Schubert, Andreas; Putz, Matthias; Koriath, Hans-Joachim; Wittstock, Volker; Hensel, Sebastian; Pierer, Alexander; Müller, Benedikt; Schmidt, Marek

    2018-01-01

    The technique joining by forming allows the structural integration of piezoceramic fibers into locally microstructured metal sheets without any elastic interlayers. A high-volume production of the joining partners causes in statistical deviations from the nominal dimensions. A numerical simulation on geometric process sensitivity shows that the deviations have a high significant influence on the resulting fiber stresses after the joining by forming operation and demonstrate the necessity of a monitoring concept. On this basis, the electromechanical behavior of piezoceramic array transducers is investigated experimentally before, during and after the joining process. The piezoceramic array transducer consists of an arrangement of five electrical interconnected piezoceramic fibers. The findings show that the impedance spectrum depends on the fiber stresses and can be used for in-process monitoring during the joining process. Based on the impedance values the preload state of the interconnected piezoceramic fibers can be specifically controlled and a fiber overload.

  8. Minimum weight design of composite laminates for multiple loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krikanov, A.A.; Soni, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    A new design method of constructing optimum weight composite laminates for multiple loads is proposed in this paper. A netting analysis approach is used to develop an optimization procedure. Three ply orientations permit development of optimum laminate design without using stress-strain relations. It is proved that stresses in minimum weight laminate reach allowable values in each ply with given load. The optimum ply thickness is defined at maximum value among tensile and compressive loads. Two examples are given to obtain optimum ply orientations, thicknesses and materials. For comparison purposes, calculations of stresses are done in orthotropic material using classical lamination theory. Based upon these calculations, matrix degrades at 30 to 50% of ultimate load. There is no fiber failure and therefore laminates withstand all applied loads in both examples

  9. Photovoltaic-Panel Laminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two-piece unit heats and presses protective layers to form laminate. Rubber diaphragm between upper and lower vacuum chambers alternates between neutral position and one that presses against solar-cell array, supplying distributed force necessary to press layers of laminate together. Encapsulation helps to protect cells from environment and to ensure long panel life while allowing efficient generation of electricity from Sunlight.

  10. Composite lamination method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, G. E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A process was developed for preparing relatively thick composite laminate structure wherein thin layers of prepreg tapes are assembled, these thin layers are cut into strips that are partially cured, and stacked into the desired thickness with uncured prepreg disposed between each layer of strips. The formed laminate is finally cured and thereafter machined to the desired final dimensions.

  11. Composition of heavy metals and airborne fibers in the indoor environment of a building during renovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Mohd Talib; Baharudin, Nor Hafizah; Velayutham, Puvaneswary; Awang, Normah; Hamdan, Harimah; Mohamad, Ruqyyah; Mokhtar, Mazlin B

    2011-10-01

    The renovation of a building will certainly affect the quality of air in the vicinity of where associated activities were undertaken, this includes the quality of air inside the building. Indoor air pollutants such as particulate matter, heavy metals, and fine fibers are likely to be emitted during renovation work. This study was conducted to determine the concentration of heavy metals, asbestos and suspended particulates in the Biology Building, at the Universiti Kebangsaan, Malaysia (UKM). Renovation activities were carried out widely in the laboratories which were located in this building. A low-volume sampler was used to collect suspended particulate matter of a diameter size less than 10 μm (PM₁₀) and an air sampling pump, fitted with a cellulose ester membrane filter, were used for asbestos sampling. Dust was collected using a small brush and scope. The concentration of heavy metals was determined through the use of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy and the fibers were counted through a phase contrast microscope. The concentrations of PM₁₀ recorded in the building during renovation action (ranging from 166 to 542 μg m⁻³) were higher than the value set by the Department of Safety and Health for respirable dust (150 μg m⁻³). Additionally, they were higher than the value of PM₁₀ recorded in indoor environments from other studies. The composition of heavy metals in PM₁₀ and indoor dust were found to be dominated by Zn and results also showed that the concentration of heavy metals in indoor dust and PM₁₀ in this study was higher than levels recorded in other similar studies. The asbestos concentration was 0.0038 ± 0.0011 fibers/cc. This was lower than the value set by the Malaysian Department of Occupational, Safety and Health (DOSH) regulations of 0.1 fibers/cc, but higher than the background value usually recorded in indoor environments. This study strongly suggests that renovation issues need to be considered seriously

  12. A transparent, solvent-free laminated top electrode for perovskite solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Makha, Mohammed; Fernandes, Silvia Let?cia; Jenatsch, Sandra; Offermans, Ton; Schleuniger, J?rg; Tisserant, Jean-Nicolas; V?ron, Anna C.; Hany, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A simple lamination process of the top electrode for perovskite solar cells is demonstrated. The laminate electrode consists of a transparent and conductive plastic/metal mesh substrate, coated with an adhesive mixture of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, and sorbitol. The laminate electrode showed a high degree of transparency of 85%. Best cell performance was achieved for laminate electrodes prepared with a sorbitol concentration of ~30 wt% per mil...

  13. The quantitative representation of fiber-and sheet-texture in metals of cubic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.J.; Kim, S.C.; Chun, B.C.; Lee, C.Y.

    1983-01-01

    This is the first article of a series dealing with studies on the quantitative representation of fiber-and sheet-type textures in metals of cubic crystal system. Texture measurements by neutron diffraction method are analyzed using Bunge's series expansion method and the effect of series truncation is studied for samples of various texture sharpness. The present article describes two computer programs, TXFIB and TXSHT, develped for the analysis of the respective fiber-and sheet-type texture. Using these computer programs, the orientation distribution function can be expanded in the series of generalized spherical harmonics up to 58th term from 6 experimental pole figures as input. Estimations of various errors involved in the texture analysis and texture sharpness index are also included in the programs. (Author)

  14. Self-optimized metal coatings for fiber plasmonics by electroless deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialiayeu, A; Caucheteur, C; Ahamad, N; Ianoul, A; Albert, J

    2011-09-26

    We present a novel method to prepare optimized metal coatings for infrared Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensors by electroless plating. We show that Tilted Fiber Bragg grating sensors can be used to monitor in real-time the growth of gold nano-films up to 70 nm in thickness and to stop the deposition of the gold at a thickness that maximizes the SPR (near 55 nm for sensors operating in the near infrared at wavelengths around 1550 nm). The deposited films are highly uniform around the fiber circumference and in spite of some nanoscale roughness (RMS surface roughness of 5.17 nm) the underlying gratings show high quality SPR responses in water. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  15. Process for the manufacture of seamless metal-clad fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluck, Raymond M. (Inventor); Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Johnson, Robert R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing seamless metal-clad composite structures includes providing a hollow, metallic inner member and an outer sleeve to surround the inner member and define an inner space therebetween. A plurality of continuous reinforcing fibers is attached to the distal end of the outside diameter of the inner member, and the inner member is then introduced, distal end first, into one end of the outer sleeve. The inner member is then moved, distal end first, into the outer sleeve until the inner member is completely enveloped by the outer sleeve. A liquid matrix material is then injected into the space containing the reinforcing fibers between the inner member and the outer sleeve. Next a pressurized heat transfer medium is passed through the inner member to cure the liquid matrix material. Finally, the wall thickness of both the inner member and the outer sleeve are reduced to desired dimensions by chemical etching, which adjusts the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to a desired value.

  16. Experimental identification for physical mechanism of fiber-form nanostructure growth on metal surfaces with helium plasma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamura, S., E-mail: takamura@aitech.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering, Aichi Institute of Technology, Yakusa-cho, Toyota 470-0392 (Japan); Uesugi, Y. [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • Initial growth process of fiber-form nanostructure on metal surfaces under helium ion irradiation is given based on experimental knowledge, where the pitting of original surface and forming nano-walls and/or loop-like nanostructure works as precursors. • The physical mechanism of fiber growth is discussed in terms of shear modulus of metals influenced by helium content as well as surface temperature. • The physical model explains the reason why tantalum does not make sufficiently grown nano-fibers, and the temperature dependence of surface morphology of titanium. - Abstract: The initial stage of fiber-form nanostructure growth on metal surface with helium plasma irradiation is illustrated, taking recent research knowledge using a flux gradient technique, and including loop-like nano-scale structure as precursors. The growth mechanism of fibers is discussed in terms of the shear modulus of various materials that is influenced by the helium content as well as the surface temperature, and the mobility of helium atoms, clusters and/or nano-bubbles in the bulk, loops and fibers. This model may explain the reason why tantalum does not provide fiber-form nanostructure although the loop-like structure was identified. The model also suggests the mechanism of an existence of two kinds of nanostructure of titanium depending on surface temperature. Industrial applications of such nanostructures are suggested in the properties and the possibilities of its growth on other basic materials.

  17. Fiber laser cleaning of metal mirror surfaces for optical diagnostic systems of the ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, A. P., E-mail: APKuznetsov@mephi.ru; Alexandrova, A. S. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation); Buzhinsky, O. I. [State Research Center of the Russian Federation Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Gubskiy, K. L.; Kazieva, T. V.; Savchenkov, A. V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation); Tugarinov, S. N. [State Research Center of the Russian Federation Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The results of experimental studies into efficiency of removal of films with a complex composition from metal mirrors by pulsed fiber laser irradiation are presented. It is shown that the initial reflectivity of optical elements can be restored by the selection of modes of irradiation impacting the surface with the sputtered film. Effective cleaning is performed by radiation with a power density lower than 10{sup 7} W/cm{sup 2}. The removal of contaminations at such a relatively low power density occurs in a solid phase, owing to which the thermal effect on the mirror is insignificant.

  18. Fiber laser cleaning of metal mirror surfaces for optical diagnostic systems of the ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, A. P.; Alexandrova, A. S.; Buzhinsky, O. I.; Gubskiy, K. L.; Kazieva, T. V.; Savchenkov, A. V.; Tugarinov, S. N.

    2015-01-01

    The results of experimental studies into efficiency of removal of films with a complex composition from metal mirrors by pulsed fiber laser irradiation are presented. It is shown that the initial reflectivity of optical elements can be restored by the selection of modes of irradiation impacting the surface with the sputtered film. Effective cleaning is performed by radiation with a power density lower than 10 7 W/cm 2 . The removal of contaminations at such a relatively low power density occurs in a solid phase, owing to which the thermal effect on the mirror is insignificant

  19. Influence of fiber upon the radiation degradation of fiber-reinforced plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udagawa, Akira

    1992-01-01

    Influences of fiber upon the radiation degradation of fiber-reinforced plastics were investigated by using 2 MeV electrons. Radiation resistances were evaluated from the three-point bending strength of the fiber laminates which used bisphenol A-type epoxy resin as a matrix. Carbon fiber laminates had higher radiation resistance values than the laminates made of glass fiber. Model laminates using polyethylene as a matrix were prepared in order to examine the differences between carbon fiber and glass fiber filler, the relation between gel fraction and absorbed dose was established. When the polyethylene was filled in the carbon fiber, forming the gel was strikingly delayed. This result suggests that radiation protective action existing in carbon fiber to matrix resin is the main cause of the higher radiation resistance of carbon fiber reinforced plastics. (author)

  20. Effects of specialized drill bits on hole defects of CFRP laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Xu, Jinyang; Chen, Ming

    2018-05-01

    Drilling is a conventional machining process widely applied to carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) for the riveting and fastening purposes in the aerospace and automotive industries. However, the machining mechanism of CFRP composites differ significantly from that of homogeneous metal alloys owing to their prominent anisotropy and heterogeneity. Serious hole defects such as fiber pullout, matrix debonding and delamination are generally produced during the hole-making process, resulting in the poor machined surface quality, low fatigue durability or even the part rejections. In order to minimize the defects especially the delamination damage in composites drilling, specialized drill bits are often a primary choice being widely adopted in a real production. This paper aims to study the effects of two drills differing in geometrical characteristics during the drilling of CFRP laminates. A number of drilling experiments were carried out with the aim to evaluate the drilling performance of different drill bits. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the drilled surfaces to study the surface roughness. A high frequency scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) was applied to characterize the drilled hole morphologies with a particular focus on the delamination damage occurring in the CFRP laminates. The obtained results indicate that the fiber orientation relative to the cutting direction is a key factor affecting hole morphology and hole wall defects can be reduced by utilizing specialized drill geometries. Moreover, the dagger drill was confirmed outperforming the brad spur drill from the aspect of reducing drilling-induced delamination.

  1. Microdrilling of metals with an inexpensive and compact ultra-short-pulse fiber amplified microchip laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancona, A. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Jena (Germany); CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory ' LIT3' , Dipartimento Interuniversitario di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Nodop, D.; Limpert, J.; Nolte, S. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Jena (Germany); Tuennermann, A. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Jena (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering (IOF), Jena (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    We have investigated the ultra-fast microdrilling of metals using a compact and cheap fiber amplified passively Q-switched microchip laser. This laser system delivers 100-ps pulses with repetition rates higher than 100 kHz and pulse energies up to 80 {mu}J. The ablation process has been studied on metals with quite different thermal properties (copper, carbon steel and stainless steel). The dependence of the ablation depth per pulse on the pulse energy follows the same logarithmic scaling laws governing laser ablation with sub-picosecond pulses. Structures ablated with 100-ps laser pulses are accompanied only by a thin layer of melted material. Despite this, results with a high level of precision are obtained when using the laser trepanning technique. This simple and affordable laser system could be a valid alternative to nanosecond laser sources for micromachining applications. (orig.)

  2. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio-Frequency Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulman, Holly S.; Allan, Shawn M.

    2009-11-11

    This Inventions and Innovations program supported the technical and commercial research and development needed to elevate Ceralink's energy saving process for flat glass lamination from bench scale to a self-supporting technology with significant potential for growth. Radio-frequency heating was any un-explored option for laminating glass prior to this program. With significant commercial success through time and energy savings in the wood, paper, and plastics industries, RF heating was found to have significant promise for the energy intensive glass lamination industry. A major technical goal of the program was to demonstrate RF lamination across a wide range of laminate sizes and materials. This was successfully accomplished, dispelling many skeptics' concerns about the abilities of the technology. Ceralink laminated panels up to 2 ft x 3 ft, with four sets processed simultaneously, in a 3 minute cycle. All major categories of interlayer materials were found to work with RF lamination. In addition to laminating glass, other materials including photovoltaic silicon solar cells, light emitting diodes, metallized glass, plastics (acrylic and polycarbonate), and ceramics (alumina) were found compatible with the RF process. This opens up a wide range of commercial opportunities beyond the initially targeted automotive industry. The dramatic energy savings reported for RF lamination at the bench scale were found to be maintained through the scale up of the process. Even at 2 ft x 3 ft panel sizes, energy savings are estimated to be at least 90% compared to autoclaving or vacuum lamination. With targeted promotion through conference presentations, press releases and internet presence, RF lamination has gained significant attention, drawing large audiences at American Ceramic Society meetings. The commercialization success of the project includes the establishment of a revenue-generating business model for providing process development and demonstrations for

  3. Mass optimization of a small pressure vessel using metal/FRP (fiber reinforced polymers) hybrid structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisar, J.A.; Abdullah, A.N.; Iqbal, N.

    2004-01-01

    In hybrid pressure vessels, composite (Fiber) is wound over a metallic liner (Steel/Aluminum) in hoop direction. In this concept of hybrid pressure vessel structure, metallic liner takes all the axial loads and fiber reinforced polymers (FRP/sub s/) takes load in circumferential (Hoop) direction. Hybrid structures combine the relatively high shear stiffness and ductility of metal alloy with high specific stiffness, strength and fatigue properties of FRP/sub s/. The relatively simple methods for producing hybrid structures circumvent the need for the complex and expensive equipment that is used for advanced composites processing. This paper presents an efficient way of designing a hybrid pressure vessel where prime concern is weight reduction over an equivalent aluminum structure and investigates various methodologies regarding combinations of metals and FRP/sub s/ for optimization of a given pressure vessel. For this purpose we adopted two different methods of simulation one is computer simulation using ANSYS and other is experimental verification by hydrostatic testing of manufactured pressure vessel. Two different pressure vessels one with aluminum liner and other with steel liner were fabricated. Kevlar 49/epoxy was wrapped around the liners in hoop direction. Both the pressure vessels were put into hydrostatic test. Strains were measured during the test and then converted into corresponding stresses. Results of hydrostatic test were quite in favor of the ANSYS results. In this way we have successfully designed, manufactured and tested the Hybrid pressure vessel saving almost 40% weight in case of aluminum liner and 43.6% in case of steel liner. (author)

  4. Development of high capacity, high rate lithium ion batteries utilizing metal fiber conductive additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Soonho; Kim, Youngduk; Kim, Kyung Joon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Hyungkeun; Kim, Myung H.

    As lithium ion cells dominate the battery market, the performance improvement is an utmost concern among developers and researchers. Conductive additives are routinely employed to enhance electrode conductivity and capacity. Carbon particulates—graphite or carbon black powders—are conventional and popular choices as conductive fillers. However, percolation requirements of particles demand significant volumetric content of impalpable, and thereby high area conductive fillers. As might be expected, the electrode active surface area escalates unnecessarily, resulting in overall increase in reaction with electrolytes and organic solvents. The increased reactions usually manifest as an irreversible loss of anode capacity, gradual oxidation and consumption of electrolyte on the cathode—which causes capacity decline during cycling—and an increased threat to battery safety by gas evolution and exothermic solvent oxidation. In this work we have utilized high aspect ratio, flexible, micronic metal fibers as low active area and high conductivity additives. The metal fibers appear well dispersed within the electrode and to satisfy percolation requirements very efficiently at very low volumetric content compared to conventional carbon-based conductive additives. Results from 18650-type cells indicate significant enhancements in electrode capacity and high rate capability while the irreversible capacity loss is negligible.

  5. Metal coatings on long-period fiber gratings and the implementation of an associated sensing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulong; Jiang, Jianfeng; Wang, Feifan; Fu, Yanshu; Zhang, Hua

    2017-05-01

    A mathematical model for analyzing the temperature sensing properties of a metal-coated long-period fiber grating (LPFG) was presented. The influences of metal coatings on the temperature sensing properties of LPFGs were simulated and experimentally investigated. The effects of various material parameters were estimated using the single variable method of the Matlab 7.0 software. The simulation results showed that temperature sensitivity increased with an increasing elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and thermal expansion coefficient of the coating metal. Both the experimental and simulated results showed that the thickness of the metal coating had a significant impact on the associated temperature sensing properties. The calculated temperature sensitivities of the LPFGs with Ni-coating thicknesses of 6.5, 5.2, and 7.2 μm were 57.27, 60.91, and 66.55 pm/°C, respectively; and with Cu-coating thicknesses of 3.8, 4.9, and 5.4 μm, the calculated temperature sensitivities were 58.17, 59.58, and 61.18 pm/°C, respectively. Compared to the experimental results, the relative errors in the simulation were less than 9.75%, indicating the feasibility of the new temperature sensing model.

  6. Metallic attenuated total reflection infrared hollow fibers for robust optical transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Chengbin; Guo, Hong; Hu, Zhigao; Yang, Pingxiong [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China); Chu, Junhao [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China); National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 500 Yu-tian Road, Shanghai 200083 (China); Liu, Aiyun [Department of Physics, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Gui Lin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China); Shi, Yiwei [School of Information Science and Engineering, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2014-07-07

    A durable metallic attenuated total reflection (ATR) hollow fiber (bore size: 1.45 mm, wall thickness: 50 μm) was designed and fabricated based on a nickel capillary tube and hexagonal germanium dioxide (GeO{sub 2}). The anomalous dispersion of the hexagonal GeO{sub 2} layer grown inside a nickel tube achieves low-loss light transmission at two peak-power wavelengths for CO{sub 2} laser devices (10.2 and 10.6 μm). An 11–28 W, 10.2 or 10.6 μm CO{sub 2} laser power was steadily delivered via a fiber elastically bent from 0° to 90° (radius: 45 cm) for over 40 min (transmission loss: 0.22 to 4.2 dB/m). Theoretically fitting the measured temperatures showed that front-end clipping caused greater thermal loading than the distributed mode absorption. The maximum external temperature of a nickel ATR fiber is much lower than that of a silica glass ATR fiber owing to their different heat dissipation abilities. The HE{sub 11} mode purity of the output beam profiles decreased from 90.3% to 44.7% as the bending angle increased from 0° to 90°. Large core sizes and wall roughnesses (scattering loss 0.04 dB/m) contributed to mode mixing and excess losses that were above the value predicted by the classical Marcatili and Schmeltzer equation (0.024–0.037 dB/m).

  7. Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meals instead of white rice. Add beans (kidney, black, navy, and pinto) to rice dishes for even more fiber. Spice up salads with berries and almonds, chickpeas, cooked artichokes, and beans (kidney, black, navy, or pinto). Use whole-grain (corn or ...

  8. Glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics for use in metal-free removable partial dentures: combined effects of fiber loading and pigmentation on color differences and flexural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Nagakura, Manamu; Nishiyama, Norihiro

    2018-02-21

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of fiber loading and pigmentation on the color differences and flexural properties of glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics (GFRTPs), for use in non-metal clasp dentures (NMCDs). The GFRTPs consisted mainly of E-glass fibers, a polypropylene matrix, and a coloring pigment: the GFRTPs with various fiber loadings (0, 10, and 20mass%) and pigmentations (0, 1, 2, and 4mass%) were fabricated by using an injection molding. The color differences of GFRTPs were measured based on the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) Lab color system, by comparing with a commercially available NMCD. The flexural properties of GFRTPs were evaluated by using a three-point bending test, according to International Standards Organization (ISO) specification number 20795-1. The visible colors of GFRTPs with pigment contents of 2mass% were acceptable for gingival color, and the glass fibers harmonized well with the resins. The ΔE* values of the GFRTPs with pigment contents of 2mass% obtained by using the CIE Lab system were lowest at all fiber loadings. For GFRTPs with fiber contents of 10 and 20mass% at 2mass% pigment content, these GFRTPs surpassed the ISO 20795-1 specification regarding flexural strength (> 60MPa) and modulus (> 1.5GPa). A combination of the results of color difference evaluation and mechanical examination indicates that the GFRTPs with fiber contents of 10 or 20mass%, and with pigment contents of 2mass% have acceptable esthetic appearance and sufficient rigidity for NMCDs. Copyright © 2018 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Synergetic effects of thin plies and aligned carbon nanotube interlaminar reinforcement in composite laminates

    OpenAIRE

    Arteiro, Albertino; Borstnar, Gregor; Mavrogordato, Mark N.; Sinclair, Ian; Spearing, S. Mark; Camanho, Pedro P.; Cohen, Estelle; Kopp, Reed Alan; Furtado Pereira da Silva, Carolina; Ni, Xinchen; Wardle, Brian L

    2017-01-01

    Thin-ply carbon fiber laminates have exhibited superior mechanical properties, including higher initiation and ultimate strength, when compared to standard thickness plies and enable greater flexibility in laminate design. However, the increased ply count in thin-ply laminates also increases the number of ply-ply interfaces, thereby increasing the number of relatively weak and delamination-prone interlaminar regions. In this study, we report the first experimental realization of aligned carbo...

  10. Mechanical characterization of SiC particulate & E-glass fiber reinforced Al 3003 hybrid metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, K. S. Lakshmi; Shivanand, H. K.

    2018-04-01

    Metal matrix composites constitute a class of low cost high quality materials which offer high performance for various industrial applications. The orientation of this research is towards the study of mechanical properties of as cast silicon carbide (SiC) particulates and Short E-Glass fibers reinforced Aluminum matrix composites (AMCs). The Hybrid metal matrix composite is developed by reinforcing SiC particulates of 100 microns and short E-Glass fibers of 2-3 mm length with Al 3003 in different compositions. The vortex method of stir casting was employed, in which the reinforcements were introduced into the vortex created by the molten metal by means of mechanical stirrer. The mechanical properties of the prepared metal matrix composites were analyzed. From the studies it was noticed that an improvement in mechanical properties of the reinforced alloys compared to unreinforced alloys.

  11. Bending analyses for 3D engineered structural panels made from laminated paper and carbon fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghao Li; John F. Hunt; Zhiyong Cai; Xianyan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents analysis of a 3-dimensional engineered structural panel (3DESP) having a tri-axial core structure made from phenolic impregnated laminated-paper composites with and without high strength composite carbon-fiber fabric laminated to the outside of both faces. Both I-beam equations and finite element method were used to analyze four-point bending of the...

  12. Lamination cooling system formation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E [Altadena, CA; Kobayashi, Daryl M [Monrovia, CA

    2009-05-12

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  13. Effect of nanomodified polyester resin on hybrid sandwich laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbusagar, NRR.; Giridharan, P.K.; Palanikumar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of nanomodified polyester resin on hybrid sandwich laminates is evaluated. • The hybrid sandwich laminates are fabricated with varying wt% of nanoclay. • Flexural, impact and moisture absorbtion properties are evaluated for hybrid composites. • Scanning electron microscopy is utilized to analyze the dispersion of clay and fractured surfaces of the nanocomposites. - Abstract: Effect of nanoclay modified polyester resin on flexural, impact, hardness and water absorption properties of untreated woven jute and glass fabric hybrid sandwich laminates have been investigated experimentally. The hybrid sandwich laminates are prepared by hand lay-up manufacturing technique (HL) for investigation. All hybrid sandwich laminates are fabricated with a total of 10 layers, by varying the extreme layers and wt% of nanoclay in polyester resin so as to obtain four different combinations of hybrid sandwich laminates. For comparison of the composite with hybrid composite, jute fiber reinforced composite laminate also fabricated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results obtained from samples with nanoclay indicated that intergallery spacing of the layered clay increases with matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a morphological picture of the cross-sections and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) allowed investigating the elemental composition of matrix in composites. The testing results indicated that the flexural properties are greatly increased at 4% of nanoclay loading while impact, hardness and water absorption properties are increased at 6% of nanoclay loading. A plausible explanation for high increase of properties has also been discussed

  14. Fatigue damage mechanics of notched graphite-epoxy laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Mark; Beaumont, Peter W. R.; Ashby, Michael F.

    A modeling approach is presented that recognizes that the residual properties of composite laminates after any form of loading depend on the damage state. Therefore, in the case of cyclic loading, it is necessary to first derive a damage growth law and then relate the residual properties to the accumulated damage. The propagation of fatigue damage in notched laminates is investigated. A power law relationship between damage growth and the strain energy release rate is developed. The material constants used in the model have been determined in independent experiments and are invariant for all the layups investigated. The strain energy release rates are calculated using a simple finite element representation of the damaged specimen. The model is used to predict the effect of tension-tension cyclic loading on laminates of the T300/914C carbon-fiber epoxy system. The extent of damage propagation is successfully predicted in a number of cross-ply laminates.

  15. Modified resistivity-strain behavior through the incorporation of metallic particles in conductive polymer composite fibers containing carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, L.; Deng, H.; Gao, X.; Zhang, S.M.; Bilotti, E.; Peijs, A.A.J.M.; Fu, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Eutectic metal particles and carbon nanotubes are incorporated into a thermoplastic polyurethane matrix through a simple but efficient method, melt compounding, to tune the resistivity-strain behavior of conductive polymer composite (CPC) fibers. Such a combination of conductive fillers is rarely

  16. Ply-based Optimization of Laminated Composite Shell Structures under Manufacturing Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rene; Lund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This work concerns a new ply-based parameterization for performing simultaneous material selection and topology optimization of fiber reinforced laminated composite structures while ensuring that a series of different manufacturing constraints are fulfilled. The material selection can either...

  17. Machine Learning and Infrared Thermography for Fiber Orientation Assessment on Randomly-Oriented Strands Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldague, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    The use of fiber reinforced materials such as randomly-oriented strands has grown in recent years, especially for manufacturing of aerospace composite structures. This growth is mainly due to their advantageous properties: they are lighter and more resistant to corrosion when compared to metals and are more easily shaped than continuous fiber composites. The resistance and stiffness of these materials are directly related to their fiber orientation. Thus, efficient approaches to assess their fiber orientation are in demand. In this paper, a non-destructive evaluation method is applied to assess the fiber orientation on laminates reinforced with randomly-oriented strands. More specifically, a method called pulsed thermal ellipsometry combined with an artificial neural network, a machine learning technique, is used in order to estimate the fiber orientation on the surface of inspected parts. Results showed that the method can be potentially used to inspect large areas with good accuracy and speed. PMID:29351240

  18. Machine Learning and Infrared Thermography for Fiber Orientation Assessment on Randomly-Oriented Strands Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Henrique; Zhang, Hai; Figueiredo, Alisson; Malheiros, Fernando; Ignacio, Luis Henrique; Sfarra, Stefano; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Guimaraes, Gilmar; Maldague, Xavier

    2018-01-19

    The use of fiber reinforced materials such as randomly-oriented strands has grown in recent years, especially for manufacturing of aerospace composite structures. This growth is mainly due to their advantageous properties: they are lighter and more resistant to corrosion when compared to metals and are more easily shaped than continuous fiber composites. The resistance and stiffness of these materials are directly related to their fiber orientation. Thus, efficient approaches to assess their fiber orientation are in demand. In this paper, a non-destructive evaluation method is applied to assess the fiber orientation on laminates reinforced with randomly-oriented strands. More specifically, a method called pulsed thermal ellipsometry combined with an artificial neural network, a machine learning technique, is used in order to estimate the fiber orientation on the surface of inspected parts. Results showed that the method can be potentially used to inspect large areas with good accuracy and speed.

  19. Buckling behavior of fiber reinforced plastic–metal hybrid-composite beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eksi, Secil; Kapti, Akin O.; Genel, Kenan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We developed a new plastic–metal hybrid-composite tubular beam structure. ► This structure offers innovative design solutions with weight reduction. ► It prevents premature buckling without adding significant weight to the structure. ► The composite interaction gives better mechanical properties to the products. ► Buckling and bending loads of the beam increased 3.2 and 7.6 times, respectively. - Abstract: It is known that the buckling is characterized by a sudden failure of a structural member subjected to high compressive load. In this study, the buckling behavior of the aluminum tubular beam (ATB) was analyzed using finite element (FE) method, and the reinforcing arrangements as well as its combinations were decided for the composite beams based on the FE results. Buckling and bending behaviors of thin-walled ATBs with internal cast polyamide (PA6) and external glass and carbon fiber reinforcement polymers (GFRPs and CFRPs) were investigated systematically. Experimental studies showed that the 219% increase in buckling load and 661% in bending load were obtained with reinforcements. The use of plastics and metal together as a reinforced structure yields better mechanical performance properties such as high resistance to buckling and bending loads, dimensional stability and high energy absorption capacity, including weight reduction. While the thin-walled metallic component provides required strength and stiffness, the plastic component provides the support necessary to prevent premature buckling without adding significant weight to the structure. It is thought that the combination of these materials will offer a promising new focus of attention for designers seeking more appropriate composite beams with high buckling loads beside light weight. The developed plastic–metal hybrid-composite structure is promising especially for critical parts serving as a support member of vehicles for which light weight is a critical design

  20. Evaluation of air jet erosion profiles in metal mesh supported SCR plate catalyst based on glass fiber concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajath, S.; Nandakishora, Y.; Siddaraju, C.; Roy, Sukumar

    2018-04-01

    This paper explains the evaluation of erosion profiles in metal mesh supported SCR plate catalyst structures in which the glass fibers concentration in the catalyst material is considered as prime factor for erosion resistance and mechanical strength. The samples are prepared and tested at the specified and constant conditions like velocity as 30m/s, sand flow rate as 2g/min, average particle diameter 300 µm and all these samples were tested at different angles at impact preferably 15°,30°,45°,60°,75°,and 90° as per ASTM G76 standards. Say, if 5% glass fibers are present in catalyst material, then erosion resistance increases, but the density of glass fibers is very less because each glass fiber is approximately 20 microns in diameter and weight of individual is negligible. The composition in which 2% fiber is present has slightly higher erosion comparatively, but 3% glass fibers or more foreign inclusion like excessive binders can be eliminated that contributes much for the conversion of NOx. So 2% -3% glass fibers are preferred and optimized based on NOx conversion and erosion resistance property.

  1. Development of a metal-based composite actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, Hiroshi; Haga, Osamu; Ishii, Toshio; Kurihara, Haruki; Ohira, Junichiro; Hakoda, Genji

    2000-06-01

    This paper describes a basic concept and elemental developments to realize a metal based composite actuator to be used for smart structures. In this study, CFRP prepreg was laminated on aluminum plate to develop an actuator and this laminate could perform unidirectional actuation. SiC continuous fiber/Al composite thin plate could also be used for form a modified type of actuator instead of using CFRP. As sensors to be embedded in this actuator, the following ones wee developed. (1) A pre-notched optical fiber filament could be embedded in aluminum matrix without fracture by the interphase forming/bonding method with copper insert and could be fractured in it at the notch, which enabled forming of an optical interference type strain sensor. (2) Nickel wire could be uniformly oxidized and embedded in aluminum matrix without fracture, which could successfully work as a temperature sensor and a strain sensor.

  2. Lamins, laminopathies and disease mechanisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-07-08

    Jul 8, 2011 ... Lamins, laminopathies and disease mechanisms: Possible role for proteasomal degradation of ... Mutations in the human lamin genes lead to highly degenerative genetic diseases that affect a number of different ... June 2018.

  3. Scarf Repair of Composite Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Zonghong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of composite materials, such as carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP composites, aero-structures has led to an increased need of advanced assembly joining and repair technologies. Adhesive bonded repairs as an alternative to recover full or part of initial strength were investigated. Tests were conducted with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of techniques used for repairing damage fiber reinforced laminated composites. Failure loads and failure modes were generated and compared with the following parameters: scarf angles, roughness of grind tool and number of external plies. Results showed that scarf angle was the critical parameter and the largest tensile strength was observed with the smallest scarf angle. Besides, the use of external plies at the outer surface could not increase the repairs efficiency for large scarf angle. Preparing the repair surfaces by sanding them with a sander ranging from 60 to 100 grit number had significant effect on the failure load. These results allowed the proposal of design principles for repairing CFRP structures.

  4. Fabrication of CFRP/Al Active Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, Hiroshi; Haga, Osamu; Ohira, Junichiro; Takemoto, Kyosuke; Imori, Masataka

    This paper describes fabrication and evaluation of the active laminate. It was made by hot-pressing of an aluminum plate as a high CTE material, a unidirectional CFRP prepreg as a low CTE material and an electric resistance heater, a KFRP prepreg as a low CTE material and an insulator between them, and copper foils as electrodes. In this study, fabricating conditions and performances such as curvature change and output force were examined. Under optimized fabricating conditions, it became clear that 1) the curvature of the active laminate linearly changes as a function of temperature, between room temperature and its hot pressing temperature without hysteresis by electric resistance heating of carbon fiber in the CFRP layer and cooling, and 2) the output force against a fixed punch almost linearly increases with increasing temperature during heating from 313K up to around the glass transition temperature of the epoxy matrix.

  5. EB curable laminating adhesives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Asao; Kobayashi, Masahide; Gotoh, Sakiko

    1992-01-01

    New developed solvent free EB curable laminating adhesives have two liquid components, A with hydroxy and acryloyl group, B with isocyanate and acryloyl group in a molecule. These EB laminating adhesives do not need any aging process, which is a big advantage, and are very suitable for environment, safety, and health because of no heating process and solvent free formulas. And we have made basic research about the relation of peel strength or heat seal strength versus Tg of cured film, elongation at break, elastic modulus, and so on. Basic specifications of the new developed adhesives are shown. (author)

  6. A historical perspective of laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymering, Henry W

    2010-04-01

    The causes of laminitis are many-often interrelated, sometimes direct opposites. The history of laminitis has been a search for the cause or causes of laminitis and for effective treatment. Going in and out of fashion, many treatments have lasted for centuries, some for millennia, but very few have been proven. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ON THE LAMINATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökay Nemli

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood based panel manufacturers use increasing volumes of laminates. Laminates are resistant to the water, humidity, scratch, abrasion, burning and chemicals. These products consist of printed decor papers that have been saturated with thermosetting resin. In this study, laminate types, composition form and design alternatives were investigated.

  8. Fuzzy Fiber Sensors for Structural Composite Health Monitoring (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    fuzzy fibers to applied strain was measured in the following configurations: individual fiber, fiber tow, tow in matrix, and tow in laminated composite...panels, 12″ × 12″, were fabricated with IM7/977-2 prepreg unidirectional carbon fiber tape. Three panels each were prepared with unidirectional [0]8 or...were fabricated with 6″-long fuzzy fiber strain sensors embedded at the midpoint of the laminate plies. Eight straight-sided specimens (as shown in

  9. Effects of adding metals to MoS2 in a ytterbium doped Q-switched fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleque, Abdul; Liu, Liming

    2018-03-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is widely used in lubricants, metallic alloys and in electronic and optical components. It is also used as saturable absorbers (SAs) in lasers (e.g. fiber lasers): a simple deposition of MoS2 on the fiber end can create a saturable absorber without the necessity of extensive alignment of the optical beam. In this article, we study the effects of adding different metals (Cr, Au, and Al) to MoS2 in a ytterbium (Yb)-doped Q-switched fiber laser. Experimental results show that the addition of a thin layer of gold and aluminium can reduce pulse durations to about 5.8 μs and 8.5 μs, respectively, compared with pure MoS2 with pulse duration of 12 μs. Experimental analysis of the combined metal and MoS2 based composite SAs can be useful in fiber laser applications where it may also find applications in medical, three dimensional (3D) active imaging and dental applications.

  10. Laminated multilayer sheet structure and its utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, K.; Itoh, K.; Mitani, Y.; Sobajima, S.; Yonemura, U.

    1980-01-01

    A laminated multilayer sheet structure is described comprising (A) an opaque flexible sheet layer, and (B) a flexible layer laminated on the surface of layer (A) and composed of a transparent thermic ray reflecting layer (B 1 ) bonded to a transparent synthetic resin layer (B 2 ), said layer (B 1 ) being a transparent thermic ray reflecting layer composed of (I) a layer of a metal having a thickness of about 50 to about 600 A, said metal being selected from the group consisting of gold, silver, copper, aluminum and a mixture of alloy of at least two of said metals, and (II) a high refractive substance layer having a thickness of about 50 to about 600 A, of an oxide of titanium derived from a layer of an organic titanium compound of the formula Ti 1 O/sub m/R/sub n/, where R is alkyl of 1-20 carbon atoms, l=1-30, m=4+3(1-1), and n=4+2(1-1), and containing the organic residual moiety of the organic titanium compound, the amount of said organic residual moiety being 0.1 to 30% by weight based on the weight of the high refractive substance layer; or said layer (B 1 ) being a transparent semiconductive layer having a thickness of about 500 to about 5,000 a and being composed of a compound selected from the group consisting of indium oxide, tin oxide, cadmium oxide, antimony oxide, copper iodide, and a mixture of at least two of said compounds. A method is described for heat-insulating a room, which comprises applying to the surface of a floor, wall, ceiling or partition in the room a laminated multilayer sheet structure comprising (A) an opaque flexible sheet layer, and (B) a flexible layer laminated on the surface of layer (A) and composed of a transparent thermic ray reflecting layer (B 1 ) bonded to a transparent synthetic resin layer

  11. Mechanical devices for aligning optical fibers using elastic metal-deformation techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zantvoort, J.H.C.; Plukker, S.G.L.; Kuindersma, P.I.; Mekonnen, K.A.; de Waardt, H.

    2016-01-01

    We designed and realized two different mechanical devices for aligning standard lensed telecom fibers to indium-phosphide-based photonic integrated circuits (PICs). The first device (Device A) can align one fiber in three degrees of freedom, while the second device (Device B) can align two fiber

  12. Structural Contraction of Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks: Membrane Application on Porous Metallic Hollow Fibers for Gas Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho-Bailo, Fernando; Etxeberría-Benavides, Miren; David, Oana; Téllez, Carlos; Coronas, Joaquín

    2017-06-21

    Positive thermal expansion coefficients (TECs) of 52 × 10 -6 and 35 × 10 -6 K -1 were experimentally calculated in the -116 to 250 °C range for the III-phases of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIF) ZIF-9(Co) and ZIF-7(Zn), respectively, by means of the unit cell dimensions and volume of the materials in the monoclinic crystal system calculated from the XRD patterns. The unit cell dimensions and volume showed a significant expansion phenomenon as the temperature increased, by as much as 5.5% for ZIF-9-III in the studied range. To exploit the advantages of such thermal behavior, a new approach to the fabrication of ZIF-9-III membranes on thin, flexible, and highly porous nickel hollow fiber (Ni HF) supports by a versatile and easy-controllable microfluidic setup is herein reported. These Ni HF supports result from the sintering of 25-μm Ni particles and display very positive mechanical properties and bending resistance. As compared to the traditional polymer-based HF membranes, the ZIF metal-supported membrane exhibited good durability and robustness throughout its operation in a wide temperature range and after heating and cooling cycles. These benefits derive from (1) the pore-plugging membrane configuration resulting from the high porosity of the support and (2) the similarity between the TECs of the ZIF and the metallic support, both positive, which enhances their mutual compatibility. An increase in the H 2 /CO 2 separation selectivity at low temperatures (as high as 22.2 at -10 °C, along with 102 GPU permeance of H 2 ) was achieved, in agreement with the structural variations observed in the ZIF material.

  13. Metallic-packaging fiber Bragg grating sensor based on ultrasonic welding for strain-insensitive temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lianqing; Yang, Runtao; Zhang, Yumin; Dong, Mingli; Lou, Xiaoping

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a metallic-packaging fiber Bragg grating temperature sensor characterized by a strain insensitive design is demonstrated. The sensor is fabricated by the one-step ultrasonic welding technique using type-II fiber Bragg grating combined with an aluminum alloy substrate. Finite element analysis is used to perform theoretical evaluation. The result of the experiment illustrates that the metallic-packaging temperature sensor is insensitive to longitudinal strain. The sensor's temperature sensitivity is 36 pm/°C over the range of 50-110 °C, with the correlation coefficient (R2) being 0.999. The sensor's temporal response is 40 s at a sudden temperature change from 21 °C to 100 °C. The proposed sensor can be applied on reliable and precise temperature measurement.

  14. Development of a heavy metal sorption system through the P=S functionalization of coconut (Cocos nucifera) fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Dayane Almeida; de Oliveira, Elisabeth; da Costa Nogueira, Márcio; Espósito, Breno Pannia

    2010-01-01

    Lignocellulosic residues are interesting materials for the production of heavy metal adsorbents for aquatic systems. Whole fibers taken from coconut (Cocos nucifera) husks were functionalized with the thiophosphoryl (P=S) group by means of the direct reaction with Cl(3)PS, (CH(3)O)(2)ClP=S or (CH(3)CH(2)O)(2)ClP=S in order to obtain an adsorptive system for 'soft' metal ions, particularly Cd(2+). These functionalized fibers (FFs) were characterized by means of elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis and acid-base titration. Adsorption isotherms for Cd(2+) fitted the Langmuir model, with binding capacities of 0.2-5 m mol g(-1) of FF at 25 degrees C.

  15. Refractometers for different refractive index range by surface plasmon resonance sensors in multimode optical fibers with different metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppella, P.; Corso, Alain J.; Pelizzo, Maria G.; Cennamo, N.; Zeni, L.

    2016-09-01

    We have realized a plasmonic sensor based on Au/Pd metal bilayer in a multimode plastic optical fiber. This metal bilayer, based on a metal with high imaginary part of the refractive index and gold, shows interesting properties in terms of sensitivity and performances, in different refractive index ranges. The development of highly sensitive platforms for high refractive index detection (higher than 1.38) is interesting for chemical applications based on molecularly imprinted polymer as receptors, while the aqueous medium is the refractive index range of biosensors based on bio-receptors. In this work we have presented an Au/Pd metal bilayer optimized for 1.38-1.42 refractive index range.

  16. Photovoltaic module and laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunea, Gabriela E.; Kim, Sung Dug; Kavulak, David F.J.

    2018-04-10

    A photovoltaic module is disclosed. The photovoltaic module has a first side directed toward the sun during normal operation and a second, lower side. The photovoltaic module comprises a perimeter frame and a photovoltaic laminate at least partially enclosed by and supported by the perimeter frame. The photovoltaic laminate comprises a transparent cover layer positioned toward the first side of the photovoltaic module, an upper encapsulant layer beneath and adhering to the cover layer, a plurality of photovoltaic solar cells beneath the upper encapsulant layer, the photovoltaic solar cells electrically interconnected, a lower encapsulant layer beneath the plurality of photovoltaic solar cells, the upper and lower encapsulant layers enclosing the plurality of photovoltaic solar cells, and a homogenous rear environmental protection layer, the rear environmental protection layer adhering to the lower encapsulant layer, the rear environmental protection layer exposed to the ambient environment on the second side of the photovoltaic module.

  17. Inspeção termográfica de danos por impacto em laminados de matriz polimérica reforçados por fibras de carbono Thermographic inspection of impact damage in carbon fiber-reinforcing polymer matrix laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Tarpani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminados compósitos com matrizes poliméricas, respectivamente termorrígida e termoplástica, fortalecidas com fibras contínuas de carbono foram submetidos a impacto único transversal com diferentes níveis de energia. Os danos impingidos aos materiais estruturais foram avaliados por termografia ativa infravermelha na modalidade transmissão. Em geral, os termogramas do laminado termoplástico apresentaram indicações mais claras e bem definidas dos danos causados por impacto, se comparados aos do compósito termorrígido. O aquecimento convectivo das amostras por fluxo controlado de ar quente se mostrou mais eficaz que o realizado por irradiação, empregando-se lâmpada de filamento. Observou-se também que tempos mais longos de aquecimento favoreceram a visualização dos danos. O posicionamento da face impactada do espécime, relativamente à câmera infravermelha e à fonte de calor, não afetou a qualidade dos termogramas no caso do laminado termorrígido, enquanto que influenciou significativamente os termogramas do compósito termoplástico. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a termografia infravermelha é um método de ensaio não-destrutivo simples, robusto e confiável para a detecção de danos por impacto tão leve quanto 5 J em laminados compósitos poliméricos reforçados com fibras de carbono.Continuous carbon fiber reinforced thermoset and thermoplastic composite laminates were exposed to single transversal impact with different energy levels. The damages impinged to the structural materials were evaluated by active infrared thermography in the transmission mode. In general, the thermoplastic laminate thermograms showed clearer damage indications than those from the thermosetting composite. The convective heating of the samples by controlled hot air flow was more efficient than via irradiation using a filament lamp. It was also observed that longer heating times improved the damage visualization. The positioning of the

  18. Aluminum surface corrosion and the mechanism of inhibitors using pH and metal ion selective imaging fiber bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szunerits, Sabine; Walt, David R

    2002-02-15

    The localized corrosion behavior of a galvanic aluminum copper couple was investigated by in situ fluorescence imaging with a fiber-optic imaging sensor. Three different, but complementary methods were used for visualizing remote corrosion sites, mapping the topography of the metal surface, and measuring local chemical concentrations of H+, OH-, and Al3+. The first method is based on a pH-sensitive imaging fiber, where the fluorescent dye SNAFL was covalently attached to the fiber's distal end. Fluorescence images were acquired as a function of time at different areas of the galvanic couple. In a second method, the fluorescent dye morin was immobilized on the fiber-optic imaging sensor, which allowed the in situ localization of corrosion processes on pure aluminum to be visualized over time by monitoring the release of Al3+. The development of fluorescence on the aluminum surface defined the areas associated with the anodic dissolution of aluminum. We also investigated the inhibition of corrosion of pure aluminum by CeCl3 and 8-hydroxyquinoline. The decrease in current, the decrease in the number of active sites on the aluminum surface, and the faster surface passivation are all consistent indications that cerium chloride and 8-hydroxyquinoline inhibit corrosion effectively. From the number and extent of corrosion sites and the release of aluminum ions monitored with the fiber, it was shown that 8-hydroxyquinoline is a more effective inhibitor than cerium chloride.

  19. Effective Carbon Dioxide Photoreduction over Metals (Fe-, Co-, Ni-, and Cu- Incorporated TiO2/Basalt Fiber Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Yeon Do

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogical basalt fibers as a complementary adsorbent were introduced to improve the adsorption of CO2 over the surfaces of photocatalysts. TiO2 photocatalysts (M-TiO2 incorporated with 5.0 mol.% 3d-transition metals (Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu were prepared using a solvothermal method and mixed with basalt fibers for applications to CO2 photoreduction. The resulting 5.0 mol.% M-TiO2 powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence, Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller surface area, and CO2-temperature-programmed desorption. A paste composed of two materials was coated and fixed on a Pyrex plate by a thermal treatment. The 5.0 mol.% M-TiO2/basalt fiber films increased the adsorption of CO2 significantly, indicating superior photocatalytic behavior compared to pure TiO2 and basalt fiber films, and produced 158~360 μmol gcat-1 L−1 CH4 gases after an 8 h reaction. In particular, the best performance was observed over the 5.0 mol.% Co-TiO2/basalt fiber film. These results were attributed to the effective CO2 gas adsorption and inhibition of photogenerated electron-hole pair recombination.

  20. Effect of Forging Parameters on Low Cycle Fatigue Behaviour of Al/Basalt Short Fiber Metal Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Karthigeyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with metal matrix composites (MMCs of Al 7075 alloy containing different weight percentage (2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 basalt short fiber reinforcement and unreinforced matrix alloy. The samples were produced by the permanent stir casting technique. The casting ingots were cut into blanks to be forged in single stage and double stage, using MN press and graphite-based lubricant. The microstructures and fatigue properties of the matrix alloy and MMC samples were investigated in the as cast state and in the single and double stage forging operations. The microstructure results showed that the forged sample had a uniform distribution of the basalt short fiber throughout the specimens. Evaluation of the fatigue properties showed that the forged samples had higher values than those of the as cast counterparts. After forging, the enhancement of the fatigue strength of the matrix alloy was so significant and high in the case of 2.5 and 5.0 wt. percentage basalt short fiber reinforced MMC, and there was no enhancement in 7.5 and 10 weight percentages short fiber reinforced MMCs. The fracture damage was mainly due to decohesion at the matrix-fiber interface.

  1. Effect of forging parameters on low cycle fatigue behaviour of Al/basalt short fiber metal matrix composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthigeyan, R; Ranganath, G

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with metal matrix composites (MMCs) of Al 7075 alloy containing different weight percentage (2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10) basalt short fiber reinforcement and unreinforced matrix alloy. The samples were produced by the permanent stir casting technique. The casting ingots were cut into blanks to be forged in single stage and double stage, using MN press and graphite-based lubricant. The microstructures and fatigue properties of the matrix alloy and MMC samples were investigated in the as cast state and in the single and double stage forging operations. The microstructure results showed that the forged sample had a uniform distribution of the basalt short fiber throughout the specimens. Evaluation of the fatigue properties showed that the forged samples had higher values than those of the as cast counterparts. After forging, the enhancement of the fatigue strength of the matrix alloy was so significant and high in the case of 2.5 and 5.0 wt. percentage basalt short fiber reinforced MMC, and there was no enhancement in 7.5 and 10 weight percentages short fiber reinforced MMCs. The fracture damage was mainly due to decohesion at the matrix-fiber interface.

  2. Laminated piezoelectric transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez Carazo, Alfredo (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A laminated piezoelectric transformer is provided using the longitudinal vibration modes for step-up voltage conversion applications. The input portions are polarized to deform in a longitudinal plane and are bonded to an output portion. The deformation of the input portions is mechanically coupled to the output portion, which deforms in the same longitudinal direction relative to the input portion. The output portion is polarized in the thickness direction relative its electrodes, and piezoelectrically generates a stepped-up output voltage.

  3. Structural Foaming at the Nano-, Micro-, and Macro-Scales of Continuous Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    structural porosity at MNM scales could be introduced into the matrix, the carbon fiber reinforcement, and during prepreg lamination processing, without...areas, including fibers. Furthermore, investigate prepreg thickness and resin content effects on the thermomechanical performance of laminated ...Accomplishment 4) 5 Develop constitutive models for nano- foamed and micro- foamed PMC systems from single ply prepreg to multilayer laminated

  4. Influence of the Metal Volume Fraction on the permanent dent depth and energy absorption of GLARE plates subjected to low velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikakis, GSE; Savaidis, A.; Zalimidis, P.; Tsitos, S.

    2016-11-01

    Fiber-metal laminates are hybrid composite materials, consisting of alternating metal layers bonded to fiber-reinforced prepreg layers. GLARE (GLAss REinforced) belongs to this new family of materials. GLARE is the most successful fiber-metal laminate up to now and is currently being used for the construction of primary aerospace structures, such as the fuselage of the Airbus A380 air plane. Impact properties are very important in aerospace structures, since impact damage is caused by various sources, such as maintenance damage from dropped tools, collision between service cars or cargo and the structure, bird strikes and hail. The principal objective of this article is to evaluate the influence of the Metal Volume Fraction (MVF) on the low velocity impact response of GLARE fiber-metal laminates. Previously published differential equations of motion are employed for this purpose. The low velocity impact behavior of various circular GLARE plates is predicted and characteristic values of impact variables, which represent the impact phenomenon, are evaluated versus the corresponding MVF of the examined GLARE material grades. The considered GLARE plates are subjected to low velocity impact under identical impact conditions. A strong effect of the MVF on the maximum impact load and a significant effect on the maximum plate deflection of GLARE plates has been found.

  5. Influence of the Metal Volume Fraction on the maximum deflection and impact load of GLARE plates subjected to low velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikakis, GSE; Savaidis, A.; Zalimidis, P.; Tsitos, S.

    2016-11-01

    Fiber-metal laminates are hybrid composite materials, consisting of alternating metal layers bonded to fiber-reinforced prepreg layers. GLARE (GLAss REinforced) belongs to this new family of materials. GLARE is the most successful fiber-metal laminate up to now and is currently being used for the construction of primary aerospace structures, such as the fuselage of the Airbus A380 air plane. Impact properties are very important in aerospace structures, since impact damage is caused by various sources, such as maintenance damage from dropped tools, collision between service cars or cargo and the structure, bird strikes and hail. The principal objective of this article is to evaluate the influence of the Metal Volume Fraction (MVF) on the low velocity impact response of GLARE fiber-metal laminates. Previously published differential equations of motion are employed for this purpose. The low velocity impact behavior of various circular GLARE plates is predicted and characteristic values of impact variables, which represent the impact phenomenon, are evaluated versus the corresponding MVF of the examined GLARE material grades. The considered GLARE plates are subjected to low velocity impact under identical impact conditions. A strong effect of the MVF on the maximum impact load and a significant effect on the maximum plate deflection of GLARE plates has been found.

  6. Standard Guide for Acousto-Ultrasonic Assessment of Composites, Laminates, and Bonded Joints

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This guide explains the rationale and basic technology for the acousto-ultrasonic (AU) method. Guidelines are given for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of flaws and physical characteristics that influence the mechanical properties and relative strength of composite structures (for example, filament-wound pressure vessels), adhesive bonds (for example, joints between metal plates), and interlaminar and fiber/matrix bonds in man-made composites and natural composites (for example, wood products). 1.2 This guide covers technical details and rules that must be observed to ensure reliable and reproducible quantitative AU assessments of laminates, composites, and bonded structures. The underlying principles, prototype apparatus, instrumentation, standardization, examination methods, and data analysis for such assessments are covered. Limitations of the AU method and guidelines for taking advantage of its capabilities are cited. 1.3 The objective of AU is to assess subtle flaws and associated strength variations...

  7. A theory of piezoelectric laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giangreco, E.

    1997-01-01

    A theory of piezoelectric laminates is rationally derived from the three-dimensional Voigt theory of piezoelectricity. The present theory is a generalization to piezoelectric laminates of the Reissner-Mindlin-type layer-wise theory of elastic laminates. Both a differential formulation and a variational formulation of the piezoelectric laminate problem are presented. The proposed theory is adopted in the analysis of simple problems, in order to verify its effectiveness. The results it provides turn out to be in good agreement with the results supplied by the Voigt theory of piezoelectricity

  8. Fracture resistance of metal-free composite crowns-effects of fiber reinforcement, thermal cycling, and cementation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Franziska; Eickemeyer, Grit; Rammelsberg, Peter

    2004-09-01

    The improved mechanical properties of contemporary composites have resulted in their extensive use for the restoration of posterior teeth. However, the influence of fiber reinforcement, cementation technique, and physical stress on the fracture resistance of metal-free crowns is unknown. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of fiber reinforcement, physical stress, and cementation methods on the fracture resistance of posterior metal-free Sinfony crowns. Ninety-six extracted human third molars received a standardized tooth preparation: 0.5-mm chamfer preparation and occlusal reduction of 1.3 to 1.5 mm. Sinfony (nonreinforced crowns, n=48) and Sinfony-Vectris (reinforced crowns, n=48) crowns restoring original tooth contour were prepared. Twenty-four specimens of each crown type were cemented, using either glass ionomer cement (GIC) or resin cement. Thirty-two crowns (one third) were stored in humidity for 48 hours. Another third was exposed to 10,000 thermal cycles (TC) between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C. The remaining third was treated with thermal cycling and mechanical loading (TCML), consisting of 1.2 million axial loads of 50 N. The artificial crowns were then vertically loaded with a steel sphere until failure occurred. Significant differences in fracture resistance (N) between experimental groups were assessed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test (alpha=.05). Fifty percent of the Sinfony and Sinfony-Vectris crowns cemented with glass ionomer cement loosened after thermal cycling. Thermal cycling resulted in a significant reduction in the mean fracture resistance for Sinfony crowns cemented with GIC, from 2037 N to 1282 N (P=.004). Additional fatigue produced no further effects. Fiber reinforcement significantly increased fracture resistance, from 1555 N to 2326 N (P=.001). The minimal fracture resistance was above 600 N for all combinations of material, cement and loading. Fracture resistance of metal-free Sinfony crowns was significantly increased by

  9. Tenacidade à fratura translaminar dinâmica de laminados compósitos de fibras de carbono e resina epóxi de grau aeronáutico Translaminar dynamic fracture toughness of aeronautic grade composite laminates made with carbon fiber-epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Tarpani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A tenacidade à fratura translaminar dinâmica de quatro laminados compósitos de fibras de carbono e resina epóxi foi determinada nas velocidades de impacto de 2,25 e 5,52 m/s, sob as temperaturas de -70, +25 e +100 °C. Concluiu-se que a tenacidade à iniciação da fratura dos laminados confeccionados com fibras na forma de fita unidirecional é, em qualquer condição de ensaio, muito superior à dos laminados manufaturados com fibras dispostas na forma de tecido bi-direcional. Quanto à tenacidade à propagação de danos, constatou-se que o laminado fita processado a 180 °C é o mais indicado para operar sob impacto em temperaturas intermediárias, enquanto que o manufaturado a 120 °C é a melhor opção para trabalhar sob ambos os extremos do intervalo de temperatura avaliado.The translaminar dynamic fracture toughness of four carbon fiber - epoxy resin composite laminates was compared at the impact velocities of 2.25 and 5.52 m/s, under the temperatures of -70, +25 and +100 °C. It has been concluded that the initiation fracture toughness of unidirectional tape laminates is quite higher than bidirectional woven fabric composites, despite the testing conditions. In regard to the damage propagation toughness, it has been shown that the tape laminate processed at 180 °C is the best option at intermediate temperatures, whereas the tape composite manufactured at 120 °C is the most suitable to operate under impact at both the extremes of the temperature range evaluated.

  10. Sound Insulation Property Study on Nylon 66 Scrim Reinforced PVF Laminated Membranes and their Composite Sound Proof Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihe; Chen, Zhaofeng; Zhang, Xinyang; Wang, Weiwei

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the sound insulation property of nylon 66 scrim reinforced PVF laminated membranes and their corresponding composite structures with glass fiber felt and carbon fiber board. Sound transmission loss (STL) was measured by standing wave tube method. The results show that, with the decrease of nylon 66 gridlines spacing, STL of nylon 66 scrim reinforced PVF laminated membranes was improved. The sound insulation performance of laminated membranes with gridlines spacing of 3mm is the best, whose STL was up to 10dB at 6.3 kHz. Besides, STL was improved effectively as air layers were embedded into the composite sound proof construction consist of laminated membrane, glass fiber felt and carbon fiber board.

  11. Influence of the precursor chemical composition on heavy metal adsorption properties of hemp (Cannabis Sativa fibers based biocarbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukčević Marija M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste hemp (Cannabis sativa fibers were used as sustainable and renewable raw materials for production of low-cost biocarbon sorbent for heavy metals removal. Carbon precursors of different chemical composition were obtained by oxidative and alkaline treatments of hemp fibers. Influence of lignocellulosic precursor chemical composition on hemp fibers-based biocarbon (HFB characteristics was examined by BET surface area measurement, scanning electron microscopy and mass titration. It was found that lignin content and polymorphic transformation of cellulose increase the SBET of microporous HFBs, while hemicelluloses induce more homogeneous distribution of adsorption active sites. Heavy metal ions adsorption onto HFBs is primarily influenced by the amount of surface oxygen groups, while specific surface area plays a secondary role. Equilibrium data obtained for lead ions adsorption were analyzed by different nonlinear adsorption isotherms, and the best fitting model was chosen using standard deviation and Akaike information criterion (AICC. The maximum adsorption capacities of HFBs ranged from 103.1 to 116.3 mg Pb/g. Thermodynamic parameters showed that Pb2+ adsorption onto HFBs is a spontaneous and complex endothermic process, suggesting the coexistence of physisorption and chemisorption mechanisms. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 172007 and Grant no. 172029

  12. Fabrication of Fiber Bragg Grating Coating with TiO2 Nanostructured Metal Oxide for Refractive Index Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaymaa Riyadh Tahhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase the sensitivity of biosensor a new approach using an optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG coated with a suitable nanostructured metal oxide (NMO is proposed which is costly effective compared to other biosensors. Bragg grating was written on a D-shaped optical fiber by phase mask method using a 248 nm KrF excimer laser for a 5 min exposure time producing a grating with a period of 528 nm. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanostructured metal oxide was coated over the fiber for the purpose of increasing its sensing area. The etched D-shaped FBG was then coated with 312 nm thick TiO2 nanostructured layer to ensure propagating the radiation modes within the core. The final structure was used to sense deionized water and saline. The etched D-shaped FBG original sensitivity before coating to air-deionized water and to air-saline was 0.314 nm/riu and 0.142 nm/riu, respectively. After coating the sensitivity became 1.257 nm/riu for air-deionized water and 0.857 nm/riu for air-saline.

  13. Boron/aluminum graphite/resin advanced fiber composite hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    Fabrication feasibility and potential of an adhesively bonded metal and resin matrix fiber-composite hybrid are determined as an advanced material for aerospace and other structural applications. The results show that using this hybrid concept makes possible a composite design which, when compared with nonhybrid composites, has greater transverse strength, transverse stiffness, and impact resistance with only a small penalty on density and longitudinal properties. The results also show that laminate theory is suitable for predicting the structural response of such hybrids. The sequence of fracture modes indicates that these types of hybrids can be readily designed to meet fail-safe requirements.

  14. Enhancement of Gas Barrier Properties of CFRP Laminates Fabricated Using Thin-Ply Prepregs

    Science.gov (United States)

    横関, 智弘; 高木, 智宏; 吉村, 彰記; Ogasawara, Toshio; 荻原, 慎二

    Composite laminates manufactured using thin-ply prepregs are expected to have superior resistance properties against microcracking compared to those using standard prepregs. In this study, comparative investigations are presented on the microcrack accumulation and gas leakage characteristics of CFRP laminates fabricated using standard and thin-ply prepregs, consisting of high-performance carbon fiber and toughened epoxy, as a fundamental research on the cryogenic composite tanks for future space vehicles. It was shown that laminates using thin-ply prepregs exhibited much higher strain at microcrack initiation compared to those using standard prepregs at room and cryogenic temperatures. In addition, helium gas leak tests using CFRP laminated tubular specimens subjected to quasi-static tension loadings were performed. It was demonstrated that CFRP laminates using thin-ply prepregs have higher gas barrier properties than those using standard prepregs.

  15. Self-Healing Laminate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiermann, Brett A. (Inventor); Keller, Michael W. (Inventor); White, Scott R. (Inventor); Sottos, Nancy R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A laminate material may include a first flexible layer, and a self-healing composite layer in contact with the first flexible layer. The composite layer includes an elastomer matrix, a plurality of first capsules including a polymerizer, and a corresponding activator for the polymerizer. The laminate material may self-heal when subjected to a puncture or a tear.

  16. Extracting and focusing of surface plasmon polaritons inside finite asymmetric metal/insulator/metal structure at apex of optical fiber by subwavelength holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshikane, Yasushi; Murai, Kensuke; Nakano, Motohiro

    2013-09-01

    We have been studied a finite asymmetric metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure on glass plate for near-future visible light communication (VLC) system with white LED illuminations in the living space (DOI: 10.1117/12.929201). The metal layers are vacuum-evaporated thin silver (Ag) films (around 50 nm and 200 nm, respectively), and the insulator layer (around 150 nm) is composed of magnesium fluoride (MgF2). A characteristic narrow band filtering of the MIM structure at visible region might cause a confinement of intense surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at specific monochromatic frequency inside a subwavelength insulator layer of the MIM structure. Central wavelength and depth of such absorption dip in flat spectral reflectance curve is controlled by changing thicknesses of both insulator and thinner metal layers. On the other hand, we have proposed a twin-hole pass-through wave guide for SPPs in thick Ag film (DOI: 10.1117/12.863587). At that time, the twin-hole converted a incoming plane light wave into a pair of channel plasmon polaritons (CPPs), and united them at rear surface of the Ag film. This research is having an eye to extract, guide, and focus the SPPs through a thicker metal layer of the MIM with FIBed subwavelength pass-through holes. The expected outcome is a creation of noble, monochromatic, and tunable fiber probe for scanning near-field optical microscopes (SNOMs) with intense white light sources. Basic experimental and FEM simulation results will be presented.

  17. Laminated dosimetric card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, F.M.; Chamberlain, J.D.; Shrader, E.F.; Shoffner, B.M.; Szalanczy, A.

    1975-01-01

    A laminated card with one or more apertures, each adapted to peripherally seal an encapsulated dosimeter, is formed by bonding a foraminous, code-adaptable, rigid sheet of low-Z material with a codedly transparent sheet of low-Z material in light-transmitting registry with particular code-holes of the rigid sheet. The laminated card may be coded to identify the person carrying it, and/or the location or circumstances related to its exposure to radiation. This card is particularly adapted for use in an instrument capable of evaluating a multiplicity of cards, substantially continuously. The coded identification from the card may be displayed by an appropriate machine, and if desired an evaluation may be recorded because of a ''parity checking'' system incorporated in each card, which permits ''auto-correction.'' Alternatively, where means for effecting the correction automatically are available, the operation of the machine may be interrupted to permit visual examination of a rejected card. The card of this invention is also coded for identifying the type of card with respect to its specific function, and whether or not a card is correctly positioned at any predetermined location during its sequential progress through the instrument in which it is evaluated. Dosimeters are evaluated and the card identified in one pass through the instrument. (auth)

  18. Effect of chemical etching on the Cu/Ni metallization of poly (ether ether ketone)/carbon fiber composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Lizhi; Liu Bin; Song Jianjing; Shan Dan; Yang Dean

    2011-01-01

    Poly(ether ether ketone)/carbon fiber composites (PEEK/Cf) were chemical etched by Cr 2 O 3 /H 2 SO 4 solution, electroless plated with copper and then electroplated with nickel. The effects of chemical etching time and temperature on the adhesive strength between PEEK/Cf and Cu/Ni layers were studied by thermal shock method. The electrical resistance of some samples was measured. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the surface composition and functional groups. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to observe the surface morphology of the composite, the chemical etched sample, the plated sample and the peeled metal layer. The results indicated that C=O bond increased after chemical etching. With the increasing of etching temperature and time, more and more cracks and partially exposed carbon fibers appeared at the surface of PEEK/Cf composites, and the adhesive strength increased consequently. When the composites were etched at 60 deg. C for 25 min and at 70-80 deg. C for more than 15 min, the Cu/Ni metallization layer could withstand four thermal shock cycles without bubbling, and the electrical resistivity of the metal layer of these samples increased with the increasing of etching temperature and time.

  19. Acrylic and metal based Y-branch plastic optical fiber splitter with optical NOA63 polymer waveguide taper region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Abang Annuar; Shaari, Sahbudin; Rahman, Mohd Kamil Abd.

    2011-01-01

    We proposed a simple low-cost acrylic and metal-based Y-branch plastic optical fiber (POF) splitter which utilizes a low cost optical polymer glue NOA63 as the main waveguiding medium at the waveguide taper region. The device is composed of three sections: an input POF waveguide, a middle waveguide taper region and output POF waveguides. A desktop high speed CNC engraver is utilized to produce the mold inserts used for the optical devices. Short POF fibers are inserted into the engraved slots at the input and output ports. UV curable optical polymer glue NOA63 is injected into the waveguide taper region and cured. The assembling is completed when the top plate is positioned to enclose the device structure and connecting screws are secured. Both POF splitters have an average insertion loss of 7.8 dB, coupling ratio of 55: 45 and 57: 43 for the acrylic and metal-based splitters respectively. The devices have excess loss of 4.82 and 4.73 dB for the acrylic and metal-based splitters respectively.

  20. Effects of thermal residual stresses and fiber packing on deformation of metal-matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Suresh, S.

    1993-01-01

    The combined effects of thermal residual stresses and fiber spatial distribution on the deformation of a 6061 aluminum alloy containing a fixed concentration unidirectional boron fibers have been analyzed using detailed finite element models. The geometrical structure includes perfectly periodic, uniformly space fiber arrangements in square and hexagonal cells, as well as different cells in which either 30 or 60 fibers are randomly placed in the ductile matrix. The model involves an elastic-plastic matrix, elastic fibers, and mechanically bonded interfaces. The results indicate that both fiber packing and thermal residual stresses can have a significant effect on the stress-strain characteristics of the composite. The thermal residual stresses cause pronounced matrix yielding which also influences the apparent overall stiffness of the composite during the initial stages of subsequent far-field loading along the axial and transverse direction. Furthermore, the thermal residual stresses apparently elevate the flow stress of the composite during transverse tension. Such effects can be traced back to the level of constraint imposed on the matrix by local fiber spacing. The implications of the present results to the processing of the composites are also briefly addressed

  1. Effects of differently hardened brass foil laminate on the electromechanical property of externally laminated CC tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautista, Zhierwinjay; Shin, Hyung Seop [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Mean, Byoung Jean; Lee, Jae Hun [SuNAM Co Ltd., Anseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The mechanical properties of REBCO coated conductor (CC) wires under uniaxial tension are largely determined by the thick component layers in the architecture, namely, the substrate and the stabilizer or even the reinforcement layer. Depending on device applications of the CC tapes, it is necessary to reinforce thin metallic foils externally to one-side or both sides of the CC tapes. Due to the external reinforcement of brass foils, it was found that this could increase the reversible strain limit from the Cu-stabilized CC tapes. In this study, the effects of differently hardened brass foil laminate on the electromechanical property of CC tapes were investigated under uniaxial tension loading. The tensile strain dependence of the critical current (I{sub c}) was measured at 77 K and self-field. Depending on whether the I{sub c} of CC tapes were measured during loading or after unloading, a reversible strain (or stress) limit could be determined, respectively. The both-sides of the Cu-stabilized CC tapes were laminated with brass foils with different hardness, namely 1/4H, 1H and EH. From the obtained results, it showed that the yield strength of the brass laminated CC tapes with EH brass foil laminate was comparable to the one of the Cu-stabilized CC tape due to its large yield strength even though its large volume fraction. It was found that the brass foil with different hardness was mainly sensitive on the stress dependence of I{sub c}, but not on the strain sensitivity due to the residual strain induced in the laminated CC tapes during unloading.

  2. BILAM: a composite laminate failure-analysis code using bilinear stress-strain approximations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, P.V. Jr.; Dasgupta, A.; Chun, Y.W.

    1980-10-01

    The BILAM code which uses constant strain laminate analysis to generate in-plane load/deformation or stress/strain history of composite laminates to the point of laminate failure is described. The program uses bilinear stress-strain curves to model layer stress-strain behavior. Composite laminates are used for flywheels. The use of this computer code will help to develop data on the behavior of fiber composite materials which can be used by flywheel designers. In this program the stress-strain curves are modelled by assuming linear response in axial tension while using bilinear approximations (2 linear segments) for stress-strain response to axial compressive, transverse tensile, transverse compressive and axial shear loadings. It should be noted that the program attempts to empirically simulate the effects of the phenomena which cause nonlinear stress-strain behavior, instead of mathematically modelling the micromechanics involved. This code, therefore, performs a bilinear laminate analysis, and, in conjunction with several user-defined failure interaction criteria, is designed to provide sequential information on all layer failures up to and including the first fiber failure. The modus operandi is described. Code BILAM can be used to: predict the load-deformation/stress-strain behavior of a composite laminate subjected to a given combination of in-plane loads, and make analytical predictions of laminate strength.

  3. Hygrothermal effects on the mechanical behaviour of graphite fibre-reinforced epoxy laminates beyond initial failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishai, O.; Garg, A.; Nelson, H. G.

    1986-01-01

    The critical load levels and associated cracking beyond which a multidirectional laminate can be considered as structurally failed has been determined by loading graphite fiber-reinforced epoxy laminates to different strain levels up to ultimate failure. Transverse matrix cracking was monitored by acoustic and optical methods. The residual stiffness and strength parallel and perpendicular to the cracks were determined and related to the environmental/loading history. Within the range of experimental conditions studied, it is concluded that the transverse cracking process does not have a crucial effect on the structural performance of multidirectional composite laminates.

  4. Strength and deformability of compressed concrete elements with various types of non-metallic fiber and rods reinforcement under static loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevskii, A. V.; Baldin, I. V.; Kudyakov, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Adoption of modern building materials based on non-metallic fibers and their application in concrete structures represent one of the important issues in construction industry. This paper presents results of investigation of several types of raw materials selected: basalt fiber, carbon fiber and composite fiber rods based on glass and carbon. Preliminary testing has shown the possibility of raw materials to be effectively used in compressed concrete elements. Experimental program to define strength and deformability of compressed concrete elements with non-metallic fiber reinforcement and rod composite reinforcement included design, manufacture and testing of several types of concrete samples with different types of fiber and longitudinal rod reinforcement. The samples were tested under compressive static load. The results demonstrated that fiber reinforcement of concrete allows increasing carrying capacity of compressed concrete elements and reducing their deformability. Using composite longitudinal reinforcement instead of steel longitudinal reinforcement in compressed concrete elements insignificantly influences bearing capacity. Combined use of composite rod reinforcement and fiber reinforcement in compressed concrete elements enables to achieve maximum strength and minimum deformability.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of metal-packaged fiber Bragg grating sensor by one-step ultrasonic welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumin; Zhu, Lianqing; Luo, Fei; Dong, Mingli; Ding, Xiangdong; He, Wei

    2016-06-01

    A metallic packaging technique of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors is developed for measurement of strain and temperature, and it can be simply achieved via one-step ultrasonic welding. The average strain transfer rate of the metal-packaged sensor is theoretically evaluated by a proposed model aiming at surface-bonded metallic packaging FBG. According to analytical results, the metallic packaging shows higher average strain transfer rate compared with traditional adhesive packaging under the same packaging conditions. Strain tests are performed on an elaborate uniform strength beam for both tensile and compressive strains; strain sensitivities of approximately 1.16 and 1.30 pm/μɛ are obtained for the tensile and compressive situations, respectively. Temperature rising and cooling tests are also executed from 50°C to 200°C, and the sensitivity of temperature is 36.59 pm/°C. All the measurements of strain and temperature exhibit good linearity and stability. These results demonstrate that the metal-packaged sensors can be successfully fabricated by one-step welding technique and provide great promise for long-term and high-precision structural health monitoring.

  6. Electrospun Fibers for Composites Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    in traditional woven mat composites. Nanofibrous interlayers were used to increase the impact and shear performance of a prepregged carbon fiber...Nylon 66 Nanofibrilmat Interleaved Carbon/Epoxy Laminates . Polymer Composites 2011, 32, 1781–1789. 21 13. Chen, Q.; Zhang, L.; Rahman, A.; Zhou...Resistance in Laminated Composites With Electrospun Nano-Interlayers. Comp. Sci. Tech. 2008, 68, 673– 683. 15. Zhang, J.; Lin, T.; Wang, X. Electrospun

  7. "Subclinical" laminitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermunt, J J

    1992-12-01

    In dairying countries worldwide, the economic importance of lameness in cattle is now recognised. Laminitis is regarded as a major predisposing factor in lameness caused by claw disorders such as white zone lesions, sole ulcer, and heel horn erosion. The existence of subclinical laminitis was first suggested in the late 1970s by Dutch workers describing the symptoms of sole haemorrhages and yellowish-coloured, soft sole horn. In an attempt to clarify some of the confusing and often conflicting terminology, the literature on laminitis is reviewed. Disturbed haemodynamics, in particular repeated or prolonged dilation of arteriovenous anastomoses, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both equine and bovine laminitis. Some characteristics of the vascular system of the bovine claw which may be of importance in the pathophysiology of the subclinical laminitis syndrome are therefore discussed. Clinical observations suggest that subclinical laminitis is a multifactorial disease. The different factors that are or may be involved in its aetiology vary in complexity and severity according to the management protocol of the animals. The possible involvement of subclinical laminitis in claw lesions is assessed.

  8. Thin metal bilayer for surface plasmon resonance sensors in a multimode plastic optical fiber: the case of palladium and gold metal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennamo, Nunzio; Zuppella, Paola; Bacco, Davide; Corso, Alain J.; Pelizzo, Maria G.; Pesavento, Maria; Zeni, Luigi

    2016-05-01

    A novel sensing platform based on thin metal bilayer for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in a D-shaped plastic optical fiber (POF) has been designed, implemented and tested. The experimental results are congruent with the numerical studies. This platform has been properly optimized to work in the 1.38 -1.42 refractive index range and it exhibits excellent sensitivity. This refractive index range is very interesting for bio-chemical applications, where the polymer layer are used as receptors (e.g. molecularly imprinted polymer) or to immobilize the bio-receptor on the metal surface. The proposed metallic bilayer is based on palladium and gold films and replaces the traditional gold by exhibiting higher performances. Furthermore, the deposition of the thin bilayer is a single process and no further manufacturing step is required. In fact, in this case the photoresist buffer layer between the POF core and the metal layer, usually required to increase the refractive index range, is no longer necessary.

  9. Continuous jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jute fibre; laminated paper composite; plastic bag pollution. Abstract. Plastic bags create a serious environmental problem. The proposed jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite and reinforcement-fibre free paper laminate may help to combat the war against this pollutant to certain extent. The paper laminate ...

  10. Laminated electrospun nHA/PHB-composite scaffolds mimicking bone extracellular matrix for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhuoyue [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology of Shaanxi, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Song, Yue [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Zhang, Jing [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology of Shaanxi, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Modern Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province, 710069 (China); Liu, Wei [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Cui, Jihong, E-mail: cjh@nwu.edu.cn [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology of Shaanxi, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Modern Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province, 710069 (China); and others

    2017-03-01

    Electrospinning is an effective means to generate nano- to micro-scale polymer fibers resembling native extracellular matrix for tissue engineering. However, a major problem of electrospun materials is that limited pore size and porosity may prevent adequate cellular infiltration and tissue ingrowth. In this study, we first prepared thin layers of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHA)/poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) via electrospinning. We then laminated the nHA/PHB thin layers to obtain a scaffold for cell seeding and bone tissue engineering. The results demonstrated that the laminated scaffold possessed optimized cell-loading capacity. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibited better adherence, proliferation and osteogenic phenotypes on nHA/PHB scaffolds than on PHB scaffolds. Thereafter, we seeded MSCs onto nHA/PHB scaffolds to fabricate bone grafts. Histological observation showed osteoid tissue formation throughout the scaffold, with most of the scaffold absorbed in the specimens 2 months after implantation, and blood vessels ingrowth into the graft could be observed in the graft. We concluded that electrospun and laminated nanoscaled biocomposite scaffolds hold great therapeutic potential for bone regeneration. - Highlights: • We laminated the nHA/PHB layers to obtain a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. • The laminated scaffold performed optimized cell-loading capacity. • MSCs exhibited osteogenic phenotypes on the laminated scaffold. • Osteoid tissue formed throughout the laminated scaffold after 2 months in vivo. The laminated bio-composite scaffolds can be applied to bone regeneration.

  11. Normalization of Impact Energy by Laminate Thickness for Compression After Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Hromisin, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    The amount of impact energy used to damage a composite laminate is a critical parameter when assessing residual strength properties. The compression after impact (CAI) strength of impacted laminates is dependent upon how thick the laminate is and this has traditionally been accounted for by normalizing (dividing) the impact energy by the laminate's thickness. However, when comparing CAI strength values for a given lay-up sequence and fiber/resin system, dividing the impact energy by the specimen thickness has been noted by the author to give higher CAI strength values for thicker laminates. A study was thus undertaken to assess the comparability of CAI strength data by normalizing the impact energy by the specimen thickness raised to a power to account for the higher strength of thicker laminates. One set of data from the literature and two generated in this study were analyzed by dividing the impact energy by the specimen thickness to the 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 powers. Results show that as laminate thickness and damage severity decreased, the value which the laminate thickness needs to be raised to in order to yield more comparable CAI data increases.

  12. Laminated electrospun nHA/PHB-composite scaffolds mimicking bone extracellular matrix for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhuoyue; Song, Yue; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Wei; Cui, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Electrospinning is an effective means to generate nano- to micro-scale polymer fibers resembling native extracellular matrix for tissue engineering. However, a major problem of electrospun materials is that limited pore size and porosity may prevent adequate cellular infiltration and tissue ingrowth. In this study, we first prepared thin layers of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHA)/poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) via electrospinning. We then laminated the nHA/PHB thin layers to obtain a scaffold for cell seeding and bone tissue engineering. The results demonstrated that the laminated scaffold possessed optimized cell-loading capacity. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibited better adherence, proliferation and osteogenic phenotypes on nHA/PHB scaffolds than on PHB scaffolds. Thereafter, we seeded MSCs onto nHA/PHB scaffolds to fabricate bone grafts. Histological observation showed osteoid tissue formation throughout the scaffold, with most of the scaffold absorbed in the specimens 2 months after implantation, and blood vessels ingrowth into the graft could be observed in the graft. We concluded that electrospun and laminated nanoscaled biocomposite scaffolds hold great therapeutic potential for bone regeneration. - Highlights: • We laminated the nHA/PHB layers to obtain a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. • The laminated scaffold performed optimized cell-loading capacity. • MSCs exhibited osteogenic phenotypes on the laminated scaffold. • Osteoid tissue formed throughout the laminated scaffold after 2 months in vivo. The laminated bio-composite scaffolds can be applied to bone regeneration.

  13. Investigation of Forming Performance of Laminated Steel Sheets Using Finite Element Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenning; Sun Xin; Ruokolainen, Robert; Gayden Xiaohong

    2007-01-01

    Laminated steel sheets have been used in automotive structures for reducing in-cabin noise. However, due to the marked difference in material properties of the different laminated layers, integrating laminated steel parts into the manufacturing processes can be challenging. Especially, the behavior of laminated sheets during forming processes is very different from that of monolithic steel sheets. During the deep-draw forming process, large shear deformation and corresponding high interfacial stress may initiate and propagate interfacial cracks between the core polymer and the metal skin, hence degrading the performance of the laminated sheets. In this paper, the formability of the laminated steel sheets is investigated by means of numerical analysis. The goal of this work is to gain insight into the relationship between the individual properties of the laminated sheet layers and the corresponding formability of the laminated sheet as a whole, eventually leading to reliable design and successful forming process development of such materials. Finite element analyses of laminate sheet forming are presented. Effects of polymer core thickness and viscoelastic properties of the polymer core, as well as punching velocity, are also investigated

  14. Subclinical laminitis in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, H K; Shannon, D; Neilson, D R

    1989-08-19

    By causing poorer horn quality, subclinical laminitis is considered to be a major predisposing cause of other hoof problems, particularly sole ulcers in newly calved heifers. In this study the hind hooves of 136 female Friesian/Holstein cattle aged between four months and two years were examined to discover at what age the signs of subclinical laminitis appeared. Sole haemorrhages were found in the hoof horn of calves as young as five months. The consistent finding of these lesions in heifers of all ages indicated that subclinical laminitis of varying degree was a common condition during the early growing period of young dairy heifers.

  15. Packaging of active fiber composites for improved sensor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnykowycz, M; Barbezat, M; Koller, R; Brunner, A J

    2010-01-01

    Active fiber composites (AFC) composed of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibers embedded in an epoxy matrix and sandwiched between two interdigitated electrodes provide a thin and flexible smart material device which can act as a sensor or actuator. The thin profiles of AFC make them ideal for integration in glass or carbon fiber composite laminates. However, due to the low tensile limit of the PZT fibers, AFC can fail at strains below the tensile limit of many composites. This makes their use as a component in an active laminate design somewhat undesirable. In the current work, tensile testing of smart laminates composed of AFC integrated in glass fiber laminates was conducted to assess the effectiveness of different packaging strategies for improving AFC sensor performance at high strains relative to the tensile limit of the AFC. AFC were encased in carbon fiber, silicon, and pre-stressed carbon fiber to improve the tensile limit of the AFC when integrated in glass fiber laminates. By laminating AFC with pre-stressed carbon fiber, the tensile limit and strain sensor ability of the AFC were significantly improved. Acoustic emission monitoring was used and the results show that PZT fiber breakage was reduced due to the pre-stressed packaging process

  16. Mechanical Properties in a Bamboo Fiber/PBS Biodegradable Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Shinji; Okada, Akihisa; Kobayashi, Satoshi

    In recent years, biodegradable plastics which have low effect on environment have been developed. However, many of them have lower mechanical properties than conventional engineering plastics. Reinforcing them with a natural fiber is one of reinforcing methods without a loss of their biodegradability. In the present study, we use a bamboo fiber as the reinforcement and polybutylenesuccinate (PBS) as the matrix. We fabricate long fiber unidirectional composites and cross-ply laminate with different fiber weight fractions (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50wt%). We conduct tensile tests to evaluate the mechanical properties of these composites. In addition, we measure bamboo fiber strength distribution. We discuss the experimentally-obtained properties based on the mechanical properties of the constituent materials. Young's modulus and tensile strength in unidirectional composite and cross-ply laminate increase with increasing fiber weight fraction. However, the strain at fracture showed decreasing tendency. Young's modulus in fiber and fiber transverse directions are predictable by the rules of mixture. Tensile strength in fiber direction is lower than Curtin's prediction of strength which considers distribution of fiber strength. Young's modulus in cross-ply laminate is predictable by the laminate theory. However, analytical prediction of Poisson's ratio in cross-ply laminate by the laminate theory is lower than the experimental results.

  17. Metal-Organic Framework Thin Film Coated Optical Fiber Sensors: A Novel Waveguide-Based Chemical Sensing Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Joong; Lu, Ping; Culp, Jeffrey T; Ohodnicki, Paul R

    2018-02-23

    Integration of optical fiber with sensitive thin films offers great potential for the realization of novel chemical sensing platforms. In this study, we present a simple design strategy and high performance of nanoporous metal-organic framework (MOF) based optical gas sensors, which enables detection of a wide range of concentrations of small molecules based upon extremely small differences in refractive indices as a function of analyte adsorption within the MOF framework. Thin and compact MOF films can be uniformly formed and tightly bound on the surface of etched optical fiber through a simple solution method which is critical for manufacturability of MOF-based sensor devices. The resulting sensors show high sensitivity/selectivity to CO 2 gas relative to other small gases (H 2 , N 2 , O 2 , and CO) with rapid (optical fiber platform which results in an amplification of inherent optical absorption present within the MOF-based sensing layer with increasing values of effective refractive index associated with adsorption of gases.

  18. Evaluation of Force-Time Changes During Impact of Hybrid Laminates Made of Titanium and Fibrous Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubczak P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibre metal laminates (FML are the modern hybrid materials with potential wide range of applications in aerospace technology due to their excellent mechanical properties (particularly fatigue strength, resistance to impacts and also excellent corrosion resistance. The study describes the resistance to low velocity impacts in Ti/CFRP laminates. Tested laminates were produced in autoclave process. The laminates were characterized in terms of their response to impacts in specified energy range (5J, 10J, 20J. The tests were performed in accordance with ASTM D7137 standard. The laminates were subjected to impacts by means of hemispherical impactor with diameter of 12,7 mm. The following values have been determined: impact force vs. time, maximum force and the force at which the material destruction process commences (Pi. It has been found that fibre titanium laminates are characterized by high resistance to impacts. This feature is associated with elasto-plastic properties of metal and high rigidity of epoxy - fibre composite. It has been observed that Ti/CFRP laminates are characterized by more instable force during impact in stage of stabilization of impactor-laminate system and stage of force growth that glass fibre laminates. It has been observed more stable force decrease in stage of stress relaxation and withdrawal of the impactor. In energy range under test, the laminates based on titanium with glass and carbon fibres reinforcement demonstrate similar and high resistance to low-velocity impact, measured by means of failure initiation force and impact maximum force.

  19. Fabrication of a polyvinylidene difluoride fiber with a metal core and its application as directional air flow sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Yixiang; Liu, Rongrong; Hui, Shen

    2016-09-01

    We fabricated a sensitive air flow detector that mimic the sensing mechanism found at the tail of some insects. [see Y. Yang, A. Klein, H. Bleckmann and C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2) (2011); J. J. Heys, T. Gedeon, B. C. Knott and Y. Kim, J. Biomech. 41(5), 977 (2008); J. Tao and X. Yu, Smart Mat. Struct. 21(11) (2012)]. Our bionic airflow sensor uses a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) microfiber with a molybdenum core which we produced with the hot extrusion tensile method. The surface of the fiber is partially coated with conductive silver adhesive that serve as surface electrodes. A third electrode, the metal core is used to polarize polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) under the surface electrodes. The cantilever beam structure of the prepared symmetric electrodes of metal core piezoelectric fiber (SMPF) is used as the artificial hair airflow sensor. The surface electrodes are used to measure output voltage. Our theoretical and experimental results show that the SMPF responds fast to air flow changes, the output charge has an exponential correlation with airflow velocity and a cosine relation with the direction of airflow. Our bionic airflow sensor with directional sensing ability can also measure air flow amplitude. [see H. Droogendijk, R. G. P. Sanders and G. J. M. Krijnen, New J. Phys. 15 (2013)]. By using two surface electrodes, our sensing circuit further improves sensitivity.

  20. Improved 3-omega measurement of thermal conductivity in liquid, gases, and powders using a metal-coated optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffres, Scott N; Malen, Jonathan A

    2011-06-01

    A novel 3ω thermal conductivity measurement technique called metal-coated 3ω is introduced for use with liquids, gases, powders, and aerogels. This technique employs a micron-scale metal-coated glass fiber as a heater/thermometer that is suspended within the sample. Metal-coated 3ω exceeds alternate 3ω based fluid sensing techniques in a number of key metrics enabling rapid measurements of small samples of materials with very low thermal effusivity (gases), using smaller temperature oscillations with lower parasitic conduction losses. Its advantages relative to existing fluid measurement techniques, including transient hot-wire, steady-state methods, and solid-wire 3ω are discussed. A generalized n-layer concentric cylindrical periodic heating solution that accounts for thermal boundary resistance is presented. Improved sensitivity to boundary conductance is recognized through this model. Metal-coated 3ω was successfully validated through a benchmark study of gases and liquids spanning two-orders of magnitude in thermal conductivity. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  1. Crack Identification in CFRP Laminated Beams Using Multi-Resolution Modal Teager–Kaiser Energy under Noisy Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Cao, Maosen; Ding, Keqin; Radzieński, Maciej; Ostachowicz, Wiesław

    2017-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminates are increasingly used in the aerospace and civil engineering fields. Identifying cracks in carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminated beam components is of considerable significance for ensuring the integrity and safety of the whole structures. With the development of high-resolution measurement technologies, mode-shape-based crack identification in such laminated beam components has become an active research focus. Despite its sensitivity to cracks, however, this method is susceptible to noise. To address this deficiency, this study proposes a new concept of multi-resolution modal Teager–Kaiser energy, which is the Teager–Kaiser energy of a mode shape represented in multi-resolution, for identifying cracks in carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminated beams. The efficacy of this concept is analytically demonstrated by identifying cracks in Timoshenko beams with general boundary conditions; and its applicability is validated by diagnosing cracks in a carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminated beam, whose mode shapes are precisely acquired via non-contact measurement using a scanning laser vibrometer. The analytical and experimental results show that multi-resolution modal Teager–Kaiser energy is capable of designating the presence and location of cracks in these beams under noisy environments. This proposed method holds promise for developing crack identification systems for carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminates. PMID:28773016

  2. Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of the Mechanical Behavior of Strongly Anisotropic Light-Weight Metallic Fiber Structures under Static and Dynamic Compressive Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Andersen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rigid metallic fiber structures made from a variety of different metals and alloys have been investigated mainly with regard to their functional properties such as heat transfer, pressure drop, or filtration characteristics. With the recent advent of aluminum and magnesium-based fiber structures, the application of such structures in light-weight crash absorbers has become conceivable. The present paper therefore elucidates the mechanical behavior of rigid sintered fiber structures under quasi-static and dynamic loading. Special attention is paid to the strongly anisotropic properties observed for different directions of loading in relation to the main fiber orientation. Basically, the structures show an orthotropic behavior; however, a finite thickness of the fiber slabs results in moderate deviations from a purely orthotropic behavior. The morphology of the tested specimens is examined by computed tomography, and experimental results for different directions of loading as well as different relative densities are presented. Numerical calculations were carried out using real structural data derived from the computed tomography data. Depending on the direction of loading, the fiber structures show a distinctively different deformation behavior both experimentally and numerically. Based on these results, the prevalent modes of deformation are discussed and a first comparison with an established polymer foam and an assessment of the applicability of aluminum fiber structures in crash protection devices is attempted.

  3. Ultrasonic NDE and mechanical testing of fiber placement composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanjie; Fei, Dong; Hsu, David K.; Dayal, Vinay; Hale, Richard D.

    2002-05-01

    A fiber placed composite, especially with fiber steering, has considerably more complex internal structure than a laminate laid up from unidirectional prepreg tapes. In this work, we performed ultrasonic imaging of ply interfaces of fiber placed composite laminates, with an eye toward developing a tool for evaluating their quality. Mechanical short-beam shear tests were also conducted on both nonsteered and steered specimens to examine their failure behavior and its relationship to the structural defects indicated by ultrasonic imaging.

  4. Experimental study on mechanical behavior of fiber/matrix interface in metal matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.; Chiang, F.P.

    1994-01-01

    The technique SIEM(Speckle Interferometry with Electron Microscopy) was employed to quantitatively measure the deformation on the fiber/matrix interface in SCS-6/Ti-6-4 composite at a microscale level. The displacement field within the fiber/matrix interphase zone was determined by in-situ observation with sensitivity of 0.003(microm). The macro-mechanical properties were compared with micro-mechanical behavior. It is shown that the strength in the interphase zone is weaker than the matrix tensile strength. The deformation process can be characterized by the uniform deformation, interface strain concentration and debond, and matrix plastic deformation

  5. Permeability After Impact Testing of Composite Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Alan T.

    2003-01-01

    Since composite laminates are beginning to be identified for use in reusable launch vehicle propulsion systems, an understanding of their permeance is needed. A foreign object impact event can cause a localized area of permeability (leakage) in a polymer matrix composite and it is the aim of this study to assess a method of quantifying permeability-after-impact results. A simple test apparatus is presented and variables that could affect the measured values of permeability-after-impact were assessed. Once it was determined that valid numbers were being measured, a fiber/resin system was impacted at various impact levels and the resulting permeability measured, first with a leak check solution (qualitative) then using the new apparatus (quantitative). The results showed that as the impact level increased, so did the measured leakage. As the pressure to the specimen was increased, the leak rate was seen to increase in a non-linear fashion for almost all of the specimens tested.

  6. An update on equine laminitis

    OpenAIRE

    Laskoski, Luciane Maria; Valadão, Carlos Augusto Araújo; Dittrich, Rosangela Locatelli; Deconto, Ivan; Faleiros, Rafael Resende

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Laminitis is a severe podal affection, which pathophysiology remains partially renowned. Ischemic, enzymatic, metabolic and inflammatory mechanisms are connected to the development of laminar lesions. However, few therapeutic measures are effective to prevent or control the severity of acute laminitis and its prodromal stage, which often determines serious complications such as rotation and/or sinking of the distal phalanx and even the loss of hoof. The purpose of this study is to c...

  7. In-line optical fiber metallic mirror reflector for monolithic common path optical coherence tomography probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwarpal; Reddy, Rohith; Sharma, Gargi; Verma, Yogesh; Gardecki, Joseph A; Tearney, Guillermo

    2018-03-01

    Endoscopic optical coherence tomography probes suffer from various artifacts due to dispersion imbalance and polarization mismatch between reference and sample arm light. Such artifacts can be minimized using a common path approach. In this work, we demonstrate a miniaturized common path probe for optical coherence tomography using an inline fiber mirror. A common path optical fiber probe suitable for performing high-resolution endoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging was developed. To achieve common path functionality, an inline fiber mirror was fabricated using a thin gold layer. A commercially available swept source engine was used to test the designed probe in a cadaver human coronary artery ex vivo. We achieved a sensitivity of 104 dB for this probe using a swept source optical coherence tomography system. To test the probe, images of a cadaver human coronary artery were obtained, demonstrating the quality that is comparable to those obtained by OCT systems with separate reference arms. Additionally, we demonstrate recovery of ranging depth by use of a Michelson interferometer in the detection path. We developed a miniaturized monolithic inline fiber mirror-based common path probe for optical coherence tomography. Owing to its simplicity, our design will be helpful in endoscopic applications that require high-resolution probes in a compact form factor while reducing system complexity. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:230-235, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using lignocellulosic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beom-Goo Lee; Roger M. Rowell

    2004-01-01

    Spruce, coconut coir, sugarcane bagasse, kenaf bast, kenaf core, and cotton were tested for their ability to remove copper, nickel and zinc ions from aqueous-solutions as a function of their lignin content. The fibers were analyzed for sugar and lignin content and extracted with diethyl ether, ethyl alcohol. hot water, or 1% sodium hydroxide. The order of lignin...

  9. A transparent, solvent-free laminated top electrode for perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makha, Mohammed; Fernandes, Silvia Letícia; Jenatsch, Sandra; Offermans, Ton; Schleuniger, Jürg; Tisserant, Jean-Nicolas; Véron, Anna C; Hany, Roland

    2016-01-01

    A simple lamination process of the top electrode for perovskite solar cells is demonstrated. The laminate electrode consists of a transparent and conductive plastic/metal mesh substrate, coated with an adhesive mixture of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, and sorbitol. The laminate electrode showed a high degree of transparency of 85%. Best cell performance was achieved for laminate electrodes prepared with a sorbitol concentration of ~30 wt% per milliliter PEDOT:PSS dispersion, and using a pre-annealing temperature of 120°C for 10 min before lamination. Thereby, perovskite solar cells with stabilized power conversion efficiencies of (7.6 ± 1.0)% were obtained which corresponds to 80% of the reference devices with reflective opaque gold electrodes.

  10. Thermoviscoelastic characterization and prediction of Kevlar/epoxy composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramoll, K. C.; Dillard, D. A.; Brinson, H. F.

    1990-01-01

    The thermoviscoelastic characterization of Kevlar 49/Fiberite 7714A epoxy composite lamina and the development of a numerical procedure to predict the viscoelastic response of any general laminate constructed from the same material were studied. The four orthotropic material properties, S sub 11, S sub 12, S sub 22, and S sub 66, were characterized by 20 minute static creep tests on unidirectional (0) sub 8, (10) sub 8, and (90) sub 16 lamina specimens. The Time-Temperature Superposition-Principle (TTSP) was used successfully to accelerate the characterization process. A nonlinear constitutive model was developed to describe the stress dependent viscoelastic response for each of the material properties. A numerical procedure to predict long term laminate properties from lamina properties (obtained experimentally) was developed. Numerical instabilities and time constraints associated with viscoelastic numerical techniques were discussed and solved. The numerical procedure was incorporated into a user friendly microcomputer program called Viscoelastic Composite Analysis Program (VCAP), which is available for IBM PC type computers. The program was designed for ease of use. The final phase involved testing actual laminates constructed from the characterized material, Kevlar/epoxy, at various temperatures and load level for 4 to 5 weeks. These results were compared with the VCAP program predictions to verify the testing procedure and to check the numerical procedure used in the program. The actual tests and predictions agreed for all test cases which included 1, 2, 3, and 4 fiber direction laminates.

  11. An Improved Metal-Packaged Strain Sensor Based on A Regenerated Fiber Bragg Grating in Hydrogen-Loaded Boron–Germanium Co-Doped Photosensitive Fiber for High-Temperature Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Tu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Local strain measurements are considered as an effective method for structural health monitoring of high-temperature components, which require accurate, reliable and durable sensors. To develop strain sensors that can be used in higher temperature environments, an improved metal-packaged strain sensor based on a regenerated fiber Bragg grating (RFBG fabricated in hydrogen (H2-loaded boron–germanium (B–Ge co-doped photosensitive fiber is developed using the process of combining magnetron sputtering and electroplating, addressing the limitation of mechanical strength degradation of silica optical fibers after annealing at a high temperature for regeneration. The regeneration characteristics of the RFBGs and the strain characteristics of the sensor are evaluated. Numerical simulation of the sensor is conducted using a three-dimensional finite element model. Anomalous decay behavior of two regeneration regimes is observed for the FBGs written in H2-loaded B–Ge co-doped fiber. The strain sensor exhibits good linearity, stability and repeatability when exposed to constant high temperatures of up to 540 °C. A satisfactory agreement is obtained between the experimental and numerical results in strain sensitivity. The results demonstrate that the improved metal-packaged strain sensors based on RFBGs in H2-loaded B–Ge co-doped fiber provide great potential for high-temperature applications by addressing the issues of mechanical integrity and packaging.

  12. Strengthening of Metals by Means of Fibers. Chapter 6 and 7,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-03

    the form of honeycomb panels . hot pressure forging may be performed in air, in a vacuum or in an inert gas medium, depending on the material being...tubes along the circumference and along the generatrix, 6- Sheets and plates, 7- Structural shapes, 8- Honeycomb panels , 9- Reinforced structural...A12 0,, Mor- gan Crucible %o., 10- Al2 v3 bar, d-0.25/0.75 mm, torganite Research cnd Development vompany, 11- Monocrystalline fiber 59 Tyco

  13. Microcautery based on zinc metallic nanoparticles photodeposited on the core of an optical fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaca-Morán, P., E-mail: zmoran_placido@icloud.com [Departemento de Fisicoquímica de Materiales, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 17 Nte 3417, Puebla 72050 (Mexico); Pastelín, C.F., E-mail: c_pastelin@yahoo.com.mx [Departemento de Biología y Toxicologia de la Reproducción, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 14 Sur 6301, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Morán, C., E-mail: carolina.moran@correo.buap.mx [Departemento de Biología y Toxicologia de la Reproducción, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 14 Sur 6301, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Pérez-Sánchez, G.F., E-mail: f_perez_s@hotmail.com [Departemento de Fisicoquímica de Materiales, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 17 Nte 3417, Puebla 72050 (Mexico); Chávez, F., E-mail: fchr172@hotmail.com [Departemento de Fisicoquímica de Materiales, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 17 Nte 3417, Puebla 72050 (Mexico)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • We demonstrate a microcautery implemented by an optical fiber with zinc nanoparticles photodeposited on its core. • We achieved a controllable heat “tip” via radiation intensity of a laser source. • We carried out cauterization and coagulation processes to induce hemostasis in blood vessels using rats. • The system is ideal to carry out micro cauterization processes. - Abstract: The experimental arrangement of a microcautery implemented by an optical fiber with zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) photodeposited on its core for the cauterization and coagulation in blood vessels hemostasis processes is presented. The interaction between a laser radiation source and the ZnNPS on the fiber core produces a controllable punctual heat source through the radiation intensity, which is capable of reaching a temperature up to 200 °C covering an area of approximately ten micrometers. By using three-to-four-month-old rats of CIIZ-V strain, we made several microcauterization experimental tests to stop blood flow. The findings show that the microcautery obliterates the smooth muscle of the blood vessels concatenating mutually to tissue in an average time of three seconds, at the same time, the blood elements responsible for the coagulation are thermally activated and thus the bleeding is stopped.

  14. Microcautery based on zinc metallic nanoparticles photodeposited on the core of an optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaca-Morán, P.; Pastelín, C.F.; Morán, C.; Pérez-Sánchez, G.F.; Chávez, F.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We demonstrate a microcautery implemented by an optical fiber with zinc nanoparticles photodeposited on its core. • We achieved a controllable heat “tip” via radiation intensity of a laser source. • We carried out cauterization and coagulation processes to induce hemostasis in blood vessels using rats. • The system is ideal to carry out micro cauterization processes. - Abstract: The experimental arrangement of a microcautery implemented by an optical fiber with zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) photodeposited on its core for the cauterization and coagulation in blood vessels hemostasis processes is presented. The interaction between a laser radiation source and the ZnNPS on the fiber core produces a controllable punctual heat source through the radiation intensity, which is capable of reaching a temperature up to 200 °C covering an area of approximately ten micrometers. By using three-to-four-month-old rats of CIIZ-V strain, we made several microcauterization experimental tests to stop blood flow. The findings show that the microcautery obliterates the smooth muscle of the blood vessels concatenating mutually to tissue in an average time of three seconds, at the same time, the blood elements responsible for the coagulation are thermally activated and thus the bleeding is stopped.

  15. Synthesis of Metal-Oxide/Carbon-Fiber Heterostructures and Their Properties for Organic Dye Removal and High-Temperature CO2 Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Liangzhi; Nie, Shibin; Shao, Xiankun; Zhang, LinLin; Li, Benxia

    2018-03-01

    One-dimensional metal-oxide/carbon-fiber (MO/CF) heterostructures were prepared by a facile two-step method using the natural cotton as a carbon source the low-cost commercial metal salts as precursors. The metal oxide nanostructures were first grown on the cotton fibers by a solution chemical deposition, and the metal-oxide/cotton heterostructures were then calcined and carbonized in nitrogen atmosphere. Three typical MO/CF heterostructures of TiO2/CF, ZnO/CF, and Fe2O3/CF were prepared and characterized. The loading amount of the metal oxide nanostructures on carbon fibers can be tuned by controlling the concentration of metal salt in the chemical deposition process. Finally, the performance of the as-obtained MO/CF heterostructures for organic dye removal from water was tested by the photocatalytic degradation under a simulated sunlight, and their properties of high-temperature CO2 adsorption were predicted by the temperature programmed desorption. The present study would provide a desirable strategy for the synthesis of MO/CF heterostructures for various applications.

  16. A Theoretical Study on Quantitative Prediction and Evaluation of Thermal Residual Stresses in Metal Matrix Composite (Case 1 : Two-Dimensional In-Plane Fiber Distribution)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Hyun; Son, Bong Jin

    1997-01-01

    Although discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composite(MMC) is one of the most promising materials for applications of aerospace, automotive industries, the thermal residual stresses developed in the MMC due to the mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion between the matrix and the fiber under a temperature change has been pointed out as one of the serious problem in practical applications. There are very limited nondestructive techniques to measure the residual stress of composite materials. However, many difficulties have been reported in their applications. Therefore it is important to establish analytical model to evaluate the thermal residual stress of MMC for practical engineering application. In this study, an elastic model is developed to predict the average thermal residual stresses in the matrix and fiber of a misoriented short fiber composite. The thermal residual stresses are induced by the mismatch in the coefficient of the thermal expansion of the matrix and fiber when the composite is subjected to a uniform temperature change. The model considers two-dimensional in-plane fiber misorientation. The analytical formulation of the model is based on Eshelby's equivalent inclusion method and is unique in that it is able to account for interactions among fibers. This model is more general than past models to investigate the effect of parameters which might influence thermal residual stress in composites. The present model is to investigate the effects of fiber volume fraction, distribution type, distribution cut-off angle, and aspect ratio on thermal residual stress for in-plane fiber misorientation. Fiber volume fraction, aspect ratio, and distribution cut-off angle are shown to have more significant effects on the magnitude of the thermal residual stresses than fiber distribution type for in-plane misorientation

  17. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and tensile loading using superstructure FBGs developed by laser direct writing of periodic on-fiber metallic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemohammad, Hamidreza; Toyserkani, Ehsan

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of superstructure fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) by laser-assisted direct writing of on-fiber metallic films. A novel laser direct write method is characterized to fabricate periodic films of silver nanoparticles on the non-planar surface of as-fabricated FBGs. Silver films with a thickness of 9 µm are fabricated around a Bragg grating optical fiber. The performance of the superstructure FBG is studied by applying temperature and tensile stress on the fiber. An opto-mechanical model is also developed to predict the optical response of the synthesized superstructure FBG under thermal and structural loadings. The results show that the reflectivity of sidebands in the reflection spectrum can be tuned up to 20% and 37% under thermal and structural loadings, respectively. In addition, the developed superstructure FBG is used for simultaneous measurement of force and temperature to eliminate the inherent limitation of regular FBGs in multi-parameter sensing

  18. Multiscale analyses of fibre metal laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cid Alfaro, M.V.

    2008-01-01

    The advance of composites used in aerospace, civil and biomechanical engineering and other technology branches over the last decades has led to a substantial increase in the application of these materials. In addition, the search for new and improved materials in aerospace industry has stimulated

  19. Superconductive transition metal carbonitride fibers and method for the preparation thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economy, J.; Mason, J.H.; Smith, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    Fine diameter continuous multifilament superconductor yarns comprising niobium carbonitride may be prepared. The fibers of which the yarn is composed possess a very high transition temperature (T/sub c/ of 17 0 K) combined with a good upper critical field (H/sub c2/ of 125 kG) and critical current density (J/sub c/ of 10 5 amps/cm 2 at 40 kG). This invention provides excellent superconductor materials in the form of continuous fine diameter multifilament yarn. 9 claims

  20. NiCoCrAl/YSZ laminate composites fabricated by EB-PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Guodong; Wang Zhi; Liang Jun; Wu Zhanjun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The metal-ceramic laminate composites were fabricated by EB-PVD. → Both metal and ceramic layers consisted of straight columns with banded structures. → Columnar grain size was limited by the periodic layer interfaces in the laminates. → Effect of columns on fracture property was decreased by limiting layer thickness. → Laminates showed greater specific strength than monolithic metal foil. - Abstract: Two NiCoCrAl/YSZ laminate composites (A and B) with different metal-layer thickness (∼35 μm and 14 μm, respectively) were fabricated by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). Their microstructure was examined and their mechanical properties were compared with the 289 μm thick NiCoCrAl monolithic foil produced by EB-PVD. Both the YSZ and NiCoCrAl layers of the laminate composites had columnar grain structure. But the periodic layer interfaces limited the columnar grain size. Some pores between the columns were also observed. It was found that the strength of the laminate A was equal approximately to that of the NiCoCrAl monolithic foil, and that laminate B had the greater strength. Moreover, the density of the foils decreased with the increasing thickness ratio of YSZ/NiCoCrAl layers and the increasing the layer number. Thus, comparing with the NiCoCrAl monolithic foil, the NiCoCrAl/YSZ laminate composites not only had the equal or greater strength, but also had the much greater specific strength.

  1. Analysis of a hybrid balanced laminate as a structural material for thick composite beams with axial stiffeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modak, Partha; Hossain, M. Jamil, E-mail: jamil917@gmail.com; Ahmed, S. Reaz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    An accurate stress analysis has been carried out to investigate the suitability of a hybrid balanced laminate as a structural material for thick composite beams with axial stiffeners. Three different balanced laminates composed of dissimilar ply material as well as fiber orientations are considered for a thick beam on simple supports with stiffened lateral ends. A displacement potential based elasticity approach is used to obtain the numerical solution of the corresponding elastic fields. The overall laminate stresses as well as individual ply stresses are analysed mainly in the perspective of laminate hybridization. Both the fiber material and ply angle of individual laminas are found to play dominant roles in defining the design stresses of the present composite beam.

  2. Numerical study of on-fiber metal film geometry on behavior of dual parameter SFBG sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzy, Behnam; Foroozmehr, Ehsan; Alemohammad, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical model for simulating a dual parameter super-structure FBG (SFBG) with on-fiber deposited thin films is developed. A periodic on-fiber thin coating of silver on FBG sensors provides the ability of measuring two parameters of strain and temperature simultaneously. The model consists of a mechanical model to determine the strain of the sensor caused by different loading conditions, coupled with an optical model to calculate the reflected spectrum of the SFBG sensor. A guideline is introduced for designing a SFBG by studying the effect of coating period, coating duty cycle, and coating thickness. The results show that the sideband spacing in such SFBGs is only affected by the coating period while the Bragg peak sensitivity does not depend on coating period. Also the coating duty cycle and the coating thickness can affect both sensitivity of the Bragg peak and the measuring range of a sensor. The validity of the results was studied by comparing with previously reported data. (paper)

  3. Corrosion of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites (CF-AMCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Shruti

    The first objective of this research is to study the atmospheric corrosion behavior of continuous reinforced aluminum matrix composites (CF-AMCs). The materials used for this research were alumina (Al2O3) and nickel (Ni) coated carbon (C) fibers reinforced AMCs. The major focus is to identify the correlation between atmospheric parameters and the corrosion rates of CF-AMCs in the multitude of microclimates and environments in Hawai'i. The micro-structures of CF-AMCs were obtained to correlate the microstructures with their corrosion performances. Also electrochemical polarization experiments were conducted in the laboratory to explain the corrosion mechanism of CF-AMCs. In addition, CF-AMCs were exposed to seven different test sites for three exposure periods. The various climatic conditions like temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), rainfall (RF), time of wetness (TOW), chloride (Cl- ) and sulfate (SO42-) deposition rate, and pH were monitored for three exposure period. Likewise, mass losses of CF-AMCs at each test site for three exposure periods were determined. The microstructure of the CF-AMCS showed that Al/C/50f MMCs contained a Ni-rich phase in the matrix, indicating that the Ni coating on the C fiber dissolved in the matrix. The intermetallic phases obtained in Al-2wt% Cu/Al 2O3/50f-T6 MMC and Al-2wt%-T6 monolith were rich in Cu and Fe. The intermetallic phases obtained in Al 7075/Al2O3/50f-T6 MMC and Al 7075-T6 monolith also contained traces of Mg, Zn, Ni, and Si. Electrochemical polarization experiment indicated that the Al/Al 2O3/50f Al-2wt% Cu/Al2O3/50f-T6 and Al 7075/Al2O3/50f-T6 MMC showed similar corrosion trends as their respective monoliths pure Al, Al-2wt%-T6 and Al 7075-T6 in both aerated and deaerated condition. Al2O3 fiber, being an insulator, did not have a great effect on the polarization behavior of the composites. Al/C/50f MMCs corroded at a much faster rate as compared to pure Al monolith due to the galvanic effect between C and Al

  4. Bioaccessibility and Risk of Exposure to Metals and SVOCs in Artificial Turf Field Fill Materials and Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavilonis, Brian T; Weisel, Clifford P; Buckley, Brian; Lioy, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    To reduce maintenance costs, municipalities and schools are starting to replace natural grass fields with a new generation synthetic turf. Unlike Astro-Turf, which was first introduced in the 1960s, synthetic field turf provides more cushioning to athletes. Part of this cushioning comes from materials like crumb rubber infill, which is manufactured from recycled tires and may contain a variety of chemicals. The goal of this study was to evaluate potential exposures from playing on artificial turf fields and associated risks to trace metals, semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by examining typical artificial turf fibers (n = 8), different types of infill (n = 8), and samples from actual fields (n = 7). Three artificial biofluids were prepared, which included: lung, sweat, and digestive fluids. Artificial biofluids were hypothesized to yield a more representative estimation of dose than the levels obtained from total extraction methods. PAHs were routinely below the limit of detection across all three biofluids, precluding completion of a meaningful risk assessment. No SVOCs were identified at quantifiable levels in any extracts based on a match of their mass spectrum to compounds that are regulated in soil. The metals were measurable but at concentrations for which human health risk was estimated to be low. The study demonstrated that for the products and fields we tested, exposure to infill and artificial turf was generally considered de minimus, with the possible exception of lead for some fields and materials. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Bio-accessibility and Risk of Exposure to Metals and SVOCs in Artificial Turf Field Fill Materials and Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavilonis, Brian T.; Weisel, Clifford P.; Buckley, Brian; Lioy, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    To reduce maintenance costs, municipalities and schools are starting to replace natural grass fields with a new generation synthetic turf. Unlike Astro-Turf, which was first introduced in the 1960’s, synthetic field turf provides more cushioning to athletes. Part of this cushioning comes from materials like crumb rubber infill, which is manufactured from recycled tires and may contain a variety of chemicals. The goal of this study was to evaluate potential exposures from playing on artificial turf fields and associated risks to trace metals, semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by examining typical artificial turf fibers (n=8), different types of infill (n=8), and samples from actual fields (n=7). Three artificial biofluids were prepared which included: lung, sweat, and digestive fluids. Artificial biofluids were hypothesized to yield a more representative estimation of dose than the levels obtained from total extraction methods. PAHs were routinely below the limit of detection across all three biofluids precluding completion of a meaningful risk assessment. No SVOCs were identified at quantifiable levels in any extracts based on a match of their mass spectrum to compounds that are regulated in soil. The metals were measurable but at concentrations for which human health risk was estimated to be low. The study demonstrated that for the products and fields we tested, exposure to infill and artificial turf was generally considered de minimus, with the possible exception of lead for some fields and materials. PMID:23758133

  6. Development of lightweight THUNDER with fiber composite layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kwang J.; Shin, Sukjoon; Kim, Jusik; Park, Hoon C.; Kwak, Moon K.

    2000-06-01

    This paper is concerned with design, manufacturing and performance test of lightweight THUNDER using a top fiber composite layer with near-zero CTE, a PZT ceramic wafer and a bottom glass/epoxy layer with high CTE. The main point of this design is to replace the heavy metal layers of THUNDER by the lightweight fiber reinforced plastic layers without losing capabilities to generate high force and displacement. It is possible to save weight up to about 30 percent if we replace the metallic backing materials by the light fiber composite layer. We can also have design flexibility by selecting the fiber direction and the size of prepreg layers. In addition to the lightweight advantage and design flexibility, the proposed device can be manufactured without adhesive layers when we use epoxy resin prepreg system. Glass/epoxy prepregs, a ceramic wafer with electrode surfaces, and a graphite/epoxy prepreg were simply stacked and cured at an elevated temperature by following autoclave bagging process. It was found that the manufactured composite laminate device had a sufficient curvature after detaching form a flat mold. From experimental actuation tests, it was observed that the developed actuator could generate larger actuation displacement than THUNDER.

  7. A Novel Rational Design Method for Laminated Composite Structures Exhibiting Complex Geometrically Nonlinear Buckling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgaard, Esben; Lund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel FEM-based approach for fiber angle optimal design of laminated composite structures exhibiting complicated nonlinear buckling behavior, thus enabling design of lighter and more cost-effective structures. The approach accounts for the geometrically nonlinear behavior of...

  8. Diet factors and subclinical laminitis score in lactating cows of smallholder dairy farms in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.; Schonewille, J.T.; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C.; Aiumlamai, S.; Wachirapakom, C.; Everts, H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the importance of dietary crude protein (CP) content, dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content and feeding regime as well as other factors related to management and demographics on the occurrence of (subclinical) laminitis under practical Thai feeding

  9. Combined-load buckling behavior of metal-matrix composite sandwich panels under different thermal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1991-01-01

    Combined compressive and shear buckling analysis was conducted on flat rectangular sandwich panels with the consideration of transverse shear effects of the core. The sandwich panel is fabricated with titanium honeycomb core and laminated metal matrix composite face sheets. The results show that the square panel has the highest combined load buckling strength, and that the buckling strength decreases sharply with the increases of both temperature and panel aspect ratio. The effect of layup (fiber orientation) on the buckling strength of the panels was studied in detail. The metal matrix composite sandwich panel was much more efficient than the sandwich panel with nonreinforced face sheets and had the same specific weight.

  10. Characterization of Thermo-Elastic Properties and Microcracking Behaviors of CFRP Laminates Using Cup-Stacked Carbon Nanotubes (CSCNT) Dispersed Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokozeki, Tomohiro; Iwahori, Yutaka; Ishiwata, Shin

    This study investigated the thermo-elastic properties and microscopic ply cracking behaviors in carbon fiber reinforced nanotube-dispersed epoxy laminates. The nanocomposite laminates used in this study consisted of traditional carbon fibers and epoxy resin filled with cup-stacked carbon nanotubes (CSCNTs). Thermo-mechanical properties of unidirectional nanocomposite laminates were evaluated, and quasi-static and fatigue tension tests of cross-ply laminates were carried out in order to observe the damage accumulation behaviors of matrix cracks. Clear retardation of matrix crack onset and accumulation was found in composite laminates with CSCNT compared to those without CSCNT. Fracture toughness associated with matrix cracking was evaluated based on the analytical model using the experimental results. It was concluded that the dispersion of CSCNT resulted in fracture toughness improvement and residual thermal strain decrease, and specifically, the former was the main contribution to the retardation of matrix crack formation.

  11. Experimental investigation of defect criticality in FRP laminate composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Peter James

    1999-11-01

    This work examines the defect criticality of fiber reinforced polymer Composites. The objective is to determine the sensitivity of the finished composite to various process-induced defects. This work focuses on two different classes of process-induced defects; (1) fiber waviness in high performance carbon-fiber reinforced unidirectional composites and (2) void volume in low cost glass-fabric reinforced composites. The role of fiber waviness in the compressive response of unidirectional composites has been studied by a number of other investigators. Because of difficulties associated with producing real composites with varying levels of fiber waviness, most experimental studies of fiber waviness have evaluated composites with artificially induced fiber waviness. Furthermore, most experimental studies have been concentrated on the effects of out-of-plane fiber waviness. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of in-plane fiber waviness naturally occurring in autoclave consolidated thermoplastic laminates. The first phase of this project involved the development of a simple technique for measuring the resulting fiber waviness levels. An experimental investigation of the compression strength reduction in composites with in-plane fiber waviness followed. The experimental program included carbon-fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites manufactured from prepreg tape by hand layup, and carbon-fiber and glass-fiber reinforced composites manufactured from an experimental powder towpreg by filament winding and autoclave consolidation. The compression specimens exhibited kink band failure in the prepreg composite and varying amounts of longitudinal splitting and kink banding in the towpreg composites. The compression test results demonstrated the same trend as predicted by microbudding theory but the overall quantitative correlation was poor. The second thrust of this research evaluated void effects in resin transfer molded composites. Much of the existing

  12. Kinetics of the Reduction of Cadmium Sulfate by Thiourea Dioxide in an Aqueous Ammonia Solution upon the Metallization of Carbon Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenov, Yu. V.; Egorova, E. V.; Shestakov, G. A.

    2018-01-01

    The kinetics of the decomposition of thiourea dioxide and the reduction of cadmium cations by thiourea dioxide in an aqueous ammonia solution are studied. The kinetic parameters of these reactions are calculated using experimental data, allowing us to adjust conditions for the synthesis of cadmium coatings on carbon fiber of grade UKN-M-12K. The presence of the metal crystalline phase on the fiber is confirmed by means of X-ray diffraction, and its amount is measured via atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  13. Guidance and control of MIR TDL radiation via flexible hollow metallic rectangular pipes and fibers for possible LHS and other optical system compaction and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C.

    1983-01-01

    Flexible hollow metallic rectangular pipes and infrared fibers are proposed as alternate media for collection, guidance and manipulation of mid-infrared tunable diode laser (TDL) radiation. Certain features of such media are found to be useful for control of TDL far field patterns, polarization and possibly intensity fluctuations. Such improvement in dimension compatibility may eventually lead to laser heterodyne spectroscopy (LHS) and optical communication system compaction and integration. Infrared optical fiber and the compound parabolic coupling of light into a hollow pipe waveguide are discussed as well as the design of the waveguide.

  14. Optimization of the fiber laser parameters for local high-temperature impact on metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsko, Dmitrii S.; Polonik, Marina V.; Dudko, Olga V.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the local laser heating process of surface layer of the metal sample. The aim is to create the molten pool with the required depth by laser thermal treatment. During the heating the metal temperature at any point of the molten zone should not reach the boiling point of the main material. The laser power, exposure time and the spot size of a laser beam are selected as the variable parameters. The mathematical model for heat transfer in a semi-infinite body, applicable to finite slab, is used for preliminary theoretical estimation of acceptable parameters values of the laser thermal treatment. The optimization problem is solved by using an algorithm based on the scanning method of the search space (the zero-order method of conditional optimization). The calculated values of the parameters (the optimal set of "laser radiation power - exposure time - spot radius") are used to conduct a series of natural experiments to obtain a molten pool with the required depth. A two-stage experiment consists of: a local laser treatment of metal plate (steel) and then the examination of the microsection of the laser irradiated region. According to the experimental results, we can judge the adequacy of the ongoing calculations within the selected models.

  15. Lung counting: Comparison of a four detector array that has either metal or carbon fiber end caps, and the effect on array performance characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbir Ahmed, Asm; Kramer, Gary H.

    2011-01-01

    This study described the performance of an array of HPGe detectors, made by ORTEC. In the existing system, a metal end cap was used in the detector construction. In general, the natural metal contains some radioactive materials, create high background noises and signals during in vivo counting. ORTEC proposed a novel carbon fiber to be used in end cap, without any radio active content. This paper described the methodology of developing a model of the given HPGe array-detectors, comparing the detection efficiency and cross talk among the detectors using two end cap materials: either metal or carbon fiber and to provide a recommendation about the end cap material. The detector's counting efficiency were studied using point and plane sources. The cross talk among the array detectors were studied using a homogeneous attenuating medium made of tissue equivalent material. The cross talk was significant when single or multiple point sources (simulated to heterogeneous hot spots) were embedded inside the attenuating medium. With carbon fiber, the cross talk increased about 100% for photon energy at about 100 keV. For a uniform distribution of radioactive material, the cross talk increased about 5-10% when the end cap was made of carbon instead of steel. Metal end cap was recommended for the array of HPGe detectors.

  16. Avaliação dos comportamentos mecânico e térmico de laminados de PPS/fibra de carbono processados em autoclave sob diferentes ciclos de consolidação Evaluation of thermal and mechanical behaviors of PPS/carbon fiber laminates processed in autoclave under different consolidation cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana S Marques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Usualmente, um dos processos mais utilizados para fabricação de componentes em termoplásticos estruturais é a moldagem por compressão a quente, porém restringindo-se na obtenção de peças de pequeno e médio porte. Tal restrição deve-se à limitação do tamanho das prensas utilizadas, principalmente pelo custo envolvido. Procurando ampliar a aplicação de compósitos termoplásticos, possibilitando a fabricação de peças maiores e com maior potencial de integração, pelo uso de infra-estrutura já disponível em processadores de compósitos, este trabalho aborda o processamento de laminados de poli(sulfeto de fenileno (PPS reforçado com fibra de carbono em autoclave, pelo uso de quatro diferentes ciclos de consolidação. Os laminados obtidos foram caracterizados por inspeção por ultrassom, análises de DSC para a determinação da cristalinidade e avaliação das propriedades mecânicas em flexão, compressão e cisalhamento interlaminar. Os resultados mostram que laminados obtidos com taxas de resfriamento mais lentas apresentam menor resistência e módulo em compressão, uma vez que o maior grau de cristalinidade (~30% promove maior fragilização da matriz polimérica.One of the most used processes to obtain structural thermoplastic parts is the hot compression molding, which is limited to small and medium size parts because of the size of the press used, mainly related to its cost. This has hampered a wide use of thermoplastic composites in structural applications. In order to extend the application of thermoplastic composites, but still using available infrastructure in composite manufacturers, in this work we investigate the processing of carbon fiber reinforced polyphenylene sulfide (PPS in an autoclave, using four consolidation cycles. The processed laminates were characterized by ultrasound inspection, DSC analyses for the crystallinity determination and mechanical tests to evaluate the compression, flexure and

  17. Fiber Bragg Gratings, IT Techniques and Strain Gauge Validation for Strain Calculation on Aged Metal Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ander Montero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the feasibility of calculating strains in aged F114 steel specimens with Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG sensors and infrared thermography (IT techniques. Two specimens have been conditioned under extreme temperature and relative humidity conditions making comparative tests of stress before and after aging using different adhesives. Moreover, a comparison has been made with IT techniques and conventional methods for calculating stresses in F114 steel. Implementation of Structural Health Monitoring techniques on real aircraft during their life cycle requires a study of the behaviour of FBG sensors and their wiring under real conditions, before using them for a long time. To simulate aging, specimens were stored in a climate chamber at 70 °C and 90% RH for 60 days. This study is framed within the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM and Non Destructuve Evaluation (NDE research lines, integrated into the avionics area maintained by the Aeronautical Technologies Centre (CTA and the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU.

  18. Study on the Metal Fiber Filter Modeling for Capturing Radioactive Aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seunguk; Lee, Chanhyun; Park, Minchan; Lee, Jaekeun [EcoEnergy Research Institute, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The components of air cleaning system are demisters to remove entrained moisture, pre-filters to remove the bulk of the particulate matter, high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, iodine absorbers(generally, activated carbon) and HEPA filters after the absorbers for redundancy and collection of carbon fines. The HEPA filters are most important components to prevent radioactive aerosols from being released to control room and adjacent environment. The Conventional HEPA filter has pleated media for low pressure drop. Consequently, the filters must provide high collection efficiency as well as low pressure drop. Unfortunately, conventional HEPA filters are made of glass fiber and polyester, and pose disposal issues since they cannot be recycled. In fact, 31,055 HEPA filters used in nuclear facilities in the U.S are annually disposed. The Analyses at face velocities 1cm/s and 10cm/s are also carried out, and they also show R2 value of 0.995. However, since official HEPA filter standards are established at face velocity of 5cm/s, this value will be used in further analysis. From the comparative studies carried out at different filter thickness and face velocities, a good correlation is found between the model and the experiment.

  19. Two Fiber Optical Fiber Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mathew R.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Breeding, Shawn P.

    2000-01-01

    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose sensing tip is given a metallic coating. The sensing tip of the fiber is essentially an isothermal cavity, so the emission from this cavity will be approximately equal to the emission from a blackbody. Temperature readings are obtained by measuring the spectral radiative heat flux at the end of the fiber at two wavelengths. The ratio of these measurements and Planck's Law are used to infer the temperature at the sensing tip. Optical fiber thermometers have high accuracy, excellent long-term stability and are immune to electromagnetic interference. In addition, they can be operated for extended periods without requiring re-calibration. For these reasons. it is desirable to use optical fiber thermometers in environments such as the International Space Station. However, it has recently been shown that temperature readings are corrupted by emission from the fiber when extended portions of the probe are exposed to elevated temperatures. This paper will describe several ways in which the reading from a second fiber can be used to correct the corrupted temperature measurements. The accuracy and sensitivity to measurement uncertainty will be presented for each method.

  20. Dilute NiO/carbon nanofiber composites derived from metal organic framework fibers as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ying; Yang, Feng; Hu, Hongru; Lee, Sungsik; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Hairui; Zeng, Dehong; Zhou, Biao; Hao, Shijie

    2017-01-01

    A new type of carbon nanofiber (CNF) dominated electrode materials decorated with dilute NiO particles (NiO/CNF) has been in situ fabricated by direct pyrolysis of Ni, Zn-containing metal organic framework fibers, which are skillfully constructed by assembling different proportional NiCl2·6H2O and Zn(Ac)2·2H2O with trimesic acid in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide. With elegant combination of advantages of CNF and evenly dispersed NiO particles, as well as successful modulation of conductivity and porosity of final composites, our NiO/CNF composites display well-defined capacitive features. A high capacitance of 14926 F g–1 was obtained in 6 M KOH electrolyte when the contribution from 0.43 wt% NiO was considered alone, contributing to over 35% of the total capacitance (234 F g–1 ). This significantly exceeds its theoretical specific capacitance of 2584 F g–1. It has been established from the Ragone plot that a largest energy density of 33.4 Wh kg–1 was obtained at the current density of 0.25 A g–1. Furthermore, such composite electrode materials show good rate capability and outstanding cycling stability up to 5000 times (only 10% loss). The present study provides a brand-new approach to design a high capacitance and stable supercapacitor electrode and the concept is extendable to other composite materials. Keywords: Metal organic framework; Nickel oxide; Carbon nanofiber; In situ synthesis; Capacitance

  1. Laser irradiation-induced laminated graphene/MoS2 composites with synergistically improved tribological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ting; Chen, Xinchun; Li, Peisheng; Wang, Ping; Li, Cuncheng; Cao, Bingqiang; Luo, Jianbin; Yang, Shikuan

    2018-06-01

    Engineering lubricant additives that have extraordinary friction reduction and anti-wear performance is critical to almost any modern mechanical machines. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of laminated lubricant additives that can combine the advantages of zero-dimensional nanospheres and two-dimensional nanosheets. A simple in situ laser irradiation method is developed to prepare the laminated composite structure composed of ideally ultrasmooth MoS2 sub-microspheres embedded within multiple layers of graphene. These ultrasmooth MoS2 spheres within the laminated structure can change sliding friction into rolling friction under strong shear force created by moving contact surfaces to significantly reduce the friction. Meantime, the graphene layers can behave as ‘protection pads’ to efficiently avoid the formation of scars on the metal-to-metal contact surfaces. Overall, the laminated composites as lubricant additives synergistically improve the friction reduction and anti-wear properties. Additionally, due to the unique loosely packed laminated structure, the composites can stably disperse in the lubricant for more than 15 d and work under high temperatures without being oxidized. Such constructed laminated composites with outstanding tribological properties by an in situ laser irradiation method supply a new concept in designing lubricant additives that can combine the advantages of 0D and 2D structures.

  2. 3D Guided Wave Motion Analysis on Laminated Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara; Yu, Lingyu

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have proved useful for structural health monitoring (SHM) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) due to their ability to propagate long distances with less energy loss compared to bulk waves and due to their sensitivity to small defects in the structure. Analysis of actively transmitted ultrasonic signals has long been used to detect and assess damage. However, there remain many challenging tasks for guided wave based SHM due to the complexity involved with propagating guided waves, especially in the case of composite materials. The multimodal nature of the ultrasonic guided waves complicates the related damage analysis. This paper presents results from parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) simulations used to acquire 3D wave motion in the subject laminated carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. The acquired 3D wave motion is then analyzed by frequency-wavenumber analysis to study the wave propagation and interaction in the composite laminate. The frequency-wavenumber analysis enables the study of individual modes and visualization of mode conversion. Delamination damage has been incorporated into the EFIT model to generate "damaged" data. The potential for damage detection in laminated composites is discussed in the end.

  3. Curing of Thick Thermoset Composite Laminates: Multiphysics Modeling and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandan, S.; Dhaliwal, G. S.; Huo, Z.; Chandrashekhara, K.; Apetre, N.; Iyyer, N.

    2017-11-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer composites are used in high-performance aerospace applications as they are resistant to fatigue, corrosion free and possess high specific strength. The mechanical properties of these composite components depend on the degree of cure and residual stresses developed during the curing process. While these parameters are difficult to determine experimentally in large and complex parts, they can be simulated using numerical models in a cost-effective manner. These simulations can be used to develop cure cycles and change processing parameters to obtain high-quality parts. In the current work, a numerical model was built in Comsol MultiPhysics to simulate the cure behavior of a carbon/epoxy prepreg system (IM7/Cycom 5320-1). A thermal spike was observed in thick laminates when the recommended cure cycle was used. The cure cycle was modified to reduce the thermal spike and maintain the degree of cure at the laminate center. A parametric study was performed to evaluate the effect of air flow in the oven, post cure cycles and cure temperatures on the thermal spike and the resultant degree of cure in the laminate.

  4. Method Of Bonding A Metal Connection To An Electrode Including A Core Having A Fiber Or Foam Type Structure For An Electrochemical Cell, An

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loustau, Marie-Therese; Verhoog, Roelof; Precigout, Claude

    1996-09-24

    A method of bonding a metal connection to an electrode including a core having a fiber or foam-type structure for an electrochemical cell, in which method at least one metal strip is pressed against one edge of the core and is welded thereto under compression, wherein, at least in line with the region in which said strip is welded to the core, which is referred to as the "main core", a retaining core of a type analogous to that of the main core is disposed prior to the welding.

  5. Standard test method for translaminar fracture toughness of laminated and pultruded polymer matrix composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of translaminar fracture toughness, KTL, for laminated and pultruded polymer matrix composite materials of various ply orientations using test results from monotonically loaded notched specimens. 1.2 This test method is applicable to room temperature laboratory air environments. 1.3 Composite materials that can be tested by this test method are not limited by thickness or by type of polymer matrix or fiber, provided that the specimen sizes and the test results meet the requirements of this test method. This test method was developed primarily from test results of various carbon fiber – epoxy matrix laminates and from additional results of glass fiber – epoxy matrix, glass fiber-polyester matrix pultrusions and carbon fiber – bismaleimide matrix laminates (1-4, 6, 7). 1.4 A range of eccentrically loaded, single-edge-notch tension, ESE(T), specimen sizes with proportional planar dimensions is provided, but planar size may be variable and adjusted, with asso...

  6. Low-cost, environmentally friendly route for producing CFRP laminates with microfibrillated cellulose interphase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. B. Uribe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a cost-effective and eco-friendly method to improve mechanical performance in continuous carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP matrix composites is presented. Unsized fiber fabric preforms are coated with self-assembling sugarcane bagasse microfibrillated cellulose, and undergo vacuum-assisted liquid epoxy resin infusion to produce solid laminates after curing at ambient temperature. Quasi-static tensile, flexural and short beam testing at room temperature indicated that the stiffness, ultimate strength and toughness at ultimate load of the brand-new two-level hierarchical composite are substantially higher than in baseline, unsized fiber-reinforced epoxy laminate. Atomic force microscopy for height and phase imaging, along with scanning electron microscopy for the fracture surface survey, revealed a 400 nm-thick fiber/matrix interphase wherein microfibrillated cellulose exerts strengthening and toughening roles in the hybrid laminate. Market expansion of this class of continuous fiber-reinforced-polymer matrix composites exhibiting remarkable mechanical performance/cost ratios is thus conceivable.

  7. Failure modes of laminate structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, L.B.; Druce, R.L.; Wilson, M.J.

    1987-06-01

    Laminate structures composed of alternating thin layers of conductor and dielectric material are commonly used in energy storage and transmission components. The failure of the dielectric layers in regions of high field stress, with applied 60 Hz ac, dc and impulse voltages, was studied. Several geometries were compared, including staggered and flush edges. Electrical trees developed between the laminated dielectric layers. The visual characteristics and growth rates of the electrical trees under ac, dc and impulse stresses were different. Partial discharge detection and analysis was used to measure the inception voltage and discharge activity at the conductor edge voids, to observe tree formation and growth, and to predict impending failure due to dielectric erosion. Electric field distributions were modeled and partial discharge inception levels were estimated from known void geometries. The staggered edge geometry appears to enhance the electric field stress at the recessed electrode.

  8. Optimization of Laminated Composite Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Søren Randrup

    of the contributions of the PhD project are included in the second part of the thesis. Paper A presents a framework for free material optimization where commercially available finite element analysis software is used as analysis tool. Robust buckling optimization of laminated composite structures by including...... allows for a higher degree of tailoring of the resulting material. To enable better utilization of the composite materials, optimum design procedures can be used to assist the engineer. This PhD thesis is focused on developing numerical methods for optimization of laminated composite structures...... nonlinear analysis of structures, buckling and post-buckling analysis of structures, and formulations for optimization of structures considering stiffness, buckling, and post-buckling criteria. Lastly, descriptions, main findings, and conclusions of the papers are presented. The papers forming the basis...

  9. Specific contribution of lamin A and lamin C in the development of laminopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvius, Nicolas; Hathaway, Andrea; Boudreau, Emilie; Gupta, Pallavi; Labib, Sarah; Bolongo, Pierrette M.; Rippstein, Peter; McBride, Heidi; Bilinska, Zofia T.; Tesson, Frederique

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the lamin A/C gene are involved in multiple human disorders for which the pathophysiological mechanisms are partially understood. Conflicting results prevail regarding the organization of lamin A and C mutants within the nuclear envelope (NE) and on the interactions of each lamin to its counterpart. We over-expressed various lamin A and C mutants both independently and together in COS7 cells. When expressed alone, lamin A with cardiac/muscular disorder mutations forms abnormal aggregates inside the NE and not inside the nucleoplasm. Conversely, the equivalent lamin C organizes as intranucleoplasmic aggregates that never connect to the NE as opposed to wild type lamin C. Interestingly, the lamin C molecules present within these aggregates exhibit an abnormal increased mobility. When co-expressed, the complex formed by lamin A/C aggregates in the NE. Lamin A and C mutants for lipodystrophy behave similarly to the wild type. These findings reveal that lamins A and C may be differentially affected depending on the mutation. This results in multiple possible physiological consequences which likely contribute in the phenotypic variability of laminopathies. The inability of lamin C mutants to join the nuclear rim in the absence of lamin A is a potential pathophysiological mechanism for laminopathies

  10. Fabrication of metal-organic framework MIL-88B films on stainless steel fibers for solid-phase microextraction of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ye-Yu; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2014-03-21

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received considerable attention as novel sorbents for sample preparation due to their fascinating structures and functionalities such as large surface area, good thermal stability, and uniform structured nanoscale cavities. Here, we report the application of a thermal and solvent stable MOF MIL-88B with nanosized bipyramidal cages and large surface area for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Novel MIL-88B coated fiber was fabricated via an in situ hydrothermal growth of MIL-88B film on etched stainless steel fiber. The MIL-88B coated fiber gave large enhancement factors (757-2243), low detection limits (0.45-1.32ngL(-1)), and good linearity (5-200ngL(-1)) for PCBs. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for six replicate extractions of PCBs at 100ngL(-1) on MIL-88B coated fiber ranged from 4.2% to 8.7%. The recoveries for spiked PCBs (10ngL(-1)) in water and soil samples were in the range of 79.7-103.2%. Besides, the MIL-88B coated fiber was stable enough for 150 extraction cycles without significant loss of extraction efficiency. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of PCBs in water samples and soil samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact damages modeling in laminated composite structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreculj Dragan D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminated composites have an important application in modern engineering structures. They are characterized by extraordinary properties, such as: high strength and stiffness and lightweight. Nevertheless, a serious obstacle to more widespread use of those materials is their sensitivity to the impact loads. Impacts cause initiation and development of certain types of damages. Failures that occur in laminated composite structures can be intralaminar and interlaminar. To date it was developed a lot of simulation models for impact damages analysis in laminates. Those models can replace real and expensive testing in laminated structures with a certain accuracy. By using specialized software the damage parameters and distributions can be determined (at certain conditions on laminate structures. With performing numerical simulation of impact on composite laminates there are corresponding results valid for the analysis of these structures.

  12. Design and Manufacture of Conical Shell Structures Using Prepreg Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakimova, Regina; Burau, Florian; Degenhardt, Richard; Siebert, Mark; Castro, Saullo G. P.

    2016-06-01

    The design and manufacture of unstiffened composite conical structures is very challenging, as the variation of the fiber orientations, lay-up and the geometry of the ply pieces have a significant influence on the thickness imperfections and ply angle deviations imprinted to the final part. This paper deals with the manufacture of laminated composite cones through the prepeg/autoclave process. The cones are designed to undergo repetitive buckling tests without accumulating permanent damage. The aim is to define a process that allows the control of fiber angle deviations and the removal of thickness imperfections generated from gaps and overlaps between ply pieces. Ultrasonic scan measurements are used to proof the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Lower bound buckling loads for design of laminate composite cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, James G. A.; Wang, Hongtao

    2017-01-01

    Over a period of more than 45 years, an extensive research program has allowed a series of very simple propositions, relating to the safe design of shells experiencing imperfection sensitive buckling, to be recast in the form of a series of lemmas. These are briefly summarized and their practical use is illustrated in relation to the prediction of safe lower bounds to the imperfection sensitive buckling of axially loaded, fiber reinforced polymeric, laminated cylinders. With a fundamental aspect of the approach, sometimes referred to as the reduced stiffness method, being the delineation of the various shell membrane and bending stiffness (or perhaps more appropriately energy) components contributing to the buckling resistance, the method will be shown to also provide a powerful way of making rational design decisions to optimize the use of fiber reinforcement.

  14. Glucocorticoids and laminitis in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip J; Slight, Simon H; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Kreeger, John M

    2002-08-01

    The administration of exogenously administered GCs and syndromes associated with GC excess are both attended by increased risk for the development of laminitis in adult horses. However, there exists substantial controversy as to whether excess GCs cause laminitis de novo. If true, the pathogenesis of laminitis arising from the effects of GC excess is probably different from that associated with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and endotoxemia. Although a satisfactory explanation for the development of laminitis as a consequence of GC action is currently lacking, numerous possible and plausible theoretical mechanisms do exist. Veterinarians must exert caution with respect to the use of GCs in adult horses. The extent to which individual horses are predisposed to laminitis as a result of GC effect cannot be predicted based on current information. However, the administration of systemic GCs to horses that have been previously affected by laminitis should be used only with extreme caution, and should be accompanied by careful monitoring for further signs of laminitis. The risk of laminitis appears to be greater during treatment using some GCs (especially dexamethasone and triamcinalone) compared with others (prednisone and prednisolone). Whenever possible, to reduce the risk of laminitis, GCs should be administered locally. For example, the risk of GC-associated laminitis is evidently considerably reduced in horses affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) if GC treatment is administered via inhalation. We have hypothesized that structural changes in the equine hoof that resemble laminitis may arise as a consequence of excess GC effect. Although these changes are not painful per se, and are not associated with inflammation, they could likely predispose affected horses to the development of bona fide laminitis for other reasons. Moreover, the gross morphological appearance of the chronically GC-affected hoof resembles that of a chronically

  15. Embedded adhesive connection for laminated glass plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Poulsen, S.H.; Bagger, A.

    2012-01-01

    The structural behavior of a new connection design, the embedded adhesive connection, used for laminated glass plates is investigated. The connection consists of an aluminum plate encapsulated in-between two adjacent triple layered laminated glass plates. Fastening between glass and aluminum...... usage in a design situation. The embedded connection shows promising potential as a future fastening system for load-carrying laminated glass plates....

  16. Piezoelectric Microstructured Fibers via Drawing of Multimaterial Preforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin; Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2017-06-06

    We demonstrate planar laminated piezoelectric generators and piezoelectric microstructured fibers based on BaTiO 3 -polyvinylidene and carbon-loaded-polyethylene materials combinations. The laminated piezoelectric generators were assembled by sandwiching the electrospun BaTiO 3 -polyvinylidene mat between two carbon-loaded-polyethylene films. The piezoelectric microstructured fiber was fabricated via drawing of the multilayer fiber preform, and features a swissroll geometry that have ~10 alternating piezoelectric and conductive layers. Both piezoelectric generators have excellent mechanical durability, and could retain their piezoelectric performance after 3 day's cyclic bend-release tests. Compared to the laminated generators, the piezoelectric fibers are advantageous as they could be directly woven into large-area commercial fabrics. Potential applications of the proposed piezoelectric fibers include micro-power-generation and remote sensing in wearable, automotive and aerospace industries.

  17. Mechanical properties of unidirectional laminates with carbon fiber and epoxy resin DA4518U USG0540; Propiedades mecanicas de los laminados unidireccionales de fibra de carbono con resina epoxica DA4518U Y USG0540

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Melo, Monica I.; Rubio Gonzalez, Carlos; Del Llano Vizcaya, Luis [CIDESI. Centro de Ingenieria y Desarrollo Industrial Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: monica.sanchez.melo@gmail.com; crubio@cidesi.mx; lvizcaya@cidesi.mx

    2010-11-15

    In this paper, a study of the mechanical properties of composite materials with carbon fiber and epoxy resin DA4518U USG0540 is described, due to no such properties have been published to date, this study is performed. This work is developed at the Center for Engineering and Industrial Development (CIDESI). As a part of this research, the elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and shear modulus are obtained both analytical and experimentally. Tests are performed to high cycle fatigue in both materials, and then these specimens are examined by ultrasound with the immersion technique in order to detect variations in material delamination, changes in obtain the attenuation and wave propagation. Finally, the tensional test to the specimen fatigue is repeated for changes in their mechanical properties. Also, a comparison is made between the results to determine which of those materials is more reliable for future applications in the aerospace industry. [Spanish] En este articulo se describe el estudio de las propiedades mecanicas de los materiales compuestos de fibra de carbono con resina epoxica DA4518U y USG0540, dicho estudio se lleva a cabo debido a que, a la fecha, no se han publicado tales propiedades, este trabajo se desarrollo en el Centro de Ingenieria y desarrollo Industrial (CIDESI). Como parte de esta investigacion, se obtienen analitica y experimentalmente el modulo de elasticidad, modulo de Poisson y modulo de corte. Tambien se realizan pruebas de fatiga a altos ciclos en ambos materiales, posteriormente estos especimenes se examinan por ultrasonido con la tecnica de inmersion para detectar variaciones en el material como delaminaciones, cambios de atenuacion y en la velocidad de propagacion de onda. Por ultimo se repite la prueba de tension a la probeta fatiga para conocer los cambios en sus propiedades mecanicas. Asi mismo se hace una comparacion entre los resultados obtenidos, para determinar cual material es mas confiable para futuras aplicaciones en la

  18. Roll-to-roll compatible organic thin film transistor manufacturing technique by printing, lamination, and laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassinen, Tomi; Ruotsalainen, Teemu; Laakso, Petri; Penttilä, Raimo; Sandberg, Henrik G.O.

    2014-01-01

    We present roll-to-roll printing compatible techniques for manufacturing organic thin film transistors using two separately processed foils that are laminated together. The introduction of heat-assisted lamination opens up possibilities for material and processing combinations. The lamination of two separately processed substrates together will allow usage of pre-patterned electrodes on both substrates and materials with non-compatible solvents. Also, the surface microstructure is formed differently when laminating dry films together compared to film formation from liquid phase. Demonstrator transistors, inverters and ring oscillators were produced using lamination techniques. Finally, a roll-to-roll compatible lamination concept is proposed where also the source and drain electrodes are patterned by laser ablation. The demonstrator transistors have shown very good lifetime in air, which is contributed partly to the good material combination and partly to the enhanced interface formation in heat-assisted lamination process. - Highlights: • A roll-to-roll compatible lamination technique for printed electronics is proposed. • Laser ablation allows highly defined metal top and bottom electrodes. • Method opens up processing possibilities for incompatible materials and solvents. • Shearing forces may enhance molecular orientation and packing. • An air stable polymer transistor is demonstrated with a lifetime of years

  19. Characterization of damaged composite laminates by an optical measurement of the displacement field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loukil, M S; Ayadi, Z; Varna, J

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of the elastic properties of composite laminates with intralaminar cracks is caused by reduced stress in the damaged layer which is mainly due to two parameters: the crack opening displacement (COD) and the crack sliding displacement (CSD). In this paper these parameters are measured experimentally providing laminate stiffness reduction models with valuable information for validation of used assumptions and for defining limits of their application. In particular, the displacement field on the edges of a [0/ +70 4 / −70 4 ] s glass fiber/epoxy laminate specimens with multiple intralaminar cracks is studied and the COD and CSD dependence on the applied mechanical load is measured. The specimen full-field displacement measurement is carried out using ESPI (Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry). By studying the displacement discontinuities, the crack face displacements were measured. A comparison between the COD and the CSD (for the same crack) is performed.

  20. Tensile and compressive failure modes of laminated composites loaded by fatigue with different mean stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotem, Assa

    1990-01-01

    Laminated composite materials tend to fail differently under tensile or compressive load. Under tension, the material accumulates cracks and fiber fractures, while under compression, the material delaminates and buckles. Tensile-compressive fatigue may cause either of these failure modes depending on the specific damage occurring in the laminate. This damage depends on the stress ratio of the fatigue loading. Analysis of the fatigue behavior of the composite laminate under tension-tension, compression-compression, and tension-compression had led to the development of a fatigue envelope presentation of the failure behavior. This envelope indicates the specific failure mode for any stress ratio and number of loading cycles. The construction of the fatigue envelope is based on the applied stress-cycles to failure (S-N) curves of both tensile-tensile and compressive-compressive fatigue. Test results are presented to verify the theoretical analysis.

  1. Thermally induced self-healing epoxy/glass laminates with porous layers containing crystallized healing agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Szmechtyk

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Porous glass fiber and paper layers were tested for application in thermally induced self healing epoxy laminates as healing porous layers. Both types of layers were impregnated using high purity bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE epoxy with ability to crystallize during storage under 25 °C. Absorption capacity of porous layers was evaluated. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate BADGE healing agent recrystallization process. Healing porous glass layers (HPGL were selected for further tests. Liquid chromatography and Fourier transform infrared (FT IR spectroscopy provided information about average molecular mass of embedded healing agent and functional groups in HPGL layers. Self-healing efficiency of three different laminates with HPGL layers was calculated based on the results of three-point bending test and Charpy impact test. Also, flexural properties and impact strength of laminates were evaluated. The obtained results confirm competitive self healing ability of composites with HPGL.

  2. Determination of Fracture Parameters for Multiple Cracks of Laminated Composite Finite Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Arora, P. K.; Srivastava, Sharad Chandra; Kumar, Harish; Lohumi, M. K.

    2018-04-01

    A predictive method for estimation of stress state at zone of crack tip and assessment of remaining component lifetime depend on the stress intensity factor (SIF). This paper discusses the numerical approach for prediction of first ply failure load (FL), progressive failure load, SIF and critical SIF for multiple cracks configurations of laminated composite finite plate using finite element method (FEM). The Hashin and Chang failure criterion are incorporated in ABAQUS using subroutine approach user defined field variables (USDFLD) for prediction of progressive fracture response of laminated composite finite plate, which is not directly available in the software. A tensile experiment on laminated composite finite plate with stress concentration is performed to validate the numerically predicted subroutine results, shows excellent agreement. The typical results are presented to examine effect of changing the crack tip distance (S), crack offset distance (H), and stacking fiber angle (θ) on FL, and SIF .

  3. Suspension state increases reattachment of breast cancer cells by up-regulating lamin A/C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Lv, Yonggang

    2017-12-01

    Extravasation is a rate-limiting step of tumor metastasis, for which adhesion to endothelium of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is the prerequisite. The suspension state of CTCs undergoing detachment from primary tumor is a persistent biomechanical cue, which potentially regulates the biophysical characteristics and cellular behaviors of tumor cells. In this study, breast tumor cells MDA-MB-231 in suspension culture condition were used to investigate the effect of suspension state on reattachment of CTCs. Our study demonstrated that suspension state significantly increased the adhesion ability of breast tumor cells. In addition, suspension state markedly promoted the formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions and reduced the motility in reattached breast cancer cells. Moreover, lamin A/C was reversibly accumulated at posttranscriptional level under suspension state, improving the cell stiffness of reattached breast cancer cells. Disruption of actin cytoskeleton by cytochalasin D caused lamin A/C accumulation. Conversely, decreasing actomyosin contraction by ROCK inhibitor Y27632 reduced lamin A/C level. Knocking down lamin A/C weakened the suspension-induced increase of adhesion, and also abolished the suspension-induced decrease of motility and increase of stress fibers and focal adhesion in reattaching tumor cells, suggesting a crucial role of lamin A/C. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that suspension state promoted the reattachment of breast tumor cells by up-regulating lamin A/C via cytoskeleton disruption. These findings highlight the important role of suspension state for tumor cells in tumor metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fatigue Analysis of Notched Laminates: A Time-Efficient Macro-Mechanical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghipour, P.; Pineda, E. J.; Bednarcyk, B. A.; Arnold, S. M.; Waas, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    A coupled transversely isotropic deformation and damage fatigue model is implemented within the finite element method and was utilized along with a static progressive damage model to predict the fatigue life, stiffness degradation as a function of number of cycles, and post-fatigue tension and compression response of notched, multidirectional laminates. Initially, the material parameters for the fatigue model were obtained utilizing micromechanics simulations and the provided [0], [90] and [plus or minus 45] experimental composite laminate S-N (stress-cycle) data. Within the fatigue damage model, the transverse and shear properties of the plies were degraded with an isotropic scalar damage variable. The damage in the longitudinal (fiber) ply direction was suppressed, and only the strength of the fiber was degraded as a function of fatigue cycles. A maximum strain criterion was used to capture the failure in each element, and once this criterion was satisfied, the longitudinal stiffness of the element was decreased by a factor of 10 (sup 4). The resulting, degraded properties were then used to calculate the new stress state. This procedure was repeated until final failure of the composite laminate was achieved or a specified number of cycles reached. For post-fatigue tension and compression behavior, four internal state variables were used to control the damage and failure. The predictive capability of the above-mentioned approach was assessed by performing blind predictions of the notched multidirectional IM7/977-3 composite laminates response under fatigue and post-fatigue tensile and compressive loading, followed by a recalibration phase. Although three different multidirectional laminates were analyzed in the course of this study, only detailed results (i.e., stiffness degradation and post-fatigue stress-train curves as well as damage evolution states for a single laminate ([30/60/90/minus 30/minus 60] (sub 2s)) are discussed in detail here.

  5. Connections: Superplasticity, Damascus Steels, Laminated Steels, and Carbon Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a description is given of the connections that evolved from the initial development of a family of superplastic plain carbon steels that came to be known as Ultra-High Carbon Steels (UHCS). It was observed that their very high carbon contents were similar, if not identical, to those of Damascus steels. There followed a series of attempts to rediscover how the famous patterns found on Damascus steels blades were formed. At the same time, in order to improve the toughness at room temperature of the newly-developed UHCS, laminated composites were made of alternating layers of UHCS and mild steel (and subsequently other steels and other metals). This led to a study of ancient laminated composites, the motives for their manufacture, and the plausibility of some of the claims relating to the number of layers in the final blades. One apparently ancient laminated composite, recovered in 1837 from the great pyramid of Giza which was constructed in about 2750 B.C., stimulated a carbon dating study of ancient steels. The modern interest in "Bladesmithing" has connections back to many of these ancient weapons.

  6. Nanospot soldering polystyrene nanoparticles with an optical fiber probe laser irradiating a metallic AFM probe based on the near-field enhancement effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jianlei; Yang, Lijun; Wang, Yang; Mei, Xuesong; Wang, Wenjun; Hou, Chaojian

    2015-02-04

    With the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology for the bottom-up nanofabrication of nanostructures formed from polystyrene nanoparticles, joining technology is an essential step in the manufacturing and assembly of nanodevices and nanostructures in order to provide mechanical integration and connection. To study the nanospot welding of polystyrene nanoparticles, we propose a new nanospot-soldering method using the near-field enhancement effect of a metallic atomic force microscope (AFM) probe tip that is irradiated by an optical fiber probe laser. On the basis of our theoretical analysis of the near-field enhancement effect, we set up an experimental system for nanospot soldering; this approach is carried out by using an optical fiber probe laser to irradiate the AFM probe tip to sinter the nanoparticles, providing a promising technical approach for the application of nanosoldering in nanoscience and nanotechnology.

  7. Lamins of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and the evolution of the vertebrate lamin protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilf, Paul; Peter, Annette; Hurek, Thomas; Stick, Reimer

    2014-07-01

    Lamin proteins are found in all metazoans. Most non-vertebrate genomes including those of the closest relatives of vertebrates, the cephalochordates and tunicates, encode only a single lamin. In teleosts and tetrapods the number of lamin genes has quadrupled. They can be divided into four sub-types, lmnb1, lmnb2, LIII, and lmna, each characterized by particular features and functional differentiations. Little is known when during vertebrate evolution these features have emerged. Lampreys belong to the Agnatha, the sister group of the Gnathostomata. They split off first within the vertebrate lineage. Analysis of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) lamin complement presented here, identified three functional lamin genes, one encoding a lamin LIII, indicating that the characteristic gene structure of this subtype had been established prior to the agnathan/gnathostome split. Two other genes encode lamins for which orthology to gnathostome lamins cannot be designated. Search for lamin gene sequences in all vertebrate taxa for which sufficient sequence data are available reveals the evolutionary time frame in which specific features of the vertebrate lamins were established. Structural features characteristic for A-type lamins are not found in the lamprey genome. In contrast, lmna genes are present in all gnathostome lineages suggesting that this gene evolved with the emergence of the gnathostomes. The analysis of lamin gene neighborhoods reveals noticeable similarities between the different vertebrate lamin genes supporting the hypothesis that they emerged due to two rounds of whole genome duplication and makes clear that an orthologous relationship between a particular vertebrate paralog and lamins outside the vertebrate lineage cannot be established. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Wettability of graphene-laminated micropillar structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bong, Jihye; Seo, Keumyoung; Ju, Sanghyun; Park, Ji-Hoon; Ahn, Joung Real

    2014-01-01

    The wetting control of graphene is of great interest for electronic, mechanical, architectural, and bionic applications. In this study, the wettability of graphene-laminated micropillar structures was manipulated by changing the height of graphene-laminated structures and employing the trichlorosilane (HDF-S)-based self-assembly monolayer. Graphene-laminated micropillar structures with HDF-S exhibited higher hydrophobicity (contact angle of 129.5°) than pristine graphene thin film (78.8°), pristine graphene-laminated micropillar structures (97.5°), and HDF-S self-assembled graphene thin film (98.5°). Wetting states of the graphene-laminated micropillar structure with HDF-S was also examined by using a urea solution, which flowed across the surface without leaving any residues

  9. Thermal and mechanical behavior of metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M. (Editor); Moeller, Helen H. (Editor); Johnson, W. S. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference discusses local stresses in metal-matrix composites (MMCs) subjected to thermal and mechanical loads, the computational simulation of high-temperature MMCs' cyclic behavior, an analysis of a ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) flexure specimen, and a plasticity analysis of fibrous composite laminates under thermomechanical loads. Also discussed are a comparison of methods for determining the fiber-matrix interface frictional stresses of CMCs, the monotonic and cyclic behavior of an SiC/calcium aluminosilicate CMC, the mechanical and thermal properties of an SiC particle-reinforced Al alloy MMC, the temperature-dependent tensile and shear response of a graphite-reinforced 6061 Al-alloy MMC, the fiber/matrix interface bonding strength of MMCs, and fatigue crack growth in an Al2O3 short fiber-reinforced Al-2Mg matrix MMC.

  10. Evaluation of shear-compressive strength properties for laminated GFRP composites in electromagnet system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun Hee; Kim, Hak Kun; Kim, Sam Yeon

    2014-07-01

    Laminated fiber-reinforced composites can be applied to an insulating structure of a nuclear fusion device. It is necessary to investigate the interlaminar fracture characteristics of the laminated composites for the assurance of design and structural integrity. The three methods used to prepare the glass fiber reinforced plastic composites tested in this study were vacuum pressure impregnation, high pressure laminate (HPL), and prepreg laminate. We discuss the design criteria for safe application of composites and the shear-compressive test methods for evaluating mechanical properties of the material. Shear-compressive tests could be performed successfully using series-type test jigs that were inclined 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 75° to the normal axis. Shear strength depends strongly on the applied compressive stress. The design range of allowable shear stress was extended by use of the appropriate composite fabrication method. HPL had the largest design range, and the allowable interlaminar shear stress was 0.254 times the compressive stress.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of a metal-packaged regenerated fiber Bragg grating strain sensor for structural integrity monitoring of high-temperature components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Yun; Tu, Shan-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the structural integrity of components operating at high temperatures requires the development of novel sensors to measure strain. A metal-packaged regenerated fiber Bragg grating (RFBG) sensor is developed for measurement of strain using titanium–silver magnetron sputtering and nickel electroplating. The strain response of the sensor mounted onto a flat tensile specimen by spot welding is evaluated by uniaxial tensile tests at constant temperatures ranging from room temperature to 400 °C. Similar tests are performed on a bare RFBG sensor for comparison. The metal-packaged RFBG strain sensor exhibits higher strain sensitivity than that of the bare RFBG sensor, as well as good linearity, stability and repeatability of strain measurements. A three-dimensional finite element model of the sensor is established to predict the strain sensitivity based on the sensing principle of the fiber Bragg grating. Comparisons of the experimental results with the numerical predictions for the strain sensitivity show a satisfactory agreement. These results demonstrate that the metal-packaged RFBG strain sensors can be successfully fabricated by combining magnetron sputtering with electroplating, and provide great promise for structural integrity monitoring of high-temperature components. (paper)

  12. Metal-coated semiconductor nanostructures and simulation of photon extraction and coupling to optical fibers for a solid-state single-photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suemune, Ikuo; Nakajima, Hideaki; Liu, Xiangming; Odashima, Satoru; Asano, Tomoya; Iijima, Hitoshi; Huh, Jae-Hoon; Idutsu, Yasuhiro; Sasakura, Hirotaka; Kumano, Hidekazu

    2013-01-01

    We have realized metal-coated semiconductor nanostructures for a stable and efficient single-photon source (SPS) and demonstrated improved single-photon extraction efficiency by the selection of metals and nanostructures. We demonstrate with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations that inclination of a pillar sidewall, which changes the structure to a nanocone, is effective in improving the photon extraction efficiency. We demonstrate how such nanocone structures with inclined sidewalls are fabricated with reactive ion etching. With the optimized design, a photon extraction efficiency to outer airside as high as ∼97% generated from a quantum dot in a nanocone structure is simulated, which is the important step in realizing SPS on-demand operations. We have also examined the direct contact of such a metal-embedded nanocone structure with a single-mode fiber facet as a simple and practical method for preparing fiber-coupled SPS and demonstrated practical coupling efficiencies of ∼16% with FDTD simulation. (paper)

  13. Transition Metal Ions Enable the Transition from Electrospun Prolamin Protein Fibers to Nitrogen-Doped Freestanding Carbon Films for Flexible Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixiang; Yang, Jingqi; Du, Rongbing; Chen, Lingyun

    2017-07-19

    Flexible carbon ultrafine fibers are highly desirable in energy storage and conversion devices. Our previous finding showed that electrospun hordein/zein fibers stabilized by Ca 2+ were successfully transferred into nitrogen-doped carbon ultrafine fibers for supercapacitors. However, their relatively brittle nature needed to be improved. Inspired by this stabilizing effect of Ca 2+ , in this work, four transition metal divalent cations were used to assist the formation of flexible hordein/zein-derived carbon ultrafine fibers. Without alteration of the electrospinnability, adequate amounts of zinc acetate and cobalt acetate supported the fibrous structure during pyrolysis. This resulted in flexible freestanding carbon films consisting of well-defined fibers with nitrogen-doped graphitic layers and hierarchical pores. These carbon films were easily cut into small square pieces and directly applied as working electrode in the three-electrode testing system without the need for polymer binders or conducting agents. Notably, the hz-Zn0.3-p electrode, synthesized with 0.3 mol/L Zn 2+ and post-acid treatment, exhibited a specific capacitance of 393 F/g (at 1 A/g), a large rate capability (72.3% remained at 20 A/g), and a capacitance retention of ∼98% after 2000 charging-discharging cycles at 10 A/g. These superior electrochemical properties were attributed to the synergistic effects of the well-developed graphitic layers induced by Zn 2+ , the nitrogen-decorated carbon structure, and the interconnected channels generated by HCl treatment. This research advances potential applications for prolamin proteins as nitrogen-containing raw materials in developing carbon structures for high-performance supercapacitors.

  14. X-ray testing of fiber composite plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, O.; Lembke, B.

    1984-01-01

    Besides the ultrasonic test, X-raying is the most important non-destructive test procedure for supporting fibre composite structures. This report presents some auxiliary means and test results regarding the limits of fault detectibility during the X-raying of fiber composite structures, preferrably carbon fiber laminates (CFRP). (orig.) [de

  15. Metal-free polymer/MWCNT composite fiber as an efficient counter electrode in fiber shape dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abid; Mujtaba Shah, Syed; Bozar, Sinem; Kazici, Mehmet; Keskin, Bahadır; Kaleli, Murat; Akyürekli, Salih; Günes, Serap

    2016-09-01

    Highly aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) as fiber were modified with a conducting polymer via a simple dip coating method. Modified MWCNT exhibited admirable improvement in electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of tri-iodide in dye sensitized solar cells. Scanning electron microscopy images confirm the successful deposition of polymer on MWCNT. Cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies were carried out to investigate the inner mechanism for the charge transfer behaviour. Results from bare and modified electrodes revealed that the MWCNT/(poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) composite electrode is much better at catalysing the {{{{I}}}3}-/{{{I}}}- redox couple compared to the pristine fiber electrode. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of 5.03% for the modified MWCNT electrodes was comparable with that of the conventional Pt-based electrode. The scientific results of this study reveal that MWCNT/PEDOT:PSS may be a better choice for the replacement of cost intensive electrode materials such as platinum. Good performance even after bending up to 90° and in-series connection to enhance the output voltage were also successfully achieved, highlighting the practical application of this novel device.

  16. Predisposing factors of laminitis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermunt, J J; Greenough, P R

    1994-01-01

    Laminitis is regarded as a major predisposing factor in lameness caused by claw disorders. Despite intensive study, both by experiment and by clinical observation, knowledge of the precise aetiology and pathogenesis of bovine laminitis is still incomplete. It is often hypothesized that changes in the micro-circulation of the corum (dermis) of the bovine claw contribute significantly to the development of laminitis; arteriovenous anastomoses (AVAs) playing a crucial role. Many factors have been implicated as contributing causes of laminitis in cattle; the disease has a multifactorial aetiology. The cause of laminitis should be considered as a combination of predisposing factors leading to vascular (AVAs in particular) reactivity and inhibition of normal horn synthesis. Nutrition, disease, management and behaviour appear to be closely involved in the pathogenesis of bovine laminitis. The major factors predisposing to laminitis in cattle, as reported or suggested in the literature, are reviewed, including systemic disease, nutrition (barley grain, protein, carbohydrate and fibre), management (housing, bedding and exercise), calving, season, age, growth, genetics, conformation and behaviour.

  17. Laminitis and the equine metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip J; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; LaCarrubba, Alison; Ganjam, V K Seshu; Messer, Nat T

    2010-08-01

    Although much has been written about laminitis in the context of its association with inflammatory processes, recognition is growing that most cases of laminitis examined by veterinarians in private practice are those associated with pasture grazing, obesity, and insulin resistance (IR). The term 'endocrinopathic laminitis' has been adopted to classify the instances of laminitis in which the origin seems to be more strongly associated with an underlying endocrinopathy, such as either IR or the influence of corticosteroids. Results of a recent study suggest that obesity and IR represent the most common metabolic and endocrinopathic predispositions for laminitis in horses. IR also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of laminitis that develops when some horses or ponies are allowed to graze pastures at certain times of the year. The term equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) has been proposed as a label for horses whose clinical examination results (including both physical examination and laboratory testing) suggest heightened risk for developing laminitis as a result of underlying IR. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Meshfree modeling in laminated composites

    KAUST Repository

    Simkins, Daniel Craig; Collier, Nathan; Alford, Joseph B.

    2012-01-01

    A problem of increasing importance in the aerospace industry is in detailed modeling of explicit fracture in laminated composite materials. For design applications, the simulation must be capable of initiation and propagation of changes in the problem domain. Further, these changes must be able to be incorporated within a design-scale simulation. The use of a visibility condition, coupled with the local and dynamic nature of meshfree shape function construction allows one to initiate and explicitly open and propagate holes inside a previously continuous problem domain. The method to be presented naturally couples to a hierarchical multi-scale material model incorporating external knowldege bases to achieve the goal of a practical explicit fracture modeling capability for full-scale problems. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Meshfree modeling in laminated composites

    KAUST Repository

    Simkins, Daniel Craig

    2012-09-27

    A problem of increasing importance in the aerospace industry is in detailed modeling of explicit fracture in laminated composite materials. For design applications, the simulation must be capable of initiation and propagation of changes in the problem domain. Further, these changes must be able to be incorporated within a design-scale simulation. The use of a visibility condition, coupled with the local and dynamic nature of meshfree shape function construction allows one to initiate and explicitly open and propagate holes inside a previously continuous problem domain. The method to be presented naturally couples to a hierarchical multi-scale material model incorporating external knowldege bases to achieve the goal of a practical explicit fracture modeling capability for full-scale problems. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Simulating squeeze flows in multiaxial laminates using an improved TIF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, R.; Abisset-Chavanne, Emmanuelle; Chinesta, Francisco

    2017-10-01

    Thermoplastic composites are widely considered in structural parts. In this paper attention is paid to squeeze flow of continuous fiber laminates. In the case of unidirectional prepregs, the ply constitutive equation is modeled as a transversally isotropic fluid, that must satisfy both the fiber inextensibility as well as the fluid incompressibility. When laminate is squeezed the flow kinematics exhibits a complex dependency along the laminate thickness requiring a detailed velocity description through the thickness. In a former work the solution making use of an in-plane-out-of-plane separated representation within the PGD - Poper Generalized Decomposition - framework was successfully accomplished when both kinematic constraints (inextensibility and in-compressibility) were introduced using a penalty formulation for circumventing the LBB constraints. However, such a formulation makes difficult the calculation on fiber tractions and compression forces, the last required in rheological characterizations. In this paper the former penalty formulation is substituted by a mixed formulation that makes use of two Lagrange multipliers, while addressing the LBB stability conditions within the separated representation framework, questions never until now addressed.

  1. Fiber-optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of zirconium metal in air: Special features of the plasma produced by a long-pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ayumu; Ohba, Hironori; Toshimitsu, Masaaki; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Ruas, Alexandre; Sakka, Tetsuo; Wakaida, Ikuo

    2018-04-01

    The decommissioning of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant is an essential issue in nuclear R&D. Fiber-optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (Fiber-optic LIBS) could be used for in-situ elemental analysis of the inside of the damaged reactors. To improve the performances under difficult conditions, using a long-pulse laser can be an efficient alternative. In this work, the emission spectra of zirconium metal in air obtained for a normal-pulse laser (6 ns) and a long-pulse laser (100 ns) (wavelength: 1064 nm, pulse energy: 12.5 mJ, spot diameter: 0.35 mm) are compared to investigate the fundamental aspects of fiber-optic LIBS with the long-pulse laser. The spectral features are considerably different: when the long-pulse laser is used, the atomic and molecular emission is remarkably enhanced. The enhancement of the atomic emission at the near infrared (NIR) region would lead to the observation of emission lines with minimum overlapping. To understand the differences in the spectra induced respectively from the normal-pulse laser and the long-pulse laser, photodiode signals, time-resolved spectra, plasma parameters, emission from the ambient air, and emission regions are investigated, showing the particular characteristics of the plasma produced by the long-pulse laser.

  2. Photovoltaic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiana, Russell; Eckert, Robert; Cardone, John; Ryan, James; Montello, Alan

    2006-08-01

    It was realized early in the history of Konarka that the ability to produce fibers that generate power from solar energy could be applied to a wide variety of applications where fabrics are utilized currently. These applications include personal items such as jackets, shirts and hats, to architectural uses such as awnings, tents, large covers for cars, trucks and even doomed stadiums, to indoor furnishings such as window blinds, shades and drapes. They may also be used as small fabric patches or fiber bundles for powering or recharging batteries in small sensors. Power generating fabrics for clothing is of particular interest to the military where they would be used in uniforms and body armor where portable power is vital to field operations. In strong sunlight these power generating fabrics could be used as a primary source of energy, or they can be used in either direct sunlight or low light conditions to recharge batteries. Early in 2002, Konarka performed a series of proof-of-concept experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of building a photovoltaic cell using dye-sensitized titania and electrolyte on a metal wire core. The approach taken was based on the sequential coating processes used in making fiber optics, namely, a fiber core, e.g., a metal wire serving as the primary electrode, is passed through a series of vertically aligned coating cups. Each of the cups contains a coating fluid that has a specific function in the photocell. A second wire, used as the counter electrode, is brought into the process prior to entering the final coating cup. The latter contains a photopolymerizable, transparent cladding which hardens when passed through a UV chamber. Upon exiting the UV chamber, the finished PV fiber is spooled. Two hundred of foot lengths of PV fiber have been made using this process. When the fiber is exposed to visible radiation, it generates electrical power. The best efficiency exhibited by these fibers is 6% with an average value in the 4

  3. Modeling the kinematics of multi-axial composite laminates as a stacking of 2D TIF plies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Ruben; Abisset-Chavanne, Emmanuelle; Chinesta, Francisco; Huerta, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Thermoplastic composites are widely considered in structural parts. In this paper attention is paid to sheet forming of continuous fiber laminates. In the case of unidirectional prepregs, the ply constitutive equation is modeled as a transversally isotropic fluid, that must satisfy both the fiber inextensibility as well as the fluid incompressibility. When the stacking sequence involves plies with different orientations the kinematics of each ply during the laminate deformation varies significantly through the composite thickness. In our former works we considered two different approaches when simulating the squeeze flow induced by the laminate compression, the first based on a penalty formulation and the second one based on the use of Lagrange multipliers. In the present work we propose an alternative approach that consists in modeling each ply involved in the laminate as a transversally isotropic fluid - TIF - that becomes 2D as soon as incompressibility constraint and plane stress assumption are taken into account. Thus, composites laminates can be analyzed as a stacking of 2D TIF models that could eventually interact by using adequate friction laws at the inter-ply interfaces.

  4. A review on the development and properties of continuous fiber/epoxy/aluminum hybrid composites for aircraft structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Cocchieri Botelho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Weight reduction and improved damage tolerance characteristics were the prime drivers to develop new family of materials for the aerospace/aeronautical industry. Aiming this objective, a new lightweight Fiber/Metal Laminate (FML has been developed. The combination of metal and polymer composite laminates can create a synergistic effect on many properties. The mechanical properties of FML shows improvements over the properties of both aluminum alloys and composite materials individually. Due to their excellent properties, FML are being used as fuselage skin structures of the next generation commercial aircrafts. One of the advantages of FML when compared with conventional carbon fiber/epoxy composites is the low moisture absorption. The moisture absorption in FML composites is slower when compared with polymer composites, even under the relatively harsh conditions, due to the barrier of the aluminum outer layers. Due to this favorable atmosphere, recently big companies such as EMBRAER, Aerospatiale, Boing, Airbus, and so one, starting to work with this kind of materials as an alternative to save money and to guarantee the security of their aircrafts.

  5. Residual stress effects on the impact resistance and strength of fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Equations have been derived to predict degradation effects of microresidual stresses on impact resistance of unidirectional fiber composites. Equations also predict lamination residual stresses in multilayered angle ply composites.

  6. Optimal design of variable-stiffness fiber-reinforced composites using cellular automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setoodeh, S.

    2005-01-01

    Growing number of applications of composites materials in aerospace and naval structures along with advancements in manufacturing technologies demand continuous innovations in design of composite structures. In the traditional design of composite laminates, fiber orientation angles are constant for

  7. Field Strain Measurement on the Fiber-Epoxy Scale in CFRPs

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, Ran; Moussawi, Ali; Zhou, Jian; Lubineau, Gilles; Pan, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Laminated composites are materials with complex architecture made of continuous fibers (usually glass or carbon) embedded within a polymeric resin. The properties of the raw materials can vary from one point to another due to different local

  8. Automatic on-line detection system design research on internal defects of metal materials based on optical fiber F-P sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Liu; Shan, Ning; Chao, Ban; Caoshan, Wang

    2016-10-01

    Metal materials have been used in aerospace and other industrial fields widely because of its excellent characteristics, so its internal defects detection is very important. Ultrasound technology is used widely in the fields of nondestructive detection because of its excellent characteristic. But the conventional detection instrument for ultrasound, which has shortcomings such as low intelligent level and long development cycles, limits its development. In this paper, the theory of ultrasound detection is analyzed. A computational method of the defects distributional position is given. The non-contact type optical fiber F-P interference cavity structure is designed and the length of origin cavity is given. The real-time on-line ultrasound detecting experiment devices for internal defects of metal materials is established based on the optical fiber F-P sensing system. The virtual instrument of automation ultrasound detection internal defects is developed based on LabVIEW software and the experimental study is carried out. The results show that this system can be used in internal defect real-time on-line locating of engineering structures effectively. This system has higher measurement precision. Relative error is 6.7%. It can be met the requirement of engineering practice. The system is characterized by simple operation, easy realization. The software has a friendly interface, good expansibility, and high intelligent level.

  9. Thermo-hydroforming of a fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites considering fiber orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyunchul; Kuuttila, Nicholas Eric; Pourboghrat, Farhang

    2018-05-01

    The Thermoplastic woven composites were formed using a composite thermal hydroforming process, utilizing heated and pressurized fluid, similar to sheet metal forming. This study focuses on the modification of 300-ton pressure formation and predicts its behavior. Spectra Shield SR-3136 is used in this study and material properties are measured by experiments. The behavior of fiber-reinforced thermoplastic polymer composites (FRTP) was modeled using the Preferred Fiber Orientation (PFO) model and validated by comparing numerical analysis with experimental results. The thermo-hydroforming process has shown good results in the ability to form deep drawn parts with reduced wrinkles. Numerical analysis was performed using the PFO model and implemented as commercial finite element software ABAQUS / Explicit. The user subroutine (VUMAT) was used for the material properties of the thermoplastic composite layer. This model is suitable for working with multiple layers of composite laminates. Model parameters have been updated to work with cohesive zone model to calculate the interfacial properties between each composite layer. The results of the numerical modeling showed a good correlation with the molding experiment on the forming shape. Numerical results were also compared with experimental results on punch force-displacement curves for deformed geometry and forming processes of the composite layer. Overall, the shape of the deformed FRTP, including the distribution of wrinkles, was accurately predicted as shown in this study.

  10. Control and characterization of a bistable laminate generated with piezoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew J.; Moosavian, Amin; Inman, Daniel J.

    2017-08-01

    Extensive research has been conducted on utilizing smart materials such as piezoelectric and shape memory alloy actuators to induce snap through of bistable structures for morphing applications. However, there has only been limited success in initiating snap through from both stable states due to the lack of actuation authority. A novel solution in the form of a piezoelectrically generated bistable laminate consisting of only macro fiber composites (MFC), allowing complete configuration control without any external assistance, is explored in detail here. Specifically, this paper presents the full analytical, computational, and experimental results of the laminate’s design, geometry, bifurcation behavior, and snap through capability. By bonding two actuated MFCs in a [0MFC/90MFC]T layup and releasing the voltage post cure, piezoelectric strain anisotropy and the resulting in-plane residual stresses yield two statically stable states that are cylindrically shaped. The analytical model uses the Rayleigh-Ritz minimization of total potential energy and finite element analysis is implemented in MSC Nastran. The [0MFC/90MFC]T laminate is then manufactured and experimentally characterized for model validation. This paper demonstrates the adaptive laminate’s unassisted forward and reverse snap through capability enabled by the efficiencies gained from simultaneously being the actuator and the primary structure.

  11. Failure Behaviour of Aluminium/CFRP Laminates with Varying Fibre Orientation in Quasi-static Indentation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, N. K.; Rejab, M. R. M.; Bachtiar, D.; Siregar, J.; Rani, M. F.; Salleh, Salwani Mohd; Merzuki, M. N. M.

    2018-03-01

    The response of the aluminium/carbon laminate was examined by an experimental work. The investigation on fibre metal laminate behaviour was done through an indentation test in a quasi-static loading. The hybrid laminate was fabricated by a compression moulding technique and used two types of carbon fibre orientations; plain weave and unidirectional. The plain weave orientation is dry fibre, and unidirectional orientation is prepreg type fibre. The plain weave carbon fibre and aluminium alloy 2024-0 was laminated by using thermoset epoxy while the unidirectional carbon fibre was pressed by using a hot press machine and cured under a specific temperature and pressure. A compression moulding technique was used for the FML fabrication. The aluminium sheet metal has been roughening by a metal sanding method which to improve the bonding between the fibre and metal layer. The main objective of this paper is to determine the failure response of the laminate under five variation of the crosshead speeds in the quasi-static loading. Based on the experimental data of the test, the result of 1 mm/min in the plain weave CFRP has lower loading than unidirectional fibre which the value of both was 4.11 kN and 4.69 kN, respectively.

  12. Laminate mechanics for balanced woven fabrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Remko

    2006-01-01

    Laminate mechanics equations are presented for composites with balanced woven fabric reinforcements. It is shown that mimicking these textile composites with equivalent transversely isotropic (‘unidirectional’) layers requires disputable manipulations. Various micromechanics predictions of textile

  13. Natural fabric sandwich laminate composites: development and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Department of Production Technology, MIT Campus, Anna University, Chennai 600044, India. MS received ... In this work, eco-friendly natural fabric sandwich laminate (NFSL) composites are formulated using ... and eco-friendly quality [22].

  14. Behaviour of Mechanically Laminated CLT Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklík, P.; Velebil, L.

    2015-11-01

    Cross laminated timber (CLT) is one of the structural building systems based on the lamination of multiple layers, where each layer is oriented perpendicularly to each other. Recent requirements are placed to develop an alternative process based on the mechanical lamination of the layers, which is of particular interest to our research group at the University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings. The goal is to develop and verify the behaviour of mechanically laminated CLT wall panels exposed to shear stresses in the plane. The shear resistance of mechanically jointed CLT is ensured by connecting the layers by screws. The paper deals with the experimental analysis focused on the determination of the torsional stiffness and the slip modulus of crossing areas for different numbers of orthogonally connected layers. The results of the experiments were compared with the current analytical model.

  15. Depositing nanometer-sized particles of metals onto carbon allotropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Fallbach, Michael J. (Inventor); Ghose, Sayata (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Delozier, Donavon M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A process for depositing nanometer-sized metal particles onto a substrate in the absence of aqueous solvents, organic solvents, and reducing agents, and without any required pre-treatment of the substrate, includes preparing an admixture of a metal compound and a substrate by dry mixing a chosen amount of the metal compound with a chosen amount of the substrate; and supplying energy to the admixture in an amount sufficient to deposit zero valance metal particles onto the substrate. This process gives rise to a number of deposited metallic particle sizes which may be controlled. The compositions prepared by this process are used to produce polymer composites by combining them with readily available commodity and engineering plastics. The polymer composites are used as coatings, or they are used to fabricate articles, such as free-standing films, fibers, fabrics, foams, molded and laminated articles, tubes, adhesives, and fiber reinforced articles. These articles are well-suited for many applications requiring thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, antibacterial activity, catalytic activity, and combinations thereof.

  16. Stochastic-Strength-Based Damage Simulation of Ceramic Matrix Composite Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Mital, Subodh K.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Pineda, Evan J.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    The Finite Element Analysis-Micromechanics Analysis Code/Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures (FEAMAC/CARES) program was used to characterize and predict the progressive damage response of silicon-carbide-fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix (SiC/RBSN) composite laminate tensile specimens. Studied were unidirectional laminates [0] (sub 8), [10] (sub 8), [45] (sub 8), and [90] (sub 8); cross-ply laminates [0 (sub 2) divided by 90 (sub 2),]s; angled-ply laminates [plus 45 (sub 2) divided by -45 (sub 2), ]s; doubled-edge-notched [0] (sub 8), laminates; and central-hole laminates. Results correlated well with the experimental data. This work was performed as a validation and benchmarking exercise of the FEAMAC/CARES program. FEAMAC/CARES simulates stochastic-based discrete-event progressive damage of ceramic matrix composite and polymer matrix composite material structures. It couples three software programs: (1) the Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC), (2) the Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life Prediction Program (CARES/Life), and (3) the Abaqus finite element analysis program. MAC/GMC contributes multiscale modeling capabilities and micromechanics relations to determine stresses and deformations at the microscale of the composite material repeating-unit-cell (RUC). CARES/Life contributes statistical multiaxial failure criteria that can be applied to the individual brittle-material constituents of the RUC, and Abaqus is used to model the overall composite structure. For each FEAMAC/CARES simulation trial, the stochastic nature of brittle material strength results in random, discrete damage events that incrementally progress until ultimate structural failure.

  17. Compression of laminated composite beams with initial damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Nicole L.; Gurdal, Zafer; Griffin, O. H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of isolated damage modes on the compressive strength and failure characteristics of laminated composite test specimens were evaluated experimentally and numerically. In addition to specimens without initial damage, specimens with three types of initial damage were considered: (1) specimens with short delaminations distributed evenly through the specimen thickness, (2) specimens with few long delaminations, and (3) specimens with local fiber damage in the surface plies under the three-point bend contact point. It was found that specimens with short multiple delamination experienced the greatest reduction in compression strength compared to the undamaged specimens. Single delaminations far from the specimen surface had little effect on the final compression strength, and moderate strength reduction was observed for specimens with localized surface ply damage.

  18. Metal-Embedded Porous Graphitic Carbon Fibers Fabricated from Bamboo Sticks as a Novel Cathode for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuqing; Zhong, Yu; Xia, Xinhui; Xia, Yang; Wang, Donghuang; Zhou, Cheng'ao; Tang, Wangjia; Wang, Xiuli; Wu, J B; Tu, Jiangping

    2018-04-25

    Lithium-sulfur batteries (LSBs) are deemed to be among the most prospective next-generation advanced high-energy batteries. Advanced cathode materials fabricated from biological carbon are becoming more popular due to their unique properties. Inspired by the fibrous structure of bamboo, herein we put forward a smart strategy to convert bamboo sticks for barbecue into uniform bamboo carbon fibers (BCF) via a simple hydrothermal treatment proceeded in alkaline solution. Then NiCl 2 is used to etch the fibers through a heat treatment to achieve Ni-embedded porous graphitic carbon fibers (PGCF/Ni) for LSBs. The designed PGCF/Ni/S electrode exhibits improved electrochemical performances including high initial capacity (1198 mAh g -1 at 0.2 C), prolonged cycling life (1030 mAh g -1 at 0.2 C after 200 cycles), and improved rate capability. The excellent properties are attributed to the synergistic effect of 3D porous graphitic carbon fibers with highly conductive Ni nanoparticles embedded.

  19. Fabrication of Shatter-Proof Metal Hollow-Core Optical Fibers for Endoscopic Mid-Infrared Laser Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumasa Iwai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A method for fabricating robust and thin hollow-core optical fibers that carry mid-infrared light is proposed for use in endoscopic laser applications. The fiber is made of stainless steel tubing, eliminating the risk of scattering small glass fragments inside the body if the fiber breaks. To reduce the inner surface roughness of the tubing, a polymer base layer is formed prior to depositing silver and optical-polymer layers that confine light inside the hollow core. The surface roughness is greatly decreased by re-coating thin polymer base layers. Because of this smooth base layer surface, a uniform optical-polymer film can be formed around the core. As a result, clear interference peaks are observed in both the visible and mid-infrared regions. Transmission losses were also low for the carbon dioxide laser used for medical treatments as well as the visible laser diode used for an aiming beam. Measurements of bending losses for these lasers demonstrate the feasibility of the designed fiber for endoscopic applications.

  20. Multiscale Static Analysis of Notched and Unnotched Laminates Using the Generalized Method of Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghipour Ghezeljeh, Paria; Arnold, Steven M.; Pineda, Evan J.; Stier, Bertram; Hansen, Lucas; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Waas, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    The generalized method of cells (GMC) is demonstrated to be a viable micromechanics tool for predicting the deformation and failure response of laminated composites, with and without notches, subjected to tensile and compressive static loading. Given the axial [0], transverse [90], and shear [+45/-45] response of a carbon/epoxy (IM7/977-3) system, the unnotched and notched behavior of three multidirectional layups (Layup 1: [0,45,90,-45](sub 2S), Layup 2: [0,60,0](sub 3S), and Layup 3: [30,60,90,-30, -60](sub 2S)) are predicted under both tensile and compressive static loading. Matrix nonlinearity is modeled in two ways. The first assumes all nonlinearity is due to anisotropic progressive damage of the matrix only, which is modeled, using the multiaxial mixed-mode continuum damage model (MMCDM) within GMC. The second utilizes matrix plasticity coupled with brittle final failure based on the maximum principle strain criteria to account for matrix nonlinearity and failure within the Finite Element Analysis--Micromechanics Analysis Code (FEAMAC) software multiscale framework. Both MMCDM and plasticity models incorporate brittle strain- and stress-based failure criteria for the fiber. Upon satisfaction of these criteria, the fiber properties are immediately reduced to a nominal value. The constitutive response for each constituent (fiber and matrix) is characterized using a combination of vendor data and the axial, transverse, and shear responses of unnotched laminates. Then, the capability of the multiscale methodology is assessed by performing blind predictions of the mentioned notched and unnotched composite laminates response under tensile and compressive loading. Tabulated data along with the detailed results (i.e., stress-strain curves as well as damage evolution states at various ratios of strain to failure) for all laminates are presented.

  1. Effect of fiber angle orientation and stacking sequence on mixed mode fracture toughness of carbon fiber reinforced plastics: Numerical and experimental investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghipour, P.; Bartsch, M.; Chernova, L.; Hausmann, J.; Voggenreiter, H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the effect of fiber orientation and stacking sequence on the progressive mixed mode delamination failure in composite laminates using fracture experiments and finite element (FE) simulations. Every laminate is modelled numerically combining damageable layers with defined fiber orientations and cohesive zone interface elements, subjected to mixed mode bending. The numerical simulations are then calibrated and validated through experiments, conducted following standardized mixed mode delamination tests. The numerical model is able to successfully capture the experimentally observed effects of fiber angle orientations and variable stacking sequences on the global load-displacement response and mixed mode inter-laminar fracture toughness of the various laminates. For better understanding of the failure mechanism, fracture surfaces of laminates with different stacking sequences are also studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  2. Improved Long-Term Stability of Transparent Conducting Electrodes Based on Double-Laminated Electrosprayed Antimony Tin Oxides and Ag Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koo B.-R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated double-laminated antimony tin oxide/Ag nanowire electrodes by spin-coating and electrospraying. Compared to pure Ag nanowire electrodes and single-laminated antimony tin oxide/Ag nanowire electrodes, the double-laminated antimony tin oxide/Ag nanowire electrodes had superior transparent conducting electrode performances with sheet resistance ~19.8 Ω/□ and optical transmittance ~81.9%; this was due to uniform distribution of the connected Ag nanowires because of double lamination of the metallic Ag nanowires without Ag aggregation despite subsequent microwave heating at 250°C. They also exhibited excellent and superior long-term chemical and thermal stabilities and adhesion to substrate because double-laminated antimony tin oxide thin films act as the protective layers between Ag nanowires, blocking Ag atoms penetration.

  3. Fully Solution-Processed Inverted Polymer Solar Cells with Laminated Nanowire Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney

    2010-01-26

    We demonstrate organic photovoltaic cells in which every layer is deposited by solution processing on opaque metal substrates, with efficiencies similar to those obtained in conventional device structures on transparent substrates. The device architecture is enabled by solution-processed, laminated silver nanowire films serving as the top transparent anode. The cells are based on the regioregular poly(3- hexylthiophene) and C 61 butyric acid methyl ester bulk heterojunction and reach an efficiency of 2.5% under 100 mW/cm 2 of AM 1.5G illumination. The metal substrates are adequate barriers to moisture and oxygen, in contrast to transparent plastics that have previously been used, giving rise to the possibility of roll-to-roll solutionprocessed solar cells that are packaged by lamination to glass substrates, combining the cost advantage of roll-toroll processing with the barrier properties of glass and metal foil. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. Fully Solution-Processed Inverted Polymer Solar Cells with Laminated Nanowire Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney; Lee, Jung-Yong; Peumans, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate organic photovoltaic cells in which every layer is deposited by solution processing on opaque metal substrates, with efficiencies similar to those obtained in conventional device structures on transparent substrates. The device architecture is enabled by solution-processed, laminated silver nanowire films serving as the top transparent anode. The cells are based on the regioregular poly(3- hexylthiophene) and C 61 butyric acid methyl ester bulk heterojunction and reach an efficiency of 2.5% under 100 mW/cm 2 of AM 1.5G illumination. The metal substrates are adequate barriers to moisture and oxygen, in contrast to transparent plastics that have previously been used, giving rise to the possibility of roll-to-roll solutionprocessed solar cells that are packaged by lamination to glass substrates, combining the cost advantage of roll-toroll processing with the barrier properties of glass and metal foil. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. Bovine laminitis: clinical aspects, pathology and pathogenesis with reference to acute equine laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosman, R; Németh, F; Gruys, E

    1991-07-01

    This review deals with the features of clinical and subclinical laminitis in cattle. Prominent clinical signs of acute laminitis are a tender gait and arched back. The sole horn reveals red and yellowish discolourations within five days. In subacute and chronic cases clinical signs are less severe. In chronic laminitis the shape of the claws is altered. Laminitis is frequently followed by sole ulceration and white zone lesions. Blood tests showed no significant changes for laminitic animals. Arteriographic studies of claws affected by laminitis indicated that blood vessels had narrowed lumens. Gross pathology revealed congestion of the corium and rotation of the distal phalanx. Histopathologic studies indicate that laminitis is associated with changes of the vasculature. Peripartum management and nutrition are important factors in its aetiology. It is hypothesised that laminitis is evoked by disturbed digital circulation. In the pathogenesis of acute laminitis three factors are considered important: the occurrence of thrombosis, haemodynamic aspects of the corium, and endotoxins which trigger these pathologic events.

  6. Effect of laminate edge conditions on the formation of microvoids in composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. P.; Altan, M. C.

    2015-05-01

    Manufacturing defects such as microvoids are common in thermoset composite components and are known to negatively affect their strength. The resin pressure developed in and the resin flow out from the laminates during cure have been reported to be the primary factors influencing the final void content of a composite component. In this work, the effect of laminate edge conditions during the cure process on the formation of microvoids was experimentally investigated. This was achieved by fabricating eight-ply laminates from TenCate® BT250/7781 prepreg in a hot-press at a constant cure pressure of 170 kPa while limiting the laminate perimeter available for resin flow by 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. The individual plies of these five laminates were conditioned at 99% relative humidity before curing to maximize the moisture present in the lay-up before fabrication. The presence of moisture in the lay-ups was expected to promote void formation and allow the effect of restricting flow at the edges of a laminate to be better identified. The restriction of resin outflow was found to cause the average characteristic void diameter to decrease by 17% and void content to rise by 33%. This phenomenon was identified to be a result of the outflow restriction increasing the number of voids trapped within the laminate and indicates that for laminates cured at low pressures resin outflow is the dominant mechanism for void reduction.

  7. Effects of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on shear performance of laminated nanocomposite bonded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Askari and Mehrdad N Ghasemi-Nejhad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective is to improve the most commonly addressed weakness of the laminated composites (i.e. delamination due to poor interlaminar strength using carbon nanotubes (CNTs as reinforcement between the laminae and in the transverse direction. In this work, a chemical vapor deposition technique has been used to grow dense vertically aligned arrays of CNTs over the surface of chemically treated two-dimensionally woven cloth and fiber tows. The nanoforest-like fabrics can be used to fabricate three-dimensionally reinforced laminated nanocomposites. The presence of CNTs aligned normal to the layers and in-between the layers of laminated composites is expected to considerably enhance the properties of the laminates. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, composite single lap-joint specimens were fabricated for interlaminar shear strength testing. It was observed that the single lap-joints with through-the-thickness CNT reinforcement can carry considerably higher shear stresses and strains. Close examination of the test specimens showed that the failure of samples with CNT nanoforests was completely cohesive, while the samples without CNT reinforcement failed adhesively. This concludes that the adhesion of adjacent carbon fabric layers can be considerably improved owing to the presence of vertically aligned arrays of CNT nanoforests.

  8. Effects of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on shear performance of laminated nanocomposite bonded joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Davood; Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N

    2012-08-01

    The main objective is to improve the most commonly addressed weakness of the laminated composites (i.e. delamination due to poor interlaminar strength) using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as reinforcement between the laminae and in the transverse direction. In this work, a chemical vapor deposition technique has been used to grow dense vertically aligned arrays of CNTs over the surface of chemically treated two-dimensionally woven cloth and fiber tows. The nanoforest-like fabrics can be used to fabricate three-dimensionally reinforced laminated nanocomposites. The presence of CNTs aligned normal to the layers and in-between the layers of laminated composites is expected to considerably enhance the properties of the laminates. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, composite single lap-joint specimens were fabricated for interlaminar shear strength testing. It was observed that the single lap-joints with through-the-thickness CNT reinforcement can carry considerably higher shear stresses and strains. Close examination of the test specimens showed that the failure of samples with CNT nanoforests was completely cohesive, while the samples without CNT reinforcement failed adhesively. This concludes that the adhesion of adjacent carbon fabric layers can be considerably improved owing to the presence of vertically aligned arrays of CNT nanoforests.

  9. Experimental Investigation for Behavior of Spliced Continuous RC Girders Strengthened with CFRP Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Yasir Ali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the behavior of spliced continuous reinforced concrete girders was experimentally investigated. The main objective was to examine the contribution of the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates in strengthening the spliced continuous reinforced concrete girders. Eight models of continuous reinforced concrete girder were constructed and tested. The test variables were strengthening the splice joints by different schemes of CFRP laminates, presence of horizontal stirrups through the interfaces of the joints and using binder material at the interfaces of the joints. The results showed that strengthening the continuous spliced girders with 45° inclined CFRP laminates led to an increase in the ultimate load in a range of (47 to 74%. Besides, strengthening the continuous spliced girder with horizontal CFRP laminates bonded at its lateral faces could increase the ultimate load by 70%. Additionally, the ultimate load of the continuous spliced girder was increased by (30% due to presence of the horizontal steel stirrups through the interfaces of the joints

  10. Method of Joining Graphite Fibers to a Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Durwood M. (Inventor); Caron, Mark E. (Inventor); Taddey, Edmund P. (Inventor); Gleason, Brian P. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of assembling a metallic-graphite structure includes forming a wetted graphite subassembly by arranging one or more layers of graphite fiber material including a plurality of graphite fibers and applying a layer of metallization material to ends of the plurality of graphite fibers. At least one metallic substrate is secured to the wetted graphite subassembly via the layer of metallization material.

  11. A New Adsorbent Composite Material Based on Metal Fiber Technology and Its Application in Adsorption Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Wittstadt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve process intensification for adsorption chillers and heat pumps, a new composite material was developed based on sintered aluminum fibers from a melt-extraction process and a dense layer of silico-aluminophosphate (SAPO-34 on the fiber surfaces. The SAPO-34 layer was obtained through a partial support transformation (PST process. Preparation of a composite sample is described and its characteristic pore size distribution and heat conductivity are presented. Water adsorption data obtained under conditions of a large pressure jump are given. In the next step, preparation of the composite was scaled up to larger samples which were fixed on a small adsorption heat exchanger. Adsorption measurements on this heat exchanger element that confirm the achieved process intensification are presented. The specific cooling power for the adsorption step per volume of composite is found to exceed 500 kW/m3 under specified conditions.

  12. Transition metal sulfides grown on graphene fibers for wearable asymmetric supercapacitors with high volumetric capacitance and high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weihua; Lai, Ting; Lai, Jianwei; Xie, Haoting; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Ye, Jianshan; Yu, Chengzhong

    2016-06-01

    Fiber shaped supercapacitors are promising candidates for wearable electronics because they are flexible and light-weight. However, a critical challenge of the widespread application of these energy storage devices is their low cell voltages and low energy densities, resulting in limited run-time of the electronics. Here, we demonstrate a 1.5 V high cell voltage and high volumetric energy density asymmetric fiber supercapacitor in aqueous electrolyte. The lightweight (0.24 g cm-3), highly conductive (39 S cm-1), and mechanically robust (221 MPa) graphene fibers were firstly fabricated and then coated by NiCo2S4 nanoparticles (GF/NiCo2S4) via the solvothermal deposition method. The GF/NiCo2S4 display high volumetric capacitance up to 388 F cm-3 at 2 mV s-1 in a three-electrode cell and 300 F cm-3 at 175.7 mA cm-3 (568 mF cm-2 at 0.5 mA cm-2) in a two-electrode cell. The electrochemical characterizations show 1000% higher capacitance of the GF/NiCo2S4 as compared to that of neat graphene fibers. The fabricated device achieves high energy density up to 12.3 mWh cm-3 with a maximum power density of 1600 mW cm-3, outperforming the thin-film lithium battery. Therefore, these supercapacitors are promising for the next generation flexible and wearable electronic devices.

  13. Structure of Polymer Fibers Fabricated by Electrospinning Method Utilizing a Metal Wire Electrode in a Capillary Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Shintaro; Hoshino, Rikiya; Mizuno, Yoshinori; Shinbo, Kazunari; Ohdaira, Yasuo; Baba, Akira; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    We fabricated electrospun poly (vinylalcohol) (PVA) fibers using a copper wire electrode in Teflon capillary tube, and the SEM images were observed. The apparatus in this method is reasonable, and needed volume of polymer solution and distance between the electrodes can be largely reduced compared to conventional method. The wire electrode tip position in the capillary tube is also important in this method and should be close to the polymer solution surface.

  14. Performance analysis of smart laminated composite plate integrated with distributed AFC material undergoing geometrically nonlinear transient vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, J.; Ashok, M. H.; Khadakbhavi, Vishwanath; Pujari, Sanjay; Nandurkar, Santosh

    2018-02-01

    The present work focuses on geometrically nonlinear transient analysis of laminated smart composite plates integrated with the patches of Active fiber composites (AFC) using Active constrained layer damping (ACLD) as the distributed actuators. The analysis has been carried out using generalised energy based finite element model. The coupled electromechanical finite element model is derived using Von Karman type nonlinear strain displacement relations and a first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). Eight-node iso-parametric serendipity elements are used for discretization of the overall plate integrated with AFC patch material. The viscoelastic constrained layer is modelled using GHM method. The numerical results shows the improvement in the active damping characteristics of the laminated composite plates over the passive damping for suppressing the geometrically nonlinear transient vibrations of laminated composite plates with AFC as patch material.

  15. Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of CFRP Laminates Incorporating Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Borowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates exhibit limited fracture toughness due to characteristic interlaminar fiber-matrix cracking and delamination. In this article, we demonstrate that the fracture toughness of CFRP laminates can be improved by the addition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. Experimental investigations and numerical modeling were performed to determine the effects of using MWCNTs in CFRP laminates. The CFRP specimens were produced using an epoxy nanocomposite matrix reinforced with carboxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH–MWCNTs. Four MWCNTs contents of 0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% per weight of the epoxy resin/hardener mixture were examined. Double cantilever beam (DCB tests were performed to determine the mode I interlaminar fracture toughness of the unidirectional CFRP composites. This composite material property was quantified using the critical energy release rate, GIC. The experimental results show a 25%, 20%, and 17% increase in the maximum interlaminar fracture toughness of the CFRP composites with the addition of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 wt% MWCNTs, respectively. Microstructural investigations using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS verify that chemical reactions took place between the COOH–MWCNTs and the epoxy resin, supporting the improvements experimentally observed in the interlaminar fracture toughness of the CFRP specimens containing MWCNTs. Finite element (FE simulations show good agreement with the experimental results and confirm the significant effect of MWCNTs on the interlaminar fracture toughness of CFRP.

  16. Numerical Analysis of Stress Concentration in Isotropic and Laminated Plates with Inclined Elliptical Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khechai, Abdelhak; Tati, Abdelouahab; Belarbi, Mohamed Ouejdi; Guettala, Abdelhamid

    2018-03-01

    The design of high-performance composite structures frequently includes discontinuities to reduce the weight and fastener holes for joining. Understanding the behavior of perforated laminates is necessary for structural design. In the current work, stress concentrations taking place in laminated and isotropic plates subjected to tensile load are investigated. The stress concentrations are obtained using a recent quadrilateral finite element of four nodes with 32 DOFs. The present finite element (PE) is a combination of two finite elements. The first finite element is a linear isoparametric membrane element and the second is a high precision Hermitian element. One of the essential objectives of the current investigation is to confirm the capability and efficiency of the PE for stress determination in perforated laminates. Different geometric parameters, such as the cutout form, sizes and cutout orientations, which have a considerable effect on the stress values, are studied. Using the present finite element formulation, the obtained results are found to be in good agreement with the analytical findings, which validates the capability and the efficiency of the proposed formulation. Finally, to understand the material parameters effect such as the orientation of fibers and degree of orthotropy ratio on the stress values, many figures are presented using different ellipse major to minor axis ratio. The stress concentration values are considerably affected by increasing the orientation angle of the fibers and degree of orthotropy.

  17. Finite strain anisotropic elasto-plastic model for the simulation of the forming and testing of metal/short fiber reinforced polymer clinch joints at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, A.; Rolfes, R.; Behrens, A.; Bouguecha, A.; Hübner, S.; Bonk, C.; Grbic, N.

    2017-10-01

    There is a strong trend in the automotive industry to reduce car body-, chassis- and power-train mass in order to lower carbon emissions. More wide spread use of lightweight short fiber reinforced polymer (SFRP) is a promising approach to attain this goal. This poses the challenge of how to integrate new SFRP components by joining them to traditional sheet metal structures. Recently (1), the clinching technique has been successfully applied as a suitable joining method for dissimilar material such as SFRP and Aluminum. The material pairing PA6GF30 and EN AW 5754 is chosen for this purpose due to their common application in industry. The current contribution presents a verification and validation of a finite strain anisotropic material model for SFRP developed in (2) for the FE simulation of the hybrid clinching process. The finite fiber rotation during forming and separation, and thus the change of the preferential material direction, is represented in this model. Plastic deformations in SFRP are considered in this model via an invariant based non-associated plasticity formulation following the multiplicative decomposition approach of the deformation gradient where the stress-free intermediate configuration is introduced. The model allows for six independent characterization curves. The aforementioned material model allows for a detailed simulation of the forming process as well as a simulative prediction of the shear test strength of the produced joint at room temperature.

  18. Evaluation of Behaviours of Laminated Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sable, L.; Japins, G.; Kalnins, K.

    2015-11-01

    Visual appearance of building facades and other load bearing structures, which now are part of modern architecture, is the reason why it is important to investigate in more detail the reliability of laminated glass for civil structures. Laminated glass in particular has become one of the trendy materials, for example Apple© stores have both load carrying capacity and transparent appearance. Glass has high mechanical strength and relatively medium density, however, the risk of sudden brittle failure like concrete or other ceramics determine relatively high conservatism in design practice of glass structures. This should be changed as consumer requirements evolve calling for a safe and reliable design methodology and corresponding building standards. A design methodology for glass and glass laminates should be urgently developed and included as a chapter in Eurocode. This paper presents initial experimental investigation of behaviour of simple glass sheets and laminated glass samples in 4-point bending test. The aim of the current research is to investigate laminated glass characteristic values and to verify the obtained experimental results with finite element method for glass and EVA material in line with future European Structural Design of Glass Components code.

  19. Nanoporous Al sandwich foils using size effect of Al layer thickness during Cu/Al/Cu laminate rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hailiang; Lu, Cheng; Tieu, A. Kiet; Li, Huijun; Godbole, Ajit; Kong, Charlie

    2018-06-01

    The roll bonding technique is one of the most widely used methods to produce metal laminate sheets. Such sheets offer interesting research opportunities for both scientists and engineers. In this paper, we report on an experimental investigation of the 'thickness effect' during laminate rolling for the first time. Using a four-high multifunction rolling mill, Cu/Al/Cu laminate sheets were fabricated with a range of thicknesses (16, 40, 70 and 130 μm) of the Al layer. The thickness of the Cu sheets was a constant 300 μm. After rolling, TEM images show good bonding quality between the Cu and Al layers. However, there are many nanoscale pores in the Al layer. The fraction of nanoscale pores in the Al layer increases with a reduction in the Al layer thickness. The finite element method was used to simulate the Cu/Al/Cu rolling process. The simulation results reveal the effect of the Al layer thickness on the deformation characteristics of the Cu/Al/Cu laminate. Finally, we propose that the size effect of the Al layer thickness during Cu/Al/Cu laminate rolling may offer a method to fabricate 'nanoporous' Al sandwich laminate foils. Such foils can be used in electromagnetic shielding of electrical devices and noisy shielding of building.

  20. Experimental study of optical fibers influence on composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong-Mei; Liang, Da-Kai

    2010-03-01

    Bending strength and elasticity modulus of composite, with and without embedded optical fibers, were experimentally studied. Two kinds of laminates, which were denoted as group 1 and group 2, were fabricated from an orthogonal woven glass/epoxy prepreg. Since the normal stress value becomes the biggest at the surface of a beam, the optical fibers were embedded at the outmost layer and were all along the loading direction. Four types of materials, using each kind of laminated prepreg respectively, were manufactured. The embedded optical fibers for the 4 material types were 0, 10, 30 and 50 respectively. Three-point bending tests were carried out on the produced specimens to study the influence of embedded optical fiber on host composite. The experimental results indicated that the materials in group 2 were more sensitive to the embedded optical fibers.

  1. Analysis of nonlinear deformations and damage in CFRP textile laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, H; Harland, A R; Silberschmidt, V V; Lucas, T; Price, D

    2011-01-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) textile composites are widely used in aerospace, automotive and construction components and structures thanks to their relatively low production costs, higher delamination and impact strength. They can also be used in various products in sports industry. These products are usually exposed to different in-service conditions such as large bending deformation and multiple impacts. Composite materials usually demonstrate multiple modes of damage and fracture due to their heterogeneity and microstructure, in contrast to more traditional homogeneous structural materials like metals and alloys. Damage evolution affects both their in-service properties and performance that can deteriorate with time. These damage modes need adequate means of analysis and investigation, the major approaches being experimental characterisation, numerical simulations and microtomography analysis. This research deals with a deformation behaviour and damage in composite laminates linked to their quasi-static bending. Experimental tests are carried out to characterise the behaviour of woven CFRP material under large-deflection bending. Two-dimensional finite element (FE) models are implemented in the commercial code Abaqus/Explicit to study the deformation behaviour and damage in woven CFRP laminates. Multiple layers of bilinear cohesive-zone elements are employed to model the onset and progression of inter-ply delamination process. X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography (MicroCT) analysis is carried out to investigate internal damage mechanisms such as cracking and delaminations. The obtained results of simulations are in agreement with experimental data and MicroCT scans.

  2. Analysis of nonlinear deformations and damage in CFRP textile laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, H; Harland, A R; Silberschmidt, V V [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicester-shire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Lucas, T; Price, D, E-mail: H.Ullah@lboro.ac.uk [Adidas AG, Herzogenaruch (Germany)

    2011-07-19

    Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) textile composites are widely used in aerospace, automotive and construction components and structures thanks to their relatively low production costs, higher delamination and impact strength. They can also be used in various products in sports industry. These products are usually exposed to different in-service conditions such as large bending deformation and multiple impacts. Composite materials usually demonstrate multiple modes of damage and fracture due to their heterogeneity and microstructure, in contrast to more traditional homogeneous structural materials like metals and alloys. Damage evolution affects both their in-service properties and performance that can deteriorate with time. These damage modes need adequate means of analysis and investigation, the major approaches being experimental characterisation, numerical simulations and microtomography analysis. This research deals with a deformation behaviour and damage in composite laminates linked to their quasi-static bending. Experimental tests are carried out to characterise the behaviour of woven CFRP material under large-deflection bending. Two-dimensional finite element (FE) models are implemented in the commercial code Abaqus/Explicit to study the deformation behaviour and damage in woven CFRP laminates. Multiple layers of bilinear cohesive-zone elements are employed to model the onset and progression of inter-ply delamination process. X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography (MicroCT) analysis is carried out to investigate internal damage mechanisms such as cracking and delaminations. The obtained results of simulations are in agreement with experimental data and MicroCT scans.

  3. Analysis of nonlinear deformations and damage in CFRP textile laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, H.; Harland, A. R.; Lucas, T.; Price, D.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2011-07-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) textile composites are widely used in aerospace, automotive and construction components and structures thanks to their relatively low production costs, higher delamination and impact strength. They can also be used in various products in sports industry. These products are usually exposed to different in-service conditions such as large bending deformation and multiple impacts. Composite materials usually demonstrate multiple modes of damage and fracture due to their heterogeneity and microstructure, in contrast to more traditional homogeneous structural materials like metals and alloys. Damage evolution affects both their in-service properties and performance that can deteriorate with time. These damage modes need adequate means of analysis and investigation, the major approaches being experimental characterisation, numerical simulations and microtomography analysis. This research deals with a deformation behaviour and damage in composite laminates linked to their quasi-static bending. Experimental tests are carried out to characterise the behaviour of woven CFRP material under large-deflection bending. Two-dimensional finite element (FE) models are implemented in the commercial code Abaqus/Explicit to study the deformation behaviour and damage in woven CFRP laminates. Multiple layers of bilinear cohesive-zone elements are employed to model the onset and progression of inter-ply delamination process. X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography (MicroCT) analysis is carried out to investigate internal damage mechanisms such as cracking and delaminations. The obtained results of simulations are in agreement with experimental data and MicroCT scans.

  4. Hybrid Laminates for Application in North Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, V. V.; Oreshko, E. I.; Erasov, V. S.; Serebrennikova, N. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    A hybrid aluminum-lithium alloy/SIAL laminate as a possible material for application in structures operated in North conditions is considered. The finite-element method is used for a buckling stability analysis of hybrid panels, bars, and plates. A technique allowing one to compare the buckling stability of multilayered hybrid plates is offered. Compression tests were run on a hybrid laminate wing panel as a prototype of the top panel of TU-204SM airplane made from a high-strength B95T2 aluminum alloy. It turned out that the lighter composite panel had a higher load-carrying capacity than the aluminum one. Results of investigation into the properties the hybrid aluminum-lithium alloy/SIAL laminate and an analysis of scientific-technical data on this subject showed that this composite material could be used in the elements of airframes, including those operated in north conditions.

  5. Plated lamination structures for integrated magnetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Bucknell C.

    2014-06-17

    Semiconductor integrated magnetic devices such as inductors, transformers, etc., having laminated magnetic-insulator stack structures are provided, wherein the laminated magnetic-insulator stack structures are formed using electroplating techniques. For example, an integrated laminated magnetic device includes a multilayer stack structure having alternating magnetic and insulating layers formed on a substrate, wherein each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure is separated from another magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure by an insulating layer, and a local shorting structure to electrically connect each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure to an underlying magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure to facilitate electroplating of the magnetic layers using an underlying conductive layer (magnetic or seed layer) in the stack as an electrical cathode/anode for each electroplated magnetic layer in the stack structure.

  6. Optimal Design of Laminated Composite Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral

    model for the analysis of laminated composite beams is proposed. The structural analysis is performed in a beam finite element context. The development of a finite element based tool for the analysis of the cross section stiffness properties is described. The resulting beam finite element formulation...... is able to account for the effects of material anisotropy and inhomogeneity in the global response of the beam. Beam finite element models allow for a significant reduction in problem size and are therefore an efficient alternative in computationally intensive applications like optimization frameworks...... design of laminated composite beams. The devised framework is applied in the optimal design of laminated composite beams with different cross section geometries and subjected to different load cases. Design criteria such as beam stiffness, weight, magnitude of the natural frequencies of vibration...

  7. Mechanically programmed shape change in laminated elastomeric composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jaimee M; Torbati, Amir H; Rodriguez, Erika D; Mao, Yiqi; Baker, Richard M; Qi, H Jerry; Mather, Patrick T

    2015-07-28

    Soft, anisotropic materials, such as myocardium in the heart and the extracellular matrix surrounding cells, are commonly found in nature. This anisotropy leads to specialized responses and is imperative to material functionality, yet few soft materials exhibiting similar anisotropy have been developed. Our group introduced an anisotropic shape memory elastomeric composite (A-SMEC) composed of non-woven, aligned polymer fibers embedded in an elastomeric matrix. The composite exhibited shape memory (SM) behavior with significant anisotropy in room-temperature shape fixing. Here, we exploit this anisotropy by bonding together laminates with oblique anisotropy such that tensile deformation at room temperature - mechanical programming - results in coiling. This response is a breakthrough in mechanical programming, since non-affine shape change is achieved by simply stretching the layered A-SMECs at room temperature. We will show that pitch and curvature of curled geometries depend on fiber orientations and the degree of strain programmed into the material. To validate experimental results, a model was developed that captures the viscoplastic response of A-SMECs. Theoretical results correlated well with experimental data, supporting our conclusions and ensuring attainability of predictable curling geometries. We envision these smart, soft, shape changing materials will have aerospace and medical applications.

  8. Fiber webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell; James S. Han; Von L. Byrd

    2005-01-01

    Wood fibers can be used to produce a wide variety of low-density three-dimensional webs, mats, and fiber-molded products. Short wood fibers blended with long fibers can be formed into flexible fiber mats, which can be made by physical entanglement, nonwoven needling, or thermoplastic fiber melt matrix technologies. The most common types of flexible mats are carded, air...

  9. Guided Wave Propagation Study on Laminated Composites by Frequency-Wavenumber Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Yu, Lingyu; Leckey, Cara A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Toward the goal of delamination detection and quantification in laminated composites, this paper examines guided wave propagation and wave interaction with delamination damage in laminated carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites using frequency-wavenumber (f-kappa) analysis. Three-dimensional elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) is used to acquire simulated time-space wavefields for a CFRP composite. The time-space wavefields show trapped waves in the delamination region. To unveil the wave propagation physics, the time-space wavefields are further analyzed by using two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transforms (FT). In the analysis results, new f-k components are observed when the incident guided waves interact with the delamination damage. These new f-kappa components in the simulations are experimentally verified through data obtained from scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) tests. By filtering the new f-kappa components, delamination damage is detected and quantified.

  10. Validation of Micro-Meso Electrical Relations for Laminates with Varying Anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Selvakumaran, Lakshmi

    2015-08-01

    For electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to be useful in monitoring transverse cracks in composites, it is imperative to establish the relation between conductivity and cracking density. Micro to meso scale homogenization has been developed for classical carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminate which provides such a relationship. However, we have shown in previous studies that the detectability of transverse cracks in such CFRP, which are characterized by very anisotropic electrical properties, is poor. Then, it is better to lower the electrical anisotropy, which can be achieved by various technologies including doping the polymeric resin by conductive nanoparticles. However, the validity of mesoscale homogenization for laminates with such low anisotropy has not been tested before. Here, we show that the mesoscale damage indicator is intrinsic for composites with varying anisotropy.

  11. Analysis of Thermo-Acoustic Emission from Damage in Composite Laminates under Thermal Cyclic Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Bok; Min, Dae Hong; Lee, Deok Bo; Choi, Nak Sam

    2001-01-01

    An investigation on nondestructive evaluation of thermal stress-reduced damage in the composite laminates (3mm in thickness and [+45 6 /-45 6 ] S lay-up angles) has been performed using the thermo-acoustic emission technique. Reduction of thermo-AE events due to repetitive thermal load cycles showed a Kaiser effect. An analysis of the thermo-AE behavior determined the stress free temperature of composite laminates. Fiber fracture and matrix cracks were observed using the optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and ultrasonic C-sean. Short-Time Fourier Transform of thermo-AE signals offered the time-frequency characteristics which might classify the thermo-AE as three different types to estimate the damage processes of the composites

  12. Investigation into the Quality of Thermally Treated Package Lamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Kazlauskas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of delaminating the package after pasteurization at relatively high temperatures. The main parameters of the lamination process influencing lamination strength were determined. The role of the amount of lamination glue and tension in the rewinder for two glue types were experimentally examined defining lamination regimes at which the process of delamination is excluded.Article in Lithuanian

  13. Properties of Chitosan-Laminated Collagen Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lazić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine physical, mechanical and barrier properties of chitosan-laminated collagen film. Commercial collagen film, which is used for making collagen casings for dry fermented sausage production, was laminated with chitosan film layer in order to improve the collagen film barrier properties. Different volumes of oregano essential oil per 100 mL of filmogenic solution were added to chitosan film layer: 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mL to optimize water vapour barrier properties. Chitosan layer with 0.6 or 0.8 % of oregano essential oil lowered the water vapour transmission rate to (1.85±0.10·10–6 and (1.78±0.03·10–6 g/(m2·s·Pa respectively, compared to collagen film ((2.51±0.05·10–6 g/(m2·s·Pa. However, chitosan-laminated collagen film did not show improved mechanical properties compared to the collagen one. Tensile strength decreased from (54.0±3.8 MPa of the uncoated collagen film to (36.3±4.0 MPa when the film was laminated with 0.8 % oregano essential oil chitosan layer. Elongation at break values of laminated films did not differ from those of collagen film ((18.4±2.7 %. Oxygen barrier properties were considerably improved by lamination. Oxygen permeability of collagen film was (1806.8±628.0·10–14 cm3/(m·s·Pa and values of laminated films were below 35·10–14 cm3/(m·s·Pa. Regarding film appearance and colour, lamination with chitosan reduced lightness (L and yellowness (+b of collagen film, while film redness (+a increased. These changes were not visible to the naked eye.

  14. New insight on biological interaction analysis: new nanocrystalline mixed metal oxide SPME fiber for GC-FID analysis of BTEX and its application in human hemoglobin-benzene interaction studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hosseinzadeh

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline mixed metal oxides (MMO of various metal cations were synthesized and were used for coating a piece of copper wire as a new high sensitive solid phase micro extraction (SPME fiber in extraction and determination of BTEX compounds from the headspace of aqueous samples prior to GC-FID analysis. Under optimum extraction conditions, the proposed fiber exhibited low detection limits, and quantification limits, good reproducibility, simple and fast preparation method, high fiber capacity and high thermal and mechanical durability. These are some of the most important advantages of the new fiber. The proposed fiber was used for human hemoglobin upon interaction with benzene. Binding isotherm, Scatchard and Klotz logarithmic plots were constructed using HS-SPME-GC data, accurately. The obtained binding isotherm analyzed using Hill method. The Hill parameters have been obtained by calculating saturation parameter from the ratio of measured chromatographic peak areas in the presence and absence of hemoglobin. In this interaction, Hill coefficient and Hill constant determined as (nH = 6.14 and log KH = 6.47 respectively. These results reveal the cooperativity of hemoglobin upon interaction with benzene.

  15. A new method for fabrication of thin plates and thin-walled cylinder made of fiber reinforced metal (FRM) and its application for the rotating drum of the nuclear fuel centrifugal separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Tatsuya

    1978-01-01

    The composite materials using resins as the base materials show the defect that the characteristics deteriorate rapidly at elevated temperature. Therefore the FRMs using relatively ductile metals as the base materials combined with reinforcing fibers have been considered. The result of study on the combination of base materials and fibers and the manufacturing method is rarely reported in Japan. In FRMs, direct contact of fibers mutually must be avoided, especially making nodes lowers the strength extremely. The fibers must be long monofilaments of 0.1 to 0.2 mm diameter. High precision wire winding machines are required for making uniform FRMs. For the diffusion joining of preformed materials, in which fibers are put in order on metallic foils, pressure and heat are applied. The author succeeded to develop the technique for making thin-walled cylinders of FRMs, including the method of winding brittle filaments and the method of pressurizing and heating based on the difference of thermal expansion of dies. The mechanical properties of thin plates and thin-walled cylinders made of monofilaments of B, SiC and SUS and aluminum alloy foils were obtained, and rotation test of the cylinders was carried out. It was clarified that the FRMs of B-Al and SiC-Al groups are very excellent materials, and most suitable for the rotary drums of super-high speed centrifuges. (Kako, I.)

  16. Lamination technology for separation of solid wastes; La tecnologia de la Laminacion para separacion de residuos solidos compuestos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocas, J.

    1998-07-01

    The lamination technology has been developed, and introduces a form of separation of solid wastes totally new in its concept and development. No longer will be a problem the economic and ecological efficient separation of wastes like tetra-brick, compound of metals and plastics, aluminum scum, electric or electronic wastes and many other. (Author)

  17. Estimation of free acidity in some hydrolysable metal ions present in reprocessing streams by fiber optic aided spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh, S.; Velavendan, P.; Pandey, N.K.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Natarajan, R.

    2014-01-01

    A fiber optic aided spectrophotometric technique has been developed for the determination of free acidity in nuclear fuel reprocessing streams. In this method, nitric acid forms yellow colour complex with chrome azurol s. The system obeys Lambert-Beer's law at 542 nm in the range of acidity 4-14 M. The molar absorption coefficient (ε) and Sandell's sensitivity (S) of complex are 5.23 × 10 3 L.mol -1 .cm -1 and 1.91 × 10 -4 µg/cm 2 respectively. Relative standard deviation is less than 1 % and correlation coefficient is 0.999. Results of the present method are in good agreement with those obtained by the standard procedure. (author)

  18. Supersonic Panel Flutter Test Results for Flat Fiber-Glass Sandwich Panels with Foamed Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuovila, W. J.; Presnell, John G., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    Flutter tests have been made on flat panels having a 1/4 inch-thick plastic-foam core covered with thin fiber-glass laminates. The testing was done in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel at Mach numbers from 1.76 t o 2.87. The flutter boundary for these panels was found to be near the flutter boundary of thin metal panels when compared on the basis of an equivalent panel stiffness. The results also demonstrated that the depth of the cavity behind the panel has a pronounced influence on flutter. Changing the cavity depth from 1 1/2 inches to 1/2 inch reduced the dynamic pressure at start of flutter by 40 percent. No flutter was obtained when the spacers on the back of the panel were against the bottom of the cavity.

  19. Lamination sheet of AA BST magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The AA had 2 types of bending magnets: BLG (window-frame, long and narrow)and BST (H-type, short and wide). The BST had a very wide aperture, 0.564 m of "good field". To demonstrate the size, the petite AA secretary, Val Mansfield, poses with a lamination sheet. See also 7811105, 7906163, 8006050.

  20. Laminated Root Rot of Western Conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.E. Nelson; N.E. Martin; R.E. Williams

    1981-01-01

    Laminated root rot is caused by the native fungus Phellinus weirii (Murr.) Gilb. It occurs throughout the Northwestern United States and in southern British Columbia, Canada. The disease has also been reported in Japan and Manchuria. In the United States, the pathogen is most destructive in pure Douglas-fir stands west of the crest of the Cascade Range in Washington...

  1. [Laminitis in cattle: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischer, C; Ossent, P

    1994-10-01

    Worldwide afflictions of the claws belong to the economically important diseases in dairy cattle. The significance of laminitis has gained importance in the last years since the condition is regarded as the most important predisposing factor for the development of lesions such as sole ulcer, white line disease and heel horn erosion. Apart from the clinical stages (acute, subacute, chronic, chronic-recurrent) there is also a subclinical form of laminitis which does not cause lameness. It is characterized by soft yellowish sole and heel horn with haemorrhages in the sole and along the white line. Laminitis is a multifactorial event in which nutrition, genetic disposition and the perinatal period, combined with the associated diseases of high-yielding cows, have a particular significance. Currently, two principally different hypotheses on the pathogenesis are discussed. The generally accepted theory bases on a disturbance in the microcirculation of the corium. According to the other theory the circulatory disturbances are secondary to changes which occur in the horn producing cells of the stratum basale of the epidermis. The predisposing factors and the pathogenesis of laminitis are discussed in the light of possible therapeutic and prophylactic measures.

  2. Nuclear Structures Surrounding Internal Lamin Invaginations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Legartová, Soňa; Stixová, Lenka; Laur, O.; Kozubek, Stanislav; Sehnalová, Petra; Bártová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 3 (2014), s. 476-487 ISSN 0730-2312 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD11020 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : LAMINS * NUCLEAR PORES * CHROMATIN Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.263, year: 2014

  3. Tropicalized Lambda Lengths, Measured Laminations and Convexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    C. Penner, R.

    This work uncovers the tropical analogue for measured laminations of the convex hull construction of decorated Teichmueller theory, namely, it is a study in coordinates of geometric degeneration to a point of Thurston's boundary for Teichmueller space. This may offer a paradigm for the extension ...

  4. Detection and Evaluation of Pre-Preg Gaps and Overlaps in Glare Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Davide; Abouhamzeh, Morteza; Leonard, Rob; Sinke, Jos

    2018-03-01

    Gaps and overlaps between pre-preg plies represent common flaws in composite materials that can be introduced easily in an automated fibre placement manufacturing process and are potentially detrimental for the mechanical performances of the final laminates. Whereas gaps and overlaps have been addressed for full composite material, the topic has not been extended to a hybrid composite material such as Glare, a member of the family of Fibre Metal Laminates (FMLs). In this paper/research, the manufacturing, the detection, and the optical evaluation of intraply gaps and overlaps in Glare laminates are investigated. As part of an initial assessment study on the effect of gaps and overlaps on Glare, only the most critical lay-up has been considered. The experimental investigation started with the manufacturing of specimens having gaps and overlaps with different widths, followed by a non-destructive ultrasonic-inspection. An optical evaluation of the gaps and overlaps was performed by means of microscope image analysis of the cross sections of the specimens. The results from the non-destructive evaluations show the effectiveness of the ultrasonic detection of gaps and overlaps both in position, shape, width, and severity. The optical inspections confirm the accuracy of the non-destructive evaluation also adding useful insights about the geometrical features due to the presence of gaps and overlaps in the final Glare laminates. All the results justify the need for a further investigation on the effect of gaps and overlaps on the mechanical properties.

  5. Progressive delamination in polymer matrix composite laminates: A new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Minnetyan, L.

    1992-01-01

    A new approach independent of stress intensity factors and fracture toughness parameters has been developed and is described for the computational simulation of progressive delamination in polymer matrix composite laminates. The damage stages are quantified based on physics via composite mechanics while the degradation of the laminate behavior is quantified via the finite element method. The approach accounts for all types of composite behavior, laminate configuration, load conditions, and delamination processes starting from damage initiation, to unstable propagation, and to laminate fracture. Results of laminate fracture in composite beams, panels, plates, and shells are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of this new approach.

  6. Development and characterization of fatigue resistant Aramid reinforced aluminium laminates (ARALL) for fatigue Critical aircraft components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, M. H.; Umar, S.; Nauman, S.

    2014-06-01

    The structural weight of an aircraft has always been a controlling parameter that governs its fuel efficiency and transport capacity. In pursuit of achieving light-weight aircraft structures, high design stress levels have to be adopted and materials with high specific strength such as Aluminum etc. are to be deployed. However, an extensive spectrum of fatigue load exists at the aircraft wings and other aerodynamic components that may cause initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks and concludes in a catastrophic rupture. Fatigue is therefore the limiting design parameter in such cases and materials with high fatigue resistance are then required. A major improvement in the fatigue behavior was observed by laminating Kevlar fibers with Aluminum using epoxy. ARALL (Aramid Reinforced ALuminum Laminates) is a fatigue resistant hybrid composite that consists of layers of thin high strength aluminum alloy sheets surface bonded with aramid fibers. The intact aramid fibers tie up the fatigue cracks, thus reducing the stress intensity factor at the crack tip as a result of which the fatigue properties of can be enhanced with orders of magnitude as compared to monolithic high strength Aluminum alloy sheets. Significant amount of weight savings can be achieved in fatigue critical components in comparison with the traditional materials used in aircraft.

  7. Development and characterization of fatigue resistant Aramid reinforced aluminium laminates (ARALL) for fatigue Critical aircraft components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaiser, M H; Umar, S; Nauman, S

    2014-01-01

    The structural weight of an aircraft has always been a controlling parameter that governs its fuel efficiency and transport capacity. In pursuit of achieving light-weight aircraft structures, high design stress levels have to be adopted and materials with high specific strength such as Aluminum etc. are to be deployed. However, an extensive spectrum of fatigue load exists at the aircraft wings and other aerodynamic components that may cause initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks and concludes in a catastrophic rupture. Fatigue is therefore the limiting design parameter in such cases and materials with high fatigue resistance are then required. A major improvement in the fatigue behavior was observed by laminating Kevlar fibers with Aluminum using epoxy. ARALL (Aramid Reinforced ALuminum Laminates) is a fatigue resistant hybrid composite that consists of layers of thin high strength aluminum alloy sheets surface bonded with aramid fibers. The intact aramid fibers tie up the fatigue cracks, thus reducing the stress intensity factor at the crack tip as a result of which the fatigue properties of can be enhanced with orders of magnitude as compared to monolithic high strength Aluminum alloy sheets. Significant amount of weight savings can be achieved in fatigue critical components in comparison with the traditional materials used in aircraft

  8. Development and characterization of fatigue resistant aramid reinforced aluminium laminates (ARALL) for fatigue critical aircraft components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaiser, M. H.; Umar, S.; Nauman, S.

    2013-01-01

    The structural weight of an aircraft has always been a controlling parameter that governs its fuel efficiency and transport capacity. In pursuit of achieving light-weight aircraft structures, high design stress levels have to be adopted and materials with high specific strength such as Aluminum etc. are to be deployed. However, an extensive spectrum of fatigue load exists at the aircraft wings and other aerodynamic components that may cause initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks and concludes in a catastrophic rupture. Fatigue is therefore the limiting design parameter in such cases and materials with high fatigue resistance are then required. A major improvement in the fatigue behavior was observed by laminating Kevlar fibers with Aluminum using epoxy. ARALL (Aramid Reinforced Aluminum Laminates) is a fatigue resistant hybrid composite that consists of layers of thin high strength aluminum alloy sheets surface bonded with aramid fibers. The intact aramid fibers tie up the fatigue cracks, thus reducing the stress intensity factor at the crack tip as a result of which the fatigue properties of can be enhanced with orders of magnitude as compared to monolithic high strength Aluminum alloy sheets. Significant amount of weight savings can be achieved in fatigue critical components in comparison with the traditional materials used in aircraft. (author)

  9. Mechanical performance of carbon-epoxy laminates. Part I: quasi-static and impact bending properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Tarpani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In Part I of this study, quasi-static and impact bending properties of four aeronautical grade carbon-epoxy laminates have been determined and compared. Materials tested were unidirectional cross-ply (tape and bidirectional woven textile (fabric carbon fiber lay-up architectures, impregnated with standard and rubber-toughened resins, respectively, giving rise to 1.5 mm-thick laminates. Quasi-static mechanical properties assessed in transversal mode loading were modulus of elasticity, flexural strength and tenacity at the maximum load, whereas the net absorbed energy was determined under translaminar impact conditions. Two-dimensional woven carbon fiber reinforcements embedded in a rubber-toughened matrix presented the best mechanical performance under static loading. Under dynamic loading conditions, woven fiber fabric pre-forms were favorably sensitive to increasing impact energies regardless the nature of the employed epoxy resin. However, it was concluded that great care should be taken with this material within the low energy impact regimen.

  10. Seawater infiltration effect on thermal degradation of fiber reinforced epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Haziq Izzuddin bin; Hassan, Mohamad Zaki bin; Ibrahim, Ikhwan; Rashidi, Ahmad Hadi Mohamed; Nor, Siti Fadzilah M.; Daud, Mohd Yusof Md

    2018-05-01

    Seawater salinity has been associated with the reduction of polymer structure durability. The aim of this study is to investigate the change in thermal degradation of fiber reinforced epoxy composite due to the presence of seawater. Carbon fiber, carbon/kevlar, fiberglass, and jute that reinforced with epoxy resin was laminated through hand-layup technique. Initially, these specimen was sectioned to 5×5 mm dimension, then immersed in seawater and distilled water at room temperature until it has thoroughly saturated. Following, the thermal degradation analysis using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), the thermic changes due to seawater infiltration was defined. The finding shows that moisture absorption reduces the glass transition temperature (Tg) of fiber reinforced epoxy composite. However, the glass transition temperature (Tg) of seawater infiltrated laminate composite is compareable with distilled water infiltrated laminate composite. The carbon fiber reinfored epoxy has the highest glass transition temperature out of all specimen.

  11. Relation between interlaminar fracture toughness and pressure condition in autoclave molding process of GFRP composite laminates; GFRP sekisoban no autoclave seikei ni okeru atsuryoku joken to sokan hakai jinseichi tono kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, J. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Motogi, S.; Fukuda, T. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-06-15

    Relation between fracture toughness and pressure condition in autoclave molding of GF composite laminates is investigated. Glass/epoxy prepregs are molded under different curing pressures, and UD laminates of [O{sub 8}]T and [O{sub 16}]T are fabricated. The results of the double cantilever beam (DCB) test show that the curing pressure has certain influences on the interlaminar fracture toughness via the change in morphology of matrix resin and fibers between laminae, and via the change in interfacial strength of fiber and matrix. It is also found that the fiber/matrix interfacial strength increases as the curing pressure increases by SEM photographs of the fracture surface in GF UD laminates. 13 refs., 12 figs.

  12. Photorefractive Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuzyk, Mark G

    2003-01-01

    ... scope of the project. In addition to our work in optical limiting fibers, spillover results included making fiber-based light-sources, writing holograms in fibers, and developing the theory of the limits of the nonlinear...

  13. Radiation processing for PTFE composite reinforced with carbon fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akihiro Oshima; Akira Udagawa; Yousuke Morita

    1999-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to evaluate the performance of crosslinked PTFE as a polymer matrix for carbon fiber-reinforced composite materials. The carbon fiber-reinforced PTFE pre-composite, which is laminated with PTFE fine powder, is crosslinked by electron beam irradiation. Mechanical and frictional properties of the crosslinked PTFE composite obtained are higher than those of PTFE resin. The crosslinked PTFE composite with high mechanical and radiation resistant performance is obtained by radiation crosslinking process

  14. Pitch catch ultrasonic study on unidirectional CFRP composite laminates using rayleigh wave transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Je Woong; Yang, In Young; Im, Kwang Hee; Hsu, David K.; Jung, Jong An

    2012-01-01

    The importance of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) has been generally recognized, and CFRP composite laminates have become widely used. Thus, a nondestructive technique would be very useful for evaluating CF/epoxy composite laminates. A pitch catch UT signal is more sensitive than is a normal incidence backwall echo of a longitudinal wave in composites. The depth of the sampling volume where the pitch catch UT signal came from is relatively shallow, but the depth can be increased by increasing the separation distance of the transmitting and receiving probes. Moreover, a method is utilized to determine the porosity content of a composite lay up by processing micrograph images of the laminate. The porosity content of a composite structure is critical to the overall strength and performance of the structure. The image processing method developed utilizes software to process micrograph images of the test sample. The results from the image processing method are compared with existing data. Beam profile is characterized in unidirectional CFRP using pitch catch Rayleigh probes. The one sided and two sided pitch catch techniques are utilized to produce C scan images with the aid of an automatic scanner. The pitch catch ultrasonic signal corresponds with the simulated results of unidirectional CFRP composites

  15. A Progressive Damage Model for Predicting Permanent Indentation and Impact Damage in Composite Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhaojie; Guan, Zhidong; Li, Zengshan

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a progressive damage model was established on the basis of ABAQUS software for predicting permanent indentation and impact damage in composite laminates. Intralaminar and interlaminar damage was modelled based on the continuum damage mechanics (CDM) in the finite element model. For the verification of the model, low-velocity impact tests of quasi-isotropic laminates with material system of T300/5228A were conducted. Permanent indentation and impact damage of the laminates were simulated and the numerical results agree well with the experiments. It can be concluded that an obvious knee point can be identified on the curve of the indentation depth versus impact energy. Matrix cracking and delamination develops rapidly with the increasing impact energy, while considerable amount of fiber breakage only occurs when the impact energy exceeds the energy corresponding to the knee point. Predicted indentation depth after the knee point is very sensitive to the parameter μ which is proposed in this paper, and the acceptable value of this parameter is in range from 0.9 to 1.0.

  16. Identification of impact force acting on composite laminated plates using the radiated sound measured with microphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atobe, Satoshi; Nonami, Shunsuke; Hu, Ning; Fukunaga, Hisao

    2017-09-01

    Foreign object impact events are serious threats to composite laminates because impact damage leads to significant degradation of the mechanical properties of the structure. Identification of the location and force history of the impact that was applied to the structure can provide useful information for assessing the structural integrity. This study proposes a method for identifying impact forces acting on CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) laminated plates on the basis of the sound radiated from the impacted structure. Identification of the impact location and force history is performed using the sound pressure measured with microphones. To devise a method for identifying the impact location from the difference in the arrival times of the sound wave detected with the microphones, the propagation path of the sound wave from the impacted point to the sensor is examined. For the identification of the force history, an experimentally constructed transfer matrix is employed to relate the force history to the corresponding sound pressure. To verify the validity of the proposed method, impact tests are conducted by using a CFRP cross-ply laminate as the specimen, and an impulse hammer as the impactor. The experimental results confirm the validity of the present method for identifying the impact location from the arrival time of the sound wave detected with the microphones. Moreover, the results of force history identification show the feasibility of identifying the force history accurately from the measured sound pressure using the experimental transfer matrix.

  17. Laminated electrospun nHA/PHB-composite scaffolds mimicking bone extracellular matrix for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuoyue; Song, Yue; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Wei; Cui, Jihong; Li, Hongmin; Chen, Fulin

    2017-03-01

    Electrospinning is an effective means to generate nano- to micro-scale polymer fibers resembling native extracellular matrix for tissue engineering. However, a major problem of electrospun materials is that limited pore size and porosity may prevent adequate cellular infiltration and tissue ingrowth. In this study, we first prepared thin layers of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHA)/poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) via electrospinning. We then laminated the nHA/PHB thin layers to obtain a scaffold for cell seeding and bone tissue engineering. The results demonstrated that the laminated scaffold possessed optimized cell-loading capacity. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibited better adherence, proliferation and osteogenic phenotypes on nHA/PHB scaffolds than on PHB scaffolds. Thereafter, we seeded MSCs onto nHA/PHB scaffolds to fabricate bone grafts. Histological observation showed osteoid tissue formation throughout the scaffold, with most of the scaffold absorbed in the specimens 2months after implantation, and blood vessels ingrowth into the graft could be observed in the graft. We concluded that electrospun and laminated nanoscaled biocomposite scaffolds hold great therapeutic potential for bone regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiation processing of carbon fiber-acrylated epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.; Saunders, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced composites, specifically carbon fiber reinforced epoxies, are being used for a variety of demanding structural applications, primarily because of their high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios, corrosion resistance, and damage tolerance characteristics. For these composites the key advantages of using electron beam (EB), rather than thermal curing, are curing at ambient temperature, reduced curing times for individual components, improved resin stability, fewer volatiles, and better control of the profile of energy absorption. Epoxy compounds do, however, have to be modified to make them EB curable. The electron beam penetration limit, a function of beam energy, product density, and the thickness of any container required, must also be examined when considering EB processing. Research is being conducted to develop EB-curable carbon fiber-acrylated epoxy composites. The tensile properties of these laminates are comparable to those of thermally cured epoxy laminates. Research is continuing to develop suitable resin formulations and coupling agents to optimize the mechanical properties of EB-cured carbon fiber laminates. In this chapter the EB curing of epoxies, processing considerations, and typical properties of EB-cured carbon fiber-acrylated epoxy laminates are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Adhesion analysis between metal supplies and composites materials reinforce with glass fiber; Analise de adesao antre materiais metalicos e materiais compositos reforcados com fibra e vidro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oushiro, Karol B.; Costa, Anahi P. da; Botelho, Edson C. [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia], e-mail: kaoushiro@hotmail.com; Costa, Michelle L. [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia; Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (AMR/IAE/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    The appearance of defects, mainly thinning caused by corrosion, is unavoidable in pipeline transport of fluids. Many repair techniques have been developed, among them, has been highlighting the pipeline repair with composite that is to involve the passage of the corroded pipeline with composite material. The study of these techniques is of great interest for the branch industry, since the efficiency of repair will depend on good adhesion between the repair composite and steel pipe. In this work, the bond strength between fiber glass/epoxy composite bonded to a steel tubing used in petrochemical plants was evaluated by mechanical testing of lap shear (ASTM D1002). These samples were conditioned using 2000 thermal shock cycles, and the mechanical results of the conditioned and non-conditioned samples were compared. With this, we observed that the polymer composites can be successfully used for repair of metallic pipes with petrochemical application, because when exposed to sudden temperature changes their mechanical properties (shear) remained practically unchanged. (author)

  20. Mechanical and morphological characterizations of carbon fiber fabric reinforced epoxy composites used in aeronautical field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria Faulstich de Paiva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRC have been used in aeronautical industry in the manufacture of different aircraft components that must attend tight mechanical requirements. This paper shows a study involving mechanical (flexural, shear, tensile and compressive tests and morphological characterizations of four different laminates based on 2 epoxy resin systems (8552TM and F584TM and 2 carbon fiber fabric reinforcements (Plain Weave (PW and Eight Harness Satin (8HS. All laminates were obtained by handing lay-up of prepregs plies (0º/90º and consolidation in an autoclave following an appropriate curing cycle with vacuum and pressure. The results show that the F584-epoxy matrix laminates present better mechanical properties in the tensile and compressive tests than 8552 composites. It is also observed that PW laminates for both matrices show better flexural and interlaminar shear properties.

  1. Prediction of fatigue damage in tapered laminates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raeis Hosseiny, Seyed Aydin; Jakobsen, Johnny

    2017-01-01

    Effective implementation of ply-drops configurations substantially improve the damage tolerant design of flexible and aero-elastic wind turbine blades. Terminating a number of layers for an optimized blade design creates local bending effects. Inter-laminar stress states in tapered areas give rise...... to delamination and premature structural failure. Precise calculation of the stress levels for embedded ply-drops is required to predict failure initiation within acceptable limits. Multi-axial stress states in orthotropic laminates subjected to diverse loading mechanisms nucleate microscopic cracks....... By increasing the cracks density, damage occurs when residual material properties reduce to a critical level. Residual strength and stiffness of simple laminates are assigned in a set of fatigue failure criteria to assess the remaining life of the components by increasing number of loading cycles. The mode...

  2. Numerical analysis of laminated elastomer by FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazda, T.; Shiojiri, H.

    1993-01-01

    A Computer code based on mixed finite element method was developed for three dimensional large strain analyses of laminated elastomers including nonlinear bulk stress vs. bulk strain relationships. The adopted element is the variable node element with maximum node numbers of 27 for displacements and 4 for pressures. At first, the displacements and pressures were calculated by the code using single element under various loading conditions. The results were compared with theoretical solutions and the both results' exactly coincided with each other. Next, the analyses of laminated elastomers subjected to axial loadings were conducted using both the new code and ABAQUS code, and the results were compared with the test results. The agreement of the results of the present code were better than ABAQUS code mainly due to the capability of handling wider range of material properties. Lastly, the shearing tests of laminated elastomers were simulated by the new code. The results were shown to be in good agreement with the test results. (author)

  3. Mechanical properties and the laminate structure of Arapaima gigas scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y S; Wei, C T; Olevsky, E A; Meyers, Marc A

    2011-10-01

    The Arapaima gigas scales play an important role in protecting this large Amazon basin fish against predators such as the piranha. They have a laminate composite structure composed of an external mineralized layer and internal lamellae with thickness of 50-60 μm each and composed of collagen fibers with ~1 μm diameter. The alignment of collagen fibers is consistent in each individual layer but varies from layer to layer, forming a non-orthogonal plywood structure, known as Bouligand stacking. X-ray diffraction revealed that the external surface of the scale contains calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite. EDS results confirm that the percentage of calcium is higher in the external layer. The micro-indentation hardness of the external layer (550 MPa) is considerably higher than that of the internal layer (200 MPa), consistent with its higher degree of mineralization. Tensile testing of the scales carried out in the dry and wet conditions shows that the strength and stiffness are hydration dependent. As is the case of most biological materials, the elastic modulus of the scale is strain-rate dependent. The strain-rate dependence of the elastic modulus, as expressed by the Ramberg-Osgood equation, is equal to 0.26, approximately ten times higher than that of bone. This is attributed to the higher fraction of collagen in the scales and to the high degree of hydration (30% H(2)O). Deproteinization of the scale reveals the structure of the mineral component consisting of an interconnected network of platelets with a thickness of ~50 nm and diameter of ~500 nm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving sensitivity of the polyurethane/CNT laminate strain sensor by controlled mechanical preload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobodian, Petr; Olejnik, Robert; Matyas, Jiri; Babar, Dipak Gorakh

    2016-01-01

    This article describes strain detection potential of polyurethane/CNT layered composite and further possible enhance of its sensitivity to strain, expressed by value of gauge factor, GF, employing its controlled mechanical preload. In course of its fabrication a non-woven polyurethane membrane made by electro spinning was used as filtering membrane for CNT aqueous dispersion. Final CNT polyurethane laminate composite is prepared by compression molding. Produced polyurethane/CNT composite laminate is electrically conductive and high elastic. Its elongation leads to change of its macroscopic electrical resistance. Changes in resistance are further reversible, reproducible and can monitor deformation in real time. Gauge factor reaches very high values around 8 for strain reaching 3.5% comparing with conventional metallic strain gauges. Finally, controlled mechanical preload significantly increases value of GF. For example for value of 8.1% of preload value of GF reaches 23.3 for strain 3.5%. (paper)

  5. Technical specifications for the successful fabrication of laminated seismic isolation bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulak, R F [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1992-07-01

    High damping steel-laminated elastomeric seismic isolation bearings are becoming a preferred device for isolating large buildings and structures. In the United States, the current reference design for the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor uses laminated bearings for seismic isolation. These bearings are constructed from alternating layers of rubber and steel plates. They are typically designed for shear strains between 50 to 100 percent and expected to sustain two to three times these levels for beyond design basis loading considerations. The technical specifications used to procure these bearings are an important factor in assuring thatthe bearings meet the performance requirements of the design. The key aspects of the current version of the Technical Specifications are discussed in this paper. (author)

  6. Technical specifications for the successful fabrication of laminated seismic isolation bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    High damping laminated elastomeric bearings are becoming one of the preferred devices for isolating large buildings and structures. IN the United States, the current reference design for the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor uses laminated bearings for seismic isolation. These bearing are constructed from alternating layers of rubber and steel plates. They are typically designed for shear strains between 50 to 100 percent and expected to sustain two to three times these levels for beyond design basis loading considerations. The technical specifications used to procure these bearings are an important factor in assuring that the bearings that are installed under nuclear structures meet the performance requirements of the design. The key aspects of the current version of the Technical Specifications are discussed in this paper

  7. Technical specifications for the successful fabrication of laminated seismic isolation bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    High damping steel-laminated elastomeric seismic isolation bearings are becoming a preferred device for isolating large buildings and structures. In the United States, the current reference design for the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor uses laminated bearings for seismic isolation. These bearings are constructed from alternating layers of rubber and steel plates. They are typically designed for shear strains between 50 to 100 percent and expected to sustain two to three times these levels for beyond design basis loading considerations. The technical specifications used to procure these bearings are an important factor in assuring that the bearings meet the performance requirements of the design. The key aspects of the current version of the Technical Specifications are discussed in this paper. (author)

  8. Effects of alumina nanoparticles on dynamic impact responses of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy matrix nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Halil B. Kaybal; Hasan Ulus; Okan Demir; Ömer S. Şahin; Ahmet Avcı

    2018-01-01

    The influence of alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles addition upon low-velocity impact behaviors of carbon fiber (CF) reinforced laminated epoxy nanocomposites have been investigated. For this purpose, different amounts of Al2O3 nanoparticles ranging from 1 to 5 wt% were added to the epoxy resin in order to observe the effect of nanoparticle loadings. CF reinforced epoxy based laminated nanocomposites were produced using Vacuum Assisted Resin Infusion Method (VARIM). The low velocity impact (LVI) t...

  9. Frequency and deflection analysis of cenosphere/glass fiber interply hybrid composite cantilever beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath, J.; Joladarashi, Sharnappa; Biradar, Srikumar; Kumar, P. Naveen

    2018-04-01

    Interply hybrid laminates contain plies made of two or more different composite systems. Hybrid composites have unique features that can be used to meet specified design requirements in a more cost-effective way than nonhybrid composites. They offer many advantages over conventional composites including balanced strength and stiffness, enhanced bending and membrane mechanical properties, balanced thermal distortion stability, improved fatigue/impact resistance, improved fracture toughness and crack arresting properties, reduced weight and cost. In this paper an interply hybrid laminate composite containing Cenosphere reinforced polymer composite core and glass fiber reinforced polymer composite skin is analysied and effect of volume fraction of filler on frequency and load v/s deflection of hybrid composite are studied. Cenosphere reinforced polymer composite has increased specific strength, specific stiffness, specific density, savings in cost and weight. Glass fiber reinforced polymer composite has higher torsional rigidity when compared to metals. These laminate composites are fabricated to meet several structural applications and hence there is a need to study their vibration and deflection properties. Experimental investigation starts with fabrication of interply hybrid composite with cores of cenosphere reinforced epoxy composite volume fractions of CE 15, CE 25, CE15_UC as per ASTM E756-05C, and glasss fiber reinforced epoxy skin, cast product of required dimension by selecting glass fibre of proper thickness which is currently 0.25mm E-glass bidirectional woven glass fabric having density 2500kg/m3, in standard from cast parts of size 230mmX230mmX5mm in an Aluminum mould. Modal analysis of cantilever beam is performed to study the variation of natural frequency with strain gauge and the commercially available Lab-VIEW software and deflection in each of the cases by optical Laser Displacement Measurement Sensor to perform Load versus Deflection Analysis

  10. Mechanical performance of carbon-epoxy laminates. Part II: quasi-static and fatigue tensile properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Tarpani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In Part II of this work, quasi-static tensile properties of four aeronautical grade carbon-epoxy composite laminates, in both the as-received and pre-fatigued states, have been determined and compared. Quasi-static mechanical properties assessed were tensile strength and stiffness, tenacity (toughness at the maximum load and for a 50% load drop-off. In general, as-molded unidirectional cross-ply carbon fiber (tape reinforcements impregnated with either standard or rubber-toughened epoxy resin exhibited the maximum performance. The materials also displayed a significant tenacification (toughening after exposed to cyclic loading, resulting from the increased stress (the so-called wear-in phenomenon and/or strain at the maximum load capacity of the specimens. With no exceptions, two-dimensional woven textile (fabric pre-forms fractured catastrophically under identical cyclic loading conditions imposed to the fiber tape architecture, thus preventing their residual properties from being determined.

  11. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer with Shredded Fibers: Quasi-Isotropic Material Properties and Antenna Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Artner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP laminate, with the top layer consisting of shredded fibers, is proposed and manufactured. The shredded fibers are aligned randomly on the surface to achieve a more isotropic conductivity, as is desired in antenna applications. Moreover, fiber shreds can be recycled from carbon fiber composites. Conductivity, permittivity, and permeability are obtained with the Nicolson-Ross-Weir method from material samples measured inside rectangular waveguides in the frequency range of 4 to 6 GHz. The decrease in material anisotropy results in negligible influence on antennas. This is shown by measuring the proposed CFRP as ground plane material for both a narrowband wire monopole antenna for 5.9 GHz and an ultrawideband conical monopole antenna for 1–10 GHz. For comparison, all measurements are repeated with a twill-weave CFRP.

  12. Fiber dielectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipowicz, P.J.; Yeh, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis is the motion of uncharged particles in nonuniform electric fields. We find that the theoretical dielectrophoretic velocity of a conducting fiber in an insulating medium is proportional to the square of the fiber length, and is virtually independent of fiber diameter. This prediction has been verified experimentally. The results point to the development of a fiber length classifier based on dielectrophoresis. (author)

  13. Arteriographical and pathological changes in chronic laminitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosman, R; Nemeth, F; Gruys, E; Klarenbeek, A

    1989-07-01

    The arteriographic appearance of 76 bovine hind digits, obtained from a slaughterhouse, was related to the macroscopic signs of chronic laminitis in the digits. There were statistically significant correlations between the macroscopic and the arteriographic appearance of the claws. Subsequent histological examination of the radiographically abnormal arteries revealed features indicative of arteriosclerosis. The results of this study indicate that chronic laminitis develops following a subclinical attack of laminitis due to a continous hypoperfusion of the digit.

  14. Experimental and Numerical Simulation Analysis of Typical Carbon Woven Fabric/Epoxy Laminates Subjected to Lightning Strike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J. J.; Chang, F.; Li, S. L.; Yao, X. L.; Sun, J. R.; Xiao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    To clarify the evolution of damage for typical carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminates exposed to lightning strike, artificial lightning testing on carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminates were conducted, damage was assessed using visual inspection and damage peeling approaches. Relationships between damage size and action integral were also elucidated. Results showed that damage appearance of carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminate presents circular distribution, and center of the circle located at the lightning attachment point approximately, there exist no damage projected area dislocations for different layers, visual damage territory represents maximum damage scope; visible damage can be categorized into five modes: resin ablation, fiber fracture and sublimation, delamination, ablation scallops and block-shaped ply-lift; delamination damage due to resin pyrolysis and internal pressure exist obvious distinguish; project area of total damage is linear with action integral for the same type specimens, that of resin ablation damage is linear with action integral, but no correlation with specimen type, for all specimens, damage depth is linear with logarithm of action integral. The coupled thermal-electrical model constructed is capable to simulate the ablation damage for carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminates exposed to simulated lightning current through experimental verification.

  15. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Shawn M; Baranova, Inessa; Poley, Joseph; Reis, Henrique

    2012-02-27

    This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North

  16. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Shawn M.

    2012-02-27

    This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North

  17. Current perpendicular to plane giant magnetoresistance in laminated nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedyayev, A.; Zhukov, I.; Dieny, B.

    2005-01-01

    We theoretically studied spin-dependent electron transport perpendicular-to-plain (CPP) in magnetic laminated multilayered structures by using Kubo formalism. We took into account not only bulk scattering, but the interface resistance due to both specular and diffuse reflection and also spin conserving and spin-flip processes. It was shown that spin-flip scattering at interfaces substantially reduces the value of giant magnetoresistance (GMR). This can explain the experimental observations that the CPP GMR ratio for laminated structures only slightly increases as compared to non-laminated ones even though lamination induces a significant increase in CPP resistance

  18. Fiber Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The chapter provides a discussion of optical fiber amplifiers and through three sections provides a detailed treatment of three types of optical fiber amplifiers, erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), Raman amplifiers, and parametric amplifiers. Each section comprises the fundamentals including...... the basic physics and relevant in-depth theoretical modeling, amplifiers characteristics and performance data as a function of specific operation parameters. Typical applications in fiber optic communication systems and the improvement achievable through the use of fiber amplifiers are illustrated....

  19. Continuum Damage Mechanics Models for the Analysis of Progressive Failure in Open-Hole Tension Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyonchan; Li, Yingyong; Rose, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of a state-of-the-art continuum damage mechanics model for interlaminar damage, coupled with a cohesive zone model for delamination is examined for failure prediction of quasi-isotropic open-hole tension laminates. Limitations of continuum representations of intra-ply damage and the effect of mesh orientation on the analysis predictions are discussed. It is shown that accurate prediction of matrix crack paths and stress redistribution after cracking requires a mesh aligned with the fiber orientation. Based on these results, an aligned mesh is proposed for analysis of the open-hole tension specimens consisting of different meshes within the individual plies, such that the element edges are aligned with the ply fiber direction. The modeling approach is assessed by comparison of analysis predictions to experimental data for specimen configurations in which failure is dominated by complex interactions between matrix cracks and delaminations. It is shown that the different failure mechanisms observed in the tests are well predicted. In addition, the modeling approach is demonstrated to predict proper trends in the effect of scaling on strength and failure mechanisms of quasi-isotropic open-hole tension laminates.

  20. Computational Homogenization of Mechanical Properties for Laminate Composites Reinforced with Thin Film Made of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Moumen, A.; Tarfaoui, M.; Lafdi, K.

    2018-06-01

    Elastic properties of laminate composites based Carbone Nanotubes (CNTs), used in military applications, were estimated using homogenization techniques and compared to the experimental data. The composite consists of three phases: T300 6k carbon fibers fabric with 5HS (satin) weave, baseline pure Epoxy matrix and CNTs added with 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 4%. Two step homogenization methods based RVE model were employed. The objective of this paper is to determine the elastic properties of structure starting from the knowledge of those of constituents (CNTs, Epoxy and carbon fibers fabric). It is assumed that the composites have a geometric periodicity and the homogenization model can be represented by a representative volume element (RVE). For multi-scale analysis, finite element modeling of unit cell based two step homogenization method is used. The first step gives the properties of thin film made of epoxy and CNTs and the second is used for homogenization of laminate composite. The fabric unit cell is chosen using a set of microscopic observation and then identified by its ability to enclose the characteristic periodic repeat in the fabric weave. The unit cell model of 5-Harness satin weave fabric textile composite is identified for numerical approach and their dimensions are chosen based on some microstructural measurements. Finally, a good comparison was obtained between the predicted elastic properties using numerical homogenization approach and the obtained experimental data with experimental tests.