WorldWideScience

Sample records for fever bacterium coxiella

  1. Molecular epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii from ruminants in Q fever outbreak, the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, H.I.J.; Ruuls, R.C.; Tilburg, J.H.H.C.; Nabuurs-Fransen, M.H.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Vellema, P.; Brom, Van den R.; Dercksen, D.; Wouda, W.; Spierenburg, M.; Spek, Van der A.N.; Buijs, R.; Willemsen, P.T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. One of the largest reported outbreaks of Q fever in humans occurred in the Netherlands starting in 2007; epidemiologic investigations identified small ruminants as the source. To determine the genetic background of C. burnetii in

  2. Diversity and global distribution of the Coxiella intracellular bacterium in seabird ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Olivier; Jourdain, Elsa; McCoy, Karen D

    2014-09-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii is the etiological agent of Q fever, a widespread zoonotic disease whose most common animal reservoirs are domestic ruminants. Recently, a variety of Coxiella-like organisms have also been reported from non-mammalian hosts, including pathogenic forms in birds and forms without known effects in ticks, raising questions about the potential importance of non-mammalian hosts as reservoirs of Coxiella in the wild. In the present study, we examined the potential role of globally-distributed seabird ticks as reservoirs of these bacteria. To this aim, we tested for Coxiella infection 11 geographically distinct populations of two tick species frequently found in seabird breeding colonies, the hard tick Ixodes uriae (Ixodidae) and soft ticks of the Ornithodoros (Carios) capensis group (Argasidae). We found Coxiella-like organisms in all O. capensis sensu lato specimens, but only in a few I. uriae specimens of one population. The sequencing of 16S rDNA and GroEL gene sequences further revealed an unexpected Coxiella diversity, with seven genetically distinct Coxiella-like organisms present in seabird tick populations. Phylogenetic analyses show that these Coxiella-like organisms originate from three divergent subclades within the Coxiella genus and that none of the Coxiella strains found in seabird ticks are genetically identical to the forms known to be associated with pathogenicity in vertebrates, including C. burnetii. Using this data set, we discuss the potential epidemiological significance of the presence of Coxiella in seabird ticks. Notably, we suggest that these organisms may not be pathogenic forms, but rather behave as endosymbionts engaged in intricate interactions with their tick hosts.

  3. Coxiella burnetii Isolates Cause Genogroup-Specific Virulence in Mouse and Guinea Pig Models of Acute Q Fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell-Lodrigue, K.E.; Andoh, M.; Poel, M.W.J.; Shive, H.R.; Weeks, B.R.; Zhang, G.Q.; Tersteeg, C.; Masegi, T.; Hotta, A.; Yamaguchi, T.; Fukushima, H.; Hirai, K.; McMurray, D.N.; Samuel, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease of worldwide significance caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Humans with Q fever may experience an acute flu-like illness and pneumonia and/or chronic hepatitis or endocarditis. Various markers demonstrate significant phylogenetic separati

  4. Coxiella burnetii in pregnant goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, H.I.J.

    2013-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of Q fever. The zoonotic impact of Q fever was recently underlined by the Dutch Q fever outbreak, which emerged from an endemic state. In this outbreak dairy goats and dairy sheep were deemed responsible for the human cases, alt

  5. Animals with Coxiella burnetii Infection Demonstrate a Western Immunoblot Profile of Chronic Q Fever in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TJ Marrie

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Western immunoblotting was used to compare the immune response to Coxiella burnetii phase I and phase II antigens of humans with acute and chronic Q fever with that of infected cats, rabbits, cows and raccoons. The cats, rabbits, cows and raccoons had an immunoblot profile similar to that of the human with chronic Q fever.

  6. Q fever in pregnant Goats: PAthogenesis and excretion of Coxiella burnetii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, H.I.J.; Gelderen, van E.; Dinkla, A.; Frangoulidis, D.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Keulen, van L.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Q fever. Infected pregnant goats are a major source of human infection. However, the tissue dissemination and excretion pathway of the pathogen in goats are still poorly understood. To better understand Q fever pathogenesis, we ino

  7. The Recent Evolution of a Maternally-Inherited Endosymbiont of Ticks Led to the Emergence of the Q Fever Pathogen, Coxiella burnetii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Duron

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Q fever is a highly infectious disease with a worldwide distribution. Its causative agent, the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii, infects a variety of vertebrate species, including humans. Its evolutionary origin remains almost entirely unknown and uncertainty persists regarding the identity and lifestyle of its ancestors. A few tick species were recently found to harbor maternally-inherited Coxiella-like organisms engaged in symbiotic interactions, but their relationships to the Q fever pathogen remain unclear. Here, we extensively sampled ticks, identifying new and atypical Coxiella strains from 40 of 58 examined species, and used this data to infer the evolutionary processes leading to the emergence of C. burnetii. Phylogenetic analyses of multi-locus typing and whole-genome sequencing data revealed that Coxiella-like organisms represent an ancient and monophyletic group allied to ticks. Remarkably, all known C. burnetii strains originate within this group and are the descendants of a Coxiella-like progenitor hosted by ticks. Using both colony-reared and field-collected gravid females, we further establish the presence of highly efficient maternal transmission of these Coxiella-like organisms in four examined tick species, a pattern coherent with an endosymbiotic lifestyle. Our laboratory culture assays also showed that these Coxiella-like organisms were not amenable to culture in the vertebrate cell environment, suggesting different metabolic requirements compared to C. burnetii. Altogether, this corpus of data demonstrates that C. burnetii recently evolved from an inherited symbiont of ticks which succeeded in infecting vertebrate cells, likely by the acquisition of novel virulence factors.

  8. Clinical microbiology of Coxiella burnetii and relevant aspects for the diagnosis and control of the zoonotic disease Q fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Hendrik I J; Bossers, Alex; van Zijderveld, Fred G; Rebel, Johanna M L

    2013-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of the zoonotic disease Q fever. Since its first recognition as a disease in the 1930s, the knowledge about the agent and the disease itself has increased. This review summarizes the current knowledge on C. burnetii and Q fever, its pathogenesis, diagnosis and control. C. burnetii is a bacterium which naturally replicates inside human or animal host cells. The clinical presentation of Q fever varies per host species. C. burnetii infection in animals is mainly asymptomatic except for pregnant ruminants in which abortions and stillbirth can occur. In humans, the disease is also mainly asymptomatic, but clinical presentations include acute and chronic Q fever and the post-Q fever fatigue syndrome. Knowledge of the pathogenesis of Q fever in animals and excretion of C. burnetii in infected animals is crucial in understanding the transmission routes and risks of human infection. Our studies indicated that infected pregnant animals only excrete C. burnetii during and after parturition, independent of abortion, and that C. burnetii phase specific serology can be a useful tool in the early detection of infection. Domestic ruminants are the main reservoir for human Q fever, which has a major public health impact when outbreaks occur. In outbreaks, epidemiological source identification can only be refined by genotypic analysis of the strains involved. To control outbreaks and Q fever in domestic ruminants, vaccination with a phase 1 vaccine is effective. Future challenges are to identify factors for virulence, host susceptibility and protection.

  9. Detection of Coxiella burnetii in Ambient Air after a Large Q Fever Outbreak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna M T de Rooij

    Full Text Available One of the largest Q fever outbreaks ever occurred in the Netherlands from 2007-2010, with 25 fatalities among 4,026 notified cases. Airborne dispersion of Coxiella burnetii was suspected but not studied extensively at the time. We investigated temporal and spatial variation of Coxiella burnetii in ambient air at residential locations in the most affected area in the Netherlands (the South-East, in the year immediately following the outbreak. One-week average ambient particulate matter < 10 μm samples were collected at eight locations from March till September 2011. Presence of Coxiella burnetii DNA was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Associations with various spatial and temporal characteristics were analyzed by mixed logistic regression. Coxiella burnetii DNA was detected in 56 out of 202 samples (28%. Airborne Coxiella burnetii presence showed a clear seasonal pattern coinciding with goat kidding. The spatial variation was significantly associated with number of goats on the nearest goat farm weighted by the distance to the farm (OR per IQR: 1.89, CI: 1.31-2.76. We conclude that in the year after a large Q fever outbreak, temporal variation of airborne Coxiella burnetii is suggestive to be associated with goat kidding, and spatial variation with distance to and size of goat farms. Aerosol measurements show to have potential for source identification and attribution of an airborne pathogen, which may also be applicable in early stages of an outbreak.

  10. Prevalence of Coxiella Burnetii in Ticks After a Large Outbreak of Q Fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong, H.; Tijsse-Klasen, E.; Langelaar, M.; Bruin, de A.; Fonville, M.; Gassner, F.; Takken, W.; Wieren, van S.E.; Nijhof, A.; Jongejan, F.; Maassen, C.B.M.; Scholte, E.J.; Hovius, J.W.; Emil Hovius, K.; Spitalska, E.; Duynhoven, van Y.T.

    2012-01-01

    Q fever has emerged as an important human and veterinary public health problem in the Netherlands with major outbreaks in three consecutive years. Goat farms are probably the prime source from which Coxiella burnetii have spread throughout the environment, infecting people living in the vicinity.

  11. Unique clone of Coxiella burnetii causing severe Q fever, French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamat, Aba; Edouard, Sophie; Demar, Magalie; Abboud, Philippe; Patrice, Jean-Yves; La Scola, Bernard; Okandze, Antoine; Djossou, Félix; Raoult, Didier

    2013-07-01

    Acute Q fever is an emergent and severe disease in French Guiana. We obtained 5 Coxiella burnetii isolates from samples of patients from Cayenne and found an epidemic clone circulating in Cayenne. This clone has caused pneumonia and endocarditis and seems to be more virulent than previously described strains.

  12. Prevalence of Coxiella Burnetii in Ticks After a Large Outbreak of Q Fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong, H.; Tijsse-Klasen, E.; Langelaar, M.; Bruin, de A.; Fonville, M.; Gassner, F.; Takken, W.; Wieren, van S.E.; Nijhof, A.; Jongejan, F.; Maassen, C.B.M.; Scholte, E.J.; Hovius, J.W.; Emil Hovius, K.; Spitalska, E.; Duynhoven, van Y.T.

    2012-01-01

    Q fever has emerged as an important human and veterinary public health problem in the Netherlands with major outbreaks in three consecutive years. Goat farms are probably the prime source from which Coxiella burnetii have spread throughout the environment, infecting people living in the vicinity. Co

  13. Clinical microbiology of Coxiella burnetii and relevant aspects for the diagnosis and control of the zoonotic disease Q fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, H.I.J.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of the zoonotic disease Q fever. Since its first recognition as a disease in the 1930s, the knowledge about the agent and the disease itself has increased. This review summarizes the current knowledge on C. burnetii and Q fever, its pathogenesis, diagnosis

  14. Airborne Transmission of Coxiella burnetii : Spatial dispersion modelling and the effects of meteorological and environmental conditions on Q fever incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leuken, J.P.G.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands experienced the largest human and veterinary Q fever epidemic ever described. From 2007 through 2010, over 4,000 human cases were notified and approximately a twelve-fold higher number was probably infected by Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever. Dairy goat farms, and t

  15. Serosurvey of Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Laikipia County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, A S; Fèvre, E M; Kinnaird, M; Muloi, D M; Wang, C A; Larsen, P S; O'Brien, T; Deem, S L

    2017-02-08

    Dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) are an important protein source for people in semi-arid and arid regions of Africa. In Kenya, camel populations have grown dramatically in the past few decades resulting in the potential for increased disease transmission between humans and camels. An estimated four million Kenyans drink unpasteurized camel milk, which poses a disease risk. We evaluated the seroprevalence of a significant zoonotic pathogen, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), among 334 camels from nine herds in Laikipia County, Kenya. Serum testing revealed 18.6% positive seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii (n = 344). Increasing camel age was positively associated with C. burnetii seroprevalence (OR = 5.36). Our study confirmed that camels living in Laikipia County, Kenya, have been exposed to the zoonotic pathogen, C. burnetii. Further research to evaluate the role of camels in disease transmission to other livestock, wildlife and humans in Kenya should be conducted.

  16. Presence and persistence of Coxiella burnetii in the environments of goat farms associated with a Q fever outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersh, Gilbert J; Fitzpatrick, Kelly A; Self, Joshua S; Priestley, Rachael A; Kelly, Aubree J; Lash, R Ryan; Marsden-Haug, Nicola; Nett, Randall J; Bjork, Adam; Massung, Robert F; Anderson, Alicia D

    2013-03-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by inhalation of the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Ruminant livestock are common reservoirs for C. burnetii, and bacteria present in aerosols derived from the waste of infected animals can infect humans. The significance of infection from material deposited in the environment versus transmission directly from infected animals is not known. In 2011, an outbreak of Q fever cases on farms in Washington and Montana was associated with infected goats. A study was undertaken to investigate the quantity and spatial distribution of C. burnetii in the environment of these goat farms. Soil, vacuum, and sponge samples collected on seven farms epidemiologically linked to the outbreak were tested for the presence of C. burnetii DNA by quantitative PCR. Overall, 70.1% of the samples were positive for C. burnetii. All farms had positive samples, but the quantity of C. burnetii varied widely between samples and between farms. High quantities of C. burnetii DNA were in goat housing/birthing areas, and only small quantities were found in samples collected more than 50 m from these areas. Follow-up sampling at one of the farms 1 year after the outbreak found small quantities of C. burnetii DNA in air samples and large quantities of C. burnetii persisting in soil and vacuum samples. The results suggest that the highest concentrations of environmental C. burnetii are found in goat birthing areas and that contamination of other areas is mostly associated with human movement.

  17. Persistent Coxiella burnetii infection in mice overexpressing IL-10: an efficient model for chronic Q fever pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Meghari

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-10 increases host susceptibility to microorganisms and is involved in intracellular persistence of bacterial pathogens. IL-10 is associated with chronic Q fever, an infectious disease due to the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Nevertheless, accurate animal models of chronic C. burnetii infection are lacking. Transgenic mice constitutively expressing IL-10 in macrophages were infected with C. burnetti by intraperitoneal and intratracheal routes and infection was analyzed through real-time PCR and antibody production. Transgenic mice exhibited sustained tissue infection and strong antibody response in contrast to wild-type mice; thus, bacterial persistence was IL-10-dependent as in chronic Q fever. The number of granulomas was low in spleen and liver of transgenic mice infected through the intraperitoneal route, as in patients with chronic Q fever. Macrophages from transgenic mice were unable to kill C. burnetii. C. burnetii-stimulated macrophages were characterized by non-microbicidal transcriptional program consisting of increased expression of arginase-1, mannose receptor, and Ym1/2, in contrast to wild-type macrophages in which expression of inducible NO synthase and inflammatory cytokines was increased. In vivo results emphasized macrophage data. In spleen and liver of transgenic mice infected with C. burnetii by the intraperitoneal route, the expression of arginase-1 was increased while microbicidal pathway consisting of IL-12p40, IL-23p19, and inducible NO synthase was depressed. The overexpression of IL-10 in macrophages prevents anti-infectious competence of host, including the ability to mount granulomatous response and microbicidal pathway in tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first efficient model for chronic Q fever pathogenesis.

  18. Q Fever (Coxiella burnetii) Knowledge and Attitudes of Australian Cat Breeders and Their Husbandry Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A J; Norris, J M; Bosward, K L; Heller, J

    2016-09-13

    A Q fever outbreak in a small animal veterinary hospital, associated with a cat caesarean section, initiated a cat seroprevalence study (n = 712) that found circulating antibodies to Coxiella burnetii was highest in cattery-confined breeding cats (9.3%). These findings stimulated interest about potential sources of C. burnetii infection for cats and humans associated with cats. Cat breeders are potentially a group at increased risk of C. burnetii infection, and this study sought to identify potential risk factors. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted targeting all domestic cat breeders registered with an affiliate member body in Australia in 2015. Responses from 177 cat breeders across Australia were analysed. Forty per cent of responding cat breeders had not heard of Q fever. Raw meat was fed as an integral constituent of the diet by 89% of respondents. Eighty per cent of respondents allowed queens access to the home for parturition, and assistance of queens and resuscitation of kittens at the time of birth were reported by 97% of respondents. Respondents who perceived some level of exposure to Q fever through their breeding activities were three times less likely to perform mouth-to-snout resuscitation (OR 0.3 95% CI 0.1-0.9; P = 0.034) than those who did not perceive a risk of exposure. Similarly, respondents who perceived Q fever as a risk through breeding activities were close to eight times more likely to use personal protective equipment during parturition (OR 7.7 95% CI 1.5-39.9; P = 0.015) than those who did not. Husbandry practices of cat breeders that may increase the risk of C. burnetii transmission require further targeted investigations to assess the contribution of these risk factors to the acquisition of disease. Concurrent education forums are recommended to inform Australian cat breeders of the aetiopathogenesis of Q fever.

  19. Draft genome sequence of Coxiella burnetii Dog Utad, a strain isolated from a dog-related outbreak of Q fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D’amato

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii Dog Utad, with a 2 008 938 bp genome is a strain isolated from a parturient dog responsible for a human familial outbreak of acute Q fever in Nova Scotia, Canada. Its genotype, determined by multispacer typing, is 21; the only one found in Canada that includes Q212, which causes endocarditis. Only 107 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 16 INDELs differed from Q212, suggesting a recent clonal radiation.

  20. Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence in Small Ruminants in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.; Roest, Hendrik-Jan; Hoek, van der W.; Goossens, B.; Secka, A.; Stegeman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a Gram negative bacterium present worldwide. Small ruminants are considered the main reservoirs for infection of humans. This study aimed to estimate the extent of C. burnetii infection among sheep and goats in part of The Gambia.

  1. Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence in Small Ruminants in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.; Roest, Hendrik-Jan; Hoek, van der W.; Goossens, B.; Secka, A.; Stegeman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a Gram negative bacterium present worldwide. Small ruminants are considered the main reservoirs for infection of humans. This study aimed to estimate the extent of C. burnetii infection among sheep and goats in part of The Gambia.

  2. Cell-Free Propagation of Coxiella burnetii Does Not Affect Its Relative Virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuley, R.; Smith, H.E.; Frangoulidis, D.; Smits, M.A.; Roest, H.I.J.; Bossers, A.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. In vitro growth of the bacterium is usually limited to viable eukaryotic host cells imposing experimental constraints for molecular studies, such as the identification and characterisation of major virulence factors. Studie

  3. Detection of Coxiella burnetii DNA on small-ruminant farms during a Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, A; van der Plaats, R Q J; de Heer, L; Paauwe, R; Schimmer, B; Vellema, P; van Rotterdam, B J; van Duynhoven, Y T H P

    2012-03-01

    During large Q fever outbreaks in the Netherlands between 2007 and 2010, dairy goat farms were implicated as the primary source of human Q fever. The transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans is thought to occur primarily via aerosols, although available data on C. burnetii in aerosols and other environmental matrices are limited. During the outbreak of 2009, 19 dairy goat farms and one dairy sheep farm were selected nationwide to investigate the presence of C. burnetii DNA in vaginal swabs, manure, surface area swabs, milk unit filters, and aerosols. Four of these farms had a positive status during the Coxiella burnetii bulk milk monitoring program in 2009 and additionally reported abortion waves in 2008 or 2009. Eleven farms were reported as having positive bulk milk only, and five selected (control) farms had a bulk milk-negative status in 2009 and no reported Q fever history. Screening by quantitative PCR (qPCR) revealed that on farms with a history of abortions related to C. burnetii and, to a lesser extent, on farms positive by bulk milk monitoring, generally higher proportions of positive samples and higher levels of C. burnetii DNA within positive samples were observed than on the control farms. The relatively high levels of C. burnetii DNA in surface area swabs and aerosols sampled in stables of bulk milk-positive farms, including farms with a Q fever-related abortion history, support the hypothesis that these farms can pose a risk for the transmission of C. burnetii to humans.

  4. Herd-prevalence of Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) antibodies in dairy cattle farms based on bulk tank milk analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Khalili; Ehsanollah Sakhaee; Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian; Naser Shahabi-Nejad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) antibody positive randomly selected dairy herds in southeast Iran (Kerman). Methods: Bulk tank milk samples were collected randomly from 44 sufficiently large commercial dairy herds, included near 12 000 dairy cattle, in Kerman (The largest province of Iran), southeast Iran. The samples were tested for antibodies against C. burnetii using the commercial CHEKIT® Q fever antibody ELISA Test Kit (Idexx, Liebefeld-Bern, Switzerland). Results: The prevalence of positive, negative and intermediate herds were 45.4%, 43.2% and 11.4%, respectively. Conclusions: The result supports the hypothesis of high prevalence and endemic pattern of Q fever in Iran. This investigation highlights the importance of further studies on Q fever in Iran.

  5. A probably minor role for land-applied goat manure in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans in the 2007–2010 Dutch Q fever outbreak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Brom, R.; Roest, H.-J.; De Bruin, A.; Dercksen, D.; Santman-Berends, I.; Van der Hoek, W.; Dinkla,A.; Vellema, J.; Vellema, P.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, Q fever started to become a major public health problem in the Netherlands, with small ruminants as most probable source. In order to reduce environmental contamination, control measures for manure were implemented because of the assumption that manure was highly contaminated with Coxiella

  6. A Probably Minor Role for Land-Applied Goat Manure in the Transmission of Coxiella burnetii to Humans in the 2007-2010 Dutch Q Fever Outbreak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Van den R.; Roest, H.I.J.; Bruin, de Arnout; Dercksen, D.; Santman-Berends, I.M.G.A.; Hoek, van der Wim; Dinkla, A.; Vellema, Jelmer; Vellema, P.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, Q fever started to become a major public health problem in the Netherlands, with small ruminants as most probable source. In order to reduce environmental contamination, control measures for manure were implemented because of the assumption that manure was highly contaminated with Coxiella

  7. The immune response in Q fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoffelen, T.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an infection caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. A large outbreak of Q fever occurred in the Netherlands between 2007 and 2010, in which infected goats and sheep were the source of human infections. In some people, so-called ‘chronic Q fever’ develops, which mainly manifests as end

  8. The immune response in Q fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoffelen, T.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an infection caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. A large outbreak of Q fever occurred in the Netherlands between 2007 and 2010, in which infected goats and sheep were the source of human infections. In some people, so-called ‘chronic Q fever’ develops, which mainly manifests as

  9. In silico biosynthesis of virenose, a methylated deoxy-sugar unique to Coxiella burnetii lipopolysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Coxiella burnetii is Gram-negative bacterium responsible for the zoonosis Q-fever. While it has an obligate intracellulargrowth habit, it is able to persist for extended periods outside of a host cell and can resist environmental conditions that would be lethal to most prokaryotes. It is...

  10. Detection of Coxiella burnetii in the bulk tank milk from a farm with vaccinated goats, by using a specific PCR technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, van der R.; Engelen, van E.; Vos, J.; Luttikholt, S.J.; Moll, L.; Roest, H.I.J.; Heijden, van der H.M.J.F.; Vellema, P.

    2013-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease, caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Between 2007 and 2010, Q fever has been a major public health concern in the Netherlands, with almost 3500 human cases reported and dairy goats considered to be the most probable source. At the end of 20

  11. A Q fever case mimicking crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Karabay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is the bacterium that causes Q fever. Human infection is mainly transmitted from cattle, goats and sheep. The disease is usually self-limited. Pneumonia and hepatitis are the most common clinical manifestations. In this study, we present a case of Q fever from the western part of Turkey mimicking Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF in terms of clinical and laboratory findings.

  12. Long-term follow-up of acute Q fever patients after a large epidemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielders, CCH

    2014-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, one of the largest Q fever epidemics documented worldwide occurred in the Netherlands. This epidemic originated from dairy goat farms and resulted in over 3,500 notified human acute Q fever cases. After an episode of acute Q fever, the causative bacterium Coxiella burnetii may

  13. Care for patients with vascular chronic Q fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, J.C.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Q fever is caused by Coxiella burnetii, a Gram-negative and intracellular bacterium. From 2007 to 2010, the Netherlands was confronted with the world’s largest Q fever outbreak. Dairy goats were identified to be the source. At the end of 2009, the outbreak expanded enormously (with 1000 patients in

  14. Care for patients with vascular chronic Q fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, J.C.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Q fever is caused by Coxiella burnetii, a Gram-negative and intracellular bacterium. From 2007 to 2010, the Netherlands was confronted with the world’s largest Q fever outbreak. Dairy goats were identified to be the source. At the end of 2009, the outbreak expanded enormously (with 1000 patients in

  15. Detailed analysis of health status of Q fever patients 1 year after the first Dutch outbreak: a case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limonard, G.J.; Peters, J.B.; Nabuurs-Franssen, M.H.; Weers-Pothoff, G.; Besselink, R.; Groot, C.A. de; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Vercoulen, J.H.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. The two long-term complications, after primary infection, are chronic Q fever in approximately 1% of patients, and a chronic fatigue syndrome in 10-20%. However, the existence of a protracted decrease

  16. Occurrence of Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia canis, Rickettsia species and Anaplasma phagocytophilum-like bacterium in ticks collected from dogs and cats in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khethiwe Mtshali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are major vectors of arthropod-borne infections and transmit a wide variety of zoonotic pathogens. This study was conducted mainly to determine the occurrence of canine tick-borne bacterial and rickettsial pathogens especially those with zoonotic potential. We examined 276 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 38 Haemaphysalis elliptica and 4 Amblyomma hebraeum ticks from 90 dogs and 4 cats from the Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, North West and Mpumalanga provinces. DNA of Coxiella burnetii (41%, Ehrlichia or Anaplasma (18%, Rickettsia spp. (37%, Anaplasma phagocytophilum-like bacterium (18% and Ehrlichia canis (19% was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR from a total of 147 pooled DNA samples. All samples were negative for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA. Ehrlichia canis was detected in samples from all the provinces except the North West; A. phagocytophilum was absent in KwaZulu-Natal samples, whereas Rickettsia species and C. burnetii were detected in all sampled provinces. The PCRpositive samples were confirmed by direct sequencing of the product. Data from this study calls for a joint effort by both veterinary and medical sectors to conduct epidemiological studies of the zoonotic pathogens in both animals and humans.

  17. Molecular identification of the agent of Q feverCoxiella burnetii – in domestic animals in State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Monteiro de Mello Mares-Guia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Over the last recent years, the number of Q fever cases have has increased throughout the world. An epidemiological investigation was performed in the area in which the first molecular documentation of Q fever in Brazil was previously reported. Methods Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and PCR of Coxiella burnetii targeting the htpAB gene were performed in samples from 14 dogs (blood; 1 cat (blood; 10 goats (blood, milk, vaginal swab and anal swab; 3 sheep (blood; and 2 horses (blood. Results Two dogs, two sheep and five goats were seroreactive. DNA was amplified from 6 milk and 2 blood samples from goats and from dogs, respectively. The sequence of the amplicons exhibited 99% sequence similarity with the homologous sequence of the htpAB gene of C. burnetii RSA 331 (GenBank - CP000890. Conclusions The results confirm C. burnetii infection in animals in Rio de Janeiro and reinforce the need for the surveillance of Q fever in Brazil.

  18. A probably minor role for land-applied goat manure in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans in the 2007-2010 Dutch Q fever outbreak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René van den Brom

    Full Text Available In 2007, Q fever started to become a major public health problem in the Netherlands, with small ruminants as most probable source. In order to reduce environmental contamination, control measures for manure were implemented because of the assumption that manure was highly contaminated with Coxiella burnetii. The aims of this study were 1 to clarify the role of C. burnetii contaminated manure from dairy goat farms in the transmission of C. burnetii to humans, 2 to assess the impact of manure storage on temperature profiles in dunghills, and 3 to calculate the decimal reduction time of the Nine Mile RSA 493 reference strain of C. burnetii under experimental conditions in different matrices. For these purposes, records on distribution of manure from case and control herds were mapped and a potential relation to incidences of human Q fever was investigated. Additionally, temperatures in two dunghills were measured and related to heat resistance of C. burnetii. Results of negative binomial regression showed no significant association between the incidence of human Q fever cases and the source of manure. Temperature measurements in the core and shell of dunghills on two farms were above 40°C for at least ten consecutive days which would result in a strong reduction of C. burnetii over time. Our findings indicate that there is no relationship between incidence of human Q fever and land applied manure from dairy goat farms with an abortion wave caused by C. burnetii. Temperature measurements in dunghills on two farms with C. burnetii shedding dairy goat herds further support the very limited role of goat manure as a transmission route during the Dutch human Q fever outbreak. It is very likely that the composting process within a dunghill will result in a clear reduction in the number of viable C. burnetii.

  19. A probably minor role for land-applied goat manure in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans in the 2007-2010 Dutch Q fever outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brom, René; Roest, Hendrik-Jan; de Bruin, Arnout; Dercksen, Daan; Santman-Berends, Inge; van der Hoek, Wim; Dinkla, Annemiek; Vellema, Jelmer; Vellema, Piet

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, Q fever started to become a major public health problem in the Netherlands, with small ruminants as most probable source. In order to reduce environmental contamination, control measures for manure were implemented because of the assumption that manure was highly contaminated with Coxiella burnetii. The aims of this study were 1) to clarify the role of C. burnetii contaminated manure from dairy goat farms in the transmission of C. burnetii to humans, 2) to assess the impact of manure storage on temperature profiles in dunghills, and 3) to calculate the decimal reduction time of the Nine Mile RSA 493 reference strain of C. burnetii under experimental conditions in different matrices. For these purposes, records on distribution of manure from case and control herds were mapped and a potential relation to incidences of human Q fever was investigated. Additionally, temperatures in two dunghills were measured and related to heat resistance of C. burnetii. Results of negative binomial regression showed no significant association between the incidence of human Q fever cases and the source of manure. Temperature measurements in the core and shell of dunghills on two farms were above 40°C for at least ten consecutive days which would result in a strong reduction of C. burnetii over time. Our findings indicate that there is no relationship between incidence of human Q fever and land applied manure from dairy goat farms with an abortion wave caused by C. burnetii. Temperature measurements in dunghills on two farms with C. burnetii shedding dairy goat herds further support the very limited role of goat manure as a transmission route during the Dutch human Q fever outbreak. It is very likely that the composting process within a dunghill will result in a clear reduction in the number of viable C. burnetii.

  20. Exposure and risk factors to coxiella burnetii, spotted fever group and typhus group Rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae among volunteer blood donors in Namibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce H Noden

    Full Text Available The role of pathogen-mediated febrile illness in sub-Saharan Africa is receiving more attention, especially in Southern Africa where four countries (including Namibia are actively working to eliminate malaria. With a high concentration of livestock and high rates of companion animal ownership, the influence of zoonotic bacterial diseases as causes of febrile illness in Namibia remains unknown.The aim of the study was to evaluate exposure to Coxiella burnetii, spotted fever and typhus group rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae using IFA and ELISA (IgG in serum collected from 319 volunteer blood donors identified by the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia (NAMBTS. Serum samples were linked to a basic questionnaire to identify possible risk factors. The majority of the participants (64.8% had extensive exposure to rural areas or farms. Results indicated a C. burnetii prevalence of 26.1% (screening titre 1∶16, and prevalence rates of 11.9% and 14.9% (screening titre 1∶100 for spotted fever group and typhus group rickettsiae, respectively. There was a significant spatial association between C. burnetii exposure and place of residence in southern Namibia (P0.012, especially cattle (P>0.006, were also significantly associated with C. burnetii exposure. Males were significantly more likely than females to have been exposed to spotted fever (P<0.013 and typhus (P<0.011 group rickettsiae. Three (2.9% samples were positive for B. henselae possibly indicating low levels of exposure to a pathogen never reported in Namibia.These results indicate that Namibians are exposed to pathogenic fever-causing bacteria, most of which have flea or tick vectors/reservoirs. The epidemiology of febrile illnesses in Namibia needs further evaluation in order to develop comprehensive local diagnostic and treatment algorithms.

  1. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii (Q fever seropositivity in dairy goat farmers' households in The Netherlands, 2009-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Schimmer

    Full Text Available Community Q fever epidemics occurred in The Netherlands in 2007-2009, with dairy goat and dairy sheep farms as the implicated source. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for seropositivity in dairy goat farmers and their household members living or working on these farms. Sera of 268 people living or working on 111 dairy goat farms were tested for Coxiella burnetii IgG and IgM antibodies using immunofluorescence assay. Seroprevalences in farmers, spouses and children (12-17 years were 73.5%, 66.7%, and 57.1%, respectively. Risk factors for seropositivity were: performing three or more daily goat-related tasks, farm location in the two southern provinces of the country, proximity to bulk milk-positive farms, distance from the nearest stable to residence of 10 meters or less, presence of cats and multiple goat breeds in the stable, covering stable air spaces and staff not wearing farm boots. Goat farmers have a high risk to acquire this occupational infection. Clinicians should consider Q fever in this population presenting with compatible symptoms to allow timely diagnosis and treatment to prevent severe sequelae. Based on the risk factors identified, strengthening general biosecurity measures is recommended such as consistently wearing boots and protective clothing by farm staff to avoid indirect transmission and avoiding access of companion animals in the goat stable. Furthermore, it provides an evidence base for continuation of the current vaccination policy for small ruminants, preventing spread from contaminated farms to other farms in the vicinity. Finally, vaccination of seronegative farmers and household members could be considered.

  2. Loss of TSS1 in hypervirulent Coxiella burnetii 175, the causative agent of Q fever in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Felicetta; Eldin, Carole; Georgiades, Kalliopi; Edouard, Sophie; Delerce, Jeremy; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier

    2015-08-01

    In French Guiana, the unique Coxiella burnetii circulating genotype 17 causes 24% of community-acquired pneumonia, the highest prevalence ever described. To explain this unusual virulence, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of strain Cb175, which was isolated from a patient from French Guiana. Cb175 has a greater number of mutations in genes involved in metabolism compared with the Nine Mile I strain. We found a 6105bp fragment missing in Cb175, which corresponds to the Type 1 secretion systems (T1SS) hlyCABD operon region. This deletion was detected by a specific qPCR in the 8 other strains available from this territory an in none of 298C.burnetii strains from other areas and other genotypes (8/8 vs 0/298, Fisher's exact test, p<0.0000001). Loss of genes implicated in secretion systems has been observed in other epidemic bacterial strains. Thus, the virulence of Cb175 may be linked to this genome reduction.

  3. Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever in Saudi Arabia:molecular detection from camel and other domestic livestock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osama B Mohammed; Abdulrahman A Jarelnabi; Riyadh S Aljumaah; Mohammed A Alshaikh; Amel O Bakhiet; Sawsan A Omer; Abdulaziz N Alagaili; Mansour F Hussein

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To detectCoxiella burnetii(C. burnetii)DNA in clinical specimens from camel, goats, cattle and sheep in theKingdom ofSaudiArabia.Methods:A total of367 clinical samples including blood, milk, faeces and urine were collected from different livestock and subjected to PCR amplification using primers which amplify transposon-like region and transposase gene. Results:Positive amplification from both regions was obtained from camel,goats and cattle but not from sheep.A percentage of10.8% samples yielded positivePCR amplification from both blood and milk, where15 of139 blood and16 of148 milk samples were positive.Faeces and urine showed higher percentages of positive samples reaching40.8% and23.8% respectively. Conclusions:The preferred route of shedding in camel appeared to be the faeces followed by urine, while that of goats appeared to be the faeces and that of the cattle appeared to be the milk.

  4. Coxiella burnetii (Q-Fever) Seroprevalence in Prey and Predators in the United Kingdom: Evaluation of Infection in Wild Rodents, Foxes and Domestic Cats Using a Modified ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, A L; Cleaveland, S C; Denwood, M J; Brown, J K; Shaw, D J

    2015-12-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q-fever, is recognized as a worldwide zoonosis with a wide host range and potentially complex reservoir systems. Infected ruminants are the main source of infection for humans, but cats and other mammals, including wild rodents, also represent potential sources of infection. There has been a recent upsurge of reported cases in humans, domestic ruminants and wildlife in many parts of the world, and studies have indicated that wild brown rats may act as true reservoirs for C. burnetii and be implicated in outbreaks in livestock and humans. However, investigation of reservoir systems is limited by lack of validated serological tests for wildlife or other non-target species. In this study, serum samples from 796 wild rodents (180 bank voles, 309 field voles, 307 wood mice) 102 wild foxes and 26 domestic cats from three study areas in the UK were tested for the presence of antibodies to C. burnetii using a commercial indirect ELISA kit modified for use in multiple wildlife species. Test thresholds were determined for each species in the absence of species-specific reference sera using a bi-modal latent class mixture model to discriminate between positive from negative results. Based on the thresholds determined, seroprevalence in the wild rodents ranged from 15.6% to 19.1% depending on species (overall 17.3%) and was significantly higher in both foxes (41.2%) and cats (61.5%) than in rodents. This is the first report to quantify seroprevalence to C. burnetii in bank voles, field voles, wood mice, foxes and cats in the UK and provides evidence that predator species could act as indicators for the presence of C. burnetii in rodents. The study demonstrates that wildlife species could be significant reservoirs of infection for both livestock and humans, and the high seroprevalence in domestic cats highlights the potential zoonotic risk from this species.

  5. Coxiella-like endosymbiont in argasid ticks (Ornithodoros muesebecki) from a Socotra Cormorant colony in Umm Al Quwain, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Deeb, Mohammad A; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; Walter, Mathias C; Kömpf, Daniela; Fischer, Silke F; Petney, Trevor; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a pathogen causing Q fever in domestic animals and humans. Seabirds have been implicated as possible reservoirs of this bacterium in the Arabian Gulf and in the Western Indian Ocean. Recently, Coxiella species closely related to C. burnetii was detected from ticks collected from oil rigs used as roosting areas by Socotra Cormorants (Phalacrocorax nigrogularis) in the western Arabian Gulf. We collected ticks from the largest breeding colony of Socotra Cormorants in the United Arab Emirates on the eastern extreme of the species' breeding range to determine the prevalence of C. burnetii and evaluate its role as a wild reservoir. All ticks were identified as Ornithodoros muesebecki and genomic DNA was extracted from larval and nymph/adult tick pools. Multiplex PCR tests were performed targeting three C. burnetii specific genes. C. burnetii was not detected although a Coxiella-like endosymbiont was identified that was closely related to Coxiella symbionts from Ornithodoros capensis ticks. Because domestic and wild ungulates are the primary source of C. burnetii, we suggest that the presence of free-ranging, native and non-native ungulates in some off-shore islands in the Arabian Gulf could disseminate C. burnetii to seabirds. More comprehensive studies on seabird colonies are needed to better understand the diversity and prevalence of Coxiella symbionts and to establish if C. burnetii is endemic on some of these islands.

  6. Q fever in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldin, Carole; Mahamat, Aba; Demar, Magalie; Abboud, Philippe; Djossou, Félix; Raoult, Didier

    2014-10-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is present worldwide. Recent studies have shown that this bacterium is an emerging pathogen in French Guiana and has a high prevalence (24% of community-acquired pneumonia). In this review, we focus on the peculiar epidemiology of Q fever in French Guiana. We place it in the context of the epidemiology of the disease in the surrounding countries of South America. We also review the clinical features of Q fever in this region, which has severe initial presentation but low mortality rates. These characteristics seem to be linked to a unique genotype (genotype 17). Finally, we discuss the issue of the animal reservoir of C. burnetii in French Guiana, which is still unknown. Further studies are necessary to identify this reservoir. Identification of this reservoir will improve the understanding of the Q fever epidemic in French Guiana and will provide new tools to control this public health problem.

  7. Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever in Brazil: its hidden role in seronegative arthritis and the importance of molecular diagnosis based on the repetitive element IS1111 associated with the transposase gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rozental

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is the agent of Q fever , an emergent worldwide zoonosis of wide clinical spectrum. Although C. burnetii infection is typically associated with acute infection, atypical pneumonia and flu-like symptoms, endocarditis, osteoarticular manifestations and severe disease are possible, especially when the patient has a suppressed immune system; however, these severe complications are typically neglected. This study reports the sequencing of the repetitive element IS1111 of the transposase gene of C. burnetii from blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL samples from a patient with severe pneumonia following methotrexate therapy, resulting in the molecular diagnosis of Q fever in a patient who had been diagnosed with active seronegative polyarthritis two years earlier. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first documented case of the isolation of C. burnetii DNA from a BAL sample.

  8. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirt

  9. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and

  10. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirt

  11. Persistent High IgG Phase I Antibody Levels against Coxiella burnetii among Veterinarians Compared to Patients Previously Diagnosed with Acute Q Fever after Three Years of Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielders, Cornelia C. H.; Boerman, Anneroos W.; Schimmer, Barbara; van den Brom, René; Notermans, Daan W.; van der Hoek, Wim; Schneeberger, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the development of chronic Q fever in occupational risk groups. The aim of this study was to perform long-term follow-up of Coxiella burnetii seropositive veterinarians and investigate the course of IgG phase I and phase II antibodies against C. burnetii antigens and to compare this course with that in patients previously diagnosed with acute Q fever. Methods Veterinarians with IgG phase I ≥1:256 (immunofluorescence assay) that participated in a previous seroprevalence study were asked to provide a second blood sample three years later. IgG antibody profiles were compared to a group of acute Q fever patients who had IgG phase I ≥1:256 twelve months after diagnosis. Results IgG phase I was detected in all veterinarians (n = 76) and in 85% of Q fever patients (n = 98) after three years (pveterinarians and 12% of patients (OR 3.95, 95% CI: 1.84–8.49). Conclusions IgG phase I persists among veterinarians presumably because of continuous exposure to C. burnetii during their work. Serological and clinical follow-up of occupationally exposed risk groups should be considered. PMID:25602602

  12. Q fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Coxiella burnetii . These bacteria can infect: Sheep Goats Cattle Dogs Cats Birds Rodents Ticks Infected animals shed ... The main treatment for Q fever is antibiotics. For early-stage Q ... If you have the infection for more than 6 months, it is called ...

  13. The genome of Coxiella burnetii Z3055, a clone linked to the Netherlands Q fever outbreaks, provides evidence for the role of drift in the emergence of epidemic clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Felicetta; Rouli, Laetitia; Edouard, Sophie; Tyczka, Judith; Million, Matthieu; Robert, Catherine; Nguyen, Thi Tien; Raoult, Didier

    2014-12-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a pathogen causing Q fever. The aim of our work was to study Z3055, a strain that is genotypically related to the strain causing the Netherlands outbreak. We compared Z3055 to 5 other completed genomes available in GenBank. We calculated the blast score ratio (BSR) to analyze genetic differences among the strains. The ratio core genome/pangenome was 98% likely other bacteria with closed pangenomes. Differences between Z3055 and the reference NMI consisted only of point mutations and insertion/deletion (INDELs). Non-synonymous mutations significantly increased in genes coding for membrane proteins (16/156 vs 103/1757, bilateral Chi(2) test, p<0.05), ankyrin repeat domains containing proteins (2/9 vs 117/1904, bilateral Chi(2) test, p<0.05), transcription factors (7/53 vs 112/1860, bilateral Chi(2) test, p<0.05) and translation proteins (15/144 vs 109/1655, bilateral Chi(2) test, p<0.05). The evolution of this strain may have been driven by mutations in critical genes.

  14. Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence in Small Ruminants in The Gambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaasen, Marieke; Roest, Hendrik-Jan; van der Hoek, Wim; Goossens, Bart; Secka, Arss; Stegeman, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    Background Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a Gram negative bacterium present worldwide. Small ruminants are considered the main reservoirs for infection of humans. This study aimed to estimate the extent of C. burnetii infection among sheep and goats in part of The Gambia. Methodology/Principal Findings This survey was carried out from March to May 2012 at two areas in The Gambia. The first area comprised a cluster of seven rural villages situated 5–15 km west of Farafenni as well as the local abattoir. A second sampling was done at the central abattoir in Abuko (30 km from the capital, Banjul) in the Western Region. Serum samples were obtained from 490 goats and 398 sheep. In addition, 67 milk samples were obtained from lactating dams. Sera were tested with a Q fever ELISA kit. C. burnetii DNA was extracted from milk samples and then detected using a specific quantitative multiplex PCR assay, targeting the IS1111a element. A multivariable mixed logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between seropositivity and explanatory variables. An overall seroprevalence of 21.6% was found. Goats had a significantly higher seroprevalence than sheep, respectively 24.2% and 18.5%. Seropositive animals were significantly older than seronegative animals. Animals from the villages had a significantly lower seroprevalence than animals from the central abattoir (15.1% versus 29.1%). C. burnetii DNA was detected in 2 out of 67 milk samples, whereas 8 samples gave a doubtful result. Conclusion/Significance A substantial C. burnetii seroprevalence in sheep and goats in The Gambia was demonstrated. People living in close proximity to small ruminants are exposed to C. burnetii. Q fever should be considered as a possible cause of acute febrile illness in humans in The Gambia. Future studies should include a simultaneous assessment of veterinary and human serology, and include aetiology of febrile illness in local clinics. PMID:24454863

  15. Rickettsiae of spotted fever group, Borrelia valaisiana, and Coxiella burnetii in ticks on passerine birds and mammals from the Camargue in the south of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolovschi, Cristina; Reynaud, Pierre; Kernif, Tahar; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods that have a limited mobility, but can be transported over large geographical distances by wild and domestic mammals and birds. In this study, we analyze the presence of emerging zoonotic bacteria in ticks collected from passerine birds and mammals present in the Camargue, in the south of France, which is a major rallying point for birds migrating from Eurasia and Africa. The presence of Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia, Borrelia, and Bartonella was examined by real-time PCR on DNA samples extracted from 118 ticks. Rickettsia massiliae was detected in ticks from Passer domesticus, Ri. aeschlimannii in ticks from Acrocephalus scirpaceus and Luscinia megarhynchos, and Borrelia valaisiana in one tick from Turdus merula. In addition, Ri. massiliae, Ri. slovaca, Candidatus Ri. barbariae, and C. burnetii were detected in ticks from dogs, horses, cats, and humans. No Bartonella DNA was detected in these samples. The migratory birds may play a role in the transmission of infectious diseases and contribute to the geographic distribution of Ri. aeschlimannii, Bo. valaisiana, and C. burnetii. The role of birds in spreading Rh. sanguineus ticks infected with Ri. massiliae needs to be clarified by complementary studies. This is the first detection of Candidatus Ri. barbariae in Rh. sanguineus from the south of France.

  16. Molecular methods routinely used to detect Coxiella burnetii in ticks cross-react with Coxiella-like bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jourdain Elsa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Q fever is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. Ticks may act as vectors, and many epidemiological studies aim to assess C. burnetii prevalence in ticks. Because ticks may also be infected with Coxiella-like bacteria, screening tools that differentiate between C. burnetii and Coxiella-like bacteria are essential. Methods: In this study, we screened tick specimens from 10 species (Ornithodoros rostratus, O. peruvianus, O. capensis, Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus annulatus, R. decoloratus, R. geigy, O. sonrai, O. occidentalis, and Amblyomma cajennense known to harbor specific Coxiella-like bacteria, by using quantitative PCR primers usually considered to be specific for C. burnetii and targeting, respectively, the IS1111, icd, scvA, p1, and GroEL/htpB genes. Results: We found that some Coxiella-like bacteria, belonging to clades A and C, yield positive PCR results when screened with primers initially believed to be C. burnetii-specific. Conclusions: These results suggest that PCR-based surveys that aim to detect C. burnetii in ticks by using currently available methods must be interpreted with caution if the amplified products cannot be sequenced. Future molecular methods that aim at detecting C. burnetii need to take into account the possibility that cross-reactions may exist with Coxiella-like bacteria.

  17. Detecting and measuring small numbers of viable Coxiella burnetii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Michelle; Islam, Aminul; Graves, Stephen; Fenwick, Stan; Stenos, John

    2012-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an acidophilic, intracellular bacterium that causes the human disease Q fever. In some studies, it is important to distinguish between viable and nonviable C. burnetii. We compared four methods for detecting and measuring viable C. burnetii in biological samples as follows: growth in two different cell culture lines, infection of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice (leading to death) and infection of SCID mice with detection of C. burnetii in their spleen (after euthanasia at day 50 postinfection). Two isolates of C. burnetii were used ('Henzerling' and 'Arandale'). Our in-house qPCR assay for C. burnetii DNA was used as a control. SCID mouse inoculation was more sensitive than cell culture. The assay that detected C. burnetii in SCID mouse spleens was slightly more sensitive than SCID mice deaths alone. Approximately one viable C. burnetii cell could be detected by this method, making it suitable for determining the viability of C. burnetii in a sample. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) seropositivity in dairy goat farmers' households in The Netherlands, 2009-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimmer, B.; Lenferink, A.; Schneeberger, P.; Aangenend, H.; Vellema, P.; Hautvast, J.L.; Duynhoven, Y. Van

    2012-01-01

    Community Q fever epidemics occurred in The Netherlands in 2007-2009, with dairy goat and dairy sheep farms as the implicated source. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for seropositivity in dairy goat farmers and their household members living or working on th

  19. Presence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii and risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2012-01-01

    Q fever is a bacterial zoonosis caused by infection with Coxiella burnetii. It is well established that Q fever causes fetal loss in small ruminants. The suspicion has been raised that pregnant women may also experience adverse pregnancy outcome when the infection is acquired or reactivated during...

  20. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in women exposed to livestock animals, Denmark, 1996 to 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Molbak, K; Nybo Andersen, A M;

    2013-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic infection which can pose a danger to pregnant women. To our knowledge, Denmark has never experienced a clinically verified Q fever outbreak. We aimed to quantify risk of infection in pregnant women occupationally and environmentally exposed to Coxiella burnetii. The Danish...

  1. Early cytokine and antibody responses against Coxiella burnetii in aerosol infection of BALB/c mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoffelen, Teske; Self, Joshua S.; Fitzpatrick, Kelly A.; Netea, Mihai G.; van Deuren, Marcel; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Kersh, Gilbert J.

    2016-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii, a Gram-negative intracellular bacterium, can give rise to Q fever in humans and is transmitted mainly by inhalation of infected aerosols from animal reservoirs. Serology is commonly used to diagnose Q fever, but the early cellular immune response –i.e. C. burnetii-specific interferon(IFN)-γ production in response to antigen challenge– might be an additional diagnostic. Detection of IFN-γ responses has been used to identify past and chronic Q fever infections, but the IFN-γ response in acute Q fever has not been described. By challenging immunocompetent BALB/c mice with aerosols containing phase I C. burnetii, the timing and extent of IFN-γ recall responses was evaluated in an acute C. burnetii infection. Other cytokines were also measured in an effort to identify other potential diagnostic markers. The data show that after initial expansion of bacteria first in lungs and then in other tissues, the infection was cleared from day 10 onwards as reflected by the decreasing number of bacteria. The antigen-induced IFN-γ production by splenocytes coincided with emergence of IgM phase II-antibodies at day 10 post-infection, and preceded appearance of IgG-antibodies. This was accompanied by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, KC and IP-10, followed by MCP-1, but not by IL-1β and TNF-α, and only very low production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. These data suggest that analysis of antigen-specific IFN-γ responses could be a useful tool for diagnosis of acute Q-fever. Moreover, the current model of C.burnetii infection could be used to give new insights into immunological factors that predispose to development of persistent infection. PMID:25618420

  2. Cell-free propagation of Coxiella burnetii does not affect its relative virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runa Kuley

    Full Text Available Q fever is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. In vitro growth of the bacterium is usually limited to viable eukaryotic host cells imposing experimental constraints for molecular studies, such as the identification and characterisation of major virulence factors. Studies of pathogenicity may benefit from the recent development of an extracellular growth medium for C. burnetii. However, it is crucial to investigate the consistency of the virulence phenotype of strains propagated by the two fundamentally different culturing systems. In the present study, we assessed the viability of C. burnetii and the lipopolysaccaride (LPS encoding region of the bacteria in both culture systems as indirect but key parameters to the infection potential of C. burnetii. Propidium monoazide (PMA treatment-based real-time PCR was used for enumeration of viable C. burnetii which were validated by fluorescent infectious focus forming unit counting assays. Furthermore, RNA isolated from C. burnetiipropagated in both the culture systems was examined for LPS-related gene expression. All thus far known LPS-related genes were found to be expressed in early passages in both culturing systems indicating the presence of predominantly the phase I form of C. burnetii. Finally, we used immune-competent mice to provide direct evidence, that the relative virulence of different C. burnetii strains is essentially the same for both axenic and cell-based methods of propagation.

  3. Exploratory study on Th1 epitope-induced protective immunity against Coxiella burnetii infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Xiong

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes Q fever in humans. In the present study, 131 candidate peptides were selected from the major immunodominant proteins (MIPs of C. burnetii due to their high-affinity binding capacity for the MHC class II molecule H2 I-A(b based on bioinformatic analyses. Twenty-two of the candidate peptides with distinct MIP epitopes were well recognized by the IFN-γ recall responses of CD4(+ T cells from mice immunized with parental proteins in an ELISPOT assay. In addition, 7 of the 22 peptides could efficiently induce CD4(+ T cells from mice immunized with C. burnetii to rapidly proliferate and significantly increase IFN-γ production. Significantly higher levels of IL-2, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were also detected in serum from mice immunized with a pool of the 7 peptides. Immunization with the pool of 7 peptides, but not the individual peptides, conferred a significant protection against C. burnetii infection in mice, suggesting that these Th1 peptides could work together to efficiently activate CD4(+ T cells to produce the Th1-type immune response against C. burnetii infection. These observations could contribute to the rational design of molecular vaccines for Q fever.

  4. Identification of novel Coxiella burnetii genotypes from Ethiopian ticks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga M Sulyok

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of Q fever, is a highly infectious zoonotic bacterium. Genetic information about the strains of this worldwide distributed agent circulating on the African continent is limited. The aim of the present study was the genetic characterization of C. burnetii DNA samples detected in ticks collected from Ethiopian cattle and their comparison with other genotypes found previously in other parts of the world. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 296 tick samples were screened by real-time PCR targeting the IS1111 region of C. burnetii genome and from the 32 positive samples, 8 cases with sufficient C. burnetii DNA load (Amblyomma cohaerens, n = 6; A. variegatum, n = 2 were characterized by multispacer sequence typing (MST and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA. One novel sequence type (ST, the proposed ST52, was identified by MST. The MLVA-6 discriminated the proposed ST52 into two newly identified MLVA genotypes: type 24 or AH was detected in both Amblyomma species while type 26 or AI was found only in A. cohaerens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both the MST and MLVA genotypes of the present work are closely related to previously described genotypes found primarily in cattle samples from different parts of the globe. This finding is congruent with the source hosts of the analyzed Ethiopian ticks, as these were also collected from cattle. The present study provides genotype information of C. burnetii from this seldom studied East-African region as well as further evidence for the presumed host-specific adaptation of this agent.

  5. Draft Genome Sequences of Six Ruminant Coxiella burnetii Isolates of European Origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidi-Boumedine, Karim; Ellis, Richard J.; Adam, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is responsible for Q fever, a worldwide zoonosis attributed to the inhalation of aerosols contaminated by livestock birth products. Six draft genome sequences of European C. burnetii isolates from ruminants are presented here. The availability of these genomes will help in under......Coxiella burnetii is responsible for Q fever, a worldwide zoonosis attributed to the inhalation of aerosols contaminated by livestock birth products. Six draft genome sequences of European C. burnetii isolates from ruminants are presented here. The availability of these genomes will help...

  6. Coxiella burnetii Infects Primary Bovine Macrophages and Limits Their Host Cell Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotta, Katharina; Hillarius, Kirstin; Mager, Marvin; Kerner, Katharina; Heydel, Carsten; Menge, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Although domestic ruminants have long been recognized as the main source of human Q fever, little is known about the lifestyle that the obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Coxiella burnetii adopts in its animal host. Because macrophages are considered natural target cells of the pathogen, we established primary bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) as an in vitro infection model to study reservoir host-pathogen interactions at the cellular level. In addition, bovine alveolar macrophages were included to take cell type peculiarities at a host entry site into account. Cell cultures were inoculated with the virulent strain Nine Mile I (NMI; phase I) or the avirulent strain Nine Mile II (NMII; phase II). Macrophages from both sources internalized NMI and NMII. MDM were particularly permissive for NMI internalization, but NMI and NMII replicated with similar kinetics in these cells. MDM responded to inoculation with a general upregulation of Th1-related cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) early on (3 h postinfection). However, inflammatory responses rapidly declined when C. burnetii replication started. C. burnetii infection inhibited translation and release of IL-1β and vastly failed to stimulate increased expression of activation markers, such as CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Such capability of limiting proinflammatory responses may help Coxiella to protect itself from clearance by the host immune system. The findings provide the first detailed insight into C. burnetii-macrophage interactions in ruminants and may serve as a basis for assessing the virulence and the host adaptation of C. burnetii strains. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Q Fever: current state of knowledge and perspectives of research of a neglected zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sarah Rebecca; Czaplicki, Guy; Mainil, Jacques; Guattéo, Raphaël; Saegerman, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Q fever is an ubiquitous zoonosis caused by an resistant intracellular bacterium, Coxiella burnetii. In certain areas, Q fever can be a severe public health problem, and awareness of the disease must be promoted worldwide. Nevertheless, knowledge of Coxiella burnetii remains limited to this day. Its resistant (intracellular and environmental) and infectious properties have been poorly investigated. Further understanding of the interactions between the infected host and the bacteria is necessary. Domestic ruminants are considered as the main reservoir of bacteria. Infected animals shed highly infectious organisms in milk, feces, urine, vaginal mucus, and, very importantly, birth products. Inhalation is the main route of infection. Frequently asymptomatic in humans and animals, Q fever can cause acute or chronic infections. Financial consequences of infection can be dramatic at herd level. Vaccination with inactive whole-cell bacteria has been performed and proved effective in humans and animals. However, inactive whole-cell vaccines present several defects. Recombinant vaccines have been developed in experimental conditions and have great potential for the future. Q fever is a challenging disease for scientists as significant further investigations are necessary. Great research opportunities are available to reach a better understanding and thus a better prevention and control of the infection.

  8. Q Fever: Current State of Knowledge and Perspectives of Research of a Neglected Zoonosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Rebecca Porter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Q fever is an ubiquitous zoonosis caused by an resistant intracellular bacterium, Coxiella burnetii. In certain areas, Q fever can be a severe public health problem, and awareness of the disease must be promoted worldwide. Nevertheless, knowledge of Coxiella burnetii remains limited to this day. Its resistant (intracellular and environmental and infectious properties have been poorly investigated. Further understanding of the interactions between the infected host and the bacteria is necessary. Domestic ruminants are considered as the main reservoir of bacteria. Infected animals shed highly infectious organisms in milk, feces, urine, vaginal mucus, and, very importantly, birth products. Inhalation is the main route of infection. Frequently asymptomatic in humans and animals, Q fever can cause acute or chronic infections. Financial consequences of infection can be dramatic at herd level. Vaccination with inactive whole-cell bacteria has been performed and proved effective in humans and animals. However, inactive whole-cell vaccines present several defects. Recombinant vaccines have been developed in experimental conditions and have great potential for the future. Q fever is a challenging disease for scientists as significant further investigations are necessary. Great research opportunities are available to reach a better understanding and thus a better prevention and control of the infection.

  9. The survival of Coxiella burnetii in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstigneeva, A. S.; Ul'Yanova, T. Yu.; Tarasevich, I. V.

    2007-05-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a pathogen of Q-fever—a widespread zoonosis. The effective adaptation of C. burnetii to intracellular existence is in contrast with its ability to survive in the environment outside the host cells and its resistance to chemical and physical agents. Its mechanism of survival remains unknown. However, its survival appears to be related to the developmental cycle of the microorganism itself, i.e., to the formation of its dormant forms. The survival of Coxiella burnetii was studied for the first time. The pathogenic microorganism was inoculated into different types of soil and cultivated under different temperatures. The survival of the pathogen was verified using a model with laboratory animals (mice). Viable C. burnetii were found in the soil even 20 days after their inoculation. The relationship between the organic carbon content in the soils and the survival of C. burnetii was revealed. Thus, the results obtained were the first to demonstrate that the soil may serve as a reservoir for the preservation and further spreading of the Q-fever pathogen in the environment, on the one hand, and reduce the risk of epidemics, on the other.

  10. Interlaboratory evaluation of different extraction and real-time PCR methods for detection of Coxiella burnetii DNA in serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilburg, Jeroen J. H. C.; Melchers, Willem J. G.; Pettersson, Annika M.; Rossen, John W. A.; Hermans, Mirjam H. A.; van Hannen, Erik J.; Nabuurs-Franssen, Marrigje H.; de Vries, Maaike C.; Horrevorts, Alphons M.; Klaassen, Corne H. W.

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands, there is an ongoing and unparalleled outbreak of Q fever. Rapid and reliable methods to identify patients infected with Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, are urgently needed. We evaluated the performance of different DNA extraction methods and real-time PCR

  11. Interlaboratory evaluation of different extraction and real-time PCR methods for detection of Coxiella burnetii DNA in serum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilburg, J.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Pettersson, A.M.; Rossen, J.W.; Hermans, M.H.; Hannen, E.J.M.; Nabuurs-Franssen, M.H.; Vries, M.C. de; Horrevorts, A.M.; Klaassen, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands, there is an ongoing and unparalleled outbreak of Q fever. Rapid and reliable methods to identify patients infected with Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, are urgently needed. We evaluated the performance of different DNA extraction methods and real-time PCR

  12. A Method for Purifying Obligate Intracellular Coxiella burnetii that Employs Digitonin Lysis of Host Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Diane C.; Beare, Paul A.; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Howe, Dale; Heinzen, Robert. A.

    2008-01-01

    Purification of the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii requires physical disruption of infected cells. Here we describe a gentle and safe digitonin lysis procedure to release C. burnetii from infected cells. The purity, yield, and infectivity of digitonin-prepped organisms are comparable to that of organisms purified using cell lysis by sonication. PMID:18242746

  13. Molecular Identification of Q Fever in Patients with a Suspected Diagnosis of Dengue in Brazil in 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares-Guia, Maria Angélica M M; Rozental, Tatiana; Guterres, Alexandro; Ferreira, Michelle Dos Santos; Botticini, Renato De Gasperis; Terra, Ana Kely Carolina; Marraschi, Sandro; Bochner, Rosany; Lemos, Elba R S

    2016-05-04

    Q fever is an important cause of undifferentiated fever that is rarely recognized or reported in Brazil. The objective of this study was to look for the presence of Coxiella burnetii during a dengue fever outbreak in the municipality of Itaboraí, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where this bacterium had previously infected humans and domesticated animals. Blood samples from clinically suspected dengue fever patients were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for C. burnetii; the DNA was detected in nine (3.3%) of 272 patients. One was coinfected with dengue virus, which was also detected in another 166 (61.3%) patients. The nucleotide sequence of PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the IS1111 transposase elements in the genome of C. burnetii exhibited 99% identity with the sequence in GenBank. The detection of C. burnetii in patients suspected of dengue fever indicates that awareness and knowledge of Q fever should be strengthened and that this bacterium is present in Brazil. Finally, because a negative molecular result does not completely rule out the diagnosis of Q fever and the serological assay based on seroconversion was not available, the actual number of this zoonosis is likely to be much higher than that reported in this study. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. Proximity to goat farms and Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence among pregnant women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, W. van der; Meekelenkamp, J.C.; Dijkstra, F.; Notermans, D.W.; Bom, B.; Vellema, P.; Rietveld, A.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van; Leenders, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    During 2007-2009, we tested serum samples from 2,004 pregnant women living in an area of high Q fever incidence in the Netherlands. Results confirmed that presence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii is related to proximity to infected dairy goat farms. Pregnant women and patients with certain c

  15. The role of wild rodents in spread and transmission of Coxiella burnetii needs further elucidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Reusken, C.B.E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Rodents are known to cause massive food losses, but are also implicated as reservoirs for a wide variety of zoonotic pathogens. This review discusses the contribution of rodents in the spread and transmission of Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q-fever. We found that rodents have been impli

  16. Simultaneous differential detection of Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila pecorum and Coxiella burnetii from aborted ruminant's clinical samples using multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolakis Annie

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiosis and Q fever, two zoonosis, are important causes of ruminants' abortion around the world. They are caused respectively by strictly intracellular and Gram negative bacterium Chlamydophila abortus (Cp. abortus and Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii. Chlamydophila pecorum (Cp. pecorum is commonly isolated from the digestive tract of clinically inconspicuous ruminants but the abortive and zoonotic impact of this bacterium is still unknown because Cp. pecorum is rarely suspected in abortion cases of small ruminants. We have developed a multiplex PCR (m-PCR for rapid simultaneous differential detection of Cp. abortus, Cp. pecorum and C. burnetii in clinical samples taken from infected animals. Results Specific PCR primers were designed and a sensitive and specific m-PCR was developed to detect simultaneously, in one tube reaction, three specific fragments of 821, 526 and 687-bp long for Cp. abortus, Cp. pecorum and C. burnetii respectively. This m-PCR assay was performed on 253 clinical samples taken from infected ruminant's flocks that have showed problems of abortion diseases. Thus, 67 samples were infected by either one of the three pathogens: 16 (13 vaginal swabs and 3 placentas were positive for Cp. abortus, 2 were positive for Cp. pecorum (1 vaginal swab and 1 placenta and 49 samples (33 vaginal swabs, 11 raw milks, 4 faeces and 1 placenta were positive for C. burnetii. Two vaginal swabs were m-PCR positive of both Cp. abortus and C. burnetii and none of the tested samples was shown to be infected simultaneously with the three pathogens. Conclusion We have successfully developed a rapid multiplex PCR that can detect and differentiate Cp. abortus, Cp. pecorum and C. burnetii; with a good sensitivity and specificity. The diagnosis of chlamydiosis and Q fever may be greatly simplified and performed at low cost. In addition, the improvement in diagnostic techniques will enhance our knowledge regarding the prevalence and

  17. MOLECULAR-GENETIC BASIS OF PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOGENICITY OF COXIELLA BURNETII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Panpherova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The agent of Q-fever Coxiella burnetii is unusual intracellular pathogen which is possessed of biggest transporting and metabolic abilities in compare with microorganisms with similar parasitic strategy. It is supposed that different strains of the pathogen exist in various stages of pathological adaption and have different potential of virulence. The structure of C. burnetii genome, characteristics of metabolic routes, mechanisms of interaction with host cells and possible virulence factors are discussed in the review. The special attention is paid to Coxiella genotyping methods and possible correlations between genomic polymorphism of different strains and their virulence potential.

  18. Chronic Q fever in the Netherlands 5 years after the start of the Q fever epidemic: results from the Dutch chronic Q fever database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampschreur, L.M.; Delsing, C.E.; Groenwold, R.H.; Wegdam-Blans, M.C.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Jager-Leclercq, M.G. De; Hoepelman, A.I.; Kasteren, M.E.E. van; Buijs, J.; Renders, N.H.; Nabuurs-Franssen, M.H.; Oosterheert, J.J.; Wever, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever, a zoonosis, which has acute and chronic manifestations. From 2007 to 2010, the Netherlands experienced a large Q fever outbreak, which has offered a unique opportunity to analyze chronic Q fever cases. In an observational cohort study, baseline characteristics and

  19. Serological survey of Q fever in Crete, southern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranakis, Iosif; Kokkini, Sofia; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Sandalakis, Vassillios; Pasparaki, Eirini; Minadakis, Georgios; Gikas, Achilleas; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2012-03-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is an obligatory intracellular bacterium with worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. burnetii phase II antibodies in two different groups (high and low risk) of healthy human population and investigate the epidemiological characteristics of the infection in the island of Crete (southern Greece). Collection and testing by IFA of 493 sample sera for IgG and IgM antibodies against C. bumetii phase II antigen indicated a prevalence of IgG antibodies of 48.7%. Of the seropositive individuals, 34% also revealed IgM seropositive antibody titers. Analysis of 225 sample sera by IFA from high risk population presented a prevalence for C. burnetii of 62.2%. Our findings revealed that C. burnetii is highly endemic in Crete, indicating a high exposure of the population to the pathogen regardless of occupation or place of residence.

  20. Chronic Q fever in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampschreur, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    From 2007-2010, during the recent Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands, over 4000 cases of acute Q fever were registered, which is an underestimation of the total amount of Coxiella burnetii infections due to a high amount of asymptomatic primary infections. In the literature it is stated that 1-5% o

  1. Chronic Q fever in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampschreur, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    From 2007-2010, during the recent Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands, over 4000 cases of acute Q fever were registered, which is an underestimation of the total amount of Coxiella burnetii infections due to a high amount of asymptomatic primary infections. In the literature it is stated that 1-5%

  2. In silico biosynthesis of virenose, a methylated deoxy-sugar unique to Coxiella burnetii lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ramirez, Gabriela; Janecek, Stefan; Miernyk, Ján A; Skultety, Ludovit

    2012-11-15

    Coxiella burnetii is Gram-negative bacterium responsible for the zoonosis Q-fever. While it has an obligate intracellular growth habit, it is able to persist for extended periods outside of a host cell and can resist environmental conditions that would be lethal to most prokaryotes. It is these extracellular bacteria that are the infectious stage encountered by eukaryotic hosts. The intracellular form has evolved to grow and replicate within acidified parasitophorous vacuoles. The outer coat of C. burnetii comprises a complex lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component that includes the unique methylated-6-deoxyhexose, virenose. Although potentially important as a biomarker for C. burnetii, the pathway for its biosynthesis remains obscure. The 6-deoxyhexoses constitute a large family integral to the LPS of many eubacteria. It is believed that precursors of the methylated-deoxyhexoses traverse common early biosynthetic steps as nucleotide-monosaccharides. As a prelude to a full biosynthetic characterization, we present herein the results from bioinformatics-based, proteomics-supported predictions of the pathway for virenose synthesis. Alternative possibilities are considered which include both GDP-mannose and TDP-glucose as precursors. We propose that biosynthesis of the unique C. burnetii biomarker, virenose, involves an early pathway similar to that of other C-3'-methylated deoxysugars which then diverges depending upon the nucleotide-carrier involved. The alternatives yield either the D- or L-enantiomers of virenose. Both pathways require five enzymatic steps, beginning with either glucose-6-phosphate or mannose-6-phosphate. Our in silico results comprise a model for virenose biosynthesis that can be directly tested. Definition of this pathway should facilitate the development of therapeutic agents useful for treatment of Q fever, as well as allowing improvements in the methods for diagnosing this highly infectious disease.

  3. In silico biosynthesis of virenose, a methylated deoxy-sugar unique to Coxiella burnetii lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores-Ramirez Gabriela

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is Gram-negative bacterium responsible for the zoonosis Q-fever. While it has an obligate intracellular growth habit, it is able to persist for extended periods outside of a host cell and can resist environmental conditions that would be lethal to most prokaryotes. It is these extracellular bacteria that are the infectious stage encountered by eukaryotic hosts. The intracellular form has evolved to grow and replicate within acidified parasitophorous vacuoles. The outer coat of C. burnetii comprises a complex lipopolysaccharide (LPS component that includes the unique methylated-6-deoxyhexose, virenose. Although potentially important as a biomarker for C. burnetii, the pathway for its biosynthesis remains obscure. Results The 6-deoxyhexoses constitute a large family integral to the LPS of many eubacteria. It is believed that precursors of the methylated-deoxyhexoses traverse common early biosynthetic steps as nucleotide-monosaccharides. As a prelude to a full biosynthetic characterization, we present herein the results from bioinformatics-based, proteomics-supported predictions of the pathway for virenose synthesis. Alternative possibilities are considered which include both GDP-mannose and TDP-glucose as precursors. Conclusion We propose that biosynthesis of the unique C. burnetii biomarker, virenose, involves an early pathway similar to that of other C-3’-methylated deoxysugars which then diverges depending upon the nucleotide-carrier involved. The alternatives yield either the D- or L-enantiomers of virenose. Both pathways require five enzymatic steps, beginning with either glucose-6-phosphate or mannose-6-phosphate. Our in silico results comprise a model for virenose biosynthesis that can be directly tested. Definition of this pathway should facilitate the development of therapeutic agents useful for treatment of Q fever, as well as allowing improvements in the methods for diagnosing this highly

  4. Q fever diagnosis and control in domestic ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, H I J; Bossers, A; Rebel, J M J

    2013-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii, a highly infectious agent that can survive in the environment. Therefore, Q fever has a major public health impact when outbreaks occur. Small ruminants are identified as the source in the majority of outbreaks in humans. Accurate diagnosis and effective control strategies are necessary to limit the zoonotic and veterinary impact of Q fever. For this, knowledge of the pathogenesis of Q fever and excretion routes of C. burnetii from infected animals is crucial. Abortions as well as normal parturitions in infected small ruminants are the most important excretion routes of C. burnetii. Excretion of C. burnetii via faeces and vaginal mucus has also been suggested. However, contamination of these samples by bacteria present in the environment may influence the results. This hampers the accurate identification of infected animals by these samples; however, the detection of C. burnetii in milk samples seems not to be influenced by environmental contamination. Q fever in animals can be detected by direct (immunohistochemistry and PCR) and indirect (complement fixation test (CFT), enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) methods. A combination of both direct and indirect methods is recommended in current protocols to detect Q fever on herd level. For the control of Q fever in domestic animals, vaccination with a phase 1 C. burnetii whole cell inactivated vaccine is reported to be effective in preventing abortion and reducing bacterial shedding, especially after several years of administration. Vaccination might not be effective in already infected animals nor in pregnant animals. Furthermore, the complicated vaccine production process, requiring biosafety level 3 facilities, could hamper vaccine availability. Future challenges include the development of improved, easier to produce Q fever vaccines.

  5. Prevalence Study of Coxiella burnetii in Aborted Ovine and Caprine Fetuses by Evaluation of Nested and Real-Time PCR Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad S. Dehkordi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Q fever is a ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, an obligate intracellular rickettsial organism that caused abortion and stillbirth in ruminants. Approach: The prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Iran is essentially unknown. Its traditional diagnosis is based on culture, serology and conventional PCR. In this present study, for more sensitive and accurate detection and prevalence's determination of Coxiella burnetii in aborted Ovine and Caprine fetuses, the nested and real-time PCR methods are recommended. Results: About 98 (12.53% and 122 (16.39% out of 782 and 744 Ovine and Caprine aborted fetuses, were positive for presence of Coxiella burnetii by nested PCR, respectively. After LSI Taqvet Coxiella burnetii real-time PCR, it was recognized that 121 (15.47% and 152 (20.43% samples were positive for Coxiella burnetii in Ovine and Caprine aborted fetuses, respectively. Results indicated that the real-time PCR was 7 times more sensitive than the nested PCR. Statistical analysis showed significant differences about PCoxiella burnetii in aborted Ovine and Caprine fetuses by both nested and real-time PCR assays and PCoxiella burnetii. The Ct values which obtained from real-time PCR had significant differences about PCoxiella burnetii between aborted Ovine and Caprine fetuses. Our results indicated that Caprine is more sensitive than Ovine to Coxiella burnetii’s abortion Khozestan and Gilan have the highest and Khorasan and Sistan va Baluchistan provinces have the lowest prevalence of Coxiella burnetii, respectively. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study is the first prevalence report of direct identification of Coxiella burnetii in aborted Ovine and Caprine fetuses by evaluation of nested and real-time PCR assays in Iran. This study showed that the nested PCR for detecting Coxiella burnetii are technically time-consuming and labor-intensive.

  6. Pentamidine inhibits Coxiella burnetii growth and 23S rRNA intron splicing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnick, Michael F; Hicks, Linda D; Battisti, James M; Raghavan, Rahul

    2010-10-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the bacterial agent of Q fever in humans. Acute Q fever generally manifests as a flu-like illness and is typically self-resolving. In contrast, chronic Q fever usually presents with endocarditis and is often life-threatening without appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Unfortunately, available options for the successful treatment of chronic Q fever are both limited and protracted (>18 months). Pentamidine, an RNA splice inhibitor used to treat fungal and protozoal infections, was shown to reduce intracellular growth of Coxiella by ca. 73% at a concentration of 1 microM (ca. 0.6 microg/mL) compared with untreated controls, with no detectable toxic effects on host cells. Bacterial targets of pentamidine include Cbu.L1917 and Cbu.L1951, two group I introns that disrupt the 23S rRNA gene of Coxiella, as demonstrated by the drug's ability to inhibit intron RNA splicing in vitro. Since both introns are highly conserved amongst all eight genotypes of the pathogen, pentamidine is predicted to be efficacious against numerous strains of C. burnetii. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing antibacterial activity for this antifungal/antiprotozoal agent.

  7. Highly sensitive real-time PCR for specific detection and quantification of Coxiella burnetii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linke Sonja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii, the bacterium causing Q fever, is an obligate intracellular biosafety level 3 agent. Detection and quantification of these bacteria with conventional methods is time consuming and dangerous. During the last years, several PCR based diagnostic assays were developed to detect C. burnetii DNA in cell cultures and clinical samples. We developed and evaluated TaqMan-based real-time PCR assays that targeted the singular icd (isocitrate dehydrogenase gene and the transposase of the IS1111a element present in multiple copies in the C. burnetii genome. Results To evaluate the precision of the icd and IS1111 real-time PCR assays, we performed different PCR runs with independent DNA dilutions of the C. burnetii Nine Mile RSA493 strain. The results showed very low variability, indicating efficient reproducibility of both assays. Using probit analysis, we determined that the minimal number of genome equivalents per reaction that could be detected with a 95% probability was 10 for the icd marker and 6.5 for the IS marker. Plasmid standards with cloned icd and IS1111 fragments were used to establish standard curves which were linear over a range from 10 to 107 starting plasmid copy numbers. We were able to quantify cell numbers of a diluted, heat-inactivated Coxiella isolate with a detection limit of 17 C. burnetii particles per reaction. Real-time PCR targeting both markers was performed with DNA of 75 different C. burnetii isolates originating from all over the world. Using this approach, the number of IS1111 elements in the genome of the Nine Mile strain was determined to be 23, close to 20, the number revealed by genome sequencing. In other isolates, the number of IS1111 elements varied widely (between seven and 110 and seemed to be very high in some isolates. Conclusion We validated TaqMan-based real-time PCR assays targeting the icd and IS1111 markers of C. burnetii. The assays were shown to be specific, highly

  8. Recognition of coxiella burnetii by toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ammerdorffer, Anne; Schoffelen, Teske; Gresnigt, Mark S.; Oosting, Marije; Brok, Den Martijn H.; Abdollahi-Roodsaz, Shahla; Kanneganti, Thirumala Devi; Jong, De Dirk J.; Deuren, Van Marcel; Roest, Hendrik Jan; Rebel, Johanna M.J.; Netea, Mihai G.; Joosten, Leo A.B.; Sprong, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Background. Infection with Coxiella burnetii can lead to acute and chronic Q fever. Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1), TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain receptor 1 (NOD1), NOD2, and the mitogen-activated protein kinases are central in the innate immune response against

  9. Recognition of Coxiella burnetii by Toll-like Receptors and Nucleotide-Binding Oligomerization Domain-like Receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ammerdorffer, A.; Schoffelen, T.; Gresnigt, M.S.; Oosting, M.; Brok, M.H.M.G.M. den; Abdollahi-Roodsaz, S.; Kanneganti, T.D.; Jong, D.J. de; Deuren, M. van; Roest, H.J.; Rebel, J.M.; Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Sprong, T.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with Coxiella burnetii can lead to acute and chronic Q fever. Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1), TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain receptor 1 (NOD1), NOD2, and the mitogen-activated protein kinases are central in the innate immune response against

  10. A serologic survey for Coxiella burnetii in semi-wild ungulates in the Emirate of Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaber, Anne-Lise; Lloyd, Christopher; O'Donovan, Declan; McKeown, Sean; Wernery, Ulrich; Bailey, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Q fever, a highly infectious zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, has not been officially reported in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This first serosurvey of a large group of semi-free-ranging animals in the UAE indicates that a wide range of ungulates have been exposed C. burnettii in the region.

  11. High seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy cattle in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mahallawy, Heba S; Kelly, Patrick; Zhang, Jilei; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Hui; Wei, Lanjing; Mao, Yongjiang; Yang, Zhangping; Zhang, Zhenwen; Fan, Weixing; Wang, Chengming

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the agent of Q fever, a zoonosis which occurs worldwide. As there is little reliable data on the organism in China, we investigated C. burnetii infections in dairy cattle herds around the country. Opportunistic whole blood samples were collected from 1140 dairy cattle in 19 herds, and antibodies to phase I and II C. burnetii antigens were detected using commercial ELISA kits. Seropositive cattle (381/1140, 33 %) were detected in 13 of the 15 surveyed provinces and in 16 of the 19 herds (84 %) studied. Our data indicates C. burnetii is widespread in China and that animal and human health workers should be aware of the possibility of Q fever infection in their patients.

  12. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A J; Norris, J M; Heller, J; Brown, G; Malik, R; Bosward, K L

    2016-09-01

    The role of dogs in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans is uncertain, and extensive seroprevalence studies of dogs have not been previously conducted in Australia. This study determined C. burnetii exposure in four diverse canine subpopulations by adapting, verifying and comparing an indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans. Canine serum samples (n = 1223) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [breeding establishments; household pets; free-roaming dogs in Aboriginal communities; shelter dogs]. The proportions of seropositive dogs were as follows: breeding (7/309, 2.3%), household pets (10/328, 3%), Aboriginal communities (21/321, 6.5%) and shelters (5/265, 1.9%). Dogs from Aboriginal communities were 2.8 times (CI 1.5-5.1; P birth products contain the highest concentration of organism, individuals assisting at the time of parturition, those handling pups shortly after birth as well as those residing in the vicinity of whelping dogs are potentially at risk of developing Q fever. However, the identification of active antigen shed in excreta from seropositive dogs is required in order to accurately define and quantify the public health risk.

  13. Prophylaxis after Exposure to Coxiella burnetii

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. David Swerdlow discusses prophylaxis after exposure to Coxiella burnetii. It is important to know who should be treated and how they should be treated after an intentional release with possible bioterrorism agents, including Coxiella burnetii.  Created: 10/2/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  14. Coxiella burnetii and Leishmania mexicana residing within similar parasitophorous vacuoles elicit disparate host responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jess A Millar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is a bacterium that thrives in an acidic parasitophorous vacuole (PV derived from lysosomes. Leishmania mexicana, a eukaryote, has also independently evolved to live in a morphologically similar PV. As Coxiella and Leishmania are highly divergent organisms that cause different diseases, we reasoned that their respective infections would likely elicit distinct host responses despite producing phenotypically similar parasite-containing vacuoles. The objective of this study was to investigate, at the molecular level, the macrophage response to each pathogen. Infection of THP-1 (human monocyte/macrophage cells with Coxiella and Leishmania elicited disparate host responses. At 5 days post-infection, when compared to uninfected cells, 1057 genes were differentially expressed (746 genes up- and 311 genes down-regulated in C. burnetii infected cells, whereas 698 genes (534 genes up- and 164 genes down-regulated were differentially expressed in L. mexicana infected cells. Interestingly, of the 1755 differentially expressed genes identified in this study, only 126 genes (~7% are common to both infections. We also discovered that 1090 genes produced mRNA isoforms at significantly different levels under the two infection conditions, suggesting that alternate proteins encoded by the same gene might have important roles in host response to each infection. Additionally, we detected 257 micro RNAs (miRNAs that were expressed in THP-1 cells and identified miRNAs that were specifically expressed during Coxiella or Leishmania infections. Collectively, this study identified host mRNAs and miRNAs that were influenced by Coxiella and/or Leishmania infections. Intriguingly, our data indicate that although their PVs are morphologically similar, Coxiella and Leishmania have evolved different strategies that perturb distinct host processes to create and thrive within their respective intracellular niches.

  15. Coxiella burnetii transcriptional analysis reveals serendipity clusters of regulation in intracellular bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Leroy

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of the zoonotic disease Q fever, is mainly transmitted to humans through an aerosol route. A spore-like form allows C. burnetii to resist different environmental conditions. Because of this, analysis of the survival strategies used by this bacterium to adapt to new environmental conditions is critical for our understanding of C. burnetii pathogenicity. Here, we report the early transcriptional response of C. burnetii under temperature stresses. Our data show that C. burnetii exhibited minor changes in gene regulation under short exposure to heat or cold shock. While small differences were observed, C. burnetii seemed to respond similarly to cold and heat shock. The expression profiles obtained using microarrays produced in-house were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Under temperature stresses, 190 genes were differentially expressed in at least one condition, with a fold change of up to 4. Globally, the differentially expressed genes in C. burnetii were associated with bacterial division, (pppGpp synthesis, wall and membrane biogenesis and, especially, lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan synthesis. These findings could be associated with growth arrest and witnessed transformation of the bacteria to a spore-like form. Unexpectedly, clusters of neighboring genes were differentially expressed. These clusters do not belong to operons or genetic networks; they have no evident associated functions and are not under the control of the same promoters. We also found undescribed but comparable clusters of regulation in previously reported transcriptomic analyses of intracellular bacteria, including Rickettsia sp. and Listeria monocytogenes. The transcriptomic patterns of C. burnetii observed under temperature stresses permits the recognition of unpredicted clusters of regulation for which the trigger mechanism remains unidentified but which may be the result of a new mechanism of epigenetic regulation.

  16. Growth of Coxiella burnetii in the Ixodes scapularis-derived IDE8 tick cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Brian; Mahapatra, Saugata; Blouin, Edmour F; Shaw, Edward I

    2011-07-01

    Q fever, a zoonotic disease, is caused by a gram-negative intracellular bacterium, Coxiella burnetii. Although normally transmitted during exposure to infectious aerosols, C. burnetii is also found in arthropod vectors. In the environment, ticks are thought to play a crucial role in bacterial maintenance and transmission by infecting various mammalian species. However, the nature of the pathogen-tick relationship is not well defined. To determine C. burnetii's interactions with a cultured tick cell line, we introduced purified C. burnetii NMII into Ixodes scapularis-derived IDE8 cells and assayed for bacterial presence, replication, gene expression, and subsequent infectivity for mammalian cells. Tick cells were harvested at 24 h, 72 h, 7 days, and 11 days postinfection (PI). C. burnetii uptake and subsequent replication was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence assay, electron microscopy, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). When a genome equivalent multiplicity of infection of 30 was used, 30%-40% of exposed cells were seen to have small, rounded, vacuoles at 72 h PI, whereas at 7 and 11 days PI, 60%-70% of cells contained enlarged vacuoles harboring large numbers of bacteria. Quantitative PCR analysis of total genomic DNA confirmed that C. burnetii genome numbers increased significantly from 24 h to 11 days PI. Expression of C. burnetii type four secretion system homologs at 7 days PI was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase PCR. Finally, indirect immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that C. burnetii propagated within IDE8 cells were infectious for mammalian cells. These studies demonstrate the utility of cultured tick cell lines as a model to investigate C. burnetii's molecular interactions with its arthropod vectors.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii in French livestock reveals the existence of three main genotype clusters and suggests species-specific associations as well as regional stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joulié, Aurelien; Sidi-Boumedine, Karim; Bailly, Xavier; Gasqui, Patrick; Barry, Séverine; Jaffrelo, Lydia; Poncet, Charles; Abrial, David; Yang, Elise; Leblond, Agnès; Rousset, Elodie; Jourdain, Elsa

    2017-03-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. In domestic ruminants, Q fever main clinical manifestations are abortions. Although the clinical signs may differ between ruminant species, C. burnetii's genetic diversity remains understudied in enzootic areas. Here, we focused on France, where Q fever is enzootic, with the aims to (a) identify potential associations between C. burnetii genotypes and ruminant host species; (b) assess the distribution of C. burnetii genotypes both within French farms and across France's major livestock-farming regions; and (c) suggest a subset of markers for future genotypic studies. We used DNA samples collected between 2006 and 2015 from 301 females (160 cows, 76 ewes, 65 goats) aborted of Q fever within 7 different farming regions. C. burnetii diversity was determined using a multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) considering 17 markers. Using a phylogenetic approach, we identified 3 main genotypic clusters divided into 12 sub-clusters. These clusters were significantly associated with ruminant species: almost all the cattle genotypes were found in a "cattle-specific" cluster whereas small ruminants genotypes essentially grouped into the two other clusters. The clusters also proved stable over space and time, some genotypes being more specifically observed in certain farming regions. We also observed some within-farm diversity but this diversity was restricted to a same genotypic cluster. Finally, we identified 6 MLVA markers that maximized the representativeness of the diversity described. Overall, we highlighted that molecular epidemiology is a relevant approach to assess C. burnetii's genetic diversity and to reveal the existence of species-specific associations and regional stability. These results will be valuable in the field to trace genotype circulation among ruminants and from ruminants to humans. Ultimately, the potential links between genotypes and virulence traits need

  18. First molecular evidence of Coxiella burnetii infecting ticks in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Angel A; Rodríguez, Islay; Miranda, Jorge; Contreras, Verónica; Mattar, Salim

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. In order to explore the occurrence of C. burnetii in ticks, samples were collected from horses, dogs and humans living in a Cuban occidental community. The species most commonly recovered were Amblyomma mixtum (67%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (27%) and Dermacentor nitens (6%). Specific IS1111 PCR and amplicon sequencing allowed the identification of C. burnetii DNA in A. mixtum collected from a domestic horse. These findings, for first time in Cuba, indicate the need for an in-depth assessment of the C. burnetii occurrence in hosts and humans at risk of infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. [Q fever: a cause of fever of unknown origin in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, L; Garin, N; Péter, O; Praz, G

    2012-10-10

    We describe two cases of Q fever in previously healthy women presenting with fever of unknown origin. The diagnosis was made after several days of investigations. Symptoms and signs of acute or chronic Coxiella burnetii infection are protean and non-specific. Q fever should be included in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and appropriate serologic studies should be done. We review the clinical presentation of Q fever. Use of serology for the diagnosis and the follow-up is discussed.

  20. Clinical and epidemiological use of nested PCR targeting the repetitive element IS1111 associated with the transposase gene from Coxiella burnetii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares-Guia, Maria Angélica M M; Guterres, Alexandro; Rozental, Tatiana; Ferreira, Michelle Dos Santos; Lemos, Elba R S

    2017-08-24

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii-a small obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium found in a variety of animals. It is transmitted to humans by inhalation of contaminated aerosols from urine, feces, milk, amniotic fluid, placenta, abortion products, wool, and rarely by ingestion of raw milk from infected animals. Nested PCR can improve the sensitivity and specificity of testing while offering a suitable amplicon size for sequencing. Serial dilutions were performed tenfold to test the limit of detection, and the result was 10× detection of C. burnetti DNA with internal nested PCR primers relative to trans-PCR. Different biological samples were tested and identified only in nested PCR. This demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of the primers. Of the 19 samples, which amplify the partial sequence of C. burnetii, 12 were positive by conventional PCR and nested PCR. Seven samples-five spleen tissue samples from rodents and two tick samples-were only positive in nested PCR. With these new internal primers for trans-PCR, we demonstrate that our nested PCR assay for C. burnetii can achieve better results than conventional PCR. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  1. The inhibition of the apoptosis pathway by the Coxiella burnetii effector protein CaeA requires the EK repetition motif, but is independent of survivin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisle, Stephanie; Klingenbeck, Leonie; Borges, Vítor; Sobotta, Katharina; Schulze-Luehrmann, Jan; Menge, Christian; Heydel, Carsten; Gomes, João Paulo; Lührmann, Anja

    2016-05-18

    ABSRTACT Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes Query (Q) fever, a zoonotic disease. It requires a functional type IV secretion system (T4SS) which translocate bacterial effector proteins into the host cell cytoplasm and thereby facilitates bacterial replication. To date, more than 130 effector proteins have been identified, but their functions remain largely unknown. Recently, we demonstrated that one of these proteins, CaeA (CBU1524) localized to the host cell nucleus and inhibited intrinsic apoptosis of HEK293 or CHO cells. In the present study we addressed the question whether CaeA also affects the extrinsic apoptosis pathway. Ectopic expression of CaeA reduced extrinsic apoptosis and prevented the cleavage of the executioner caspase 7, but did not impair the activation of initiator caspase 9. CaeA expression resulted in an up-regulation of survivin (an inhibitor of activated caspases), which, however, was not causal for the anti-apoptotic effect of CaeA. Comparing the sequence of CaeA from 25 different C. burnetii isolates we identified an EK (glutamic acid/ lysine) repetition motif as a site of high genetic variability. The EK motif of CaeA was essential for the anti-apoptotic activity of CaeA. From these data, we conclude that the C. burnetii effector protein CaeA interferes with the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathway. The process requires the EK repetition motif of CaeA, but is independent of the upregulated expression of survivin.

  2. Application of fluorescent in situ hybridisation for demonstration of Coxiella burnetti in placentas from ruminant abortions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Montgomery, Donald L.; Jaeger, Paula T.;

    2007-01-01

    A fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) assay targeting 16S ribosomal RNA was developed for detection of the zoonotic bacterium Coxiella burnetii in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, and applied on placentas from ruminant abortions. The applicability of the FISH assay was compared...... to immunohistochemistry (IHC) using human positive control serum in 12 cases of C burnetii-associated placentitis as well as 7 negative control tissue samples. In all 12 cases the bacterium was detected within trophoblasts as well as free in the placental debris by both FISH and IHC. Extensive and significant infection...... by C. burnetii was revealed in 10 of the cases, whereas a slighter and focal distribution of the bacterium was observed in two cases. 90 aborted placentas from Danish ruminants were investigated by FISH. C burnetii was detected in one bovine case only, representing the first confirmation of C burnetii...

  3. Modelling effectiveness of herd level vaccination against Q fever in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courcoul Aurélie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. The control of this infection in cattle is crucial: infected ruminants can indeed encounter reproductive disorders and represent the most important source of human infection. In the field, vaccination is currently advised in infected herds but the comparative effectiveness of different vaccination protocols has never been explored: the duration of the vaccination programme and the category of animals to be vaccinated have to be determined. Our objective was to compare, by simulation, the effectiveness over 10 years of three different vaccination strategies in a recently infected dairy cattle herd. A stochastic individual-based epidemic model coupled with a model of herd demography was developed to simulate three temporal outputs (shedder prevalence, environmental bacterial load and number of abortions and to calculate the extinction rate of the infection. For all strategies, the temporal outputs were predicted to strongly decrease with time at least in the first years of vaccination. However, vaccinating only three years was predicted inadequate to stabilize these dynamic outputs at a low level. Vaccination of both cows and heifers was predicted as being slightly more effective than vaccinating heifers only. Although the simulated extinction rate of the infection was high for both scenarios, the outputs decreased slower when only heifers were vaccinated. Our findings shed new light on vaccination effectiveness related to Q fever. Moreover, the model can be further modified for simulating and assessing various Q fever control strategies such as environmental and hygienic measures.

  4. Serological and molecular evidence of Q fever among small ruminant flocks in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, H; Sidi-Boumedine, K; Merdja, S; Dufour, P; Dahmani, A; Thiéry, R; Rousset, E; Bouyoucef, A

    2016-08-01

    Q fever, a commonly reported zoonosis worldwide, is caused by infection with Coxiella burnetii, an obligate intracellular bacterium. The infection is often asymptomatic in ruminants, but it can lead to reproductive disorders with bacterial shedding into the environment. Between 2011 and 2013, a study was undertaken in small ruminant flocks in different regions of Algeria. A total of 35 flocks were visited and 227 sera and 267 genital swabs were collected from females after abortions or the lambing period to investigate Q fever infection. Indirect ELISA was used to detect specific antibodies against C. burnetii and real-time PCR for detecting bacterial DNA. Our survey indicated that 58% (95% CI=40-76%) of flocks had at least one positive animal (17 seropositive flocks) and individual seroprevalence was estimated at 14.1% (95% CI=11.8-16.4%) (32 seropositive animals). Bacterial excretion was observed in 21 flocks (60%), and 57 females showed evidence of C. burnetii shedding (21.3%). These results suggest that C. burnetii distribution is high at the flock level and that seropositive and infected (shedder) animals can be found all over the country. Further studies are needed in other regions and on different animal species to better understand the distribution and incidence of Q fever, as well as human exposure, and to develop an adequate prophylaxis program.

  5. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats: an opinionated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Roest, H I J; van der Hoek, W; Vellema, P

    2015-12-14

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirths can occur, mainly during late pregnancy. Shedding of C. burnetii occurs in feces, milk and, mostly, in placental membranes and birth fluids. During parturition of infected small ruminants, bacteria from birth products become aerosolized. Transmission to humans mainly happens through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the last decade, there have been several, sometimes large, human Q fever outbreaks related to sheep and goats. In this review, we describe C. burnetii infections in sheep and goats, including both advantages and disadvantages of available laboratory techniques, as pathology, different serological tests, PCR and culture to detect C. burnetii. Moreover, worldwide prevalences of C. burnetii in small ruminants are described, as well as possibilities for treatment and prevention. Prevention of shedding and subsequent environmental contamination by vaccination of sheep and goats with a phase I vaccine are possible. In addition, compulsory surveillance of C. burnetii in small ruminant farms raises awareness and hygiene measures in farms help to decrease exposure of people to the organism. Finally, this review challenges how to contain an infection of C. burnetii in small ruminants, bearing in mind possible consequences for the human population and probable interference of veterinary strategies, human risk perception and political considerations.

  6. Seroepidemiology of Coxiella burnetii Infection and its Frequency as a Cause of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Marrie

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested acute and convalescent serum samples from 788 patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia in seven Canadian provinces for antibodies to Coxiella burnetii. One hundred nine patients (13.8% had antibodies to this microorganism, and seven patients had acute Q fever. Serological evidence of infection with C burnetii was present in patients from all seven provinces. Three of the seven cases of acute Q fever were from Manitoba, suggesting that there may be unrecognized cases of Q fever in this province. In addition, a case of acute Q fever in Newfoundland, where there had previously been no reported cases, was noted, although subsequently, an outbreak of Q fever on goat farms has been reported.

  7. Emergence of Q Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Angelakis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis with many acute and chronic manifestations caused by the pathogen Coxiella burnetii. Farm animals and pets are the main reservoirs of infection, and transmission to human beings is mainly accomplished through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Persons at greatest risk are those in contact with farm animals and include farmers, abattoir workers, and veterinarians. The organs most commonly affected during Q fever are the heart, the arteries, the bones and the liver. The most common clinical presentation is an influenza-like illness with varying degrees of pneumonia and hepatitis. Although acute disease is usually self-limiting, people do occasionally die from this condition. Endocarditis is the most serious and most frequent clinical presentation of chronic Q fever. Vascular infection is the second most frequent presentation of Q fever. The diagnosis of Q fever is based on a significant increase in serum antibody titers. The treatment is effective and well tolerated, but must be adapted to the acute or chronic pattern with the tetracyclines to be considered the mainstay of antibiotic therapy. For the treatment of Q fever during pregnancy the use of long-term cotrimoxazole therapy is proposed.

  8. Chemical composition of phase I Coxiella burnetii soluble antigen prepared by trichloroacetic acid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukácová, M; Brezina, R; Schramek, S; Pastorek, J

    1989-01-01

    Optimal conditions of extraction (time and temperature) by trichloroacetic acid of soluble antigen from phase I Coxiella burnetii (TCAE), possessing protective properties and used as a chemovaccine against Q fever in men, were studied. Extracts prepared under various conditions were analysed for their polysaccharide, protein and phosphorus contents. Forty-five min of extraction at 0 degrees C were sufficient to obtain a soluble antigen reacting in immunodiffusion with hyperimmune rabbit antiserum. The polysaccharide contents decreased with prolonged extraction at 0 degrees C. At higher extraction temperatures (37 and 100 degrees C), the polysaccharide contents increased while that of proteins decreased. TCAE prepared at 100 degrees C gave no positive immunodiffusion reaction.

  9. Genetic Variation in Pattern Recognition Receptors and Adaptor Proteins Associated With Development of Chronic Q Fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoffelen, T.; Ammerdorffer, A.; Hagenaars, J.C.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Wegdam-Blans, M.C.; Wever, P.C.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Sprong, T.; Netea, M.G.; Deuren, M. van; Vosse, E. van de

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Q fever is an infection caused by Coxiella burnetii. Persistent infection (chronic Q fever) develops in 1%-5% of patients. We hypothesize that inefficient recognition of C. burnetii and/or activation of host-defense in individuals carrying genetic variants in pattern recognition

  10. Acute meningoencephalitis as the sole manifestation of Q fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, M; Gutierrez, J; Carnero, C; Gonzalez-Maldonado, R; Maroto, C

    1993-01-01

    The case of a 25-year old man who presented with meningoencephalitis as the sole clinical manifestation of Q fever is described. Serological studies revealed the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to Coxiella burnetii. The patient responded favourably to a ten-day course of i.v. ceftriaxone and was discharged without any neurological sequelae.

  11. Incidence of ovine abortion by Coxiella burnetii in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oporto, B; Barandika, J F; Hurtado, A; Aduriz, G; Moreno, B; Garcia-Perez, A L

    2006-10-01

    The infectious causes of ovine abortion occurring in 148 farms in northern Spain between 1999 and 2003 were investigated. Laboratory analysis included microbiological, serological, pathological and molecular techniques. Border disease was diagnosed in 16% of the flocks, toxoplasmosis in 15%, chlamydiosis in 12%, salmonellosis in 10%, Q fever in 3%, miscellaneous infections in 7% (Yersinia spp., Listeria spp., Brucella spp.), and inflammatory lesions compatible with an infectious cause were seen in 7% of the flock. In an additional 1% of the flocks non-infectious causes were identified, and a diagnosis was not reached in 38% of the flocks. When a PCR retrospective study was carried out to investigate the possible implication of Coxiella burnetii in the cases without diagnosis, including those with inflammatory lesions, the prevalence of this pathogen increased from 3% up to 9% of the flocks, revealing the importance of this zoonotic pathogen as a small-ruminant abortifacient agent. Placenta was the most commonly positive sample, but other fetal tissues were also of value for C. burnetii DNA detection. The present results update information about the situation of abortion in sheep farms in northern Spain, and highlight the relevance of molecular diagnostic tools in routine laboratory analysis of abortions by C. burnetii.

  12. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in clinically healthy German sheep flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilbert Angela

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current epidemiological data on the situation of Coxiella (C. burnetii infections in sheep are missing, making risk assessment and the implementation of counteractive measures difficult. Using the German state of Thuringia as a model example, the estimated sero-, and antigen prevalence of C. burnetii (10% and 25%, respectively was assessed at flock level in 39/252 randomly selected clinically healthy sheep flocks with more than 100 ewes and unknown abortion rate. Results The CHECKIT™ Q-fever Test Kit identified 11 (28% antibody positive herds, whereas real-time PCR revealed the presence of C. burnetii DNA in 2 (5% of the flocks. Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis of 9 isolates obtained from one flock revealed identical profiles. All isolates contained the plasmid QpH1. Conclusions The results demonstrate that C. burnetii is present in clinically inconspicuous sheep flocks and sporadic flare-ups do occur as the notifications to the German animal disease reporting system show. Although C. burnetii infections are not a primary veterinary concern due to the lack of significant clinical impact on animal health (with the exception of goats, the eminent zoonotic risk for humans should not be underestimated. Therefore, strategies combining the interests of public and veterinary public health should include monitoring of flocks, the identification and culling of shedders as well as the administration of protective vaccines.

  13. Validation study for using lab-on-chip technology for Coxiella burnetii multi-locus-VNTR-analysis (MLVA) typing: application for studying genotypic diversity of strains from domestic ruminants in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, Myriam; Rousset, Elodie; Yang, Elise; Thiéry, Richard; Sidi-Boumedine, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic bacterium of Q fever zoonosis, is still difficult to control. Ruminants are often carriers and involved in human epidemics. MLVA is a promising genotyping method for molecular epidemiology. Different techniques are used to resolve the MLVA band profiles such as electrophoresis on agarose gels, capillary electrophoresis or using the microfluidic Lab-on-Chip system. In this study, system based on microfluidics electrophoresis with Lab-on-Chip technology was assessed and applied on DNA field samples to investigate the genotypic diversity of C. burnetii strains circulating in France. The Lab-on-Chip technology was first compared to agarose gel electrophoresis. Subsequently, the set-up Lab-on-Chip technology was applied on 97 samples collected from ruminants in France using the 17 markers previously described. A discordance rate of 27% was observed between Lab-on-Chip and agarose gel electrophoresis. These discrepancies were checked and resolved by sequencing. The cluster analysis revealed classification based on host species and/or geographic origin criteria. Moreover, the circulation of different genotypic strains within the same farm was also observed. In this study, MLVA with Lab-on-Chip technology was shown to be more accurate, reproducible, user friendly and safer than gel electrophoresis. It also provides an extended data set from French ruminant C. burnetii circulating strains useful for epidemiological investigations. Finally, it raises some questions regarding the standardization and harmonization of C. burnetii MLVA genotyping.

  14. Q Fever with Unusual Exposure History: A Classic Presentation of a Commonly Misdiagnosed Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall J. Nett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a man presumptively diagnosed and treated for Rocky Mountain spotted fever following exposure to multiple ticks while riding horses. The laboratory testing of acute and convalescent serum specimens led to laboratory confirmation of acute Q fever as the etiology. This case represents a potential tickborne transmission of Coxiella burnetii and highlights the importance of considering Q fever as a possible diagnosis following tick exposures.

  15. Sensitivitas dan Spesifisitas Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction untuk Mendeteksi DNA Coxiella burnetii (SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF NESTED POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FOR DETECTION OF COXIELLA BURNETII DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trioso Purnawarman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity and specificity of nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR to detect Coxiella burnetii(C. burnetii DNA were studied. The primer system which consists of external primers (OMP1 and OMP2and internal primers (OMP3 and OMP4, was designed from the nucleotide sequence of the com I geneencoding for 27 kDa outer membrane protein and used to specifically amplify a 501 bp and 438 bp fragment.This nested PCR assay was 50 fold more sensitive than that of using PCR external primer only. TheNested PCR has a detection limit as low as 300 pg/?l. Specificity studies showed that nested PCR onlydetected C. burnetii DNA and did not happened Brucella abortus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosaand Campylobacter Jejuni DNA. Nested PCR has high senstively and specificaly diagnostic method of C.burnetii as agent of Q fever disease.

  16. Permissiveness of bovine epithelial cells from lung, intestine, placenta and udder for infection with Coxiella burnetii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotta, Katharina; Bonkowski, Katharina; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Germon, Pierre; Rainard, Pascal; Hambruch, Nina; Pfarrer, Christiane; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Menge, Christian

    2017-04-12

    Ruminants are the main source of human infections with the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella (C.) burnetii. Infected animals shed high numbers of C. burnetii by milk, feces, and birth products. In goats, shedding by the latter route coincides with C. burnetii replication in epithelial (trophoblast) cells of the placenta, which led us to hypothesize that epithelial cells are generally implicated in replication and shedding of C. burnetii. We therefore aimed at analyzing the interactions of C. burnetii with epithelial cells of the bovine host (1) at the entry site (lung epithelium) which govern host immune responses and (2) in epithelial cells of gut, udder and placenta decisive for the quantity of pathogen excretion. Epithelial cell lines [PS (udder), FKD-R 971 (small intestine), BCEC (maternal placenta), F3 (fetal placenta), BEL-26 (lung)] were inoculated with C. burnetii strains Nine Mile I (NMI) and NMII at different cultivation conditions. The cell lines exhibited different permissiveness for C. burnetii. While maintaining cell viability, udder cells allowed the highest replication rates with formation of large cell-filling Coxiella containing vacuoles. Intestinal cells showed an enhanced susceptibility to invasion but supported C. burnetii replication only at intermediate levels. Lung and placental cells also internalized the bacteria but in strikingly smaller numbers. In any of the epithelial cells, both Coxiella strains failed to trigger a substantial IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α response. Epithelial cells, with mammary epithelial cells in particular, may therefore serve as a niche for C. burnetii replication in vivo without alerting the host's immune response.

  17. [Q fever, a zoonosis often overlooked].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaloye, J; Greub, G

    2013-04-24

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by an intracellular Gram-negative bacteria, Coxiella burnetii. Animals are the main reservoir and transmission to men generally is occurring by inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Acute Q fever generally is benign and usually resolves spontaneously. When symptomatic, the clinical presentation typically includes one of the following three syndromes: a flu-like illness, a granulomatous hepatitis or an atypical pneumonia. Individuals presenting risk factors such as patients with valvular heart diseases and vascular prostheses, as well as pregnant women and immuno-suppressed patients represent a population at risk of chronic infection, with endocarditis as the most common clinical form.

  18. Profil Kinetik dan Efektivitas Enrofloksasin yang Dikombinasikan dengan BioATP dalam Mengatasi Coxiella burnetii (KINETIC PROFILE AND EFFECTIVITY OF ENROFLOXACINE WITH BIO ADENOSIN TRIPHOSPHATE SUPPLEMENTATION AGAINST COXIELLA BURNETII)

    OpenAIRE

    Andriyanto; Agus Setiyono; Min Rahminiwati; Neni Nuryani; Unang Patriana

    2013-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii belongs to rikettsia group living obligate intracellularly and as the agent of zoonosisQ fever. Enrofloxacine is an antibiotic in quinolon group used to treat infection of C. burnetii in chicken,goat, calve, pig, dog, cat,  and horse. From ruminant practical experience, enrofloxacine if combined withBioATP  can enhance the enrofloxacine activity. Research for the effecivity of enrofloxacine and BioATP totreat C. burnetii has never been carried out. The research was conducted...

  19. Coxiella burnetii Infections in Small Ruminants and Humans in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magouras, I; Hunninghaus, J; Scherrer, S; Wittenbrink, M M; Hamburger, A; Stärk, K D C; Schüpbach-Regula, G

    2017-02-01

    The recent Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands raised concerns about the potential risk of outbreaks in other European countries. In Switzerland, the prevalence of Q fever in animals and humans has not been studied in recent years. In this study, we describe the current situation with respect to Coxiella (C.) burnetii infections in small ruminants and humans in Switzerland, as a basis for future epidemiological investigations and public health risk assessments. Specific objectives of this cross-sectional study were to (i) estimate the seroprevalence of C. burnetii in sheep and goats, (ii) quantify the amount of bacteria shed during abortion and (iii) analyse temporal trends in human C. burnetii infections. The seroprevalence of C. burnetii in small ruminants was determined by commercial ELISA from a representative sample of 100 sheep flocks and 72 goat herds. Herd-level seroprevalence was 5.0% (95% CI: 1.6-11.3) for sheep and 11.1% (95% CI: 4.9-20.7) for goats. Animal-level seroprevalence was 1.8% (95% CI: 0.8-3.4) for sheep and 3.4% (95% CI: 1.7-6) for goats. The quantification of C. burnetii in 97 ovine and caprine abortion samples by real-time PCR indicated shedding of >10(4) bacteria/g in 13.4% of all samples tested. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting C. burnetii quantities in a large number of small ruminant abortion samples. Annual human Q fever serology data were provided by five major Swiss laboratories. Overall, seroprevalence in humans ranged between 1.7% and 3.5% from 2007 to 2011, and no temporal trends were observed. Interestingly, the two laboratories with significantly higher seroprevalences are located in the regions with the largest goat populations as well as, for one laboratory, with the highest livestock density in Switzerland. However, a direct link between animal and human infection data could not be established in this study.

  20. Maternofetal consequences of Coxiella burnetii infection in pregnancy: a case series of two outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boden Katharina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high complication rate of Q fever in pregnancy is described on the basis of a limited number of cases. All pregnant women with proven Q fever regardless of clinical symptoms should therefore receive long-term cotrimoxazole therapy. But cotrimoxazole as a folic acid antagonist may cause harm to the fetus. We therefore investigated the Q fever outbreaks, Soest in 2003 and Jena in 2005, to determine the maternofetal consequences of Coxiella burnetii infection contracted during pregnancy. Methods Different outbreak investigation strategies were employed at the two sides. Antibody screening was performed with an indirect immunofluorescence test. Medical history and clinical data were obtained and serological follow up performed at delivery. Available placental tissue, amniotic fluid and colostrum/milk were further investigated by polymerase chain reaction and by culture. Results 11 pregnant women from Soest (screening rate: 49% and 82 pregnant women from Jena (screening rate: 27% participated in the outbreak investigation. 11 pregnant women with an acute C. burnetii infection were diagnosed. Three women had symptomatic disease. Three women, who were infected in the first trimester, were put on long-term therapy. The remaining women received cotrimoxazole to a lesser extent (n=3, were treated with macrolides for three weeks (n=1 or after delivery (n=1, were given no treatment at all (n=2 or received antibiotics ineffective for Q fever (n=1. One woman and her foetus died of an underlying disease not related to Q fever. One woman delivered prematurely (35th week and one child was born with syndactyly. We found no obvious association between C. burnetii infection and negative pregnancy outcome. Conclusions Our data do not support the general recommendation of long-term cotrimoxazole treatment for Q fever infection in pregnancy. Pregnant women with symptomatic C. burnetii infections and with chronic Q fever should be treated. The

  1. Resident alveolar macrophages are susceptible to and permissive of Coxiella burnetii infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Calverley

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is a zoonotic disease with potentially life-threatening complications in humans. Inhalation of low doses of Coxiella bacteria can result in infection of the host alveolar macrophage (AM. However, it is not known whether a subset of AMs within the heterogeneous population of macrophages in the infected lung is particularly susceptible to infection. We have found that lower doses of both phase I and phase II Nine Mile C. burnetii multiply and are less readily cleared from the lungs of mice compared to higher infectious doses. We have additionally identified AM resident within the lung prior to and shortly following infection, opposed to newly recruited monocytes entering the lung during infection, as being most susceptible to infection. These resident cells remain infected up to twelve days after the onset of infection, serving as a permissive niche for the maintenance of bacterial infection. A subset of infected resident AMs undergo a distinguishing phenotypic change during the progression of infection exhibiting an increase in surface integrin CD11b expression and continued expression of the surface integrin CD11c. The low rate of phase I and II Nine Mile C. burnetii growth in murine lungs may be a direct result of the limited size of the susceptible resident AM cell population.

  2. Q fever endocarditis with multi-organ complication: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-juan; FU Xiu-ping; ZHANG Jing-shan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Qfever is a worldwide zoonosis and its agent is Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii).1 There are two forms of Q fever: acute and chronic. Acute Q fever is caused by primary infection with C. burnetii and its main clinical features are high fever, granulomatous hepatitis and atypical pneumonia.2,3 Acute Q fever is extremely prone to develop chronic infection if it is improperly treated. Endocarditis is the main characteristic of chronic Q fever and it accounts for 3% to 5% of all cases of endocarditis.4,5

  3. Studying Coxiella burnetii Type IV Substrates in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Focus on Subcellular Localization and Protein Aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rodríguez-Escudero

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative obligate parasitic bacterium that causes the disease Q-fever in humans. To establish its intracellular niche, it utilizes the Icm/Dot type IVB secretion system (T4BSS to inject protein effectors into the host cell cytoplasm. The host targets of most cognate and candidate T4BSS-translocated effectors remain obscure. We used the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model to express and study six C. burnetii effectors, namely AnkA, AnkB, AnkF, CBU0077, CaeA and CaeB, in search for clues about their role in C. burnetii virulence. When ectopically expressed in HeLa cells, these effectors displayed distinct subcellular localizations. Accordingly, GFP fusions of these proteins produced in yeast also decorated distinct compartments, and most of them altered cell growth. CaeA was ubiquitinated both in yeast and mammalian cells and, in S. cerevisiae, accumulated at juxtanuclear quality-control compartments (JUNQs and insoluble protein deposits (IPODs, characteristic of aggregative or misfolded proteins. AnkA, which was not ubiquitinated, accumulated exclusively at the IPOD. CaeA, but not AnkA or the other effectors, caused oxidative damage in yeast. We discuss that CaeA and AnkA behavior in yeast may rather reflect misfolding than recognition of conserved targets in the heterologous system. In contrast, CBU0077 accumulated at vacuolar membranes and abnormal ER extensions, suggesting that it interferes with vesicular traffic, whereas AnkB associated with the yeast nucleolus. Both effectors shared common localization features in HeLa and yeast cells. Our results support the idea that C. burnetii T4BSS effectors manipulate multiple host cell targets, which can be conserved in higher and lower eukaryotic cells. However, the behavior of CaeA and AnkA prompt us to conclude that heterologous protein aggregation and proteostatic stress can be a limitation to be considered when using the yeast model to assess the function of

  4. Prevalence and clinical presentation of Rickettsia, Coxiella, Leptospira, Bartonella and chikungunya virus infections among hospital-based febrile patients from December 2008 to November 2009 in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, Labib Imran; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Gurley, Emily S; Massung, Robert F; Alamgir, A S M; Galloway, Renee L; Powers, Ann M; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Nicholson, William L; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P

    2017-02-13

    We conducted a study to identify Rickettsia, Coxiella, Leptospira, Bartonella, and Chikungunya virus infections among febrile patients presenting at hospitals in Bangladesh. We collected blood samples from patients at six tertiary hospitals from December 2008 to November 2009 and performed laboratory tests at the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Out of 720 enrolled patients, 263 (37%) were infected with Rickettsia; 132 patients had immunofluorescence antibody titer >64 against spotted fever, 63 patients against scrub typhus fever and 10 patients against typhus fever. Ten patients were identified with Coxiella. We isolated Leptospira from two patients and Bartonella from one patient. Ten patients had antibodies against Chikungunya virus. The proportion of patients who died was higher with rickettsial fever (5%) compared to those without a diagnosis of rickettsial infection (2%). None of the patients were initially diagnosed with rickettsial fever. Rickettsial infections are frequent yet under-recognized cause of febrile illness in Bangladesh. Clinical guidelines should be revised so that local clinicians can diagnose rickettsial infections and provide appropriate drug treatment.

  5. Epidemiology of Q fever in dairy goat herds in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogerwerf, L.

    2014-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source was traced back to dairy goat farms, where abortion storms caused by Coxiella burnetii had been observed. Intervention measures included vaccination of dairy goats, followed by one-time c

  6. Antigenicity of chloroform-methanol-treated Coxiella burnetii preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazár, J; Schramek, S; Lisák, V; Brezina, R

    1987-03-01

    Phase I Coxiella burnetii (C.b.) cells untreated (Cb I) or treated with chloroform-methanol (CM) mixture (Cb I-CM) were compared as to their capacity to induce antibodies in laboratory animals and cattle, their ability to elicit delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction in mice and rabbits and protective effect in mice. In all animal species (mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, cattle) tested, the same doses of Cb I-CM cells induced lower levels of both phase I and phase II microagglutinating (MA) antibodies than Cb I cells at different intervals post-immunization (p.i.). Though for elicitation of DTH reaction in rabbits immunized with different C.b. preparations lower doses of Cb I than of Cb I-C M cells were necessary, C.b. cells caused inflammatory reaction at lower doses also in control rabbits. In mice immunized with Cb I and Cb I-CM cells, but not with trichloracetic acid extract (TCAE) from intact Cb I cells, DTH reaction was elicited by the same doses of Cb I and Cb I-CM cells. Higher immunizing doses of Cb I-CM than of Cb I cells were required, however, to induce DTH reaction (as tested by TCAE) as well as protection to phase I virulent challenge. TCAE from intact Cb I cells was protective in mice also at lower doses than TCAE from Cb I-CM cells (TCAE-CM). In humans who suffered from Q fever one year ago, higher proportion of positive skin test (ST) reactions and antibody recalls with higher mean geometric titres (MGT) of phase II MA antibodies was noticed following intradermal administration of TCAE than of TCAE-CM. When humans with no evidence of Q fever in past were vaccinated with TCAE or TCAE-CM, the former preparation not only caused higher proportion of both local and general post-vaccination reactions, but also of phase II MA antibody response and positive ST reactions as tested by TCAE 3 months post-vaccination in addition to higher proportion of phase II MA antibody recalls.

  7. Surveillance of Egyptian fleas for agents of public health significance: Anaplasma, Bartonella, Coxiella, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, and Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftis, Amanda D; Reeves, Will K; Szumlas, Daniel E; Abbassy, Magda M; Helmy, Ibrahim M; Moriarity, John R; Dasch, Gregory A

    2006-07-01

    Serologic surveys in Egypt have documented human and animal exposure to vector-borne bacterial pathogens, but the presence and distribution of these agents in arthropods has not been determined. Between July 2002 and July 2003, fleas were collected from 221 mammals trapped in 17 cities throughout Egypt. A total of 987 fleas were collected, representing four species (Ctenocephalides felis, Echidnophaga gallinacea, Leptopsylla segnis, and Xenopsylla cheopis); 899 of these fleas were X. cheopis from rats (Rattus spp.). Fleas were tested for DNA from Anaplasma spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia spp., Rickettsia spp., and Yersinia pestis. Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was detected in X. cheopis and L. segnis from rats from nine cities. A spotted-fever group Rickettsia sp. similar to "RF2125" was detected in E. gallinacea, and two unidentified spotted fever group Rickettsia were detected in two X. cheopis. Novel Bartonella genotypes were detected in X. cheopis and L. segnis from three cities. Coxiella burnetii was detected in two fleas. Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Y. pestis were not detected.

  8. Q fever through consumption of unpasteurised milk and milk products - a risk profile and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, P; Kelly, L; Mearns, R; Duggan, J; Snary, E L

    2015-05-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii which is endemic in cattle, sheep and goats in much of the world, including the United Kingdom (UK). There is some epidemiological evidence that a small proportion of cases in the developed world may arise from consumption of unpasteurised milk with less evidence for milk products such as cheese. Long maturation at low pH may give some inactivation in hard cheese, and viable C. burnetii are rarely detected in unpasteurised cheese compared to unpasteurised milk. Simulations presented here predict that the probability of exposure per person to one or more C. burnetii through the daily cumulative consumption of raw milk in the UK is 0·4203. For those positive exposures, the average level of exposure predicted is high at 1266 guinea pig intraperitoneal infectious dose 50% units (GP_IP_ID50 ) per person per day. However, in the absence of human dose-response data, the case is made that the GP_IP_ID50 unit represents a very low risk through the oral route. The available evidence suggests that the risks from C. burnetii through consumption of unpasteurised milk and milk products (including cheese) are not negligible but they are lower in comparison to transmission via inhalation of aerosols from parturient products and livestock contact.

  9. The Genera Coxiella, Wolbachia, and Rickettsiella,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    effective labels fused with influenza . Chronic Q fever usually of the spore within the large mother cell. The goes unrecognized for many years because pattern...ation par voie Dis. 148:214-𔃼. intraperitoneaic. Prnase chironioue. Ann. Pharmaceut. ’-abuaien. B. 1959. Q) fever: a zoonosis . Vet. Sci. 5:SI- Francaises

  10. Q Fever, Scrub Typhus, and Rickettsial Diseases in Children, Kenya, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Alice N; Farris, Christina M; Odhiambo, Antony; Jiang, Ju; Laktabai, Jeremiah; Armstrong, Janice; Holland, Thomas; Richards, Allen L; O'Meara, Wendy P

    2016-05-01

    To increase knowledge of undifferentiated fevers in Kenya, we tested paired serum samples from febrile children in western Kenya for antibodies against pathogens increasingly recognized to cause febrile illness in Africa. Of patients assessed, 8.9%, 22.4%, 1.1%, and 3.6% had enhanced seroreactivity to Coxiella burnetii, spotted fever group rickettsiae, typhus group rickettsiae, and scrub typhus group orientiae, respectively.

  11. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii from domestic ruminants in northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astobiza Ianire

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the genotypic diversity of Coxiella burnetii isolates from infected domestic ruminants in Spain is limited. The aim of this study was to identify the C. burnetii genotypes infecting livestock in Northern Spain and compare them to other European genotypes. A commercial real-time PCR targeting the IS1111a insertion element was used to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA in domestic ruminants from Spain. Genotypes were determined by a 6-loci Multiple Locus Variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA panel and Multispacer Sequence Typing (MST. Results A total of 45 samples from 4 goat herds (placentas, N = 4, 12 dairy cattle herds (vaginal mucus, individual milk, bulk tank milk, aerosols, N = 20 and 5 sheep flocks (placenta, vaginal swabs, faeces, air samples, dust, N = 21 were included in the study. Samples from goats and sheep were obtained from herds which had suffered abortions suspected to be caused by C. burnetii, whereas cattle samples were obtained from animals with reproductive problems compatible with C. burnetii infection, or consisted of bulk tank milk (BTM samples from a Q fever surveillance programme. C. burnetii genotypes identified in ruminants from Spain were compared to those detected in other countries. Three MLVA genotypes were found in 4 goat farms, 7 MLVA genotypes were identified in 12 cattle herds and 4 MLVA genotypes were identified in 5 sheep flocks. Clustering of the MLVA genotypes using the minimum spanning tree method showed a high degree of genetic similarity between most MLVA genotypes. Overall 11 different MLVA genotypes were obtained corresponding to 4 different MST genotypes: MST genotype 13, identified in goat, sheep and cattle from Spain; MST genotype 18, only identified in goats; and, MST genotypes 8 and 20, identified in small ruminants and cattle, respectively. All these genotypes had been previously identified in animal and human clinical samples from several

  12. Q Fever: An Old but Still a Poorly Understood Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Honarmand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Q fever is a bacterial infection affecting mainly the lungs, liver, and heart. It is found around the world and is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii. The bacteria affects sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, cats, birds, rodents, and ticks. Infected animals shed this bacteria in birth products, feces, milk, and urine. Humans usually get Q fever by breathing in contaminated droplets released by infected animals and drinking raw milk. People at highest risk for this infection are farmers, laboratory workers, sheep and dairy workers, and veterinarians. Chronic Q fever develops in people who have been infected for more than 6 months. It usually takes about 20 days after exposure to the bacteria for symptoms to occur. Most cases are mild, yet some severe cases have been reported. Symptoms of acute Q fever may include: chest pain with breathing, cough, fever, headache, jaundice, muscle pains, and shortness of breath. Symptoms of chronic Q fever may include chills, fatigue, night sweats, prolonged fever, and shortness of breath. Q fever is diagnosed with a blood antibody test. The main treatment for the disease is with antibiotics. For acute Q fever, doxycycline is recommended. For chronic Q fever, a combination of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine is often used long term. Complications are cirrhosis, hepatitis, encephalitis, endocarditis, pericarditis, myocarditis, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, meningitis, and pneumonia. People at risk should always: carefully dispose of animal products that may be infected, disinfect any contaminated areas, and thoroughly wash their hands. Pasteurizing milk can also help prevent Q fever.

  13. Hemorrhagic Fevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of viruses. These include the Ebola and Marburg, Lassa fever, and yellow fever viruses. VHFs have common features: ... the animals that carry them live. For example, Lassa fever is limited to rural areas of West Africa ...

  14. Serological evidence of Rickettsia and Coxiella burnetii in humans of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuttin, Gabriel Leonardo; Degiuseppe, Juan Ignacio; Mamianetti, Andrea; Corin, Marcela Viviana; Linares, María Cielo; De Salvo, María Nazarena; Dohmen, Federico Eugenio Gury

    2015-12-01

    In Buenos Aires city (Argentina), the circulation of these agents has been detected mainly in vectors and animals, few human cases having been described. The aim of our study was to determine the seroprevalence of Rickettsia (spotted fever--SFG--and typhus--TG--groups) and Coxiella burnetii (Q fever agent) in residents of Buenos Aires city. The study involved 99 participants. Rickettsia IgG antibodies against SFG and TG were detected by IFA in 28.3% and 16.2% of serum samples, respectively. SFG titers were mostly 1/64 (53.6%) with a maximum of 1/512 (3.5%) whereas TG titers ranged between 1/64 (62.5%) and 1/256 (6.3%). Only one sample showed a titer of 1/32 for C. burnetii (phases I and II). The circulation of these pathogens in urban areas such as the city of Buenos Aires should be considered by health services, especially at the primary care level.

  15. Long-term dynamics of Coxiella burnetii in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eGonzález-Barrio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several aspects of the dynamics of Coxiella burnetii that are relevant for the implementation of control strategies in ruminant herds with endemic Q-fever are unknown. We designed a longitudinal study to monitor the dynamics of exposure to C. burnetii in a red deer herd with endemic infection in order to allow the design of Q fever specific control approaches. Other relevant aspects of the dynamics of C. burnetii - the effect of herd immune status, age, season and early infection on exposure, the average half-life of antibodies, the presence and duration of maternal humoral immunity and the age of first exposure - were analysed. The dynamics of C. burnetii in deer herds seems to be modulated by host herd and host individual factors and by particular host life history traits. Red deer females become exposed to C. burnetii at the beginning of their second year since maternal antibodies protect them after birth and during the main pathogen shedding season - at the end of spring-early summer. Infection pressure varies between years, probably associated to herd immunity effects, determining inter-annual variation in the risk of exposure. These results suggest that any strategy applied to control C. burnetii in deer herds should be designed to induce immunity in their first year of life immediately after losing maternal antibodies. The short average life of C. burnetii antibodies suggests that any protection based upon humoral immunity would require re-vaccination every 6 months.

  16. Perioperative Occupational Exposure to Coxiella burnetii-Infected Thoracic Endovascular Aneurysm Stent Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Le

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted this study to determine the risk of transmission of Q fever to health care workers (HCWs during perioperative exposure to Coxiella burnetii-infected thoracic endovascular aneurysm stent graft. Pre-operative and 6-week post-operative phase I and II IgG Q fever antibody titers were determined in 14 staff members of an operation room. The room had a negative pressure and all the members of the surgical team wore either a fitted N-95 mask or a powered purified air respirator. Phase I and II IgG antibody titers were <1:16 for 11 of the 14 studied HCWs; 2 HCWs did not follow up at 6 weeks and 1 had a pre-exposure phase II IgG titer of 1:128 with no change 6 weeks later. We concluded that risk of transmission of C. burnetii in the operating room from infected patient to HCWs who wore appropriate personal protective equipment is low.

  17. Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and associated risk factors in dairy and mixed cattle farms from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonero, Alfonso; Guzmán, Lucía T; Montaño, Karen; Torralbo, Alicia; Arenas-Montes, Antonio; Saa, Luis R

    2015-03-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the main reservoir. An extensive cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of and associated risk factors for Q fever was performed in dairy and mixed (dairy-beef) cattle herds in Ecuador. A total of 2668 serum samples from 386 herds were analyzed using an ELISA. In addition, a questionnaire with 57 variables related to management, feeding, facilities, biosecurity and animal health was completed for every cattle farm. A Generalized Estimating Equations model was used to determine the factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity. The true prevalence of C. burnetii seropositivity in dairy and mixed cattle from Ecuador reached 12.6% (CI95%: 11.3-13.9%). The herd prevalence was 46.9% (181/386) (CI95%: 41.9-51.9%), and the within herd prevalence ranged between 8% and 100% (mean: 25.0%; Q1: 12.5%, Q2: 25.0%, Q3: 37.5%). Four factors were included in the GEE model for C. burnetii seropositivity: age of the cattle (OR: 1.01; CI95%: 1.006-1.014), feeding of calves with milk replacers (OR: 1.94; CI95%: 1.1-3.3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus seropositivity (OR: 1.54; CI95%: 1.1-2.3), and disinfection of the umbilical cord (OR: 0.60; CI95%: 0.4-0.9).

  18. Presence of Coxiella burnetii DNA in inflamed bovine cardiac valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Jensen, Tim K.; Agger, Jens F.; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Roest, Hendrik-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bacterial endocarditis is a recognised disease in humans and animals. In humans, infection with Coxiella burnetii can cause endocarditis, but this has not been investigated thoroughly in animals. Endocarditis in cattle is a common post-mortem finding in abattoirs and studies have

  19. Elevated Cholesterol in the Coxiella burnetii Intracellular Niche Is Bacteriolytic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulye, Minal; Samanta, Dhritiman; Winfree, Seth; Heinzen, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen and a significant cause of culture-negative endocarditis in the United States. Upon infection, the nascent Coxiella phagosome fuses with the host endocytic pathway to form a large lysosome-like vacuole called the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). The PV membrane is rich in sterols, and drugs perturbing host cell cholesterol homeostasis inhibit PV formation and bacterial growth. Using cholesterol supplementation of a cholesterol-free cell model system, we found smaller PVs and reduced Coxiella growth as cellular cholesterol concentration increased. Further, we observed in cells with cholesterol a significant number of nonfusogenic PVs that contained degraded bacteria, a phenotype not observed in cholesterol-free cells. Cholesterol had no effect on axenic Coxiella cultures, indicating that only intracellular bacteria are sensitive to cholesterol. Live-cell microscopy revealed that both plasma membrane-derived cholesterol and the exogenous cholesterol carrier protein low-density lipoprotein (LDL) traffic to the PV. To test the possibility that increasing PV cholesterol levels affects bacterial survival, infected cells were treated with U18666A, a drug that traps cholesterol in lysosomes and PVs. U18666A treatment led to PVs containing degraded bacteria and a significant loss in bacterial viability. The PV pH was significantly more acidic in cells with cholesterol or cells treated with U18666A, and the vacuolar ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin blocked cholesterol-induced PV acidification and bacterial death. Additionally, treatment of infected HeLa cells with several FDA-approved cholesterol-altering drugs led to a loss of bacterial viability, a phenotype also rescued by bafilomycin. Collectively, these data suggest that increasing PV cholesterol further acidifies the PV, leading to Coxiella death. PMID:28246364

  20. Characterization of the GDP-D-mannose biosynthesis pathway in Coxiella burnetii: the initial steps for GDP-β-D-virenose biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasaki, Craig T; Mertens, Katja; Samuel, James E

    2011-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of human Q fever, is a gram-negative and naturally obligate intracellular bacterium. The O-specific polysaccharide chain (O-PS) of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of C. burnetii is considered a heteropolymer of the two unusual sugars β-D-virenose and dihydrohydroxystreptose and mannose. We hypothesize that GDP-D-mannose is a metabolic intermediate to GDP-β-D-virenose. GDP-D-mannose is synthesized from fructose-6-phosphate in 3 successive reactions; Isomerization to mannose-6-phosphate catalyzed by a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI), followed by conversion to mannose-1-phosphate mediated by a phosphomannomutase (PMM) and addition of GDP by a GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP). GDP-D-mannose is then likely converted to GDP-6-deoxy-D-lyxo-hex-4-ulopyranose (GDP-Sug), a virenose intermediate, by a GDP-mannose-4,6-dehydratase (GMD). To test the validity of this pathway in C. burnetii, three open reading frames (CBU0671, CBU0294 and CBU0689) annotated as bifunctional type II PMI, as PMM or GMD were functionally characterized by complementation of corresponding E. coli mutant strains and in enzymatic assays. CBU0671, failed to complement an Escherichia coli manA (PMM) mutant strain. However, complementation of an E. coli manC (GMP) mutant strain restored capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis. CBU0294 complemented a Pseudomonas aeruginosa algC (GMP) mutant strain and showed phosphoglucomutase activity (PGM) in a pgm E. coli mutant strain. Despite the inability to complement a manA mutant, recombinant C. burnetii PMI protein showed PMM enzymatic activity in biochemical assays. CBU0689 showed dehydratase activity and determined kinetic parameters were consistent with previously reported data from other organisms. These results show the biological function of three C. burnetii LPS biosynthesis enzymes required for the formation of GDP-D-mannose and GDP-Sug. A fundamental understanding of C. burnetii genes that encode PMI, PMM and GMP is

  1. Chronic Q fever: An ongoing challenge in diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Q fever is a potentially fatal disease. The current difficulty in the diagnosis of this condition is discussed in the present article. A 51-year-old woman with a history of aortic valve replacement presented with complaints of feeling generally unwell, pyrexia and occasional unproductive cough over a period of several weeks. Phase 1 immunoglobulin G titre to Coxiella burnetii was initially detected at a low level (1:320, detected using immunofluorescence and was not considered to be significant according to the modified Duke criteria. Later in the course of her illness, the patient’s antibody titre rose to a high level (1:1280. The issues regarding current laboratory diagnosis and management of Q fever are discussed. Chronic Q fever can be associated with an inadequate serological response. Close follow-up of cases is essential. The recommended serological criteria for the diagnosis of Q fever endocarditis needs to be revisited.

  2. Emergence of Coxiella burnetii in ruminants on Reunion Island? Prevalence and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Cardinale

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Q fever is a widespread zoonosis that is caused by Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii, and ruminants are identified as the main sources of human infections. Some human cases have been described, but very limited information was available about Q fever in ruminants on Reunion Island, a tropical island in the Indian Ocean. A cross-sectional study was undertaken from March 2011 to August 2012 to assess the Q fever prevalence and to identify the major risk factors of C. burnetii infection in ruminants. A total of 516 ruminants (245 cattle, 137 sheep and 134 goats belonging to 71 farms and localized in different ecosystems of the island were randomly selected. Samples of blood, vaginal mucus and milk were concomitantly collected from females, and a questionnaire was submitted to the farmers. Ticks from positively detected farms were also collected. The overall seropositivity was 11.8% in cattle, 1.4% in sheep and 13.4% in goats. C. burnetii DNA was detected by PCR in 0.81%, 4.4% and 20.1% in cow, sheep and goat vaginal swabs, respectively. C. burnetii shedding in milk was observed in 1% of cows, 0% in sheep and 4.7% in goats. None of the ticks were detected to be positive for C. burnetii. C. burnetii infection increased when the farm was exposed to prevailing winds and when there were no specific precautions for a visitor before entering the farm, and they decreased when a proper quarantine was set up for any introduction of a new ruminant and when the animals returned to the farm at night. MLVA genotyping confirmed the role of these risk factors in infection.

  3. Molecular and serologic detection of Coxiella burnetii in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Byeong Yeal; Seo, Min-Goo; Lee, Seung-Hun; Byun, Jae-Won; Oem, Jae-Ku; Kwak, Dongmi

    2014-09-17

    The occurrence of Q fever in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae) was investigated for the first time in the country using ELISA and PCR. A total of 597 blood samples were collected from goats belonging to five different provinces of Korea. To detect Coxiella burnetii, sera were separated from the whole blood and analysed by ELISA; DNA was extracted directly from the whole blood and analysed by PCR. Overall, 114 (19.1%, 95% C.I.=16.1-22.4) and 57 goats (9.5%, 95% C.I.=7.5-12.2) tested positive for C. burnetii in the ELISA- and PCR-based screening, respectively, while 18 goats (3.0%, 95% C.I.=1.9-4.7) tested positive in both the assays. There was a significant difference between the number of ELISA- and PCR-positive goats (P<0.05). The seroprevalence of Q fever was significantly higher among the adult goats (≥1y, 22.0%) than among the young goats (<1y, 13.8%) (P<0.05). While the results of the serologic analysis showed no seasonal variation, data from the PCR-based assay indicated that there were a higher number of positive cases during the cold seasons. Because Q fever infection has high rates of prevalence in native Korean goats, further studies on humans at a high risk of contracting this disease should be conducted. The PCR-based assay used in this study is a useful method for the direct detection of C. burnetii in blood samples from small ruminants.

  4. Epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii infection in Africa: a OneHealth systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sky Vanderburg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Q fever is a common cause of febrile illness and community-acquired pneumonia in resource-limited settings. Coxiella burnetii, the causative pathogen, is transmitted among varied host species, but the epidemiology of the organism in Africa is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review of C. burnetii epidemiology in Africa from a "One Health" perspective to synthesize the published data and identify knowledge gaps. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched nine databases to identify articles relevant to four key aspects of C. burnetii epidemiology in human and animal populations in Africa: infection prevalence; disease incidence; transmission risk factors; and infection control efforts. We identified 929 unique articles, 100 of which remained after full-text review. Of these, 41 articles describing 51 studies qualified for data extraction. Animal seroprevalence studies revealed infection by C. burnetii (≤13% among cattle except for studies in Western and Middle Africa (18-55%. Small ruminant seroprevalence ranged from 11-33%. Human seroprevalence was <8% with the exception of studies among children and in Egypt (10-32%. Close contact with camels and rural residence were associated with increased seropositivity among humans. C. burnetii infection has been associated with livestock abortion. In human cohort studies, Q fever accounted for 2-9% of febrile illness hospitalizations and 1-3% of infective endocarditis cases. We found no studies of disease incidence estimates or disease control efforts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: C. burnetii infection is detected in humans and in a wide range of animal species across Africa, but seroprevalence varies widely by species and location. Risk factors underlying this variability are poorly understood as is the role of C. burnetii in livestock abortion. Q fever consistently accounts for a notable proportion of undifferentiated human febrile illness and infective endocarditis in cohort studies

  5. Bayesian estimation of sensitivity and specificity of Coxiella burnetii antibody ELISA tests in bovine blood and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Suman; Toft, Nils; Agerholm, Jørgen S.;

    2013-01-01

    Serological tests for Coxiella burnetii (the causative agent of Q fever) antibodies are usually based on enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) although this method is not thoroughly evaluated. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of an ELISA for detection...... of the ELISA methods on milk and blood were equal at 0.99. No conditional dependence was observed between the specificity estimates of the two test methods. However, the sensitivity estimates of both tests were significantly reduced when conditional covariances ≥40 were used. Collection of milk samples from...... to positive (S/P) cut-off of 40 for both blood and milk ELISAs. At this cut-off, sensitivity of milk ELISA was 0.86 (95% posterior credibility interval [PCI] [0.76; 0.96]). This was slightly but insignificantly higher than sensitivity of blood ELISA (0.84; 95% PCI [0.75; 0.93]). The specificity estimates...

  6. Detection of Bartonella tamiae, Coxiella burnetii and rickettsiae in arthropods and tissues from wild and domestic animals in northeastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leulmi, Hamza; Aouadi, Atef; Bitam, Idir; Bessas, Amina; Benakhla, Ahmed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2016-01-20

    In recent years, the scope and importance of emergent vector-borne diseases has increased dramatically. In Algeria, only limited information is currently available concerning the presence and prevalence of these zoonotic diseases. For this reason, we conducted a survey of hematophagous ectoparasites of domestic mammals and/or spleens of wild animals in El Tarf and Souk Ahras, Algeria. Using real-time PCR, standard PCR and sequencing, the presence of Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp., Borrelia spp. and Coxiella burnetii was evaluated in 268/1626 ticks, 136 fleas, 11 Nycteribiidae flies and 16 spleens of domestic and/or wild animals from the El Tarf and Souk Ahras areas. For the first time in Algeria, Bartonella tamiae was detected in 12/19 (63.2%) Ixodes vespertilionis ticks, 8/11 (72.7%) Nycteribiidae spp. flies and in 6/10 (60%) bat spleens (Chiroptera spp.). DNA from Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, was also identified in 3/19 (15.8%) I. vespertilionis from bats. Rickettsia slovaca, the agent of tick-borne lymphadenopathy, was detected in 1/1 (100%) Haemaphysalis punctata and 2/3 (66.7%) Dermacentor marginatus ticks collected from two boars (Sus scrofa algira) respectively. Ri. massiliae, an agent of spotted fever, was detected in 38/94 (40.4%) Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato collected from cattle, sheep, dogs, boars and jackals. DNA of Ri. aeschlimannii was detected in 6/20 (30%) Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum and 6/20 (30%) Hy. scupense from cattle. Finally, Ri. felis, an emerging rickettsial pathogen, was detected in 80/110 (72.7%) Archaeopsylla erinacei and 2/2 (100%) Ctenocephalides felis of hedgehogs (Atelerix algirus). In this study, we expanded knowledge about the repertoire of ticks and flea-borne bacteria present in ectoparasites and/or tissues of domestic and wild animals in Algeria.

  7. Estimation of acute and chronic Q fever incidence in children during a three-year outbreak in the Netherlands and a comparison with international literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slok, Edwin N E; Dijkstra, Frederika; de Vries, Esther; Rietveld, Ariene; Wong, Albert; Notermans, Daan W; van Steenbergen, Jim E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the Dutch 2007-2009 Q fever outbreak Coxiella burnetii was transmitted aerogenically from dairy goat farms to those living in the surrounding areas. Relatively few children were reported. The true number of pediatric infections is unknown. In this study, we estimate the expected numbe

  8. Evidence of Coxiella burnetii in Punjab province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Akram, Sidra; Hassan, Zia Ul; Hanif, Kashif; Rabbani, Masood; Muhammad, Javed; Chaudhary, Muhammad Hamid; Abbas, Tariq; Ghori, Muhammad Taslim; Rashid, Haroon; Jamil, Tariq; Islam, Zia-Ul-; Rasool, Haisem; Bano, Asghari; Ahmad, Arfan; Ali, Muhammad Asad; Yaqub, Tahir; McVey, Walt; Jayarao, Bhushan M

    2016-11-01

    Coxiella burnetii causes query (Q) fever, an important zoonotic disease with worldwide significance. The role of environment in the ecology of C. burnetti, and its influence on seroconversion in animals has not been elucidated in Pakistan. We carried out a cross-sectional study in Punjab province to (1) determine the prevalence and distribution of C. burnetii in soil using an ISIIII gene-based real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, (2) analyze association between the occurrence of C. burnetii in soil and its predictors i.e. soil characteristics (macro- and micro-nutrients) and several likely risk factors including the seroconversion in small ruminants at places where its genome had or had not been detected, and (3) predict homology and genetic diversity of the identified strains using sequences originated from different hosts worldwide. A total of 2425 soil samples from nine districts of Punjab province were processed. C. burnetii DNA was detected in 47 samples (1.94%, 95% CI: ±0.55) originating from 35 villages of studied districts (7.22%, 95% CI: ±2.30). The highest prevalence was found in Attock (7.11%, 95% CI: ±3.36), followed by Lahore (4.83%, 95% CI: ±3.49), Sahiwal (4.70%, 95% CI: ±2.6), Dera Ghazi Khan (2.33%, 95% CI: ±2.02), Faisalabad (1.35%, 95% CI: ±1.18) and Sheikhupura (0.68%, 95% CI: ±0.94). The odds of detecting bacterial DNA in soil was increased with a unit increase in organic matter [2.511 (95% CI: 1.453-4.340), p=0.001] and sodium [1.013 (95% CI: 1.005-1.022), p=0.001], whereas, calcium [0.984 (95% CI: 0.975-0.994), p=0.002] and potassium [0.994 (95% CI: 0.990-0.999), p=0.011] had protective effect where a unit increase in each analyte decreased odds for its occurrence by 1.0% approximately. Likewise, for categorical variables (risk factors), the odds of detecting C. burnetii were higher at locations >500m away from a main road [1.95 (95% CI: 1.06-3.78), p=0.04]. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA

  9. The potential utility of nested PCR for investigation ofCoxiella burnetii in Iranian snails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mina Dehghani-Samani; Abbas Doosti; Asghar Arshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To detect the prevalence ofCoxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) in two species of snails consisted ofLymnaea palustris (L. palustris) andPomacea canaliculata (P. canaliculata) by using nestedPCR method in Chaharmahel Va Bakhtiari Province which is located in the southwest of Iran. Methods:A total of160 snail samples consisted of 100L. palustris and 60P. canaliculata were collected from 4 rice paddy fields in the southwest of Iran between June and August 2014. Snails'DNA was extracted by a genomicDNA purification kit according to the manufacturer's instructions. Detection of the presence ofC. burnetii'sDNA was carried out by using a nested PCR assay with [specific primers outer membrane protein 1 (OMP1)-OMP2 and OMP3-OMP4] targeting the com1 gene. Results: In this study, a total of 160 snail samples were tested and 15 (9.37%) samples were found positive forC. burnetii, 15 samples were positive from theL. palustris and there were no positive samples fromP. canaliculata. Conclusions: Snails are kind of gastropods which seem to be harmless in life, but these small gastropods can be very dangerous for farmers, especially in humid climates. Also,C. burnetii in snails showed that this bacterium can be a factor of transmission of contamination to human beings and animals.

  10. The potential utility of nested PCR for investigation of Coxiella burnetii in Iranian snails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Dehghani-Samani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii in two species of snails consisted of Lymnaea palustris (L. palustris and Pomacea canaliculata (P. canaliculata by using nested PCR method in Chaharmahel Va Bakhtiari Province which is located in the southwest of Iran. Methods: A total of 160 snail samples consisted of 100 L. palustris and 60 P. canaliculata were collected from 4 rice paddy fields in the southwest of Iran between June and August 2014. Snails' DNA was extracted by a genomic DNA purification kit according to the manufacturer's instructions. Detection of the presence of C. burnetii's DNA was carried out by using a nested PCR assay with [specific primers outer membrane protein 1 (OMP1-OMP2 and OMP3-OMP4] targeting the com1 gene. Results: In this study, a total of 160 snail samples were tested and 15 (9.37% samples were found positive for C. burnetii, 15 samples were positive from the L. palustris and there were no positive samples from P. canaliculata. Conclusions: Snails are kind of gastropods which seem to be harmless in life, but these small gastropods can be very dangerous for farmers, especially in humid climates. Also, C. burnetii in snails showed that this bacterium can be a factor of transmission of contamination to human beings and animals.

  11. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley Fever is a disease caused by a fungus (or mold) called Coccidioides. The fungi live in the soil ... from person to person. Anyone can get Valley Fever. But it's most common among older adults, especially ...

  12. Lassa Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Lassa Fever Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... French) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Lassa fever is an acute viral illness that occurs in ...

  13. Scarlet fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the throat infection. This is crucial to prevent rheumatic fever, a serious complication of strep throat and scarlet ... with the right treatment, but may include: Acute rheumatic fever , which can affect the heart, joints, skin, and ...

  14. Molecular characterization of Coxiella burnetii isolates by infrequent restriction site-PCR and MLVA typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Hermann

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, has a wide host range. Few epidemiological tools are available, and they are often expensive or not easily standardized across laboratories. In this work, C. burnetii isolates from livestock and ticks were typed using infrequent restriction site-PCR (IRS-PCR and multiple loci variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR analysis (MLVA. Results By applying IRS-PCR, 14 C. burnetii isolates could be divided into six groups containing up to five different isolates. Clustering as deduced from MLVA typing with 17 markers provided an increased resolution with an excellent agreement to IRS-PCR, and with the plasmid type of each strain. MLVA was then applied to 28 additional C. burnetii isolates of different origin and 36 different genotypes were identified among the 42 isolates investigated. The clustering obtained is in agreement with published Multiple Locus Sequence Typing (MLST data. Two panels of markers are proposed, panel 1 which can be confidently typed on agarose gel at a lower cost and in any laboratory setting (10 minisatellite markers with a repeat unit larger than 9 bp, and panel 2 which comprises 7 microsatellites and provides a higher discriminatory power. Conclusion Our analyses demonstrate that MLVA is a powerful and promising molecular typing tool with a high resolution and of low costs. The consistency of the results with independent methods suggests that MLVA can be applied for epidemiological studies. The resulting data can be queried on a dedicated MLVA genotyping Web service.

  15. Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is usually applied to disease caused by Arenaviridae (Lassa fever, Junin and Machupo), Bunyaviridae (Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, ... fever Dengue and severe dengue Ebola virus disease Lassa fever Marburg haemorrhagic fever Rift Valley fever Multimedia, features ...

  16. A Case of Pediatric Q Fever Osteomyelitis Managed Without Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Ameneh; Sparks, Rebecca T; Marais, Ben J

    2015-12-01

    Q fever osteomyelitis, caused by infection with Coxiella burnetti, is rare but should be included in the differential diagnosis of children with culture-negative osteomyelitis, particularly if there is a history of contact with farm animals, and/or granulomatous change on histologic examination of a bone biopsy specimen. We describe a case of Q fever osteomyelitis in a 6-year-old boy in which a decision was made not to treat the patient with combination antimicrobial agents, balancing possible risks of recurrence against potential side effects of prolonged antibiotic treatment. The patient had undergone surgical debridement of a single lesion and was completely asymptomatic after recovery from surgery. This case suggests that a conservative approach of watchful waiting in an asymptomatic patient with chronic Q fever osteomyelitis may be warranted in select cases when close follow-up is possible.

  17. Yellow fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, Thomas P; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2015-03-01

    Yellow fever, a mosquito-borne flavivirus disease occurs in tropical areas of South America and Africa. It is a disease of major historical importance, but remains a threat to travelers to and residents of endemic areas despite the availability of an effective vaccine for nearly 70 years. An important aspect is the receptivity of many non-endemic areas to introduction and spread of yellow fever. This paper reviews the clinical aspects, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of yellow fever, with an emphasis on recent changes in the distribution and incidence of the disease. Recent knowledge about yellow fever 17D vaccine mechanism of action and safety are discussed.

  18. High throughput detection of Coxiella burnetii by real-time PCR with internal control system and automated DNA preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramme Stefanie

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q-fever, a widespread zoonosis. Due to its high environmental stability and infectivity it is regarded as a category B biological weapon agent. In domestic animals infection remains either asymptomatic or presents as infertility or abortion. Clinical presentation in humans can range from mild flu-like illness to acute pneumonia and hepatitis. Endocarditis represents the most common form of chronic Q-fever. In humans serology is the gold standard for diagnosis but is inadequate for early case detection. In order to serve as a diagnostic tool in an eventual biological weapon attack or in local epidemics we developed a real-time 5'nuclease based PCR assay with an internal control system. To facilitate high-throughput an automated extraction procedure was evaluated. Results To determine the minimum number of copies that are detectable at 95% chance probit analysis was used. Limit of detection in blood was 2,881 copies/ml [95%CI, 2,188–4,745 copies/ml] with a manual extraction procedure and 4,235 copies/ml [95%CI, 3,143–7,428 copies/ml] with a fully automated extraction procedure, respectively. To demonstrate clinical application a total of 72 specimens of animal origin were compared with respect to manual and automated extraction. A strong correlation between both methods was observed rendering both methods suitable. Testing of 247 follow up specimens of animal origin from a local Q-fever epidemic rendered real-time PCR more sensitive than conventional PCR. Conclusion A sensitive and thoroughly evaluated real-time PCR was established. Its high-throughput mode may show a useful approach to rapidly screen samples in local outbreaks for other organisms relevant for humans or animals. Compared to a conventional PCR assay sensitivity of real-time PCR was higher after testing samples from a local Q-fever outbreak.

  19. Transcriptional Profiling of Coxiella burnetii Reveals Extensive Cell Wall Remodeling in the Small Cell Variant Developmental Form.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsi M Sandoz

    Full Text Available A hallmark of Coxiella burnetii, the bacterial cause of human Q fever, is a biphasic developmental cycle that generates biologically, ultrastructurally, and compositionally distinct large cell variant (LCV and small cell variant (SCV forms. LCVs are replicating, exponential phase forms while SCVs are non-replicating, stationary phase forms. The SCV has several properties, such as a condensed nucleoid and an unusual cell envelope, suspected of conferring enhanced environmental stability. To identify genetic determinants of the LCV to SCV transition, we profiled the C. burnetii transcriptome at 3 (early LCV, 5 (late LCV, 7 (intermediate forms, 14 (early SCV, and 21 days (late SCV post-infection of Vero epithelial cells. Relative to early LCV, genes downregulated in the SCV were primarily involved in intermediary metabolism. Upregulated SCV genes included those involved in oxidative stress responses, arginine acquisition, and cell wall remodeling. A striking transcriptional signature of the SCV was induction (>7-fold of five genes encoding predicted L,D transpeptidases that catalyze nonclassical 3-3 peptide cross-links in peptidoglycan (PG, a modification that can influence several biological traits in bacteria. Accordingly, of cross-links identified, muropeptide analysis showed PG of SCV with 46% 3-3 cross-links as opposed to 16% 3-3 cross-links for LCV. Moreover, electron microscopy revealed SCV with an unusually dense cell wall/outer membrane complex as compared to LCV with its clearly distinguishable periplasm and inner and outer membranes. Collectively, these results indicate the SCV produces a unique transcriptome with a major component directed towards remodeling a PG layer that likely contributes to Coxiella's environmental resistance.

  20. Transcriptional Profiling of Coxiella burnetii Reveals Extensive Cell Wall Remodeling in the Small Cell Variant Developmental Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Kelsi M; Popham, David L; Beare, Paul A; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Hansen, Bryan; Nair, Vinod; Heinzen, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of Coxiella burnetii, the bacterial cause of human Q fever, is a biphasic developmental cycle that generates biologically, ultrastructurally, and compositionally distinct large cell variant (LCV) and small cell variant (SCV) forms. LCVs are replicating, exponential phase forms while SCVs are non-replicating, stationary phase forms. The SCV has several properties, such as a condensed nucleoid and an unusual cell envelope, suspected of conferring enhanced environmental stability. To identify genetic determinants of the LCV to SCV transition, we profiled the C. burnetii transcriptome at 3 (early LCV), 5 (late LCV), 7 (intermediate forms), 14 (early SCV), and 21 days (late SCV) post-infection of Vero epithelial cells. Relative to early LCV, genes downregulated in the SCV were primarily involved in intermediary metabolism. Upregulated SCV genes included those involved in oxidative stress responses, arginine acquisition, and cell wall remodeling. A striking transcriptional signature of the SCV was induction (>7-fold) of five genes encoding predicted L,D transpeptidases that catalyze nonclassical 3-3 peptide cross-links in peptidoglycan (PG), a modification that can influence several biological traits in bacteria. Accordingly, of cross-links identified, muropeptide analysis showed PG of SCV with 46% 3-3 cross-links as opposed to 16% 3-3 cross-links for LCV. Moreover, electron microscopy revealed SCV with an unusually dense cell wall/outer membrane complex as compared to LCV with its clearly distinguishable periplasm and inner and outer membranes. Collectively, these results indicate the SCV produces a unique transcriptome with a major component directed towards remodeling a PG layer that likely contributes to Coxiella's environmental resistance.

  1. Delayed diagnosis of Q fever endocarditis in a rheumatoid arthritis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailee Y. Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Q fever caused by Coxiella burnetii is uncommon in the United States and is most often associated with infective endocarditis. We present a 52-year-old woman with a history of aortic valve replacement and rheumatoid arthritis treated with Etanercept with chronic Q fever manifesting as prosthetic valve infective endocarditis. Explanted valve tissue showed organisms confirmed to be C. burnetii by PCR (polymerase chain reaction sequencing. She subsequently reported consumption of unpasteurized cow milk which was the likely source of C. burnetii. She continues to do well 6 months after valve replacement on oral doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine.

  2. Brucella and Coxiella; if you don't look, you don't find.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambourne, Jonathan R; Brooks, Tim

    2015-02-01

    Brucella and Coxiella are similar; both are obligate intracellular, zoonotic pathogens with a broad geographic distribution. Infection in animals is usually asymptomatic, but causes fetal loss and therefore has significant economic impact. Human infection may be asymptomatic or give rise to either organ-specific or multi-system disease. Organism culture is challenging for Coxiella and can lack sensitivity for Brucella. Therefore, infection is most commonly diagnosed by serology, but this may be negative in early infection and serology results may be challenging to interpret. Both Brucella and Coxiella are typically susceptible to a wide range of antimicrobials, but long courses may be needed.

  3. Serological survey of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Coxiella burnetii in rodents in north-western African islands (Canary Islands and Cape Verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Foronda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii and Toxoplasma gondii are intracellular parasites that cause important reproductive disorders in animals and humans worldwide, resulting in high economic losses. The aim of the present study was to analyse the possible role of peridomestic small mammals in the maintenance and transmission of C. burnetii and T. gondii in the north-western African archipelagos of the Canary Islands and Cape Verde, where these species are commonly found affecting humans and farm animals. Between 2009 and 2013, 108 black rats (Rattus rattus and 77 mice (Mus musculus were analysed for the presence of Coxiella and Toxoplasma antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA, respectively. Our results showed a wide distribution of C. burnetii and T. gondii, except for T. gondii in Cape Verde, in both rodent species. The overall seroprevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was 12.4%; 21.1% for Cape Verde and 10.2% for the Canary Islands. With respect to T. gondii, seropositive rodents were only observed in the Canary Islands, with an overall seroprevalence of 15%. Considering the fact that both pathogens can infect a large range of hosts, including livestock and humans, the results are of public health and veterinary importance and could be used by governmental entities to manage risk factors and to prevent future cases of Q fever and toxoplasmosis.

  4. Coxiella burnetii associated reproductive disorders in domestic animals-a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agerholm Jørgen S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bacterium Coxiella burnetii has been detected in the fetal membranes, birth fluids and vaginal mucus, as well as in the milk and other excretions of several domestic mammals. The finding of C. burnetii in association with abortion, parturition and in the postpartum period has led to the hypothesis that C. burnetii causes a range of reproductive diseases. This review critically evaluates the scientific basis for this hypothesis in domestic mammals. The review demonstrates a solid evidence for the association between C. burnetii infection and sporadic cases of abortion, premature delivery, stillbirth and weak offspring in cattle, sheep and goats. C. burnetii induced in-herd epidemics of this complete expression of reproductive failure have been reported for sheep and goats, but not for cattle. The single entities occur only as part of the complex and not as single events such as generally increased stillbirth rate. Studies show that C. burnetii initially infects the placenta and that subsequent spread to the fetus may occur either haematogenous or by the amniotic-oral route. The consequences for the equine, porcine, canine and feline conceptus remains to the elucidated but that infection of the conceptus may occur is documented for most species. There is no solid evidence to support a hypothesis of C. burnetii causing disorders such as subfertility, endometritis/metritis, or retained fetal membranes in any kind of domestic animal species. There is a strong need to validate non-pathology based methods such as polymerase chain reaction for their use in diagnostic and research in relation to establishing C. burnetii as the cause of abortion and to adapt an appropriate study design and include adequate control animals when linking epidemiological findings to C. burnetii or when evaluating effects of vaccination in production herds.

  5. Human Coxiella burnetii infections in regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukrija, Zvizdić; Hamzić, Sadeta; Cengić, Dzevad; Beslagić, Edina; Fejzić, Nihad; Cobanov, Darko; Maglajlić, Jasminka; Puvacić, Sandra; Puvacić, Zlatko

    2006-10-01

    Acute infections in humans and animals caused by Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) are becoming an important medical problem for Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). From a clinical and epidemiological aspect, Q fever represents a complex medical problem, considering that one of the highest incidence rates of Q fever in Europe has been recorded during the last few years in B&H. The first case of this disease in B&H was described in 1950, by Muray et al., and the first epidemic, with 16 infected individuals, was recorded the same year. Confirmed animal infections by C. burnetii in B&H were first reported in 1985 when, of all tested sheep, positive results were found in 12.4%. During 2001, 2.11% of tested sheep and goats were found to have a positive result, which was also confirmed by studies from the following years in particular regions of B&H. These studies suggest that endemic loci of infected animals are established in particular geographic regions in B&H, which is important to emphasize for better understanding of the sources and routes of C. burnetii transmission to the human population. This conclusion is based on the studies from 2000, when 2.17% of positive cattle, 1.85% of positive sheep, and 0.27% of positive goats were registered. During the same period, in B&H, in 6 different regions, 156 individuals with Q fever were registered as were 3 separate epidemics with 115 infected individuals. Official data on the number of detected animal C. burnetii infections during 2002 suggest that 10 positive cattle and 88 positive sheep or goats were registered. During 2003, 24 positive cattle, 29 positive goats, and 167 positive sheep were detected, while in 2004, 71 positive cattle, 4 positive goats, 37 positive sheep, and 72 positive animals from the sheep-goat group were registered. According to official reports from 2001, 19 individuals with Q fever were registered in B&H, while in 2002, the number of infected individuals increased to 250. In five cantons in B&H, 43

  6. Secondary Aortoesophageal Fistula Associated With Aneurysmal Graft Infection by Coxiella burnetii

    OpenAIRE

    Okwara, Chinemerem John; Petrasek, Jan; Gibson, Maeghan; Burstein, Ezra

    2016-01-01

    Aortoesophageal fistula is a rare and serious condition that carries a high mortality rate. We present a case of overt gastrointestinal bleeding from an aortoesophageal fistula in a patient with chronic infection of an endovascular prosthesis with Coxiella burnetii.

  7. [A group fever: safari's fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantiniaux, S; Serratrice, J; De Roux-Serratrice, C; Disdier, P; Perez, L; Bricaire, F; Caumes, E; Mary, C; Weiller, P J

    2004-12-01

    Acute schistosomiasis, called safari's fever in Africa and Katayama fever in Japan, is an immunoallergic reaction due to transcutaneous penetration of infective cercaria. We report the collective case of seven young adults spending holidays in Mali. An eighteen years-old girl presents fever, headache, diarrhoea and abdominal pains at return from Dogon country (south of Mali). After turned down malaria and with the notion of bathing in fresh water followed by pruritus, we think to safari's fever. So we alarm all other members of the group. All can be treated to avoid chronic schistosomiasis. These observations recall that acute schistosomiasis is a real danger for tourists when bathing in fresh water in endemic areas of Africa. Education of travellers is necessary. Occurrence of safari's fever should alert physicians to prevent chronic schistosomiasis.

  8. Dynamics of relationship between the presence of Coxiella burnetii DNA, antibodies, and intrinsic variables in cow milk and bulk tank milk from Danish dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein; Ståhl, Marie; Agerholm, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    positive for C. burnetii DNA. Among the 485 DNA-positive samples, quantification cycle values ranging from 15.8 to 37.8 were found. Test sensitivity did not increase after DNA extraction from the cream fraction compared with full milk. The relationship between antibody levels and bacterial shedding......Milk samples of 12 Danish dairy herds were collected 3 times during an 11-mo period and tested for Coxiella burnetii DNA by real-time PCR, detecting the IS1111 element, and for the presence of antibodies against the bacterium by ELISA. On average, 25% of 1,514 samples were seropositive and 32% were...... was investigated among 166 cows from 9 herds. The prevalence levels of C. burnetii DNA and antibodies in the herds were found to be rather stable for 6 of the herds. The test results were highly influenced by results obtained 3 to 7 mo earlier. A significant association between the antibody titer and the DNA...

  9. Pediatric Acute Q Fever Mimics Other Common Childhood Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Ingeborg Y.; Schabos, Yvonne; van Hout, Roeland W. N. M.; Leenders, Alexander C. A. P.; de Vries, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of Q fever has increased over the last decades, but research has mainly focused on adults. Data in children are scarce, and current knowledge is mostly based on case reports. The aim of this study was to determine predictors for acute Q fever in children in the general population. We retrospectively studied all children tested for Coxiella burnetii by serology and/or PCR upon request of their general practitioner in the regional laboratory for Medical Microbiology of the Jeroen Bosch during the Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands between 2007 and 2011. A total of 1061 patients was analyzed. Influenza-like illness and respiratory tract infection were the most common presentations of acute Q fever, mimicking other common childhood illnesses. None of the reported symptoms was significantly related to a positive test outcome and therefore presenting signs or symptoms have no predictive value in diagnosing Q-fever in children. Only diagnostic tests are reliable. As the infection generally follows a mild and uncomplicated course, we question if the difficulty of recognizing pediatric Q fever is a problem worth solving. PMID:24520412

  10. Serological evidence of exposure to Coxiella burnetii in sheep and goats in central Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastácio, S; Tavares, N; Carolino, N; Sidi-Boumedine, K; da Silva, G J

    2013-12-27

    The recent outbreak of Q fever in The Netherlands warned European health authorities of the need of studying Coxiella burnetii. In Portugal, little is known about C. burnetii infection in animals. A cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the exposure to C. burnetii in sheep and goats in the Central region of Portugal, estimating the herd and individual prevalence. A serosurvey was conducted in a two levels random sampling of 89 herds and 460 animals. Individual blood samples were collected from animals older than 6 months, and specific antibodies anti-C. burnetii were detected by ELISA testing. Results showed a global herd prevalence of 32.6% (95% CI: 23.1-42.1%). Herd prevalence was higher in mixed herds (38.5%; 95% CI: 12-65%) and in sheep herds (37.5%; 95% CI: 21-54%) than in goat herds (28.8%; 95% CI: 17-41%). Global individual prevalence was estimated at 9.6% (95% CI: 6.9-12.2%), and it was higher in goats (10.4%; 95% CI: 7.8-13%) than in sheep (8.6%; 95% CI: 5.8-11.4%). Sample positive percentages (S/P) ranged from 41.5% to 185.9%. S/P percent higher than 100 was found in 18.2% (8/44) of sera from distinct herds. Positive results were significantly associated with goats, older animals and larger herds. These results revealed the presence of C. burnetii in small ruminants evidencing their potential role in the infection cycle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of Wind on Coxiella burnetii Transmission Between Cattle Herds: a Mechanistic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusinovici, S; Hoch, T; Brahim, M L; Joly, A; Beaudeau, F

    2017-04-01

    There is a consensus that wind plays a key role in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, between ruminants and from ruminants to humans. However, no observational study so far has focused on the mechanisms associated with this airborne transmission. This study applied a mechanistic epidemiological approach to investigate the processes underlying the wind effect and to assess its influence on the risk for a dairy herd to become C. burnetii infected. Ninety-five dairy cattle herds located in the Finistère department (western France) were subjected to samplings of bulk tank milk and indoor dust every 4 months over a 1-year period to determine their C. burnetii status using PCR tests. A total of 27 incident herd-periods (negative-tested on both PCR tests and becoming positive-tested at least once at the subsequent sampling time) and 71 negative herd-periods were retained for analysis. Using logistic regression, we assessed the effect of (i) the cumulated number of bacteria in herds located under the main wind direction and (ii) the mean wind speed in this area, on a given herd's risk of becoming incident. Compared to herds in areas with low wind speed (≤5.5 m/s), the risk was significantly higher (OR = 3.7) in herds in areas with high wind speed (>5.5 m/s) and high bacterial load (>10), whereas it was not significantly different from unity in other situations. In agreement with our assumptions, C. burnetii transmission to a previously infection-free herd occurs only when (i) the wind transporting from infected sources and (ii) the load in the contaminated particles/aerosols generated are high enough to act jointly. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Physicochemical and Nutritional Requirements for Axenic Replication Suggest Physiological Basis for Coxiella burnetii Niche Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo Esquerra, Eduardo; Yang, Hong; Sanchez, Savannah E; Omsland, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial obligate intracellular parasites are clinically significant animal and human pathogens. Central to the biology of these organisms is their level of adaptation to intracellular replication niches associated with physicochemical and nutritional constraints. While most bacterial pathogens can adapt to a wide range of environments, severe niche restriction-an inability to thrive in diverse environments-is a hallmark of bacterial obligate intracellular parasites. Herein the physicochemical and nutritional factors underlying the physiological basis for niche restriction in the zoonotic bacterial obligate intracellular parasite and Q fever agent Coxiella burnetii are characterized. Additionally, these factors are reviewed in the context of C. burnetii evolution and continued (patho) adaptation. C. burnetii replication was strictly dependent on a combination of moderately acidic pH, reduced oxygen tension, and presence of carbon dioxide. Of macronutrients, amino acids alone support replication under physicochemically favorable conditions. In addition to utilizing gluconeogenic substrates for replication, C. burnetii can also utilize glucose to generate biomass. A mutant with a disruption in the gene pckA, encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), the first committed step in gluconeogenesis, could be complemented chemically by the addition of glucose. Disruption of pckA resulted in a moderate glucose-dependent growth defect during infection of cultured host cells. Although, C. burnetii has the theoretical capacity to synthesize essential core metabolites via glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, amino acid auxotrophy essentially restricts C. burnetii replication to a niche providing ample access to amino acids. Overall, the described combination of physiochemical and nutritional growth requirements are strong indicators for why C. burnetii favors an acidified phagolysosome-derived vacuole in respiring tissue for replication.

  13. Presence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii and risk of spontaneous abortion: a nested case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Yde Nielsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Q fever is a bacterial zoonosis caused by infection with Coxiella burnetii. It is well established that Q fever causes fetal loss in small ruminants. The suspicion has been raised that pregnant women may also experience adverse pregnancy outcome when the infection is acquired or reactivated during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential association between serologic markers of infection with C. burnetii and spontaneous abortion. METHODS: A nested case-control study within the Danish National Birth Cohort, a cohort of 100,418 pregnancies recruited from 1996-2002. Women were recruited in first trimester of pregnancy and followed prospectively. Median gestational age at enrolment was 8 weeks (25 and 75 percentiles: 7 weeks; 10 weeks. During pregnancy, a blood sample was collected at gestational week 6-12 and stored in a bio bank. For this study, a case sample of 218 pregnancies was drawn randomly among the pregnancies in the cohort which ended with a miscarriage before 22 gestational weeks, and a reference group of 482 pregnancies was selected in a random fashion among all pregnancies in the cohort. From these pregnancies, serum samples were screened for antibodies against C. burnetii in a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Samples that proved IgG or IgM antibody positive were subsequently confirmatory tested by an immunofluorescence (IFA test. RESULTS: Among cases, 11 (5% were C. burnetii positive in ELISA of which one was confirmed in the IFA assay compared to 29 (6% ELISA positive and 3 IFA confirmed in the random sample. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of a higher prevalence of C. burnetii antibodies in serum samples from women who later miscarried and the present study does not indicate a major association between Q fever infection and spontaneous abortion in humans. Very early first trimester abortions were, however, not included in the study.

  14. Dysregulation of serum gamma interferon levels in vascular chronic Q Fever patients provides insights into disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Jeroen L A; Kremers, Marjolein N T; Hodemaekers, Hennie M; Hagenaars, Julia C J P; Koning, Olivier H J; Renders, Nicole H M; Hermans, Mirjam H A; de Klerk, Arja; Notermans, Daan W; Wever, Peter C; Janssen, Riny

    2015-06-01

    A large community outbreak of Q fever occurred in the Netherlands in the period 2007 to 2010. Some of the infected patients developed chronic Q fever, which typically includes pathogen dissemination to predisposed cardiovascular sites, with potentially fatal consequences. To identify the immune mechanisms responsible for ineffective clearance of Coxiella burnetii in patients who developed chronic Q fever, we compared serum concentrations of 47 inflammation-associated markers among patients with acute Q fever, vascular chronic Q fever, and past resolved Q fever. Serum levels of gamma interferon were strongly increased in acute but not in vascular chronic Q fever patients, compared to past resolved Q fever patients. Interleukin-18 levels showed a comparable increase in acute as well as vascular chronic Q fever patients. Additionally, vascular chronic Q fever patients had lower serum levels of gamma interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) than did acute Q fever patients. Serum responses for these and other markers indicate that type I immune responses to C. burnetii are affected in chronic Q fever patients. This may be attributed to an affected immune system in cardiovascular patients, which enables local C. burnetii replication at affected cardiovascular sites.

  15. Typhoid fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most commonly caused due to a bacteria called Salmonella typhi ( S typhi ). Causes S typhi is spread through contaminated food, ... as food handlers. Alternative Names Enteric fever Images Salmonella typhi organism Fly Digestive system organs References Harris JB, ...

  16. Dengue fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the mosquito Aedes aegypti , which is found in tropic and subtropic regions. This area includes parts of: ... encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, Kyasanur forest disease, Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever, Zika). In: Bennett JE, ...

  17. Recurrent fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, David; Kesson, Alison; Lester-Smith, David; Chaitow, Jeffrey

    2013-03-01

    An 11-year-old girl had four episodes of fever in a year, lasting 7-10 days and associated with headache and neck stiffness. She had a long history of recurrent urticaria, usually preceding the fevers. There was also a history of vague pains in her knees and in the small joints of her hands. Her serum C-reactive protein was moderately raised at 41 g/L (normal <8). Her rheumatologist felt the association of recurrent fevers that lasted 7 or more days with headaches, arthralgia and recurrent urticaria suggested one of the periodic fever syndromes. Genetic testing confirmed she had a gene mutation consistent with one of tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome.

  18. Q fever outbreak in a goat herd--diagnostic investigations and measures for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sting, Reinhard; Molz, Kerstin; Benesch, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    This is a case report about a Q fever infection of a goat herd with abortions and excretions of pathogens accompanied by human infection and disease. Following a diagnosis of Q fever in a goat herd, all animals were vaccinated with an inactivated phase 1 vaccine. The herd was kept isolated and animals were neither removed nor introduced so that monitoring of the course of the Q fever infection of the individual dam was possible. Over a period of two years following the diagnosis of a Q fever infection (abortion), diagnostic investigations on detection of Coxiella (C.) burnetii were performed using quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR) and for serological studies complement fixation test (CFT) and ELISA. Excretion of pathogens decreased from > 500 000 units per genital swab in the first year to control measures which were implemented after a round table meeting are illustrated and discussed.

  19. Two rare manifestations of Q fever: splenic and hepatic abscesses and cerebral venous thrombosis, with literature review ma non troppo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Manuel Mendes; Chaves, Andreia; Gouveia, Ana; Santos, Lèlita

    2014-02-05

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. It often manifests as a flu-like syndrome; other common manifestations are pneumonia, hepatitis and endocarditis. Its course may be acute or chronic. The authors present two clinical cases of Q fever with rare manifestations. Case 1: A 55-year-old man admitted due to abdominal pain, diarrhoea and fever. Blood tests showed elevated transaminases, low platelets and elevated C reactive protein, with normal white cell counts; abdominal ultrasound showed splenic and hepatic abscesses. Serologies to C burnetii were positive (1:640), leading to the diagnosis of Q fever with splenic and hepatic abscesses. Case 2: A 47-year-old man admitted due to headache after sneezing, with unstable gait and vertigo. A brain tomography showed cerebral venous thrombosis. After an exhaustive investigation, antibodies to C burnetii were found and were undoubtedly positive (1:5120), leading to the diagnosis of Q fever. Both patients were treated with oral doxycycline.

  20. Presence of Coxiella burnetii DNA in inflamed bovine cardiac valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Agger, Jens F.

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial endocarditis is a recognised disease in humans and animals. In humans, infection with Coxiella burnetii can cause endocarditis, but this has not been investigated thoroughly in animals. Endocarditis in cattle is a common post-mortem finding in abattoirs and studies have identified......% of endocarditis valve samples as being positive. C. burnetii was not detected by FISH, probably due to the low infection levels. Most cattle had chronic valvular vegetative endocarditis with lesions being characterised by a core of fibrous tissue covered by significant amounts of fibrin, sometimes with areas...... of liquefaction, and with a coagulum covering the surface. In a few cases, including the case with the highest infection level, lesions were characterized by extensive fibrosis and calcification. Histologically, bacteria other than C. burnetii were observed in most cases. The presence of C. burnetii DNA...

  1. Quantitation of viable Coxiella burnetii in milk using an integrated cell culture-polymerase chain reaction (ICC-PCR) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Diana; Shieh, Y-Carol; Tortorello, Mary; Kukreja, Ankush; Shazer, Arlette; Schlesser, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    The obligate intracellular pathogen Coxiella burnetii has long been considered the most heat resistant pathogen in raw milk, making it the reference pathogen for determining pasteurisation conditions for milk products. New milk formulations and novel non-thermal processes require validation of effectiveness which requires a more practical method for analysis than using the currently used animal model for assessing Coxiella survival. Also, there is an interest in better characterising thermal inactivation of Coxiella in various milk formulations. To avoid the use of the guinea pig model for evaluating Coxiella survival, an Integrated Cell Culture-PCR (ICC-PCR) method was developed for determining Coxiella viability in milk. Vero cell cultures were directly infected from Coxiella-contaminated milk in duplicate 24-well plates. Viability of the Coxiella in milk was shown by a ≥ 0.5 log genome equivalent (ge)/ml increase in the quantity of IS111a gene from the baseline post-infection (day 0) level after 9-11 d propagation. Coxiella in skim, 2%, and whole milk, and half and half successfully infected Vero cells and increased in number by at least 2 logs using a 48-h infection period followed by 9-d propagation time. As few as 125 Coxiella ge/ml in whole milk was shown to infect and propagate at least 2 logs in the optimised ICC-PCR assay, though variable confirmation of propagation was shown for as low as 25 Coxiella ge/ml. Applicability of the ICC-PCR method was further proven in an MPN format to quantitate the number of viable Coxiella remaining in whole milk after 60 °C thermal treatment at 0, 20, 40, 60 and 90 min.

  2. Childhood fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, C Y; Allen, D M

    1996-02-01

    Childhood fever is a common symptom, reflective of multiple causes. As the child is often unable to express himself, the physician must rely on parents' observations and the physical examination. The majority of febrile children have non-bacterial upper respiratory tract infection and indiscriminate use of antibiotics is inappropriate, ineffective and leads to drug-resistance such as the emergence of Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this article, we attempt to identify the possible causes of fever by a simple approach using the presence or absence of associated or localising symptoms. Infants less than 3 months constitute a unique group as the fever may be related to perinatal events and as serious bacterial infections can still occur despite unremarkable physical findings. Management of fever needs to take into account the toxicity, immune status and age of the patients as well as the source of the infection. Zealous overprescription of antipyretics needs to be avoided with attention directed to the cause of the fever, the child's capacity to cope with the illness and parental education.

  3. Retrospective Examination of Q Fever Endocarditis: An Underdiagnosed Disease in the Mainland of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Hsu, Jeffrey; Miao, Qi; Zhou, Bao-Tong; Fan, Hong-Wei; Xiong, Xiao-Lu; Wen, Bo-Hai; Wu, Lian; Yan, Xiao-Wei; Fang, Quan; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Q fever endocarditis, a chronic illness caused by Coxiella burnetii, can be fatal if misdiagnosed or left untreated. Despite a relatively high positive rate of Q fever serology in healthy individuals in the mainland of China, very few cases of Q fever endocarditis have been reported. This study summarized cases of Q fever endocarditis among blood culture negative endocarditis (BCNE) patients and discussed factors attributing to the low diagnostic rate. Methods: We identified confirmed cases of Q fever endocarditis among 637 consecutive patients with infective endocarditis (IE) in the Peking Union Medical College Hospital between 2006 and 2016. The clinical findings for each confirmed case were recorded. BCNE patients were also examined and each BCNE patient's Q fever risk factors were identified. The risk factors and presence of Q fever serologic testing between BCNE patients suspected and unsuspected of Q fever were compared using the Chi-squared or Chi-squared with Yates’ correction for continuity. Results: Among the IE patients examined, there were 147 BCNE patients, of whom only 11 patients (7.5%) were suspected of Q fever and undergone serological testing for C. burnetii. Six out of 11 suspected cases were diagnosed as Q fever endocarditis. For the remaining136 BCNE patients, none of them was suspected of Q fever nor underwent relevant testing. Risk factors for Q fever endocarditis were comparable between suspected and unsuspected patients, with the most common risk factors being valvulopathy in both groups. However, significantly more patients had consulted the Infectious Diseases Division and undergone comprehensive diagnostic tests in the suspected group than the unsuspected group (100% vs. 63%, P = 0.03). Conclusions: Q fever endocarditis is a serious yet treatable condition. Lacking awareness of the disease may prevent BCNE patients from being identified, despite having Q fever risk factors. Increasing awareness and guideline adherence are

  4. Molecular detection of Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella and Francisella bacteria in ticks collected from Artiodactyla in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrandee, Chalao; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2016-07-01

    A total of 79 ticks collected from Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor), Barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak) and Wild boar (Sus scrofa) were examined by PCR for the presence of Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella, and Francisella bacteria. Of the 79 ticks, 13% tested positive for Rickettsia, 15% tested positive for Anaplasma, 4% tested positive for Coxiella, and 3% tested positive for Francisella. Interestingly, triple infection with Anaplasma, Rickettsia and Francisella was determined in a Dermacentor auratus tick. Moreover, another triple infection with Rickettsia, Anaplasma, and Coxiella was found in a Haemaphysalis lagrangei tick. Double infection of Rickettsia with Coxiella was also detected in another H. lagrangei tick. From the phylogenetic analyses, we found a Rickettsia sp. with a close evolutionary relationship to Rickettsia bellii in the H. lagrangei tick. We also found the first evidence of a Rickettsia sp. that is closely related to Rickettsia tamurae in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks from Thailand. H. lagrangei and Haemaphysalis obesa ticks collected from Sambar deer tested positive for Anaplasma species form the same clade with Anaplasma bovis. In contrast, other H. lagrangei ticks collected from Sambar deer and D. auratus ticks collected from Wild boar were also reported for the first time to be infected with an Anaplasma species that is closely related to Anaplasma platys. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of Coxiella bacteria revealed that Coxiella symbionts from H. lagrangei formed a distinctly different lineage from Coxiella burnetii (a human pathogen). Additionally, Francisella bacteria identified in D. auratus ticks were found to be distantly related to a group of pathogenic Francisella species. The identification of these bacteria in several feeding ticks suggests the risk of various emerging tick-borne diseases and endosymbionts in humans, wildlife, and domestic animals in Thailand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  5. Field collection and genetic classification of tick-borne Rickettsiae and Rickettsiae-like pathogens from South Texas: Coxiella burnetii isolated from field-collected Amblyomma cajennense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David M; Parker, Jill E; Walker, Wes W; Buchholz, Matt W; Blount, Keith; Kiel, Johnathan L

    2008-12-01

    We are reporting the first known isolation of the Q-fever agent Coxiella burnetii from field-collected cayenne ticks Amblyomma cajennense in North America. Q-fever affects a number of domestic ungulates where it can lead to abortion in sheep and goats. There is far less known about the disease's effects on wild species, primarily because of the tendency of the disease to self resolve and to provide long-term immunity to subsequent infections. The first recovery of C. burnetii in North America was from the tick species Dermacentor andersoni. Since the original isolation C. burnetii has been recovered from five other North American tick species. The currently accepted mode for the majority of human infections is inhalation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch asserts the Q-fever agent as requiring as few as one organism to cause disease via inhalation in susceptible humans. However, with more and more isolations from ticks, evidence linking C. burnetii and ticks is mounting. The true role of tick species as competent vectors is still unconfirmed. Preemptive field collections of possible vector arthropods, hosts, and reservoirs can provide invaluable baseline environmental data that will prove supportive in follow-up studies and abatement efforts.

  6. Profil Kinetik dan Efektivitas Enrofloksasin yang Dikombinasikan dengan BioATP dalam Mengatasi Coxiella burnetii (KINETIC PROFILE AND EFFECTIVITY OF ENROFLOXACINE WITH BIO ADENOSIN TRIPHOSPHATE SUPPLEMENTATION AGAINST COXIELLA BURNETII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriyanto .

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii belongs to rikettsia group living obligate intracellularly and as the agent of zoonosisQ fever. Enrofloxacine is an antibiotic in quinolon group used to treat infection of C. burnetii in chicken,goat, calve, pig, dog, cat,  and horse. From ruminant practical experience, enrofloxacine if combined withBioATP  can enhance the enrofloxacine activity. Research for the effecivity of enrofloxacine and BioATP totreat C. burnetii has never been carried out. The research was conducted to explore effect of enrofloxacinewith supplementation BioATP against C. burnetii. Enrofloxacine pharmacokinetic study was carried outby using simental beef as an experimental animals. The effectivity of BioATP supplementation onenrofloxacine activity to treat C. burnetii was tested by using Vero cell tissue culture. The results showedthat combination of enrofloxacine and BioATP increased kinetic profile of enrofloxacine in term of onset,duration, pharmacology intensity, and bioavailaibility. Enrofloxacine had activity to treat C. burnetii withvalue of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC at 1-2 ppm and value of minimal bactericidal concentrationat 4 ppm. Supplementation of BioATP improved the effectivity of enrofloxacine in treating C. burnetii.

  7. Typhoid fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wain, John; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Mikoleit, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Control of typhoid fever relies on clinical information, diagnosis, and an understanding for the epidemiology of the disease. Despite the breadth of work done so far, much is not known about the biology of this human-adapted bacterial pathogen and the complexity of the disease in endemic areas...... with shifting trends in enteric fever. This knowledge is crucial, both to control the disease and to manage cases. Additionally, salmonella serovars that cause human infection can change over time and location. In areas of Asia, multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) has been the main...... cause of enteric fever, but now S Typhi is being displaced by infections with drug-resistant S enterica serovar Paratyphi A. New conjugate vaccines are imminent and new treatments have been promised, but the engagement of local medical and public health institutions in endemic areas is needed to allow...

  8. Rat-bite fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptobacillary fever; Streptobacillosis; Haverhill fever; Epidemic arthritic erythema; Spirillary fever; Sodoku ... Rat-bite fever can be caused by 2 different bacteria, Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. Both of these are found in ...

  9. Kid's Guide to Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the Operating Room? A Kid's Guide to Fever KidsHealth > For Kids > A Kid's Guide to Fever ... some lighter-weight pajamas. previous continue Fighting a Fever For almost all kids, fevers aren't a ...

  10. Dengue fever (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengue fever, or West Nile fever, is a mild viral illness transmitted by mosquitoes which causes fever, ... second exposure to the virus can result in Dengue hemorrhagic fever, a life-threatening illness.

  11. Comparison between emerging Q fever in French Guiana and endemic Q fever in Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Sophie; Mahamat, Aba; Demar, Magalie; Abboud, Philippe; Djossou, Felix; Raoult, Didier

    2014-05-01

    Q fever is an emergent disease in French Guiana. We compared the incidence clinical and serologic profiles between patients from Cayenne, French Guiana and Marseille in metropolitan France during a four-year period. The annual incidence of diagnosed acute Q fever was significantly higher in Cayenne (17.5/100,000) than in Marseille (1.9/100,000) (P = 0.0004), but not the annual incidence of endocarditis (1.29 versus 0.34/100,000). Most patients had fever (97%) and pneumonia (83%) in Cayenne versus 81% and 8% in Marseille (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively) but transaminitis was more common in patients from Marseille (54% versus 32%; P < 0.0001). The proportion of patients with cardiovascular infections was significantly lower in Cayenne (7%) than in Marseille (17%) (P = 0.017), although they showed a stronger immune response with higher levels of phase I IgG (P = 0.024). The differing epidemiology, clinical, and serologic responses of patients from Cayenne and Marseille suggest a different source of infection and a different strain of Coxiella burnetii.

  12. Spatial Prediction of Coxiella burnetii Outbreak Exposure via Notified Case Counts in a Dose-Response Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Russell J; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E E; Hackert, Volker; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Teunis, Peter F M; Waller, Lance A

    2017-01-01

    We develop a novel approach to study an outbreak of Q fever in 2009 in the Netherlands by combining a human dose-response model with geostatistics prediction to relate probability of infection and associated probability of illness to an effective dose of Coxiella burnetii. The spatial distribution of the 220 notified cases in the at-risk population are translated into a smooth spatial field of dose. Based on these symptomatic cases, the dose-response model predicts a median of 611 asymptomatic infections (95% range: 410, 1,084) for the 220 reported symptomatic cases in the at-risk population; 2.78 (95% range: 1.86, 4.93) asymptomatic infections for each reported case. The low attack rates observed during the outbreak range from (Equation is included in full-text article.)to (Equation is included in full-text article.). The estimated peak levels of exposure extend to the north-east from the point source with an increasing proportion of asymptomatic infections further from the source. Our work combines established methodology from model-based geostatistics and dose-response modeling allowing for a novel approach to study outbreaks. Unobserved infections and the spatially varying effective dose can be predicted using the flexible framework without assuming any underlying spatial structure of the outbreak process. Such predictions are important for targeting interventions during an outbreak, estimating future disease burden, and determining acceptable risk levels.

  13. Applying Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) to Examine Effector Translocation Efficiency by Coxiella burnetii during siRNA Silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Patrice; Latomanski, Eleanor A; Newton, Hayley J

    2016-07-06

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is an intracellular pathogen that relies on a Type IV Dot/Icm Secretion System to establish a replicative niche. A cohort of effectors are translocated through this system into the host cell to manipulate host processes and allow the establishment of a unique lysosome-derived vacuole for replication. The method presented here involves the combination of two well-established techniques: specific gene silencing using siRNA and measurement of effector translocation using a FRET-based substrate that relies on β-lactamase activity. Applying these two approaches, we can begin to understand the role of host factors in bacterial secretion system function and effector translocation. In this study we examined the role of Rab5A and Rab7A, both important regulators of the endocytic trafficking pathway. We demonstrate that silencing the expression of either protein results in a decrease in effector translocation efficiency. These methods can be easily modified to examine other intracellular and extracellular pathogens that also utilize secretion systems. In this way, a global picture of host factors involved in bacterial effector translocation may be revealed.

  14. Spread of Coxiella burnetii between dairy cattle herds in an enzootic region: modelling contributions of airborne transmission and trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Pranav; Hoch, Thierry; Ezanno, Pauline; Beaudeau, François; Vergu, Elisabeta

    2016-04-05

    Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a looming concern for livestock and public health. Epidemiological features of inter-herd transmission of C. burnetii in cattle herds by wind and trade of cows are poorly understood. We present a novel dynamic spatial model describing the inter-herd regional spread of C. burnetii in dairy cattle herds, quantifying the ability of airborne transmission and animal trade in C. burnetii propagation in an enzootic region. Among all the new herd infections, 92% were attributed to airborne transmission and the rest to cattle trade. Infections acquired following airborne transmission were shown to cause relatively small and ephemeral intra-herd outbreaks. On the contrary, disease-free herds purchasing an infectious cow experienced significantly higher intra-herd prevalence. The results also indicated that, for short duration, both transmission routes were independent from each other without any synergistic effect. The model outputs applied to the Finistère department in western France showed satisfactory sensitivity (0.71) and specificity (0.80) in predicting herd infection statuses at the end of one year in a neighbourhood of 3 km around expected incident herds, when compared with data. The model developed here thus provides important insights into the spread of C. burnetii between dairy cattle herds and paves the way for implementation and assessment of control strategies.

  15. Scarlet Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-06-09

    Katherine Fleming-Dutra, pediatrician, discusses scarlet fever, its cause, how to treat it, and how to prevent its spread.  Created: 6/9/2011 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 6/9/2011.

  16. Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prata Aluízio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available With the infestation by Aedes aegypti, urban yellow fever might already exist. This did not occur because of either the lacking of a sufficient contact between the diseased individual and the A. aegypti or perhaps because this, after sixty years without transmitting the virus, needs an adaptation phase to infecting again.

  17. Population Screening for Chronic Q-Fever Seven Years after a Major Outbreak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriëlla Morroy

    Full Text Available From 2007 through 2010, the Netherlands experienced a large Q-fever epidemic, with 4,107 notifications. The most serious complication of Q-fever is chronic Q-fever.In 2014, we contacted all 2,161 adult inhabitants of the first village in the Netherlands affected by the Q-fever epidemic and offered to test for antibodies against Coxiella burnetii using immunofluorescence assay (IFA to screen for chronic infections and assess whether large-scale population screening elsewhere is warranted.Of the 1,517 participants, 33.8% were IFA-positive. Six IFA-positive participants had an IgG phase I titer ≥1:512. Two of these six participants were previously diagnosed with chronic Q-fever. Chronic infection was diagnosed in one of the other four participants after clinical examination.Seven years after the initial outbreak, seroprevalence remains high, but the yield of screening the general population for chronic Q-fever is low. A policy of screening known high-risk groups for chronic Q-fever in outbreak areas directly following an outbreak might be more efficient than population screening. A cost-effectiveness analysis should also be performed before initiating a population screening program for chronic Q-fever.

  18. The Sero-epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii in Humans and Cattle, Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola A Wardrop

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that the intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii (which causes Q fever is widespread, with a near global distribution. While there has been increasing attention to Q fever epidemiology in high-income settings, a recent systematic review highlighted significant gaps in our understanding of the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Q fever infection across Africa. This research aimed to provide a One Health assessment of Q fever epidemiology in parts of Western and Nyanza Provinces, Western Kenya, in cattle and humans. A cross-sectional survey was conducted: serum samples from 2049 humans and 955 cattle in 416 homesteads were analysed for C. burnetii antibodies. Questionnaires covering demographic, socio-economic and husbandry information were also administered. These data were linked to environmental datasets based on geographical locations (e.g., land cover. Correlation and spatial-cross correlation analyses were applied to assess the potential link between cattle and human seroprevalence. Multilevel regression analysis was used to assess the relationships between a range of socio-economic, demographic and environmental factors and sero-positivity in both humans and animals. The overall sero-prevalence of C. burnetii was 2.5% in humans and 10.5% in cattle, but we found no evidence of correlation between cattle and human seroprevalence either within households, or when incorporating spatial proximity to other households in the survey. Multilevel modelling indicated the importance of several factors for exposure to the organism. Cattle obtained from market (as opposed to those bred in their homestead and those residing in areas with lower precipitation levels had the highest sero-prevalence. For humans, the youngest age group had the highest odds of seropositivity, variations were observed between ethnic groups, and frequent livestock contact (specifically grazing and dealing with abortion material was

  19. The Sero-epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii in Humans and Cattle, Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola A; Thomas, Lian F; Cook, Elizabeth A J; de Glanville, William A; Atkinson, Peter M; Wamae, Claire N; Fèvre, Eric M

    2016-10-01

    Evidence suggests that the intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii (which causes Q fever) is widespread, with a near global distribution. While there has been increasing attention to Q fever epidemiology in high-income settings, a recent systematic review highlighted significant gaps in our understanding of the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Q fever infection across Africa. This research aimed to provide a One Health assessment of Q fever epidemiology in parts of Western and Nyanza Provinces, Western Kenya, in cattle and humans. A cross-sectional survey was conducted: serum samples from 2049 humans and 955 cattle in 416 homesteads were analysed for C. burnetii antibodies. Questionnaires covering demographic, socio-economic and husbandry information were also administered. These data were linked to environmental datasets based on geographical locations (e.g., land cover). Correlation and spatial-cross correlation analyses were applied to assess the potential link between cattle and human seroprevalence. Multilevel regression analysis was used to assess the relationships between a range of socio-economic, demographic and environmental factors and sero-positivity in both humans and animals. The overall sero-prevalence of C. burnetii was 2.5% in humans and 10.5% in cattle, but we found no evidence of correlation between cattle and human seroprevalence either within households, or when incorporating spatial proximity to other households in the survey. Multilevel modelling indicated the importance of several factors for exposure to the organism. Cattle obtained from market (as opposed to those bred in their homestead) and those residing in areas with lower precipitation levels had the highest sero-prevalence. For humans, the youngest age group had the highest odds of seropositivity, variations were observed between ethnic groups, and frequent livestock contact (specifically grazing and dealing with abortion material) was also a risk

  20. The Sero-epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii in Humans and Cattle, Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lian F.; Cook, Elizabeth A. J.; de Glanville, William A.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Wamae, Claire N.; Fèvre, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii (which causes Q fever) is widespread, with a near global distribution. While there has been increasing attention to Q fever epidemiology in high-income settings, a recent systematic review highlighted significant gaps in our understanding of the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Q fever infection across Africa. This research aimed to provide a One Health assessment of Q fever epidemiology in parts of Western and Nyanza Provinces, Western Kenya, in cattle and humans. A cross-sectional survey was conducted: serum samples from 2049 humans and 955 cattle in 416 homesteads were analysed for C. burnetii antibodies. Questionnaires covering demographic, socio-economic and husbandry information were also administered. These data were linked to environmental datasets based on geographical locations (e.g., land cover). Correlation and spatial-cross correlation analyses were applied to assess the potential link between cattle and human seroprevalence. Multilevel regression analysis was used to assess the relationships between a range of socio-economic, demographic and environmental factors and sero-positivity in both humans and animals. The overall sero-prevalence of C. burnetii was 2.5% in humans and 10.5% in cattle, but we found no evidence of correlation between cattle and human seroprevalence either within households, or when incorporating spatial proximity to other households in the survey. Multilevel modelling indicated the importance of several factors for exposure to the organism. Cattle obtained from market (as opposed to those bred in their homestead) and those residing in areas with lower precipitation levels had the highest sero-prevalence. For humans, the youngest age group had the highest odds of seropositivity, variations were observed between ethnic groups, and frequent livestock contact (specifically grazing and dealing with abortion material) was also a risk

  1. Presence of Coxiella burnetii in Airborne Dust Samples from Goat and Sheep Farms in Kerman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by inhalation of the bacterium Coxiellaburnetii. Ruminant livestock are common reservoirs for C. burnetii, and bacteria present inaerosols derived from the waste of infected animals can infect humans. C. burnetii is thought toinfect humans primarily via airborne transmission.Methods: 64 environmental swab samples were collected from 24 sheep and goat farms inSoutheast Kerman province (Iran.Results: In this study touchdown nested trans- PCR were used for detection of C. burnetii inenvironmental samples. We detected C. burnetii DNA in inhalable dust samples collected at 5farms.Conclusion: This first report in Iran highlighted presence of C. burnetii in dust originated fromgoat and sheep farms and that role in human infections with disseminating by wind.

  2. Subacute, tetracycline-responsive, granulomatous osteomyelitis in an adult man, consistent with Q fever infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Cornelia; Dumoulin, Alexis; Ikenberg, Kristian; Günthard, Huldrych F

    2015-12-09

    Osteomyelitis due to Coxiella burnetii infection is a rare condition in adults. We report the case of a healthy young man presenting with subacute osteomyelitis of the left cheek bone, evolving gradually after an episode of acute febrile illness. Histological evaluation confirmed subacute granulomatous inflammation. Despite antibody titres not reaching the standard cut-off for chronic Q fever (phase I IgG 1/160, phase II IgG 1/2560), osteomyelitis was radiologically and histologically confirmed. A 6-month course of doxycycline/hydroxychloroquine brought clinical and radiological cure while various conventional antibiotic treatments had failed to improve the clinical condition. Currently, at 6-month follow-up, no relapse has occurred and antibody titres have declined. A shorter course of doxycycline/hydroxychloroquine than that used for chronic Q fever osteomyelitis may be sufficient to treat subacute Q fever osteomyelitis in some cases.

  3. [Milk fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, M

    1989-05-01

    Infectious complications following delivery were, in the past, attributed to "milk fever": these were milk congestion, milk deposits, rancid milk, etc., that were held responsible. The milk was reabsorbed into the blood of the patient and settled in the peritoneum ("milk peritonitis"), in the broad ligaments (pelvic abscess), in the thighs (phlebitis) and also in the breasts (breast abscess). This belief, originated by Aristotle, was accepted by excellent authors like Andre Levret (1703-1780), one of the most famous French obstetricians and Nicolas Puzos, at the same time. More recently, authors alluded to it and blamed "milk fever" for being at the origin of dramatic pictures which they described in their novels, like Victor Hugo and Guy de Maupassant, for instance.

  4. Presence of Coxiella burnetii in fleas in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaroulaki, Anna; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Ioannou, Ioannis; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Tselentis, Yannis

    2014-09-01

    Over 40 tick species are naturally infected by Coxiella burnetii. However, little is known about the presence of C. burnetii in other ectoparasites such as fleas. During a 6-year (2000-2006) study, 1147 fleas were collected from 652 animals (252 rats, 118 foxes, and 282 hares) captured from different areas of Cyprus. Three flea species-Xenopsylla cheopis, Ctenocephalides felis, and C. canis-were identified. Fleas were pooled (153 pools) and tested by PCR for the presence of C. burnetii. The pathogen was identified in 25 (16.3%) pools. None of the fleas parasitizing hares was positive for C. burnetii, as opposed to fleas collected from rats (12% pool positivity) and foxes (47.6% pool positivity). The highest prevalence of positive pools was recorded in C. canis (38%) compared to C. felis (16.6%) and X. cheopis (10.8%). All pools of C. canis positive for C. burnetii were removed from foxes (44.4%), whereas all positive X. cheopis (10.8%) were removed from rats. The role of fleas in the maintenance and transmission of C. burnetii among wild vertebrates remains to be determined.

  5. Serologic survey for Coxiella burnetii phase II antibodies among slaughterhouse workers in Kerman, southeast of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Khalili; Morteza Mosavi; Hamzeh Ghobadian Diali; Hossein Norouzian Mirza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the presence of antibodies against phase II among slaughterhouse workers in Kerman, southeast of Iran.Methods:sorbent assay using phase II Coxiella burnetii as the antigen [kit (Virion\\Serion, Wurzburg, Germany) according to the manufacturer’s protocol].Results:The antibody titers of the serum samples were measured by enzyme-linked immuno Conclusions: Our findings suggest that slaughterhouse workers in Kerman area have a higher risk of infection and should consider potential infection with Coxiella burnetii. The positive rate of IgG antibody was 68% in the slaughterhouse workers.

  6. Typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wain, John; Hendriksen, Rene S; Mikoleit, Matthew L; Keddy, Karen H; Ochiai, R Leon

    2015-03-21

    Control of typhoid fever relies on clinical information, diagnosis, and an understanding for the epidemiology of the disease. Despite the breadth of work done so far, much is not known about the biology of this human-adapted bacterial pathogen and the complexity of the disease in endemic areas, especially those in Africa. The main barriers to control are vaccines that are not immunogenic in very young children and the development of multidrug resistance, which threatens efficacy of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Clinicians, microbiologists, and epidemiologists worldwide need to be familiar with shifting trends in enteric fever. This knowledge is crucial, both to control the disease and to manage cases. Additionally, salmonella serovars that cause human infection can change over time and location. In areas of Asia, multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) has been the main cause of enteric fever, but now S Typhi is being displaced by infections with drug-resistant S enterica serovar Paratyphi A. New conjugate vaccines are imminent and new treatments have been promised, but the engagement of local medical and public health institutions in endemic areas is needed to allow surveillance and to implement control measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Yellow fever vaccine-associated neurological disease, a suspicious case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirão, Pedro; Pereira, Patrícia; Nunes, Andreia; Antunes, Pedro

    2017-03-02

    A 70-year-old man with known cardiovascular risk factors, presented with acute onset expression aphasia, agraphia, dyscalculia, right-left disorientation and finger agnosia, without fever or meningeal signs. Stroke was thought to be the cause, but cerebrovascular disease investigation was negative. Interviewing the family revealed he had undergone yellow fever vaccination 18 days before. Lumbar puncture revealed mild protein elevation. Cultural examinations, Coxiella burnetti, and neurotropic virus serologies were negative. Regarding the yellow fever virus, IgG was identified in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with negative IgM and virus PCR in CSF. EEG showed an encephalopathic pattern. The patient improved gradually and a week after discharge was his usual self. Only criteria for suspect neurotropic disease were met, but it's possible the time spent between symptom onset and lumbar puncture prevented a definite diagnosis of yellow fever vaccine-associated neurological disease. This gap would have been smaller if the vaccination history had been collected earlier.

  8. A preliminary report of relationship between abortion and Q fever in Central Black Sea Region Turkish woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Günal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Q fever, which is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, may result in abortions in infected animals and pregnant women. In our study, we searched the association between Q fever serology and abortion in a region where Q fever is endemic. Method. This study was conducted in Gaziosmanpaşa University Hospital between March and May 2012. A total of 100 women, from these, 64 had a history of spontaneus abortion (cases and 36 had live births with no complicated obstetrics history or complicated partum (controls, enrolled in the study. Both groups were compared according to where they live, underlying diseases, contact with farm animals or pets and village connectivity. Results. IgG seroprevalence of Coxiella in our study group with the history of abortion was 15.6%, and 11.1% in the control group (p>0.05. When case and control groups were compared, the frequency of inhabitants of the village (p=0.012, subjects who had contact with farm animals [p=0.026, especially cattle (p=0.013] or domestic animals (p=0.018 in case group were more common than the control group. When all the samples were analyzed, it was seen that the only significant variable affecting Coxiella IgG seropositivity was residency in rural area or visiting rural area (p=0.018. Conclusions. We have found that the relation between abortion and Q fever infection was not statistically significant. On this issue, multicenter studies which have the higher number of samples are needed in our country.

  9. Demgue Fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    登革热的病名源于西班牙语,是形容患者由于发烧、关节疼痛导致走路时步履蹒跚、步态造作。研究者根据其症状,称其为"关节热"或"碎骨热"。1869年,英国伦敦皇家内科学会正式将其命名为"登革热"(dengue fever,DF)。

  10. [Typhoid fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchou, B

    1996-01-15

    Endemic in regions with poor hygienic conditions, Enteric fevers are imported in France by returning travellers. They are caused by Salmonella strains, mainly S. Typhi, transmitted via fecal-oral route. Salmonella reach the blood stream after proliferating in mesenteric lymph nodes. At an initial stage blood and bone marrow cultures, later on Widal-Felix serology permit diagnosis. Antibiotics have rendered death exceptional. Quinolones and ceftriaxone allow treatments shorter than 10 days. Immunization (Typhim Vi) and improvement of hygienic standards are the cornerstone of prevention.

  11. Allergies and Hay Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Allergies and Hay Fever Allergies and Hay Fever Patient Health Information News media interested in covering ... suffer from nasal allergies, commonly known as hay fever. An ear, nose, and throat specialist can help ...

  12. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a ... New Mexico. Why Is the Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever a Priority for NIAID? Tickborne diseases ...

  13. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4 viruses that cause two other hemorrhagic fevers, dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever. Virus Families Information ... 2014 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases ( ...

  14. Dengue Fever Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Dengue Fever Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Dengue Fever Antibodies; Dengue Fever Virus Formal name: Dengue ...

  15. Developmental transitions of Coxiella burnetii grown in axenic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Kelsi M; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Hansen, Bryan; Heinzen, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii undergoes a biphasic developmental cycle within its host cell that generates morphologically and physiologically distinct large cell variants (LCV) and small cell variants (SCV). During the lag phase of the C. burnetii growth cycle, non-replicating SCV differentiate into replicating LCV that in turn differentiate back into SCV during stationary phase. Nearly homogeneous SCV are observed in infected Vero cells after extended incubation (21 to 28days). In the current study, we sought to establish whether C. burnetii developmental transitions in host cells are recapitulated during host cell-free (axenic) growth in first and second generation acidified citrate cysteine media (ACCM-1 and ACCM-2, respectively). We show that ACCM-2 supported developmental transitions and viability. Although ACCM-1 also supported SCV to LCV transition, LCV to SCV transition did not occur after extended incubation (21days). Instead, C. burnetii exhibited a ghost-like appearance with bacteria containing condensed chromatin but otherwise devoid of cytoplasmic content. This phenotype correlated with a near total loss in viability between 14 and 21days of cultivation. Transcriptional profiling of C. burnetii following 14days of incubation revealed elevated expression of oxidative stress genes in ACCM-1 cultivated bacteria. ACCM-2 differs from ACCM-1 by the substitution of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (Mβ-CD) for fetal bovine serum. Addition of Mβ-CD to ACCM-1 at 7days post-inoculation rescued C. burnetii viability and lowered expression of oxidative stress genes. Thus, Mβ-CD appears to alleviate oxidative stress in ACCM-2 to result in C. burnetii developmental transitions and viability that mimic host cell-cultivated organisms. Axenic cultivation of C. burnetii in ACCM-2 and new methods of genetic manipulation now allow investigation of the molecular basis of C. burnetii biphasic development.

  16. Bartonella spp. and Coxiella burnetii Associated with Community-Acquired, Culture-Negative Endocarditis, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Rinaldo Focaccia; Castelli, Jussara Bianchi; Mansur, Alfredo Jose; Pereira dos Santos, Fabiana; Colombo, Silvia; do Nascimento, Elvira Mendes; Paddock, Christopher D; Brasil, Roosecelis Araújo; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Grinberg, Max; Strabelli, Tania Mara Varejao

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated culture-negative, community-acquired endocarditis by using indirect immunofluorescent assays and molecular analyses for Bartonella spp. and Coxiella burnetii and found a prevalence of 19.6% and 7.8%, respectively. Our findings reinforce the need to study these organisms in patients with culture-negative, community-acquired endocarditis, especially B. henselae in cat owners.

  17. Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and risk factors on commercial sheep farms in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimmer, B.; Lange, M.M. De; Hautvast, J.L.A.; Vellema, P.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence was assessed on Dutch dairy and non-dairy sheep farms using ELISA. Risk factors for seropositivity on non-dairy sheep farms were identified at farm and sheep level by univariate and multivariate multilevel analyses. Based on 953 dairy and 5671 non-dairy serum samples

  18. Coxiella burnetii associated placental lesions and infection level in parturient cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Rodolakis, Annie; Cochonneau, Denis;

    2011-01-01

    Cotyledons (n=170) from dairy cattle were analysed for Coxiella burnetii by real-time (rt) PCR targeting the IS1111a and icd genes. Positive cases (n=90) and a random selection of negative cases (n=20) were examined by histology, immunohistochemistry and, if infection level was high...

  19. Outbreak of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylin Hidalgo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF is a tick-borne disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Although RMSF was first reported in Colombia in 1937, it remains a neglected disease. Herein, we describe the investigation of a large cluster of cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in a new area of Colombia.

  20. Chloroform-Methanol Residue of Coxiella burnetii Markedly Potentiated the Specific Immunoprotection Elicited by a Recombinant Protein Fragment rOmpB-4 Derived from Outer Membrane Protein B of Rickettsia rickettsii in C3H/HeN Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Gong

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular bacteria, Rickettsia rickettsii and Coxiella burnetii, are the potential agents of bio-warfare/bio-terrorism. Here C3H/HeN mice were immunized with a recombinant protein fragment rOmp-4 derived from outer membrane protein B, a major protective antigen of R. rickettsii, combined with chloroform-methanol residue (CMR extracted from phase I C. burnetii organisms, a safer Q fever vaccine. These immunized mice had significantly higher levels of IgG1 and IgG2a to rOmpB-4 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, two crucial cytokines in resisting intracellular bacterial infection, as well as significantly lower rickettsial loads and slighter pathological lesions in organs after challenge with R. rickettsii, compared with mice immunized with rOmpB-4 or CMR alone. Additionally, after challenge with C. burnetii, the coxiella loads in the organs of these mice were significantly lower than those of mice immunized with rOmpB-4 alone. Our results prove that CMR could markedly potentiate enhance the rOmpB-4-specific immunoprotection by promoting specific and non-specific immunoresponses and the immunization with the protective antigen of R. rickettsii combined with CMR of C. burnetii could confer effective protection against infection of R. rickettsii or C. burnetii.

  1. The Type IV Secretion System Effector Protein CirA Stimulates the GTPase Activity of RhoA and Is Required for Virulence in a Mouse Model of Coxiella burnetii Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mary M; Faris, Robert; van Schaik, Erin J; McLachlan, Juanita Thrasher; Wright, William U; Tellez, Andres; Roman, Victor A; Rowin, Kristina; Case, Elizabeth Di Russo; Luo, Zhao-Qing; Samuel, James E

    2016-09-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the etiological agent of Q fever in humans, is an intracellular pathogen that replicates in an acidified parasitophorous vacuole derived from host lysosomes. Generation of this replicative compartment requires effectors delivered into the host cell by the Dot/Icm type IVb secretion system. Several effectors crucial for C. burnetii intracellular replication have been identified, but the host pathways coopted by these essential effectors are poorly defined, and very little is known about how spacious vacuoles are formed and maintained. Here we demonstrate that the essential type IVb effector, CirA, stimulates GTPase activity of RhoA. Overexpression of CirA in mammalian cells results in cell rounding and stress fiber disruption, a phenotype that is rescued by overexpression of wild-type or constitutively active RhoA. Unlike other effector proteins that subvert Rho GTPases to modulate uptake, CirA is the first effector identified that is dispensable for uptake and instead recruits Rho GTPase to promote biogenesis of the bacterial vacuole. Collectively our results highlight the importance of CirA in coopting host Rho GTPases for establishment of Coxiella burnetii infection and virulence in mammalian cell culture and mouse models of infection.

  2. Serological survey of five zoonoses, scrub typhus, Japanese spotted fever, tularemia, Lyme disease, and Q fever, in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kai; Kabeya, Hidenori; Fujita, Hiromi; Makino, Takashi; Asano, Makoto; Inoue, Satoshi; Inokuma, Hisashi; Nogami, Sadao; Maruyama, Soichi

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the seroprevalence of five tick- or mite-borne zoonoses, scrub typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi), Japanese spotted fever (Rickettsia japonica), tularemia (Francisella tularensis), Lyme disease (Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii), and Q fever (Coxiella burnetii), in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) captured in Hokkaido and Kanagawa Prefectures in Japan. Of the 559 raccoons captured in Hokkaido, 8 (1.4%), 3 (0.5%), 1 (0.2%), and 1 (0.2%) carried antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi (Gilliam type), F. tularensis, B. afzelii, and B. garinii, respectively. Of the 193 animals investigated in Kanagawa, 31 (16.1%) and 14 (7.3%) carried antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi and R. japonica, respectively, and the major serotype (27/31) of O. tsutsugamushi was Kuroki. No antibodies against C. burnetii were detected in either area examined. Therefore, feral raccoons could be an indicator of the prevalence of these four tick- or mite-borne zoonoses in the peridomestic environment in Japan.

  3. A case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Barry S

    2007-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a serious, generalized infection that is spread to humans through the bite of infected ticks. It can be lethal but it is curable. The disease gets its name from the Rocky Mountain region where it was first identified in 1896. The fever is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii and is maintained in nature in a complex life cycle involving ticks and mammals. Humans are considered to be accidental hosts and are not involved in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. The author examined a 47-year-old woman during a periodic recall appointment. The patient had no dental problems other than the need for routine prophylaxis but mentioned a recent problem with swelling of her extremities with an accompanying rash and general malaise and soreness in her neck region. Tests were conducted and a diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever was made.

  4. Genetic characterization of Coxiella burnetii in Amblyomma varigatum ticks from North-central Nigeria: public health importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndudim Isaac Ogo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this pilot study was to genetically identify and characterize Coxiella burnetii from Amblyommavarigatum ticks collected on cattle in North central Nigeria.Materials and Methods: A total of 40 partially fed ticks morphologically identified as adult A. variegatum ticks collectedfrom cattle owned by Fulani pastoralists were evaluated for the presence of C. burnetii using PCR, cloning, and sequencing ofthe heat shock polypeptide gene htpB.Results: C. burnetii DNAwas detected in 10 (25% of the ticks analyzed. Sequences for the C. burnetii gene htpB detected inour samples had 99-100% identity to all other C. burnetii that have been described and that are deposited in the GenBankdatabase. Phylogenetic analysis using neighbor-joining method indicates the clustering of C. burnetii sequences from ourstudy areas with those collected from Oyo state, South-western Nigeria and Spain.Conclusion: This study shows a high infection rate of C. burnetii in A. variegatum ticks in the study areas. Phylogeneticinferences indicates that the strain of C. burnetii found in the North central states of Plateau and Nasarawa were same as thosepreviously reported in the South western state of Oyo. The presence of this pathogen in naturally occurring A. variegatum tickpopulations could present an additional risk of Q-fever disease to humans, especially to the pastoralists that are closelyassociated with their animals and are easily exposed to tick bites. Therefore, further studies are needed to assess thecompetence of A. variegatum ticks as vectors of C. burnetii pathogens.

  5. Circulation of Coxiella burnetii in a Naturally Infected Flock of Dairy Sheep: Shedding Dynamics, Environmental Contamination, and Genotype Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joulié, A; Laroucau, K; Bailly, X; Prigent, M; Gasqui, P; Lepetitcolin, E; Blanchard, B; Rousset, E; Sidi-Boumedine, K; Jourdain, E

    2015-10-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Domestic ruminants are considered to be the main reservoir. Sheep, in particular, may frequently cause outbreaks in humans. Because within-flock circulation data are essential to implementing optimal management strategies, we performed a follow-up study of a naturally infected flock of dairy sheep. We aimed to (i) describe C. burnetii shedding dynamics by sampling vaginal mucus, feces, and milk, (ii) assess circulating strain diversity, and (iii) quantify barn environmental contamination. For 8 months, we sampled vaginal mucus and feces every 3 weeks from aborting and nonaborting ewes (n=11 and n=26, respectively); for lactating females, milk was obtained as well. We also sampled vaginal mucus from nine ewe lambs. Dust and air samples were collected every 3 and 6 weeks, respectively. All samples were screened using real-time PCR, and strongly positive samples were further analyzed using quantitative PCR. Vaginal and fecal samples with sufficient bacterial burdens were then genotyped by multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) using 17 markers. C. burnetii burdens were higher in vaginal mucus and feces than in milk, and they peaked in the first 3 weeks postabortion or postpartum. Primiparous females and aborting females tended to shed C. burnetii longer and have higher bacterial burdens than nonaborting and multiparous females. Six genotype clusters were identified; they were independent of abortion status, and within-individual genotype diversity was observed. C. burnetii was also detected in air and dust samples. Further studies should determine whether the within-flock circulation dynamics observed here are generalizable.

  6. Public health problem of zoonoses with emphasis on Q fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beslagić, E; Hamzić, S; Beslagić, O; Zvizdić, S

    2006-10-01

    Zoonoses are animal and human diseases. Q fever is primarily a zoonosis-an animal disease that can be transmitted to humans under certain conditions. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that Q fever should be considered as a public health problem in many countries where it is present, but unrecognizable due to inadequate disease controls. Through specific serological diagnosis of clinically suspected human Q fever cases, we are trying to determine a level of general Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) exposition among populations in different regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This would be a contribution in controlling the present and the future disease outbreaks, as well as its prevention, which is one of the prime objectives of public health. During the period from January to June 2004, in the Laboratory of the Department for Microbiology in the Medical Faculty of the University of Sarajevo, of 58 tested sera from 48 clinically suspected individuals, we confirmed the presence of specific anti-C. burnetii antibodies in 30 sera (51.7%), from 25 seropositive individuals (52.0%), by means of indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) testing. Urgent steps must be taken in public education to help decrease the risk of C. burnetii infection among at-risk populations in regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  7. Fever: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Fever: First aid Fever: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fever is a rise in body temperature. It's usually a sign of infection. The ... 2 C) or higher Should I treat a fever? When you or your child is sick, the ...

  8. Fever during anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Chiharu; Lenhardt, Rainer

    2003-12-01

    Fever occurs when pyrogenic stimulation activates thermal control centres. Fever is common during the perioperative period, but rare during anaesthesia. Although only a limited number of studies are available to explain how anaesthesia affects fever, general anaesthesia seems to inhibit fever by decreasing the thermoregulatory-response thresholds to cold. Opioids also inhibit fever; however, the effect is slightly less than that of general anaesthesia. In contrast, epidural anaesthesia does not affect fever. This suggests that hyperthermia, which is often associated with epidural infusions during labour or in the post-operative period, may be a true fever caused by inflammatory activation. Accordingly, this fever might be diminished in patients who receive opioids for pain treatment. Post-operative fever is a normal thermoregulatory response usually of non-infectious aetiology. Fever may be important in the host defence mechanisms and should not be routinely treated lest the associated risks exceed the benefits.

  9. Studies on the Antigenic Composition of Coxiella Burnetii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    able to evaluate the development of cell-mediated inmunity to C. burnetli during the acute and convalescent phase of Q-fever that occurred in a...obtained from C. burnetit immune mice in standard passive transfer assays. We * e mployed normaT and nude mice as recipients of these immunologic...C. burnetii was continuing unchecked. Effects of Antibody in C. burneti Infection as Determined by Passive Transfer The role of antibody in

  10. Rheumatic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvanathan; Manjarez; Zabriskie

    1999-10-01

    There have been numerous reports stating that treatment of acute rheumatic fever with either aspirin or corticosteroids does not alter the long-term outcome of rheumatic heart disease. Yet, it should be emphasized that most of these studies were carried out with the first generic corticosteroids before the advent of the more active and more potent corticosteroid agents. In spite of this caveat, there is no question that all the clinical and laboratory parameters of inflammation (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein) return to normal much more rapidly with corticosteroids than with aspirin alone. It is therefore our belief that steroids should be used when clinical and laboratory evidence of carditis exists, and aspirin should be reserved for cases of acute rheumatic arthritis with no evidence of carditis. The incidence of long-term valvular disease in active carditis may be decreased with steroid therapy. For example, the number of valve replacements differs markedly in centers that do use steroids and in those that do not. In Capetown, South Africa, where steroids are routinely used for carditis, valve replacement is quite rare. In contrast, in Johannesburg, where steroids are rarely used, the rate of valve replacement is quite high. The racial backgrounds of both groups of patients are similar, thus eliminating the question of racial differences. Concerning secondary prophylaxis, there is also controversy concerning the best second-line therapy. It is now well known that monthly intramuscular injections of benzathine penicillin are really effective for only 20 days. Thus, there is a window in which penicillin coverage is not adequate. To circumvent this problem, some investigators give benzathine penicillin every 3 weeks. These injections are quite painful, however, and it has been our "rule" that compliance with this treatment is inversely proportional to the ratio of the size of the child to the mother. In our own experience over 30 years with the

  11. [Two cases of acute hepatitis associated with Q fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilyurt, Murat; Kılıç, Selçuk; Gürsoy, Bensu; Celebi, Bekir; Yerer, Mehmet

    2012-07-01

    Q fever which is caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a worldwide zoonosis. Many species of wild and domestic mammals, birds, and arthropods, are reservoirs of C.burnetii in nature, however farm animals are the most frequent sources of human infection. The most frequent way of transmission is by inhalation of contaminated aerosols. The clinical presentation of Q fever is polymorphic and nonspecific. Q fever may present as acute or chronic disease. In acute cases, the most common clinical syndromes are selflimited febrile illness, granulomatous hepatitis, and pneumonia, but it can also be asymptomatic. Fever with hepatitis associated with Q fever has rarely been described in the literature. Herein we report two cases of C.burnetii hepatitis presented with jaundice. In May 2011, two male cases, who inhabited in Malkara village of Tekirdag province (located at Trace region of Turkey), were admitted to the hospital with the complaints of persistent high grade fever, chills and sweats, icterus, disseminated myalgia and headache. Physical examination revealed fever, icterus and the patient appeared to be mildly ill but had no localizing signs of infection. Radiological findings of the patients were in normal limits. Laboratory findings revealed leukocytosis, increased hepatic and cholestatic enzyme levels, and moderate hyperbilirubinemia- mainly direct bilirubin, whereas serum C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were found normal. Blood and urine cultures of the patients yielded no bacterial growth. Serological markers for acute viral hepatitis, citomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections, brucellosis, salmonellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis were found negative. Acute Q fever diagnosis of the cases were based on the positive results obtained by C.burnetii Phase II IgM and IgG ELISA (Vircell SL, Spain) test, and the serological diagnosis were confirmed by Phase I and II immunofluorescence (Vircell SL, Spain) method. Both cases were treated with

  12. [Rheumatic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkashin, D V; Kumchin, A N; Shchulenin, S N; Svistov, A S

    2013-01-01

    This lecture-style paper highlights all major problems pertinent to rheumatic fever Definition of acute RF and chronic rheumatic heart disease is proposed and desirability of the use of these terms in clinical practice is explained. Present-day epidemiology of RF is described with reference to marked differences in its prevalence in developed and developing countries. Modern classification of acute RF is described as adopted by the Russian Association of Rheumatologists and recommended for the use in Russian medical facilities. Discussion of etiological issues is focused on such virulence factors as beta-hemolytic streptococcus A and genetic predisposition confirming hereditary nature of RE Its clinical features are described along with laboratory and instrumental methods applied for its diagnostics. Large and small diagnostic criteria of RF are considered. Special attention is given to the treatment of RF and its complications (antibiotic, pathogenetic, and drug therapy). Its primary and secondary prophylaxis is discussed in detail, preparations for the purpose are listed (with doses and duration of application). In conclusion, criteria for the efficacy of therapy are presented along with indications for hospitalization and emergency treatment.

  13. Detection of Coxiella burnetii DNA in dental pulp during experimental bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboudharam, G; Lascola, B; Raoult, D; Drancourt, M

    2000-04-01

    Colonization of dental pulp by blood-borne bacteria in the absence of previous inflammation has been hypothetized but has never been convincingly demonstrated. In order to provide convincing support for this hypothesis we attempted to detect Coxiella burnetii DNA in the dental pulp of bacteremic, intraperitoneally inoculated guinea-pigs by PCR amplification and direct sequencing of two molecular targets. Coxiella burnetii DNA was recovered from 20-50% of the animals depending on the molecular target, from 15-20 days after experimental challenge. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that dental pulp is contaminated by blood-borne bacteria and can be detected by molecular tools. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  14. Detection of Coxiella burnetii in market chicken eggs and mayonnaise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Noriyuki; Baumgartner, Andreas; Qiao, Ying; Yamamoto, Ikkyu; Yamaguchi, Kazuo

    2006-10-01

    We tried to detect C. burnetii in market chicken eggs and mayonnaise by nested PCR assay. The PCR target was the com 1 gene of C. burnetii. The positive rate for egg and mayonnaise samples was 4.2% and 17.6%, respectively. Direct sequence of some of the positive egg samples shows mutations whereas no mutation was found in the positive mayonnaise samples. The number of molecules of the Q fever agent is estimated at 10(4) to 10(6) per egg, according to our quantitative PCR test.

  15. The potential utility of nested PCR for investigation of Coxiella burnetii in Iranian snails

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To detect the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) in two species of snails consisted of Lymnaea palustris (L. palustris) and Pomacea canaliculata (P. canaliculata) by using nested PCR method in Chaharmahel Va Bakhtiari Province which is located in the southwest of Iran. Methods: A total of 160 snail samples consisted of 100 L. palustris and 60 P. canaliculata were collected from 4 rice paddy fields in the southwest of Iran between June and August 2014. S...

  16. Antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia typhi, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis among healthy population in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Gonçalves da Costa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsial diseases except those belonging to spotted fever group rickettsioses are poorly studied in South America particularly in Brazil where few epidemiological reports have been published. We describe a serosurvey for Rickettsia rickettsii, R. typhi, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella henselae, B. quintana, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis in 437 healthy people from a Brazilian rural community. The serum samples were tested by indirected micro-immunoflourescence technique and a cutoff titer of 1:64 was used. The seroprevalence rates for R. rickettsii, R. typhi, C. burnetii, B. henselae, B. quintana, and E. chaffeensis were respectively 1.6% (7 samples; 1.1% (5 samples; 3.9% (17 samples; 13.7% (60 samples; 12.8% (56 samples, and 10.5% (46 samples. Frequent multiple/cross-reactivity was observed in this study. Age over 40 years old, urban profession, and rural residence were significantly associated with some but not all infections rate. Low seropositivity rates for R. rickettsii, R. typhi, and C. burnetii contrasted with higher rates of seropositivity for B. quintana, B. henselae, and E. chaffeensis. These results show that all tested rickettsial species or antigenically closely related possible exist in this particular region.

  17. Short communication: investigation of Coxiella burnetii occurrence in dairy sheep flocks by bulk-tank milk analysis and antibody level determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, A L; Astobiza, I; Barandika, J F; Atxaerandio, R; Hurtado, A; Juste, R A

    2009-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in the dairy sheep population from the Basque Country (northern Spain), a study was carried out combining molecular and serological techniques. First, bulk-tank milk samples from 154 flocks belonging to the Latxa Breed Farmers Association were analyzed by PCR, with 22% of flocks testing positive for C. burnetii. Then, a selection of 34 flocks (7 PCR positive and 17 negative) was investigated for the presence of serum antibodies by ELISA test on 1,011 ewes (approximately 30 ewes per flock). A total of 8.9% of the animals were seropositive, 67.6% of the flocks had at least one seropositive animal, but only in 14.7% of them was seroprevalence greater than 25%. Older ewes showed a significantly greater prevalence (17.5%) compared with yearlings (7.5%) or replacement lambs (1.5%). A marginally significant association was found between seroprevalence and PCR detection of C. burnetii in bulk-tank milk. The widespread distribution of C. burnetii in the region advocates for the implementation of Q fever control strategies and highlights the potential risk of sheep as a reservoir and infection source for other domestic and wildlife species and the human population.

  18. Wide exposure to Coxiella burnetii in ruminant and feline species living in a natural environment: zoonoses in a human-livestock-wildlife interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, M G; Caballol, A; Atance, P M

    2017-02-01

    Assessment of the role of wild and domestic hosts as potential reservoirs of misdiagnosed zoonoses, such as Q fever by Coxiella burnetii, is an important public health issue today both for wildlife conservation and management of disease in human-livestock-wildlife interface. This study used ELISA, an indirect antibody, to research (2003-2013) C. burnetii infection in seven free-living wild and domestic ruminant species and in European wildcats (Felis silvestris). The animals studied were 0 European wildcats, 21 Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica), 314 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 556 fallow deer (Dama dama), 211 European mouflon (Ovis aries musimon), eight roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 407 bovines (Bos taurus) and 3739 sheep (Ovis aries). All the animals shared the same habitat in the Serranía de Cuenca Natural Park (Castile-La Mancha, Spain). The study area is an example of human-domestic-wildlife interface where people and domestic animals live in close proximity to wildlife. Observed C. burnetii seropositive frequencies were: 33·3% European wildcats, 23·8% Spanish ibex, 22·5% domestic sheep 1·5% red deer, 1·4% European mouflon, 0·24% cattle, 0·18% fallow deer and 0% roe deer. The study found a wide C. burnetii prevalence of previous and present exposure in wild and domestic ruminant hosts in the Serranía de Cuenca Natural Park and reports the first evidence of C. burnetii exposure in free-living European wildcats.

  19. Familial Mediterranean fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000363.htm Familial Mediterranean fever To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a rare disorder passed down through ...

  20. Fever due to levamisole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta R

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Fever is rarely caused by levamisole. We report a 26-year-old woman who repeatedly developed fever 4-12 hrs after taking levamisole. The association was confirmed by repeated provocation tests.

  1. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 212. Walker DH, Blaton LS. Rickettsia rickettsii and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (Rocky ...

  2. Q fever in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anders; Svendsen, Claus Bo; Christensen, Jens Jorgen

    2010-01-01

    We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection.......We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection....

  3. Q fever in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anders; Svendsen, Claus Bo; Christensen, Jens Jorgen

    2010-01-01

    We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection.......We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection....

  4. [Acute rheumatic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Alexander; Kommer, Vera

    2016-03-01

    We report on a young women with acute rheumatic fever. Acute rheumatic fever has become a rare disease in Germany, especially in adults. This carries the risk that it can be missed in the differential diagnostic considerations of acute rheumatic disorders and febrile status. If rheumatic fever is not diagnosed and treated correctly, there is a considerable risk for rheumatic valvular heart disease. In this article diagnosis, differential diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic fever are discussed extensively.

  5. Rat Bite Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Rat Bite Fever Page Content Article Body Rat-bite fever is a disease that occurs in humans who ... ingestion of contaminated food or milk products (Haverhill fever). Most cases in the United States are caused ...

  6. Scarlet Fever (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Scarlet Fever KidsHealth > For Parents > Scarlet Fever Print A A A What's in this article? ... to Call the Doctor en español Escarlatina Scarlet fever is caused by an infection with group A ...

  7. Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) KidsHealth > For Parents > Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) Print A A A What's in this article? ... are at work. Seasonal allergies , sometimes called "hay fever" or seasonal allergic rhinitis, are allergy symptoms that ...

  8. Investigations concerning the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydia abortus in sheep in correlation with management systems and abortion rate in Lower Saxony in 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Martin; Binder, Alfred; Schotte, Ulrich; Ganter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The intracellular bacteria Coxiella (C) burnetii and Chlamydia (Chl) abortus induce abortion in sheep and also affect humans. While Chl. abortus only infrequently infects humans, C burnetii is the aetiological agent of numerous Q fever outbreaks during the last decades. There is only limited knowledge about the prevalence of both pathogens in sheep, although sheep are involved in almost all Q fever outbreaks in Germany. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of both pathogens in flocks located in Lower Saxony, Germany, in correlation to the management form and abortion rate. Serum samples of 1714 sheep from 95 flocks located in Lower Saxony were investigated by ELISA. 2.7% of these samples were positive, 1.3% showed inconclusive results in the C. burnetii-ELISA. Elevated intra-flock seroprevalences were only detected in three migrating flocks. Chlamydia-specific antibodies could be detected in 15.1% serum samples of mainly shepherded and migrating flocks. In one of these flocks with a high intra-flock seroprevalence for C burnetii (27%) and Chlamydia (44.9%), C burnetii was detected in 21.6% of the placenta samples of normal births and in 12.5% of the colostrum samples by PCR. Aborted fetuses and the corresponding placentas were negative in C burnetii-PCR, but in most of them and also in many other placenta samples Chl. abortus could be detected by PCR and DNA microarray. This survey shows a low overall prevalence of C. burnetii in sheep in Lower Saxony in the year 2004. However, three migrating flocks with a high intra-flock prevalence are localized in the southern parts of Lower Saxony. Spreading of C burnetii could occur, because of the large radius of grazing of all three flocks.

  9. Clinical characteristics of Q fever and etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in a tropical region of southern Taiwan: a prospective observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsu Lai

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of Q fever are poorly identified in the tropics. Fever with pneumonia or hepatitis are the dominant presentations of acute Q fever, which exhibits geographic variability. In southern Taiwan, which is located in a tropical region, the role of Q fever in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP has never been investigated.During the study period, May 2012 to April 2013, 166 cases of adult CAP and 15 cases of acute Q fever were prospectively investigated. Cultures of clinical specimens, urine antigen tests for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila, and paired serologic assessments for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Q fever (Coxiella burnetii were used for identifying pathogens associated with CAP. From April 2004 to April 2013 (the pre-study period, 122 cases of acute Q fever were also included retrospectively for analysis. The geographic distribution of Q fever and CAP cases was similar. Q fever cases were identified in warmer seasons and younger ages than CAP. Based on multivariate analysis, male gender, chills, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes were independent characteristics associated with Q fever. In patients with Q fever, 95% and 13.5% of cases presented with hepatitis and pneumonia, respectively. Twelve (7.2% cases of CAP were seropositive for C. burnetii antibodies, but none of them had acute Q fever. Among CAP cases, 22.9% had a CURB-65 score ≧2, and 45.8% had identifiable pathogens. Haemophilus parainfluenzae (14.5%, S. pneumoniae (6.6%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.8%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.0% were the most common pathogens identified by cultures or urine antigen tests. Moreover, M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, and co-infection with 2 pathogens accounted for 9.0%, 7.8%, and 1.8%, respectively.In southern Taiwan, Q fever is an endemic disease with hepatitis as the major presentation and is not a common etiology of CAP.

  10. Brazilian spotted fever: a reemergent zoonosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Greca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian spotted fever is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, which is the most pathogenic species of the spotted-fever rickettsiae group and is transmitted by the bite of infected ticks. Amblyomma cajennense is the most important tick species involved in the cycle of this zoonosis in Brazil as it presents low host specificity, great number of natural reservoirs and wide geographic distribution. It was first described in the state of São Paulo in 1929 and later in Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Bahia. The number of cases decreased in the 1940's with the development of new plague control techniques and antibiotics. In the last decades, the number of new cases has increased. The current review aimed at reporting some of the epidemiological and public health aspects of this reemergent disease with new foci, mainly in the southeastern region of Brazil.

  11. A DNA-binding peroxiredoxin of Coxiella burnetii is involved in countering oxidative stress during exponential-phase growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Linda D; Raghavan, Rahul; Battisti, James M; Minnick, Michael F

    2010-04-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that resides within the harsh, acidic confines of a lysosome-like compartment of the host cell that is termed a parasitophorous vacuole. In this study, we characterized a thiol-specific peroxidase of C. burnetii that belongs to the atypical 2-cysteine subfamily of peroxiredoxins, commonly referred to as bacterioferritin comigratory proteins (BCPs). Coxiella BCP was initially identified as a potential DNA-binding protein by two-dimensional Southwestern (SW) blots of the pathogen's proteome, probed with biotinylated C. burnetii genomic DNA. Confirmation of the identity of the DNA-binding protein as BCP (CBU_0963) was established by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-tandem time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). Recombinant Coxiella BCP (rBCP) was generated, and its DNA binding was demonstrated by two independent methods, including SW blotting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs). rBCP also demonstrated peroxidase activity in vitro that required thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (Trx-TrxR). Both the DNA-binding and peroxidase activities of rBCP were lost upon heat denaturation (100 degrees C, 10 min). Functional expression of Coxiella bcp was demonstrated by trans-complementation of an Escherichia coli bcp mutant, as evidenced by the strain's ability to grow in an oxidative-stress growth medium containing tert-butyl hydroperoxide to levels that were indistinguishable from, or significantly greater than, those observed with its wild-type parental strain and significantly greater than bcp mutant levels (P exponential-growth phase in an experiment involving synchronized infection of an epithelial (Vero) host cell line. Taken as a whole, the results show that Coxiella BCP binds DNA and likely serves to detoxify endogenous hydroperoxide byproducts of Coxiella's metabolism during intracellular replication.

  12. Seroepidemiological survey of Q fever and brucellosis in Kurdistan Province, western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Saber; Pourhossein, Behzad; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Amiri, Fahimeh Bagheri; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Given that the there is little information about the current status of brucellosis and Q fever in most parts of Iran, the aim of this study was to assay the seroprevalence of these two diseases in high-risk populations of Kurdistan Province in western Iran. Two hundred fifty sera samples were collected from hunters and their families, butchers, health care workers, and those referred to medical diagnostic laboratories in the southwestern regions of Kurdistan Province. Sera were tested to detect specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against brucellosis and Coxiella burnetii (phase I and II). The seroprevalence of brucellosis and Q fever (C. burnetii IgG phase I and II) was 6.4% and 27.83% (20% and 14.52%), respectively. The highest seroprevalence of Q fever (38%) and brucellosis (12%) was seen in butchers, who handled cattle, sheep, and goats during their work. Age had a significant positive association with Q fever seropositivity (p=0.04). The seroprevalence of Q fever was higher in those people who had been in employment for more than 10 years (21.88%) compared to others (7.79%) (p=0.02). The keeping of animals (p=0.03), hunting and eating the meat of wild animals (p=0.02), and not disinfecting hands and faces after working (for health care workers and butchers) (p=0.02) were risk factors for Q fever seropositivity. This study showed a relatively high seroprevalence of brucellosis and Q fever in high-risk populations of Kurdistan Province. It is suggested that complementary studies be carried out in other parts of western Iran to clarify the epidemiological aspects of these diseases.

  13. Liver abscess associated with an oral flora bacterium Streptococcus anginosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hava Yılmaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Viridans group Streptococcus, a bacterium of the oral flora has a low-virulence and rarely causes liver abscess. A 40-yearoldmale patient was admitted to the hospital complaining of high fever and malaise. A physical examination revealedpoor oral hygiene; there were caries on many teeth, and he had hepatomegaly. A hepatic abscess was identified inhis abdominal tomography. Streptococcus anginosus was isolated from the drainage material, and the bile ducts werenormal in his MRI cholangiography. An immunocompetent case of liver abscess caused by Streptococcus anginosusoriginated most probably from oral flora is presented here. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(1:33-35

  14. Kinetics of antibody response to Coxiella burnetii infection (Q fever: Estimation of the seroresponse onset from antibody levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C.H. Wielders

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The extraordinary large serological dataset provides new insight into the kinetics of the immunoglobulins against C. burnetii antigens. This knowledge is useful for seroprevalence studies and helps to better understand infection dynamics.

  15. Superoxide anion production and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in Coxiella burnetii.

    OpenAIRE

    Akporiaye, E T; Baca, O G

    1983-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii was examined for superoxide anion (O2-) production and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. The organism generated O2- at pH 4.5 but not at pH 7.4. The rickettsia displayed superoxide dismutase activity distinguishable from that of the host cell (L-929 mouse fibroblast). Catalase activity was maximal at pH 7.0 and diminished at pH 4.5. These enzymes may account, in part, for the ability of this obligate intracellular parasite to survive within phagocytes.

  16. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF COXIELLA BURNETII IN CHEESES PRODUCED IN SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.T.R. Proroga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the presence of Coxiella burnetii in cow, buffalo and small ruminants (sheep and goat cheeses produced in southern Italy has been evaluated with the aim to analyze the risk of infection for consumers. The survey was performed using molecular assays (Real-Time PCR to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA. The samples have been furthermore tested with specific methods for species identification in milk and dairy products. C. burnetii has been detected in 75% of cow cheese samples, while in small ruminants and buffaloes diary products have been assessed at 45,9% and 23,9% respectively.

  17. Histological changes in mouse liver and spleen caused by different Coxiella burnetii antigenic preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokorin, I N; Pushkareva, V I; Kazár, J; Schramek, S

    1985-09-01

    The effect was examined on mouse liver and spleen (inbred line A) of intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation of phase I Coxiella burnetii (C.b.) cells either untreated or treated with chloroform-methanol (CM) mixture in comparison to the trichloracetic acid extract (TCAE) from phase I C.b.) cells. The phase I C.b. cells were highly toxic as manifested by marked hepatosplenomegaly accompanied with hyperplastic, degenerative and necrotic changes in the liver. By contrast, phase I CM--treated C.b. cells and TCAE were nontoxic as evidenced by the absence of any distinct pathological changes in mouse viscera.

  18. Rheumatic fever reappraised

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ulrik Baandrup

    2005-01-01

    @@ Rheumatic fever is a complication following an episode of group A streptococcal pharyngitis. It is an acute immunologically mediated, multisystem inflammatory disorder. Acute rheumatic heart disease during the active phase of rheumatic fever sometimes progresses to chronic rheumatic heart disease. Despite its declining importance in industrialised countries rheumatic fever remains the leading cause of death from heart disease in children and young adults in less developed regions. Fifteen to twenty million new cases emerge every year in developing countries.1

  19. Association between antibodies to Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk and perinatal mortality of Danish dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Katrine T.; Nielsen, Søren S.; Agger, Jens F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Coxiella burnetii is a well-known cause of placentitis and subsequent abortion in ruminants, but there are no reports on the relationship with perinatal mortality. The study was performed to determine the influence of level and change of bulk tank milk (BTM) antibodies to C. burnetii ...

  20. Risk factors for Coxiella burnetii antibodies in bulk tank milk from Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jens Frederik; Paul, Suman; Christoffersen, Anna-Bodil

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to identify risk factors associated with Coxiella burnetii antibody positivity in bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from 100 randomly selected Danish dairy cattle herds. Antibody levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. Before testing the herds, the farm managers were...

  1. Q Fever Outbreak Among Travelers to Germany Who Received Live Cell Therapy--United States and Canada, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyn, Misha P; Newman, Alexandra P; Amato, Michael; Walawander, Mary; Kothe, Cynthia; Nerone, James D; Pomerantz, Cynthia; Behravesh, Casey Barton; Biggs, Holly M; Dahlgren, F Scott; Pieracci, Emily G; Whitfield, Yvonne; Sider, Doug; Ozaldin, Omar; Berger, Lisa; Buck, Peter A; Downing, Mark; Blog, Debra

    2015-10-02

    During September–November 2014, the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) was notified of five New York state residents who had tested seropositive for Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever. All five patients had symptoms compatible with Q fever (e.g., fever, fatigue, chills, and headache) and a history of travel to Germany to receive a medical treatment called "live cell therapy" (sometimes called "fresh cell therapy") in May 2014. Live cell therapy is the practice of injecting processed cells from organs or fetuses of nonhuman animals (e.g., sheep) into human recipients. It is advertised to treat a variety of health conditions. This practice is unavailable in the United States; however, persons can travel to foreign locations to receive injections. Local health departments interviewed the patients, and NYSDOH notified CDC and posted a report on CDC’s Epidemic Information Exchange to solicit additional cases. Clinical and exposure information for each patient was reported to the Robert Koch Institute in Germany, which forwarded the information to local health authorities. A Canada resident who also received live cell therapy in May 2014 was diagnosed with Q fever in July 2014. Clinicians should be aware of health risks, such as Q fever and other zoonotic diseases, among patients with a history of receiving treatment with live cell therapy products.

  2. Outbreak of Query fever among Argentinean special police unit officers during a United Nations mission in Prizren, South Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faas, Alexander; Engeler, Albin; Zimmermann, Achim; Zöller, Lothar

    2007-10-01

    After an outbreak of Query fever (Q fever) in an Argentinean special police unit, 115 officers were investigated to evaluate the risk of infection with Coxiella burnetii after having been exposed to contaminated dust originating from a nearby barn harboring infected sheep. All officers were serologically tested and the medical history of potential risk factors was performed. The percentage of officers showing acute Q-fever seroconversion was found to be 51.3%. Forty-two individuals showed clinical symptoms, among them, 28 patients underwent medical care. No relevant risk factor was found. In areas of an unknown epidemiological situation, patients with unclear respiratory infections should be serologically tested for C. burnetii to offer the correct treatment and avoid possible chronic cases. Attention has to be drawn to choosing the site of a camp so as to protect troops from possible infectious disease. During a U.N. mission in Kosovo, we observed a Q-fever outbreak among the Argentinean special police unit. Our investigation was initiated to evaluate the incidence of C. burnetii infection and Q-fever manifestations in an entire population sharing the same exposure risk and to develop suitable measures to interrupt transmission.

  3. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  4. Haemoragisk Rift Valley Fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Thybo, Søren

    2007-01-01

    A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described.......A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described....

  5. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  6. Neonatal typhoid fever.

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, K C; Simmonds, E J; Tarlow, M J

    1986-01-01

    Three infants of Pakistani immigrant mothers developed typhoid fever in the neonatal period. All three survived, but two became chronic excretors of Salmonella typhi. The risk of an outbreak of typhoid fever in a maternity unit or special care baby unit is emphasized.

  7. Rat bite fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, W.; Boot, R.G.A.; Ho, H.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Rat bite fever (RBF) is a bacterial zoonosis for which two causal bacterial species have been identified: Streptobacillis moniliformis and Spirillum minus. Haverhill fever (HF) is a form of S. moniliformis infection believed to develop after ingestion of contaminated food or water. Here the

  8. Q fever in Quebec (1989–93: Report of 14 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Goyette

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Q fever, a zoonosis acquired by inhalation of the rickettsia Coxiella burnetii, is rarely diagnosed in Canada. The world incidence has been increasing since 1960, because of progressive dissemination of this microorganism in animal populations, particularly domestic ruminants. Some recent outbreaks were caused by cats. Of 14 cases reported in Quebec between 1989 and the beginning of 1993, nine occurred successively in an 18-month period in the rural region surrounding Trois-Rivières, after contact with livestock or cats. These cases are reported here, with the results of serological screening of the workers of an abattoir where one of the cases worked. Five additional cases reported in Quebec during the same period are briefly reviewed.

  9. Outbreak of Q-fever in a Yugoslav army unit in wartime conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čekanac Radovan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In an outbreak of Q-fever in an Army unit lasting 9 days, 20 (13.4% soldiers had contracted a disease. The outbreak occurred due to the entry of the unit into the focus originated by lambing and pasture of infected sheep. The source of the infection was the contaminated dust from the grassland where the soldiers were training, and they were infected by aerogenic way. In 11 (55% patients, the disease was manifested as pneumonia that was radiological confirmed in 7 (35% patients, while the rest were with the symptoms of influenza and upper airways infection. As soon as tetracycline was administered, health state of the patients was significantly improved and all were released as cured after the treatment. Finding of the antibodies to coxiella burnetii in 66.6% of the patients confirmed the etiology of the disease in this outbreak.

  10. Cutting edge issues in rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Christopher

    2012-04-01

    Although the incidence of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease has decreased significantly in regions of the world where antibiotics are easily accessible, there remains a high incidence in developing nations as well as in certain regions where there is a high incidence of genetic susceptibility. These diseases are a function of poverty, low socioeconomic status, and barriers to healthcare access, and it is in the developing world that a comprehensive prevention program is most critically needed. Development of group A streptococcal vaccines has been under investigation since the 1960s and 50 years later, we still have no vaccine. Factors that contribute to this lack of success include a potential risk for developing vaccine-induced rheumatic heart disease, as well as difficulties in covering the many serological subtypes of M protein, a virulence factor found on the surface of the bacterium. Yet, development of a successful vaccine program for prevention of group A streptococcal infection still offers the best chance for eradication of rheumatic fever in the twenty-first century. Other useful approaches include continuation of primary and secondary prevention with antibiotics and implementation of health care policies that provide patients with easy access to antibiotics. Improved living conditions and better hygiene are also critical to the prevention of the spread of group A streptococcus, especially in impoverished regions of the world. The purpose of this article is to discuss current and recent developments in the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and management of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease.

  11. Essential role for the response regulator PmrA in Coxiella burnetii type 4B secretion and colonization of mammalian host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare, Paul A; Sandoz, Kelsi M; Larson, Charles L; Howe, Dale; Kronmiller, Brent; Heinzen, Robert A

    2014-06-01

    Successful host cell colonization by the Q fever pathogen, Coxiella burnetii, requires translocation of effector proteins into the host cytosol by a Dot/Icm type 4B secretion system (T4BSS). In Legionella pneumophila, the two-component system (TCS) PmrAB regulates the Dot/Icm T4BSS and several additional physiological processes associated with pathogenesis. Because PmrA consensus regulatory elements are associated with some dot/icm and substrate genes, a similar role for PmrA in regulation of the C. burnetii T4BSS has been proposed. Here, we constructed a C. burnetii pmrA deletion mutant to directly probe PmrA-mediated gene regulation. Compared to wild-type bacteria, C. burnetii ΔpmrA exhibited severe intracellular growth defects that coincided with failed secretion of effector proteins. Luciferase gene reporter assays demonstrated PmrA-dependent expression of 5 of 7 dot/icm operons and 9 of 11 effector-encoding genes with a predicted upstream PmrA regulatory element. Mutational analysis verified consensus sequence nucleotides required for PmrA-directed transcription. RNA sequencing and whole bacterial cell mass spectrometry of wild-type C. burnetii and the ΔpmrA mutant uncovered new components of the PmrA regulon, including several genes lacking PmrA motifs that encoded Dot/Icm substrates. Collectively, our results indicate that the PmrAB TCS is a critical virulence factor that regulates C. burnetii Dot/Icm secretion. The presence of PmrA-responsive genes lacking PmrA regulatory elements also suggests that the PmrAB TCS controls expression of regulatory systems associated with the production of additional C. burnetii proteins involved in host cell parasitism.

  12. One Health approach to controlling a Q fever outbreak on an Australian goat farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, K A; Vincent, G; Wilks, C R; Franklin, L; Sutton, B; Stenos, J; Cowan, R; Lim, K; Athan, E; Harris, O; Macfarlane-Berry, L; Segal, Y; Firestone, S M

    2016-04-01

    A recent outbreak of Q fever was linked to an intensive goat and sheep dairy farm in Victoria, Australia, 2012-2014. Seventeen employees and one family member were confirmed with Q fever over a 28-month period, including two culture-positive cases. The outbreak investigation and management involved a One Health approach with representation from human, animal, environmental and public health. Seroprevalence in non-pregnant milking goats was 15% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7-27]; active infection was confirmed by positive quantitative PCR on several animal specimens. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii DNA obtained from goat and human specimens was identical by two typing methods. A number of farming practices probably contributed to the outbreak, with similar precipitating factors to the Netherlands outbreak, 2007-2012. Compared to workers in a high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filtered factory, administrative staff in an unfiltered adjoining office and those regularly handling goats and kids had 5·49 (95% CI 1·29-23·4) and 5·65 (95% CI 1·09-29·3) times the risk of infection, respectively; suggesting factory workers were protected from windborne spread of organisms. Reduction in the incidence of human cases was achieved through an intensive human vaccination programme plus environmental and biosecurity interventions. Subsequent non-occupational acquisition of Q fever in the spouse of an employee, indicates that infection remains endemic in the goat herd, and remains a challenge to manage without source control.

  13. Efficacy of Liposome-Encapsulated Ciprofloxacin in a Murine Model of Q Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norville, I. H.; Hatch, G. J.; Bewley, K. R.; Atkinson, D. J.; Hamblin, K. A.; Blanchard, J. D.; Armstrong, S. J.; Pitman, J. K.; Rayner, E.; Hall, G.; Vipond, J.

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulation of antibiotics may improve treatment of intracellular infections by prolonging antibiotic release and improving antibiotic uptake into cells. In this study, liposome-encapsulated ciprofloxacin for inhalation (CFI) was evaluated as a postexposure therapeutic for the treatment of Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever. Intranasal treatment of male A/Jola (A/J) mice with CFI (50 mg/kg of body weight) once daily for 7 days protected mice against weight loss and clinical signs following an aerosol challenge with C. burnetii. In comparison, mice treated twice daily with oral ciprofloxacin or doxycycline (50 mg/kg) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) lost 15 to 20% body weight and exhibited ruffled fur, arched backs, and dehydration. Mice were culled at day 14 postchallenge. The weights and bacterial burdens of organs were determined. Mice treated with CFI exhibited reduced splenomegaly and reduced bacterial numbers in the lungs and spleen compared to mice treated with oral ciprofloxacin or doxycycline. When a single dose of CFI was administered, it provided better protection against body weight loss than 7 days of treatment with oral doxycycline, the current antibiotic of choice to treat Q fever. These data suggest that CFI has potential as a superior antibiotic to treat Q fever. PMID:25001305

  14. IS1111 insertion sequences of Coxiella burnetii: characterization and use for repetitive element PCR-based differentiation of Coxiella burnetii isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massung Robert F

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii contains the IS1111 transposase which is present 20 times in the Nine Mile phase I (9Mi/I genome. A single PCR primer that binds to each IS element, and primers specific to a region ~500-bp upstream of each of the 20 IS1111 elements were designed. The amplified products were characterized and used to develop a repetitive element PCR genotyping method. Results Isolates Nine Mile phase II, Nine Mile RSA 514, Nine Mile Baca, Scottish, Ohio, Australian QD, Henzerling phase I, Henzerling phase II, M44, KAV, PAV, Q238, Q195 and WAV were tested by PCR and compared to 9Mi/I. Sequencing was used to determine the exact differences in isolates which lacked specific IS elements or produced PCR products of differing size. From this data, an algorithm was created utilizing four primer pairs that allows for differentiation of unknown isolates into five genomic groups. Additional isolates (Priscilla Q177, Idaho Q, Qiyi, Poker Cat, Q229 and Q172 and nine veterinary samples were characterized using the algorithm which resulted in their placement into three distinct genomic groups. Conclusion Through this study significant differences, including missing elements and sequence alterations within and near IS element coding regions, were found between the isolates tested. Further, a method for differentiation of C. burnetii isolates into one of five genomic groups was created. This algorithm may ultimately help to determine the relatedness between known and unknown isolates of C. burnetii.

  15. Reproductive performance of high producing lactating cows in Coxiella-infected herds following vaccination with phase-I Coxiella burnetii vaccine during advanced pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Helguera, I; López-Gatius, F; Tutusaus, J; Garcia-Ispierto, I

    2013-06-26

    This study was designed to assess the safety of phase I vaccination against Coxiella burnetii in advanced pregnancy and the effect of vaccination on subsequent reproductive performance of high producing dairy cows. C. burnetii serostatus was determined in 719 dairy cows by individual serological testing. According to their serostatus, cows were randomly assigned to a control (n=359) or vaccine (n=360) group (inactivated phase I on Days 171-177 and 192-198 of gestation, Coxevac-Ceva Sante Animale). Using a χ(2)-test, vaccination had no effect on abortion before parturition, retention of placenta and stillbirth, either in seropositive as in seronegative cows. Cox's proportional hazards model revealed that cows in the vaccine group were 1.22 times more likely to conceive during the first 150 days in milk than cows in the control group. Moreover, the likelihood of pregnancy was lower in multiparous cows, cows with a retained placenta and cows undergoing first AI during the warm season compared to the remaining animals (by factors of 0.75, 0.69 and 0.69, respectively). In animals testing seronegative for C. burnetii, the likelihood of pregnancy was 1.25 times higher in vaccinated cows compared to non-vaccinated seronegative animals. No effect of vaccination on subsequent fertility was detected in seropositive animals. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that phase I vaccination against C. burnetii during advanced pregnancy in dairy cows is safe and improves subsequent fertility of C. burnetii seronegative animals.

  16. Two Cases of Q-Fever in Hairy Cell Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Ammatuna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hairy cell leukemia (HCL is a rare B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder accounting for about 2% of all leukemias. The clinical course is indolent, however HCL patients are particularly susceptible to infections. Here we report two cases of Q-fever as first manifestation of disease in two patients affected by HCL. Both patients described in this report showed an unusually sluggish clinical response to the antibiotic treatment with ciprofloxacin probably because of the marked immunodeficiency. However, treatment of HCL with cladribine administered soon after the resolution of QF pneumonitis was uneventful and led to a complete remission in both cases. Most probably the association of Coxiella burnetii (CB infection and HCL that we observed in two patients is due to chance. However, a hairy cell resembling transformation of freshly isolated human peripheral blood lymphocytes upon CB has been showed. We think that the possibility of CB infection in febrile HCL patient should be always taken in mind, especially in endemic areas. In addition the potential for such infections to become chronic in HCL patients should not be overlooked and the reporting of further cases should be encouraged.

  17. Lactococcus lactis - a diploid bacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Ole; Hansen, Flemming G.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    In contrast to higher eukaryotes, bacteria are haploid, i.e. they store their genetic information in a single chromosome, which is then duplicated during the cell cycle. If the growth rate is sufficiently low, the bacterium is born with only a single copy of the chromosome, which gets duplicated...... before the bacterium divides. Fast-growing bacteria have overlapping rounds of replication, and can contain DNA corresponding to more than four genome equivalents. However, the terminus region of the chromosome is still present in just one copy after division, and is not duplicated until right before...... the next division. Thus, the regions of the chromosome that are the last to be replicated are haploid even in fast-growing bacteria. In contrast to this general rule for bacteria, we found that Lactococcus lactis, a bacterium which has been exploited for thousands of years for the production of fermented...

  18. Bulk tank milk surveillance as a measure to detect Coxiella burnetii shedding dairy goat herds in the Netherlands between 2009 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Brom, R; Santman-Berends, I; Luttikholt, S; Moll, L; Van Engelen, E; Vellema, P

    2015-06-01

    In the period from 2005 to 2009, Coxiella burnetii was a cause of abortion waves at 28 dairy goat farms and 2 dairy sheep farms in the Netherlands. Two years after the first abortion waves, a large human Q fever outbreak started mainly in the same region, and aborting small ruminants were regarded as most probable source. To distinguish between infected and noninfected herds, a surveillance program started in October 2009, based on PCR testing of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples, which had never been described before. The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of this surveillance program and to evaluate both the effect of culling of pregnant dairy goats on positive farms and of vaccination on BTM results. Bulk tank milk samples were tested for C. burnetii DNA using a real-time PCR, and results were analyzed in relation to vaccination, culling, and notifiable (officially reported to government) C. burnetii abortion records. In spring and autumn, BTM samples were also tested for antibodies using an ELISA, and results were evaluated in relation to the compulsory vaccination campaign. Between October 2009 and April 2014, 1,660 (5.6%) out of 29,875 BTM samples from 401 dairy goat farms tested positive for C. burnetii DNA. The percentage of positive samples dropped from 20.5% in 2009 to 0.3% in 2014. In a multivariable model, significantly higher odds of being PCR positive in the BTM surveillance program were found in farms of which all pregnant dairy goats were culled. Additionally, the risk for C. burnetii BTM PCR positivity significantly decreased after multiple vaccinations. Bulk tank milk ELISA results were significantly higher after vaccination than before. The ELISA results were higher after multiple vaccinations compared with a single vaccination, and ELISA results on officially declared infected farms were significantly higher compared with noninfected farms. In conclusion, BTM surveillance is an effective and useful tool to detect C. burnetii shedding

  19. Q fever - early

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if untreated. Other complications can include: Bone infection ( osteomyelitis ) Brain infection ( encephalitis ) Liver infection (chronic hepatitis) Lung ... 2015:chap 190. Read More Encephalitis Endocarditis Flu Osteomyelitis Pneumonia - adults (community acquired) Q fever Tick bite ...

  20. Dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that is infected with the virus. The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main species that spreads this ... especially if you have had dengue fever before. Prevention Because there is no way to prevent dengue ...

  1. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... don't use genetic tests as the sole method of diagnosing familial Mediterranean fever. There's no cure ... may be options, though these treatments are considered experimental. Other medications include rilonacept (Arcalyst) and anakinra (Kineret). ...

  2. Serological evidence of Coxiella burnetii infection in wild animals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejercito, C L; Cai, L; Htwe, K K; Taki, M; Inoshima, Y; Kondo, T; Kano, C; Abe, S; Shirota, K; Sugimoto, T

    1993-07-01

    One hundred and thirty-four (26%) of 511 sera from 11 wild animal species in eight prefectures in Japan had antibody titers to Coxiella burnetii by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. High prevalences were observed in Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus) (78%), Hokkaido deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) (69%), Japanese hares (Lepus brachyurus) (63%), Japanese deer (Cervus nippon centralis) (56%), and to some extent in Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) (28%). A low prevalence (13%) was observed in nutrias (Myocastor coypus). Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus), wild rats (Muroides sp.), raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), wild pigs (Sus scrofa leucomystax), and masked palm civets (Paguma larvata) had no detectable antibodies to C. burnetii. Thus, six of 11 wild animal species in Japan were exposed to C. burnetii. Based on the high prevalences in some species, they may be a potential source of infection to both domestic animal and human populations.

  3. Characterizations of Chinese isolates of Coxiella burnetii in the com1 gene sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Quan; ZHANG Guo-quan; FUKUSHI Hideto; YAMAGUCHI Tsuyoshi; HIRAI Katsuya

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To know some genetical characterizations of Coxiella burnetii Chinese isolates by comparing the com1 gene sequence. Methods: com1 gene sequences of Chinese isolates were amplified, sequenced, and analyzed by comparing our result and the previous published data. Results: Three different com1 sequences were identified in 7 Chinese isolates. Sequence comparison indicated that the isolates harboring the QpRS plasmid could be defined as a new group and, in addition, the isolates carrying the same plasmid type showed similar com1 gene sequence. Conclusion: Study suggests that the classification of the group based on the com1 gene sequence is highly associated with the plasmid type of the isolates and, however, little related to disease forms and geographical origins of the isolates.

  4. Search for correlates of resistance to virulent challenge in mice immunized with Coxiella burnetii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazár, J; El-Najdawi, E; Brezina, R; Schramek, S

    1977-09-01

    Mice immunized with live phase I or phase II Coxiella burnetii, with killed phase I or phase II organisms or with trichloroacetic acid (TCAE) or phenol (PE) extracts were resistant to intraperitoneal infection with phase I C. burnetii irrespective of whether or not they displayed phase I antibody response at the time of virulent challenge. Increased phagocytosis of purified phase I organisms by blood leukocytes or peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) was noticed only in mice with phase I agglutinating antibodies in their sera or peritoneal washings. Passive transfer of resistance was made possible only by sera containing phase I agglutinating antibodies. Adoptive transfer of immunity by spleen cells, but not by PEC, was achieved providing that these cells were taken from mice immunized with live phase I C. burnetii.

  5. Single Bacterium Detection Using Sers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchukov, S. A.; Baikova, T. V.; Alushin, M. V.; Svistunova, T. S.; Minaeva, S. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Saraeva, I. N.; Zayarny, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    This work is devoted to the study of a single Staphylococcus aureus bacterium detection using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and resonant Raman spectroscopy (RS). It was shown that SERS allows increasing sensitivity of predominantly low frequency lines connected with the vibrations of Amide, Proteins and DNA. At the same time the lines of carotenoids inherent to this kind of bacterium are well-detected due to the resonance Raman scattering mechanism. The reproducibility and stability of Raman spectra strongly depend on the characteristics of nanostructured substrate, and molecular structure and size of the tested biological object.

  6. Paracetamol and fever management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, C

    2008-11-01

    Paracetamol is one of the most commonly used legal drugs in the western world. Its availability is good, cost is low, and its uses include 'over-the-counter' (OTC) distribution, primary care prescribed therapy, secondary care 'post-operative' application and emergency treatment. Stated benefits of paracetamol include: the drug's analgesic effects, preference to aspirin in avoidance of Reye's syndrome, good patient tolerance, and iatrogenic complications are infrequent and minor. Stated cautions include hepatotoxic effect following minor doses and short duration use and users may incur compromised immune integrity. This paper is concerned with paracetamol's role in fever management. Public concern regarding, in particular, childhood fever and febrile convulsions is largely unwarranted. Despite paracetamol's reputation as a popular fever-reducing agent the drug is poorly effective in the control of febrility and febrile convulsions showing no important advantage compared with placebo. Paracetamol is probably grossly over-prescribed for fever management and its value more perceived than real. Greater efforts are needed to inform patients of the natural benefits of the biological strategy of fever and of the highly limited and in some cases contraindicated use of paracetamol in fever management.

  7. Typhoid fever in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Getenet; Asrat, Daniel; Mengistu, Yohannes; Aseffa, Abrham; Wain, John

    2008-12-01

    This review focuses on the reports of salmonellosis by investigators in different parts of Ethiopia, in particular focusing on the levels of typhoid fever. Many of the reports are published in local journals that are not available online. There have been seven studies which diagnosed typhoid fever by laboratory culture and there is no coordinated epidemiological surveillance. All conducted research and reports from different health institutions in Ethiopia indicate that typhoid fever was still a common problem up to the most recent study in 2000 and that the extensive use of first-line drugs has led to the development of multiple drug resistance. In the sites covered by this review, the total number of published cases of typhoid fever dropped over time reflecting the decline in research capacity in the country. Data on the proportion of patients infected by different serovars of Salmonella suggest that the non-Typhi serovars of Salmonella are increasing. The published evidence suggests that typhoid fever is a current public health problem in Ethiopia although population based surveys, based on good microbiological diagnosis, are urgently needed. Only then can the true burden of enteric fever be estimated and the benefit of public health control measures, such as health education, safe water provision, improved food hygienic practices and eventually vaccination, be properly assessed.

  8. Q Fever Knowledge, Attitudes and Vaccination Status of Australia's Veterinary Workforce in 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Sellens

    Full Text Available Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a serious zoonotic disease in humans with a worldwide distribution. Many species of animals are capable of transmitting C. burnetii, and consequently all veterinary workers are at risk for this disease. An effective Q fever vaccine has been readily available and used in Australia for many years in at-risk groups, and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control has recently also called for the use of this vaccine among at-risk groups in Europe. Little is known about attitudes towards this vaccine and vaccine uptake in veterinary workers. This study aimed to determine the Q fever vaccination status of veterinarians and veterinary nurses in Australia and to assess and compare the knowledge and attitudes towards Q fever disease and vaccination of each cohort. An online cross-sectional survey performed in 2014 targeted all veterinarians and veterinary nurses in Australia. Responses from 890 veterinarians and 852 veterinary nurses were obtained. Binary, ordinal and multinomial logistic regression were used to make comparisons between the two cohorts. The results showed that 74% of veterinarians had sought vaccination compared to only 29% of veterinary nurses. Barriers to vaccination among those not vaccinated did not differ between cohorts, and included a lack of perceived risk, financial expense, time constraints, and difficulty in finding a vaccine provider. Poor knowledge and awareness of Q fever disease and vaccination were additional and notable barriers for the veterinary nursing cohort, suggesting veterinary clinics and veterinarians may not be meeting their legal responsibility to educate staff about risks and risk prevention. Further evaluation is needed to identify the drivers behind seeking and recommending vaccination so that recommendations can be made to improve vaccine uptake.

  9. Q Fever Knowledge, Attitudes and Vaccination Status of Australia's Veterinary Workforce in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellens, Emily; Norris, Jacqueline M; Dhand, Navneet K; Heller, Jane; Hayes, Lynne; Gidding, Heather F; Willaby, Harold; Wood, Nicholas; Bosward, Katrina L

    2016-01-01

    Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a serious zoonotic disease in humans with a worldwide distribution. Many species of animals are capable of transmitting C. burnetii, and consequently all veterinary workers are at risk for this disease. An effective Q fever vaccine has been readily available and used in Australia for many years in at-risk groups, and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control has recently also called for the use of this vaccine among at-risk groups in Europe. Little is known about attitudes towards this vaccine and vaccine uptake in veterinary workers. This study aimed to determine the Q fever vaccination status of veterinarians and veterinary nurses in Australia and to assess and compare the knowledge and attitudes towards Q fever disease and vaccination of each cohort. An online cross-sectional survey performed in 2014 targeted all veterinarians and veterinary nurses in Australia. Responses from 890 veterinarians and 852 veterinary nurses were obtained. Binary, ordinal and multinomial logistic regression were used to make comparisons between the two cohorts. The results showed that 74% of veterinarians had sought vaccination compared to only 29% of veterinary nurses. Barriers to vaccination among those not vaccinated did not differ between cohorts, and included a lack of perceived risk, financial expense, time constraints, and difficulty in finding a vaccine provider. Poor knowledge and awareness of Q fever disease and vaccination were additional and notable barriers for the veterinary nursing cohort, suggesting veterinary clinics and veterinarians may not be meeting their legal responsibility to educate staff about risks and risk prevention. Further evaluation is needed to identify the drivers behind seeking and recommending vaccination so that recommendations can be made to improve vaccine uptake.

  10. Q fever: a neglected zoonosis in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almogren, Adel; Shakoor, Zahid; Hasanato, Rana; Adam, Mustafa Hussein

    2013-01-01

    Infection due to Coxiella burnetii (C burnetii), the causative agent of Q fever is rarely sought for in clinical practice. This study was performed to detect C burnetii infection in patients with pyrexia of undetermined cause (PUC). This is a prospective study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh be.tween March 2011 and January 2013. A total of 3 mL venous blood was collected from 51 patients with PUC at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh. This group of patients included 30 males and 21 females (mean age 33.9 [21.3] years) with the history of febrile illness ranging between 4 and 8 weeks. A control group of 50 healthy individuals comprising 39 males and 11 females (mean age 27 [9] years) was also included in the study. Detection of phase II C burnetii-specific IgG antibodies was performed by immunofluorescence assay, and a titer of > 1:64 was considered positive. Phase II C burnetii-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 18 (35.2%) patients out of the total 51 tested. Two (4%) individuals out of 50 in the control group tested positive for anti-C burnetii IgG antibodies. The proportion of positive results among the patients was significantly higher than the controls (P < .0002, 95% CI, 15.09-46.25). The antibody titer range was between 1:128 and 1:1024 where 6 patients had titers of 1:256, 5 had 1:512, 4 had 1024, and 3 had 1:128. The evidence of C burnetii infection in a sizable number of patients emphasizes the need for inclusion of serologic investigations for Q fever in patients with PUC.

  11. RAW MILK AT VENDING MACHINES: EVALUATION OF E. SAKAZAKII, COXIELLA BURNETII AND M. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN PIEDMONT EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Civera

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Italian consumers changed their food habits in the last period; the increase of raw milk consuming is also related to the high number of self service vending machines that have been authorized, particularly in Northern Italy. According to national rules on raw milk hygienic conditions, the most important bacteria are checked by Veterinary Services; the aim of this study was to investigate some emerging or re-emerging hazards in raw milk at vending machines. For this reason 100 raw milk samples were collected and analyzed in order to detect E. sakazakii, Coxiella burnetii and M. avium subsp paratuberculosis. One milk sample resulted to be positive with PCR method for E. sakazakii (no cultural confirmation was possible; 49% of samples resulted posivite for the presence of Coxiella burnetii specific DNA, and 5% of milk samples came out positive to the presence of M. paratuberuclosis antibodies with ELISA methods.

  12. Host and Environmental Factors Modulate the Exposure of Free-Ranging and Farmed Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) to Coxiella burnetii

    OpenAIRE

    González-Barrio, David; Velasco Ávila , Ana Luisa; Boadella, Mariana; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Barasona, José Ángel; Santos, João P. V.; Queirós, João; García-Pérez, Ana L; Barral, Marta; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The control of multihost pathogens, such as Coxiella burnetii, should rely on accurate information about the roles played by the main hosts. We aimed to determine the involvement of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the ecology of C. burnetii. We predicted that red deer populations from broad geographic areas within a European context would be exposed to C. burnetii, and therefore, we hypothesized that a series of factors would modulate the exposure of red deer to C. burnetii. To test this hyp...

  13. Behavioral fever in ectothermic vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakus, Krzysztof; Ronsmans, Maygane; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Fever is an evolutionary conserved defense mechanism which is present in both endothermic and ectothermic vertebrates. Ectotherms in response to infection can increase their body temperature by moving to warmer places. This process is known as behavioral fever. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the mechanisms of induction of fever in mammals. We further discuss the evolutionary conserved mechanisms existing between fever of mammals and behavioral fever of ectothermic vertebrates. Finally, the experimental evidences supporting an adaptive value of behavioral fever expressed by ectothermic vertebrates are summarized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recurrent Fever in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torreggiani, Sofia; Filocamo, Giovanni; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-03-25

    Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time.

  15. Recurrent Fever in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Torreggiani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time.

  16. Strain and phase identification of the U.S. category B agent Coxiella burnetii by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and multivariate pattern recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Carrie Y; Barr, John R; Woolfitt, Adrian R; Moura, Hercules; Shaw, Edward I; Thompson, Herbert A; Massung, Robert F; Fernandez, Facundo M

    2007-01-30

    Accurate bacterial identification is important in diagnosing disease and in microbial forensics. Coxiella burnetii, a highly infective microorganism causative of the human disease Q fever, is now considered a U.S. category B potential bioterrorism agent. We report here an approach for the confirmatory identification of C. burnetii at the strain level which involves the combined use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and supervised pattern recognition via Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). C. burnetii isolates investigated in this study included the following prototype strains from different geographical and/or historical origins and with different antigenic properties: Nine Mile I, Australian QD, M44, KAV, PAV, Henzerling, and Ohio. After culture and purification following standard protocols, linear MALDI-TOF mass spectra of pure bacterial cultures were acquired in positive ion mode. Mass spectral data were normalized, baseline-corrected, denoised, binarized and modeled by PLS-DA under crossvalidation conditions. Robustness with respect to uncontrolled variations in the sample preparation and MALDI analysis protocol was assessed by repeating the experiment on five different days spanning a period of 6 months. The method was validated by the prediction of unknown C. burnetii samples in an independent test set with 100% sensitivity and specificity for five out of six strain classes.

  17. Pathogenesis of Lassa fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Nadezhda E; Walker, David H

    2012-10-09

    Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus (family Arenaviridae), is the etiological agent of Lassa fever, a severe human disease that is reported in more than 100,000 patients annually in the endemic regions of West Africa with mortality rates for hospitalized patients varying between 5-10%. Currently, there are no approved vaccines against Lassa fever for use in humans. Here, we review the published literature on the life cycle of Lassa virus with the specific focus put on Lassa fever pathogenesis in humans and relevant animal models. Advancing knowledge significantly improves our understanding of Lassa virus biology, as well as of the mechanisms that allow the virus to evade the host's immune system. However, further investigations are required in order to design improved diagnostic tools, an effective vaccine, and therapeutic agents.

  18. Pathogenesis of Lassa Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Walker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus (family Arenaviridae, is the etiological agent of Lassa fever, a severe human disease that is reported in more than 100,000 patients annually in the endemic regions of West Africa with mortality rates for hospitalized patients varying between 5-10%. Currently, there are no approved vaccines against Lassa fever for use in humans. Here, we review the published literature on the life cycle of Lassa virus with the specific focus put on Lassa fever pathogenesis in humans and relevant animal models. Advancing knowledge significantly improves our understanding of Lassa virus biology, as well as of the mechanisms that allow the virus to evade the host’s immune system. However, further investigations are required in order to design improved diagnostic tools, an effective vaccine, and therapeutic agents.

  19. Vaccines against typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Carlos A; Borsutzky, Stefan; Griot-Wenk, Monika; Metcalfe, Ian C; Pearman, Jon; Collioud, Andre; Favre, Didier; Dietrich, Guido

    2006-05-01

    Because of high infectivity and significant disease burden, typhoid fever constitutes a major global health problem. Implementation of adequate food handling practices and establishment of safe water supplies are the cornerstone for the development of an effective prevention program. However, vaccination against typhoid fever remains an essential tool for the effective management of this disease. Currently, there are two well tolerated and effective licensed vaccines. One is based on defined subunit virulence (Vi) polysaccharide antigen and can be administered either intramuscularly or subcutaneously and the other is based on the use of live attenuated bacteria for oral administration. The advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches taken in the development of a vaccine against typhoid fever are discussed, along with the potential for future vaccine candidates.

  20. [Acute fever in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Le Guen, Christèle; Launay, Élise

    2015-05-01

    Fever in children is a very common symptom associated most of the time with a viral infection. However, in 7% of children, fever without source is the first symptom of a serious bacterial infection such as pneumonia, meningitis, pyelonephritis or bacteremia. The key point in clinical examination of these children is the early identification of toxic signs. Because SBI prevalence is higher in very young children (1-3 month-aged), they required a specific management with some systematic complementary investigations and a broad indication of probabilistic antibiotherapy treatment.

  1. [Fever of unknown origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzberger, B; Müller-Schilling, M; Fleck, M

    2013-04-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is defined as sustained unexplained fever despite intensive diagnostic evaluation and represents a particular diagnostic challenge. It can be classified into different categories, e.g. classical, nosocomial, neutropenic and HIV-associated FUO, which is based on the patient-specific clinical and immunological situation. Infections, malignant diseases and non-infectious inflammatory diseases have to be considered as the most important causes of FUO; however, no definitive diagnosis can be established in a substantial number of FUO patients despite an extensive diagnostic work-up. The present review focuses on the important diagnostic aspects as well as therapeutic options in FUO patients.

  2. Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Marburg hemorrhagic fever (Marburg HF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... first recognized in 1967, when outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever occurred simultaneously in laboratories in Marburg and Frankfurt, ...

  3. Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever Fact sheet N°208 January 2013 Key facts ... the principal tick vector. The Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in animals and ticks The hosts of ...

  4. Typhoid Fever, Below the Belt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raveendran, Kamakshi Mahadevan; Viswanathan, Stalin

    2016-01-01

    ... (sexually transmitted infections) aetiologies. Typhoid fever is endemic in the tropics. Except "rose spots", skin manifestations in typhoid fever are unusual, and they are missed due to pigmented skin...

  5. Q Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Reporting and In-Depth Information Other Ricketssial Zoonosis Diseases Anaplasmosis Ehrlichiosis Other Spotted Fever Rocky Mountain ... 60–64 years. Top of Page Other Ricketssial Zoonosis Diseases Anaplasmosis Ehrlichiosis Other Spotted Fever Rocky Mountain ...

  6. Q Fever Update, Maritime Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrie, Thomas J.; Campbell, Nancy; McNeil, Shelly A.; Webster, Duncan

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1990s, reports of Q fever in Nova Scotia, Canada, have declined. Passive surveillance for Q fever in Nova Scotia and its neighboring provinces in eastern Canada indicates that the clinical manifestation of Q fever in the Maritime provinces is pneumonia and that incidence of the disease may fluctuate. PMID:18258080

  7. Fever in acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, P D; Afzal, A; Henry, J W; Villareal, C G

    2000-01-01

    Although fever has been reported in several case series of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), the extent to which fever may be caused by PE, and not associated disease, has not been adequately sorted out. Clarification of the frequency and severity of fever in acute PE may assist in achieving an accurate clinical impression, and perhaps avoid an inadvertent exclusion of the diagnosis. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the extent to which fever is caused by acute PE. Patients participated in the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED). Temperature was evaluated among patients with angiographically proven PE. A determination of whether other causes of fever were present was based on a retrospective analysis of discharge summaries, PIOPED summaries, and a computerized list of all discharge diagnoses. Among patients with PE and no other source of fever, fever was present in 43 of 311 patients (14%). Fever in patients with pulmonary hemorrhage or infarction was not more frequent than among those with no pulmonary hemorrhage or infarction, 39 of 267 patients (15%) vs 4 of 44 patients (9%; not significant). Clinical evidence of deep venous thrombosis was often present in patients with PE and otherwise unexplained fever. Low-grade fever is not uncommon in PE, and high fever, although rare, may occur. Fever need not be accompanied by pulmonary hemorrhage or infarction.

  8. Robust growth of avirulent phase II Coxiella burnetii in bone marrow-derived murine macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Diane C.; Long, Carrie M.; Robertson, Shelly J.; Shannon, Jeffrey G.; Miller, Heather E.; Myers, Lara; Larson, Charles L.; Starr, Tregei; Beare, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Published data show that murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) restrict growth of avirulent phase II, but not virulent phase I, Coxiella burnetii. Growth restriction of phase II bacteria is thought to result from potentiated recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, which leads to production of inhibitory effector molecules. Past studies have used conditioned medium from L-929 murine fibroblasts as a source of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) to promote differentiation of bone marrow-derived myeloid precursors into macrophages. However, uncharacterized components of conditioned medium, such as variable amounts of type I interferons, can affect macrophage activation status and their permissiveness for infection. In the current study, we show that the C. burnetii Nine Mile phase II (NMII) strain grows robustly in primary macrophages from C57BL/6J mice when bone marrow cells are differentiated with recombinant murine M-CSF (rmM-CSF). Bacteria were readily internalized by BMDM, and replicated within degradative, LAMP1-positive vacuoles to achieve roughly 3 logs of growth over 6 days. Uninfected BMDM did not appreciably express CD38 or Egr2, markers of classically (M1) and alternatively (M2) activated macrophages, respectively, nor did infection change the lack of polarization. In accordance with an M0 phenotype, infected BMDM produced moderate amounts of TNF and nitric oxide. Similar NMII growth results were obtained using C57BL/6J myeloid progenitors immortalized with an estrogen-regulated Hoxb8 (ER-Hoxb8) oncogene. To demonstrate the utility of the ER-Hoxb8 system, myeloid progenitors from natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1) C57BL/6J knock-in mice were transduced with ER-Hoxb8, and macrophages were derived from immortalized progenitors using rmM-CSF and infected with NMII. No difference in growth was observed when compared to macrophages from wild type mice, indicating depletion of metal ions by the Nramp1

  9. A super-spreading ewe infects hundreds with Q fever at a farmers' market in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner-Wiening Christiane

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In May 2003 the Soest County Health Department was informed of an unusually large number of patients hospitalized with atypical pneumonia. Methods In exploratory interviews patients mentioned having visited a farmers' market where a sheep had lambed. Serologic testing confirmed the diagnosis of Q fever. We asked local health departments in Germany to identiy notified Q fever patients who had visited the farmers market. To investigate risk factors for infection we conducted a case control study (cases were Q fever patients, controls were randomly selected Soest citizens and a cohort study among vendors at the market. The sheep exhibited at the market, the herd from which it originated as well as sheep from herds held in the vicinity of Soest were tested for Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii. Results A total of 299 reported Q fever cases was linked to this outbreak. The mean incubation period was 21 days, with an interquartile range of 16–24 days. The case control study identified close proximity to and stopping for at least a few seconds at the sheep's pen as significant risk factors. Vendors within approximately 6 meters of the sheep's pen were at increased risk for disease compared to those located farther away. Wind played no significant role. The clinical attack rate of adults and children was estimated as 20% and 3%, respectively, 25% of cases were hospitalized. The ewe that had lambed as well as 25% of its herd tested positive for C. burnetii antibodies. Conclusion Due to its size and point source nature this outbreak permitted assessment of fundamental, but seldom studied epidemiological parameters. As a consequence of this outbreak, it was recommended that pregnant sheep not be displayed in public during the 3rd trimester and to test animals in petting zoos regularly for C. burnetii.

  10. Hereditary periodic fever syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermott, MF; Frenkel, J

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are defined by recurrent attacks of generalised inflammation for which no infectious or auto-immune cause can be identified. For most of these disorders, the molecular basis has recently been elucidated. This has opened the prospect of novel therapeutic

  11. Fever of unknown origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders-Manders, C.; Simon, A.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    More than 50 years after the first definition of fever of unknown origin (FUO), it still remains a diagnostic challenge. Evaluation starts with the identification of potential diagnostic clues (PDCs), which should guide further investigations. In the absence of PDCs a standardised diagnostic

  12. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  13. Lithotrites and postoperative fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chu, David I; Lipkin, Michael E; Wang, Agnes J

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the risks of fever from different lithotrites after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) PNL database is a prospective, multi-institutional, international PNL registry. Of 5,803 total pa...

  14. [Fever without focus and fever of unknown origin in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Nicole

    2013-01-30

    Fever is one of the most common presenting symptoms in children. In the majority of cases the underlying cause is easily diagnosed and if necessary a treatment initiated. In case of absent localising symptoms and signs (fever without a focus) investigations rapidly need to be undertaken in particular in newborns and infants. Persisting daily fever for more than two weeks are called fever of unknown origin. Diagnosis of etiology of fever of unknown origin is challenging. In approximately half of the cases an infectious cause is found; inflammatory and mailgnant diseases account for 5 to 10% of the cases. Despite a systematic and interdisciplinary approach the etiology remains unknown in up to a quarter of cases. This review discusses differential diagnoses, suggested investigations and treatment for fever without a focus and fever of unknown origin.

  15. Epidemiology of brucellosis, Q Fever and Rift Valley Fever at the human and livestock interface in northern Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanouté, Youssouf B; Gragnon, Biégo G; Schindler, Christian; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Schelling, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Northern Côte d'Ivoire is the main livestock breeding zone and has the highest livestock cross-border movements in Côte d'Ivoire. The aim of this study was to provide updated epidemiological data on three neglected zoonotic diseases, namely brucellosis, Q Fever and Rift Valley Fever (RVF). We conducted three-stage cross-sectional cluster surveys in livestock and humans between 2012 and 2014 in a random selection of 63 villages and a sample of 633 cattle, 622 small ruminants and 88 people. We administered questionnaires to capture risk factors and performed serological tests including the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), Brucella spp. indirect and competitive ELISAs, Coxiella burnetii indirect ELISA and RVF competitive ELISA. The human seroprevalence for Brucella spp. was 5.3%. RBPT-positive small ruminants tested negative by the indirect ELISA. The seroprevalence of Brucella spp. in cattle adjusted for clustering was 4.6%. Cattle aged 5-8 years had higher odds of seropositivity (OR=3.5) than those aged ≤4years. The seropositivity in cattle was associated with having joint hygromas (OR=9), sharing the pastures with small ruminants (OR=5.8) and contact with pastoralist herds (OR=11.3). The seroprevalence of Q Fever was 13.9% in cattle, 9.4% in sheep and 12.4% in goats. The seroprevalence of RVF was 3.9% in cattle, 2.4% in sheep and 0% in goats. Seropositive ewes had greater odds (OR=4.7) of abortion than seronegative ones. In cattle, a shorter distance between the night pens and nearest permanent water bodies was a protective factor (OR=0.1). The study showed that the exposure to the three zoonoses is rather low in northern Côte d'Ivoire. Within a One Health approach, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness of control measures should be assessed for an integrated control.

  16. The presence of Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochaete, in questing Ixodes ricinus in Belgium and in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cochez, C.; Heyman, P.; Heylen, D.; Fonville, M.; Hengeveld, P.; Takken, W.; Simons, L.; Sprong, H.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a tick-borne bacterium that may cause relapsing fever in humans. As this pathogen has been discovered in Europe only recently, only little is known about its local impact on human health and its spatial distribution. In this study, we show the results of PCR screenings for B. m

  17. The presence of Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochaete, in questing Ixodes ricinus in Belgium and in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cochez, C.; Heyman, P.; Heylen, D.; Fonville, M.; Hengeveld, P.; Takken, W.; Simons, L.; Sprong, H.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a tick-borne bacterium that may cause relapsing fever in humans. As this pathogen has been discovered in Europe only recently, only little is known about its local impact on human health and its spatial distribution. In this study, we show the results of PCR screenings for B.

  18. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in domesticated and feral cats in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Amanda J; Bosward, Katrina L; Heller, Jane; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2015-05-15

    The seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) in cats in eastern Australia is unknown, and the risk of transmission from cats to humans is undetermined. This study aimed to determine the exposure of cats to C. burnetii in four distinct cat subpopulations. An indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used for detection of anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans were adapted, verified for use on feline serum, and compared. Cat serum samples (n=712) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [cattery-confined breeding cats, pet cats, feral cats and shelter cats]. The proportions of seropositive cats were; cattery-confined breeding cats (35/376, 9.3%), pets (2/198, 1%), feral cats (0/50), shelter cats (0/88). The significant variables in C. burnetii seropositivity were cattery-confined breeding cat subpopulation and sterilisation status, with infected cats 17.1 (CI 4.2-70.2; Pcats and 6.00 (CI 2.13-16.89; Pcats have been exposed to C. burnetii and that a higher seroprevalence of C. burnetii is seen amongst cattery-confined breeding cats. Cat breeders and veterinary personnel involved in feline reproductive procedures may be at higher risk of exposure to C. burnetii. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel Detection of Coxiella spp., Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis Endosymbionts in Deer Keds (Lipoptena fortisetosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Kyoo-Tae; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Ock, Younsung; Kim, Taeil; Choi, Donghag

    2016-01-01

    We describe for the first time the detection of Coxiella-like bacteria (CLB), Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis endosymbionts in blood-sucking deer keds. Eight deer keds attached to a Korean water deer were identified as Lipoptena fortisetosa (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) by morphological and genetic analyses. Among the endosymbionts assessed, CLB, Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis were identified in L. fortisetosa by PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Based on phylogeny, CLB 16S rRNA sequences were classified into clade B, sharing 99.4% identity with CLB from Haemaphysalis longicornis in South Korea. Although the virulence of CLB to vertebrates is still controversial, several studies have reported clinical symptoms in birds due to CLB infections. The 18S rRNA sequences of T. luwenshuni and T. ovis in this study were 98.8–100% identical to those in GenBank, and all of the obtained sequences of T. ovis and T. luwenshuni in this study were 100% identical to each other, respectively. Although further studies are required to positively confirm L. fortisetosa as a biological vector of these pathogens, strong genetic relationships among sequences from this and previous studies suggest potential transmission among mammalian hosts by ticks and keds. PMID:27244561

  20. Novel Detection of Coxiella spp., Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis Endosymbionts in Deer Keds (Lipoptena fortisetosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hun Lee

    Full Text Available We describe for the first time the detection of Coxiella-like bacteria (CLB, Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis endosymbionts in blood-sucking deer keds. Eight deer keds attached to a Korean water deer were identified as Lipoptena fortisetosa (Diptera: Hippoboscidae by morphological and genetic analyses. Among the endosymbionts assessed, CLB, Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis were identified in L. fortisetosa by PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Based on phylogeny, CLB 16S rRNA sequences were classified into clade B, sharing 99.4% identity with CLB from Haemaphysalis longicornis in South Korea. Although the virulence of CLB to vertebrates is still controversial, several studies have reported clinical symptoms in birds due to CLB infections. The 18S rRNA sequences of T. luwenshuni and T. ovis in this study were 98.8-100% identical to those in GenBank, and all of the obtained sequences of T. ovis and T. luwenshuni in this study were 100% identical to each other, respectively. Although further studies are required to positively confirm L. fortisetosa as a biological vector of these pathogens, strong genetic relationships among sequences from this and previous studies suggest potential transmission among mammalian hosts by ticks and keds.

  1. Immunogenicity of Coxiella burnetii whole cells and their outer membrane components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdosová, E; Kovácová, E; Toman, R; Skultéty, L; Lukácová, M; Kazár, J

    1994-12-01

    The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the phase I and phase II Coxiella burnetii whole cells (Cb I and Cb II) and their outer membrane components (OMC), i.e. phase I trichloroacetic acid extract (TCAE), phase I 29 K protein (PRO), phase I and II lipopolysaccharides (LPS I, LPS II), polysaccharides (PS I, PS II), and lipid A (LA I, LA II), were compared. The highest immune response was observed in BALB/c mice by Cb I in both humoral immunity and lymphocyte transformation assays, and in the protective effect as well. The immune response was also significant by Cb II, but their protective capacity was low. The OMC reacted variously. Only TCAE and PRO gave a high value of humoral immunity evaluated by the serological methods. All OMC reacted in the haemolytic plaque assay giving different responses. Lymphoproliferation of splenocytes was positive with all OMC using both Cb I and Cb II antigens with the exception of PS I and PS II in the case of Cb II antigen. The induction of protection against infectious Cb I was demonstrated after immunization with TCAE, PRO, and LPS I. Other OMC did not induce protection against this agent.

  2. Prevalence of antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus and Coxiella burnetii in goat herds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czopowicz, M; Kaba, J; Szaluś-Jordanow, O; Nowicki, M; Witkowski, L; Nowicka, D; Frymus, T

    2010-01-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out to determine the herd prevalence of Chlamydophila abortus and Coxiella burnetii antibodies in goats covered by a milk recording program in Poland. The survey took place in 2007 and 48 herds located in different parts of the country were involved. A representative sample from each herd was taken by a simple random sampling allowing to detect seropositivity of a herd on a 95% level of confidence. In total 918 goats were tested for specific antibodies against both germs with the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. In addition, history of reproductive failures was recorded in these herds. The survey revealed that the herd prevalence of C. abortus was 4.2% (2 herds) while no C. burnetii antibodies were found. Abortions were reported to be a problem in 80% of herds while repeating estrus was encountered in 46% of herds. Reproductive failure concerned two seropositive herds as well. Since the germ is present in the population, it has to be taken into consideration in diagnostic process. Nevertheless, the results of the present study indicate that C. abortus infection occurs infrequently in Polish goats. As no antibodies against C. burnetii were detected in the screened sample the risk of goat-to-human transmission of both bacteria in Poland seems to be very low.

  3. Typhoid fever as a cause of opportunistic infection: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumminia Salvatore

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Typhoid fever is a systemic infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype typhi, which is acquired by ingestion of contaminated food and water. Each year the disease affects at least 16 million persons world-wide, most of whom reside in the developing countries of Southeast Asia and Africa. In Italy the disease is uncommon with a greater number of cases in Southern regions than in Northern ones. Case presentation We report on a 57-year-old Sri-Lankan male affected by typhoid fever, the onset of which was accompanied by oropharyngeal candidiasis. This clinical sign was due to a transient cell-mediated immunity depression (CD4+ cell count was 130 cells/mm3 probably caused by Salmonella typhi infection. Human immunodeficiency virus infection was ruled out. Diagnosis of typhoid fever was made by the isolation of Salmonella typhi from two consecutive blood cultures. The patient recovered after a ten days therapy with ciprofloxacin and his CD4+ cell count improved gradually until normalization within 3 weeks. Conclusion Our patient is the first reported case of typhoid fever associated with oropharyngeal candidiasis. This finding suggests a close correlation between Salmonella typhi infection and transitory immunodepression.

  4. Fever of unknown origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulders-Manders, Catharina; Simon, Anna; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal

    2015-06-01

    More than 50 years after the first definition of fever of unknown origin (FUO), it still remains a diagnostic challenge. Evaluation starts with the identification of potential diagnostic clues (PDCs), which should guide further investigations. In the absence of PDCs a standardised diagnostic protocol should be followed with PET-CT as the imaging technique of first choice. Even with a standardised protocol, in a large proportion of patients from western countries the cause for FUO cannot be identified. The treatment of FUO is guided by the final diagnosis, but when no cause is found, antipyretic drugs can be prescribed. Corticosteroids should be avoided in the absence of a diagnosis, especially at an early stage. The prognosis of FUO is determined by the underlying cause. The majority of patients with unexplained FUO will eventually show spontaneous remission of fever. We describe the definition, diagnostic workup, causes and treatment of FUO. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  5. Ebola haemorrhagic fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Heinz; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    Ebola viruses are the causative agents of a severe form of viral haemorrhagic fever in man, designated Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and are endemic in regions of central Africa. The exception is the species Reston Ebola virus, which has not been associated with human disease and is found in the Philippines. Ebola virus constitutes an important local public health threat in Africa, with a worldwide effect through imported infections and through the fear of misuse for biological terrorism. Ebola virus is thought to also have a detrimental effect on the great ape population in Africa. Case-fatality rates of the African species in man are as high as 90%, with no prophylaxis or treatment available. Ebola virus infections are characterised by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that causes impairment of the vascular, coagulation, and immune systems, leading to multiorgan failure and shock, and thus, in some ways, resembling septic shock. PMID:21084112

  6. Neurologic manifestations associated with an outbreak of typhoid fever, Malawi--Mozambique, 2009: an epidemiologic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejvar, James; Lutterloh, Emily; Naiene, Jeremias; Likaka, Andrew; Manda, Robert; Nygren, Benjamin; Monroe, Stephan; Khaila, Tadala; Lowther, Sara A; Capewell, Linda; Date, Kashmira; Townes, David; Redwood, Yanique; Schier, Joshua; Barr, Beth Tippett; Demby, Austin; Mallewa, Macpherson; Kampondeni, Sam; Blount, Ben; Humphrys, Michael; Talkington, Deborah; Armstrong, Gregory L; Mintz, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi causes typhoid fever, which is typically associated with fever and abdominal pain. An outbreak of typhoid fever in Malawi-Mozambique in 2009 was notable for a high proportion of neurologic illness. Describe neurologic features complicating typhoid fever during an outbreak in Malawi-Mozambique Persons meeting a clinical case definition were identified through surveillance, with laboratory confirmation of typhoid by antibody testing or blood/stool culture. We gathered demographic and clinical information, examined patients, and evaluated a subset of patients 11 months after onset. A sample of persons with and without neurologic signs was tested for vitamin B6 and B12 levels and urinary thiocyanate. Between March - November 2009, 303 cases of typhoid fever were identified. Forty (13%) persons had objective neurologic findings, including 14 confirmed by culture/serology; 27 (68%) were hospitalized, and 5 (13%) died. Seventeen (43%) had a constellation of upper motor neuron findings, including hyperreflexia, spasticity, or sustained ankle clonus. Other neurologic features included ataxia (22, 55%), parkinsonism (8, 20%), and tremors (4, 10%). Brain MRI of 3 (ages 5, 7, and 18 years) demonstrated cerebral atrophy but no other abnormalities. Of 13 patients re-evaluated 11 months later, 11 recovered completely, and 2 had persistent hyperreflexia and ataxia. Vitamin B6 levels were markedly low in typhoid fever patients both with and without neurologic signs. Neurologic signs may complicate typhoid fever, and the diagnosis should be considered in persons with acute febrile neurologic illness in endemic areas.

  7. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-31

    infectious virus was present in this organ at least 440 days after infection. Virus was recovered from kidney and parotid glands from about 15 to 43...beginning 10-15 days after inoculation. This type of host response provides excellent experimental evidence confirming the long-held epidemiological ...30. Vasyuta, Yu, S. The epidemiology of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the E.S.F.S.R.Zh. Mikrobiol. Epidemiol. Immunol., 32: 49-56, 1961. 31

  8. Understanding rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Pedro Ming; Pereira, Rosa Rodrigues; Guilherme, Luiza

    2012-05-01

    Through a comprehensive review of the recent findings on rheumatic fever, we intend to propose a new physiopathologic model for this disease. A Medline search was performed for all articles containing the terms rheumatic fever or rheumatic heart disease in title or abstract from 1970 to 2011. Best evidence qualitative technique was used to select the most relevant. The scientific interest on rheumatic fever has notably diminished throughout the twentieth century as evidenced by the comparison of the proportion of articles in which RF was a subject in 1950 (0.26%) and today (0.03%) [Pubmed]. However, RF remains a major medical and social problem in the developing world and in the so-called hotspots, where it still causes around 500.000 deaths each year, not too different from the pre-antibiotic era. The role of genetic factors in RF susceptibility is discussed. Familiar aggregation, similarity of disease patterns between siblings, identical twin, and HLA correlation studies are evidence for a genetic influence on RF susceptibility. The suspect-involved genes fall mainly into those capable of immunologic mediation. Molecular mimicry explains the triggering of RF, but an intense and sustained inflammation is needed to cause sequels. Also, RF patients vary greatly in terms of symptoms. It is likely that a genetic background directing immune response towards a predominantly Th1 or Th2 pattern contributes to these features. The recent findings on rheumatic fever provide important insight on its physiopathology that helps understanding this prototype post-infectious autoimmune disease giving insights on other autoimmune conditions.

  9. Sadfly fever: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkale, Yasemin; Özkale, Murat; Kiper, Pinar; Çetinkaya, Bilin; Erol, İlknur

    2016-06-01

    Sandfly fever, also known as 'three-day fever' or 'pappataci fever' or 'Phlebotomus fever' is a viral infection that causes self-limited influenza-like symptoms and characterized by a rapid onset. The disease occurs commonly in endemic areas in summer months and especially in August during which sandflies are active. In this article, two siblings who presented with high fever, redness in the eyes, headache, weakness, malaise and inability to walk, who were found to have increased liver function tests and creatine kinase levels and who were diagnosed with sadfly fever with positive sadfly IgM and IgG antibodies are reported because of the rarity of this disease.

  10. Chikungunya fever presenting with protracted severe pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Leonichev, Victoria B; Raza, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Travelers returning from the tropics often present with rash/fever. Those with rash/fever and myalgias/arthralgias are most likely due to chikungunya fever, dengue fever, or Zika virus. In these arthropod viral transmitted infections, the rash may be pruritic. The case presented here is that of chikungunya fever remarkable for the intensity and duration of her pruritis.

  11. Typhoid Fever, Below the Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendran, Kamakshi Mahadevan; Viswanathan, Stalin

    2016-01-01

    Genital ulcers occur due to infective, inflammatory, malignant and drug-related causes. In tropical countries such as India, such ulcers are due to parasitic, tubercular, rickettsial and bacterial (sexually transmitted infections) aetiologies. Typhoid fever is endemic in the tropics. Except "rose spots", skin manifestations in typhoid fever are unusual, and they are missed due to pigmented skin. Patients do not often complain of genital ulcers due to shame or fear. Genital examination is not routinely performed in typhoid fever. We describe scrotal ulcers as the presenting symptom of typhoid fever, which subsided with appropriate therapy.

  12. Fever in the pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Robyn; Dor, Maya R; McQuilkin, Patricia A

    2013-11-01

    Fever is the most common reason that children and infants are brought to emergency departments. Emergency physicians face the challenge of quickly distinguishing benign from life-threatening conditions. The management of fever in children is guided by the patient's age, immunization status, and immune status as well as the results of a careful physical examination and appropriate laboratory tests and radiographic views. In this article, the evaluation and treatment of children with fevers of known and unknown origin are described. Causes of common and dangerous conditions that include fever in their manifestation are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rickettsia amblyommii infecting Amblyomma sculptum in endemic spotted fever area from southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Emília de Carvalho Nunes; Vinicius Figueiredo Vizzoni; Daniel Leal Navarro; Felipe Campos de Melo Iani; Liliane Silva Durães; Erik Daemon; Carlos Augusto Gomes Soares; Gilberto Salles Gazeta

    2015-01-01

    The Rickettsia bacteria include the aetiological agents for the human spotted fever (SF) disease. In the present study, a SF group Rickettsia amblyommii related bacterium was detected in a field collected Amblyomma sculptum (Amblyomma cajennense species complex) tick from a Brazilian SF endemic site in southeastern Brazil, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais. Genetic analysis based on genes ompA, ompB and htrA showed that the detected strain, named R. amblyo...

  14. Q-fever, human and animal morbidity in some regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvizdić, Sukrija; Bajrović, Tarik; Beslagić, Edina; Puvacić, Sandra; Velić, Ramiz; Maglajlia, Jasminka; Hamzić, Sadeta; Kapić, Elvedina; Zvizdić, Amra

    2002-01-01

    Q-Fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetti. C. burnetti is an obligate intracellular parasite. It lives in phagolysosome of the host cell. By its infection of the sensitive persons develops the acute noncharacteristic disease, which passes noncharacteristically, with the appearance of higher temperature, headache, fever, weakness of the organism or by the appearance of symptoms of the undifferentiated infection of the upper parties of the respiratory system. In the course of the infection is being developed the intersticial pneumonia, what is the reason of the infected hospitalization. Most often get sick the sheep, cows and goats, what showed also on our examined sample. In most animals the symptoms of this bacterial infection are not present, pass unobviously, and get turned out during their gravidity. The most important carriers of the causes of this disease on the domestic or wild animals are artropodes, in which within the kind is possible also the transvatial and transstadial transfer. The wild animals transfer the disease at the domestic ones, and people most often are infected by contact with these animals, their consuming of meat or milk or by contact with their secretions. Though, the most important way of getting infected of people is aerosol contaminated by the carrier as these bacteria for a long get kept in the contaminated dust, wool, animal skin, fur, straw and the excretions of the infected animals. In the illusorilly healthy and pregnant animals the bacteria are to be found in the fertile water, chorions, and placenta, that is C. burnetti becomes the cause of the premature birth or abortion in these animals. In this way comes to the bacterial contamination of the environment of the animal itself. The diagnosis of Q.-Fever is complement fixation test, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFT) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA).

  15. Fever's glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, P A; Boulant, J A

    1996-03-01

    The importance of an upper limit of the febrile response has been recognized since the time of Hippocrates. Although the precise temperature defining this limit varies according to the site at which body temperature is measured, human core temperature is almost never permitted to rise above 41 degrees C-42 degrees C during fever. There are compelling physiological reasons for such an upper limit of regulated body temperature. The mechanisms by which the limit is maintained are most likely complex and involve special properties of thermoregulatory neurons themselves, circulating endogenous antipyretics (such as arginine vasopressin and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone), and soluble receptors for the (pyrogenic) cytokine mediators of the febrile response.

  16. Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Albayrak

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF is an autosomal recessive genetic disease that affects males and females. FMF gene is on the short arm of chromosome 16. It is most often found in Jews, Arabs, Turks, and Armenians. Amyloidosis is charecterized by the deposition of a particular protein between the cells in the tissue. It is a potentially serious complication of FMF. The kidney is a prime target for the amyloid. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 260-267

  17. Ebola hemorrhagic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an often-fatal disease caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family, genus Ebolavirus. Initial signs and symptoms of the disease are nonspecific, often progressing on to a severe hemorrhagic illness. Special Operations Forces Medical Providers should be aware of this disease, which occurs in sporadic outbreaks throughout Africa. Treatment at the present time is mainly supportive. Special care should be taken to prevent contact with bodily fluids of those infected, which can transmit the virus to caregivers. 2014.

  18. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Share Compartir Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) On this Page What ... is HFRS prevented? Suggested Reading What is hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome? Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome ( ...

  19. What about My Child and Rheumatic Fever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cardiovascular Conditions What About My Child and Rheumatic Fever? Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory reaction that can occur after ... strep throat infections don’t lead to rheumatic fever. When they do, the time between the strep ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: familial Mediterranean fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions familial Mediterranean fever familial Mediterranean fever Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial Mediterranean fever is an inherited condition characterized by recurrent episodes ...

  1. Travelers' Health: Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in an Area with Zika? Find a Clinic Yellow Fever Vaccinations Clinics FAQ Disease Directory Resources Resources for ... CE Courses and Training Presentations for Health Professionals Yellow Fever Vaccine Course About the Yellow Fever Vaccine Course ...

  2. Dengue fever presenting as acute acalculus cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshipura, Vismit P; Soni, Harshad N; Patel, Nitin R; Haribhakti, Sanjiv P

    2007-06-01

    Classically dengue fever presents as fever with myalgia. A patient of dengue fever presented with classical symptoms and signs of acute acalculous cholecystitis. Serology and ultrasound examination identified dengue as the aetiology. Patient was treated successfully by conservative measures.

  3. Mayaro fever virus, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Raimunda S S; Silva, Eliana V P; Carvalho, Valéria L; Rodrigues, Sueli G; Nunes-Neto, Joaquim P; Monteiro, Hamilton; Peixoto, Victor S; Chiang, Jannifer O; Nunes, Márcio R T; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2009-11-01

    In February 2008, a Mayaro fever virus (MAYV) outbreak occurred in a settlement in Santa Barbara municipality, northern Brazil. Patients had rash, fever, and severe arthralgia lasting up to 7 days. Immunoglobulin M against MAYV was detected by ELISA in 36 persons; 3 MAYV isolates sequenced were characterized as genotype D.

  4. Mayaro Fever Virus, Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Raimunda S.S.; Silva, Eliana V.P.; Carvalho, Valéria L.; Rodrigues, Sueli G.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Monteiro, Hamilton A.O.; Peixoto, Victor S.; Chiang, Jannifer O.; Nunes, Márcio R.T.

    2009-01-01

    In February 2008, a Mayaro fever virus (MAYV) outbreak occurred in a settlement in Santa Barbara municipality, northern Brazil. Patients had rash, fever, and severe arthralgia lasting up to 7 days. Immunoglobulin M against MAYV was detected by ELISA in 36 persons; 3 MAYV isolates sequenced were characterized as genotype D. PMID:19891877

  5. Q fever: The Dutch Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruschke, C.J.M.; Roest, H.I.J.; Coutinho, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2010, the Netherlands experienced an unprecedented outbreak of Q fever of more than 4000 human cases. Q fever infections of dairy goats, leading to abortion waves, were considered to be the cause of this outbreak. Measures to combat the outbreak had to be taken based on limited scie

  6. Febre amarela Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A febre amarela é doenca infecciosa não-contagiosa causada por um arbovírus mantido em ciclos silvestres em que macacos atuam como hospedeiros amplificadores e mosquitos dos gêneros Aedes na África, e Haemagogus e Sabethes na América, são os transmissores. Cerca de 90% dos casos da doença apresentam-se com formas clínicas benignas que evoluem para a cura, enquanto 10% desenvolvem quadros dramáticos com mortalidade em torno de 50%. O problema mostra-se mais grave em África onde ainda há casos urbanos. Nas Américas, no período de 1970-2001, descreveram-se 4.543 casos. Os países que mais diagnosticaram a doença foram o Peru (51,5%, a Bolívia (20,1% e o Brasil (18,7%. Os métodos diagnósticos utilizados incluem a sorologia (IgM, isolamento viral, imunohistoquímica e RT-PCR. A zoonose não pode ser erradicada, mas, a doença humana é prevenível mediante a vacinação com a amostra 17D do vírus amarílico. A OMS recomenda nova vacinação a cada 10 anos. Neste artigo são revistos os principais conceitos da doença e os casos de mortes associados à vacina.Yellow fever is an infectious and non-contagious disease caused by an arbovirus, the yellow fever virus. The agent is maintained in jungle cycles among primates as vertebrate hosts and mosquitoes, especially Aedes in Africa, and Haemagogus and Sabethes in America. Approximately 90% of the infections are mild or asymptomatic, while 10% course to a severe clinical picture with 50% case-fatality rate. Yellow fever is largely distributed in Africa where urban epidemics are still reported. In South America, between 1970-2001, 4,543 cases were reported, mostly from Peru (51.5%, Bolivia (20.1% and Brazil (18.7%. The disease is diagnosed by serology (detection of IgM, virus isolation, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Yellow fever is a zoonosis and cannot be eradicated, but it is preventable in man by using the 17D vaccine. A single dose is enough to protect an individual for at least

  7. New generation typhoid vaccines: an effective preventive strategy to control typhoid fever in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ramesh; Bairwa, Mohan; Chawla, Suraj; Prinja, Shankar; Rajput, Meena

    2011-08-01

    Typhoid fever is a serious systemic infection, caused by the enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, a highly virulent and invasive enteric bacterium. This disease occurs in all parts of world where water supplies and sanitation are substandard. These pathogens then travel to food, drinks and water through house-flies and other vectors. Globally, an estimated 12-33 million cases of enteric fever occur with 216,00-600,000 deaths per year, almost exclusively in the developing countries. Health surveys conducted by the Health Ministry of India in the community development areas indicated a morbidity rate varying from 102-2219/100,000 population in different parts of the country. A limited study in an urban slum showed 1% of children up to 17 years of age suffer from typhoid fever annually. The continued high burden of typhoid fever and the alarming spread of antibiotic resistant strains led the World Health Organization (WHO), almost ten years ago, to recommend immunization using the two new-generation vaccines in school- aged children in areas where typhoid fever posed a significant problem and where antibiotic resistant strains were prevalent. Morbidity and mortality due to high incidence of typhoid fever favors the introduction of typhoid vaccine in routine immunization in India. This vaccine should be given at the age of 2 years with Vi antigen vaccine and at least one more dose be given at 5 years of age.

  8. The centenary of the discovery of trench fever, an emerging infectious disease of World War 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstead, Gregory M

    2016-08-01

    In 1915, a British medical officer on the Western Front reported on a soldier with relapsing fever, headache, dizziness, lumbago, and shin pain. Within months, additional cases were described, mostly in frontline troops, and the new disease was called trench fever. More than 1 million troops were infected with trench fever during World War 1, with each affected soldier unfit for duty for more than 60 days. Diagnosis was challenging, because there were no pathognomonic signs and symptoms and the causative organism could not be cultured. For 3 years, the transmission and cause of trench fever were hotly debated. In 1918, two commissions identified that the disease was louse-borne. The bacterium Rickettsia quintana was consistently found in the gut and faeces of lice that had fed on patients with trench fever and its causative role was accepted in the 1920s. The organism was cultured in the 1960s and reclassified as Bartonella quintana; it was also found to cause endocarditis, peliosis hepatis, and bacillary angiomatosis. Subsequently, B quintana infection has been identified in new populations in the Andes, in homeless people in urban areas, and in individuals with HIV. The story of trench fever shows how war can lead to the recrudescence of an infectious disease and how medicine approached an emerging infection a century ago.

  9. Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www. immunize. org/ vis 1 What is yellow fever? Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the ... serious cases) 2 How can I prevent yellow fever? Yellow fever vaccine Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow ...

  10. Coxiella burnetii Nine Mile II proteins modulate gene expression of monocytic host cells during infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Edward I

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes acute and chronic disease in humans. Bacterial replication occurs within enlarged parasitophorous vacuoles (PV of eukaryotic cells, the biogenesis and maintenance of which is dependent on C. burnetii protein synthesis. These observations suggest that C. burnetii actively subverts host cell processes, however little is known about the cellular biology mechanisms manipulated by the pathogen during infection. Here, we examined host cell gene expression changes specifically induced by C. burnetii proteins during infection. Results We have identified 36 host cell genes that are specifically regulated when de novo C. burnetii protein synthesis occurs during infection using comparative microarray analysis. Two parallel sets of infected and uninfected THP-1 cells were grown for 48 h followed by the addition of chloramphenicol (CAM to 10 μg/ml in one set. Total RNA was harvested at 72 hpi from all conditions, and microarrays performed using Phalanx Human OneArray™ slides. A total of 784 (mock treated and 901 (CAM treated THP-1 genes were up or down regulated ≥2 fold in the C. burnetii infected vs. uninfected cell sets, respectively. Comparisons between the complementary data sets (using >0 fold, eliminated the common gene expression changes. A stringent comparison (≥2 fold between the separate microarrays revealed 36 host cell genes modulated by C. burnetii protein synthesis. Ontological analysis of these genes identified the innate immune response, cell death and proliferation, vesicle trafficking and development, lipid homeostasis, and cytoskeletal organization as predominant cellular functions modulated by C. burnetii protein synthesis. Conclusions Collectively, these data indicate that C. burnetii proteins actively regulate the expression of specific host cell genes and pathways. This is in addition to host cell genes that respond to the presence of the

  11. ETIOLOGY OF YELLOW FEVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Hideyo

    1922-01-01

    Analysis of the records of instances in which non-immune persons contracted yellow fever notwithstanding vaccination shows that the onset of disease occurs soon after vaccination, the longest period being 13 days. Since the average incubation period in yellow fever is 6 days, it seems that infection must have taken place in some instances during the period while protection was developing. These instances led to a study of the possibility of immediate protection by means of the anti-icteroides serum. It had already been shown that the immune serum protects at once against experimental Leptospira icteroides infection, but it remained to determine how long the protection would last. Guinea pigs were given different quantities of the immune serum and subsequently injected, at various intervals, with a virulent strain of Leptospira icteroides. Complete protection enduring 5 days was obtained with as minute a quantity of serum as 0.002 cc. per 1,000 gm. of body weight. After 5 days, however, the immune substance rapidly diminished, and to keep the animal protected for as long as 10 days it was necessary to give 100 times as much, or 0.2 cc. For a man weighing 80 kilos, 0.16 cc. (0.002 x 80) would theoretically be sufficient to protect for at least 5 days, 1.6 cc. for 7 days, and 16 cc. for 10 days. This temporary protection may be a valuable antecedent to that furnished by vaccination, since the final effect of the latter cannot be expected until at least 9 to 10 days have passed. PMID:19868677

  12. Analysis of Q fever in Dutch dairy goat herds and assessment of control measures by means of a transmission model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontje, D M; Backer, J A; Hogerwerf, L; Roest, H I J; van Roermund, H J W

    2016-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2009 the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source of infection was traced back to dairy goat herds with abortion problems due to Q fever. The first aim of control measures taken in these herds was the reduction of human exposure. To analyze Q fever dynamics in goat herds and to study the effect of control measures, a within-herd model of Coxiella burnetii transmission in dairy goat herds was developed. With this individual-based stochastic model we evaluated six control strategies and three herd management styles and studied which strategy leads to a lower Q fever prevalence and/or to disease extinction in a goat herd. Parameter values were based on literature and on experimental work. The model could not be validated with independent data. The results of the epidemiological model were: (1) Vaccination is effective in quickly reducing the prevalence in a dairy goat herd. (2) When taking into account the average time to extinction of the infection and the infection pressure in a goat herd, the most effective control strategy is preventive yearly vaccination, followed by the reactive strategies to vaccinate after an abortion storm or after testing BTM (bulk tank milk) positive. (3) As C. burnetii in dried dust may affect public health, an alternative ranking method is based on the cumulative amount of C. burnetii emitted into the environment (from disease introduction until extinction). Using this criterion, the same control strategies are effective as when based on time to extinction and infection pressure (see 2). (4) As the bulk of pathogen excretion occurs during partus and abortion, culling of pregnant animals during an abortion storm leads to a fast reduction of the amount of C. burnetii emitted into the environment. However, emission is not entirely prevented and Q fever will not be eradicated in the herd by this measure. (5) A search & destroy (i.e. test and cull) method by PCR of individual milk

  13. Rhombencephalitis associated with Dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajesh; Bharti, Kavita; Mehta, Mannan; Bansod, Amrit

    2016-05-01

    Dengue infection is gradually disseminating throughout the world in alarming proportions. It is a arbovirus infection,transmitted by aedes mosquitoes. It is a multi-systemic disorder associated with varied neurological complications. There is increased trend of development of neurological complications in dengue fever. The neurological complications arising due to dengue infection can be categorized into central and neuromuscular complications. The central nervous system disorders reported with dengue fever are encephalopathy,encephalitis and myelitis.Here we report a case of rhombencephalitis associated with dengue fever. The literature does not mention rhombencephalitis occurring with dengue illness.

  14. Q Fever Outbreak among Workers at a Waste-Sorting Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Eva; Lopez-Etxaniz, Idoia; Hurtado, Ana; Liendo, Paloma; Urbaneja, Felix; Aspiritxaga, Inmaculada; Olaizola, Jose Ignacio; Piñero, Alvaro; Arrazola, Iñaki; Barandika, Jesús F.; Hernáez, Silvia; Muniozguren, Nerea; García- Pérez, Ana L.

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of Q fever occurred in February–April 2014 among workers at a waste-sorting plant in Bilbao (Spain). The outbreak affected 58.5% of investigated employees, 47.2% as confirmed cases (PCR and/or serology) and 11.3% as probable cases (symptoms without laboratory confirmation). Only employees who had no-access to the waste processing areas of the plant were not affected and incidence of infection was significantly higher among workers not using respiratory protection masks. Detection by qPCR of Coxiella burnetii in dust collected from surfaces of the plant facilities confirmed exposure of workers inside the plant. Animal remains sporadically detected among the residues received for waste-sorting were the most probable source of infection. After cleaning and disinfection, all environmental samples tested negative. Personal protection measures were reinforced and made compulsory for the staff and actions were taken to raise farmers’ awareness of the biological risk of discharging animal carcasses as urban waste. PMID:26398249

  15. Discriminating fever behavior in house flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Anderson

    Full Text Available Fever has generally been shown to benefit infected hosts. However, fever temperatures also carry costs. While endotherms are able to limit fever costs physiologically, the means by which behavioral thermoregulators constrain these costs are less understood. Here we investigated the behavioral fever response of house flies (Musca domestica L. challenged with different doses of the fungal entomopathogen, Beauveria bassiana. Infected flies invoked a behavioral fever selecting the hottest temperature early in the day and then moving to cooler temperatures as the day progressed. In addition, flies infected with a higher dose of fungus exhibited more intense fever responses. These variable patterns of fever are consistent with the observation that higher fever temperatures had greater impact on fungal growth. The results demonstrate the capacity of insects to modulate the degree and duration of the fever response depending on the severity of the pathogen challenge and in so doing, balance the costs and benefits of fever.

  16. The natural infection of birds and ticks feeding on birds with Rickettsia spp. and Coxiella burnetii in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthová, Lenka; Slobodník, Vladimír; Slobodník, Roman; Olekšák, Milan; Sekeyová, Zuzana; Svitálková, Zuzana; Kazimírová, Mária; Špitalská, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Ixodid ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are known as primary vectors of many pathogens causing diseases in humans and animals. Ixodes ricinus is a common ectoparasite in Europe and birds are often hosts of subadult stages of the tick. From 2012 to 2013, 347 birds belonging to 43 species were caught and examined for ticks in three sites of Slovakia. Ticks and blood samples from birds were analysed individually for the presence of Rickettsia spp. and Coxiella burnetii by PCR-based methods. Only I. ricinus was found to infest birds. In total 594 specimens of bird-attached ticks were collected (451 larvae, 142 nymphs, 1 female). Altogether 37.2% (16/43) of bird species were infested by ticks and some birds carried more than one tick. The great tit, Parus major (83.8%, 31/37) was the most infested species. In total, 6.6 and 2.7% of bird-attached ticks were infected with Rickettsia spp. and C. burnetii, respectively. Rickettsia helvetica predominated (5.9%), whereas R. monacensis (0.5%) was only sporadically detected. Coxiella burnetii was detected in 0.9%, Rickettsia spp. in 8.9% and R. helvetica in 4.2% of bird blood samples. The great tit was the bird species most infested with I. ricinus, carried R. helvetica and C. burnetti positive tick larvae and nymphs and was found to be rickettsaemic in its blood. Further studies are necessary to define the role of birds in the circulation of rickettsiae and C. burnetii in natural foci.

  17. Clinical pathogenesis of typhoid fever

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raffatellu, Manuela; Wilson, R Paul; Winter, Sebastian E; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2008-01-01

    ...: gastroenteritis and typhoid fever. Clinical observations suggest that gastroenteritis, caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars, is characterized by a massive neutrophil influx, which keeps the infection localized to the intestinal mucosa...

  18. Childhood Fever: parental beliefs and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, M J; Rosencrantz, A; Kneller, P

    1988-01-01

    Childhood fever is often seen in family-practice. Clinical experience has shown the authors that parental anxiety often initiates early, aggressive treatment of fever with antipyretics. The authors studied parents' beliefs and practices relating to fever control in their children, and who or what their information sources were. The findings indicate that parents are commonly misinformed about the nature of childhood fever and its management, and that physicians need to learn more about conveying information on fever to patients.

  19. Typhoid Fever, Below the Belt

    OpenAIRE

    Raveendran, Kamakshi Mahadevan; Viswanathan, Stalin

    2016-01-01

    Genital ulcers occur due to infective, inflammatory, malignant and drug-related causes. In tropical countries such as India, such ulcers are due to parasitic, tubercular, rickettsial and bacterial (sexually transmitted infections) aetiologies. Typhoid fever is endemic in the tropics. Except “rose spots”, skin manifestations in typhoid fever are unusual, and they are missed due to pigmented skin. Patients do not often complain of genital ulcers due to shame or fear. Genital examination is not ...

  20. Fever, febrile seizures and epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Seizures induced by fever (febrile seizures) are the most common type of pathological brain activity in infants and children. These febrile seizures and their potential contribution to the mechanisms of limbic (temporal lobe) epilepsy have been a topic of major clinical and scientific interest. Key questions include the mechanisms by which fever generates seizures, the effects of long febrile seizures on neuronal function and the potential contribution of these seizures to epilepsy. This revi...

  1. Treatment of dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajapakse S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Senaka Rajapakse,1,2 Chaturaka Rodrigo,1 Anoja Rajapakse31Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka; 2Lincoln County Hospital, United Lincolnshire NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK; 3Kings Mill Hospital, Sherwood Forest NHS Foundation Trust, Mansfield, UKAbstract: The endemic area for dengue fever extends over 60 countries, and approximately 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection. The incidence of dengue has multiplied many times over the last five decades at an alarming rate. In the endemic areas, waves of infection occur in epidemics, with thousands of individuals affected, creating a huge burden on the limited resources of a country's health care system. While the illness passes off as a simple febrile episode in many, a few have a severe illness marked by hypovolemic shock and bleeding. Iatrogenic fluid overload in the management may further complicate the picture. In this severe form dengue can be fatal. Tackling the burden of dengue is impeded by several issues, including a lack of understanding about the exact pathophysiology of the infection, inability to successfully control the vector population, lack of specific therapy against the virus, and the technical difficulties in developing a vaccine. This review provides an overview on the epidemiology, natural history, management strategies, and future directions for research on dengue, including the potential for development of a vaccine.Keywords: dengue, treatment, fluid resuscitation

  2. Onset and duration of immunity in guinea pigs and mice induced with different Q fever vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazár, J; Votruba, D; Propper, P; Schramek, S

    1986-11-01

    Protective effects of different types of Q fever vaccines, namely untreated Coxiella burnetii phase I cells (Cb I) or Cb I cells treated with chloroform-methanol (CM) mixture (Cb I-CM) and of a Q fever chemovaccine obtained by trichloroacetic acid extraction (TCAE) from intact Cb I cells, were compared in mice and guinea pigs at different intervals after intraperitoneal (i.p.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) immunizations. The highest degree of protection at all intervals studied was achieved with Cb I cells, irrespective of the route of immunization and i.p. or aerosol challenge. This vaccine exerted a protective effect in guinea pigs and mice as early as after one or two weeks post-immunization, the effect lasting for at least 40 weeks in mice (i.p. challenge) and 12 months in guinea pigs (aerosol challenge). Addition of small amount of Cb I cells to TCAE increased resistance of guinea pigs to aerosol challenge. Degree, onset and duration of protection to either type of virulent challenge afforded by Cb I-CM cells and TCAE was similar, but when compared with that of Cb I cells it was lower, started later (from the 2nd week in guinea pigs and the 3rd week in mice), and in mice it lasted for a shorter period (20 weeks only). The resistance to virulent challenge in guinea pigs did not depend on the levels of microagglutination (MA) antibodies and in mice it was reflected by delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction and adoptively transferred splenocytes, rather than by MA antibody titres and passive transfer of immune sera to recipient mice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF THE BACTERIUM TOMATO STEM CANKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goner A. Shaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseased tomato samples were collected from green house was evaluated for isolation, pathogenicity and biochemical tests. The symptoms of the infected tomato plants were as sudden wilting after curled on leaves and necrotic streak regions developed at the crown and base of the stem and the cavities deepen and expand up and down, brown discoloration and necrosis occurring on xylem and phloem vasculer. All of ages of tomato plant were susceptible to bacteria when the weather condition favorable and immediately, seen collapse symptom on tomato plant at once fail and die. The bacterium was isolated from diseased plant in all regions on nutrient Agar; a yellow bacterium was isolated from infected tomato plant in green houses and fields in Abu-Ghraib, Rashiedia and Qanat Al-Geiaysh nurseries in Baghdad provinces of Iraq. The bacterium was found gram positive, rod-shaped, non-motile and capable an aerobic growth and based on the morphological and biochemical characteristics revealed that this bacterium belongs to: Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. (smith pathogenicity and hypersensitivity of the bacterium Cmm showed the disease index were 18.33, 6.66, 16.66, 5, 0% for tomato seedlings were inoculated treatments as the wounding roots, without wounding roots, crown of the stem, petiole and control respectively.

  4. Q Fever Dairy Herd Status Determination Based on Serological and Molecular Analysis of Bulk Tank Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastácio, S; Carolino, N; Sidi-Boumedine, K; da Silva, G J

    2016-04-01

    Ruminants are recognized as the main reservoirs of Coxiella burnetii. EFSA highlighted the lack of knowledge about Q fever prevalence in many European countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out in randomly selected dairy herds (n = 109) from central Portugal to screen for C. burnetii infection and to correlate it with herd factors. Bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from cattle (n = 45) and small ruminant (n = 64) herds were tested by ELISA and PCR. The apparent seroprevalence of Q fever was estimated in 45.9% (95% CI: 36.3-55.7) being higher in small ruminants (51.6; 95% CI: 39.6-63.4) than in cattle (37.8; 95% CI: 25.1-52.4). The shedding of C. burnetii in BTM was detected in 11.9% (95% CI: 7.1-19.4) of BTM, and it was higher in cattle (20%; 95% CI: 10.9-33.8) than in sheep and mixed herds (6.3%; 95% CI: 2.5-15). A high bacterial load (≥ 3 × 10(3) bacteria/ml) was observed in 85% of PCR-positive BTM. A significant correlation was found between the bacterial load and positive samples on ELISA (P < 0.001). Antibody positivity was significantly associated with the increased herd size (P < 0.01) and the occurrence of abortion (P < 0.05), whereas the shedding of C. burnetii was significantly associated with the report of infertility (P < 0.05). The results highlight that serological and molecular methods in combination are a useful tool to screen for Q fever and to clarify the herd infection status. The shedding of C. burnetii through milk is important, especially in dairy cattle, and thus, the role of milk as a potential source of infection among dairy workers should not be neglected. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting C. burnetii infection in dairy livestock in Portugal showing that Q fever is significant in dairy herds, leading to economic losses and being a risk for public health, which highlights the need of implementation of control measures. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Fever in Children and Fever of Unknown Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Rajeshwar; Agarwal, Dipti

    2016-01-01

    Fever is the most common symptom in children and can be classified as fever with or without focus. Fever without focus can be less than 7 d and is subclassified as fever without localizing signs and fever of unknown origin (FUO). FUO is defined as a temperature greater than 38.3 °C, for more than 3 wk or failure to reach a diagnosis after 1 wk of inpatient investigations. The most common causes of FUO in children are infections, connective tissue disorders and neoplasms. Infectious diseases most commonly implicated in children with FUO are salmonellosis, tuberculosis, malaria and rickettsial diseases. Juvenile rheumatic arthritis is the connective tissue disease frequently associated with FUO. Malignancy is the third largest group responsible for FUO in children. Diagnostic approach of FUO includes detailed history and examination supported with investigations. Age, history of contact, exposure to wild animals and medications should be noted. Examination should include, apart from general appearance, presence of sweating, rashes, tonsillitis, sinusitis and lymph node enlargement. Other signs such as abdominal tenderness and hepatosplenomegly should be looked for. The muscles and bones should be carefully examined for connective tissue disorders. Complete blood count, blood smear examination and level of acute phase reactants should be part of initial investigations. Radiological imaging is useful aid in diagnosing FUO. Trials of antimicrobial agents should not be given as they can obscure the diagnosis of the disease in FUO.

  6. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  7. Cotton Fever: Does the Patient Know Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yingda; Pope, Bailey A; Hunter, Alan J

    2016-04-01

    Fever and leukocytosis have many possible etiologies in injection drug users. We present a case of a 22-year-old woman with fever and leukocytosis that were presumed secondary to cotton fever, a rarely recognized complication of injection drug use, after an extensive workup. Cotton fever is a benign, self-limited febrile syndrome characterized by fevers, leukocytosis, myalgias, nausea and vomiting, occurring in injection drug users who filter their drug suspensions through cotton balls. While this syndrome is commonly recognized amongst the injection drug user population, there is a paucity of data in the medical literature. We review the case presentation and available literature related to cotton fever.

  8. Neurologic manifestations associated with an outbreak of typhoid fever, Malawi--Mozambique, 2009: an epidemiologic investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sejvar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi causes typhoid fever, which is typically associated with fever and abdominal pain. An outbreak of typhoid fever in Malawi-Mozambique in 2009 was notable for a high proportion of neurologic illness. OBJECTIVE: Describe neurologic features complicating typhoid fever during an outbreak in Malawi-Mozambique METHODS: Persons meeting a clinical case definition were identified through surveillance, with laboratory confirmation of typhoid by antibody testing or blood/stool culture. We gathered demographic and clinical information, examined patients, and evaluated a subset of patients 11 months after onset. A sample of persons with and without neurologic signs was tested for vitamin B6 and B12 levels and urinary thiocyanate. RESULTS: Between March - November 2009, 303 cases of typhoid fever were identified. Forty (13% persons had objective neurologic findings, including 14 confirmed by culture/serology; 27 (68% were hospitalized, and 5 (13% died. Seventeen (43% had a constellation of upper motor neuron findings, including hyperreflexia, spasticity, or sustained ankle clonus. Other neurologic features included ataxia (22, 55%, parkinsonism (8, 20%, and tremors (4, 10%. Brain MRI of 3 (ages 5, 7, and 18 years demonstrated cerebral atrophy but no other abnormalities. Of 13 patients re-evaluated 11 months later, 11 recovered completely, and 2 had persistent hyperreflexia and ataxia. Vitamin B6 levels were markedly low in typhoid fever patients both with and without neurologic signs. CONCLUSIONS: Neurologic signs may complicate typhoid fever, and the diagnosis should be considered in persons with acute febrile neurologic illness in endemic areas.

  9. [Autoinflammatory syndromes/fever syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedel, J; Bach, B; Kümmerle-Deschner, J B; Kötter, I

    2011-05-01

    Hereditary periodic (fever) syndromes, also called autoinflammatory syndromes, are characterized by relapsing fever and additional manifestations such as skin rashes, mucosal manifestations, or joint symptoms. Some of these disorders present with organ involvement and serological signs of inflammation without fever. There is a strong serological inflammatory response with an elevation of serum amyloid A (SAA), resulting in an increased risk of secondary amyloidosis. There are monogenic disorders (familial mediterranean fever (FMF), hyper-IgD-syndrome (HIDS), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), "pyogenic arthritis, acne, pyoderma gangrenosum" (PAPA), and "pediatric granulomatous arthritis (PGA) where mutations in genes have been described, which in part by influencing the function of the inflammasome, in part by other means, lead to the induction of the production of IL-1β. In "early-onset of enterocolitis (IBD)", a functional IL-10 receptor is lacking. Therapeutically, above all, the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra is used. In case of TRAPS and PGA, TNF-antagonists (etanercept) may also be used; in FMF colchicine is first choice. As additional possible autoinflammatory syndromes, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis), Schnitzler syndrome, Still's disease of adult and pediatric onset, Behçet disease, gout, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and Crohn's disease also are mentioned.

  10. Historical aspects of rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Andrew C

    2015-01-01

    Few diseases have experienced such a remarkable change in their epidemiology over the past century, without the influence of a vaccine, than rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever has all but disappeared from industrialised countries after being a frequent problem in the 1940s and 1950s. That the disease still occurs at high incidence in resource limited settings and in Indigenous populations in industrialised countries, particularly in Australia and New Zealand, is an indication of the profound effect of socio-economic factors on the disease. Although there have been major changes in the epidemiology of rheumatic fever, diagnosis remains reliant on careful clinical judgement and management is remarkably similar to that 50 years ago. Over the past decade, increasing attention has been given to rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease as public health issues, including in Australia and particularly in New Zealand, as well as in selected low and middle income countries. Perhaps the greatest hope for public health control of rheumatic fever is the development of a vaccine against Streptococcus pyogenes, and there are encouraging initiatives in this area. However, an effective vaccine is some time away and in the meantime public health efforts need to focus on effective translation of the known evidence around primary and secondary prophylaxis into policy and practice.

  11. Haemophilus aegyptius bacteraemia in Brazilian purpuric fever. Brazilian Purpuric Fever Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-03

    Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF) is a fulminant, often fatal childhood illness that was first recognised in 1984. An outbreak in Serrana, São Paulo State in March to May, 1986, resulted in 11 cases. Haemophilus aegyptius was isolated from normally sterile body fluids in 10 children (9 from blood and 1 from cerebrospinal fluid contaminated with blood), consistent with a direct role for H aegyptius in the pathogenesis of BPF. The ability to define cases by positive blood cultures permitted an evaluation of the spectrum of illness of this disease. 5 culture-positive cases were clinically similar to those previously described; the other 5 had milder illness without petechial or purpuric skin manifestations at the time the bacterium was isolated. Blood cultures were a sensitive means of diagnosing BPF; cultures were positive in 5 of 6 patients that met the full clinical case definition. Treatment of conjunctivitis did not appear to prevent BPF. However, children treated with intravenous antimicrobials early in the systemic illness had a trend toward better survival, suggesting that early therapy may prevent progression of the illness.

  12. Molecular epidemiologicai studies on Coxiella burnetii from Northwestern China%我国西北部分地区Q热分子流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳; 刘增加

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate Coxiella burnetii infection in ticks and local residents from Northwestern China.Methods Ticks were collected by dragging a cloth over vegetation. After species identification, DNA of Coxiella burnetii was isolated from ticks and detected by nested PCR targeting 23S rRNA of Coxiella burnetii. An indirect immunofluores cent assay (IFA) was carried out to test antibodies (IgG) against Coxiella burnetii. Results A total of 2 460 ticks were captured and 11 species were identified. Two hundred and thirty-nine ticks from 8 species tested positive, indicating an overall prevalence of Coxiella burnetii of 9.72%. Positivity differed significantly among tick species(x2 = 16. 59, P< 0. 01)and in different provinces(x2 = 13. 28, P<0. 01); positivity was greatest with Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis and in Qinghai Province. A total of 725 serum samples were tested, and 51 of these tested positive. Positivity differed significantly among different occupations(x2 =4.03, P<0.05). Livestock breeding, livestock with miscarriages due to an unknown cause, and methods used to protect livestock were significantly associated with positivity for Coxiella burnetii,with OR of 5. 13, 6.05, and 0. 39, respectively. Livestock breeding and livestock with miscarriages were both risk factors while methods of protection were a protective factor. Conclusion Infection with Coxiella burnetii is present in local residents and ticks from Northwestern China.%目的:了解西北部分地区人群及媒介蜱Q热感染情况.方法:采用布旗法采集游离蜱,应用巢式PCR扩增蜱Q热贝氏柯克斯体;采用间接免疫荧光法对当地居民进行血清Q热抗体检测.结果:共检测11个蜱种2460只蜱标本,有8个蜱种239只贝氏柯克斯体DNA阳性,总阳性率为9.72%.不同蜱种间阳性率差异有统计学意义(X2=16.69,P<0.01),其中以青海血蜱阳性率最高,为59.38%;四省区阳性率差异有统计学意义(x2=13.28.P<0.01),

  13. Management of acute childhood fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuten, Polly; Paul, Siba Prosad; Heaton, Paul Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Feverish illnesses commonly affect children and are the second most frequent reason for a child to be admitted to hospital. Most cases are viral in origin, usually with a good prognosis. Fever can be caused by severe and rapidly progressive illness which needs urgent referral to hospital for potentially life-saving treatment, and community practitioners must be able to identify such cases showing 'red flag'features. The fear of serious disease among parents and carers may result in 'fever phobia' leading to minor illnesses being managed inappropriately. Community practitioners are well placed to reassure and support families, and to provide education regarding the facts about fever, the appropriate use of antipyretic medication, how to avoid dehydration, and the beneficial role of immunisation in preventing infection.

  14. Rheumatic Fever Programme in Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viali, Satupaitea; Saena, Puleiala; Futi, Vailogoua

    2011-02-11

    Rheumatic fever is very common in Samoa. The following paper describes the Rheumatic Fever Programme in Samoa and looks at the incidence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD). The incidence of ARF has decreased to 30 per 100,000 in 2005, 12.8 per 100,000 in 2007, 7.3 per 100,000 in 2008, and 9.5 per 100,000 in 2009. The incidence of RHD has decreased to 40.2 per 100,000 in 2007, 34 per 100,000 in 2008, and 31.8 per 100,000 in 2009. Cardiac surgery in New Zealand is expensive, but is cheaper to perform in Samoa. RHD screening with echocardiogram at schools may be the best way to reduce the burden and suffering from RHD.

  15. Zymomonas mobilis: a bacterium for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratti, J.C.; Bu' Lock, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Zymomonas mobilis is a facultative anaerobic gram negative bacterium first isolated in tropical countries from alcoholic beverages like the African palm wine, the Mexican pulque and also as a contaminant of cider (cider sickness) or beer in the European countries. It is one of the few facultative anaerobic bacteria degrading glucose by the Entner-Doudoroff pathway usually found in strictly aerobic microorganisms. Some work was devoted to this bacterium in the 50s and 60s and was reviewed by Swings and De Ley in their classical paper published in 1977. During the 70s there was very little work on the bacterium until 1979 and the first report by the Australian group of P.L. Rogers on the great potentialities of Z. mobilis for ethanol production. At that time the petroleum crisis had led the developed countries to search for alternative fuel from renewable resources. The Australian group clearly demonstrated the advantages of the bacterium compared to the yeasts traditionally used for the alcoholic fermentation. As a result, there was a considerable burst in the Zymomonas literature which started from nearly zero in the late 70s to attain 70 papers published in the field in 1984. In this article, papers published from 1982 to 1986 are reviewed.

  16. Bilateral retinitis following typhoid fever

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhushanker, M.; Topiwalla, Tasneem T.; Ganesan, Geetha; Appandaraj, Sripal

    2017-01-01

    Background Post typhoid fever immune related reactions affecting the eye is a rare finding which can have various presentations in which typhoid retinopathy is not a well recognized sequelae. Case presentation Here we present a case of 59?year old male who presented with right eye sudden painless loss of vision 4?weeks after typhoid fever which was diagnosed and treated successfully. His BCVA was 2/60 in right eye and 6/6 in left eye. Fundus examination showed retinitis along with macular ser...

  17. Cutaneous manifestations of chikungunya fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetharam, K A; Sridevi, K; Vidyasagar, P

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya fever, a re-emerging RNA viral infection produces different cutaneous manifestations in children compared to adults. 52 children with chikungunya fever, confirmed by positive IgM antibody test were seen during 2009-2010. Pigmentary lesions were common (27/52) followed by vesiculobullous lesions (16/52) and maculopapular lesions (14/52). Vesiculobullous lesions were most common in infants, although rarely reported in adults. Psoriasis was exacerbated in 4 children resulting in more severe forms. In 2 children, guttate psoriasis was observed for the first time.

  18. Scarlet Fever: A Group A Streptococcal Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Scarlet Fever: A Group A Streptococcal Infection Language: English Español ( ... red rash that feels rough, like sandpaper. Scarlet Fever Podcast A pediatrician explains the cause, treatment, and ...

  19. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancel Submit Search The CDC Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is caused by infection with a tick- ...

  20. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics ...

  1. Hyperthermia and fever control in brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badjatia, Neeraj

    2009-07-01

    Fever in the neurocritical care setting is common and has a negative impact on outcome of all disease types. Meta-analyses have demonstrated that fever at onset and in the acute setting after ischemic brain injury, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cardiac arrest has a negative impact on morbidity and mortality. Data support that the impact of fever is sustained for longer durations after subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury. Recent advances have made eliminating fever and maintaining normothermia feasible. However, there are no prospective randomized trials demonstrating the benefit of fever control in these patient populations, and important questions regarding indications and timing remain. The purpose of this review is to analyze the data surrounding the impact of fever across a range of neurologic injuries to better understand the optimal timing and duration of fever control. Prospective randomized trials are needed to determine whether the beneficial impact of secondary injury prevention is outweighed by the potential risks of prolonged fever control.

  2. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  3. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (Korean Hemorrhagic Fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-31

    Meningo- Fever, chills, headache, encepha- stiff neck, myalgia, litis conjunctival infection, back pain, dysuria, facial palsy (died 6 day) 3. Isolation of... Central Africa (23-26) and more recently in Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong, Fiji, Hawaii, Argentine, Uruguay and Paraguay

  4. A timely reminder--rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilic, Nikola; Kumar, Priyanka

    2013-04-19

    Rheumatic fever is a disease diagnosed using the Jones criteria. The Jones criteria were designed using data from areas with a low prevalence of rheumatic fever. In New Zealand there is a high prevalence of rheumatic fever amongst Maori and Pacific peoples. A case is presented where a child of Samoan ethnicity is diagnosed and treated for rheumatic fever without fulfilling the Jones criteria. Evidence supporting the broadening of the diagnostic criteria in high prevalence areas is highlighted.

  5. A Case of Olanzapine-Induced Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cho-Hsiang; Chen, Ying-Yeh

    2017-01-01

    Olanzapine, a frequently used second-generation antipsychotic, has rarely been implicated as a cause of drug-induced fever in the absence of neuroleptic malignant syndrome. We describe a patient who developed isolated fever following olanzapine monotherapy, which subsided after discontinuation of olanzapine. Blockade of dopaminergic receptors and elevated cytokines concentration are possible mechanisms of fever development during treatment with olanzapine. This case calls for attention to olanzapine-induced fever in clinical practice. PMID:28138204

  6. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever KidsHealth > For Parents > Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Print A A A What's in ... en español La rickettsiosis maculosa About RMSF Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a bacterial infection that's ...

  7. Hereditary periodic fever and reactive amyloidosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, J.C.H. van der; Simon, A.; Drenth, J.P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes (HPF) are a group of diseases characterised by recurrences of fever and inflammation separated by symptom-free intervals. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most frequent entity within this group of disorders which further consists of

  8. First Outbreak of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Rahman, Khalilur; Siddque, A. K.; Shoma, Shereen; A. H. M. Kamal; Ali, K.S.; Nisaluk, Ananda; Breiman, Robert F

    2002-01-01

    During the first countrywide outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangladesh, we conducted surveillance for dengue at a hospital in Dhaka. Of 176 patients, primarily adults, found positive for dengue, 60.2% had dengue fever, 39.2% dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 0.6% dengue shock syndrome. The Dengue virus 3 serotype was detected in eight patients.

  9. Development of Tools for Surveillance of Coxiella burnetii in Domestic Ruminants and Australian Marsupials and Their Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    immunodeficient mice." Ann N Y Acad Sci 1063: 167-70. Arricau-Bouvery, N. and A. Rodolakis (2005). "Is Q fever an emerging or re-emerging zoonosis ?" Vet Res...Organisation: 193-209. Babudieri, B. (1959). "Q Fever: A zoonosis ." Advances in Veterinary Science 5: 81-182. Baca, O. G., A. S. Aragon, et al. (1981

  10. Radiological observation in typhoid fever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, K. Y.; Park, H. Y.; Kim, J. D.; Rhee, H. S. [Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    Radiographic findings in plain abdominal films, chest PA and liver scanning are considered to be ancillary diagnostic methods for uncomplicated typhoid fever and a valuable method for detection of complication such as intestinal perforation. 189 cases of clinically proven typhoid fever from Mar. 1973 to Feb. 1979 in this Hospital were reviewed and radiographic findings were analyzed carefully. The results are as follows: 1. Most (73.6%) cases were between 20 and 40 years of age. 2. Three of the most common radiographic findings were as follows: 1) Localized paralytic ileus in RLQ or diffuse paralytic ileus (96.3%). 2) Hepatomegaly (56.5%). 3) Splenomegaly (49.7%). 3. In cases of typhoid fever with intestinal perforation there were additional significant findings such as free air under diaphragm (85%), free fluid in peritoneal cavity (90%) and air fluid levels in RLQ (80%). 4. The most frequent chest x-ray finding was elevation of diaphragm (11.1%). 5. 8 cases of complicated typhoid fever which eventually came to operation were diagnosed only by radiographic method.

  11. Abdominal Complications of Typhoid Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Ketan Vagholkar; Jimmy Mirani; Urvashi Jain; Madhavan Iyengar; Rahul Kumar Chavan

    2015-01-01

    The natural history of typhoid fever poses both a diagnostic and a therapeutic challenge. Awareness of the clinical features of the primary presentation and of the complications are pivotal to early diagnosis. Typically, aggressive supportive care is all that is needed. However abdominal complications do occur and proper surgical care is required to lower morbidity and mortality.

  12. Nature Inspired Hay Fever Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrei P.Sommer; Dan Zhu

    2008-01-01

    The survival oriented adaptation of evolved biosystems to variations in their environment is a selective optimization process. Recognizing the optimised end product and its functionality is the classical arena of bionic engineering. In a primordial world, however, the molecular organization and functions of prebiotic systems were solely defined by formative processes in their physical and chemical environment, for instance, the interplay between interracial water layers on surfaces and solar light. The formative potential of the interplay between light (laser light) and interfacial water layers on surfaces was recently exploited in the formation of supercubane carbon nanocrystals. In evolved biosystems the formative potential of interracial water layers can still be activated by light. Here we report a case of hay fever, which was successfully treated in the course of a facial reju-venation program starting in November 2007. Targeting primarily interfacial water layers on elastin fibres in the wrinkled areas, we presumably also activated mast cells in the nasal mucosa, reported to progressively decrease in the nasal mucosa of the rabbit, when frequently irradiated. Hay fever is induced by the release of mediators, especially histamine, a process associated with the degranulation of mast cells. Decrease in mast cells numbers implies a decrease in the release of histamine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the treatment of hay fever with visible light. This approach was inspired by bionic thinking, and could help ameliorating the condition of millions of people suffering from hay fever world wide.

  13. Cardiac Manifestation in Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Mohit; Patil, Rekha S

    2016-07-01

    To study the cardiac manifestations of the dengue fever. This one year descriptive study was undertaken at KLES Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Belgaum under the Department of Medicine. A total of 120 patients with either dengue IgM or IgM and IgG were studied. The assessment of cardiac manifestations was done based on electrocardiogram, 2D echocardiography and cardiac enzymes. Of the 120 patients, 85 (70.83%) were males and the male to female ratio was 2.4:1. The mean age of the patients was 33.02 ± 12.71 years. The commonest clinical presentation was myalgia (97.5%) followed by fever (92.5%). On clinical examination 33.33% of the patients had petecheia and only 9 patients having active bleeding manifestation at the time of presentation. A raised CK-MB and Troponin I was observed in 33.3% and 26.7% patients ECG findings revealed normal rhythm among 95% with 15.8% of them having an abnormal heart rate. Rhythm disturbance was noted in 5% of the patients with AV block being the most common (66.67%). Cardiac manifestation in the form of myocarditis was observed in 37.50% of the patients with a positive correlation with the severity of the dengue fever defined as by W.H.O. criteria. Patients with dengue fever are at high risk of developing myocarditis and rhythm disturbance and therefore require a close cardiac monitoring.

  14. [Sacroiliitis in familial Mediterranean fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connemann, B J; Steinhoff, J; Benstein, R; Sack, K

    1991-11-22

    A 15-year-old girl of Turkish descent had for one year complained of severe recurrent fever-associated deep back pains. Since she was three years of age she had suffered from repeated attacks of fever and severe abdominal pain which ceased spontaneously in 1-3 days. On physical examination the sacrum and iliosacral joints were very painful to percussion, and she limped. Radiography revealed symmetric destructive sacroiliitis. Despite the unusual location of the arthritis, the triad of fever, abdominal pain and arthritis, as well as her belonging to an ethnic "at risk" group, pointed to the diagnosis of familial mediterranean fever (FML) or recurrent hereditary polyserositis. This diagnosis was confirmed by a positive metaraminol provocation test in that infusion of metaraminol reproduced the typical pains. Collagen diseases, rheumatic disease, acute porphyria and chronic infectious processes were excluded. The sacroiliitis quickly responded to long-term administration of colchicine, 0.5 mg twice daily. The patient also has Hageman factor deficiency whose significance remains unclear.

  15. Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izri, Arezki; Temmam, Sarah; Moureau, Grégory; Hamrioui, Boussad; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) is present in Algeria, we tested sandflies for phlebovirus RNA. A sequence closely related to that of SFSV was detected in a Phlebotomus ariasi sandfly. Of 60 human serum samples, 3 contained immunoglobulin G against SFSV. These data suggest SFSV is present in Algeria. PMID:18439364

  16. Fever in Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with a high fever?YesNoDoes it hurt or burn when your child urinates and does he or she or have ... CareMild cases of croup can be treated at home. Make sure your child gets plenty of rest and lots of fluids. ...

  17. LAMP proteins account for the maturation delay during the establishment of the Coxiella burnetii-containing vacuole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Luehrmann, Jan; Eckart, Rita A; Ölke, Martha; Saftig, Paul; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Lührmann, Anja

    2016-02-01

    The obligate intracellular pathogen Coxiella burnetii replicates in a large phagolysosomal-like vacuole. Currently, both host and bacterial factors required for creating this replicative parasitophorous C. burnetii-containing vacuole (PV) are poorly defined. Here, we assessed the contributions of the most abundant proteins of the lysosomal membrane, LAMP-1 and LAMP-2, to the establishment and maintenance of the PV. Whereas these proteins were not critical for uptake of C. burnetii, they influenced the intracellular replication of C. burnetii. In LAMP-1/2 double-deficient fibroblasts as well as in LAMP-1/2 knock-down cells, C. burnetii establishes a significantly smaller, yet faster maturing vacuole, which harboured more bacteria. The accelerated maturation of PVs in LAMP double-deficient fibroblasts, which was partially or fully reversed by ectopic expression of LAMP-1 or LAMP-2, respectively, was characterized by an increased fusion rate with endosomes, lysosomes and bead-containing phagosomes, but not by different fusion kinetics with autophagy vesicles. These findings establish that LAMP proteins are critical for the maturation delay of PVs. Unexpectedly, neither the creation of the spacious vacuole nor the delay in maturation was found to be prerequisites for the intracellular replication of C. burnetii.

  18. Coxiella burnetii lipopolysaccharide blocks p38α-MAPK activation through the disruption of TLR-2 and TLR-4 association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo eConti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To survive in macrophages, Coxiella burnetii hijacks the activation pathway of macrophages. Recently, we have demonstrated that C. burnetii, via its lipopolysaccharide (LPS, avoids the activation of p38α-MAPK through an antagonistic engagement of Toll-like receptor (TLR-4. We investigated the fine-tuned mechanism leading to the absence of activation of the p38α-MAPK despite TLR-4 engagement. In macrophages challenged with Escherichia coli LPS or with the LPS from the avirulent variants of C. burnetii, TLR-4 and TLR-2 co-immunoprecipitated. This association was absent in cells challenged by the LPS of pathogenic C. burnetii. The disruption makes TLRs unable to signal during the recognition of the LPS of pathogenic C. burnetii. The disruption of TLR-2 and TLR-4 was induced by the re-organization of the macrophage cytoskeleton by C. burnetii LPS. Interestingly, blocking the actin cytoskeleton re-organization relieved the disruption of the association TLR-2/TLR-4 by pathogenic C. burnetii and rescued the p38α-MAPK activation by C. burnetii. We elucidated an unexpected mechanism allowing pathogenic C. burnetii to avoid activating macrophages by the disruption of the TLR-2 and TLR-4 association.

  19. Rickettsia amblyommii infecting Amblyomma sculptum in endemic spotted fever area from southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Emília de Carvalho; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; Navarro, Daniel Leal; Iani, Felipe Campos de Melo; Durães, Liliane Silva; Daemon, Erik; Soares, Carlos Augusto Gomes; Gazeta, Gilberto Salles

    2015-12-01

    The Rickettsia bacteria include the aetiological agents for the human spotted fever (SF) disease. In the present study, a SF group Rickettsia amblyommii related bacterium was detected in a field collected Amblyomma sculptum (Amblyomma cajennense species complex) tick from a Brazilian SF endemic site in southeastern Brazil, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais. Genetic analysis based on genes ompA,ompB and htrA showed that the detected strain, named R. amblyommii str. JF, is related to the species R. amblyommii.

  20. Rickettsia amblyommii infecting Amblyomma sculptum in endemic spotted fever area from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília de Carvalho Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Rickettsia bacteria include the aetiological agents for the human spotted fever (SF disease. In the present study, a SF groupRickettsia amblyommii related bacterium was detected in a field collected Amblyomma sculptum (Amblyomma cajennense species complex tick from a Brazilian SF endemic site in southeastern Brazil, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais. Genetic analysis based on genes ompA,ompB and htrA showed that the detected strain, named R. amblyommii str. JF, is related to the speciesR. amblyommii.

  1. Fever of unknown origin: a clinical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Lortholary, Olivier; Cunha, Cheston B

    2015-10-01

    Fevers of unknown origin remain one of the most difficult diagnostic challenges in medicine. Because fever of unknown origin may be caused by over 200 malignant/neoplastic, infectious, rheumatic/inflammatory, and miscellaneous disorders, clinicians often order non-clue-based imaging and specific testing early in the fever of unknown origin work-up, which may be inefficient/misleading. Unlike most other fever-of-unknown-origin reviews, this article presents a clinical approach. Characteristic history and physical examination findings together with key nonspecific test abnormalities are the basis for a focused clue-directed fever of unknown origin work-up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Adult-onset acute rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Dainari; Ueda, Kohei; Tsukuda, Kyozo; Utsu, Noriaki; Kohki, Shimazu; Fushimi, Hiroaki; Miyakoshi, Kazuho

    2012-01-01

    A 62-year-old man was hospitalized for acute rheumatic fever. He had previously suffered from rheumatic fever at 15 years of age. The rheumatic fever was complicated by carditis, which caused valve disease that required surgical treatment. The incidence of rheumatic fever has decreased in most developed countries with improvements in sanitary conditions. The low incidence of this disease makes a timely and accurate diagnosis difficult. Due to the fact that both the first occurrence and recurrence of acute rheumatic fever can occur in the elderly and adults, this potential disease should not be overlooked when making a differential diagnosis.

  3. The burden of Coxiella burnetii among aborted dairy animals in Egypt and its public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moein, Khaled A; Hamza, Dalia A

    2017-02-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease of mounting public health implications. Dairy animals are major reservoir for such disease whereas abortion is the main clinical outcome. The current study was conducted to investigate the burden of C. burnetii abortions among dairy animals in Egypt to provide more knowledge for better control of such disease. For this purpose, placental cotyledons and vaginal discharges from 108 aborted dairy animals (27 sheep, 29 goats, 26 cattle, 26 buffaloes) were examined for the presence of C. burnetii by nested PCR. Serum samples from 58 human contacts were examined for the presence of C. burnetii IgG antibodies using ELISA. Out of the 108 examined animals only one goat yielded positive result in both placental tissue and vaginal discharges with an overall prevalence 0.9% while that among goats is 3.4%. Moreover, the seroprevalence of C. burnetii IgG antibodies among the examined individuals was 19% whereas the prevalence in farmers is significantly higher than that among veterinarians and veterinary assistants. In conclusion, C. burnetii may play a role in dairy goat abortions rather than other dairy animals in Egypt while its public health implications cannot be ruled out.

  4. Seroepidemiological survey for Coxiella burnetii antibodies and associated risk factors in Dutch livestock veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Brom, René; Schimmer, Barbara; Schneeberger, Peter M; Swart, Wim A; van der Hoek, Wim; Vellema, Piet

    2013-01-01

    Since 2007, Q fever has become a major public health problem in the Netherlands and goats were the most likely source of the human outbreaks in 2007, 2008 and 2009. Little was known about the consequences of these outbreaks for those professional care providers directly involved. The aim of this survey was to estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies against C. burnetii among Dutch livestock veterinarians and to determine possible risk factors. Single blood samples from 189 veterinarians, including veterinary students in their final year, were collected at a veterinary conference and a questionnaire was filled in by each participant. The blood samples were screened for IgG antibodies against phase I and phase II antigen of C. burnetii using an indirect immunofluorescent assay, and for IgM antibodies using an ELISA. Antibodies against C. burnetii were detected in 123 (65.1%) out of 189 veterinarians. Independent risk factors associated with seropositivity were number of hours with animal contact per week, number of years graduated as veterinarian, rural or sub urban living area, being a practicing veterinarian, and occupational contact with swine. Livestock veterinarians should be aware of this risk to acquire an infection with C. burnetii. Physicians should consider potential infection with C. burnetii when treating occupational risk groups, bearing in mind that the burden of disease among veterinarians remains uncertain. Vaccination of occupational risk groups should be debated.

  5. [Clinical aspects of viral hemorrhagic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Masayuki

    2005-12-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) is defined as virus infections that usually cause pyrexia and hemorrhagic symptoms with multiple organ failure. VHF includes following viral infections: Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and Lassa fever. In particular, the causative agents of EHF, MHF, CCHF, and Lassa fever are Ebola, Marburg, CCHF, Lassa viruses, respectively, and regarded as biosafety level-4 pathogens because of their high virulence to humans. Recently, relatively large outbreaks of EHF and MHF have occurred in Africa, and areas of EHF- and MHF-outbreaks seem to be expanding. Although outbreaks of VHF have not been reported in Japan, there is a possibility that the deadly hemorrhagic fever viruses would be introduced to Japan in future. Therefore, preparedness for possible future outbreaks of VHF is necessary in areas without VHF outbreaks.

  6. The Molecular and Spatial Epidemiology of Typhoid Fever in Rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham Thanh, Duy; Thompson, Corinne N; Rabaa, Maia A; Sona, Soeng; Sopheary, Sun; Kumar, Varun; Moore, Catrin; Tran Vu Thieu, Nga; Wijedoru, Lalith; Holt, Kathryn E; Wong, Vanessa; Pickard, Derek; Thwaites, Guy E; Day, Nicholas; Dougan, Gordon; Turner, Paul; Parry, Christopher M; Baker, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Typhoid fever, caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi, is an endemic cause of febrile disease in Cambodia. The aim of this study was to better understand the epidemiology of pediatric typhoid fever in Cambodia. We accessed routine blood culture data from Angkor Hospital for Children (AHC) in Siem Reap province between 2007 and 2014, and performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) on the isolated bacteria to characterize the S. Typhi population. The resulting phylogenetic information was combined with conventional epidemiological approaches to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of S. Typhi and population-level risk factors for reported disease. During the study period, there were 262 cases of typhoid within a 100 km radius of AHC, with a median patient age of 8.2 years (IQR: 5.1-11.5 years). The majority of infections occurred during the rainy season, and commune incidences as high as 11.36/1,000 in children aged typhoid fever in rural communes in Cambodia. Our data provide a platform for additional population-based typhoid fever studies in this location, and suggest that this would be a suitable setting in which to introduce a school-based vaccination programme with Vi conjugate vaccines.

  7. Fever of unknown origin (FUO) in a renal transplant recipient due to drug fever from sirolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Sairah; Kong, May W; Drakakis, James; Cunha, Burke A

    2016-08-01

    A variety of medications may cause drug fever. Drug fevers may persist for days to weeks until diagnosis is considered. The diagnosis of drug fever is confirmed when there is resolution of fever within 3 days after the medication is discontinued. Only rarely do undiagnosed drug fevers persist for over 3 weeks to meet fever of unknown origin (FUO) criteria. FUOs due to drug fever are uncommon, and drug fevers due to immunosuppressive drugs are very rare. This is a case of a 58-year-old female renal transplant recipient who presented with FUO that remained undiagnosed for over 8 weeks. We believe this is the first reported case of an FUO due to drug fever from sirolimus in a renal transplant recipient.

  8. Bilateral retinitis following typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhushanker, M; Topiwalla, Tasneem T; Ganesan, Geetha; Appandaraj, Sripal

    2017-01-01

    Post typhoid fever immune related reactions affecting the eye is a rare finding which can have various presentations in which typhoid retinopathy is not a well recognized sequelae. Here we present a case of 59 year old male who presented with right eye sudden painless loss of vision 4 weeks after typhoid fever which was diagnosed and treated successfully. His BCVA was 2/60 in right eye and 6/6 in left eye. Fundus examination showed retinitis along with macular serous detachment in right eye and retinitis in left eye. Significant improvement in BCVA in right eye was observed after treatment with oral steroid with resolving retinitis lesions. Diagnosis of post typhoid immune mediated retinitis was made with good resolution following treatment. Immune mediated retinitis is a rare sequelae to typhoid infection which can be successfully treated with systemic steroids with good resolution of the lesions.

  9. Familial Mediterranean fever: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Hafize Emine; Batu, Ezgi Deniz; Özen, Seza

    2016-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most frequent monogenic autoinflammatory disease, and it is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and polyserositis. The disease is associated with mutations in the MEFV gene encoding pyrin, which causes exaggerated inflammatory response through uncontrolled production of interleukin 1. The major long-term complication of FMF is amyloidosis. Colchicine remains the principle therapy, and the aim of treatment is to prevent acute attacks and the consequences of chronic inflammation. With the evolution in the concepts about the etiopathogenesis and genetics of the disease, we have understood that FMF is more complicated than an ordinary autosomal recessive monogenic disorder. Recently, recommendation sets have been generated for interpretation of genetic testing and genetic diagnosis of FMF. Here, we have reviewed the current perspectives in FMF in light of recent recommendations. PMID:27051312

  10. Pathogenesis of arenavirus hemorrhagic fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraz, Marie-Laurence; Kunz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) caused by arenaviruses belong to the most devastating emerging human diseases and represent serious public health problems. Arenavirus VHFs in humans are acute diseases characterized by fever and, in severe cases, different degrees of hemorrhages associated with a shock syndrome in the terminal stage. Over the past years, much has been learned about the pathogenesis of arenaviruses at the cellular level, in particular their ability to subvert the host cell's innate antiviral defenses. Clinical studies and novel animal models have provided important new information about the interaction of hemorrhagic arenaviruses with the host's adaptive immune system, in particular virus-induced immunosuppression, and have provided the first hints towards an understanding of the terminal hemorrhagic shock syndrome. The scope of this article is to review our current knowledge on arenavirus VHF pathogenesis with an emphasis on recent developments.

  11. Fever, febrile seizures and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Céline M; Brewster, Amy L; Richichi, Cristina; Zha, Qinqin; Baram, Tallie Z

    2007-10-01

    Seizures induced by fever (febrile seizures) are the most common type of pathological brain activity in infants and children. These febrile seizures and their potential contribution to the mechanisms of limbic (temporal lobe) epilepsy have been a topic of major clinical and scientific interest. Key questions include the mechanisms by which fever generates seizures, the effects of long febrile seizures on neuronal function and the potential contribution of these seizures to epilepsy. This review builds on recent advances derived from animal models and summarizes our current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying febrile seizures and of changes in neuronal gene expression and function that facilitate the enduring effects of prolonged febrile seizures on neuronal and network excitability. The review also discusses the relevance of these findings to the general mechanisms of epileptogenesis during development and points out gaps in our knowledge, including the relationship of animal models to human febrile seizures and epilepsy.

  12. Familial Mediterranean Fever and Hypercoagulability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayer-Shifman, Oshrat E.; Ben-Chetrit, Eldad

    2011-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease which is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and peritonitis, pleuritis, arthritis, or erysipelas-like skin disease. As such, FMF is a prototype of autoinflammatory diseases where genetic changes lead to acute inflammatory episodes. Systemic inflammation – in general - may increase procoagulant factors, and decrease natural anticoagulants and fibrinolytic activity. Therefore, it is anticipated to see more thrombotic events among FMF patients compared with healthy subjects. However, reviewing the current available literature and based upon our personal experience, thrombotic events related purely to FMF are very rare. Possible explanation for this discrepancy is that along with the procoagulant activity during FMF acute attacks, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic changes are also taking place. Colchicine which is the treatment of choice in FMF may also play a role in reducing inflammation thereby decreasing hypercoagulability. PMID:21713077

  13. African swine fever : transboundary diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M-L. Penrith

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is a devastating haemorrhagic fever of pigs that causes up to 100 % mortality, for which there is no vaccine. It is caused by a unique DNA virus that is maintained in an ancient cycle between warthogs and argasid ticks, making it the only known DNA arbovirus. ASF has a high potential for transboundary spread, and has twice been transported from Africa to other continents - Europe and subsequently the Caribbean and Brazil (1957, 1959 and the Caucasus (2007. It is also a devastating constraint for pig production in Africa. Research at Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute has made and is making important contributions to knowledge of this disease, focusing on the cycle in warthogs and tampans and transmission from that cycle to domestic pigs, resistance to its effects in domestic pigs, and the molecular genetic characterisation and epidemiology of the virus.

  14. Unusual Presentation of Dengue Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Moaz; Aleem, Numra A.; Zahid, Mohammad F.; Rahman, Arshalooz J.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is an acute febrile illness that follows a self-limiting course. However, some patients suffer from complications, including myocarditis, due to the involvement of other organs. A child presented at the Aga Khan University Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan, in June 2013 with a high-grade fever, malaise and epigastric pain radiating to the chest. Positive DF antigen and immunoglobulin M assays confirmed the diagnosis of DF. Persistent bradycardia with low blood pressure led to further cardiac investigations which showed a decreased ejection fraction and raised serum cardiac enzymes, indicating myocardial damage. With supportive care and use of inotropes, the spontaneous normalisation of cardiac enzyme levels and ejection fraction was observed. The child was discharged five days after admission. This case highlights the importance of identifying myocarditis in DF patients suffering from cardiac symptoms that are not explained by other potential aetiologies. Awareness, early suspicion and supportive care are essential to ensure favourable outcomes. PMID:26909198

  15. Mucocutaneous manifestations of Chikungunya fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya fever (CF is an arboviral acute febrile illness transmitted by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. After a quiescence of more than three decades, CF has recently re-emerged as a major public health problem of global scale. CF is characterized by an acute onset of high fever associated with a severe disabling arthritis often accompanied by prominent mucocutaneous manifestations. The disease is usually self-limiting, but the joint symptoms and some of the cutaneous features may persist after the defervescence. A wide range of mucocutaneous changes has been described to occur in association with CF during the current epidemic. Besides a morbilliform erythema, hyperpigmentation, xerosis, excoriated papules, aphthous-like ulcers, vesiculobullous and lichenoid eruptions, and exacerbation of pre-existing or quiescent dermatoses had been observed frequently. These unusual features may help in the clinical differential diagnosis of acute viral exanthems mimicking CF.

  16. Imported chikungunya fever in Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richi Alberti, Patricia; Steiner, Martina; Illera Martín, Óscar; Alcocer Amores, Patricia; Cobo Ibáñez, Tatiana; Muñoz Fernández, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya Fever is a mosquito-transmitted viral disease that causes fever, rash and musculoskeletal complaints. The latest may persist for several months, or even years or developed a relapsing course, that deserve an adequate treatment. Due to the large outbreak declared in the Caribbean in 2013, imported cases of Chikungunya as well as the risk of autochthonous transmission in case of available vectors have increased in non-endemic countries, like Spain. We described four cases of Chikungunya treated in our clinic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  17. Prolonged fever after Infliximab infusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer; Katz; Michael; Frank

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacologic management for ulcerative colitis (UC) has recently been expanded to include antitumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy for severe disease. Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed again TNF α was first tested in patients with Crohn’s disease. In addition to serious infections, malignancy, drug induced lupus and other autoimmune diseases, serum sickness-like reactions, neurological disease, and infusion reactions further complicate the use of Infliximab. We report a case of prolonged fever after Infliximab infusion to treat steroid refractory UC.

  18. Azathioprine-induced fever in autoimmune hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Tawfik; Ollech, Jacob E; Chen, Shmuel; Mizrahi, Meir; Shalit, Meir

    2013-01-01

    Underdiagnosis of drug-induced fever leads to extensive investigation and prolongation of hospitalization, and may lead to multiple unnecessary invasive procedures and a wrong diagnosis. Azathioprine is a widely used immunosuppressive drug. We report a case of a 53-year-old female patient diagnosed with autoimmune hepatitis treated with azathioprine, who presented to the emergency room with a 6-wk history of fever and chills without other associated symptoms. Since the patient’s fever was of unknown origin, she was hospitalized. All treatment was stopped and an extensive workup to explore the source of fever and chills was performed. Results of chest X-ray, viral, urine, and blood cultures, autoimmune serology, transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, and abdominal ultrasound revealed no source of infection. A rechallenge test of azathioprine was performed and the fever and chills returned within a few hours. Azathioprine was established as the definite cause following rechallenge. Fever as an adverse drug reaction is often unrecognized. Azathioprine has been reported to cause drug-induced fever in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and sarcoidosis. To the best of our knowledge there have been no previous reports documenting azathioprine-induced fever in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. The occurrence of fever following the readministration of azathioprine suggests the diagnosis of drug-induced fever, particularly after the exclusion of other causes. A careful rechallenge is recommended to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:23840156

  19. Why Fever Phobia Is Still Common?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Suzan; Usak, Esma; Koksal, Tulin; Canbal, Metin

    2016-01-01

    Background Fever is a reliable sign of illness, but it also evokes fear and anxiety. It is not the fever itself but the fear of possible complications and accompanying symptoms that is important for pediatricians and parents. Objectives We aimed to investigate maternal understanding of fever, its potential consequences, and impacts on the treatment of children. Patients and Methods A questionnaire was use to explore the attitudes, knowledge, and practices of mothers of 861 children brought to four medical centers in different regions of Turkey in 2012, with fever being the chief complaint. All the children were aged 3 months - 15 years. Results Among the 861 mothers, 92.2% favored antipyretics for fever, either alone or in addition to external cooling measures. Most favored paracetamol or ibuprofen. In this study, the appropriate use of antipyretics was 75.2%, which was higher than that reported in the literature. In common with previous reports, seizures and brain damage were perceived as the most frightening and harmful effects of fever. All the mothers expressed concerns about fever, but they were most common among the highly educated or those with one child. Conclusions Fever phobia remains common, not only among low socioeconomic status mothers but also among those of high socioeconomic status. Healthcare providers should take fever phobia into account and provide correct information to caregivers about fever at all visits. PMID:27781110

  20. Familial Mediterranean fever: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sönmez HE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hafize Emine Sönmez,* Ezgi Deniz Batu,* Seza ÖzenDepartment of Pediatrics, Division of Rheumatology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF is the most frequent monogenic autoinflammatory disease, and it is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and polyserositis. The disease is associated with mutations in the MEFV gene encoding pyrin, which causes exaggerated inflammatory response through uncontrolled production of interleukin 1. The major long-term complication of FMF is amyloidosis. Colchicine remains the principle therapy, and the aim of treatment is to prevent acute attacks and the consequences of chronic inflammation. With the evolution in the concepts about the etiopathogenesis and genetics of the disease, we have understood that FMF is more complicated than an ordinary autosomal recessive monogenic disorder. Recently, recommendation sets have been generated for interpretation of genetic testing and genetic diagnosis of FMF. Here, we have reviewed the current perspectives in FMF in light of recent recommendations.Keywords: familial Meditarranean fever, recommendation, child

  1. Seroepidemiological study of Q fever in domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Astobiza, Ianire; Barandika, Jesús F; Hurtado, Ana; Atxaerandio, Raquel; Juste, Ramón A; García-Pérez, Ana L

    2010-01-20

    Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is endemic in northern Spain where it has been reported as responsible for large series of human pneumonia cases and domestic ruminants' reproductive disorders. To investigate pathogen exposure among domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems in northern Spain, a serosurvey was carried out in 1,379 sheep (42 flocks), 626 beef cattle (46 herds) and 115 goats (11 herds). Serum antibodies were analysed by ELISA and positive samples were retested by Complement Fixation test (CFT) to detect recent infections. ELISA anti-C. burnetii antibody prevalence was slightly higher in sheep (11.8 +/- 2.0%) than in goats (8.7 +/- 5.9%) and beef cattle (6.7 +/- 2.0%). Herd prevalence was 74% for ovine, 45% for goat and 43% for bovine. Twenty-one percent of sheep flocks, 27% of goat and 14% of cattle herds had a C. burnetii seroprevalence >or= 20%. Only 15 out of 214 ELISA-positive animals reacted positive by CFT. Age-associated seroprevalence differed between ruminant species with a general increasing pattern with age. No evidence of correlation between abortion history and seroprevalence rates was observed despite the known abortifacient nature of C. burnetii in domestic ruminants. Results reported herein showed that sheep had the highest contact rate with C. burnetii in the region but also that cattle and goats should not be neglected as part of the domestic cycle of C. burnetii. This work reports basic epidemiologic patterns of C. burnetii in semi-extensive grazed domestic ruminants which, together with the relevant role of C. burnetii as a zoonotic and abortifacient agent, makes these results to concern both Public and Animal Health Authorities.

  2. Seroepidemiological study of Q fever in domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atxaerandio Raquel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is endemic in northern Spain where it has been reported as responsible for large series of human pneumonia cases and domestic ruminants' reproductive disorders. To investigate pathogen exposure among domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems in northern Spain, a serosurvey was carried out in 1,379 sheep (42 flocks, 626 beef cattle (46 herds and 115 goats (11 herds. Serum antibodies were analysed by ELISA and positive samples were retested by Complement Fixation test (CFT to detect recent infections. Results ELISA anti-C. burnetii antibody prevalence was slightly higher in sheep (11.8 ± 2.0% than in goats (8.7 ± 5.9% and beef cattle (6.7 ± 2.0%. Herd prevalence was 74% for ovine, 45% for goat and 43% for bovine. Twenty-one percent of sheep flocks, 27% of goat and 14% of cattle herds had a C. burnetii seroprevalence ≥ 20%. Only 15 out of 214 ELISA-positive animals reacted positive by CFT. Age-associated seroprevalence differed between ruminant species with a general increasing pattern with age. No evidence of correlation between abortion history and seroprevalence rates was observed despite the known abortifacient nature of C. burnetii in domestic ruminants. Conclusions Results reported herein showed that sheep had the highest contact rate with C. burnetii in the region but also that cattle and goats should not be neglected as part of the domestic cycle of C. burnetii. This work reports basic epidemiologic patterns of C. burnetii in semi-extensive grazed domestic ruminants which, together with the relevant role of C. burnetii as a zoonotic and abortifacient agent, makes these results to concern both Public and Animal Health Authorities.

  3. Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk samples from dairy goat and dairy sheep farms in The Netherlands in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Luttikholt, S; Moll, L; van Maanen, K; Vellema, P

    2012-03-24

    In 2007, a human Q fever epidemic started, mainly in the south eastern part of The Netherlands with a suspected indirect relation to dairy goats, and, to a lesser degree, to dairy sheep. This article describes the Q fever prevalences in Dutch dairy goat and dairy sheep bulk tank milk (BTM) samples, using a real-time (RT) PCR and ELISA. Results of BTM PCR and ELISA were compared with the serological status of individual animals, and correlations with a history of Q fever abortion were determined. When compared with ELISA results, the optimal cut-off value for the RT-PCR was 100 bacteria/ml. In 2008, there were 392 farms with more than 200 dairy goats, of which 292 submitted a BTM sample. Of these samples, 96 (32.9 per cent) were PCR positive and 87 (29.8 per cent) were ELISA positive. All farms with a history of Q fever abortion (n=17) were ELISA positive, 16 out of 17 were also PCR positive. BTM PCR or ELISA positive farms had significantly higher within-herd seroprevalences than BTM negative farms. In the south eastern provinces, the area where the human Q fever outbreak started in 2007, a significantly larger proportion of the BTM samples was PCR and ELISA positive compared to the rest of The Netherlands. None of the BTM samples from dairy sheep farms (n=16) were PCR positive but three of these farms were ELISA positive. The higher percentage of BTM positive farms in the area where the human Q fever outbreak started, supports the suspected relation between human cases and infected dairy goat farms.

  4. Analysis of the cbhE' plasmid gene from acute disease-causing isolates of Coxiella burnetii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnick, M F; Small, C L; Frazier, M E; Mallavia, L P

    1991-07-15

    A gene termed cbhE' was cloned from the QpH1 plasmid of Coxiella burnetii. Expression of recombinants containing cbhE' in vitro and in Escherichia coli maxicells, produced an insert-encoded polypeptide of approx. 42 kDa. The CbhE protein was not cleaved when intact maxicells were treated with trypsin. Hybridizations of total DNA isolated from the six strains of C. burnetii indicate that this gene is unique to C. burnetii strains associated with acute disease, i.e., Hamilton[I], Vacca[II], and Rasche[III]. The cbhE' gene was not detected in strains associated with chronic disease (Biotzere[IV] and Corazon[V]) or the Dod[VI] strain. The cbhE' open reading frame (ORF) is 1022 bp in length and is preceded by a predicted promoter/Shine-Dalgarno (SD) region of TCAACT(-35)-N16-TAAAAT(-10)-N14-AGAAGGA (SD) located 10 nucleotides (nt) before the presumed AUG start codon. The ORF ends with a single UAA stop codon and has no apparent Rho-factor-independent terminator following it. The cbhE' gene codes for the CbhE protein of 341 amino acid (aa) residues with a deduced Mr of 39,442. CbhE is predominantly hydrophilic with a predicted pI of 4.43. The function of CbhE is unknown. No nt or aa sequences with homology to cbhE' or CbhE, respectively, were found in searches of a number of data bases.

  5. Typhoid fever: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza Palma, Natalia Carolina; Farías Molina, Solange; Calzadilla Riveras, Jeannette; Hermoso, Amalia

    2016-06-21

    Typhoid fever remains a major health problem worldwide, in contrast to Chile, where this disease is an isolated finding. Clinical presentation is varied, mainly presenting with fever, malaise, abdominal discomfort, and nonspecific symptoms often confused with other causes of febrile syndrome. We report a six-year-old, male patient presenting with fever of two weeks associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, malaise, hepatomegaly and elevated liver enzymes. Differential diagnoses were considered and a Widal reaction and two blood cultures were requested; both came back positive, confirming the diagnosis of typhoid fever caused by Salmonella typhi. Prior to diagnosis confirmation, empirical treatment was initiated with ceftriaxone and metronidazole, with partial response; then drug therapy was adjusted according to ciprofloxacin susceptibility testing with a favorable clinical response. We discuss diagnostic methods and treatment of enteric fever with special emphasis on typhoid fever.

  6. Prevention of lassa Fever in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inegbenebor, Ute; Okosun, John; Inegbenebor, Josephine

    2010-01-01

    Although specific treatment is available for Lassa fever, early diagnosis is still difficult in most Nigerian primary and secondary health centers. This study was carried out to compare the case-fatality rates of Lassa fever and other medical diseases commonly seen in adult medical wards, to determine the community habits that make Lassa fever endemic in Edo Central District of Nigeria, with the aim of prescribing preventive measures for its control in Nigeria. The records of 908 inpatients in the adult medical wards of Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua and responses from respondents interviewed by trained interviewers on their knowledge, attitudes and practices pertaining to Lassa fever were used for this study. The case-fatality rate of Lassa fever in this center was 28%. Cultural factors and habits were found to favor endemicity of Lassa fever in Edo Central District of Nigeria. Preventive measures were prescribed for families and communities.

  7. Fever of unknown origin in returning travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Gaweł, Bartłomiej; Krankowska, Dagny; Wasilczuk, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article is to discuss issues associated with the occurrence of febrile illnesses in leisure and business travellers, with a particular emphasis on fevers of unknown origin (FUO). FUO, apart from diarrhoeas, respiratory tract infections and skin lesions, are one of the most common health problems in travellers to tropical and subtropical countries. FUO are manifestations of various diseases, typically of infectious or invasive aetiology. In one out of 3 cases, the cause of a fever in travellers returning from the hot climate zone is malaria, and therefore diagnostic tests should first aim at ruling out this specific disease entity. Other illnesses with persistent fever include dengue, enteric fever, viral hepatitis A, bacterial diarrhoeas and rickettsioses. Fever may also occur in travellers suffering from diseases of non-tropical origin, e.g. cosmopolitan respiratory tract or urinary tract infections, also, fever may coexist with other illnesses or injuries (skin rashes, bites, burns).

  8. relapsing fever, a disappearing cause of fever and maternal death in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-01

    Apr 1, 2013 ... Objective: To study the incidence of tick borne relapsing fever (TBRF) during the last. 50 years ... fever was a disease of major worldwide importance, affecting ... of Diseases (ICD) of the World Health Organization. Reporting ...

  9. [Postoperative fever in orthopedic and urologic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Federico; Myburg, Cristina; Lanfranconi, Marisa B; Urtasun, Martin; De Oca, Luis Montes; Silberman, Andres; Lambierto, Alberto; Gnocchi, Cesar A

    2008-01-01

    Post-operative fever incidence varies widely. In clean and clean-contaminated surgery the non-infectious fever is more frequent than the infectious fever. We performed a prospective study including 303 patients who underwent orthopedic and urologic elective surgery. The aims of our study were to investigate the incidence of post-operative fever, its etiology, the relationship between time of onset and the etiology, and the usefulness of extensive fever work-up to determine post-operative infection. The incidence of post-operative fever was 14% (42/303) of which 81% (34/42) was noninfectious and 19% (8/42) was infectious. The etiology of the fever in the first 48 hours after surgery was always non-infectious (p fever work-up was performed in patients who presented fever only after the initial 48 hours of surgery with normal physical examination (n = 19) consisting of chest x-ray, blood (2) and urine cultures. The chest x-ray was normal in all the patients, the urine cultures were positive in four cases (21%, IC 95%: 6-45) and the blood cultures in only one case (5%, IC 95%: 0.1-26). Seven patients had post-operative infections without fever as a clinical sign. The most frequently observed etiology of post-operative fever was non-infectious, related to the normal inflammatory host response to surgery. Based on the present results, the extensive fever work-up performed to investigate post-operative infection does not seem to be a useful tool. The diagnosis of post-operative infection was based on clinical follow up and the correct interpretation of the patient's symptoms and signs.

  10. Fever of Unknown Origin: An Unusual Case

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, R. A.; Hayman, G. R.; Bansal, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Recurrent episodic fever of unknown origin (FUO) arising from tumour of the gastrointestinal tract is rare. We report an otherwise healthy 62-year-old man with recurrent circumscribed bouts of fever and raised CRP for 3 years who has remained well and fever-free 2 years after the removal of a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the colon. Occult colonic neoplasm should be considered and sought when routine investigations for FUO are negative.

  11. Advanced heart block in acute rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubail, Zakariya; Ebrahim, Ishaq M

    2016-04-01

    First degree heart block is considered a minor criterion for the diagnosis of this condition. The cases presented here demonstrate that higher degrees of heart block do occur in rheumatic fever. Children presenting with acquired heart block should be worked-up for rheumatic fever. Likewise, it is imperative to serially follow the electrocardiogram in patients already diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever, as the conduction abnormalities can change during the course of the disease.

  12. Advanced heart block in acute rheumatic fever

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    First degree heart block is considered a minor criterion for the diagnosis of this condition. The cases presented here demonstrate that higher degrees of heart block do occur in rheumatic fever. Children presenting with acquired heart block should be worked-up for rheumatic fever. Likewise, it is imperative to serially follow the electrocardiogram in patients already diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever, as the conduction abnormalities can change during the course of the disease.

  13. Effector Protein Cig2 Decreases Host Tolerance of Infection by Directing Constitutive Fusion of Autophagosomes with the Coxiella-Containing Vacuole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara J. Kohler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii replicates in an acidified lysosome-derived vacuole. Biogenesis of the Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV requires bacterial effector proteins delivered into host cells by the Dot/Icm secretion system. Genetic and cell biological analysis revealed that an effector protein called Cig2 promotes constitutive fusion of autophagosomes with the CCV to maintain this compartment in an autolysosomal stage of maturation. This distinguishes the CCV from other pathogen-containing vacuoles that are targeted by the host autophagy pathway, which typically confers host resistance to infection by delivering the pathogen to a toxic lysosomal environment. By maintaining the CCV in an autolysosomal stage of maturation, Cig2 enabled CCV homotypic fusion and enhanced bacterial virulence in the Galleria mellonella (wax moth model of infection by a mechanism that decreases host tolerance. Thus, C. burnetii residence in an autolysosomal organelle alters host tolerance of infection, which indicates that Cig2-dependent manipulation of a lysosome-derived vacuole influences the host response to infection.

  14. Swimming Efficiency of Bacterium Escherichia Coli

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, S; Wu, X L; Yeung, C; Chattopadhyay, Suddhashil; Moldovan, Radu; Yeung, Chuck

    2005-01-01

    We use in vivo measurements of swimming bacteria in an optical trap to determine fundamental properties of bacterial propulsion. In particular, we determine the propulsion matrix, which relates the angular velocity of the flagellum to the torques and forces propelling the bacterium. From the propulsion matrix dynamical properties such as forces, torques, swimming speed and power can be obtained from measurements of the angular velocity of the motor. We find significant heterogeneities among different individuals even though all bacteria started from a single colony. The propulsive efficiency, defined as the ratio of the propulsive power output to the rotary power input provided by the motors, is found to be 0.2%.

  15. Isolation of a Bacterium Strain Degraded Agar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    One in 58 strains of bacteria isolated from the compost showed clear colonies after a few days of growth on the plates containing medium made of only agar and water.Water suspension contained only agar (2 and 8g·L -1 ) with two controls (normal saline,LB medium) was inoculated with the bacterium BR5-1 to see whether there was an increasement of the alive bacteria concentration after 48 h of the growth.The results showed that there was a significant rising of the alive bacteria concentration in the agar susp...

  16. Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Elspeth; Goldberg, Elad; Fraser, Abigail; Acosta, Camilo J; Paul, Mical; Leibovici, Leonard

    2014-01-02

    Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death, particularly among children and adolescents in south-central and southeast Asia. Two typhoid vaccines are commercially available, Ty21a (oral) and Vi polysaccharide (parenteral), but neither is used routinely. Other vaccines, such as a new, modified, conjugated Vi vaccine called Vi-rEPA, are in development. To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of vaccines used to prevent typhoid fever. In June 2013, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and mRCT. We also searched relevant conference proceedings up to 2013 and scanned the reference lists of all included trials. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing typhoid fever vaccines with other typhoid fever vaccines or with an inactive agent (placebo or vaccine for a different disease). Two review authors independently applied inclusion criteria and extracted data. We computed vaccine efficacy per year of follow-up and cumulative three-year efficacy, stratifying for vaccine type and dose. The outcome addressed was typhoid fever, defined as isolation of Salmonella typhi in blood. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) and efficacy (1-RR as a percentage) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In total, 18 RCTs were included in this review; 12 evaluated efficacy (Ty21a: five trials; Vi polysaccharide: six trials; Vi-rEPA: one trial), and 11 reported on adverse events. Ty21a vaccine (oral vaccine, three doses) A three-dose schedule of Ty21a vaccine prevents around one-third to one-half of typhoid cases in the first two years after vaccination (Year 1: 35%, 95% CI 8% to 54%; Year 2: 58%, 95% CI 40% to 71%; one trial, 20,543 participants; moderate quality evidence; data taken from a single trial conducted in Indonesia in the 1980s). No benefit was detected in the third year after vaccination. Four additional cluster-RCTs have been conducted, but the

  17. [Differential diagnosis in fever of unknown origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, H-I

    2006-11-01

    Fever is one of the most frequent and important symptoms in pediatrics. Most cases are caused by self-limiting viral or easily treatable bacterial infections. If after 5-7 days no cause of the ongoing fever has been found, the condition is termed fever of unknown origin, a working diagnosis which often poses a diagnostic challenge. The ultimate cause may be an infectious disease, a chronic inflammatory disorder, a malignancy, or another rare disease. The cause may also remain obscure or the fever can finally disappear. Here we elaborate the diagnostic work-up and symptomatic treatment.

  18. Describing the Breakbone Fever: IDODEN, an Ontology for Dengue Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitraka, Elvira; Topalis, Pantelis; Dritsou, Vicky; Dialynas, Emmanuel; Louis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Background Ontologies represent powerful tools in information technology because they enhance interoperability and facilitate, among other things, the construction of optimized search engines. To address the need to expand the toolbox available for the control and prevention of vector-borne diseases we embarked on the construction of specific ontologies. We present here IDODEN, an ontology that describes dengue fever, one of the globally most important diseases that are transmitted by mosquitoes. Methodology/Principal Findings We constructed IDODEN using open source software, and modeled it on IDOMAL, the malaria ontology developed previously. IDODEN covers all aspects of dengue fever, such as disease biology, epidemiology and clinical features. Moreover, it covers all facets of dengue entomology. IDODEN, which is freely available, can now be used for the annotation of dengue-related data and, in addition to its use for modeling, it can be utilized for the construction of other dedicated IT tools such as decision support systems. Conclusions/Significance The availability of the dengue ontology will enable databases hosting dengue-associated data and decision-support systems for that disease to perform most efficiently and to link their own data to those stored in other independent repositories, in an architecture- and software-independent manner. PMID:25646954

  19. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2012-05-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a paediatric disease, the age distribution of dengue has been rising and more cases have been observed in adolescents and adults. Furthermore, the development of tourism in the tropics has led to an increase in the number of tourists who become infected, most of whom are adults. Symptoms and risk factors for dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue differ between children and adults, with co-morbidities and incidence in more elderly patients associated with greater risk of mortality. Treatment options for DF and DHF in adults, as for children, centre round fluid replacement (either orally or intravenously, depending on severity) and antipyretics. Further data are needed on the optimal treatment of adult patients.

  20. Fever-Induced Brugada Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Manohar MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brugada syndrome is increasingly recognized as a cause of sudden cardiac death. Many of these patients do not get diagnosed due its dynamic and often hidden nature. We have come a long way in understanding the disease process, and its electrophysiology appears to be intimately linked with sodium channel mutations or disorders. The cardiac rhythm in these patients can deteriorate into fatal ventricular arrhythmias. This makes it important for the clinician to be aware of the conditions in which arrhythmogenicity of Brugada syndrome is revealed or even potentiated. We present such an instance where our patient’s Brugada syndrome was unmasked by fever.

  1. Fever Through a Jaundiced Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina C. Kennelly MD

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA is an important clinical entity to consider in a patient with fever and abdominal pain. Previously, the condition was difficult to diagnose and treat, but with the introduction of widely available and reliable imaging techniques, its diagnosis has become more straightforward. Although uncommon, PLA should especially be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients with specific predisposing conditions such as underlying biliary tract disease, whether as a result of chronic inflammatory disease or malignancy. The introduction of percutaneous drainage has revolutionized the management of PLA, and thus, this disease has become largely correctable.

  2. Biodegradation of heavy oils by halophilic bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruixia Hao; Anhuai Lu

    2009-01-01

    A halophilic bacterial strain TM-1 was isolated from the reservoir of the Shengli oil field in East China. Strain TM-1, which was found to be able to degrade crude oils, is a gram-positive non-motile bacterium with a coccus shape that can grow at temperatures of up to 58 ℃ and in 18% NaCl solution. Depending on the culture conditions, the organism may occur in tetrads. In addition, strain TM-1 pro-duced acid from glucose without gas formation and was catalase-negative. Furthermore, strain TM-I was found to be a facultative aer-obe capable of growth under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, it produced butylated hydroxytoluene, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid-bis ester and dibutyl phthalate and could use different organic substrates. Laboratory studies indicated that strain TM-1 affected different heavy oils by degrading various components and by changing the chemical properties of the oils. In addition, growth of the bacterium in heavy oils resulted in the loss of aromatic hydrocarbons, resins and asphaltenes, and enrichment with light hydrocarbons and an overall redistribution of these hydrocarbons.

  3. Caregivers' perceptions of childhood fever in Ilorin, North-Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caregivers' perceptions of childhood fever in Ilorin, North-Central Nigeria. ... The aim was to determine knowledge and attitudes of parents regarding fever in their ... at all contacts with the healthcare system on fever, and its management.

  4. Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child is overdressed or in a hot place. Febrile seizures do occur in some children. Most febrile seizures are over quickly and do not mean your ... the flu - what to ask your doctor - child Febrile seizures - what to ask your doctor When your baby ...

  5. Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1, use an oral rehydration solution such as Pedialyte. These solutions contain water and salts proportioned to replenish fluids and electrolytes. Pedialyte ice pops also are available. Rest. You need ...

  6. Leptospirosis presenting as honeymoon fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sainte Marie, B; Delord, M; Dubourg, G; Gautret, P; Parola, P; Brouqui, P; Lagier, J C

    2015-05-01

    An increasing number of travelers from western countries visit tropical regions, questioning western physicians on the prophylaxis, the diagnosis and the therapeutic management of patients with travel-associated infection. In July 2014, a French couple stayed for an adventure-travel in Columbia without malaria prophylaxis. A week after their return the woman presented with fever, myalgia, and retro-orbital pain. Three days later, her husband presented similar symptoms. In both patients, testing for malaria, arboviruses and blood cultures remained negative. An empirical treatment with doxycycline and ceftriaxone was initiated for both patients. Serum collected from the female patient yielded positive IgM for leptospirosis but was negative for her husband. Positive Real-Time PCR were observed in blood and urine from both patients, confirming leptospirosis. Three lessons are noteworthy from this case report. First, after exclusion of malaria, as enteric fever, leptospirosis and rickettsial infection are the most prevalent travel-associated infections, empirical treatment with doxycycline and third generation cephalosporin should be considered. In addition, the diagnosis of leptospirosis requires both serology and PCR performed in both urine and blood samples. Finally, prophylaxis using doxycycline, also effective against leptospirosis, rickettsial infections or travellers' diarrhea should be recommended for adventure travelers in malaria endemic areas.

  7. A model of dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutayeb A

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is a disease which is now endemic in more than 100 countries of Africa, America, Asia and the Western Pacific. It is transmitted to the man by mosquitoes (Aedes and exists in two forms: Dengue Fever and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever. The disease can be contracted by one of the four different viruses. Moreover, immunity is acquired only to the serotype contracted and a contact with a second serotype becomes more dangerous. Methods The present paper deals with a succession of two epidemics caused by two different viruses. The dynamics of the disease is studied by a compartmental model involving ordinary differential equations for the human and the mosquito populations. Results Stability of the equilibrium points is given and a simulation is carried out with different values of the parameters. The epidemic dynamics is discussed and illustration is given by figures for different values of the parameters. Conclusion The proposed model allows for better understanding of the disease dynamics. Environment and vaccination strategies are discussed especially in the case of the succession of two epidemics with two different viruses.

  8. Rheumatic fever in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Rachel; Wilson, Nigel

    2013-03-01

    Acute rheumatic fever and its sequel rheumatic heart disease remain major unsolved problems in New Zealand, causing significant morbidity and premature death. The disease burden affects predominantly indigenous Māori and Pacific Island children and young adults. In the past decade these ethnic disparities are even widening. Secondary prophylaxis using 28-day intramuscular penicillin has been the mainstay of disease control. In the greater Auckland region, audit shows community nurse-led penicillin delivery rates of 95% and recurrence rates of less than 5%. The true penicillin failure rate of 0.07 per 100 patient years supports 4 weekly penicillin rather than more frequent dose regimens. Landmark primary prevention research has been undertaken supporting sore throat primary prevention programmes in regions with very high rheumatic fever rates. Echocardiographic screening found 2.4% previously undiagnosed rheumatic heart disease in socially disadvantaged children. Combined with secondary prevention, echocardiography screening has the potential to reduce the prevalence of severe rheumatic heart disease.

  9. FAMILIAL MEDITERRANEAN FEVER AND HYPERCOAGULABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshrat E. Tayer-Shifman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease which is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and peritonitis, pleuritis, arthritis, or erysipelas-like skin disease. As such, FMF is a prototype of autoinflammatory diseases where genetic changes lead to acute inflammatory episodes. Systemic inflammation – in general - may increase procoagulant factors, and decrease natural anticoagulants and fibrinolytic activity. Therefore, it is anticipated to see more thrombotic events among FMF patients compared with healthy subjects. However, reviewing the current available literature and based upon our personal experience, thrombotic events related purely to FMF are very rare. Possible explanation for this discrepancy is that along with the procoagulant activity during FMF acute attacks, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic changes are also taking place. Furthermore, it may well be that during the acute attack of FMF the procoagulant factors are consumed or used for the purpose of inflammation so that nothing is left for their role in the coagulation pathway. Colchicine may also play a role in reducing inflammation thereby decreasing hypercoagulabilty

  10. Biomarkers of fever: from bench to bedside

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Limper (Maarten)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis aims to study biomarkers in inflammation and infection, with a special focus on the distinction between infectious and non-infectious fever. The thesis consists of three parts, part I being this introduction, in which the concept of fever in infectious and n

  11. Classical Swine Fever Virus-Rluc Replicons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Peter Christian; Belsham, Graham J.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the etiologic agent of the severe porcine disease, classical swine fever. Unraveling the molecular determinants of efficient replication is crucial for gaining proper knowledge of the pathogenic traits of this virus. Monitoring the replication competence within...

  12. Unexpected Rift Valley fever outbreak, northern Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mamy, Ahmed B O; Baba, Mohamed Ould; Barry, Yahya; Isselmou, Katia; Dia, Mamadou L; El Kory, Mohamed O B; Diop, Mariam; Lo, Modou Moustapha; Thiongane, Yaya; Bengoumi, Mohammed; Puech, Lilian; Plee, Ludovic; Claes, Filip; de La Rocque, Stephane; Doumbia, Baba

    2011-10-01

    During September-October 2010, an unprecedented outbreak of Rift Valley fever was reported in the northern Sahelian region of Mauritania after exceptionally heavy rainfall. Camels probably played a central role in the local amplification of the virus. We describe the main clinical signs (hemorrhagic fever, icterus, and nervous symptoms) observed during the outbreak.

  13. Rift Valley fever outbreak, southern Mauritania, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, Abdourahmane; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Ba, Hampathé; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Boushab, Mohamed; Barry, Yahya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-02-01

    After a period of heavy rainfall, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever occurred in southern Mauritania during September-November 2012. A total of 41 human cases were confirmed, including 13 deaths, and 12 Rift Valley fever virus strains were isolated. Moudjeria and Temchecket Departments were the most affected areas.

  14. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Charles R

    2013-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is typically undifferentiated from many other infections in the first few days of illness. Treatment should not be delayed pending confirmation of infection when Rocky Mountain spotted fever is suspected. Doxycycline is the drug of choice even for infants and children less than 8 years old.

  15. [Familial Mediterranean fever: not to be missed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, J.; Bemelman, F.J.; Potter van Loon, B.J.; Simon, A.

    2013-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is common among Turkish and Moroccan migrants. We describe three patients with FMF. A 3-year-old girl with recurrent fever and abdominal pain who was diagnosed early with FMF and treated effectively with colchicine. An adolescent girl who required interleukin

  16. Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Risk and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fungal spores. The following are some common-sense methods that may be helpful to avoid getting Valley fever. It’s important to know that although these steps are recommended, they haven’t been proven to prevent Valley fever. ... information about respirators. Stay inside during dust storms and ...

  17. Dengue hemorrhagic fever complicated by pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Ricardo Gonzalez Fontal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is an atypical complication of dengue fever and is rarely described. We are reporting a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever complicated by acute pancreatitis in a patient with history of diabetes mellitus type 1 and end stage renal disease on hemodialysis.

  18. Ask Dr. Sue: "Children and Fevers."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1989-01-01

    Considers aspects of children's fevers. Answers questions concerning: (1) the temperature at which a fever is infectious; (2) the point at which a feverish child in care should be sent home; (3) the length of time a parent should wait before returning the child to day care; and (4) the way to take a child's temperature. (RJC)

  19. [Diagnostic approach to fever of unknown origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, fever of unknown origin (FUO) is generally defined as a fever higher than 38-3 degrees C lasting for a period of at least three weeks, in which no definitive diagnosis has been made after a number of obligatory tests. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed in which history taking, physical

  20. Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis associated with typhoid fever.

    OpenAIRE

    Wali, G M

    1991-01-01

    A 14 year old boy developed the syndrome of Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis during the course of bacteriologically proved typhoid fever. The clinical course and the results of various neurological investigations are detailed. This report adds a further manifestation to the published neuropsychiatric complications of typhoid fever.

  1. Typhoid fever: the experience of last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kovalenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is about analyses of diagnostics and treatment of the modern typhoid fever. In the past typhoid fever was critical and lifethreatening inflectional disease. But nowadays thanks to using of chloramphenicol and other antimicrobial preparations, typhoid fever is serious but well curable disease. In the second part of the 20th century the number of typhoid fever cases has decreased. As a result a new generation of physicians, who has never come across this disease, appeared. Nowadays typhoid fever is still actual for practical public health in Russia. There are two causes: first, there is a risk of delivery of infections with tourists and immigrants. Second, the small number of physicians, who possess well knowledge of clinical features and modern therapy.

  2. Viral haemorrhagic fevers in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ftika, L; Maltezou, H C

    2013-03-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) typically manifest as rapidly progressing acute febrile syndromes with profound haemorrhagic manifestations and very high fatality rates. VHFs that have the potential for human-to-human transmission and onset of large nosocomial outbreaks include Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Ebola haemorrhagic fever, Marburg haemorrhagic fever and Lassa fever. Nosocomial outbreaks of VHFs are increasingly reported nowadays, which likely reflects the dynamics of emergence of VHFs. Such outbreaks are associated with an enormous impact in terms of human lives and costs for the management of cases, contact tracing and containment. Surveillance, diagnostic capacity, infection control and the overall preparedness level for management of a hospital-based VHF event are very limited in most endemic countries. Diagnostic capacities for VHFs should increase in the field and become affordable. Availability of appropriate protective equipment and education of healthcare workers about safe clinical practices and infection control is the mainstay for the prevention of nosocomial spread of VHFs.

  3. Familial Mediterranean Fever: An Unusual Case Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soora, Raksha; Nicandri, Katrina

    2015-12-01

    Familial Mediterranean Fever is a heritable illness typically characterized by recurrent fevers and serositis. Triggers of this illness include many things, such as cold or stress. This case describes a teenager who initially presented to the gynecologist office because of recurrent fevers with menses. Because she only had symptoms with menses, was healthy between attacks, and met the Livneh criteria, treatment with colchicine and combined oral contraceptive pills was initiated, with improvement of her symptoms. There are multiple etiologies for febrile illness during menses, and one should consider familial Mediterranean fever as a possible cause of cyclic fevers. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Educational Fever and South Korean Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Kyu Lee

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the influence of educational fever on the development of the Republic of Korea education and economy in the context of the cultural history of this country. In order to examine this study, the author explains the concept of educational fever and discusses the relation between Confucianism and education zeal. Educational fever and human capitalization in South Korean higher education are analyzed from a comparative viewpoint. The study evaluates the effects and problems of education fever this country’s current higher education, and it concludes that Koreans’ educational fever has been a core factor by which to achieve the development of the national economy as well as the rapid expansion of higher education.

  5. The geographical distribution of Q fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAPLAN, M M; BERTAGNA, P

    1955-01-01

    The results of a WHO-assisted survey of the distribution of Q fever in 32 countries and an analysis of reports published to date indicate that Q fever exists in 51 countries on five continents. Q-fever infection was most often reported in man and the domestic ruminants, such as cattle, sheep, and goats.The disease was found to exist in most countries where investigations were carried out. Notable exceptions were Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, and the Scandinavian countries. With the exception of Poland, where the results were inconclusive, all these countries import relatively few domestic ruminants-the most important animal reservoirs of human Q-fever infection. It seems, therefore, that the traffic of infected ruminants may be one of the most important, if not the most important, means for the geographical spread of Q fever. The importance, if any, of ticks associated with such traffic needs to be defined.

  6. Fever management: Evidence vs current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Radhi, A Sahib Mehdi

    2012-12-08

    Fever is a very common complaint in children and is the single most common non-trauma-related reason for a visit to the emergency department. Parents are concerned about fever and it's potential complications. The biological value of fever (i.e., whether it is beneficial or harmful) is disputed and it is being vigorously treated with the belief of preventing complications such as brain injury and febrile seizures. The practice of alternating antipyretics has become widespread at home and on paediatric wards without supporting scientific evidence. There is still a significant contrast between the current concept and practice, and the scientific evidence. Why is that the case in such a common complaint like fever The article will discuss the significant contrast between the current concepts and practice of fever management on one hand, and the scientific evidence against such concepts and practice.

  7. Milk fever control principles: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Østergaard, S

    2002-01-01

    Three main preventive principles against milk fever were evaluated in this literature review, and the efficacy of each principle was estimated from the results of controlled investigations. Oral calcium drenching around calving apparently has a mean efficacy of 50%-60% in terms of milk fever...... prevention as well as prevention of milk fever relapse after intravenous treatment with calcium solutions. However, some drenches have been shown to cause lesions in the forestomacs. When using the DCAD (dietary cation-anion difference) principle, feeding rations with a negative DCAD (measured as (Na + K......)-(Cl + S)) significantly reduce the milk fever incidence. Calculating the relative risk (RR) of developing milk fever from controlled experiments results in a mean RR between 0.19 and 0.35 when rations with a negative versus positive DCAD are compared. The main drawback from the DCAD principle...

  8. Rat Bite Fever Resembling Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripa Akter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rat bite fever is rare in Western countries. It can be very difficult to diagnose as blood cultures are typically negative and a history of rodent exposure is often missed. Unless a high index of suspicion is maintained, the associated polyarthritis can be mistaken for rheumatoid arthritis. We report a case of culture-positive rat bite fever in a 46-year-old female presenting with fever and polyarthritis. The clinical presentation mimicked rheumatoid arthritis. Infection was complicated by discitis, a rare manifestation. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare zoonotic infection. We also review nine reported cases of rat bite fever, all of which had an initial presumptive diagnosis of a rheumatological disorder. Rat bite fever is a potentially curable infection but can have a lethal course if left untreated.

  9. Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever: Systematic review to estimate global morbidity and mortality for 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Geoffrey C.; Walker, Christa L. Fischer; Black, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Typhoid and paratyphoid fever remain important causes of morbidity worldwide. Accurate disease burden estimates are needed to guide policy decisions and prevention and control strategies. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of the PubMed and Scopus databases using pre-defined criteria to identify population-based studies with typhoid fever incidence data published between 1980 and 2009. We also abstracted data from annual reports of notifiable diseases in countries with advanced surveillance systems. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever input data were grouped into regions and regional incidence and mortality rates were estimated. Incidence data were extrapolated across regions for those lacking data. Age-specific incidence rates were derived for regions where age-specific data were available. Crude and adjusted estimates of the global typhoid fever burden were calculated. Results Twenty-five studies were identified, all of which contained incidence data on typhoid fever and 12 on paratyphoid fever. Five advanced surveillance systems contributed data on typhoid fever; 2 on paratyphoid fever. Regional typhoid fever incidence rates ranged from typhoid fever episodes in 2010 was 13.5 million (interquartile range 9.1–17.8 million). The adjusted estimate accounting for the low sensitivity of blood cultures for isolation of the bacteria was 26.9 million (interquartile range 18.3–35.7 million) episodes. These findings are comparable to the most recent analysis of global typhoid fever morbidity, which reported crude and adjusted estimates of 10.8 million and 21.7 million typhoid fever episodes globally in 2000. Conclusion Typhoid fever remains a significant health burden, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the availability of more recent data on both enteric fevers, additional research is needed in many regions, particularly Africa, Latin America and other developing countries. PMID:23198130

  10. Fever after percutaneous nephrolithotomy: contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi Aghdas, Farzaneh; Akhavizadegan, Hamed; Aryanpoor, Aryan; Inanloo, Hassan; Karbakhsh, Mojgan

    2006-08-01

    The exact mechanism of fever and urosepsis after percutaneous procedures has not been established. This research studied the frequency of fever after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and the contributing factors. In a cross-sectional study, from September 2003 to March 2004, all 217 patients with nephrolithiasis treated with PCNL at the Labbafinegad Specialized Urology Center were studied. Data were collected before, during, and after surgery. The frequency of fever after PCNL was 25.8% (n=56) although in 62.2% of the cases (n=135), no prophylactic antibiotics had been administered. The mean durations of hospitalization in patients with and without fever were 5.4+/-2.3 and 3.4+/-1.7 days, respectively (p=0.001). Significant correlations were observed between fever and female sex (p=0.005), positive urine culture (p=0.02), and nephrostomy tube insertion (p=0.041). Other variables did not prove to be significant. In logistic regression analysis, female sex and nephrostomy tube insertion were independently related to post-operative fever. Although a considerable proportion of our patients had not received prophylactic antibiotics, the rate of fever after PCNL was no higher than is reported in the literature. Use of only a short course of antibiotics before surgery for staghorn stones did not result in a higher rate of fever. Female sex created a higher risk for fever, probably because of the greater propensity to urinary tract infection. The significant relation of a nephrostomy tube to fever could be attributed to its role as a foreign body or to use in more complicated cases.

  11. A positive fever response in Agama agama and Sceloporus orcutti (Reptilia: Agamidae and Iguanidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, C E; Stranc, D S; Casal, M P; Hallman, G M; Muchlinski, A E

    1991-01-01

    Three species of lizards (Agama agama, Mabuya perrotetii, and Sceloporus orcutti) were tested for a possible increase in mean selected body temperature (MSBT) in response to intraperitoneal injection of alcohol-killed Aeromonas sobria, a gram-negative bacterium known to be pathogenic to reptiles. A paired experimental design was utilized in which each animal was given an injection of sterile saline and 1.10(10) A. sobria. Body temperatures were monitored via indwelling cloacal thermocouples at 4-min intervals for one 12-h light period under saline injection and for two consecutive 12-h light periods under bacteria injection. Agama agama demonstrated a significant increase in MSBT on both day 1 and day 2 of bacteria injection with increases of 2.7 and 2.3 degrees C, respectively. The latency period on day 1 averaged 6.4 h. Sceloporus orcutti demonstrated a significant decrease in MSBT on day 1 of bacteria injection and a significant increase in MSBT of 1.0 degree C on day 2 of bacteria injection. No fever was evident in S. orcutti until the beginning of day 2. Mabuya perrotetii did not exhibit a significant change in MSBT on either day 1 or day 2 of bacteria injection. Agama agama (family Agamidae) is the first Old World reptile to exhibit a fever response to bacteria injection, and with these results fever has now been demonstrated in the lizard families Agamidae, Iguanidae, and Teiidae.

  12. [Streptococcus pyogenes--much more than the aetiological agent of scarlet fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2009-11-01

    The grampositive bacterium S. pyogenes (beta-haemolytic group A Streptococcus) is a natural colonizer of the human oropharynx mucous membrane and one of the most common agents of infectious diseases in humans. S. pyogenes causes the widest range of disease in humans among all bacterial pathogens. It is responsible for various skin infections such as impetigo contagiosa and erysipelas, and localized mucous membrane infections of the oropharynx (e. g. tonsillitis and pharyngitis). Betahaemolytic group A Streptococcus causes also invasive diseases such as sepses including puerperal sepsis. Additionally, S. pyogenes induces toxin-mediated syndromes, i. e. scarlet fever, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and necrotizing fasciitis (NF). STSS and NF are severe, frequently fatal diseases that have emerged in Europe and Northern America during the last two decades. Finally, some immunpathological diseases such as acute rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis also result from S. pyogenes infections. Most scientists recommend penicillins (benzylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicllin) as drugs of first choice for treatment of Streptococcus tonsillopharyngitis and scarlet fever. Erysipelas and some other skin infections should be treated with benzylpenicillin. Intensive care measurements are needed for treatment of severe toxin-mediated S. pyogenes diseases. These measurements include the elimination of internal bacterial foci, concomitant application of clindamycin and benzylpenicillin and suitable treatment of shock symptoms. Management of immunpathological diseases requires antiphlogistical therapy. Because of the wide distribution of S. pyogenes in the general population and the lack of an effective vaccine, possibilities for prevention allowing a suitable protection for diseases due to S. pyogenes are very limited.

  13. Fluctuation-Enhanced Sensing of Bacterium Odors

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Hung-Chih; King, Maria D; Kwan, Chiman

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the possibility to detect and identify bacteria by sensing their odor via fluctuation-enhanced sensing with commercial Taguchi sensors. The fluctuations of the electrical resistance during exposure to different bacterial odors, Escherichia coli and anthrax-surrogate Bacillus subtilis, have been measured and analyzed. In the present study, the simplest method, the measurement and analysis of power density spectra was used. The sensors were run in the normal heated and the sampling-and-hold working modes, respectively. The results indicate that Taguchi sensors used in these fluctuation-enhanced modes are effective tools of bacterium detection and identification even when they are utilizing only the power density spectrum of the stochastic sensor signal.

  14. Diffusion of magnetotactic bacterium in rotating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebers, A., E-mail: aceb@tesla.sal.l [Department of Physics, University of Latvia, Zellu 8, Ri-bar ga, LV-1002 (Latvia)

    2011-02-15

    Swimming trajectory of a magnetotactic bacterium in a rotating magnetic field is a circle. Random reversals of the direction of the bacterium motion induces a random walk of the curvature center of the trajectory. In assumption of the distribution of the switching events according to the Poisson process the diffusion coefficient is calculated in dependence on the frequency of the rotating field and the characteristic time between the switching events. It is confirmed by the numerical simulation of the random walk of the bacterium in the rotating magnetic field. - Research highlights: Random switching of the flagella leads to diffusion of a bacterium in the field. Mean square displacement of the curvature center is proportional to time. Diffusion coefficient depends on the period of a rotating field. At zero frequency diffusion coefficient is the same as for a tumbling bacterium.

  15. The chemical formula of a magnetotactic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh, Mohit; Das, Sayoni; Mishra, Prashant; Mittal, Aditya

    2012-05-01

    Elucidation of the chemical logic of life is one of the grand challenges in biology, and essential to the progress of the upcoming field of synthetic biology. Treatment of microbial cells explicitly as a "chemical" species in controlled reaction (growth) environments has allowed fascinating discoveries of elemental formulae of a few species that have guided the modern views on compositions of a living cell. Application of mass and energy balances on living cells has proved to be useful in modeling of bioengineering systems, particularly in deriving optimized media compositions for growing microorganisms to maximize yields of desired bio-derived products by regulating intra-cellular metabolic networks. In this work, application of elemental mass balance during growth of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense in bioreactors has resulted in the discovery of the chemical formula of the magnetotactic bacterium. By developing a stoichiometric equation characterizing the formation of a magnetotactic bacterial cell, coupled with rigorous experimental measurements and robust calculations, we report the elemental formula of M. gryphiswaldense cell as CH(2.06)O(0.13)N(0.28)Fe(1.74×10(-3)). Remarkably, we find that iron metabolism during growth of this magnetotactic bacterium is much more correlated individually with carbon and nitrogen, compared to carbon and nitrogen with each other, indicating that iron serves more as a nutrient during bacterial growth rather than just a mineral. Magnetotactic bacteria have not only invoked some interest in the field of astrobiology for the last two decades, but are also prokaryotes having the unique ability of synthesizing membrane bound intracellular organelles. Our findings on these unique prokaryotes are a strong addition to the limited repertoire, of elemental compositions of living cells, aimed at exploring the chemical logic of life.

  16. ACUTE UNDIFFERENTIATED FEVER IN INTENSIVE CARE UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Ram Mohan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute undifferentiated fever (AUF is common in tropical regions of the developing world, its specific etiology is often unknown. It’s common causes include malaria, dengue fever, enteric fever, leptospirosis, rickettsial infection. AUF is defined as fever without any localised source of infection, of 14 days or less in duration. The objective of the study was to focus on identifying the causes of AUF in patients admitted to Intensive care units & to determine importance of clinical examination in identifying the cause. It was a prospective study done in our Medical college Hospital at Kolar, Karnataka between 1-11-2010 to 30-11-2011. Cases presenting to hospital aged >18 years with complaints of Fever & admitted in Intensive care units were included in study. A total of 558 cases were enrolled. The clinical findings were noted and subsequent Investigations required were asked for. The study compromised of approximately equal number of Male & Female patients & age varied from 18 – 100 years. There was a clear seasonal variation – More no of cases were admitted between April & November. Majority presented with Fever of Short duration (1-3 days. Certain well defined syndromes were identified like:  Fever with Thrombocytopenia – the most common of all the syndromes.  Fever with Myalgia & Arthralgia,  Fever with Hepatorenal dysfunction,  Fever with Encephalopathy,  Fever with Pulmonary - Renal dysfunction and  Fever with Multiorgan dysfunction (MODS. Out of 558 cases AUF was noted in 339 cases (60.86%. An etiological diagnosis could be made for 218 cases (39.06%. Leptospirosis was the commonest cause with 72 cases (12.9%. The no of cases with Dengue were 48(8.6%, Malaria –25 (4.4%, Viral fever –35 (6.2%, Mixed infections – 12 (2.1%, Pulmonary Tuberculosis -25 ( 4.4% and one case of Rickettsial Infection. MODS was the most common presentation in AUF patients, seen in 108 cases (31.8% and 40 cases expired. A study of AUF

  17. Brugada syndrome unmasked by fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Scott P; Cube, Regino P; Edwards, John A

    2011-08-01

    Brugada syndrome (BS) is a cardiac rhythm disturbance that predisposes patients to sudden cardiac death. Brugada is classically described with specific electrocardiographic (EKG) findings of ST elevation and right bundle branch block in precordial leads and is an often unrecognized contributor to sudden cardiac death. We present a case of BS with cyclic EKG findings in a febrile 20-year-old active duty, Vietnamese male who presented following a witnessed syncopal event. His classic findings of Brugada pattern on EKG demonstrated reversibility with clinical defervescence. In patients with a suggestive history, a normal EKG cannot definitively rule out BS as the Brugada pattern can be unmasked by stress, which in this case was represented by a pneumonia-induced fever.

  18. FAMILIAL MEDITERRANEAN FEVER AND HYPERCOAGULABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshrat E. Tayer-Shifman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease which is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and peritonitis, pleuritis, arthritis, or erysipelas-like skin disease. As such, FMF is a prototype of autoinflammatory diseases where genetic changes lead to acute inflammatory episodes. Systemic inflammation – in general - may increase procoagulant factors, and decrease natural anticoagulants and fibrinolytic activity. Therefore, it is anticipated to see more thrombotic events among FMF patients compared with healthy subjects. However, reviewing the current available literature and based upon our personal experience, thrombotic events related purely to FMF are very rare. Possible explanation for this discrepancy is that along with the procoagulant activity during FMF acute attacks, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic changes are also taking place. Furthermore, it may well be that during the acute attack of FMF the procoagulant factors are consumed or used for the purpose of inflammation so that nothing is left for their role in the coagulation pathway. Colchicine may also play a role in reducing inflammation thereby decreasing hypercoagulabilty

  19. Fever in Children: Pearls and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbi, Egidio; Marzuillo, Pierluigi; Neri, Elena; Naviglio, Samuele; Krauss, Baruch S

    2017-09-01

    Fever in children is a common concern for parents and one of the most frequent presenting complaints in emergency department visits, often involving non-pediatric emergency physicians. Although the incidence of serious infections has decreased after the introduction of conjugate vaccines, fever remains a major cause of laboratory investigation and hospital admissions. Furthermore, antipyretics are the most common medications administered to children. We review the epidemiology and measurement of fever, the meaning of fever and associated clinical signs in children of different ages and under special conditions, including fever in children with cognitive impairment, recurrent fevers, and fever of unknown origin. While the majority of febrile children have mild, self-resolving viral illness, a minority may be at risk of life-threatening infections. Clinical assessment differs markedly from adult patients. Hands-off evaluation is paramount for a correct evaluation of breathing, circulation and level of interaction. Laboratory markers and clinical prediction rules provide limited help in identifying children at risk for serious infections; however, clinical examination, prudent utilization of laboratory tests, and post-discharge guidance ("safety netting") remain the cornerstone of safe management of febrile children.

  20. Isolated fever induced by mesalamine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slim, Rita; Amara, Joseph; Nasnas, Roy; Honein, Khalil; Jaoude, Joseph Bou; Yaghi, Cesar; Daniel, Fady; Sayegh, Raymond

    2013-02-21

    Adverse reactions to mesalamine, a treatment used to induce and maintain remission in inflammatory bowel diseases, particularly ulcerative colitis, have been described in the literature as case reports. This case illustrates an unusual adverse reaction. Our patient developed an isolated fever of unexplained etiology, which was found to be related to mesalamine treatment. A 22-year-old patient diagnosed with ulcerative colitis developed a fever with rigors and anorexia 10 d after starting oral mesalamine while his colitis was clinically resolving. Testing revealed no infection. A mesalamine-induced fever was considered, and treatment was stopped, which led to spontaneous resolution of the fever. The diagnosis was confirmed by reintroducing the mesalamine. One year later, this side effect was noticed again in the same patient after he was administered topical mesalamine. This reaction to mesalamine seems to be idiosyncratic, and the mechanism that induces fever remains unclear. Fever encountered in the course of a mesalamine treatment in ulcerative colitis must be considered a mesalamine-induced fever when it cannot be explained by the disease activity, an associated extraintestinal manifestation, or an infectious etiology.

  1. Fever in Children: Pearls and Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbi, Egidio; Marzuillo, Pierluigi; Neri, Elena; Krauss, Baruch S.

    2017-01-01

    Fever in children is a common concern for parents and one of the most frequent presenting complaints in emergency department visits, often involving non-pediatric emergency physicians. Although the incidence of serious infections has decreased after the introduction of conjugate vaccines, fever remains a major cause of laboratory investigation and hospital admissions. Furthermore, antipyretics are the most common medications administered to children. We review the epidemiology and measurement of fever, the meaning of fever and associated clinical signs in children of different ages and under special conditions, including fever in children with cognitive impairment, recurrent fevers, and fever of unknown origin. While the majority of febrile children have mild, self-resolving viral illness, a minority may be at risk of life-threatening infections. Clinical assessment differs markedly from adult patients. Hands-off evaluation is paramount for a correct evaluation of breathing, circulation and level of interaction. Laboratory markers and clinical prediction rules provide limited help in identifying children at risk for serious infections; however, clinical examination, prudent utilization of laboratory tests, and post-discharge guidance (“safety netting”) remain the cornerstone of safe management of febrile children. PMID:28862659

  2. Fever in Children: Pearls and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidio Barbi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fever in children is a common concern for parents and one of the most frequent presenting complaints in emergency department visits, often involving non-pediatric emergency physicians. Although the incidence of serious infections has decreased after the introduction of conjugate vaccines, fever remains a major cause of laboratory investigation and hospital admissions. Furthermore, antipyretics are the most common medications administered to children. We review the epidemiology and measurement of fever, the meaning of fever and associated clinical signs in children of different ages and under special conditions, including fever in children with cognitive impairment, recurrent fevers, and fever of unknown origin. While the majority of febrile children have mild, self-resolving viral illness, a minority may be at risk of life-threatening infections. Clinical assessment differs markedly from adult patients. Hands-off evaluation is paramount for a correct evaluation of breathing, circulation and level of interaction. Laboratory markers and clinical prediction rules provide limited help in identifying children at risk for serious infections; however, clinical examination, prudent utilization of laboratory tests, and post-discharge guidance (“safety netting” remain the cornerstone of safe management of febrile children.

  3. Diagnostic criteria of acute rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Rebecca J; Chang, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Acute rheumatic fever is an inflammatory sequela of Group A Streptococcal pharyngitis that affects multiple organ systems. The incidence of acute rheumatic fever has been declining even before the use of antibiotics became widespread, however the disease remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children, particularly in developing countries and has been estimated to affect 19 per 100,000 children worldwide. Acute rheumatic fever is a clinical diagnosis, and therefore subject to the judgment of the clinician. Because of the variable presentation, the Jones criteria were first developed in 1944 to aid clinicians in the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever. The Jones criteria have been modified throughout the years, most recently in 1992 to aid clinicians in the diagnosis of initial attacks of acute rheumatic fever and to minimize overdiagnosis of the disease. Diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever is based on the presence of documented preceding Group A Streptococcal infection, in addition to the presence of two major manifestations or one major and two minor manifestations of the Jones criteria. Without documentation of antecedent Group A Streptococcal infection, the diagnosis is much less likely except in a few rare scenarios. Carditis, polyarthritis and Sydenham's chorea are the most common major manifestations of acute rheumatic fever. However, despite the predominance of these major manifestations of acute rheumatic fever, there can be significant overlap with other disorders such as Lyme disease, serum sickness, drug reactions, and post-Streptococcal reactive arthritis. This overlap between disease processes has led to continued investigation of the pathophysiology as well as development of new biomarkers and laboratory studies to aid in the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever and distinction from other disease processes.

  4. Fluoroquinolones for treating typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effa, Emmanuel E; Lassi, Zohra S; Critchley, Julia A; Garner, Paul; Sinclair, David; Olliaro, Piero L; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2011-10-05

    Typhoid and paratyphoid are febrile illnesses, due to a bacterial infection, which remain common in many low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) currently recommends the fluoroquinolone antibiotics in areas with known resistance to the older first-line antibiotics. To evaluate fluoroquinolone antibiotics for treating children and adults with enteric fever. We searched The Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register (February 2011); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in The Cochrane Library (2011, Issue 2); MEDLINE (1966 to February 2011); EMBASE (1974 to February 2011); and LILACS (1982 to February 2011). We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) in February 2011. Randomized controlled trials examining fluoroquinolone antibiotics, in people with blood, stool or bone marrow culture-confirmed enteric fever. Two authors independently assessed the trial's methodological quality and extracted data. We calculated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous data and mean difference for continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI).Comparative effectiveness has been interpreted in the context of; length of treatment, dose, year of study, known levels of antibiotic resistance, or proxy measures of resistance such as the failure rate in the comparator arm. Twenty-six studies, involving 3033 patients, are included in this review.Fluoroquinolones versus older antibiotics (chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin and ampicillin)In one study from Pakistan in 2003-04, high clinical failure rates were seen with both chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole, although resistance was not confirmed microbiologically. A seven-day course of either ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin were found to be superior. Older studies of these comparisons failed to show a difference (six trials, 361 participants).In small studies conducted almost two decades ago, the fluoroquinolones were demonstrated to have fewer

  5. Clinical and molecular aspects of malaria fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Miranda S; Gerald, Noel; McCutchan, Thomas F; Aravind, L; Kumar, Sanjai

    2011-10-01

    Although clinically benign, malaria fever is thought to have significant relevance in terms of parasite growth and survival and its virulence which in turn may alter the clinical course of illness. In this article, the historical literature is reviewed, providing some evolutionary perspective on the genesis and biological relevance of malaria fever, and the available molecular data on the febrile-temperature-inducible parasite factors that may contribute towards the regulation of parasite density and alteration of virulence in the host is also discussed. The potential molecular mechanisms that could be responsible for the induction and regulation of cyclical malaria fevers caused by different species of Plasmodium are also discussed.

  6. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy following dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Reshma; Shrivastava, Saurabh; Deshpande, Shrikant; Patkar, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is caused by a flavivirus. This infection is endemic in the tropics and warm temperate regions of the world. Ocular manifestations of dengue fever include subconjunctival, vitreous, and retinal haemorrhages; posterior uveitis; optic neuritis; and maculopathies, haemorrhage, and oedema. However anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is a rare presentation. Optic nerve ischemia most frequently occurs at the optic nerve head, where structural crowding of nerve fibers and reduction of the vascular supply may combine to impair perfusion to a critical degree and produce optic disc oedema. Here we present a case of anterior ischemic optic neurapathy associated with dengue fever.

  7. Lassa fever: another threat from West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosh-Nissimov, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Lassa fever, a zoonotic viral infection, is endemic in West Africa. The disease causes annual wide spread morbidity and mortality in Africa, and can be imported by travelers. Possible importation of Lassa fever and the potential for the use of Lassa virus as an agent of bioterrorism mandate clinicians in Israel and other countries to be vigilant and familiar with the basic characteristics of this disease. The article reviews the basis of this infection and the clinical management of patients with Lassa fever. Special emphasis is given to antiviral treatment and infection control.

  8. Clara Maass, yellow fever and human experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Carballo, Enrique

    2013-05-01

    Clara Louise Maass, a 25-year-old American nurse, died of yellow fever on August 24, 1901, following experimental inoculation by infected mosquitoes in Havana, Cuba. The human yellow fever experiments were initially conducted by MAJ Walter Reed, who first used written informed consent and proved the validity of Finlay's mosquito-vector hypothesis. Despite informed consent form and an incentive of $100 in U.S. gold, human subjects were exposed to a deadly virus. The deaths of Clara Maass and two Spanish immigrants resulted in a public outcry and the immediate cessation of yellow fever human experiments in Cuba.

  9. Appendicular perforation in dengue fever: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Desai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viral infections have become one of major emerging infectious diseases in the tropics. Acute abdomen occurring in dengue viral infection is not uncommon. The spectrums of acute surgical emergencies which raise suspicion of an abdominal catastrophe in patients presenting with dengue fever include acute pancreatitis, acute acalculous cholecystitis, non-specific peritonitis and very rarely acute appendicitis. The presence of low white cell count and platelet count can raise suspicion of a diagnosis of dengue in a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain, during a dengue epidemic. We herein report three patients with dengue fever who had appendicular perforation during the course of their viral fever.

  10. Familial Mediterranean fever presenting as fever of unknown origin in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jun Hee; Kim, Jong Hyun; Shim, Jung Ok; Lee, Kwang Chul; Lee, Joo Won; Lee, Jung Hwa; Chae, Jae Jin

    2016-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common Mendelian autoinflammatory disease, characterized by uncontrolled activation of the innate immune system that manifests as recurrent brief fever and polyserositis (e.g., peritonitis, pleuritic, and arthritis). FMF is caused by autosomal recessive mutations of the Mediterranean fever gene, MEFV which encodes the pyrin protein. Although FMF predominantly affects people from Mediterranean and Middle Eastern ethnic origins, 3 cases of FMF have...

  11. Intrapartum fever and the risk for perinatal complications - the effect of fever duration and positive cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, Eran; Salman, Lina; Tzur, Yossi; Aviram, Amir; Ben-Mayor Bashi, Tali; Yogev, Yariv; Hiersch, Liran

    2017-04-24

    To estimate the association between intrapartum fever and adverse perinatal outcome. A retrospective cohort study of women attempting vaginal delivery at term in a tertiary hospital (2012-2015). Perinatal outcome of deliveries complicated by intrapartum fever (≥38.0 °C) were compared to women with no intrapartum fever matched by parity and gestational age at delivery in a 1:2 ratio. Maternal outcome included cesarean section (CS), operative vaginal delivery (OVD), retained placenta or post-partum hemorrhage. Neonatal outcome included 5-minute Apgar score fever and 618 served as controls. Women with intrapartum fever had higher rates of OVD (34.3 versus 19.6%, p fever was independently associated with adverse maternal (3.75, 95%CI 2.65-5.30, p fever duration was related to maternal complications, specifically to CS. In addition, maternal bacteremia and positive placental cultures were risk factors for neonatal complications compared to those with negative cultures (23.3 versus 9.8%, p = .01). Intrapartum fever was associated with adverse perinatal complications. The duration of intrapartum fever, maternal bacteremia, and positive cultures further increase this risk.

  12. Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever: Systematic review to estimate global morbidity and mortality for 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Buckle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid and paratyphoid fever remain important causes of morbidity worldwide. Accurate disease burden estimates are needed to guide policy decisions and prevention and control strategies.

  13. The global burden of typhoid fever

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crump, John A; Luby, Stephen P; Mintz, Eric D

    2004-01-01

    To use new data to make a revised estimate of the global burden of typhoid fever, an accurate understanding of which is necessary to guide public health decisions for disease control and prevention efforts...

  14. Transfusion support in patients with dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Paramjit; Kaur, Gagandeep

    2014-09-01

    Dengue fever has emerged as a global public health problem in the recent decades. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranges from dengue fever to dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. The disease is characterized by increased capillary permeability, thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Thrombocytopenia with hemorrhagic manifestations warrants platelet transfusions. There is lack of evidence-based guidelines for transfusion support in patients with dengue fever. This contributes to inappropriate use of blood components and blood centers constantly face the challenge of inventory management during dengue outbreaks. The current review is aimed to highlight the role of platelets and other blood components in the management of dengue. The review was performed after searching relevant published literature in PubMed, Science Direct, Google scholar and various text books and journal articles.

  15. A Physician's Nightmare: Fever of Unknown Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Sana; Anwer, Farrukh; Beg, Mirza

    2016-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains to be a challenge despite advancement in diagnostic technologies and procedures. FUO is considered when fever presents intermittently without an explanation. It has been linked to various etiologies, which makes it difficult to diagnose. We present the case of 18-month-old female with recurrent fever, splenomegaly, abdominal pain, and constipation. The workup for her symptoms revealed wandering spleen. Wandering spleen is a result from excessive laxity or absence of splenic ligaments. The patient underwent splenectomy and was advised to continue on Senna, Miralax, and high fiber diet. Her mother reported that the fever is no longer present and there is marked improvement in her constipation and abdominal pain after splenectomy.

  16. Travelers' Health: Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or convalescent person or a chronic, asymptomatic carrier. Transmission through sexual contact, especially among men who have sex with ... fever even during visits of countries where the disease is highly endemic (such as India, Pakistan, or ...

  17. Mothers' Perception of Fever Management in Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    Department of Paediatrics, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt,. Nigeria. ... commonest reasons parents bring their children for medical attention. ... 2,4,12-13 skills regarding fever and its management. These fears. 2.

  18. Subacute fulminant hepatic failure with intermittent fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong-Xin Chen; Bo Liu; Yong Hu; Joyce E. Johnson; Yi-Wei Tang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Viral hepatitis B accounts for over 80%of acute hepatic failures in China and the patients die mainly of its complications. A patient with hepatic failure and fever is not uncommon, whereas repeated fever is rare. METHODS:A 32-year-old female was diagnosed with subacute hepatic failure and hepatitis B viral infection because of hyperbilirubinemia, coagulopathy, hepatic encephalopathy, serum anti-HBs-positive without hepatitis B vaccination, and typical intrahepatic pathological features of chronic hepatitis B. Plasma exchange was administered twice and she awoke with hyperbilirubinemia and discontinuous fever. RESULTS:Urethritis was conifrmed and medication-induced fever and/or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (Gram-negative bacillus infection) was suspected. The patient was treated with antibiotics, steroids and a Chinese herbal medicine, matrine, for three months and she recovered. CONCLUSION:The survival rate of patients with hepatic failure might be improved with comprehensive supporting measures and appropriate, timely management of com-plications.

  19. Typhoid Fever: The Challenges of Medical Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bowel. Typhoid fever still remains a major public health problem in ... Health Education. Knowledge is limited about many infectious diseases ... equate doses of antibiotics. Another maj or ... Resistance to chloramphenicol developed two years.

  20. Viral haemorrhagic fevers in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    particle for some), the haemorrhagic fever (HF)-causing viruses have to be handled .... The filoviruses. The filoviruses, EVD and MVD viruses, are known to cause highly .... attributed to a previously unknown arenavirus, dubbed the Lujo virus.