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Sample records for fetus subsp jejuni

  1. Evaluation of transport and storage techniques for isolation of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni from turkey cecal specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Luechtefeld, N W; Wang, W L; Blaser, M J; Reller, L B

    1981-01-01

    Immediate culturing of fecal specimens is not always possible, and appropriate methods for transport and storage of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni specimens have not been fully evaluated. Using nine techniques, we studied the survival of C. fetus subsp. jejuni in cecal specimens from infected turkeys. The organisms survived in specimens held without transport medium for 3 to 15 days (median, 9 days) at 4 degrees C, and 2 to 9 days (median, 4 days) at 25 degrees C. Only 20% of specimens fro...

  2. Susceptibility of Campylobacter Fetus Subsp. Jejuni, Isolated from Patients in Jakarta, Indonesia to Ten Antimicrobial Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-16

    antimicrobials was tested against 28 Campylohacter letus subsp. jejuni isolates cultured from the stools of human gastroenteritis and suspected typhoid fever...isolated from the faeces of gastroenteritis and suspected typhoid fever patients in Jakarta, Indonesia and to compare the MIC values with those...jejuni strains used in this study were cultured from the faeces of 19 gastroenteritis and five suspected typhoid fever patients examined at the

  3. Common genomic features of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei strains distinguish them from C. jejuni subsp. jejuni

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    Horn Sharon T

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni has been divided into two subspecies: C. jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj and C. jejuni subsp. doylei (Cjd. Nearly all of the C. jejuni strains isolated are Cjj; nevertheless, although Cjd strains are isolated infrequently, they differ from Cjj in two key aspects: they are obtained primarily from human clinical samples and are associated often with bacteremia, in addition to gastroenteritis. In this study, we utilized multilocus sequence typing (MLST and a DNA microarray-based comparative genomic indexing (CGI approach to examine the genomic diversity and gene content of Cjd strains. Results A geographically diverse collection of eight Cjd strains was examined by MLST and determined to be phylogenetically distinct from Cjj strains. Microarray-based CGI approach also supported this. We were able to demonstrate that Cjd strains exhibited divergence from Cjj strains NCTC 11168 and RM1221 in many of the intraspecies hypervariable regions. Moreover, multiple metabolic, transport and virulence functions (e.g. cytolethal distending toxin were shown to be absent in the Cjd strains examined. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that Cjd are phylogenetically distinct from Cjj strains. Using the CGI approach, we identified subsets of absent genes from amongst the C. jejuni genes that provide clues as to the potential evolutionary origin and unusual pathogenicity of Cjd.

  4. The first closed genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter fetus venerealis biovar intermedius is a variant of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, the causative agent of Bovine Genital Campylobacteriosis. In contrast to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis which is restricted to the genital tract of cattle, Campylobacter fetus subsp. vener...

  5. Complete genomic sequence of campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni HS:19 penner reference strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj) infections are a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis and the most prevalent antecedent to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Capsular type Penner HS:19 is among several capsule types shown to be markers for GBS. This study describes the genome of Cjj HS:19...

  6. Campylobacter fetus ssp jejuni en patología humana

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    Luz Echeverri

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Algunos microorganismos, como los Rotovirus y el Compylobocter fetus ssp jejuni reconocidos y estudiados recientemente, han llegado a ocupar un lugar preponderante en el grupo de enteropatógenos considerados como problema en salud pública.

  7. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni subsp jejuni from macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) in the subantarctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broman, T.; Bergstrom, S.; On, Stephen L.W.

    2000-01-01

    On Bird Island, South Georgia, albatrosses (n = 140), penguins (n = 100), and fur seals (n = 206) were sampled for Campylobacter jejuni. C. jejuni subsp. jejuni was recovered from three macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus). These isolates, the first reported for the subantarctic region, showed...

  8. Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolado de bovinos Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolated from cattle

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    Agueda C. Vargas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A campilobacteriose venérea bovina, ocasionada principalmente pelo Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus e Campylobacter subsp. venerealis, é transmitida através do coito ou por inseminação com sêmen contaminado. O propósito deste estudo foi determinar a susceptibilidade in vitro de isolados de C. fetus subesp. venerealis a agentes antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e de sêmen. Foram testadas duas cepas padrão, sendo uma de C. fetus subsp. fetus e outra de C. fetus subsp. venerealis, bem como 21 amostras de isolados clínicos de C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Os testes foram realizados conforme o método de Kirby-Bauer. A amostra padrão de C. fetus subsp. fetus demonstrou-se resistente à lincomicina, penicilina e ácido nalidíxico, enquanto a de C. fetus subsp. venerealis apresentou susceptibilidade a todos antimicrobianos testados, com exceção do ácido nalidíxico. Todas as amostras de C. fetus subsp. venerealis foram susceptíveis à amicacina, ampicilina, cefalotina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, penicilina e tetraciclina. Foi observada resistência de 42,86% à lincomicina e 4,76 % a enrofloxacina, e de 100% ao ácido nalidíxico. Ainda, 4,76% apresentaram susceptibilidade intermediária à enrofloxacina, neomicina e polimixina B e 9,52% à lincomicina. Os resultados evidenciaram a sensibilidade das amostras analisadas aos antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e do sêmen.Venereal campylobacteriosis is associated with infection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis. The etiological agent is transmitted by natural bull breeding or artificial insemination using contaminated semen. The present study aimed to determine the in vitro susceptibility of C. fetus subsp. venerealis isolates to antimicrobial drugs generally used in clinical and semen treatment. Reference strains of C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis and 21 C. fetus

  9. Identification of genomic differences between Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni and C. jejuni subsp. doylei at the nap locus leads to the development of a C. jejuni subspeciation multiplex PCR method

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    Heath Sekou

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni contains two subspecies: C. jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj and C. jejuni subsp. doylei (Cjd. Although Cjd strains are isolated infrequently in many parts of the world, they are obtained primarily from human clinical samples and result in an unusual clinical symptomatology in that, in addition to gastroenteritis, they are associated often with bacteremia. In this study, we describe a novel multiplex PCR method, based on the nitrate reductase (nap locus, that can be used to unambiguously subspeciate C. jejuni isolates. Results Internal and flanking napA and napB primer sets were designed, based on existing C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli genome sequences to create two multiplex PCR primer sets, nap mpx1 and nap mpx2. Genomic DNA from 161 C. jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj and 27 C. jejuni subsp. doylei (Cjd strains were amplified with these multiplex primer sets. The Cjd strains could be distinguished clearly from the Cjj strains using either nap mpx1 or mpx2. In addition, combination of either nap multiplex method with an existing lpxA speciation multiplex method resulted in the unambiguous and simultaneous speciation and subspeciation of the thermophilic Campylobacters. The Cjd nap amplicons were also sequenced: all Cjd strains tested contained identical 2761 bp deletions in napA and several Cjd strains contained deletions in napB. Conclusion The nap multiplex PCR primer sets are robust and give a 100% discrimination of C. jejuni subspecies. The ability to rapidly subspeciate C. jejuni as well as speciate thermophilic Campylobacter species, most of which are pathogenic in humans, in a single amplification will be of value to clinical laboratories in strain identification and the determination of the environmental source of campylobacterioses caused by Cjd. Finally, the sequences of the Cjd napA and napB loci suggest that Cjd strains arose from a common ancestor, providing clues as to

  10. Molecular subtyping of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni strains isolated from different animal species in the state of São Paulo, Brazil Subtipagem molecular de estirpes de Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni isoladas de diferentes espécies animais do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Eliana Scarcelli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present trial was to characterize genetically strains of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni isolated from humans and several animal sources (bovines, swine, dogs, primates, wild boars and poultry. A total of 828 different animal samples (feces, carcass, aborted fetus and hysterectomized uterus were analysed by means of routine bacteriological methods, and 36 C. jejuni strains were isolated. Thirty strains of human fecal origin were obtained in clinical analysis laboratories in the city of São Paulo. The 66 C. jejuni strains isolated were submitted to genetic characterization. Primers based on fla A gene were used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR and amplified a fragment of the 702 bp. PCR products were evaluated by means of sequencing and genealogic analysis. Genetic variability analysis of 66 strains showed 44 different subtypes of C. jejuni. One subtype was identical to a C. jejuni strain of human origin with the sequence in the GenBank (GENBANK accession number AF050186. Subtyping analysis of C. jejuni strains based on sequencing of the fla A gene variable region and analysis of sequence alignment by the Maximum Parsimony method showed to be highly discriminatory, providing the best conditions to differentiate strains involved in outbreaks from those sporadically isolated. This is the first study of molecular subtyping analysis of human and animal C. jejuni strains using sequencing technique and genealogic analysis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar geneticamente estirpes de Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni isoladas de humanos e de diferentes origens animais (bovinas, suínas, cães, primatas, javalis, suínos e aves de corte. Um total de 828 amostras (fezes, carcaças, fetos abortados e útero histerectomizado foram analisadas por métodos de rotina bacteriológica e 36 estirpes de C. jejuni foram isoladas. Trinta estirpes de origem fecal humana foram obtidas de

  11. [The relationship of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni enterotoxigenicity and the increase of cAMP and electrolyte changes in the rat intestine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, H; Toro, J

    1998-08-01

    Small intestine alterations produced by the enterotoxigenic capacity of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni are similar to the hydric, electrolytic and pathological changes caused by choleraic and thermolabile Escherichia coli toxins. To study the enterotoxigenic capacity of 4 strains of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni using the intestinal loop model. Rat intestinal loops were inoculated with culture filtrates of the four strains. Enterotoxigenicity was assessed by fluid accumulation, the increase in Na+ and Cl- in the loop fluid, and cAMP increase in loop tissues. An enterotoxigenic Escherichia coil strain and sterile Brucella both were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The filtrates of two strains produced fluid accumulation in the loops, significantly increased Na+ and Cl- secretion to the intestinal lumen and increased tissue cAMP levels. Some strains of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni are able to show enterotoxigenicity in vivo, increasing cAMP levels in the intestinal cells and altering electrolyte exchange mechanisms.

  12. A case of acute diarrhea due to the emerging pathogen Campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei in Southern Chile Um caso de diarréia aguda devido ao patógeno emergente Campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei no sul do Chile

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    Heriberto Fernández

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The first documented case of acute diarrhea due to C. jejuni subsp. doylei in Chile is reported. The clinical findings, the absence of other enteropathogens, virus or parasites and the fact that C. jejuni subsp. doylei was the only bacteria isolated support the assumption that it was the etiological agent of this diarrheal case.O primeiro caso documentado de diarréia aguda por C. jejuni subsp. doylei no sul do Chile é apresentado. As características clínicas, a ausência de outros enteropatógenos, vírus ou parasitas, e o fato de C. jejuni subsp. doylei ter sido a única bactéria isolada, permitem assumir que este microrganismo é o agente etiológico neste caso de diarréia.

  13. Description of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles

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    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like isolates from humans (n=8) and reptiles (n=5). Phenotypic characterization, Genusgenus-specific and sap insertion-PCR initially identified all human isolates as type A Campylobacter fetus. Phylogenet...

  14. A PCR-RFLP assay for the detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, C. lari, C. helveticus and C. upsaliensis.

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    Kamei, Kazumasa; Asakura, Masahiro; Somroop, Srinuan; Hatanaka, Noritoshi; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Nagita, Akira; Misawa, Naoaki; Matsuda, Motoo; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2014-05-01

    Although Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial causes of human gastrointestinal diseases, other Campylobacter species are also involved in human and animal infections. In this study, we developed a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based PCR-RFLP assay for the detection and differentiation of C. jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, C. lari, C. helveticus and C. upsaliensis. Previously designed common primers, which can amplify the cdtB gene of C. jejuni, C. coli and C. fetus, were used for detecting seven Campylobacter species and differentiating between them by restriction digestion. The PCR-RFLP assay was validated with 277 strains, including 35 C. jejuni, 19 C. coli, 20 C. fetus, 24 C. hyointestinalis, 13 C. lari, 2 C. helveticus, 22 C. upsaliensis, 3 other Campylobacter spp. and 17 other species associated with human diseases. Sensitivity and specificity of the PCR-RFLP assay were 100 % except for C. hyointestinalis (88 % sensitivity). Furthermore, the PCR-RFLP assay successfully detected and differentiated C. jejuni, C. coli and C. fetus in clinical and animal samples. The results indicate that the PCR-RFLP assay is useful for the detection and differentiation of seven Campylobacter species important for human and animal diseases.

  15. Two Novel Antibiotic Resistance Genes, tet(44) and ant(6)-Ib, Are Located within a Transferable Pathogenicity Island in Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus▿

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    Abril, Carlos; Brodard, Isabelle; Perreten, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    New tetracycline and streptomycin resistance genes, tet(44) and ant(6)-Ib, were identified in Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus within a transferable pathogenicity island that is typically unique to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis. The 640-amino-acid tetracycline resistance determinant, Tet 44, belongs to a class of proteins that confers resistance to tetracycline and minocycline by ribosomal protection. The 286-amino-acid streptomycin resistance determinant, ANT(6)-Ib, belongs to a family of aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferases. The resistance phenotypes were demonstrated by gene inactivation and expression. PMID:20479200

  16. A Cytolethal Distending Toxin Gene-Based Multiplex PCR Assay for Campylobacter jejuni, C. fetus, C. coli, C. upsaliensis, C. hyointestinalis, and C. lari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Kazumasa; Kawabata, Hiroki; Asakura, Masahiro; Samosornsuk, Worada; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2016-05-20

    In this study, we devised a multiplex PCR assay based on the gene of cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) B subunit to simultaneously detect and discriminate Campylobacter jejuni, C. fetus, C. coli, C. upsaliensis, C. hyointestinalis, and C. lari. Species-specific PCR products were successfully obtained from all 38 C. jejuni, 12 C. fetus, 39 C. coli, 22 C. upsaliensis, 24 C. hyointestinalis, and 7 C. lari strains tested. On the other hand, no specific PCR products were obtained from other campylobacters and bacterial species tested (41 strains in total). The proposed multiplex PCR assay is a valuable tool for detection and descrimination of 6 major Campylobacter species, that are associated with gastrointestinal diseases in humans.

  17. Campylobacter fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Ayaka; Hashimoto, Etaro; Ishioka, Haruhiko; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Gomi, Harumi

    2018-01-01

    Meningitis caused by the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter fetus in immunocompetent adults is rare. We report a 48-year-old Japanese woman with no underlying disease who was found to have meningitis caused by C. fetus . Both C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis were isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid culture. The mode of infection in our patient was considered to be associated with the consumption of raw beef and raw cattle liver on a regular basis. Public awareness and education to avoid the consumption of raw or undercooked meat might help prevent C. fetus meningitis.

  18. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification and PCR assays for rapid and simple detection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Wataru; Taguchi, Masumi; Misawa, Naoaki

    2010-07-01

    Campylobacter fetus is divided into CFV and CFF. Because CFV causes bovine genital campylobacteriosis, differentiation of the two subspecies is essential to the implementation of efficient CFV control and eradication programs. We have developed LAMP and duplex PCR assays for rapid and simple detection of CFV. The LAMP assay correctly detected 7 CFV strains and did not detect 53 CFF, 35 non-fetus Campylobacter and 25 non-Campylobacter strains. The PCR assay successfully differentiated the two subspecies. The LAMP and PCR assays were faster than conventional biochemical assays, requiring for detection less than 50 min and less than 4 hr, respectively, from the beginning of DNA extraction from a single colony on blood agar to final determination. Our LAMP and PCR assays are rapid and practical tools for detection of CFV.

  19. Genomic analysis of Campylobacter fetus subspecies: identification of candidate virulence determinants and diagnostic assay targets

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    Sanchez Daniel O

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis is the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, asymptomatic in bulls the disease is spread to female cattle causing extensive reproductive loss. The microbiological and molecular differentiation of C. fetus subsp. venerealis from C. fetus subsp. fetus is extremely difficult. This study describes the analysis of the available C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL-94 strain genome (~75–80% to identify elements exclusively found in C. fetus subsp. venerealis strains as potential diagnostic targets and the characterisation of subspecies virulence genes. Results Eighty Kb of genomic sequence (22 contigs was identified as unique to C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL-94 and consisted of type IV secretory pathway components, putative plasmid genes and hypothetical proteins. Of the 9 PCR assays developed to target C. fetus subsp. venerealis type IV secretion system genes, 4 of these were specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar venerealis and did not detect C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius. Two assays were specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL-94 strain, with a further single assay specific for the AZUL-94 strain and C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius (and not the remaining C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar venerealis strains tested. C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis were found to share most common Campylobacter virulence factors such as SAP, chemotaxis, flagellar biosynthesis, 2-component systems and cytolethal distending toxin subunits (A, B, C. We did not however, identify in C. fetus the full complement of bacterial adherence candidates commonly found in other Campylobacter spp. Conclusion The comparison of the available C. fetus subsp. venerealis genome sequence with the C. fetus subsp. fetus genome identified 80 kb of unique C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL94 sequence, with subsequent PCR confirmation demonstrating

  20. Pregnancy rates of beef cattle are not affected by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis real-time PCR-positive breeding sires in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, J M; Heuer, C; Jackson, R; Hughes, P; Anderson, P; Kelly, K; Walker, G

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis (C. fetus venerealis) is the causal agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a venereal disease that is asymptomatic in bulls but responsible for reproductive wastage in female cattle. In New Zealand, a commercial real-time PCR assay was introduced in 2007 to identify the DNA of this pathogen in preputial scrapings; however, concerns were raised about the specificity of the test following anecdotal reports of a high number of test-positive bulls with no apparent relationship to reproductive performance. The objective of this study, therefore, was to examine the association between real-time PCR assay results from beef breeding bulls and pregnancy rates in beef herds using these bulls. Veterinarians from four veterinary practices selected beef cattle herds with relatively high and low pregnancy rates between December 2008 and February 2009. Preputial scrapings were collected from bulls used for mating in those herds. Samples were tested using the real-time PCR assay under consideration. Bivariable and multivariable analyses were used to assess the relationship between pregnancy rates in each mob (15-month-old heifers, 27-month-old heifers and mixed-age cows) and the percentage of real-time PCR-positive bulls in each mob. Sixty-four (28.8%) of 222 bulls tested positive, 130 (58.6%) tested negative, and 28 (12.6%) returned an inconclusive result to the real-time PCR assay. The percentage of bulls testing real-time PCR-positive in these mobs was not associated with pregnancy rates (p=0.757) after controlling for mob, average body condition score of cows, cow to bull ratio, length of the mating period, and farm. Real-time PCR assay results were not associated with pregnancy rates, suggesting that the specificity of the real-time PCR assay was too low to be used to reliably detect C. fetus venerealis. This study adds to a growing body of evidence indicating that C. fetus venerealis strains are either absent from, or present at

  1. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

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    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L.; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J.; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus was performed. The genomes of C. fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C. fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C. fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C. fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C. fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus. Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C. fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C. fetus subspecies. PMID:27333878

  2. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-07-02

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was performed. The genomes of C fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C fetus subspecies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. Campylobacter fetus subespécie fetus: abortamento e natimortalidade em ovinos Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus: abortion and stillbirths in sheep

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    Letícia Trevisan Gressler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A bactéria do gênero Campylobacter está comumente envolvida em surtos de abortos ovinos em muitos países. No Brasil, até o presente momento, ainda não houve relato sobre a ocorrência de aborto em ovinos causado pelo C. fetus, subespécie fetus (C. fetus ssp. fetus. No presente trabalho, relata-se a detecção deste agente em fetos e natimortos ovinos naturalmente infectados. Desse modo, alerta-se para a possibilidade de novos casos de aborto em ovinos causados por C. fetus ssp. fetus.The bacteria of genus Campylobacter spp, is commonly involved in outbreaks of ovine abortion in many countries. In Brazil, until now, there has been no report on the occurrence of abortion in sheep caused by C. fetus subsp. fetus. In this paper, we report the detection this bacteria in ovine fetuses naturally infected. Thus, alert for possible cases of abortion in sheep caused by C. fetus subsp. fetus.

  4. Campylobacter jejuni organism (image)

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    Campylobacter jejuni infection causes cramping, diarrhea, abdominal pain and fever within 2 to 5 days after a person has been exposed to the organism. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common bacterial ...

  5. Aplicación de PCR-RFLP para subtipificar Campylobacter jejuni PCR-RFLP for Campylobacter jejuni subtyping

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    G. Giacoboni

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Diez cepas de Campylobacter jejuni aisladas de fetos porcinos abortados fueron identificadas por pruebas bioquímicas: 8 como C. jejuni biotipo II de Lior, y 2 como C. jejuni biotipo I. Para poder subtipificarlas se utilizó la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR para amplificar el gen flaA y al producto obtenido se lo digirió con la enzima de restricción DdeI (RFLP. Se pudieron obtener 6 subtipos a partir de C. jejuni biotipo II, mientras que los dos aislamientos de biotipo I correspondieron a un mismo subtipo. Aunque existe una amplia variedad de técnicas de biología molecular que son aplicadas con fines epidemiológicos para Campylobacter, PCR-RFLP, demostró ser una técnica simple y accesible, capaz de subtipificar a C. jejuni.Ten Campylobacter jejuni isolates, 8 identified as C. jejuni biotype II of Lior and 2 as C. jejuni biotipe I, were recovered from aborted pig fetuses. In order to discriminate among strains, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP using DdeI of polymerase chain reaction (PCR products of flaA gen was used. C. jejuni biotype II strains could be diferenciated in 6 by PCR-RFLP, and one subtype was obtained from C. jejuni biotype I. Although there is great variability of molecular techniques applied to the Campylobacter epidemiological studies, PCR-RFLP demonstrated to be a simple and accessible technique to discriminate Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

  6. Application of a multiplex PCR assay for Campylobacter fetus detection and subspecies differentiation in uncultured samples of aborted bovine fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraola, Gregorio; Hernández, Martín; Calleros, Lucía; Paolicchi, Fernando; Silveyra, Silvia; Velilla, Alejandra; Carretto, Luis; Rodríguez, Eliana; Pérez, Ruben

    2012-12-01

    Campylobacter (C.) fetus (epsilonproteobacteria) is an important veterinary pathogen. This species is currently divided into C. fetus subspecies (subsp.) fetus (Cff) and C. fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv). Cfv is the causative agent of bovine genital Campylobacteriosis, an infectious disease that leads to severe reproductive problems in cattle worldwide. Cff is a more general pathogen that causes reproductive problems mainly in sheep although cattle can also be affected. Here we describe a multiplex PCR method to detect C. fetus and differentiate between subspecies in a single step. The assay was standardized using cultured strains and successfully used to analyze the abomasal liquid of aborted bovine fetuses without any pre-enrichment step. Results of our assay were completely consistent with those of traditional bacteriological diagnostic methods. Furthermore, the multiplex PCR technique we developed may be easily adopted by any molecular diagnostic laboratory as a complementary tool for detecting C. fetus subspecies and obtaining epidemiological information about abortion events in cattle.

  7. Thymus vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer-Gallego, Pedro Pablo; Navarro Peris, Albert Josep; Laguna Lumbreras, Emilio; Mateo Sanz, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN: Se describe una nueva subespecie de Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae); Th. vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov., caracterizada por presentar un hábito postrado, tallos estoloníferos, decumbentes y radicantes, hojas muy estrechas y una floración otoñal. ABSTRACT: Thymus vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. (Lamiaceae). A new subspecies of Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae); Th. vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. is described. This new subspecies is characterized by its prost...

  8. Harlequin fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.A.; Ghauri, A. Q.

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of harlequin fetus born to the consanguineous parents, She had the typical skin manifestations of thick armour like scales with fissures, complete ectropion and eclabium, atrophic and crumpled ears and swollen extremities with gangrenous digits, Supportive treatment was given but the neonate died on the 4th day. (author)

  9. Specific detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using polymerase chain reaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Oyofo, B A; Thornton, S A; Burr, D H; Trust, T J; Pavlovskis, O R; Guerry, P

    1992-01-01

    Development of a routine detection assay for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in clinical specimens was undertaken by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An oligonucleotide primer pair from a conserved 5' region of the flaA gene of C. coli VC167 was used to amplify a 450-bp region by PCR. The primer pair specifically detected 4 strains of C. coli and 47 strains of C. jejuni; but it did not detect strains of Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter lari, Campylobacter upsaliensis, ...

  10. Genomic characterization of the Guillain-Barre syndrome-associated Campylobacter jejuni ICDCCJ07001 Isolate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maojun Zhang

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni ICDCCJ07001 (HS:41, ST2993 was isolated from a Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS patient during a 36-case GBS outbreak triggered by C. jejuni infections in north China in 2007. Sequence analysis revealed that the ICDCCJ07001 genome consisted of 1,664,840 base pairs (bp and one tetracycline resistance plasmid of 44,084 bp. The GC content was 59.29% and 1,579 and 37 CDSs were identified on the chromosome and plasmid, respectively. The ICDCCJ07001 genome was compared to C. jejuni subsp. jejuni strains 81-176, 81116, NCTC11168, RM1221 and C. jejuni subsp. doylei 269.97. The length and organization of ICDCCJ07001 was similar to that of NCTC11168, 81-176 and 81-116 except that CMLP1 had a reverse orientation in strain ICDCCJ07001. Comparative genomic analyses were also carried out between GBS-associated C. jejuni strains. Thirteen common genes were present in four GBS-associated strains and 9 genes mapped to the LOS cluster and the ICDCCJ07001_pTet (44 kb plasmid was mosaic in structure. Thirty-seven predicted CDS in ICDCCJ07001_pTet were homologous to genes present in three virulence-associated plasmids in Campylobacter: 81-176_pTet, pCC31 and 81-176_pVir. Comparative analysis of virulence loci and virulence-associated genes indicated that the LOS biosynthesis loci of ICDCCJ07001 belonged to type A, previously reported to be associated with cases of GBS. The polysaccharide capsular biosynthesis (CPS loci and the flagella modification (FM loci of ICDCCJ07001 were similar to corresponding sequences of strain 260.94 of similar serotype as strain ICDCCJ07001. Other virulence-associated genes including cadF, peb1, jlpA, cdt and ciaB were conserved between the C. jejuni strains examined.

  11. Accessory genetic content in Campylobacter jejuni ST21CC isolates from feces and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarp, C P A; Akinrinade, O; Kaden, R; Johansson, C; Rautelin, H

    2017-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important foodborne pathogen and the most commonly reported bacterial cause of gastroenteritis. C. jejuni is occasionally found in blood, although mechanisms important for invasiveness have remained unclear. C. jejuni is divided into many different lineages, of which the ST21 clonal complex (CC) is widely distributed. Here, we performed comparative genomic and in vitro analyses on 17C. jejuni ST21CC strains derived from human blood and feces in order to identify features associated with isolation site. The ST21CC lineage is divided into two large groups; centered around ST-21 and ST-50. Our clinical strains, typed as ST-50, showed further microevolution into two distinct clusters. These clusters were distinguished by major differences in their capsule loci and the distribution of accessory genetic content, including C. jejuni integrated elements (CJIEs) and plasmids. Accessory genetic content was more common among fecal than blood strains, whereas blood strains contained a hybrid capsule locus which partially consisted of C. jejuni subsp. doylei-like content. In vitro infection assays with human colon cell lines did not show significant differences in adherence and invasion between the blood and fecal strains. Our results showed that CJIEs and plasmid derived genetic material were less common among blood isolates than fecal isolates; in contrast, hybrid capsule loci, especially those containing C. jejuni subsp. doylei-like gene content, were found among many isolates derived from blood. The role of these findings requires more detailed investigation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  12. Campylobacter jejuni : An emerging pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanon Trachoo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of food-borne diarrhea in many countries. However, in some countries, a number of cases were undetected because of the inappropriate detection method and ignorance. Although C. jejuni usually does not cause death in health adults, it can be deadly for immunocompromised persons (Pigrau, et al., 1997. Although thought to be very susceptible in several conditions, C. jejuni in fact is quite prevalent in nature. It can easily cause sporadic cases and outbreaks resulting in economic loss. This review covers three major parts: clinical aspects of Campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni reservoirs and transmission, and methods for detection.

  13. A novel real-time PCR assay for quantitative detection of Campylobacter fetus based on ribosomal sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Betancor, Laura; Marandino, Ana; Morsella, Claudia; Méndez, Alejandra; Paolicchi, Fernando; Piccirillo, Alessandra; Tomás, Gonzalo; Velilla, Alejandra; Calleros, Lucía

    2016-12-15

    Campylobacter fetus is a pathogen of major concern for animal and human health. The species shows a great intraspecific variation, with three subspecies: C. fetus subsp. fetus, C. fetus subsp. venerealis, and C. fetus subsp. testudinum. Campylobacter fetus fetus affects a broad range of hosts and induces abortion in sheep and cows. Campylobacter fetus venerealis is restricted to cattle and causes the endemic disease bovine genital campylobacteriosis, which triggers reproductive problems and is responsible for major economic losses. Campylobacter fetus testudinum has been proposed recently based on genetically divergent strains isolated from reptiles and humans. Both C. fetus fetus and C. fetus testudinum are opportunistic pathogens for immune-compromised humans. Biochemical tests remain as the gold standard for identifying C. fetus but the fastidious growing requirements and the lack of reliability and reproducibility of some biochemical tests motivated the development of molecular diagnostic tools. These methods have been successfully tested on bovine isolates but fail to detect some genetically divergent strains isolated from other hosts. The aim of the present study was to develop a highly specific molecular assay to identify and quantify C. fetus strains. We developed a highly sensitive real-time PCR assay that targets a unique region of the 16S rRNA gene. This assay successfully detected all C. fetus strains, including those that were negative for the cstA gene-based assay used as a standard for molecular C. fetus identification. The assay showed high specificity and absence of cross-reactivity with other bacterial species. The analytical testing of the assay was determined using a standard curve. The assay demonstrated a wide dynamic range between 10 2 and 107 genome copies per reaction, and a good reproducibility with small intra- and inter-assay variability. The possibility to characterize samples in a rapid, sensitive and reproducible way makes this assay

  14. Inflammasome activation by Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Lieneke I; de Zoete, Marcel R; Bleumink-Pluym, Nancy M C; Flavell, Richard A; van Putten, Jos P M

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide. The mechanisms that lead to bacterial invasion of eukaryotic cells and massive intestinal inflammation are still unknown. In this study, we report that C. jejuni infection of mouse

  15. Resistance mechanisms in Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovine, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. While mortality is low, morbidity imparted by post-infectious sequelae such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, Reiter syndrome/reactive arthritis and irritable bowel syndrome is significant. In addition, the economic cost is high due to lost productivity. Food animals, particularly poultry, are the main reservoirs of C. jejuni. The over-use of antibiotics in the human population and in animal husbandry has led to an increase in antibiotic-resistant infections, particularly with fluoroquinolones. This is problematic because C. jejuni gastroenteritis is clinically indistinguishable from that caused by other bacterial pathogens, and such illnesses are usually treated empirically with fluoroquinolones. Since C. jejuni is naturally transformable, acquisition of additional genes imparting antibiotic resistance is likely. Therefore, an understanding of the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in C. jejuni is needed to provide proper therapy both to the veterinary and human populations. PMID:23406779

  16. Evaluation of numerical analysis of PFGE-DNA profiles for differentiating Campylobacter fetus subspecies by comparison with phenotypic, PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Harrington, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    Aims: To assess the efficacy of numerical analysis of PFGE-DNA profiles for identification and differentiation of Campylobacter fetus subspecies. Methods and Results: 31 Camp. fetus strains were examined by phenotypic, PCR- and PFGE-based methods, and the 16S rDNA sequences of 18 strains compared....... Conclusions: Numerical analysis of PFGE-DNA profiles is an effective method for differentiating Camp. fetus subspecies. Significance and Impact of the Study: Critical comparison of PFGE, PCR, 16S rDNA sequencing and phenotypic methods for differentiation of Camp. fetus subspecies was attained. Novel....... Numerical analysis of PFGE-DNA profiles divided strains into two clusters at the 86% similarity level. One cluster contained 19 strains clearly identified as Camp. fetus subsp. venerealis. The other cluster comprised 12 strains, of which 10 were unambiguously identified as Camp. fetus subsp. fetus...

  17. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  18. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  19. A comparative analysis of methylome profiles of Campylobacter jejuni sheep abortion isolate and gastroenteric strains using PacBio data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy T Mou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of human gastrointestinal disease and small ruminant abortions in the United States. The recent emergence of a highly virulent, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni subsp. jejuni sheep abortion clone (clone SA in the United States, and that strain’s association with human disease, has resulted in a heightened awareness of the zoonotic potential of this organism. Pacific Biosciences’ Single Molecule, Real-Time sequencing technology was used to explore the variation in the genome-wide methylation patterns of the abortifacient clone SA (IA3902 and phenotypically distinct gastrointestinal-specific C. jejuni strains (NCTC 11168 and 81-176. Several notable differences were discovered that distinguished the methylome of IA3902 from that of 11168 and 81-176: identification of motifs novel to IA3902, genome-specific hypo- and hypermethylated regions, strain level variability in genes methylated, and differences in the types of methylation motifs present in each strain. These observations suggest a possible role of methylation in the contrasting disease presentations of these three C. jejuni strains. In addition, the methylation profiles between IA3902 and a luxS mutant were explored to determine if variations in methylation patterns could be identified that might explain the role of LuxS-dependent methyl recycling in IA3902 abortifacient potential.

  20. Real Time PCR to detect and differentiate Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, A; Chanter, J; Gale, S; Parr, J; Toszeghy, M; Line, K

    2013-09-01

    Bovine venereal campylobacter infection, caused by Campylobacter fetus venerealis, is of significant economic importance to the livestock industry. Unfortunately, the successful detection and discrimination of C. fetus venerealis from C. fetus fetus continue to be a limitation throughout the world. There are several publications warning of the problem with biotyping methods as well as with recent molecular based assays. In this study, assessed on 1071 isolates, we report on the successful development of two Real Time SYBR® Green PCR assays that will allow for the detection and discrimination of C. fetus fetus and C. fetus venerealis. The sensitivity reported here for the C. fetus (CampF4/R4) and the C. fetus venerealis (CampF7/R7) specific PCR assays are 100% and 98.7% respectively. The specificity for these same PCR assays are 99.6% and 99.8% respectively. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACOG Pregnancy Book How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy Patient Education FAQs How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy ...

  2. Genomic Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni strain M1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Carsten; Wassenaar, Gertrude Maria; Javed, Muhammad A.

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni strain M1 (laboratory designation 99/308) is a rarely documented case of direct transmission of C. jejuni from chicken to a person, resulting in enteritis. We have sequenced the genome of C. jejuni strain M1, and compared this to 12 other C. jejuni sequenced genomes currently...

  3. Studies on the epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Oosterom (Johannes)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractOver the last few years the bacterial species Campylobacter jejuni has been recognized as an important cause of acute enteritis in man. Investigations in several countries have shown that infections caused by C. jejuni may be as serious as those due to Salmonella spp., both in prevalence

  4. [Streptococcus equi subsp. Zooepidemicus endocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamil, Iago; Serrano, Marta; Prieto, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Zoonotic infections with S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus have been reported occasionally in individuáis with exposure to farm animals, especially horses. They exceptionally present as a human pathogen. We present a S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus well documented endocarditis after a horse's female genital tract contact, and excellent surveillance with exclusive antibiotic management.

  5. Divergent distribution of the sensor kinase CosS in non-thermotolerant campylobacter species and its functional incompatibility with the response regulator CosR of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunyoung Hwang

    Full Text Available Two-component signal transduction systems are commonly composed of a sensor histidine kinase and a cognate response regulator, modulating gene expression in response to environmental changes through a phosphorylation-dependent process. CosR is an OmpR-type response regulator essential for the viability of Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborne pathogenic species causing human gastroenteritis. Although CosR is a response regulator, its cognate sensor kinase has not been identified in C. jejuni. In this study, DNA sequence analysis of the cosR flanking regions revealed that a gene encoding a putative sensor kinase, which we named cosS, is prevalent in non-thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., but not in thermotolerant campylobacters. Phosphorylation assays indicated that C. fetus CosS rapidly autophosphorylates and then phosphorylates C. fetus CosR, suggesting that the CosRS system constitutes a paired two-component signal transduction system in C. fetus. However, C. fetus CosS does not phosphorylate C. jejuni CosR, suggesting that CosR may have different regulatory cascades between thermotolerant and non-thermotolerant Campylobacter species. Comparison of CosR homolog amino acid sequences showed that the conserved phosphorylation residue (D51, which is present in all non-thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., is absent from the CosR homologs of thermotolerant Campylobacter species. However, C. jejuni CosR was not phosphorylated by C. fetus CosS even after site-directed mutagenesis of N51D, implying that C. jejuni CosR may possibly function phosphorylation-independently. In addition, the results of cosS mutational analysis indicated that CosS is not associated with the temperature dependence of the Campylobacter spp. despite its unique divergent distribution only in non-thermotolerant campylobacters. The findings in this study strongly suggest that thermotolerant and non-thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. have different signal sensing mechanisms

  6. Molecular Mechanisms Influencing Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important food-borne pathogen, causing human bacterial gastroenteritis. Throughout the years several methods have been developed for typing C. jejuni. These methods uncovered the existence of enormous genetic diversity within the species. Stable lineages of C. jejuni are

  7. Taxonomic relatedness between Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. odoriferum and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabhan, S; De Boer, S H; Maiss, E; Wydra, K

    2012-10-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum is a heterogeneous species consisting of two named subspecies, P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and P. carotovorum subsp. odoriferum. A third subspecies, P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense, was previously proposed. The study aimed to confirm the subspecies status and validate the proposed name of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense using a novel and standard microbial taxonomy. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense is a different species from P. wasabiae, P. betavasculorum and P. atrosepticum, with 28, 35 and 55% similarity values, respectively, but is a member of the P. carotovorum species with 73-77% similarity values. Sequencing the entire 16S rRNA gene of two polymorphic copies from strains of each of the P. carotovorum subspecies demonstrated that the average 16S rRNA gene sequence diversity between P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense and P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum was lower than the maximum genetic distances between two sequence types obtained from the same strain. Multilocus sequence analysis based on eight housekeeping genes (mtlD, acnA, icdA, mdh, pgi, gabA, proA and rpoS) differentiated the subspecies and delineated two P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense clades. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense clade I was comprised of strains isolated from Brazil and Peru, while clade II included strains from Asia, North America and Europe. Strains in clade I but not clade II were phenotypically consistent with the original description of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense in that they produced reducing substances from sucrose and acid from α-methyl glucoside. The type strain for P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense 212(T) (= LMG2137(T) = IBSBF1692(T) = CFBP6617(T) ) was previously designated. The GC mol content of the type strain is 51·7%. the study introduces a full description for the strains belonging to the two different clades assigned to P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense.

  8. Campylobacter jejuni seroepidemiology in native chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Rosyidi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for about 90% of cases of Campylobacteriosis in humans with gastroenteritis. Healthy chickens can carry Campylobacter spp. in the intestinal tract. Efforts to reduce exposure to Campylobacteriosis by humans may be enhanced by knowledge of its prevalence in poultry. This study aimed to identify factors associated with seropositive response to C. jejuni in native chickens in Mataram. Detection of C. jejuni was accomplished using an immunochromatographic serological method. Association between Campylobacter jejuni seropositive response as the dependent variable with various independent variables was analyzed using χ² (Chi square and Odds Ratio (OR. A total of 216 chicken samples were examined and 44 chicken owners were interviewed and their farms examined. Results showed the prevalence of serological response to C. jejuni in chicken samples to be as high as 35.6% and that as many as 70.5% of farms had affected chickens. Age of the chicken was the variable most closely associated with incidence of seropositive response, birds older than 3 months more likely to be affected. Variables at the farm level associated with variation in seropositive response were cage type, cage floor material, and origin of drinking water, surface water sources being less desirable.

  9. Campylobacter jejuni infection in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, A Singh; Shivaprasad, H L; Schaberg, D; Wier, F; Weber, S; Bandli, D

    2006-03-01

    Day-old, straight-run broiler chickens were procured from a hatchery located in the Pacific Northwest. The chickens were subdivided individually into nine groups of 20 chickens. The chickens were tagged, housed in isolation chambers on wire, fed commercial broiler feed, and given water ad libitum. Three isolates of Campylobacter jejuni of poultry origin and one of human origin were tested in this study. Various C. jejuni cultures were inoculated into 9-day-old chickens by crop gavage. Four groups of 20 chickens were inoculated at a dose level of 0.5 ml of 1 x 10(2) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. The other four groups were inoculated with 0.5 ml of 1 X 10(4) CFU/ml. One group of 20 chickens was kept as an uninoculated control group. Four randomly selected chickens from each of the inoculated and uninoculated groups were necropsied at 5, 12, and 19 days postinoculation (DPI). The C. jejuni was cultured and enumerated from a composite of the upper and midintestine and the cecum. Body weights of all chicken groups at 7 days of age and at 5, 12, and 19 DPI were measured and statistically analyzed. No significant differences were present in the mean body weights (MBWs) of 7-day-old, 5 DPI, and 12 DPI male and female broiler chickens inoculated with C. jejuni at both dose levels compared with uninoculated controls. Differences in MBWs of the male and female broilers at 19 DPI were observed in some of the groups. Results of the C. jejuni culture enumeration mean (CEM) of composite intestine samples at 5 DPI from all inoculated chicken groups, irrespective of the dose level, ranged from (2.5 +/- 5.0) x 10(2) to (2.8 +/- 4.8) x 10(5) CFU/g (mean +/- SD). Results of cecum C. jejuni CEM at 5 DPI inoculated at both dose levels ranged from (2.5 +/- 5.0) x 10(6) to (1 +/- 0.0) x 10(7) CFU/g in all treatment groups irrespective of the dose level. CEM results from the composite intestine samples at 12 and 19 DPI increased by 1 log unit, or sometimes more. Results of cecum C. jejuni

  10. Campylobacter Fetus Meningitis in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, predisposing factors and outcome of C fetus meningitis in adults. We report cases of C fetus meningitis in a nationwide cohort study of adult bacterial meningitis patients in the Netherlands and performed a review of the literature. Two patients with C fetus meningitis were identified from January 2006 through May 2015. The calculated annual incidence was 0.02 per million adults. Combined with the literature, we identified 22 patients with a median age of 48 years. An immunocompromised state was present in 16 patients (73%), mostly due to alcoholism (41%) and diabetes mellitus (27%). The source of infection was identified in 13 out of 19 patients (68%), consisting of regular contact with domestic animals in 5 and working on a farm in 4. Recurrent fever and illness was reported in 4 patients (18%), requiring prolonged antibiotic treatment. Two patients died (9%) and 3 survivors (15%) had neurological sequelae. C fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis and is associated with an immunocompromised state. Based on the apparent slow clinical response seen in this limited number of cases, the authors of this study recommend a prolonged course of antimicrobial therapy when C fetus is identified as a causative agent of bacterial meningitis. Cases appeared to do best with carbapenem therapy. PMID:26937916

  11. Campylobacter jejuni strategies to evade hostile environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaezirad, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of human bacterial foodborne disease in the western world. Each year hundreds of millions of cases of Campylobacter infection occur worldwide. After a few weeks, the infection may be followed by serious auto-immune diseases like the Guillain-Barre

  12. Campylobacter jejuni diarrhea model in infant chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanyal, S. C.; Islam, K. M.; Neogy, P. K.; Islam, M.; Speelman, P.; Huq, M. I.

    1984-01-01

    To study the pathogenic mechanisms of Campylobacter jejuni infection, 36- to 72-h-old chickens were fed 10(3) to 10(6) live cells, using strains isolated from 40 patients with watery diarrhea and 6 with bloody mucoid diarrhea from whom no other known enteropathogen was detected. Chickens of Starbro

  13. Demonstration of Polysaccharide Capsule in Campylobacter jejuni Using Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Karlyshev, Andrey V.; McCrossan, Maria V.; Wren, Brendan W.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, we reported that Campylobacter jejuni, an important gastrointestinal pathogen, has the genetic determinants to produce a capsular polysaccharide (Karlyshev et al., Mol. Microbiol. 35:529–541, 2000). Despite these data, the presence of a capsule in these bacteria has remained controversial. In this study we stain C. jejuni cells with the cationic dye Alcian blue and demonstrate for the first time by electron microscopy that C. jejuni cells produce a polysaccharide capsule that is ret...

  14. Clinical aspects of Campylobacter jejuni infections in adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, M C

    1994-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an almost ubiquitous, microaerophilic, gram-negative rod. Outbreaks have been associated with drinking raw milk or contaminated water and eating poultry. Campylobacter jejuni accounts for 3.2% to 6.1% of cases of diarrheal illness in the general population of the United States, and infected patients frequently present with abdominal pain and fever. Less frequently, C jejuni is responsible for bacteremia, septic arthritis, septic abortion, and other extraintestinal infe...

  15. Methods to Study Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Orhan; Shen, Zhangqi; Zhang, Qijing

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading bacterial cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide and is increasingly resistant to clinically important antibiotics. Detection of antibiotic resistance in C. jejuni can be performed with both phenotypic and genotypic methods. In this chapter, we describe the most commonly used molecular biology methods for detection of resistance to clinically important antibiotics. These methods can be employed in both clinical and research settings to facilitate clinical therapy and to monitor the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant C. jejuni.

  16. ISSUES OF FETUS DRUG SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Ostrovskaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the issue of fetus drug safety. Development of a child’s health depends both on hereditary information and environment factors. The reason for deviation from the process of normal prenatal development could be any xenobiotics, physical factors and some medications having a pathogenic effect during pregnancy on the embryo and fetus. Due to that, the physician’s preventive work based on the knowledge of embryogenesis processes and critical development periods. Key words: teratogenic action, medications, prenatal development, congenital malformation, newborns, children.(Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(1:25-28

  17. Natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni occurs beyond limits of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegge, Christina S; Brøndsted, Lone; Ligowska-Marzęta, Małgorzata; Ingmer, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a human bacterial pathogen. While poultry is considered to be a major source of food borne campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is frequently found in the external environment, and water is another well-known source of human infections. Natural transformation is considered to be one of the main mechanisms for mediating transfer of genetic material and evolution of the organism. Given the diverse habitats of C. jejuni we set out to examine how environmental conditions and physiological processes affect natural transformation of C. jejuni. We show that the efficiency of transformation is correlated to the growth conditions, but more importantly that transformation occurs at growth-restrictive conditions as well as in the late stationary phase; hence revealing that growth per se is not required for C. jejuni to be competent. Yet, natural transformation of C. jejuni is an energy dependent process, that occurs in the absence of transcription but requires an active translational machinery. Moreover, we show the ATP dependent ClpP protease to be important for transformation, which possibly could be associated with reduced protein glycosylation in the ClpP mutant. In contrast, competence of C. jejuni was neither found to be involved in DNA repair following DNA damage nor to provide a growth benefit. Kinetic studies revealed that several transformation events occur per cell cycle indicating that natural transformation of C. jejuni is a highly efficient process. Thus, our findings suggest that horizontal gene transfer by natural transformation takes place in various habitats occupied by C. jejuni.

  18. Activity patterns in malformed fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F; Barr, M

    1982-04-15

    Knowledge of a malformed fetus before the onset of labor would assist the physician in preparing the expectant parents, managing the timing and method of delivery, and preparing for the immediate care of a salvageable infant. This 3-year prospective investigation compared the activity patterns of fetuses who were later found to have major malformation with those of fetuses who had no apparent defects. Fetal motion over prolonged periods was determined by daily charting of fetal movement by the mother. Although not a reliable predictor for all malformations, evidence of fetal inactivity was found to be more common (p less than 0.0001) among fetuses with anomalies (16 of 58 cases, 28%) than among those with no defects (39 of 1,098 cases, 4%). All malformations associated with fetal inactivity were strongly suspected ultrasonographically and included hydrocephalus, gastroschisis, nonimmune hydrops, bilateral renal agenesis, and bilateral dislocation of the hips. Documentation of fetal inactivity is helpful in recognizing certain major malformations and constitutes grounds for more detailed study by ultrasonography.

  19. Campylobacter jejuni - A MONOGRAPHIC STUDY (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. CORCIONIVOSCHI

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is the primary cause of bacterial diarrhoeal illness in the developed world with an estimated 2-3 million Campylobacter-related illnesses occurring in the United States per year. Campylobacter jejuni can cause a spectrum of disease including gastroenteritis, proctitis, septicaemia, meningitis, abortion and autoimmune diseases such as Reiter’s arthritis and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS. The association of Campylobacter with poultry (e.g. chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese has been known for the last 30 years. In this review we will present the biology of this organism as presented for the last two decades and also the connection between Campylobacter jejuni and farm animals.

  20. Effect of gamma radiation on Campylobacter jejuni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.D.; Maxcy, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation resistance of Campylobacter jejuni in broth, ground beef, and ground turkey meat was determined using dose levels from 0-200 Krad at -30 +/- 10 0 C, at 0-5 0 C, and at 30 +/- 10 0 C. Irradiation at -30 0 C increased radiation resistance of cultures in ground meats; broth cultures were not greatly influenced by temperature. The effect of culture age on radiation resistance was also evaluated using cells in various physiological phases. Age did not have a pronounced effect on radiation resistance. The largest D 10 value for C. jejuni was 32 Krad, which was less than D 10 values commonly reported for salmonellae. 20 references, 4 figures

  1. Campylobacter-Associated Diseases in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Orhan; Yaeger, Michael; Wu, Zuowei; Zhang, Qijing

    2017-02-08

    Campylobacter includes a group of genetically diverse species causing a range of diseases in animals and humans. The bacterium is frequently associated with two economically important and epidemiologically distinct reproductive diseases in ruminants: enzootic infectious infertility in cattle owing to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis and abortions in sheep, goats, and cattle. Septic abortion, usually epizootic in sheep, has been historically associated with C. fetus subsp. fetus and to a lesser extent with Campylobacter jejuni. However, there has been a dramatic species shift in the etiology of Campylobacter abortions in recent years: C. jejuni has now replaced C. fetus subsp. fetus as the predominant cause of sheep abortion in the United States, which appears to be driven primarily by clonal expansion of a hypervirulent tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone. Here we provide a review on the recent advances in understanding the pathobiology of Campylobacter infections in animals, with an emphasis on the diseases in ruminants, covering epidemiology, pathogenesis, genomics, and control measures.

  2. Gene expression profiling of innate immune response to Campylobacter jejuni infection in the bursa of broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a commensal microorganism in chickens, but caused significant health problems in humans. Reduction of C. jejuni colonization in the chicken gut will significantly decrease human campylobacteriosis. To study host response to C. jejuni infection in broilers, both ...

  3. Chemical Decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on Chicken Skin and Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Brøndsted, Lone; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of 11 chemical compounds to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat samples dipped in chemical solutions. Treatment of skin samples for 1 min using tartaric acid (2%) and caprylic acid sodium salt (5%) caused reductions of C. jejuni NCTC11168...

  4. Phage therapy reduces Campylobacter jejuni colonization in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Mueller, M.A.; Wassenaar, T.M.; Carlton, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of phage therapy in the control of Campylobacter jejuni colonization in young broilers, either as a preventive or a therapeutic measure, was tested. A prevention group was infected with C. jejuni at day 4 of a 10-day phage treatment. A therapeutic group was phage treated for 6 days,

  5. Clonal Distribution and Virulence of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Caroline P.A.; Ellström, Patrik; Sarna, Seppo; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni bacteria are highly diverse enteropathogens. Seventy-three C. jejuni isolates from blood collected in Finland were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing and serum resistance. Approximately half of the isolates belonged to the otherwise uncommon sequence type 677 clonal complex. Isolates of this clonal complex were more resistant than other isolates to human serum. PMID:24047729

  6. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in different gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Knochel, Susanne; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni in fresh chilled chicken meat is known to be a major risk factor for human gastrointestinal disease. In the present study, the survival under chilled conditions of different C. jejuni strains exposed to different gas mixtures usually used for gas packaging of food was examined...

  7. Cytotoxity of cell free filtrates of campylobacter jejuni isolated in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Culture filtrates of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from clinical specimens in Lagos Nigeria were tested for toxic activity. Two out of five filtrates tested manifested cytopathic effect on BHK cells. The effects were mainly cytotoxic and cytotonic. Toxic activity of C. jejuni filtrates was much lower than toxic activity elicited by ...

  8. Reactions of Chicken Sera to Recombinant Campylobacter jejuni Flagellar Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative rod bacterium and is the leading but under-reported bacterial food-borne pathogen that causes human campylobacteriosis worldwide. Raw or undercooked poultry products are regarded as a major source for human infection. C. jejuni flagella have been implicated ...

  9. Exploring the chemotatic attraction of Campylobacter jejuni in chicken colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Ingmer, Hanne

    Campylobacter jejuni is the primary food borne bacterial pathogen in the developed world and the bacteria causes millions of gastroenteritis cases each year. The most important reservoir for C. jejuni is the gut of chickens, which are colonized commensally and efficiently by this organism....... Predominantly the mucus filled crypts of the lower gastrointestinal tract of chickens are found to be colonized by C. jejuni, and the bacteria are expected to be attracted to this particular environment by chemotaxis. From the full genome sequence of C. jejuni NCTC11168 several chemotactic proteins...... and chemoreceptors have been predicted. In order to explore the role of chemotaxis in C. jejuni colonization we have constructed defined deletion mutants in the putative chemoreceptors. These mutants are analyzed for their motile characteristics and their chemotatic capacity in order to investigate the chemoreceptor...

  10. Environmental pollution and the fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A child is a growing and developing human being early from conception throughout the end of adolescent period. Children at any stages of growth and development need to be protected from environmental health hazards. They need safe and health promoting environment to reach their optimum growth and development that they are capable genetically. However physical, chemical, biological and social environments have changed throughout decades and children of today are living in a very different environment than from their grandparents and parents. Today they are at most risk of being exposed to new chemicals that are mostly not tested for fetus and children. Since World War II, approximately 80,000 new synthetic chemicals have been manufactured and released into the environment in large amounts, with 10 new chemicals being introduced every day. The vast majority of these chemicals have not been studied adequately for their impacts on human health or their particular impacts on fetus. Many of these synthetic chemicals are persistent and bio-accumulative, remaining in the human body long after the exposure. Parental exposures occurred before the conception threatens the fetus both because the maternal or paternal reproductive organs are affected and because chemicals that can be accumulated in the mother’s body before pregnancy may be mobilized and cross over placental barrier during pregnancy. Many synthetic chemicals are already present in cord blood and we do not know how these multi-chemical exposures affect programmed development of fetus and studies are limited on long term effects of single chemical exposure. Some examples of health effects resulting from developmental exposures include those observed prenatally and at birth such as miscarriage, stillbirth, low birth weight, birth defects. Establishing a causal links between specific environmental exposures and complex multifactorial health outcomes is difficult and challenging.

  11. Intrauterine neuromuscular blockade in fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, S Z; Huang, F Y; Lin, S Y; Wang, Y P; Hsieh, F J

    1990-03-01

    Antenatal intrauterine fetal therapy has now become the target of numerous invasive diagnostic and therapeutic maneuvers. Fetal motion during intrauterine fetal therapy not only makes these procedures technically more difficult but also increases the likelihood of trauma to the umbilical vessels and the fetus. Combination of high doses of sedatives, tranquilizers, and narcotics rarely results in adequate suppression of fetal movement. Such medication puts the mother at risk of respiratory depression, regurgitation and aspiration. The use of pancuronium or atracurium to temporarily arrest fetal movement in ten fetus is reported. After an initial ultrasound assessment of fetal lie, placental location, and umbilical cord insertion site, the fetal weight was calculated by the ultrasound parameters of biparietal diameter and abdominal circumference. Under ultrasound guidance, we injected pancuronium 0.15 mg/kg or atracurium 1.0 mg/kg using a 23-gauge spinal needle into the fetal gluteal muscle. Short-term paralysis of the fetus was induced in all cases. Fetal movement stopped by sonographic observation within 5.8 +/- 2.3 min in the pancuronium group and 4.7 +/- 1.8 min in the atracurium group. Fetal movements returned both to maternal sensation or ultrasonic observation by 92 +/- 23 min in the first group and 36 +/- 11 min in the second group. No adverse effect of the relaxant has been observed in any of the mothers. There was no evidence of local soft tissue, nerve or muscle damage at the site of injection on initial examination of the neonates after delivery. The use of neuromuscular relaxant in fetus was a safe and useful method.

  12. [Delivery of the IUGR fetus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotin, F; Simon, E G; Potin, J; Laffon, M

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review available data regarding the management of delivery in intra uterine growth retarded fetuses and try to get recommendations for clinical obstetrical practice. Bibliographic research performed by consulting PubMed database and recommendations from scientific societies with the following words: small for gestational age, intra-uterine growth restriction, fetal growth restriction, very low birth weight infants, as well as mode of delivery, induction of labor, cesarean section and operative delivery. The diagnosis of severe IUGR justifies the orientation of the patient to a referral centre with all necessary resources for very low birth weight or premature infants Administration of corticosteroids for fetal maturation (before 34 WG) and a possible neuroprotective treatment by with magnesium sulphate (before 32-33 WG) should be discussed. Although elective caesarean section is common, there is no current evidence supporting the use of systematic cesarean section, especially when the woman is in labor. Induction of labor, even with unfavorable cervix is possible under continuous FHR monitoring, in favorable obstetric situations and in the absence of severe fetal hemodynamic disturbances. Instrumental delivery and routine episiotomy are not recommended. For caesarean section under spinal anesthesia, an adequate anesthetic management must ensure the maintenance of basal blood pressure. Compared with appropriate for gestational age fetus, IUGR fetus is at increased risk of metabolic acidosis or perinatal asphyxia during delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Campylobacter jejuni: exposure assessment and hazard characterization : growth, survival and infectivity of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a small, curved or spirally shaped highly motile microorganism, is identified as a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis throughout the world. Serious complications such as the Guillain-Barré syndrome and reactive arthritis might occasionally follow infection. In this

  14. Campylobacter jejuni: exposure assessment and hazard characterization : growth, survival and infectivity of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a small, curved or spirally shaped highly motile microorganism, is identified as a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis throughout the world. Serious complications such as the Guillain-Barré syndrome and reactive arthritis might occasionally follow infection.

  15. Antimicrobial activities of isothiocyanates against Campylobacter jejuni isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie eDufour

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne human infection with Campylobacter jejuni is a medical concern in both industrialized and developing countries. Efficient eradication of C. jejuni reservoirs within live animals and processed foods is limited by the development of antimicrobial resistances and by practical problems related to the use of conventional antibiotics in food processes.We have investigated the bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of two phytochemicals, allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC and benzyl-isothiocyanate (BITC, against 24 C. jejuni isolates from chicken feces, human infections and contaminated foods, as well as two reference strains NCTC11168 and 81-176.Both AITC and BITC displayed a potent antibacterial activity against C. jejuni. BITC showed a higher overall antibacterial effect (MIC of 2.5 to 5 g mL-1 compared to AITC (MIC of 50 to 200 g mL-1. Interestingly, the 24 C. jejuni isolates could be classified in 3 groups according to their sensitivity levels to both compounds, suggesting that AITC and BITC shared identical activity mechanisms and consequently faced similar resistance processes in bacterial cells.The sensitivity levels of C. jejuni strains against isothiocyanates were neither correlated with the presence of a GGT (-Glutamyl Transpeptidase encoding gene in the genome nor with the origin of the biological sample. However the ggt mutant of C. jejuni 81-176 displayed a decreased survival rate compared to WT when exposed to ITC.

  16. Predominant Campylobacter jejuni sequence types persist in Finnish chicken production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Katrin Llarena

    Full Text Available Consumption and handling of chicken meat are well-known risk factors for acquiring campylobacteriosis. This study aimed to describe the Campylobacter jejuni population in Finnish chickens and to investigate the distribution of C. jejuni genotypes on Finnish chicken farms over a period of several years. We included 89.8% of the total C. jejuni population recovered in Finnish poultry during 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2012 and used multilocus sequence typing (MLST and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE to characterize the 380 isolates. The typing data was combined with isolate information on collection-time and farm of origin. The C. jejuni prevalence in chicken slaughter batches was low (mean 3.0%, CI95% [1.8%, 4.2%], and approximately a quarter of Finnish chicken farms delivered at least one positive chicken batch yearly. In general, the C. jejuni population was diverse as represented by a total of 63 sequence types (ST, but certain predominant MLST lineages were identified. ST-45 clonal complex (CC accounted for 53% of the isolates while ST-21 CC and ST-677 CC covered 11% and 9% of the isolates, respectively. Less than half of the Campylobacter positive farms (40.3% delivered C. jejuni-contaminated batches in multiple years, but the genotypes (ST and PFGE types generally varied from year to year. Therefore, no evidence for a persistent C. jejuni source for the colonization of Finnish chickens emerged. Finnish chicken farms are infrequently contaminated with C. jejuni compared to other European Union (EU countries, making Finland a valuable model for further epidemiological studies of the C. jejuni in poultry flocks.

  17. Natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni occurs beyond limits of growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina S Vegge

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a human bacterial pathogen. While poultry is considered to be a major source of food borne campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is frequently found in the external environment, and water is another well-known source of human infections. Natural transformation is considered to be one of the main mechanisms for mediating transfer of genetic material and evolution of the organism. Given the diverse habitats of C. jejuni we set out to examine how environmental conditions and physiological processes affect natural transformation of C. jejuni. We show that the efficiency of transformation is correlated to the growth conditions, but more importantly that transformation occurs at growth-restrictive conditions as well as in the late stationary phase; hence revealing that growth per se is not required for C. jejuni to be competent. Yet, natural transformation of C. jejuni is an energy dependent process, that occurs in the absence of transcription but requires an active translational machinery. Moreover, we show the ATP dependent ClpP protease to be important for transformation, which possibly could be associated with reduced protein glycosylation in the ClpP mutant. In contrast, competence of C. jejuni was neither found to be involved in DNA repair following DNA damage nor to provide a growth benefit. Kinetic studies revealed that several transformation events occur per cell cycle indicating that natural transformation of C. jejuni is a highly efficient process. Thus, our findings suggest that horizontal gene transfer by natural transformation takes place in various habitats occupied by C. jejuni.

  18. Identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Isolated From Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium (MA) is divided into four subspecies based primarily on host-range and consists of MA subsp. avium (birds), MA subsp. silvaticum (wood pigeons), MA subsp. paratuberculosis (broad, poorly-defined host range), and the recently described MA subsp. hominissuis (hu...

  19. Methods for Initial Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Martine Camilla Holst; Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Brøndsted, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe an initial characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages by host range analysis, genome size determination by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and receptor-type identification by screening mutants for phage sensitivity.

  20. Exploring the chemotactic attraction of Campylobacter jejuni in chicken colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Ingmer, Hanne

    Campylobacter jejuni is the primary food borne bacterial pathogen in the developed world. The most important reservoir for C. jejuni is the gut of chickens, which are colonized commensally and efficiently by this organism. Predominantly the mucus filled crypts of the lower gastrointestinal tract...... are found to be colonized by C. jejuni, and the bacteria are expected to be attracted to this particular environment by chemotaxis. In order to explore the role of chemotaxis in C. jejuni colonization we are construction deletion mutants in the putative chemoreceptors of the sequenced strain NCTC11168....... These mutants will be analyzed for their chemotatic capacity in order to investigate the chemoreceptor function and to identify matching chemoeffectors. Furthermore, selected mutants will be investigated for their ability to colonize chickens with focus on establishment, level, and persistence. Special emphasis...

  1. Chemical Decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on Chicken Skin and Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Brøndsted, Lone; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    effective, indicating that some cells may recover after a 1-min treatment with these chemicals. An increase in treatment time to 15 min resulted in higher effectiveness of trisodium phosphate and formic acid. Interestingly, when reduction of the C. jejuni population was compared on chicken skin and meat......This study evaluated the effectiveness of 11 chemical compounds to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat samples dipped in chemical solutions. Treatment of skin samples for 1 min using tartaric acid (2%) and caprylic acid sodium salt (5%) caused reductions of C. jejuni NCTC11168......, sterile water and lactic acid caused considerably larger reductions on skin than on meat, whereas the opposite was seen for caprylic acid sodium salt. In conclusion, this study has identified chemicals with substantial reduction effects on C. jejuni. The analysis has further emphasized that treatment time...

  2. Exploring the chemotatic attraction of Campylobacter jejuni in chicken colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Ingmer, Hanne

    Campylobacter jejuni is the primary food borne bacterial pathogen in the developed world and the bacteria causes millions of gastroenteritis cases each year. The most important reservoir for C. jejuni is the gut of chickens, which are colonized commensally and efficiently by this organism....... Predominantly the mucus filled crypts of the lower gastrointestinal tract of chickens are found to be colonized by C. jejuni, and the bacteria are expected to be attracted to this particular environment by chemotaxis. From the full genome sequence of C. jejuni NCTC11168 several chemotactic proteins...... function and to identify matching chemoeffectors. Furthermore, selected mutants will be investigated for their ability to colonize chickens with focus on establishment, level, and persistence. Special emphasis will be held at characterizing the colonization of mucus layers....

  3. Quantitative Proteomics of Intracellular Campylobacter jejuni Reveals Metabolic Reprogramming

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaoyun; Gao, Beile; Novik, Veronica; Galán, Jorge E.

    2012-01-01

    Author Summary Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of food-borne illness in the United States and a major cause of diarrheal diseases in developing countries. This pathogen can invade intestinal epithelial cells, which is very important for its ability to cause disease. Once it gains access to epithelial cells, C. jejuni becomes unable to grow under standard growth conditions, although it can grow if pre-incubated under oxygen limiting conditions. This study compares the pro...

  4. PRESENCE OF RESISTANCE IN CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI AND CAMPYLOBACTER COLI

    OpenAIRE

    Branislava Kocić; Biljana Miljković-Selimović; Tatjana Babić; Ljiljana Ristić

    2009-01-01

    There are 18 species belonging to the genus of Campylobacter (rRNK group I), of which thermophilic ones are the following: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter upsaliensis. The aim of our research was to determine the sensitivity of Campylobacter species, isolated from human feces, to antibiotics being used in practice. The study involved 50 human strains of C. jejuni/coli isolated from feces in the Center for Microbiology in the Public Health Insti...

  5. Genotypes and antibiotic resistance of canine Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Chantal; Kittl, Sonja; Spreng, David; Thomann, Andreas; Korczak, Bożena M; Burnens, André P; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-01-10

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. It is a commensal in many wild and domestic animals, including dogs. Whereas genotypes of human and chicken C. jejuni isolates have been described in some detail, only little information on canine C. jejuni genotypes is available. To gain more information on genotypes of canine C. jejuni and their zoonotic potential, isolates from routine diagnostics of diarrheic dogs as well as isolates of a prevalence study in non-diarrheic dogs were analyzed. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter among non-diarrheic dogs was 6.3% for C. jejuni, 5.9% for Campylobacter upsaliensis and 0.7% for Campylobacter coli. The C. jejuni isolates were genotyped by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB typing. Resistance to macrolides and quinolones was genetically determined in parallel. Within the 134 genotyped C. jejuni isolates 57 different sequence types (ST) were found. Five STs were previously unrecognized. The most common STs were ST-48 (11.2%), ST-45 (10.5%) and ST-21 (6.0%). Whereas no macrolide resistance was found, 28 isolates (20.9%) were resistant to quinolones. ST-45 was significantly more prevalent in diarrheic than in non-diarrheic dogs. Within the common time frame of isolation 94% of the canine isolates had a ST that was also found in human clinical isolates. In conclusion, prevalence of C. jejuni in Swiss dogs is low but there is a large genetic overlap between dog and human isolates. Given the close contact between human and dogs, the latter should not be ignored as a potential source of human campylobacteriosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Metronidazole resistance in Campylobacter jejuni from poultry meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sigrid Rita; Shukri, Naseer Mahmoud; Boel, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution...... with a significant proportion of metronidazole-resistant isolates among C. jejuni from raw broiler and turkey meat. Metronidazole resistance occurred most frequently among turkey meat isolates (P resistance....

  7. Surface Plasmon Resonance Immunosensor for the Detection of Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Azlina Masdor

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is an internationally important foodborne disease caused by Campylobacter jejuni. The bacterium is prevalent in chicken meat and it is estimated that as much as 90% of chicken meat on the market may be contaminated with the bacterium. The current gold standard for the detection of C. jejuni is the culturing method, which takes at least 48 h to confirm the presence of the bacterium. Hence, the aim of this work was to investigate the development of a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR sensor platform for C. jejuni detection. Bacterial strains were cultivated in-house and used in the development of the sensor. SPR sensor chips were first functionalized with polyclonal antibodies raised against C. jejuni using covalent attachment. The gold chips were then applied for the direct detection of C. jejuni. The assay conditions were then optimized and the sensor used for C. jejuni detection, achieving a detection limit of 8 × 106 CFU·mL−1. The sensitivity of the assay was further enhanced to 4 × 104 CFU·mL−1 through the deployment of a sandwich assay format using the same polyclonal antibody. The LOD obtained in the sandwich assay was higher than that achieved using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA (106–107 CFU·mL−1. This indicate that the SPR-based sandwich sensor method has an excellent potential to replace ELISA tests for C. jejuni detection. Specificity studies performed with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, demonstrated the high specific of the sensor for C. jejuni.

  8. Methods for initial characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martine Camilla Holst; Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Brøndsted, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe an initial characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages by host range analysis, genome size determination by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and receptor-type identification by screening mutants for phage sensitivity.......Here we describe an initial characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages by host range analysis, genome size determination by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and receptor-type identification by screening mutants for phage sensitivity....

  9. The immunobiology of Campylobacter jejuni: Innate immunity and autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongsisay, Vongsavanh

    2016-04-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni causes gastroenteritis and Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans. Recent advances in the immunobiology of C. jejuni have been made. This review summarizes C. jejuni-binding innate receptors and highlights the role of innate immunity in autoimmune diseases. This human pathogen produces a variety of glycoconjugates, including human ganglioside-like determinants and multiple activators of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Furthermore, C. jejuni targets MyD88, NLRP3 inflammasome, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs), macrophage galactose-type lectin (MGL), and immunoglobulin-like receptors (TREM2, LMIR5/CD300b). The roles of these innate receptors and signaling molecules have been extensively studied. MyD88-mediated TLR activation or inflammasome-dependent IL-1β secretion is essential for autoimmune induction. TRIF mediates the production of type I interferons that promote humoral immune responses and immunoglobulin class-switching. Siglec-1 and Siglec-7 interact directly with gangliosides. Siglec-1 activation enhances phagocytosis and inflammatory responses. MGL internalizes GalNAc-containing glycoconjugates. TREM2 is well-known for its role in phagocytosis. LMIR5 recognizes C. jejuni components and endogenous sulfoglycolipids. Several lines of evidence from animal models of autoimmune diseases suggest that simultaneous activation of innate immunity in the presence of autoreactive lymphocytes or antigen mimicry may link C. jejuni to immunopathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased risk for Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli infection of pet origin in dog owners and evidence for genetic association between strains causing infection in humans and their pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini Gras, L; Smid, J H; Wagenaar, J A; Koene, M G J; Havelaar, A H; Friesema, I H M; French, N P; Flemming, C; Galson, J D; Graziani, C; Busani, L; VAN Pelt, W

    2013-12-01

    We compared Campylobacter jejuni/coli multilocus sequence types (STs) from pets (dogs/cats) and their owners and investigated risk factors for pet-associated human campylobacteriosis using a combined source-attribution and case-control analysis. In total, 132/687 pet stools were Campylobacter-positive, resulting in 499 strains isolated (320 C. upsaliensis/helveticus, 100 C. jejuni, 33 C. hyointestinalis/fetus, 10 C. lari, 4 C. coli, 32 unidentified). There were 737 human and 104 pet C. jejuni/coli strains assigned to 154 and 49 STs, respectively. Dog, particularly puppy, owners were at increased risk of infection with pet-associated STs. In 2/68 cases vs. 0.134/68 expected by chance, a pet and its owner were infected with an identical ST (ST45, ST658). Although common sources of infection and directionality of transmission between pets and humans were unknown, dog ownership significantly increased the risk for pet-associated human C. jejuni/coli infection and isolation of identical strains in humans and their pets occurred significantly more often than expected.

  11. A DNase encoded by integrated element CJIE1 inhibits natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, E.J.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Guilhabert, M.R.; Wösten, M.M.S.M.; Putten, van J.P.M.; Graaf-van Bloois, van der L.; Parker, C.T.; Wal, van der F.J.

    2009-01-01

    The species Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is considered naturally competent for DNA uptake and displays strong genetic diversity. Nevertheless, non-naturally transformable strains and several relatively stable clonal lineages exist. In the present study, the molecular mechanism responsible for

  12. Evaluation of PCR assays for the detection of Campylobacter fetus in bovine preputial scrapings and the identification of subspecies in South African field isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T; Venter, E H; Picard, J A

    2010-06-01

    As a result of the high lability and slow growth of Campylobacter fetus subspecies, the laboratory diagnosis of bovine genital campylobacteriosis has always been difficult. This is especially true under South African conditions, where farms are far apart, laboratories are only present in major centres and there are high ambient temperatures. In order to overcome the shortcomings associated with traditional diagnostic methods, the implementation of a molecular assay was sought. This work describes how a previously published PCR assay (MG3F/ MG4R primers) was adapted, optimised and applied in the diagnostic laboratory to test preputial samples directly for the presence of Campylobacter fetus. Field evaluation of the assay revealed an analytical sensitivity and specificity of 85.7% and 99%, respectively. Subsequent genotyping and phenotyping of a diverse collection of South African field isolates revealed that South Africa has an unexpected and previously unreported high incidence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius strains. These strains were not identified correctly by the subspecies-specific primer set evaluated. Until such time that cost- effective genotyping methods are available to diagnostic laboratories in South Africa, and other countries with these atypical Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis strains, the need for bacterial culture will persist. Identification to subspecies level of isolates at present remains dependent upon a single phenotypic criterion, namely tolerance to 1% glycine.

  13. Evaluation of PCR assays for the detection of Campylobacter fetus in bovine preputial scrapings and the identification of subspecies in South African field isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schmidt

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the high lability and slow growth of Campylobacter fetus subspecies, the laboratory diagnosis of bovine genital campylobacteriosis has always been difficult. This is especially true under South African conditions, where farms are far apart, laboratories are only present in major centres and there are high ambient temperatures. In order to overcome the shortcomings associated with traditional diagnostic methods, the implementation of a molecular assay was sought. This work describes how a previously published PCR assay (MG3F / MG4R primers was adapted, optimised and applied in the diagnostic laboratory to test preputial samples directly for the presence of Campylobacter fetus. Field evaluation of the assay revealed an analytical sensitivity and specificity of 85.7 % and 99 %, respectively. Subsequent genotyping and phenotyping of a diverse collection of South African field isolates revealed that South Africa has an unexpected and previously unreported high incidence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius strains. These strains were not identified correctly by the subspecies-specific primer set evaluated. Until such time that cost-effective genotyping methods are available to diagnostic laboratories in South Africa, and other countries with these atypical Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis strains, the need for bacterial culture will persist. Identification to subspecies level of isolates at present remains dependent upon a single phenotypic criterion, namely tolerance to 1 % glycine.

  14. Characterisation of Campylobacter jejuni genes potentially involved in phosphonate degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartley Lauren E

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Potential biological roles of the Campylobacter jejuni genes cj0641, cj0774c and cj1663 were investigated. The proteins encoded by these genes showed sequence similarities to the phosphonate utilisation PhnH, K and L gene products of Escherichia coli. The genes cj0641, cj0774c and cj1663 were amplified from the pathogenic C. jejuni strain 81116, sequenced, and cloned into pGEM-T Easy vectors. Recombinant plasmids were used to disrupt each one of the genes by inserting a kanamycin resistance (KmR cassette employing site-directed mutagenesis or inverse PCR. Campylobacter jejuni 81116 isogenic mutants were generated by integration of the mutated genes into the genome of the wild-type strain. The C. jejuni mutants grew on primary isolation plates, but they could not be purified by subsequent passages owing to cell death. The mutant C. jejuni strains survived and proliferated in co-cultures with wild-type bacteria or in media in which wild-type C. jejuni had been previously grown. PCR analyses of mixed wild-type/mutant cultures served to verify the presence of the mutated gene in the genome of a fraction of the total bacterial population. The data suggested that each mutation inactivated a gene essential for survival. Rates of phosphonate catabolism in lysates of E. coli strain DH5α were determined using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Whole-cell lysates of the wild-type degraded phosphonoacetate, phenylphosphonate and aminomethylphosphonate. Significant differences in the rates of phosphonate degradation were observed between lysates of wild-type E. coli, and of bacteria transformed with each one of the vectors carrying one of the C. jejuni genes, suggesting that these genes were involved in phosphonate catabolism.

  15. In-water supplementation of Trans-cinnamaldehyde nanoemulsion reduces Campylobacter jejuni colonization in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen that causes severe gastroenteritis in humans. Chickens act as the reservoir host for C. jejuni, wherein the pathogen colonizes the ceca thereby leading to contamination of the carcass during slaughter. Reducing C. jejuni cecal colonization could pot...

  16. Phytochemicals reduce biofilm formation and inactivates mature biofilm of Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of human foodborne illness globally, and is strongly linked with the consumption of contaminated poultry products. However, little is known about the persistence of C. jejuni in the poultry processing environment. Several studies have shown that C. jejuni ca...

  17. The influence of environmental conditions on the infectivity of non-growing Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff-Bakkenes L; Leusden FM van; Jonge R de; MGB

    2004-01-01

    Campylobacter (C.) jejuni is a causative agent of gastro-enteritis. Growth of this Gram negative bacterium is restricted to a limited number of environmental conditions. Under conditions where growth of C. jejuni is not possible, e.g. at temperatures below 30 degrees C, C. jejuni can remain viable

  18. Campylobacter jejuni motility is required for infection of the flagellotropic bacteriophage F341

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldvinsson, Signe Berg; Sørensen, Martine Camilla Holst; Vegge, Christina Skovgaard

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have identified a specific modification of the capsular polysaccharide as receptor for phages that infect Campylobacter jejuni. Using acapsular kpsM mutants of C. jejuni strains NCTC11168 and NCTC12658, we found that bacteriophage F341 infects C. jejuni independently of the capsule...

  19. Primary Isolation Strain Determines Both Phage Type and Receptors Recognised by Campylobacter jejuni Bacteriophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martine C. Holst; Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Birk, Tina

    2015-01-01

    In this study we isolated novel bacteriophages, infecting the zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. These phages may be used in phage therapy of C. jejuni colonized poultry to prevent spreading of the bacteria to meat products causing disease in humans. Many C. jejuni phages have been isolated...

  20. Transfer of several phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species to Acidovorax as Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae subsp. nov., comb. nov., Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, Acidovorax avenae subsp. cattleyae, and Acidovorax konjaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, A; Goor, M; Thielemans, S; Gillis, M; Kersters, K; De Ley, J

    1992-01-01

    DNA-rRNA hybridizations, DNA-DNA hybridizations, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole-cell proteins, and a numerical analysis of carbon assimilation tests were carried out to determine the relationships among the phylogenetically misnamed phytopathogenic taxa Pseudomonas avenae, Pseudomonas rubrilineans, "Pseudomonas setariae," Pseudomonas cattleyae, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes subsp. citrulli, and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes subsp. konjaci. These organisms are all members of the family Comamonadaceae, within which they constitute a separate rRNA branch. Only P. pseudoalcaligenes subsp. konjaci is situated on the lower part of this rRNA branch; all of the other taxa cluster very closely around the type strain of P. avenae. When they are compared phenotypically, all of the members of this rRNA branch can be differentiated from each other, and they are, as a group, most closely related to the genus Acidovorax. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed that these organisms constitute two genotypic groups. We propose that the generically misnamed phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species should be transferred to the genus Acidovorax as Acidovorax avenae and Acidovorax konjaci. Within Acidovorax avenae we distinguished the following three subspecies: Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, Acidovorax avenae subsp. cattleyae, and Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli. Emended descriptions of the new taxa are presented.

  1. Renal artery pulsatility index and renal volume: Normal fetuses versus growth-retarded fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Soon; Woo, Bock Hi

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the blood flow velocity waveform of the renal artery and renal volume of growth-retarded fetuses and to compare them with those of normal fetuses. Pulsatility index of the renal artery and renal volume measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography were obtained from seventy eight normal fetuses at the gestational age from twenty five to thirty nine weeks and eighteen intrauterine growth retarded fetuses whose weight was below ten percentile at birth. We studied changes of the pulsatility index of the renal artery and renal volume according to the gestational age and compared with those of growth-retarded fetuses. Pulsatility index (PI) of the fetal renal artery decreased throughout the gestational period (r=0.703, p<0.0001). In growth-retarded fetuses, despite of abnormal doppler velocity waveform of the middle cerebral artery, which was showing fetal hypoxia, the renal PI was not increased significantly. The fetal renal volume increased throughout the gestational period (r=0.834, p<0.0001) whereas in growth-retarded fetuses, all renal volume was below fifth percentile of normal fetuses. In growth-retarded fetuses, fetal renal volume was decreased significantly without change of the renal vascular flow. Therefore, the fetal renal volume measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography may be a helpful parameter in the diagnosis of growth-retarded fetuses.

  2. Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Postmaturity Premature Rupture of the Membranes (PROM) Preterm Labor Prolapsed Umbilical Cord Shoulder Dystocia Uterine Rupture Augmentation or Slowing of Labor Cesarean Delivery Induction of Labor Operative Vaginal Delivery Position refers to whether the fetus is facing rearward ( ...

  3. Persistent junctional reciprocating tachycardia in the fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudijk, M. A.; Stoutenbeek, P.; Sreeram, N.; Visser, G. H. A.; Meijboom, E. J.

    2003-01-01

    Persistent junctional reciprocating tachycardia (PJRT) tends to be a persistent arrhythmia and requires aggressive therapeutic management. Diagnosis and management of this infrequently occurring tachycardia in the fetus at an early stage is of importance for the prevention of congestive heart

  4. Composting poultry manure by fly larvae (Musca domestica) eliminates Campylobacter jejuni from the manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    study To monitor fly larvae composting of poultry manure artificially contaminated with C. jejuni, and to investigate a possible transmission route of C. jejuni from the manure through the fly larvae to the adult fly. Conclusions The addition of fly larvae both accelerated the degradation of manure...... and C. jejuni. Pupae or newly hatched flies were not carriers of C. jejuni although larvae were grown in contaminated manure. Impact When composting poultry manure with Md fly larvae, it is possible both to reduce the amount of waste and to sanitize it from C. jejuni, thereby reducing the risk...

  5. Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica to UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, R.C.; Lund, V.; Carlson, D.A.

    1987-02-01

    Two enteric pathogens, Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica serogroup O:3, together with Escherichia coli, were investigated for susceptibility to UV radiation at 254 nm. The UV dose required for a 3-log reduction (99.9% inactivation) of C. jejuni, Y. enterocolitica, and E. coli was 1.8, 2.7, and 5.0 mWs/cm2, respectively. Using E. coli as the basis for comparison, it appears that C. jejuni and Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:3 are more sensitive to UV than many of the pathogens associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and can be easily inactivated in most commercially available UV reactors. No association was found between the sensitivity of Y. enterocolitica to UV and the presence of a 40- to 50-megadalton virulence plasmid.

  6. Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica to UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, R.C.; Lund, V.; Carlson, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Two enteric pathogens, Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica serogroup O:3, together with Escherichia coli, were investigated for susceptibility to UV radiation at 254 nm. The UV dose required for a 3-log reduction (99.9% inactivation) of C. jejuni, Y. enterocolitica, and E. coli was 1.8, 2.7, and 5.0 mWs/cm2, respectively. Using E. coli as the basis for comparison, it appears that C. jejuni and Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:3 are more sensitive to UV than many of the pathogens associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and can be easily inactivated in most commercially available UV reactors. No association was found between the sensitivity of Y. enterocolitica to UV and the presence of a 40- to 50-megadalton virulence plasmid

  7. Metronidazole resistance in Campylobacter jejuni from poultry meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sigrid Rita; Shukri, Naseer Mahmoud; Boel, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution with a signific......The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution...

  8. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Dipineto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the preliminary results of a study about the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks. It was examined three different breeder flocks of Bojano in Molise region. A total of 360 cloacal swabs and 80 enviromental swabs was collected. Of the 3 flocks studied, 6.9% tested were positive for Campylobacter spp. The most-prevalent isolated species is C. jejuni (8.2%. Only 3 of the 360 cloacal swabs samples examined were associated with C. coli. The environmental swabs resulted negative. This results confirms again that poultry is a reservoir of this germ.

  9. Whole-Genome Sequencing in Epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llarena, Ann-Katrin; Taboada, Eduardo; Rossi, Mirko

    2017-05-01

    This review describes the current state of knowledge regarding the application of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in the epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni , the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. We describe how WGS has increased our understanding of the evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of this pathogen and how WGS has the potential to improve surveillance and outbreak detection. We have identified hurdles to the full implementation of WGS in public health settings. Despite these challenges, we think that ample evidence is available to support the benefits of integrating WGS into the routine monitoring of C. jejuni infections and outbreak investigations. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. MRI study on urinary abnormalities of fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ming; Zhang Yuzhen; Wang Qiuyan; Zhang Zhongyang; Li Yuhua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To illustrate the important complemental function of MRI in dignosing the urinary abnormalities of the fetus by analyzing MR features. Methods: MRI findings in 34 fetal urinary abnormalities were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Upper urinary tract dilatation was found in 12 cases: one case presented obstructed right renal dysplasia and was on the follow-up, postnatal MR imaging proved the duplex anomaly in one case, one case showed left PUJO on postnatal US imaging and prepared to surgery, 7 cases were normal on postnatal US imaging, 2 cases were lost to follow up. Bilateral urinary anomalies were found in 7 cases: Muhicystic renal dysplasia (n=3), Combined horseshoe kidney in 2 fetuses and bilateral renal aplasia in one case. Bilateral renal dysplasia was diagnosed in 2 cases, one was still bom and proved by autopsy and the other was lost to follow up. The case of bilateral renal agenesis displayed the appearance of sirenomelia on general specimen. The case of right renal agenesis associated contralateral kidney dyspalsia (n=1) was lost to follow up. MR imaging showed low signal intensity of lung and oligohydramnios in the bilateral anomalies. Unilateral urinary anomalies was found in 15 cases, including 9 cases of unilateral renal dysplasia. Two fetuses were aborted and 3 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR. One was lost to follow up; 3 cases were on the follow-up. There were 4 cases of unilateral renal agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR imaging. The case of ectopic kidney was proved with postnatal US imaging. One case of urachal cyst was aborted without autopsy. In the unilateral anomalies, the volume of amniotic fluid was normal, and the fetal lung presented homogenious high signal intensity. Conclusion: As a complemental method, MRI is of great value in displaying and dignosing the urinary abnormalities of fetus. (authors)

  11. PCR detection of Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis in smegma samples collected from dairy cattle in Fars, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Hosseinzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv, is regarded as one of the major threats to the cattle industry around the world. Abortion and infertility are two important reproductive problems in cows infected with C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Reports on the presence of Cfv are scarce in the cattle, in Iran. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the presence of Cfv in the reproductive tract of dairy cattle either slaughtered in Shiraz abattoir or dairy herds with a history of infertility and abortion, and further to identify and differentiate this micro-organism in dairy cattle in Fars, south of Iran. A total of 95 smegma samples from the preputial cavity and the fornix of the cervical opening were collected using scraping method from bulls (n = 34 and cows (n = 61 in addition to eight samples of commercially bull frozen semen. Smegma samples were then cultured for isolation of Cfv and then the extracted DNA was examined for the presence of Cfv using an optimized multiplex PCR assay. None of the frozen semen samples examined were positive for Cfv. However, out of 95 smegma samples, thirteen animals (12.6% were found positive for Cfv consisting of 3 males and 10 females. In conclusion, the results of the current study clearly confirmed the presence of Cfv using PCR in the slaughtered cattle and dairy farms with a history of poor fertility and abortion in Fars, Iran.

  12. Use of pcr-rflp of thefla a gene for detection and subtyping of Campylobacter jejuni strains Potentially related to Guillain-barré syndrome, isolated from humans and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Scarcelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were the subtyping of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni strains obtained from humans and different animal species using PCR-RFLP, and the detection, by means of the same technique, of strains related to serotype PEN O19:LIO 7, the main C. jejuni serotype linked to Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS. Seventy C. jejuni strains isolated from human feces (n=33, primates (n=15, dogs (n=5, swine (n=2, bovines (n=1, abortion material from goats (n=2 and poultry carcasses (n=12, all collected in the state of São Paulo, were subtyped by means of PCR-RFLP of fla A gene, using restriction endonucleases Hae III, Afa I and Mbo I. Seven subtypes were observed when using the enzyme Hae III; eight when using Mbo I; and seven when using Afa I. The combination of the three endonucleases led to 16 fla-RFLP subtypes, from which ten subtypes shared strains of human and animal origin. From these, seven subtypes were observed in human and broiler strains. In eight subtypes, the other animal species shared patterns with human strains. It was inferred that, besides broilers, swine, goats, dogs and primates may be sources of infection for human in São Paulo. PCR-RFLP is a highly discriminatory technique that may be applied to molecular epidemiology studies of samples from different origins. Besides, the study also enabled the detection of two human strains and two primate strains related to serotype PEN O19: LIO 7.

  13. Role of Campylobacter jejuni Infection in the Pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré Syndrome: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishan Kumar Nyati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our current knowledge on Campylobacter jejuni infections in humans has progressively increased over the past few decades. Infection with C. jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, sometimes surpassing other infections due to Salmonella, Shigella, and Escherichia coli. Most infections are acquired due to consumption of raw or undercooked poultry, unpasteurized milk, and contaminated water. After developing the diagnostic methods to detect C. jejuni, the possibility to identify the association of its infection with new diseases has been increased. After the successful isolation of C. jejuni, reports have been published citing the occurrence of GBS following C. jejuni infection. Thus, C. jejuni is now considered as a major triggering agent of GBS. Molecular mimicry between sialylated lipooligosaccharide structures on the cell envelope of these bacteria and ganglioside epitopes on the human nerves that generates cross-reactive immune response results in autoimmune-driven nerve damage. Though C. jejuni is associated with several pathologic forms of GBS, axonal subtypes following C. jejuni infection may be more severe. Ample amount of existing data covers a large spectrum of GBS; however, the studies on C. jejuni-associated GBS are still inconclusive. Therefore, this review provides an update on the C. jejuni infections engaged in the pathogenesis of GBS.

  14. Operation procedure of sacrococcygeal fetus in fetu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochadi Rochadi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fetus in fetu is a condition in wich a fetiform calcified mass often presents in the abdomen of its host, a newborn. It is extremely rare condition, estimated once in 500,000 deliveries and has a 2: 1 male predominantly; with most patient presenting with an abdominal  mass in the first year of life. 5,13 The term fetus in fetu is used to point out an unequal division of totipotential cells of blastocyst where the result is the inclusion of a small cellular mass in the more mature embryo. It was encapsulated, pedunculated and represents a malformed monozygotic, monochorionic, diamniotic parasitic twin. In 80% cases, fetus in fetu is located  retroperitonealy but can be found in unusual location such as in oropharynx, neck, skull mediastinum, pelvis, iliac mesentery, adrenal gland, sacrococcygeal region and scrotal sac.

  15. Campylobacter jejuni in Duck Faeces around Drinking Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faeces from 192 ducks feeding around 10 wells and 6 ponds in peri-urban areas of Makurdi town, North-Central Nigeria were randomly sampled during the dry season period of October, 2006 to March, 2007. The samples were cultured for Campylobacter jejuni, followed by characterisation of positive samples. The overall ...

  16. Post-genome Analysis of the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Emily J.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Wren, Brendan

    The human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is part of the genus Campylobacter that lies within the epsilon proteobacteria subclass of bacteria. The nearest family in phylogenetic terms is the Helicobacteraceae which includes the Helicobacter and Wolinella genuses. Campylobacter species are Gram-negative, curved rod shaped or spiral and are motile (via polar flagella).

  17. Characterization of the biochemical properties of Campylobacter jejuni RNase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nabila; Saramago, Margarida; Matos, Rute G; Prévost, Hervé; Arraiano, Cecília M

    2013-11-25

    Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne bacterial pathogen, which is now considered as a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis. The information regarding ribonucleases in C. jejuni is very scarce but there are hints that they can be instrumental in virulence mechanisms. Namely, PNPase (polynucleotide phosphorylase) was shown to allow survival of C. jejuni in refrigerated conditions, to facilitate bacterial swimming, cell adhesion, colonization and invasion. In several microorganisms PNPase synthesis is auto-controlled in an RNase III (ribonuclease III)-dependent mechanism. Thereby, we have cloned, overexpressed, purified and characterized Cj-RNase III (C. jejuni RNase III). We have demonstrated that Cj-RNase III is able to complement an Escherichia coli rnc-deficient strain in 30S rRNA processing and PNPase regulation. Cj-RNase III was shown to be active in an unexpectedly large range of conditions, and Mn2+ seems to be its preferred co-factor, contrarily to what was described for other RNase III orthologues. The results lead us to speculate that Cj-RNase III may have an important role under a Mn2+-rich environment. Mutational analysis strengthened the function of some residues in the catalytic mechanism of action of RNase III, which was shown to be conserved.

  18. Importance of Campylobacter jejuni for Food Safety and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Cakmak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are microorganisms that can be found in nature in the entire domestic and wild animal’s intestinal flora including the poultry and the sea animals. Campylobacter can better colonize in the poultry than the other animals. Campylobacter jejuni is an important pathogen among the thermophilic Campylobacter spp. whose growth temperature’s are different than the other Campylobacter spp. and can cause serious gastroenteritis in human beings which in some cases ended up with death. Human beings are generally infected with C. jejuni mainly because of the poultry meat and products and rarely because of the red meat which are contaminated during preparation and serving stages. Inadequate cooking, consumption of poorly chlorinated drinking water or unpasteurized milk are other infection sources of C. jejuni. Campylobacteriosis especially affect children under 5 years of age and reported to be a zoonotic illness that cause acute gastroenteritis in human. In many countries, food sourced C. jejuni infections were reported to occur more frequently than Salmonella spp. infections. In order to avoid Campylobacter infections, it is very important to enforce food security programmes and HACCP like systems during growth, slaughterhouses and point of sales stages. Also adequate cooking of the products, hygiene of the kitchen and personnel are important. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 157-166

  19. The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin in gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ninell P; Schiellerup, Peter; Boisen, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) on clinical outcome after gastroenteritis was investigated. Clinical data, blood serum samples, and Campylobacter spp. isolated, from each of 30 patients were collected over a period of 6 months. The CDT encoding genes, cdt...

  20. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in duck faeces around drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faeces from one hundred and ninety-two ducks feeding around ten wells and six ponds in peri urban areas of Makurdi town, North-Central Nigeria were randomly sampled during the dry season period of October, 2004 to March, 2005. In total, one hundred and ninety-two samples were cultured for Campylobacter jejuni, ...

  1. Cellular response of Campylobacter jejuni to trisodium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Cohn, M. T.; Stabler, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The highly alkaline compound trisodium phosphate (TSP) is used as an intervention to reduce the load of Campylobacter on poultry meat in U.S. poultry slaughter plants. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cellular responses of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 when exposed to sublethal...

  2. Generation of Campylobacter jejuni genetic diversity in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Achterberg, R.P.; Putten, van J.P.M.; Schouls, L.M.; Duim, B.

    2002-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology studies suggest that horizontal genetic exchange is a major cause of pathogen biodiversity. We tested this concept for the bacterial enteropathogen Campylobacter jejuni by seeking direct in vivo evidence for the exchange of genetic material among Campylobacter strains. For

  3. Role of environmental survival in transmission of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronowski, Christina; James, Chloe E; Winstanley, Craig

    2014-07-01

    Campylobacter species are the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, with C. jejuni responsible for the majority of these cases. Although it is clear that livestock, and particularly poultry, are the most common source, it is likely that the natural environment (soil and water) plays a key role in transmission, either directly to humans or indirectly via farm animals. It has been shown using multilocus sequence typing that some clonal complexes (such as ST-45) are more frequently isolated from environmental sources such as water, suggesting that strains vary in their ability to survive in the environment. Although C. jejuni are fastidious microaerophiles generally unable to grow in atmospheric levels of oxygen, C. jejuni can adapt to survival in the environment, exhibiting aerotolerance and starvation survival. Biofilm formation, the viable but nonculturable state, and interactions with other microorganisms can all contribute to survival outside the host. By exploiting high-throughput technologies such as genome sequencing and RNA Seq, we are well placed to decipher the mechanisms underlying the variations in survival between strains in environments such as soil and water and to better understand the role of environmental persistence in the transmission of C. jejuni directly or indirectly to humans. © 2014 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  4. The aroA gene of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.S.M. Wösten (M. M S M); H.J. Dubbink (Erik Jan); B.A.M. van der Zeijst (Ben)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe gene for 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase (aroA) cloned from Campylobacter jejuni (Cj) strain 81116 was identified by complementation of an Escherichia coli (Ec) auxotrophic aroA mutant. The Cj aroA gene has been sequenced. It encodes an enzyme of 428 amino acids

  5. Sensitive detection of Campylobacter jejuni using nanoparticles enhanced QCM sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masdor, Noor Azlina; Altintas, Zeynep; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2016-04-15

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor platform was used to develop an immunosensor for the detection of food pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies and commercially available mouse monoclonal antibodies against C. jejuni were investigated to construct direct, sandwich and gold-nanoparticles (AuNPs) amplified sandwich assays. The performance of the QCM immunosensor developed using sandwich assay by utilising the rabbit polyclonal antibody as the capture antibody and conjugated to AuNPs as the detection antibody gave the highest sensitivity. This sensor achieved a limit of detection (LOD) of 150 colony forming unit (CFU)mL(-1) of C. jejuni in solution. The QCM sensor showed excellent sensitivity and specificity for Campylobacter detection with low cross reactivity for other foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella Typhimurium, (7%) Listeria monocytogenes (3%) and Escherichia coli (0%). The development of this biosensor would help in the sensitive detection of Campylobacter which can result in reducing pre-enrichment steps; hence, reducing assay time. This work demonstrates the potential of this technology for the development of a rapid and sensitive detection method for C. jejuni. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Respon Fagositosis Leukosit Polimorf Babi (in vitro Terhadap Streptoccocus equi Subsp. Zooepidemicus (PHAGOCYTIC RESPONSE OF SWINE POLYMORPH LEUCOCYTES (IN VITRO TO STREPTOCCOCUS EQUI SUBSP. ZOOEPIDEMICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Harjono Utama

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Respon Fagositosis Leukosit Polimorf Babi (in vitro Terhadap Streptoccocus equi Subsp. Zooepidemicus (PHAGOCYTIC RESPONSE OF SWINE POLYMORPH LEUCOCYTES (IN VITRO TO STREPTOCCOCUS EQUI SUBSP. ZOOEPIDEMICUS

  7. Skeletal malformations in fetuses with Meckel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, K W; Fischer Hansen, B; Keeling, J W

    1999-01-01

    four types, based on the number and morphology of metacarpals and metatarsals. In the individual fetus there was more often similarity in the pattern of malformation in the two hands or in the two feet than there was between the pattern of malformation seen in the hands and that seen in the feet. Only......In six fetuses with Meckel syndrome (gestational age 16-23 weeks, crown-rump length 130-170 mm) the skeleton was examined as part of the autopsy procedure using whole body radiography and special radiographic techniques. In the upper and lower limbs we found similar types of polydactyly. We noted...

  8. Cardiac arrhythmias in the fetus and newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Christopher

    2006-06-01

    Arrhythmias are potentially life-threatening problems in the fetus and newborn. Appropriate management depends on accurate diagnosis. Atrioventricular re-entry is the most common type of supraventricular tachycardia in both the fetus and newborn. It should be distinguished from other types of tachycardia - such as atrial flutter, atrial ectopic tachycardia, permanent junctional re-entry tachycardia, and ventricular tachycardia. Neonatal and fetal bradycardias are less common clinical problems. Sustained bradycardia is most often caused by complete atrioventricular block. It can be mimicked by the more common but benign occurrence of non-conducted atrial premature beats.

  9. Campylobacter jejuni Bacteremia in a Patient With Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvarinejad, Mojtaba; Amin Shahidi, Maneli; Pouladfar, Gholam Reza; Dehyadegari, Mohammad Ali; Mardaneh, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Campylobacter jejuni is a slender, motile, non-spore-forming, helical-shaped, gram-negative bacterium. It is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis in the world. The aim of this study was to present a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), who was infected with Campylobacter jejuni. Case Presentation We describe the medical records of a pediatric ALL patient with bacteremia caused by C. jejuni, who was diagnosed at Amir hospital, Shiraz, Iran. This 14-year-old male visited the emergency department of Amir hospital with night sweats, severe polar high-grade fever, reduced appetite, and nausea in August 2013. Given the suspected presence of an anaerobic or microaerophilic microorganism, aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures were performed using an automated blood cultivator, the BACTEC 9240 system. In order to characterize the isolate, diagnostic biochemical tests were used. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done with the disk diffusion method. The primary culture was found to be positive for Campylobacter, and the subculture of the solid plate yielded a confluent growth of colonies typical for Campylobacter, which was identified as C. jejuni by morphological and biochemical tests. The isolate was resistant to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, cephalexin, piperacillin/tazobactam, nalidixic acid, aztreonam, cefuroxime, cefixime, ceftazidime, and tobramycin. Conclusions C. jejuni should be considered in the differential diagnosis as a potential cause of bacteremia in immunosuppressed patients. In cases where the BACTEC result is positive in aerobic conditions but the organism cannot be isolated, an anaerobic culture medium is suggested, especially in immunocompromised patients. PMID:27621914

  10. Growth potential of Eucalyptus globulus subsp. bicostata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With forestry expanding into mid-altitude drier and warmer, or drier and colder, sites the search to identify reasonably well-performing species/provenances for such ... susceptible than other provenances and controls, also outperformed other E. globulus subsp. bicostata provenances for dbh, height, basal area and volume.

  11. Rapid detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, alternative diagnostic tests such as PCR, are needed for quick detection of infected animals. In this study, the conventional enrichment and isolation procedure and two IS900-based PCR methods for detection of Mycobactrium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in clinical samples from zoo animals and cattle were ...

  12. Taxonomy of the Anginosus group of the genus Streptococcus and description of Streptococcus anginosus subsp. whileyi subsp. nov. and Streptococcus constellatus subsp. viborgensis subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anders; Hoshino, Tomonori; Kilian, Mogens

    2013-07-01

    The Anginosus group of the genus Streptococcus has been the subject of much taxonomic confusion, which has hampered the full appreciation of its clinical significance. The purpose of this study was to critically re-examine the taxonomy of the Anginosus group, with special attention to β-haemolytic, Lancefield group C strains, using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) combined with 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotypic analyses. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of seven housekeeping genes previously used for examination of viridans streptococci distinguished seven distinct and coherent clusters in the Anginosus group. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences and phenotypic characters supported the MLSA clustering and currently recognized taxa of the Anginosus group. Single gene analyses showed considerable allele sharing between species, thereby invalidating identification based on single-locus sequencing. Two novel clusters of β-haemolytic, Lancefield group C strains within the Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus anginosus species and isolated from patients with sore throat showed sufficient phylogenetic distances from other clusters to warrant status as novel subspecies. The novel cluster within S. anginosus was identified as the previously recognized DNA homology cluster, DNA group 2. The names S. anginosus subsp. whileyi subsp. nov. (type strain CCUG 39159(T) = DSM 25818(T) = SK1267(T)) and S. constellatus subsp. viborgensis subsp. nov. (type strain SK1359(T) = CCUG 62387(T) = DSM 25819(T)) are proposed.

  13. Persistence of Two Campylobacter jejuni Strains in Soil and on Spinach Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaderlund, L.; Arthurson, V.; Sessitsch, A.

    2011-01-01

    There are indications that the more frequent use of untreated organic residues for fertilization results in increased risk of contamination with human pathogens. Here, we evaluate the ability of two different strains of Campylobacter jejuni to persist in manure and soil as well as spread to spinach plants. It was revealed that different strategies for inoculation of C. jejuni contribute to the persistence of the bacterium in soil, roots, and shoots. Upon inoculation of the bacteria into manure prior to soil application, the amount of C. jejuni subsequently recovered in soil was higher than that from treatments involving the addition of C. jejuni cells to the soil after plant emergence. Irrespective of the bacterial inoculation dose and strategy employed, the C. jejuni content in soil remained relatively constant, whereas the majority of C. jejuni cells applied to spinach leaves could be recovered during the whole evaluation period of 21 days.

  14. Rapid Detection of Campylobacter jejuni by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Evaluation of its Sensitivity and Specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Razei A; Sorouri R; Aghamollaei H; Mousavi SL

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of food poising in humans. Rapid and specific detection of these bacteria has an important role in diagnosis and treatment of infection. The aim of this study was to design a specific PCR for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni. Methods: In this experimental study, oxidoreductase gene from the Campylobacter jejuni was selected for rapid and specific detection. For this purpose, specific primers were designed and charecte...

  15. Significance of phage-host interactions for biocontrol of Campylobacter jejuni in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Athina, Zampara; Sørensen, Martine Camilla Holst; Elsser-Gravesen, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Poultry meat is the main source of Campylobacter jejuni foodborne disease. Currently, no effective control measures prevent C. jejuni from contaminating poultry meat. However, post-harvest phage treatment is a promising biocontrol strategy that has not yet been explored. Here we identified phages...... most effective phages (F356 showing 0.49 and F357 showing 0.55 log reductions, respectively) led to a 0.73 log reduction of C. jejuni on artificially contaminated chicken skin. Our study shows that poly-phage treatment at 5 °C can be more effective against C. jejuni compared to single phage application...

  16. Virulence and genomic feature of multidrug resistant Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihong Hao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reveal the molecular mechanism involved in multidrug resistance and virulence of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler chickens. The virulence of six multidrug resistant C. jejuni was determined by in vitro and in vivo methods. The de novo whole genome sequencing technology and molecular biology methods were used to analyze the genomic features associated with the multidrug resistance and virulence of a selected isolate (C. jejuni 1655. The comparative genomic analyses revealed a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms, deletions, rearrangements, and inversions in C. jejuni 1655 compared to reference C. jejuni genomes. The co-emergence of Thr-86-Ile mutation in gyrA gene, A2075G mutation in 23S rRNA gene, tetO, aphA and aadE genes and pTet plasmid in C. jejuni 1655 contributed its multidrug resistance to fluoroquinolones, macrolides, tetracycline and aminoglycosides. The combination of multiple virulence genes may work together to confer the relative higher virulence in C. jejuni 1655. The co-existence of mobile gene elements (e.g. pTet and CRISPR-Cas system in C. jejuni 1655 may play an important role in the gene transfer and immune defense. The present study provides basic information of phenotypic and genomic features of C. jejuni 1655, a strain recently isolated from a chicken displaying multidrug resistance and relatively high level of virulence.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of human Campylobacter jejuni isolates and association with phylogenetic lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonhee eCha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen and the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. With the increase of antibiotic resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides, the drugs of choice for treatment, C. jejuni was recently classified as a serious antimicrobial resistant threat. Here, we characterized 94 C. jejuni isolates collected from patients at four Michigan hospitals in 2011 and 2012 to determine the frequency of resistance and association with phylogenetic lineages. The prevalence of resistance to fluoroquinolones (19.1% and macrolides (2.1% in this subset of C. jejuni isolates from Michigan was similar to national reports. High frequencies of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni isolates, however, were recovered from patients with a history of foreign travel. A high proportion of these resistant isolates were classified as multilocus sequence type (ST-464, a fluoroquinolone-resistant lineage that recently emerged in Europe. A significantly higher prevalence of tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni was also found in Michigan and resistant isolates were more likely to represent ST-982, which has been previously recovered from ruminants and the environment in the U.S. Notably, patients with tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni infections were more likely to have contact with cattle. These outcomes prompt the need to monitor the dissemination and diversification of imported fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni strains and to investigate the molecular epidemiology of C. jejuni recovered from cattle and farm environments to guide mitigation strategies.

  18. Early Onset Prosthetic Joint Infection and Bacteremia due to Campylobacter fetus Subspecies fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Dumic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter fetus is a zoonotic pathogen that occasionally causes serious, relapsing, invasive disease, especially in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of relapsing C. fetus diarrheal illness in a 75-year-old woman which resulted in secondary bacteremia and seeding of the left knee prosthetic joint. Patient responded favorably to debridement and retention of prosthesis in addition to six weeks of meropenem followed by chronic oral doxycycline suppressive therapy.

  19. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Campylobacter fetus serological reagents are devices...

  20. Biocontrol of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum using bacteriophage PP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong-A; Jee, Samnyu; Lee, Dong Hwan; Roh, Eunjung; Jung, Kyusuk; Oh, Changsik; Heu, Sunggi

    2013-08-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (formerly Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora) is a plant pathogen that causes soft rot and stem rot diseases in several crops, including Chinese cabbage, potato, and tomato. To control this bacterium, we isolated a bacteriophage, PP1, with lytic activity against P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the PP1 phage belongs to the Podoviridae family of the order Caudovirales, which exhibit icosahedral heads and short non-contractile tails. PP1 phage showed high specificity for P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, and several bacteria belonging to different species and phyla were resistant to PP1. This phage showed rapid and strong lytic activity against its host bacteria in liquid medium and was stable over a broad range of pH values. Disease caused by P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum was significantly reduced by PP1 treatment. Overall, PP1 bacteriophage effectively controls P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum.

  1. Staphylococcus petrasii subsp. pragensis subsp. nov., occurring in human clinical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švec, Pavel; De Bel, Annelies; Sedláček, Ivo; Petráš, Petr; Gelbíčová, Tereza; Černohlávková, Jitka; Mašlanˇová, Ivana; Cnockaert, Margo; Varbanovová, Ivana; Echahidi, Fedoua; Vandamme, Peter; Pantuček, Roman

    2015-07-01

    Seven coagulase-negative, oxidase-negative and novobiocin-susceptible staphylococci assigned tentatively as Staphylococcus petrasii were investigated in this study in order to elucidate their taxonomic position. All strains were initially shown to form a genetically homogeneous group separated from remaining species of the genus Staphylococcus by using a repetitive sequence-based PCR fingerprinting with the (GTG)5 primer. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene, hsp60, rpoB, dnaJ, gap and tuf sequences showed that the group is closely related to Staphylococcus petrasii but separated from the three hitherto known subspecies, S. petrasii subsp. petrasii, S. petrasii subsp. croceilyticus and S. petrasii subsp. jettensis. Further investigation using automated ribotyping, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, fatty acid methyl ester analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and extensive biotyping confirmed that the analysed group represents a novel subspecies within S. petrasii, for which the name Staphylococcus petrasii subsp. pragensis subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NRL/St 12/356(T) ( = CCM 8529(T) = LMG 28327(T)).

  2. Iridoid Glucosides from Lamium garganicum subsp. laevigatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayfun, Ersöz; Kaya, Duygu; Yalcin, Funda Nuray

    2007-01-01

    Phytochemical investigations on the above ground parts of Lamium garganicum subsp. laevigatum resulted in the isolation of seven iridoid glucosides, shanzhiside methyl ester (1), barlerin (8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester; 2), 6-O-syringyl-8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester (3), 6β-hydroxyipola......Phytochemical investigations on the above ground parts of Lamium garganicum subsp. laevigatum resulted in the isolation of seven iridoid glucosides, shanzhiside methyl ester (1), barlerin (8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester; 2), 6-O-syringyl-8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester (3), 6β......-hydroxyipolamiide (4), lamalbide (5), dehydropenstemoside (6), and sesamoside (7). The structure of the iridoids was elucidated by spectroscopic (UV, IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR, and ESI-MS) evidence....

  3. Genomic and phenotypic characteristics of Swedish C. jejuni water isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nilsson

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Major reservoirs are warm-blooded animals, poultry in particular, but Campylobacter can also be transmitted via water. In this paper, we have taken a closer look at the biology and potential virulence of C. jejuni water isolates. Seven C. jejuni isolates from incoming surface water at water plants in Sweden were characterized with whole genome sequencing and phenotypical testing. Multi locus sequence typing analysis revealed that these isolates belonged to groups known to include both common (ST48CC and uncommon (ST1275CC, ST683, ST793 and ST8853 human pathogens. Further genomic characterization revealed that these isolates had potential for arsenic resistance (due to presence of arsB gene in all isolates, an anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide oxidoreductase (in three isolates and lacked the MarR-type transcriptional regulator gene rrpB (in all but one isolate earlier shown to be involved in better survival under oxidative and aerobic stress. As putative virulence factors were concerned, there were differences between the water isolates in the presence of genes coding for cytolethal distending toxin (cdtABC, Type VI secretion system and sialylated LOS, as well as in biofilm formation. However, all isolates were motile and could adhere to and invade the human HT-29 colon cancer cell line in vitro and induce IL-8 secretion suggesting potential to infect humans. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study where C. jejuni water isolates have been characterized using whole genome sequencing and phenotypical assays. We found differences and shared traits among the isolates but also potential to infect humans.

  4. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Aspects on Campylobacter jejuni Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta T. Melo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm represents a way of life that allows greater survival of microorganisms in hostile habitats. Campylobacter jejuni is able to form biofilms in vitro and on surfaces at several points in the poultry production chain. Genetic determinants related to their formation are expressed differently between strains and external conditions are decisive in this respect. Our approach combines phylogenetic analysis and the presence of seven specific genes linked to biofilm formation in association with traditional microbiology techniques, using Mueller Hinton and chicken juice as substrates in order to quantify, classify, determine the composition and morphology of the biomass of simple and mixed biofilms of 30 C. jejuni strains. It also evaluates the inhibition of its formation by biocides commonly used in industry and also by zinc oxide nanoparticles. Genetic analysis showed high heterogeneity with the identification of 23 pulsotypes. Despite the diversity, the presence of flaA, cadF, luxS, dnaJ, htrA, cbrA, and sodB genes in all strains shows the high potential for biofilm formation. This ability was only expressed in chicken juice, where they presented phenotype of a strong biofilm producer, with a mean count of 7.37 log CFU/mL and an ultrastructure characteristic of mature biofilm. The composition of simple and mixed biofilms was predominantly composed by proteins. The exceptions were found in mixed biofilms with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which includes a carbohydrate-rich matrix, lower ability to sessile form in chicken juice and compact architecture of the biofilm, this aspects are intrinsic to this species. Hypochlorite, chlorhexidine, and peracetic acid were more effective in controlling viable cells of C. jejuni in biofilm, but the existence of tolerant strains indicates exposure to sublethal concentrations and development of adaptation mechanisms. This study shows that in chicken juice C. jejuni presents greater potential in producing mature

  5. Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov., isolated from pinnipeds, comprising Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. and Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Leger, Judy St; Chapman, Mary H; Timmerman, Arjen J; Duim, Birgitta; Foster, Geoffrey; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2017-06-01

    During independent diagnostic screenings of otariid seals in California (USA) and phocid seals in Scotland (UK), Campylobacter-like isolates, which differed from the established taxa of the genus Campylobacter, were cultured from abscesses and internal organs of different seal species. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of these six isolates. The isolates were characterized by 16S rRNA gene and AtpA sequence analysis and by conventional phenotypic testing. The whole-genome sequences were determined for all isolates, and the average nucleotide identity (ANI) was determined. The isolates formed a separate phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other taxa of the genus Campylobacter and most closely related to Campylobactermucosalis. Although all isolates showed 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence homology, AtpA and ANI analyses indicated divergence between the otariid isolates from California and the phocid isolates from Scotland, which warrants subspecies status for each clade. The two subspecies could also be distinguished phenotypically on the basis of catalase activity. This study shows clearly that the isolates obtained from pinnipeds represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov. is proposed. Within this novel species, the Californian isolates represent a separate subspecies, for which the name C. pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain for both this novel species and subspecies is RM17260T (=LMG 29472T=CCUG 69570T). The Scottish isolates represent another subspecies, for which the name C. pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this subspecies is M302/10/6T (=LMG 29473T=CCUG 68650T).

  6. Fragrance components of Platanthera bifolia subsp. osca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, Maurizio; Lorenz, Richard; Racioppi, Rocco; Romano, Vito Antonio

    2017-07-01

    SPME-GC-MS analysis of the scent of Platanthera bifolia subsp. osca collected during the night showed as main components lilac alcohols B, C and D and lilac aldehydes A, B and C. Other significant chemical components were linalool and caryophyllene. Some differences were found in comparison with previously reported analyses of the scent of P. bifolia and Platanthera chlorantha. The most important difference found was in the composition of the ester fraction.

  7. Bacteriological and Molecular Detection of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in Equines of Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Irfan Ahmad; Kumar, Bablu; Taku, Anil; Faridi, Farah; Bhat, Mohd Altaf; Baba, Naseer Ahmad; Maqbool, Tahir

    2013-01-01

    Present study was undertaken to study the prevalence of β-haemolytic streptococci in equine of northern temperate region of Jammu and Kashmir, India. One hundred and forty one samples were collected in duplicate from nasopharyngeal tract of diseased (53) and apparently healthy equine (88) for isolation and direct PCR. A total of 77 isolates of streptococci were recovered from 141 samples with an overall prevalence rate of 54.60%. Out of these 77 isolates, 52 were from diseased and 25 from apparently healthy animals. Of the 77 isolates, 4 were identified as Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, 56 as S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus and 17 as S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Thus the overall prevalence of S. equi subsp. equi, S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis was 2.83, 39.71 and 12.05% respectively. The sensitivity of the PCR for the detection of S. equi species was found higher when attempted from direct swab samples.

  8. Effects of fluorine on the human fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, H.; Cheng, Z.S.; Liu, W.Q. [Huaxi Medical University, Huaxi (China)

    2008-10-15

    In an endemic fluorosis area, 16 fetuses that were delivered during their sixth to eighth month of gestation by means of artificial abortion were collected and studied. The results (compared to 10 control fetuses from a non-endemic area) show that fluorine levels in tissues are obviously high, especially in brain, calvarium, and femur. The activity of alkaline phosphatase in femur and kidney was raised. By observation of the ultrastructure of samples, the number of mitochondria, rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, and free ribosome in neurons of cerebral cortex were reduced, and the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum was obviously dilated. These findings indicate that the neurons of the cerebral cortex in the developing brain may be one of the targets of fluorine.

  9. Distinct Campylobacter jejuni capsular types are related to Guillain-Barré syndrome in The Netherlands and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infection with the intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni leads to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in around one in thousand cases. It is established that sialylated lipooligosaccharides (LOS) of C. jejuni are a crucial virulence factor in GBS development. Frequent detection of C. jejuni with sia...

  10. Host-Pathogen Interactions in Guillain-Barré Syndrome : the role of Campylobacter jejuni lipooligosaccharide sialylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Heikema (Astrid)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract*Campylobacter jejuni* (*C. jejuni*) is a spiral, comma-shaped Gram-negative bacterium which is motile due to bipolar flagella. *C. jejuni* is frequently present in the intestines of poultry and birds, where it is considered to be part of the normal intestinal flora (1).

  11. The role of magnetic resonance imaging in fetus examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bo; Luo Boning; Zhang Zhongwei; Xie Hongning; Sun Gengxi

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in fetus examination. Methods: The MR images of 8 women with complicated pregnancies discovered by ultrasonography were analyzed retrospectively and compared with ultrasonography. Results: Fetus heteroplasia included placenta previa (n=2), congenital diaphragmatic hernia (n=1), agenesis of kidney (n=1), lack of amniotic fluid (n=2), retroperitoneal teratoma (n=1) and agenesis of cerebellum (n=1). MRI could clearly display abnormities of fetus that suspected by ultrasound. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance imaging plays a significant role in fetus examination and has become an adjuvant method when the fetus heteroplasia were suspected by ultrasonography

  12. PRESENCE OF RESISTANCE IN CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI AND CAMPYLOBACTER COLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislava Kocić

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available There are 18 species belonging to the genus of Campylobacter (rRNK group I, of which thermophilic ones are the following: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter upsaliensis. The aim of our research was to determine the sensitivity of Campylobacter species, isolated from human feces, to antibiotics being used in practice. The study involved 50 human strains of C. jejuni/coli isolated from feces in the Center for Microbiology in the Public Health Institute Nis. Sensitivity was tested by applying the disk diffusion method on seven antibiotics (erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, hloramphenicol, cephalexin and nalidixic acid. Our results showed low resistance to erythromycin, gentamicin and tetracycline (2%, which corresponds to the studies conducted in the world. Moreover, these findings indicate that erythromycin may be considered the drug of choice in the treatment of Campylobacter diarrhea in this region. Resistance to fluoroquinolone and nalidixic acid was 44%, and C. coli showed higher resistance compared to C. jejuni, though statistical significance was not proved.

  13. The Superior Transverse Scapular Ligament in Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aderval Aragão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The superior transverse scapular ligament (STSL links the margins of the suprascapular notch and converts it into a foramen, through which, the suprascapular nerve and, on some rare occasions, the suprascapular vessels pass. This conversion often results from partial or complete ossification of the STSL and may produce compressive symptoms in the suprascapular nerve. Material and Method. Twenty shoulders from human fetuses were dissected without the aid of optical instruments and, using a digital pachymeter of precision 0.01 millimeters, length measurements and thickness measurements were made. The fetal age was from 21 to 33 weeks of gestation, with a mean of 27.6±4.14 weeks. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in STSL length or any difference in the thicknesses at the medial and lateral extremities between the halves of the body (P≥0.05. However, in the left half of the body, the medial extremity of the STSL was significantly thinner than the lateral extremity (P≤0.05. Conclusion. Anatomical and morphometric details about the STSL were described in human fetuses. These findings, in fetuses, may encourage the pursuit of further studies to understand the morphofunctional role and meaning of this small ligament.

  14. Antigenic protein synthesis of Campylobacter jejuni in contact with chicken cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Bang, Dang D.; Li, Yiping

    to the environment of the avian gastrointestinal tract. Consequently, the most important reservoir for C. jejuni is the gut of chickens, which are colonized efficiently without causing disease in the birds. Upon co-cultivation with mammalian cells, C. jejuni secrete specific Cia proteins, which are required...

  15. Exploring the chemotactic attraction of Campylobacter jejuni in chicken colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Ingmer, Hanne

    Campylobacter jejuni is the primary food borne bacterial pathogen in the developed world. The most important reservoir for C. jejuni is the gut of chickens, which are colonized commensally and efficiently by this organism. Predominantly the mucus filled crypts of the lower gastrointestinal tract...... will be held at characterizing the colonization of mucus layers....

  16. Characterization of the specific interaction between sialoadhesin and sialylated Campylobacter jejuni lipooligosaccharides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikema, A.P.; Bergman, M.P.; Richards, H.; Crocker, P.R.; Gilbert, M.; Samsom, J.N.; Wamel, W.J.; Endtz, H.Ph.; van Belkum, A.

    2010-01-01

    In Campylobacter jejuni-induced Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), molecular mimicry between C. jejuni lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and host gangliosides leads to the production of cross-reactive antibodies directed against the peripheral nerves of the host. Currently, the presence of surface exposed

  17. Campylobacter jejuni translocation across intestinal epithelial cells is facilitated by ganglioside-like lipooligosaccharide structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.L. Louwen (Rogier); E.E.S. Nieuwenhuis (Edward); L. van Marrewijk (Leonie); D. Horst-Kreft (Deborah); L.F. de Ruiter (Lilian); A.P. Heikema (Astrid); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem); J.A. Wagenaar (Jaap); H.P. Endtz (Hubert); J.N. Samsom (Janneke); P. van Baarlen (Peter); A.S. Akhmanova (Anna); A.F. van Belkum (Alex)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractTranslocation across intestinal epithelial cells is an established pathogenic feature of the zoonotic bacterial species Campylobacter jejuni. The number of C. jejuni virulence factors known to be involved in translocation is limited. In the present study, we investigated whether

  18. Pentavalent single-domain antibodies reduce Campylobacter jejuni motility and colonization in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Riazi

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the world, with symptoms ranging from acute diarrhea to severe neurological disorders. Contaminated poultry meat is a major source of C. jejuni infection, and therefore, strategies to reduce this organism in poultry, are expected to reduce the incidence of Campylobacter-associated diseases. We have investigated whether oral administration of C. jejuni-specific single-domain antibodies would reduce bacterial colonization levels in chickens. Llama single-domain antibodies specific for C. jejuni were isolated from a phage display library generated from the heavy chain IgG variable domain repertoire of a llama immunized with C. jejuni flagella. Two flagella-specific single-domain antibodies were pentamerized to yield high avidity antibodies capable of multivalent binding to the target antigen. When administered orally to C. jejuni-infected two-day old chicks, the pentabodies significantly reduced C. jejuni colonization in the ceca. In vitro, the motility of the bacteria was also reduced in the presence of the flagella-specific pentabodies, suggesting the mechanism of action is through either direct interference with flagellar motility or antibody-mediated aggregation. Fluorescent microscopy and Western blot analyses revealed specific binding of the anti-flagella pentabodies to the C. jejuni flagellin.

  19. Influence of the Gut Microbiota Composition on Campylobacter jejuni Colonization in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zifeng; Willer, Thomas; Li, Li; Pielsticker, Colin; Rychlik, Ivan; Velge, Philippe; Kaspers, Bernd; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2017-11-01

    The Campylobacter jejuni -host interaction may be affected by the host's gut microbiota through competitive exclusion, metabolites, or modification of the immune response. To understand this interaction, C. jejuni colonization and local immune responses were compared in chickens with different gut microbiota compositions. Birds were treated with an antibiotic cocktail (AT) (experiments 1 and 2) or raised under germfree (GF) conditions (experiment 3). At 18 days posthatch (dph), they were orally inoculated either with 10 4 CFU of C. jejuni or with diluent. Cecal as well as systemic C. jejuni colonization, T- and B-cell numbers in the gut, and gut-associated tissue were compared between the different groups. Significantly higher numbers of CFU of C. jejuni were detected in the cecal contents of AT and GF birds, with higher colonization rates in spleen, liver, and ileum, than in birds with a conventional gut microbiota ( P microbiota. Histopathological gut lesions were observed only in C. jejuni -inoculated AT and GF birds but not in microbiota-colonized C. jejuni -inoculated hatchmates. These results demonstrate that the gut microbiota may contribute to the control of C. jejuni colonization and prevent lesion development. Further studies are needed to identify key players of the gut microbiota and the mechanisms behind their protective role. Copyright © 2017 Han et al.

  20. Antimicrobial wash with Trans-cinnamaldehyde nanoemulsion reduces Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen that causes severe enteritis in humans largely due to consumption of contaminated poultry products. Reducing C. jejuni contamination on chicken carcasses would reduce subsequent human infections. This study investigated the efficacy of Trans-cinnama...

  1. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni RM1246-ERRC that exhibits resistance to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni strain RM1246-ERRC is a clinical isolate. In laboratory experiments RM1246-ERRC exhibited resistance to the antimicrobial effects of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) when compared to other C. jejuni strains. The chromosome of RM1246-ERRC was determined to be 1,659,694 bp w...

  2. Nucleases Encoded by Integraded Elements CJIE2 and CJIE4 Inhibit Natural Transformation of Campylobacter Jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, E.J.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Guilhabert, M.R.; Putten, van J.P.; Parker, C.T.; Wal, van der F.J.

    2010-01-01

    The species Campylobacter jejuni is naturally competent for DNA uptake; nevertheless, nonnaturally transformable strains do exist. For a subset of strains we previously showed that a periplasmic DNase, encoded by dns, inhibits natural transformation in C. jejuni. In the present study, genetic

  3. Antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from wild birds in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldenstrom, J.; Mevius, D.J.; Veldman, K.T.; Broman, T.; Hasselquist, D.; Olsen, B.

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the occurrence and frequency of resistant strains of the bacterium Campylobacter jejuni and to establish baseline MICs ta isolates from an environmental reservoir, the resistance profiles of 10 antimicrobial substances were determined for 137 C. jejuni isolates from wild birds

  4. Whole-genome sequence of the bacteriophage-sensitive strain Campylobacter jejuni NCTC12662

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Sørensen, Martine C.H.; Brøndsted, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni NCTC12662 has been the choice bacteriophage isolation strain due to its susceptibility to C. jejuni bacteriophages. This trait makes it a good candidate for studying bacteriophage-host interactions. We report here the whole-genome sequence of NCTC12662, allowing future...

  5. Genome sequences of two stress-tolerant Campylobacter jejuni poultry strains, 305 and DFVF1099

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takamiya, Monica; Özen, Asli Ismihan; Rasmussen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a food-borne pathogen with a high prevalence in poultry meat, which in fresh unfrozen condition is the major source of campylobacteriosis. C. jejuni strains DFVF1099 and 305 are considered tolerant to several environmental stresses (T. Birk et al., J. Food Prot. 73...

  6. Antigenic protein synthesis of Campylobacter jejuni in contact with chicken cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Bang, Dang D.; Li, Yiping

    to the environment of the avian gastrointestinal tract. Consequently, the most important reservoir for C. jejuni is the gut of chickens, which are colonized efficiently without causing disease in the birds. Upon co-cultivation with mammalian cells, C. jejuni secrete specific Cia proteins, which are required...... the synthesis of antigenic C. jejuni proteins upon cultivation with chicken cells. Two strains of C. jejuni (the human isolate NCTC11168 and the chicken isolate DVI-SC11) were incubated with primary intestinal chicken cells and subsequently used to raise antisera in rabbits. Negative controls were carried out...... in parallel. These antisera were tested by Western blotting against C. jejuni total protein as well as periplasmic-, surface- and extracellular protein fractions. A unique antibody reaction was discovered to a protein from samples, which had been cultivated with chicken cells. The identity of this protein...

  7. Host epithelial cell invasion by Campylobacter jejuni: trigger or zipper mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadhg eÓ Cróinín

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni, a spiral-shaped Gram-negative pathogen, is a highly frequent cause of gastrointestinal foodborne illness in humans worldwide. Clinical outcome of C. jejuni infections ranges from mild to severe diarrheal disease, and some other complications including reactive arthritis and Guillain–Barré syndrome. This review article highlights various C. jejuni pathogenicity factors, host cell determinants and proposed signaling mechanisms involved in human host cell invasion and their potential role in the development of C. jejuni-mediated disease. A model is presented which outlines the various important interactions of C. jejuni with the intestinal epithelium, and we discuss the pro’s and con’s for the zipper over the trigger mechanism of invasion. Future work should clarify the contradictory role of some previously identified factors, and should identify and characterize novel virulence determinants, which are crucial to provide fresh insights into the diversity of strategies employed by this pathogen to cause disease.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter jejuni isolated from raw poultry meat at retail level in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. R.; Saadbye, P.; Shukri, Naseer Mahmoud

    2006-01-01

    of resistance among C. jejuni were observed for tetracycline, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, whereas macrolide resistance was rarely detected. C. jejuni originating from other poultry meat (mainly duck and turkey meat) exhibited the highest occurrences of antimicrobial resistance monitored; approximately one....... Monitoring of the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in C. jejuni isolated from raw uncooked poultry has been performed on a yearly basis since 1996, thus providing useful insight into consumer exposure to antimicrobial-resistant C. jejuni.......Campylobacter jejuni isolated from raw poultry meat collected at retail shops in Denmark in the period 1996-2003 were tested for susceptibility to seven antimicrobial agents. The food samples consisted of raw chicken meat and other raw poultry meat of domestic or imported origin. The highest levels...

  9. Identification of a functional type VI secretion system in Campylobacter jejuni conferring capsule polysaccharide sensitive cytotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy M C Bleumink-Pluym

    Full Text Available The pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the principal cause of bacterial food-borne infections. The mechanism(s that contribute to bacterial survival and disease are still poorly understood. In other bacterial species, type VI secretion systems (T6SS are increasingly recognized to contribute to bacterial pathogenesis by toxic effects on host cells or competing bacterial species. Here we report the presence of a functional Type VI secretion system in C. jejuni. Proteome and genetic analyses revealed that C. jejuni strain 108 contains a 17-kb T6SS gene cluster consisting of 13 T6SS-conserved genes, including the T6SS hallmark genes hcp and vgrG. The cluster lacks an ortholog of the ClpV ATPase considered important for T6SS function. The sequence and organization of the C. jejuni T6SS genes resemble those of the T6SS located on the HHGI1 pathogenicity island of Helicobacter hepaticus. The C. jejuni T6SS is integrated into the earlier acquired Campylobacter integrated element CJIE3 and is present in about 10% of C. jejuni isolates including several isolates derived from patients with the rare clinical feature of C. jejuni bacteremia. Targeted mutagenesis of C. jejuni T6SS genes revealed T6SS-dependent secretion of the Hcp needle protein into the culture supernatant. Infection assays provided evidence that the C. jejuni T6SS confers contact-dependent cytotoxicity towards red blood cells but not macrophages. This trait was observed only in a capsule-deficient bacterial phenotype. The unique C. jejuni T6SS phenotype of capsule-sensitive contact-mediated hemolysis represents a novel evolutionary pathway of T6SS in bacteria and expands the repertoire of virulence properties associated with T6SS.

  10. Identification of a functional type VI secretion system in Campylobacter jejuni conferring capsule polysaccharide sensitive cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleumink-Pluym, Nancy M C; van Alphen, Lieke B; Bouwman, Lieneke I; Wösten, Marc M S M; van Putten, Jos P M

    2013-01-01

    The pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the principal cause of bacterial food-borne infections. The mechanism(s) that contribute to bacterial survival and disease are still poorly understood. In other bacterial species, type VI secretion systems (T6SS) are increasingly recognized to contribute to bacterial pathogenesis by toxic effects on host cells or competing bacterial species. Here we report the presence of a functional Type VI secretion system in C. jejuni. Proteome and genetic analyses revealed that C. jejuni strain 108 contains a 17-kb T6SS gene cluster consisting of 13 T6SS-conserved genes, including the T6SS hallmark genes hcp and vgrG. The cluster lacks an ortholog of the ClpV ATPase considered important for T6SS function. The sequence and organization of the C. jejuni T6SS genes resemble those of the T6SS located on the HHGI1 pathogenicity island of Helicobacter hepaticus. The C. jejuni T6SS is integrated into the earlier acquired Campylobacter integrated element CJIE3 and is present in about 10% of C. jejuni isolates including several isolates derived from patients with the rare clinical feature of C. jejuni bacteremia. Targeted mutagenesis of C. jejuni T6SS genes revealed T6SS-dependent secretion of the Hcp needle protein into the culture supernatant. Infection assays provided evidence that the C. jejuni T6SS confers contact-dependent cytotoxicity towards red blood cells but not macrophages. This trait was observed only in a capsule-deficient bacterial phenotype. The unique C. jejuni T6SS phenotype of capsule-sensitive contact-mediated hemolysis represents a novel evolutionary pathway of T6SS in bacteria and expands the repertoire of virulence properties associated with T6SS.

  11. Heat Shock-Enhanced Conjugation Efficiency in Standard Campylobacter jejuni Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ximin; Ardeshna, Devarshi; Lin, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, the leading bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the United States, displays significant strain diversity due to horizontal gene transfer. Conjugation is an important horizontal gene transfer mechanism contributing to the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance. It has been observed that heat shock could increase transformation efficiency in some bacteria. In this study, the effect of heat shock on C. jejuni conjugation efficiency and the underlying mechanisms were examined. With a modified Escherichia coli donor strain, different C. jejuni recipient strains displayed significant variation in conjugation efficiency ranging from 6.2 × 10(-8) to 6.0 × 10(-3) CFU per recipient cell. Despite reduced viability, heat shock of standard C. jejuni NCTC 11168 and 81-176 strains (e.g., 48 to 54°C for 30 to 60 min) could dramatically enhance C. jejuni conjugation efficiency up to 1,000-fold. The phenotype of the heat shock-enhanced conjugation in C. jejuni recipient cells could be sustained for at least 9 h. Filtered supernatant from the heat shock-treated C. jejuni cells could not enhance conjugation efficiency, which suggests that the enhanced conjugation efficiency is independent of secreted substances. Mutagenesis analysis indicated that the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats system and the selected restriction-modification systems (Cj0030/Cj0031, Cj0139/Cj0140, Cj0690c, and HsdR) were dispensable for heat shock-enhanced conjugation in C. jejuni. Taking all results together, this study demonstrated a heat shock-enhanced conjugation efficiency in standard C. jejuni strains, leading to an optimized conjugation protocol for molecular manipulation of this organism. The findings from this study also represent a significant step toward elucidation of the molecular mechanism of conjugative gene transfer in C. jejuni. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in co-culture with Acanthamoeba castellanii: role of amoeba-mediated depletion of dissolved oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Thanh Xuan; Winding, Anne; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    of intracellular C. jejuni in A. castellanii 5 h post gentamicin treatment at 25°C. Conversely, we found that A. castellanii promoted the extracellular growth of C. jejuni in co-cultures at 37°C in aerobic conditions. This growth-promoting effect did not require amoebae – bacteria contact. The growth rates......, the dissolved oxygen levels of co-cultures with or without amoebae – bacteria contact were much lower than those observed with culture media or with C. jejuni alone incubated in aerobic conditions, and were comparable with levels obtained after 24 h of growth of C. jejuni under microaerophilic conditions. Our...... observed with or without contact with amoeba were similar to those observed when C. jejuni was grown in microaerophilic conditions. Preconditioned media prepared with live or dead amoebae cultivated with or without C. jejuni did not promote the growth of C. jejuni in aerobic conditions. Interestingly...

  13. Epipactis helleborine (L. Crantz subsp. moratoria A. Riechelmann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipovšek Matej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The group of Epipactis helleborine s.l. includes several subspecies. A new subspecies Epipactis helleborine subsp. moratoria was determined in Slovenia in 2015. It thrives in mixed wood in a region of Gorica at Raztez. Morphologic and phenomenological comparison confirmed clear differences between E. helleborine subsp. moratoria and E. helleborine subsp. helleborine. The characteristic differences seen in E. helleborine subsp. moratoria are the stem which is more or less bent at the level of the leaf base, the plants are smaller and more slender than E. helleborine, there are also differences in the flowers and the leaves. The ovary in E. moratoria is often in a horizontal position, especially at the time of fruiting, wheras in E. helleborine ovary usually hangs down. All of the wild orchids in Slovenia are protected species and among them it is Epipactis helleborine subsp. moratoria which, up till now is only known at one site.

  14. The abundant free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, increases the survival of Campylobacter jejuni in milk and orange juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Olofsson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of human bacterial diarrhea in most parts of the world. Most C. jejuni infections are acquired from contaminated poultry, milk, and water. Due to health care costs and human suffering, it is important to identify all possible sources of infection. Unpasteurized milk has been associated with several outbreaks of C. jejuni infection. Campylobacter has been identified on fresh fruit, and other gastrointestinal pathogens such as Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7 and Cryptosporidium have been involved in fruit juice outbreaks. C. jejuni is sensitive to the acidic environment of fruit juice, but co-cultures with the amoeba, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, have previously been shown to protect C. jejuni at low pH. Methods: To study the influence of A. polyphaga on the survival of C. jejuni in milk and juice, the bacteria were incubated in the two products at room temperature and at 4°C with the following treatments: A C. jejuni preincubated with A. polyphaga before the addition of product, B C. jejuni mixed with A. polyphaga after the addition of product, and C C. jejuni in product without A. polyphaga. Bacterial survival was assessed by colony counts on blood agar plates. Results: Co-culture with A. polyphaga prolonged the C. jejuni survival both in milk and juice. The effect of co-culture was most pronounced in juice stored at room temperature. On the other hand, A. polyphaga did not have any effect on C. jejuni survival during pasteurization of milk or orange juice, indicating that this is a good method for eliminating C. jejuni in these products. Conclusion: Amoebae-associated C. jejuni in milk and juice might cause C. jejuni infections.

  15. Update on Streptococcus equi subsp equi infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallicote, Martha

    2015-04-01

    There are few diseases that ignite as much fervor among horse owners as strangles. Streptococcus equi subsp equi (strangles) infections frequently require the treating veterinarian to manage not only the clinical cases but also the biosecurity and provision of information to all involved parties. Although the disease is typically characterized by low mortality and high morbidity, restrictions of horse movement that result from appropriate quarantine procedures often frustrate the involved parties. The aims of this article are to provide clinically relevant information for diagnosis, treatment, and biosecurity management of strangles infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fetus in Fetus in the Sacral Sac: Report of Surgical Management Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Berdi Taneh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetus-In-Fetu (FIF is a rare congenital malformation, which consists of a fetus mixed with a distinct tissue that is from the other fetus of twin. FIF is defined as a mass containing a vertebral axis often associated with other organs or limbs around this central axis.Case report: The patient was a two day old girl infant who due to a mass in a sacrum area measuring 8.5 x 12.5 cm with soft consistency containing a normal skin color fluid with blood streaks and hemorrhagic and bruise colored patches since birt, was admitted at the Taleghani children's Pediatric Center of Gorgan. The results of the mother's ultrasound in the fourth month of pregnancy had identified the cyst for the fetus. In the primary results of imaging, the first the diagnosis was type 2 sacrocoxigeal teratoma. However, results of post-birth graphy confirmed the presence of fetal bone structure in the infants's sacrum, so FIF was diagnosed for the infant.Conclusion: In the present study, FIF has been seen in sacrum, which is a very rare case in FIF.

  17. Use of PCR-Based Methods for Rapid Differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torriani, Sandra; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Dellaglio, Franco

    1999-01-01

    Two PCR-based methods, specific PCR and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR), were used for rapid and reliable differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. PCR with a single combination of primers which targeted the proline iminopeptidase (pepIP) gene of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus allowed amplification of genomic fragments specific for the two subspecies when either DNA from a single colony or cells extracted from dairy products were used. A numerical analysis of the RAPD-PCR patterns obtained with primer M13 gave results that were consistent with the results of specific PCR for all strains except L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii LMG 6412T, which clustered with L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis strains. In addition, RAPD-PCR performed with primer 1254 provided highly polymorphic profiles and thus was superior for distinguishing individual L. delbrueckii strains. PMID:10508059

  18. Dosimetry of radioiodine for embryo and fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkovski, V.; Eckerman, K.F.; Phipps, A.W.; Nosske, D

    2003-07-01

    This paper discusses the biokinetic and dosimetric models adopted in ICRP Publication 88 for the evaluation of fetal doses resulting from maternal intakes of radioiodine. The biokinetic model is used to simulate the behaviour of iodine in both the mother and the fetus. Such simulations provide the basis for the estimation of the dose to the embryo and determine the distribution of maternal iodine at the beginning of the fetal period. The model considers iodine to accumulate in the fetal thyroid from the 11th week. The dose to the fetus delivered following birth is evaluated with the biokinetic and dosimetric models described in ICRP Publication 67. Although a substantial fraction of the emitted energy of electrons and photons is less than 10 keV, conventionally assumed to be non-penetrating radiation, these emissions can escape the small fetal thyroid. Absorbed fractions for both self-dose and crossfire were evaluated for the requirements of radioiodine dosimetry in ICRP Publication 88. (author)

  19. Placental Gas Exchange and the Oxygen Supply to the Fetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    The oxygen supply of the fetus depends on the blood oxygen content and flow rate in the uterine and umbilical arteries and the diffusing capacity of the placenta. Oxygen consumption by the placenta is a significant factor and a potential limitation on availability to the fetus. The relevance...... anaerobic conditions and even the fetus is adapted to a low oxygen environment. Nevertheless, there is a reserve capacity, and during acute hypoxia the fetus can counter a 50% reduction in oxygen delivery by increasing fractional extraction. During sustained hypoxia, on the other hand, fetal growth...

  20. Temperature-dependent phenotypic variation of Campylobacter jejuni lipooligosaccharides

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semchenko, Evgeny A

    2010-11-30

    Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major bacterial cause of food-borne enteritis, and its lipooligosaccharide (LOS) plays an initiating role in the development of the autoimmune neuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, by induction of anti-neural cross-reactive antibodies through ganglioside molecular mimicry. Results Herein we describe the existence and heterogeneity of multiple LOS forms in C. jejuni strains of human and chicken origin grown at 37°C and 42°C, respectively, as determined on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels with carbohydrate-specific silver staining and blotting with anti-ganglioside ligands, and confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The C. jejuni NCTC 11168 original isolate (11168-O) was compared to its genome-sequenced variant (11168-GS), and both were found to have a lower-Mr LOS form, which was different in size and structure to the previously characterized higher-Mr form bearing GM1 mimicry. The lower-Mr form production was found to be dependent on the growth temperature as the production of this form increased from ~5%, observed at 37°C to ~35% at 42°C. The structure of the lower-Mr form contained a β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-GalNAc disaccharide moiety which is consistent with the termini of the GM1, asialo-GM1, GD1, GT1 and GQ1 gangliosides, however, it did not display GM1 mimicry as assessed in blotting studies but was shown in NMR to resemble asialo-GM1. The production of multiple LOS forms and lack of GM1 mimicry was not a result of phase variation in the genes tested of NCTC 11168 and was also observed in most of the human and chicken isolates of C. jejuni tested. Conclusion The presence of differing amounts of LOS forms at 37 and 42°C, and the variety of forms observed in different strains, indicate that LOS form variation may play a role in an adaptive mechanism or a stress response of the bacterium during the colonization of different hosts.

  1. High hydrostatic pressure resistance of Campylobacter jejuni after different sublethal stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarzazu, N; Cebrián, G; Condón, S; Mackey, B; Mañas, P

    2010-07-01

    To study the development of resistance responses in Campylobacter jejuni to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments after the exposure to different stressful conditions that may be encountered in food-processing environments, such as acid pH, elevated temperatures and cold storage. Campylobacter jejuni cells in exponential and stationary growth phase were exposed to different sublethal stresses (acid, heat and cold shocks) prior to evaluate the development of resistance responses to HHP. For exponential-phase cells, neither of the conditions tested increased nor decreased HHP resistance of C. jejuni. For stationary-phase cells, acid and heat adaptation-sensitized C. jejuni cells to the subsequent pressure treatment. On the contrary, cold-adapted stationary-phase cells developed resistance to HHP. Whereas C. jejuni can be classified as a stress sensitive micro-organism, our findings have demonstrated that it can develop resistance responses under different stressing conditions. The resistance of stationary phase C. jejuni to HHP was increased after cells were exposed to cold temperatures. The results of this study contribute to a better knowledge of the physiology of C. jejuni and its survival to food preservation agents. Results here presented may help in the design of combined processes for food preservation based on HHP technology. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Reduced spread of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens by stimulating the bird's natural barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, B; Rudi, K; Svihus, B; Skånseng, B

    2012-11-01

    We have tested the effect of feed structure and feeding regime to prevent the spread of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chicken flocks. Birds were offered two types of feed, control diet and a diet supplemented with 15% oat/barley hulls for structure. In addition, the birds were either fed ad libitum or intermittent. One bird in each treatment group was infected with a three-strain-mix of Camp. jejuni, and the spread of Camp. jejuni within the group was investigated. Feed structure increased the gizzard weight, delayed the spread of Camp. jejuni within the group and reduced the relative amount of Camp. jejuni in the caecum compared with the control diet. Our results show that stimulating the bird's natural barriers is a novel and promising intervention strategy to reduce the spread of Camp. jejuni in chicken flocks. Preventing Camp. jejuni in broiler chicken flocks is essential to ensure food safety because this bacterium is transferred to chicken carcasses during the slaughter process and readily survive in unprocessed poultry products. We have evaluated a novel approach for stimulation of the bird's natural barriers in the upper digestive tract with promising results. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolone and macrolide antibiotics with phenolic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euna eOh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing resistance of Campylobacter to clinically-important antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and macrolides, is a serious public health problem. The objective of this study is to investigate synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolones and macrolides in combination with phenolic compounds. Synergistic antimicrobial activity was measured by performing a checkerboard assay with ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in the presence of 21 phenolic compounds. Membrane permeability changes in C. jejuni by phenolic compounds were determined by measuring the level of intracellular uptake of 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN. Antibiotic accumulation assays were performed to evaluate the level of ciprofloxacin accumulation in C. jejuni. Six phenolic compounds, including p-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, and taxifolin, significantly increased the susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in several human and poultry isolates. The synergistic antimicrobial effect was also observed in ciprofloxacin- and erythromycin-resistant C. jejuni strains. The phenolic compounds also substantially increased membrane permeability and antibiotic accumulation in C. jejuni. Interestingly, some phenolic compounds, such as gallic acid and taxifolin, significantly reduced the expression of the CmeABC multidrug efflux pump. Phenolic compounds increased the NPN accumulation in the cmeB mutant, indicating phenolic compounds may affect the membrane permeability. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that combinational treatment of C. jejuni with antibiotics and phenolic compounds synergistically inhibits C. jejuni by impacting both antimicrobial influx and efflux.

  4. Variation in Campylobacter jejuni culturability in presence of Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Girbau, Cecilia; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; Liendo, Aitor Rizo; Bethencourt Estrella, Carlos J; García Méndez, Ana B; Chiboub, Olfa; Hajaji, Soumaya; Fernández-Astorga, Aurora; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2017-12-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are protozoa that are widely distributed in the environment mainly in water and soil related habitats. These amoebae have also been reported to be associated with some bacterial pathogens for humans such as Campylobacter spp. The species C. jejuni is the causative agent of about 90% of human campylobacteriosis cases worldwide and this disease may even end up in severe autoimmune sequelae as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In this study, the interactions between the strain Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff and Campylobacter jejuni was investigated. Campylobacter jejuni was coincubated with Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff trophozoites at different temperatures, in order to evaluate the C. jejuni ability to grow in presence A. castellanii culture and Acanthamoeba Conditioned Medium (ACM). C. jejuni was coincubated with A. castellanii axenic culture at different temperatures in aerobic conditions. Our results revealed that bacteria were still cultivable (Blood Agar medium, at 37 °C, in microaerophilic atmosphere) after a 14 days C. jejuni - A. castellanii coculture, comparing with C. jejuni alone, which was only cultivable for 24 h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulation of oxidative stress resistance in Campylobacter jejuni, a microaerophilic foodborne pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Chul eKim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis. Due to the increasing rates of human campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is considered as a serious public health concern worldwide. C. jejuni is a microaerophilic, fastidious bacterium. C. jejuni must overcome a wide range of stress conditions during foodborne transmission to humans, such as food preservation and processing conditions, and even in infection of the gastrointestinal tracts of humans. Particularly, this microaerophilic foodborne pathogen must survive in the atmospheric conditions prior to the initiation of infection. C. jejuni possesses unique regulatory mechanisms for oxidative stress resistance. Lacking OxyR and SoxRS that are highly conserved in other Gram-negative foodborne pathogens, C. jejuni modulates the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress resistance mainly via the PerR and CosR regulators. Based on recent findings of ours and others, in this review, we described how C. jejuni regulates the expression of oxidative stress defense.

  6. Differential carbohydrate recognition by Campylobacter jejuni strain 11168: influences of temperature and growth conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Day

    Full Text Available The pathogenic clinical strain NCTC11168 was the first Campylobacter jejuni strain to be sequenced and has been a widely used laboratory model for studying C. jejuni pathogenesis. However, continuous passaging of C. jejuni NCTC11168 has been shown to dramatically affect its colonisation potential. Glycan array analysis was performed on C. jejuni NCTC11168 using the frequently passaged, non-colonising, genome sequenced (11168-GS and the infrequently passaged, original, virulent (11168-O isolates grown or maintained under various conditions. Glycan structures recognised and bound by C. jejuni included terminal mannose, N-acetylneuraminic acid, galactose and fucose. Significantly, it was found that only when challenged with normal oxygen at room temperature did 11168-O consistently bind to sialic acid or terminal mannose structures, while 11168-GS bound these structures regardless of growth/maintenance conditions. Further, binding of un-capped galactose and fucosylated structures was significantly reduced when C. jejuni was maintained at 25 degrees C under atmospheric oxygen conditions. These binding differences identified through glycan array analysis were confirmed by the ability of specific lectins to competitively inhibit the adherence of C. jejuni to a Caco-2 intestinal cell line. Our data suggests that the binding of mannose and/or N-acetylneuraminic acid may provide the initial interactions important for colonisation following environmental exposure.

  7. Rapid Detection of Campylobacter jejuni by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Evaluation of its Sensitivity and Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razei A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of food poising in humans. Rapid and specific detection of these bacteria has an important role in diagnosis and treatment of infection. The aim of this study was to design a specific PCR for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni. Methods: In this experimental study, oxidoreductase gene from the Campylobacter jejuni was selected for rapid and specific detection. For this purpose, specific primers were designed and charecterized by bioinformatics software. Bacterial genome was extracted by phenol-chloroform method and PCR was optimized to obtain a specific product. Specificity of the designed reaction was investigated using six bacterial species. The sensitivity of the PCR reaction was calculated by the serial dilutions method. Results: The designed primer was specific to oxidoreductase gene of Campylobacter jejuni and after optimization, a unique 167-bp band was amplified. This primer was specific to Campylobacter jejuni and did not show any cross reaction with other bacterial genomes. The detection limit of this reaction was 5 pg of genomic DNA. Conclusions: The optimized PCR used in this study was a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for detection of Campylobacter jejuni. For confirmation of this method, detection of C. jejuni from food samples is proposed.

  8. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in rectal swab samples from Rousettus amplexicaudatus in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, Yuki; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Katayama, Yukie; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Masangkay, Joseph S; Puentespina, Roberto; Eres, Eduardo; Cosico, Edison; Une, Yumi; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Ken; Kyuwa, Shigeru; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2016-09-01

    Bats are the second diversity species of mammals and widely distributed in the world. They are thought to be reservoir and vectors of zoonotic pathogens. However, there is scarce report of the evidence of pathogenic bacteria kept in bats. The precise knowledge of the pathogenic bacteria in bat microbiota is important for zoonosis control. Thus, metagenomic analysis targeting the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA of the rectal microbiota in Rousettus amplexicaudatus was performed using high throughput sequencing. The results revealed that 103 genera of bacteria including Camplyobacter were detected. Campylobacter was second predominant genus, and Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni were identified in microbiome of R. amplexicaudatus. Campylobacteriosis is one of the serious bacterial diarrhea in human, and the most often implicated species as the causative agent of campylobacteriosis is C. jejuni. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of C. jejuni in 91 wild bats with PCR. As a result of PCR assay targeted on 16S-23S intergenic spacer, partial genome of C. jejuni was detected only in five R. amplexicaudatus. This is the first report that C. jejuni was detected in bat rectal swab samples. C. jejuni is the most common cause of campylobacteriosis in humans, transmitted through water and contact with livestock animals. This result indicated that R. amplexicaudatus may be a carrier of C. jejuni.

  9. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on Campylobacter jejuni in poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowska-Tracz, A; Tracz, M

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni inactivation by high pressure processing (HPP) in poultry meat (chicken breast) was investigated. The pressure was created by high hydrostatic pressure piston-cylinder food processor. Contaminated with C. jejuni (108 CFU g-1) samples of ground poultry meat were hermetically sealed in a polyamide-polyethylene bags and exposed to HPP for 9 different combinations of pressure (200 MPa, 300 MPa and 400 MPa) and time (5 min, 10 min and 15 min). Quantitative bacteriological analysis was carried out in order to determine the number of surviving C. jejuni cells. The obtained results showed that C. jejuni is relatively sensitive to high pressure treatment as compared to other food-borne pathogens. The loss of C. jejuni viability increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. On the basis of the results, D-values were calculated. For reduction C. jejuni in poultry meat by 6 log units (6D-values), considered as sufficient for consumer protection, the application of 300 MPa for 8.73 min, or 400 MPa for 4.37 min is needed. The linear regression equations, which has been calculated on the basis of this study, allows to determine the degree of C. jejuni reduction in poultry meat for any selected duration of pressurization in a given pressure range.

  10. Campylobacter jejuni biofilms contain extracellular DNA and are sensitive to DNase I treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Brown

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms make an important contribution to survival and transmission of bacterial pathogens in the food chain. The human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is known to form biofilms in vitro in food chain-relevant conditions, but the exact roles and composition of the extracellular matrix are still not clear. Extracellular DNA has been found in many bacterial biofilms and can be a major component of the extracellular matrix. Here we show that extracellular DNA is also an important component of the C. jejuni biofilm when attached to stainless steel surfaces, in aerobic conditions and on conditioned surfaces. Degradation of extracellular DNA by exogenous addition of DNase I led to rapid biofilm removal, without loss of C. jejuni viability. Following treatment of a surface with DNase I, C. jejuni was unable to re-establish a biofilm population within 48 hr. Similar results were obtained by digesting extracellular DNA with restriction enzymes, suggesting the need for high molecular weight DNA. Addition of C. jejuni genomic DNA containing an antibiotic resistance marker resulted in transfer of the antibiotic resistance marker to susceptible cells in the biofilm, presumably by natural transformation. Taken together, this suggest that eDNA is not only an important component of C. jejuni biofilms and subsequent food chain survival of C. jejuni, but may also contribute to the spread of antimicrobial resistance in C. jejuni. The degradation of extracellular DNA with enzymes such as DNase I is a rapid method to remove C. jejuni biofilms, and is likely to potentiate the activity of antimicrobial treatments and thus synergistically aid disinfection treatments.

  11. Occurrence of the invasion associated marker (iam in Campylobacter jejuni isolated from cattle

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    Sanad Yasser M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The invasion associated marker (iam has been detected in the majority of invasive Campylobacter jejuni retrieved from humans. Furthermore, the detection of iam in C. jejuni isolated from two important hosts, humans and chickens, suggested a role for this marker in C. jejuni's colonization of multiple hosts. However, no data exist regarding the occurrence of this marker in C. jejuni isolated from non-poultry food-animals such as cattle, an increasingly important source for human infections. Since little is known about the genetics associated with C. jejuni's capability for colonizing physiologically disparate hosts, we investigated the occurrence of the iam in C. jejuni isolated from cattle and assessed the potential of iam-containing cattle and human isolates for chicken colonization and human cell invasion. Results Simultaneous RAPD typing and iam-specific PCR analysis of 129 C. jejuni isolated from 1171 cattle fecal samples showed that 8 (6.2% of the isolates were iam-positive, while 7 (54% of human-associated isolates were iam-positive. The iam sequences were mostly heterogeneous and occurred in diverse genetic backgrounds. All iam-positive isolates were motile and possessed important genes (cadF, ciaB, cdtB associated with adhesion and virulence. Although certain iam-containing isolates invaded and survived in INT-407 cells in high numbers and successfully colonized live chickens, there was no clear association between the occurrence, allelic sequence, and expression levels of the iam and the aforementioned phenotypes. Conclusions We show that the prevalence of iam in cattle C. jejuni is relatively lower as compared to isolates occurring in humans and chickens. In addition, iam was polymorphic and certain alleles occur in cattle isolates that were capable of colonizing and invading chickens and human intestinal cells, respectively. However, the iam did not appear to contribute to the cattle-associated C. jejuni

  12. Generation and characterization of a novel recombinant scFv antibody specific for Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzuma, Ruramayi M; Liu, Fuquan; Grant, Irene R

    2018-04-07

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide, mainly due to consumption and handling of contaminated raw chicken. Rapid detection methods for C. jejuni are vital for monitoring contamination levels in chicken products and reducing human Campylobacteriosis cases. The 'gold standard' culture-based method of Campylobacter detection takes 3-5 days and is too slow to permit effective intervention. Immuno-based methods are faster, but usually necessitate use of animals or hybridoma technology to produce antibodies; making them difficult and expensive to produce. Here, we report the generation and characterization of recombinant single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies specific for C. jejuni cells, and evaluation of one scFv antibody for an immunomagnetic separation-quantitative PCR (IMS-qPCR) method to rapidly, sensitively, and specifically detect low numbers of C. jejuni. An scFv antibody phage-display library was constructed using spleen mRNA derived from a rabbit immunized with gamma-irradiated C. jejuni cells. This library was screened by surface biopanning against C. jejuni whole cells. Enriched clones were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Two scFv antibodies that strongly and specifically recognized C. jejuni cell were expressed in Escherichia coli. Western blot analysis showed that one antibody, scFv80, was expressed as a soluble protein and retained its specific and strong binding to C. jejuni cells. This recombinant monoclonal scFv antibody was purified and used to covalently coat paramagnetic beads to be used for IMS-qPCR. The IMS-qPCR method was able to specifically and sensitively detect C. jejuni in mixed cultures within 3 h.

  13. Genome sequencing identifies Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov., isolated from a ranch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Bakker, Henk C; Manuel, Clyde S; Fortes, Esther D; Wiedmann, Martin; Nightingale, Kendra K

    2013-09-01

    Twenty Listeria-like isolates were obtained from environmental samples collected on a cattle ranch in northern Colorado; all of these isolates were found to share an identical partial sigB sequence, suggesting close relatedness. The isolates were similar to members of the genus Listeria in that they were Gram-stain-positive, short rods, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive; the isolates were similar to Listeria fleischmannii because they were non-motile at 25 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequencing for representative isolates and whole genome sequencing for one isolate was performed. The genome of the type strain of Listeria fleischmannii (strain LU2006-1(T)) was also sequenced. The draft genomes were very similar in size and the average MUMmer nucleotide identity across 91% of the genomes was 95.16%. Genome sequence data were used to design primers for a six-gene multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme. Phylogenies based on (i) the near-complete 16S rRNA gene, (ii) 31 core genes and (iii) six housekeeping genes illustrated the close relationship of these Listeria-like isolates to Listeria fleischmannii LU2006-1(T). Sufficient genetic divergence of the Listeria-like isolates from the type strain of Listeria fleischmannii and differing phenotypic characteristics warrant these isolates to be classified as members of a distinct infraspecific taxon, for which the name Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TTU M1-001(T) ( =BAA-2414(T) =DSM 25391(T)). The isolates of Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov. differ from the nominate subspecies by the inability to utilize melezitose, turanose and sucrose, and the ability to utilize inositol. The results also demonstrate the utility of whole genome sequencing to facilitate identification of novel taxa within a well-described genus. The genomes of both subspecies of Listeria fleischmannii contained putative enhancin genes; the Listeria fleischmannii subsp

  14. Genetic Diversity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis Isolated in Korea

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    Dong Hwan Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant pathogenic bacterial genus Pectobacteirum consists of heterogeneous strains. The P. carotovorum species is a complex strain showing divergent characteristics, and a new subspecies named P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis has been identified recently. In this paper, we re-identified the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates from those classified under the subspecies carotovorum and newly isolated P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis strains. All isolates were able to produce plant cell-wall degrading enzymes such as pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and protease. We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the diversity of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates, and found genetic diversity within the brasiliensis subsp. isolates in Korea. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on the recA gene revealed a unique pattern for the brasiliensis subspecies. The Korean brasiliensis subsp. isolates were divided into four clades based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, correlations between clades and isolated hosts or year could not be found, suggesting that diverse brasiliensis subsp. isolates existed.

  15. Genetic Diversity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis Isolated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Beom; Lim, Jeong-A; Han, Sang-Wook; Heu, Sunggi

    2014-06-01

    The plant pathogenic bacterial genus Pectobacteirum consists of heterogeneous strains. The P. carotovorum species is a complex strain showing divergent characteristics, and a new subspecies named P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis has been identified recently. In this paper, we re-identified the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates from those classified under the subspecies carotovorum and newly isolated P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis strains. All isolates were able to produce plant cell-wall degrading enzymes such as pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and protease. We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the diversity of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates, and found genetic diversity within the brasiliensis subsp. isolates in Korea. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on the recA gene revealed a unique pattern for the brasiliensis subspecies. The Korean brasiliensis subsp. isolates were divided into four clades based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, correlations between clades and isolated hosts or year could not be found, suggesting that diverse brasiliensis subsp. isolates existed.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter jejuni isolated from raw poultry meat at retail level in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. R.; Saadbye, P.; Shukri, Naseer Mahmoud

    2006-01-01

    of resistance among C. jejuni were observed for tetracycline, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, whereas macrolide resistance was rarely detected. C. jejuni originating from other poultry meat (mainly duck and turkey meat) exhibited the highest occurrences of antimicrobial resistance monitored; approximately one...... third of the isolates were tetracycline resistant (N=100). Among chicken meat isolates, the occurrence of tetracycline resistance was significantly higher (P ... for chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin (P resistance in the period 1996-2003 among C jejuni isolates from chicken meat indicate a decrease in the occurrence of resistance towards fluoroquinolones. This may be due to reduced application of fluoroquinolones for food animals...

  17. Molecular typing of Campylobacter jejuni isolates involved in a neonatal outbreak indicates nosocomial transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llovo, J.; Mateo, E.; Munoz, A.

    2003-01-01

    Genotypic typing by restriction fragment length polymorphism and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that two neonates in a neonatal ward were infected with the same Campylobacter jejuni strain. Isolates from the mother and brother of the index patient were identical to each other but distinc...... from the neonatal type. Genotyping results therefore suggested that the neonatal C. jejuni infection was nosocomial in origin.......Genotypic typing by restriction fragment length polymorphism and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that two neonates in a neonatal ward were infected with the same Campylobacter jejuni strain. Isolates from the mother and brother of the index patient were identical to each other but distinct...

  18. Evaluation of 11 PCR assays for species-level identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Jordan, Penelope J.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the sensitivity and specificity of 11 PCR assays described for the species identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using 111 type, reference, and field strains of C. jejuni, C. coli, and Campylobacter lari. For six assays, an additional 21 type strains...... representing related Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter species were also included. PCR tests were initially established in the laboratory by optimizing conditions with respect to five type and reference strains of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. One PCR test for C. coli failed to give appropriate...

  19. Campylobacter jejuni in the red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) population of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Gargiulo, Antonio; Cuomo, Alessandra; Santaniello, Antonio; Sensale, Mariangela; Borrelli, Luca; D'Angelo, Livia; Menna, Lucia F; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Rectal swab samples were collected from 60 red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) from July 2006 to April 2007 in Southern Italy. Samples were tested for Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli by culture methods and suspected colonies were then confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. C. jejuni was detected in 5/60 (8.3%) samples examined but infection status was not related to age or sex and C. coli was not isolated. This is believed to be the first report of C. jejuni infection in the red squirrel.

  20. Proteins involved in Campylobacter jejuni 81-176 recovery after high-pressure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bièche, Clémence; de Lamballerie, Marie; Federighi, Michel; Le Bail, Alain; Tresse, Odile

    2010-02-01

    Campylobacteriosis has been recognized as the major bacterial food-borne infection worldwide. Campylobacter, especially C. jejuni, contaminate mainly poultry meat. Although more sensitive than other food-borne pathogens to many stresses, C. jejuni can survive food processing and go on to reach its final reservoir (the human gut). Genomic analyses of this organism indicate a lack of genes described in other gram-negative bacteria to overcome stresses. The high-pressure recovery response of C. jejuni 81-176 was analyzed from two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of the cytoplasmic proteome. The main cellular mechanisms controlling the down- and upregulated proteins are discussed.

  1. Morphological changes in the kidney of fetuses with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Desogus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A variety of renal and urological abnormalities have been reported in subjects with Down syndrome (DS. With increased longevity, it appears that a growing number of these subjects presents chronic renal failure. Definition of underlying cause of renal failure could lead to the prevention of progressive renal dysfunction in these patients. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of the morphological changes that occur in the kidney of fetuses with DS. Methods: To this end, 25 subjects were examined. Kidney sections were stained with H&E and digitally scanned. Subjects were subdivided into two groups: fetuses with DS (DS-fetuses, n = 11 with a gestational age ranging from 13 up to 21 weeks, and healthy fetuses (N-fetuses, n = 14 with a gestational age ranging from 9 up to 22 weeks. Results: DS-fetuses showed slightly larger glomeruli as compared to N-fetuses. Moreover, glomeruli in DS-fetuses group were characterized by an enlarged Bowman’s space as compared to glomeruli in N-fetuses (p = 0.0028. Differences in the nephrogenic zone width were also observed; DS-fetuses showed a greater width of this zone as compared with N-fetuses. Discussion: In conclusion, we found relevant morphological differences, which suggests delayed renal maturation. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in glomerular area and several glomeruli were morphologically abnormal. These harmful changes in the glomerular structure may result in a nephron deficit, which may be associated with development of renal diseases and hypertension later in life.Conclusions: We hypothesize that the observed morphological anomalies could have significant implications for both the short- and long-term renal health of subjects with DS.

  2. [Resistance of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei SY13 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LJJ to reactive oxygen species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuwen; Lv, Jiaping; Menghe, Bilige; Zhang, Heping; Zhang, Liyu; Song, Jinhui; Wang, Zhifei

    2009-02-01

    We evaluated antioxidative effect of two antioxidative strains, isolated from the traditional fermented dairy products. Both intact cells and cell-free extract of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei SY13 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LJJ were used to study the inhibited effect of linoleic acid peroxidation, the ability of scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical,the ability of tolerancing hydrogen peroxide and the chelating capacity of ferrous ion and reducting activity. Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei SY13 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LJJ demonstrated highest inhibition on linoleic acid peroxidation by 62.95% and 66.16%, respectively. The cell-free extract showed excellent scavenging superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals activity. However, the intact cells of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LJJ scavenging superoxide and hydroxyl radicals capacity were not detected. The intact cells of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei SY13 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LJJ on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging ability and chelating ferrous ion capacity were superior to cell-free extract. The highest reduced activety was equivalent to 305 micromol/L and 294 micromol/L L-cysteine. Two latobacilli strains had good antioxidant capacity. As potential probiotics, it can be used in future.

  3. Molecular characterization of virulence genes of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in equines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, R; Taku, A K; Gangil, Rakhi; Sharma, R K

    2016-08-01

    The aim was to determine the occurrence of streptococci in equines in Jammu (R. S. Pura, Katra), characterization of Streptococci equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus with respect to their virulence traits and to determine antibiotic sensitivity pattern of virulent Streptococcus isolates. A total of 96 samples were collected from both clinically affected animals (exhibiting signs of respiratory tract disease) and apparently healthy animals and were sent to laboratory. The organisms were isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Molecular detection of Streptococcus was done directly from cultures using sodA and seM gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiogram was performed against five antibiotics such as amoxicillin, penicillin G, streptomycin, rifampicin, and methicillin. During this study, a total 40 streptococcal isolates were obtained out of which 2 isolates were of S. equi subsp. equi, 12 isolates were from S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. In the PCR-based detection, we revealed amplicons of 235 bp and 679 bp for confirmation of sodA and seM gene, respectively. In antibiogram, two isolates of S. equi subsp. equi were found resistant to penicillin G, and all other isolates were found sensitive to amoxicillin and streptomycin. The majority of streptococcal infections was due to S. equi subsp. Zooepidemicus, and thus was recognized as a potential pathogen of diseases of equines besides S. equi subsp. equi.

  4. Possible homozygous Waardenburg syndrome in a fetus with exencephaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-06

    This paper describes a pedigree with Waardenburg syndrome and an aborted fetus who had severe congenital malformations but no detected genetic mutations. The authors concluded that despite the fact that no homozygosity of the fetus was demonstrated, the phenotype pointed to homozygous mutations of the PAX3 gene. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Radiological imaging of teratological fetuses: what can we learn?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Lucas L.; Schepens-Franke, A. N.; van Asten, J. J. A.; Bosboom, D. G. H.; Kamphuis-van Ulzen, K.; Kozicz, T. L.; Ruiter, D. J.; Oostra, R.-J.; Klein, W. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the advantages of radiological imaging of a collection of full-term teratological fetuses in order to increase their scientific and educational value. Background Anatomical museums around the world exhibit full-term teratological fetuses. Unfortunately, these museums are

  6. Radiological imaging of teratological fetuses: what can we learn?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.L.; Schepens-Franke, A.N.; Asten, J.J.A. van; Bosboom, D.G.H.; Kamphuis-van Ulzen, K.; Kozicz, T.; Ruiter, D.J.; Oostra, R.J.; Klein, W.M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the advantages of radiological imaging of a collection of full-term teratological fetuses in order to increase their scientific and educational value. BACKGROUND : Anatomical museums around the world exhibit full-term teratological fetuses. Unfortunately, these museums are

  7. Complete Hydatidiform Mole Coexisting with a Live Fetus | Ezem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydatidiform mole co-existing with a normal fetus is very rare. We report a case of a 36 year old woman Para 4+0 who presented with amenorrhoea of twenty four weeks duration, vaginal bleeding , abdominal pain and pre-eclampsia. Ultrasound examination revealed a hydatidiform mole coexisting with a normal living fetus.

  8. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn: managing the mother, fetus, and newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Meghan; Matthews, Dana C

    2015-01-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) affects 3/100 000 to 80/100 000 patients per year. It is due to maternal blood group antibodies that cause fetal red cell destruction and in some cases, marrow suppression. This process leads to fetal anemia, and in severe cases can progress to edema, ascites, heart failure, and death. Infants affected with HDFN can have hyperbilirubinemia in the acute phase and hyporegenerative anemia for weeks to months after birth. The diagnosis and management of pregnant women with HDFN is based on laboratory and radiographic monitoring. Fetuses with marked anemia may require intervention with intrauterine transfusion. HDFN due to RhD can be prevented by RhIg administration. Prevention for other causal blood group specificities is less studied. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Organic Acids and Marination Ingredients on the Survival of Campylobacter jejuni on Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Grønlund, Anne Christine Jørgensen; Christensen, Bjarke Bak

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether marination of chicken meat in different food ingredients call be used to reduce populations of Campylobacter jejuni strains, were exposed to different organic acids (tartaric, acetic. lactic, malic, and citric acids) and food marinating ingredients...... at 4 degrees C in broth and on chicken meat. The organic acids (0.5%) reduced populations of C. jejuni broth (chicken juice and brain heart infusion broth) by 4 to 6 1011 units (after 24 h): tartaric acid was the most efficient treatment. Large strain variation was observed among 14 C. jejuni isolates...... inoculated in brain heart infusion broth containing 0.3% tartaric acid. On chicken meat medallions, reductions of C. jejuni were 0.5 to 2 log units when tartaric acid solutions (2, 4, 6, and 10%) were spread onto the meal. Analysis of acidic food ingredient (e.g., vinegar. lemon juice, pomegranate syrup...

  10. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from domestic and wild mammals in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosef, O; Gondrosen, B; Kapperud, G; Underdal, B

    1983-10-01

    A total of 1,262 domestic and wild mammals from Norway were surveyed for fecal carriage of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Of the five species of domestic mammals examined, the highest isolation rate was recorded among swine (100.0%), followed by sheep (8.1%) and cows (0.8%). No strains were recovered from horses or goats. Among wild mammals, C. jejuni was isolated from 1 of 23 hares, and no isolated were obtained from three species of cervids and three species of rodents. Of the 133 Campylobacter strains isolated, 114 were classified as C. coli, 18 were C. jejuni biotype 1, and 1 belonged to C. jejuni biotype 2. All 114 strains from swine were C. coli. Milk samples from 113 domestic animals with clinically diagnosed mastitis (106 cows, 5 sheep, 1 horse, and 1 pig) were negative for campylobacters.

  11. Prevalence of genetic determinants and phenotypic resistance to ciprofloxacin in Campylobacter jejuni from lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksomaitiene, Jurgita; Ramonaite, Sigita; Olsen, John E.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the number of reports on isolation of ciprofloxacin resistant Campylobacter jejuni has increased worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin and its genetic determinants among C. jejuni isolated from humans (n = 100), poultry products (n...... = 96) and wild birds (n = 96) in Lithuania. 91.4% of the C. jejuni isolates were phenotypically resistant to ciprofloxacin. DNA sequence analyses of the gyrA gene from 292 isolates revealed that a change in amino acid sequence, Thr86Ile, was the main substition conferring resistance to ciprofloxacin...... forty-five C. jejuni isolates showed one or more silent mutations, and 32.4% of examined isolates possessed six silent mutations. In addition to the ciprofloxacin resistant isolates harboring only Thr86Ile point mutation (110 isolates), the current study identified resistant isolates (n = 101) harboring...

  12. Campylobacter jejuni: A rare agent in a child with peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural Kara, Tugce; Yilmaz, Songul; Ozdemir, Halil; Birsin Ozcakar, Zeynep; Derya Aysev, Ahmet; Ciftci, Ergin; Ince, Erdal

    2016-10-01

    Peritonitis is a serious problem in children receiving peritoneal dialysis. Campylobacter jejuni is an unusual cause of peritonitis. A 10-year-old boy who had end stage renal failure due to atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain and fever. Peritoneal dialysis fluid was cloudy and microscopic examination showed abundant leukocytes. Intraperitoneal cefepime treatment was started. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from peritoneal dialysis fluid culture and oral clarithromycin was added to the treatment. At the end of therapy, peritoneal fluid culture was negative. To our knowledge, C. jejuni peritonitis was not reported in children previously. Although C. jejuni peritonitis is rarely encountered in children, it should be considered as an etiologic factor for peritonitis. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  13. Mosaic Structure of a Multiple-Drug-Resistant, Conjugative Plasmid from Campylobacter jejuni

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nirdnoy, Warawadee; Mason, Carl J; Guerry, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Partial sequence analysis of a tet(O) plasmid from a multiple-drug-resistant clinical isolate of Campylobacter jejuni revealed 10 genes or pseudogenes encoding different aminoglycoside inactivating enzymes, transposaselike genes...

  14. High frequency genetic variation of purine biosynthesis genes is a mechanism of success in Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenotypic variation is prevalent among progeny of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, the leading agent of enterocolitis in the developed world. Heterogeneity bestows increased survival to bacterial populations because variable phenotypes ensure some cells will be protected against future s...

  15. Analysis of topoisomerase mutations in fluoroquinolone-resistant and -susceptible Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinana, Alfred Dieudonné; Cardinale, Eric; Bahsoun, Ibrahim; Tall, Fatou; Sire, Jean-Marie; Garin, Benoit; Boye, Cheikh Saad-Bouh; Dromigny, Jacques-Albert; Perrier-Gros-Claude, Jean-David

    2007-04-01

    In this study, topoisomerase mutations in ciprofloxacin-resistant and -susceptible Campylobacter jejuni were analysed by DNA sequencing. In certain ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni, the mechanism of resistance was complex. The Thr86-Ala substitution in the GyrA protein appears to play a role in increasing the minimum inhibitory concentration of nalidixic acid only. In addition, isolates with this amino acid change and those resistant to quinolones but lacking a mutation in the GyrA quinolone resistance-determining region could be derived from two different clones. Based on gyrA and gyrB polymorphisms, C. jejuni isolates from the Dakar region of Senegal appeared to be less diverse than those from other countries. Moreover, C. jejuni isolates in Senegal appeared to differ from European isolates by lack of a silent mutation at codon 120 of the gyrA gene.

  16. Serotype and genotype diversity and hatchery transmission of Campylobacter jejuni in commercial poultry flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; Nielsen, E.M.; On, Stephen L.W.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the genotype and serotype diversity of Campylobacter coli and C jejuni in two parent flocks of adult hens and their offspring over two rotations in order to evaluate the role of hatchery mediated transmission and/or vertical transmission of campylobacters in broiler flocks. In total......, 314 C jejuni and 32 C coli isolates from parent and broiler flocks and from the surroundings of broiler houses were typed by flagellin gene PCR/RFLP fla-typing), and selected isolates were also typed by serotyping and macrorestriction profiling using PFGE (MRP/PFGE). The combined typing results showed...... that the broiler flocks could be colonised by 1-3 different Campylobacter clones and parent flocks could be colonised by 2-6 different clones. C coli was isolated from up to 36% of birds in one parent flock, whereas only C jejuni was isolated from broiler flocks. C jejuni clones from different flocks were clearly...

  17. Isolation and detection of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken fecal samples by immunomagnetic separation–PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Ly, Tram Thuy; Cao, Cuong; Høgberg, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the leading causes of bacterial food-borne disease worldwide. The presence of Campylobacter in chicken feces poses a high risk for contamination of chicken meat and for Campylobacter infections in human. Detection of this bacterium in chicken fecal...... specimens before slaughter is therefore vital to prevent disease transmission. By combining two techniques – immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this study developed a reliable and specific method for rapid detection of C. jejuni in chicken fecal samples. The specificity...... of the assay was assured by two selection steps: 1) Dynabeads®M-270 Amine microbeads (2.8 μm in diameter) coated with C. jejuni monoclonal antibodies were used as the primary selection to isolate bacteria from fecal samples. 2) A PCR assay amplifying the Hippuricase gene was performed as the specific selection...

  18. Surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the potential for improvements in surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection and paratuberculosis in dairy herds was investigated, leading to a reduction in surveillance costs whilst continuing to meet specific quality targets. In particular,

  19. Knowledge on Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra with emphasis on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge on Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra with emphasis on its importance as a non-timber forest product in South and southern Africa: a summary: Part 1: Taxonomy, ecology and role in rural livelihoods: review paper.

  20. Insights into potential pathogenesis mechanisms associated with Campylobacter jejuni-induced abortion in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanad, Yasser M; Jung, Kwonil; Kashoma, Isaac; Zhang, Xiaoli; Kassem, Issmat I; Saif, Yehia M; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2014-11-25

    Campylobacter jejuni is commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of many food-animals including sheep without causing visible clinical symptoms of disease. However, C. jejuni has been implicated in ovine abortion cases worldwide. Specifically, in the USA, the C. jejuni sheep abortion (SA) clone has been increasingly associated with sheep abortion. In vivo studies in sheep (the natural host) are needed to better characterize the virulence potential and pathogenesis of this clone. Pregnant ewes intravenously (IV) or orally inoculated with ovine or bovine abortion-associated C. jejuni SA clones exhibited partial or complete uterine prolapse with retained placenta, and abortion or stillbirth, whereas delivery of healthy lambs occurred in pregnant ewes inoculated with C. jejuni 81-176 or in the uninfected group. In sheep inoculated with the SA clone, histopathological lesions including suppurative necrotizing placentitis and/or endometritis coincided with: 1) increased apoptotic death of trophoblasts, 2) increased expression of the host genes (e.g. genes encoding interleukin IL-6 and IL-15) related to cellular necrosis and pro-inflammatory responses in uterus, and 3) decreased expression of the genes encoding GATA binding protein 6, chordin, and insulin-like 3 (INSL3) that account for embryonic development in uterus. Immunohistochemistry revealed localization of bacterial antigens in trophoblasts lining the chorioallantoic membrane of ewes inoculated with the C. jejuni SA clone. The results showed that C. jejuni SA clones are capable of causing abortion or stillbirth in experimentally infected sheep. Furthermore, down- or up-regulation of specific genes in the uterus of infected pregnant ewes might implicate host genes in facilitating the disease progression. Since the C. jejuni SA strains share genotypic similarities with clones that have been isolated from human clinical cases of gastroenteritis, these strains might represent a potential public health risk.

  1. Basolateral invasion and trafficking of Campylobacter jejuni in polarized epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieneke I Bouwman

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial diarrheal disease. Most enteropathogenic bacteria including C. jejuni can invade cultured eukaryotic cells via an actin- and/or microtubule-dependent and an energy-consuming uptake process. Recently, we identified a novel highly efficient C. jejuni invasion pathway that involves bacterial migration into the subcellular space of non-polarized epithelial cells (termed subvasion followed by invasion from the cell basis. Here we report cellular requirements of this entry mechanism and the subsequent intracellular trafficking route of C. jejuni in polarized islands of Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. Advanced microscopy on infected cells revealed that C. jejuni invades the polarized intestinal cells via the subcellular invasion pathway. Remarkably, invasion was not blocked by the inhibitors of microtubule dynamics colchicine or paclitaxel, and was even enhanced after disruption of host cell actin filaments by cytochalasin D. Invasion also continued after dinitrophenol-induced cellular depletion of ATP, whereas this compound effectively inhibited the uptake of invasive Escherichia coli. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that intracellular C. jejuni resided in membrane-bound CD63-positive cellular compartments for up to 24 h. Establishment of a novel luciferase reporter-based bacterial viability assay, developed to overcome the limitations of the classical bacterial recovery assay, demonstrated that a subset of C. jejuni survived intracellularly for up to 48 h. Taken together, our results indicate that C. jejuni is able to actively invade polarized intestinal epithelial cells via a novel actin- and microtubule-independent mechanism and remains metabolically active in the intracellular niche for up to 48 hours.

  2. Heat Shock-Enhanced Conjugation Efficiency in Standard Campylobacter jejuni Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Ximin; Ardeshna, Devarshi; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, the leading bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the United States, displays significant strain diversity due to horizontal gene transfer. Conjugation is an important horizontal gene transfer mechanism contributing to the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance. It has been observed that heat shock could increase transformation efficiency in some bacteria. In this study, the effect of heat shock on C. jejuni conjugation efficiency and the ...

  3. Discrimination of Major Capsular Types of Campylobacter jejuni by Multiplex PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Discrimination of Major Capsular Types of Campylobacter jejuni by Multiplex PCR’Vt Frederic Poly...two PCRs with sensitivities and specificities ranging from 90 tn 100% using 244 strains of knnwn Penner type. Campylobacter jejwzi is one of the...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Discrimination of Major Capsular Types of Campylobacter jejuni

  4. Distribution of Flagella Secreted Protein and Integral Membrane Protein Among Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    secreted protein and integral membrane protein among Campylobacter jejuni isolated from Thailand Piyarat Pootong 1·, Oralak Serichantalergs...Ladaporn Bodhidatta \\ Frederic Poly2, Patricia Guerry2 and Carl J Mason 1 Abstract Background: Campylobacter jejuni, a gram-negative bacterium, is a...groups of integral membrane protein. The significance of these different FspA variants to virulence requires further study. Background Campylobacter

  5. Primary isolation strain determines both phage type and receptors recognised by Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Martine C Holst; Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Birk, Tina; Baldvinsson, Signe Berg; Jäckel, Claudia; Hammerl, Jens A; Vegge, Christina S; Neve, Horst; Brøndsted, Lone

    2015-01-01

    In this study we isolated novel bacteriophages, infecting the zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. These phages may be used in phage therapy of C. jejuni colonized poultry to prevent spreading of the bacteria to meat products causing disease in humans. Many C. jejuni phages have been isolated using NCTC12662 as the indicator strain, which may have biased the selection of phages. A large group of C. jejuni phages rely on the highly diverse capsular polysaccharide (CPS) for infection and recent work identified the O-methyl phosphoramidate modification (MeOPN) of CPS as a phage receptor. We therefore chose seven C. jejuni strains each expressing different CPS structures as indicator strains in a large screening for phages in samples collected from free-range poultry farms. Forty-three phages were isolated using C. jejuni NCTC12658, NCTC12662 and RM1221 as host strains and 20 distinct phages were identified based on host range analysis and genome restriction profiles. Most phages were isolated using C. jejuni strains NCTC12662 and RM1221 and interestingly phage genome size (140 kb vs. 190 kb), host range and morphological appearance correlated with the isolation strain. Thus, according to C. jejuni phage grouping, NCTC12662 and NCTC12658 selected for CP81-type phages, while RM1221 selected for CP220-type phages. Furthermore, using acapsular ∆kpsM mutants we demonstrated that phages isolated on NCTC12658 and NCTC12662 were dependent on the capsule for infection. In contrast, CP220-type phages isolated on RM1221 were unable to infect non-motile ∆motA mutants, hence requiring motility for successful infection. Hence, the primary phage isolation strain determines both phage type (CP81 or CP220) as well as receptors (CPS or flagella) recognised by the isolated phages.

  6. Methylation-dependent DNA discrimination in natural transformation ofCampylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Jessica M; Leveque, Rhiannon M; Dawid, Suzanne; DiRita, Victor J

    2017-09-19

    Campylobacter jejuni , a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, is naturally competent. Like many competent organisms, C. jejuni restricts the DNA that can be used for transformation to minimize undesirable changes in the chromosome. Although C. jejuni can be transformed by C. jejuni -derived DNA, it is poorly transformed by the same DNA propagated in Escherichia coli or produced with PCR. Our work indicates that methylation plays an important role in marking DNA for transformation. We have identified a highly conserved DNA methyltransferase, which we term Campylobacter transformation system methyltransferase ( ctsM ), which methylates an overrepresented 6-bp sequence in the chromosome. DNA derived from a ctsM mutant transforms C. jejuni significantly less well than DNA derived from ctsM + (parental) cells. The ctsM mutation itself does not affect transformation efficiency when parental DNA is used, suggesting that CtsM is important for marking transforming DNA, but not for transformation itself. The mutant has no growth defect, arguing against ongoing restriction of its own DNA. We further show that E. coli plasmid and PCR-derived DNA can efficiently transform C. jejuni when only a subset of the CtsM sites are methylated in vitro. A single methylation event 1 kb upstream of the DNA involved in homologous recombination is sufficient to transform C. jejuni , whereas otherwise identical unmethylated DNA is not. Methylation influences DNA uptake, with a slight effect also seen on DNA binding. This mechanism of DNA discrimination in C. jejuni is distinct from the DNA discrimination described in other competent bacteria.

  7. Transfer of Campylobacter jejuni from raw to cooked chicken via wood and plastic cutting boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J Y H; Nishibuchi, M; Nakaguchi, Y; Ghazali, F M; Saleha, A A; Son, R

    2011-06-01

    We quantified Campylobacter jejuni transferred from naturally contaminated raw chicken fillets and skins to similar cooked chicken parts via standard rubberwood (RW) and polyethylene cutting boards (PE). RW and PE cutting boards (2.5 × 2.5 cm(2)) were constructed. RW surfaces were smooth and even, whereas PE was uneven. Scoring with scalpel blades produced crevices on RW and flaked patches on the PE boards. Raw chicken breast fillets or skin pieces (10 g) naturally contaminated with Camp. jejuni were used to contaminate the cutting boards (6.25 cm(2)). These were then briefly covered with pieces of cooked chicken. Campylobacter jejuni on raw chicken, the boards, and cooked chicken pieces were counted using a combined most-probable-number (MPN)-PCR method. The type of cutting board (RW, PE; unscored and scored) and temperature of cooked chicken fillets and skins were examined. Unscored PE and RW boards were not significantly different in regards to the mean transfer of Camp. jejuni from raw samples to the boards. The mean transfer of Camp. jejuni from scored RW was significantly higher than from scored PE. When the chicken fillets were held at room temperature, the mean transfer of Camp. jejuni from scored RW and PE was found to be 44.9 and 40.3%, respectively.   RW and PE cutting boards are potential vehicles for Camp. jejuni to contaminate cooked chicken. Although cooked chicken maintained at high temperatures reduced cross-contamination via contaminated boards, a risk was still present. Contamination of cooked chicken by Camp. jejuni from raw chicken via a cutting board is influenced by features of the board (material, changes caused by scoring) and chicken (types of chicken parts and temperature of the cooked chicken). © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Development of a Chemically Defined Medium suitable for [35S]-methionine labeling of Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Rosenquist, Hanne; Knøchel, Susanne

    Campylobacter jejuni is a micro-aerobic foodborne pahtogenic bacteria generally regarded as one of the major causes of gastroenteritis in humans worlwoide. Consumption and handling of fresh poultry meat are considered the primary sources of campylobacteriosis in Denmark.......Campylobacter jejuni is a micro-aerobic foodborne pahtogenic bacteria generally regarded as one of the major causes of gastroenteritis in humans worlwoide. Consumption and handling of fresh poultry meat are considered the primary sources of campylobacteriosis in Denmark....

  9. Roles of RpoN in the resistance of Campylobacter jejuni under various stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryu Sangryeol

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is a leading foodborne pathogen worldwide. Despite the fastidious nature of C. jejuni growth, increasing numbers of human campylobacteriosis suggest that C. jejuni may possess unique mechanisms to survive under various stress conditions. C. jejuni possesses only three sigma factors (FliA, RpoD, and RpoN and lacks stress-defense sigma factors. Since FliA and RpoD are dedicated to flagella synthesis and housekeeping, respectively, in this study, we investigated the role of RpoN in C. jejuni's defense against various stresses. Results Survivability of an rpoN mutant was compared with the wild-type C. jejuni under various stress conditions. While the growth of the rpoN mutant was as comparably as that of the wild type in shaking cultures, the rpoN mutant exhibited significant survival defects when cultured statically. The rpoN mutant was more sensitive to osmotic stress (0.8% NaCl with abnormally-elongated cell morphology. Compared to the wile type, the rpoN mutant was more susceptible to acid stress (pH 5 and more resistant to hydrogen peroxide. However, the rpoN mutation had little effect on the resistance of C. jejuni to alkaline pH, heat, cold and antimicrobials. Conclusions The results demonstrate that RpoN plays an important role in C. jejuni's defense against various stresses which this bacterial pathogen may encounter during transmission to and infection of humans.

  10. Cytolethal Distending Toxin Genes in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates: Detection and Analysis by PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Eyigor, Aysegul; Dawson, Karl A.; Langlois, Bruce E.; Pickett, Carol L.

    1999-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni produces a toxin called cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). Knowledge of the prevalence and homogeneity of Campylobacter sp. cdt genes is incomplete. In this work, we identified four PCR primer pairs that collectively amplified cdt genes in all of the C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains tested. Restriction analyses of the cdt PCR products showed clear differences between the cdt genes of these two species, yet there were few heterogeneities noted between members of th...

  11. Primary isolation strain determines both phage type and receptors recognised by Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine C Holst Sørensen

    Full Text Available In this study we isolated novel bacteriophages, infecting the zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. These phages may be used in phage therapy of C. jejuni colonized poultry to prevent spreading of the bacteria to meat products causing disease in humans. Many C. jejuni phages have been isolated using NCTC12662 as the indicator strain, which may have biased the selection of phages. A large group of C. jejuni phages rely on the highly diverse capsular polysaccharide (CPS for infection and recent work identified the O-methyl phosphoramidate modification (MeOPN of CPS as a phage receptor. We therefore chose seven C. jejuni strains each expressing different CPS structures as indicator strains in a large screening for phages in samples collected from free-range poultry farms. Forty-three phages were isolated using C. jejuni NCTC12658, NCTC12662 and RM1221 as host strains and 20 distinct phages were identified based on host range analysis and genome restriction profiles. Most phages were isolated using C. jejuni strains NCTC12662 and RM1221 and interestingly phage genome size (140 kb vs. 190 kb, host range and morphological appearance correlated with the isolation strain. Thus, according to C. jejuni phage grouping, NCTC12662 and NCTC12658 selected for CP81-type phages, while RM1221 selected for CP220-type phages. Furthermore, using acapsular ∆kpsM mutants we demonstrated that phages isolated on NCTC12658 and NCTC12662 were dependent on the capsule for infection. In contrast, CP220-type phages isolated on RM1221 were unable to infect non-motile ∆motA mutants, hence requiring motility for successful infection. Hence, the primary phage isolation strain determines both phage type (CP81 or CP220 as well as receptors (CPS or flagella recognised by the isolated phages.

  12. Description of Klebsiella quasipneumoniae sp. nov., isolated from human infections, with two subspecies, Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae subsp. nov. and Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae subsp. nov., and demonstration that Klebsiella singaporensis is a junior heterotypic synonym of Klebsiella variicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisse, Sylvain; Passet, Virginie; Grimont, Patrick A D

    2014-09-01

    Strains previously classified as members of Klebsiella pneumoniae phylogroups KpI, KpII-A, KpII-B and KpIII were characterized by 16S rRNA (rrs) gene sequencing, multilocus sequence analysis based on rpoB, fusA, gapA, gyrA and leuS genes, average nucleotide identity and biochemical characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that KpI and KpIII corresponded to K. pneumoniae and Klebsiella variicola, respectively, whereas KpII-A and KpII-B formed two well-demarcated sequence clusters distinct from other members of the genus Klebsiella. Average nucleotide identity between KpII-A and KpII-B was 96.4 %, whereas values lower than 94 % were obtained for both groups when compared with K. pneumoniae and K. variicola. Biochemical properties differentiated KpII-A, KpII-B, K. pneumoniae and K. variicola, with acid production from adonitol and l-sorbose and ability to use 3-phenylproprionate, 5-keto-d-gluconate and tricarballylic acid as sole carbon sources being particularly useful. Based on their genetic and phenotypic characteristics, we propose the names Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae subsp. nov. and K. quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae subsp. nov. for strains of KpII-A and KpII-B, respectively. The type strain of K. quasipneumoniae sp. nov. and of K. quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae subsp. nov. is 01A030(T) ( = SB11(T) = CIP 110771(T) = DSM 28211(T)). The type strain of K. quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae subsp. nov. is 07A044(T) ( = SB30(T) = CIP 110770(T) = DSM 28212(T)). Both strains were isolated from human blood cultures. This work also showed that Klebsiella singaporensis is a junior heterotypic synonym of K. variicola. © 2014 IUMS.

  13. Intestinal microbiota shifts towards elevated commensal Escherichia coli loads abrogate colonization resistance against Campylobacter jejuni in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea-Maxie Haag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne enterocolitis in humans worldwide. The understanding of immunopathology underlying human campylobacteriosis is hampered by the fact that mice display strong colonization resistance against the pathogen due to their host specific gut microbiota composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since the microbiota composition changes significantly during intestinal inflammation we dissected factors contributing to colonization resistance against C. jejuni in murine ileitis, colitis and in infant mice. In contrast to healthy animals C. jejuni could stably colonize mice suffering from intestinal inflammation. Strikingly, in mice with Toxoplasma gondii-induced acute ileitis, C. jejuni disseminated to mesenteric lymphnodes, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood. In infant mice C. jejuni infection induced enterocolitis. Mice suffering from intestinal inflammation and C. jejuni susceptible infant mice displayed characteristical microbiota shifts dominated by increased numbers of commensal Escherichia coli. To further dissect the pivotal role of those distinct microbiota shifts in abrogating colonization resistance, we investigated C. jejuni infection in healthy adult mice in which the microbiota was artificially modified by feeding live commensal E. coli. Strikingly, in animals harboring supra-physiological intestinal E. coli loads, colonization resistance was significantly diminished and C. jejuni infection induced enterocolitis mimicking key features of human campylobacteriosis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Murine colonization resistance against C. jejuni is abrogated by changes in the microbiota composition towards elevated E. coli loads during intestinal inflammation as well as in infant mice. Intestinal inflammation and microbiota shifts thus represent potential risk factors for C. jejuni infection. Corresponding interplays between C. jejuni and microbiota might

  14. Chicken Caecal Microbiome Modifications Induced by Campylobacter jejuni Colonization and by a Non-Antibiotic Feed Additive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Thibodeau

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is an important zoonotic foodborne pathogen causing acute gastroenteritis in humans. Chickens are often colonized at very high numbers by C. jejuni, up to 10(9 CFU per gram of caecal content, with no detrimental effects on their health. Farm control strategies are being developed to lower the C. jejuni contamination of chicken food products in an effort to reduce human campylobacteriosis incidence. It is believed that intestinal microbiome composition may affect gut colonization by such undesirable bacteria but, although the chicken microbiome is being increasingly characterized, information is lacking on the factors affecting its modulation, especially by foodborne pathogens. This study monitored the effects of C. jejuni chicken caecal colonization on the chicken microbiome in healthy chickens. It also evaluated the capacity of a feed additive to affect caecal bacterial populations and to lower C. jejuni colonization. From day-0, chickens received or not a microencapsulated feed additive and were inoculated or not with C. jejuni at 14 days of age. Fresh caecal content was harvested at 35 days of age. The caecal microbiome was characterized by real time quantitative PCR and Ion Torrent sequencing. We observed that the feed additive lowered C. jejuni caecal count by 0.7 log (p<0.05. Alpha-diversity of the caecal microbiome was not affected by C. jejuni colonization or by the feed additive. C. jejuni colonization modified the caecal beta-diversity while the feed additive did not. We observed that C. jejuni colonization was associated with an increase of Bifidobacterium and affected Clostridia and Mollicutes relative abundances. The feed additive was associated with a lower Streptococcus relative abundance. The caecal microbiome remained relatively unchanged despite high C. jejuni colonization. The feed additive was efficient in lowering C. jejuni colonization while not disturbing the caecal microbiome.

  15. A Real-Time PCR Assay for the Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in Foods after Enrichment Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Sails, Andrew D.; Fox, Andrew J.; Bolton, Frederick J.; Wareing, David R. A.; Greenway, David L. A.

    2003-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay was developed for the quantitative detection of Campylobacter jejuni in foods after enrichment culture. The specificity of the assay for C. jejuni was demonstrated with a diverse range of Campylobacter species, related organisms, and unrelated genera. The assay had a linear range of quantification over six orders of magnitude, and the limit of detection was approximately 12 genome equivalents. The assay was used to detect C. jejuni in both naturally and artificially cont...

  16. Chicken Immune Response after In Ovo Immunization with Chimeric TLR5 Activating Flagellin of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna A Radomska

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the main cause of bacterial food-borne diseases in developed countries. Chickens are the most important source of human infection. Vaccination of poultry is an attractive strategy to reduce the number of C. jejuni in the intestinal tract of chickens. We investigated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a recombinant C. jejuni flagellin-based subunit vaccine with intrinsic adjuvant activity. Toll-like receptor activation assays demonstrated the purity and TLR5 stimulating (adjuvant activity of the vaccine. The antigen (20-40 μg was administered in ovo to 18 day-old chicken embryos. Serum samples and intestinal content were assessed for antigen-specific systemic and mucosal humoral immune responses. In ovo vaccination resulted in the successful generation of IgY and IgM serum antibodies against the flagellin-based subunit vaccine as determined by ELISA and Western blotting. Vaccination did not induce significant amounts of flagellin-specific secretory IgA in the chicken intestine. Challenge of chickens with C. jejuni yielded similar intestinal colonization levels for vaccinated and control animals. Our results indicate that in ovo delivery of recombinant C. jejuni flagellin subunit vaccine is a feasible approach to yield a systemic humoral immune response in chickens but that a mucosal immune response may be needed to reduce C. jejuni colonization.

  17. Effect of butyrate and Lactobacillus GG on a butyrate receptor and transporter during Campylobacter jejuni exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, Gail A M; Mayor, Paul C; Thompson, Stuart A

    2017-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni frequently infects humans causing many gastrointestinal symptoms, fever, fatigue and several long-term debilitating diseases. Current treatment for campylobacteriosis includes rehydration and in some cases, antibiotic therapy. Probiotics are used to treat several gastrointestinal diseases. Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid known to promote intestinal health. Interaction of butyrate with its respective receptor (HCAR2) and transporter (SLC5A8), both expressed in the intestine, is associated with water and electrolyte absorption as well as providing defense against colon cancer and inflammation. Alterations in gut microbiota influence the presence of HCAR2 and SLC5A8 in the intestine. We hypothesized that adherence and/or invasion of C. jejuni and alterations in HCAR2 and SLC5A8 expression would be minimized with butyrate or Lactobacillus GG (LGG) pretreatment of Caco-2 cells. We found that both C. jejuni adhesion but not invasion was reduced with butyrate pretreatment. While LGG pretreatment did not prevent C. jejuni adhesion, it did result in reduced invasion which was associated with altered cell supernate pH. Both butyrate and LGG protected HCAR2 and SLC5A8 protein expression following C. jejuni infection. These results suggest that the first stages of C. jejuni infection of Caco-2 cells may be minimized by LGG and butyrate pretreatment. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Passive and active immunity of broiler chickens against Campylobacter jejuni and ways of disease transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Ondrašovičová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with passive and active immunity of fifty-three broiler chickens after infection with culture of Campylobacter jejuni. Potential transfer of infection by faecal-oral and aerogenic routes was also investigated. Cloacal swabs and ceacal content were analyzed microbiologically. Identification of C. jejuni was carried out by polymerase chain reaction. Observation of passive immunity of broilers from 3 days of age showed that no transfer of C. jejuni infection occurred up to 12 day post-infection (p.i.. Observations of active immunity in fourteen 21 days old chickens infected with C. jejuni showed that 6 chickens were positive on day 3 p.i. and all infected chickens were positive on day 5 p.i. Investigations of the transfer of C. jejuni by faecal-oral route revealed positivity in two broilers on day 3 p.i. and in all tested chickens on day 5 p.i. Aerogenic transfer of infection was not recorded. This was one of the first studies in our country dealing with passive and active immunity of broiler chickens against C. jejuni and spreading of this zoonotic disease.

  19. Stress response and pathogenic potential of Campylobacter jejuni cells exposed to starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klancnik, Anja; Guzej, Bernarda; Jamnik, Polona; Vucković, Darinka; Abram, Maja; Mozina, Sonja Smole

    2009-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative, fragile, spiral bacterium, known worldwide to be a major cause of acute human enteritis. Like many other food-borne bacteria, campylobacters must be able to survive under diverse conditions both inside the host and in the environment. Understanding stress response mechanisms provides information necessary for improving food processing and strategies that enhance food safety as well as clarifying the pathogenesis of campylobacteriosis. We investigated the relation between stress response to starvation and pathogenic potential in C. jejuni. Starvation changed the morphology and physiology of C. jejuni cells. However, the lower metabolic activity of 5-h-starved culture was not a dormant state, but probably a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) form of the cells, since starved C. jejuni induced heat stress resistance. The health hazard potential of starved cells is still unclear. We showed that, in spite of starvation, C. jejuni survived in vitro within Caco-2 enterocites up to 4 days and caused systemic campylobacteriosis in vivo in a mouse model. However, bacterial numbers in investigated organs were significantly lower and the infection was resolved sooner. Our results show that nutrient insufficiency is responsible for C. jejuni transformation, influencing but not abolishing its survival and virulence properties while in the VBNC state.

  20. An Improved Culture Method for Selective Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinyong; Oh, Euna; Banting, Graham S.; Braithwaite, Shannon; Chui, Linda; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Neumann, Norman F.; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading foodborne pathogens worldwide. C. jejuni is isolated from a wide range of foods, domestic animals, wildlife, and environmental sources. The currently available culture-based isolation methods are not highly effective for wastewater samples due to the low number of C. jejuni in the midst of competing bacteria. To detect and isolate C. jejuni from wastewater samples, in this study, we evaluated a few different enrichment conditions using five different antibiotics (i.e., cefoperazone, vancomycin, trimethoprim, polymyxin B, and rifampicin), to which C. jejuni is intrinsically resistant. The selectivity of each enrichment condition was measured with Ct value using quantitative real-time PCR, and multiplex PCR to determine Campylobacter species. In addition, the efficacy of Campylobacter isolation on different culture media after selective enrichment was examined by growing on Bolton and Preston agar plates. The addition of polymyxin B, rifampicin, or both to the Bolton selective supplements enhanced the selective isolation of C. jejuni. The results of 16S rDNA sequencing also revealed that Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are major competing bacteria in the enrichment conditions. Although it is known to be difficult to isolate Campylobacter from samples with heavy contamination, this study well exhibited that the manipulation of antibiotic selective pressure improves the isolation efficiency of fastidious Campylobacter from wastewater. PMID:27617011

  1. Diversity of the subspecies Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunesova, Vera; Killer, Jiri; Javurkova, Barbora; Vlkova, Eva; Tejnecky, Vaclav; Musilova, Sarka; Rada, Vojtech

    2017-04-01

    Strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are well-known health-promoting probiotics used commercially. B. animalis subsp. lactis has been isolated from different sources, and little is known about animal isolates of this taxon. The aim of this study was to examine the genotypic and phenotypic diversity between B. animalis subsp. lactis strains different animal hosts including Cameroon sheep, Barbary sheep, okapi, mouflon, German shepard and to compare to BB12, food isolates and the collection strain DSM 10140. Ten strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis from different sources were characterised by phenotyping, fingerprinting, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Regardless of origin, MLST and phylogenetic analyses revealed a close relationship between strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis with commercial and animal origin with the exception of isolates from ovine cheese, mouflon and German Shepard dog. Moreover, isolates from dog and mouflon showed significant differences in fermentation profiles and peptide mass fingerprints (MALDI-TOF). Results indicated phenotypic and genotypic diversity among strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus in a sample of healthy dogs, cats and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acke, E; Midwinter, A C; Lawrence, K; Gordon, S J G; Moore, S; Rasiah, I; Steward, K; French, N; Waller, A

    2015-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of β-haemolytic Lancefield group C streptococci in healthy dogs, cats and horses; to determine if frequent contact with horses was associated with isolation of these species from dogs and cats; and to characterise recovered S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolates by multilocus sequence typing. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 197 dogs and 72 cats, and nasopharyngeal swabs from 93 horses. Sampling was carried out at the Massey University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, on sheep and beef farms or on premises where horses were present. All animals were healthy and were categorised as Urban dogs and cats (minimal contact with horses or farm livestock), Farm dogs (minimal contact with horses) and Stable dogs and cats (frequent contact with horses). Swabs were cultured for β-haemolytic Streptococcus spp. and Lancefield group C streptococcal subspecies were confirmed by phenotypic and molecular techniques. Of the 197 dogs sampled, 21 (10.7 (95% CI= 4.0-25.4)%) tested positive for S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and 4 (2.0 (95% CI=0.7-5.5)%) tested positive for S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. All these isolates, except for one S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis isolate in an Urban dog, were from Stable dogs. S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis was isolated from one Stable cat. Of the 93 horses, 22 (23.7 (95% CI=12.3-40.6)%) and 6 (6.5 (95% CI=2.8-14.1)%) had confirmed S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolation respectively. Isolation of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis from dogs was associated with frequent contact with horses (OR=9.8 (95% CI=2.6-72.8)). Three different multilocus sequence type profiles of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus that have not been previously reported in dogs were recovered. Subclinical infection or colonisation by S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis occurs in dogs and further research on inter-species transmission and the pathogenic potential of these

  3. Molecular characterization of virulence genes of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in equines

    OpenAIRE

    R. Javed; A. K. Taku; Rakhi Gangil; R. K. Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the occurrence of streptococci in equines in Jammu (R. S. Pura, Katra), characterization of Streptococci equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus with respect to their virulence traits and to determine antibiotic sensitivity pattern of virulent Streptococcus isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 samples were collected from both clinically affected animals (exhibiting signs of respiratory tract disease) and apparently healthy animals a...

  4. Peroxynitrite scavenging by Campylobacter jejuni truncated hemoglobin P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Pesce, Alessandra

    2017-12-01

    Truncated hemoglobins (trHb) are present in protozoa, cyanobacteria, nemertean, bacteria, algae, and plants. They are characterized by the 2-on-2 topology and are ordered in four phylogenetic groups (I or N, II or O, III or P, and IV or Q). Several functions have been attributed to trHbs including the inactivation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, permitting the survival of microorganisms in the host. Here, the kinetics of peroxynitrite scavenging by ferric Campylobacter jejuni truncated hemoglobin P [i.e., Cj-trHbP(III)] in the absence and presence of CO 2 , between pH 6.3 and 7.9, and 25.0 °C, is reported. Mixing the Cj-trHbP(III) solution with peroxynitrite solution brings about absorption spectral changes at 302 nm reflecting the disappearance of this endogenous toxicant and cytotoxic effector against pathogens. CO 2 affects only the rate of spontaneous decay of peroxynitrite without affecting the scavenging activity of Cj-trHbP(III). Moreover, the Cj-trHbP(III)-mediated isomerization of peroxynitrite is facilitated at low pH, indicating that peroxynitrous acid is the reactive species. The high reactivity of Cj-trHbP(III) towards peroxynitrite has been ascribed to the peroxidase-like geometry of the metal center. To investigate the protective role of Cj-trHbP(III) against peroxynitrite-mediated nitration, the relative yield of nitro-L-tyrosine formed by the reaction of peroxynitrite with free L-tyrosine was determined. According to fast kinetics of peroxynitrite isomerization by Cj-trHbP(III), this 2-on-2 globin impairs L-tyrosine nitrosylation. Present data suggest that Cj-trHbP could help the survival of C. jejuni.

  5. Ambient air pollution and the fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing evidence on the hazards of ambient air pollution on fetal development. Several review articles have been published on the adverse fetal outcomes including low birth weight, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and congenital anomalies. Recent studies have linked ambient air pollution to gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia which may be related to the detrimental effect of ambient air pollution on placental growth and function. Short-term and long-term exposure to particulate air pollution may cause systemic inflammatory response which may trigger preterm delivery in pregnant women. Environmental toxic chemicals that alter intrauterine environment disregulates fetal epigenome causing epigenetic-mediated changes in gene expression that may be linked to later childhood and adulthood diseases. Exposure to ambient air pollution during the whole pregnancy especially in third-trimester may cause intrauterine vitamin D deficiency which is critical for the normal development of the lung, and immune system in fetus. However, more research is needed to understand the cause and effect interaction between air pollution and fetal development. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  6. Guillain-Barré syndrome- and Miller Fisher syndrome-associated Campylobacter jejuni lipopolysaccharides induce anti-GM1 and anti-GQ1b Antibodies in rabbits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. de Klerk; H.P. Endtz (Hubert); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); J.D. Laman (Jon); F.G.A. van der Meché (Frans); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); C.W. Ang (Wim)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractCampylobacter jejuni infections are thought to induce antiganglioside antibodies in patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) by molecular mimicry between C. jejuni lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and gangliosides. We used

  7. Acardiac Parabiotic Fetus: A Rare Complication of Twin Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sood S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acardiac parabiotic fetus is sequelae of complication of monochorionic monoamniotic twin pregnancy also known as Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion Sequence (TRAP. It is rare affecting 1 in 35,000 births and 1 % of monozygotic twins. Acardiac parabiotic twin commonly known as parasite occurs rarely and may lead to high output cardiac failure, hydrops or premature delivery in the pump fetus. In this report, we present a 23 years old primigravida with twin pregnancy, with twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence with one of the twins being acardiac anceps and the other normal pump fetus. This association is relatively uncommon and therefore rarely documented.

  8. Dose estimation in embryo or fetus in external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregori, Beatriz N.

    2001-01-01

    The embryo or the fetus can be irradiated as result of radiological procedures of diagnosis of therapy in where the beam effects directly on the same one or in tissues or peripherical organs. Some authors have suggested that in the first stages of the pregnancy the dose in ovaries can be the good estimated of the dose in embryo or fetus. In advanced conditions of the development, probably also in the early stage, is more appropriated to specify the dose in the embryo or fetus equal of the uterus. The dose in the uterus is a good estimated so much for external irradiation as for radionuclides incorporation

  9. Molar Pregnancy with a Co-Existing Viable Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruya Deveer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available     The aim of this study was to report the clinical features, management, and outcome of a case of molar pregnancy with a coexisting viable fetus and to review the literature. In this article, we report a case of pregnancy with diffuse placental molar change and a normal fetus which presented with hyperemesis gravidarum and hyperthyroidism. Genetic amniocentesis showed normal fetal karyotype. A healthy full-term live male infant was delivered by cesarean section. In molar pregnancies with a normal karyotype fetus, with intensive maternal follow-up, continuation of pregnancy can be suggested.

  10. [Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus endoaortitis on a Bentall tube prosthesis. Apropos of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abassade, P; Crémieux, O; Korach, J M; Templier, F; Morette, C; Wolff, M; Baudouy, P Y; Farge, C

    1994-11-01

    Campylobacter fetus is a rare cause of endocarditis and endoaortitis: the authors believe this to be the second reported case of infection of an intracardiac prosthesis. The patient was a man who had already undergone replacement of the aortic valve and ascending aorta, and a gastrectomy, which were predisposing factors. The portal of entry was not found. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive blood cultures and transoesophageal echocardiography. The outcome was rapidly fatal despite antibiotic therapy and surgery, because of the seriousness of the lesions (pseudo-aneurysm of the aorta ruptured into the right atrium), the precarity of the terrain and surgical difficulties.

  11. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This page is no longer being updated. Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Wednesday, ... the NICHD, describes the study’s findings. Read the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) Interview text alternative . The ...

  12. Campylobacter fetus infections in humans : exposure and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Bergen, Marcel A P; Blaser, Martin J; Tauxe, Robert V; Newell, Diane G; van Putten, Jos P M

    Campylobacter fetus can cause intestinal illness and, occasionally, severe systemic infections. Infections mainly affect persons at higher risk, including elderly and immunocompromised individuals and those with occupational exposure to infected animals. Outbreaks are infrequent but have provided

  13. Optimal delivery for preterm breech fetuses: is there any consensus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, William W K

    2013-06-01

    The optimal route for delivery of preterm breech-presenting fetuses remains a clinical dilemma. Available data from the literature are largely based on retrospective cohort studies, and randomised controlled trials are considered impossible to conduct. Consistently however, large population-based surveys have shown that planned caesarean sections for these fetuses were associated with better neonatal outcomes compared with those following vaginal delivery. Nevertheless, the increased surgical risks for the mother having caesarean delivery of an early preterm breech fetus must be balanced with the probable neonatal survival benefits. Planned caesarean section should probably be limited to gestations with at least a fair chance of independent neonatal survival, where vaginal delivery is not imminent, and in the absence of other maternal risk factors. Vaginal delivery would probably include those fetuses that are of marginal viability, and that additional protection from abdominal delivery was unlikely to be beneficial to neonatal outcome.

  14. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... publication. This page is no longer being updated. Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida ... opening in the spine. In a new Web video, study author Catherine Y. Spong, M.D., Chief ...

  15. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is no longer being updated. Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Wednesday, March 9, ... Institutes of Health and four research institutions. The fetal surgical procedure also increases the chances that a ...

  16. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Follow follow us on Facebook follow us on Twitter follow us on Pinterest follow us on YouTube ... Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print NICHD Archive Note: Information on ...

  17. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... no longer being updated. Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Wednesday, March 9, 2011 ... a baby is still in the uterus, greatly reduces the need to divert, or shunt, fluid away ...

  18. In Utero Cord Ligation-Strangulation of Fetus and Abruptio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strangulation loop of umbilical cord round the neck twice. This case highlights the possibility of abruptio placentae by in-utero ligation-strangulation of the fetus. Key words: ligation-strangulation, umbilical cord, intrauterine fetal death, abruptio placentae.

  19. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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    Full Text Available ... updated. Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Wednesday, March 9, 2011 Recently, scientists in an ... defect, myelomeningocele, is the most serious form of spina bifida, a condition in which the spinal column fails ...

  20. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Institutes of Health Directory Follow follow us on Facebook follow us on Twitter follow us on Pinterest ... on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print NICHD Archive Note: Information ...

  1. Prevalence of virulence genes in strains of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from human, bovine and broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela González-Hein

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni isolates of different origins (bovine, broiler meat, human were screened by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of 4 genes cdtB, cst-II, ggt, and virB11, previously linked to virulence such as adherence, invasion, colonization, molecular mimicry, and cytotoxin production. In addition, the isolates were screened for the presence of the global gene regulator csrA linked to oxidative stress responses, biofilms formation, and cell adhesion. All the C. jejuni isolates were positive for cdtB gene. The csrA gene was detected in 100% and 92% of C. jejuni isolates from human and animal origin and the virB11 gene was detected in 7.3% and 3.6% isolates from chicken and human respectively. All isolates from bovine were negative for the virB11 gene. The isolates showed a wide variation for the presence of the remaining genes. Of the C. jejuni recovered from human 83.6%, and 32.7% were positive for cst-II, and ggt respectively. Out of the isolates from chicken 40% and 5.5% isolates revealed the presence of cst-II, and ggt, respectively. Finally of the C. jejuni isolates from bovine, 97.7% and 22.7% were positive for cst-II, and ggt respectively. We conclude that the genes of this study circulate among humans and animals. These results led us to hypothesize that the isolates associated with enteritis (cdtB positives are not selected by environmental or host-specific factors. On the other hand, the high frequencies of csrA gene in C. jejuni show that this gene is important for the survival of C. jejuni in animals and humans.

  2. Prevalence and Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Retail Chicken in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui; Su, Yulan; Ma, Luyao; Ma, Lina; Li, Ping; Du, Xinjun; Gölz, Greta; Wang, Shuo; Lu, Xiaonan

    2017-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important foodborne pathogen worldwide; however, there is a lack of information on the prevalence and antibiotic-resistant profile of C. jejuni in the People's Republic of China. We determined the prevalence and characteristics of C. jejuni on the retail level in Tianjin, one of the five national central cities in China. A total of 227 samples of chicken wings, legs, and breasts were collected from supermarkets and wet markets; 42 of these samples were confirmed to be positive for Campylobacter contamination. The contamination rates of C. jejuni and other Campylobacter species were 13.7% (31 of 227 samples) and 5.7% (13 of 227 samples), respectively. A group of 31 C. jejuni isolates was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. All (100%) the selected isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid; 77.4% were resistant to tetracycline, 67.7% to doxycycline, 35.5% to gentamicin, 25.8% to clindamycin and florfenicol, 19.4% to chloramphenicol, and 12.9% to erythromycin and azithromycin. A remarkably high proportion (41.9%) of multidrug-resistant isolates was identified. Multilocus sequence typing was conducted to study the population structure of the C. jejuni strains and their relationship to human isolates. The correlation between antimicrobial resistance traits and certain sequence types (STs) or clonal complexes was determined as well. A great genetic diversity of poultry isolates was identified, with 11 STs belonging to 6 clonal complexes and 11 singleton STs. The novel STs accounted for 40.9% (n = 9) of the 22 STs. ST-21, ST-353, ST-354, ST-443, ST-607, and ST-828 complexes had been previously identified from human isolates. This study revealed an extensive level of antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity in C. jejuni isolated from chicken products in Tianjin, highlighting the necessity of performing enforced interventions to reduce Campylobacter prevalence in China.

  3. Multilocus sequence types of Finnish bovine Campylobacter jejuni isolates and their attribution to human infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corander Jukka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Due to the sporadic nature of infection, sources often remain unknown. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST has been successfully applied to population genetics of Campylobacter jejuni and mathematical modelling can be applied to the sequence data. Here, we analysed the population structure of a total of 250 Finnish C. jejuni isolates from bovines, poultry meat and humans collected in 2003 using a combination of Bayesian clustering (BAPS software and phylogenetic analysis. Results In the first phase we analysed sequence types (STs of 102 Finnish bovine C. jejuni isolates by MLST and found a high diversity totalling 50 STs of which nearly half were novel. In the second phase we included MLST data from domestic human isolates as well as poultry C. jejuni isolates from the same time period. Between the human and bovine isolates we found an overlap of 72.2%, while 69% of the human isolates were overlapping with the chicken isolates. In the BAPS analysis 44.3% of the human isolates were found in bovine-associated BAPS clusters and 45.4% of the human isolates were found in the poultry-associated BAPS cluster. BAPS reflected the phylogeny of our data very well. Conclusions These findings suggest that bovines and poultry were equally important as reservoirs for human C. jejuni infections in Finland in 2003. Our results differ from those obtained in other countries where poultry has been identified as the most important source for human infections. The low prevalence of C. jejuni in poultry flocks in Finland could explain the lower attribution of human infection to poultry. Of the human isolates 10.3% were found in clusters not associated with any host which warrants further investigation, with particular focus on waterborne transmission routes and companion animals.

  4. The complete Campylobacter jejuni transcriptome during colonization of a natural host determined by RNAseq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Taveirne

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a major human pathogen and a leading cause of bacterial derived gastroenteritis worldwide. C. jejuni regulates gene expression under various environmental conditions and stresses, indicative of its ability to survive in diverse niches. Despite this ability to highly regulate gene transcription, C. jejuni encodes few transcription factors and its genome lacks many canonical transcriptional regulators. High throughput deep sequencing of mRNA transcripts (termed RNAseq has been used to study the transcriptome of many different organisms, including C. jejuni; however, this technology has yet to be applied to defining the transcriptome of C. jejuni during in vivo colonization of its natural host, the chicken. In addition to its use in profiling the abundance of annotated genes, RNAseq is a powerful tool for identifying and quantifying, as-of-yet, unknown transcripts including non-coding regulatory RNAs, 5' untranslated regulatory elements, and anti-sense transcripts. Here we report the complete transcriptome of C. jejuni during colonization of the chicken cecum and in two different in vitro growth phases using strand-specific RNAseq. Through this study, we identified over 250 genes differentially expressed in vivo in addition to numerous putative regulatory RNAs, including trans-acting non-coding RNAs and anti-sense transcripts. These latter potential regulatory elements were not identified in two prior studies using ORF-based microarrays, highlighting the power and value of the RNAseq approach. Our results provide new insights into how C. jejuni responds and adapts to the cecal environment and reveals new functions involved in colonization of its natural host.

  5. Bacteriophage receptor binding protein based assays for the simultaneous detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A Javed

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial causes of foodborne gastroenteritis which is occasionally followed by a debilitating neuropathy known as Guillain-Barré syndrome. Rapid and specific detection of these pathogens is very important for effective control and quick treatment of infection. Most of the diagnostics available for these organisms are time consuming and require technical expertise with expensive instruments and reagents to perform. Bacteriophages bind to their host specifically through their receptor binding proteins (RBPs, which can be exploited for pathogen detection. We recently sequenced the genome of C. jejuni phage NCTC12673 and identified its putative host receptor binding protein, Gp047. In the current study, we localized the receptor binding domain to the C-terminal quarter of Gp047. CC-Gp047 could be produced recombinantly and was capable of agglutinating both C. jejuni and C. coli cells unlike the host range of the parent phage which is limited to a subset of C. jejuni isolates. The agglutination procedure could be performed within minutes on a glass slide at room temperature and was not hindered by the presence of buffers or nutrient media. This agglutination assay showed 100% specificity and the sensitivity was 95% for C. jejuni (n = 40 and 90% for C. coli (n = 19. CC-Gp047 was also expressed as a fusion with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP. Chimeric EGFP_CC-Gp047 was able to specifically label C. jejuni and C. coli cells in mixed cultures allowing for the detection of these pathogens by fluorescent microscopy. This study describes a simple and rapid method for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli using engineered phage RBPs and offers a promising new diagnostics platform for healthcare and surveillance laboratories.

  6. Campylobacter jejuni: a brief overview on pathogenicity-associated factors and disease-mediating mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasti, Javid I; Tareen, A Malik; Lugert, Raimond; Zautner, Andreas E; Gross, Uwe

    2010-04-01

    Campylobacter jejuni has long been recognized as a cause of bacterial food-borne illness, and surprisingly, it remains the most prevalent bacterial food-borne pathogen in the industrial world to date. Natural reservoirs for this Gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium are wild birds, whose intestines offer a suitable biological niche for the survival and dissemination of C. jejuni Chickens become colonized shortly after birth and are the most important source for human infection. In the last decade, effective intervention strategies to limit infections caused by this elusive pathogen were hindered mainly because of a paucity in understanding the virulence mechanisms of C. jejuni and in part, unavailability of an adequate animal model for the disease. However, recent developments in deciphering molecular mechanisms of virulence of C. jejuni made it clear that C. jejuni is a unique pathogen, being able to execute N-linked glycosylation of more than 30 proteins related to colonization, adherence, and invasion. Moreover, the flagellum is not only depicted to facilitate motility but as well secretion of Campylobacter invasive antigens (Cia). The only toxin of C. jejuni, the so-called cytolethal distending toxin (CdtA,B,C), seems to be important for cell cycle control and induction of host cell apoptosis and has been recognized as a major pathogenicity-associated factor. In contrast to other diarrhoea-causing bacteria, no other classical virulence factors have yet been identified in C. jejuni. Instead, host factors seem to play a major role for pathogenesis of campylobacteriosis of man. Indeed, several lines of evidence suggest exploitation of different adaptation strategies by this pathogen depending on its requirement, whether to establish itself in the natural avian reservoir or during the course of human infection. (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence in bulk tank milk and epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni in dairy herds in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Valentina; Borella, Laura; Benedetti, Valentina; Parisi, Antonio; Miccolupo, Angela; Santoro, Eliana; Recordati, Camilla; Luini, Mario

    2014-03-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. are frequently the cause of human gastroenteritis and have assumed more importance in Italy following the increased consumption of raw milk. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence and genotypes of Campylobacter spp. in dairy herds and to investigate the possible sources of bulk milk contamination. Bulk milk from dairy herds (n = 282) was cultured for Campylobacter spp. and Enterobacteriaceae. At three Campylobacter jejuni-positive farms, bovine feces, pigeon intestines, milk, and water points were also investigated. Isolates were identified by PCR and genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). C. jejuni was detected in 34 (12%) bulk milk samples. The strains belonged to 14 sequence types, and the most common clonal complexes were CC-21, CC-48, and CC-403. No association was demonstrated between the presence of C. jejuni and high levels of Enterobacteriaceae in bulk milk. At the three farms examined, C. jejuni was isolated from bovine feces (25/82 [30.5%]), pigeon intestines (13/60 [21.7%]), bulk milk (10/24 [41.7%]), and water points (4/16 [25%]). MLST revealed lineages that were common between milk and bovine feces but distinct between cattle and pigeons. In one herd, C. jejuni with the same genotype was isolated repeatedly from bulk milk and a cow with an udder infection. Our results showed a high prevalence of C. jejuni in bulk milk and suggested that udder excretion, in addition to fecal matter, may be a route of bulk milk contamination. MLST analysis indicated that pigeons are probably not relevant for the transmission of C. jejuni to cattle and for milk contamination.

  8. PFGE, Lior Serotype, and Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns Among Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Travelers and US Military Personnel with Acute Diarrhea in Thailand, 1998-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    gastroenteritis . Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, especially in children, travelers, and military personnel...of gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter jejuni. J Clin Microbial 2003, 41:4733-4739. 20. Beecham HJ, Lebron Cl. Echeverria P: Short report...and antimicrobial resistance patterns among Campylobacter jejuni isolated from travelers and US military personnel with acute diarrhea in Thailand

  9. Prediction and prevention of the macrosomic fetus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2012-06-01

    Fetal macrosomia is associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity. In the long term, infants who are large for gestational age are more likely than other infants to be obese in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, and are inherently at higher risk of cardiovascular and metabolic complications in adulthood. With over one billion adults in the world now overweight and more than 600 million clinically obese, preventing the vicious cycle effect of fetal macrosomia and childhood obesity is an increasingly pertinent issue. Fetal growth is determined by a complex interplay of various genetic and environmental influences. Consequently the prediction of pregnancies at risk of pathological overgrowth is difficult. Many risk factors for fetal macrosomia, such as maternal obesity and advanced maternal age, are also conversely associated with intrauterine growth restriction. Sonographic detection of fetal macrosomia is notoriously fraught with difficulties, with dozens of formulas for estimated fetal weight proposed but few with sufficient sensitivity to alter clinical practice. This calls into question policies of elective delivery based on projected estimated fetal weight cut-offs alone. More recently the identification of markers of fetal adiposity and maternal serum biomarkers are being investigated to improve the antenatal detection of the large for gestational age fetus. Prevention of fetal macrosomia is entirely dependent upon correct identification of those at risk. Maternal weight, gestational weight gain and glycaemic control are the risk factors for fetal macrosomia that are most amenable to intervention, and have potential maternal health benefits beyond pregnancy and childbirth. The ideal method of optimising maternal weight and glucose homeostasis is yet to be elucidated, though a number of promising advances are recently being reported. In this review we outline the contemporary evidence for the prediction and prevention of fetal macrosomia

  10. Biofilm formation of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Halliday-Wimmonds, Iona; Francis , Stewart; Kearney, Michael T.; Hansen, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen in both marine and fresh water environments. The bacterium is suspected to persist in the environment even without the presence of a suitable fish host. In the present study, the influence of different abiotic factors such as salinity and temperature were used to study the biofilm formation of different isolates of Fno including intracellular growth loci C (iglC)and pathogenicity determinant protein A (pdpA) knockout strains. Finally, we compared the susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm to three disinfectants used in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry, namely Virkon®, bleach and hydrogen peroxide. The data indicates that Fno is capable of producing biofilms within 24 h where both salinity as well as temperature plays a role in the growth and biofilm formation of Fno. Mutations in theiglC or pdpA, both known virulence factors, do not appear to affect the capacity of Fno to produce biofilms, and the minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum biocidal concentration for the three disinfectants were lower than the minimum biofilm eradication concentration values. This information needs to be taken into account if trying to eradicate the pathogen from aquaculture facilities or aquariums.

  11. New phenylethanoids from Buddleja cordata subsp. cordata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, L; Martínez, E; Castañeda, P; Franzblau, S; Timmermann, B N; Linares, E; Bye, R; Mata, R

    2000-04-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a crude extract of the stem bark of Buddleja cordata subsp. cordata with significant antimycobacterial activity led to the isolation of a mixture composed by ten new long-chain esters of 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethanol (1-10), along with the lichen metabolites methyl beta-orcinolcarboxylate (11) and beta-orcinolcarboxylate (12). Extensive HPLC allowed the separation of the major components of the mixture, which were characterized by spectral means as 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl stearate (3), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl behenate (6), and 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl lignocerate (8). The minor esters were identified as 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl palmitate (1), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl heptadecanoate (2), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl nonadecanoate (4), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl arachidate (5), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl tricosanoate (7), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl pentacosanoate (9), and 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl hexacosanoate (10) by GC-MS analysis of the methyl esters derivatives of the fatty acids obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of the mixture. Compound 8 exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MIC = 64 micrograms/ml).

  12. Molecular characterization of virulence genes of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in equines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, R.; Taku, A. K.; Gangil, Rakhi; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the occurrence of streptococci in equines in Jammu (R. S. Pura, Katra), characterization of Streptococci equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus with respect to their virulence traits and to determine antibiotic sensitivity pattern of virulent Streptococcus isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 samples were collected from both clinically affected animals (exhibiting signs of respiratory tract disease) and apparently healthy animals and were sent to laboratory. The organisms were isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Molecular detection of Streptococcus was done directly from cultures using sodA and seM gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiogram was performed against five antibiotics such as amoxicillin, penicillin G, streptomycin, rifampicin, and methicillin. Results: During this study, a total 40 streptococcal isolates were obtained out of which 2 isolates were of S. equi subsp. equi, 12 isolates were from S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. In the PCR-based detection, we revealed amplicons of 235 bp and 679 bp for confirmation of sodA and seM gene, respectively. In antibiogram, two isolates of S. equi subsp. equi were found resistant to penicillin G, and all other isolates were found sensitive to amoxicillin and streptomycin. Conclusion: The majority of streptococcal infections was due to S. equi subsp. Zooepidemicus, and thus was recognized as a potential pathogen of diseases of equines besides S. equi subsp. equi. PMID:27651677

  13. Molecular characterization of virulence genes of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Javed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the occurrence of streptococci in equines in Jammu (R. S. Pura, Katra, characterization of Streptococci equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus with respect to their virulence traits and to determine antibiotic sensitivity pattern of virulent Streptococcus isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 samples were collected from both clinically affected animals (exhibiting signs of respiratory tract disease and apparently healthy animals and were sent to laboratory. The organisms were isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Molecular detection of Streptococcus was done directly from cultures using sodA and seM gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Antibiogram was performed against five antibiotics such as amoxicillin, penicillin G, streptomycin, rifampicin, and methicillin. Results: During this study, a total 40 streptococcal isolates were obtained out of which 2 isolates were of S. equi subsp. equi, 12 isolates were from S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. In the PCR-based detection, we revealed amplicons of 235 bp and 679 bp for confirmation of sodA and seM gene, respectively. In antibiogram, two isolates of S. equi subsp. equi were found resistant to penicillin G, and all other isolates were found sensitive to amoxicillin and streptomycin. Conclusion: The majority of streptococcal infections was due to S. equi subsp. Zooepidemicus, and thus was recognized as a potential pathogen of diseases of equines besides S. equi subsp. equi.

  14. Secondhand smoke induces hepatic apoptosis and fibrosis in hamster fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Wei; Horng, Chi-Ting; Huang, Chih-Yang; Cho, Ta-Hsiung; Tsai, Yi-Chang; Chen, Li-Jeng; Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Tzang, Bor-Show

    2016-09-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is an important health issue worldwide. Inhaling SHS during pregnancy could cause abnormalities in the internal tissues of newborns, which may then impair fetal development and even cause severe intrauterine damage and perinatal death. However, the understanding of cytopathic mechanisms of SHS by maternal passive smoking on fetus liver during pregnancy is still limited. This study analyzed the effects of high-dose SHS (SHSH) on fetus liver using a maternal passive smoking animal model. Experiments showed that hepatic matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling-positive cells were significantly increased in livers from fetuses of hamsters treated with SHSH. Similarly, expressions of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic molecules were significantly higher in livers from fetuses of hamsters exposed to SHSH. Additionally, significantly increased inflammatory proteins, including transforming growth factor β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and interleukin 1β, and fibrotic signaling molecules, including phosphorylated Smad2/3, SP1, and α-smooth muscle actin, were observed in the fetus livers from hamsters treated with SHSH. This study revealed that SHSH not only increased apoptosis through intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in the livers of fetuses from hamsters exposed to SHSH but also augmented hepatic fibrosis via Smad2/3 signaling. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Autonomic regulation in fetuses with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Saira; Wilpers, Abigail; Myers, Michael; Nugent, J David; Fifer, William P; Williams, Ismée A

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to antenatal stressors affects autonomic regulation in fetuses. Whether the presence of congenital heart disease (CHD) alters the developmental trajectory of autonomic regulation is not known. This prospective observational cohort study aimed to further characterize autonomic regulation in fetuses with CHD; specifically hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). From 11/2010 to 11/2012, 92 fetuses were enrolled: 41 controls and 51 with CHD consisting of 19 with HLHS, 12 with TGA, and 20 with TOF. Maternal abdominal fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings were obtained at 3 gestational ages: 19-27 weeks (F1), 28-33 weeks (F2), and 34-38 weeks (F3). Fetal ECG was analyzed for mean heart rate along with 3 measures of autonomic variability of the fetal heart rate: interquartile range, standard deviation, and root mean square of the standard deviation of the heart rate (RMSSD), a measure of parasympathetic activity. During F1 and F2 periods, HLHS fetuses demonstrated significantly lower mean HR than controls (pHeart rate variability at F3, as measured by standard deviation, interquartile range, and RMSSD was lower in HLHS than controls (p<0.05). Other CHD subgroups showed a similar, though non-significant trend towards lower variability. Autonomic regulation in CHD fetuses differs from controls, with HLHS fetuses most markedly affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Circulatory and metabolic effects of anemia in hyperinsulinemic ovine fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papparella, A; Berard, D; Stonestreet, B S

    1994-01-01

    Infants born to women with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus have an increased incidence of perinatal asphyxia, cardiovascular abnormalities, elevated catecholamines, and sudden fetal death. Although hyperinsulinemic fetuses of diabetic women often exhibit polycythemia, they may also develop anemia because of pregnancy- and/or delivery-related complications. Experimental fetal hyperinsulinemia results in cardiovascular changes and a surge in catecholamines. We hypothesized that reductions in fetal O2 availability via anemic hypoxia limits O2 transport and compromises the hemodynamically and metabolically stressed but compensated hyperinsulinemic fetus. Chronically catheterized fetuses receiving insulin (n = 9) or placebo (n = 5) for 48 h were rendered anemic by an isovolemic exchange transfusion. In the hyperinsulinemic state, anemic-hypoxia augmented the insulin-mediated surge in norepinephrine concentration and increases in blood flow to brain, heart, and adrenal glands. Insulin-related increase in the combined ventricular output was sustained during anemia. O2 delivery to the fetus decreased, extraction increased, and O2 uptake did not change. Regional O2 delivery to the brain, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, muscle, fat, pancreas, spleen, and carcass decreased. Hyperinsulinemic ovine fetus exposed to anemic hypoxia demonstrated an accentuated surge in norepinephrine, a sustained increase in the combined ventricular output, preservation of systemic O2 uptake, and compromised regional O2 delivery to certain vascular regions. We conclude that the hyperinsulinemic fetus was able to compensate for anemic hypoxia by increased or sustained regional vascular perfusion.

  17. Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis subsp. asaccharedens subsp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring in Batman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul-Guven, Reyhan; Guven, Kemal; Poli, Annarita; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2008-12-01

    A new thermophilic spore-forming strain KG8(T) was isolated from the mud of Taslidere hot spring in Batman. Strain KG8(T) was aerobe, Gram-positive, rod-shaped, motile, occurring in pairs or filamentous. Growth was observed from 35-65 degrees C (optimum 55 degrees C) and at pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.5). It was capable of utilizing starch, growth was observed until 3% NaCl (w/v) and it was positive for nitrate reduction. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain KG8(T) was shown to be related most closely to Anoxybacillus species. Chemotaxonomic data (major isoprenoid quinone-menaquinone-7; major fatty acid-iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0) supported the affiliation of strain KG8(T) to the genus Anoxybacillus. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain KG8(T). Based on these results we propose assigning a novel subspecies of Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis, to be named Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis subsp. asaccharedens subsp. nov. with the type strain KG8(T) (DSM 18475(T)=CIP 109280(T)).

  18. Potential Transmission Pathways of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessika Dumke

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, a member of group D streptococci, is an inhabitant of the animal and human gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, it is a facultative pathogen which causes e.g. endocarditis, septicemia and mastitis. S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus may be transmitted either directly or indirectly between animals and humans. However, the transmission routes are an unsolved issue. In this study, we present systematic analyses of an S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolate of an infective endocarditis patient in relation to isolates of his laying hen flock. Isolates from pooled droppings of laying hens, pooled dust samples and human blood culture were characterized by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST and DNA fingerprinting. MLST revealed the same allelic profile of isolates from the human blood culture and from the droppings of laying hens. In addition, these isolates showed clonal identity regarding a similar DNA fingerprinting pattern. For the first time, we received a hint that transmission of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus between poultry and humans may occur. This raises the question about the zoonotic potential of isolates from poultry and should be considered in future studies.

  19. Fetus in Fetu: A Case Report and Review of Literature | Wobenjo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fetus-in-fetu is a rare congenital malformation in which a vertebra fetus is enclosed within the abdomen of a normally developing fetus. The preoperative diagnosis is challenging. Less than 200 cases are reported in English literature, five in Africa. Multiple fetuses-in-fetu are less documented. We report a three month old ...

  20. Contribution of amino acid catabolism to the tissue specific persistence of Campylobacter jejuni in a murine colonization model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hofreuter

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of food-borne disease in industrialized countries. Carbohydrate utilization by C. jejuni is severely restricted, and knowledge about which substrates fuel C. jejuni infection and growth is limited. Some amino acids have been shown to serve as carbon sources both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we investigated the contribution of serine and proline catabolism to the invitro and invivo growth of C. jejuni 81-176. We confirmed that the serine transporter SdaC and the serine ammonia-lyase SdaA are required for serine utilization, and demonstrated that a predicted proline permease PutP and a bifunctional proline/delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase PutA are required for proline utilization by C. jejuni 81-176. C. jejuni 81-176 mutants unable to utilize serine were shown to be severely defective for colonization of the intestine and systemic tissues in a mouse model of infection. In contrast, C. jejuni 81-176 mutants unable to utilize proline were only defective for intestinal colonization. These results further emphasize the importance of amino acid utilization in C. jejuni colonization of various tissues.

  1. Inhibition by pectic oligosaccharides of the invasion of undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells by Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of pectic oligosaccharides (POS) to inhibit adherence to and invasion of undifferentiated (UC) and differentiated (DC) Caco-2 cells by Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) was investigated. It was observed that both adherence and invasion were significantly higher in UC than in DC. POS (2.5 ...

  2. Microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids modulate expression of Campylobacter jejuni determinants required for commensalism and virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni effectively promotes commensalism in the intestinal tract of avian hosts and diarrheal disease in humans, yet components of intestinal environments sensed by the bacterium in either host to initiate interactions are mostly unknown. By analyzing a C. jejuni acetogenesis mutant th...

  3. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in co-culture with Acanthamoeba castellanii: role of amoeba-mediated depletion of dissolved oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Xuan Thanh; Winding, Anne; Qvortrup, Klaus; Wolff, Anders; Bang, Dang Duong; Creuzenet, Carole

    2012-08-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of infectious diarrhoea worldwide but relatively little is known about its ecology. In this study, we examined its interactions with Acanthamoeba castellanii, a protozoan suspected to serve as a reservoir for bacterial pathogens. We observed rapid degradation of intracellular C.jejuni in A.castellanii 5 h post gentamicin treatment at 25°C. Conversely, we found that A.castellanii promoted the extracellular growth of C.jejuni in co-cultures at 37°C in aerobic conditions. This growth-promoting effect did not require amoebae - bacteria contact. The growth rates observed with or without contact with amoeba were similar to those observed when C.jejuni was grown in microaerophilic conditions. Preconditioned media prepared with live or dead amoebae cultivated with or without C.jejuni did not promote the growth of C.jejuni in aerobic conditions. Interestingly, the dissolved oxygen levels of co-cultures with or without amoebae - bacteria contact were much lower than those observed with culture media or with C.jejuni alone incubated in aerobic conditions, and were comparable with levels obtained after 24 h of growth of C.jejuni under microaerophilic conditions. Our studies identified the depletion of dissolved oxygen by A.castellanii as the major contributor for the observed amoeba-mediated growth enhancement. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Risk factors for indigenous Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections in The Netherlands: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorduyn, Y.; Brandhof, van den W.E.; Duynhoven, van Y.T.H.P.; Breukink, B.J.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Pelt, van W.

    2010-01-01

    A case-control study comprising 1315 Campylobacter jejuni cases, 121 Campylobacter coli cases and 3409 frequency-matched controls was conducted in The Netherlands in 2002-2003. Risk factors for both C. jejuni and C. coli enteritis were consumption of undercooked meat and barbecued meat, ownership of

  5. Comparative Proteomics and Glycoproteomics Reveal Increased N-Linked Glycosylation and Relaxed Sequon Specificity in Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Nichollas E.; Marzook, N. Bishara; Cain, Joel A.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. C. jejuni encodes a protein glycosylation (Pgl) locus responsible for the N-glycosylation of membrane-associated proteins. We examined two variants of the genome sequenced strain NCTC11168: O, a representative of the original...

  6. Evaluation of different Campylobacter jejuni isolates to colonize the intestinal tract of commercial turkey poults and selective media for enumeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of contaminated poultry products is the main source of human campylobacteriosis, which Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for 90 percent of human cases. Although chickens are believed to be a main source of human exposure to C. jejuni, turkey also contributes to cases of human infection...

  7. Lack of association between the presence of the pVir plasmid and bloody diarrhea in Campylobacter jejuni enteritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.L. Louwen (Rogier); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); J.A. Wagenaar (Jaap); Y. Doorduyn; R. Achterberg; H.P. Endtz (Hubert)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe main mechanisms by which Campylobacter jejuni causes diarrhea are unknown. In contrast to a recent communication, we report here the absence of an association with the plasmid pVir in patients infected with C. jejuni who developed bloody diarrhea in The Netherlands, and we suggest a

  8. Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Using Multiplex-PCR and High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banya Banowary

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in developed countries. Among Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni and C. coli are the most common causes of human infection. In this study, a multiplex PCR (mPCR and high resolution melt (HRM curve analysis were optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A segment of the hippuricase gene (hipO of C. jejuni and putative aspartokinase (asp gene of C. coli were amplified from 26 Campylobacter isolates and amplicons were subjected to HRM curve analysis. The mPCR-HRM was able to differentiate between C. jejuni and C. coli species. All DNA amplicons generated by mPCR were sequenced. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences from each isolate revealed that the HRM curves were correlated with the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Minor variation in melting point temperatures of C. coli or C. jejuni isolates was also observed and enabled some intraspecies differentiation between C. coli and/or C. jejuni isolates. The potential of PCR-HRM curve analysis for the detection and speciation of Campylobacter in additional human clinical specimens and chicken swab samples was also confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 100% and 92%, respectively. The results indicated that mPCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid (8 hours technique for differentiation between C. jejuni and C. coli isolates.

  9. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni, C.lari and C.coli in different ecological guilds and taxa of migrating birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldenstrom, J.; Broman, T.; Carlsson, I.; Hasselquist, D.; Achterberg, R.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Olsen, B.

    2002-01-01

    A total of 1,794 migrating birds trapped at a coastal site in southern Sweden were sampled for detection of Campylobacter spp. All isolates phenotypically identified as Campylobacter jejuni and a subset of those identified as non-C. jejuni were identified to the species level by PCR-based

  10. Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Using Multiplex-PCR and High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banowary, Banya; Dang, Van Tuan; Sarker, Subir; Connolly, Joanne H; Chenu, Jeremy; Groves, Peter; Ayton, Michelle; Raidal, Shane; Devi, Aruna; Vanniasinkam, Thiru; Ghorashi, Seyed A

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in developed countries. Among Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and C. coli are the most common causes of human infection. In this study, a multiplex PCR (mPCR) and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis were optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A segment of the hippuricase gene (hipO) of C. jejuni and putative aspartokinase (asp) gene of C. coli were amplified from 26 Campylobacter isolates and amplicons were subjected to HRM curve analysis. The mPCR-HRM was able to differentiate between C. jejuni and C. coli species. All DNA amplicons generated by mPCR were sequenced. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences from each isolate revealed that the HRM curves were correlated with the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Minor variation in melting point temperatures of C. coli or C. jejuni isolates was also observed and enabled some intraspecies differentiation between C. coli and/or C. jejuni isolates. The potential of PCR-HRM curve analysis for the detection and speciation of Campylobacter in additional human clinical specimens and chicken swab samples was also confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 100% and 92%, respectively. The results indicated that mPCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid (8 hours) technique for differentiation between C. jejuni and C. coli isolates.

  11. Development and application of a real-time polymerase chain reaction method for Campylobacter jejuni detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mao-Jun; Qiao, Bo; Xu, Xue-Bin; Zhang, Jian-Zhong

    2013-05-28

    To develop a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to detect and quantify Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) from stool specimens. Primers and a probe for real-time PCR were designed based on the specific DNA sequence of the hipO gene in C. jejuni. The specificity of the primers and probe were tested against a set of Campylobacter spp. and other enteric pathogens. The optimal PCR conditions were determined by testing a series of conditions with standard a C. jejuni template. The detection limits were obtained using purified DNA from bacterial culture and extracted DNA from the stool specimen. Two hundred and forty-two specimens were analyzed for the presence of C. jejuni by direct bacterial culture and real-time PCR. The optimal PCR system was determined using reference DNA templates, 1 × uracil-DNA glycosylase, 3.5 mmol/L MgCl2, 1.25 U platinum Taq polymerase, 0.4 mmol/L PCR nucleotide mix, 0.48 μmol/L of each primer, 0.2 μmol/L of probe and 2 μL of DNA template in a final volume of 25 μL. The PCR reaction was carried as follows: 95 °C for 4 min, followed by 45 cycles of 10 s at 95 °C and 30 s at 59 °C. The detection limit was 4.3 CFU/mL using purified DNA from bacterial culture and 10(3) CFU/g using DNA from stool specimens. Twenty (8.3%, 20/242) C. jejuni strains were isolated from bacterial culture, while 41 (16.9%, 41/242) samples were found to be positive by real-time PCR. DNA sequencing of the PCR product indicated the presence of C. jejuni in the specimen. One mixed infection of C. jejuni and Salmonella was detected in one specimen and the PCR test for this specimen was positive. The sensitivity of detection of C. jejuni from stool specimens was much higher using this PCR assay than using the direct culture method.

  12. Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin are invasive in chickens after oral challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Katrine Nørrelund; Bang, Dang Duong; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the colonizing ability and the invasive capacity of selected Campylobacter jejuni strains of importance for the epidemiology of C jejuni in Danish broiler chickens. Four C jejuni strains were selected for experimental colonization Studies in day-old and 14-day...... to be invasive in orally challenged chickens as well as in three different human epithelial cell lines.......-old chickens hatched from specific pathogen free (SPF) eggs. Of the four C jejuni strains tested, three were Penner heat-stable serotype 2,flaA type 1/1, the most common type found among broilers and human cases in Denmark. The fourth strain was Penner heat-stable serotype 19, which has been shown...... to be associated with the Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in humans. The minimum dose for establishing colonization in the clay-old chickens was approximately 2 cfu, whereas two- to threefold higher doses were required for establishing colonization in the 14-day-old chickens. Two of the C jejuni strains were shown...

  13. Campylobacter jejuni Actively Invades the Amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Survives within Non Digestive Vacuoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Jenny; Axelsson-Olsson, Diana; Brudin, Lars; Olsen, Björn; Ellström, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni is able to enter, survive and multiply within the free living amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga, but the molecular mechanisms behind these events are still unclear. We have studied the uptake and intracellular trafficking of viable and heat killed bacterial cells of the C. jejuni strain 81–176 in A. polyphaga. We found that viable bacteria associated with a substantially higher proportion of Acanthamoeba trophozoites than heat killed bacteria. Furthermore, the kinetics of internalization, the total number of internalized bacteria as well as the intracellular localization of internalized C. jejuni were dramatically influenced by bacterial viability. Viable bacteria were internalized at a high rate already after 1 h of co-incubation and were observed in small vacuoles tightly surrounding the bacteria. In contrast, internalization of heat killed C. jejuni was low at early time points and did not peak until 96 h. These cells were gathered in large spacious vacuoles that were part of the degradative pathway as determined by the uptake of fluorescently labeled dextran. The amount of heat killed bacteria internalized by A. polyphaga did never reach the maximal amount of internalized viable bacteria. These results suggest that the uptake and intracellular survival of C. jejuni in A. polyphaga is bacterially induced. PMID:24223169

  14. Characterization of the Campylobacter jejuni population in the barnacle geese reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llarena, A-K; Skarp-de Haan, C P A; Rossi, M; Hänninen, M-L

    2015-05-01

    Campylobacter spp. are the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and have been isolated from a wide number of different hosts and environmental sources. Waterfowl is considered a natural reservoir for this zoonotic bacterium and may act as a potential infection source for human campylobacteriosis. In this study, faecal samples from 924 barnacle geese were tested for the presence of C. jejuni and C. coli. The resulting C. jejuni and C. coli populations were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), structure analysis by BAPS and phylogenetic analysis based on full genome sequences. The prevalences of C. jejuni in barnacle geese faeces were 11.5% and 23.1% in 2011 and 2012, respectively, and only 0.2% of the samples were positive for C. coli in both years. Furthermore, a possible adaption of the clonal complexes (CCs) ST-702 and ST-1034 to the barnacle geese reservoir was found, as these two CCs represented the majority of the typed isolates and were repeatedly isolated from different flocks at several time-points. Further core genome phylogenetic analysis using ClonalFrame revealed a formation of a distinct monophyletic lineage by these two CCs, suggesting a certain degree of clonality of the C. jejuni population adapted to barnacle geese. Therefore, although STs also commonly found in humans patients (e.g. ST-45) were among the barnacle geese C. jejuni isolates, this reservoir is probably an infrequent source for human campylobacteriosis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Campylobacter jejuni sequence types show remarkable spatial and temporal stability in Blackbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Griekspoor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni has a broad host range but is especially associated with birds, both domestic and wild. Earlier studies have indicated thrushes of the genus Turdus in Europe to be frequently colonized with C. jejuni, and predominately with host-associated specific genotypes. The European Blackbird Turdus merula has a large distribution in Europe, including some oceanic islands, and was also introduced to Australia by European immigrants in the 1850s. Methods: The host specificity and temporal stability of European Blackbird C. jejuni was investigated with multilocus sequence typing in a set of isolates collected from Sweden, Australia, and The Azores. Results: Remarkably, we found that the Swedish, Australian, and Azorean isolates were genetically highly similar, despite extensive spatial and temporal isolation. This indicates adaptation, exquisite specificity, and stability in time for European Blackbirds, which is in sharp contrast with the high levels of recombination and mutation found in poultry-related C. jejuni genotypes. Conclusion: The maintenance of host-specific signals in spatially and temporally separated C. jejuni populations suggests the existence of strong purifying selection for this bacterium in European Blackbirds.

  16. Use of a Rabbit Soft Tissue Chamber Model to Investigate Campylobacter jejuni - Host Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika eFlint

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the prevalence of C. jejuni as an important food borne pathogen, the microbial factors governing its infection process are poorly characterized. In this study, we developed a novel rabbit soft tissue chamber model to investigate C. jejuni interactions with its host. The in vivo transcriptome profile of C. jejuni was monitored as a function of time post-infection by competitive microarray hybridization with cDNA obtained from C. jejuni grown in vitro. Genome-wide expression analysis identified 449 genes expressed at significantly different levels in vivo. Genes implicated to play important roles in early colonization of C. jejuni within the tissue chamber include up-regulation of genes involved in ribosomal protein synthesis and modification, heat shock response, and primary adaptation to the host environment (DccSR regulon. Genes encoding proteins involved in the TCA cycle and flagella related components were found to be significantly down regulated during early colonization. Oxidative stress defense and stringent response genes were found to be maximally induced during the acute infectious phase. Overall, these findings reveal possible mechanisms involved in adaptation of Campylobacter to the host.

  17. Prevalence and Distribution of Campylobacter jejuni in Small-Scale Broiler Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangkham, Wannee; Janes, Marlene; LeMieux, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni has been recognized as one of the most prevalent causes of foodborne bacterial illnesses in humans. Previous studies have focused on the transmission routes of C. jejuni from commercial flock farms to the final retail product. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. jejuni and Campylobacter spp. in eggshells, live birds, feed, drinking water, and the rearing environment in a small-scale broiler operation. Broilers were raised under two different production systems: (i) environmentally controlled housing and (ii) open-air housing with two replications. Each week, samples were collected from eggshells, bird feces, feed, drinking water, enclosures (vertical walls of bird housing), and feed troughs for enumeration and isolation testing. All samples were plated on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar to determine the log CFU per gram and percent prevalence of Campylobacter spp. Isolation of C. jejuni was verified with latex agglutination and hippurate hydrolysis tests. The results from this study suggest that vertical transmission of these bacteria from egg surfaces to newly hatched chicks is not a significant risk factor. The results also suggest that the prevalence of C. jejuni at time of harvest (week 6) was significantly higher (P housing broilers than in those in the environmentally controlled housing. Elevated levels of cross-contaminants, especially water and feed, may have played a role in this outcome.

  18. Campylobacter jejuni actively invades the amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga and survives within non digestive vacuoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Olofsson

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni is able to enter, survive and multiply within the free living amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga, but the molecular mechanisms behind these events are still unclear. We have studied the uptake and intracellular trafficking of viable and heat killed bacterial cells of the C. jejuni strain 81-176 in A. polyphaga. We found that viable bacteria associated with a substantially higher proportion of Acanthamoeba trophozoites than heat killed bacteria. Furthermore, the kinetics of internalization, the total number of internalized bacteria as well as the intracellular localization of internalized C. jejuni were dramatically influenced by bacterial viability. Viable bacteria were internalized at a high rate already after 1 h of co-incubation and were observed in small vacuoles tightly surrounding the bacteria. In contrast, internalization of heat killed C. jejuni was low at early time points and did not peak until 96 h. These cells were gathered in large spacious vacuoles that were part of the degradative pathway as determined by the uptake of fluorescently labeled dextran. The amount of heat killed bacteria internalized by A. polyphaga did never reach the maximal amount of internalized viable bacteria. These results suggest that the uptake and intracellular survival of C. jejuni in A. polyphaga is bacterially induced.

  19. Campylobacter jejuni cocultured with epithelial cells reduces surface capsular polysaccharide expression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Corcionivoschi, N

    2012-02-01

    The host cell environment can alter bacterial pathogenicity. We employed a combination of cellular and molecular techniques to study the expression of Campylobacter jejuni polysaccharides cocultured with HCT-8 epithelial cells. After two passages, the amount of membrane-bound high-molecular-weight polysaccharide was considerably reduced. Microarray profiling confirmed significant downregulation of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) locus genes. Experiments using conditioned media showed that sugar depletion occurred only when the bacterial and epithelial cells were cocultured. CPS depletion occurred when C. jejuni organisms were exposed to conditioned media from a different C. jejuni strain but not when exposed to conditioned media from other bacterial species. Proteinase K or heat treatment of conditioned media under coculture conditions abrogated the effect on the sugars, as did formaldehyde fixation and cycloheximide treatment of host cells or chloramphenicol treatment of the bacteria. However, sugar depletion was not affected in flagellar export (fliQ) and quorum-sensing (luxS) gene mutants. Passaged C. jejuni showed reduced invasiveness and increased serum sensitivity in vitro. C. jejuni alters its surface polysaccharides when cocultured with epithelial cells, suggesting the existence of a cross talk mechanism that modulates CPS expression during infection.

  20. Higher resistance of Campylobacter coli compared to Campylobacter jejuni at chicken slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralbo, Alicia; Borge, Carmen; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Méric, Guillaume; Perea, Anselmo; Carbonero, Alfonso

    2015-04-01

    In order to compare the prevalence of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni during the processing of broilers at slaughterhouse a total of 848 samples were analyzed during 2012 in southern Spain. Four hundred and seventy six samples were collected from cloaca, carcass surfaces and quartered carcasses. Moreover, 372 environmental swabs from equipment and scalding water were collected. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and gentamicin was determined for isolates from chicken meat. The general prevalence of Campylobacter was 68.8% (40.2% of C. coli and 28.5% of C. jejuni). The relative prevalence of C. coli increased from loading dock area (41.5%) to packing area (64.6%). In contrast, the relative prevalence of C. jejuni decreased from 58.5% to 35.4%. These differences between species from initial to final area were significant (p=0.02). The highest antimicrobial resistance for C. jejuni and C. coli was detected to tetracycline (100%) and ciprofloxacin (100%), respectively. Campylobacter coli showed an antimicrobial resistance significantly higher than C. jejuni to streptomycin (p=0.002) and erythromycin (p<0.0001). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of proteomics profiles of Campylobacter jejuni strain Bf under microaerobic and aerobic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramila Christiane Rodrigues

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni accounts for one of the leading causes of foodborne bacterial enteritis in humans. Despite being considered an obligate microaerobic microorganism, C. jejuni is regularly exposed to oxidative stress. However, its adaptive strategies to survive the atmospheric oxygen level during transmission to humans remain unclear. Recently, the atypical clinical C. jejuni Bf strain was shown by its unexpected ability to grow under ambient atmosphere. Here, we aimed to understand better the biological mechanisms underlying its atypical aerotolerance trait using two-dimensional protein electrophoresis, gene expression and enzymatic activities. Forty-seven proteins were identified with a significantly different abundance between cultivation under microaerobic and aerobic conditions. The over-expressed proteins in aerobiosis belonged mainly to the oxidative stress response, modulation of the main enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, iron uptake and regulation and amino acid uptake when compared to microaerobic conditions. The higher abundance of proteins related to oxidative stress was correlated to dramatically higher transcript levels of the corresponding encoding genes in aerobic conditions compared to microaerobic conditions. In addition, a higher catalase-equivalent activity in strain Bf was observed. Despite the restricted catabolic capacities of C. jejuni, this study reveals that strain Bf is equipped to withstand oxidative stress. This ability could contribute to emergence and persistence of particular strains of C. jejuni throughout food processing or macrophage attack during human infection.

  2. Detection and quantification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli using real-time multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, N; Kovač, M; Piskernik, S; Možina, S Smole; Jeršek, B

    2012-04-01

    We describe a real-time quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction (qmPCR) assay to identify and discriminate between isolates of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Two novel sets of primers and hydrolysis probes were designed to amplify the unique DNA sequences within the hipO, ccoN and cadF genes that are specific to Camp. jejuni and Camp. coli. Using the designed optimized qmPCR assay conditions, the amplification efficiency is in range from 108 to 116%. These qmPCR assays are highly specific for Camp. jejuni and Camp. coli, as seen through testing of 40 Campylobacter strains and 17 non-Campylobacter strains. In chicken juice and tap water models spiked with known quantities of Camp. jejuni, qmPCR detected 10(2) -10(3) CFU ml(-1) within 4 h. The qmPCR assays developed in this study provide reliable and simultaneous detection and quantification of Camp. jejuni and Camp. coli, with good amplification reaction parameters. Following further validation, the qmPCR assay reported here has the potential to be applied to various sample types as an alternative and rapid methodology. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Phenotypic and Genotypic Detection of Campylobacter jejuni at Local Chicken and Chicken Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rosyidi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Objective of this study was to identify the existence of Campylobacter jejuni based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristic in local chicken and chicken meats. Samples of local chicken intestine and meat were tested for the bacterial existence. Phenotypic examination was carried out by means of cultivation followed by gram staining and biochemical tests. Genotypic examination was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using genus specific16S rRNA gene at 816 bp and membrane-associated protein A (mapA gene at 589 bp as Campylobacter jejuni species-specific gene. The result of phenotypic detection revealed the existence of Campylobacter spp as gram negative, curved rod shape, oxidase positive, urease negative and motile. Genotypic examination also indicated the existence of bacteria using both primers. However, no Campylobacter jejuni detected from meat of the chickens. The results suggest that the method of PCR using a primer detecting species-specific gene of Campylobacter jejuni gives a rapid and accurate detection of the bacteria as compared to that using phenotypic and biochemical test. Identification of Campylobacter spp from chicken meats should be improved with enrichment method and sample collection. (Animal Production 12(2: 128-134 (2010Key Words: Campylobacter jejuni, mapA gene, local chicken

  4. Comparative genomic fingerprinting for the subtyping of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković-Selimović Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Thermophilic campylobacters, especially Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli (C. coli, are the most important causes of bacterial diarrhea in developed and developing countries. The disease can occur as a sporadic infection or as large and small outbreaks. Phenotyping and genotyping methods are in use to determine similarities between strains as well their possible common origin. The goal of the study was to compare discriminatory power of biotyping tests and comparative genomic fingerprinting (CGF 40 (100%, as well as a combination of the two tests in detection of clonality or epidemiological relatedness between the studied strains. Methods. We investigated 23 Campylobacter strains using biotyping and CGF typing. Results. We found that biotyping was a more discriminatory method for C. coli, and CGF for C. jejuni strains. In the discrimination of C. jejuni strains, CGF had better discriminatory power [Simpson’s index of diversity (ID was 0.879] over the discrimination of C. coli strains (Simpson’s ID was 0.389. Conclusion. Biotyping and CGF can be complementary methods in detection of similarity, relatedness and possible common origin between strains since the combination of biotyping and CGF methods gives more precise data about diversity within C. coli and C. jejuni strains. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR34008

  5. Campylobacter jejuni prevalence and hygienic quality of retail bovine ground meat in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llarena, A-K; Sivonen, K; Hänninen, M-L

    2014-05-01

    Detection of common genotypes of Campylobacter jejuni among Finnish human and bovine isolates, suggested that bovines may be a source for zoonotic Camp. jejuni infection. In addition, a Finnish epidemiological study implied the tasting and eating raw or undercooked beef as risk factors for acquiring campylobacteriosis. We therefore performed a study on the occurrence of Camp. jejuni in retail bovine ground meat in Helsinki by the use of both cultivation and PCR. During 2011 and 2012, 175 bovine ground meat samples were collected. None of the samples were Campylobacter positive by cultivation, and only one sample (0.6%) was Camp. jejuni positive by the use of PCR on template extracted directly from ground meat. According to our findings, Finnish bovine ground meat is an unlikely source for human campylobacteriosis. Additionally, the hygienic quality of bovine ground meat at retail level was screened and found to be good when monitored by aerobic micro-organisms, total thermotolerant coliforms and Eshericha coli. This study provides the first data on the occurrence of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni in Finnish bovine ground meat. This knowledge is important as part of future Campylobacter risk assessment, management and monitoring programs, particularly when assessing the relative attribution of poultry, pork and bovine meat to the burden of human campylobacteriosis. According to our results, Finnish bovine ground meat at retail level is of good hygienic quality. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Genotypes and Antibiotic Resistances of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Cattle and Pigeons in Dairy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Bianchini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the most common food-borne zoonotic pathogen causing human gastroenteritis worldwide and has assumed more importance in Italy following the increased consumption of raw milk. Our objectives were to get an overview of genotypes and antibiotic resistances in C. jejuni isolated from milk, cattle feces, and pigeons in dairy herds of Northern Italy. flaB-typing was applied to 78 C. jejuni isolates, previously characterized by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, and genotypic resistances towards macrolides and quinolones based on point mutations in the 23S rRNA and gyrA genes, respectively, were determined. flaB-typing revealed 22 different types with one of them being novel and was useful to further differentiate strains with an identical Sequence Type (ST and to identify a pigeon-specific clone. Macrolide resistance was not found, while quinolone resistance was detected in 23.3% of isolates. A relationship between specific genotypes and antibiotic resistance was observed, but was only significant for the Clonal Complex 206. Our data confirm that pigeons do not play a role in the spread of C. jejuni among cattle and they are not responsible for milk contamination. A relevant number of bulk milk samples were contaminated by C. jejuni resistant to quinolones, representing a possible source of human resistant strains.

  7. Genotypes and antibiotic resistances of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from cattle and pigeons in dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Valentina; Luini, Mario; Borella, Laura; Parisi, Antonio; Jonas, Romie; Kittl, Sonja; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-07-14

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common food-borne zoonotic pathogen causing human gastroenteritis worldwide and has assumed more importance in Italy following the increased consumption of raw milk. Our objectives were to get an overview of genotypes and antibiotic resistances in C. jejuni isolated from milk, cattle feces, and pigeons in dairy herds of Northern Italy. flaB-typing was applied to 78 C. jejuni isolates, previously characterized by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, and genotypic resistances towards macrolides and quinolones based on point mutations in the 23S rRNA and gyrA genes, respectively, were determined. flaB-typing revealed 22 different types with one of them being novel and was useful to further differentiate strains with an identical Sequence Type (ST) and to identify a pigeon-specific clone. Macrolide resistance was not found, while quinolone resistance was detected in 23.3% of isolates. A relationship between specific genotypes and antibiotic resistance was observed, but was only significant for the Clonal Complex 206. Our data confirm that pigeons do not play a role in the spread of C. jejuni among cattle and they are not responsible for milk contamination. A relevant number of bulk milk samples were contaminated by C. jejuni resistant to quinolones, representing a possible source of human resistant strains.

  8. Insights into Campylobacter jejuni colonization of the mammalian intestinal tract using a novel mouse model of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Martin; Vallance, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    A lack of relevant disease models for Campylobacter jejuni has long been an obstacle to research into this common enteric pathogen. We recently published that mice deficient in Single IgG Interleukin-1 related receptor (SIGIRR), a repressor of MyD88-dependent innate immune signaling, were highly susceptible to enteric infection by murine bacterial pathogens. Subsequently, we successfully employed these mice as an animal model for the human pathogen C. jejuni and gained substantial new insights into infection by this pathogen. The infected mice developed significant intestinal inflammation, primarily via TLR4 stimulation. Furthermore, the resulting gastroenteritis was dependent on C. jejuni pathogenesis as bacterial strains suffering mutations in key virulence factors were attenuated in causing disease. The ability to infect SIGIRR-deficient mice with C. jejuni sheds new light onto how these bacteria colonize the mucus layer of the intestinal tract, invade epithelial cells, and raises new prospects for studying the virulence strategies and pathogenesis of C. jejuni.

  9. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) for Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Thai Children with Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngan Thi Kim; Trinh, Quang Duy; Khamrin, Pattara; Ukarapol, Nuthapong; Kongsricharoern, Tipachan; Yamazaki, Wataru; Komine-Aizawa, Shihoko; Okitsu, Shoko; Maneekarn, Niwat; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter species are common causes of bacterial diarrhea, and Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are known as the predominant causative agents in humans. Recent studies suggested that loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an efficient and practical tool for rapid detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in clinical samples. We used LAMP to screen 151 stool samples for Campylobacter; these samples were collected in 2012 from Thai children with diarrhea. The PCR method discriminated C. jejuni and C. coli among the detected Campylobacter strains; these species were subjected to sequencing of the hipO gene (in C. jejuni) or the ask gene (in C. coli). The results suggest that the prevalence of Campylobacter infection among Thai children with diarrhea is 8.6%, and C. jejuni is the most prevalent species.

  10. A single or multistage mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis subunit vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention provides one or more immunogenic polypeptides for use in a preventive or therapeutic vaccine against latent or active infection in a human or animal caused by a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Furthermore a single or multi-phase vaccine...... comprising the one or more immunogenic polypeptides is provided for administration for the prevention or treatment of infection with a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Additionally, nucleic acid vaccines, capable of in vivo expression of the multi-phase vaccine...... comprising the one or more immunogenic polypeptides, is provided for prevention or treatment of infection with a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis....

  11. Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp hyointestinalis, a common Campylobacter species in reindeer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanninen, M.L.; Sarelli, L.; Sukura, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To study the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the faecal material of reindeer, and to identify the isolates by means of a polyphasic approach. In addition, to study the genetic diversity of Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis reindeer isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...... slaughterhouses. Samples were cultured by methods suitable for isolation of fastidious Campylobacter species. Of all samples, 6% (24/399) were Campylobacter-positive. Phenotypic characteristics, SDS-PAGE protein patterns, dot blot DNA-DNA hybridization, 23S rDNA restriction fragment polymorphism analysis and PFGE...... identified the isolates as Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. kyointestinalis. Conclusions: Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis was the only Campylobacter species isolated from reindeer in this study. The isolates showed high genomic diversity in PFGE with the restriction enzymes SmaI and Kpn...

  12. Cryo-imaging in a toxicological study on mouse fetuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debashish; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Sloter, Eddie; Watanabe, Michiko; Wilson, David

    2010-03-01

    We applied the Case cryo-imaging system to detect signals of developmental toxicity in transgenic mouse fetuses resulting from maternal exposure to a developmental environmental toxicant (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, TCDD). We utilized a fluorescent transgenic mouse model that expresses Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) exclusively in smooth muscles under the control of the smooth muscle gamma actin (SMGA) promoter (SMGA/EGFP mice kindly provided by J. Lessard, U. Cincinnati). Analysis of cryo-image data volumes, comprising of very high-resolution anatomical brightfield and molecular fluorescence block face images, revealed qualitative and quantitative morphological differences in control versus exposed fetuses. Fetuses randomly chosen from pregnant females euthanized on gestation day (GD) 18 were either manually examined or cryo-imaged. For cryo-imaging, fetuses were embedded, frozen and cryo-sectioned at 20 μm thickness and brightfield color and fluorescent block-face images were acquired with an in-plane resolution of ~15 μm. Automated 3D volume visualization schemes segmented out the black embedding medium and blended fluorescence and brightfield data to produce 3D reconstructions of all fetuses. Comparison of Treatment groups TCDD GD13, TCDD GD14 and control through automated analysis tools highlighted differences not observable by prosectors performing traditional fresh dissection. For example, severe hydronephrosis, suggestive of irreversible kidney damage, was detected by cryoimaging in fetuses exposed to TCDD. Automated quantification of total fluorescence in smooth muscles revealed suppressed fluorescence in TCDD-exposed fetuses. This application demonstrated that cryo-imaging can be utilized as a routine high-throughput screening tool to assess the effects of potential toxins on the developmental biology of small animals.

  13. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in dairy farm environmental samples using SYBR Green real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, H M; Srinivasan, V; Murinda, S E; Oliver, S P

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a SYBR Green based real-time PCR assay using well-characterized primers to detect Campylobacter jejuni in naturally contaminated dairy farm environmental samples. Specificity of the assay was determined with 62 C. jejuni strains and 120 non-C. jejuni strains. Peak melting temperature obtained with melting curves specific for C. jejuni was 77.5 degrees C. Standard curves were constructed using mean threshold cycle (C(T)) and various concentrations of C. jejuni ranging from 10(0) to 10(8) colony forming units (CFU)/mL, which resulted in a linear relationship between C(T) and log input DNA. Correlation coefficients of standard curves based on pure culture of C. jejuni in broth and spiked cells in lagoon water were R(2) = 0.995 (slope = 3.21) and R(2) = 0.988 (slope = 3.22), respectively, and sensitivity limits were 10(3) CFU/mL, respectively. After 24-h enrichment, total C. jejuni counts of all samples spiked with 10(0) CFU/mL reached >10(5) CFU/mL, and the detection limit was improved from >10(3) CFU/mL to PCR assay detected C. jejuni in 25 (30.4%) of 82 samples, with 17 (68%) of these samples being culture positive for C. jejuni. All samples that were positive by standard culture methods were also positive by the real-time PCR method. Mean C( T ) values of 48-h enriched cultures for 17 PCR-positive/culture-positive samples and eight PCR-positive/culture-negative samples were 21.4 +/- 3.6, and 34.6 +/- 1.5 (p 38.0. These results indicate that the SYBR Green real-time PCR assay provides a specific, reproducible, and simple method for detecting C. jejuni in dairy farm environmental samples.

  14. A single or multistage mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis subunit vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention provides one or more immunogenic polypeptides for use in a preventive or therapeutic vaccine against latent or active infection in a human or animal caused by a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Furthermore a single or multi-phase vaccine...... comprising the one or more immunogenic polypeptides is provided for administration for the prevention or treatment of infection with a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Additionally, nucleic acid vaccines, capable of in vivo expression of the multi-phase vaccine...

  15. In vitro phagocytosis and intracellular survival of Campylobacter jejuni with phagocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiehlbauch, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    In vitro phagocytosis and intracellular survival of Campylobacter jejuni was studied using three types of mononuclear phagocytes: a J774G8 peritoneal macrophage line, resident BABL/c peritoneal macrophages and human peripheral blood monocytes. In phagocytosis assays using CFU determinations, phagocytosis increased steadily over an 8 hr time period. Results obtained using a /sup 51/Cr assay indicated no consistent significant difference between phagocytosis of C. jejuni between the three mononuclear phagocytes or PMN's and that maximum infection occurred prior to 0.5 hr and maintained throughout the 4 hr assay. Further investigation of the mechanism of attachment and entry of C. jejuni revealed this process required the expenditure of energy by the phagocyte, but was not inhibited by inhibitors of microfilament functions. In addition, phagocytosis was enhanced by the presence of 20% FCS,

  16. Influxed insects as Vectors for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coll in Danish Broiler Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Pedersen, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The vector potential of flies (Diptera: Brachycera) for spread of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli on 5 Danish broiler farms was evaluated in a longitudinal field study from April to November 2004. First, the prevalence of C. jejuni- and C. coli-positive flies was determined in 2...... houses was estimated by trapping of insects (n = 5,936) in ventilation vents. In total, 31 flies (28 of which were of the Muscidae family) caught in farm surroundings were Campylobacter spp.-positive (C. jejuni, n = 7; C. coli, n = 23; other Campylobacter spp., n = 1). Musca domestica (L) (house fly...... caesar (L) (green bottle fly) of the Calliphoridae family and 2 flies of unidentified species were also positive. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-positive flies varied from 0.0 in April to a peak of 16.3% in July and decreasing to 2.0% in October on a farm with pig production. On 4 broiler farms...

  17. Effect of Organic Acids and Marination Ingredients on the Survival of Campylobacter jejuni on Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Grønlund, Anne Christine Jørgensen; Christensen, Bjarke Bak

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether marination of chicken meat in different food ingredients call be used to reduce populations of Campylobacter jejuni strains, were exposed to different organic acids (tartaric, acetic. lactic, malic, and citric acids) and food marinating ingredients...... inoculated in brain heart infusion broth containing 0.3% tartaric acid. On chicken meat medallions, reductions of C. jejuni were 0.5 to 2 log units when tartaric acid solutions (2, 4, 6, and 10%) were spread onto the meal. Analysis of acidic food ingredient (e.g., vinegar. lemon juice, pomegranate syrup...... of approximately 1.2 log units after 3 days of storage. Taste evaluations of chicken meat that had been marinated and then fried were graded positively for flavor and texture. Thus, Success was achieved ill creating I marinade with an acceptable taste that reduced the counts of C. jejuni....

  18. Proteomic and genomic analysis reveals novel Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane proteins and potential heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Watson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane proteins play important roles in the interaction of bacteria with their environment including nutrient acquisition, adhesion and invasion, and antibiotic resistance. In this study we identified 47 proteins within the Sarkosyl-insoluble fraction of Campylobacter jejuni 81-176, using LC–ESI-MS/MS. Comparative analysis of outer membrane protein sequences was visualised to reveal protein distribution within a panel of Campylobacter spp., identifying several C. jejuni-specific proteins. Smith–Waterman analyses of C. jejuni homologues revealed high sequence conservation amongst a number of hypothetical proteins, sequence heterogeneity of other proteins and several proteins which are absent in a proportion of strains.

  19. Investigation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from broilers susceptibility to antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work sensitivity to eritromycine, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin was investigated on 16 (sixteen strains Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli originated from broilers’ coecum by use of dics-diffussion method and E-test. Out of 10 (ten examined strains of C. jejuni, 1 strain (10% was resistant to erithromycin, 5 (five examined strains (50% to tetracycline and 4 (four examined strains (40% to ciprofloxacine. Out of 6 investigated strains of C. coli, 1 strain was resistant to erithromycin (16,7%, 5 of investigated strains to tetracycline and ciprofloxacine (83,3% (table 1 and 2, graph 3. Out of 16 (sixteen investigated strains of C. jejuni and C. coli, 9 (nine strains were resistant to ciprofloxacine (56,2%, 2 (two strains to erythromycine (12,5% and 10 of investigated strains to tetracycline (62,5%.

  20. Effects of decontamination at varying contamination levels of Campylobacter jejuni on broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Wechter, Naja Strandby; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    When assessing effects of decontamination techniques on counts of Campylobacter spp. on broiler meat, it is essential that the results reflect the variations that may exist. Decontamination studies often use high inoculation levels (107 to 108 cfu) and one or few strains of Campylobacter jejuni......, thereby restricting the results to reflect only a limited part of the true situation. This study presents results from physical and chemical decontamination of broiler meat medallions using different strains and different initial concentrations of C. jejuni. For 3 strains of C. jejuni, mean log reductions...... obtained by freezing at −20°C for 7 d was significantly higher for an initial concentration of 107 cfu/sample on the meat compared with an initial concentration of 103 cfu/sample. For freezing at −20°C for 24 h or application of 6% tartaric acid and subsequent storage for 24 h, no statistically significant...

  1. Alternative bacteriophage life cycles: the carrier state of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siringan, Patcharin; Connerton, Phillippa L; Cummings, Nicola J; Connerton, Ian F

    2014-03-26

    Members of the genus Campylobacter are frequently responsible for human enteric disease, often through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Bacteriophages are viruses that have the potential to control pathogenic bacteria, but understanding their complex life cycles is key to their successful exploitation. Treatment of Campylobacter jejuni biofilms with bacteriophages led to the discovery that phages had established a relationship with their hosts typical of the carrier state life cycle (CSLC), where bacteria and bacteriophages remain associated in equilibrium. Significant phenotypic changes include improved aerotolerance under nutrient-limited conditions that would confer an advantage to survive in extra-intestinal environments, but a lack in motility eliminated their ability to colonize chickens. Under these circumstances, phages can remain associated with a compatible host and continue to produce free virions to prospect for new hosts. Moreover, we demonstrate that CSLC host bacteria can act as expendable vehicles for the delivery of bacteriophages to new host bacteria within pre-colonized chickens. The CSLC represents an important phase in the ecology of Campylobacter bacteriophage.

  2. Global Distribution of Campylobacter jejuni Penner Serotypes: A Systematic Review.

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    Brian L Pike

    Full Text Available Penner serotyping has been the principal method for differentiating Campylobacter isolates since its inception. Campylobacter capsule polysaccharide (CPS, the principal serodeterminant on which Penner serotyping is based, is presently of interest as a vaccine component. To determine the required valency of an effective CPS-based vaccine, a comprehensive understanding of CPS distribution is needed. Because of the association between Penner serotype and CPS, we conducted a systematic review to estimate the frequency and distribution of Penner serotypes associated with cases of Campylobacteriosis. In total, more than 21,000 sporadic cases of C. jejuni cases were identified for inclusion. While regional variation exists, distribution estimates indicate that eight serotypes accounted for more than half of all sporadic diarrheal cases globally and three serotypes (HS4 complex, HS2, and HS1/44 were dominant inter-regionally as well as globally. Furthermore, a total of 17 different serotypes reached a representation of 2% or greater in at least one of the five regions sampled. While this review is an important first step in defining CPS distribution, these results make it clear that significant gaps remain in our knowledge. Eliminating these gaps will be critical to future vaccine development efforts.

  3. Prenatal exome sequencing in anomalous fetuses: new opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Neeta L; Powell, Bradford; Brandt, Alicia; Strande, Natasha; Hardisty, Emily; Gilmore, Kelly; Foreman, Ann Katherine M; Wilhelmsen, Kirk; Bizon, Chris; Reilly, Jason; Owen, Phil; Powell, Cynthia M; Skinner, Debra; Rini, Christine; Lyerly, Anne D; Boggess, Kim A; Weck, Karen; Berg, Jonathan S; Evans, James P

    2017-11-01

    PurposeWe investigated the diagnostic and clinical performance of exome sequencing in fetuses with sonographic abnormalities with normal karyotype and microarray and, in some cases, normal gene-specific sequencing.MethodsExome sequencing was performed on DNA from 15 anomalous fetuses and from the peripheral blood of their parents. Parents provided consent to be informed of diagnostic results in the fetus, medically actionable findings in the parents, and their identification as carrier couples for significant autosomal recessive conditions. We assessed the perceptions and understanding of exome sequencing using mixed methods in 15 mother-father dyads.ResultsIn seven (47%) of 15 fetuses, exome sequencing provided a diagnosis or possible diagnosis with identification of variants in the following genes: COL1A1, MUSK, KCTD1, RTTN, TMEM67, PIEZO1 and DYNC2H1. One additional case revealed a de novo nonsense mutation in a novel candidate gene (MAP4K4). The perceived likelihood that exome sequencing would explain the results (5.2 on a 10-point scale) was higher than the approximately 30% diagnostic yield discussed in pretest counseling.ConclusionExome sequencing had diagnostic utility in a highly select population of fetuses where a genetic diagnosis was highly suspected. Challenges related to genetics literacy and variant interpretation must be addressed by highly tailored pre- and posttest genetic counseling.

  4. Biological roles of the O-methyl phosphoramidate capsule modification in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke B van Alphen

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and the capsular polysaccharide (CPS of this organism is required for persistence and disease. C. jejuni produces over 47 different capsular structures, including a unique O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN modification present on most C. jejuni isolates. Although the MeOPN structure is rare in nature it has structural similarity to some synthetic pesticides. In this study, we have demonstrated, by whole genome comparisons and high resolution magic angle spinning NMR, that MeOPN modifications are common to several Campylobacter species. Using MeOPN biosynthesis and transferase mutants generated in C. jejuni strain 81-176, we observed that loss of MeOPN from the cell surface correlated with increased invasion of Caco-2 epithelial cells and reduced resistance to killing by human serum. In C. jejuni, the observed serum mediated killing was determined to result primarily from activation of the classical complement pathway. The C. jejuni MeOPN transferase mutant showed similar levels of colonization relative to the wild-type in chickens, but showed a five-fold drop in colonization when co-infected with the wild-type in piglets. In Galleria mellonella waxmoth larvae, the MeOPN transferase mutant was able to kill the insects at wild-type levels. Furthermore, injection of the larvae with MeOPN-linked monosaccharides or CPS purified from the wild-type strain did not result in larval killing, indicating that MeOPN does not have inherent insecticidal activity.

  5. The isolation and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages from free range and indoor poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jane; Barton, Mary D; Heuzenroeder, Michael W

    2013-02-22

    Six hundred and sixty one samples - primarily fresh chicken faeces - were processed to isolate wild type Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages, via overlay agar methods using C. jejuni NCTC 12662. The aims of this study were to isolate and purify bacteriophages and then test for their ability to lyse field strains of C. jejuni in vitro. Of all samples processed, 130 were positive for bacteriophages. A distinct difference was observed between samples from different poultry enterprises. No bacteriophages could be isolated from indoor broilers. The majority of bacteriophages were isolated from free range poultry - both broilers and egg layers. Bacteriophages were purified and then selected for characterization based on their ability to produce clear lysis on plaque assay, as opposed to turbid plaques. Two hundred and forty one C. jejuni field isolates were tested for sensitivity to the bacteriophages. Lysis was graded subjectively and any minimal lysis was excluded. Using this system, 59.0% of the C. jejuni isolates showed significant sensitivity to at least one bacteriophage. The sensitivity to individual bacteriophages ranged from 10.0% to 32.5% of the C. jejuni isolates. Five bacteriophages were examined by electron microscopy and determined to belong to the Myoviridae family. The physical size, predicted genetic composition and genome size of the bacteriophages correlated well with other reported Campylobacter bacteriophages. The reasons for the observed difference between indoor broilers and free range poultry is unknown, but are postulated to be due to differences in the Campylobacter population in birds under different rearing conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antibodies, directed towards Campylobacter jejuni antigens, in sera from poultry abattoir workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthraw, S A; Lind, L; Kaijser, B; Newell, D G

    2000-01-01

    Occupational exposure of susceptible humans to Campylobacter jejuni appears to result in resistance to disease. This is believed to be due to acquired protective immunity. To support this hypothesis the levels of C. jejuni-specific IgG and IgM antibodies were determined in sera from poultry abattoir workers. Such individuals are persistently exposed to C. jejuni, but apparently rarely acquire campylobacteriosis. Sera from 43 short-term workers (employed ≤1 month), 78 long-term workers and 40 blood donors were investigated by ELISA. In 51 individuals a second serum sample, taken at least 1 month after the first, was also investigated. Eight workers had C. jejuni-positive faecal cultures and only one, a short-term worker, had symptoms of campylobacteriosis. There were significantly higher levels of specific IgG antibodies in long-term workers than in either of the other groups. There was no significant difference detectable in specific IgM antibody levels between any of the groups. The results provide supporting evidence that long-term exposure to C. jejuni induces circulating antibodies which reflect apparent reduced susceptibility to disease. Western blotting showed flagellin and polypeptides of 45, 40, 32 and 30 kD bound antibodies significantly more frequently by sera from long-term workers than short-term workers and blood donors. The most commonly detected antigens were the 40-kD (80%) and flagellin (55%). The results indicate that specific serum IgG responses induced by endemic exposure to C. jejuni might be directed towards a small number of protein antigens with apparently conserved epitopes. PMID:11012618

  7. Interleukin-18 Mediates Immune Responses to Campylobacter jejuni Infection in Gnotobiotic Mice.

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    Stefan Bereswill

    Full Text Available Human Campylobacter jejuni infections are progressively rising worldwide. Information about the molecular mechanisms underlying campylobacteriosis, however, are limited. In the present study we investigated whether cytokines such as IL-23, IL-22 and IL-18, which share pivotal functions in host immunity, were involved in mediating intestinal and systemic immunopathological responses upon C. jejuni infection.To assure stable infection, gnotobiotic (i.e. secondary abiotic IL-23p19-/-, IL-22-/- and IL-18-/- mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. Following peroral C. jejuni strain 81-176 infection, mice of all genotypes harbored comparably high pathogenic loads in their intestines. As compared to wildtype controls, however, IL-18-/- mice displayed less distinct C. jejuni induced sequelae as indicated by less pronounced large intestinal shrinkage and lower numbers of apoptotic cells in the colonic epithelial layer at day 8 postinfection (p.i.. Furthermore, lower colonic numbers of adaptive immune cells including regulatory T cells and B lymphocytes were accompanied by less distinct secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF and IFN-γ and lower IL-17A mRNA expression levels in colonic ex vivo biopsies of infected IL-18-/- as compared to wildtype mice. Upon C. jejuni infection, colonic IL-23p19 expression was up-regulated in IL-18-/- mice only, whereas IL-22 mRNA levels were lower in uninfected and infected IL-23p19-/- as well as infected IL-18-/- as compared to respective wildtype control mice. Remarkably, not only intestinal, but also systemic infection-induced immune responses were less pronounced in IL-18-/- mice as indicated by lower TNF, IFN-γ and IL-6 serum levels as compared to wildtype mice.We here show for the first time that IL-18 is essentially involved in mediating C. jejuni infection in the gnotobiotic mouse model. Future studies need to further unravel the underlying regulatory mechanisms orchestrating

  8. Vitaliana primuliflora subsp. assoana. Nueva cita para la Comunidad Valenciana (Vitaliana primuliflora subsp. assoana, new record for valencian flora

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    Amparo OLIVARES

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se comunica el hallazgo de una localidad situada entre el límite noroeste de la provincia de Valencia y el sureste de la de Teruel donde se ha encontrado Vitaliana primuliflora subsp. assoana, nueva población de esta especie para la Comunidad Valenciana.SUMMARY: This paper reports the discovery of a new location from the northwest boundary of the province of Valencia and south of Teruel (E Spain where found Vitaliana primuliflora subsp. assoana, new population of this species to Valencia.

  9. Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. fusiforme Gharbia and Shah 1992 is a later synonym of Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. vincentii Dzink et al. 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kook, Joong-Ki; Park, Soon-Nang; Lim, Yun Kyong; Choi, Mi-Hwa; Cho, Eugene; Kong, Si-Won; Shin, Yeseul; Paek, Jayoung; Chang, Young-Hyo

    2013-04-01

    On the basis of the DNA-DNA hybridization patterns and phenotypic characteristics, Fusobacterium nucleatum was classified into five subspecies. Previous studies have suggested that F. nucleatum subsp. vincentii is genetically similar to F. nucleatum subsp. fusiforme. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of classifying these two subspecies into a single subspecies by phylogenetic analysis using a single sequence (24,715 bp) concatenated 22 housekeeping genes of eight F. nucleatum strains including type strains of five F. nucleatum subspecies. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that F. nucleatum subsp. vincentii and F. nucleatum subsp. fusiforme were clustered in the same group and each strain of other F. nucleatum subspecies were also separated into the same cluster. These results suggested that F. nucleatum subsp. fusiforme and F. nucleatum subsp. vincentii can be classified into a single subspecies. F. nucleatum subsp. vincentii was early published name; therefore, F. nucleatum subsp. fusiforme Gharbia and Shah 1992 can be regarded as a later synonym of F. nucleatum subsp. vincentii Dzink et al. 1990.

  10. Identification of immunogenic and virulence-associated Campylobacter jejuni proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Luijkx, Thomas A.; Vegge, Christina Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    after sequencing. Selected candidate genes were inactivated in C. jejuni NCTC 11168, and the virulence was examined using INT 407 epithelial cell line and motility, biofilm, autoagglutination, and serum resistance assays. These investigations revealed C. jejuni antigen 0034c (Cj0034c) to be a novel...... virulence factor and support the usefulness of the method. Further, several antigens were tested as vaccine candidates in two mouse models, in which Cj0034c, Cj0404, and Cj0525c resulted in a reduction of invasion in spleen and liver after challenge....

  11. Analysis of putative chemoreceptor proteins of Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Bang, Dang D.

    Campylobacter jejuni is the primary food borne bacterial pathogen in the developed world. A very important reservoir for C. jejuni is the gut of chickens, which are colonized efficiently and commensally by this organism. Predominantly the mucus filled crypts of the lower gastrointestinal tract...... substances dispensed in filter discs on PBS softagar. Interestingly, strong attractions towards substances with low pH were observed repeatedly in the filter assay but not in the capillary assay. However, there were no striking chemotactic difference between the mutants and the parental strain, hence...

  12. Effect of environmental stress factors on the uptake and survival of Campylobacter jejuni in Acanthamoeba castellanii

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    Bui Xuan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial food-borne illness in Europe and North America. The mechanisms allowing survival in the environment and transmission to new hosts are not well understood. Environmental free-living protozoa may facilitate both processes. Pre-exposure to heat, starvation, oxidative or osmotic stresses encountered in the environment may affect the subsequent interaction of C. jejuni with free-living protozoa. To test this hypothesis, we examined the impact of environmental stress on expression of virulence-associated genes (ciaB, dnaJ, and htrA of C. jejuni and on its uptake by and intracellular survival within Acanthamoeba castellanii. Results Heat, starvation and osmotic stress reduced the survival of C. jejuni significantly, whereas oxidative stress had no effect. Quantitative RT-PCR experiments showed that the transcription of virulence genes was slightly up-regulated under heat and oxidative stresses but down-regulated under starvation and osmotic stresses, the htrA gene showing the largest down-regulation in response to osmotic stress. Pre-exposure of bacteria to low nutrient or osmotic stress reduced bacterial uptake by amoeba, but no effect of heat or oxidative stress was observed. Finally, C. jejuni rapidly lost viability within amoeba cells and pre-exposure to oxidative stress had no significant effect on intracellular survival. However, the numbers of intracellular bacteria recovered 5 h post-gentamicin treatment were lower with starved, heat treated or osmotically stressed bacteria than with control bacteria. Also, while ~1.5 × 103 colony forming unit/ml internalized bacteria could typically be recovered 24 h post-gentamicin treatment with control bacteria, no starved, heat treated or osmotically stressed bacteria could be recovered at this time point. Overall, pre-exposure of C. jejuni to environmental stresses did not promote intracellular survival in A. castellanii

  13. Phase variable expression of capsular polysaccharide modifications allows Campylobacter jejuni to avoid bacteriophage infection in chickens

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    Martine Camilla Holst Sørensen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages are estimated to be the most abundant entities on earth and can be found in every niche where their bacterial hosts reside. The initial interaction between phages and Campylobacter jejuni, a common coloniser of poultry intestines and a major source of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans, is not well understood. Recently, we isolated and characterised a phage F336 resistant variant of C. jejuni NCTC11168 called 11168R. Comparisons of 11168R with the wildtype lead to the identification of a novel phage receptor, the phase variable O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN moiety of the C. jejuni capsular polysaccharide (CPS. In this study we demonstrate that the 11168R strain has gained cross-resistance to four other phages in our collection (F198, F287, F303 and F326. The reduced plaquing efficiencies suggested that MeOPN is recognized as a receptor by several phages infecting C. jejuni. To further explore the role of CPS modifications in C. jejuni phage recognition and infectivity, we tested the ability of F198, F287, F303, F326 and F336 to infect different CPS variants of NCTC11168, including defined CPS mutants. These strains were characterised by high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy. We found that in addition to MeOPN, the phase variable 3-O-Me and 6-O-Me groups of the NCTC11168 CPS structure may influence the plaquing efficiencies of the phages. Furthermore, co-infection of chickens with both C. jejuni NCTC11168 and phage F336 resulted in selection of resistant C. jejuni bacteria, which either lack MeOPN or gain 6-O-Me groups on their surface, demonstrating that resistance can be acquired in vivo. In summary, we have shown that phase variable CPS structures modulate phage infectivity in C. jejuni and suggest that the constant phage predation in the avian gut selects for changes in these structures leading to a continuing phage-host co-evolution.

  14. A case of myopericarditis associated to Campylobacter jejuni infection in the southern hemisphere

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    Alberto Fica

    Full Text Available Myopericarditis is an infrequent complication of acute diarrheal illness due to Campylobacter jejuni, and it has been mainly reported in developed nations. The first case detected in Chile - an upper-middle income country -, that is coincidental with the increasing importance of acute gastroenteritis associated to this pathogen, is described. Recognition of this agent in stools requires special laboratory techniques not widely available, and it was suspected when a young patient presented with acute diarrhea, fever, and chest pain combined with electrocardiogram (EKG abnormalities and elevated myocardial enzymes. C. jejuni myopericarditis can easily be suspected but its detection requires dedicated laboratory techniques.

  15. Natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni occurs beyond limits of growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Ligowska, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    to be one of the main mechanisms for mediating transfer of genetic material and evolution of the organism. Given the diverse habitats of C. jejuni we set out to examine how environmental conditions and physiological processes affect natural transformation of C. jejuni. We show that the efficiency...... dependent process, that occurs in the absence of transcription but requires an active translational machinery. Moreover, we show the ATP dependent ClpP protease to be important for transformation, which possibly could be associated with reduced protein glycosylation in the ClpP mutant. In contrast...

  16. Overexpression of esterase D in kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughna, S.; Moore, G. (Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, London (United Kingdom)); Gau, G.; Blunt, S. (Cytogenetics Lab., London (United Kingdom)); Nicolaides, K. (King' s College School of Medicine and Dentistry, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-10-01

    Human trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) occurs in approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. It is compatible with life, but prolonged survival is rare. Anomalies often involve the urogenital, cardiac, craniofacial, and central nervous systems. It is possible that these abnormalities may be due to the overexpression of developmentally important genes on chromosome 13. The expression of esterase D (localized to chromosome 13q14.11) has been investigated in both muscle and kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses and has been compared with normal age- and sex-matched fetal tissues, by using northern analysis. More than a twofold increase in expression of esterase D was found in the kidney of two trisomy 13 fetuses, with normal levels in a third. Overexpression was not seen in the muscle tissues from these fetuses. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Overexpression of esterase D in kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughna, S; Bennett, P; Gau, G; Nicolaides, K; Blunt, S; Moore, G

    1993-01-01

    Human trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) occurs in approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. It is compatible with life, but prolonged survival is rare. Anomalies often involve the urogenital, cardiac, craniofacial, and central nervous systems. It is possible that these abnormalities may be due to the overexpression of developmentally important genes on chromosome 13. The expression of esterase D (localized to chromosome 13q14.11) has been investigated in both muscle and kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses and has been compared with normal age- and sex-matched fetal tissues, by using northern analysis. More than a twofold increase in expression of esterase D was found in the kidney of two trisomy 13 fetuses, with normal levels in a third. Overexpression was not seen in the muscle tissues from these fetuses. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8213811

  18. Laminaria japonica Extract, an Inhibitor of Clavibater michiganense Subsp. Sepedonicum.

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    Jin Cai

    Full Text Available Bacterial ring rot of potato is one of the most serious potato plant and tuber diseases. Laminaria japonica extract was investigated for its antimicrobial activity against Clavibater michiganense subsp. sepedonicum (Spieckermann & Kotthoff Davis et al., the causative agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions of antimicrobial substances from L. japonica were an extraction temperature of 80°C, an extraction time of 12 h, and a solid to liquid ratio of 1∶25. Active compounds of L. japonica were isolated by solvent partition, thin layer chromatography (TLC and column chromatography. All nineteen fractionations had antimicrobial activities against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum, while Fractionation three (Fr.3 had the highest (P<0.05 antimicrobial activity. Chemical composition analysis identified a total of 26 components in Fr.3. The main constituents of Fr.3 were alkanes (80.97%, esters (5.24%, acids (4.87% and alcohols (2.21%. Antimicrobial activity of Fr.3 against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum could be attributed to its ability to damage the cell wall and cell membrane, induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, increase cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, inhibit the glycolytic pathway (EMP and tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis, and disrupt the normal cycle of DNA replication. These findings indicate that L. japonica extracts have potential for inhibiting C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum.

  19. Laminaria japonica Extract, an Inhibitor of Clavibater michiganense Subsp. Sepedonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jin; Feng, Jia; Xie, Shulian; Wang, Feipeng; Xu, Qiufeng

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial ring rot of potato is one of the most serious potato plant and tuber diseases. Laminaria japonica extract was investigated for its antimicrobial activity against Clavibater michiganense subsp. sepedonicum (Spieckermann & Kotthoff) Davis et al., the causative agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions of antimicrobial substances from L. japonica were an extraction temperature of 80°C, an extraction time of 12 h, and a solid to liquid ratio of 1∶25. Active compounds of L. japonica were isolated by solvent partition, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography. All nineteen fractionations had antimicrobial activities against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum, while Fractionation three (Fr.3) had the highest (P<0.05) antimicrobial activity. Chemical composition analysis identified a total of 26 components in Fr.3. The main constituents of Fr.3 were alkanes (80.97%), esters (5.24%), acids (4.87%) and alcohols (2.21%). Antimicrobial activity of Fr.3 against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum could be attributed to its ability to damage the cell wall and cell membrane, induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increase cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, inhibit the glycolytic pathway (EMP) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis, and disrupt the normal cycle of DNA replication. These findings indicate that L. japonica extracts have potential for inhibiting C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum.

  20. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, immunology and pathology of livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in ruminants leads to a chronic and progressive enteric disease (Johne’s disease) that results in loss of intestinal function, poor body condition, and eventual death. Transmission is primarily through a fecal-oral route in neonates but con...

  1. Comparative genomics of extrachromosomal elements in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotin, Alexandre; Gillis, Annika; Sanchis, Vincent; Nielsen-LeRoux, Christina; Mahillon, Jacques; Lereclus, Didier; Sorokin, Alexei

    2017-05-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is one of the most important microorganisms used against mosquitoes. It was intensively studied following its discovery and became a model bacterium of the B. thuringiensis species. Those studies focused on toxin genes, aggregation-associated conjugation, linear genome phages, etc. Recent announcements of genomic sequences of different strains have not been explicitly related to the biological properties studied. We report data on plasmid content analysis of four strains using ultra-high-throughput sequencing. The strains were commercial product isolates, with their putative ancestor and type B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strain sequenced earlier. The assembled contigs corresponding to published and novel data were assigned to plasmids described earlier in B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and other B. thuringiensis strains. A new 360 kb plasmid was identified, encoding multiple transporters, also found in most of the earlier sequenced strains. Our genomic data show the presence of two toxin-coding plasmids of 128 and 100 kb instead of the reported 225 kb plasmid, a co-integrate of the former two. In two of the sequenced strains, only a 100 kb plasmid was present. Some heterogeneity exists in the small plasmid content and structure between strains. These data support the perception of active plasmid exchange among B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strains in nature. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii Genotype III▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenas, Maria B.; Bradley, Julie; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Takara, Matt; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2008-01-01

    The molecular characterization of a Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype III strain (NCSU strain 06-CO1) isolated from the blood of a military working dog diagnosed with endocarditis is reported in this study. Several genes were amplified and sequenced for comparative sequence similarity with other strains. PMID:18367567

  3. New Iridoid Glycosides from Lamium eriocephalum subsp. eriocephalum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yalcin, Funda Nuray; Ersöz, Tayfun; Avci, Kürsat

    2007-01-01

    Two new iridoid glycosides, eriobioside (1) and lamerioside (2) were isolated from the aerial parts of Lamium eriocephalum subsp. eriocephalum, along with two known componds, lamiide (3) and ipolamiide (4). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (UV, 1D- and 2D-NMR) and by mass...

  4. Fitness and its variation among populations of Acacia tortilis subsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-07-23

    Jul 23, 2008 ... Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana (Fabaceae) plays an important role in the life of desert animals and is a major source of livestock feed ... raddiana grows in desert wadis and sandy plains, usually in water catchments areas in ...... Randomization and Monte Carlo Methods in Biology. Chapman & Hall, London.

  5. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Infections Associated with Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrea; Levine, Seth J.; Garvin, Joseph P.; Brown, Susan; Turner, Lauren; Fritzinger, Angela; Gertz, Robert E.; Murphy, Julia M.; Vogt, Marshall; Beall, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is a known zoonotic pathogen. In this public health investigation conducted in Virginia, USA, in 2013, we identified a probable family cluster of S. zooepidemicus cases linked epidemiologically and genetically to infected guinea pigs. S. zooepidemicus infections should be considered in patients who have severe clinical illness and report guinea pig exposure. PMID:25531424

  6. Recurrent Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Bacteremia in an Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joshua R; Leber, Amy; Velineni, Sridhar; Timoney, John F; Ardura, Monica I

    2015-09-01

    We describe a case of an infant with recurrent bacteremia caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, likely transmitted from mother to infant. Our case highlights the importance of an epidemiological history and molecular diagnostics in ascertaining insights into transmission, pathogenesis, and optimal management. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Ivica; Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B.; Alam, Maqsudul; Murrell, J. Colin; Dunfield, Peter F.

    2010-01-01

    Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica is an aerobic, acidophilic, exopolysaccharide-producing, N2-fixing soil bacterium. It is a generalist chemoorganotroph that is phylogenetically closely related to facultative and obligate methanotrophs of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium. PMID:20601475

  8. Complete genome sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Ivica; Dedysh, Svetlana N; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B; Alam, Maqsudul; Murrell, J Colin; Dunfield, Peter F

    2010-09-01

    Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica is an aerobic, acidophilic, exopolysaccharide-producing, N(2)-fixing soil bacterium. It is a generalist chemoorganotroph that is phylogenetically closely related to facultative and obligate methanotrophs of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium.

  9. Factors affecting survival of Clavibacter michiganesis subsp. sepedonicus in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The survival of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms), the causal organism of bacterial ring rot in potato, was studied in water, to assess the risks for dissemination of Cms via surface water and infection of potato crops by irrigation. Cms was able to survive for a maximum period of 7

  10. The effects of aqueous root extract of Senna italica subsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aqueous root extracts of Senna italica subsp. arachoides on the feeding performance of adults of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes in three consecutive infestations of rabbits were studied under laboratory conditions. Rabbits were divided into treatment group (n = 3), fed aqueous root extracts and rabbit pellets ...

  11. Knowledge on Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra with emphasis on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge on Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra with emphasis on its importance as a non-timber forest product in South and southern Africa: a summary: part 2: commercial use, tenure and policy, domestication, intellectual property rights and benefit-sharing: review paper.

  12. Plant regeneration of Brassica oleracea subsp. italica (Broccoli) CV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Department of Agriculture Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul. Ehsan, Malaysia. Accepted 20 March, 2009. Hypocotyls and shoot tips were used as explants in in vitro plant regeneration of broccoli (Brassica oleracea subsp.italica) cv. Green Marvel.

  13. Fitness and its variation among populations of Acacia tortilis subsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, this study aims to determine if A. tortilis subsp. raddiana populations suffer reduced fitness and its correlation or association with genetic diversity and mating parameters. Correlations and association between fitness, population size, genetic variation, and mating system parameters were tested using Spearman ...

  14. Sensitive and rapid detection of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-21

    May 21, 2014 ... The LAMP assay was able to detect MCCP in tissue. Key words: Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. Capripneumoniae, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, rapid detection. INTRODUCTION. Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a severe infectious disease of goats caused by Mycoplasma.

  15. ORF Sequence: NC_002163 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002163 gi|15792064 >gi|15792064|ref|NP_281887.1| transthyretin-like periplasmic... protein [Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni NCTC 11168] MFSIKKTLLILASVPMFLSATEYQLSTHVLDITSGQPAPKVKVELYKLEAN

  16. Dose absorbed in the fetus by radioactive drugs prescribed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Gomez Parada, I.; Di Trano, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    This work aims to review existing guidelines on the hypothesis that must be taken into account when calculating impact from the dose on the fetus for widely employed radioactive drugs. Recent research is added giving data on placenta transference linked to pregnancy term. The most widely used diagnostic and therapeutic practices are analyzed comparing the dose impact on the fetus with limits internationally accepted. This will allow having the necessary tools to answer questions concerning radiological risks due to the administration of radioactive drugs to pregnant women

  17. Maternal homocystinuria: studies of an untreated mother and fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczynski, T W; Muir, W A; Fleisher, L D; Palomaki, J F; Gaull, G E; Rassin, D K; Abramowsky, C

    1980-01-01

    A 20-year-old woman with untreated homocystinuria was examined when she was 18 weeks' pregnant. Amniocentesis was performed and raised levels of homocystine and methionine were present in the amniotic fluid. Assay of cystathionine synthetase activity in cultured amniotic fluid cells showed the carrier state for homocystinuria. An abortion was performed because of the possible adverse effects of continuing the pregnancy both for the mother and the fetus. No pathological abnormality was found in the aborted fetus. Further data are needed to assess the possible teratogenic effects of maternal homocystinuria and the adverse consequences of pregnancy in the affected mother. PMID:7436540

  18. [Multiple-fetus pregnancies. I. Myths and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaksmann, S; Bouchard, P; Monnier, J C

    1990-01-01

    Pregnancies with many fetuses (triplets and more) have at all times been found interesting and unusual. Their rare and spectacular characteristics have for long been considered as divine punishment for the sin of adultery or bestiality or on the other hand as a mark of fertility and a gift from God. The authors report several legends (the Porcelets, the Trazegnies, la Dame de Montigny...) as well as the celebrated cases of fraud. Since techniques have been developed for medical handling of assisted reproduction, multiple pregnancies have become much more frequent. There is no case of survival of all fetuses when there have been more than six born at a time.

  19. Concurrent conjunctivitis and placentitis in aborted bovine fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R D

    1991-11-01

    Consistent histopathological lesions were found in 10 out of 136 aborted fetuses examined during a three year period, using a multi-disciplinary diagnostic investigation technique. Fetuses exhibited a generalized mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration, accompanied by distinctive lesions of conjunctival hyperplasia and goblet cell formation, alveolitis, and necrotic placentitis. In two cases where amnion was also examined, a chronic amnionitis was present. No consistent laboratory findings could be related to these cases. The fetal and placental lesions described were similar to those associated with experimental inoculation of Ureaplasma diversum in pregnant cows, and with field isolations of the same organism in aborting cattle.

  20. Biologically Active Chorionic Gonadotropin: Synthesis by the Human Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, W. G.; Kuhn, R. W.; Jaffe, R. B.

    1983-04-01

    The kidney, and to a slight extent the liver, of human fetuses were found to synthesize and secrete the α subunit common to glycoprotein hormones. Fetal lung and muscle did not synthesize this protein. Since fetal kidney and liver were previously found to synthesize β chorionic gonadotropin, their ability to synthesize bioactive chorionic gonadotropin was also determined. The newly synthesized hormone bound to mouse Leydig cells and elicited a biological response: namely, the synthesis of testosterone. These results suggest that the human fetus may participate in metabolic homeostasis during its development.

  1. The definition of harmonious development of fetus by ultrasound method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Sokolovska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is a very important problem of determining the harmonious development of the fetus during determining the tactics of delivery breech presentation. The aim of the study was to determine the ratio of the harmonious development of the fetus at different gestational periods. Methods and results. For all study groups determined biparietal, fronto-occipital diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, shoulder length, thigh length. For all investigated values of the ratio it was uneven and deviates from the standard distribution. Conclusion. Some pregnant women who have not deviations from the standard deviation, or have only one indicator increases with gestational age.

  2. Hyperendemic Campylobacter jejuni in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) raised for food in a semi-rural community of Quito, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jay P; Vasco, Karla; Trueba, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Domestic animals and animal products are the source of pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in industrialized countries, yet little is known about the transmission of these bacteria in developing countries. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are commonly raised for food in the Andean region of South America, however, limited research has characterized this rodent as a reservoir of zoonotic enteric pathogens. In this study, we examined the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in 203 fecal samples from domestic animals of 59 households in a semi-rural parish of Quito, Ecuador. Of the twelve animal species studied, guinea pigs showed the highest prevalence of C. jejuni (n = 39/40; 97.5%). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to characterize the genetic relationship of C. jejuni from domestic animals and 21 sequence types (STs) were identified. The majority of STs from guinea pigs appeared to form new clonal complexes that were not related to STs of C. jejuni isolated from other animal species and shared only a few alleles with other C. jejuni previously characterized. The study identifies guinea pigs as a major reservoir of C. jejuni and suggests that some C. jejuni strains are adapted to this animal species. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Important role of a putative lytic transglycosylase Cj0843c in β-lactam resistance in Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximin eZeng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Beta-lactam antibiotics are an important class of antibiotics for treating bacterial infections. Despite prevalent β-lactam resistance in Campylobacter jejuni, the leading bacterial cause of human diarrhea in developed countries, molecular mechanism of β-lactam resistance in C. jejuni is still largely unknown. In this study, C. jejuni 81-176 was used for random transposon mutagenesis. Screening of a 2,800-mutant library identified 22 mutants with increased susceptibility to ampicillin. Of these mutants, two mutants contains mutations in Cj0843c (a putative lytic transglycosylase gene and in its upstream gene Cj0844c, respectively. Molecular manipulation in different strains demonstrated that Cj0843c contributes to both intrinsic and acquired β-lactam resistance in C. jejuni. Consistent with this finding, inactivation of Cj0843c also dramatically reduced β-lactamase activity. Genomic examination and PCR analysis showed Cj0843c is widely distributed in C. jejuni. The Cj0843 was localized in the periplasm as demonstrated by immunoblotting using specific antibodies. Turbidimetric assay further demonstrated the capability of the purified Cj0843c to hydrolyze cell walls. Inactivation of Cj0843c also significantly reduced C. jejuni colonization in the intestine. Together, this study identifies a mechanism of β-lactam resistance in C. jejuni and provides insights into the role of cell wall metabolism in regulating β-lactamase activity.

  4. Quantification and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in raw chicken meats using a real-time PCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Joonbae; Jung, Woo Kyung; Kim, Jun Man; Kim, So Hyun; Koo, Hye Cheong; Ser, Junghee; Park, Yong Ho

    2007-09-01

    Campylobacter species are one of the most common causes of bacterial diarrhea in humans worldwide. The consumption of foods contaminated with two Campylobacter species, C. jejuni and C. coli, is usually associated with most of the infections in humans. In this study, a rapid, reliable, and sensitive multiplex real-time quantitative PCR was developed for the simultaneous detection, identification, and quantification of C. jejuni and C. coli. In addition, the developed method was applied to the 50 samples of raw chicken meat collected from retail stores in Korea. C. jejuni and C. coli were detected in 88 and 86% of the samples by real-time quantitative PCR and the conventional microbiological method, respectively. The specificity of the primer and probe sets was confirmed with 30 C. jejuni, 20 C. coli, and 35 strains of other microbial species. C. jejuni and C. coli could be detected with high specificity in less than 4 h, with a detection limit of 1 log CFU/ml by the developed real-time PCR. The average counts (log CFU per milliliter) of C. jejuni or C. coli obtained by the conventional methods and by the real-time PCR assay were statistically correlated with a correlation coefficient (R2) between 0.73 and 0.78. The real-time PCR assay developed in this study is useful for screening for the presence and simultaneous differential quantification of C. jejuni and C. coli.

  5. Characterization of Escherichia coli from raw poultry in Belgium and impact on the detection of Campylobacter jejuni using Bolton broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasson, Vicky; Sampers, Imca; Botteldoorn, Nadine; López-Gálvez, Francisco; Baert, Leen; Denayer, Sarah; Rajkovic, Andreja; Habib, Ihab; De Zutter, Lieven; Debevere, Johan; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2009-11-15

    A comparative study examining Bolton broth and Preston broth for enrichment and reliable detection of Campylobacter jejuni (both healthy and freeze stressed cells) was performed. Tested as pure cultures, Bolton broth enabled faster resuscitation and growth of C. jejuni compared to Preston broth. When C. jejuni was co-incubated with extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli isolated from Belgian poultry meat preparations, the latter dominated in the Bolton enrichment broth and crowded the mCCDA plates. This resulted in the inability to recover C. jejuni by ISO 10272-1:2006 standard method. Preston broth did not support the growth of the ESBL E. coli isolates, but showed longer detection time of C. jejuni compared to Bolton broth. The use of the same antibiotic (sodium cefoperazone) in Bolton broth and in mCCDA plates may explain the problems encountered for detection of C. jejuni, as high numbers of ESBL E. coli present after enrichment in Bolton broth, also caused overgrowth and masked the few C. jejuni colonies present on the mCCDA plates. The use of Campylobacter spp. specific real-time PCR circumvented these problems and enabled rapid detection of the pathogen after 24h enrichment in both Bolton and Preston broth, for both healthy and freeze stressed cells.

  6. Novel Temperate Phages of Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae and subsp. diarizonae and Their Activity against Pathogenic S. enterica subsp. enterica Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikalová, Lenka; Bosák, Juraj; Hříbková, Hana; Dědičová, Daniela; Benada, Oldřich; Šmarda, Jan; Šmajs, David

    2017-01-01

    Forty strains of Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) subspecies salamae (II), arizonae (IIIa), diarizonae (IIIb), and houtenae (IV) were isolated from human or environmental samples and tested for bacteriophage production. Production of bacteriophages was observed in 15 S. enterica strains (37.5%) belonging to either the subspecies salamae (8 strains) or diarizonae (7 strains). Activity of phages was tested against 52 pathogenic S. enterica subsp. enterica isolates and showed that phages produced by subsp. salamae had broader activity against pathogenic salmonellae compared to phages from the subsp. diarizonae. All 15 phages were analyzed using PCR amplification of phage-specific regions and 9 different amplification profiles were identified. Five phages (SEN1, SEN4, SEN5, SEN22, and SEN34) were completely sequenced and classified as temperate phages. Phages SEN4 and SEN5 were genetically identical, thus representing a single phage type (i.e. SEN4/5). SEN1 and SEN4/5 fit into the group of P2-like phages, while the SEN22 phage showed sequence relatedness to P22-like phages. Interestingly, while phage SEN34 was genetically distantly related to Lambda-like phages (Siphoviridae), it had the morphology of the Myoviridae family. Based on sequence analysis and electron microscopy, phages SEN1 and SEN4/5 were members of the Myoviridae family and phage SEN22 belonged to the Podoviridae family.

  7. Effect of chicken meat environment on gene expression of Campylobacter jejuni and its relevance to survival in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligowska, Małgorzata; Cohn, Marianne Thorup; Stabler, Richard A; Wren, Brendan W; Brøndsted, Lone

    2011-03-01

    Poultry meat is the major food source responsible for gastrointestinal infections caused by the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. Even though C. jejuni does not grow below 30 °C, the bacterium survives on raw meat surfaces at refrigerated temperatures and thus poses a risk to the consumer. Previously, we have shown that chicken meat juice prolongs survival of C. jejuni at 5 °C compared to laboratory medium, suggesting that compounds present in meat juice influence adaptation to low temperatures. In the present study we have used chicken meat juice to identify C. jejuni genes that are differentially expressed in a typical chicken meat environment encountered by consumers. The analysis showed that chicken meat juice increased expression of luxS involved in quorum sensing, as well as a gene involved in O-linked flagellin glycosylation in C. jejuni, while expression of haemin uptake and the peroxide stress response genes were reduced. Furthermore, we propose that LuxS may play a key role in adaptation to the chicken meat juice environment, as lack of the luxS gene reduces the ability of C. jejuni to survive in chicken meat juice at low temperature. Finally, our data suggest that part of an ABC transport system is induced and we speculate that uptake of cryoprotectants may be important for C. jejuni to adapt to low temperature. In summary, we found that C. jejuni has a specific but limited transcriptional response to chicken meat juice and that luxS has an impact on the prolonged survival of C. jejuni in this important environment in the food chain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Microbiota-Derived Short-Chain Fatty Acids Modulate Expression of Campylobacter jejuni Determinants Required for Commensalism and Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethy, Paul M; Huynh, Steven; Ribardo, Deborah A; Winter, Sebastian E; Parker, Craig T; Hendrixson, David R

    2017-05-09

    Campylobacter jejuni promotes commensalism in the intestinal tracts of avian hosts and diarrheal disease in humans, yet components of intestinal environments recognized as spatial cues specific for different intestinal regions by the bacterium to initiate interactions in either host are mostly unknown. By analyzing a C. jejuni acetogenesis mutant defective in converting acetyl coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) to acetate and commensal colonization of young chicks, we discovered evidence for in vivo microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and organic acids as cues recognized by C. jejuni that modulate expression of determinants required for commensalism. We identified a set of C. jejuni genes encoding catabolic enzymes and transport systems for amino acids required for in vivo growth whose expression was modulated by SCFAs. Transcription of these genes was reduced in the acetogenesis mutant but was restored upon supplementation with physiological concentrations of the SCFAs acetate and butyrate present in the lower intestinal tracts of avian and human hosts. Conversely, the organic acid lactate, which is abundant in the upper intestinal tract where C. jejuni colonizes less efficiently, reduced expression of these genes. We propose that microbiota-generated SCFAs and lactate are cues for C. jejuni to discriminate between different intestinal regions. Spatial gradients of these metabolites likely allow C. jejuni to locate preferred niches in the lower intestinal tract and induce expression of factors required for intestinal growth and commensal colonization. Our findings provide insights into the types of cues C. jejuni monitors in the avian host for commensalism and likely in humans to promote diarrheal disease. IMPORTANCE Campylobacter jejuni is a commensal of the intestinal tracts of avian species and other animals and a leading cause of diarrheal disease in humans. The types of cues sensed by C. jejuni to influence responses to promote commensalism or

  9. MLST genotypes of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler products, dairy cattle and human campylobacteriosis cases in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramonaite, Sigita; Tamuleviciene, Egle; Alter, Thomas; Kasnauskyte, Neringa; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2017-06-15

    Campylobacter (C.) jejuni is the leading cause of human campylobacteriosis worldwide. We performed a molecular epidemiological study to investigate the genetic relationship among C. jejuni strains isolated from human diarrhoeal patients, broiler products and dairy cattle in Lithuania. The C. jejuni isolates from human clinical cases, dairy cattle and broiler products were genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Allele numbers for each housekeeping gene, sequence type (ST), and clonal complex (CC) were assigned by submitting the DNA sequences to the C. jejuni MLST database ( http://pubmlst.org/campylobacter ). Based on the obtained sequence data of the housekeeping genes a phylogenetic analysis of the strains was performed and a minimum spanning tree (MST) was calculated. Among the 262 C. jejuni strains (consisting of 43 strains isolated from dairy cattle, 102 strains isolated from broiler products and 117 clinical human C. jejuni strains), 82 different MLST sequence types and 22 clonal complexes were identified. Clonal complexes CC21 and CC353 predominated among the C. jejuni strains. On ST-level, five sequence types (ST-5, ST-21, ST-50, ST-464 and ST-6410) were dominating and these five STs accounted for 35.9% (n = 94) of our isolates. In addition, 51 (19.5%) C. jejuni strains representing 27 (32.9%) STs were reported for the first time in the PubMLST database ( http://pubmlst.org/campylobacter ). The highest Czekanowski index or proportional similarity index (PSI) was calculated for C. jejuni strains isolated from human campylobacteriosis cases and broiler products (PSI = 0.32) suggesting a strong link between broiler strains and human cases. The PSI of dairy cattle and human samples was lower (PSI = 0.11), suggesting a weaker link between bovine strains and human cases. The calculated Simpson's index of all C. jejuni isolates showed a high genetic diversity (D = 0.96). Our results suggest that broiler products are the most important source of

  10. Right Ventricular Systolic-to-Diastolic Time Index: Hypoplastic Left Heart Fetuses Differ Significantly from Normal Fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaytou, Hythem M; Peyvandi, Shabnam; Brook, Michael M; Silverman, Norman; Moon-Grady, Anita J

    2016-02-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that right ventricular dysfunction in patients with palliated hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) originates in fetal life. In this study, the systolic-to-diastolic time index (SDI) was used to study the presence of ventricular dysfunction in single right ventricles in fetuses with HLHS or evolving HLHS and to assess whether this dysfunction is related to increase preload, myocardial performance, or interventricular interaction. Echocardiograms from 78 fetuses with HLHS and 10 with evolving HLHS were retrospectively compared with those of 78 normal control fetuses. Fetuses with HLHS were further grouped according to morphology of the left ventricle (LV): not visible (n = 35) or visible (n = 43). Spectral Doppler signals obtained from right ventricular inflow (blood pool) and tissue Doppler from the tricuspid lateral annulus were analyzed. The SDI was calculated as the ratio of the ejection time plus isovolumic contraction and relaxation times to the diastolic filling time. E/A and E/e' ratios, cardiac output, preload index, and Tei index were also calculated. Fetuses with HLHS demonstrated significantly elevated right ventricular SDI values by both blood pool Doppler and Doppler tissue imaging compared with control subjects (1.89 ± 0.33 vs 1.58 ± 0.29 [P LVs and those with evolving HLHS had significantly higher SDI values than fetuses with HLHS without visible LVs (no visible LV, 1.75 ± 0.22; visible LV, 2 ± 0.36; P = .001; evolving HLHS, 2.19 ± 0.68; P < .001). SDI was correlated with the Tei index (R = 0.58) and was more sensitive than the Tei index in identifying differences between the HLHS subgroups. Fetuses with evolving and overt HLHS exhibit abnormally increased SDI values in utero. This difference is likely related to inherently pathologic interventricular interactions and/or diastolic dysfunction of the right ventricle in fetuses with HLHS. Copyright © 2016 American Society of

  11. Antimicrobial edible apple films inactivate antibiotic resistant and susceptible Campylobacter jejuni strains on chicken breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial diarrheal illness worldwide. Many strains are now becoming multi-drug resistant. To help overcome this problem, apple-based edible films containing carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde were evaluated for their effectiveness against antibiotic resistant...

  12. Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin are invasive in chickens after oral challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Katrine Nørrelund; Bang, Dang Duong; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    to be associated with the Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in humans. The minimum dose for establishing colonization in the clay-old chickens was approximately 2 cfu, whereas two- to threefold higher doses were required for establishing colonization in the 14-day-old chickens. Two of the C jejuni strains were shown...

  13. Het Guillain-Barré-syndroom na een Campylobacter jejuni-enteritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenen, L. F.; Scholten, H. G.

    1990-01-01

    A 7-year-old boy nine days before onset of a Guillain-Barré-syndrome had had enteritis caused by Campylobacter jejuni. The clinical signs were restricted to minor motor and sensory deficits in the limbs; 5 weeks after the onset of the syndrome, recovery was complete. So far, 16 cases of

  14. Comparative antimicrobial activity of gatifloxacin tested against Campylobacter jejuni including fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, C L; Erwin, M E; Barrett, M S; Jones, R N

    1999-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important pathogen that causes gastroenteritis, as well as other disease states such as meningitis and septic arthritis. In this study, the Etest (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden) results were compared to a reference agar dilution method using gatifloxacin, a new 8-methoxyfluoroquinolone. A total of 53 strains of C. jejuni initially isolated from patients in California and Mexico were tested. Results demonstrated a high correlation (r = 0.88) between the two utilized in vitro dilution methods. In addition, gatifloxacin activity was compared to that of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole using the Etest. Gatifloxacin (MIC90, 4 micrograms/ml) was approximately eight- to 16-fold more potent than ciprofloxacin (Mic90, > 32 micrograms/ml), a commonly used fluoroquinolone for Campylobacter infections. Eight strains highly resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC90, > 32 micrograms/ml) were tested for cross resistance against the newer fluoroquinolones (gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin) and the rank order of potency was: gatifloxacin (MIC50, 16 micrograms/ml) > trovafloxacin = levofloxacin (MIC50, > 32 micrograms/mL). However, only 25% ciprofloxacin-resistant strains were inhibited by < or = 1 microgram/mL of gatifloxacin or trovafloxacin. These results for gatifloxacin against C. jejuni strains must be further assessed in the context of in vivo trials before the clinical role of this new fluoroquinolone can be determined. The Etest appears to be a simple and precise susceptibility test method for testing C. jejuni isolates against fluoroquinolones and other alternative therapeutic agents.

  15. Effect of environmental stress factors on the uptake and survival of Campylobacter jejuni in Acanthamoeba castellanii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Thanh Xuan; Qvortrup, Klaus; Wolff, Anders

    2012-01-01

    -exposure to heat, starvation, oxidative or osmotic stresses encountered in the environment may affect the subsequent interaction of C. jejuni with free-living protozoa. To test this hypothesis, we examined the impact of environmental stress on expression of virulence-associated genes (ciaB, dnaJ, and htrA) of C...

  16. Intracellular pH Campylobacter jejuni when treated with aqueous chlorine dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smigic, Nada; Rajkovic, Andreja; Arneborg, Nils

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the response of Campylobacter jejuni at single-cell level when exposed to different concentrations of chlorine dioxide (ClO2). The parameter of choice, intracellular pH (pHi), was determined by using fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy with a p...

  17. Bactericidal effect of hydrolysable and condensed tannin extracts on Campylobacter jejuni in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strategies are sought to reduce intestinal colonization of food-producing animals by Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human foodborne illness worldwide. Presently, we tested the antimicrobial activity of hydrolysable-rich blackberry, cranberry, chestnut tannin extracts, and conden...

  18. Identification of a functional type VI secretion system in Campylobacter jejuni conferring capsule polysaccharide sensitive cytotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleumink-Pluym, Nancy M C; van Alphen, Lieke B; Bouwman, Lieneke I; Wösten, MM; van Putten, Jos P M

    2013-01-01

    The pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the principal cause of bacterial food-borne infections. The mechanism(s) that contribute to bacterial survival and disease are still poorly understood. In other bacterial species, type VI secretion systems (T6SS) are increasingly recognized to contribute to

  19. Comparative population structure analysis of Campylobacter jejuni from human and poultry origin in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, Z; van Belkum, A; Wagenaar, Jaap; Cody, A J; de Boer, A G; Sarker, S K; Jacobs, B C; Talukder, K A; Endtz, H P

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of antecedent infections leading to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS). The objective of the present study was to define the genetic diversity, population structure, and potential role of poultry in the transmission of

  20. Comparative population structure analysis of Campylobacter jejuni from human and poultry origin in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, Z.; Belkum, van A.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Cody, A.J.; Boer, de A.G.; Sarker, S.K.; Jacobs, B.C.; Talukder, K.A.; Endtz, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of antecedent infections leading to Guillain-Barr, syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS). The objective of the present study was to define the genetic diversity, population structure, and potential role of poultry in the transmission of

  1. Ganglioside mimicry of Campylobacter jejuni lipopolysaccharides determines antiganglioside specificity in rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.W. Ang (Wim); P.G. Noordzij (Peter); M.A. de Klerk; H.P. Endtz (Hubert); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); J.D. Laman (Jon)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe core oligosaccharides of Campylobacter jejuni lipopolysaccharides (LPS) display molecular mimicry with gangliosides. Cross-reactive anti-LPS-antiganglioside antibodies have been implicated to show a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the Guillain-Barre and Miller

  2. A carvacrol wash and/or a chitosan based coating reduced Campylobacter jejuni on chicken wingettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne disease in humans, largely associated with consumption of contaminated poultry and poultry products. With increasing consumer demand for natural and minimally processed foods, the use of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status plant derived com...

  3. Population Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni in Poultry and Its Dynamic of Contamination in Chicken Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofolo, Giuliano; Di Donato, Guido; Cianciavicchia, Silvia; Alessiani, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the diversity of the Campylobacter jejuni population in broilers and to evaluate the major source of contamination in poultry meat. Eight rearing cycles over one year provided samples from three different broiler farms processed at the same slaughterhouse. A total of 707  C. jejuni were isolated from cloacal swabs before slaughter and from the breast skin of carcasses after slaughter and after chilling. All suspected Campylobacter colonies were identified with PCR assays and C. jejuni was genotyped by sequence analysis of the flaA short variable region (SVR) and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SmaI enzyme. Phenotypic antibiotic resistance profiles were also assayed using minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The flocks carried many major C. jejuni clones possibly carrying over the rearing cycles, but cross contamination between farms may happen. Many isolates were resistant to fluoroquinolones, raising an issue of high public concern. Specific Campylobacter populations could be harboured within each poultry farm, with the ability to contaminate chickens during each new cycle. Thus, although biosecurity measures are applied, with a persistent source of contamination, they cannot be efficient. The role of the environment needs further investigation to better address strategies to control Campylobacter. PMID:26543870

  4. In vitro susceptibilities of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to azithromycin and erythromycin.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, D E; Chang, N

    1991-01-01

    MICs of azithromycin and erythromycin for 20 Campylobacter coli and 20 Campylobacter jejuni strains were determined. The results demonstrated that, for Campylobacter species, all high-level erythromycin-resistant strains were also resistant to azithromycin and that azithromycin did not exhibit increased potency in comparison with that of erythromycin.

  5. Distribution of Campylobacter jejuni capsular types, 2007-2012, Philadelphia, PA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigan, Charles; Ettela, Abora; Poly, Frédéric; Guerry, Patricia; Nachamkin, Irving

    2014-11-01

    The distribution of Campylobacter jejuni capsular serotypes in the Philadelphia region from 2007 to 2012 was determined using molecular methods. Compared with the last U.S. survey in 1990, there does not appear to be a major shift in circulating capsular types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Computer-assisted analysis and epidemiological value of genotyping methods for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P. de; Duim, B.; Rigter, A.; Plas, J. van der; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    For epidemiological tracing of the thermotolerant Campylobacter species C. jejuni and C. coli, reliable and highly discriminatory typing techniques are necessary. In this study the genotyping techniques of flagellin typing (flaA typing), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), automated ribotyping,

  7. Survival and resuscitation of ten strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli under acid conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaveerach, P.; Huurne, ter A.A.H.M.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2003-01-01

    The culturability of 10 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was studied after the bacteria were exposed to acid conditions for various periods of time. Campylobacter cells could not survive 2 h under acid conditions (formic acid at pH 4). The 10 Campylobacter strains could not be

  8. Risk factors associated with Campylobacter jejuni infections in Curacao, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. Endtz (Hubert); L. de Haan (Lidewij); R. van Koningsveld (Rinske); Y. Halabi; N.P.W.C.J. van den Braak (Nicole); B.I. Kesztyus; C.W. Ang (Wim); I. Gerstenbluth; E. Leyde; A. Ott (Alewijn); F.G. Rodgers; R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); D.L. Woodward; A.F. van Belkum (Alex); L.J. Price; H. West; P.C.R. Godschalk (Peggy)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA steady increase in the incidence of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) with a seasonal preponderance, almost exclusively related to Campylobacter jejuni, and a rise in the incidence of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter enteritis have been reported from Curacao,

  9. L-fucose utilization provides Campylobacter jejuni with a competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Martin; Friis, Lorna M; Nothaft, Harald; Liu, Xin; Li, Jianjun; Szymanski, Christine M; Stintzi, Alain

    2011-04-26

    Campylobacter jejuni is a prevalent gastrointestinal pathogen in humans and a common commensal of poultry. When colonizing its hosts, C. jejuni comes into contact with intestinal carbohydrates, including L-fucose, released from mucin glycoproteins. Several strains of C. jejuni possess a genomic island (cj0480c-cj0490) that is up-regulated in the presence of both L-fucose and mucin and allows for the utilization of L-fucose as a substrate for growth. Strains possessing this genomic island show increased growth in the presence of L-fucose and mutation of cj0481, cj0486, and cj0487 results in the loss of the ability to grow on this substrate. Furthermore, mutants in the putative fucose permease (cj0486) are deficient in fucose uptake and demonstrate a competitive disadvantage when colonizing the piglet model of human disease, which is not paralleled in the colonization of poultry. This identifies a previously unrecorded metabolic pathway in select strains of C. jejuni associated with a virulent lifestyle.

  10. Methods for Isolation, Purification, and Propagation of Bacteriophages of Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Birk, Tina; Sørensen, Martine Camilla Holst

    2017-01-01

    Here, we describe the methods for isolation, purification, and propagation of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages from samples expected to contain high number of phages such as chicken feces. The overall steps are (1) liberation of phages from the sample material; (2) observation of plaque-formin...

  11. Population Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni in Poultry and Its Dynamic of Contamination in Chicken Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Marotta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the diversity of the Campylobacter jejuni population in broilers and to evaluate the major source of contamination in poultry meat. Eight rearing cycles over one year provided samples from three different broiler farms processed at the same slaughterhouse. A total of 707  C. jejuni were isolated from cloacal swabs before slaughter and from the breast skin of carcasses after slaughter and after chilling. All suspected Campylobacter colonies were identified with PCR assays and C. jejuni was genotyped by sequence analysis of the flaA short variable region (SVR and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE using SmaI enzyme. Phenotypic antibiotic resistance profiles were also assayed using minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC. The flocks carried many major C. jejuni clones possibly carrying over the rearing cycles, but cross contamination between farms may happen. Many isolates were resistant to fluoroquinolones, raising an issue of high public concern. Specific Campylobacter populations could be harboured within each poultry farm, with the ability to contaminate chickens during each new cycle. Thus, although biosecurity measures are applied, with a persistent source of contamination, they cannot be efficient. The role of the environment needs further investigation to better address strategies to control Campylobacter.

  12. Consumer food preparation and its implication for survival of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma, N.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Asselt, van E.D.; Zwietering, M.H.; Jong, de A.E.I.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose ¿ The disease burden caused by Campylobacter jejuni may be decreased by reduced consumption of undercooked chicken meat. However, little is known about consumer preparation of poultry and the effects of commonly applied cooking times on bacterial inactivation. This study aimed to answer

  13. Performance of a 70-mer oligonucleotide microarray for genotyping of Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljungström Marianne

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is widespread in the environment and is the major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. In the present study we use microarray-based comparative genomic hybridizations (CGH, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST to analyze closely related C. jejuni isolates from chicken and human infection. Results With the exception of one isolate, the microarray data clusters the isolates according to the five groups determined by PFGE. In contrast, MLST defines only three genotypes among the isolates, indicating a lower resolution. All methods show that there is no inherit difference between isolates infecting humans and chicken, suggesting a common underlying population of C. jejuni. We further identify regions that frequently differ between isolates, including both previously described and novel regions. Finally, we show that genes that belong to certain functional groups differ between isolates more often than expected by chance. Conclusion In this study we demonstrated the utility of 70-mer oligonucleotide microarrays for genotyping of Campylobacter jejuni isolates, with resolution outperforming MLST.

  14. Molecular evidence for dissemination of unique Campylobacter jejuni clones in Curacao, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, B.; Godschalk, P.C.R.; Braak, van der N.; Dingle, K.E.; Dijkstra, J.R.; Leyde, E.; Plas, van der J.; Colles, F.M.; Endtz, H.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Maiden, M.C.J.; Belkum, van A.

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 234) associated with gastroenteritis and the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in the island of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles, and collected from March 1999 to March 2000 were investigated by a range of molecular typing techniques. Data obtained by pulsed-field gel

  15. The PAS Domain-Containing Protein HeuR Regulates Heme Uptake in Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah G. Johnson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterially derived gastroenteritis. A previous mutant screen demonstrated that the heme uptake system (Chu is required for full colonization of the chicken gastrointestinal tract. Subsequent work identified a PAS domain-containing regulator, termed HeuR, as being required for chicken colonization. Here we confirm that both the heme uptake system and HeuR are required for full chicken gastrointestinal tract colonization, with the heuR mutant being particularly affected during competition with wild-type C. jejuni. Transcriptomic analysis identified the chu genes—and those encoding other iron uptake systems—as regulatory targets of HeuR. Purified HeuR bound the chuZA promoter region in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Consistent with a role for HeuR in chu expression, heuR mutants were unable to efficiently use heme as a source of iron under iron-limiting conditions, and mutants exhibited decreased levels of cell-associated iron by mass spectrometry. Finally, we demonstrate that an heuR mutant of C. jejuni is resistant to hydrogen peroxide and that this resistance correlates to elevated levels of catalase activity. These results indicate that HeuR directly and positively regulates iron acquisition from heme and negatively impacts catalase activity by an as yet unidentified mechanism in C. jejuni.

  16. Molecular Evidence for Dissemination of Unique Campylobacter jejuni Clones in Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, B.; Godschalk, P.C.R.; Braak, N. van den; Dingle, K.E.; Dijkstra, J.R.; Leyde, E.; Plas, J. van der; Colles, F.M.; Endtz, H.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Maiden, M.C.J.; Belkum, A. van

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 234) associated with gastroenteritis and the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in the island of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles, and collected from March 1999 to March 2000 were investigated by a range of molecular typing techniques. Data obtained by pulsed-field gel

  17. Studying the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in adults with gastroenteritis from northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Mobaien

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni in the patients with gastroenteritis. Methods: This descriptive and analytical study included all adult patients with acute diarrhea admitted to the University Hospital of Zanjan Province who were enrolled in a one-year period from 2013 to 2014. Stool samples were checked for white blood cells (WBC and lactoferrin, then samples with WBC ≤ 5 positive for lactoferrin were selected for amplification of mapA gene of C. jejuni by RT-PCR assay. Results: In this study, 864 patients (410 men and 454 women with acute diarrhea were enrolled, of which about 718 patients had WBC less than 5 and 146 patients had WBC more than 5 in the stool exam. All inflammatory diarrhea samples were tested for lactoferrin and 111 cases of the samples tested were positive for lactferrin. A total of 40 samples out of 111 were positive for C. jejuni by RT. Conclusions: The finding of this study showed that the prevalence of inflammatory diarrhea and diarrhea caused by Campylobacter in this study was high. This need for education and awareness in this area, as well as appropriate treatment is too important.

  18. Bacteriophage F336 Recognizes the Capsular Phosphoramidate Modification of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martine C. Holst; van Alphen, Lieke B.; Harboe, Anne

    2011-01-01

    source of human campylobacteriosis. In this study, we used phage F336 belonging to the Myoviridae family to select a C. jejuni NCTC11168 phage-resistant strain, called 11168R, with the aim of investigating the mechanisms of phage resistance. We found that phage F336 has reduced adsorption to 11168R, thus...

  19. Selection for pro-inflammatory mediators produces chickens more resistant to Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are the second leading cause of bacterial-induced foodborne illnesses with an estimated economic burden of nearly $2 billion per year. Most human illness associated with campylobacteriosis is due to infection by C. jejuni and chickens are recognized as a reservoir, which could le...

  20. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli among broilers in Bareilly region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Malik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli among broilers at the time of slaughter in and around Bareilly, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 chicken caecal samples were screened by conventional plating in modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar with incubation at 42°C for 48 h under microaerophilic conditions. The characteristic colonies were confirmed by morphological and biochemical characteristics and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR assay targeting lpxA gene. Results: Out of 100 chicken caecal samples, 32 yielded isolates with typical phenotypic of Campylobacter species. The hippurate hydrolysis test found to be positive for 2 isolates, categorized as C. jejuni and negative for 30 isolates. The mPCR assay targeting lpxA gene also confirmed 2 (6.25% isolates as C. jejuni, and 30 (93.75% isolates as C. coli. Conclusion: The present study showed broilers to an important source of Campylobacter in the region with predominance of C. coli than C. jejuni indicating a shift in the prevalence of important species of Campylobacter. To understand the variation in pattern of occurrence of species with high prevalence of organisms, detail studies on the ecology of campylobacteriosis are suggested.

  1. Campylobacter jejuni : A brief overview on pathogenicity-associated factors and disease-mediating mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasti, Javid I.; Tareen, A. Malik; Lugert, Raimond; Zautner, Andreas E.; Gross, Uwe

    Campylobacter jejuni has long been recognized as a cause of bacterial food-borne illness, and surprisingly, it remains the most prevalent bacterial food-borne pathogen in the industrial world to date. Natural reservoirs for this Gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium are wild birds, whose intestines

  2. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in Lizard Faeces from Central Australia Using Quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, Campylobacter is a significant cause of gastrointestinal illness. It is predominately considered a foodborne pathogen, with human exposure via non-food transmission routes generally overlooked. Current literature has been exploring environmental reservoirs of campylobacteriosis including potential wildlife reservoirs. Given the close proximity between lizards and human habitats in Central Australia, this study examined the presence of Campylobacter jejuni from lizard faeces collected from this region. Of the 51 samples collected, 17 (33% (this included 14/46 (30% wild and 3/5 (60% captive lizard samples were positive for C. jejuni using quantitative PCR (qPCR. This was the first study to investigate the presence of C. jejuni in Australian lizards. This has public health implications regarding the risk of campylobacteriosis from handling of pet reptiles and through cross-contamination or contact with wild lizard faeces. Additionally this has implication for horizontal transmission via lizards of C. jejuni to food production farms. Further research is needed on this environmental reservoir and potential transmission routes to reduce the risk to public health.

  3. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in Lizard Faeces from Central Australia Using Quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; McLean, Ryan; Ross, Kirstin

    2016-12-23

    Worldwide, Campylobacter is a significant cause of gastrointestinal illness. It is predominately considered a foodborne pathogen, with human exposure via non-food transmission routes generally overlooked. Current literature has been exploring environmental reservoirs of campylobacteriosis including potential wildlife reservoirs. Given the close proximity between lizards and human habitats in Central Australia, this study examined the presence of Campylobacter jejuni from lizard faeces collected from this region. Of the 51 samples collected, 17 (33%) (this included 14/46 (30%) wild and 3/5 (60%) captive lizard samples) were positive for C. jejuni using quantitative PCR (qPCR). This was the first study to investigate the presence of C. jejuni in Australian lizards. This has public health implications regarding the risk of campylobacteriosis from handling of pet reptiles and through cross-contamination or contact with wild lizard faeces. Additionally this has implication for horizontal transmission via lizards of C. jejuni to food production farms. Further research is needed on this environmental reservoir and potential transmission routes to reduce the risk to public health.

  4. Confirmed identification and toxin profiling of Campylobacter jejuni using a thermostabilized multiplex PCR formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Nitya; Ramlal, Shylaja; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2017-07-01

    Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) producing Campylobacter jejuni species are one of the leading causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide. The main intent of the study was to develop a multiplex PCR assay for the confirmed identification and toxin profiling of C. jejuni. The genes targeted were rpo B as genus specific, hip O for species; cdt A, cdt B, cdt C encoding respective subunit proteins of CDT with Internal Amplification Control (IAC). To enhance its application as a pre-mixed ready-to-use format, the master mix of developed mPCR was dried by lyophilization and stability was assessed. Thermostabilized reagents showed stability of 1.5 months at room-temperature and upto six months at 4 °C without any loss of functionality. The assay was evaluated on a number of presumptive Campylobacter isolates along with biochemical tests. Results obtained indicated the accurate identification of C. jejuni by developed mPCR format in contrast to misconception associated with biochemical assays. The assay was also tested on spiked samples for its real-time utility. Altogether, the room-temperature storable and ready-to- use mPCR format developed in this study could be preferred for rapid detection and confirmed identification of toxigenic strains of C. jejuni in place of conventional biochemical assays. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Inaccuracy of routine susceptibility tests for detection of erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, M.T.; Claas, E.C.J.; Mevius, D.J.; Pelt, van W.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Kuijper, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    In The Netherlands, both an increase in and regional differences in erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli have been reported. To determine the accuracy of routine tests for erythromycin resistance, 48 erythromycin-resistant isolates from various laboratories that

  6. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in Lizard Faeces from Central Australia Using Quantitative PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Whiley, Harriet; McLean, Ryan; Ross, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, Campylobacter is a significant cause of gastrointestinal illness. It is predominately considered a foodborne pathogen, with human exposure via non-food transmission routes generally overlooked. Current literature has been exploring environmental reservoirs of campylobacteriosis including potential wildlife reservoirs. Given the close proximity between lizards and human habitats in Central Australia, this study examined the presence of Campylobacter jejuni from lizard faeces collect...

  7. Population Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni in Poultry and Its Dynamic of Contamination in Chicken Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Francesca; Garofolo, Giuliano; Di Donato, Guido; Aprea, Giuseppe; Platone, Ilenia; Cianciavicchia, Silvia; Alessiani, Alessandra; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the diversity of the Campylobacter jejuni population in broilers and to evaluate the major source of contamination in poultry meat. Eight rearing cycles over one year provided samples from three different broiler farms processed at the same slaughterhouse. A total of 707 C. jejuni were isolated from cloacal swabs before slaughter and from the breast skin of carcasses after slaughter and after chilling. All suspected Campylobacter colonies were identified with PCR assays and C. jejuni was genotyped by sequence analysis of the flaA short variable region (SVR) and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SmaI enzyme. Phenotypic antibiotic resistance profiles were also assayed using minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The flocks carried many major C. jejuni clones possibly carrying over the rearing cycles, but cross contamination between farms may happen. Many isolates were resistant to fluoroquinolones, raising an issue of high public concern. Specific Campylobacter populations could be harboured within each poultry farm, with the ability to contaminate chickens during each new cycle. Thus, although biosecurity measures are applied, with a persistent source of contamination, they cannot be efficient. The role of the environment needs further investigation to better address strategies to control Campylobacter.

  8. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Wednesday, March 9, 2011 Recently, scientists in an NIH study reported that a surgical procedure to repair a common birth defect of the spine, if undertaken while a baby is still in ...

  9. Study of Testicular Structure in Fetuses with Prune Belly Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favorito, Luciano A; Costa, Suelen F; Costa, Waldemar S; Vieiralves, Rodrigo; Bernardo, Fabio O; Sampaio, Francisco J B

    2017-01-01

    To compare the structure of the testis in fetuses with prune belly syndrome (PBS) to normal controls. We studied 6 testes obtained from 3 fetuses with PBS and 14 testes from 7 male fetuses. The testicular specimens were cut into 5- μ m thick sections and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), to observe the seminiferous tubules; Weigert's solution to observe elastic fibers; and picrosirius red to observe collagen. The images were captured with an Olympus BX51 microscope and Olympus DP70 camera. The stereological analysis was done with the Image Pro and Image J programs. Means were statistically compared using the Mann-Whitney U test ( p < 0.005). Quantitative analysis documented no differences ( p = 0.4) in number of seminiferous tubules (ST) in PBS testes (mean = 8.87%, SD = 1.59), when compared to the control (mean = 11.4%, SD = 2.99) and no differences ( p = 0.8) in diameter of ST in PBS testes (mean = 52.85  μ m, SD = 1.58) when compared to the control group (mean = 53.17  μ m, SD = 1.55), but we did observe a lower number ( p = 0.0002) of Leydig cells in the PBS testes (mean = 67.03% and SD = 3.697) when compared to the control group (mean = 90.1% and SD = 2.986). Our study showed a lower concentration of Leydig cells in the triad syndrome fetuses.

  10. Outcome of fetuses with enlarged nuchal translucency and normal karyotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilardo, C. M.; Pajkrt, E.; de Graaf, I.; Mol, B. W.; Bleker, O. P.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between nuchal translucency measurements and outcome of pregnancy with special regard to fetuses with an enlarged nuchal translucency and a normal karyotype. Fetal nuchal translucency measurements were performed on consecutive mothers attending

  11. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Freedom of Information Act Director's Corner Contact Us Home Newsroom News Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications ... OUTREACH Safe to Sleep® National Child & Maternal Health Education Program RELATED WEBSITES NIH.gov HHS.gov USA. ...

  12. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Wednesday, March 9, 2011 Recently, scientists in an NIH study reported ... Owner Office of Communications Last Reviewed Date 3/9/2011 Contact Us Publications Sitemap Español facebook twitter ...

  13. Teratogenic effects of caffeine and clomipramine on rat fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takzare N

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorders and depression have a high prevalence during pregnancy therefore, pregnant women may take clomipramine and also take other drugs or consume foods that contain caffeine. As investigations about the teratogenic effects of clomipramine and its concurrent administration with caffeine during organogenesis period are scarce, we aimed to study the teratogenicity of simultaneous administration of clomipramine and caffeine in rat fetus.Methods: After dividing 42 pregnant rats to several case and control groups, we injected different doses of caffeine and clomipramine to the animals. All the injections were performed on the eighth until the 15th day of pregnancy. We removed the fetuses on the 17th day of pregnancy and studied the morphological features and apparent anomalies of the fetuses macroscopically. Results: We found a significant rate of mortality, apparent anomalies, abnormal torsion, shrinkage of skin and subcutaneous bleeding in fetuses of rats receiving high doses of caffeine or a combination of caffeine and clomipramine. Statistical analysis of the data revealed a significant increase (P?0.001 in teratogenicity of high doses of caffeine and its combination with clomipramine. Conclusion: This study implies simultaneous intake of high amounts of caffeine and clomipramine lead to teratogenicity. We recommend pregnant women to avoid uncontrolled consumption of foods that contain caffeine or drugs that contain high amounts of this substance. They should not also take clomipramine with caffeine in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  14. Amnioexchange for fetuses with gastroschisis: is it effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midrio, Paola; Stefanutti, Giorgio; Mussap, Michele; D'Antona, Donato; Zolpi, Elisa; Gamba, Piergiorgio

    2007-05-01

    Amniotic fluid of fetuses with gastroschisis (GS) contains inflammatory mediators, gastrointestinal, and urinary waste products. Dilution and removal of such harmful substances have been advocated to prevent damage to the herniated intestine. We evaluated the effectiveness of serial amnioexchange procedures in 8 consecutive fetuses with GS. Amnioexchange was performed bimonthly during the third trimester. Amniotic fluid collected before each procedure was tested for pH, osmolarity, urea, creatinine, cystatin-C, proteins, albumin, bilirubin, biliary salts, pancreatic amylase, serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, alanine transaminase (ALT), alcaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transpetidase (gammaGT), tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 2, interleukin 6, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor beta, and myeloperoxidase. A total of 25 samples (median, 3 per fetus) were examined. Biochemical or inflammatory markers did not correlate with gestational age, nor was any trend observed in values from individual patients during the course of amnioexchange treatment. There was no correlation between biochemical or inflammatory markers and clinical outcome, including time to full enteral feeding. Serial amnioexchanges did not modify the biochemical or inflammatory status of amniotic fluid nor appeared to prevent injury to the herniated gut. Because repeated amnioexchanges may carry some risks, their use in fetuses with GS is not recommended outside the setting of a prospective randomized trial.

  15. Radiological imaging of teratological fetuses: what can we learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Lucas L; Schepens-Franke, A N; van Asten, J J A; Bosboom, D G H; Kamphuis-van Ulzen, K; Kozicz, T L; Ruiter, D J; Oostra, R-J; Klein, W M

    2017-06-01

    To determine the advantages of radiological imaging of a collection of full-term teratological fetuses in order to increase their scientific and educational value. BACKGROUND : Anatomical museums around the world exhibit full-term teratological fetuses. Unfortunately, these museums are regularly considered as "morbid cabinets". Detailed dysmorphological information concerning the exhibited specimens is often lacking. Moreover, fetuses with severe and complex congenital anomalies are frequently diagnosed incompletely, incorrectly or not at all. In order to verify diagnoses and to enrich their educational and scientific value, we imaged 41 out of the 72 teratological specimens present in the collection of our Anatomy and Pathology Museum in Nijmegen (The Netherlands) by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). Additionally, contemporary dysmorphological insights and 3D models are implemented in the teratology education of medical students and residents. Full-term teratological fetuses have become increasingly rare and deserve a prominent place in every anatomical museum; they are suitable for contemporary teratological research and education. Modern radiological techniques markedly enhance their scientific and didactic value. • To explore the scientific and educational potential of institutionalised teratological collections • To understand the additional value of radiological imaging in diagnosing teratological specimens • To learn about the specific settings of MRI parameters when scanning fixed specimens • To recognise specific internal dysmorphology in several congenital anomalies.

  16. Twin Fetuses Papyraeci in a Spontaneous Triplet Pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history and general examination were unremarkable. The pulse rate was 86 beat per min and her blood pressure was 130/80 ... Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. Abstract. Fetus papyracie in a triplet pregnancy is indeed rare and can ...

  17. Sonographically determined anomalies and outcome in 170 chromosomally abnormal fetuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy); W.R. Bhaggoe (W.); M.J.E. Kristelijn (M. J E); T.E. Cohen-Overbeek (Titia); N.S. den Hollander (Nicolette); H. Brandenburg (Helen); F.J. Los

    1995-01-01

    textabstractStructural pathology and outcome were studied in 170 chromosomally abnormal fetuses. Numerical chromosomal abnormalities were established in 158 (93 per cent) cases, of which 110 (71 per cent) represented trisomies, 30 (18 per cent) Turner syndrome, and 18 (11 per cent) triploidy.

  18. Prenatal Sonographic Features of Fetuses in Trisomy 13 Pregnancies (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal ultrasound is a powerful tool for detecting structural abnormalities in fetuses in trisomy 13 pregnancies. This article provides a comprehensive review of the prenatal sonographic features of trisomy 13 in the second and third trimesters, including holoprosencephaly, brachycephaly, microcephaly, Dandy-Walker complex and posterior fossa abnormalities, ventriculomegaly, neural tube defects, facial cleft, and micrognathia.

  19. Duration of gestation in pregnant dogs carrying cloned fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Geon A; Park, Eun Jung; Jo, Young Kwang; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2013-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate gestation duration and the physiologic characteristics of pregnant dogs bearing cloned fetuses, especially in the prepartum period. A retrospective study was performed to compare gestation duration in females pregnant with cloned (somatic cell nuclear transfer) fetuses (cloned group) with those bearing noncloned fetuses (control group), and effects of litter size, birth weight, and breed of somatic cell donors on gestation duration in the cloned group were evaluated. Clinical delivery onset signs associated with serum progesterone concentration and rectal temperature were also compared in both groups. The gestation duration calculated from day of ovulation was significantly longer in the cloned (62.8 ± 0.3 days) versus the control group (60.9 ± 0.5 days; P dogs bearing cloned fetuses might be because of the smaller litter size in this group. Also, the weaker drop in serum progesterone levels in the prepartum period in cloned dog pregnancies indicates that the parturition signaling process might be altered resulting in longer gestation periods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular identification of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in nasal swabs samples from horses suffering respiratory infections in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannatabadi, A A; Mohammadi, G R; Rad, M; Maleki, M

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the existence of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus as probable agents associated with naturally occurring infection of the equine upper respiratory disease in Mashhad area. Nasal swabs samples from thirty horses with upper respiratory tract infections were collected. The bacteria isolated and identified were Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (1 isolate), Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (25 isolates), Pasteurella sp. (11 isolates), Staphylococcus sp. (17 isolates), Bacillus sp. (4 isolates), Pseudomonas sp. (4 isolates), Proteus sp. (1 isolate), Neisseria sp. (1 isolate) and E. coli (1 isolate). All 25 isolates of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus and the isolate of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi were characterized by biochemical tests and molecular techniques. For molecular identification of the subspecies S. equi and S. zooepidemicus two genomic region SeM and sodA were amplified. This study is the first report of molecular identification of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in Iran.

  1. Dose-response study of probiotic bacteria Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis BB-12 and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei CRL-341 in healthy young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C.N.; Nielsen, S.; Kaestel, P.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to investigate the dose-response effects of supplementation with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis (BB-12) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei (CRL-431) on blood lipids, recovery from feces and bowel habits. Changes of the fecal microflora was analy...

  2. Campylobacter jejuni infection and IgE sensitization in up to 2-year-old infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The “hygiene hypothesis” addresses the correlation between the occurrence of atopy and the frequency of infections in the earliest age, explaining an increase in the incidence of atopic diseases by living in good, infection-free, hygienic conditions. The aim of our study was to determine the conection between atopy and Campylobacter infection, and to analyze the association between serum concentrations of total IgE and Campylobacter infection in relation to atopy in children up to two years. Methods. A case control study was conducted with the sample of 98 infants of the average age of 8 months. Total serum IgE and Phadiatop infant multi-test were determined on Immunocap-100 (Phadia AB, Uppsala, Sweden. The presence of atopy was determined by detection of serumspecific IgE ≥ 0.35 kUA/L (Phadiatop infant positive and serum IgM, IgA, IgG levels against C. jejuni were determined by a quantitative immuno-enzyme test - SERION ELISA classic. Results. Total IgE cut-off values ≥ 15 kU/L point to atopy in infants, and tIgE cut-off values ≥ 8.1 kU/L pointed to a C. jejuni infection in infants. Within the group of atopic children, tIgE levels ≥ 29.8 kU/L point to C. jejuni infection, and within the group of non-atopic children, tIgE levels ≥ 5.9 kU/L point to infection. Enteritis is not a predictor of C. jejuni infection, because of a high frequency of asymptomatic cases of infection. The risk factors for C. jejuni infection are age and tIgE, and the protective factors are breastfeeding and atopy. Conclusion. C. jejuni infection increases the total serum IgE level, which is predictive of infection, regardless of the presence of atopy. The presence of symptomatic C. jejuni infection reduces the risk of atopy in a child of the age of 5-24 months by the factor of 10.

  3. Comparative genotyping of Campylobacter jejuni strains from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhahirul Islam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of acute gastroenteritis and is associated with post-infectious neuropathies such as the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS and the Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS. We here present comparative genotyping of 49 C. jejuni strains from Bangladesh that were recovered from patients with enteritis or GBS. All strains were serotyped and analyzed by lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS genotyping, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C. jejuni HS:23 was a predominant serotype among GBS patients (50%, and no specific serotype was significantly associated with GBS compared to enteritis. PCR screening showed that 38/49 (78% of strains could be assigned to LOS classes A, B, C, or E. The class A locus (4/7 vs 3/39; p<0.01 was significantly associated in the GBS-related strains as compared to enteritis strains. All GBS/oculomotor related strains contained the class B locus; which was also detected in 46% of control strains. Overlapping clonal groups were defined by MLST, AFLP and PFGE for strains from patients with gastroenteritis and GBS. MLST defined 22 sequence types (STs and 7 clonal complexes including 7 STs not previously identified (ST-3742, ST-3741, ST-3743, ST-3748, ST-3968, ST-3969 and ST-3970. C. jejuni HS:23 strains from patients with GBS or enteritis were clonal and all strains belonged to ST-403 complex. Concordance between LOS class B and ST-403 complex was revealed. AFLP defined 25 different types at 90% similarity. The predominant AFLP type AF-20 coincided with the C. jejuni HS:23 and ST-403 complex. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: LOS genotyping, MLST, AFLP and PFGE helped to identify the HS:23 strains from GBS or enteritis patients as clonal. Overall, genotypes exclusive for enteritis or for GBS-related strains were not obtained although LOS class A was significantly associated with GBS

  4. Long-term outcome in fetuses with cardiac arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Talvikki; Eronen, Marianne; Andersson, Sture

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this follow-up study of 292 fetuses with various cardiac arrhythmias were to estimate the incidence of structural heart defects and fetal compromise, to investigate the effects of antiarrhythmic medication, and to evaluate perinatal mortality and morbidity and long-term outcome. The arrhythmias were classified into atrial extrasystoles (n = 200), atrial tachycardias (n = 35), atrioventricular block (n = 36), sinus bradycardia (n = 14), and ventricular extrasystoles (n = 7), and outcome of the infants was analyzed. The incidence of cardiac anomalies was 12% in the study population. In utero cardiac failure was noted in 11%. Among fetuses with atrial extrasystoles, 1% developed supraventricular tachycardia after birth. During antiarrhythmic therapy, sinus rhythm was achieved in 92% of nonhydropic and in 63% of hydropic fetuses. The latter had higher mortality and risk for neurologic morbidity than did nonhydropic fetuses; 38% versus 3.7% and 40% versus 12%, respectively. Among fetuses with atrioventricular block only, the survival rate was 82%, with a heart defect, prognosis was poor: 50% survived. Sinus bradycardia and ventricular extrasystoles were associated with survival rates of 75% and 67%. In the follow-up of the whole study population lasting a median 5 years, 93% are alive and 3% have a neurologic disorder. All fetal arrhythmias except atrial extrasystoles were associated with a moderately high risk for fetal distress. In cases of compromise, fetal and neonatal prognosis was poor and was an indication for perinatal medication. After the newborn period, the prognosis has been good. However, the risk for neurologic morbidity must be taken into consideration.

  5. Morphological evaluation of fetus CNS and its related anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Shizuo; Tamaki, Norihiko; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Katayama, Kazuaki; Mochizuki, Matsuto

    1989-01-01

    The fetus central nervous system was evaluated morphologically by ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and CT scan to analyze the prenatal diagnostic value for CNS anomalies. A total of 31 patients with 42 lesions had been diagnosed during the preceding 7 years. The patients included 24 with hydrocephalus, three with anencephaly, three with myeloschisis, three with holoprosencephaly, three with an encephalocele, two with a Dandy-Walker cyst, one with hydroencephalodysplasia, one with an intracranial neoplasm, one with sacrococcygeal teratoma, and one with sacral agenesis. Compared with US and MRI, CT proved to be more accurate in the detection of spine and cranium-bone morphology. This finding seems to be valuable in the diagnosis of spina bifida, cranium bifidum and some cases of hypertensive hydrocephalus, especially in the axial view. MRI was definitely superior in the anatomico-pathological diagnosis of cerebral dysgenesis, ventriculomegaly, intracranial tumors, and other brain parenchymal changes in view of multi-dimensional analysis. The most considerable disadvantage of MRI in the diagnosis of a fetus CNS anomaly is the poor information about spine and cranium morphology. A super-conducting MRI system is still insufficient to demonstrate the spinal cord of a fetus. US was routinely used, and the multidimensional slices were useful for screening the CNS abnormalies. Some of the fetus brain lesions, such as intracranial hematomas, had a specific echogenecity on US. However, US sometimes failed to demarcate the cerebral parenchymal or subdural morphological changes because its artifacts had hyperchoic shadows. While US, MRI, and CT were valuable diagnostic tools in the morphological evaluation of fetus CNS and its related anomalies, each modality has different diagnostic advantages and disadvantages. Improvement can be expected when these diagnostic imaging modalities are complementary, depending upon the nature of the anatomy. (J.P.N.)

  6. Mathematical models for calculating radiation dose to the fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.E.

    1992-01-01

    Estimates of radiation dose from radionuclides inside the body are calculated on the basis of energy deposition in mathematical models representing the organs and tissues of the human body. Complex models may be used with radiation transport codes to calculate the fraction of emitted energy that is absorbed in a target tissue even at a distance from the source. Other models may be simple geometric shapes for which absorbed fractions of energy have already been calculated. Models of Reference Man, the 15-year-old (Reference Woman), the 10-year-old, the five-year-old, the one-year-old, and the newborn have been developed and used for calculating specific absorbed fractions (absorbed fractions of energy per unit mass) for several different photon energies and many different source-target combinations. The Reference woman model is adequate for calculating energy deposition in the uterus during the first few weeks of pregnancy. During the course of pregnancy, the embryo/fetus increases rapidly in size and thus requires several models for calculating absorbed fractions. In addition, the increases in size and changes in shape of the uterus and fetus result in the repositioning of the maternal organs and in different geometric relationships among the organs and the fetus. This is especially true of the excretory organs such as the urinary bladder and the various sections of the gastrointestinal tract. Several models have been developed for calculating absorbed fractions of energy in the fetus, including models of the uterus and fetus for each month of pregnancy and complete models of the pregnant woman at the end of each trimester. In this paper, the available models and the appropriate use of each will be discussed. (Author) 19 refs., 7 figs

  7. Characteristics of transplacental lead transfer in rat dams and fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopfler, F.C.; Miller, R.G.; Kowal, N.E.; Kelty, K.C.; Doerger, J.U.; Mills, T.

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to quantitate the dose resulting from lead exposure during the critical periods of brain development during gestation by determining: (1) if blood lead concentration in rat dams is affected by pregnancy status or duration of lead exposure, (2) if lead concentration in fetuses is associated with the duration of dam exposure, (3) the rates of lead absorption and elimination in pregnant and nonpregnant dams; and (4) the effect that prebreeding exposure on lead kinetics in the dam and upon fetus blood lead concentrations. The results of experiments in which the dams' drinking water contained 50 mg/L lead indicate blood lead levels (after normalizing by water consumption on a body weight basis) of pregnant rats are significantly higher than blood lead levels of non-pregnant rats. Statistical differences in blood lead levels were observed by day 15 of gestation and continue through day 20 of gestation. These blood lead differences are not due to lead treatment prior to breeding as seen when comparing Figure 1 and Figure 2. The blood lead levels of the fetuses at day 20 of gestation were 50-60% higher than that of the corresponding dams. The results from the latter two phases were ambiguous, due to large variability in individual animal absorption and elimination rates. However, the following observations can be made. Preexposure to lead does not affect the percent of lead transferred from the dams' blood to the fetuses. The rate of elimination of lead from the dams' blood does not appear to be affected by prebreeding exposure to lead or by the status of pregnancy. The fraction of the 203 Pb dose transferred to the fetus increases dramatically toward the end of gestation. The data suggest that lead absorption from the gut of pregnant rats is higher than that for nonpregnant rats

  8. Commonality and biosynthesis of the O-methyl phosphoramidate capsule modification in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, David J; Lamoureux, Marc P; Karlyshev, Andrey V; Fiori, Laura M; Li, Jianjun; Thacker, Gillian; Coleman, Russell A; Khieu, Nam H; Wren, Brendan W; Brisson, Jean-Robert; Jarrell, Harold C; Szymanski, Christine M

    2007-09-28

    In this study we investigated the commonality and biosynthesis of the O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN) group found on the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of Campylobacter jejuni. High resolution magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy was used as a rapid, high throughput means to examine multiple isolates, analyze the cecal contents of colonized chickens, and screen a library of CPS mutants for the presence of MeOPN. Sixty eight percent of C. jejuni strains were found to express the MeOPN with a high prevalence among isolates from enteritis, Guillain Barré, and Miller-Fisher syndrome patients. In contrast, MeOPN was not observed for any of the Campylobacter coli strains examined. The MeOPN was detected on C. jejuni retrieved from cecal contents of colonized chickens demonstrating that the modification is expressed by bacteria inhabiting the avian gastrointestinal tract. In C. jejuni 11168H, the cj1415-cj1418 cluster was shown to be involved in the biosynthesis of MeOPN. Genetic complementation studies and NMR/mass spectrometric analyses of CPS from this strain also revealed that cj1421 and cj1422 encode MeOPN transferases. Cj1421 adds the MeOPN to C-3 of the beta-d-GalfNAc residue, whereas Cj1422 transfers the MeOPN to C-4 of D-glycero-alpha-L-gluco-heptopyranose. CPS produced by the 11168H strain was found to be extensively modified with variable MeOPN, methyl, ethanolamine, and N-glycerol groups. These findings establish the importance of the MeOPN as a diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for C. jejuni and set the groundwork for future studies aimed at the detailed elucidation of the MeOPN biosynthetic pathway.

  9. A Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Diagnostic Markers for Human Pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody J. Buchanan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a leading human enteric pathogen worldwide and despite an improved understanding of its biology, ecology, and epidemiology, limited tools exist for identifying strains that are likely to cause disease. In the current study, we used subtyping data in a database representing over 24,000 isolates collected through various surveillance projects in Canada to identify 166 representative genomes from prevalent C. jejuni subtypes for whole genome sequencing. The sequence data was used in a genome-wide association study (GWAS aimed at identifying accessory gene markers associated with clinically related C. jejuni subtypes. Prospective markers (n = 28 were then validated against a large number (n = 3,902 of clinically associated and non-clinically associated genomes from a variety of sources. A total of 25 genes, including six sets of genetically linked genes, were identified as robust putative diagnostic markers for clinically related C. jejuni subtypes. Although some of the genes identified in this study have been previously shown to play a role in important processes such as iron acquisition and vitamin B5 biosynthesis, others have unknown function or are unique to the current study and warrant further investigation. As few as four of these markers could be used in combination to detect up to 90% of clinically associated isolates in the validation dataset, and such markers could form the basis for a screening assay to rapidly identify strains that pose an increased risk to public health. The results of the current study are consistent with the notion that specific groups of C. jejuni strains of interest are defined by the presence of specific accessory genes.

  10. Structural and Functional Basis for Targeting Campylobacter jejuni Agmatine Deiminase To Overcome Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Roger; Dattmore, Devon A; Stives, Devin P; Jackson, Ashley L; Chatfield, Christa H; Hicks, Katherine A; French, Jarrod B

    2017-12-26

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of gastroenteritis and a major contributor to infant mortality in the developing world. The increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant C. jejuni only adds to the urgency to develop effective therapies. Because of the essential role that polyamines play, particularly in protection from oxidative stress, enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of these metabolites are emerging as promising antibiotic targets. The recent description of an alternative pathway for polyamine synthesis, distinct from that in human cells, in C. jejuni suggests this pathway could be a target for novel therapies. To that end, we determined X-ray crystal structures of C. jejuni agmatine deiminase (CjADI) and demonstrated that loss of CjADI function contributes to antibiotic sensitivity, likely because of polyamine starvation. The structures provide details of key molecular features of the active site of this protein. Comparison of the unliganded structure (2.1 Å resolution) to that of the CjADI-agmatine complex (2.5 Å) reveals significant structural rearrangements that occur upon substrate binding. The shift of two helical regions of the protein and a large conformational change in a loop near the active site generate a narrow binding pocket around the bound substrate. This change optimally positions the substrate for catalysis. In addition, kinetic analysis of this enzyme demonstrates that CjADI is an iminohydrolase that effectively deiminates agmatine. Our data suggest that C. jejuni agmatine deiminase is a potentially important target for combatting antibiotic resistance, and these results provide a valuable framework for guiding future drug development.

  11. Antibiotic resistance modulation and modes of action of (--α-pinene in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Kovač

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the mode of action of (--α-pinene in terms of its modulation of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter jejuni. Broth microdilution and ethidium bromide accumulation assays were used to evaluate the (--α-pinene antimicrobial activity, modulation of antimicrobial resistance, and inhibition of antimicrobial efflux. The target antimicrobial efflux systems were identified using an insertion mutagenesis approach, and C. jejuni adaptation to (--α-pinene was evaluated using DNA microarrays. Knock-out mutants of the key up-regulated transcriptional regulators hspR and hrcA were constructed to investigate their roles in C. jejuni adaptation to several stress factors, including osmolytes, and pH, using Biolog phenotypical microarrays. Our data demonstrate that (--α-pinene efficiently modulates antibiotic resistance in C. jejuni by decreasing the minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and triclosan by up to 512-fold. Furthermore, (--α-pinene promotes increased expression of cmeABC and another putative antimicrobial efflux gene, Cj1687. The ethidium bromide accumulation was greater in the wild-type strain than in the antimicrobial efflux mutant strains, which indicates that these antimicrobial efflux systems are a target of action of (--α-pinene. Additionally, (--α-pinene decreases membrane integrity, which suggests that enhanced microbial influx is a secondary mode of action of (--α-pinene. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that (--α-pinene disrupts multiple metabolic pathways, and particularly those involved in heat-shock responses. Thus, (--α-pinene has significant activity in the modulation of antibiotic resistance in C. jejuni, which appears to be mediated by multiple mechanisms that include inhibition of microbial efflux, decreased membrane integrity, and metabolic disruption. These data warrant further studies on (--α-pinene to develop its use in the control of antibiotic

  12. Studying the Phenotypic and Genotypic Expression of Antibiotic Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni under Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimochkina, N R; Stetsenko, V V; Bykova, I V; Markova, Yu M; Polyanina, A S; Aleshkina, A I; Sheveleva, S A

    2018-03-01

    Specific features for the development of resistance in Campylobacter jejuni strains were studied after treatment with antibiotics of 6 pharmacological groups. Populations of 18 native strains of C. jejuni (isolated from raw poultry products) and their subcultures (obtained after 2-3-fold stress exposures to antimicrobial agents in subinhibitory doses) were examined to evaluate the expression of phenotypic antibiotic resistance. Genotypic properties of strains were studied by the PCR with primers that detect the presence of genes for resistance to aminoglycosides (aphA-1, aphA-3, and aphA-7), tetracyclines (tetO), and quinolones (GZgyrA). The majority of test strains of C. jejuni exhibited a high resistance to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline, which reached the maximum value after numerous passages. The expression of antibiotic resistance was greatest in the presence of nalidixic acid and tetracycline. Ciprofloxacin resistance of 33% strains, which were initially resistant to this antibiotic, was increased after 2-3-fold treatment. We revealed a high degree of correspondence between phenotypic and genotypic profiles of antibiotic resistance in food isolates of Campylobacter. One, two, or more genes of aphA were identified in 85% strains phenotypically resistant to aminoglycosides. The tetO gene was found nearly in all strains resistant to tetracycline. Studying the biofilm matrix in C. jejuni after culturing with antibiotics in subinhibitory doses showed that quinolones (particularly nalidixic acid) and tetracyclines potentiate the formation of biofilms and increase the tolerance of Campylobacter to stress exposures. The intensity of biofilm growth was shown to depend little on the effect of macrolides and aminoglycosides. Therefore, the presence of these agents in residual concentrations is associated with a lower risk for the development of antibiotic resistance in C. jejuni populations.

  13. Campylobacter jejuni colonization and population structure in urban populations of ducks and starlings in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vathsala; Stevenson, Mark; Marshall, Jonathan; Fearnhead, Paul; Holland, Barbara R; Hotter, Grant; French, Nigel P

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and the population structure of C. jejuni in European starlings and ducks cohabiting multiple public access sites in an urban area of New Zealand. The country's geographical isolation and relatively recent history of introduction of wild bird species, including the European starling and mallard duck, create an ideal setting to explore the impact of geographical separation on the population biology of C. jejuni, as well as potential public health implications. A total of 716 starling and 720 duck fecal samples were collected and screened for C. jejuni over a 12 month period. This study combined molecular genotyping, population genetics and epidemiological modeling and revealed: (i) higher Campylobacter spp. isolation in starlings (46%) compared with ducks (30%), but similar isolation of C. jejuni in ducks (23%) and starlings (21%), (ii) significant associations between the isolation of Campylobacter spp. and host species, sampling location and time of year using logistic regression, (iii) evidence of population differentiation, as indicated by FST, and host-genotype association with clonal complexes CC ST-177 and CC ST-682 associated with starlings, and clonal complexes CC ST-1034, CC ST-692, and CC ST-1332 associated with ducks, and (iv) greater genetic diversity and genotype richness in ducks compared with starlings. These findings provide evidence that host-associated genotypes, such as the starling-associated ST-177 and ST-682, represent lineages that were introduced with the host species in the 19th century. The isolation of sequence types associated with human disease in New Zealand indicate that wild ducks and starlings need to be considered as a potential public health risk, particularly in urban areas. We applied molecular epidemiology and population genetics to obtain insights in to the population structure, host-species relationships, gene flow and

  14. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from poultry in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, Martina; Salata, Cristiano; Martini, Marco; Montesissa, Clara; Piccirillo, Alessandra

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Campylobacter isolates from broilers and turkeys reared in industrial farms in Northern Italy, given the public health concern represented by resistant campylobacters in food-producing animals and the paucity of data about this topic in our country. Thirty-six Campylobacter jejuni and 24 Campylobacter coli isolated from broilers and 68 C. jejuni and 32 C. coli from turkeys were tested by disk diffusion for their susceptibility to apramycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, ceftiofur, cefuroxime, ampicillin, amoxicillin+clavulanic acid, nalidixic acid, flumequine, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, tiamulin, clindamycin, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim, chloramphenicol. Depending on the drug, breakpoints provided by Comité de l'antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and the manufacturer were followed. All broiler strains and 92% turkey strains were multidrug resistant. Very high resistance rates were detected for quinolones, tetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim, ranging from 65% to 100% in broilers and from 74% to 96% in turkeys. Prevalence of resistance was observed also against ampicillin (97% in broilers, 88% in turkeys) and at least three cephalosporins (93-100% in broilers, 100% in turkeys). Conversely, no isolates showed resistance to chloramphenicol and tiamulin. Susceptibility prevailed for amoxicillin+clavulanic acid and aminoglycosides in both poultry species, and for macrolides and clindamycin among turkey strains and among C. jejuni from broilers, whereas most C. coli strains from broilers (87.5%) were resistant. Other differences between C. jejuni and C. coli were observed markedly in broiler isolates, with the overall predominance of resistance in C. coli compared to C. jejuni. This study provides updates and novel data on the AMR of broiler and

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and eradication regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Tetsufumi; Aoki, Wataru; Mizuno, Takashi; Wakazono, Kuniko; Ohno, Junki; Nakai, Tsunehiro; Nomiya, Takao; Fujii, Miki; Fusegawa, Keiichi; Kinoshita, Kazuya; Hamada, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2017-02-01

    Campylobacter spp. are zoonotic pathogens, however, knowledge about their presence and antimicrobial resistance in nonhuman primates is limited. Our animal facility purchased cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from various Asian countries: China, Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Colonization by Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 238 of the monkeys from 2009 to 2012 and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out for these isolates. Furthermore, we eradicated these pathogens from these monkeys. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 47 monkeys from three specific countries: China, Cambodia, and Indonesia, with respective isolation rates of 15%, 36%, and 67%. Two monkeys, which were each infected with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, showed clinical symptoms of diarrhea and bloody feces. In total, 41 isolates of C. coli and 17 isolates of C. jejuni were detected. Antimicrobial susceptibility varied: in the monkeys from China, erythromycin (ERY)-, tetracycline (TET)-, and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli, in the monkeys from Cambodia, amoxicillin-intermediate, TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and amoxicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni, and in the monkeys from Indonesia, ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni were common (>75%). Multiresistant isolates of C. coli were found in monkeys from all countries and multiresistant isolates of C. jejuni were found in monkeys from Indonesia. The eradication rate with azithromycin was comparable to that with gentamicin (GEN) by oral administration, and was higher than those with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) and chloramphenicol (CHL). From the perspective of zoonosis, we should acknowledge multiresistant Campylobacter spp. isolated from the monkeys as a serious warning. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Campylobacter jejuni strains coresistant to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin in patients with gastroenteritis in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carev, Merica; Kovačić, Ana; Novak, Anita; Tonkić, Marija; Jerončić, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter jejuni strains are rapidly emerging worldwide. Here, we aimed to determine the antibiotic-resistance patterns and genetic structure of C. jejuni from stool samples of symptomatic patients in Dalmatia, the largest Croatian county. In a population-based laboratory surveillance programme for campylobacteriosis in Dalmatia from May 2012 to May 2013, C. jejuni (n = 76) were collected from stool samples of all the patients hospitalized with gastroenteritis and matched positive outpatients (n = 77). Antibiotic susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotyping of isolates were performed. Approximately 60% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, whereas 24% of isolates were resistant to tetracycline; of the latter, 89% were also coresistant to ciprofloxacin. Resistance to erythromycin and gentamicin was infrequent (≤ 0.7%). Antibiotic-resistant strains were generally not associated with the need for hospitalization. However, the prevalence of coresistant strains increased sharply after 2010, and these coresistant strains were more prevalent in infections caused by clonal PFGE types, with distinct patterns of temporal occurrence and age distribution in infected patients. A high prevalence of coresistant Tc R /Cip R C. jejuni strains were detected in patients in Croatia. Strains were significantly associated with several clonal-type PFGE genotypes, shared common patterns of temporal occurrence, and showed distinct age distribution in infected patients, suggestive of newly identified strains. Since a high prevalence of coresistant Tc R /Cip R strains was also observed in other countries, further in-depth studies are essential to evaluate whether this phenomenon is linked to C. jejuni epidemiology in food animals and agricultural ecosystems.

  17. Polyphosphate kinase 2: a novel determinant of stress responses and pathogenesis in Campylobacter jejuni.

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    Dharanesh Gangaiah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inorganic polyphosphate (poly P plays an important role in stress tolerance and virulence in many bacteria. PPK1 is the principal enzyme involved in poly P synthesis, while PPK2 uses poly P to generate GTP, a signaling molecule that serves as an alternative energy source and a precursor for various physiological processes. Campylobacter jejuni, an important cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in humans, possesses homologs of both ppk1 and ppk2. ppk1 has been previously shown to impact the pathobiology of C. jejuni. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the deletion of ppk2 in C. jejuni resulted in a significant decrease in poly P-dependent GTP synthesis, while displaying an increased intracellular ATP:GTP ratio. The Deltappk2 mutant exhibited a significant survival defect under osmotic, nutrient, aerobic, and antimicrobial stresses and displayed an enhanced ability to form static biofilms. However, the Deltappk2 mutant was not defective in poly P and ppGpp synthesis suggesting that PPK2-mediated stress tolerance is not ppGpp-mediated. Importantly, the Deltappk2 mutant was significantly attenuated in invasion and intracellular survival within human intestinal epithelial cells as well as in chicken colonization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, we have highlighted the role of PPK2 as a novel pathogenicity determinant that is critical for C. jejuni survival, adaptation, and persistence in the host environments. PPK2 is absent in humans and animals; therefore, can serve as a novel target for therapeutic intervention of C. jejuni infections.

  18. Functional characterization of a lipoprotein-encoding operon in Campylobacter jejuni.

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    Mayumi Oakland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial lipoproteins have important functions in bacterial pathogenesis and physiology. In Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborne pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans, the majority of lipoproteins have not been functionally characterized. Previously, we showed by DNA microarray that CmeR, a transcriptional regulator repressing the expression of the multidrug efflux pump CmeABC, modulates the expression of a three-gene operon (cj0089, cj0090, and cj0091 encoding a cluster of lipoproteins in C. jejuni. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work, we characterized the function and regulation of the cj0089-cj0090-cj0091 operon. In contrast to the repression of cmeABC, CmeR activates the expression of the lipoprotein genes and the regulation is confirmed by immunoblotting using anti-Cj0089 and anti-Cj0091 antibodies. Gel mobility shift assay showed that CmeR directly binds to the promoter of the lipoprotein operon, but the binding is much weaker compared with the promoter of cmeABC. Analysis of different cellular fractions indicated that Cj0089 was associated with the inner membrane, while Cj0091 was located on the outer membrane. Inactivation of cj0091, but not cj0089, significantly reduced the adherence of C. jejuni to INT 407 cells in vitro, indicating that Cj0091 has a function in adherence. When inoculated into chickens, the Cj0091 mutant also showed a defect in early colonization of the intestinal tract, suggesting that Cj0091 contributes to Campylobacter colonization in vivo. It was also shown that Cj0091 was produced and immunogenic in chickens that were naturally infected by C. jejuni. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that the lipoprotein operon is subject to direct regulation by CmeR and that Cj0091 functions as an adhesion mechanism in C. jejuni and contributes to Campylobacter colonization of the intestinal tract in animal hosts.

  19. Cytolethal Distending Toxin From Campylobacter jejuni Requires the Cytoskeleton for Toxic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Olvera, Estela T; Bustos-Martínez, Jaime A; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Verdugo-Rodríguez, Antonio; Martínez-Gómez, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the major causes of infectious diarrhea worldwide. The distending cytolethal toxin (CDT) of Campylobacter spp. interferes with normal cell cycle progression. This toxic effect is considered a result of DNase activity that produces chromosomal DNA damage. To perform this event, the toxin must be endocytosed and translocated to the nucleus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the cytoskeleton in the translocation of CDT to the nucleus. Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33291 and seven isolates donated from Instituto de Biotecnologia were used in this study. The presence of CDT genes in C. jejuni strains was determined by PCR. To evaluate the effect of CDT, HeLa cells were treated with bacterial lysate, and the damage and morphological changes were analyzed by microscopy, immunofluorescence staining, and flow cytometry. To evaluate the role of the cytoskeleton, HeLa cells were treated with either latrunculin A or by nocodazole and analyzed by microscopy, flow cytometry, and immunoquantification (ELISA). The results obtained showed that the eight strains of C. jejuni , including the reference strain, had the ability to produce the toxin. Usage of latrunculin A and nocodazole, two cytoskeletal inhibitors, blocked the toxic effect in cells treated with the toxin. This phenomenon was evident in flow cytometry analysis and immunoquantification of Cdc2-phosphorylated. This work showed that the cytotoxic activity of the C. jejuni CDT is dependent on its endocytosis. The alteration in the microtubules and actin filaments caused a blockage transit of the toxin, preventing it from reaching the nucleus of the cell, as well as preventing DNA fragmentation and alteration of the cell cycle. The CDT toxin appears to be an important element for the pathogenesis of campylobacteriosis, since all clinical isolates showed the presence of cdtA , cdtB and cdtC genes.

  20. Regulation of oxidative stress response by CosR, an essential response regulator in Campylobacter jejuni.

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    Sunyoung Hwang

    Full Text Available CosR (Campylobacter oxidative stress regulator; Cj0355c is an OmpR-type response regulator essential for the viability of Campylobacter jejuni, a leading foodborne pathogen causing human gastroenteritis worldwide. Despite importance, the function of CosR remains completely unknown mainly because of cell death caused by its knockout mutation. To overcome this technical limitation, in this study, antisense technology was used to investigate the regulatory function of CosR by modulating the level of CosR expression. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE was performed to identify the CosR regulon either by suppressing CosR expression with antisense peptide nucleic acid (PNA or by overexpressing CosR in C. jejuni. According to the results of 2DGE, CosR regulated 32 proteins involved in various cellular processes. Notably, CosR negatively regulated a few key proteins of the oxidative stress response of C. jejuni, such as SodB, Dps, Rrc and LuxS, whereas CosR positively controlled AhpC. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that CosR directly bound to the promoter region of the oxidative stress genes. DNase I footprinting assays identified 21-bp CosR binding sequences in the sodB and ahpC promoters, suggesting CosR specifically recognizes and binds to the regulated genes. Interestingly, the level of CosR protein was significantly reduced by paraquat (a superoxide generator but not by hydrogen peroxide. Consistent with the overall negative regulation of oxidative stress defense proteins by CosR, the CosR knockdown by antisense rendered C. jejuni more resistant to oxidative stress compared to the wild type. Overall, this study reveals the important role played by the essential response regulator CosR in the oxidative stress defense of C. jejuni.

  1. Survey of chicken abattoir for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Pesquisa de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em abatedouros de aves

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    Ana L.L. Cortez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Campylobacter is of great importance to public health because it includes several species that may cause diarrhea. These species may be found in water, food and in the intestinal tract of chickens. This study investigated the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in chicken abattoirs in São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 288 samples of feces, feathers, scald water, evisceration water, chiller water, and the rinse water of eviscerated, not eviscerated and chilled carcasses were collected in six chicken abattoirs. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR was performed in Campylobacter spp.-positive isolates using the gene HIP, specific for hippuricase enzyme from Campylobacter jejuni and aspartokinase gene, specific to detect Campylobacter coli. The percentage of positive isolates of Campylobacter jejuni was 4.9% (14/288. Isolation was greater in feces samples (22%, 8/36. One sample was positive for the species C. coli. In conclusion, the results indicate that it is necessary to improve quality control for Campylobacter spp. in chicken abattoirs.O gênero Campylobacter tem grande destaque em saúde pública, principalmente por pertencerem a este gênero várias espécies que podem causar diarréia. Estas espécies podem ser encontradas em amostras de água, alimentos e no trato intestinal das aves. Este estudo investigou a presença de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em abatedouros de aves no Estado de São Paulo. As 288 amostras foram coletadas em seis estabelecimentos e incluíram: fezes; penas; água de escaldamento, de evisceração e de resfriamento; e água de enxaguadura de carcaça não eviscerada, eviscerada e resfriada. Após o isolamento microbiológico das amostras positivas de Campylobacter spp. foi realizada uma Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR utilizando o gene HIP, da hipuricase, específico para Campylobacter jejuni e o gene da enzima aspartoquinase, específico para Campylobacter coli. A

  2. Antibiotic Resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli Isolated from Children with Diarrhea in Thailand and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngan Thi Kim; Thongprachum, Aksara; Tran, Dinh Nguyen; Nishimura, Shuichi; Shimizu-Onda, Yuko; Trinh, Quang Duy; Khamrin, Pattara; Ukarapol, Nuthapong; Kongsricharoern, Tipachan; Komine-Aizawa, Shihoko; Okitsu, Shoko; Maneekarn, Niwat; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A total of 29 Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli strains were isolated from Thai and Japanese children with diarrhea using the Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification method. The samples were evaluated for mutations in gyrA and 23S rRNA in order to assess resistance against fluoroquinolones and macrolides, respectively. Among the isolated strains, 9 (8 C. jejuni and 1 C. coli) were from Thai children, and the other 20 (C. jejuni) were isolated from Japanese children. High fluoroquinolone resistance rates were observed in Thai (66.7%) and Japanese (90%) children. Macrolide resistance was not observed in Japanese children but was observed at a considerable rate of 12.5% of C. jejuni isolated in the Thai cohort. The results indicate that continuous monitoring of resistance of Campylobacter strains to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is definitely necessary.

  3. The occurrence and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in organic pigs and their outdoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Dalsgaard, Anders; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2006-01-01

    safety. Bacteriological methods for determination of Campylobacter excretion level were combined with colony-blot hybridization and real-time PCR for specific detection of C. jejuni in pigs. Campylobacter was isolated from pigs (n = 47), paddock environment (n = 126) and wildlife (n = 44), identified...... to species by real-time PCR and sub-typed by serotyping (Penner) and pulse-field gel electrophorsis (PFGE) genotyping. All pigs excreted Campylobacter (10(3)-10(7) CFU g(-1) faeces) from the age of 8-13-weeks old. C jejuni was found in 29% of pigs in three consecutive trials and always in minority to C. coli......The occurrence and species distribution of thermophilic Campylobacter was investigated in organic outdoor pigs. An increased exposure of outdoor pigs to C jejuni from the environment may cause a shift from a normal dominance of C coli to more C jejuni, which may imply a concern of reduced food...

  4. Campylobacter jejuni in Musca domestica: An examination of survival and transmission potential in light of the innate immune responses of the house flies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, Carson; Bahrndorff, Simon; Lowenberger, Carl

    2016-01-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica, has been implicated as a vector of Campylobacter spp., a major cause of human disease. Little is known whether house flies serve as biological amplifying hosts or mechanical vectors for Campylobacter jejuni. We investigated the period after C. jejuni had been...... after ingestion but no countable C. jejuni colonies were observed > 24 hours post-ingestion. We detected viable C. jejuni in house fly vomitus and excreta up to 4 hours after ingestion, but no viable bacteria were detected ≥ 8 hours. Suppression subtractive hybridization identified pathogen-induced gene...... quantitative real time PCR. Some house fly factor, or combination of factors, eliminates C. jejuni within 24 hours post-ingestion. Because C. jejuni is not amplified within the body of the housefly, this insect likely serves as a mechanical vector rather than as a true biological, amplifying vector for C...

  5. Quantitative histology of germ cells in the undescended testes of human fetuses, neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Beck, B L

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the number of germ cells per tubular cross section and testicular weight in cryptorchid fetuses, neonates and infants, and characterized additional abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our series comprised 35 fetuses and 58 boys with cryptorchidism, and 22 normal fetuses...

  6. Towards a New Study on Associative Learning in Human Fetuses: Fetal Associative Learning in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Research has revealed that fetuses can learn from events in their environment. The most convincing evidence for fetal learning is habituation to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in human fetuses and classical conditioning in rat fetuses. However, these two research areas have been independent of each other. There have been few attempts at classical…

  7. Characterization of the virulence, growth temperature and antibiotic resistance of the Campylobacter jejuni IAL 2383 strain isolated from humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, B.B.; Rossi, D.A.; Maia, C.A.; Nalevaiko, P.C.; Melo, R.T.; Cuccato, L.P.; Beletti, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the C. jejuni IAL2383 strain isolated from humans in Brazil. Transcripts for the racR, dnaJ and ciaB genes were found and flaA, plda and cadF genes were present in the genome and bacteria was sensitive to most of the important antimicrobials used to treat humans. C. jejuni IAL2383 is a good experimental model to analyze the interactions with cells. PMID:24948944

  8. Characterization of the virulence, growth temperature and antibiotic resistance of the Campylobacter jejuni IAL 2383 strain isolated from humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B. Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the C. jejuni IAL2383 strain isolated from humans in Brazil. Transcripts for the racR, dnaJ and ciaB genes were found and flaA, plda and cadF genes were present in the genome and bacteria was sensitive to most of the important antimicrobials used to treat humans. C. jejuni IAL2383 is a good experimental model to analyze the interactions with cells.

  9. Impact of oxidative stress defense on bacterial survival and morphological change in Campylobacter jejuni under aerobic conditions

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    Euna eOh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni, a microaerophilic foodborne pathogen, inescapably faces high oxygen tension during its transmission to humans. Thus, the ability of C. jejuni to survive under oxygen-rich conditions may significantly impact C. jejuni viability in food and food safety as well. In this study, we investigated the impact of oxidative stress resistance on the survival of C. jejuni under aerobic conditions by examining three mutants defective in key antioxidant genes, including ahpC, katA, and sodB. All the three mutants exhibited growth reduction under aerobic conditions compared to the wild type (WT, and the ahpC mutant showed the most significant growth defect. The CFU reduction in the mutants was recovered to the WT level by complementation. Higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS were accumulated in C. jejuni under aerobic conditions than microaerobic conditions, and supplementation of culture media with an antioxidant recovered the growth of C. jejuni. The levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were significantly increased in the mutants compared to WT. Additionally, the mutants exhibited different morphological changes under aerobic conditions. The ahpC and katA mutants developed coccoid morphology by aeration, whereas the sodB mutant established elongated cellular morphology. Compared to microaerobic conditions, interestingly, aerobic culture conditions substantially induced the formation of coccoidal cells, and antioxidant treatment reduced the emergence of coccoid forms under aerobic conditions. The ATP concentrations and PMA-qPCR analysis supported that oxidative stress is a factor that induces the development of a viable-but-non-culturable (VBNC state in C. jejuni. The findings in this study clearly demonstrated that oxidative stress resistance plays an important role in the survival and morphological changes of C. jejuni under aerobic conditions.

  10. OCORRÊNCIA DE Campylobacter jejuni EM LEITE CRU E PASTEURIZADO COMERCIALIZADO EM CURITIBA, ESTADO DO PARANÁ, BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Karen Narcizo; Maike Taís Maziero Montanhini

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most bacteria that cause food-borne diseases worldwide. Campylobacteriosis is commonly associated with the consumption of poultry meat; however, several outbreaks of the disease have also been linked to the ingestion of milk, usually due to failures in the pasteurization or even by raw milk’s consumption. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of C. jejuni in samples of raw or pasteurized milk, as well as evaluate different methodologies for analysis of...

  11. Actinobacillus equuli subsp. equuli associated with equine valvular endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Østergaard, Stine; Buhl, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological and pathological data from a case of equine valvular endocarditis are reported. Limited information is available on the pathogenic potential of equine Actinobacillus species as several strains originate from apparently healthy horses. After the establishment of two subspecies within...... this species, this seems to be the first report of an etiological association between A. equuli subsp. equuli and equine endocarditis. Furthermore, new information on some phenotypical characteristics of this subspecies are reported, compared to previous findings...

  12. A novel mouse model of Campylobacter jejuni gastroenteritis reveals key pro-inflammatory and tissue protective roles for Toll-like receptor signaling during infection.

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    Martin Stahl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a major source of foodborne illness in the developed world, and a common cause of clinical gastroenteritis. Exactly how C. jejuni colonizes its host's intestines and causes disease is poorly understood. Although it causes severe diarrhea and gastroenteritis in humans, C. jejuni typically dwells as a commensal microbe within the intestines of most animals, including birds, where its colonization is asymptomatic. Pretreatment of C57BL/6 mice with the antibiotic vancomycin facilitated intestinal C. jejuni colonization, albeit with minimal pathology. In contrast, vancomycin pretreatment of mice deficient in SIGIRR (Sigirr(-/-, a negative regulator of MyD88-dependent signaling led to heavy and widespread C. jejuni colonization, accompanied by severe gastroenteritis involving strongly elevated transcription of Th1/Th17 cytokines. C. jejuni heavily colonized the cecal and colonic crypts of Sigirr(-/- mice, adhering to, as well as invading intestinal epithelial cells. This infectivity was dependent on established C. jejuni pathogenicity factors, capsular polysaccharides (kpsM and motility/flagella (flaA. We also explored the basis for the inflammatory response elicited by C. jejuni in Sigirr(-/- mice, focusing on the roles played by Toll-like receptors (TLR 2 and 4, as these innate receptors were strongly stimulated by C. jejuni. Despite heavy colonization, Tlr4(-/-/Sigirr(-/- mice were largely unresponsive to infection by C. jejuni, whereas Tlr2(-/-/Sigirr(-/- mice developed exaggerated inflammation and pathology. This indicates that TLR4 signaling underlies the majority of the enteritis seen in this model, whereas TLR2 signaling had a protective role, acting to promote mucosal integrity. Furthermore, we found that loss of the C. jejuni capsule led to increased TLR4 activation and exaggerated inflammation and gastroenteritis. Together, these results validate the use of Sigirr(-/- mice as an exciting and relevant animal model for

  13. A novel mouse model of Campylobacter jejuni gastroenteritis reveals key pro-inflammatory and tissue protective roles for Toll-like receptor signaling during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Martin; Ries, Jenna; Vermeulen, Jenny; Yang, Hong; Sham, Ho Pan; Crowley, Shauna M; Badayeva, Yuliya; Turvey, Stuart E; Gaynor, Erin C; Li, Xiaoxia; Vallance, Bruce A

    2014-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major source of foodborne illness in the developed world, and a common cause of clinical gastroenteritis. Exactly how C. jejuni colonizes its host's intestines and causes disease is poorly understood. Although it causes severe diarrhea and gastroenteritis in humans, C. jejuni typically dwells as a commensal microbe within the intestines of most animals, including birds, where its colonization is asymptomatic. Pretreatment of C57BL/6 mice with the antibiotic vancomycin facilitated intestinal C. jejuni colonization, albeit with minimal pathology. In contrast, vancomycin pretreatment of mice deficient in SIGIRR (Sigirr(-/-)), a negative regulator of MyD88-dependent signaling led to heavy and widespread C. jejuni colonization, accompanied by severe gastroenteritis involving strongly elevated transcription of Th1/Th17 cytokines. C. jejuni heavily colonized the cecal and colonic crypts of Sigirr(-/-) mice, adhering to, as well as invading intestinal epithelial cells. This infectivity was dependent on established C. jejuni pathogenicity factors, capsular polysaccharides (kpsM) and motility/flagella (flaA). We also explored the basis for the inflammatory response elicited by C. jejuni in Sigirr(-/-) mice, focusing on the roles played by Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4, as these innate receptors were strongly stimulated by C. jejuni. Despite heavy colonization, Tlr4(-/-)/Sigirr(-/-) mice were largely unresponsive to infection by C. jejuni, whereas Tlr2(-/-)/Sigirr(-/-) mice developed exaggerated inflammation and pathology. This indicates that TLR4 signaling underlies the majority of the enteritis seen in this model, whereas TLR2 signaling had a protective role, acting to promote mucosal integrity. Furthermore, we found that loss of the C. jejuni capsule led to increased TLR4 activation and exaggerated inflammation and gastroenteritis. Together, these results validate the use of Sigirr(-/-) mice as an exciting and relevant animal model for

  14. Growth of non-Campylobacter, oxidase-positive bacteria on selective Campylobacter agar.

    OpenAIRE

    Moskowitz, L B; Chester, B

    1982-01-01

    A total of 67 oxidase-positive, gram-negative bacteria were tested for growth on selective Campylobacter agar (Blaser formulation, BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, Md.) at 42 degrees C under microaerophilic conditions. Although the growth of most of these bacteria was prevented, all strains of Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putrefaciens, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes grew as well as Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

  15. Russian isolates enlarge the known geographic diversity of Francisella tularensis subsp. mediasiatica.

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    Vitalii Timofeev

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis, a small Gram-negative bacterium, is capable of infecting a wide range of animals, including humans, and causes a plague-like disease called tularemia-a highly contagious disease with a high mortality rate. Because of these characteristics, F. tularensis is considered a potential agent of biological terrorism. Currently, F. tularensis is divided into four subspecies, which differ in their virulence and geographic distribution. Two of them, subsp. tularensis (primarily found in North America and subsp. holarctica (widespread across the Northern Hemisphere, are responsible for tularemia in humans. Subsp. novicida is almost avirulent in humans. The fourth subspecies, subsp. mediasiatica, is the least studied because of its limited distribution and impact in human health. It is found only in sparsely populated regions of Central Asia. In this report, we describe the first focus of naturally circulating F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica in Russia. We isolated and characterized 18 strains of this subspecies in the Altai region. All strains were highly virulent in mice. The virulence of subsp. mediasiatica in a vaccinated mouse model is intermediate between that of subsp. tularensis and subsp. holarctica. Based on a multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA, we show that the Altaic population of F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica is genetically distinct from the classical Central Asian population, and probably is endemic to Southern Siberia. We propose to subdivide the mediasiatica subspecies into three phylogeographic groups, M.I, M.II and M.III.

  16. Colonization patterns of an mCherry-tagged Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense strain in potato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubheka, Gugulethu C; Coutinho, Teresa A; Moleleki, Ntsane; Moleleki, Lucy N

    2013-12-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense is a newly identified member of the potato soft rot enterobacteriaceae. The pathogenesis of this pathogen is still poorly understood. In this study, an mCherry-P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense-tagged strain was generated to study P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense-potato plant interactions. Prior to use, the tagged strain was evaluated for in vitro growth, plasmid stability, and virulence on potato tubers and shown to be similar to the wild type. Four potato cultivars were evaluated for stem-based resistance against P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy and in vitro viable cell counts showed that P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense is able to penetrate roots of a susceptible potato cultivar as early as 12 h postinoculation and migrate upward into aerial stem parts. Due to the phenotypic differences observed between tolerant and susceptible cultivars, a comparison of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense colonization patterns in these cultivars was undertaken. In the susceptible cultivar, P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense cells colonized the xylem tissue, forming "biofilm-like" aggregates that led to occlusion of some of the vessels. In contrast, in the tolerant cultivar, P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense appeared as free-swimming planktonic cells with no specific tissue localization. This suggests that there are resistance mechanisms in the tolerant cultivar that limit aggregation of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense in planta and, hence, the lack of symptom development in this cultivar.

  17. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in naturally contaminated chicken skin by melting peak analysis of amplicons in real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tereza C R M; Barbut, Shai; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2005-09-25

    Contamination of poultry by Campylobacter spp. is a significant source of human diarrheal diseases. Traditional methods currently used to detect Campylobacter in foods are time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this study, primers designed for the Campylobacter jejuni cadF gene sequence were used in a SYBR Green I real-time PCR assay as an alternative to a conventional bacteriological method for the rapid detection of C. jejuni from poultry. Twelve portions of chicken purchased from two local grocery stores and 39 portions obtained from a commercial processing plant were examined. Samples of the skin were enriched in Bolton broth at 37 degrees C for 3 h and then at 42 degrees C for 9, 21, or 45 h under microaerobic conditions. DNA was extracted from 1-ml aliquots of the enrichment cultures using 1% Triton X-100. The DNA was used as the template in a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. After 24 h of enrichment, C. jejuni was isolated from 13 samples and all of the positive cultures were also detected by the real-time PCR procedure. C. jejuni was detected by both methods from samples artificially contaminated with 1 or 10 CFU of C. jejuni per 10 g, after 24 h of enrichment. The real-time PCR method was found to be sensitive and specific. It significantly reduced the time required for the detection of C. jejuni in poultry following enrichment of samples.

  18. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SUBSP. plantarum PROBIOTIC STRAINS AS PROTEASE PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Маtseliukh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteases from probiotic strains of the genus Bacillus, just like the antibiotics, bacteriocins and other hydrolytic enzymes, are one of the main factors that determine their biological activity. The aim of this work was to study the synthesis and biochemical properties of proteases from two strains Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM B-5139 and UCM B-5140 that included in the probiotic Endosporin. The cultivation of strains was carried out in flasks under rotating for two days. The influence of physico-chemical parameters of the reaction medium on proteolytic activity was studied on partially purified protease preparations. Lytic activity was determined by turbidimetric method. On the second day of cultivation B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM В-5139 and UCM В-5140 synthesized the metal-dependent peptidase and serine protease, respectively. The optimum conditions of their action were the following: temperature 37–40 °C and pH 6.5–7.0. Isolated proteases are able to lyse the living cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Thus we demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM B-5140 and UCM B-5139, included in the probiotic veterinary preparation Endosporin, produced proteolytic enzymes that hydrolyze the native insoluble proteins (elastin, fibrin and collagen. These enzymes belong to the group of neutral metal-dependent and serine proteases. They are active under physiological conditions against gram-positive bacteria and yeasts. The application of these proteases in biotechnology is considered.

  19. PFGE, Lior serotype, and antimicrobial resistance patterns among Campylobacter jejuni isolated from travelers and US military personnel with acute diarrhea in Thailand, 1998-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serichantalergs Oralak

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. In Thailand, several strains of C. jejuni have been isolated and identified as major diarrheal pathogens among adult travelers. To study the epidemiology of C. jejuni in adult travelers and U.S. military personnel with acute diarrhea in Thailand from 1998-2003, strains of C. jejuni were isolated and phenotypically identified, serotyped, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and characterized using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Results A total of 312 C. jejuni isolates were obtained from travelers (n = 46 and U.S. military personnel (n = 266 in Thailand who were experiencing acute diarrhea. Nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin resistance was observed in 94.9% and 93.0% of the isolates, respectively. From 2001-2003, resistance to tetracycline (81.9%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (57.9%, ampicillin (28.9%, kanamycin (5.9%, sulfisoxazole (3.9%, neomycin (2.0%, and streptomycin (0.7% was observed. Combined PFGE analysis showed considerable genetic diversity among the C. jejuni isolates; however, four PFGE clusters included isolates from the major Lior serotypes (HL: 36, HL: 11, HL: 5, and HL: 28. The PFGE analysis linked individual C. jejuni clones that were obtained at U.S. military exercises with specific antimicrobial resistance patterns. Conclusions In summary, most human C. jejuni isolates from Thailand were multi-resistant to quinolones and tetracycline. PFGE detected spatial and temporal C. jejuni clonality responsible for the common sources of Campylobacter gastroenteritis.

  20. The Effects of Temperature and Innate Immunity on Transmission of Campylobacter jejuni (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) Between Life Stages of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Gill, C.; Lowenberger, C.

    2014-01-01

    jejuni (Jones) could be transferred between life stages of M. domestica (larvae-pupae-adults) and determined bacterial counts of C. jejuni at different time points after bacterial exposure. C. jejuni was transmitted from infected larvae to pupae, but not to the adult stage. Infected larvae maintained....../g), and these numbers dropped to 4.8 +/- 0.1 SE log(10) (CFU/g) 24 h after pupation. The decline in C. jejuni numbers during pupal development coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial peptides, including cecropin, diptericin, attacin, and defensin, in the larva-pupa transition stage and a later second peak...

  1. Discrimination of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Rinosh J; Thachil, Anil J; Ramachandran, Akhilesh

    2017-09-01

    Accurate and timely identification of infectious etiologies is of great significance in veterinary microbiology, especially for critical diseases such as strangles, a highly contagious disease of horses caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. equi. We evaluated a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) platform for use in species- and subspecies-level identification of S. equi isolates from horses and compared it with an automated biochemical system. We used 25 clinical isolates each of S. equi subsp. equi and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Using the MALDI-TOF MS platform, it was possible to correctly identify all 50 isolates to the species level. Unique mass peaks were identified in the bacterial peptide mass spectra generated by MALDI-TOF MS, which can be used for accurate subspecies-level identification of S. equi. Mass peaks (mass/charge, m/ z) 6,751.9 ± 1.4 (mean ± standard deviation) and 5,958.1 ± 1.3 were found to be unique to S. equi subsp. equi and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus, respectively. The automated biochemical system correctly identified 47 of 50 of the isolates to the species level as S. equi, whereas at the subspecies level, 24 of 25 S. equi subsp. equi isolates and 22 of 25 S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolates were correctly identified. Our results indicate that MALDI-TOF MS can be used for accurate species- and subspecies-level identification of S. equi.

  2. Development of strain-specific PCR primers for the identification of Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. fusiforme ATCC 51190(T) and subsp. vincentii ATCC 49256(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hwan Seon; Kim, Min-Jung; Kim, Hwa-Sook; Park, Soon-Nang; Kim, Do Kyung; Baek, Dong-Heon; Kim, Chan; Kook, Joong-Ki

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop the strain-specific PCR primers for Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. fusiforme ATCC 51190(T) and F. nucleatum subsp. vincentii ATCC 49256(T) based on the nucleotide sequence of the Fs17 and Fv35 DNA probes, respectively. The strain specificity was tested against 10 type strains of Fusobacterium spp. or subsp., 21 clinical isolates of F. nucleatum from Koreans, and five type strains of distinct Fusobacterium species. Primer sensitivity was determined by testing serial dilutions (4 ng-4 fg) of the purified genomic DNA from each of the type strains. PCR showed that two pairs of PCR primers, Fs17-F14/Fs17-R14 and Fv35-F1/Fv35-R1 primers, could produce strain-specific amplicons from F. nucleatum subsp. fusiforme ATCC 51190(T) and F. nucleatum subsp. vincentii ATCC 49256(T), respectively. The two PCR primer sets could detect as little as 0.4 pg or 4 pg of the genomic DNA of each target strain. These results suggest that the two sets of PCR primers could be used to identify F. nucleatum subsp. fusiforme ATCC 51190(T) and F. nucleatum subsp. vincentii ATCC 49256(T), particularly for ascertaining the authenticity of the strain. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava in Fetuses: An Autopsy Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Deepa; Chidambarathanu, Shanthi; Murli, Lata; Micheal, John; Jagadeesh, Sujatha; Suresh, Indrani; Seshadri, Suresh

    2017-08-01

    To review fetal autopsy reports with persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) and identify its associations. Autopsy reports of all fetuses diagnosed with PLSVC in our center from January 2011 to December 2015 were reviewed. Fetuses less than 15 weeks gestational age along with autolyzed and damaged hearts were excluded from the study. The study group was compared with controls during this period. Prenatal ultrasound detection rate of PLSVC was 13.06%. All the cases had associated anomalies of which 96% had extra cardiac anomalies and 67% had intrinsic cardiac defects among which septal defects were most common (39.6%). Anomalies of cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary and musculoskeletal, hypoplastic thymus and single umbilical artery were significantly higher in the study group. This study emphasizes on the importance of improving the technical skill for imaging the three-vessel view as PLSVC seems to have significant associations.

  4. Fetus In Fetu — A Mystery in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Majhi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetus in Fetu (FIF is a rare condition where a monozygotic diamnionic parasitic twin is incorporated into the body of its fellow twin and grows inside it. FIF is differentiated from teratoma by the presence of vertebral column. An eight year old girl presented with an abdominal swelling which by X-ray, ultrasonography and CT scan revealed a fetiform mass containing long bones and vertebral bodies surrounded by soft tissue situated on right lumber region. On laparotomy, a retroperitoneal mass resembling a fetus of 585 gm was removed. It had a trunk and four limbs with fingers and toes, umbilical stump, intestinal loops and abundant scalp hairs but was devoid of brain and heart. Histology showed various well-differentiated tissues in respective sites. FIF is a mystery in reproduction and it is scarce in literature in such well-developed stage.

  5. Comparing the Genetic Diversity and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter jejuni Recovered from Cattle and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonhee Cha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni, a leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans, is a foodborne pathogen that can reside in chickens, pigs, and cattle. Because resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides, which are commonly used to treat human infections, has emerged in C. jejuni, it is imperative to continously monitor resistance patterns and examine the genetic variation in strains from human infections and animal reservoirs. Our previous study of C. jejuni from human campylobacteriosis cases showed a significantly higher rate of tetracycline resistance compared to national trends, and identified multilocus sequence type (ST-982 and a history of cattle contact to be associated with tetracycline resistance. To further investigate these associations, we conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the frequency of antimicrobial resistance and examine the genetic diversity of C. jejuni recovered from 214 cattle at three Michigan herds. Overall, the prevalence of C. jejuni was 69.2% (range: 58.6–83.8% for the three farms, and 83.7% (n = 113 of isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. Resistance to only tetracycline predominated among the cattle isolates (n = 89; 65.9% with most resistant strains belonging to ST-459 (96.5% or ST-982 (86.4%. Among the 22 STs identified, STs 459 and 982 were more prevalent in one feedlot, which reported the use of chlortetracycline in feed upon arrival of a new herd. PCR-based fingerprinting demonstrated that the ST-982 isolates from cattle and humans had identical banding patterns, suggesting the possibility of interspecies transmission. Resistance to macrolides (1.5% and ciprofloxacin (16.3% was also observed; 14 of the 22 ciprofloxacin resistant isolates represented ST-1244. Together, these findings demonstrate a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistant C. jejuni in cattle and identify associations with specific genotypes. Continuous monitoring and identification of risk factors for resistance emergence

  6. Stability evaluation of freeze-dried Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in oral capsules

    OpenAIRE

    Jalali, M.; Abedi, D.; Varshosaz, J.; Najjarzadeh, M.; Mirlohi, M.; Tavakoli, N.

    2012-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a common preservation technology in the pharmaceutical industry. Various studies have investigated the effect of different cryoprotectants on probiotics during freeze-drying. However, information on the effect of cryoprotectants on the stability of some Lactobacillus strains during freeze-drying seems scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish production methods for preparation of oral capsule probiotics containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. toleranc...

  7. Prenatal ultrasonographic findings of renal cystic diseases of the fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin; Lee, Young Ho; Cho, Byung Jae; Hong, Sung Ran

    2002-01-01

    The renal cystic diseases of the fetus consist of variable types of multicystic dysplastic kidney, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney, obstructive cystic renal dysplasia, simple renal cyst, medullary cystic disease, and various syndromes with associated cystic renal diseases. Prenatal US findings of renal cystic diseases were compared and analyzed with the pathologic and postnatal US findings to establish the differential points of renal cystic diseases.

  8. Conduction system disease in fetuses evaluated for irregular cardiac rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneo, Bettina F; Strasburger, Janette F; Wakai, Ronald T; Ovadia, Marc

    2006-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of 1st and 2nd degree AV block in fetuses with an irregular cardiac rhythm, and to summarize outcome of these pregnancies. The diagnosis of irregular cardiac rhythm or 'skipped beats' includes isolated ectopy that resolves spontaneously. Recently, Doppler measurements of the 'mechanical' PR interval have been shown to identify AV conduction disease prenatally. Prenatal therapy of these conduction abnormalities may limit the progression to more advanced disease either in utero or after birth. A retrospective review was performed of fetuses evaluated between 1996 and 2004 with the findings of irregular cardiac rhythm. 1st or 2nd degree AV block was diagnosed on Doppler and M-mode recordings, and confirmed using either fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) or postnatal 12-lead ECG. Dexamethasone was administered to 4 mothers with abnormal fetal AV conduction in the setting of anti-Ro/anti-La antibodies. Of 702 fetuses initially referred for arrhythmia, 306 had an irregular rhythm. Eight (2.6%) had intermittent 1st or 2nd degree AV block confirmed by fMCG and/or postnatal 12-lead ECG. AV block was presumed idiopathic in 2, associated with congenital long QT syndrome in 2 or with clinically unsuspected maternal anti-Ro or anti-La antibodies in 4. During the intrauterine period there was no progression to complete AV block and all were born alive at 34-40 weeks of gestation. A small but clinically significant population of fetuses with irregular rhythm will have 1st or 2nd degree AV block. Transplacental therapy may limit the intrauterine progression to more advanced disease. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Study of Testicular Structure in Fetuses with Prune Belly Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Favorito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the structure of the testis in fetuses with prune belly syndrome (PBS to normal controls. Materials and Methods. We studied 6 testes obtained from 3 fetuses with PBS and 14 testes from 7 male fetuses. The testicular specimens were cut into 5-μm thick sections and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE, to observe the seminiferous tubules; Weigert’s solution to observe elastic fibers; and picrosirius red to observe collagen. The images were captured with an Olympus BX51 microscope and Olympus DP70 camera. The stereological analysis was done with the Image Pro and Image J programs. Means were statistically compared using the Mann–Whitney U test (p<0.005. Results. Quantitative analysis documented no differences (p=0.4 in number of seminiferous tubules (ST in PBS testes (mean = 8.87%, SD=1.59, when compared to the control (mean = 11.4%, SD=2.99 and no differences (p=0.8 in diameter of ST in PBS testes (mean = 52.85 μm, SD=1.58 when compared to the control group (mean = 53.17 μm, SD=1.55, but we did observe a lower number (p=0.0002 of Leydig cells in the PBS testes (mean = 67.03% and SD=3.697 when compared to the control group (mean = 90.1% and SD=2.986. Conclusions. Our study showed a lower concentration of Leydig cells in the triad syndrome fetuses.

  10. Teratogenic Effects of Caffeine and Clomipramine on Rat Fetus

    OpenAIRE

    SMA Nabavi; S Ostadhadi; V Nikoui; N Takzare; A Bakhtiarian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorders and depression have a high prevalence during pregnancy; therefore, pregnant women may take clomipramine and also take other drugs or consume foods that contain caffeine. As investigations about the teratogenic effects of clomipramine and its concurrent administration with caffeine during organogenesis period are scarce, we aimed to study the teratogenicity of simultaneous administration of clomipramine and caffeine in rat fetus.Methods: After dividin...

  11. Hobi-Like Pestivirus in Aborted Bovine Fetuses

    OpenAIRE

    Decaro, Nicola; Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Sciarretta, Rossana; Pinto, Pierfrancesco; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-01-01

    An outbreak of abortion affecting multiparous cows was associated with Hobi-like pestivirus infection. Viral RNA and antigens were detected in the tissues of two aborted fetuses. Molecular assays for other common abortogenic agents tested negative. At the genetic level, the Hobi-like pestivirus displayed the closest relatedness to Italian, Australian, and South American viruses, whereas it diverged from the prototype Thai isolate. These findings may have important implications for the pestivi...

  12. Hobi-like pestivirus in aborted bovine fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Sciarretta, Rossana; Pinto, Pierfrancesco; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-02-01

    An outbreak of abortion affecting multiparous cows was associated with Hobi-like pestivirus infection. Viral RNA and antigens were detected in the tissues of two aborted fetuses. Molecular assays for other common abortogenic agents tested negative. At the genetic level, the Hobi-like pestivirus displayed the closest relatedness to Italian, Australian, and South American viruses, whereas it diverged from the prototype Thai isolate. These findings may have important implications for the pestivirus control/eradication programs in cattle herds.

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of gastroschisis in fetuses and newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordienko I.Yu.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective — to develop and improve the nature and extent of prenatal and early postnatal diagnosis of gastroschisis in fetuses and newborns. Patients and methods. For the period 2006–2015 yy. in SI «Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology NAMS Ukraine» prenatally have been examined 43 fetuses with gastroschisis. During the prenatal fetal examinations with gastroschisis in addition to the ultrasound specialists obligatory was present pediatric surgeon. Results. At 100% operated newborns with gastroschisis diagnosis was established prenatally. The frequency of early prenatal diagnosis of gastroschisis (up to 22 weeks gestation — 43.6%, which requires further improvements. Conclusions. The main criteria for prenatal diagnosis of gastroschisis in the fetus are: the localization and size of the through defect of anterior abdominal wall, character of eventrated organs, their condition and amount; the volume of the abdominal cavity and the degree visceroabdominal imbalances; definition of associated malformations and diseases; the amount of amniotic fluid; cytogenetic examination with the definition of fetal karyotype. The algorithm of postnatal diagnosis of gastroschisis and associated malformations of diseases in newborn includes: ultrasound investigation of the abdomen and extra-abdominal areas; echocardiography and cranial ultrasonography; plain radiography of the chest and abdomen, contrast passage through the gastrointestinal tract, ergography — for suspected intestinal obstruction; neurologist consultation, and if necessary — consultation of other professionals.

  14. AcEST: BP919436 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available inition sp|A7H543|SERC_CAMJD Phosphoserine aminotransferase OS=Campylobacter jejuni subsp. doyle...ransferase OS=Campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei (strain ATCC BAA-1458 / RM4099 /

  15. Evaluation of different Campylobacter jejuni isolates to colonize the intestinal tract of commercial turkey poults and selective media for enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylte, M J; Inbody, M H; Johnson, T A; Looft, T; Line, J E

    2018-03-05

    Consumption of contaminated poultry products is the main source of human campylobacteriosis, for which Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for 90% of human cases. Although chickens are believed to be a main source of human exposure to C. jejuni, turkeys also contribute to cases of human infection. Little is known about the kinetics of C. jejuni intestinal colonization in turkeys, or best selective media for their recovery. Enumeration of C. jejuni from intestinal samples can be challenging because most selective Campylobacter media support the growth of non-Campylobacter organisms. In this study, we sought to compare a) C. jejuni isolates that persistently colonize different compartments of the poult intestinal tract, and b) selective media to enumerate C. jejuni from turkey intestinal samples. Three-week-old poults were orally colonized with C. jejuni isolates NCTC 11168 or NADC 20827 (isolated from a turkey flock). Mock-colonized poults were orally gavaged with uninoculated media. Poults were euthanized at d 3, 7, and 21 post colonization and direct plated on different selective Campylobacter media [Campy Line agar with sulfamethoxazole (CLA-S), CHROMagar Campylobacter (CAC) and Campy Cefex] for enumeration. Isolates NCTC 11168 and NADC 20827 poorly colonized the distal ileum. Both isolates colonized the colon, but the number of NADC 20827 significantly decreased at d 21. Isolates NCTC 11168 and NADC 20827 persistently colonized the cecum for up to 21 days. There was no significant difference in the Campylobacter amount recovered on CLA-S and CAC. Campy Cefex failed to prevent growth of background microbes to enumerate C. jejuni from turkey samples. Two independent PCR assays (multiplex PCR and qPCR) confirmed that colonies grown on CLA-S or CAC were C. jejuni. Data from this study demonstrated that isolates NCTC 11168 and NADC 20827 persistently colonized the cecum, and CLA-S or CAC were successful to enumerate Campylobacter from intestinal samples. These

  16. Development of a modified gentamicin protection assay to investigate the interaction between Campylobacter jejuni and Acanthamoeba castellanii ATCC 30010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Brian P; Quinlan, Jennifer J

    2014-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of diarrheal illness worldwide. It is persistent in the environment and on poultry despite its microaerophilic nature and sensitivity to dessication and pH. Studies have demonstrated that C. jejuni co-incubated with Acanthamoeba spp. may be protected from harmful environmental factors. Research in this area, however has included a range of different methodologies for co-incubation, recovery of bacteria and amoebae, and verification of internalization. In this study a modified gentamicin protection assay (mGPA) was developed with a standardized co-incubation procedure. The mGPA addresses limitations of the traditional GPA by providing quantification of the rate of internalization, or lack of internalization, of C. jejuni by Acanthamoeba castellanii. The mGPA described here utilizes tubes instead of cell culture plates allowing for determination of exact numbers of A. castellanii and C. jejuni to be co-incubated prior to addition to tubes. Additionally, the mGPA allows for the incorporation of C. jejuni-only controls to determine the fate of C. jejuni throughout the assay in the absence of A. castellanii. Using the mGPA it was determined that on average 1.6×10(5) C. jejuni (or 0.006% of initial 1×10(9) inoculum) survive the assay in the absence of A. castellanii. Additionally, results obtained with the mGPA demonstrated that while co-incubation with amoebae sometimes (56% of co-incubations) provided a protective effect for C. jejuni, in other cases it did not provide any protective effect (39% of co-incubations), and in at least one case there was a statistically significant higher recovery of C. jejuni in controls when compared to C. jejuni co-incubated with amoebae. The modified gentamicin protection assay described here allows better quantification of the rate and incidence of internalization of bacteria by amoebae. Use of the standardized mGPA developed here with varying environmental parameters and/or strains

  17. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid, sensitive detection of Campylobacter jejuni in cattle farm samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hee-Jin; Cho, Ae-Ri; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Cho, Seongbeom

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide. The detection of this organism in cattle and their environment is important for the control of C. jejuni transmission and the prevention of campylobacteriosis. Here, we describe the development of a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of C. jejuni in naturally contaminated cattle farm samples, based on real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of the hipO gene. The LAMP assay was specific (100% inclusivity and exclusivity for 84 C. jejuni and 41 non-C. jejuni strains, respectively), sensitive (detection limit of 100 fg/μl), and quantifiable (R(2) = 0.9133). The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was then evaluated for its application to the naturally contaminated cattle farm samples. C. jejuni strains were isolated from 51 (20.7%) of 246 cattle farm samples, and the presence of the hipO gene was tested using the LAMP assay. Amplification of the hipO gene by LAMP within 30 min (mean ~10.8 min) in all C. jejuni isolates (n = 51) demonstrated its rapidity and accuracy. Next, template DNA was prepared from a total of 186 enrichment broth cultures of cattle farm samples either by boiling or using a commercial kit, and the sensitivity of detection of C. jejuni was compared between the LAMP and PCR assays. In DNA samples prepared by boiling, the higher sensitivity of the LAMP assay (84.4%) compared with the PCR assay (35.5%) indicates that it is less susceptible to the existence of inhibitors in sample material. In DNA samples prepared using a commercial kit, both the LAMP and PCR assays showed 100% sensitivity. We anticipate that the use of this rapid, sensitive, and simple LAMP assay, which is the first of its kind for the identification and screening of C. jejuni in cattle farm samples, may play an important role in the prevention of C. jejuni contamination in the food chain, thereby reducing the risk of human campylobacteriosis.

  18. Cow's milk with active immunoglobulins against Campylobacter jejuni: effects of temperature on immunoglobulin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Francisco; Alvarez, Alejandro; Espi, Alberto; Prieto, Miguel; de la Roza, Begoña; Vicente, Fernando

    2014-04-01

    Adult Holstein cows were injected with an antiserum against Campylobacter jejuni and immunoglobulin activities in vitro were determined in blood and milk several weeks after injection. The immunoactivity of immunoglobulins in milk was measured by an ELISA after different temperature-time treatments (60-91°C and 4-3600 s) at laboratory and pilot-plant scales. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were determined. An increase in immunoglobulin activity in milk was detected several days after injection. Optical densities increased by three- to seven-fold in this period. The activity started to decay 4-5 weeks after injection. Immunoglobulins maintained most of their in vitro activity under pasteurisation conditions (72°C and 15 s) and were denatured following first-order kinetics. The injection protocol applied allows milk with specific immunoglobulins against Campylobacter jejuni to be obtained. Traditional pasteurisation did not reduce this activity. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-01-01

    , fat score, gender, and migration range were not found to be associated with Campylobacter spp. carriage. A correlation was found between the prevalence (%) of C. jejuni in wild birds and the proportions (%) of C. jejuni in both manure on cattle farms (R-2 = 0.92) and poultry farms (R-2 = 0....... The farm environment provides attractive foraging and breeding habitats for some bird species reported to carry thermophilic Campylobacter spp. We investigated the Campylobacter spp. carriage rates in 52 wild bird species present on 12 Danish farms, sampled during a winter and a summer season, in order...... to study the factors influencing the prevalence in wild birds according to their ecological guild. In total, 1607 individual wild bird cloacal swab samples and 386 livestock manure samples were cultured for Campylobacter spp. according to the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis method NMKL 119.Results...

  20. A direct-sensing galactose chemoreceptor recently evolved in invasive strains of Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Christopher J.; King, Rebecca M.; Shewell, Lucy K.; Tram, Greg; Najnin, Tahria; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren E.; Wilson, Jennifer C.; Fleetwood, Aaron D.; Zhulin, Igor B.; Korolik, Victoria

    2016-10-01

    A rare chemotaxis receptor, Tlp11, has been previously identified in invasive strains of Campylobacter jejuni, the most prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Here we use glycan and small-molecule arrays, as well as surface plasmon resonance, to show that Tlp11 specifically interacts with galactose. Tlp11 is required for the chemotactic response of C. jejuni to galactose, as shown using wild type, allelic inactivation and addition mutants. The inactivated mutant displays reduced virulence in vivo, in a model of chicken colonization. The Tlp11 sensory domain represents the first known sugar-binding dCache_1 domain, which is the most abundant family of extracellular sensors in bacteria. The Tlp11 signalling domain interacts with the chemotaxis scaffolding proteins CheV and CheW, and comparative genomic analysis indicates a likely recent evolutionary origin for Tlp11. We propose to rename Tlp11 as CcrG, Campylobacter ChemoReceptor for Galactose.

  1. Genotypic and serotypic stability of Campylobacter jejuni strains during in vitro and in vivo passage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva M.; Engberg, J.; Fussing, V.

    2001-01-01

    The stability of four typing methods and the sero- and genotypic stability of three Campylobacter jejuni strains were evaluated after subculturing 50 times in triplicate and after colonising mice for up to 26 days. The employed methods were Penner heat-stable serotyping; automated ribotyping (Ribo......Printing) using HaeIII restriction enzyme; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SmaI, SalI and KpnI; and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD) using primers 1254, 1281 and HLWL85. No changes in any of the DNA profiles or in the reactions to heat-stable antigens were identified among...... these strains after the in vitro and in vivo passages. However, one isolate became untypeable with RAPD after passage in one of the mice. In addition, eleven other C. jejuni strains of four different serotypes were subcultured ten times to screen for instability. Neither of these showed instability using PFGE...

  2. Prevalence of Campylobacter Jejuni and Coli in Sheep Carcasses by Using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shahrokhabadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Campylobacter species are common bacterial pathogens causing gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Materials and Methods: A total of 148 randomly sheep carcasses were sampled by surface section of neck meat taken immediately after slaughter analyzed using microbiological examinations. Results: Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 10.13% meat cultures samples examined. Among these 80% sample were C. jejuni and 20% sample were C. coli. Using PCR assays, the number of positive campylobacters increased to 11.48%. Of these positive samples, 82.35% were C. jejuni and 17.65% were C. coli. Significantly higher prevalence rates of Campylobacter spp. (p<0.05 were found in the meat samples taken in summer (47.05%. Conclusion: The PCR is a reliable and sensitive method which can be used as a diagnostic technique for the detection of campylobacter in lamb samples.

  3. Resistance to quinolones in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from Danish broilers at farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Wedderkopp, A.

    2003-01-01

    Aims : To investigate the prevalence of quinolone resistance among Campylobacter jejuni and Camp. coli isolates from Danish poultry at the farm level, as well as for the whole country. Methods and Results : Data and isolates were collected from a national surveillance of Campylobacter in poultry......-resistant variant. Conclusions : Overall, quinolone resistance among Campylobacter isolates from Danish broilers was 7.5% in 1998 and 1999; it was higher among Camp. coli than Camp. jejuni . Genetic diversity among resistant isolates was lower than among susceptible isolates, and certain clones existed in both...... a resistant and a susceptible variant. Some resistant clones appeared to persist on the farms and were repeatedly isolated from poultry flocks. Significance and Impact of the Study : The study is important for the understanding of persistence and dynamics of Campylobacter in broiler houses. It also highlights...

  4. High genetic similarity of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter jejuni in central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna eKovač

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the leading zoonosis in the European Union with the majority of cases attributed to Campylobacter jejuni. Although the disease is usually self-limiting, some severe cases need to be treated with antibiotics, primarily macrolides and quinolones. However, the resistance to the latter is reaching alarming levels in most of the EU countries. To shed light on the expansion of antibiotic resistance in central Europe, we have investigated genetic similarity across 178 ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter jejuni mostly isolates in Slovenia, Austria and Germany. We performed comparative genetic similarity analyses using allelic types of seven MLST housekeeping genes, and the single nucleotide polymorphisms of quinolone resistance determining region located within the DNA gyrase subunit A gene. This analysis revealed high genetic similarity of isolates from clonal complex ST-21 that carry gyrA allelic type 1 in all three of these central-European countries, suggesting these ciprofloxacin resistant isolates arise from a recent common ancestor.

  5. Influence of silver nanoparticles on growth and health of broiler chickens after infection with Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadalasetty, Krishna Prasad; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Engberg, Ricarda Margarete

    2018-01-01

    Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have gained much attention in recent years due to their biomedical applications, especially as antimicrobial agents. AgNP may be used in poultry production as an alternative to the use of antibiotic growth promoter. However, little is known about the impact...... functions and had no antibacterial effect on different intestinal bacterial groups, which may limit the applicability of AgNP against C. jejuni in broiler chickens...

  6. Molecular evidence for the thriving of Campylobacter jejuni ST-4526 in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Asakura

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. This study aimed at a better understanding of the genetic diversity of this pathogen disseminated in Japan. We performed multilocus sequence typing (MLST of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from different sources (100 human, 61 poultry, and 51 cattle isolates in Japan between 2005 and 2006. This approach identified 62 sequence types (STs and 19 clonal complexes (CCs, including 11 novel STs. These 62 STs were phylogenetically divided into 6 clusters, partially exhibiting host association. We identified a novel ST (ST-4526 that has never been reported in other countries; a phylogenetic analysis showed that ST-4526 and related STs showed distant lineage from the founder ST, ST-21 within CC-21. Comparative genome analysis was performed to investigate which properties could be responsible for the successful dissemination of ST-4526 in Japan. Results revealed that three representative ST-4526 isolates contained a putative island comprising the region from Cj0737 to Cj0744, which differed between the ST-4526 isolates and the reference strain NCTC11168 (ST-43/CC-21. Amino acid sequence alignment analyses showed that two of three ST-4526 isolates expressed 693aa- filamentous hemagglutination domain protein (FHA, while most of other C. jejuni strains whose genome were sequenced exhibited its truncation. Correspondingly, host cell binding of FHA-positive C. jejuni was greater than that of FHA-truncated strains, and exogenous administration of rFHA protein reduced cell adhesion of FHA-positive bacteria. Biochemical assays showed that this putative protein exhibited a dose-dependent binding affinity to heparan sulfate, indicating its adhesin activity. Moreover, ST-4526 showed increased antibiotic-resistance (nalidixic acid and fluoroquinolones and a reduced ability for DNA uptake. Taken together, our data suggested that these combined features contributed to the clonal thriving of ST

  7. Hygromycin B and apramycin antibiotic resistance cassettes for use in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Cameron

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni genetic manipulation is restricted by the limited number of antibiotic resistance cassettes available for use in this diarrheal pathogen. In this study, two antibiotic resistance cassettes were developed, encoding for hygromycin B and apramycin resistance, for use in mutagenesis or for selection of gene expression and complementation constructs in C. jejuni. First, the marker genes were successfully modified to allow for insertional mutagenesis or deletion of a gene-of-interest, and were bracketed with restriction sites for the facilitation of site-specific cloning. These hygromycin B and apramycin markers are encoded by plasmids pAC1H and pAC1A, respectively. We also modified an insertional gene-delivery vector to create pRRH and pRRA, containing the hygromycin B and apramycin resistance genes, and 3 unique restriction sites for the directional introduction of genes into the conserved multi-copy rRNA gene clusters of the C. jejuni chromosome. We determined the effective antibiotic concentrations required for selection, and established that no harmful effects or fitness costs were associated with carrying hygromycin B or apramycin resistance under standard C. jejuni laboratory conditions. Using these markers, the arylsulfatase reporter gene astA was deleted, and the ability to genetically complement the astA deletion using pRRH and pRRA for astA gene insertion was demonstrated. Furthermore, the relative levels of expression from the endogenous astA promoter were compared to that of polycistronic mRNA expression from the constitutive promoter upstream of the resistance gene. The development of additional antibiotic resistance cassettes for use in Campylobacter will enable multiple gene deletion and expression combinations as well as more in-depth study of multi-gene systems important for the survival and pathogenesis of this important bacterium.

  8. Effects of a Campylobacter jejuni infection on the development of the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, C. H.; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Finster, K.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a Campylobacter jejuni colonization on the development of the microflora of the cecum and the ileum of broiler chickens was studied using molecular methods. The infection did affect the development and complexity of the microbial Communities of the ceca, but we found no permanent ef....... Some of these DGGE bands could be affiliated with Lactobacillus reuteri, Clostridium perfringens, and the genus Klebsiella....

  9. Mutational and transcriptomic changes involved in the development of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Haihong; Yuan, Zonghui; Shen, Zhangqi; Han, Jing; Sahin, Orhan; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Qijing

    2013-03-01

    Macrolide antibiotics are important for clinical treatment of infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni. Development of resistance to this class of antibiotics in Campylobacter is a complex process, and the dynamic molecular changes involved in this process remain poorly defined. Multiple lineages of macrolide-resistant mutants were selected by stepwise exposure of C. jejuni to escalating doses of erythromycin or tylosin. Mutations in target genes were determined by DNA sequencing, and the dynamic changes in the expression of antibiotic efflux transporters and the transcriptome of C. jejuni were examined by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, immunoblotting, and DNA microarray analysis. Multiple types of mutations in ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 occurred early during stepwise selection. On the contrary, the mutations in the 23S rRNA gene, mediating high resistance to macrolides, were observed only in the late-stage mutants. Upregulation of antibiotic efflux genes was observed in the intermediately resistant mutants, and the magnitude of upregulation declined with the occurrence of mutations in the 23S rRNA gene. DNA microarray analysis revealed the differential expression of 265 genes, most of which occurred in the intermediate mutant, including the upregulation of genes encoding ribosomal proteins and the downregulation of genes involved in energy metabolism and motility. These results indicate (i) that mutations in L4 and L22 along with temporal overexpression of antibiotic efflux genes precede and may facilitate the development of high-level macrolide resistance and (ii) that the development of macrolide resistance affects the pathways important for physiology and metabolism in C. jejuni, providing an explanation for the reduced fitness of macrolide-resistant Campylobacter.

  10. Impaired Fitness and Transmission of Macrolide-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni in Its Natural Host

    OpenAIRE

    Luangtongkum, Taradon; Shen, Zhangqi; Seng, Virginia W.; Sahin, Orhan; Jeon, Byeonghwa; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Qijing

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen transmitted to humans via the food chain and is prevalent in chickens, a natural reservoir for this pathogenic organism. Due to the importance of macrolide antibiotics in clinical therapy of human campylobacteriosis, development of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter has become a concern for public health. To facilitate the control of macrolide-resistant Campylobacter, it is necessary to understand if macrolide resistance affects the fitness...

  11. Evaluation of fecal calprotectin in Campylobacter concisus and Campylobacter jejuni/coli gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Hans Linde; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove; Nielsen, Henrik

    2013-05-01

    Calprotectin (CP) is a calcium-binding cytosolic neutrophil protein and the concentration in feces reflects the migration of neutrophils into the gut lumen. Testing for fecal CP (f-CP) in patients with negative cultures for enteric pathogens is widely accepted as a useful screening tool for identifying patients who are most likely to benefit from endoscopy for suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with the assumption that a negative f-CP is compatible with a functional disorder. Campylobacter concisus has recently been reported to have a high incidence in the Danish population almost equal to Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and has been reported to cause prolonged watery diarrhea. However, isolation of C. concisus from feces requires the filter method in a hydrogen-enriched microaerobic atmosphere, which is not commonly used in the laboratory, and the diagnosis may consequently be missed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the f-CP levels, as a marker for the intestinal inflammation in C. jejuni/coli- and C. concisus-infected patients. The authors found a high concentration of f-CP (median 631: IQR 221-1274) among 140 patients with C. jejuni/coli infection, whereas the f-CP level among 99 C. concisus-infected patients was significantly lower (median 53: IQR 20-169). The data correlate to the severe inflammatory gastroenteritis seen in patients infected with C. jejuni/coli, whereas C. concisus-infected patients have a much lower intestinal inflammation which could be compared with viral gastroenteritis. Nevertheless, clinicians should be aware of C. concisus infection, especially in patients with prolonged mild diarrhea, in the differential diagnosis to IBD.

  12. Characterization of a Plasmid-Encoded Type IV Secretion System in Campylobacter jejuni 81-176

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Rutherford, A.H. van Vliet, S. Whitehead, and B.G. Barrell. 2000. The complete genome sequence of the food - borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni reveals...G. A. Bradley, and L. A. Joens. 1993. Newborn piglet model for campylobacteriosis . Infect Immun 61:3466-3475. Backert, S., Ziska, E., Brinkmann, V...outbreak of campylobacteriosis associated with consumption of raw milk. J Infect Dis 152:592-596. Krause, S., M. Barcena, W. Pansegrau, R. Lurz, J. M

  13. Bacteriophage F336 recognizes the capsular phosphoramidate modification of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Martine C Holst; van Alphen, Lieke B; Harboe, Anne; Li, Jianjun; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Szymanski, Christine M; Brøndsted, Lone

    2011-12-01

    Bacteriophages infecting the food-borne human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni could potentially be exploited to reduce bacterial counts in poultry prior to slaughter. This bacterium colonizes the intestinal tract of poultry in high numbers, and contaminated poultry meat is regarded as the major source of human campylobacteriosis. In this study, we used phage F336 belonging to the Myoviridae family to select a C. jejuni NCTC11168 phage-resistant strain, called 11168R, with the aim of investigating the mechanisms of phage resistance. We found that phage F336 has reduced adsorption to 11168R, thus indicating that the receptor is altered. While proteinase K-treated C. jejuni cells did not affect adsorption, periodate treatment resulted in reduced adsorption, suggesting that the phage binds to a carbohydrate moiety. Using high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we found that 11168R lacks an O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN) moiety attached to the GalfNAc on the capsular polysaccharide (CPS), which was further confirmed by mass spectroscopy. Sequence analysis of 11168R showed that the potentially hypervariable gene cj1421, which encodes the GalfNAc MeOPN transferase, contains a tract of 10 Gs, resulting in a nonfunctional gene product. However, when 11168R reverted back to phage sensitive, cj1421 contained 9 Gs, and the GalfNAc MeOPN was regained in this strain. In summary, we have identified the phase-variable MeOPN moiety, a common component of the diverse capsular polysaccharides of C. jejuni, as a novel receptor of phages infecting this bacterium.

  14. The Polysaccharide Capsule of Campylobacter jejuni 81-176 Modulates the Host Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    M. A. Rajandream, K. M. Rutherford, A. H. M. van Vliet, S. 589 Whitehead, and B. G. Barrell. 2000. The genome sequence of the food -590 borne ...Jackson Laboratories, Bar Harbor, ME) were housed in groups of 10 with 117 access to food and water ad libitum. For infection with C. jejuni, one liter...In vivo models of enteric campylobacteriosis : natural and 480 experimental infections. In I. Nachamkin, M. J. Blaser and L. S. Tompkins 481 (ed

  15. Characterization of probiotic strains: an application as feed additives in poultry against Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Cecilia; Baffoni, Loredana; Gaggia, Francesca; Granata, Marta; Gasbarri, Rossana; Di Gioia, Diana; Biavati, Bruno

    2010-07-31

    Campylobacteriosis is at present the most frequent zoonosis in humans and the main source is poultry meat contaminated by Campylobacter jejuni. An alternative and effective approach to antibiotic administration to livestock to reduce bacterial contamination is the use of probiotics, which can help to improve the natural defence of animals against pathogenic bacteria. In this study 55 lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria were screened for desirable properties for their application as probiotics against Campylobacter in poultry. All bacteria were examined for their antimicrobial activity against three C. jejuni strains. Strains exhibiting the highest anti-Campylobacter activity were examined for their survival in the gastro intestinal tract (low pH and presence of bile salts) and food/feed processing conditions (high temperature, high NaCl concentration and starvation) and basic safety aspects such as antibiotic susceptibility and hemolytic activity were studied. On the basis of these activities, two strains, namely Lactobacillus plantarum PCS 20 and Bifidobacterium longum PCB 133, were chosen for an in vivo trial in poultry. They were separately administered to healthy chickens in order to evaluate their capability of colonizing the GI tract of poultry and to estimate their effect on C. jejuni population. The results evidenced that L. plantarum PCS 20 was not present in poultry feces at detectable concentration, whereas B. longum PCB 133 significantly increased after two weeks of daily administration and its amount was still high after a wash-out period of 6 days. In the same period, C. jejuni concentration in poultry feces was significantly reduced in chickens administered with B. longum PCB 133. Therefore, B. longum PCB 133, possessing interesting probiotic properties and a marked anti-Campylobacter activity both in vitro and in vivo, is an excellent candidate for being employed as additives to feed for poultry for the reduction of food-borne campylobacteriosis

  16. Phenotypic and Genotypic Detection of Campylobacter Jejuni at Local Chicken and Chicken Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Rosyidi, A; Budhiharta, S; Asmara, W; Yudhabuntara, D

    2010-01-01

    The Objective of this study was to identify the existence of Campylobacter jejuni based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristic in local chicken and chicken meats. Samples of local chicken intestine and meat were tested for the bacterial existence. Phenotypic examination was carried out by means of cultivation followed by gram staining and biochemical tests. Genotypic examination was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using genus specific16S rRNA gene at 816 bp and membrane-...

  17. Quantitative Immunocapture PCR Assay for Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, David F.; Ogata, Steven A.

    2000-01-01

    The rapid detection of food-borne bacterial pathogens as part of a quality control program is necessary for the maintenance of a safe food supply. In this report, we present our findings for an immunocapture PCR method for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni in foods. The method permits direct detection of the pathogen without an enrichment step and can be performed in approximately 8 h. Assay results are quantitative, and one cell in a milliliter sample can be detected. Application of the ...

  18. β-Resorcylic Acid, a Phytophenolic Compound, Reduces Campylobacter jejuni in Postharvest Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, B R; Arsi, K; Upadhyay, A; Shrestha, S; Venkitanarayanan, K; Donoghue, A M; Donoghue, D J

    2017-08-01

    Human Campylobacter infections, a leading foodborne illness globally, has been linked with the high prevalence of this bacterium on raw retail chicken products. Reduction of Campylobacter counts on poultry products would greatly reduce the risk of subsequent infections in humans. To this end, this study investigated the potential of the phytophenolic compound β-resorcylic acid (BR) to reduce Campylobacter counts on postharvest poultry (chicken skin or meat). Four trials in total, two each on thigh skin or breast meat, were conducted in which chicken skin or meat samples (2 ± 0.1 g; 10 samples per treatment) were inoculated with 50 μL (∼10 6 CFU per sample) of a cocktail of four wild strains of C. jejuni. After 30 min of attachment, inoculated samples were dipped in a 0, 0.5, 1, or 2% BR solution for 30 s immediately followed by vigorously vortexing the samples in Butterfield's phosphate diluent and plating the supernatant for Campylobacter enumeration. In addition, the effect of BR on the color of skin and meat samples was studied. Moreover, the change in the expression of survival and virulence genes of C. jejuni exposed to BR was evaluated. Data were analyzed by the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS (P meat samples by 1 to 3 log CFU/g compared with non-BR-treated washed controls. No significant difference in the lightness, redness, and yellowness of skin and meat samples was observed on exposure to BR wash (P > 0.05). Real-time PCR results revealed that BR treatment down-regulated expression of select genes coding for motility (motA, motB) and attachment (cadF, ciaB) in the majority of C. jejuni strains. Stress response genes (sodB, katA) were upregulated in C. jejuni S-8 (P poultry processing for reducing Campylobacter on chicken carcasses.

  19. Cloning, Sequencing, and Expression of the Pyruvate Carboxylase Gene in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis C2†

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, H.; O'Sullivan, D. J.; Baldwin, K. A.; McKay, L. L.

    2000-01-01

    A functional pyc gene was isolated from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis C2 and was found to complement a Pyc defect in L. lactis KB4. The deduced lactococcal Pyc protein was highly homologous to Pyc sequences of other bacteria. The pyc gene was also detected in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and L. lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis strains.

  20. Environmental Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis hosted by free-living amoebae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is responsible for paratuberculosis in animals. This disease, leading to an inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, has a high impact on animal health and an important economic burden. The environmental life cycle of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratube...