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Sample records for fetal membrane characters

  1. Evolutionary transformations of fetal membrane characters in Eutheria with special reference to Afrotheria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mess, Andrea; Carter, Anthony M.

    2006-01-01

    in the basal nodes of the group. Thus, no character transformations occur on the stem lineages of Laurasiatheria or Euarchontoglires, and even Afrotheria has mostly plesiomorphic character conditions. However, two character transformations occur on the common stem lineage of Afrotheria and its sister taxon...

  2. [Biomechanical characteristics of human fetal membranes. Preterm fetal membranes are stronger than term fetal membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, N; Abdelrahim, A; Moore, R M; Uyen, L; Mercer, B M; Mansour, J M; Kumar, D; Sawady, J; Moore, J J

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical characteristics of human fetal membranes (FM) throughout gestation. Biomechanical properties were determined for 115 FM of 23-41 weeks gestation using our previously described methodology. The areas of membrane immediately adjacent to the strongest and weakest tested spots were sampled for histomorphometric analysis. Clinical data on the patients whose FM were examined were also collected. FM less than 28 weeks gestation were associated with higher incidence of abruption and chorioamnionitis. Topographically FM at all gestations had heterogeneous biomechanical characteristics over their surfaces with distinct weak areas. The most premature membranes were the strongest. FM strength represented by rupture force and work to rupture decreased with increasing gestation in both weak and strong regions of FM. This decrease in FM strength was most dramatic at more than 38 weeks gestation. The FM component amnion-chorion sublayers were thinner in the weak areas compared to strong areas. Compared to term FM, preterm FM are stronger but have similar heterogeneous weak and strong areas. Following a gradual increase in FM weakness with increasing gestation, there is a major drop-off at term 38 weeks gestation. The FM weak areas are thinner than the stronger areas. Whether the difference in thickness is enough to account for the strength differences is unknown.

  3. Biglycan and decorin differentially regulate signaling in the fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiping; Horgan, Casie E; Carr, Olivia; Owens, Rick T; Iozzo, Renato V; Lechner, Beatrice E

    2014-04-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of newborn mortality in the United States and about one third of cases are caused by preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes, a complication that is frequently observed in patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome. Notably, a subtype of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome is caused by expression of abnormal biglycan and decorin proteoglycans. As compound deficiency of these two small leucine-rich proteoglycans is a model of preterm birth, we investigated the fetal membranes of Bgn(-/-); Dcn(-/-) double-null and single-null mice. Our results showed that biglycan signaling supported fetal membrane remodeling during early gestation in the absence of concomitant changes in TGFβ levels. In late gestation, biglycan signaling acted in a TGFβ-dependent manner to aid in membrane stabilization. In contrast, decorin signaling supported fetal membrane remodeling at early stages of gestation in a TGFβ-dependent manner, and fetal membrane stabilization at later stages of gestation without changes in TGFβ levels. Furthermore, exogenous soluble decorin was capable of rescuing the TGFβ signaling pathway in fetal membrane mesenchymal cells. Collectively, these findings provide novel targets for manipulation of fetal membrane extracellular matrix stability and could represent novel targets for research on preventive strategies for preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes. Copyright © 2013 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The evolution of fetal membranes and placentation in carnivores and ungulates (Ferungulata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics has made a substantial contribution to our understanding of the relationships between mammalian orders and has generated trees that can be used to examine the evolution of anatomical and physiological traits. We here summarize findings on fetal membranes and placentation...... in Ferungulata, a clade comprising carnivores, pangolins, and even- and odd-toed ungulates. Their early ontogeny shows several conserved traits such as superficial attachment of the blastocyst, amnion formation by folding, a large allantoic sac and a temporary yolk sac placenta. In contrast, several characters...... of the chorioallantoic placenta are derived, including the diffuse and cotyledonary placental types in ungulates and zonary placenta in carnivores, specializations of the interhaemal barrier, the presence of areolae or haemophagous regions and lack of stromal decidual cells. Ungulates produce large amounts of placental...

  5. Fetal MRI for prediction of neonatal mortality following preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerschmidt, Agnes; Pataraia, Anna; Helmer, Hanns; Kasprian, Gregor; Sauer, Alexandra; Brugger, Peter C; Pollak, Arnold; Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela

    2011-11-01

    Lung MRI volumetrics may be valuable for fetal assessment following early preterm premature rupture of the foetal membranes (pPROM). To evaluate the predictive value of MRI lung volumetrics after pPROM. Retrospective cohort study of 40 fetuses after pPROM in a large, tertiary, perinatal referral center. Fetuses underwent MRI lung volumetrics. Estimated lung volume was expressed as percentage of expected lung volume (our own normal references). Primary outcome was neonatal mortality due to respiratory distress before discharge from hospital. Gestational age range was 16-27 weeks. Estimated-to-expected lung volume was 73% in non-survivors and 102% in survivors (P < 0.05). There were no survivors with a lung volume less than 60% of expected. By logistic regression, mortality could be predicted with a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 85%. Fetal MR lung volumetrics may be useful for predicting mortality due to respiratory distress in children with early gestational pPROM.

  6. Fetal MRI for prediction of neonatal mortality following preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerschmidt, Agnes; Sauer, Alexandra; Pollak, Arnold [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Pataraia, Anna; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-11-15

    Lung MRI volumetrics may be valuable for fetal assessment following early preterm premature rupture of the foetal membranes (pPROM). To evaluate the predictive value of MRI lung volumetrics after pPROM. Retrospective cohort study of 40 fetuses after pPROM in a large, tertiary, perinatal referral center. Fetuses underwent MRI lung volumetrics. Estimated lung volume was expressed as percentage of expected lung volume (our own normal references). Primary outcome was neonatal mortality due to respiratory distress before discharge from hospital. Gestational age range was 16-27 weeks. Estimated-to-expected lung volume was 73% in non-survivors and 102% in survivors (P < 0.05). There were no survivors with a lung volume less than 60% of expected. By logistic regression, mortality could be predicted with a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 85%. Fetal MR lung volumetrics may be useful for predicting mortality due to respiratory distress in children with early gestational pPROM. (orig.)

  7. Effect of Supracervical Apposition and Spontaneous Labour on Apoptosis and Matrix Metalloproteinases in Human Fetal Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahalia Chai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Apoptosis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 are capable of hydrolysing components of the extracellular matrix and weakening the fetal membranes which leads to eventual rupture, a key process of human parturition. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supracervical apposition and spontaneous labour on apoptosis and MMP-9 in human fetal membranes at term. Methods. Fetal membranes were obtained from term non-labouring supracervical site (SCS and compared to (i a paired distal site (DS or (ii site of rupture (SOR after spontaneous labour onset. Results. The expression of the proapoptotic markers Bax, Smac, Fas, FasL, caspase-3, and PARP, was significantly higher in the non-labouring SCS chorion compared to paired DS. Bax, Smac, FasL, caspase-3, and PARP staining was higher in the non-labouring SCS fetal membranes than that in the post-labour SOR. MMP-9 expression and activity were higher in the post-labour SOR fetal membranes compared to non-labouring SCS fetal membranes. Conclusion. Components of the apoptotic signalling pathways and MMP-9 may play a role in rupture and labour. Non-labouring SCS fetal membranes display altered morphology and altered apoptotic biochemical characteristics in preparation for labour, while the laboured SOR displays unique MMP characteristics.

  8. Combined steroidogenic characters of fetal adrenal and Leydig cells in childhood adrenocortical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Yasuko; Sakaguchi, Kimiyoshi; Ono, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Rie; Kato, Fumiko; Kagami, Masayo; Fukami, Maki; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2016-05-01

    Although childhood adrenocortical carcinomas (c-ACCs) with a TP53 mutation are known to produce androgens, detailed steroidogenic characters have not been clarified. Here, we examined steroid metabolite profiles and expression patterns of steroidogenic genes in a c-ACC removed from the left adrenal position of a 2-year-old Brazilian boy with precocious puberty, using an atrophic left adrenal gland removed at the time of tumorectomy as a control. The c-ACC produced not only abundant dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate but also a large amount of testosterone via the Δ5 pathway with Δ5-androstenediol rather than Δ4-androstenedione as the primary intermediate metabolite. Furthermore, the c-ACC was associated with elevated expressions of CYP11A1, CYP17A1, POR, HSD17B3, and SULT2A1, a low but similar expression of CYB5A, and reduced expressions of AKR1C3 (HSD17B5) and HSD3B2. Notably, a Leydig cell marker INSL3 was expressed at a low but detectable level in the c-ACC. Furthermore, molecular studies revealed a maternally inherited heterozygous germline TP53 mutation, and several post-zygotic genetic aberrations in the c-ACC including loss of paternally derived chromosome 17 with a wildtype TP53 and loss of maternally inherited chromosome 11 and resultant marked hyperexpression of paternally expressed growth promoting gene IGF2 and drastic hypoexpression of maternally expressed growth suppressing gene CDKN1C. These results imply the presence of combined steroidogenic properties of fetal adrenal and Leydig cells in this patient's c-ACC with a germline TP53 mutation and several postzygotic carcinogenic events.

  9. The expression pattern of two novel cytokines (IL-24 and IL-29) in human fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Judith; Fortunato, Stephen J; Maul, Holger; Menon, Ramkumar

    2010-11-01

    interleukin (IL)-24 and -29 are novel cytokines, produced by immune cells in response to microbial antigens. The functions of these cytokines in the reproductive system are unknown. We examined the expression pattern of IL-24 and IL-29 in human fetal membranes from preterm and term births and in in vitro in response to microbial antigens. fetal membranes collected from cesarean sections at term (normal, not in labor) were placed in culture for 48 h. These membranes were then stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or viral antigen poly-inosinic and cytidylic acid (polyIC) for an additional 24 h. Amniotic fluids (AF) and fetal membranes were also collected from preterm and term deliveries. IL-24 and IL-29 expressions were studied by RT-PCR. ELISA documented culture media and AF cytokine concentrations. IL-24 and IL-29 expressions were seen in cultured fetal membranes regardless of stimulation. Expressions were also found in preterm and term labor membranes, but not in non-labor tissues at term. IL-24 concentrations were higher after LPS stimulation whereas IL-29 concentrations were higher after polyIC-stimulation. AF analysis did not detect either of the cytokines either preterm or term. this is the first study to report IL-24 and IL-29 expressions in human fetal membranes. Higher concentrations of these cytokines in response to distinct infectious stimuli suggest different pathways for fetal immune response during infection.

  10. Histological evidence of oxidative stress and premature senescence in preterm premature rupture of the human fetal membranes recapitulated in vitro

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menon, Ramkumar; Boldogh, Istvan; Hawkins, Hal K; Woodson, Michael; Polettini, Jossimara; Syed, Tariq Ali; Fortunato, Stephen J; Saade, George R; Papaconstantinou, John; Taylor, Robert N

    2014-01-01

    Preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes (pPROM) may lead to preterm births (PTBs). We investigated premature senescence of fetal membranes in women with pPROM and spontaneous PTB with intact membranes...

  11. Perfil Biofísico Fetal na Ruptura Prematura das Membranas Fetal Biophysical Profile in Premature Rupture of the Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardeli Alves de Moraes

    2000-05-01

    modifications due to premature rupture of the membranes of variables of the fetal biophysical profile, comparing them to the ones found in pregnant women with intact membranes. In the group with premature rupture of the membranes, the association of biophysical variables with the Apgar score at the first and fifth minutes and with the occurrence or not of clinical chorioamnionitis and neonatal infection was analyzed. Patients and Methods: in a prospective study, 112 fetal biophysical profiles were established in 60 pregnant women with premature rupture of the membranes at a period between the 28th and the 40th week of pregnancy, and only the last fetal biophysical profile was analyzed and compared to other 60 fetal biophysical profiles of pregnant women with gestational ages identical to the group of study and with intact membranes. Results: statistical analysis of the results revealed that the premature rupture of the membranes diminished the reactivity, not interfering with the body movements of the fetus. It also diminished the frequency of the respiratory movements of the fetus, not determining modifications of the fetal tonus, and considerably decreasing the amniotic fluid index. In terms of prediction of chorioamnionitis and neonatal infection, the fetal biophysical profile did not show any significant statistic validity; however, when the biophysical variables were present, the correlation with the absence of chorioamnionitis and neonatal infection was clearly shown. The result of the last fetal biophysical profile was strongly associated with the Apgar score at the 5th minute. Conclusion: the fetal biophysical profile should be used routinely in pregnant women with premature rupture of the membranes with the purpose of evaluating fetal vitality, and in order to detect those fetuses at a higher risk of infection, specially those with gestational ages of less than 34 weeks. Regarding those fetuses it is best to use a conservative approach.

  12. Evaluation of the effects of treating dairy cows with meloxicam at calving on retained fetal membranes risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Nathalie C; Renaud, David; Tremblay, Robert; Duffield, Todd F

    2014-12-01

    Some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of retained fetal membranes. This is the first study to investigate the effects of meloxicam on the risk of retained fetal membranes. Administration of meloxicam to dairy cattle immediately following calving revealed no differences in the incidence of retained fetal membranes between meloxicam-treated and untreated animals. There was no difference between the 2 groups in the incidence of periparturient diseases following calving. Meloxicam can be used on the day of calving in lactating cows without increasing the risk of retained fetal membranes.

  13. Morphology, development, and evolution of fetal membranes and placentation in squamate reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Daniel G; Flemming, Alexander F

    2009-09-15

    Current studies on fetal membranes of reptiles are providing insight into three major historical transformations: evolution of the amniote egg, evolution of viviparity, and evolution of placentotrophy. Squamates (lizards and snakes) are ideal for such studies because their fetal membranes sustain embryos in oviparous species and contribute to placentas in viviparous species. Ultrastructure of the fetal membranes in oviparous corn snakes (Pituophis guttatus) shows that the chorioallantois is specialized for gas exchange and the omphalopleure, for water absorption. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic studies of viviparous thamnophine snakes (Thamnophis, Storeria) have revealed morphological specializations for gas exchange and absorption in the intra-uterine environment that represent modifications of features found in oviparous species. Thus, fetal membranes in oviparous species show morphological differentiation for distinct functions that have been recruited and enhanced under viviparous conditions. The ultimate in specialization of fetal membranes is found in viviparous skinks of South America (Mabuya) and Africa (Trachylepis, Eumecia), in which placentotrophy accounts for nearly all of the nutrients for development. Ongoing research on these lizards has revealed morphological specializations of the chorioallantoic placenta through which nutrient transfer is accomplished. In addition, African Trachylepis show an invasive form of implantation, in which uterine epithelium is replaced by invading chorionic cells. Ongoing analysis of these lizards shows how integration of multiple lines of evidence can provide insight into the evolution of developmental and reproductive specializations once thought to be confined to eutherian mammals.

  14. Ultrasonic character istics and clinical significance of umbilical cord blood flow in acute fetal distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Dai, Yin Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study ultrasonic characteristics of umbilical cord blood flow in acute fetal distress and its correlation with umbilical artery blood gas parameters, oxidative stress parameters, neonatal brain injury and myocardial injury. Methods: The pregnant women delivered in Department of Obstetrics of our hospital were chosen during the period from May 2012 to August 2015. The pregnant women with acute fetal distress were included in the distress group, and the healthy pregnant women with no acute fetal distress were included in the control group. The resistance index (RI, pulsatility index (PI and systolic/diastolic (S/D ratio of umbilical artery were measured at 24–30 weeks, 31–36 weeks and 37–41 weeks of pregnancy. After delivery, umbilical artery blood was taken for analysis of blood gas and determination of oxidative stress parameters. The venous blood of newborns was taken to measure the myocardial injury and brain injury parameters. Results: At 24–30 weeks, 31–36 weeks and 37–41 weeks of pregnancy, RI, S/D and PI in pregnant women of distress group were significantly higher than those in control group. The pH, contents of arterial partial pressure of oxygen, vitamin C, vitamin E, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in umbilical artery blood in pregnant women of distress group was significantly lower than those in control group and negatively correlated with the umbilical artery RI, PI and S/D. The contents of partial pressure of carbon dioxide in artery, lactic acid and malondialdehyde in pregnant women of distress group were significantly higher than those in control group and positively correlated with the umbilical artery RI, PI and S/D. The contents of lactate dehydrogenase, hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, S100B, neuron-specific enolase, creatine kinase-BB and Tau in newborns' venous blood in distress group were significantly higher than those in control group and

  15. The endocrinological responses of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation on hypoxic fetal lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yasuhisa; Kato, Katsuhiko; Fujimori, Keiya; Shiroto, Tomohiro; Ishida, Tomohiko; Sato, Akira

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe endocrinological responses of veno-arterial and veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-A and V-V ECMO) to support fetal oxygenation in utero. An ECMO system with a centrifugal pump was applied to six chronically instrumented fetal lambs, at 126-134 days of gestation. Blood was obtained through a double-lumen catheter inserted into the right atrium. After oxygenation, the blood was returned through a single-lumen catheter into either the carotid artery (veno-arterial; V-A ECMO) or the right atrium (V-V ECMO). After fetal hypoxia had been experimentally produced, V-A ECMO or V-V ECMO was instituted to maintain fetal oxygenation. We compared fetal blood gases and concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), epinephrine and norepinephrine with both routes of ECMO. Fetal carotid artery pH did not change during hypoxemia, but decreased after instituting V-A ECMO and V-V ECMO. After instituting V-A ECMO or V-V ECMO for 30 min, oxygen partial pressure (pO2) in the fetal cranial carotid artery recovered from the hypoxic level. The ANP concentration in V-V ECMO was significantly lower than that in V-A ECMO. Fetal serum epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations significantly increased in association with hypoxic stimulation. There was a further increase in fetal serum epinephrine concentration after instituting V-A ECMO. No significant difference in concentration was found after instituting V-V ECMO from that of after the institution of V-A ECMO. This study suggested that V-V ECMO may possibly be less invasive than V-A ECMO for fetal heart, because ANP, a cardiac distress index, was lower in V-V ECMO than in V-A ECMO.

  16. A streptococcal lipid toxin induces membrane permeabilization and pyroptosis leading to fetal injury

    OpenAIRE

    Whidbey, Christopher; Vornhagen, Jay; Gendrin, Claire; Boldenow, Erica; Samson, Jenny Mae; Doering, Kenji; Ngo, Lisa; Ezekwe, Ejiofor A D; Gundlach, Jens H; Elovitz, Michal A.; Liggitt, Denny; Duncan, Joseph A; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.; Rajagopal, Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) are Gram-positive bacteria that cause infections in utero and in newborns. We recently showed that the GBS pigment is hemolytic and increased pigment production promotes bacterial penetration of human placenta. However, mechanisms utilized by the hemolytic pigment to induce host cell lysis and the consequence on fetal injury are not known. Here, we show that the GBS pigment induces membrane permeability in artificial lipid bilayers and host cells. Membrane defects i...

  17. Multiaxial mechanical behavior of human fetal membranes and its relationship to microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerzle, W; Haller, C M; Jabareen, M; Egger, J; Mallik, A S; Ochsenbein-Koelble, N; Ehrbar, M; Mazza, E

    2013-08-01

    This study was directed to the measurement of the mechanical response of fetal membranes to physiologically relevant loading conditions. Characteristic mechanical parameters were determined and their relation to the microstructural constituents collagen and elastin as well as to the pyridinium cross-link concentrations analyzed. 51 samples from twelve fetal membranes were tested on a custom-built inflation device, which allows mechanical characterization within a multiaxial state of stress. Methods of nonlinear continuum mechanics were used to extract representative mechanical parameters. Established biochemical assays were applied for the determination of the collagen and elastin content. Collagen cross-link concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography measurements. The results indicate a distinct correlation between the mechanical parameters of high stretch stiffness and membrane tension at rupture and the biochemical data of collagen content and pyridinoline as well as deoxypyridinoline concentrations. No correlation was observed between the mechanical parameters and the elastin content. Moreover, the low stretch stiffness is, with a value of 105 ± 31 × 10(-3) N/ mm much higher for a biaxial state of stress compared to a uniaxial stress configuration. Determination of constitutive model equations leads to better predictive capabilities for a reduced polynomial hyperelastic model with only terms related to the second invariant, I 2, of the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor. Relevant insights were obtained on the mechanical behavior of fetal membranes. Collagen and its cross-linking were shown to determine membrane's stiffness and strength for multiaxial stress states. Their nonlinear deformation behavior characterizes the fetal membranes as I 2 material.

  18. [Fetal lung development on MRT. Normal course and impairment due to premature rupture of membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprian, G; Brugger, P C; Helmer, H; Langer, M; Balassy, C; Prayer, D

    2006-02-01

    A well-organized interplay between many molecular factors as well as mechanical forces influence fetal lung development. At the end of this complex process a sufficiently sized and structurally mature organ should ensure the postnatal survival of the newborn. Besides prenatal ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can now be used to investigate normal and pathological human lung growth in utero. Oligohydramnios, due to premature rupture of membranes (PROM), is an important risk factor for compromised fetal lung growth. In these situations MR volumetry can be used to measure the size of the fetal lung quite accurately. Together with the evaluation of lung signal intensities on T2-weighted sequences, fetuses with pulmonary hypoplasia can be readily detected.

  19. Solid Character of Membrane Ceramides: A Surface Rheology Study of Their Mixtures with Sphingomyelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Elisa R.; Arriaga, Laura R.; Espinosa, Gabriel; Monroy, Francisco; Langevin, Dominique; López-Montero, Iván

    2011-01-01

    The compression and shear viscoelasticities of egg-ceramide and its mixtures with sphingomyelin were investigated using oscillatory surface rheology performed on Langmuir monolayers. We found high values for the compression and shear moduli for ceramide, compatible with a solid-state membrane, and extremely high surface viscosities when compared to typical fluid lipids. A fluidlike rheological behavior was found for sphingomyelin. Lateral mobilities, measured from particle tracking experiments, were correlated with the monolayer viscosities through the usual hydrodynamic relationships. In conclusion, ceramide increases the solid character of sphingomyelin-based membranes and decreases their fluidity, thus drastically decreasing the lateral mobilities of embedded objects. This mechanical behavior may involve important physiological consequences in biological membranes containing ceramides. PMID:22261061

  20. Amniotic fluid volume and composition after fetal membrane resection in late-gestation sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, Robert A; Cheung, Cecilia Y

    2011-11-01

    The chronically catheterized fetal sheep is a widely used model for fetal physiologic and pathophysiologic investigations. Catheterization involves opening the amniochorion to gain access to the fetus. In the current study, we explored the role of the amnion and amniochorion in maintaining normal amniotic fluid volume (AFV) and composition and fetal blood-gas status after surgery. Fetal sheep were catheterized at 119.6 ± 0.3 (mean ± SE, n = 25) d gestation (term, approximately 147 d). An opening equal to approximately 5% of total membrane surface area was created by resecting a portion of the amnion or amniochorion during surgery. The uterine wall was closed in all animals. Compared with control sheep (AFV = 992 ± 153 mL, n = 11), resection of the amnion had no significant effect on AFV (745 ± 156 mL, n = 7) measured 5 d after surgery, whereas resection of the amniochorion resulted in extensive loss of amniotic fluid (AFV = 131 ± 38 mL, n = 7). This loss resulted from extensive entry of amniotic fluid into the space between the chorion and uterine wall. Amniotic fluid, fetal plasma, and urinary solute concentrations; arterial pH; oxygen tension; and carbon dioxide tension were unchanged. A small opening in the amnion has minimal effects on ovine AFV, whereas a small opening in the amniochorion results in oligohydramnios. In addition, the amnion appears to be the primary site that limits the rate of amniotic fluid absorption by the chorionic vasculature.

  1. The carnivore pregnancy: the development of the embryo and fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglino, Maria Angelica; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo; dos Santos Martins, Daniele; Wenceslau, Cristiane Valverde; Pfarrer, Christiane; Leiser, Rudolf

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the morphological aspects during the development of pregnancy in dogs and cats, distinguishing features of the fetal membranes, such as yolk sac evolution and differentiation of hemangioblasts, and the degree of elaboration of the amnion and allantois. Canine and feline placentae from 20, 24, 35, 45 and 55 d of pregnancy were perfusion-fixed for histological investigation and vascular corrosion casts were produced. The casts were prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the embryo and fetal membrane development was analyzed. The growth patterns of the conceptuses were compared with the organization of the placentation process, and changes of the morphology during pregnancy were recorded. In feline placentae, an incomplete zonary shape was present in 62.5% out of 60 studied cases. This was located distal to the insertion of the umbilical cord. In the lamellar zone, the interhemal membrane or placental barrier resembled endotheliochorial conditions, and the maternal-fetal microvascular blood flow interrelationship was of simple crosscurrent type. Dogs have a zonary placenta, completely surrounding the fetus, and complex lamellar organization of maternal and fetal tissues. At the border, two marginal hematomes with green colouration delimited the central placental girdle. The yolk sac consisted of one large sacculation with an inverted "T" shape and an enormous number of blood vessels; it had hemangioblast cells in contact with the epithelium. The amnion was avascular in early stages, but became vascularized by blood vessels of the internal allantoic membrane in later stages of pregnancy by intrinsic relation.

  2. The evolution of fetal membranes and placentation in carnivores and ungulates (Ferungulata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics has made a substantial contribution to our understanding of the relationships between mammalian orders and has generated trees that can be used to examine the evolution of anatomical and physiological traits. We here summarize findings on fetal membranes and placentation i...... proteins including placental lactogens and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins. Evolutionary innovations of the placental system may contribute to the high diversity of lifestyles within Ferungulata and be linked to the evolution of highly precocial offspring in ungulates....

  3. Acupuncture and/or sweeping of the fetal membranes before induction of labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bodil Birgitte; Knudsen, Birthe; Lyndrup, Jens

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture, and sweeping of the fetal membranes, as methods for induction of labor. METHODS: Four hundred and seven pregnant women with normal singleton pregnancies and cephalic presentations were randomized at three delivery wards in Denmark at day 290 of gesta......AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture, and sweeping of the fetal membranes, as methods for induction of labor. METHODS: Four hundred and seven pregnant women with normal singleton pregnancies and cephalic presentations were randomized at three delivery wards in Denmark at day 290...... of gestation into groups of acupuncture, sweeping, acupuncture and sweeping and controls. The primary objective was to compare the proportion of women going into labor before induction of labor at 294 days in the four groups. The secondary objective was to compare the combined groups: with and without...... acupuncture, and with and without sweeping of the fetal membranes. The midwives, completing the forms for the trial at labor or induction, were blinded to group assessments. RESULTS: Four hundred and seventeen women were randomized. Ten were excluded after randomization. One hundred and four women were...

  4. The Effect of Simvastatin on Infection-Induced Inflammatory Response of Human Fetal Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basraon, Sanmaan K; Costantine, Maged M; Saade, George; Menon, Ramkumar

    2015-07-01

    Inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to preterm labor pathophysiology. The objective of this study was to test anti-inflammatory properties of simvastatin in human fetal membranes exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Normal term human fetal membrane explants (n = 11) were allocated to one of the six study groups: control, LPS only (100 ng/mL), simvastatin only (125 ng/mL), simvastatin given 6 hrs prior to LPS (S-L), simvastatin given 6 hrs post-LPS (L-S), and simvastatin and LPS given simultaneously (L+S). Explants were incubated for 24 hrs. Multiplex ELISA for cytokines: IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α; soluble cytokine receptors: sIL-1R2, sIL-6R, sTNFR1, and R2; MMPs (1, 2, 7, 9, and 10); and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) was performed on tissue culture supernatants. Pairwise comparison between different groups was conducted by least square mean estimates. Compared with controls, LPS stimulation increased cytokine production and their tissue bioavailability (measured as the molar ratio of cytokine to its soluble receptor), thus confirming membrane immune reactivity (P fetal inflammatory response associated with infection-induced preterm birth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Programmed Fetal Membrane Senescence and Exosome-Mediated Signaling: A Mechanism Associated With Timing of Human Parturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar Menon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Human parturition is an inflammatory process that involves both fetal and maternal compartments. The precise immune cell interactions have not been well delineated in human uterine tissues during parturition, but insights into human labor initiation have been informed by studies in animal models. Unfortunately, the timing of parturition relative to fetal maturation varies among viviparous species—indicative of different phylogenetic clocks and alarms—but what is clear is that important common pathways must converge to control the birth process. Herein, we hypothesize a novel signaling mechanism initiated by human fetal membrane aging and senescence-associated inflammation. Programmed events of fetal membrane aging coincide with fetal growth and organ maturation. Mechanistically, senescence involves in telomere shortening and activation of p38 mitogen-activated signaling kinase resulting in aging-associated phenotypic transition. Senescent tissues release inflammatory signals that are propagated via exosomes to cause functional changes in maternal uterine tissues. In vitro, oxidative stress causes increased release of inflammatory mediators (senescence-associated secretory phenotype and damage-associated molecular pattern markers that can be packaged inside the exosomes. These exosomes traverse through tissues layers, reach maternal tissues to increase overall inflammatory load transitioning them from a quiescent to active state. Animal model studies have shown that fetal exosomes can travel from fetal to the maternal side. Thus, aging fetal membranes and membrane-derived exosomes cargo fetal signals to the uterus and cervix and may trigger parturition. This review highlights a novel hypothesis in human parturition research based on data from ongoing research using human fetal membrane model system.

  6. Programmed Fetal Membrane Senescence and Exosome-Mediated Signaling: A Mechanism Associated With Timing of Human Parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Ramkumar; Mesiano, Sam; Taylor, Robert N

    2017-01-01

    Human parturition is an inflammatory process that involves both fetal and maternal compartments. The precise immune cell interactions have not been well delineated in human uterine tissues during parturition, but insights into human labor initiation have been informed by studies in animal models. Unfortunately, the timing of parturition relative to fetal maturation varies among viviparous species-indicative of different phylogenetic clocks and alarms-but what is clear is that important common pathways must converge to control the birth process. Herein, we hypothesize a novel signaling mechanism initiated by human fetal membrane aging and senescence-associated inflammation. Programmed events of fetal membrane aging coincide with fetal growth and organ maturation. Mechanistically, senescence involves in telomere shortening and activation of p38 mitogen-activated signaling kinase resulting in aging-associated phenotypic transition. Senescent tissues release inflammatory signals that are propagated via exosomes to cause functional changes in maternal uterine tissues. In vitro, oxidative stress causes increased release of inflammatory mediators (senescence-associated secretory phenotype and damage-associated molecular pattern markers) that can be packaged inside the exosomes. These exosomes traverse through tissues layers, reach maternal tissues to increase overall inflammatory load transitioning them from a quiescent to active state. Animal model studies have shown that fetal exosomes can travel from fetal to the maternal side. Thus, aging fetal membranes and membrane-derived exosomes cargo fetal signals to the uterus and cervix and may trigger parturition. This review highlights a novel hypothesis in human parturition research based on data from ongoing research using human fetal membrane model system.

  7. Programmed Fetal Membrane Senescence and Exosome-Mediated Signaling: A Mechanism Associated With Timing of Human Parturition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Ramkumar; Mesiano, Sam; Taylor, Robert N.

    2017-01-01

    Human parturition is an inflammatory process that involves both fetal and maternal compartments. The precise immune cell interactions have not been well delineated in human uterine tissues during parturition, but insights into human labor initiation have been informed by studies in animal models. Unfortunately, the timing of parturition relative to fetal maturation varies among viviparous species—indicative of different phylogenetic clocks and alarms—but what is clear is that important common pathways must converge to control the birth process. Herein, we hypothesize a novel signaling mechanism initiated by human fetal membrane aging and senescence-associated inflammation. Programmed events of fetal membrane aging coincide with fetal growth and organ maturation. Mechanistically, senescence involves in telomere shortening and activation of p38 mitogen-activated signaling kinase resulting in aging-associated phenotypic transition. Senescent tissues release inflammatory signals that are propagated via exosomes to cause functional changes in maternal uterine tissues. In vitro, oxidative stress causes increased release of inflammatory mediators (senescence-associated secretory phenotype and damage-associated molecular pattern markers) that can be packaged inside the exosomes. These exosomes traverse through tissues layers, reach maternal tissues to increase overall inflammatory load transitioning them from a quiescent to active state. Animal model studies have shown that fetal exosomes can travel from fetal to the maternal side. Thus, aging fetal membranes and membrane-derived exosomes cargo fetal signals to the uterus and cervix and may trigger parturition. This review highlights a novel hypothesis in human parturition research based on data from ongoing research using human fetal membrane model system. PMID:28861041

  8. Inner ring deiodination of thyroxine and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine by human fetal membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roti, E.; Fang, S.L.; Green, K.; Braverman, L.E.; Emerson, C.H.

    1983-12-01

    Indirect evidence, based on injection of thyroxine (T4) into the amniotic cavity of humans, and maternal thyroidectomy in the rat, suggests that fetal membranes might be capable of converting T4 to 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) by virtue of inner ring iodothyronine deiodinase activity. The present study was undertaken to provide direct evidence that human fetal membranes contain inner ring iodothyronine deiodinase activity directed toward T4 and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3). Homogenates of human fetal membranes were incubated with 125I-labeled T4, rT3, and T3, and with stable T4. Conversion of 125(I)-T4 to 125(I)-rT3 was noted in chorion and amnion. 125I-T3 was converted to 125(I)-3,3'-diiodothyronine (T2) in chorion and amnion. 125(I)-rT3 was stable in fetal membranes under the incubation conditions employed. Time-, temperature-, pH-, and protein content-dependent conversion of stable T4 to rT3 was found in fetal membranes. Iodothyronine metabolism did not occur in the absence of dithiothreitol. These studies indicate that human fetal membranes contain an inner ring deiodinase enzyme. Because of its intimate contact with the amniotic cavity, this enzyme may generate a portion of the rT3 found in amniotic fluid.

  9. Increased oxidative stress in human fetal membranes overlying the cervix from term non-labouring and post labour deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, M; Barker, G; Menon, R; Lappas, M

    2012-08-01

    Enzymatic breakdown of the collagen-rich extracellular matrix (ECM) that connects the amnion and chorion layers of the fetal membranes is one of the key events leading to rupture of membranes. Oxidant stress caused by increased formation of reactive oxygen species and/or reduced antioxidant capacity may predispose to membrane rupture, a major cause of preterm birth. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human labour and supracervical (SC) apposition on antioxidant enzymes and 8-isoprostane (a marker of lipid peroxidation). To determine the effect of human labour on oxidative stress status, fetal membranes from the SC site (SCS) were collected from women at term Caesarean section (no labour), and from the site of membrane rupture (SOR) after spontaneous labour onset and delivery (post labour). To determine the effect of SC apposition on oxidative stress status, amnion was collected from the SCS and a distal site (DS) in women at term Caesarean section in the absence of labour. The release of 8-isoprostane was significantly higher in amnion from the SCS compared to DS, and in fetal membranes from the SOR compared to the SCS. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were lower in amnion from the SC compared to DS. SOD gene expression and enzyme activity were lower in fetal membranes after labour. There was no difference in expression or activity in catalase, GPx and glutathione reductase (GSR) between no labour and post labour fetal membranes. In primary amnion cells, SOD supplementation significantly augmented IL-1β induced MMP-9 expression and activity. In summary, non-labouring SC fetal membranes are characterised by reduced antioxidant enzyme activity when compared to distal membranes, and, as such, may be more susceptible to oxidative damage and thus membrane rupture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Differing prevalence and diversity of bacterial species in fetal membranes from very preterm and term labor.

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    Hannah E Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrauterine infection may play a role in preterm delivery due to spontaneous preterm labor (PTL and preterm prolonged rupture of membranes (PPROM. Because bacteria previously associated with preterm delivery are often difficult to culture, a molecular biology approach was used to identify bacterial DNA in placenta and fetal membranes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used broad-range 16S rDNA PCR and species-specific, real-time assays to amplify bacterial DNA from fetal membranes and placenta. 74 women were recruited to the following groups: PPROM <32 weeks (n = 26; 11 caesarean; PTL with intact membranes <32 weeks (n = 19; all vaginal birth; indicated preterm delivery <32 weeks (n = 8; all caesarean; term (n = 21; 11 caesarean. 50% (5/10 of term vaginal deliveries were positive for bacterial DNA. However, little spread was observed through tissues and species diversity was restricted. Minimal bacteria were detected in term elective section or indicated preterm deliveries. Bacterial prevalence was significantly increased in samples from PTL with intact membranes [89% (17/19 versus 50% (5/10 in term vaginal delivery p = 0.03] and PPROM (CS [55% (6/11 versus 0% (0/11 in term elective CS, p = 0.01]. In addition, bacterial spread and diversity was greater in the preterm groups with 68% (13/19 PTL group having 3 or more positive samples and over 60% (12/19 showing two or more bacterial species (versus 20% (2/10 in term vaginal deliveries. Blood monocytes from women with PTL with intact membranes and PPROM who were 16S bacterial positive showed greater level of immune paresis (p = 0.03. A positive PCR result was associated with histological chorioamnionitis in preterm deliveries. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Bacteria are found in both preterm and term fetal membranes. A greater spread and diversity of bacterial species were found in tissues of women who had very preterm births. It is unclear to what extent the greater bacterial prevalence

  11. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) expression in fetal membranes among women with preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, L; Antczak, B C; Lan, L; Grotegut, C A; Thompson, J L; Allen, T K; Murtha, A P

    2014-05-01

    PGRMC1 function is implicated in maintaining fetal membrane (FM) integrity. PGRMC1 was detectable primarily in the cytoplasm of FM cells and was actively regulated in FMs and relevant for PGRMC1-mediated progesterone action. By cell type, PGRMC1 expression was higher in amnion and chorion compared with decidua. By clinical phenotype, PGRMC1 expression was higher among preterm-no-labor and term-no-labor subjects compared to PPROM. PGRMC1 expression appears to be diminished in PPROM subjects.

  12. Comparative study of fetal and maternal outcomes of prelabour rupture of membranes at term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janhavi Mukharya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature rupture of membranes (PROM refers to the loss of integrity of membranes before onset of labor, with resulting leakage of amniotic fluid and establishment of communication between the amniotic cavity and the endocervical canal and vagina. The aim of the study was to compare the fetal and maternal outcomes of actively managed and expectantly managed term PROM in a rural setup. Methods: In this prospective study we included 200 women with diagnosed prelabour rupture of membranes. All women had gestational age >37 weeks and <41 weeks with singleton pregnancy and vertex presentation. Study excluded all patients with previous uterine scar or with any medical or surgical disorder. They were randomly divided in two groups with 100 women each: Group A which was induced with PGE1 or oxytocin depending on their cervical score and Group E which was managed expectantly and late induction after 24 hours was done. Both the groups were given intravenous antibiotics. They were evaluated on the basis of fetal and maternal outcomes. Results: In this study we found that 70% women who were managed expectantly went in labour within 24 hours of PROM. But PROM to delivery interval was longer in expectantly managed as compared to actively managed or induced group. Rate of cesarean was more in induced group but was statistically insignificant when compared in both the groups. So was NICU admission more in expectant group but was statistically insignificant when compared in both the groups. Conclusions: Expectant managed can be done in patients with term PROM to reduce the cesarean rate in rural setup. There was no significant difference in maternal and fetal outcomes of the management.

  13. High-resolution imaging diagnosis of human fetal membrane by three-dimensional optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hugang; Avila, Cecilia; Kaplan, Cynthia; Pan, Yingtian

    2011-11-01

    Microscopic chorionic pseudocyst (MCP) arising in the chorion leave of the human fetal membrane (FM) is a clinical precursor for preeclampsia which may progress to fatal medical conditions (e.g., abortion) if left untreated. To examine the utility of three-dimensional (3D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) for noninvasive delineation of the morphology of human fetal membranes and early clinical detection of MCP, 60 human FM specimens were acquired from 10 different subjects undergoing term cesarean delivery for an ex vivo feasibility study. Our results showed that OCT was able to identify the four-layer architectures of human FMs consisting of high-scattering decidua vera (DV, average thickness dDV ~ 92+/-38 μm), low-scattering chorion and trophoblast (CT, dCT ~ 150+/-67 μm), high-scattering subepithelial amnion (A, dA ~ 95+/-36 μm), and low-scattering epithelium (E, dE ~ 29+/-8 μm). Importantly, 3D OCT was able to instantaneously detect MCPs (low scattering due to edema, fluid buildup, vasodilatation) and track (staging) their thicknesses dMCP ranging from 24 to 615 μm. It was also shown that high-frequency ultrasound was able to compliment OCT for detecting more advanced thicker MCPs (e.g., dMCP>615 μm) because of its increased imaging depth.

  14. Preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes: association with sociodemographic factors and maternal genitourinary infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnildo A. Hackenhaar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: tthis study aimed to investigate the incidence of premature rupture of fetal membranes in preterm singleton pregnancies and its association with sociodemographic factors and maternal self-reported genitourinary infections. METHODS: this was a population-based cross-sectional study, which included all mothers of newborns of singleton deliveries that occurred in 2010, with birth weight > 500 grams, who resided in the city of Rio Grande. Women were interviewed in the two maternity hospitals. Cases were women who had lost amniotic fluid before hospitalization and whose gestational age was less than 37 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed by levels to control for confounding factors using Poisson regression. RESULTS: of the 2,244 women eligible for the study, 3.1% had preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes, which was more frequent, after adjustment, in women of lower socioeconomic status, (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.94, with lower level of schooling (PR = 2.43, age > 29 years (PR = 2.49, and smokers (PR = 2.04. It was also associated with threatened miscarriage (PR = 1.68 and preterm labor, (PR = 3.40. There was no association with maternal urinary tract infection or presence of genital discharge. CONCLUSIONS: the outcome was more common in puerperal women with lower level of schooling, lower socioeconomic status, older, and smokers, as well as those with a history of threatened miscarriage and premature labor. These factors should be considered in the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy approach.

  15. Fetal lung development on MRI. Normal course and impairment due to premature rupture of membranes; Fetale Lungenentwicklung in der MRT. Normaler Verlauf und Beeintraechtigung durch vorzeitigen Blasensprung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasprian, G. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik; Zentrum fuer Anatomie und Zellbiologie der Medizinischen Universitaet Wien (Austria). Arbeitsgruppe Integrative Morphologie; Brugger, P.C. [Zentrum fuer Anatomie und Zellbiologie der Medizinischen Universitaet Wien (Austria). Arbeitsgruppe Integrative Morphologie; Helmer, H.; Langer, M. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Klinik fuer Frauenheilkunde; Balassy, C.; Prayer, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik

    2006-02-15

    A well-organized interplay between many molecular factors as well as mechanical forces influence fetal lung development. At the end of this complex process a sufficiently sized and structurally mature organ should ensure the postnatal survival of the newborn. Besides prenatal ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can now be used to investigate normal and pathological human lung growth in utero. Oligohydramnios, due to premature rupture of membranes (PROM), is an important risk factor for compromised fetal lung growth. In these situations MR volumetry can be used to measure the size of the fetal lung quite accurately. Together with the evaluation of lung signal intensities on T2-weighted sequences, fetuses with pulmonary hypoplasia can be readily detected. (orig.) [German] Die fetale Lungenentwicklung wird einerseits durch eine Vielzahl molekularer Faktoren und andererseits durch mechanisch-physiologische Kraefte beeinflusst. Ein geordnetes Zusammenspiel dieser Mechanismen fuehrt zu einem ausreichend grossen und strukturell reifen Organ, das sofort nach der Geburt das Ueberleben des Neugeborenen sicherstellt. Neben der praenatalen Ultraschalluntersuchung bietet nun auch die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) die Moeglichkeit, die normale und pathologische fetale Lungenentwicklung zu untersuchen. Ein wesentlicher Risikofaktor fuer eine Beeintraechtigung der Lungenentwicklung ist die verminderte Fruchtwassermenge nach vorzeitigem Blasensprung. In diesen Faellen kann die MR-Volumetrie dazu eingesetzt werden, die Groesse der fetalen Lungen relativ genau zu bestimmen. Gemeinsam mit der Beurteilung der MR-Signalintensitaeten des Lungengewebes auf T2-gewichteten Sequenzen koennen Feten mit hypoplastischen Lungen mit zunehmender Sicherheit bereits praenatal identifiziert werden. (orig.)

  16. Fetal Membrane Ultrastructure and Development in the Oviparous Milksnake Lampropeltis triangulum (Colubridae) with Reference to Function and Evolution in Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young K; Blackburn, Daniel G

    2016-07-01

    In eggs of oviparous reptiles, fetal membranes maintain developing embryos through the exchange of respiratory gases and provision of water and calcium. As part of a survey of reptilian fetal membranes, we used scanning electron microscopy to study fetal membrane morphology in the oviparous Pueblan milksnake, Lampropeltis triangulum campbelli. The chorioallantois initially is an avascular structure lined by enlarged chorionic and allantoic epithelia. Upon vascularization, the chorionic epithelium becomes greatly attenuated, enhancing the potential for gas exchange; the allantoic epithelium also flattens. The bilaminar omphalopleure of the yolk sac lacks blood vessels, but it becomes vascularized by allantoic capillaries and transformed into an omphalallantois. Upon regression of the isolated yolk mass, this membrane is converted to chorioallantois, equipping it for gas exchange. Allantoic fluid serves as a water reservoir, and we postulate that it facilitates water uptake by establishing an osmotic gradient. Early in development, epithelia of both the chorion and the omphalopleure show apical microvilli that greatly increase the cell surface area available for water uptake. However, these features are incompatible with gas exchange and are lost as oxygen needs take precedence. A comparison of the fetal membranes to those of other squamate species (both oviparous and viviparous) reveals characteristics that are probably ancestral for snakes, some of which are plesiomorphic for Squamata. The widespread phylogenetic distribution of these features reflects their utility as adaptations that serve functional requirements of squamate embryos.

  17. /sup 125/I-human epidermal growth factor specific binding to placentas and fetal membranes from varoius pregnancy states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, G.E.; Siddiqi, T.A.; Rao, Ch. V.; Carman, F.R.

    1988-01-01

    Specific binding of /sup 125/I-human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) to homogenates of term human placentas and fetal membranes from normal and appropriate for gestational age (N = 20), intrauterine growth retarded (N = 9), twin (N = 11), White class AB diabetic (N = 12), and large for gestational age (N = 13) pregnancies was measured. In all pregnancy states, placentas bound approximately four times more /sup 125/I-hEGF than did fetal membranes (P<0.0001). There was no significant differnce in /sup 125/I-hEGF binding to fetal membranes from the various pregnancy states (P<0.05). /sup 125/I-hEGF specific binding to placentas from intrauterine growth retarded or twin pregnancies was significantly greater compared with placentas from normal and appropriate for gestational age pregnancies (P<0.05). The binding to placentas from pregnancies complicated by White class AB diabetes or large for gestational age infants, on the other hand, was not significantly different from that to placentas from normal and appropriate for gestational age pregnancies. /sup 125/I-hEGF specific binding did not differ between placentas from intrauterine growth retarded or twin pregnancies (P<0.05). Placental and fetal membrane /sup 125/I-hEGF binding did not vary with fetal sex, maternal race, placental weight, or gestational age between 37 to 42 weeks (P<0.05). Placental but not fetal membrane /sup 125/I-hEGF binding increased with increasing infant weight when appropriate for gestational age and large for gestational age infants were included (P<0.05, r = 0.38, N = 32) but not for intrauterine growth retarded, appropriate for gestational age, or large for gestational age infants alone.

  18. Expression of Extracellular Matrix Proteins in Basal Membranes During Fetal Nephron Development in Mice

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    Beyhan GÜRCÜ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the distribution of laminin, collagen type IV, nidogen and fibronectine during metanephric development in fetal mouse kidney by immunohistochemistry. Stain density of basement membranes of tubules, glomerules and mesangial matrix were compared in pre-capillary, immature glomerular and mature glomerular stages of fetal kidney. All the matrix proteins were strongly stained in precapillary stage. In immature glomerular stage, a strong staining was observed for fibronectin. Staining intensity was slightly decreased for the other proteins in this stage. In mature glomerular stage, diminished staining for all proteins was observed similar to the previous stage, except fibronectin. The strongest immunoreactions were found for fibronectin and nidogen in all investigated stages. In general, there was a similar staining intensity for all glycoproteins during maturation except for laminin. It was thought that the distribution of extracellular matrix molecules plays an important role for the kidney development. Interactions amoung these molecules probably crucial on cell behavior like migration, proliferation and differentiation in normal development of the nephron.

  19. Preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes: association with sociodemographic factors and maternal genitourinary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenhaar, Arnildo A; Albernaz, Elaine P; da Fonseca, Tânia M V

    2014-01-01

    this study aimed to investigate the incidence of premature rupture of fetal membranes in preterm singleton pregnancies and its association with sociodemographic factors and maternal self-reported genitourinary infections. this was a population-based cross-sectional study, which included all mothers of newborns of singleton deliveries that occurred in 2010, with birth weight ≥ 500 grams, who resided in the city of Rio Grande. Women were interviewed in the two maternity hospitals. Cases were women who had lost amniotic fluid before hospitalization and whose gestational age was less than 37 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed by levels to control for confounding factors using Poisson regression. of the 2,244 women eligible for the study, 3.1% had preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes, which was more frequent, after adjustment, in women of lower socioeconomic status, (prevalence ratio [PR]=1.94), with lower level of schooling (PR=2.43), age > 29 years (PR=2.49), and smokers (PR=2.04). It was also associated with threatened miscarriage (PR=1.68) and preterm labor, (PR=3.40). There was no association with maternal urinary tract infection or presence of genital discharge. the outcome was more common in puerperal women with lower level of schooling, lower socioeconomic status, older, and smokers, as well as those with a history of threatened miscarriage and premature labor. These factors should be considered in the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy approach. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Scanning electron microscopy of the fetal membranes of an oviparous squamate, the corn snake Pituophis guttatus (Colubridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Siobhan M; Blackburn, Daniel G

    2008-08-01

    Although the fetal membranes of viviparous squamates have received much study, morphology of their homologues among oviparous reptiles is poorly understood. The scarcity of information about these membranes in egg-laying reptiles hampers attempts to distinguish specializations for viviparity from ancestral oviparous features. We used scanning electron microscopy to examine fetal membranes of an oviparous snake (Pituophis guttatus) throughout the developmental period from oviposition to hatching. The external surface of the chorion contains broad, flattened cells that lack surface features; these cells form a continuous layer over the allantoic capillaries and offer a minimal barrier to respiratory exchange. In contrast, the surface epithelium of the omphalopleure bears elaborate surface ridges suggestive of absorptive capabilities. These ridges are prominent in the first few weeks after oviposition, but diminish thereafter. During development, the isolated yolk mass (IYM) of the omphalopleure becomes depleted, and the tissue becomes heavily vascularized by allantoic vessels. Surface features of the omphalopleure progressively take on the appearance of the chorioallantois, but the changes are not synchronous with loss of the IYM or membrane vascularization. Previous studies on viviparous snakes suggest that the chorioallantois and omphalopleure are respectively specialized for gas exchange and absorption in the intrauterine environment. Our studies of fetal membranes in P. guttatus offer evidence that cytological specializations for these functions originated under oviparous conditions, reflecting functional capacities that predate viviparity. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. A NOVEL KIND OF PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE:CHARACTERS AND PROTON TRANSPORT MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Peng; Yong Yang; Li Wang; Min Huang; Xian-fa Shi

    2009-01-01

    A novel proton exchange membrane(PEM)was designed and prepared from a polymer containing calix[4]arene as the functional unit to transport proton.The proton-conductivity of this membrane is about the same order of magnitude as that of Nafion(R)112 membrane.It is of interest to note that very different from most of the currently known PEMs,this membrane can transport proton without the help of water or other solvents.It is deduced that the protons are transported via an ion tunneling model.This opens up a new avenue for a new type of solvent-free PEMs to be applied in the development of new H2/O2 fuel cells.

  2. Comprehensive Characterization of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Placenta and Fetal Membrane and Their Response to Osteoactivin Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Raynaud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are the most promising seed cells for cell therapy and can be isolated from various sources of human adult tissues such as bone marrow (BM-MSC and adipose tissue. However, cells from these tissues must be obtained through invasive procedures. We, therefore, characterized MSCs isolated from fresh placenta (Pl-MSC and fetal membrane (Mb-MSC through morphological and fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS. MSC frequency is higher in membrane than placenta (2.14%  ± 0.65 versus 15.67%  ± 0.29%. Pl/Mb-MSCs in vitro expansion potential was significantly higher than BM-MSCs. We demonstrated that one of the MSC-specific marker is sufficient for MSC isolation and that culture in specific media is the optimal way for selecting very homogenous MSC population. These MSCs could be differentiated into mesodermal cells expressing cell markers and cytologic staining consistent with mature osteoblasts and adipocytes. Transcriptomic analysis and cytokine arrays demonstrated broad similarity between placenta- and membrane-derived MSCs and only discrete differences with BM-MSCs with enrichment of networks involved in bone differentiation. Pl/Mb-MSCs displayed higher osteogenic differentiation potential than BM-MSC when their response to osteoactivin was evaluated. Fetal-tissue-derived mesenchymal cells may, therefore, be considered as a major source of MSCs to reach clinical scale banking in particular for bone regeneration.

  3. Nuclear factor-kappa B localization and function within intrauterine tissues from term and preterm labor and cultured fetal membranes

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    Kusanovic Juan P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to quantify the nuclear localization and DNA binding activity of p65, the major transactivating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB subunit, in full-thickness fetal membranes (FM and myometrium in the absence or presence of term or preterm labor. Methods Paired full-thickness FM and myometrial samples were collected from women in the following cohorts: preterm no labor (PNL, N = 22, spontaneous preterm labor (PTL, N = 21, term no labor (TNL, N = 23, and spontaneous term labor (STL, N = 21. NF-kappaB p65 localization was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and DNA binding activity was evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-based method. Results Nuclear p65 labeling was rare in amnion and chorion, irrespective of clinical context. In decidua, nuclear p65 labeling was greater in the STL group relative to the TNL cohort, but there were no differences among the TNL, PTL, and PNL cohorts. In myometrium, diffuse p65 nuclear labeling was significantly associated with both term and preterm labor. There were no significant differences in ELISA-based p65 binding activity in amnion, choriodecidual, and myometrial specimens in the absence or presence of term labor. However, parallel experiments using cultured term fetal membranes demonstrated high levels of p65-like binding even the absence of cytokine stimulation, suggesting that this assay may be of limited value when applied to tissue specimens. Conclusions These results suggest that the decidua is an important site of NF-kappaB regulation in fetal membranes, and that mechanisms other than cytoplasmic sequestration may limit NF-kappaB activation prior to term.

  4. Chorioamnionitis and increased galectin-1 expression in PPROM –an anti-inflammatory response in the fetal membranes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Nandor Gabor; Kim, Sung-Su; Abbas, Asad; Han, Yu Mi; Hotra, John; Tarca, Adi L.; Erez, Offer; Wildman, Derek E.; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Pineles, Beth; Montenegro, Daniel; Edwin, Samuel S.; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Gotsch, Francesca; Espinoza, Jimmy; Hassan, Sonia S.; Papp, Zoltan; Romero, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Problem Galectin-1 can regulate immune responses upon infection and inflammation. We determined galectin-1 expression in the chorioamniotic membranes and its changes during histological chorioamnionitis. Methods of Study Chorioamniotic membranes were obtained from women with normal pregnancy (n=5) and from patients with pre-term pre-labor rupture of the membranes (PPROM) with (n=8) and without histological chorioamnionitis (n=8). Galectin-1 mRNA and protein were localized by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Galectin-1 mRNA expression was also determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Results Galectin-1 mRNA and protein were detected in the amnion epithelium, chorioamniotic fibroblasts/myofibroblasts and macrophages, chorionic trophoblasts, and decidual stromal cells. In patients with PPROM, galectin-1 mRNA expression in the fetal membranes was higher (2.07-fold, p=0.002) in those with chorioamnionitis than in those without. Moreover, chorioamionitis was associated with a strong galectin-1 immunostaining in amniotic epithelium, chorioamniotic mesodermal cells, and apoptotic bodies. Conclusions Chorioamnionitis is associated with an increased galectin-1 mRNA expression and strong immunoreactivity of the chorioamniotic membranes; thus, galectin-1 may be involved in the regulation of the inflammatory responses to chorioamniotic infection. PMID:18691335

  5. Antioxidant Vitamin Status in the Serum and Amniotic Fluid of Women with Premature Rupture of the Fetal Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bridget M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the status of antioxidant vitamins in women with premature rupture of the fetal membranes. Specimens of blood and amniotic fluid were obtained from 80 pregnant subjects included both smokers and non-smokers during the third trimester. The concentrations of ascorbic acid (ASA), beta -carotene, retinol and alpha -tocopherol in serum and amniotic fluid were determined. The experimental group consisted of those subjects with PROM while the control subjects were those with normal pregnancy. No statistical differences were found between the PROM and control groups in retinol and vitamin E concentrations in amniotic fluid and serum. Serum ASA concentrations of PROM subjects were not different from controls, but the PROM subjects had significantly lower amniotic fluid ASA concentrations. However, in a study with fewer subjects a lower serum ASA concentration in the PROM subjects was observed. The ratio of amniotic fluid ASA concentration to ASA serum concentration was significantly lower in PROM patients than in controls in both studies. This suggests that low levels of ASA in the amniotic fluid, but not in serum is better associated with PROM. A low amniotic fluid concentration of ASA may reflect an inefficient transfer and/or increased fetal utilization. Alterations in ASA concentration in the amniotic fluid may affect the integrity of the chorioamnion leading to PROM. beta -Carotene was not found in the amniotic fluid. Serum beta-carotene levels were significantly lower in the PROM group compared to the control group. Low concentrations of beta-carotene in maternal serum in smokers not only associated with poor maternal outcome (PROM) but also compromised the fetal outcome (decreased birth weight). Maintenance of adequate serum beta-carotene concentration and amniotic fluid ASA in smokers may result in better maternal and fetal outcome. This study demonstrated that nutrition is an important factor in the prevention of PROM.

  6. Release of LHRH-activity from human fetal membranes upon exposure to PGE/sub 2/, oxytocin and isoproterenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poisner, A.M.; Poisner, R.; Becca, C.R.; Conn, P.M.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously reported that superfused chorion laeve (fetal membranes) release LHRH-like immunoreactivity upon exposure to angiotensin II. They have now studied the effects of other agonists on the release of LHRH-activity and something of its chemical nature. Fetal membranes were obtained from placentas delivered by cesarean section, the amnion stripped from the chorion, and the chorion superfused in an Amicon thin-channel device with the maternal surface facing up. The whole device was submerged in a 37 C water bath and perfused with a modified Locke's solution at 0.4 - 1.0 ml/min. LHRH-activity was measured by radioimmunoassay using three different antisera against LHRH. The release of LHRH-activity was stimulated by 6-10 min exposure to PGE/sub 2/, oxytocin, and isoproterenol. Extracts of chorion were studied using gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200 and ultrafiltration with Amicon PM-10 filters. The bulk of the LHRH-activity appeared as a higher molecular weight form (about 70,000 daltons). Since oxytocin has been reported to release PGE/sub 2/ from chorion, it may release LHRH-activity by virtue of liberating endogenous PGE/sub 2/. The chemical nature of the LHRH-activity is presently under investigation.

  7. The role of placental alpha microglobulin-1 amnisure in determining the status of the fetal membranes; its association with preterm birth. Traditions … traditions ….

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariona, Federico G; Roura, Lluis Cabero

    2016-03-01

    The integrity of the fetal amnion-chorion is an imperative for the preservation of a normal pregnancy in the human. The diagnosis of the status of the fetal membranes has traditionally been reduced to either intact or ruptured. In the last decades, evidence has accumulated demonstrating that this clinical approach may well be an over simplification. Practically, all maternal organs experienced physiologic or eventually pathologic changes during the length of the gestational period. We propose that the fetal membranes are also significantly impacted by those changes. The accurate, specific, simplified and low-cost diagnosis of the status of the fetal membranes is of critical importance for the assessment of risk to the pregnancy followed by efficient and prompt treatment. The presence of placental alpha macroglobulin-1 in the vagina specifically indicates a disruption in the integrity of the fetal membranes and may indirectly mean increased risk for preterm birth. Further research to properly characterize this marker and its importance in the care of pregnant woman at risk for preterm birth is strongly recommended.

  8. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is increased after spontaneous labor in human fetal membranes and myometrium where it regulates the expression of prolabor mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liong, Stella; Lappas, Martha

    2014-09-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in various diseases. In nongestational tissues, several markers of the unfolded protein response (UPR) have been shown to regulate the inflammatory response. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of human labor on markers of ER stress in fetal membranes and myometrium. In addition, the effect of ER stress inhibition on the expression and secretion of proinflammatory and prolabor mediators was also assessed. The markers of ER stress, GRP78, IRE1, and spliced XBP1 (XBP1s), were significantly increased in fetal membranes and myometrium after term and preterm labor compared to nonlaboring samples. Given that inflammation is considered to be one of the leading causes of spontaneous preterm birth, here we used bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a model for infection-induced preterm birth. In term nonlabored fetal membranes and myometrium, LPS induced UPR activation as evidenced by a significant increase in the expression of GRP78, IRE1, and XBP1s in fetal membranes and myometrium. The use of the chemical chaperones 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) alleviated ER stress induced by LPS. 4-PBA and TUDCA also ameliorated the increase in LPS-induced prolabor mediators. Our data suggest that the UPR may regulate the inflammatory responses associated with labor or infection in fetal membranes and myometrium of pregnant term and preterm women. Thus, the use of ER stress inhibitors, in particular 4-PBA or TUDCA, may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention of infection-mediated spontaneous preterm birth. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  9. Morphological evaluation of the placenta and fetal membranes during canine pregnancy from early implantation to term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aralla, Marina; Groppetti, Debora; Caldarini, Laura; Cremonesi, Fausto; Arrighi, Silvana

    2013-08-01

    To describe the histological changes of fetal adnexa throughout the physiological pregnancy, canine samples were obtained during natural delivery and caesarean section, as well as during ovariohysterectomy performed at any stage of undesired pregnancies (N=12). The first period of pregnancy (multiple samples collected at 10, 12, 14 days) was consistent with pre- and peri-implantation events, i.e. apposition and initial invasion steps into the endometrium. The second period (multiple samples collected at 18, 38, 40, 45 days) was related to the development of extra-embryonic structures, placenta establishment and labyrinth formation. At the end of this period the maximum morphological complexity of the endotheliochorial placenta was achieved, characterized by complete erosion of the endometrial epithelium and underlying interstitium with exposure of maternal capillaries to the chorial cells. The third period of gestation (multiple samples collected at 50, 53, 57, 60, 63 days) was characterized by enhancement either of placental and extra-embryonic tissues.

  10. Open Inclusion or Shameful Secret: A Comparison of Characters with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and Characters with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in a North American Sample of Books for Children and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Conor; Kulyk, Juli; Knorr, Lyndsay; Brenna, Beverley

    2011-01-01

    Using a framework of critical literacy, and acknowledging the characteristics of Radical Change, the authors explore 75 North American youth fiction novels which depict characters with disabilities. Books were identified from a variety of sources (i.e., awards lists, book reviews, other research, and word-of-mouth), to represent a random sample…

  11. Risk factors and impact of retained fetal membranes on performance of dairy bovines reared under subtropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Susavi; Prasad, Shiv; Kumaresan, Arumugam; Manimaran, Ayyasamy; Patbandha, Tapas Kumar; Pathak, Rupal; Boro, Prasanta; Mohanty, Tushar Kumar; Ravi, Sanjay Kumar

    2015-02-01

    The risk factors and impact of retained fetal membranes (RFM) on productive and reproductive performance of crossbred cattle, Zebu cattle, and Murrah buffalos were evaluated using data spread over 12 years. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors and to quantify their odds ratio (OR). Overall incidence of RFM in crossbred cattle, Zebu cattle, and Murrah buffalos were 26, 16, and 13 %, respectively; and significant risk factors for RFM in crossbred cattle were abortion (OR = 3.9), dead calf (OR = 4.1), dystocia (OR = 4.3), pluriparity (OR = 1.5), and shorter gestation length (OR = 4.3). In Zebu cattle, abortion (OR = 4.0), dead calf (OR = 3.7), dystocia (OR = 3.9), lower birth weight of calf (OR = 1.6), and shorter gestation length (OR = 6.4) were significant risk factors for RFM. In Murrah buffalos, abortion (OR = 19.2), dead calf (OR = 4.4), dystocia (OR = 4.7), pluriparity (OR = 1.7), shorter gestation length (OR = 12.7), and calving during summer season (OR = 1.8) were the risk factors for RFM. Although the occurrence of RFM did not affect fertility parameters, a significant (P gestation length were the main risk factors for RFM in dairy bovine.

  12. Ubiquitin-Proteasome-Collagen (CUP Pathway in Preterm Premature Rupture of Fetal Membranes

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    Xinliang Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB occurs before 37 gestational weeks, with preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM and spontaneous preterm labor (sPTL as the predominant adverse outcomes. Previously, we identified altered expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs and message RNAs (mRNAs related to the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS in human placentas following pregnancy loss and PTB. We therefore hypothesized that similar mechanisms might underlie PPROM. In the current study, nine pairs of ubiquitin-proteasome-collagen (CUP pathway–related mRNAs and associated lncRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in PPROM and sPTL. Pathway analysis showed that the functions of their protein products were inter-connected by ring finger protein. Twenty variants including five mutations were identified in CUP-related genes in sPTL samples. Copy number variations were found in COL19A1, COL28A1, COL5A1, and UBAP2 of sPTL samples. The results reinforced our previous findings and indicated the association of the CUP pathway with the development of sPTL and PPROM. This association was due not only to the genetic variation, but also to the epigenetic regulatory function of lncRNAs. Furthermore, the findings suggested that the loss of collagen content in PPROM could result from degradation and/or suppressed expression of collagens.

  13. [Usefulness of the flame test in the diagnosis of premature rupture of fetal membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros Ceballos, A; Ahued Ahued, J R; Violante Díaz, M; de la Jara Díaz, J

    1989-07-01

    A prospective, experimental and comparative study, was carried out at the Labor Service and Perinatology Service at Gyn-Ob Division, Regional Hospital "20 de Novembre" ISSSTE, Mexico City, during the period from September 1st, 1987 to September 1st., 1988. The objective was to demonstrate usefulness of the Flame Test in the diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes (PRM). A total of 116 samples from patients randomly selected, in four groups (3 controls and one problem group), were studied. The test was used in comparison with crystallography. Age, gesta, parity, abortion and cesarean section, and birth's via, as well as the antecedent of use of anticonceptives, were studied. Twenty six samples in Group I, 10 in Group II, 40 in Group III and 40 in Group IV, were obtained. The statistical method of X,2 was used, and a statistically significant difference (p.05), was obtained, with a sensitivity of 97.8%, and specificity of 100%, a predictive value of 100%, and security of 98% for the test. It's concluded that the Flame test is useful in the diagnosis of PRM, with a low cost, a high sensitivity, and a similar specificity to the reported one by others.

  14. Prediction of labour and delivery by ascertaining the fetal head position with transabdominal ultrasound in pregnancies with prelabour rupture of membranes after 37 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggebø, T M; Heien, C; Okland, I; Gjessing, L K; Smedvig, E; Romundstad, P; Salvesen, K A

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the proportion of fetal head rotation from occiput posterior (OP) to occiput anterior (OA) during labour after term prelabour rupture of membranes (PROM), and to study if OP before labour are associated with a higher risk of operative deliveries and a longer duration of labour. A transabdominal ultrasound examination was performed in 152 women with PROM after 37 weeks with a single live fetus in cephalic position. The course of labour was compared in women with the fetal head in occiput posterior position or other positions before the start of labour. Before the start of labour, 40 (26%) fetuses were in occiput posterior position (OP), but 34 (85%) of them rotated to occiput anterior (OA) during labour. Ten (6.6%) fetuses were delivered in OP, and six of them were in OP before the start of labour. There were no statistically significant associations between the head position before the start of labour and the duration from PROM to delivery, induction of labour, use of epidural analgesia, augmentation with oxytocin, operative deliveries, perineal tears, Apgar scores, pH or base excess in the umbilical artery. Transabdominal ultrasound examination can determine the fetal head position before the start of labour, but the position of the head did not predict the course of labour, probably because the fetal head may rotate during labour even after PROM.

  15. Neonatology oxidative status in preterm infants with premature preterm rupture of membranes and fetal inflammatuar response syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özalkaya, Elif; Karatekin, Güner; Topçuoğlu, Sevilay; Karatepe, Hande Özgün; Hafızoğlu, Taner; Baran, Pervin; Ovalı, Fahri

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study, to determine an index of oxidative stress index in preterm infants less than 34 weeks gestational age with premature preterm rupture of membrane (PPROM) and fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS). This study was designed as a prospective study. Fifty-one premature infants less than 35 weeks of gestational age were included in the study. The umbilical cord blood concentrations of IL-6, TAC (total antioxidant capacity) and PON-1 (paraoxonase-1) levels and TOS (total oxidative stress) were studied. The oxidative stress index (OSI = TAC/TOS) was calculated in all of prematüre infants. PPROM was defined as rupture of membranes at least 24 hours before the onset of labor. FIRS was defined by an umbilical cord IL-6 level greater than 11 pg/mL. Premature infants included in the study were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 included preterm infants without FIRS and with PPROM (n = 16), while Group 2 included preterm infants without PPROM and with FIRS (n = 9), Group 3 consisted of premature infants with PPROM and FIRS (n = 21) and Group 4 included premature infants without PPROM or FIRS (n = 5). Umbilical cord TOS level was found to be higher in the preterm infants without FIRS and with PPROM (36.1 μmol H2O2 Equiv./L) compared to the preterm infants without PPROM or FIRS (11.9 μmol H2O2 Equiv./L) (p = 0.03). Umbilical cord PON-1 level was found to be lower in the preterms without FIRS and with PPROM (32 U/L), preterms without PPROM and with FIRS (30. 3 U/L) and the preterm infants with both PPROM and FIRS (48.6 U/L) compared to the preterm infants having no PPROM or FIRS (85.6 U/L) (p = 0.001). High pro-oxidant capacity was found in PPROM and low antioxidant capacity in PPROM and FIRS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. 水通道蛋白8在人胎盘胎膜中的表达%Aquaporin 8 expression in human placenta and fetal membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧妹; 郝荣增; 宋小飞; 熊正方

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Placenta and fetal membrane play an important role In maternal-fetal homeostasis. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying water transfer across placenta and amniotic membrane remain unknown. It is hypothesized that maternal-fetal fluid exchanges via aquaporin (AQP) water channels in the placenta and fetal membrane.OBJECTIVE: To investigate AQP8 protein expression in normal human placenta and fetal membrane.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A control observation was performed at the Central Laboratory of Guangzhou Medical College from July to December 2005.MATERIALS: Human placenta and fetal membrane tissues from 5 elective cesarean section deliveries of normal term pregnancies (range 37-42 weeks) were studied. Maternal age averaged (27?) years old. Experimental protocol was approved by the Hospital's Ethics Committee.METHODS: Thirty minutes after delivery, fetal membrane and placenta were dissected and washed with sterile physiological saline. Some were frozen at -80?, and the remaining tissues were fixed for 24-48 hours with 10% neutral formalin and paraffin embedded for immunohistochemical staining.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: AQP8 expression and distribution in human placenta and fetal membrane were detected by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting analysis.RESULTS: RT-PCR results showed that AQP8 mRNA was expressed in both placenta and fetal membrane tissues. Western blotting analysis also yielded positive results in placenta and fetal membrane with a specific band site at approximately 45 000.Immunohistochemistry results revealed that AQP8 protein was expressed in placental syncytiotrophoblasts, amniotic epithelial cells, and chorion cytotrophoblasts.CONCLUSION: At protein level, AQP8 is expressed in placental syncytiotrophoblasts, amniotic epithelial cells, and chorion cytotrophoblasts.%背景:胎盘和胎膜在母胎液体平衡过程中起着重要作用,而水穿过胎盘

  17. Possible Roles of Proinflammatory and Chemoattractive Cytokines Produced by Human Fetal Membrane Cells in the Pathology of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes Associated with Influenza Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Uchide

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women are at an increased risk of influenza-associated adverse outcomes, such as premature delivery, based on data from the latest pandemic with a novel influenza A (H1N1 virus in 2009-2010. It has been suggested that the transplacental transmission of influenza viruses is rarely detected in humans. A series of our study has demonstrated that influenza virus infection induced apoptosis in primary cultured human fetal membrane chorion cells, from which a factor with monocyte differentiation-inducing (MDI activity was secreted. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and interferon (IFN-β, were identified as a member of the MDI factor. Influenza virus infection induced the mRNA expression of not only the proinflammatory cytokines but also chemoattractive cytokines, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1β, IL-8, growth-regulated oncogene (GRO-α, GRO-β, epithelial cell-derived neutrophil-activating protein (ENA-78, and interferon inducible protein (IP-10 in cultured chorion cells. These cytokines are postulated to associate with human parturition. This paper, therefore, reviews (1 lessons from pandemic H1N1 2009 in pregnancy, (2 production of proinflammatory and chemoattractive cytokines by human fetal membranes and their functions in gestational tissues, and (3 possible roles of cytokines produced by human fetal membranes in the pathology of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with influenza virus infection.

  18. Current Status of Monocyte Differentiation-Inducing (MDI Factors Derived from Human Fetal Membrane Chorion Cells Undergoing Apoptosis after Infl uenza Virus Infection

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    Noboru Uchide

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus infection induces apoptosis and the expression of a set of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, such as interleukin (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interferon (IFN-β and IFN-γ, in cultured human fetal membrane chorion cells. Monocyte differentiation-inducing (MDI activity in culture supernatants is simultaneously increased by the virus infection. The MDI activity is predominantly influenced by IL-6 molecule in culture supernatants, and partly by TNF-α and IFN-β, but not IFN-γ, molecules. The MDI factors are able to induce the mRNA expression of macrophage class A scavenger receptor (SR-A, which is one of adhesion and apoptotic cell-recognizing molecules, and gp91phox, which is a catalytic subunit of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase enzyme complex, on monocytic cells. As a result, monocytes are initiated to differentiate into well-matured macrophages capable of adhering and producing superoxide through NADPH oxidase. The matured macrophages, obtained from human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells by the treatment with MDI factors, phagocytose apoptotic chorion cell debris resulting from the virus infection. Subsequent to phagocytosis, an abrupt increase of superoxide production by macrophages may occur. In this article, we summarize recent knowledge about the MDI factors derived from human fetal membrane chorion cells undergoing apoptosis after influenza virus infection, and discuss their possible pathological roles during pregnancy.

  19. 妊娠期糖尿病大鼠胎膜中水通道蛋白8mRNA的表达%The expression of mRNA of aquaporin 8 in fetal membrane of gestationai diabetes mellitus rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广智; 刘金梅; 王志军; 郭小丽; 姚玉洁

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨在影响妊娠期糖尿病大鼠胎膜通透性方面的可能机制.方法 选取造模成功的妊娠期糖尿病大鼠(模型组)和正常妊娠大鼠(对照组)各30只,在妊娠19 d时于无菌条件下留取大小1.0 cm×1.0 cm胎膜2块,采用RT-PCR反应检测胎膜中AQP8 mRNA的表达.结果 2组大鼠胎膜上均有AQP8 mRNA的表达,且AQP8 mRNA在模型组大鼠胎膜上的表达明显低于对照组(P<0.05).结论 水通道蛋白8 mRNA在孕足月大鼠胎膜有表达,其在妊娠期糖尿病大鼠胎膜中的表达降低可能参与了羊水量异常的调控.%Objectives To investigate the possible mechanism of permeability changes in fetal membrane of gestational diabetes mellitus ( GDM) rats by detecting the aquaporin 8 ( AQP8 ) gene' s expression in the fetal membrane by using the reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR) technique. Methods The 30 gestational diabetic rats (model group) and 30 normal full-term pregnancy rats (control group) were enrolled in the study. At 19 days after pregnancy, two pieces of fetal membranes with size about 1. 0 cm x 1. 0 cm were taken out under sterile condition, and the expression of AQP8 mRNA in fetal membrane was detected by RT-PCR. Results The both groups showed the expression of AQP8 mRNA in fetal membrane of rats, furthermore, the expression of AQP8 mRNA in fetal membrane of the rats of model group was significantly lower than that of rats in control group ( P < 0. 05 )*. Conclusion The aquaporins 8 mRNA expresses in the fetal membrane of full-term pregnancy rats,and the decrease of expression in the fetal membrane of gestational diabetic mellitus rats may be involved in the regulation of the abnormality of amniotic fluid amount.

  20. Fetal Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Fetal Circulation Updated:Oct 18,2016 click to enlarge The ... fetal heart. These two bypass pathways in the fetal circulation make it possible for most fetuses to survive ...

  1. Soluble and Endogenous Secretory Receptors for Advanced Glycation End Products in Threatened Preterm Labor and Preterm Premature Rupture of Fetal Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Rzepka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare sRAGE and esRAGE plasma levels in pregnant women with (A threatened premature labor (n=41, (B preterm premature rupture of membranes (n=49, and (C preterm rupture of membranes at term (n=48. The relationship between these and classic intrauterine infection markers and the latent time from symptoms up to delivery depending on RAGE’s concentration were investigated. In groups A and B, a positive correlation was found between plasma sRAGE and latent time (r = 0,422; p = 0,001; r = 0,413, p = 0,004, resp.. High prognostic values were found in both groups for plasma sRAGE concentration and the latent time from symptoms up to delivery. Groups B and C presented higher levels of esRAGE than group A (526,315 ± 129,453 pg/mL and 576,212 ± 136,237 pg/mL versus 485,918 ± 133,127 pg/mL, p< 0,05. The conclusion is that sRAGE concentration can be a favorable prognostic factor in the presence of symptoms of threatened premature labor. Higher esRAGE plasma level in case of the rupture of membranes in mature and premature pregnancy suggests its participation in fetal membranes destruction.

  2. Expression of the prostaglandin F synthase AKR1B1 and the prostaglandin transporter SLCO2A1 in human fetal membranes in relation to spontaneous term and preterm labour

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    Hana A Alzamil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human labour is a complex series of cellular and molecular events that occur at the materno-fetal and uterine levels. Many hypotheses have been proposed for the initiation of human labour, one hypothesis suggests that maturation of the fetus releases a signal in the amniotic fluid that will be transmitted to myometrium via the fetal membranes and initiate uterine contractions. There is strong evidence that prostaglandins (PGs play a central role in initiation and progression of human labour. Objectives: In this study we intended to investigate the expression of prostaglandin F synthase and the prostaglandin transporter in the human fetal membranes and to explore the relationship between cytokines and PGs in the mechanism of human labour. Methods: We used fetal membranes obtained before labour at term and after spontaneous labour at term or preterm to identify the changes in prostaglandin F synthase (AKR1B1 and human prostaglandin transporter (SLCO2A1 proteins in relation to parturition. Using fetal membranes explants we tested the effect of cytokines (interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor alpha on PG production and the concomitant changes in cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2, AKR1B1 and SLCO2A1 expression. Results: Expression of PTGS2 and AKR1B1 was upregulated in the fetal membranes in association with term labour while SLCO2A1 was downregulated with advancing gestation and during term labour. Before labour, IL-1 increased the expression of PTGS2, however during labour TNF upregulated PTGS2 and AKR1B1 proteins. Conclusions: The prostaglandin F synthase AKR1B1 is upregulated while prostaglandin transporter is downregulated during term labour. The amnion is more responsive than choriodecidua to stimulation with pro-inflammatory cytokines. The mechanisms of term and preterm labour are different.

  3. Expression of the prostaglandin F synthase AKR1B1 and the prostaglandin transporter SLCO2A1 in human fetal membranes in relation to spontaneous term and preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzamil, Hana A; Pawade, Joya; Fortier, Michel A; Bernal, A López

    2014-01-01

    Human labor is a complex series of cellular and molecular events that occur at the materno-fetal and uterine levels. Many hypotheses have been proposed for the initiation of human labor, one hypothesis suggests that maturation of the fetus releases a signal in the amniotic fluid that will be transmitted to myometrium via the fetal membranes and initiate uterine contractions. There is strong evidence that prostaglandins (PGs) play a central role in initiation and progression of human labor. In this study we intended to investigate the expression of prostaglandin F synthase and the prostaglandin transporter in the human fetal membranes and to explore the relationship between cytokines and PGs in the mechanism of human labor. We used fetal membranes obtained before labor at term and after spontaneous labor at term or preterm to identify the changes in prostaglandin F synthase (AKR1B1) and human prostaglandin transporter (SLCO2A1) proteins in relation to parturition. Using fetal membranes explants we tested the effect of cytokines (interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha) on PG production and the concomitant changes in cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2), AKR1B1 and SLCO2A1 expression. Expression of PTGS2 and AKR1B1 was upregulated in the fetal membranes in association with term labor while SLCO2A1 was downregulated with advancing gestation and during term labor. Before labor, IL-1 increased the expression of PTGS2, however during labor TNF upregulated PTGS2 and AKR1B1 proteins. The prostaglandin F synthase AKR1B1 is upregulated while prostaglandin transporter is downregulated during term labor. The amnion is more responsive than choriodecidua to stimulation with pro-inflammatory cytokines. The mechanisms of term and preterm labor are different.

  4. Repercussões da amniorrexe prematura no pré-termo sobre a morbimortalidade neonatal Repercussions of premature rupture of fetal membranes on neonatal morbidity and mortality

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    Glaucio de Moraes Paula

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi analisar os fatores associados ao óbito e sobrevida com seqüela em neonatos egressos de gestações que cursaram com amniorrexe prematura. Estudo observacional do tipo coorte histórica analisou prontuários de pacientes que evoluíram com quadro de amniorrexe prematura The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with death and survival with sequelae in neonates after premature rupture of fetal membranes (PROM. An observational historical cohort study analyzed charts of patients with PROM at < 34 weeks gestation. The variables were compared with neonatal death and survival with sequelae as the outcomes. In both groups, the data were submitted to bivariate analysis, and the variables showing significance were submitted to logistic regression. The final multivariate model for fetal death showed statistical significance for the following: chorioamnionitis; 5-minute Apgar score < 5; birth weight < 1,000g; and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Survival with sequela was associated with: cervical colonization; patent ductus arteriosus; 5-minute Apgar score < 5; and birth weight < 1,000g. Infections, very low birth weight, and peripartum asphyxia were the principal variables associated with the target outcomes among newborns from gestations involving PROM.

  5. Fetal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, John T.; Sladek, John R.

    1989-11-01

    This article reviews some of the significant contributions of fetal research and fetal tissue research over the past 20 years. The benefits of fetal research include the development of vaccines, advances in prenatal diagnosis, detection of malformations, assessment of safe and effective medications, and the development of in utero surgical therapies. Fetal tissue research benefits vaccine development, assessment of risk factors and toxicity levels in drug production, development of cell lines, and provides a source of fetal cells for ongoing transplantation trials. Together, fetal research and fetal tissue research offer tremendous potential for the treatment of the fetus, neonate, and adult.

  6. Observations on the delivered placenta and fetal membranes of the Aardvark, Orycteropus afér (Pallas, 1766)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taverne, M.A.M.; Bakker-Slotboom, M.F.

    1970-01-01

    A macroscopical description is given of the delivered placenta and foetal membranes of an Aardvark. Special attention is paid to the umbilical cord and the relative position of the foetal membranes at the places where these attach to the placenta. Amniotic pustules were found on the umbilical cord

  7. Repairing Fetal Membranes with a Self-adhesive Ultrathin Polymeric Film: Evaluation in Mid-gestational Rabbit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensabene, Virginia; Patel, Premal P; Williams, Phillip; Cooper, Trisha L; Kirkbride, Kellye C; Giorgio, Todd D; Tulipan, Noel B

    2015-08-01

    Preterm premature rupture of membranes causes 40% of all preterm births, affecting 150000 women each year in the United States. Prenatal diagnostic procedures and surgical interventions increase incidence of adverse events, leading to iatrogenic membrane rupture after a fetoscopic procedure in 45% of cases. We propose an ultrathin, self-adherent, poly-L-lactic acid patch ("nanofilm") as a reparative wound closure after endoscopic/fetoscopic procedures. These nanofilms are compatible with application in wet conditions and with minimally invasive instrumentation. Ex vivo studies to evaluate the nanofilm were conducted using human chorion-amnion (CA) membranes. A custom-built inflation device was used for mechanical characterization of CA membranes and for assessment of nanofilm adhesion and sealing of membrane defects up to 3 mm in size. These ex vivo tests demonstrated the ability of the nanofilm to seal human CA defects ranging in size from 1 to 3 mm in diameter. In vivo survival studies were conducted in 25 mid-gestational rabbits, defects were created by perforating the uterus and the CA membranes and subsequently using the nanofilm to seal these wounds. These in vivo studies confirmed the successful sealing of defects smaller than 3 mm observed ex vivo. Histological analysis of whole harvested uteri 7 days after surgery showed intact uterine walls in 59% of the nanofilm repaired fetuses, along with increased uterine size and intrauterine development in 63% of the cases. In summary, we have developed an ultrathin, self-adhesive nanofilm for repair of uterine membrane defects.

  8. Medio ambiente fetal Fetal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Bernardo Ospina Arcila

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Con base en el artículo clásico "Monte Everest in utero" se hace un análisis de la situación que afronta el feto con respecto a la disponibilidad de oxígeno; para una mejor comprensión del sufrimiento fetal se revisan los siguientes conceptos: presión barométrica, presión parcial del oxígeno atmosférico, presión parcial del oxígeno inspirado, presión barométrica intranasal, ecuación del gas alveolar y difusión de gases a través de la membrana alvéolo capilar. Based on the classical paper by Eastman "Mount Everest in utero" an analysis is made of the situation faced by the fetus with respect to the availability of oxygen; for a better under. standing of fetal distress the following concepts are reviewed: barometric pressure, partial pressure of atmosferic oxygen, partial pressure of inspired oxygen, barometric intranasal pressure, alveolar gas equation and gas diffusion through alveolo-capilar membrane.

  9. Differential characters

    CERN Document Server

    Bär, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Providing a systematic introduction to differential characters as introduced by Cheeger and Simons, this text describes important concepts such as fiber integration, higher dimensional holonomy, transgression, and the product structure in a geometric manner. Differential characters form a model of what is nowadays called differential cohomology, which is the mathematical structure behind the higher gauge theories in physics.  

  10. 膜技术回收马铃薯蛋白的基本性能%The preliminary characters of recycling potato protein through membrane technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娜; 刘凌; 周明; 孙慧; 李国明; 姜忠杰

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,we focused on the preliminary characters of recycling potato protein through membrane technology.We analyzed the molecular weight distribution,amino acid content,functional properties,and alkaloid content of potato protein through SDS-PAGE and HPLC.The results suggested that the potato retained patatin and protease inhibitors,which are the two major proteins of potatoes.Its nutritional value and functional properties were equivalent to soybean protein isolate;it had lower alkaloid content compared to the result of the thermal coagulation method.%采用SDS-PAGE凝胶电泳、HPLC等方法分析了膜法回收所得马铃薯蛋白质的相对分子质量分布、氨基酸含量、功能性质及生物碱含量.结果表明:膜技术回收所得马铃薯蛋白保留了原马铃薯中的两类主要蛋白质——马铃薯糖蛋白(patatin)和蛋白酶抑制剂,营养及功能性与大豆分离蛋白相当,生物碱含量远低于热絮凝方法所得马铃薯蛋白.

  11. Phosphatidylglycerol determination in the amniotic fluid from a PAD placed over the vulva: a method for diagnosis of fetal lung maturity in cases of premature ruptured membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estol, P C; Poseiro, J J; Schwarcz, R

    1992-01-01

    Four hundred and forty seven pregnant women with ruptured membranes, were prospectively studied in order to assess the diagnostic capacity of Phosphatidylglycerol (PhG) determination in amniotic fluid recovered from vulval pads in the diagnosis of Hyaline Membrane Disease (HMD). The identification of PhG was performed using one dimensional silica gel thin layer chromatography. The sensitivity of PhG determination in the diagnosis of HMD in newborns of the total population was found to be 88.2%, with a specificity of 76.9%. In the study population, the incidence of HMD was 7.6%, the negative predictive value was 98.8% and, the positive predictive value was 24.0%. When the 265 newborns of the gestational age group of less than or equal to 34 weeks is considered, we observed an incidence of HMD of 12.1%. The diagnostic capacity of PhG in this group was shown by a sensitivity of 87.5%, a specificity of 76.4%, a positive predictive value of 33.7% and a negative predictive value of 97.8%. This method of assessment of fetal lung maturity has a diagnostic capability similar to that described by other authors, who used amniotic fluid obtained vaginally or transabdominally. The procedure described here of amniotic fluid collection is non-invasive, harmless to the mother and fetus and simple to perform. The characteristics of this method, allow serial studies of the amniotic fluid to be carried out.

  12. Experimental study on cleft palate repair of rat using rat fetal membrane%鼠胎膜修复大鼠腭裂的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张驰; 娜荷雅; 张幸竹; 王丝墨; 唐喜乐; 马振宇; 肖晶; 李武伟

    2013-01-01

    目的 以鼠胎膜对腭裂进行整复手术,研究修复腭裂的效果.方法 建立腭裂动物模型实验.30只SD大鼠按照腭部裂隙大小分为3组,每组10只.a组:长7 mm×宽0.9 mm;b组:长7 mm×宽1.1 mm;c组:长7mm×宽1.3 mm.术后12周处死所有大鼠,观察裂隙变化.手术关闭裂隙实验.10只SD大鼠分为3组.A组大鼠5只,手术造腭裂并以新鲜双层胎膜关闭裂隙;B组大鼠3只,手术造腭裂,令裂隙自行生长;C组2只作为空白对照组.术后4周处死动物,大体观察;制作切片,行组织学观察.结果 腭裂动物模型成功建立,确立b组7mm×1.1 mm为临界缺损.A组大鼠腭裂得到成功修复,口鼻腔黏膜分别愈合,完全覆盖腭裂,镜下见腭裂处口腔黏膜层次清楚,存在黏膜下层,顶部有完整的鼻腔黏膜.结论 鼠胎膜对SD大鼠腭裂具有良好的修复效果.%Objective To explore the feasibility of repairing the defect in cleft palate using fetal membrane in a rat model. Methods To establish the animal model of cleft palate. Thirty SD rats were randomly divided into three groups with 10 rats in each group according to the different size of man - made cleft, group a: 7 mm × 0. 9 mm, group b: 7 mm × 1. 1 mm, group c: 7 mm × 1.3 mm. Animals were sacrificed at the end of 12 weeks and the changes of clefts were compared. Repairing experiment for cleft palate. Ten SD rats were randomly divided into three groups, group A was underwent reduction with 5 rats, group B was only performed model operation with 3 rats, group C was blank with 2 rats. All rats were sacrificed at the end of 4 weeks and the gross and histological observation was respectively carried out. Results The animal model of cleft palate was successfully established. Group b was determined to be the animal model group for critical - sized defect. Cleft palate was repaired successfully in group A with fetal membrane of rat, the structure of palate mucosa was similar to that of the group C in gross

  13. Believable Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nasr, Magy Seif; Bishko, Leslie; Zammitto, Veronica; Nixon, Michael; Vasiliakos, Athanasios V.; Wei, Huaxin

    The interactive entertainment industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In 1996, the U.S. entertainment software industry reported 2.6 billion in sales revenue, this figure has more than tripled in 2007 yielding 9.5 billion in revenues [1]. In addition, gamers, the target market for interactive entertainment products, are now reaching beyond the traditional 8-34 year old male to include women, Hispanics, and African Americans [2]. This trend has been observed in several markets, including Japan, China, Korea, and India, who has just published their first international AAA title (defined as high quality games with high budget), a 3D third person action game: Ghajini - The Game [3]. The topic of believable characters is becoming a central issue when designing and developing games for today's game industry. While narrative and character were considered secondary to game mechanics, games are currently evolving to integrate characters, narrative, and drama as part of their design. One can see this pattern through the emergence of games like Assassin's Creed (published by Ubisoft 2008), Hotel Dusk (published by Nintendo 2007), and Prince of Persia series (published by Ubisoft), which emphasized character and narrative as part of their design.

  14. Vigilancia Fetal

    OpenAIRE

    SAONA UGARTE, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    La percepción de la actividad fetal por la madre es la técnica más antigua y menos costosa de controlar el bienestar fetal. Tradicionalmente se ha considerado la disminución o ausencia de movimientos fetales percibidos por la madre, como una señal de alarma, en especial cuando existe insuficiencia útero placentaria. Varios investigadores han descrito el valor del registro diario de movimientos fetales como un método para identificar el feto en peligrote morir. El poder discernir si el feto se...

  15. Basement membrane zone remodeling during appendageal development in human fetal skin. The absence of type VII collagen is associated with gelatinase-A (MMP2) activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelina, T V; Bannikov, G A; Eisen, A Z

    2000-02-01

    Epithelial cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation are controlled by interactions at the basement membrane zone (BMZ). Type VII collagen is the major collagenous component of anchoring fibrils that are essential for the attachment of the epidermis to the dermis. Gelatinase A (MMP-2) is believed to be necessary for the degradation of type VII collagen. In this study we have examined the in vivo distribution of type VII collagen and gelatinase A (Gel A) in the developing human epidermis and its appendages. At 13-15 wk of gestation a marked decrease in type VII collagen immunoreactivity was seen in the BMZ surrounding invading appendageal buds; however, type VII collagen mRNA was strongly expressed in the budding epidermal keratinocytes adjacent to the BMZ. At these stages, Gel A-positive mesenchymal-like cells were found scattered throughout the stroma with numerous Gel A-containing cells in direct contact with the developing appendageal buds. In situ zymography was used to show Gel A-activity in vivo. Gel A-mediated lysis was present at the interface between the appendageal buds and the underlying BMZ. By 20-25 wk of gestational age, immunostaining for type VII collagen protein was absent from the BMZ surrounding the distal portion of invading appendageal epithelial cords of both hair follicles and sweat glands. In contrast, type VII collagen mRNA was present in the basal keratinocytes adjacent to the BMZ surrounding the distal portion of these invading appendageal epithelial cords. At these stages Gel A-positive cells were present in the stroma directly adjacent to the distal portion of developing appendageal cords that lacked type VII collagen. In situ zymography showed zones of Gel A-mediated stromal lysis at the distal portion of developing appendageal cords. Interestingly, no differences were seen in the distribution of type IV collagen in the BMZ of both budding and resting fetal epidermis. These observations suggest that the absence of type VII collagen

  16. Membraner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Finn

    2009-01-01

    Notatet giver en kort introduktion til den statiske virkemåde af membraner og membrankonstruktioner......Notatet giver en kort introduktion til den statiske virkemåde af membraner og membrankonstruktioner...

  17. Contribution of aquaporin 9 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 to differential sensitivity to arsenite between primary cultured chorion and amnion cells prepared from human fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Yuta; Yuan, Bo; Kaise, Toshikazu; Takeichi, Makoto; Tanaka, Sachiko; Hirano, Toshihiko; Kroetz, Deanna L; Toyoda, Hiroo

    2011-12-01

    Arsenic trioxide (arsenite, As(III)) has shown a remarkable clinical efficacy, whereas its side effects are still a serious concern. Therefore, it is critical to understand the effects of As(III) on human-derived normal cells for revealing the mechanisms underlying these side effects. We examined the effects of As(III) on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells prepared from human fetal membranes. A significant dose-dependent As(III)-mediated cytotoxicity was observed in the C-cells accompanied with an increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Higher concentrations of As(III) were required for the A-cells to show cytotoxicity and LDH release, suggesting that the C-cells were more sensitive to As(III) than the A-cells. The expression levels of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) were approximately 2 times higher in the C-cells than those in the A-cells. Both intracellular arsenic accumulation and its cytotoxicity in the C-cells were significantly abrogated by sorbitol, a competitive AQP9 inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. The protein expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 were downregulated by As(III) in the C-cells, but not in the A-cells. No significant differences in the expression levels of MRP1 were observed between C- and A-cells. The protein expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was hardly detected in both cells, although a detectable amount of its mRNA was observed. Cyclosporine A, a broad-spectrum inhibitor for ABC transporters, and MK571, a MRP inhibitor, but not PGP-4008, a P-gp specific inhibitor, potently sensitized both cells to As(III)-mediated cytotoxicity. These results suggest that AQP9 and MRP2 are involved in controlling arsenic accumulation in these normal cells, which then contribute to differential sensitivity to As(III) cytotoxicity between these cells.

  18. Fetal Macrosomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might need special care in the hospital's neonatal intensive care unit. Keep in mind that your baby might ... References Copel JA, et al. Fetal macrosomia. In: Obstetric Imaging. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www. ...

  19. Fetal Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... needle placement during certain prenatal tests, such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Determine fetal position before ... home. Accessed Aug. 11, 2015. Ghidini A. Diagnostic amniocentesis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 11, ...

  20. Fetal pain

    OpenAIRE

    Adama van Scheltema, Phebe

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the fetus is capable of exhibiting a stress response to intrauterine needling, resulting in alterations in fetal stress hormone levels. Intrauterine transfusions are performed by inserting a needle either in the umbilical cord root at the placental surface (PCI), or in the intrahepatic portion of the umbilical vein (IHV). Aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that fetal hormonal changes during intrauterine transfusion are more pronounced when the needl...

  1. Influência da retenção dos anexos fetais no hemograma de fêmeas bovinas da raça Holandesa The influence of retained fetal membranes on the hemogram of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.E. Saut

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se o hemograma de 177 amostras de sangue de fêmeas bovinas da raça Holandesa nos primeiros 90 dias pós-parto. As amostras foram colhidas de vacas não reagentes ao antígeno (GP 51 do vírus da leucose dos bovinos, distribuídas em dois grupos (I: puerpério fisiológico; II: puerpério com retenção dos anexos fetais e subdivididas em quatro grupos de acordo com o momento de colheita. Nos primeiros 10 dias após o parto, o eritrograma não sofreu influência da retenção dos anexos fetais. Com a evolução do puerpério, observou-se, nas vacas com retenção dos anexos fetais, anemia de grau leve entre o 10º e 30º dia pós-parto. O leucograma dos animais com retenção dos anexos fetais foi predominantemente linfocitário, caracterizado por leucopenia, neutropenia com desvio à esquerda degenerativo e eosinopenia. A partir do 10º dia após o parto, o leucograma não foi influenciado pela retenção dos anexos fetais.Hematological profiles of 177 blood samples from Holstein cows were determined during the first 90 days after parturition. Blood samples were collected from cows that were non-reactive to the bovine leukosis virus (GP 51 antigen. The animals were divided into two groups (group I: physiological puerperium and group II: puerperim with retained fetal membranes, and subdivided into four groups, based on the time that the samples were collected. During the first 10 days after parturition, retained fetal membranes did not influence the erythrogram. However, with the evolution of the puerperium period, a mild anemia was observed from the 10th to the 30th day postpartum in cows with retained fetal membranes. The leukocyte profile was predominantly lymphocytic, characterized by leucopenia induced by neutropenia with a left degenerative shift and eosinopenia. From the 10th day postpartum, the retained fetal membranes did not influence the leukogram.

  2. [Fetal magnetocardiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, P

    1997-09-01

    Fetal magnetocardiography is a new, alternative method for prenatal surveillance. The fetal magnetocardiogram (FMCG) registers the magnetic field produced by conduction currents in the fetal heart. Compared to the fetal electrocardiogram, the propagation of magnetic fields is relatively undisturbed by surrounding tissue. The FMCG thus has the advantage of a higher signal-to-noise ratio and can be acquired earlier pregnancy. Also, the high temporal resolution of the signal permits a significantly more precise determination of fetal heart rate parameters than fetal ultrasound. FMCG registration using a biomagnetometer is noninvasive and can be performed as of the second trimeter. It can be used to examine signal morphology, cardiac time intervals, heart rate variability as well as cardiac magnetic fields. To date, arrhythmic activity has been observed in the form of supraventricular and ventricular ectopies as well as atrial flutter, atrio-ventricular block, atrial tachycardia and Torsades de Pointes tachycardia. We also report here on the presence of short episodes of bradycardia in the second trimester of normal pregnancy. Measurement of the magnetic field strength at various locations above the abdomen has allowed the reconstruction of the fetal cardiac magnetic field and the determination of its relation to the position of the fetus. Signal averaging has permitted the precise examination of signal amplitude and cardiac time intervals and has shown that they increase in the course of pregnancy. Heart rate variability could be quantified in the time and frequency domain as well as using parameters of nonlinear dynamics. The results demonstrated an increase of variability and complexity over gestational age. Furthermore spectral analysis of fetal heart arte data could be associated with sympathetic and parasympathetic activity as well as, with respiration. Although the studies presenting these results have involved only limited numbers of observations, they

  3. Contribution of aquaporin 9 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 to differential sensitivity to arsenite between primary cultured chorion and amnion cells prepared from human fetal membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, Yuta [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Yuan, Bo, E-mail: yuanbo@toyaku.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 1550 4th St, RH584E Box 2911 San Francisco, CA 94158-2911 (United States); Kaise, Toshikazu [Laboratory of Environmental Chemodynamics, School of Life Sciences, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Takeichi, Makoto [Yoneyama Maternity Hospital, 2-12 Shin-machi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0065 (Japan); Tanaka, Sachiko; Hirano, Toshihiko [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Kroetz, Deanna L. [Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 1550 4th St, RH584E Box 2911 San Francisco, CA 94158-2911 (United States); Toyoda, Hiroo [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Arsenic trioxide (arsenite, As{sup III}) has shown a remarkable clinical efficacy, whereas its side effects are still a serious concern. Therefore, it is critical to understand the effects of As{sup III} on human-derived normal cells for revealing the mechanisms underlying these side effects. We examined the effects of As{sup III} on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells prepared from human fetal membranes. A significant dose-dependent As{sup III}-mediated cytotoxicity was observed in the C-cells accompanied with an increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Higher concentrations of As{sup III} were required for the A-cells to show cytotoxicity and LDH release, suggesting that the C-cells were more sensitive to As{sup III} than the A-cells. The expression levels of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) were approximately 2 times higher in the C-cells than those in the A-cells. Both intracellular arsenic accumulation and its cytotoxicity in the C-cells were significantly abrogated by sorbitol, a competitive AQP9 inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. The protein expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 were downregulated by As{sup III} in the C-cells, but not in the A-cells. No significant differences in the expression levels of MRP1 were observed between C- and A-cells. The protein expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was hardly detected in both cells, although a detectable amount of its mRNA was observed. Cyclosporine A, a broad-spectrum inhibitor for ABC transporters, and MK571, a MRP inhibitor, but not PGP-4008, a P-gp specific inhibitor, potently sensitized both cells to As{sup III}-mediated cytotoxicity. These results suggest that AQP9 and MRP2 are involved in controlling arsenic accumulation in these normal cells, which then contribute to differential sensitivity to As{sup III} cytotoxicity between these cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examination of effect of As{sup III} on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion

  4. Fetal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adama van Scheltema, Phebe

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the fetus is capable of exhibiting a stress response to intrauterine needling, resulting in alterations in fetal stress hormone levels. Intrauterine transfusions are performed by inserting a needle either in the umbilical cord root at the placental surface (PCI), o

  5. Localization of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF kappa B) and inhibitory factor-kappa B (I kappa B) in human fetal membranes and decidua at term and preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X; Sun, M; Gibb, W

    2002-04-01

    The human fetal membranes and decidua are thought to be involved in the onset of human parturition. These tissues produce and respond to various cytokines, which may be involved in preterm labour and possibly term labour. They also show increasing production of prostaglandins (PGs) with advancing gestation and labour. The expression of PGHS-2, a rate limiting enzyme in PG synthesis, is increased in the fetal membranes at labour. The gene for PGHS-2 and many of the cytokine genes (e.g. TNFalpha, IL-1, IL-6) are stimulated by the transcription factor NF kappa B. This factor is composed of two subunits, p50 and p65, which are localized in the cytoplasm bound to I kappa B. When activated I kappa B is metabolized, and p50, p65 translocate to the nucleus to activate various genes. The purpose of the present study was to examine the tissue and cellular distribution of p65 and I kappa B in the human fetal membranes and decidua throughout gestation. Term tissues were obtained prior to labour by elective caesarean section (n=10) or following vaginal delivery (n=10) and 10 preterm tissues were obtained following labour prior to 37 weeks gestation. None of the tissues had any evidence of infection. The immunoreactive NF kappa B and I kappa B were localized in the tissues. p65 protein was found in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells in the amnion, chorion laeve and decidua. In the amnion and chorion laeve, no changes occurred in subcellular localization with advancing gestation or term labour. However, in the decidua, there was a marked increase in the nuclear localization of i.r. p 65 in tissues obtained at term when compared with tissues delivered preterm. In the case of I kappa B, it was localized to the cytoplasm of cells in all tissues and there was an increase i.r. I kappa B in decidua at term compared to preterm but no change occurred in the amnion or chorion. The increase in nuclear localization of p65 in the decidua that occurs with advancing gestation, highlights the

  6. Characters with personality!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Brandenburgh, A.; Muller, T.J.; Heuvelink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Serious games offer an opportunity for learning communication skills by practicing conversations with one or more virtual characters, provided that the character(s) behave in accordance with their assigned properties and strate-gies. This paper presents an approach for developing virtual characters

  7. PDZ-domain containing-2 (PDZD2) drives the maturity of human fetal pancreatic progenitor-derived islet-like cell clusters with functional responsiveness against membrane depolarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kwan Keung; Suen, Po Man; Lau, Tse Kin; Ko, Wing Hung; Yao, Kwok Ming; Leung, Po Sing

    2009-09-01

    We recently reported the isolation and characterization of a population of pancreatic progenitor cells (PPCs) from early trimester human fetal pancreata. The PPCs, being the forerunners of adult pancreatic cell lineages, were amenable to growth and differentiation into insulin-secreting islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) upon stimulation by adequate morphogens. Of note, a novel morphogenic factor, PDZ-domain containing-2 (PDZD2) and its secreted form (sPDZD2) were ubiquitously expressed in the PPCs. Our goals for this study were to evaluate the potential role of sPDZD2 in stimulating PPC differentiation and to establish the optimal concentration for such stimulation. We found that 10(-9)M sPDZD2 promoted PPC differentiation, as evidenced by the upregulation of the pancreatic endocrine markers (PDX-1, NGN3, NEURO-D, ISL-1, NKX 2.2, NKX 6.1) and INSULIN mRNA. Inhibited endogenous production of sPDZD2 suppressed expression of these factors. Secreted PDZD2 treatment significantly elevated the C-peptide content of the ICCs and increased the basal rate of insulin secretion. However, they remained unresponsive to glucose stimulation, reflected by a minimal increase in GLUT-2 and GLUCOKINASE mRNA expression. Interestingly, sPDZD2 treatment induced increased expression of the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (Ca(v)1.2) in the ICCs, triggering calcium ion influx under KCl stimulation and conferring an ability to secrete insulin in response to KCl. Pancreatic progenitor cells from 10- and 13-week fetal pancreata showed peak expression of endogenous sPDZD2, implying that sPDZD2 has a specific role in islet development during the first trimester. In conclusion, our data suggest that sPDZD2 promotes functional maturation of human fetal PPC-derived ICCs, thus enhancing its transplanting potentials.

  8. Caracterização das membranas fetais em búfalas no terço inicial da gestação Characterization of the fetal membranes in buffalo cows in the first three months of gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. Morini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visou à caracterização das membranas fetais em búfalas (Bubalus bubalis, Linnaeus 1758 no terço inicial da gestação. As membranas fetais foram analisadas macroscópica e microscopicamente (luz e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. O córion possui uma camada simples de células circulares, com núcleos de forma esférica, denominadas trofobláticas; há outro tipo celular, as células trofoblásticas gigantes, com dois ou mais núcleos. Ambas possuem uma grande quantidade de vesículas no citoplasma e retículo endoplasmático à microscopia de transmissão. O alantóide possui vasos preenchidos com eritrócitos, e contêm células alongadas, que formam um epitélio estratificado simples. O âmnion é uma membrana transparente, ou esbranquiçada; constituído por epitélio estratificado simples. A diferença principal entre o alantóide e o âmnion é que o último é avascular. O saco vitelínico é uma membrana opaca que desaparece durante a gestação; é a única membrana que não está em contato com as outras e apresenta três tipos diferentes de células que dão forma a três camadas distintas (endoderma, mesotélio, mesênquima.The aim of the study was to characterize the fetal membranes in buffalo cows (Bubalus bubalis, Linnaeus 1758 in the first 3 months of the gestation. The fetal membranes were analyzed gross and microscopically (light and ultrastructural analysis. The corion is a simple layer of circle cells, with spherical nucleus, named trofoblastics; there is another cellular type, named trophoblastic giant cells, with two or more nucleus. Both of them have many cytoplasmic and reticule endoplasmic vesicles on transmission electron microscopy. The allantoic has many vessels filled with eritrocytes, elongated cells which form a stratified simple epithelium. The amnion is transparent or sometimes whitish, consisting of a stratified simple epithelium. The main difference between the allantoic and amnion is

  9. Altered fetal growth, placental abnormalities, and stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek; Hansen, Nellie I; Pinar, Halit; Willinger, Marian; Reddy, Uma M; Parker, Corette B; Silver, Robert M; Dudley, Donald J; Stoll, Barbara J; Saade, George R; Koch, Matthew A; Hogue, Carol; Varner, Michael W; Conway, Deborah L; Coustan, Donald; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, stillbirth is one of the leading causes of death. Altered fetal growth and placental abnormalities are the strongest and most prevalent known risk factors for stillbirth. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of association between placental abnormalities, fetal growth, and stillbirth. Population-based case-control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in 5 geographic areas in the U.S. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small (90th percentile) for gestational age at death (stillbirth) or delivery (live birth) using a published algorithm. Placental examination by perinatal pathologists was performed using a standardized protocol. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design. Among 319 singleton stillbirths and 1119 singleton live births at ≥24 weeks at death or delivery respectively, 25 placental findings were investigated. Fifteen findings were significantly associated with stillbirth. Ten of the 15 were also associated with fetal growth abnormalities (single umbilical artery; velamentous insertion; terminal villous immaturity; retroplacental hematoma; parenchymal infarction; intraparenchymal thrombus; avascular villi; placental edema; placental weight; ratio birth weight/placental weight) while 5 of the 15 associated with stillbirth were not associated with fetal growth abnormalities (acute chorioamnionitis of placental membranes; acute chorioamionitis of chorionic plate; chorionic plate vascular degenerative changes; perivillous, intervillous fibrin, fibrinoid deposition; fetal vascular thrombi in the chorionic plate). Five patterns were observed: placental findings associated with (1) stillbirth but not fetal growth abnormalities; (2) fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths only; (3) fetal growth abnormalities in live births only; (4) fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths and live births in a similar manner; (5) a different pattern of fetal growth abnormalities in

  10. Fetal syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Anne; Chitayat, David; Blaser, Susan; Keating, Sarah; Shannon, Patrick

    2014-08-06

    We explored the prevalence of syringomyelia in a series of 113 cases of fetal dysraphism and hindbrain crowding, of gestational age ranging from 17.5 to 34 weeks with the vast majority less than 26 weeks gestational age. We found syringomyelia in 13 cases of Chiari II malformations, 5 cases of Omphalocele/Exostrophy/Imperforate anus/Spinal abnormality (OEIS), 2 cases of Meckel Gruber syndrome and in a single pair of pyopagus conjoined twins. Secondary injury was not uncommon, with vernicomyelia in Chiari malformations, infarct like histology, or old hemorrhage in 8 cases of syringomyelia. Vernicomyelia did not occur in the absence of syrinx formation. The syringes extended from the sites of dysraphism, in ascending or descending patterns. The syringes were usually in a major proportion anatomically distinct from a dilated or denuded central canal and tended to be dorsal and paramedian or median. We suggest that fetal syringomyelia in Chiari II malformation and other dysraphic states is often established prior to midgestation, has contributions from the primary malformation as well as from secondary in utero injury and is anatomically and pathophysiologically distinct from post natal syringomyelia secondary to hindbrain crowding.

  11. Character Recognition (Devanagari Script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Karia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Character Recognition is has found major interest in field of research and practical application to analyze and study characters in different languages using image as their input. In this paper the user writes the Devanagari character using mouse as a plotter and then the corresponding character is saved in the form of image. This image is processed using Optical Character Recognition in which location, segmentation, pre-processing of image is done. Later Neural Networks is used to identify all the characters by the further process of OCR i.e. by using feature extraction and post-processing of image. This entire process is done using MATLAB.

  12. 单胎头位未足月胎膜早破120例的临床分析%Clinical analysis of 120 cases of preterm premature rupture of membranes in single fetal head position

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟丽; 李发红; 宋振霞; 范冬梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨未足月胎膜早破(PPROM)的临床处理及其对母婴结局的影响。方法:收治单胎头位PPROM孕妇120例,分析不同孕周产妇的宫内感染率、分娩方式和新生儿结局。结果:Ⅰ组宫内感染率84.75%,明显高于Ⅱ组的54.10%(P<0.01);Ⅰ组新生儿窒息、感染、死亡的比例均明显高于Ⅱ组(P<0.01)。结论:孕周28~33+6周胎膜早破孕妇要积极保胎治疗,尽量延长孕周,促进胎儿肺成熟,预防性应用抗生素,降低母儿感染率,减少极不成熟早产儿的出生。孕周>34周且未满37周的胎膜早破孕妇应尽早终止妊娠,降低母体及新生儿的感染发生率。%Objective:To explore the clinical treatment and its effect on maternal and infant outcomes of preterm premature rupture of membranes(PPROM).Methods:120 cases of PPROM pregnant women in single fetal head position were selected.The intrauterine infection rates,delivery modes and neonatal outcomes of different gestational age women were analyzed.Results:The intrauterine infection rate(84.75% ) in Ⅰ group was significant higher than 54.10% of Ⅱ group(P<0.01).The proportions of neonatal asphyxia,infection,death were all significant higher than that of Ⅱ group(P<0.01).Conclusion:The pregnant women with premature rupture of membranes of gestational age at 28~33 + 6 weeks should be given actively medicine theraphy.It can try to extend the gestational age,promote the fetal lung maturity,give prophylactic antibiotics,reduce the infection rate of mother and infant,and reduce the birth of very immature infants.The pregnant women with premature rupture of membranes of gestational age more than 34 weeks and less than 37 weeks should be given terminate pregnancy as early as possible,it reduces the incidence rate of maternal and neonatal infection.

  13. Fetal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokyta, Richard

    2008-12-01

    The fetus reacts to nociceptive stimulations through different motor, autonomic, vegetative, hormonal, and metabolic changes relatively early in the gestation period. With respect to the fact that the modulatory system does not yet exist, the first reactions are purely reflexive and without connection to the type of stimulus. While the fetal nervous system is able to react through protective reflexes to potentially harmful stimuli, there is no accurate evidence concerning pain sensations in this early period. Cortical processes occur only after thalamocortical connections and pathways have been completed at the 26th gestational week. Harmful (painful) stimuli, especially in fetuses have an adverse effect on the development of humans regardless of the processes in brain. Moreover, pain activates a number of subcortical mechanisms and a wide spectrum of stress responses influence the maturation of thalamocortical pathways and other cortical activation which are very important in pain processing.

  14. Actor/Character Dualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Our perception of agency may be inherently fallible, and this may explain not only our general awareness of actors when engaged in fictional characters but also the specific case of paradoxical characters...

  15. On Chinese Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文娟

    2016-01-01

    Just as the long history of our country, Chinese characters also have their long histories through thousands of years. There have been many great scientific works or documents studying on the origin of Chinese characters. From them, it can easily be found that each Chinese character has its own history. If we study on the history of a specific Chinese character, its motivation will be found.

  16. 足月胎膜早破先露衔接对剖宫产指征的影响%Study of the cesarean section indications of fetal presentation engagement in primipara with full-term premature rupture of membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕奔琦; 范建辉; 侯红瑛

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the cesarean section indications of fetal presentation unengagement in primipara with full-term premature rupture of membrane. Methods Five hundreds and ten primipara with premature rupture of membrane at term were divided into 2 groups: the fetal head was not engaged in the birthing process ( study group 218 cases) and engaged in the birthing process( control group 292 cases). The delivery course and the incidence of complication of the mother and infant were compared between 2 groups. The main outcome measure was the rate of caesarean section, indications of cesarean section, the cervical maturity(by Bishop scoring), the rate of fetal distress and newborn asphyxia, et al. Results The rate of cesarean section was higher in study group (64.7%) than that in control group( 17.5% ) ( P <0.01 ), so were the rate of fetal distress, stagnant labor and of failure of induction( P <0.05 ). In the cases of study group, the cervical condition of easy delivery ones was better than that of caesarean section ones. Average neonatal weight of easy delivery ones is lighter than caesarean section ones. Conclusions When the fetal head is not engaged in the birthing process in primipara with premature rupture of membrane at term, the labor induction is difficult. The labor complications are common, and the rate of caesarean section is high because of the loss of amniotic fluid and the poor cervical condition. Primipara at term whose presentation is not engaged in the birthing process should try to avoid premature rupture of membrane. Cervical ripening and induction should be done as soon as possible after membrane rupture.%目的 探讨胎膜早破患者的胎先露衔接情况对剖宫产指征的影响.方法 选择我院2008年4月至2009年4月足月妊娠(孕37~41+6周)分娩的510例胎膜早破初产妇.根据先露衔接与否分为未衔接组(218例)和衔接组(292例).对2组分娩方式、剖宫产指征、宫颈Bishop

  17. Influence of basement membrane proteins and endothelial cell-derived factors on the morphology of human fetal-derived astrocytes in 2D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda F Levy

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are the most prevalent type of glial cell in the brain, participating in a variety of diverse functions from regulating cerebral blood flow to controlling synapse formation. Astrocytes and astrocyte-conditioned media are widely used in models of the blood-brain barrier (BBB, however, very little is known about astrocyte culture in 2D. To test the hypothesis that surface coating and soluble factors influence astrocyte morphology in 2D, we quantitatively analyzed the morphology of human fetal derived astrocytes on glass, matrigel, fibronectin, collagen IV, and collagen I, and after the addition soluble factors including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, laminin, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF. Matrigel surface coatings, as well as addition of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF to the media, were found to have the strongest effects on 2D astrocyte morphology, and may be important in improving existing BBB models. In addition, the novel set of quantitative parameters proposed in this paper provide a test for determining the influence of compounds on astrocyte morphology, both to screen for new endothelial cell-secreted factors that influence astrocytes, and to determine in a high-throughput way which factors are important for translation to more complex, 3D BBB models.

  18. 胎膜早破残余羊水量过少对分娩结局的影响%The fetal membrane had broken remains sheep water yield long ago

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛卫勤

    2009-01-01

    Objective Purpose of premature rupture of membranes sheep residual water is too small to affect the outcome of childbirth. Methods 256 eases of premature rupture of membranes, full - term pregnancy,the first place, no other obstetric complications and complications, labor before the B - line monitoring of both the residual amount of amniotic fluid. One of anmiofic fluid index (AFI) ≤8.0 cm to 86 eases ( amniotic fluid was too small groups), AFI > 8. 0 cm to 170 cases ( amount of amniotic fluid) . Observation of the two groups of patients with fetal distress, neonatal asphyxia, intrauterine infection, surgery production rate. Results The results of amniotic fluid was too small group of cesarean section rate (66. 3 percent), vaginal delivery rate (15. 1 percent), the incidence of fetal distress (26. 7% ), neonatal asphyxia rate (14%) intrauterine infection incidence rate (24. 4% ), Differences between the two groups was significant ( P 8.0cm者170例(羊水适量组).观察分析两组患者的胎儿窘迫、新生儿窒息、宫内感染、手术产率.结果 剖宫产率、阴道助产率、胎儿窘迫发生率、新生儿窒息率、宫内感染发病率,两组间差异具有显著性(P<0.05).结论 胎膜早破残余羊水量与围生儿预后及分娩方式密切相关,羊水残余量过少时,宫内感染率、围生儿发病率及手术产率明显增高.因此,胎膜早破者要及早监测残余羊水量,产程中严密监护,及时发现产程异常、胎儿心率异常及羊水性状气味异常,及时选取正确的分娩方式,以提高产科质量.

  19. Fetal pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhatalo, S; van Nieuwenhuizen, O

    2000-05-01

    During the last few years a vivid debate, both scientifically and emotionally, has risen in the medical literature as to whether a fetus is able to feel pain during abortion or intrauterine surgery. This debate has mainly been inspired by the demonstration of various hormonal or motor reactions to noxious stimuli at very early stages of fetal development. The aims of this paper are to review the literature on development of the pain system in the fetus, and to speculate about the relationship between "sensing" as opposed to "feeling" pain and the number of reactions associated with painful stimuli. While a cortical processing of pain theoretically becomes possible after development of the thalamo-cortical connections in the 26th week of gestation, noxious stimuli may trigger complex reflex reactions much earlier. However, more important than possible painfulness is the fact that the noxious stimuli, by triggering stress responses, most likely affect the development of an individual at very early stages. Hence, it is not reasonable to speculate on the possible emotional experiences of pain in fetuses or premature babies. A clinically relevant aim is rather to avoid and/or treat any possibly noxious stimuli, and thereby prevent their potential adverse effects on the subsequent development.

  20. Fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) for fetal monitoring during labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, James P

    2015-12-21

    fewer fetal scalp samples taken during labour (average RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.91; four trials, 9671 babies; high quality evidence) although the findings were heterogeneous and there were no data from the largest trial (from the USA). There were marginally fewer operative vaginal births (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99; six trials, 26,446 women); but no obvious difference in the number of babies with low Apgar scores at five minutes or babies requiring neonatal intubation, or babies requiring admission to the special care unit (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.04, six trials, 26,410 babies; high quality evidence). There was little evidence that monitoring by PR interval analysis conveyed any benefit of any sort. The modest benefits of fewer fetal scalp samplings during labour (in settings in which this procedure is performed) and fewer instrumental vaginal births have to be considered against the disadvantages of needing to use an internal scalp electrode, after membrane rupture, for ECG waveform recordings. We found little strong evidence that ST waveform analysis had an effect on the primary outcome measures in this systematic review.There was a lack of evidence showing that PR interval analysis improved any outcomes; and a larger future trial may possibly demonstrate beneficial effects.There is little information about the value of fetal ECG waveform monitoring in preterm fetuses in labour. Information about long-term development of the babies included in the trials would be valuable.

  1. Removal of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy prion from large volumes of cell culture media supplemented with fetal bovine serum by using hollow fiber anion-exchange membrane chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming Li; Bailey, Andy; Avory, Tiffany; Tanimoto, Junji; Burnouf, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in people who had consumed contaminated meat products from cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy emphasize the need for measures aimed at preventing the transmission of the pathogenic prion protein (PrPSc) from materials derived from cattle. Highly stringent scrutiny is required for fetal bovine serum (FBS), a growth-medium supplement used in the production of parenteral vaccines and therapeutic recombinant proteins and in the ex vivo expansion of stem cells for transplantation. One such approach is the implementation of manufacturing steps dedicated to removing PrPSc from materials containing FBS. We evaluated the use of the QyuSpeed D (QSD) adsorbent hollow-fiber anion-exchange chromatographic column (Asahi Kasei Medical, Tokyo, Japan) for the removal of PrPSc from cell culture media supplemented with FBS. We first established that QSD filtration had no adverse effect on the chemical composition of various types of culture media supplemented with 10% FBS or the growth and viability characteristics of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells, baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells, African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-k1) cells propagated in the various culture-medium filtrates. We used a 0.6-mL QSD column for removing PrPSc from up to 1000 mL of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 10% FBS previously spiked with the 263K strain of hamster-adapted scrapie. The Western blot analysis, validated alongside an infectivity assay, revealed that the level of PrPSc in the initial 200mL flow-through was reduced by 2.5 to > 3 log10, compared with that of the starting material. These results indicate that QSD filtration removes PrPSc from cell culture media containing 10% FBS, and demonstrate the ease with which QSD filtration can be implemented in at industrial-scale to improve the safety of vaccines, therapeutic recombinant proteins, and ex vivo expanded stem cells produced using growth

  2. Removal of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy prion from large volumes of cell culture media supplemented with fetal bovine serum by using hollow fiber anion-exchange membrane chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li Chou

    Full Text Available Cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in people who had consumed contaminated meat products from cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy emphasize the need for measures aimed at preventing the transmission of the pathogenic prion protein (PrPSc from materials derived from cattle. Highly stringent scrutiny is required for fetal bovine serum (FBS, a growth-medium supplement used in the production of parenteral vaccines and therapeutic recombinant proteins and in the ex vivo expansion of stem cells for transplantation. One such approach is the implementation of manufacturing steps dedicated to removing PrPSc from materials containing FBS. We evaluated the use of the QyuSpeed D (QSD adsorbent hollow-fiber anion-exchange chromatographic column (Asahi Kasei Medical, Tokyo, Japan for the removal of PrPSc from cell culture media supplemented with FBS. We first established that QSD filtration had no adverse effect on the chemical composition of various types of culture media supplemented with 10% FBS or the growth and viability characteristics of human embryonic kidney (HEK293 cells, baby hamster kidney (BHK-21 cells, African green monkey kidney (Vero cells, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-k1 cells propagated in the various culture-medium filtrates. We used a 0.6-mL QSD column for removing PrPSc from up to 1000 mL of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 10% FBS previously spiked with the 263K strain of hamster-adapted scrapie. The Western blot analysis, validated alongside an infectivity assay, revealed that the level of PrPSc in the initial 200mL flow-through was reduced by 2.5 to > 3 log10, compared with that of the starting material. These results indicate that QSD filtration removes PrPSc from cell culture media containing 10% FBS, and demonstrate the ease with which QSD filtration can be implemented in at industrial-scale to improve the safety of vaccines, therapeutic recombinant proteins, and ex vivo expanded stem cells produced

  3. Challenge of Fetal Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports from the National Medical Care Utilization and Expenditure Survey Clearinghouse on Health Indexes Statistical Notes for ... Fetal mortality is a major, but often overlooked, public health problem. Fetal mortality refers to spontaneous intrauterine ...

  4. Distribution of melatonin receptor in human fetal brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-quan; SHAO Fu-yuan; ZHAO Ying; LIU Zhi-min

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the distribution of 2 kinds of melatonin receptor subtypes (mtl and MT2) in human fetal brain. Methods: The fetal brain tissues were sliced and the distribution ofmelatonin receptors in human fetal brain were detected using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results: Melatonin receptor mtl existed in the cerebellun and hypothalamus, melatonin receptor MT2 exists in hypothalamus, occipital and medulla. Conclusion: Two kinds of melatonin receptors, mtl and MT2 exist in the membrane and cytosol of brain cells, indicating that human fetal brain is a target organ of melatonin.

  5. Transcriptomics of maternal and fetal membranes can discriminate between gestational-age matched preterm neonates with and without cognitive impairment diagnosed at 18-24 months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athina Pappas

    Full Text Available Neurocognitive impairment among children born preterm may arise from complex interactions between genes and the intra-uterine environment.(1 To characterize the transcriptomic profiles of chorioamniotic membranes in preterm neonates with and without neurocognitive impairment via microarrays and (2 to determine if neonates with neurocognitive impairment can be identified at birth.A retrospective case-control study was conducted to examine the chorioamniotic transcriptome of gestational-age matched very preterm neonates with and without neurocognitive impairment at 18-24 months' corrected-age defined by a Bayley-III Cognitive Composite Score 1.5; 2 Gene ontology analysis indicated enrichment of 19 biological processes and 3 molecular functions; 3PADOG identified 4 significantly perturbed KEGG pathways: oxidative phosphorylation, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease (q-value <0.1; 4 48 of 90 selected differentially expressed genes were confirmed by qRT-PCR, including genes implicated in energy metabolism, neuronal signaling, vascular permeability and response to injury (e.g., up-regulation of SEPP1, APOE, DAB2, CD163, CXCL12, VWF; down-regulation of HAND1, OSR1(p<0.05; and 5 a multi-gene model predicted 18-24 month neurocognitive impairment (using the ratios of OSR1/VWF and HAND1/VWF at birth in a larger, independent set (sensitivity = 74%, at specificity = 83%.Gene expression patterns in the chorioamniotic membranes link neurocognitive impairment in preterm infants to neurodegenerative disease pathways and might be used to predict neurocognitive impairment. Further prospective studies are needed.

  6. Fetal behavioral teratology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Gerard H. A.; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Ververs, F. F. Tessa

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound studies of fetal motor behavior provide direct - in vivo - insight in the functioning of the motor component of the fetal central nervous system. In this article, studies are reviewed showing changes in the first timetable of appearance of fetal movements, changes in quality and/or quanti

  7. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The character "力" li (strength) was originally written "(?)" The curving " (?) " indicates bulging muscles, while the "(?)" component represents skin. Despite its evolution over the centuries, "力" still symbolizes a strong arm.In combination with other characters "力" conveys the meaning "力量" liliang (strength), "力气"liqi (strength), "力求" liqiu (pursue) and "力争" lizheng (strive).

  8. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar.

  9. Maternal-fetal fluid balance and aquaporins: from molecule to physiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yan SHA; Zheng-fang XIONG; Hui-shu LIU; Xiao-dan DI; Tong-hui MA

    2011-01-01

    Maternal-fetal fluid balance is critical during pregnancy, and amniotic fluid is essential for fetal growth and development. The placenta plays a key role in a successful pregnancy as the interface between the mother and her fetus. Aquaporins (AQPs) form specific water channels that allow the rapid transcellular movement of water in response to osmotic/hydrostatic pressure gradients. AQPs expression in the placenta and fetal membranes may play important roles in the maternal-fetal fluid balance.

  10. Accuracy of imaging parameters in the prediction of lethal pulmonary hypoplasia secondary to mid-trimester prelabor rupture of fetal membranes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Teeffelen, A S P; Van Der Heijden, J; Oei, S G; Porath, M M; Willekes, C; Opmeer, B; Mol, B W J

    2012-05-01

    In women who have suffered mid-trimester prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM), prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia is important for optimal management. We performed a systematic review to assess the capacity of imaging parameters to predict pulmonary hypoplasia. We searched for published articles that reported on biometric parameters and allowed the construction of a 2 × 2 table, comparing at least one of these parameters with the occurrence of pulmonary hypoplasia. The selected studies were scored on methodological quality and we calculated sensitivity and specificity of the tests in the prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia and lethal pulmonary hypoplasia. Overall performance was assessed by summary receiver-operating characteristics (sROC) analyses that were performed with bivariate meta-analysis. We detected 13 studies that reported on the prediction of lethal pulmonary hypoplasia. The quality of the included studies was poor to mediocre. The estimated sROC curves for the chest circumference/abdominal circumference ratio and other parameters showed limited accuracy in the prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia. In women with mid-trimester PPROM, the available evidence indicates limited accuracy of biometric parameters in the prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia.

  11. CHR -- Character Handling Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, A. C.; Rees, P. C. T.; Chipperfield, A. J.; Jenness, T.

    This document describes the Character Handling Routine library, CHR, and its use. The CHR library augments the limited character handling facilities provided by the Fortran 77 standard. It offers a range of character handling facilities: from formatting Fortran data types into text strings and the reverse, to higher level functions such as wild card matching, string sorting, paragraph reformatting and justification. The library may be used simply for building text strings for interactive applications or as a basis for more complex text processing applications.

  12. Madness in Shakespeare's Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Borja-Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with an introduction where the aims are explained: a psychopathological analysis of a Shakespearean character - Othello – followed by the discussion of the English dramatist’s importance in helping us understand madness in the emergent world of Renaissance. The main characteristics of Othello’s personality, which allowed the development of his jealousy delusion, are described. Finally, the conclusions underline the overlap of the symptoms developed by the character with the DSM-IV classification.

  13. Fetal Health and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specific prenatal tests to monitor both the mother's health and fetal health during each trimester. With modern technology, health professionals can Detect birth defects Identify problems that ...

  14. ASCITIS FETAL AISLADA

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    La ascitis fetal aislada es una entidad asociada a múltiples patologías, el diagnostico se realiza usualmente cuando fueron descartados las otras causas de ascitis fetal. Se describe el diagnóstico prenatal de un paciente con ascitis fetal aislada compatible con atresia ileal y peritonitis meconial secundaria a perforación de ileon distal. La ascitis fetal se resolvió posterior a la cirugía al segundo día de vida. Este caso tiene un buen pronostico debido al control tanto prenatal como intra ...

  15. Accounting for Fetal Origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The Fetal Origins hypothesis has received considerable empirical support, both within epidemiology and economics. The present study compares the ability of two rival theoretical frameworks in accounting for the kind of path dependence implied by the Fetal Origins Hypothesis. We argue that while...

  16. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  17. Selective exposure of the fetal lung and skin/amnion (but not gastro-intestinal tract) to LPS elicits acute systemic inflammation in fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Matthew W; Kannan, Paranthaman Senthamarai; Saito, Masatoshi; Newnham, John P; Cox, Tom; Jobe, Alan H; Kramer, Boris W; Kallapur, Suhas G

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation of the uterine environment (commonly as a result of microbial colonisation of the fetal membranes, amniotic fluid and fetus) is strongly associated with preterm labour and birth. Both preterm birth and fetal inflammation are independently associated with elevated risks of subsequent short- and long-term respiratory, gastro-intestinal and neurological complications. Despite numerous clinical and experimental studies to investigate localised and systemic fetal inflammation following exposure to microbial agonists, there is minimal data to describe which fetal organ(s) drive systemic fetal inflammation. We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E.coli in an instrumented ovine model of fetal inflammation and conducted a series of experiments to assess the systemic pro-inflammatory capacity of the three major fetal surfaces exposed to inflammatory mediators in pregnancy (the lung, gastro-intestinal tract and skin/amnion). Exposure of the fetal lung and fetal skin/amnion (but not gastro-intestinal tract) caused a significant acute systemic inflammatory response characterised by altered leucocytosis, neutrophilia, elevated plasma MCP-1 levels and inflammation of the fetal liver and spleen. These novel findings reveal differential fetal organ responses to pro-inflammatory stimulation and shed light on the pathogenesis of fetal systemic inflammation after exposure to chorioamnionitis.

  18. Fetal scalp pH testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal scalp blood; Scalp pH testing; Fetal blood testing - scalp; Fetal distress - fetal scalp testing; Labor - fetal scalp testing ... a baby. In these cases, testing the scalp pH can help the doctor decide whether the fetus ...

  19. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    It is perhaps a facet of human nature that makes a person want to beking, and to control others. The character "王" was originally"王",symbolizing the emerald prayer beads worn exclusively by the king. Inthe course of this character’s evolution, however, new connotations were

  20. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some Chinese characters refer to natural phenomena andsubstances, such as "雨" yu (rain), "云" yun (clouds), "雪" xue (snow),"电" dian (lightning) and "雷" lei (thunder). The original form of "雨"was"(?)," in which"(?)" represents the cloud layer, and"(?)"symbolizes rain drops.

  1. The typeface character

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Research from the fields of neuroscience and psychology, shows that typefaces can carry different semantic associations. However, to be able to read a text, the reader can no longer focus on the character of the typeface, as the human mind is incapable of simultaneously giving full attention...

  2. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Sheep generally have a cute and docile appearance, which isrepresented by the Chinese character "羊" yang (sheep). The originalform of "羊" was "(?)" , representing a sheep’s head. Later, combinedwith other parts representing sheep’s horns, ears, legs, and tail, it evolvedinto "(?)"、"(?)"、"(?)" and "羊".

  3. Character and Moral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Johnnie

    1997-01-01

    Reflects on the ways in which children develop character as well as ways to foster moral development in elementary education communities. Includes a brief discussion of Robert Coles' documentation of moral intelligence in children, and lists several ways to aid the moral life of children in Montessori classrooms. (EV)

  4. Umbilical Cord Segmental Hemorrhage and Fetal Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larciprete, Giovanni; Romanini, Maria Elisabetta; Arduini, Domenico; Cirese, Elio; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Kula, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    We describe an unexplained case of umbilical cord segmental hemorrhage linked with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. A severely asphyxiated infant was delivered at term by Caesarean section. There were poor prognostic signs on fetal cardiotocography with rupture of membranes with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. The pathophysiologic mechanism in this case is still unknown, even if we argued a possible role of the umbilical cord shortness. PMID:23674981

  5. Character strengths and virtues

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The target of this work is to carry out a critical analysis about some of the underlying epistemological assumptions in Peterson and Seligman’s book Character Strengths and Virtues. A handbook and classifications (2004). This is a theoretical investigation that belongs to the epistemology of psychology field. According to the theory proposed by Serroni Copello (2003), a critic progress rational criterion is methodologically applied. The analysis points out some epistemological weakness that l...

  6. 分泌型磷脂酶A2与环氧合酶-2在早产产妇胎膜中的表达%Expressions of secretory phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase-2 in fetal membranes of women with premature labor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕; 王少军

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨分泌型磷脂酶A2(sPLA2)和环氧合酶-2(COX-2)在早产产妇胎膜中的表达及其与早产发生的关系.方法:采用实时荧光定量PCR技术(RT-PCR)检测8例早产产妇(早产临产组)、12例足月临产产妇(足月临产组)和12例足月未临产产妇(对照组)胎膜中sPLA2和COX-2 mRNA的表达水平(以目的基因/内参基因×100表示).结果:sPLA2和COX-2 mRNA在早产临产组胎膜中的表达水平分别为(159.51 ±38.97)和(144.17 ±57.31),在足月临产组胎膜中的表达水平分别为(135.07 ±25.94)和(172.12 ±66.29),在对照组胎膜中的表达水平分别为(91.03 ±33.68)和(84.25±42.78).早产临产组及足月临产组明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);早产临产组与足月临产组比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).3组胎膜中sPLA2和COX-2的表达水平呈正相关,相关系数γ=0.413.结论:sPLA2和COX-2可能参与早产分娩的发动,在早产的发生中起一定作用.%Objective: To explore the expressions of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) and cyclooxygenase — 2 (COX — 2) in fetal membranes of women with premature labor and their relationships with the occurrence of premature labor. Methods: Real — time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression levels of sPLA2 and COX — 2 mRNA (target gene/internal control gene multiplied by 100) in fetal membranes of 8 cases of premature delivery in labor (premature delivery in labor group) , 12 cases of full term in labor (term in labor group) , and 12 cases of term non-labor (control group) . Results: The expression levels of sPLA2 and COX-2 in fetal membranes of premature delivery in labor group, term in labor group, and control group were (159. 51±38. 97) and (144. 17±57. 31) , (135. 07±25. 94) and (172. 12±66. 29) , (91. 03±33. 68) and (84. 25±42. 78) , respectively. The expression levels of sPLA2 and COX — 2 in fetal membranes of premature delivery in labor group and term in

  7. Rheology of fetal and maternal blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, W H; Danoff, S J; King, R G; Chien, S

    1985-01-01

    Rheological parameters were measured in 10 pairs of mothers and newborns. Whole blood viscosity was similar despite a higher fetal hematocrit (47.0 +/- 5.1 versus 35.5 +/- 12.0%, mean +/- SD, p less than 0.05). When the hematocrit of the suspension of red cells in plasma was adjusted to 45%, the viscosity was significantly lower in the fetal blood over a wide range of shear rates (0.52-208 S-1). The main reason for the lower viscosity in the fetal blood was the lower plasma viscosity as compared to the maternal blood (1.08 +/- 0.05 versus 1.37 +/- 0.08 centipoise, p less than 0.05); this in turn was attributable to a lower total plasma protein concentration (4.74 +/- 0.71 versus 6.47 +/- 0.64 g/dl, p less than 0.05). All protein fractions were lower in the fetal plasma. The assessment of red cell deformability by filtration through polycarbonate sieves revealed that the resistance of a fetal red cell was three times higher than that of a maternal red cell in a 2.6-micron pore, but there was no significant difference in resistance for these red cells in 6.9-micron pores. This higher filtration resistance of fetal red cells through the small pores was mainly due to their large volume (115.4 +/- 10.8 versus 93.5 +/- 5.9 fl, p less than 0.001). Measurements on membrane-free hemoglobin solutions indicated that the internal viscosity of these two types of red cells was not different.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Fetal and neonatal thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandar Mohan Batra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal thyrotoxicosis is a rare disease occurring in 1 out of 70 pregnancies with Grave′s disease or in 1 out of 4000-50,000 deliveries. The mortality is 12-20%, usually from heart failure, but other complications are tracheal compression, infections and thrombocytopenia. It results from transfer of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins from mother to fetus through the placenta. This transplacental transfer begins around 20 th week of pregnancy and reaches its maximum by 30 th week. These autoantibodies bind to the fetal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH receptors and increase the secretion of the thyroid hormones. The mother has an active autoimmune thyroid disease or has been treated for it in the past. She may be absolutely euthyroid due to past treatment by drugs, surgery or radioiodine ablation, but still have active TSH receptor stimulating autoantibodies, which can cause fetal thyrotoxicosis. The other features of this disease are fetal tachycardia, fetal goiter and history of spontaneous abortions and findings of goiter, ascites, craniosyntosis, fetal growth retardation, maceration and hydrops at fetal autopsy. If untreated, this disease can result in intrauterine death. The treatment for this disease consists of giving carbimazole to the mother, which is transferred through the placenta to the fetus. The dose of carbimazole is titrated with the fetal heart rate. If the mother becomes hypothyroid due to carbimazole, thyroxine is added taking advantage of the fact that very little of thyroxine is transferred across the placenta. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis patients are very sick and require emergency treatment. The goal of the treatment is to normalize thyroid functions as quickly as possible, to avoid iatrogenic hypothyroidism while providing management and supportive therapy for the infant′s specific signs and symptoms.

  9. 孕足月胎膜早破残余羊水量与母儿预后的关系%Residue amniotic fluid volume after premature rupture of membranes and maternal-fetal outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑琳; 吴艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between the residue amniotic fluid volume after premature rupture of membranes (PROM) and maternal-fetal prognosis. Methods 162 pregnant women with PROM were studied , hospitalized in department of Obstetrics and Gynecology ,the Affiliated Hefei Hospital of Anhui Medical University from Jun . 2011 to Dec. 2011. According to Amniotic fluid index (AFl)by ultrasound,patients were assigned into three groups :(1)Group of normal amniotic fluid;90 pregnant women(80 mm≤ AFI 0. 05 ). The rupture distance delivery time of three groups had no significant difference (P >0. 05). The puerperal morbidity of three groups had no significant difference (P >0. 05). The Neonatal asphyxia of oligohydramnios group was significantly higher than that of normal amniotic fluid group ( P 0. 05 ). There was no significant difference between borderline oligohydramnios group and oligohydramnios group (P >0. 05). Conclusion Oligohydramnios after prom increase neonatal asphyxia and cesarean section rate . The amniotie fluid volume might be an important prognostic indicator to assess the maternal and neonatal outcomes when PROM happened .%目的 探讨足月胎膜早破残余羊水量与母儿预后关系.方法 采用回顾性研究方法选择该院2011年6-12月162例孕足月胎膜早破病例,根据破膜后残余羊水的羊水指数(AFI)将162例孕妇分成三组,其中羊水指数正常组90例(80 mm≤AFI<180 mm),可疑羊水过少组40例(50 mm≤AFI<80 mm),羊水过少组32例(AFI<50 mm).比较其分娩方式及母儿结局.结果 羊水过少组剖宫产率明显高于羊水指数正常组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).可疑羊水过少组与羊水指数正常组相比剖宫产率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),三组破膜距分娩时间相比差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),三组产后产褥病率发生率差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),羊水过少组新生儿窒息率明显高于羊水指数正常

  10. Large even order character sums

    CERN Document Server

    Goldmakher, Leo

    2012-01-01

    A classical theorem of Paley asserts the existence of an infinite family of quadratic characters whose character sums become exceptionally large. In this paper, we establish an analogous result for characters of any fixed even order. Previously our bounds were only known under the assumption of the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis.

  11. How Iconic Are Chinese Characters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    The study explores the notion that some Chinese characters contain pictorial indications of meanings that can be used to help retrieve the referent. Thirty adults with no prior knowledge of Chinese guessed the meanings of twenty Chinese characters by choosing between one of two photographs. Half of the characters were considered to be iconic and…

  12. Closed surfaces and character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Chesebro, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The powerful character variety techniques of Culler and Shalen can be used to find essential surfaces in knot manifolds. We show that module structures on the coordinate ring of the character variety can be used to identify detected boundary slopes as well as when closed surfaces are detected. This approach also yields new number theoretic invariants for the character varieties of knot manifolds.

  13. Periods of Hecke characters

    CERN Document Server

    Schappacher, Norbert

    1988-01-01

    The starting point of this Lecture Notes volume is Deligne's theorem about absolute Hodge cycles on abelian varieties. Its applications to the theory of motives with complex multiplication are systematically reviewed. In particular, algebraic relations between values of the gamma function, the so-called formula of Chowla and Selberg and its generalization and Shimura's monomial relations among periods of CM abelian varieties are all presented in a unified way, namely as the analytic reflections of arithmetic identities beetween Hecke characters, with gamma values corresponding to Jacobi sums. The last chapter contains a special case in which Deligne's theorem does not apply.

  14. CHARACTER OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTERS OF SECONDARY EFFLUENT AND CONTRIBUTIONS TO MEMBRANE FOULING%城市污水二级出水有机物性状及对膜污染的贡献

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲颖; 王磊; 王旭东; 刘佩; 刘红露

    2012-01-01

    Dissolved organic matters of Secondary Effluent of urban wastewater were divided into strongly hydrophobic, weakly hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions. And the effects of the three fractions on fouling extent of ultrafiltration membrane were investigated. It demonstrated that the order of membrane fouling caused by dissloved organic matters of effluent was strongly hydrophobic> hydrophilic fractions> weakly hydrophobic. The reasons were that (1) membrane fouling was related with molecular weight. Strongly hydrophobic constituent retained by membrane was due to its higher molecule weight. (2)There were Inimic acid fluorescence peaks in these three fractions from the three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum. It indicated that humic acid had the largest contribution to the reduction of membrane flux. (3) Strongly hydrophobic constituent was the most complex, and fluorescence peak was the most obvious. This showed the extent of membrane fouling was related with the kind of organic matters and the content of that. In addition, membrane fouling was concerned with the removal rate of organic matters by membrane intimately. FLU may conduct as a index to response organic matters retained by membrane.%将城市污水二级出水中溶解性有机物分为强疏水性、弱疏水性和亲水性组分,研究其对超滤膜的污染.测定结果表明,二级出水中有机物对膜污染影响程度顺序为:强疏水性有机物>亲水性有机物>弱疏水性有机物.究其原因:(1)膜污染与有机物分子量大小有关,膜选择性地截留强疏水性有机物主要是这类有机物分子量较大所致.(2)从三维荧光光谱图上看,3个组分中均含有腐殖酸类荧光峰,说明腐殖酸类物质对膜通量的衰减贡献最大.(3)强疏水性组分中所含有机物最为复杂,荧光峰最为明显,由此可见膜污染的程度不仅与组分中所含有机物的种类有关,而且与其含量有关.此外,膜被有机物污染的程度与膜对有

  15. Magnesium and fetal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, K.

    1988-01-01

    Fetal growth retardation and premature labor are major problems in perinatal medicine today and account for a great deal of the observed fetal morbidity. While the neonatal death rate has steadily declined over the past decade, there has been a lack of concommitant decrease in these two leading problems. Magnesium (Mg/sup ++/) plays a major role in both of these areas of concern. The fact that it is used as a treatment for premature labor has led investigators to look at low Mg/sup ++/ as a possible cause of this poorly understood phenomenon. The second major cause of small for gestational age infants is intrauterine growth retardation, a condition which may be of either fetal or maternal origin. In either case, Mg/sup ++/ may be implicated since it exerts a strong influence on the underlying pathophysiology of placental failure and maternal hypertension. Both of these conditions are mediated by vascular and platelet hyperactivity as well as by and increase in the ration of thromboxane to prostacyclin. Studies in both the human and animal species are beginning to show how Mg/sup ++/ interacts in these conditions to produce such a damaging fetal outcome. The recent use of Doppler velocimetry of the developing fetus has shown reduced fetal vascular and maternal uterine vascular compliance as early as 14 weeks of gestation in those who would be so affected.

  16. Materno-Fetal Transmission of Human Immune Deficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Schäfer

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Mother-to-child transmission of human immune deficiency virus (HIV is a multifactorial event highly associated with advanced maternal HIV disease and obstetric incidents taking place during parturition. Thus, various approaches to prevention may be beneficial. Although the time and the route of materno-fetal HIV transmission are still not sufficiently clear, much speaks in favor of a late HIV transmission, most probably taking place during parturition or the phase before the delivery. The fetus is remarkably protected by the placenta and the intact fetal membranes against many viral infections during gestation. These conditions change at parturition and the chance for a transition of HIV-infected carrier cells or virus into the fetal compartment increases. Proinflammatory cytokines secreted at the materno-fetal interface accumulate in amniotic fluid and may chemoattract and stimulate potentially HIV-infected immunocytes. After rupture of membranes, maternal cells of the decidua are directly exposed to the amniotic fluid. Aside from the contamination of the fetal skin at vaginal delivery as a debatable route of infection, blood-to-blood contacts and the fetal swallowing of contaminated amniotic fluid may be the major path of fetal HIV infection. For the fetal prophylaxis of an intrauterine infection, the application of zidovudine is recommended. However, cesarian section before the onset of labor leads also to a diminution of the transmission rate. As the transmission seems to have both systemic and local causes, it makes sense to combine different intervention strategies. Whether a combination of zidovudine and elective cesarean section can lower the transmission risk further has to be evaluated.

  17. Metabolomics Application in Maternal-Fetal Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Fanos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics in maternal-fetal medicine is still an “embryonic” science. However, there is already an increasing interest in metabolome of normal and complicated pregnancies, and neonatal outcomes. Tissues used for metabolomics interrogations of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns are amniotic fluid, blood, plasma, cord blood, placenta, urine, and vaginal secretions. All published papers highlight the strong correlation between biomarkers found in these tissues and fetal malformations, preterm delivery, premature rupture of membranes, gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, neonatal asphyxia, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The aim of this review is to summarize and comment on original data available in relevant published works in order to emphasize the clinical potential of metabolomics in obstetrics in the immediate future.

  18. Metabolomics application in maternal-fetal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanos, Vassilios; Atzori, Luigi; Makarenko, Karina; Melis, Gian Benedetto; Ferrazzi, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomics in maternal-fetal medicine is still an "embryonic" science. However, there is already an increasing interest in metabolome of normal and complicated pregnancies, and neonatal outcomes. Tissues used for metabolomics interrogations of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns are amniotic fluid, blood, plasma, cord blood, placenta, urine, and vaginal secretions. All published papers highlight the strong correlation between biomarkers found in these tissues and fetal malformations, preterm delivery, premature rupture of membranes, gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, neonatal asphyxia, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The aim of this review is to summarize and comment on original data available in relevant published works in order to emphasize the clinical potential of metabolomics in obstetrics in the immediate future.

  19. Fetal Biophysical Profile Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. HaghighatKhah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   "nFetal biophysical profile scoring is a sonographic-based method of fetal assessment first described by Manning and Platt in 1980. "nThe biophysical profile score was developed as a method to integrate real-time observations of the fetus and his/her intrauterine environment in order to more comprehensively assess the fetal condition. These findings must be evaluated in the context of maternal/fetal history (i.e., chronic hypertension, post-dates, intrauterine growth restriction, etc, fetal structural integrity (presence or absence of congenital anomalies, and the functionality of fetal support structures (placental and umbilical cord. For example, acute asphyxia due to placental abruption may result in an absence of the acute variables of the biophysical profile score (fetal breathing movements, fetal movement, fetal tone, and fetal heart rate reactivity with a normal amniotic fluid volume. With post maturity the asphyxial event may be intermittent and chronic resulting in a decrease in amniotic fluid volume, but with the acute variables remaining normal. "nWhile the 5 components of the biophysical profile score have remained unchanged since 1980 (Manning, 1980, the definitions of a normal and abnormal parameter have evolved with increasing experience. "nIn 1984 the definition of oligohydramnios was increased from < 1cm pocket of fluid to < 2.0 x 1.0 cm pocket. Oligohydramnios is now defined as a pocket of amniotic fluid < 2.0 x 2.0 cm (Manning, 1995a "nIf the four ultrasound variables are normal, the accuracy of the biophysical profile score was not found to be significantly improved by adding the non-stress test. As a result, in 1987 the profile score was modified to incorporate the non-stress test only when one of the ultrasound variables was abnormal (Manning 1987. Table 1 outlines the current definitions for quantifying a variable as present or absent. "nEach of the 5 components of the biophysical profile score does not have equal

  20. MRI of normal fetal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor; Krampl, Elisabeth; Ulm, Barbara; Witzani, Linde; Prayer, Lucas; Brugger, Peter C

    2006-02-01

    Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the 18th gestational week (GW) to term, and relies primarily on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences. These maturational changes must be interpreted with a knowledge of the histological background and the temporal course of the respective developmental steps. In addition, MR presentation of developing and transient structures must be considered. Signal changes associated with maturational processes can mainly be ascribed to the following changes in tissue composition and organization, which occur at the histological level: (1) a decrease in water content and increasing cell-density can be recognized as a shortening of T1- and T2-relaxation times, leading to increased T1-weighted and decreased T2-weighted intensity, respectively; (2) the arrangement of microanatomical structures to create a symmetrical or asymmetrical environment, leading to structural differences that may be demonstrated by DW-anisotropy; (3) changes in non-structural qualities, such as the onset of a membrane potential in premyelinating axons. The latter process also influences the appearance of a structure on DW sequences. Thus, we will review the in vivo MR appearance of different maturational states of the fetal brain and relate these maturational states to anatomical, histological, and in vitro MRI data. Then, the development of the cerebral cortex, white matter, temporal lobe, and cerebellum will be reviewed, and the MR appearance of transient structures of the fetal brain will be shown. Emphasis will be placed on the appearance of the different structures with the various sequences. In addition, the possible utility of dynamic fetal sequences in assessing spontaneous fetal movements is discussed.

  1. MRI of normal fetal brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: Daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Krampl, Elisabeth [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Ulm, Barbara [Department of Prenatal Diagnosis, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Lucas [Diagnosezentrum Urania, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the 18th gestational week (GW) to term, and relies primarily on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences. These maturational changes must be interpreted with a knowledge of the histological background and the temporal course of the respective developmental steps. In addition, MR presentation of developing and transient structures must be considered. Signal changes associated with maturational processes can mainly be ascribed to the following changes in tissue composition and organization, which occur at the histological level: (1) a decrease in water content and increasing cell-density can be recognized as a shortening of T1- and T2-relaxation times, leading to increased T1-weighted and decreased T2-weighted intensity, respectively; (2) the arrangement of microanatomical structures to create a symmetrical or asymmetrical environment, leading to structural differences that may be demonstrated by DW-anisotropy; (3) changes in non-structural qualities, such as the onset of a membrane potential in premyelinating axons. The latter process also influences the appearance of a structure on DW sequences. Thus, we will review the in vivo MR appearance of different maturational states of the fetal brain and relate these maturational states to anatomical, histological, and in vitro MRI data. Then, the development of the cerebral cortex, white matter, temporal lobe, and cerebellum will be reviewed, and the MR appearance of transient structures of the fetal brain will be shown. Emphasis will be placed on the appearance of the different structures with the various sequences. In addition, the possible utility of dynamic fetal sequences in assessing spontaneous fetal movements is discussed.

  2. Plasticity of fetal cartilaginous cells

    OpenAIRE

    Quintin, Aurelie; Schizas, Constantin; Scaletta, Corinne; Jaccoud, Sandra; Applegate, Lee Ann; Pioletti, Dominique P.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue-specific stem cells found in adult tissues can participate to the repair process following injury. However adult tissues, such as articular cartilage and intervertebral disc, have low regeneration capacity, whereas fetal tissues, such as articular cartilage, show high regeneration ability. The presence of fetal stem cells in fetal cartilaginous tissues and their involvement in the regeneration of fetal cartilage is unknown. The aim of the study was to assess the chondrogenic differenti...

  3. Development of a highly balanced gradiometer for fetal magnetocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uzunbajakau, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Activation of the cardiac muscle is associated with ion transport through the membrane of the cardiac cell. This gives rise to the strongest electrophysiological signals in human body: the cardiograms. Segments of the cardiogram are related to the contraction of the hearts chambers. In fetal magneto

  4. Does reduction of amniotic fluid affect fetal movements?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sival, D A; Visser, G H; Prechtl, H F

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the amount of amniotic fluid on the form of fetal general movements was studied longitudinally in 19 pregnancies complicated by premature rupture of the amniotic membranes (PROM). Before birth, general movements were studied weekly by means of 1-h ultrasound observations, performed und

  5. Fetal fluid and protein dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis fetal fluid and protein dynamics are investigated to gain insight in fetal (patho-)physiology. Studies were performed in fetuses with severe anemia and/or hydrops fetalis. Measurements were performed in fetal blood or amniotic fluid, obtained before or during intrauterine transfusion.

  6. Maya Studio Projects Photorealistic Characters

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Create realistic characters with Maya tools and this project-based book Maya character generation tools are extremely sophisticated, and there's no better way to learn all their capabilities than by working through the projects in this hands-on book. This official guide focuses on understanding and implementing Maya's powerful tools for creating realistic characters for film, games, and TV. Use a variety of tools to create characters from skeleton to clothing, including hairstyles and facial hair, and learn how to use Performance Capture. A DVD includes supplementary videos, project support fi

  7. Bounds for Certain Character Sums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨锦; 郑志勇

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows a connection between exponential sums and character sums. In particular, we introduce a character sum that is an analog of the classical Kloosterman sums and establish the analogous Weil-Estermann's upper bound for it. The paper also analyzes a generalized Hardy-Littlewood example for character sums, which shows that the upper bounds given here are the best possible. The analysis makes use of local bounds for the exponential sums and character sums. The basic theorems have been previously established.

  8. On-line comprehensive two-dimensional HepG2 cell membrane chromatographic analysis system for charactering anti-hepatoma components from rat serum after oral administration of Radix scutellariae: A strategy for rapid screening active compounds in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dan; Chen, Xiaofei; Cao, Yan; Wu, Xunxun; Ding, Xuan; Zhang, Hai; Zhang, Chuan; Chai, Yifeng; Zhu, Zhenyu

    2016-01-25

    Cell membrane chromatography (CMC) is a bioaffinity chromatography technique for characterizing interactions between drugs and membrane receptors and has been widely used to screen active components from complex samples such as herbal medicines (HMs). However, it has never been applied in vivo due to its relatively high limit of detection (LOD) and the matrix interferences. In this study, a novel on-line comprehensive two-dimensional HepG2/CMC/enrich columns/high performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry system was developed to rapidly screen potential anti-hepatoma components from drug-containing serum of rats after oral administration of Radix scutellariae. A matrix interference deduction method with a home-written program in MATLAB was developed, which could successfully eliminate the interference of endogenous substances in serum. Baicalein, wogonin, chrysin, oroxylin A, neobaicalein and rivularin from Radix scutellariae extraction were significantly retained in the HepG2/CMC column. Three potential active components, wogonin, oroxylin A and neobaicalein were firstly screened from the drug-containing serum as well. The cell counting kit-8 assay demonstrated that wogonin, oroxylin A and chrysin showed high inhibitory activities in a dose-dependent manner on HepG2 cells at the concentration of 12.5-200 μM (pactive components from complex biological samples and could be applied to other biochromatography models.

  9. Micronutrients and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Caroline H D; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Rao, Shobha; Davies, Anna A; Brown, Nick; Farrant, Hannah J W

    2003-05-01

    Fetal undernutrition affects large numbers of infants in developing countries, with adverse consequences for their immediate survival and lifelong health. It manifests as intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), defined as birth weight fetus is nourished by a complex supply line that includes the mother's diet and absorption, endocrine status and metabolism, cardiovascular adaptations to pregnancy and placental function. Micronutrients are essential for growth, and maternal micronutrient deficiency, frequently multiple in developing countries, may be an important cause of IUGR. Supplementation of undernourished mothers with micronutrients has several benefits but there is little hard evidence of improved fetal growth. However, this has been inadequately tested. Most trials have only used single micronutrients and many were inconclusive because of methodological problems. Several food-based studies (some uncontrolled) suggest benefits from improving maternal dietary quality with micronutrient-dense foods. One trial of a multivitamin supplement (HIV-positive mothers, Tanzania) showed increased birth weight and fewer fetal deaths. Well-conducted randomized controlled trials of adequate sample size and including measures of effectiveness are needed in populations at high risk of micronutrient deficiency and IUGR and should include food-based interventions and better measurements of fetal growth, maternal metabolism, and long-term outcomes in the offspring.

  10. 水通道蛋白-8在羊水过少产妇胎盘和胎膜组织中的表达及意义%Expressions and significances of aquaporin -8 in placental tissues and fetal membranes of parturient women with oligohydramnios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周岩; 王凤莲

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨水通道蛋白-8在羊水过少和正常羊水量产妇胎盘和胎膜组织中的表达及意义.方法:采用免疫组化方法(SP法)检测15例羊水过少和15例正常羊水量产妇胎盘、胎膜组织中水通道蛋白-8 (AQP8)的蛋白表达水平.结果:AQP8蛋白在羊水过少组和正常羊水量组产妇的胎盘、胎膜组织中均有表达,主要分布于羊膜上皮细胞、绒毛膜滋养细胞和胎盘合体滋养细胞的细胞膜和细胞质中.羊水过少组羊膜、绒毛膜和胎盘组织中的AQP8蛋白表达水平分别为0.088±0.021、0.143±0.021、0.122±0.019,正常羊水量组分别为0.148±0.016、0.158±0.025、0.151±0.025.羊水过少组羊膜、绒毛膜和胎盘组织中AQP8蛋白表达水平均低于正常羊水量组,在羊膜、胎盘中的表达差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);绒毛膜组织中AQP8蛋白表达水平虽低于对照组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:AQP8蛋白在羊水过少临床病例胎盘和胎膜组织中的表达显著减少,提示AQP8在产妇母胎液体交换和羊水膜内吸收途径中发挥重要作用.%Objective: To explore the expressions and significances of aquaporin -8 in placental tissues and fetal membranes of parturient women with oligohydramnios and parturient women with normal volume of amniotic fluid. Methods; Immunohistochemical SP method was used to detect the expression levels of aquaporin - 8 protein in placental tissues and fetal membranes of 15 parturient women with oligohydramnios and 15 parturient women with normal volume of amniotic fluid. Results: Aquaporin -8 protein expressed in placental tissues and fetal membranes of oligohydramnios group and normal amniotic fluid volume group-, mainly in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of amniotic epithelial cells, trophoblast cells and placental syncytiotrophoblastic cells. The expression levels of aquaporin - 8 protein in amniotic membrane, chorion and placenta were (0.088 ±0.021), (0. 143 ±0

  11. Character strengths and virtues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gancedo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The target of this work is to carry out a critical analysis about some of the underlying epistemological assumptions in Peterson and Seligman’s book Character Strengths and Virtues. A handbook and classifications (2004. This is a theoretical investigation that belongs to the epistemology of psychology field. According to the theory proposed by Serroni Copello (2003, a critic progress rational criterion is methodologically applied. The analysis points out some epistemological weakness that leads to incongruences in the statements and conclusions of the investigations, such as: the absence of a unified theory, a candid search of objectivity, and the superposition of implicit paradigms. It also takes notice of a causal and elementary logic -which goes against today’s scientific paradigm-, and the strong American culture zeitgeist present in the principles of Positive Psychology. Finally, some ethic problems are displayed, in particular the step taken from a descriptive attitude –characteristic of science- toward a prescriptive attitude –characteristic of moral codes-. 

  12. MRI of the Fetal Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisstanner, C; Kasprian, G; Gruber, G M; Brugger, P C; Prayer, D

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the possibilities for fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of the fetal brain. For brain pathologies, fetal MRI is usually performed when an abnormality is detected by previous prenatal ultrasound, and is, therefore, an important adjunct to ultrasound. The most commonly suspected brain pathologies referred to fetal MRI for further evaluation are ventriculomegaly, missing corpus callosum, and abnormalities of the posterior fossa. We will briefly discuss the most common indications for fetal brain MRI, as well as recent advances.

  13. [The character of the morphological changes of the mucous membrane of the large intestine and the genetic polymorphism of IL-1RA, IL-1B, IL-4 TNFA in patient with irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsenbaeva, A S; Ivanova, E L; Burmistrova, A L; Drozdov, I V

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence or absence of a relationship between the variants of the course of IBS and their association with genetic polymorphisms of genes and intergenic interaction of cytokines. The sample consisted of 81 patients, the diagnosis was verified according to the criteria of the Rome III, were isolated psychopathological, morphological complications, extra-intestinal symptoms. Polymorphism genotyping IL-1Ra, IL-b, IL-4, TNFa performed by PCR. Statistical treatment are a non-parametric analysis of multiple comparisons, hierarchical log-linear analysis. It is found out the relation between the clinical variants with morphological changes of the mucous membrane of the large intestine, the association between gender characteristics of patients with IBS is established and with genetic polymorphisms of cytokines.

  14. Stillbirth and fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2010-09-01

    The association between stillbirth and fetal growth restriction is strong and supported by a large body of evidence and clinically employed for the stillbirth prediction. However, although assessment of fetal growth is a basis of clinical practice, it is not trivial. Essentially, fetal growth is a result of the genetic growth potential of the fetus and placental function. The growth potential is the driving force of fetal growth, whereas the placenta as the sole source of nutrients and oxygen might become the rate limiting element of fetal growth if its function is impaired. Thus, placental dysfunction may prevent the fetus from reaching its full genetically determined growth potential. In this sense fetal growth and its aberration provides an insight into placental function. Fetal growth is a proxy for the test of the effectiveness of placenta, whose function is otherwise obscured during pregnancy.

  15. Character Education: Christian Education Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Gretchen M.; Firmin, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    Character is defined broadly by leading authorities, including concepts such as practicing apt behavior and teaching right from wrong. Virtue and moral undertones tend to pervade most experts' use of character, although in secular settings, the notion of ethics is more prominent. Overall, developing in students a desire for the good is how most…

  16. Fetal congenital lobar emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Soon-Cen; Liu, Min-Chang; Se, Tung-Yi

    2007-03-01

    To report a rare fetal congenital lung anomaly characterized by over inflation of a pulmonary lobe. A 28-year-old systemic lupus erythematous mother, gravida 1 para 0, who had normal prenatal care in our department, was admitted for labor pain and an abnormal fetal heart location was noted incidentally during labor. The baby showed rib retraction in room air but no obvious cyanotic change after delivery. Both the fetus chest X-ray and ultrasound showed a hyperechogenic tumor in the left thoracic cavity with a right-side-shifted heart and trachea. Computed tomography showed a hypodense and multiseptal tumor in the left thoracic cavity with right-sided shift of the heart and trachea. It was a soft, solid tumor in the parenchyma of the left lung and the histopathology confirmed it to be benign congenital lobar emphysema. The favorable outcome in both asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic children suggests that a nonsurgical approach should be considered for these patients.

  17. The fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiserud, Torvid; Acharya, Ganesh

    2004-12-30

    Accumulating data on the human fetal circulation shows the similarity to the experimental animal physiology, but with important differences. The human fetus seems to circulate less blood through the placenta, shunt less through the ductus venosus and foramen ovale, but direct more blood through the lungs than the fetal sheep. However, there are substantial individual variations and the pattern changes with gestational age. The normalised umbilical blood flow decreases with gestational age, and, at 28 to 32 weeks, a new level of development seems to be reached. At this stage, the shunting through the ductus venosus and the foramen ovale reaches a minimum, and the flow through the lungs a maximum. The ductus venosus and foramen ovale are functionally closely related and represent an important distributional unit for the venous return. The left portal branch represents a venous watershed, and, similarly, the isthmus aorta an arterial watershed. Thus, the fetal central circulation is a very flexible and adaptive circulatory system. The responses to increased afterload, hypoxaemia and acidaemia in the human fetus are equivalent to those found in animal studies: increased ductus venosus and foramen ovale shunting, increased impedance in the lungs, reduced impedance in the brain, increasingly reversed flow in the aortic isthmus and a more prominent coronary blood flow.

  18. Character theory of finite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Isaacs, I Martin

    2006-01-01

    Character theory is a powerful tool for understanding finite groups. In particular, the theory has been a key ingredient in the classification of finite simple groups. Characters are also of interest in their own right, and their properties are closely related to properties of the structure of the underlying group. The book begins by developing the module theory of complex group algebras. After the module-theoretic foundations are laid in the first chapter, the focus is primarily on characters. This enhances the accessibility of the material for students, which was a major consideration in the

  19. Fetal vibroacoustic stimulation for facilitation of tests of fetal wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kelvin H; Smyth, Rebecca M D; Wei, Xing

    2013-12-07

    Acoustic stimulation of the fetus has been suggested to improve the efficiency of antepartum fetal heart rate testing. To assess the advantages and disadvantages of the use of fetal vibroacoustic stimulation in conjunction with tests of fetal wellbeing. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2013). All published and unpublished randomised controlled trials assessing the merits of the use of fetal vibroacoustic stimulation in conjunction with tests of fetal wellbeing. All review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Authors of published and unpublished trials were contacted for further information. Altogether 12 trials with a total of 6822 participants were included. Fetal vibroacoustic stimulation reduced the incidence of non-reactive antenatal cardiotocography test (nine trials; average risk ratio (RR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48 to 0.81). Vibroacoustic stimulation compared with mock stimulation evoked significantly more fetal movements when used in conjunction with fetal heart rate testing (one trial, RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.29). Vibroacoustic stimulation offers benefits by decreasing the incidence of non-reactive cardiotocography and reducing the testing time. Further randomised trials should be encouraged to determine not only the optimum intensity, frequency, duration and position of the vibroacoustic stimulation, but also to evaluate the efficacy, predictive reliability, safety and perinatal outcome of these stimuli with cardiotocography and other tests of fetal wellbeing.

  20. Elementary Character Education: Local Perspectives, Echoed Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Pat; Field, Sherry L.

    2001-01-01

    Presents information based on a yearlong study of character education in an elementary school that was implementing "Kids with Character." Offers an analysis of the responses by students, teachers, and parents about character, development of character, and the program. Indicates that contemporary character education programs are similar to…

  1. Character as the Aim of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David Light

    2011-01-01

    The aim of education should be developing intellectual character, moral character, civic character, and performance character. That does not mean that schools should ignore teaching content, but that the dispositions and habits of mind that come from developing these four forms of character will remain with students throughout their lives.…

  2. Cirugía fetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. B. Juan Luis Leiva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El campo de la cirugía fetal es de reciente comienzo y rápida evolución. Con el avance en las herramientas de diagnóstico antenatal, la capacidad de diagnóstico de condiciones fetales susceptibles de ser tratadas in utero ha dado paso a una serie de procedimientos destinados a dar solución a situaciones que, de no ser por estas intervenciones, terminarían en un resultado adverso perinatal. Las técnicas descritas para la terapia fetal incluyen procedimientos percutáneos guiados por ultrasonido, cirugía fetal abierta y cirugía mínimamente invasiva. En este artículo se presentan las diversas condiciones fetales tributarias de cirugía fetal y se discuten las opciones terapéuticas actuales para cada una.

  3. Nutritional regulation of fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Frank H; Jaquiery, Anne L; Oliver, Mark H

    2013-01-01

    Fetal growth is largely regulated by nutritional supply. The placenta is responsible for fetal nutrient supply for much of pregnancy, but in early pregnancy nutrition is histiotrophic. Both placental size and efficiency, and fetal growth, may be affected by maternal nutritional state before and during very early pregnancy. In contrast, manipulating maternal nutrition during later stages of pregnancy has a smaller than expected effect on fetal growth. Maternal nutrition before and during early pregnancy also has a greater effect on gestation length than maternal nutrition later in pregnancy, suggesting that nutritional status may regulate both fetal growth trajectory and gestation length and that these two outcomes may be linked. Thus, determination of the nutritional factors regulating fetal growth, and potentially postnatal growth and body phenotype, may lie with the maternal nutritional status even before conception.

  4. Vehicle License Plate Character Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Sen Pan; Jun-Biao Yan; Zheng-Hong Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle license plate (VLP) character segmentation is an important part of the vehicle license plate recognition system (VLPRS). This paper proposes a least square method (LSM) to treat horizontal tilt and vertical tilt in VLP images. Auxiliary lines are added into the image (or the tilt-corrected image) to make the separated parts of each Chinese character to be an interconnected region. The noise regions will be eliminated after two fusing images are merged according to the minimum principle of gray values.Then, the characters are segmented by projection method (PM) and the final character images are obtained. The experimental results show that this method features fast processing and good performance in segmentation.

  5. Mining and modeling character networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bonato, Anthony; Elenberg, Ethan R; Gleich, David F; Hou, Yangyang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate social networks of characters found in cultural works such as novels and films. These character networks exhibit many of the properties of complex networks such as skewed degree distribution and community structure, but may be of relatively small order with a high multiplicity of edges. Building on recent work of beveridge, we consider graph extraction, visualization, and network statistics for three novels: Twilight by Stephanie Meyer, Steven King's The Stand, and J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. Coupling with 800 character networks from films found in the http://moviegalaxies.com/ database, we compare the data sets to simulations from various stochastic complex networks models including random graphs with given expected degrees (also known as the Chung-Lu model), the configuration model, and the preferential attachment model. Using machine learning techniques based on motif (or small subgraph) counts, we determine that the Chung-Lu model best fits character networks and we ...

  6. MRI of the fetal spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Erin M. [Departement of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal spine is a vital complement to fetal sonographic examination. Assessing the wide spectrum of spinal dysraphism, as well as spinal neoplasia, allows for more correct prenatal diagnoses, patient care planning, and patient counselling. Proper appraisal of the value of experimental procedures, such as fetal myelomeningocoele repair, requires a high level of diagnostic accuracy for the selection and follow-up of appropriate candidates. (orig.)

  7. Character profiles and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwanjin; Suh, Byung Seong; Kim, Won Sool; Lee, Hye-Kyung; Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Kounseok

    2015-04-01

    There is a surge of interest in subjective well-being (SWB), which concerns how individuals feel about their happiness. Life satisfaction tends to be influenced by individual psychological traits and external social factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual character and SWB. Data from 3522 university students were analyzed in this study. Character profiles were evaluated using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Short version (TCI-RS). Life satisfaction was assessed using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). All statistical tests regarding the correlations between each character profile and life satisfaction were conducted using ANOVAs, t-tests, multiple linear regression models and correlation analyses. The creative (SCT) profile was associated with the highest levels of life satisfaction, whereas the depressive (sct) profile was associated with the lowest levels of life satisfaction. Additionally, high self-directedness, self-transcendence and cooperation were associated with high life satisfaction. The results of gender-adjusted multiple regression analysis showed that the effects of self-directedness were the strongest in the assessment of one's quality of life, followed by self-transcendence and cooperativeness, in that order. All of the three-character profiles were significantly correlated with one's quality of life, and the character profiles of TCI-RS explained 27.6% of life satisfaction in total. Among the three-character profiles, the self-directedness profile was most associated with life satisfaction. Our study was cross-sectional, and self-reported data from students at a single university were analyzed. The results of this study showed that, among the character profiles, the effects of self-directedness were the strongest for predicting life satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Studying Characters in "Romeo and Juliet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinhawa, Wilhelmina

    1994-01-01

    Describes an activity in which high school students who are reading "Romeo and Juliet" compile information on major characters and create a collection of cards similar to sports cards, to help them understand each character and that character's motives. (SR)

  9. An Unusual Origin of Fetal Lymphangioma Filling Right Axilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Oztas, Efser; Saridogan, Erdinc; Ozler, Sibel; Danisman, Nuri

    2016-03-01

    Fetal lymphangioma is a hamartomatous congenital anomaly of the lymphatic system, which is embracing the fetal skin (sometimes mucous membranes) and the subcutaneous tissue. The general consensus is that it occurs as a result of failure in lymphatic drainage. A 36-year-old pregnant woman was referred to our perinatology clinic at 22 weeks' gestation, because of a fetal right-sided axillary mass revealed by ultrasonography. The mass measuring 5x7x7cm in three dimensions had a multilocular structure without colour Doppler flow and well-circumscribed borders. Amniocentesis revealed a normal constitutional karyotyping. Lymphangioma was considered as prediagnosis. A healthy female baby weighing 3470 grams was delivered at term. Neonatal examination and the postnatal MRI confirmed the diagnosis. The baby is still on follow-up with the medical treatment of Sirolimus an anti-proliferative drug, and the mass got smaller significantly in 8 months after delivery.

  10. Text vectorization based on character recognition and character stroke modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhigang; Zhou, Bingfeng; Tse, Francis; Mu, Yadong; He, Tao

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a text vectorization method is proposed using OCR (Optical Character Recognition) and character stroke modeling. This is based on the observation that for a particular character, its font glyphs may have different shapes, but often share same stroke structures. Like many other methods, the proposed algorithm contains two procedures, dominant point determination and data fitting. The first one partitions the outlines into segments and second one fits a curve to each segment. In the proposed method, the dominant points are classified as "major" (specifying stroke structures) and "minor" (specifying serif shapes). A set of rules (parameters) are determined offline specifying for each character the number of major and minor dominant points and for each dominant point the detection and fitting parameters (projection directions, boundary conditions and smoothness). For minor points, multiple sets of parameters could be used for different fonts. During operation, OCR is performed and the parameters associated with the recognized character are selected. Both major and minor dominant points are detected as a maximization process as specified by the parameter set. For minor points, an additional step could be performed to test the competing hypothesis and detect degenerated cases.

  11. Ovine fetal necrobacillosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Boye, Mette; Aalbæk, B.

    2007-01-01

    were found in several tissues. Histologically, placental lesions were characterized by locally diffuse infiltration of neutrophils, closely associated with abundant small Gram-negative and FISH-positive rods, thrombosis and necrosis. Lesions in the fetal-maternal interface were multifocal and consisted...... of villous necrosis and suppurative inflammation. Spread to the fetus from the placenta appeared to occur in two ways. Some fetuses had multifocal necrotizing hepatitis consistent with haematogenous spread through the umbilical vein; further dissemination to other organs occurred. Transplacental spread...

  12. Fetal cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychik, J

    2004-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of the fetus is physiologically different than the adult, mature system. Unique characteristics of the myocardium and specific channels of blood flow differentitate the physiology of the fetus from the newborn. Conditions of increased preload and afterload in the fetus, such as sacrococcygeal teratoma and twin-twin transfusion syndrome, result in unique and complex pathophysiological states. Echocardiography has improved our understanding of human fetal cadiovasvular physiology in the normal and diseased states, and has expanded our capability to more effectively treat these disease processes.

  13. HEPATITIS ALOINMUNE FETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez C., Dr.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis aloinmune fetal, conocida anteriormente como hemocromatosis neonatal, ha demostrado en los últimos años ser una enfermedad completamente distinta a la hemocromatosis del adulto, tanto en su etiología como en su la fisiopatología. Este conocimiento abre nuevas perspectivas tanto en la prevención de la enfermedad en futuros embarazos, así como en el tratamiento con inmunoglobulina endovenosa en la madre durante el embarazo y eventualmente el tratamiento postnatal, en el que el trasplante de hígado juega un rol primordial.

  14. Moral character in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taya R; Panter, A T; Turan, Nazli; Morse, Lily; Kim, Yeonjeong

    2014-11-01

    Using two 3-month diary studies and a large cross-sectional survey, we identified distinguishing features of adults with low versus high levels of moral character. Adults with high levels of moral character tend to: consider the needs and interests of others and how their actions affect other people (e.g., they have high levels of Honesty-Humility, empathic concern, guilt proneness); regulate their behavior effectively, specifically with reference to behaviors that have positive short-term consequences but negative long-term consequences (e.g., they have high levels of Conscientiousness, self-control, consideration of future consequences); and value being moral (e.g., they have high levels of moral identity-internalization). Cognitive moral development, Emotionality, and social value orientation were found to be relatively undiagnostic of moral character. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that employees with low moral character committed harmful work behaviors more frequently and helpful work behaviors less frequently than did employees with high moral character, according to their own admissions and coworkers' observations. Study 3 revealed that adults with low moral character committed more delinquent behavior and had more lenient attitudes toward unethical negotiation tactics than did adults with high moral character. By showing that individual differences have consistent, meaningful effects on employees' behaviors, after controlling for demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, income) and basic attributes of the work setting (e.g., enforcement of an ethics code), our results contest situationist perspectives that deemphasize the importance of personality. Moral people can be identified by self-reports in surveys, and these self-reports predict consequential behaviors months after the initial assessment.

  15. Insulin-like growth factors I and II in maternal and fetal guinea pig serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughaday, W H; Yanow, C E; Kapadia, M

    1986-08-01

    The role of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in fetal development has been the subject of much speculation. We undertook studies of maternal and fetal IGF I and II in the guinea pig because the long gestation period and greater size of the fetuses permitted blood sampling over a longer period of gestation and maturation than is possible in the rat. Acid gel filtrates of fetal and maternal serum were prepared, and the IGF I was measured by RIA; IGF II was measured by rat placental membrane radioreceptor assay. Fetal IGF I levels were lower than maternal levels from the 33rd day of estimated gestation to term. Fetal IGF II levels from the 33rd day to the 49th day of gestation were not significantly different from those of maternal serum [1597 +/- 377 (SE) ng/ml vs. 1295 +/- 224] ng/ml. Very high levels of IGF II, in excess of 5000 ng/ml, were observed in fetuses at 50, 55, and 60 days of gestation. Thereafter, fetal IGF II levels fell markedly before term. Fetal and maternal IGFs after 49, 50, 60, and 65 days of pregnancy were compared by isoelectric focusing. The guinea pig normally has two major basic peaks of IGF I, which were present both in maternal and fetal serum. Most maternal and fetal guinea pig sera contained only a single, slightly acidic peak of IGF II. No evidence of a unique fetal IGF was detected by our methods. The very high levels of IGF II reached in fetal guinea pig sera suggest that it may have a role in fetal development.

  16. The clinical observation and nursing for pregnant women who get premature rupture of fetal membranes%胎膜早破孕产妇的临床观察及护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺建华; 任春秀

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨对胎膜早破孕产妇进行有效护理的重要性。方法回顾性分析42例胎膜早破孕产妇的临床观察及护理情况。结果42例胎膜早破患者,28例阴道分娩,14例剖宫产,无1例发生宫腔感染和新生儿死亡。结论通过对胎膜早破患者进行严密的观察和护理,同时做好产前检查,积极预防,依据情况终止妊娠,可提高新生儿存活率,减少并发症的发生。%Objective To explore the importance of premature rupture of membranes were effective nursing. Methods 42 cases of premature rupture of the membranes were analyzed,the prevention and nursing. Results Of the 42 patients with PROM,28 cases of vaginal delivery,14 cases of cesarean section,with no occurrence of intrauterine infection and neonatal death. Conclusion The premature rupture of membranes were obse rved and nursing closely,at the same time,antenatal care.

  17. Clinical implications of fetal magnetocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartero, H.W.P.; Stinstra, J.G.; Golbach, E.G.M.; Meijboom, E.J.; Peters, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To test the usefulness and reliability of fetal magnetocardiography as a diagnostic or screening tool, both for fetuses with arrhythmias as well as for fetuses with a congenital heart defect. Methods We describe 21 women with either a fetal arrhythmia or a congenital heart defect disc

  18. Restrictive dermopathy and fetal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, EJH; Beemer, FA; Stoutenbeek, P

    2001-01-01

    We report three siblings from consecutive pregnancies affected with restrictive dermopathy (RD). During the second pregnancy, fetal behavioural development and growth were studied extensively using ultrasound at 1-4 week intervals. Dramatic and sudden changes occurred in fetal body movements and gro

  19. Feto-fetal transfusion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, P; Scott, J M; Goel, K M

    1982-01-01

    Out of 42 pairs of liveborn monochorial twins there were 32 pairs with vascular anastomoses. Of these, 11 pairs had feto-fetal transfusion syndrome. There were another 8 pairs of stillborn twin fetuses with vascular communications and in these chronic feto-fetal transfusion syndrome might have resulted in intrauterine death. PMID:6890328

  20. Hormonal Control of Fetal Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Paul S.; Nicoll, Charles S.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on hormonal control of fetal growth, presenting data obtained using a new method for studying the area. Effects of endocrine ablations and congenital deficiencies, studies of hormone/receptor levels, in-vitro techniques, hormones implicated in promoting fetal growth, problems with existing methodologies, and growth of…

  1. Clinically silent polymicrobial amnionitis and intrauterine fetal death associated with a Cu-7 intrauterine contraceptive device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waites, K B; Bobo, R A; Davis, R O; Brookings, E S; Cassell, G H

    1984-12-15

    This article presents a case of silent polymicrobial amnionitis with subsequent intrauterine fetal death in a 34-year old woman who conceived with a Cu-7 IUD in place. There were no apparent pregnancy complications or symptoms of uterine infection during early pregnancy. At 16 weeks gestation, the patient underwent amniocentesis for cytogenetic studies. 5 different microorganisms--Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mitis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum--were isolated from the amniotic fluid. 2 week later, intrauterine fetal death was detected. U. urealyticum was at this point isolated from the cervix and placental and fetal tissues. This organism, which has been associated with chorioamnionitis, spontaneous abortion, and neonatal death, is suspected to have contributed to the fetal death in this case. U. urealyticum can invade the amniotic sac with fetal membranes intact and persist for 8 weeks without overt effects. This case illustrates the risks associated with nonremoval of an IUD after contraceptive failure.

  2. Impact of fetal echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson John

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease is now well established for a wide range of cardiac anomalies. Diagnosis of congenital heart disease during fetal life not only identifies the cardiac lesion but may also lead to detection of associated abnormalities. This information allows a detailed discussion of the prognosis with parents. For continuing pregnancies, appropriate preparation can be made to optimize the postnatal outcome. Reduced morbidity and mortality, following antenatal diagnosis, has been reported for coarctation of the aorta, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and transposition of the great arteries. With regard to screening policy, most affected fetuses are in the "low risk" population, emphasizing the importance of appropriate training for those who undertake such obstetric anomaly scans. As a minimum, the four chamber view of the fetal heart should be incorporated into midtrimester anomaly scans, and where feasible, views of the outflow tracts should also be included, to increase the diagnostic yield. Newer screening techniques, such as measurement of nuchal translucency, may contribute to identification of fetuses at high risk for congenital heart disease and prompt referral for detailed cardiac assessment.

  3. Fetal and Maternal Outcomes in Pregnancies Complicated with Fetal Macrosomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkahatim; Ahmed, Salah Roshdy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fetal macrosomia remains a considerable challenge in current obstetrics due to the fetal and maternal complications associated with this condition. Aim: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of fetal macrosomia and associated fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality in the Al Qassim Region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This register-based study was conducted from January 1, 2011 through December 30, 2011 at the Maternity and Child Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Macrosomia was defined as birth weight of 4 kg or greater. Malformed babies and those born dead were excluded. Results: The total number of babies delivered was 9241; of these, 418 were macrosomic. Thus, the prevalence of fetal macrosomia was 4.5%. The most common maternal complications were postpartum hemorrhage (5 cases, 1.2%), perineal tear (7 cases, 1.7%), cervical lacerations (3 cases, 0.7%), and shoulder dystocia (40 cases, 9.6%) that resulted in 4 cases of Erb's palsy (0.96%), and 6 cases of bone fractures (1.4%). The rate of cesarean section among women delivering macrosomic babies was 47.6% (199), while 52.4% (219) delivered vaginally. Conclusion: Despite extensive efforts to reduce fetal and maternal complications associated with macrosomia, considerable fetal and maternal morbidity remain associated with this condition. PMID:22754881

  4. Fetal and maternal outcomes in pregnancies complicated with fetal macrosomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alkhatim Alsammani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal macrosomia remains a considerable challenge in current obstetrics due to the fetal and maternal complications associated with this condition. Aim: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of fetal macrosomia and associated fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality in the Al Qassim Region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This register-based study was conducted from January 1, 2011 through December 30, 2011 at the Maternity and Child Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Macrosomia was defined as birth weight of 4 kg or greater. Malformed babies and those born dead were excluded. Results: The total number of babies delivered was 9241; of these, 418 were macrosomic. Thus, the prevalence of fetal macrosomia was 4.5%. The most common maternal complications were postpartum hemorrhage (5 cases, 1.2%, perineal tear (7 cases, 1.7%, cervical lacerations (3 cases, 0.7%, and shoulder dystocia (40 cases, 9.6% that resulted in 4 cases of Erb′s palsy (0.96%, and 6 cases of bone fractures (1.4%. The rate of cesarean section among women delivering macrosomic babies was 47.6% (199, while 52.4% (219 delivered vaginally. Conclusion: Despite extensive efforts to reduce fetal and maternal complications associated with macrosomia, considerable fetal and maternal morbidity remain associated with this condition.

  5. Fetal acoustic stimulation test for early intrapartum fetal monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, M; Hanwellage, K

    2011-03-01

    The fetal acoustic stimulation test (FAST) is a simple cost effective screening test for antenatal fetal monitoring. The aim of the study was to evaluate the FAST as a screening test for early intrapartum fetal well being. An initial non stress test (NST) followed by a FAST using corometric model 146 was carried out in 486 participants in early labour with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies and > 32 weeks gestation. A repeat NST was recorded in the participants who had an initial non reactive NST. The results of the NST and FAST were compared with fetal outcome. Maternal perception of fetal movements after FAST, results of NST before and after FAST, and the babies' 5 minute APGAR scores were measured. Of the 486 participants 413 (85%) noticed fetal movements after FAST. Initial NST was non reactive in 203 (42%) but 149 (31%) became reactive after FAST. Compared to the NST, FAST had a better sensitivity (97% vs 62%, p fetal well being in early labour. It complements the NST and is better than the NST alone.

  6. CHARACTER RECOGNITION OF VIDEO SUBTITLES\\

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish S Hiremath

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An important task in content based video indexing is to extract text information from videos. The challenges involved in text extraction and recognition are variation of illumination on each video frame with text, the text present on the complex background and different font size of the text. Using various image processing algorithms like morphological operations, blob detection and histogram of oriented gradients the character recognition of video subtitles is implemented. Segmentation, feature extraction and classification are the major steps of character recognition. Several experimental results are shown to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm

  7. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  8. Constructing Pairs of Compatible Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathias Kratzer

    2003-01-01

    Given a finite group X such that both the conjugacy of elements in X and the length of any conjugacy class in X can be decided/computed efficiently,the first algorithm described in this article constructs a uniquely determined sequence of representatives for all the conjugacy classes of X. In particular, based on this sequence, any two characters of different groups isomorphic to X become comparable against each other which is utilized by a second algorithm designed to construct so-called compatible characters of given finite groups G and H having isomorphic subgroups U ≤ G and V ≤ H, respectively.

  9. Character Interviews Help Bring Literature to Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindall, Vickie; Cantrell, R. Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    Describes "Character Interviews," a class activity that guides children, especially reluctant readers, to the meaning of a story through a thoughtful understanding of character as they consider a character's emotions and motives, to respond to a question as that character would. Describes the interview process. Offers sample interviews…

  10. Building Character through Literacy with Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerico, Gina M.

    2014-01-01

    Character education is described as curriculum specifically developed to teach children about the quality and traits of good character. One means in which children can learn about good character is through the pages of high quality children's literature. In this study, the author defines the characteristics of an effective character development…

  11. MR evaluation of fetal demise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, Teresa; Chauvin, Nancy Anne; Johnson, Ann M.; Kramer, Sandra Sue; Epelman, Monica [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Capilla, Elena [Hospital Universitario Clinico San Carlos de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Fetal demise is an uncommon event encountered at MR imaging. When it occurs, recognition by the interpreting radiologist is important to initiate appropriate patient management. To identify MR findings of fetal demise. Following IRB approval, a retrospective search of the radiology fetal MR database was conducted searching the words ''fetal demise'' and ''fetal death.'' Fetuses with obvious maceration or no sonographic confirmation of death were excluded. Eleven cases formed the study group. These were matched randomly to live fetuses of similar gestational age. Images were reviewed independently by three pediatric radiologists. The deceased fetus demonstrates decreased MR soft-tissue contrast and definition of tissue planes, including loss of gray-white matter differentiation in the brain. The signal within the cardiac chambers, when visible, is bright on HASTE sequences from the stagnant blood; the heart is small. Pleural effusions and decreased lung volumes may be seen. Interestingly, the fetal orbits lose their anatomical round shape and become smaller and more elliptical; a dark, irregular rim resembling a mask may be seen. Although fetal demise is uncommonly encountered at MR imaging, radiologists should be aware of such imaging findings so prompt management can be instituted. (orig.)

  12. Fetal valproate syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmarth G Chandane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal use of anticonvulsant valproic acid can result in a well-recognized cluster of facial dysmorphism, congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental retardation. In this report, we describe a case with typical features of fetal valproate syndrome (FVS. A 26-year-old female with epilepsy controlled on sodium valproate 800 mg/day since 3 years, gave birth to a male child with characteristic features of FVS. She also had 3 spontaneous first-trimester abortions during those 3 years. Sodium valproate, a widely used anticonvulsant and mood regulator, is a well-recognized teratogen that can result in facial dysmorphism, craniosynostosis, neural tube defects, and neurodevelopmental retardation. Therefore, we strongly recommend avoidance of valproic acid and supplementation of folic acid during pregnancy.

  13. Character Analysis of Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迎春

    2002-01-01

    This thesis analyses Jane Eyre' s character. No matter what Jane met, no matter where she was, she always rebelled against that unfair society, she never gave up to try her best to get free, independent, fair life and true love. By unremitting efforts she finally got dignity, freedom and true love.

  14. THE THERMODYNAMIC CHARACTER OF INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova T.M.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article includes data concerning application of one of the universal method of the modern science based on fundamental thermodynamic laws to analyze the efficiency of the information processes. The comparison of the information and thermodynamic processes brought the author to the basic conclusion of the energetic character of information.

  15. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and…

  16. Hamlet and His Melancholy Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁

    2007-01-01

    @@ What's the theme of hamlet?His tragedies often portray some noble hero who faces the injustice of human life and is caught in a difficult situation whose fate is closely connected with the fate of the whole nation.The heroes have some weaknesses in their characters,which finally lead to their tragic thin falls.

  17. Character Toys as Psychological Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Elena O.

    2011-01-01

    The main characteristic of children's play is its mental aspect--the fact that it is based on thoughts and feelings and not on objective reality. During imaginary play, children go beyond the limits of reality, and toys are tools that help them to do this. Children need character toys--toys that play the role of companion or partner--in the early…

  18. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    IN ancient Chinese characters,母(pronounced mu)depicts a womanbending on her knees and crossingher hands in front with two points onher chest symbolizing her breasts.The original meaning of 母 is anadult woman who has given birth tochildren,i.e.a mother It was later

  19. Moral Character and Student Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…

  20. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    女 (nü) is a pictograph. InChinese it means female, theopposite of male. In ancientChinese, women had low socialstatus which is reflected in theshape of the character. 女 in theOracle-Bone Script looks like a

  1. Fetal pain perception and pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Marc; Jani, Jacques; De Buck, Frederik; Deprest, J

    2006-08-01

    This paper gives an overview of current science related to the concept of fetal pain. We have answered three important questions: (1) does fetal pain exist? (2) does management of fetal pain benefit the unborn child? and (3) which techniques are available to provide good fetal analgesia?

  2. The Danish Fetal Medicine database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte; Kopp, Tine Iskov; Tabor, Ann

    2016-01-01

    trimester ultrasound scan performed at all public hospitals in Denmark are registered in the database. Main variables/descriptive data: Data on maternal characteristics, ultrasonic, and biochemical variables are continuously sent from the fetal medicine units’Astraia databases to the central database via...... analyses are sent to the database. Conclusion: It has been possible to establish a fetal medicine database, which monitors first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities and second-trimester screening for major fetal malformations with the input from already collected data. The database...

  3. Amniotic fluid index and estimated fetal weight for prediction of fetal macrosomia: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khouly, Nabih I; Elkelani, Osama A; Saleh, Said A

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of combining the estimated fetal weight (EFW) and amniotic fluid index (AFI) measured in term patients early in labor with intact membranes for prediction of macrosomia. In a single center, prospective observational study, 600 patients in the first stage of labor before rupture of membranes in whom ultrasonography was performed to measure AFI and EFW, and these data were analyzed statistically to evaluate prediction of fetal macrosomia. Macrosomia occurred in 64 cases (10.6%). The AFI was significantly higher in the macrosomic group (p = 0.001). It was noted that the area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for EFW was 0.93 and that of AFI was 0.67. Based on suggested combined EFW and AFI cutoffs of 4000 g and 164 mm, respectively, the positive predictive value (PPV) for combined parameters (92.3%) was higher than that of EFW (75%) and that of AFI (27%) and the likelihood ratio for combination (93.7%) was higher than that of EFW (24.7%) and that of AFI (21%). Combined use of EFW and AFI improves prediction of macrosomia at birth rather than the EFW alone.

  4. CHARACTERS THAT SUFFERED DUE TO SHORTAGE IN THE CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Feng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the theories about motif and type will be used for analyzing the very types ofcharacters that suffered because of the shortages. To begin with, the analyzing of the differences andsimilarities of the shortages of each character will be counted on the inside and outside parts of theirsufferings. Then the theories of Nietzsche’s and of some myths will be used for analyzing the furtherreason of the sufferings. At last, investigating the special value those sufferings have brought forliteratures and for TV series. Multi-angle perspective is useful for investigating the unique charms ofthe shortages of characters as well as for finding out new understandings for the types of sufferings.

  5. The preterm cervix reveals a transcriptomic signature in the presence of premature prelabor rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makieva, Sofia; Dubicke, Aurelija; Rinaldi, Sara F; Fransson, Emma; Ekman-Ordeberg, Gunvor; Norman, Jane E

    2017-06-01

    Premature prelabor rupture of fetal membranes accounts for 30% of all premature births and is associated with detrimental long-term infant outcomes. Premature cervical remodeling, facilitated by matrix metalloproteinases, may trigger rupture at the zone of the fetal membranes overlying the cervix. The similarities and differences underlying cervical remodeling in premature prelabor rupture of fetal membranes and spontaneous preterm labor with intact membranes are unexplored. We aimed to perform the first transcriptomic assessment of the preterm human cervix to identify differences between premature prelabor rupture of fetal membranes and preterm labor with intact membranes and to compare the enzymatic activities of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 between premature prelabor rupture of fetal membranes and preterm labor with intact membranes. Cervical biopsies were collected following preterm labor with intact membranes (n = 6) and premature prelabor rupture of fetal membranes (n = 5). Biopsies were also collected from reference groups at term labor (n = 12) or term not labor (n = 5). The Illumina HT-12 version 4.0 BeadChips microarray was utilized, and a novel network graph approach determined the specificity of changes between premature prelabor rupture of fetal membranes and preterm labor with intact membranes. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting confirmed the microarray findings. Immunofluorescence was used for localization studies and gelatin zymography to assess matrix metalloproteinase activity. PML-RARA-regulated adapter molecule 1, FYVE-RhoGEF and PH domain-containing protein 3 and carcinoembryonic antigen-ralated cell adhesion molecule 3 were significantly higher, whereas N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 was lower in the premature prelabor rupture of fetal membranes cervix when compared with the cervix in preterm labor with intact membranes, term labor, and term not labor. PRAM1 and CEACAM3 were localized

  6. Fetal and maternal analgesia/anesthesia for fetal procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Marc; De Buck, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    For many prenatally diagnosed conditions, treatment is possible before birth. These fetal procedures can range from minimal invasive punctions to full open fetal surgery. Providing anesthesia for these procedures is a challenge, where care has to be taken for both mother and fetus. There are specific physiologic changes that occur with pregnancy that have an impact on the anesthetic management of the mother. When providing maternal anesthesia, there is also an impact on the fetus, with concerns for potential negative side effects of the anesthetic regimen used. The question whether the fetus is capable of feeling pain is difficult to answer, but there are indications that nociceptive stimuli have a physiologic reaction. This nociceptive stimulation of the fetus also has the potential for longer-term effects, so there is a need for fetal analgesic treatment. The extent to which a fetus is influenced by the maternal anesthesia depends on the type of anesthesia, with different needs for extra fetal anesthesia or analgesia. When providing fetal anesthesia, the potential negative consequences have to be balanced against the intended benefits of blocking the physiologic fetal responses to nociceptive stimulation.

  7. Fetal laser therapy: applications in the management of fetal pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Jérôme; Raio, Luigi; Baud, David

    2015-07-01

    Fetoscopic coagulation of placental anastomoses is the treatment of choice for severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. In the present day, fetal laser therapy is also used to treat amniotic bands, chorioangiomas, sacrococcygeal teratomas, lower urinary tract obstructions and chest masses, all of which will be reviewed in this article. Amniotic band syndrome can cause limb amputation by impairing downstream blood flow. Large chorioangiomas (>4 cm), sacrococcygeal teratomas or fetal hyperechoic lung lesions can lead to fetal compromise and hydrops by vascular steal phenomenon or compression. Renal damage, bladder dysfunction and lastly death because of pulmonary hypolasia may be the result of megacystis caused by a posterior urethral valve. The prognosis of these pathologies can be dismal, and therapy options are limited, which has brought fetal laser therapy to the forefront. Management options discussed here are laser release of amniotic bands, laser coagulation of the placental or fetal tumor feeding vessels and laser therapy by fetal cystoscopy. This review, largely based on case reports, does not intend to provide a level of evidence supporting laser therapy over other treatment options. Centralized evaluation by specialists using strict selection criteria and long-term follow-up of these rare cases are now needed to prove the value of endoscopic or ultrasound-guided laser therapy.

  8. Fetal MRI: techniques and protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Neuroradiology, University Clinics of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-10, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter Christian [Department of Anatomy, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Lucas [Diagnosezentrum Urania, Vienna (Austria)

    2004-09-01

    The development of ultrafast sequences has led to a significant improvement in fetal MRI. Imaging protocols have to be adjusted to the rapidly developing fetal central nervous system (CNS) and to the clinical question. Sequence parameters must be changed to cope with the respective developmental stage, to produce images free from motion artefacts and to provide optimum visualization of the region and focus of interest. In contrast to postnatal studies, every suspect fetal CNS abnormality requires examination of the whole fetus and the extrafetal intrauterine structures including the uterus. This approach covers both aspects of fetal CNS disorders: isolated and complex malformations and cerebral lesions arising from the impaired integrity of the feto-placental unit. (orig.)

  9. Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003407.htm Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution To use the sharing features ... unborn baby is leaking into the mother's blood circulation. The more of the baby's cells there are, ...

  10. The Danish Fetal Medicine Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte K; Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Jørgensen, Finn S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the establishment and organization of the Danish Fetal Medicine Database and to report national results of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 in the 5-year period 2008-2012. DESIGN: National register study using prospectively collected first-trimester screening...... data from the Danish Fetal Medicine Database. POPULATION: Pregnant women in Denmark undergoing first-trimester screening for trisomy 21. METHODS: Data on maternal characteristics, biochemical and ultrasonic markers are continuously sent electronically from local fetal medicine databases (Astraia Gmbh......%. The national screen-positive rate increased from 3.6% in 2008 to 4.7% in 2012. The national detection rate of trisomy 21 was reported to be between 82 and 90% in the 5-year period. CONCLUSION: A national fetal medicine database has been successfully established in Denmark. Results from the database have shown...

  11. SKIN DETECTION OF ANIMATION CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of animes makes it vulnerable to unwanted usages like copyright violations and pornography. That’s why, we need to develop a method to detect and recognize animation characters. Skin detection is one of the most important steps in this way. Though there are some methods to detect human skin color, but those methods do not work properly for anime characters. Anime skin varies greatly from human skin in color, texture, tone and in different kinds of lighting. They also vary greatly among themselves. Moreover, many other things (for example leather, shirt, hair etc., which are not skin, can have color similar to skin. In this paper, we have proposed three methods that can identify an anime character’s skin more successfully as compared with Kovac, Swift, Saleh and Osman methods, which are primarily designed for human skin detection. Our methods are based on RGB values and their comparative relations.

  12. Fetal ocular measurements by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao Bing; Kasprian, Gregor; Hodge, Jacqueline C; Jiang, Xiao Li; Bettelheim, Dieter; Brugger, Peter C; Prayer, Daniela

    2010-11-01

    To present fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ocular measurement ranges by gestational age (GA) in normal and growth-restricted fetuses. A total of 298 pregnant women from the 18th to the 39th week of gestation were imaged using MRI. Ocular measurements including binocular distance (BOD), interocular distance (IOD), transverse ocular diameter (OD) and anterior-posterior (AP) OD were measured. The curve estimation analyses for linear, logarithmic and quadratic models were performed. The ocular measurements of the fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were compared with that of the normal fetuses. The fetal eye resembles an ellipsoid with significantly longer OD and shorter AP (t = - 22.07, p < 0.001). The quadratic model was the best model in predicting growth of the fetal BOD, IOD, OD and AP. The ocular measurements of the fetuses with IUGR were significantly different from that of the normal fetuses (BOD: t = 3.58, p < 0.001; IOD: t = 5.73, p < 0.001; OD: t = 3.52, p < 0.001; AP: t = 2.19, p < 0.05). Fetal ocular growth can be readily assessed by fetal MRI. Using the normative data provided in this study, fetal ocular anomalies may be detected. Ocular size is frequently reduced in the condition of IUGR, with potential pathologic impact on postnatal vision.

  13. Fetal insulin and IGF-II contribute to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)-associated up-regulation of membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP) in the human feto-placental endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiden, U; Lassance, L; Tabrizi, N Ghaffari; Miedl, H; Tam-Amersdorfer, C; Cetin, I; Lang, U; Desoye, G

    2012-10-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)-associated hormonal and metabolic derangements in mother and fetus affect placental development and function. Indeed, in GDM, placentas are characterized by hypervascularization and vascular dysfunction. The membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP) is a key player in angiogenesis and vascular expansion. Here, we hypothesized elevated placental MT1-MMP levels in GDM induced by components of the diabetic environment. Therefore, we measured placental MT1-MMP in normal vs. GDM pregnancies, identified potential functional consequences, and investigated the contribution of hyperglycemia and the insulin/IGF axis. Immunohistochemistry identified placental cell types expressing MT1-MMP. MT1-MMP was compared between normal and GDM placentas by immunoblotting. Quantitative PCR of MT1-MMP in primary feto-placental endothelial cells (fpEC) and trophoblasts isolated from both normal and GDM placentas identified the cells contributing to the GDM-associated changes. A putative MT1-MMP role in angiogenesis was determined using blocking antibodies for in vitro angiogenesis assays. Potential GDM-associated factors and signaling pathways inducing MT1-MMP up-regulation in fpEC were identified using kinase inhibitors. Total and active MT1-MMP was increased in GDM placentas (+51 and 54%, respectively, Pfeto-placental endothelium, and insulin and IGF-II contribute. This may account for GDM-associated changes in the feto-placental vasculature.

  14. Recognition of isolated handprinted characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo

    1996-01-01

    Handprinted characters are of unequal complexity and a common description of all alphabet symbols seems therefore unobtainable. However, letters which confuse human beings and man-made OCR systems usually have approximately the same appearance and may therefore be modeled jointly. We part the set...... is usually too large but can be reduced automatically by the use of a predictive code length or predictive error criterion...

  15. Offline arabic character recognition system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Several languages use the Arabic alphabets and arabic scripts present challenges because the letter shape is context sensitive. For the past three decades, there has been a mounting interest among researchers in this problem. In this paper we present an Arabic Character Recognition system and quence steps of recognizing Arabic text. These steps are separately discussed, and previous research work on each step is reviewed. Also in this paper we give some samples of Arabic fonts.

  16. Character virtues in psychiatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radden, Jennifer; Sadler, John Z

    2008-01-01

    The character-focused approach known as virtue ethics is especially well suited to understanding and promoting ethical psychiatric practice. Virtues are stable dispositions and responses attributed to character, and a virtue-based ethics is one in which people's selves or characters are at the center of moral assessment. In this discussion by a clinician and a philosopher, clinical scenarios using exchanges and inner monologue illustrate key aspects of virtues. Virtues are acquired through habituation; they are habits of mind as much as behavior; they are as a group heterogeneous, and individually composite; they involve affective responses; they are not impartial; they are compatible with the "role morality" required of professionals; they are responses to particular temptations and weaknesses; and they include, in the capacity for practical judgment known as phronesis, a way of resolving many of the conflicts and dilemmas that arise in practice. The virtue approach to ethics will likely be most useful in the educational setting where practitioners are learning clinical skills and socialized into the broad ethos of professional practice. Aspects of this educational effort are briefly reviewed, including whether it ought to be undertaken at all, whether the effort to teach virtues is possible, and, if so, how it can be achieved.

  17. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND PROGNOSIS OF FETAL ARRHYTHMIAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-bo Fan; Ming-ying Gai; Jian-qiu Yang; Fei-fei Xing

    2004-01-01

    Objective To explore fetal arrhythmia clinical significance and its correlation with fetal prognosis.Methods Twenty-six cases of fetal arrhythmia detected among 12 799 pregnant women recorded over a ten-year period in Peking Uinon Medical College (PUMC) Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Fetal arrhythmia was diagnosed by fetal auscultation, ultrasonography, electric fetal heart monitoring, and fetal echocardiography.Results Twenty-six fetuses were documented with fetal arrhythmia (3 tachycardia, 4 bradycardia, 19 normal heart rate with irregular fetal cardiac rhythm). The incidence of fetal arrhythmia in our hospital was 0.2%. They were diagnosed at the average of 35 weeks' gestation (15 to 41 weeks). Twenty-two cases were diagnosed by antenatal fetal auscultation, 1 case was diagnosed by ultrasonography, and 3 cases were diagnosed by electric fetal heart monitoring. Fetal echocardiograms were performed on 17 fetuses, 6 cases (35.3%) of which showed that ventricular premature beats with normal structure of fetal heart.All neonates survived postnatally and 24 of them (92.3%) were followed up. Echocardiograms were performed for 16 neonates and 2 of them were identified as atrial septal defects with normal heart rhythms. The results of follow-up showed that the two patients had no apparent clinical manifestation. The echocardiogram showed that atrial septal defect obliterated already.Conclusion The prognosis is well for most of the fetuses with arrhythmias, with low incidence of heart deformation.

  18. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...... for the lateral organization of membranes as wells as for physical properties like bending, permeability and elasticity...

  19. Character Analysis: Up Close and Personal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Carla J.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a class activity which gives students practice in character analysis based on characters' dialog in plays. Offers a version of this activity as applied to Caryl Churchill's play "Top Girls." (SR)

  20. Seafloor character--Offshore of Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Bolinas, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_OffshoreBolinas.zip,"...

  1. CONFUCIANISM AND CHARACTER EDUCATION: A CHINESE VIEW

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mei-Ju Chou; Yi-Chan Tu; Kai-Ping Huang

    2013-01-01

    .... Also, the relationship between Confucianism and character education is discussed. Character education is based on the transmission of values and within Chinese society and most of these values have been founded on the teachings of Confucius...

  2. Seafloor character--Offshore of Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Bolinas, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_OffshoreBolinas.zip,"...

  3. Persistent fetal vasculature: ocular features, management of cataract and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Beatriz Tartarella

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: To describe ocular features, management of cataract and functional outcomes in patients with persistent fetal vasculature. METHODS: Retrospective, descriptive case series of patients with persistent fetal vasculature. Data were recorded from the Congenital Cataract Section of Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil from 2001 to 2012. All patients were evaluated for sex, age at diagnosis, systemic findings, laterality, age at surgery, and initial and final follow-up visual acuities. Follow-up and complications after cataract surgery were recorded. Ultrasound was performed in all cases and ocular eco-Doppler was performed in most. RESULTS: The study comprised 53 eyes from 46 patients. Age at diagnosis ranged from 5 days of life to 10 years-old (mean 22.7 months. Twenty-seven patients were male (58.7%. Persistent fetal vasculature was bilateral in 7 patients (15.2%. Forty-two eyes (79.2% had combined (anterior and posterior forms PFV presentation, 5 eyes (9.4% had only anterior persistent fetal vasculature presentation and 6 eyes (11.3% had posterior persistent fetal vasculature presentation. Thirty-eight eyes (71.7% were submitted to cataract surgery. Lensectomy combined with anterior vitrectomy was performed in 18 eyes (47.4%. Phacoaspiration with intraocular lens implantation was performed in 15 eyes (39.5%, and without lens implantation in 5 eyes (13.2%. Mean follow-up after surgery was 44 months. Postoperative complications were posterior synechiae (3 cases, retinal detachment (2 cases, phthisis (3 cases, posterior capsular opacification (8 cases, inflammatory pupillary membrane (5 cases, glaucoma (4 cases, intraocular lens implantation displacement (1 case and vitreous hemorrhage (2 cases. Complications were identified in 19 (50% of the 38 operated eyes. Visual acuity improved after cataract surgery in 83% of the eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with persistent fetal vasculature have variable clinical presentation. There is an

  4. Rapid Naming Speed and Chinese Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chen-Huei; Georgiou, George K.; Parrila, Rauno

    2008-01-01

    We examined the relationship between rapid naming speed (RAN) and Chinese character recognition accuracy and fluency. Sixty-three grade 2 and 54 grade 4 Taiwanese children were administered four RAN tasks (colors, digits, Zhu-Yin-Fu-Hao, characters), and two character recognition tasks. RAN tasks accounted for more reading variance in grade 4 than…

  5. Fetal privacy and confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkin, J R

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of new and better contraceptive methods and the ability to facilitate and manipulate fertilization and gestation, couples will gain greater control over their fertility. Once a pregnancy has been established or an in vitro embryo created, the ability to evaluate the embryo and fetus will increase dramatically with progress in human genetic research. Preconception and preimplantation genetic testing and screening are now possible, and the technology to perform prenatal screening early in gestation is advancing rapidly. Nonsurgical methods facilitate induced abortion with a relatively lower degree of trauma upon the woman undergoing the procedure. These capabilities may all be used to enable and even encourage the genetic selection of future children. Despite the ethical concerns associated with prenatal testing and abortion, these services will continue to be an integral aspect of reproductive medicine. As technology advances, however, it will be possible to test and screen for conditions which do not produce serious defects. Genetic conditions which produce relatively mild impacts upon health will be identifiable in the embryo or fetus, while late-onset conditions and genetic factors which have only a probability of affecting health will also be located in the fetal genome. Prospective parents may therefore soon have the capability of selecting their most desirable embryo in vitro, or terminating all undesirable fetuses in vivo until the preferred child is delivered. The medical profession must take some responsibility for establishing guidelines on the use of reproductive technology. The standards of practice for the medical profession must reflect the results of a broad social debate over competing moral values. The author develops an argument for legal and ethical limitations on the application of prenatal testing and screening technology, suggesting that for some medical conditions, respect for the privacy and confidentiality of the fetus

  6. Human fetal mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Keelin; Chan, Jerry

    2006-09-01

    Stem cells have been isolated at all stages of development from the early developing embryo to the post-reproductive adult organism. However, the fetal environment is unique as it is the only time in ontogeny that there is migration of stem cells in large numbers into different organ compartments. While fetal neural and haemopoietic stem cells (HSC) have been well characterised, only recently have mesenchymal stem cells from the human fetus been isolated and evaluated. Our group have characterised in human fetal blood, liver and bone marrow a population of non-haemopoietic, non-endothelial cells with an immunophenotype similar to adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). These cells, human fetal mesenchymal stem cells (hfMSC), are true multipotent stem cells with greater self-renewal and differentiation capacity than their adult counterparts. They circulate in first trimester fetal blood and have been found to traffic into the maternal circulation, engrafting in bone marrow, where they remain microchimeric for decades after pregnancy. Though fetal microchimerism has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, the biological role of hfMSC microchimerism is unknown. Potential downstream applications of hfMSC include their use as a target cell for non-invasive pre-natal diagnosis from maternal blood, and for fetal cellular and gene therapy. Using hfMSC in fetal therapy offers the theoretical advantages of avoidance of immune rejection, increased engraftment, and treatment before disease pathology sets in. Aside from allogeneic hfMSC in utero transplantation, the use of autologous hfMSC has been brought a step forward with the development of early blood sampling techniques, efficient viral transduction and clonal expansion. Work is ongoing to determine hfMSC fate post-transplantation in murine models of genetic disease. In this review we will examine what is known about hfMSC biology, as well as discussing areas for future research. The

  7. Two cases of fetal goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Saini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anterior fetal neck masses are rarely encountered. Careful routine ultrasound screening can reveal intrauterine fetal goiters (FGs. The incidence of goitrous hypothyroidism is 1 in 30,000-50,000 live births. The consequences of both FG and impaired thyroid function are serious. Aims and Objectives: To emphasize role of ultrasound in both invasive and non-invasive management of FG. Materials and Methods: Two pregnant patients, during second trimester, underwent routine antenatal ultrasound revealing FG, were investigated and managed. Results: Case 1: Revealed FG with fetal hypothyroidism. Intra-amniotic injection l-thyroxine given. Follow-up ultrasound confirmed the reduction of the goiter size. At birth, thyroid dyshormogenesis was suspected and neonate discharged on 50 mcg levothyroxine/day with normal growth and development so far. Case 2: Hypothyroid mother with twin pregnancy revealed FG, in twin 1, confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging (1.5 × 1.63 cm. The other twin had no thyroid swelling. Cordocentesis confirmed hypothyroidism in twin 1. Maternal thyroxine dose increased as per biochemical parameters leading to reduction in FG size. Mother delivered preterm and none of the twins had thyroid swelling. Fetal euthyroidism was confirmed on biochemical screening. Conclusion: FG during pregnancy should be thoroughly evaluated, diagnosed and immediately treated; although in utero options for fetal hypothyroidism management are available, emphasis should be laid on non-invasive procedures. Newer and better resolution techniques in ultrasonography are more specific and at the same time are less harmful.

  8. Fetal Programming and Cardiovascular Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T.; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25880521

  9. Digital Animation Character Creation Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘锋

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the proper method for Chinese digital animation character design on the foundation of certain cultural elements. The method used in this study is known as comparative analysis of Disney and Japanese animation styles in action, appearance, facial expression and voice design. These dynamic factors are the best carrier of the animation spirit and native culture, so it is important to take the dynamic factors into account when producing the digital animation, and it will be an excellent starting point to innovate Chinese digital animation.

  10. A Note on Generalized Characters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S J Bhatt; H V Dedania

    2005-11-01

    For a compactly generated LCA group , it is shown that the set $H(G)$ of all generalized characters on equipped with the compact-open topology is a LCA group and $H(G)=\\hat{G}$ (the dual group of ) if and only if is compact. Both results fail for arbitrary LCA groups. Further, if is second countable, then the Gel’fand space of the commutative convolution algebra $C_c(G)$ equipped with the inductive limit topology is topologically homeomorphic to $H(G)$.

  11. Maternal factors associated with fetal growth and birthweight are independent determinants of placental weight and exhibit differential effects by fetal sex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Cecilie Paasche Roland

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Maternal nutritional and metabolic factors influence the developmental environment of the fetus. Virtually any nutritional factor in the maternal blood has to pass the placental membranes to reach the fetal blood. Placental weight is a commonly used measure to summarize placental growth and function. Placental weight is an independent determinant of fetal growth and birthweight and modifies the associations between maternal metabolic factors and fetal growth. We hypothesized that maternal factors known to be related to fetal growth, newborn size and body composition are determinants of placental weight and that effects of maternal metabolic factors on placental weight differ between the genders. METHODS: The STORK study is a prospective longitudinal study including 1031 healthy pregnant women of Scandinavian heritage with singleton pregnancies. Maternal determinants (parity, body mass index, gestational weight gain and fasting plasma glucose of placental weight were explored by linear regression models, stratified by fetal sex. RESULTS: Parity, maternal BMI, gestational weight gain and fasting glucose had positive effects on placental weight. There was a sex specific effect in these associations. Fasting glucose was significantly associated with placental weight in females but not in males. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors known to influence fetal growth, birthweight and neonatal body composition are determinants of placental weight. The effect of maternal factors on placental weight is influenced by sex as illustrated in the relation between maternal glucose and placental weight.

  12. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  13. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Bencharef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character.

  14. System and method for character recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J. P. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A character recognition system is disclosed in which each character in a retina, defining a scanning raster, is scanned with random lines uniformly distributed over the retina. For each type of character to be recognized the system stores a probability density function (PDF) of the random line intersection lengths and/or a PDF of the random line number of intersections. As an unknown character is scanned, the random line intersection lengths and/or the random line number of intersections are accumulated and based on a comparison with the prestored PDFs a classification of the unknown character is performed.

  15. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencharef, Omar; Chihab, Younes; Mousaid, Nouredine; Oujaoura, Mustapha

    2015-09-01

    The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode) [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character.

  16. Extending Characters on Fix Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    A dynamical system is a triple $(A,G,\\alpha)$, consisting of a unital locally convex algebra $A$, a topological group $G$ and a group homomorphism $\\alpha:G\\rightarrow\\Aut(A)$, which induces a continuous action of $G$ on $A$. Further, a unital locally convex algebra $A$ is called continuous inverse algebra, or CIA for short, if its group of units $A^{\\times}$ is open in $A$ and the inversion $\\iota:A^{\\times}\\rightarrow A^{\\times},\\,\\,\\,a\\mapsto a^{-1}$ is continuous at $1_A$. For a compact manifold $M$, the Fr\\'echet algebra of smooth functions $C^{\\infty}(M)$ is the prototype of such a continuous inverse algebra. We show that if $A$ is a complete commutative CIA, $G$ a compact group and $(A,G,\\alpha)$ a dynamical system, then each character of $B:=A^G$ can be extended to a character of $A$. In particular, the natural map on the level of the corresponding spectra $\\Gamma_A\\rightarrow\\Gamma_B$, $\\chi\\mapsto\\chi_{\\mid B}$ is surjective.

  17. Physiology of the fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiserud, Torvid

    2005-12-01

    Our understanding of fetal circulatory physiology is based on experimental animal data, and this continues to be an important source of new insight into developmental mechanisms. A growing number of human studies have investigated the human physiology, with results that are similar but not identical to those from animal studies. It is time to appreciate these differences and base more of our clinical approach on human physiology. Accordingly, the present review focuses on distributional patterns and adaptational mechanisms that were mainly discovered by human studies. These include cardiac output, pulmonary and placental circulation, fetal brain and liver, venous return to the heart, and the fetal shunts (ductus venosus, foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus). Placental compromise induces a set of adaptational and compensational mechanisms reflecting the plasticity of the developing circulation, with both short- and long-term implications. Some of these aspects have become part of the clinical physiology of today with consequences for surveillance and treatment.

  18. Marvel and DC Characters Inspired by Arachnids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidiomar Ribeiro Da-Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares arachnid-based Marvel and DC comics characters. The composition of a comic book character often has interesting ‘real-life’ influences. Given the strong connection between arachnids (especially spiders, scorpions and mites, all belonging to the zoological class 'Arachnida' and human beings it is not surprising that they have inspired many fictional characters. We recorded 84 Marvel Comics characters and 40 DC Comics characters, detailed in the dataset that accompanies the article (Da-Silva 2014. Most characters have been created recently, since the 1990s. Marvel has significantly more arachnid characters than DC. As for taxonomic classification, the characters were based mostly on spiders (zoological order 'Araneae'. Of the total characters, the majority are human beings, but an overwhelming number have at least some typical arachnid features. Villains (60.91% of total are significantly more numerous, considering the sum of the two publishers. Arachnids have bad reputation for being dangerous (Thorp and Woodson 1976; Ruppert and Barnes 1996. Since the public usually considers spiders, scorpions and mites “harmful” in general, we expected a larger contingent of villains. However, there was no statistical difference between the amount of villains and heroes in Marvel characters. It did not happen probably due to the success of one character: the Amazing Spider-Man.

  19. Character animation fundamentals developing skills for 2D and 3D character animation

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Expand your animation toolkit and remain competitive in the industry with this leading resource for 2D and 3D character animation techniques. Apply the industry's best practices to your own workflows and develop 2D, 3D and hybrid characters with ease. With side by side comparisons of 2D and 3D character design, improve your character animation and master traditional principles and processes including weight and balance, timing and walks. Develop characters inspired by humans, birds, fish, snakes and four legged animals. Breathe life into your character and develop a characters personality w

  20. Kannada character recognition system using neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh D. S.; Kamalapuram, Srinivasa K.; Kumar, Ajay B. R.

    2013-03-01

    Handwriting recognition has been one of the active and challenging research areas in the field of pattern recognition. It has numerous applications which include, reading aid for blind, bank cheques and conversion of any hand written document into structural text form. As there is no sufficient number of works on Indian language character recognition especially Kannada script among 15 major scripts in India. In this paper an attempt is made to recognize handwritten Kannada characters using Feed Forward neural networks. A handwritten Kannada character is resized into 20x30 Pixel. The resized character is used for training the neural network. Once the training process is completed the same character is given as input to the neural network with different set of neurons in hidden layer and their recognition accuracy rate for different Kannada characters has been calculated and compared. The results show that the proposed system yields good recognition accuracy rates comparable to that of other handwritten character recognition systems.

  1. Character evolution in Hydrozoa (phylum Cnidaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Paulyn; Nawrocki, Annalise M

    2010-09-01

    The diversity of hydrozoan life cycles, as manifested in the wide range of polyp, colony, and medusa morphologies, has been appreciated for centuries. Unraveling the complex history of characters involved in this diversity is critical for understanding the processes driving hydrozoan evolution. In this study, we use a phylogenetic approach to investigate the evolution of morphological characters in Hydrozoa. A molecular phylogeny is reconstructed using ribosomal DNA sequence data. Several characters involving polyp, colony, and medusa morphology are coded in the terminal taxa. These characters are mapped onto the phylogeny and then the ancestral character states are reconstructed. This study confirms the complex evolutionary history of hydrozoan morphological characters. Many of the characters involving polyp, colony, and medusa morphology appear as synapomorphies for major hydrozoan clades, yet homoplasy is commonplace. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural recognition of ancient Chinese ideographic characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Chen Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese characters, typically the ideographic characters on bones and bronze before Shang Dynasty (16th—11th century B.C.), are valuable culture legacy of history. However the recognition of Ancient Chinese characters has been the task of paleography experts for long. With the help of modern computer technique, everyone can expect to be able to recognize the characters and understand the ancient inscriptions. This research is aimed to help people recognize and understand those ancient Chinese characters by combining Chinese paleography theory and computer information processing technology. Based on the analysis of ancient character features, a method for structural character recognition is proposed. The important characteristics of strokes and basic components or radicals used in recognition are introduced in detail. A system was implemented based on above method to show the effectiveness of the method.

  3. 3D ultrasound in fetal spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, T; Gloning, K-P; Minderer, S; Tutschek, B

    2008-12-01

    3D ultrasound can be used to study the fetal spine, but skeletal mode can be inconclusive for the diagnosis of fetal spina bifida. We illustrate a diagnostic approach using 2D and 3D ultrasound and indicate possible pitfalls.

  4. CORD PROLAPSE, ASSOCIATED FACTORS AND FETAL OUTCOME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted this study to determine profile of pregnancy ... Several factors predispose to cord prolapse, amongst which are breech ... no fetal heart tones and only 31.8% of the babies were alive after ... Fetal death was, more common with.

  5. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  6. Macrosomia - maternal and fetal risk factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    group; 3 cases of second-degree perineal laceration. ,,; 160 cm ... In order to make the diagnosis of fetal macrosomia antenatally ... real-time ultrasonography gives the best estimate of fetal .... Oats IN, Abell OA, Seischer NA, Broomhart GR.

  7. Fetal scalp blood sampling during labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandraharan, Edwin; Wiberg, Nana

    2014-01-01

    and Clinical Excellence guideline considers that fetal scalp blood sampling decreases instrumental delivery without differences in other outcome variables. The fetal scalp is supplied by vessels outside the skull below the level of the cranial vault, which is likely to be compressed during contractions......Fetal cardiotocography is characterized by low specificity; therefore, in an attempt to ensure fetal well-being, fetal scalp blood sampling has been recommended by most obstetric societies in the case of a non-reassuring cardiotocography. The scientific agreement on the evidence for using fetal...... scalp blood sampling to decrease the rate of operative delivery for fetal distress is ambiguous. Based on the same studies, a Cochrane review states that fetal scalp blood sampling increases the rate of instrumental delivery while decreasing neonatal acidosis, whereas the National Institute of Health...

  8. Fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Ulrich J

    2013-01-01

    In fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT), antibodies against paternal antigens present on fetal platelets are produced by the mother. These antibodies will cross the placenta and can cause thrombocytopenia of the unborn. One severe consequence of thrombocytopenia is intracranial bleeding which may lead to death or severe sequelae. FNAIT index cases in one family are usually detected at birth only since antenatal screening programmes have not been installed so far. Subsequent pregnancies of immunized mothers may require special diagnostic and prophylactic interventions, and interdisciplinary counselling and treatment involving obstetricians, pediatricians and immunohematologists may prove useful for optimized care. This short review covers pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic, and therapeutic options in FNAIT.

  9. Fetal epigenetic programming of adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Andrée-Anne; Hivert, Marie-France; Bouchard, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetics generates a considerable interest in the field of research on complex traits, including obesity and diabetes. Recently, we reported a number of epipolymorphisms in the placental leptin and adiponectin genes associated with maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy. Our results suggest that DNA methylation could partly explain the link between early exposure to a detrimental fetal environment and an increased risk to develop obesity and diabetes later in life. This brief report discusses the potential importance of adipokine epigenetic changes in fetal metabolic programming. Additionally, preliminary data showing similarities between methylation variations of different tissues and cell types will be presented along with the challenges and future perspectives of this emerging field of research.

  10. Chorionic Villus Sampling and Marked Membrane Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Akhlaghpoor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The major concern about the invasive prenatal diagnostic tests is the"nfrequency of procedure induced pregnancy loss. Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS is the invasive"ntest of choice in the first trimester after the 10th gestational week. Our experience suggests"nmarked chorioamniotic separation is an uncommon finding after the 10th gestational week. This"nstudy assesses the rate of marked membrane separation in a 10 to 14-week gestational period"nand its effect on post CVS fetal loss."nPatients and Methods: Forty-one patients (5.2% were selected among 782 patients as cases"nwith marked membrane separation (mean maternal age, 26.9 years. CVS procedures were"nperformed with a 20-gauge Chiba needle attached to a 20-ml syringe under ultrasound guidance."nFollow-up was performed by phone call and clinical visits until 24 weeks of gestation. For the"ncontrol group, the follow-up was performed for only 2 weeks. Early fetal loss in the first two"nweeks of post procedural period, and late fetal loss from 2 weeks after procedure till the 24th"ngestational week were considered as CVS complications."nResults: We detected 2.4% early fetal losses after the procedure. Fourteen cases voluntarily"nunderwent therapeutic abortion due to beta-thalassemia or hemophilia. One fetus with"nmicrocephaly was spontaneously aborted in the 21st gestational week. Twenty-five neonates"nwere delivered alive at term and one prematurely at the 32nd week. Marked membrane separation"nhad no significant effect on early post CVS fetal loss rate."nConclusion: The procedure does not have a major impact on the early post CVS fetal loss in"npatients with marked membrane separation.

  11. Prediction of fetal acidemia in placental abruption

    OpenAIRE

    MATSUDA, Yoshio; OGAWA, Masaki; KONNO, Jun; MITANI, Minoru; MATSUI, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the major predictive factors for fetal acidemia in placental abruption. Methods A retrospective review of pregnancies with placental abruption was performed using a logistic regression model. Fetal acidemia was defined as a pH of less than 7.0 in umbilical artery. The severe abruption score, which was derived from a linear discriminant function, was calculated to determine the probability of fetal acidemia. Results Fetal acidemia was seen in 43 survivors (43/222, 19%)....

  12. Fetal cor triatriatum dexter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroun, Lisa Leth; Graem, Niels; Skibsted, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    Two early-2nd-trimester fetuses were aborted as a result of nuchal edema and suspected severe heart malformation. At autopsy one fetus demonstrated nuchal edema, mild hydronephrosis, and cor triatriatum dexter associated with ventricular septal defect and tubular hypoplasia of the aortic arch....... The other fetus demonstrated severe nuchal edema, and cor triatriatum dexter was the only malformation. Cor triatriatum dexter is a rare cardiac malformation characterized by division of the right atrium into 2 compartments by a usually fenestrated membrane representing remnants of the right valve...... of the embryonic sinus venosus. This malformation has been diagnosed in adults and children by echocardiography, surgery, or autopsy but has not previously been published in fetuses....

  13. Maternal and fetal risk factors affecting perinatal mortality in early and late fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Oya; Selçuk, Selçuk; Kumru, Pınar; Asoğlu, Mehmet Reşit; Mahmutoğlu, Didar; Boza, Barış; Türkyılmaz, Gürcan; Bütün, Zafer; Arısoy, Resul; Tandoğan, Bülent

    2015-12-01

    To determine the factors which affect the perinatal deaths in early and late fetal growth restriction (FGR) fetuses using threshold of estimated fetal weight (EFW) fetuses, defined as an EFW fetuses considered as growth restrictions were confirmed by birth weight. Fetuses with multiple pregnancy, congenital malformation, chromosomal abnormality, and premature rupture of membrane were excluded. Samples were grouped in early and late FGR. Early FGR fetuses was classified as gestational age at birth ≤ 34 weeks and late FGR was classified as gestational age at birth > 34 weeks. Factors which affect the perinatal deaths were analyzed descriptively in early and late FGR. The perinatal mortality was calculated by adding the number of stillbirths and neonatal deaths. The study included 86 early and 185 late FGR fetuses, 31 resulted in perinatal deaths, 28 perinatal deaths were in early FGR, and three perinatal deaths were in late FGR. Perinatal deaths occurred more commonly in early FGR fetuses with an EFW death in early FGR. All three perinatal deaths in late FGR occurred in fetuses with EFW death was found significantly higher in increased vascular impedance of UtAs whatever the umbilical artery Doppler. Only EFW death in late FGR in comparison with early FGR. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Correlation analysis of outcome of pregnancy according to the residual amount of amniot-ic fluid after full-term premature rupture of fetal membranes%足月胎膜早破残余羊水量对妊娠结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石海霞; 杭木兰

    2015-01-01

    difference(P<0.05). The intrauterine infection rate, the incidence of neonatal disease, the meconium stained amniotic fluid rate and the incidence of fetal distress in Group C were higher than in Group A, with statistically significant difference(P<0.05).The othercomparisonsbetween groups showed no significant difference.From the Logistic regression analysis results of the risk factors on maternal intrauterine infec-tion rate and neonatal morbidity, it was known that the residual amount of amniotic fluid, the time of membranes ruptured till delivery and the meconium stained amniotic fluid were the main factors influencing the maternal intrauterine infection rate and neonatal morbidi-ty.Conclusions The residual amount of amniotic fluid after full-term premature rupture of fetal membranes closely relates to the preg-nancy outcome.The less the residual amount of amniotic fluid, the more seriousthe threat of maternal and infant health.

  15. Practice Bulletin No. 173: Fetal Macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Suspected fetal macrosomia is encountered commonly in obstetric practice. As birth weight increases, the likelihood of labor abnormalities, shoulder dystocia, birth trauma, and permanent injury to the neonate increases. The purpose of this document is to quantify those risks, address the accuracy and limitations of methods for estimating fetal weight, and suggest clinical management for a pregnancy with suspected fetal macrosomia.

  16. Unilateral Huge Hydronephrosis Necessitating Fetal Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşenur Cerrah Celayir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal intervention for obstructive uropathy was first performed at the University of California, San Francisco in 1981. Since then diagnostic criteria for fetal intervention have been laid down to assist in proper patient selection. Unilateral fetal hydronephrosis doesn’t require prenatal intervention; but prenatal intervention might be required in selected cases, especially when hydronephrosis compresses adjacent organs.

  17. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging. Diagnostics in cases of congenital cystadenomatoid malformation; Fetale Magnetresonanztomographie. Diagnostik bei zystadenomatoider Malformation der Lunge (CCAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buesing, K.A.; Kilian, A.K.; Neff, K.W. [Fakultaet fuer Klinische Medizin der Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Schaible, T. [Fakultaet fuer Klinische Medizin der Universitaet Heidelberg, Kinderklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    Despite advancing therapeutic strategies, congenital cystadenomatoid malformation of the fetal lung is still a potentially life-threatening anomaly. Antenatally, the development of hydrops as well as the natural history of the malformation is of particular therapeutic and prognostic importance. Postnatally, respiratory distress due to pulmonary hypoplasia counts as a crucial limiting factor. Owing to its feasibility and practicability, as well as a high sensitivity, antenatal ultrasound is still the screening method of choice for the detection of fetal thoracic malformations. However, particularly in cases of indistinguishable sonographic findings, fetal MRI is the modality of choice for proving the diagnosis and preliminary appraisal of intensive care therapy and extracorporal membrane oxygenation postnatally. Furthermore, fetal MRI often facilitates assessment and planning of intrauterine surgical procedures. These two features frequently require a close transfer to an expert neonatal centre. (orig.) [German] Trotz verbesserter Therapien stellt die kongenitale zystadenomatoide Malformation der Lunge fuer den Feten weiterhin eine potenziell lebensbedrohliche Missbildung dar. Praenatal sind insbesondere ein Hydrops fetalis sowie der Spontanverlauf von prognostischer und therapeutischer Relevanz. Postnatal kommt der Lungenhypoplasie eine entscheidende Bedeutung zu. Aufgrund der hohen Verfuegbarkeit und Sensitivitaet bleibt die Primaerdiagnostik weiterhin dem Ultraschall vorbehalten. Die fetale MRT hingegen hat sich insbesondere bei unklarer sonographischer Befundlage als Methode der Wahl etabliert. Neben der Diagnosesicherung erleichtert sie durch eine uebersichtliche Darstellung der Befundausdehnung haeufig die Abschaetzung einer postnatalen Intensivtherapie. Mit zunehmender Erfahrung beim Einsatz fetalchirurgischer Verfahren kommt ihr ferner eine wachsende Bedeutung in der Indikationsstellung und Planung praenataler Therapien zu. Beides erfordert u. U. die

  18. Character design for soccer commmentary

    CERN Document Server

    Binsted, K

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present early work on an animated talking head commentary system called {\\bf Byrne}\\footnote{David Byrne is the lead singer of the Talking Heads.}. The goal of this project is to develop a system which can take the output from the RoboCup soccer simulator, and generate appropriate affective speech and facial expressions, based on the character's personality, emotional state, and the state of play. Here we describe a system which takes pre-analysed simulator output as input, and which generates text marked-up for use by a speech generator and a face animation system. We make heavy use of inter-system standards, so that future versions of Byrne will be able to take advantage of advances in the technologies that it incorporates.

  19. Synthetic biology character and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Pade, Christian; Wigger, Henning; Gleich, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is already an object of intensive debate. However, to a great extent the discussion to date has been concerned with fundamental ethical, religious and philosophical questions. By contrast, based on an investigation of the field’s scientific and technological character, this book focuses on new functionalities provided by synthetic biology and explores the associated opportunities and risks. Following an introduction to the subject and a discussion of the most central paradigms and methodologies, the book provides an overview of the structure of this field of science and technology. It informs the reader about the current stage of development, as well as topical problems and potential opportunities in important fields of application. But not only the science itself is in focus. In order to investigate its broader impact, ecological as well as ethical implications will be considered, paving the way for a discussion of responsibilities in the context of a field at a transitional crossroads be...

  20. The Contingent Character of Necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guzmán

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent criticisms raised against Hegel has to do with the totalizing aspect of his system, which determines what is as absolutely necessary. The Science of Logic, being the conceptual edifice upon which his whole system is built, is the appropriate place to determine the specific meaning of the Hegelian concepts. The following paper offers a detailed analysis on the chapter on Actuality (Wirklichkeit in the Science of Logic, in order to show how the concept of absolute necessity not only includes within it, but also contains as a structural element, the concept of contingency. In this manner a deflationary interpretation is generated in which the absolutely necessary character of actuality should not be understood as grounded on a pre-established end that inexorably determines actuality, but rather as an interpretive movement, in recollection, of its process.

  1. Fetal onset of general movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luechinger, Annemarie B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Van Kan, Colette M.; de Vries, JIP

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal qualitative assessment of general movements (GMs) is a tool to evaluate the integrity of the young nervous system. The aim of this investigation was to study the emergence of GMs. Fetal onset of GMs was studied sonographically in 18 fetuses during the first trimester of uncomplicated in vi

  2. Computer-Mediated Materials for Chinese Character Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Mei; Gao, Liwei

    2002-01-01

    Reviews four sets of computer-mediated materials for Chinese character learning. These include the following: Write Chinese, Chinese Characters Primer, Animated Chinese Characters, and USC Chinese Character Page. (Author/VWL)

  3. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging and human genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengstschlaeger, Markus [Medical Genetics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: markus.hengstschlaeger@meduniwien.ac.at

    2006-02-15

    The use of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in addition to prenatal genetic testing and sonography, has the potential to improve prenatal diagnosis of genetic disorders. MRI plays an important role in the evaluation of fetal abnormalities and malformations. Fetal MRI often enables a differential diagnosis, a determination of the extent of the disorder, the prognosis, and an improvement in therapeutic management. For counseling of parents, as well as to basically understand how genetic aberrations affect fetal development, it is of great importance to correlate different genotypes with fetal MRI data.

  4. Unsupervised fetal cortical surface parcellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdouh, Sonia; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    At the core of many neuro-imaging studies, atlas-based brain parcellations are used for example to study normal brain evolution across the lifespan. These atlases rely on the assumption that the same anatomical features are present on all subjects to be studied and that these features are stable enough to allow meaningful comparisons between different brain surfaces and structures These methods, however, often fail when applied to fetal MRI data, due to the lack of consistent anatomical features present across gestation. This paper presents a novel surface-based fetal cortical parcellation framework which attempts to circumvent the lack of consistent anatomical features by proposing a brain parcellation scheme that is based solely on learned geometrical features. A mesh signature incorporating both extrinsic and intrinsic geometrical features is proposed and used in a clustering scheme to define a parcellation of the fetal brain. This parcellation is then learned using a Random Forest (RF) based learning approach and then further refined in an alpha-expansion graph-cut scheme. Based on the votes obtained by the RF inference procedure, a probability map is computed and used as a data term in the graph-cut procedure. The smoothness term is defined by learning a transition matrix based on the dihedral angles of the faces. Qualitative and quantitative results on a cohort of both healthy and high-risk fetuses are presented. Both visual and quantitative assessments show good results demonstrating a reliable method for fetal brain data and the possibility of obtaining a parcellation of the fetal cortical surfaces using only geometrical features.

  5. Handwritten Javanese Character Recognition Using Several Artificial Neural Network Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorius Satia Budhi; Rudy Adipranata

    2015-01-01

    Javanese characters are traditional characters that are used to write the Javanese language. The Javanese language is a language used by many people on the island of Java, Indonesia. The use of Javanese characters is diminishing more and more because of the difficulty of studying the Javanese characters themselves. The Javanese character set consists of basic characters, numbers, complementary characters, and so on. In this research we have developed a system to recognize Javanese characters....

  6. Cohomological Hall algebras and character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Davison, Ben

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationship between twisted and untwisted character varieties via a specific instance of the Cohomological Hall algebra for moduli of objects in 3-Calabi-Yau categories introduced by Kontsevich and Soibelman. In terms of Donaldson--Thomas theory, this relationship is completely understood via the calculations of Hausel and Villegas of the E polynomials of twisted character varieties and untwisted character stacks. We present a conjectural lift of this relationship to the cohomological Hall algebra setting.

  7. Membrane reactor. Membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Y.; Wakabayashi, K. (National Chemical Laboratory for Industry, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1990-08-05

    Many reaction examples were introduced of membrane reactor, to be on the point of forming a new region in the field of chemical technology. It is a reactor to exhibit excellent function, by its being installed with membrane therein, and is generally classified into catalyst function type and reaction promotion type. What firstly belongs to the former is stabilized zirconia, where oxygen, supplied to the cathodic side of membrane with voltage, impressed thereon, becomes O {sup 2 {minus}} to be diffused through the membrane and supplied, as variously activated oxygenous species, on the anodic side. Examples with many advantages can be given such as methane coupling, propylene oxidation, methanating reaction of carbon dioxide, etc. Apart, palladium film and naphion film also belong to the former. While examples of the latter comprise, among others, decomposition of hydrogen sulfide by porous glass film and dehydrogenation of cyclohexane or palladium alloy film, which are expected to be developed and materialized in the industry. 33 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Acute Effects of Viral Exposure on P-Glycoprotein Function in the Mouse Fetal Blood-Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrrico Bloise

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Viral infection during pregnancy is known to affect the fetal brain. The toll-like receptor (TLR-3 is a pattern recognition receptor activated by viruses known to elicit adverse fetal neurological outcomes. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp efflux transporter protects the developing fetus by limiting the transfer of substrates across both the placenta and the fetal blood-brain barrier (BBB. As such, inhibition of P-gp at these blood-barrier sites may result in increased exposure of the developing fetus to environmental toxins and xenobiotics present in the maternal circulation. We hypothesized that viral exposure during pregnancy would impair P-gp function in the placenta and in the developing BBB. Here we investigated whether the TLR-3 ligand, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C, increased accumulation of one P-gp substrate in the fetus and in the developing fetal brain. Methods: Pregnant C57BL/6 mice (GD15.5 were injected (i.p. with PolyI:C (5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg or vehicle (saline. [3H]digoxin (P-gp substrate was injected (i.v. 3 or 23h post-treatment and animals were euthanized 1h later. Maternal plasma, ‘fetal-units’ (fetal membranes, amniotic fluid and whole fetus, and fetal brains were collected. Results: PolyI:C exposure (4h significantly elevated maternal plasma IL-6 (P<0.001 and increased [3H]digoxin accumulation in the fetal brain (P<0.05. In contrast, 24h after PolyI:C exposure, no effect on IL-6 or fetal brain accumulation of P-gp substrate was observed. Conclusion: Viral infection modeled by PolyI:C causes acute increases in fetal brain accumulation of P-gp substrates and by doing so, may increase fetal brain exposure to xenobiotics and environmental toxins present in the maternal circulation.

  9. New process for high temperature polybenzimidazole membrane production and its impact on the membrane and the membrane electrode assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenyu; Tsou, Yu-Min; Calundann, Gordon; De Castro, Emory

    Water addition is a key step in the new process developed at BASF Fuel Cell Inc. (BFC) for polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane production. The added water prevents further polymerization and controls the solution viscosity for easier membrane casting. For large-scale PBI membrane production, a certain amount of tension is necessary during membrane upwinding. The applied tension could affect the polymer orientation and result in anisotropic membrane mechanical properties and proton conductivity. The membrane prepared with tension shows higher elastic modulus and proton conductivity in machine direction, which might suggest some degree of polymer chain orientation. However, the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) performance is not affected by the membrane's apparent anisotropic character. However, we observed performance variation as a function of MEA break-in condition, which might be explained by the formation of a phosphate anion concentration gradient during MEA operation.

  10. New process for high temperature polybenzimidazole membrane production and its impact on the membrane and the membrane electrode assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhenyu; Tsou, Yu-Min; Calundann, Gordon; De Castro, Emory [BASF Fuel Cell Inc., 39 Veronica Avenue, Somerset, NJ 08873 (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Water addition is a key step in the new process developed at BASF Fuel Cell Inc. (BFC) for polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane production. The added water prevents further polymerization and controls the solution viscosity for easier membrane casting. For large-scale PBI membrane production, a certain amount of tension is necessary during membrane upwinding. The applied tension could affect the polymer orientation and result in anisotropic membrane mechanical properties and proton conductivity. The membrane prepared with tension shows higher elastic modulus and proton conductivity in machine direction, which might suggest some degree of polymer chain orientation. However, the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) performance is not affected by the membrane's apparent anisotropic character. However, we observed performance variation as a function of MEA break-in condition, which might be explained by the formation of a phosphate anion concentration gradient during MEA operation. (author)

  11. Antithyroid drug-induced fetal goitrous hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ase Krogh; Sundberg, Karin; Brocks, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs can induce fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. This condition can have a critical effect on pregnancy outcome, as well as on fetal growth and neurological development. The purpose of this Review is to clarify if and how fetal goitrous hypothyroidism can...... be prevented, and how to react when prevention has failed. Understanding the importance of pregnancy-related changes in maternal thyroid status when treating a pregnant woman is crucial to preventing fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. Maternal levels of free T(4) are the most consistent indication of maternal...... and fetal thyroid status. In patients with fetal goitrous hypothyroidism, intra-amniotic levothyroxine injections improve fetal outcome. The best way to avoid maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs is to monitor closely the maternal thyroid status, especially estimates of free T(4) levels....

  12. THE MATERNAL-FETAL MEDICINE: AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Berghella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Maternal-Fetal Medicine is contributing to an improvement of maternal well-being and of neonatal health, introducing a number of new and useful technologies. Advances in genomics in the field of prenatal screening and diagnosis allowed the discovery of fragments of cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation and the use of chromosomal microarrays, which can test for microdeletions and microduplications in addition to aneuploidies. Color Doppler applications during pregnancy are expanding exponentially and Doppler flow velocity waveforms indices have provided important information from maternal, placental and fetal circulation with clinical implications. Ultrasound monitoring of fetal growth represents a fundamental tool to evaluate fetal wellbeing and several methods have been developed to improve fetal weight estimation accuracy. The combination of new biophysical and biochemical markers is enriching Maternal-Fetal Medicine and more research will allow to improve pregnancy outcome.

  13. Ex vivo culture of human fetal gonads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A; Nielsen, J.E.; Perlman, S

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What are the effects of experimentally manipulating meiosis signalling by addition of retinoic acid (RA) in cultured human fetal gonads? SUMMARY ANSWER: RA-treatment accelerated meiotic entry in cultured fetal ovary samples, while addition of RA resulted in a dysgenetic gonadal...... phenotype in fetal testis cultures. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: One of the first manifestations of sex differentiation is the initiation of meiosis in fetal ovaries. In contrast, meiotic entry is actively prevented in the fetal testis at this developmental time-point. It has previously been shown that RA......-treatment mediates initiation of meiosis in human fetal ovary ex vivo. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This was a controlled ex vivo study of human fetal gonads treated with RA in 'hanging-drop' tissue cultures. The applied experimental set-up preserves germ cell-somatic niche interactions and the investigated...

  14. Submatrices of character tables and basic sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation of character tables of nite groups we study basic sets and associated representation theoretic data for complementary sets of conjugacy lasses. For the symmetric groups we nd unexpected properties of characters on restricted sets of conjugacy classes, like beautiful combinat......In this investigation of character tables of nite groups we study basic sets and associated representation theoretic data for complementary sets of conjugacy lasses. For the symmetric groups we nd unexpected properties of characters on restricted sets of conjugacy classes, like beautiful...

  15. Management of fetal pain during invasive fetal procedures. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W; Deprest, J; Missant, C; Van de Velde, M

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fetal stress and analgesia draw more and more attention. Evidence that fetuses show a significant endocrinological and hemodynamical response to invasive stimuli, and that these responses can be blocked by analgesia, suggests that fetuses experience a stress response, even if this does not signify they experience "pain". Moreover, it is becoming increasingly clear that experiences of pain of a fetus will be "remembered" by the developing nervous system, perhaps for the entire life of the individual, which can probably lead to abnormal behavioural patterns or altered nociception. But up to now, the entire mechanism of fetal stress response and the optimal analgesic drug, dose and route of administration is not so clear.

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital fetal heart abnormalities and clinical analysis*

    OpenAIRE

    Li,Hui; Wei, Jun; Ma, Ying; Shang, Tao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of detecting fetal congenital heart disease (CHD) using the five transverse planes technique of fetal echocardiography. Methods: Nine hundred and eighty-two high-risk pregnancies for fetal CHD were included in this study, the fetal heart was scanned with the five transverse planes technique of fetal echocardiography described by Yagel, autopsy was conducted when pregnancy was terminated. Blood from fetal heart was collected for fetal chromosome analysis. A close ...

  17. Biobased Membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenders, E.A.B.; Zlopasa, J.; Picken, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of a composition for forming a bio-compatible membrane applicable to building material, such as concrete, cement, etc., to a meth od of applying said composition for forming a bio-compatible membrane, a biocompatible membrane, use of said membrane for various pu

  18. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  19. On the character of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto eAnnila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature’s hierarchy.

  20. Examiner's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Naohiro; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2014-06-01

    The best way to assess fetal condition is to observe the oxygen status of the fetus (as well as to assess the condition of infants, children, and adults). Previously, several fetal oximeters have been developed; however, no instrument has been utilized in clinical practice because of the low-capturing rate of the fetal oxygen saturation. To overcome the problem, we developed a doctor's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximeter, whose sensor volume is one hundredth of the conventional one. Additionally, we prepared transparent gloves. The calculation algorithm of the hemoglobin concentration was derived from the light propagation analysis based on the transport theory. We measured neonatal and fetal oxygen saturation (StO2) with the new tissue oximeter. Neonatal StO was measured at any position of the head regardless of amount of hair. Neonatal StO was found to be around 77%. Fetal StO was detected in every position of the fetal head during labor regardless of the presence of labor pain. Fetal StO without labor pain was around 70% in the first stage of labor and around 60% in the second stage of labor. We concluded that our new concept of fetal tissue oximetry would be useful for detecting fetal StO in any condition of the fetus.

  1. Fetal evaluation of spine dysraphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulas, Dorothy [George Washington University Medical Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Spinal dysraphism or neural tube defects (NTD) encompass a heterogeneous group of congenital spinal anomalies that result from the defective closure of the neural tube early in gestation with anomalous development of the caudal cell mass. Advances in ultrasound and MRI have dramatically improved the diagnosis and therapy of spinal dysraphism and caudal spinal anomalies both prenatally and postnatally. Advances in prenatal US including high frequency linear transducers and three dimensional imaging can provide detailed information concerning spinal anomalies. MR imaging is a complementary tool that can further elucidate spine abnormalities as well as associated central nervous system and non-CNS anomalies. Recent studies have suggested that 3-D CT can help further assess fetal spine anomalies in the third trimester. With the advent of fetal therapy including surgery, accurate prenatal diagnosis of open and closed spinal dysraphism becomes critical in appropriate counselling and perinatal management. (orig.)

  2. Fetal origin of vascular aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Pitale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is increasingly regarded as an independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension and their complications (e.g. MI and Stroke. It is well known that vascular disease evolve over decades with progressive accumulation of cellular and extracellular materials and many inflammatory processes. Metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are conventionally recognized as risk factors for development of coronary vascular disease (CVD. These conditions are known to accelerate ageing process in general and vascular ageing in particular. Adverse events during intrauterine life may programme organ growth and favour disease later in life, popularly known as, ′Barker′s Hypothesis′. The notion of fetal programming implies that during critical periods of prenatal growth, changes in the hormonal and nutritional milieu of the conceptus may alter the full expression of the fetal genome, leading to permanent effects on a range of physiological.

  3. The endocrinological responses of V-V ECMO on hypoxic fetal lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Yasuhisa; Kato, Katsuhiko; FUJIMORI, KEIYA; Shiroto, Tomohiro; Ishida, Tomohiko; Sato, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to observe endocrinological responses of veno-arterial and veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-A and V-V ECMO) to support fetal oxygenation in utero. Methods: An ECMO system with a centrifugal pump was applied to six chronically instrumented fetal lambs, at 126-134 days of gestation. Blood was obtained through a double-lumen catheter inserted into the right atrium. After oxygenation, the blood was returned through a single-lumen catheter...

  4. Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

  5. Don't "Dumb Down" Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, Bobby Ann

    2006-01-01

    Most character education-advocate organizations list traits that they identify as the central principles or "pillars" in character development. They usually include words like responsibility, fairness, pride, and citizenship. As so often happens in education, these words are presented as though they represented straightforward, commonly understood…

  6. Children Characters in Rumi’s Masnavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalali

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the stories of Masnavi in which the children have the main role. The aim is to consider children’s attitudes as the elements of the story. The subjects we are going to work on are as follows: To consider carefully the apparent, spiritual, mental and environmental connections, to identify the static and dynamic character, and the protagonist and antagonist of mentioned children. Rumi has selected child character in 26 stories in Masnavi. All children are described based on gender, name, age and social class. The characters in Masnavi can be divided in two groups as human (men, women, and children and non-human (God, angels, fairies, animals and etc. characters. Almost all of the characters in Rumi’s stories do not have a special name and they are called with words that determine their gender or age. Gender is an important feature in characters especially in babies. Of course spiritual and mental features and the environment where they have been grown are mentioned and the words are coordinated with mental and social levels. Rumi’s skill is consistency between characters and environment. Babies’ character has consistency with their environment. All these factors will show the mature period, and need behaviors. There descriptions help the reader for deep understanding.

  7. Children Characters in Rumi’s Masnavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalali

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the stories of Masnavi in which the children have the main role. The aim is to consider children’s attitudes as the elements of the story. The subjects we are going to work on are as follows: To consider carefully the apparent, spiritual, mental and environmental connections, to identify the static and dynamic character, and the protagonist and antagonist of mentioned children. Rumi has selected child character in 26 stories in Masnavi. All children are described based on gender, name, age and social class. The characters in Masnavi can be divided in two groups as human (men, women, and children and non-human (God, angels, fairies, animals and etc. characters.  Almost all of the characters in Rumi’s stories do not have a special name and they are called with words that determine their gender or age. Gender is an important feature in characters especially in babies. Of course spiritual and mental features and the environment where they have been grown are mentioned and the words are coordinated with mental and social levels. Rumi’s skill is consistency between characters and environment. Babies’ character has consistency with their environment. All these factors will show the mature period, and need behaviors. There descriptions help the reader for deep understanding.

  8. 47 CFR 10.430 - Character limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Character limit. 10.430 Section 10.430 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Alert Message Requirements § 10.430 Character limit. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider must...

  9. Character, Civility, and the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston.

    As the educational community works together to improve academic achievement, the importance of character traits such as honesty, trustworthiness, self discipline, kindness, empathy, respect, responsibility, and courage must not be neglected. This guide has been designed to help educators and families in Massachusetts link character development and…

  10. Character Education, New Media, and Political Spectacle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Ontario's new Character Development Initiative is analyzed to determine whether it can be characterized as political spectacle. Examination of official policy texts, media reports, speeches, web pages, webcasts, and events at the Character Development Symposium suggests that the Initiative contains many elements of political spectacle; however,…

  11. Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

  12. A database application for wilderness character monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley Adams; Peter Landres; Simon Kingston

    2012-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) Wilderness Stewardship Division, in collaboration with the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute and the NPS Inventory and Monitoring Program, developed a database application to facilitate tracking and trend reporting in wilderness character. The Wilderness Character Monitoring Database allows consistent, scientifically based...

  13. Improving Student Achievement through Character Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, Chip; Hansen, Cynthia; Jensen, Jane

    This report describes a program for improving moral character to increase academic achievement. Targeted population consisted of middle school students in a growing middle class community in a northern suburb of Chicago, Illinois. The problem, an absence of proper moral character, was documented through data collected from discipline referrals to…

  14. Wood anatomical classification using iterative character weighing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweg, P.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the pattern of wood anatomical variation in some groups of Rubiaceae (i.e. Cinchoneae, Rondeletieae and Condamineae) by using a numerical pattern detection method which involves character weighing (Hogeweg 1975). In this method character weights are obtained iteratively

  15. Character Development in the Catholic School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Patricia H., Ed.

    This collection of essays addresses the particular qualities of character education in Catholic schools. The focus of the essays is on developing Christian character in students and the envisionment of the Catholic school graduate as a Christ-like person. Specific suggestions are made for early childhood, middle school, and secondary school…

  16. Information and documentation -- Transliteration of Cyrillic characters into Latin characters -- Slavic and non-Slavic languages

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1995-01-01

    Cancels and replaces the first edition (1986). Establishes a system for the transliteration into Latin characters of Cyrillic characters constituting the alphabets of Slavic and non-Slavic languages. Table 3 includes in a single sequence, listed in the Cyrillic alphabetic order, the 118 single or diacritic-carrying characters that appear in one or another of the considered alphabets.

  17. Character Education and Students Social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsu A. Kamaruddin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In an educational environment, in the form of character education program has been done both formally and informally. It's intended as one of the supporting ideas for follow-up in the form of design activities. Character education should basically refers to the vision and mission of the institution concerned. It shows the orientation of the two things in the character of the students are: aspects of human character and individual learners hallmark institution. In this paper, these two aspects is the author trying to ideas by referring to some other writings. The end result, the authors expect the birth of a design patent as early referral to spearhead a character development program learners.

  18. The discipline of building character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaracco, J L

    1998-01-01

    What is the difference between an ethical decision and what the author calls a defining moment? An ethical decision typically involves choosing between two options: one we know to be right and another we know to be wrong. A defining moment challenges us in a deeper way by asking us to choose between two or more ideals in which we deeply believe. Such decisions rarely have one "correct" response. Taken cumulatively over many years, they form the basis of an individual's character. Defining moments ask executives to dig below the busy surface of their lives and refocus on their core values and principles. Once uncovered, those values and principles renew their sense of purpose at the workplace and act as a springboard for shrewd, pragmatic, politically astute action. Three types of defining moments are particularly common in today's workplace. The first type is largely an issue of personal identity. It raises the question, Who am I? The second type concerns groups as well as individuals. It raises the question, Who are we? The third kind involves defining a company's role within society. It raises the question, Who is the company? By learning to identify each of those three situations, managers can learn to navigate right-versus-right decisions successfully. The author asks a series of practical questions that will help managers take time out to examine their values and then transform their beliefs into action. By engaging in this process of self-inquiry, managers will be gaining the tools to tackle their most elusive, challenging, and essential business dilemmas.

  19. Fetal growth and developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galjaard, Sander; Devlieger, Roland; Van Assche, Frans A

    2013-01-01

    The environment in utero and in early neonatal life may induce a permanent response in the fetus and the newborn, leading to enhanced susceptibility to later diseases. This review concentrates on the role and mechanisms of events during the antenatal and immediate postnatal period resulting in later life diseases, concentrating on abnormal growth patterns of the fetus. Fetal overgrowth is related to exposure to a diabetic intra uterine environment, increasing the vulnerability to transgenerational obesity and hence an increased sensitivity to more diabetic mothers. This effect has been supported by animal data. Fetal growth restriction is complex due to malnutrition in utero, catch up growth due to a high caloric intake and low physical activity in later life. Metabolic changes and a transgenerational effect of intra uterine malnutrition has been supported by animal data. In recent years the discovery of alterations of the genome due to different influences during embryonic life, called epigenetics, has led to the phenomenon of fetal programming resulting in changing transgenerational metabolic effects.

  20. Postprocessing for character recognition using pattern features and linguistic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takatoshi; Okamoto, Masayosi; Horii, Hiroshi

    1993-04-01

    We propose a new method of post-processing for character recognition using pattern features and linguistic information. This method corrects errors in the recognition of handwritten Japanese sentences containing Kanji characters. This post-process method is characterized by having two types of character recognition. Improving the accuracy of the character recognition rate of Japanese characters is made difficult by the large number of characters, and the existence of characters with similar patterns. Therefore, it is not practical for a character recognition system to recognize all characters in detail. First, this post-processing method generates a candidate character table by recognizing the simplest features of characters. Then, it selects words corresponding to the character from the candidate character table by referring to a word and grammar dictionary before selecting suitable words. If the correct character is included in the candidate character table, this process can correct an error, however, if the character is not included, it cannot correct an error. Therefore, if this method can presume a character does not exist in a candidate character table by using linguistic information (word and grammar dictionary). It then can verify a presumed character by character recognition using complex features. When this method is applied to an online character recognition system, the accuracy of character recognition improves 93.5% to 94.7%. This proved to be the case when it was used for the editorials of a Japanese newspaper (Asahi Shinbun).

  1. Fetal magnetic resonance: technique applications and normal fetal anatomy; Resonance magnetica fetal: tecnica aplicaciones y anatomia normal del feto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Darnell, A.; Duran, C.; Mellado, F.; Corona, M [Corporacio Sanitaria del Parc Tauli. Sabadell (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Ultrasonography is the preferred diagnostic imaging technique for intrauterine fetal examination. Nevertheless, circumstances sometimes dictate the use of other techniques in order to analyze fetal structures. The advent of ultra rapid magnetic resonance (MR) sequencing has led to the possibility of doing MR fetal studies, since images are obtained in an extradordiarily short time and are not affected by either maternal or fetal movements. It does not employ ionizing radiations, it provides high-contrast images and it can obtain such images in any plane of space without being influenced by either the child bearer's physical characteristics of fetal position. MR provides good quality images of most fetal organs. It is extremely useful in analysing distinct structures, as well as permitting an evaluation of cervical structures, lungs, diaphragms, intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal structures, and fetal extremities. It can also provide useful information regarding the placenta,umbilical cord, amniotic fluid and uterus. The objective of this work is to describe MR technique as applied to intrauterine fetal examination, and to illustrate normal fetal anatomy as manifested by MR and its applications. (Author) 42 refs.

  2. Polymer-nanoinorganic particles composite membranes: a brief overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenliang XU; Liyun YU; Lingfeng HAN

    2009-01-01

    Polymer-nanoinorganic particles composite membranes present an interesting approach for improving the physical and chemical, as well as separation properties of polymer membranes, because they possess character-istics of both organic and inorganic membranes such as good permeability, selectivity, mechanical strength, ther-mal stability and so on. The preparations and structures of polymer-nanoinorganic particles composite membranes and their unique properties are reviewed.

  3. Fetal Behavior and Heart Rate in Twin Pregnancy : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendais, Iva; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Figueiredo, Barbara; Montenegro, Nuno; Mulder, Eduard J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal movements and fetal heart rate (FHR) are well-established markers of fetal well-being and maturation of the fetal central nervous system. The purpose of this paper is to review and discuss the available knowledge on fetal movements and heart rate patterns in twin pregnancies. There is some evi

  4. Maternal psychological impact of fetal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklansky, Mark; Tang, Alvin; Levy, Denis; Grossfeld, Paul; Kashani, Iraj; Shaughnessy, Robin; Rothman, Abraham

    2002-02-01

    The maternal psychological impact of fetal echocardiography may be deleterious in the face of newly diagnosed congenital heart disease. This questionnaire-based study prospectively examined the psychological impact of both normal and abnormal fetal echocardiography. Normal fetal echocardiography decreased maternal anxiety, increased happiness, and increased the closeness women felt toward their unborn children. In contrast, when fetal echocardiography detected congenital heart disease, maternal anxiety typically increased, and mothers commonly felt less happy about being pregnant. However, among women who had recently delivered infants with congenital heart disease, those who had had fetal echocardiography during the pregnancy felt less responsible for their infants' defects and tended to have improved their relationships with the infants' fathers after the prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease. Further study of the psychological and medical impact of fetal echocardiography will be necessary to define and optimize the clinical value of this powerful diagnostic tool.

  5. Successful delivery of fetus with fetal inherited thrombophilia after two fetal deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juras, Josip; Ivanisević, Marina; Oresković, Slavko; Mihaljević, Slobodan; Vujić, Goran; Delmis, Josip

    2013-12-01

    A pregnant woman with inherited thrombophilia (factor II mutation--20210A) had two late pregnancy losses. The first pregnancy was not well documented, but the second pregnancy was complicated by fetal thrombophilia and umbilical artery thrombosis, proven after fetal death. During the third pregnancy enoxaparine was introduced in the therapy and early amniocentesis was performed. Fetal thrombophilia was proven again. Early delivery was induced and performed with no complications, resulting in a live healthy infant. A history of miscarriages or recurrent fetal loss should raise suspicion of thrombophilia as a potential cause. It is debatable whether amniocentesis in pursuit of fetal thrombophilia should be performed and whether this will lead to a better perinatal outcome. When fetal thrombophilia is diagnosed, an earlier induction of delivery should be considered, taking into account the fetal extrauterine viability. The aforementioned approach of early delivery in cases of inherited fetal thrombophilia could be a possible solution for better perinatal outcomes.

  6. Fetal macrosomia as an important indicator of fetal malformation syndrome: ultrasonic findings of two cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PA de Jong; MD E.J.M. Wouters; EA Pley

    1989-01-01

    Two extraordinary cases of fetal macrosomia are presented. It is discussed that extreme fetal growth should raise the suspicion of a malformation syndrome and deserves thorough antenatal ultrasonographic examination.

  7. Video Game Characters. Theory and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Schröter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay develops a method for the analysis of video game characters based on a theoretical understanding of their medium-specific representation and the mental processes involved in their intersubjective construction by video game players. We propose to distinguish, first, between narration, simulation, and communication as three modes of representation particularly salient for contemporary video games and the characters they represent, second, between narrative, ludic, and social experience as three ways in which players perceive video game characters and their representations, and, third, between three dimensions of video game characters as ‘intersubjective constructs’, which usually are to be analyzed not only as fictional beings with certain diegetic properties but also as game pieces with certain ludic properties and, in those cases in which they function as avatars in the social space of a multiplayer game, as representations of other players. Having established these basic distinctions, we proceed to analyze their realization and interrelation by reference to the character of Martin Walker from the third-person shooter Spec Ops: The Line (Yager Development 2012, the highly customizable player-controlled characters from the role-playing game The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim (Bethesda 2011, and the complex multidimensional characters in the massively multiplayer online role-playing game Star Wars: The Old Republic (BioWare 2011-2014.

  8. Isolated Fetal Ascite Associated with Cardiac Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vehbi Doğan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fetal ascite is defined as fluid accumulation in peritoneal cavity. It can be seen as isolated disease or an early sign of hydrops fetalis. Once fetal ascite is detected, a careful examination for hydops fetalis and possible underlying disease is necessary, since its prognosis and treatment depends mostly on the cause. Non-immunologic fetal ascite is an uncommon problem occurring for many reasons, such as urinary tract obstruction, congenital infections, genetic and metabolic diseases, gastrointestinal diseases and cardiovascular diseases. Here in this report we present two isolated fetal ascite that occurred secondary to cardiac diseases.

  9. MR imaging of the fetal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, Orit A. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Fetal MRI is clinically performed to evaluate the brain in cases where an abnormality is detected by prenatal sonography. These most commonly include ventriculomegaly, abnormalities of the corpus callosum, and abnormalities of the posterior fossa. Fetal MRI is also increasingly performed to evaluate fetuses who have normal brain findings on prenatal sonogram but who are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental abnormalities, such as complicated monochorionic twin pregnancies. This paper will briefly discuss the common clinical conditions imaged by fetal MRI as well as recent advances in fetal MRI research. (orig.)

  10. Magnetic resonance methods in fetal neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailath-Pokorny, M; Kasprian, G; Mitter, C; Schöpf, V; Nemec, U; Prayer, D

    2012-10-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an established clinical adjunct for the in-vivo evaluation of human brain development. Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied with MRI from the 18th week of gestation to term and relies primarily on T2-weighted sequences. Recently diffusion-weighted sequences have gained importance in the structural assessment of the fetal brain. Diffusion-weighted imaging provides quantitative information about water motion and tissue microstructure and has applications for both developmental and destructive brain processes. Advanced magnetic resonance techniques, such as spectroscopy, might be used to demonstrate metabolites that are involved in brain maturation, though their development is still in the early stages. Using fetal MRI in addition to prenatal ultrasound, morphological, metabolic, and functional assessment of the fetus can be achieved. The latter is not only based on observation of fetal movements as an indirect sign of activity of the fetal brain but also on direct visualization of fetal brain activity, adding a new component to fetal neurology. This article provides an overview of the MRI methods used for fetal neurologic evaluation, focusing on normal and abnormal early brain development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sindrome de respuesta inflamatoria fetal : adaptacion cardiovascular

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arreaza-Graterol, Mortimer; Rojas-Barrera, Juan Diego; Molina-Giraldo, Saulo

    2011-01-01

    Introduccion: el sindrome de respuesta inflamatoria fetal es una condicion caracterizada por reaccion inflamatoria sistemica acompanada de alteraciones bioquimicas como la elevacion de la interleucina 6 (IL-6...

  12. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome a Global Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163096.html Fetal Alcohol Syndrome a Global Problem: Report Countries with highest alcohol use during pregnancy include Belarus, Britain, Denmark, Ireland ...

  13. On Hemingway’s Literary Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Miruna Ciocoi-Pop

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a brief outline of Hemingway’s characters and the way in which they correspond to the author himself. It is known for a fact that Hemingway evinced a tendency to imitate his characters when they were coming to grips with diverse situations. Thus I have tried to briefly pinpoint the fading boundaries between reality and imagination in his work. By doing so, I have focused on both male and female characters, underlining the major dissimilarities between these two categories, as well as their main features.

  14. A structural query system for Han characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skala, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The IDSgrep structural query system for Han character dictionaries is presented. This dictionary search system represents the spatial structure of Han characters using Extended Ideographic Description Sequences (EIDSes), a data model and syntax based on the Unicode IDS concept. It includes a query...... language for EIDS databases, with a freely available implementation and format translation from popular third-party IDS and XML character databases. The system is designed to suit the needs of font developers and foreign language learners. The search algorithm includes a bit vector index inspired by Bloom...

  15. Membranous nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000472.htm Membranous nephropathy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Membranous nephropathy is a kidney disorder that leads to changes ...

  16. Vibroacoustic stimulation in abnormal biophysical profile: verification of facilitation of fetal well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Vassilis G; Decavalas, George O; Kondakis, Xenophon G; Beratis, Nicholas G

    2007-03-01

    To verify the effect of vibroacoustic stimulation on biophysical profile score, with a prospective randomised study. All women with singleton pregnancy, gestational age >or=30 weeks, intact membranes and biophysical profile score fetal distress, Apgar score stimulation does not alter test's statistical parameters. 1349 patients were randomised in group A and 1484 in group B (2833 in total). When comparing group A to B, application of vibroacoustic stimulation significantly decreased the number of positive tests (4.74% vs. 6.67%, pstimulation improves the efficiency of biophysical profile score by decreasing false positive tests and improving test accuracy and should be considered as a means of a more thorough fetal evaluation when fetal compromise is suspected.

  17. Localization and biosynthesis of aminopeptidase N in pig fetal small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Niels-Christiansen, L L; Hansen, Gert Helge

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about the expression of brush border enzymes in fetal enterocytes. The aim of this study was to describe the localization and biosynthesis of porcine fetal aminopeptidase N. METHODS: This study was performed using histochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy...... and [35S]methionine labeling of cultured mucosal explants. RESULTS: Enzyme activity was present in the brush border membrane and extended into the apical cytoplasm. The protein was colocalized with cationized ferritin at the surface of endocytic structures including coated pits, vesicles, tubules......, and large vacuoles in the apical cytoplasm. The transient high mannose-glycosylated form of fetal aminopeptidase N was processed to the mature complex-glycosylated form at a markedly slower rate than the enzyme in adult intestine. Likewise, dimerization occurred slowly compared with the adult form...

  18. ON­LINE CHARACTER RECOGNITION ADAPTIVELY CONTROLLED BY HANDWRITING QUALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamanaka, M.; Yamada, K.

    2004-01-01

    On­line character recognition which can adapt to handwriting quality is proposed. In character recognition, it is difficult to recognize both clearly and roughly written characters accurately. For Japanese characters, the number of strokes is often slightly varied when characters are written roughly

  19. ON­LINE CHARACTER RECOGNITION ADAPTIVELY CONTROLLED BY HANDWRITING QUALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamanaka, M.; Yamada, K.

    2004-01-01

    On­line character recognition which can adapt to handwriting quality is proposed. In character recognition, it is difficult to recognize both clearly and roughly written characters accurately. For Japanese characters, the number of strokes is often slightly varied when characters are written

  20. ON­LINE CHARACTER RECOGNITION ADAPTIVELY CONTROLLED BY HANDWRITING QUALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamanaka, M.; Yamada, K.

    2004-01-01

    On­line character recognition which can adapt to handwriting quality is proposed. In character recognition, it is difficult to recognize both clearly and roughly written characters accurately. For Japanese characters, the number of strokes is often slightly varied when characters are written roughly

  1. Placental fetal vascular thrombosis lesions and maternal thrombophilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeksma, F. A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Khong, T. Y.

    Aims: Following intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), the placental fetal vessels undergo regressive changes. These changes are virtually indistinguishable from lesions that are the result of fetal vascular thrombosis (FVT). This study investigated the relation between these lesions and maternal

  2. Firing membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappert, Emiel Jan

    2015-01-01

    Thermal processing is commonly employed to alter the chemistry and microstructure of membrane layers. It can shape, strengthen, and give functionality to a membrane. A good understanding of the processes taking place during the thermal processing of a membrane material allows for optimization and tu

  3. Is there a relationship between fetal brain function and the fetal behavioral state? A fetal MEG-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer-Schmidt, Isabelle; Raufer, Julia; Brändle, Johanna; Münßinger, Jana; Abele, Harald; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Eswaran, Hari; Preissl, Hubert

    2013-09-01

    Fetal magnetography enables the recording of biomagnetic fetal signals, including fetal heart and fetal brain signals. These signals allow the determination of fetal behavioral states and functional brain signals with auditory evoked responses (AER). In the current study, we investigated how the behavioral state influences the AER and how stimulation affects fetal state. One hundred and four fetuses in three age groups (28-31 weeks, 32-35 weeks and 36-41 weeks) were recorded with and without auditory stimulation. Both sessions were scored for fetal states. The AER latency was determined for each state separately. Forty-five additional subjects were recorded with two sessions of 10 min without stimulation to investigate a possible time effect on state changes. The state distribution was significantly different between stimulation and no stimulation conditions. The AER latencies were significantly shorter in active sleep (P=0.013) and active wakefulness (P=0.004) compared to quiet sleep. Auditory stimulation has an effect on fetal states. The state information should be taken into account for the analysis of AER latencies.

  4. Fetal cardiac rhabdomyoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Ghavami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary manifestation of cardiac tumors in embryonic period is a very rare condition. Cardiac rhabdomyomas most frequently arise in the ventricular myocardium, they may also occur in the atria and the epicardial surface. In spite of its benign nature, the critical location of the tumor inside the heart can lead to lethal arrhythmias and chamber obstruction. Multiple rhabdomyomas are strongly associated with tuberous sclerosis which is associated with mental retardation and epilepsy of variable severity. Ultrasonography as a part of routine prenatal screening, is the best method for the diagnosis of cardiac rhabdomyomas. In the review of articles published in Iran, fetal cardiac rhabdomyoma was not reported. Case presentation: We report a case of cardiac rhabdomyoma on a 24-year-old gravid 1, referred to Day Medical Imaging Center for routine evaluation of fetal abnormalities at 31 weeks of her gestational age. Ultrasonographic examination displayed a homogenous echogenic mass (13×9mm, originating from the left ventricle of the fetal heart. It was a normal pregnancy without any specific complications. Other organs of the fetus were found normal and no cardiac abnormalities were appeared. No Pericardial fluid effusion was found. The parents did not have consanguineous marriage. They did not also have any specific disease such as tuberous sclerosis. Conclusion: The clinical features of cardiac rhabdomyomas vary widely, depending on the location, size, and number of tumors in the heart. Although cardiac rhabdomyoma is a benign tumor in many affected fetuses, an early prenatal diagnosis of the tumor is of great significance in making efficient planning and providing adequate follow up visits of the patients and the complications such as, heart failure and outlet obstruction of cardiac chambers.

  5. RESEARCH ON REDUCING PREMATURITY RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria URSACHI (BOLOTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The membranes surrounding the amniotic cavity are composed from amnion and chorion, tightly adherent layers which are composed of several cell types, including epithelial cells, trophoblasts cells and mesenchyme cells, embedded in a collagenous matrix. They retain amniotic fluid, secret substances into the amniotic fluid, as well as to the uterus and protect the fetus against upward infections from urogenital tract. Normally, the membranes it breaks during labor. Premature rupture of the amniotic sac (PRAS is defined as rupture of membranes before the onset of labor. Premature rupture of the fetal membrane, which occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, usually, refers to preterm premature rupture of membranes. Despite advances in the care period, premature rupture of membranes and premature rupture of membranes preterm continue to be regarded as serious obstetric complications. On the term 8% - 10% of pregnant women have premature rupture of membranes; these women are at increased risk of intrauterine infections, where the interval between membrane rupture and expulsion is rolled-over. Premature rupture of membranes preterm occurs in approximately 1% of all pregnancies and is associated with 30% -40% of preterm births. Thus, it is important to identify the cause of pre-term birth (after less than 37 completed weeks of "gestation" and its complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal infection and intraventricular hemorrhage. Objectives: the development of the protocol of the clinical trial on patients with impending preterm birth, study clinical and statistical on the socio-demographic characteristics of patients with imminent preterm birth; clinical condition of patients and selection of cases that could benefit from the application of interventional therapy; preclinical investigation (biological and imaging of patients with imminent preterm birth; the modality therapy; clinical investigation of the effectiveness of short

  6. Printed Arabic Character Recognition Using HMM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abbas H.Hassin; Xiang-Long Tang; Jia-Feng Liu; Wei Zhao

    2004-01-01

    The Arabic Language has a very rich vocabulary.More than 200 million people speak this language as their native speaking,and over 1 billion people use it in several religion-related activities.In this paper a new technique is presented for recognizing printed Arabic characters.After a word is segmented,each character/word is entirely transformed into a feature vector.The features of printed Arabic characters include strokes and bays in various directions,endpoints,intersection points,loops,dots and zigzags.The word skeleton is decomposed into a number of links in orthographic order,and then it is transferred into a sequence of symbols using vector quantization.Single hidden Markov model has been used for recognizing the printed Arabic characters.Experimental results show that the high recognition rate depends on the number of states in each sample.

  7. Seafloor character--Offshore of Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Pacifica, California. The raster data file is included in "SFC_OffshorePacifica.zip," which is...

  8. Seafloor character--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for the seafloor-character map (see sheet 5, SIM 3261) of the Offshore of Carpinteria map area, California. The raster data file...

  9. Seafloor character--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for the seafloor-character map (see sheet 5, SIM 3261) of the Offshore of Carpinteria map area, California. The raster data file...

  10. Kannada Character Recognition System A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Indira, K

    2010-01-01

    Intensive research has been done on optical character recognition ocr and a large number of articles have been published on this topic during the last few decades. Many commercial OCR systems are now available in the market, but most of these systems work for Roman, Chinese, Japanese and Arabic characters. There are no sufficient number of works on Indian language character recognition especially Kannada script among 12 major scripts in India. This paper presents a review of existing work on printed Kannada script and their results. The characteristics of Kannada script and Kannada Character Recognition System kcr are discussed in detail. Finally fusion at the classifier level is proposed to increase the recognition accuracy.

  11. Character strenghts and sex differences in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Reyes Martín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the association between character strengths and happiness and global health in adolescents by gender. The participants comprised 117 high-school students (μ =16.90, σ =.81 from Málaga (Spain. All participants completed the Values in Action 120-Items Questionnaire (VIA-120, the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, and the Happiness Item. The results showed higher levels of character strengths and lower levels of temperance and religiousness in the humanity score. Moderately significant associations were found between all character strengths and general health, happiness, and especially hope. Boys had significantly higher scores on zest, prudence, self-regulation, and hope (Student t test. The study suggests that character strengths could contribute to increased life satisfaction and health among adolescents.

  12. Seafloor character--Offshore of Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Pacifica, California. The raster data file is included in "SFC_OffshorePacifica.zip," which is...

  13. Some Correlates of the Arab Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moracco, John

    1983-01-01

    Describes cultural correlates of the Arab character in terms of family patterns, international relations, and implications for therapists and other human service personnel. Discusses the Bedouin influence and religious values and suggests that cultural stereotypes may restrict true understanding. (JAC)

  14. Brains with character: Reading and writing neuronarrative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaczo, T.F.

    2015-01-01

    Brains with Character: Reading and Writing Neuronarrative tracks the concept of neuronarrative by analyzing the reciprocal and catalytic relationships between neuroscience and literary media. Crucial to understanding the contemporary stakes in these two cultural endeavors is how their relationships

  15. ECONOMIC ETHICS: APPLIED AND PROFESSIONAL CHARACTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Gordova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In given article economic ethics are considered as set of norms of behavior of the businessman, the requirements shown by a cultural society to its style of work, to character of dialogue between participants of business, to their social shape. The conclusion becomes that economic ethics have applied character in relation to theoretical, to obschenormativnoy ethics, hence, represent section of applied ethics. On the other hand, the specific standard maintenance characterizes economic ethics as ethics professional.

  16. Character strenghts and sex differences in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Reyes Martín; Marta Ferragut

    2016-01-01

    This study analysed the association between character strengths and happiness and global health in adolescents by gender. The participants comprised 117 high-school students (μ =16.90, σ =.81) from Málaga (Spain). All participants completed the Values in Action 120-Items Questionnaire (VIA-120), the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), and the Happiness Item. The results showed higher levels of character strengths and lower levels of temperance and religiousness in the h...

  17. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  18. Recognition of Telugu characters using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhaswami, M B; Seetharamulu, P; Pujari, A K

    1995-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to recognize printed and handwritten Telugu characters using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Earlier work on recognition of Telugu characters has been done using conventional pattern recognition techniques. We make an initial attempt here of using neural networks for recognition with the aim of improving upon earlier methods which do not perform effectively in the presence of noise and distortion in the characters. The Hopfield model of neural network working as an associative memory is chosen for recognition purposes initially. Due to limitation in the capacity of the Hopfield neural network, we propose a new scheme named here as the Multiple Neural Network Associative Memory (MNNAM). The limitation in storage capacity has been overcome by combining multiple neural networks which work in parallel. It is also demonstrated that the Hopfield network is suitable for recognizing noisy printed characters as well as handwritten characters written by different "hands" in a variety of styles. Detailed experiments have been carried out using several learning strategies and results are reported. It is shown here that satisfactory recognition is possible using the proposed strategy. A detailed preprocessing scheme of the Telugu characters from digitized documents is also described.

  19. Chinese character recognition :history ,status and prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Ruwei; LIU Chenglin; XIAO Baihua

    2007-01-01

    Chinese character recognition (CCR) is an important branch of pattern recognition.It was considered as an extremely difficult problem due to the very large number of categories,complicated structures,similarity between characters,and the variability of fonts or writing styles.Because of its unique technical challenges and great social needs,the last four decades witnessed the intensive research in this field and a rapid increase of successful applications.However,higher recognition performance is continuously needed to improve the existing applications and to exploit new applications.This paper first provides an overview of Chinese character recognition and the properties of Chinese characters.Some important methods and successful results in the history of Chinese character recognition are then summarized.As for classification methods,this article pays special attention to the syntactic-semantic approach for online Chinese character recognition,as well as the metasynthesis approach for discipline crossing.Finally,the remaining problems and the possible solutions are discussed.

  20. Characteristics of children whose siblings have fetal alcohol syndrome or incomplete fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvigne, Valborg L; Leonardson, Gary R; Borzelleca, Joseph; Neff-Smith, Martha; Welty, Thomas K

    2009-03-01

    To describe the clinical features of American Indian children born just before and just after a sibling with fetal alcohol syndrome or incomplete fetal alcohol syndrome. Two retrospective case-control studies were conducted of Northern Plains American Indian children with fetal alcohol syndrome or incomplete fetal alcohol syndrome identified from 1981 to 1993 by using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 760.71. Compared with the controls, the 39 siblings born just before children with fetal alcohol syndrome (study 1) and 30 siblings born just before children with incomplete fetal alcohol syndrome (study 2) had more facial dysmorphology (23.1% and 16.7%, respectively), growth delay (38.5% and 10.0%), and central nervous system impairment (48.7% and 33.3%). The 20 siblings born just after children with fetal alcohol syndrome (study 1) and 22 siblings born just after children with incomplete fetal alcohol syndrome (study 2) had more facial dysmorphology (20.0% and 9.1%, respectively), growth delay (45.0% and 22.7%), and central nervous system impairment (50.0% and 31.8%) than the control siblings. The "before" siblings had characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome that could have predicted that the next child was at risk for fetal alcohol syndrome. The "after" siblings had better outcomes than the previous siblings with fetal alcohol syndrome, a finding that was associated with a decrease in maternal alcohol consumption during the after-sibling pregnancy.

  1. Fetal deaths in Brazil: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeiro, Fernanda Morena dos Santos; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Tauffer, Mariana Girão; Ferreira, Mariana de Souza Santos; da Silva, Fagner Paulo; Ventura, Patrícia Mendonça; Quadros, Jesirée Iglesias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the frequency of and factors associated with fetal death in the Brazilian scientific literature. METHODS A systematic review of Brazilian studies on fetal deaths published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. In total, 27 studies were analyzed; of these, 4 studies addressed the quality of data, 12 were descriptive studies, and 11 studies evaluated the factors associated with fetal death. The databases searched were PubMed and Lilacs, and data extraction and synthesis were independently performed by two or more examiners. RESULTS The level of completeness of fetal death certificates was deficient, both in the completion of variables, particularly sociodemographic variables, and in defining the underlying causes of death. Fetal deaths have decreased in Brazil; however, inequalities persist. Analysis of the causes of death indicated maternal morbidities that could be prevented and treated. The main factors associated with fetal deaths were absent or inadequate prenatal care, low education level, maternal morbidity, and adverse reproductive history. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care should prioritize women that are most vulnerable (considering their social environment or their reproductive history and morbidities) with the aim of decreasing the fetal mortality rate in Brazil. Adequate completion of death certificates and investment in the committees that investigate fetal and infant deaths are necessary. PMID:25902565

  2. Fetal Pain, Abortion, Viability and the Constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, I. Glenn; Sayeed, Sadath Ali

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, the Nebraska state legislature passed a new abortion restricting law asserting a new, compelling state interest in preventing fetal pain. In this article, we review existing constitutional abortion doctrine and note difficulties presented by persistent legal attention to a socially derived viability construct. We then offer a substantive biological, ethical, and legal critique of the new fetal pain rationale.

  3. Fetal pain, abortion, viability, and the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I Glenn; Sayeed, Sadath

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, the Nebraska state legislature passed a new abortion restricting law asserting a new, compelling state interest in preventing fetal pain. In this article, we review existing constitutional abortion doctrine and note difficulties presented by persistent legal attention to a socially derived viability construct. We then offer a substantive biological, ethical, and legal critique of the new fetal pain rationale.

  4. Fetal Pain: Life in Troubled Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Johnnye S.

    2007-01-01

    Maternal well-being is the key to fetal well-being. A fetus is highly vulnerable and sensitive to pain and stress, and exposure has the potential for negative developmental consequences. Childbirth educators can help raise parental awareness about the importance of the maternal environment for best outcomes in fetal development.

  5. Fetal behavior in normal dichorionic twin pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, E. J. H.; Derks, J. B.; de Laat, M. W. M.; Visser, G. H. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A prospective study was performed to compare fetal behavioral development in healthy dichorionic twins and singletons, and identify twin intra-pair associations (synchrony) of fetal movements and rest-activity cycles using different criteria to define synchrony. Subjects and methods: Twe

  6. Fetal deaths in Brazil: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Morena dos Santos Barbeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To review the frequency of and factors associated with fetal death in the Brazilian scientific literature. METHODS A systematic review of Brazilian studies on fetal deaths published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. In total, 27 studies were analyzed; of these, 4 studies addressed the quality of data, 12 were descriptive studies, and 11 studies evaluated the factors associated with fetal death. The databases searched were PubMed and Lilacs, and data extraction and synthesis were independently performed by two or more examiners. RESULTS The level of completeness of fetal death certificates was deficient, both in the completion of variables, particularly sociodemographic variables, and in defining the underlying causes of death. Fetal deaths have decreased in Brazil; however, inequalities persist. Analysis of the causes of death indicated maternal morbidities that could be prevented and treated. The main factors associated with fetal deaths were absent or inadequate prenatal care, low education level, maternal morbidity, and adverse reproductive history. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care should prioritize women that are most vulnerable (considering their social environment or their reproductive history and morbidities with the aim of decreasing the fetal mortality rate in Brazil. Adequate completion of death certificates and investment in the committees that investigate fetal and infant deaths are necessary.

  7. Fetal tissue transplant research: ethical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnam, C R

    1996-01-01

    The transplant of cells from fetal tissue shows promise as a therapy for certain diseases. The use and research of fetal tissue, and methods of obtaining the tissue, have raised ethical dilemmas. Consideration must be given concerning the mother, the fetus, and the tissue recipient.

  8. Expert systems for fetal assessment in labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutomski, J.E.; Meaney, S.; Greene, R.A.; Ryan, A.C.; Devane, D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiotocography (CTG) records the fetal heart rate in relation to maternal uterine contractions and is one of the most common forms of fetal assessment during labour. Despite guidelines for CTG interpretation, substantial inter- and intra-observer variation in interpretation has been re

  9. Fetal stress hormone changes during intrauterine transfusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adama van Scheltema, P.N.; Pasman, S.A.; Wolterbeek, R..; Deprest, J.A.; Oepkes, D.; Buck, F. De; Velde, M van de; Vandenbussche, F.P.H.A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document fetal stress hormone and Doppler changes after intrauterine transfusions (IUTs) in either the intrahepatic portion of the umbilical vein (IHV) or the placental cord insertion (PCI). METHOD: Pregnant women scheduled for IUT for fetal anemia (N = 25) were included prospectively.

  10. Fetal stress hormone changes during intrauterine transfusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adama van Scheltema, P.N.; Pasman, S.A.; Wolterbeek, R..; Deprest, J.A.; Oepkes, D.; Buck, F. De; Velde, M van de; Vandenbussche, F.P.H.A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document fetal stress hormone and Doppler changes after intrauterine transfusions (IUTs) in either the intrahepatic portion of the umbilical vein (IHV) or the placental cord insertion (PCI). METHOD: Pregnant women scheduled for IUT for fetal anemia (N = 25) were included prospectively.

  11. Maternal diabetes and the fetal heart

    OpenAIRE

    Hornberger, L K

    2006-01-01

    Maternal diabetes mellitus significantly affects the fetal heart and fetal–placental circulation in both structure and function. The influence of pre‐conceptional diabetes begins during embryonic development in the first trimester, with altered cardiac morphogenesis and placental development. It continues to have an influence on the fetal circulation through the second and third trimesters and into the perinatal and neonatal period

  12. Fetal trauma from motor vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Greg; Wojciehoski, Randal F

    2005-07-01

    To summarize: The best fetal protection is proper maternal use of seat belt restraints. All pregnant occupants in a motor vehicle crash require physician evaluation. Focus on maternal assessment. Maternal stability is the best indicator of fetal stability. Key treatments are high-flow oxygen, i.v. fluid loading and immobilizing in left lateral position. Evaluate the fetus after maternal stabilization.

  13. Aspects of Fetal Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirix, Chantal E. H.; Nijhuis, Jan G.; Jongsma, Henk W.; Hornstra, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Ninety-three pregnant women were recruited to assess fetal learning and memory, based on habituation to repeated vibroacoustic stimulation of fetuses of 30-38 weeks gestational age (GA). Each habituation test was repeated 10 min later to estimate the fetal short-term memory. For Groups 30-36, both measurements were replicated in a second session…

  14. Digital atlas of fetal brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Teresa; Weinberger, E. [Department of Radiology, Seattle Children' s Hospital, Seattle, WA (United States); Matesan, Manuela [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Bulas, Dorothy I. [Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Fetal MRI can be performed in the second and third trimesters. During this time, the fetal brain undergoes profound structural changes. Interpretation of appropriate development might require comparison with normal age-based models. Consultation of a hard-copy atlas is limited by the inability to compare multiple ages simultaneously. To provide images of normal fetal brains from weeks 18 through 37 in a digital format that can be reviewed interactively. This will facilitate recognition of abnormal brain development. T2-W images for the atlas were obtained from fetal MR studies of normal brains scanned for other indications from 2005 to 2007. Images were oriented in standard axial, coronal and sagittal projections, with laterality established by situs. Gestational age was determined by last menstrual period, earliest US measurements and sonogram performed on the same day as the MR. The software program used for viewing the atlas, written in C, permits linked scrolling and resizing the images. Simultaneous comparison of varying gestational ages is permissible. Fetal brain images across gestational ages 18 to 37 weeks are provided as an interactive digital atlas and are available for free download. Improved interpretation of fetal brain abnormalities can be facilitated by the use of digital atlas cataloging of the normal changes throughout fetal development. Here we provide a description of the atlas and a discussion of normal fetal brain development. (orig.)

  15. Expert systems for fetal assessment in labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutomski, J.E.; Meaney, S.; Greene, R.A.; Ryan, A.C.; Devane, D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiotocography (CTG) records the fetal heart rate in relation to maternal uterine contractions and is one of the most common forms of fetal assessment during labour. Despite guidelines for CTG interpretation, substantial inter- and intra-observer variation in interpretation has been

  16. The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiserud, Torvid; Piaggio, Gilda; Carroli, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal mortality and morbidity continue to be major global health challenges strongly associated with prematurity and reduced fetal growth, an issue of further interest given the mounting evidence that fetal growth in general is linked to degrees of risk of common noncommunicable d...

  17. Fetal goiter and bilateral ovarian cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pernille; Sundberg, Karin; Juul, Anders

    2008-01-01

    A unique case of fetal goiter accompanied by bilateral ovarian cysts in a mother treated with methimazole for Graves'disease is reported. The abnormal findings were detected by ultrasound at 31 weeks of gestation. Umbilical fetal blood sampling revealed elevated serum TSH, normal concentrations o...

  18. Fetal sex and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challis, J; Newnham, J; Petraglia, F; Yeganegi, M; Bocking, A

    2013-02-01

    Rates of preterm birth vary between different populations and ethnic groups. Epidemiologic studies have suggested that the incidence of preterm birth is also higher in pregnancies carrying a male fetus; the male:female difference is greater in earlier preterm pregnancy. Placental or chorion trophoblast cells from pregnancies with a male fetus produced more pro-inflammatory TNFα in response to LPS stimulation and less anti-inflammatory IL-10 and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) than cells from pregnancies with a female fetus, more prostaglandin synthase (PTGS-2) and less prostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH). These results suggest that in the presence of a male fetus the trophoblast has the potential to generate a more pro-inflammatory environment. Maturation of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and expression of placental genes, particularly 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 are also expressed in a sex dependent manner, consistent with the sex-biasing influences on gene networks. Sex differences in these activities may affect clinical outcomes of pre- and post-dates pregnancies and fetal/newborn wellbeing. These factors need consideration in studies of placental function and in the development of personalized strategies for the diagnosis of preterm labor and postnatal health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Propofol Pharmacokinetics and Estimation of Fetal Propofol Exposure during Mid-Gestational Fetal Surgery: A Maternal-Fetal Sheep Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jing; Venkatasubramanian, Raja; Vinks, Alexander A.; Sadhasivam, Senthilkumar

    2016-01-01

    Background Measuring fetal drug concentrations is extremely difficult in humans. We conducted a study in pregnant sheep to simultaneously describe maternal and fetal concentrations of propofol, a common intravenous anesthetic agent used in humans. Compared to inhalational anesthesia, propofol supplemented anesthesia lowered the dose of desflurane required to provide adequate uterine relaxation during open fetal surgery. This resulted in better intraoperative fetal cardiac outcome. This study describes maternal and fetal propofol pharmacokinetics (PK) using a chronically instrumented maternal-fetal sheep model. Methods Fetal and maternal blood samples were simultaneously collected from eight mid-gestational pregnant ewes during general anesthesia with propofol, remifentanil and desflurane. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was performed by using NONMEM software. Total body weight, gestational age and hemodynamic parameters were tested in the covariate analysis. The final model was validated by bootstrapping and visual predictive check. Results A total of 160 propofol samples were collected. A 2-compartment maternal PK model with a third fetal compartment appropriately described the data. Mean population parameter estimates for maternal propofol clearance and central volume of distribution were 4.17 L/min and 37.7 L, respectively, in a typical ewe with a median heart rate of 135 beats/min. Increase in maternal heart rate significantly correlated with increase in propofol clearance. The estimated population maternal-fetal inter-compartment clearance was 0.0138 L/min and the volume of distribution of propofol in the fetus was 0.144 L. Fetal propofol clearance was found to be almost negligible compared to maternal clearance and could not be robustly estimated. Conclusions For the first time, a maternal-fetal PK model of propofol in pregnant ewes was successfully developed. This study narrows the gap in our knowledge in maternal-fetal PK model in human. Our study confirms

  20. Propofol Pharmacokinetics and Estimation of Fetal Propofol Exposure during Mid-Gestational Fetal Surgery: A Maternal-Fetal Sheep Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornswan Ngamprasertwong

    Full Text Available Measuring fetal drug concentrations is extremely difficult in humans. We conducted a study in pregnant sheep to simultaneously describe maternal and fetal concentrations of propofol, a common intravenous anesthetic agent used in humans. Compared to inhalational anesthesia, propofol supplemented anesthesia lowered the dose of desflurane required to provide adequate uterine relaxation during open fetal surgery. This resulted in better intraoperative fetal cardiac outcome. This study describes maternal and fetal propofol pharmacokinetics (PK using a chronically instrumented maternal-fetal sheep model.Fetal and maternal blood samples were simultaneously collected from eight mid-gestational pregnant ewes during general anesthesia with propofol, remifentanil and desflurane. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was performed by using NONMEM software. Total body weight, gestational age and hemodynamic parameters were tested in the covariate analysis. The final model was validated by bootstrapping and visual predictive check.A total of 160 propofol samples were collected. A 2-compartment maternal PK model with a third fetal compartment appropriately described the data. Mean population parameter estimates for maternal propofol clearance and central volume of distribution were 4.17 L/min and 37.7 L, respectively, in a typical ewe with a median heart rate of 135 beats/min. Increase in maternal heart rate significantly correlated with increase in propofol clearance. The estimated population maternal-fetal inter-compartment clearance was 0.0138 L/min and the volume of distribution of propofol in the fetus was 0.144 L. Fetal propofol clearance was found to be almost negligible compared to maternal clearance and could not be robustly estimated.For the first time, a maternal-fetal PK model of propofol in pregnant ewes was successfully developed. This study narrows the gap in our knowledge in maternal-fetal PK model in human. Our study confirms that maternal heart

  1. Acquisition of Chinese characters: the effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Kim, Tae-Jin; Yang, Xinyuan; Li, Huiwen; Liu, Yan; Wang, Haixia; Hyun Park, Jeong; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su and Samuels, 2010) and dual-coding processing (Sadoski and Paivio, 2013) and investigated (a) the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence) on character acquisition and (b) the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014), a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that (a) characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and (b) individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  2. On Tuning the Bad-Character Rule: the Worst-Character Rule

    CERN Document Server

    Cantone, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    In this note we present the worst-character rule, an efficient variation of the bad-character heuristic for the exact string matching problem, firstly introduced in the well-known Boyer-Moore algorithm. Our proposed rule selects a position relative to the current shift which yields the largest average advancement, according to the characters distribution in the text. Experimental results show that the worst-character rule achieves very good results especially in the case of long patterns or small alphabets in random texts and in the case of texts in natural languages.

  3. Acquisition of Chinese characters: The effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jen eKuo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su & Samuels, 2010 and dual-coding processing (Sadoski & Paivio, 2013 and investigated a the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence on character acquisition and b the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014, a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that a characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and b individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  4. Post processing for offline Chinese handwritten character string recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, YanWei; Ding, XiaoQing; Liu, ChangSong

    2012-01-01

    Offline Chinese handwritten character string recognition is one of the most important research fields in pattern recognition. Due to the free writing style, large variability in character shapes and different geometric characteristics, Chinese handwritten character string recognition is a challenging problem to deal with. However, among the current methods over-segmentation and merging method which integrates geometric information, character recognition information and contextual information, shows a promising result. It is found experimentally that a large part of errors are segmentation error and mainly occur around non-Chinese characters. In a Chinese character string, there are not only wide characters namely Chinese characters, but also narrow characters like digits and letters of the alphabet. The segmentation error is mainly caused by uniform geometric model imposed on all segmented candidate characters. To solve this problem, post processing is employed to improve recognition accuracy of narrow characters. On one hand, multi-geometric models are established for wide characters and narrow characters respectively. Under multi-geometric models narrow characters are not prone to be merged. On the other hand, top rank recognition results of candidate paths are integrated to boost final recognition of narrow characters. The post processing method is investigated on two datasets, in total 1405 handwritten address strings. The wide character recognition accuracy has been improved lightly and narrow character recognition accuracy has been increased up by 10.41% and 10.03% respectively. It indicates that the post processing method is effective to improve recognition accuracy of narrow characters.

  5. Benchmark for license plate character segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gabriel Resende; da Silva, Sirlene Pio Gomes; Menotti, David; Shwartz, William Robson

    2016-09-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) has been the focus of many researches in the past years. In general, ALPR is divided into the following problems: detection of on-track vehicles, license plate detection, segmentation of license plate characters, and optical character recognition (OCR). Even though commercial solutions are available for controlled acquisition conditions, e.g., the entrance of a parking lot, ALPR is still an open problem when dealing with data acquired from uncontrolled environments, such as roads and highways when relying only on imaging sensors. Due to the multiple orientations and scales of the license plates captured by the camera, a very challenging task of the ALPR is the license plate character segmentation (LPCS) step, because its effectiveness is required to be (near) optimal to achieve a high recognition rate by the OCR. To tackle the LPCS problem, this work proposes a benchmark composed of a dataset designed to focus specifically on the character segmentation step of the ALPR within an evaluation protocol. Furthermore, we propose the Jaccard-centroid coefficient, an evaluation measure more suitable than the Jaccard coefficient regarding the location of the bounding box within the ground-truth annotation. The dataset is composed of 2000 Brazilian license plates consisting of 14000 alphanumeric symbols and their corresponding bounding box annotations. We also present a straightforward approach to perform LPCS efficiently. Finally, we provide an experimental evaluation for the dataset based on five LPCS approaches and demonstrate the importance of character segmentation for achieving an accurate OCR.

  6. CONFUCIANISM AND CHARACTER EDUCATION: A CHINESE VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ju Chou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of Confucianism are founded on humaneness, righteousness, propriety, knowledge, integrity and filial piety. These principles have found their way to the Chinese culture since the days of Confucius. The study reviews the concept of Confucianism and its influence in Chinese context. Also, the relationship between Confucianism and character education is discussed. Character education is based on the transmission of values and within Chinese society and most of these values have been founded on the teachings of Confucius. Filial piety has strongly been conditioned within the principles of Confucianism and the respect of one’s elders. Character education has been promoted by teachers and elders who focus on the transmission of values from one generation to the next. Character education is supported by the theories and teachings set out by Confucius, mostly in relation to humaneness and integrity, as well as collectivism. The individualistic trends are discarded within character education, as the welfare of the society and the collective is prioritized.

  7. Character superimposition inpainting in surveillance video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lili; Tao, Junjie; You, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Video surveillance systems play an important role in the crime scene investigation, and the digital surveillance system always requires the superimposed video data being subjected to a data compression processing. The purpose of this paper is to study the use of inpainting techniques to remove the characters and inpaint the target region. We give the efficient framework including getting Character Superimposition mask, superimposition movement and inpainting the blanks. The character region is located with the manual ROI selection and varying text extractor, such as the time. The superimposed characters usually have distinguished colors from the original background, so the edges are easily detected. We use the canny operator the get the edge image. The missing information which is effect the structure of the original image is reconstructed using a structure propagating algorithm. The experiment was done with C/C++ in the vs2010 KDE. The framework of this paper showed is powerful to recreate the character superimposition region and helpful to the crime scene investigation.

  8. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  9. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C; Kasprian, Gregor; Witzani, Linde; Helmer, Hanns; Dietrich, Wolfgang; Eppel, Wolfgang; Langer, Martin

    2006-02-01

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  10. Fetal Primary Cardiac Tumors During Perinatal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fetal primary cardiac tumors are rare, but they may cause complications, which are sometimes life threatening, including arrhythmias, hydrops fetalis, ventricular outflow/inflow obstruction, cardiac failure, and even sudden death. Among fetal primary cardiac tumors, rhabdomyomas are most common, followed by teratomas, fibromas, hemangiomas, and myxomas. Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, has been reported to be an effective drug to cause tumor remission in three neonates with multiple cardiac rhabdomyomas. Neonatal cardiac surgery for the resection of primary cardiac tumors found by fetal echocardiography has been reported sporadically. However, open fetal surgery for pericardial teratoma resection, which was performed successfully via a fetal median sternotomy in one case report, could be a promising intervention to rescue these patients with large pericardial effusions. These recent achievements undoubtedly encourage further development in early management of fetal cardiac tumors. Owing to the rarity of fetal primary cardiac tumors, relevant information in terms of prenatal diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis remains to be clarified.

  11. Fetal pain: an infantile debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, S W G

    2001-02-01

    The question of whether a fetus can experience pain is an immense challenge. The issue demands consideration of the physical and psychological basis of being and the relation between the two. At the center of this debate is the question of how it is that we are conscious, a question that has inspired the writing of some of our most brilliant contemporary philosophers and scientists, with one commentary suggesting surrender. In my earlier review I attempted to draw together the various strands of thinking that had attacked the question of fetal pain and relate them back to the bigger question of consciousness. In their vituperative response, Benatar and Benatar bite off my finger before looking to where I am pointing. I will examine each of their criticisms.

  12. Neurodevelopment after fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschat, Ahmet A

    2014-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) can emerge as a complication of placental dysfunction and increases the risk for neurodevelopmental delay. Marked elevations of umbilical artery (UA) Doppler resistance that set the stage for cardiovascular and biophysical deterioration with subsequent preterm birth characterize early-onset FGR. Minimal, or absent UA Doppler abnormalities and isolated cerebral Doppler changes with subtle deterioration and a high risk for unanticipated term stillbirth are characteristic for late-onset FGR. Nutritional deficiency manifested in lagging head growth is the most powerful predictor of developmental delay in all forms of FGR. Extremes of blood flow resistance and cardiovascular deterioration, prematurity and intracranial hemorrhage increase the risks for psychomotor delay and cerebral palsy. In late-onset FGR, regional cerebral vascular redistribution correlates with abnormal behavioral domains. Irrespective of the phenotype of FGR, prenatal tests that provide precise and independent stratification of risks for adverse neurodevelopment have yet to be determined.

  13. Fetal alcohol syndrome: neuropsychiatric phenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Larry; Klug, Marilyn G; Martsolf, John T; Kerbeshian, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a common developmental disorder with impairments in multiple neuropsychiatric spheres of varying severity. Few population-derived studies of the behavioral phenotype are available. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders in three groups: subjects who met criteria for FAS (n=152); subjects who met criteria for partial FAS/ARND (n=150); and referred subjects who did not meet criteria for either FAS or partial FAS/ARND (n=86). Each subject had a standardized evaluation by a medical geneticist. All subjects were from North Dakota. We found increases in the prevalence rates of neuropsychiatric disorders in subjects with FAS compared to subjects with partial FAS/ARND and the lowest rates in the group that did not meet criteria for either FAS or partial FAS/ARND. Comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder occurred in 73% of cases with FAS, in 72% cases with partial FAS/ARND, and in 36% subjects who did not meet criteria for either. For other neuropsychiatric disorders, a similar distribution of comorbidity was found. This study supports the concept of a continuum of impairment resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure. The presence of complex cognitive, behavioral, and physical symptomatology in the affected subjects with prenatal alcohol exposure would seem to fit well under the diagnostic rubric of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Diagnosis and long-term management will require increasing access to multidisciplinary child development teams including mental health professionals who treat children and adolescents. Adults will require care primarily from teams with expertise in mental health and developmental disabilities.

  14. Balancing plot and character believability by reasoning out-of-character

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linssen, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    We are designing a serious game in which players need to become aware of their social behaviour by interacting with virtual characters. These characters need to behave believably while guaranteeing that the player reaches that learning goal at a certain point during the game's story. I propose to le

  15. Online Handwritten Character Recognition of Devanagari and Telugu Characters using Support Vector Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Swethalakshmi, H.; Jayaraman, Anitha; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa; Sekhar, C. Chandra

    2006-01-01

    http://www.suvisoft.com; A system for recognition of online handwritten characters has been presented for Indian writing systems. A handwritten character is represented as a sequence of strokes whose features are extracted and classied. Support vector machines have been used for constructing the stroke recognition engine. The results have been presented after testing the system on Devanagari and Telugu scripts.

  16. The Inaccuracy of National Character Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R; Chan, Wayne; Jussim, Lee; De Fruyt, Filip; Löckenhoff, Corinna E; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Yik, Michelle; Ficková, Emília; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Reátigui, Norma; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-Kyu; Ahn, Hyun-Nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R; Crawford, Jarret T; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Marušić, Iris; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Purić, Danka; Martin, Thomas A; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V; Pramila, V S; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Consensual stereotypes of some groups are relatively accurate, whereas others are not. Previous work suggesting that national character stereotypes are inaccurate has been criticized on several grounds. In this article we (a) provide arguments for the validity of assessed national mean trait levels as criteria for evaluating stereotype accuracy; and (b) report new data on national character in 26 cultures from descriptions (N=3,323) of the typical male or female adolescent, adult, or old person in each. The average ratings were internally consistent and converged with independent stereotypes of the typical culture member, but were weakly related to objective assessments of personality. We argue that this conclusion is consistent with the broader literature on the inaccuracy of national character stereotypes.

  17. Conceptual Design Scheme for Virtual Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Gino; Servidio, Rocco

    The aim of this paper is to describe some theoretical considerations about virtual character design. In recent years, many prototypes of cognitive and behavioral architectures have been developed to simulate human behavior in artificial agents. Analyzing recent studies, we assume that there exists a variety of computational models and methods in order to increase the cognitive abilities of the virtual characters. In our opinion, it is necessary to perform a synthesis of these approaches in order to improve the existing models and avoiding the application of new approaches. Considering these aspects, in this paper we describe a taxonomy that explores the principal cognitive and computational parameters involved in the design, development and evaluation of a virtual character.

  18. The Inaccuracy of National Character Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; Chan, Wayne; Jussim, Lee; De Fruyt, Filip; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Yik, Michelle; Ficková, Emília; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Reátigui, Norma; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R.; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Marušić, Iris; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Purić, Danka; Martin, Thomas A.; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B.; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P.; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Pramila, V. S.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Consensual stereotypes of some groups are relatively accurate, whereas others are not. Previous work suggesting that national character stereotypes are inaccurate has been criticized on several grounds. In this article we (a) provide arguments for the validity of assessed national mean trait levels as criteria for evaluating stereotype accuracy; and (b) report new data on national character in 26 cultures from descriptions (N=3,323) of the typical male or female adolescent, adult, or old person in each. The average ratings were internally consistent and converged with independent stereotypes of the typical culture member, but were weakly related to objective assessments of personality. We argue that this conclusion is consistent with the broader literature on the inaccuracy of national character stereotypes. PMID:24187394

  19. Online Farsi Character Recognition Using Structural Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Ghods

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, grouping and recognition of online Farsi discrete characters are presented according to their structural features. The letters are divided into 9 groups based on the form and structure of their main bodies. After feature extraction, grouping is performed using a decision tree. Final recognition of letters is carried out in each group by delayed strokes. The proposed method is a rapid method in character recognition because time-consuming methods have not been used. Our proposed method was tested on TMU-OFS dataset, and a recognition rate of 94% and 92% was achieved for character grouping and recognition, respectively. The mean processing time for recognizing a letter was 3ms.

  20. Transliterating non-ASCII characters with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Bernstein

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This lesson shows how to use Python to transliterate automatically a list of words from a language with a non-Latin alphabet to a standardized format using the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII characters. It builds on readers’ understanding of Python from the lessons “Viewing HTML Files,” “Working with Web Pages,” “From HTML to List of Words (part 1” and “Intro to Beautiful Soup.” At the end of the lesson, we will use the transliteration dictionary to convert the names from a database of the Russian organization Memorial from Cyrillic into Latin characters. Although the example uses Cyrillic characters, the technique can be reproduced with other alphabets using Unicode.

  1. Trivalent graphs, volume conjectures and character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Nawata, Satoshi; Zodinmawia,

    2014-01-01

    The generalized volume conjecture and the AJ conjecture (a.k.a. the quantum volume conjecture) are extended to $U_q(sl_2)$ colored quantum invariants of trivalent graphs. The SL(2,C) character variety of the fundamental group of the complement of a trivalent graph with $E$ edges in $S^3$ is a Lagrangian subvariety of the Hitchin moduli space over the Riemann surface of genus $g=E/3+1$. The configuration of the character variety is locally determined by large color asymptotics of the quantum invariants of the trivalent graph in terms of complex Fenchel-Nielsen coordinates. Moreover, the q-holonomic difference equation of the quantum invariants provides the quantization of the character variety. In particular, we investigate both the conjectures for the theta and tetrahedron graphs.

  2. Detecting DNS Tunnels Using Character Frequency Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Born, Kenton

    2010-01-01

    High-bandwidth covert channels pose significant risks to sensitive and proprietary information inside company networks. Domain Name System (DNS) tunnels provide a means to covertly infiltrate and exfiltrate large amounts of information passed network boundaries. This paper explores the possibility of detecting DNS tunnels by analyzing the unigram, bigram, and trigram character frequencies of domains in DNS queries and responses. It is empirically shown how domains follow Zipf's law in a similar pattern to natural languages, whereas tunneled traffic has more evenly distributed character frequencies. This approach allows tunnels to be detected across multiple domains, whereas previous methods typically concentrate on monitoring point to point systems. Anomalies are quickly discovered when tunneled traffic is compared to the character frequency fingerprint of legitimate domain traffic.

  3. [Clinical analysis of fetal death cases in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Chen, Lu; Liang, Cheng

    2011-05-01

    death were diagnosed before admission. The results of antepartum surveillance were as follows: 2 cases had nonreassuring nonstress test (NST), one had mild "V" type deceleration. Absence of diastolic flow in umbilical artery were found in 3 cases, and low fetal biophysical score was got in one case. (5) All 21 patients had vaginal delivery. Six of them delivered after natural contraction, and the remaining 14 cases delivered after oral intake of mifepristone and amniotic injection of ethacridine, or oxytocin induced labor within 48 hours, only one case delivered after additional dinoprostone suppositories. The appearance of fetus, placentas and membranes were normal, the lengths of umbilical cord were average. Four cases were found with cords binding the necks or the bodies. Eighteen cases had grade III amniotic fluid with meconium-stained, and 2 cases complicated by oligohydramnios. Ten cases had their fetuses and placentas examined by pathologist. Among them, one case had multiple malformations, no more obvious pathological abnormalities were found in other fetuses. Pathologic examination showed that fibrin deposited around chorion and deciduas basalis, large vessels accompanied by calcification, degeneration, hemorrhagic infarction, and increased focal syncytial nodules could be seen in all of the ten placentas. Fetal death in pregnant women with ICP often occurs after the contractions, Severe ICP may be a key factor that involved in the occurrence of fetal death. Up to now, there is no valid indicators in fetal monitoring, which can predict fetal death. Extensive assessment of the severity and careful antepartum surveillance should be achieved before timely termination of pregnancy.

  4. [Advanced MRI techniques of the fetal brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpf, V; Dittrich, E; Berger-Kulemann, V; Kasprian, G; Kollndorfer, K; Prayer, D

    2013-02-01

    Evaluation of the normal and pathological fetal brain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Advanced MRI of the fetal brain. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is used in clinical practice, all other methods are used at a research level. Serving as standard methods in the future. Combined structural and functional data for all gestational ages will allow more specific insight into the developmental processes of the fetal brain. This gain of information will help provide a common understanding of complex spatial and temporal procedures of early morphological features and their impact on cognitive and sensory abilities.

  5. Rapid Feature Extraction for Optical Character Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, M Zahid; Yan, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Feature extraction is one of the fundamental problems of character recognition. The performance of character recognition system is depends on proper feature extraction and correct classifier selection. In this article, a rapid feature extraction method is proposed and named as Celled Projection (CP) that compute the projection of each section formed through partitioning an image. The recognition performance of the proposed method is compared with other widely used feature extraction methods that are intensively studied for many different scripts in literature. The experiments have been conducted using Bangla handwritten numerals along with three different well known classifiers which demonstrate comparable results including 94.12% recognition accuracy using celled projection.

  6. Reverse mathematics and properties of finite character

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhafarov, Damir D

    2011-01-01

    We study the reverse mathematics of the principle stating that, for every property of finite character, every set of natural numbers has a maximal subset satisfying the property. In the context of set theory, this variant of Tukey's lemma is equivalent to the axiom of choice. We study its behavior in the context of second-order arithmetic, and give a full characterization of the strength of the principle in terms of the quantifier structure of the formula defining the property. We then study the interaction between properties of finite character and finitary closure operators, and the interaction between these properties and a class of nondeterministic closure operators which we introduce.

  7. Organization and expression of immunoglobulin genes in fetal liver hybridomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R P; Kelley, D E; Coleclough, C; Kearney, J F

    1981-01-01

    The organization and expression of immunoglobulin genes were studied in a series of six hybridomas derived from the fusion of a nonproducing myeloma cell with cells from mouse fetal liver. These hybridomas, which exhibit several phenotypic characteristics of immature B lymphocytes, all have productively rearranged mu heavy chain genes and produce both the membrane and secreted forms of mu mRNA in a ratio of about 1:10. Significantly, none of the hybridomas has an unrearranged (germ line) allelic mu gene. Examination of the kappa light chain genes revealed that all six of the hybridomas contain unrearranged kappa loci and produce 8.4-kilobase transcripts containing kappa constant region sequences. None of the five hybridomas that exhibit a mu-only phenotype contains a rearranged kappa gene other than that derived from the myeloma parent. One hybridoma, which actively secretes kappa immunoglobulin, contains a rearranged kappa gene of fetal liver origin and synthesizes a distinctive kappa mRNA precursor in addition to the 8.4-kilobase transcript. These results demonstrate that rearrangement of heavy chain immunoglobulin genes normally occurs prior to that of light chain genes and further indicate that the transcriptional competence of the kappa constant region locus is established prior to the time of its rearrangement.

  8. Actions of piperidine alkaloid teratogens at fetal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Cook, Daniel; Pfister, James A; Kem, William R

    2010-01-01

    Teratogenic alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Conium maculatum L., Nicotiana glauca, Nicotiana tabaccum, and multiple Lupinus spp. Fetal musculoskeletal defects produced by alkaloids from these plants include arthrogyropisis, scoliosis, torticollis, kyposis, lordosis, and cleft palate. A pharmacodynamic comparison of the alkaloids ammodendrine, anabasine, anabaseine, anagyrine, and coniine in SH-SY5Y cells and TE-671 cells was made. These alkaloids and their enantiomers were more effective in depolarizing TE-671 cells which express the human fetal-muscle type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) relative to SH-SY5Y cells which predominately express autonomic nAChRs. The rank order of potency in TE-671 cells was: anabaseine>(+)-anabasine>(-)-anabasine > (+/-)-anabasine>anagyrine>(-)-coniine > (+/-)-coniine>(+)-coniine>(+/-)-ammodendrine>(+)-ammodendrine. The rank order potency in SH-SY5Y cells was: anabaseine>(+)-anabasine>(-)-coniine>(+)-coniine>(+)-ammodendrine>anagyrine>(-)-anabasine>(+/-)-coniine>(+/-)-anabasine>(-)-ammodendrine. The actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs in both cell lines could be distinguished by their maximum effects in depolarizing cell membrane potential. The teratogenic action of these compounds may be related to their ability to activate and subsequently desensitize nAChRs.

  9. Gene expression during development of fetal and adult Leydig cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lei; Jelinsky, Scott A; Finger, Joshua N; Johnston, Daniel S; Kopf, Gregory S; Sottas, Chantal M; Hardy, Matthew P; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2007-12-01

    In rats and mice, Leydig cells are formed as two morphologically and functionally different generations. The first generation develops in utero, from undifferentiated stem Leydig cells (SLCs) that differentiate into fetal Leydig cells (FLCs). After birth, SLCs that may differ from the fetal SLCs undergo lineage-specific commitment and give rise to adult Leydig cells (ALCs). The intermediates of ALCs first become apparent by day 11 postpartum. These first-appearing intermediates, progenitor Leydig cells (PLCs), are spindle shaped and identifiable as steroidogenic because they express luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD). The next step in the transition of PLCs to ALCs is the appearance of the immature Leydig cells (ILCs), most commonly seen in the testis during days 28 to 56 postpartum. ILCs have a more abundant smooth endoplasm reticulum (SER), the network of membranes providing a scaffold for steroidogenic enzyme localization, compared to PLCs, but are considered immature because they secrete higher levels of 5alpha-reduced androgen than testosterone. ILCs undergo a final division before ALC steroidogenic function matures by postnatal day 56. ALCs mark the point of maximum differentiation, and at this stage, the Leydig cell secretes testosterone at the highest rate. In this review, trends of gene expression during development of the two Leydig-cell generations, and recent information from gene profiling by microarray, are evaluated. The expression profiles are distinct, indicating that FLCs and ALCs may originate from separate pools of stem cells.

  10. A comparison of orally administered misoprostol and membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-term pregnancy is fairly common in obstetric practice and is the most ... MS involves digital separation of the fetal membranes from the lower ... term.10,11 This method causes an increase in local PG production,12,13 which results in ...

  11. 8 CFR 316.10 - Good moral character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good moral character. 316.10 Section 316.10... NATURALIZATION § 316.10 Good moral character. (a) Requirement of good moral character during the statutory period... prescribed period, he or she has been and continues to be a person of good moral character. This includes the...

  12. An Optical Character Recognition for Handwritten Devanagari Script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti R. Zalke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical Character Recognition is process of recognition of character from scanned document and lots of OCR now available in the market. But most of these systems work for Roman, Chinese, Japanese and Arabic characters . There are no sufficient number of work on Indian language script like Devanagari so this paper present a review on optical character recognition on handwritten Devanagari script.

  13. The Contaminant Cobweb: Complex Characters and Monstrous Mashup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech Albertsen, Anita Nell

    2017-01-01

    This article maps out character complexity in Penny Dreadful by focusing on the intertextuality of monstrous female characters. The aim of this study is twofold. First, it seeks to examine show how mashup characters gain complexity through textual contamination as they are woven into an intertext...... strategies contribute to character complexity of traditional female monsters usually seen in televisual horror-drama....

  14. A Developmental Study of Chinese Children's Word and Character Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Wang, Ying; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between Chinese children's character and word reading, 62 third and 50 fifth grade children in Hong Kong were asked to read single characters and words that were comprised of these characters. Results showed that words helped children to recognize characters for both grades of children. Compared to older children,…

  15. Decreased fetal movements at home were recorded by a newly developed fetal movement recorder in a case of a non-reassuring fetal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryo, Eiji; Kamata, Hideo; Seto, Michiharu

    2014-10-01

    A fetal movement acceleration measurement (FMAM) recorder was developed for home monitoring of fetal movements. We provided a 32-year-old pregnant woman with the FMAM recorder to home monitor fetal movements, thereby self-recording decreased fetal movements at 30 weeks' gestation. On routine checkup, a non-stress test revealed scant fetal heart rate accelerations. At 31 weeks' gestation, the woman underwent an emergent caesarean delivery because of a non-reassuring fetal heart rate pattern, and delivered a female neonate weighing 1312 g, whose umbilical cord was slightly narrowed at the umbilicus. Our experience with the present case suggests the usefulness of the FMAM recorder.

  16. Normalized spectral power of fetal heart rate variability is associated with fetal scalp blood pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laar, J. O.; Peters, C. H. L.; Houterman, S.; Wijn, P. F. F.; Kwee, A.; Oei, S. G.

    Background: Spectral power of fetal heart rate variability is related to fetal condition. Previous studies found an increased normalized low frequency power in case of severe fetal acidosis. Aims: To analyze whether absolute or normalized low or high frequency power of fetal heart rate variability

  17. Fetal growth retardation and lack of hypotaurine in ezrin knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Nishimura

    Full Text Available Ezrin is a membrane-associated cytoplasmic protein that serves to link cell-membrane proteins with the actin-based cytoskeleton, and also plays a role in regulation of the functional activities of some transmembrane proteins. It is expressed in placental trophoblasts. We hypothesized that placental ezrin is involved in the supply of nutrients from mother to fetus, thereby influencing fetal growth. The aim of this study was firstly to clarify the effect of ezrin on fetal growth and secondly to determine whether knockout of ezrin is associated with decreased concentrations of serum and placental nutrients. Ezrin knockout mice (Ez(-/- were confirmed to exhibit fetal growth retardation. Metabolome analysis of fetal serum and placental extract of ezrin knockout mice by means of capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry revealed a markedly decreased concentration of hypotaurine, a precursor of taurine. However, placental levels of cysteine and cysteine sulfinic acid (precursors of hypotaurine and taurine were not affected. Lack of hypotaurine in Ez(-/- mice was confirmed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Administration of hypotaurine to heterogenous dams significantly decreased the placenta-to-maternal plasma ratio of hypotaurine in wild-type fetuses but only slightly decreased it in ezrin knockout fetuses, indicating that the uptake of hypotaurine from mother to placenta is saturable and that disruption of ezrin impairs the uptake of hypotaurine by placental trophoblasts. These results indicate that ezrin is required for uptake of hypotaurine from maternal serum by placental trophoblasts, and plays an important role in fetal growth.

  18. Fetal antigen 2 in primary and secondary brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H Boje; Teisner, B; Schrøder, H D

    1991-01-01

    Immunohistochemical deposition and distribution of fetal antigen 2 (FA2) was examined in normal brain tissue and in primary and metastatic tumors of the brain. In normal brain tissue FA2 was exclusively found linearly around the vessels, along pia and in arachnoidea. A similar localization was seen...... in primary brain tumors except in gliosarcoma where FA2 was distributed diffusely in the sarcoma region and was absent in the glioma region. In metastatic carcinoma with tumor stroma a diffuse staining reaction was seen in the stroma and with a basement membrane (BM) like staining at the tumor cell....../stroma interface. Intracytoplasmic FA2 staining of the tumor cells was seen in areas without tumor stroma. In metastatic melanoma a BM like FA2 staining was seen around and between individual tumor cells. The staining patterns seen in the metastatic tumors were in accordance with that of the corresponding primary...

  19. ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY OF THE HEMOPOIETIC MICROENVIRONMENT IN HUMAN FETAL SPLEEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱莲; 朱萍; 李学均; 张丽; 迟凤琴; 吴振铎; 宋雁南; 张亚坤

    1994-01-01

    Reciprocal interations between hemopoietic stromal cells and immature hemopoietic cells in human spleens obtained from 20 fetuses of 10-28 weeks gestation were observed by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.The close association of stromal cells with immature hemopoietic cells was confirmed under the electron microscope and a preasumptive HIM(Hemopoietic inductive mocroenvironment) was visualized.In regions of immature hemopoietice cell-reticular cell,endothelial cell,macrophage and interdigitating cell contact,some communicating structures were found between the plasma membranes of adjacent cells.moreovcer,the cytoplasm of these four stromal cells were full of various kinds of organelles.These results suggest that reticular cells,endothelial cells,macrophages and interdigitating cells are component parts of the HIM of human fetal spleen and that these cells have a nurturing function in relation to hemopoietic cells.

  20. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging: methods and techniques; Fetale Magnetresonanztomographie: Methoden und Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, P.C. [Zentrum fuer Anatomie und Zellbiologie, Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Arbeitsgruppe Integrative Morphologie; Stuhr, F.; Lindner, C.; Prayer, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik

    2006-02-15

    Since the introduction of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into prenatal diagnostics, advances in coil technology and development of ultrafast sequences have further enhanced this technique. At present numerous sequences are available to visualize the whole fetus with high resolution and image quality, even in late stages of pregnancy. Taking into consideration the special circumstances of examination and adjusting sequence parameters to gestational age, fetal anatomy can be accurately depicted. The variety of sequences also allows further characterization of fetal tissues and pathologies. Fetal MRI not only supplies additional information to routine ultrasound studies, but also reveals fetal morphology and pathology in a way hitherto not possible. (orig.) [German] Seit Einfuehrung der fetalen Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) in die praenatale Diagnostik wurde das Verfahren durch neue Spulentechniken und die Entwicklung ultraschneller Sequenzen kontinuierlich weiter entwickelt. Gegenwaertig steht eine Vielzahl von Sequenzen zur Verfuegung, die es erlauben, mit hoher Bildqualitaet und raeumlicher Aufloesung selbst in fortgeschrittenen Schwangerschaftsstadien den gesamten Feten darzustellen. Unter Beruecksichtigung der speziellen Untersuchungsbedingungen und des Schwangerschaftsalters kann so die fetale Anatomie genau abgebildet werden. Die Vielfalt an Sequenzen und deren gezielter Einsatz ermoeglichen es weiter, fetale Gewebe und Pathologien naeher zu charakterisierten. Auf diese Weise liefert die fetale MRT nicht nur Zusatzinformationen zur Routineultraschalluntersuchung, sie gibt auch Aufschluss ueber bestimmte fetale Morphologien und Pathologien, die bisher nicht darstellbar waren. (orig.)

  1. Lacking deoxygenation-linked interaction between cytoplasmic domain of band 3 and HbF from fetal red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Several of the red blood cell's metabolic and membrane functions display dependence on haemoglobin oxygenation. In adult human red cells, the increased glycolytic rate at low O2 tension results from binding of deoxygenated HbA at negatively charged, N-terminal, cytoplasmic domain...... of the membrane protein band 3, which liberates glycolytic enzymes from this site. This study aims to investigate the role of fetal HbF (that has lower anion-binding capacity than HbA) in fetal red cells (that are subjected to low O2 tensions), and to elucidate possible linkage (e.g. via the major red cell...... membrane organising centre, band 3) between the individual oxygenation-linked reactions encountered in red cells. Methods: The interaction between band 3 and Hb is analysed in terms of the effects, measured under different conditions, of a 10-mer peptide that corresponds to the N-terminus of human band 3...

  2. Fetal bowel anomalies - US and MR assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubesova, Erika [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The technical quality of prenatal US and fetal MRI has significantly improved during the last decade and allows an accurate diagnosis of bowel pathology prenatally. Accurate diagnosis of bowel pathology in utero is important for parental counseling and postnatal management. It is essential to recognize the US presentation of bowel pathology in the fetus in order to refer the patient for further evaluation or follow-up. Fetal MRI has been shown to offer some advantages over US for specific bowel abnormalities. In this paper, we review the normal appearance of the fetal bowel on US and MRI as well as the typical presentations of bowel pathologies. We discuss more specifically the importance of recognizing on fetal MRI the abnormalities of size and T1-weighted signal of the meconium-filled distal bowel. (orig.)

  3. Changing patterns of fetal lung maturity testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGinnis, K T; Brown, J A; Morrison, J C

    2008-01-01

    In our laboratory, a decrease in fetal lung maturity (FLM) testing on amniotic fluid occurred over a 10-year period, and we desired to determine if this was a national phenomenon and, if present, ascertain possible etiologies...

  4. Practice Bulletin No. 173: Fetal Macrosomia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2016-01-01

    Suspected fetal macrosomia is encountered commonly in obstetric practice. As birth weight increases, the likelihood of labor abnormalities, shoulder dystocia, birth trauma, and permanent injury to the neonate increases...

  5. Practice Bulletin No. 173 Summary: Fetal Macrosomia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2016-01-01

    Suspected fetal macrosomia is encountered commonly in obstetric practice. As birth weight increases, the likelihood of labor abnormalities, shoulder dystocia, birth trauma, and permanent injury to the neonate increases...

  6. Fetal diffusion imaging: pearls and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprian, Gregor; Del Río, Maria; Prayer, Daniela

    2010-12-01

    Recently, diffusion-weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging of the fetus has evolved from a basic research application to an important diagnostic imaging tool in fetal magnetic resonance imaging. Although technically challenging and still plagued with several sources of artifacts, DWI can add clinically important information, which cannot be provided by any other prenatal imaging modality. Its potential to noninvasively probe tissue structures on the basis of Brownian molecular motion enables the detection of early changes associated with acute fetal diseases, as well as structural alterations of functionally diverse compartments of different fetal organs. In this article, the current clinical applications of fetal brain and body DWI are outlined, as well as its current limitations.

  7. Diagnostic pitfalls in fetal brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mukhtar, Ali; Kasprian, Gregor; Schmook, Maria T; Brugger, Peter C; Prayer, Daniela

    2009-08-01

    Recent technological advances in fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and increased reliability of MRI in depicting abnormalities and lesions, especially in the central nervous system, are increasingly bringing up challenging issues with regard to accurate diagnosis. There are also pitfalls not only attributable to image acquisition but also in clinical interpretation. The misinterpretation of findings because of insufficient knowledge about fetal brain development as visualized by MRI may also be regarded as an important limitation of fetal MRI. We provide an overview of the most common pitfalls experienced in fetal MRI in routine practice, demonstrate how to identify some of the factors that lead to imaging misinterpretation, and suggest ways to tackle these problems, with an emphasis on MR techniques and image calibration.

  8. [Effect of music on fetal behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, M; Malinova, M

    2004-01-01

    Antenatal music stimulation shown to elicit fetal heart rate and body movement responses, indicating that prenatal experience with music influences auditory functional development. The slower tempo resulted in less movement variation.

  9. Fetal magnetocardiography: Methods for rapid data reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, John C.; Flynn, Edward R.; Quinn, A.; Weir, A.; Shahani, U.; Bain, R. J. P.; Maas, P.; Donaldson, G. B.

    1997-03-01

    Fetal magnetocardigraphy (fMCG) provides a unique method for noninvasive observations of the fetal heart. Electrical currents generated by excitable tissues within the fetal heart yield measurable external magnetic fields. Measurements are performed with superconducting quantum interference devices inductively coupled to magnetometer or gradiometer coils, and the resulting signals are converted to digital form in the data acquisition system. The measured fields are usually contaminated by fetal and maternal movements (usually respiration), other physiological fields such as skeletal muscle contraction, the maternal cardiac signal, and environmental electromagnetic fields. Sensitivity to relatively distant sources, both physiological and environmental, is substantially reduced by the use of magnetic gradiometers. Other contaminants may be removed by proper signal conditioning which may be automatically applied using "black box" algorithms that are transparent to the user and highly efficient. These procedures can rapidly reduce the complex signal plus noise waveforms to the desired fMCG with minimal operator interference.

  10. Piracetam for fetal distress in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Kulier, Regina

    2012-06-13

    Piracetam is thought to promote the metabolism of brain cells when they are hypoxic. It has been used to prevent adverse effects of fetal distress. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of piracetam for suspected fetal distress in labour on method of delivery and perinatal morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (15 February 2012). Randomised trials of piracetam compared with placebo or no treatment for suspected fetal distress in labour. Both review authors assessed eligibility and trial quality. One study of 96 women was included. Piracetam compared with placebo was associated with a trend to reduced need for caesarean section (risk ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 1.03). There were no statistically significant differences between the piracetam and placebo group for neonatal morbidity (measured by neonatal respiratory distress) or Apgar score. There is not enough evidence to evaluate the use of piracetam for fetal distress in labour.

  11. Maternal hypoxia alters matrix metalloproteinase expression patterns and causes cardiac remodeling in fetal and neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wenni; Xue, Qin; Li, Yong; Zhang, Lubo

    2011-11-01

    Fetal hypoxia leads to progressive cardiac remodeling in rat offspring. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal hypoxia results in reprogramming of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression patterns and fibrillar collagen matrix in the developing heart. Pregnant rats were treated with normoxia or hypoxia (10.5% O(2)) from day 15 to 21 of gestation. Hearts were isolated from 21-day fetuses (E21) and postnatal day 7 pups (PD7). Maternal hypoxia caused a decrease in the body weight of both E21 and PD7. The heart-to-body weight ratio was increased in E21 but not in PD7. Left ventricular myocardium wall thickness and cardiomyocyte proliferation were significantly decreased in both fetal and neonatal hearts. Hypoxia had no effect on fibrillar collagen content in the fetal heart, but significantly increased the collagen content in the neonatal heart. Western blotting revealed that maternal hypoxia significantly increased collagen I, but not collagen III, levels in the neonatal heart. Maternal hypoxia decreased MMP-1 but increased MMP-13 and membrane type (MT)1-MMP in the fetal heart. In the neonatal heart, MMP-1 and MMP-13 were significantly increased. Active MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels and activities were not altered in either fetal or neonatal hearts. Hypoxia significantly increased tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-3 and TIMP-4 in both fetal and neonatal hearts. In contrast, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were not affected. The results demonstrate that in utero hypoxia reprograms the expression patterns of MMPs and TIMPs and causes cardiac tissue remodeling with the increased collagen deposition in the developing heart.

  12. Ontogeny of expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and its receptors in human fetal skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; FU Xiao-bing; GE Shi-li; SUN Tong-zhu; SHENG Zhi-yong

    2005-01-01

    Objective : To investigate the expression characteristics of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)and its receptors, flg ( FGFR1 ) and bek ( FGFR2), in fetal skin at different gestational ages underlying the relevance of these 3 proteins to skin development and the mechanisms underlying the phenotypic transition from scarless to scarforming healing.Methods: Eighteen specimens of fetal skin biopsies of human embryo were obtained from spontaneous abortions at different gestational ages of 13-32 weeks. Gene expression of bFGF, bek and flg was examined with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The dynamic expression and distribution of these 3 proteins were detected with streptavidin peroxidase ( SP )immunohistochemical staining method.Results: In the early gestational fetal skin, genes of bFGF and flg were strongly expressed and more protein contents of these 2 proteins were found as compared with the genes at late gestation fetal skin (2.446 ± 0.116 and 2.066 ± 0. 152 versus 2.157 ± 0. 101 and 1.818 ± 0.086,respectively, P < 0.05). On the contrary, the levels of gene expression and protein content of bek were not differently expressed in the early gestational fetal skin versus the late ones. Protein particles of bFGF were mainly distributed in the epidermal cells and some fibroblasts. Bek was mainly located in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of epidermal cells while flg protein was principally located in the epidermal cells, endothelial cells and some fibroblasts.Conclusions: The endogenous bFGF and their receptors might be involved in the cutaneous development at fetal stage. The differently expressing levels of bFGF and flg during gestation may be related to scarless or scarforming repair during gestation.

  13. Nearest Neighbor Algorithm in Handwritten Character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Deshmukh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The proposed system extracts the geometric features of the character Contour. The system gives a feature vector as its output. The feature vectors so generated from a training set is then used to train a pattern recognition engine based on Neural Networks so that the system can be benchmarked. There was an attempt made to develop a system that used the methods that humans use to perceive handwritten characters. Hence a system that recognizes handwritten characters using Pattern recognition was developed. Here the data generated by comparing two images was stored in excel format and then that data was called as an individual input for generation of Simulink diagram. Pattern recognition can be used to model human perception. The mathematics that Pattern recognition requires is extremely fundamental. Any algorithm developed using Pattern recognition would require relatively simple and not so lengthy calculations. Due to simplicity of calculations, they can be implemented on any hardware or software platform without worrying about the computing power. In this paper first part is about introduction to character Recognition. The second part deals with the short introduction to neural network implementation for image processing using MATLAB

  14. Character First: The Hyde School Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Joseph W.

    This book describes the 27-year-old Hyde School and its innovative family-school partnership. The school focuses on the development of character as a prerequisite to academic achievement. It strives to instill the following values in its students: courage, integrity, leadership, curiosity, and concern. The founder of the school, Joseph M. Gauld,…

  15. Educating for Character in the Sexual Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickona, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Changes in American sexual behavior brought about by the sexual revolution have been linked to the breakdown of the family and other social ills. Because sex has profound consequences for self, others, and society, sex education is an important part of character education. Sexual abstinence before marriage is associated with better physical and…

  16. On Repairing Generated Behaviors for Graphical Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corradini, Andrea; Mehta, Manish

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we continue our work on the creation of artificial intelligence (AI) behaviors for graphical interactive characters by novice users. We refer to novice users as any persons who do not have any particular skills, training and experience in both programming and design. The focus...

  17. 28 CFR 4.5 - Character endorsements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the duties and responsibilities thereof. The statement as to reputation shall attest to applicant's reputation in his community or in his circle of business or social acquaintances. Each letter or other form... the Chairman, U.S. Parole Commission, attesting to the character and reputation of the applicant. The...

  18. The Attractive Character of Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车婧瑜; 郭文睿

    2008-01-01

    Jane Eyre,written by Charlotte Bront(e),is a story of the heroine's struggle for independent personality and perfect love.Viewed as a classic work of English literature,the author of Jane Eyre makes it valuable and popular by creating a kind of Hew imagination.This paper argues for Jane's attractive character through her life experience.

  19. Using character overlap to improve language transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, S.; Krahmer, E.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den

    2013-01-01

    Language transformation can be defined as translating between diachronically distinct language variants. We investigate the transformation of Middle Dutch into Modern Dutch by means of machine translation. We demonstrate that by using character overlap the performance of the machine translation proce

  20. 7 CFR 52.809 - Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1... cherries. (b) (A) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted cherries that have a good character may be given a..., tender texture. (c) (B) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted cherries that have a reasonably...

  1. 7 CFR 52.781 - Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1... cherries. (b) (A) classification. Canned red tart pitted cherries that have a good character may be given a..., tender texture. (c) (B) classification. Canned red tart pitted cherries that have a reasonably...

  2. 7 CFR 52.1009 - Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1...) classification. Whole or pitted dates that possess a good character may be given a score of 36 to 40 points... possess dry calyx ends. (b) (B) classification. If the whole or pitted dates or whole dry dates...

  3. The Problem of Loyalty in Teaching Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    In the last year, two prominent, famous, and revered coaches, Jim Tressel and Joe Paterno, committed disastrous lapses of ethics. Both coaches preached that sport and athletics build character. They either taught ethics or leadership courses at their institutions or were exemplars of ethical behavior in their personal and professional lives. Both…

  4. Quasihomomorphisms and the residue Chern character

    CERN Document Server

    Perrot, Denis

    2008-01-01

    We develop a general procedure, based on the renormalized eta-cochain, which allows to find local representatives of the bivariant Chern character of finitely summable quasihomomorphisms. In particular, using zeta-function renormalization we obtain a bivariant generalization of the Connes-Moscovici residue formula, and explain the link with chiral and multiplicative anomalies in quantum field theory.

  5. Integrated characters with dialogue and tutorial strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wißner, M.; Bühling, R.; Linnebank, F.; Beek, W.; André, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this deliverable, we introduce three new virtual character support types (Critic, Quiz and Diagnosis) which are linked to different kinds of conceptual knowledge (such as semantic feedback or multiple choice questions) generated within the DynaLearn software. We show how this knowledge is extract

  6. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  7. Seafloor character--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3254 presents data for the seafloor-character map (see sheet 7, SIM 3254) of the Offshore of Ventura map area, California. The raster data file is...

  8. Theoretical reflections on Wilhelm Reich's Character Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, David

    2002-01-01

    The ideas contained in Wilhelm Reich's Character Analysis, while very influential, have not been thoroughly exploited in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. These ideas, aimed particularly at producing genuine change rather than mere intellectual understanding, are reexamined. Further implications of them are discussed.

  9. Using Storybooks as a Character Education Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Fethi; Ulutas, Ilkay

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the views and implementations of preschool teachers in "giving character education through picture storybooks." Descriptive review method was used in the research and supported with focus group interviews. For this reason data were took from two study groups (for the descriptive study group n = 245, for the…

  10. Seafloor character--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3254 presents data for the seafloor-character map (see sheet 7, SIM 3254) of the Offshore of Ventura map area, California. The raster data file is...

  11. Defining moments in leadership character development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Critical moments in life define one's character and clarify true values. Reflective leadership is espoused as an important practice for transformational leaders. Professional development educators can help surface and explore defining moments, strengthen leadership behavior with defining moments as a catalyst for change, and create safe spaces for leaders to expand their leadership capacity.

  12. Computer animation for articulated 3D characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the computer animation literature, mainly concentrating on articulated characters and at least some degree of interactivity or real time simulation. Advances in dierent techniques such as key-frame, motion capture (also known as mocap), dynamics, inverse kinematics (IK), contr

  13. A Brief Analysis of Sister Carrie's Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hanying

    2010-01-01

    Carrie is always dreaming while the rocking chair is rocking again and again, this is the deep impression on us after we read "Sister Carrie" which is the first novel of Theodore Dreiser. In this novel the protagonist Sister Carrie is a controversial person. This paper tries to analyze the character of Sister Carrie in order to find out…

  14. The Unavoidable Mission of Character Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Henry A.

    1995-01-01

    Character-education programs can be implemented without creating a political firestorm if planners carefully consider key process and content elements, including community involvement; core values; comprehensive, effective curricula; formal evaluation; prosocial behavior codes; communications; family outreach; and leadership from a knowledge base.…

  15. Study on Collision Characters for SPAR Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhi-qiang; CUI Wei-cheng

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the research on the external mechanism of collision characters for a SPAR platform. The collision characters of SPAR platform have not attracted so much attention as that of ships in the past, because short of this kind of collision accidents reported. But with the increasing number of SPAR platforms in the world, the possibility of such kind of accident also increases. Therefore, it is necessary to master the character of SPAR collision. Model test technique is employed to study the external mechanism. The collision scenario is a ship colliding with a SPAR platform moored in the site with 1500 meters water depth. The striking ship hits the SPAR platform on the hard tank near water surface in its longitudinal direction. The specifics of the SPAR's motions and the tension forces of the mooring lines are collected to summarize the hydrodynamic characters in the collision scenario. It is found that the maximal displacements and the maximal pitch angles of the SPAR platform, and the maximal tension forces of mooring lines are all linearly proportional to the initial velocity of the striking ship basically. Mooring lines play elastic roles in the collision course.

  16. [The aesthetic character of caring knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Yun

    2013-08-01

    The identity of nursing is founded on caring knowledge, which is derived from our understanding of its experience-revealed essence. This purposive knowledge differs from scientific knowledge because validity guides the latter and ethics guides the former. Therefore, justifying the objectivity of caring knowledge should be based on the aesthetic character of this knowledge rather than on a general social-science explanation.

  17. Computer Animation for Articulated 3D Characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the computer animation literature, mainly concentrating on articulated characters and at least some degree of interactivity or real time simulation. Advances in dierent techniques such as key-frame, motion capture (also known as mocap), dynamics, inverse kinematics (IK),

  18. The Problem of Loyalty in Teaching Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    In the last year, two prominent, famous, and revered coaches, Jim Tressel and Joe Paterno, committed disastrous lapses of ethics. Both coaches preached that sport and athletics build character. They either taught ethics or leadership courses at their institutions or were exemplars of ethical behavior in their personal and professional lives. Both…

  19. Face of America Character Education Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World T.E.A.M. Sports, Charlotte, NC.

    This document presents a description of the Face of America Classroom Program, a character education program based on a mission to bridge and build communities through sports. Three language arts lesson plans are provided on three themes: achievement, stereotypes (especially of people with disabilities), and strategies for healthy minds and…

  20. Quasihomomorphisms and the residue Chern character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Denis

    2010-10-01

    We develop a general procedure, based on the renormalized eta-cochain, which allows to find "local" representatives of the bivariant Chern character of finitely summable quasihomomorphisms. In particular, using zeta-function renormalization we obtain a bivariant generalization of the Connes-Moscovici residue formula, and explain the link with chiral and multiplicative anomalies in quantum field theory.

  1. Temperament and Character in Psychosomatic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medine Yazici Gulec

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Personality takes an important role in etiology of psychosomatic disorders. The studies conducted with Temperament and Character Inventory which investigates the personality according to psychobiological model is considered to have a major role in understanding the relationship between personality and psychosomatic disorders. In order to emphasize the previous studies on this subject, we have done database search in Pubmed and Turk Psikiyatri Dizini (Turkish Psychiatry Directory for the time period between 1991 and 2009 to determine and evaluate the articles conducted among somatization, dermatologic illness, headache, physical medicine, angina, irritable bowel syndrome and asthma patients using Temperament and Character Inventory. The most significant consistent result of these studies was elevated harm avoid-ance scores. Harm avoidance scores still remain high even after controlling for the effect of depression and anxiety. Thus this temperament dimension is possibly an important state and trait feature for development of psychosomatic illnesses. These findings also confirmed that serotonergic systems get involved in the process of psychosomatic organization. In many studies, the mean scores of self direction sub-dimension of Temperament and Character Inventory which has been considered as the fundamental dimension to achieve mature personality, was found to be lower in psychosomatic patient groups than normal healthy control. This result hence supports the notion that process of illness affects the personality among these patients. Detailed evaluation of temparement and character profiles of psychosomatic patients would contribute much into understanding the etiology of these disorders.

  2. Sampling diverse characters improves phylogenies: Craniodental and postcranial characters of vertebrates often imply different trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounce, Ross C P; Sansom, Robert; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-03-01

    Morphological cladograms of vertebrates are often inferred from greater numbers of characters describing the skull and teeth than from postcranial characters. This is either because the skull is believed to yield characters with a stronger phylogenetic signal (i.e., contain less homoplasy), because morphological variation therein is more readily atomized, or because craniodental material is more widely available (particularly in the palaeontological case). An analysis of 85 vertebrate datasets published between 2000 and 2013 confirms that craniodental characters are significantly more numerous than postcranial characters, but finds no evidence that levels of homoplasy differ in the two partitions. However, a new partition test, based on tree-to-tree distances (as measured by the Robinson Foulds metric) rather than tree length, reveals that relationships inferred from the partitions are significantly different about one time in three, much more often than expected. Such differences may reflect divergent selective pressures in different body regions, resulting in different localized patterns of homoplasy. Most systematists attempt to sample characters broadly across body regions, but this is not always possible. We conclude that trees inferred largely from either craniodental or postcranial characters in isolation may differ significantly from those that would result from a more holistic approach. We urge the latter.

  3. Readers' Responses When Characters Act on Completed Goals: Impact of Characters' Mental States and Readers' Task Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jeffrey E.; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that readers track the objective status of characters' goals (i.e., whether the goals have been completed). We suggest that readers also use characters' subjective representations--characters' mental states with respect to goals--to comprehend actions. We explored circumstances in which local information about characters'…

  4. Readers' Responses When Characters Act on Completed Goals: Impact of Characters' Mental States and Readers' Task Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jeffrey E.; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that readers track the objective status of characters' goals (i.e., whether the goals have been completed). We suggest that readers also use characters' subjective representations--characters' mental states with respect to goals--to comprehend actions. We explored circumstances in which local information about characters'…

  5. Erythropoietin elevation in the chronically hyperglycemic fetal lamb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipps, A.F. (Univ. of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington) Widness, J.A.; Garcia, J.F.; Raye, J.R.; Swartz, R.

    1982-05-01

    The effects of chronic fetal glucose infusion upon fetal oxygenation and endogenous erythropoietin (Ep) production were studied using the chronically catheterized fetal lamb. Fetal glucose infusion at rates between 5 and 20 mg/kg/min resulted in sustained fetal hyperglycemia. During glucose infusion (maximal glucose concentration achieved = 55.4 +/- 3.7 mg/dl) fetal arterial oxygen contents fell from 5.8 +/- 0.9 to 4.2 +/- 1.0 ml/dl while no changes were observed in simultaneously sampled, noninfused twins. Although plasma insulin concentration rose in the infused fetuses, the elevations were inconstant and no relationship between fetal plasma insulin concentration and decrement in fetal oxygen content was evident. The changes in plasma Ep concentration were noted prior to any significant fetal metabolic acidosis (as evidence of tissue hypoxia) and no changes in plasma Ep concentration were observed in simultaneously sampled noninfused twins. No relationship was apparent between fetal arterial plasma insulin and Ep concentrations. Since neither fetal anemia nor hemodilution occurred in these preparations, glucose-induced fetal hyposemia is the likely mechanism behind elevated fetal Ep concentrations in these experiments. Similarities between this animal model and human fetuses and infants of diabetic mothers suggest that chronic in utero hypoxemia may be a common feature responsible for such diverse abnomalities as polycythemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and late fetal demise. The mechanism behind the glucose-induced fetal hypoxemia is not known.

  6. Fetal MR imaging of Kniest dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Zeynep [Uludag University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gorukle (Turkey); Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tinkle, Bradley T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2010-03-15

    We present a case of Kniest dysplasia, a rare form of the type II collagenopathies, with prenatal MRI. Sonography revealed only short limbs in the fetus. Fetal MRI findings included enlarged hyaline cartilaginous structures with abnormally high T2 signal intensity, delayed ossification of the pubic and ischial bones, and platyspondyly. By delineating the cartilaginous abnormalities, fetal MRI can contribute to the prenatal diagnosis of chondrodysplasias. (orig.)

  7. Impact of Oxidative Stress in Fetal Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren P. Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine stress induces increased risk of adult disease through fetal programming mechanisms. Oxidative stress can be generated by several conditions, such as, prenatal hypoxia, maternal under- and overnutrition, and excessive glucocorticoid exposure. The role of oxidant molecules as signaling factors in fetal programming via epigenetic mechanisms is discussed. By linking oxidative stress with dysregulation of specific target genes, we may be able to develop therapeutic strategies that protect against organ dysfunction in the programmed offspring.

  8. Human embryonic and fetal mesenchymal stem cells differentiate toward three different cardiac lineages in contrast to their adult counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkisoensing, Arti A; Pijnappels, Daniël A; Askar, Saïd F A; Passier, Robert; Swildens, Jim; Goumans, Marie José; Schutte, Cindy I; de Vries, Antoine A F; Scherjon, Sicco; Mummery, Christine L; Schalij, Martin J; Atsma, Douwe E

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show unexplained differences in differentiation potential. In this study, differentiation of human (h) MSCs derived from embryonic, fetal and adult sources toward cardiomyocytes, endothelial and smooth muscle cells was investigated. Labeled hMSCs derived from embryonic stem cells (hESC-MSCs), fetal umbilical cord, bone marrow, amniotic membrane and adult bone marrow and adipose tissue were co-cultured with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (nrCMCs) or cardiac fibroblasts (nrCFBs) for 10 days, and also cultured under angiogenic conditions. Cardiomyogenesis was assessed by human-specific immunocytological analysis, whole-cell current-clamp recordings, human-specific qRT-PCR and optical mapping. After co-culture with nrCMCs, significantly more hESC-MSCs than fetal hMSCs stained positive for α-actinin, whereas adult hMSCs stained negative. Furthermore, functional cardiomyogenic differentiation, based on action potential recordings, was shown to occur, but not in adult hMSCs. Of all sources, hESC-MSCs expressed most cardiac-specific genes. hESC-MSCs and fetal hMSCs contained significantly higher basal levels of connexin43 than adult hMSCs and co-culture with nrCMCs increased expression. After co-culture with nrCFBs, hESC-MSCs and fetal hMSCs did not express α-actinin and connexin43 expression was decreased. Conduction velocity (CV) in co-cultures of nrCMCs and hESC-MSCs was significantly higher than in co-cultures with fetal or adult hMSCs. In angiogenesis bioassays, only hESC-MSCs and fetal hMSCs were able to form capillary-like structures, which stained for smooth muscle and endothelial cell markers.Human embryonic and fetal MSCs differentiate toward three different cardiac lineages, in contrast to adult MSCs. Cardiomyogenesis is determined by stimuli from the cellular microenvironment, where connexin43 may play an important role.

  9. Biomedical Instruments for Fetal and Neonatal Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolfe, P [Oxford BioHorizons Ltd. (United Kingdom); Scopesi, F [Gaslini Institute, University of Genoa (Italy); Serra, G [Gaslini Institute, University of Genoa (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    Specialised instruments have been developed to aid the care of the fetus and the newborn baby. Miniature sensors using optical, electrical, chemical, mechanical and magnetic principles have been produced for capturing key measurands. These include temperature, pressure, flow and dimension, as well as several specific molecules such as glucose, oxygen and carbon dioxide. During pregnancy ultrasound imaging and blood flow techniques provide valuable information concerning fetal abnormalities, fetal growth, fetal breathing and fetal heart rate. Signal processing and pattern recognition can be useful for deriving indicators of fetal distress and clinical status, based on biopotentials as well as ultrasound signals. Fetal pH measurement is a critical requirement during labour and delivery. The intensive care of ill preterm babies involves provision of an optimal thermal environment and respiratory support. Monitoring of blood gas and acid-base status is essential, and this involves both blood sampling for in vitro analysis as well as the use of invasive or non-invasive sensors. For the future it will be vital that the technologies used are subjected to controlled trials to establish benefit or otherwise.

  10. The Use of Fetal Noninvasive Electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhno, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the severe complications of pregnancy that leads to fetal deterioration. The aim was to survey the validity of fetal distress diagnostics in case of Doppler ultrasonic umbilical vein and arteries blood flow velocity investigation and ECG parameters analysis obtained from maternal abdominal signal before labor in preeclamptic patients. Fetal noninvasive ECG and umbilical arterial and venous Doppler investigation were performed in 120 patients at 34-40 weeks of gestation. And 30 of them had physiological gestation and were involved in Group I. In Group II 52 pregnant women with mild-moderate PE were observed. 38 patients with severe PE were monitored in Group III. The most considerable negative correlation was determined in pair Apgar score 1 versus T/QRS (R = -0.50; p < 0.05). So the increased T/QRS ratio was the most evident marker of fetal distress. Fetal noninvasive ECG showed sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 98.4% and, therefore, was determined as more accurate method for fetal monitoring.

  11. Fetal ventriculomegaly: Diagnosis, treatment, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisapia, Jared M; Sinha, Saurabh; Zarnow, Deborah M; Johnson, Mark P; Heuer, Gregory G

    2017-07-01

    Fetal ventriculomegaly (VM) refers to the enlargement of the cerebral ventricles in utero. It is associated with the postnatal diagnosis of hydrocephalus. VM is clinically diagnosed on ultrasound and is defined as an atrial diameter greater than 10 mm. Because of the anatomic detailed seen with advanced imaging, VM is often further characterized by fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fetal VM is a heterogeneous condition with various etiologies and a wide range of neurodevelopmental outcomes. These outcomes are heavily dependent on the presence or absence of associated anomalies and the direct cause of the ventriculomegaly rather than on the absolute degree of VM. In this review article, we discuss diagnosis, work-up, counseling, and management strategies as they relate to fetal VM. We then describe imaging-based research efforts aimed at using prenatal data to predict postnatal outcome. Finally, we review the early experience with fetal therapy such as in utero shunting, as well as the advances in prenatal diagnosis and fetal surgery that may begin to address the limitations of previous therapeutic efforts.

  12. Fetal growth potential and pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2004-02-01

    Although the association of fetal growth restriction and adverse pregnancy outcomes is well known, lack of sensitivity limits its clinical value. To a large extent, this limitation is a result of traditionally used method to define growth restriction by comparing fetal or birth weight to population norms. The use of population norms, by virtue of their inability to fully consider individual variation, results in high false positive and negative rates. An alternative, calculating fetal individually optimal growth potential, based on physiological determinants of individual growth, is superior in predicting adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Impairment of fetal growth potential identifes some adverse pregnancy outcomes that are not associated with growth restrction defined by population norms. When compared with traditional population-based norms, fetal growth potential is a better predictor of several important adverse outcomes of pregnancy which include: stillbirth, neonatal mortality and morbidity, and long-term adverse neonatal outcomes like neonatal encephalopathy, cerebral palsy and cognitive abilities. Impairment of individual growth potential is also strongly associated with spontaneous preterm delivery. Although definitive interventional trials have not been conducted as yet to validate the clinical value of fetal growth potential, many observational studies, conducted in various populations, indicate its significant promise in this respect.

  13. The Use of Fetal Noninvasive Electrocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Lakhno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is one of the severe complications of pregnancy that leads to fetal deterioration. The aim was to survey the validity of fetal distress diagnostics in case of Doppler ultrasonic umbilical vein and arteries blood flow velocity investigation and ECG parameters analysis obtained from maternal abdominal signal before labor in preeclamptic patients. Fetal noninvasive ECG and umbilical arterial and venous Doppler investigation were performed in 120 patients at 34–40 weeks of gestation. And 30 of them had physiological gestation and were involved in Group I. In Group II 52 pregnant women with mild-moderate PE were observed. 38 patients with severe PE were monitored in Group III. The most considerable negative correlation was determined in pair Apgar score 1 versus T/QRS (R=-0.50; p<0.05. So the increased T/QRS ratio was the most evident marker of fetal distress. Fetal noninvasive ECG showed sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 98.4% and, therefore, was determined as more accurate method for fetal monitoring.

  14. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  15. Taquiarritmia fetal: Una revisión práctica Fetal tachyarrhythmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Jaramillo D

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Las frecuencias anormalmente rápidas sobre un corazón con una estructura menos distensible, rodeado por una coraza que sólo le permite defenderse con la frecuencia cardiaca para sostener el gasto cardiaco, hacen que este sea un corazón con márgenes estrechos de tolerancia frente a las taquiarritmias. Las frecuencias persistentes y superiores a 220 latidos por minuto, generan presiones anormalmente altas sobre todo el corazón y el sistema venoso. Hidrops y edema placentario son secuelas finales antes de la muerte fetal, y aún hasta este punto se pueden controlar y revertir. Aunque en teoría cualquier tipo de arritmias común en la vida extrauterina se podría desencadenar en el feto, 90% de éstas están incluidas en la taquicardia supraventricular reciprocante y en el flutter. Ambos tipos de arritmias pueden responder a la digoxina, aunque algunas son refractarias a este medicamento. La aplicación de ultrasonido sobre el corazón, permite no sólo descartar anomalías cardiacas asociadas, sino realizar protocolos de tratamiento. La medición de la relación de los tiempos ventrículo atrial:atrio ventricular, permite considerar otro tipo de arritmias como la taquicardia ectópica de la unión y la forma permanente reciprocante de la unión, etc., e incluir otros anti-arrítmicos, como amiodarona, flecainida, sotalol, entre otros. La principal vía de uso de los anti-arrítmicos es la transplacentaria. Por lo tanto, no sólo el feto se expone a posibles efectos secundarios, sino también la madre. Un grupo multidisciplinario enfrentará esta situación con el fin de ofrecer el mejor resultado para los dos.A heart with a not much distensible structure, surrounded by a membrane, and only able to react with the heart rate for maintaining its cardiac output, has a narrow margin of tolerance in front of tachyarrhythmias. Persistent heart rates >200/min generate abnormally high pressure on the heart and the venous system. Hydrops and placental

  16. Neurodevelopmental changes of fetal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Curtis L; Hardman, Mary P; Manning, Nirvana; Hall, R Whit; Anand, K J S; Clancy, Barbara

    2007-10-01

    Pain in the developing fetus is controversial because of the difficulty in measuring and interpreting pain during gestation. It has received increased attention lately because of recently introduced legislation that would require consideration of fetal pain during intentional termination of pregnancy. During development, sensory fibers are abundant by 20 weeks; a functional spinal reflex is present by 19 weeks; connections to the thalamus are present by 20 weeks; and connections to subplate neurons are present by 17 weeks with intensive differentiation by 25 weeks. These cells are important developmentally, but decline as a result of natural apoptosis. Mature thalamocortical projections are not present until 29 to 30 weeks, which has led many to believe the fetus does not experience emotional "pain" until then. Pain requires both nociception and emotional reaction or interpretation. Nociception causes physiologic stress, which in turn causes increases in catecholamines, cortisol, and other stress hormones. Physiological stress is different from the emotional pain felt by the more mature fetus or infant, and this stress is mitigated by pain medication such as opiates. The plasticity of the developing brain makes it vulnerable to the stressors that cause long-term developmental changes, ultimately leading to adverse neurological outcomes. Whereas evidence for conscious pain perception is indirect, evidence for the subconscious incorporation of pain into neurological development and plasticity is incontrovertible. Scientific data, not religious or political conviction, should guide the desperately needed research in this field. In the meantime, it seems prudent to avoid pain during gestation.

  17. Fetal and neonatal endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unüvar, Tolga; Büyükgebiz, Atilla

    2012-06-01

    Endocrine disruptors are substances commonly encountered in every setting and condition in the modern world. It is virtually impossible to avoid the contact with these chemical compounds in our daily life. Molecules defined as endocrine disruptors constitute an extremely heterogeneous group and include synthetic chemicals used as industrial solvents/lubricants and their by-products. Natural chemicals found in human and animal food (phytoestrogens) also act as endocrine disruptors. Different from adults, children are not exposed only to chemical toxins in the environment but may also be exposed during their intrauterine life. Hundreds of toxic substances, which include neuro-immune and endocrine toxic chemical components that may influence the critical steps of hormonal, neurological and immunological development, may affect the fetus via the placental cord and these substances may be excreted in the meconium. Children and especially newborns are more sensitive to environmental toxins compared to adults. Metabolic pathways are immature, especially in the first months of life. The ability of the newborn to metabolize, detoxify and eliminate many toxins is different from that of the adults. Although exposures occur during fetal or neonatal period, their effects may sometimes be observed in later years. Further studies are needed to clarify the effects of these substances on the endocrine system and to provide evidence for preventive measures.

  18. Fetal echocardiography in ectopia cordis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repondek-Liberska, M; Janiak, K; Wloch, A

    2000-01-01

    Ectopia cordis is an extremely rare congenital abnormality occurring in 5.5 to 7.9 per 1 million live births with high lethality. Between January 1995 and October 1997 eight cases of ectopia cordis were diagnosed at our institute before birth. On the basis of echocardiography the fetal heart anatomy was categorized as either normal heart anatomy (NHA; n = 3) or congenital heart defect (CHD; n = 5). In the majority of cases (seven of eight) other abnormalities were present. Some reports have described ectopia cordis being diagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy. In our study group the average gestational age at diagnosis was 26 weeks. The prenatal diagnosis of isolated ectopia cordis is easy; counseling the patient, the perinatal management including term, place, and method of delivery, and optimal care of the newborn are more difficult. Ectopia cordis is a malformation that pediatricians rarely encounter, even at pediatric cardiology centers. Much more frequently it is a problem for sonographers and obstetricians; however, pediatric cardiologists should be aware of diagnostic algorithm for such cases, especially when additional abnormalities are present.

  19. Continuous fetal tissue pH measurement in labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, B K; Noumoff, J; Klein, S A; Katz, M

    1978-11-01

    Fifty-one women in labor had continuous monitoring of fetal scalp tissue pH, fetal heart rate by ECG, and uterine contractions. A miniature pH electrode secured by a double spiral fetal ECG electrode was used for measurement of fetal pH every 15 seconds. The results were correlated with fetal scalp blood pH values obtained simultaneously. Fetal scalp sampling is intermittent, requires repeated scalp incisions, is subject to errors due to air mixing and coagulation of the blood sample, and is uncomfortable for the parturient. Placement of the tissue pH electrode allows continuous data recording with the minimum discomfort to the patient and the least number of fetal scalp incisions. Clinical use of the tissue pH electrode might be a practical alternative to fetal scalp samples, if the data obtained accurately reflect fetal status.

  20. Role of fetal monitoring in high risk pregnancy by fetal electrocardiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somya Girish Goyal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-stress test is an external monitoring of fetal heart rate by electrocardiograph. Although intermittent auscultation of fetal heart rate is equivalent to continuous electronic fetal monitoring in detecting fetal compromise1 but continuous electronic fetal monitoring is indicated in high risk patients women whose foetuses are at high risk for neonatal encephalopathy or cerebral palsy.2 Objective of current study was to study the efficacy and diagnostic value of non-stress Test for surveillance and its usefulness to detect fetal distress at early stage which help to decide further management in mode of delivery. Methods: Design: prospective study. NST was done in 50 high risk patients for minimum of 20 minutes and in patients with non-reactive non stress test it was continued for 40 minutes. Maternal age, parity, complications during labour, and delivery, mode of delivery, indications of caesarean section and perinatal outcome were noted. Results: Out of total 50 cases studied patient delivered vaginally were 24 and Caesarean was done in 26 cases. Most LSCS were performed due to PIH (35% and related complications like IUGR, eclampsia (10%, fetal distress, previous caesarean pregnancy, IUGR, oligohydraminos and meconium stained liquor. 52% patients were delivered by caesarean and 48% by normal delivery. Conclusions: Routine use of electronic fetal heart monitoring helped in reduction of neonatal morbidity and mortality with increased rate of caesarean section. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 893-897

  1. Evaluation of the fetal QT interval using non-invasive fetal ECG technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Joachim; Zhu, Tingting; Oster, Julien; Niksch, Alisa; Mah, Douglas Y; Chun, Terrence; Greenberg, James; Tanner, Cassandre; Harrop, Jessica; Sameni, Reza; Ward, Jay; Wolfberg, Adam J; Clifford, Gari D

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive fetal electrocardiography (NI-FECG) is a promising alternative continuous fetal monitoring method that has the potential to allow morphological analysis of the FECG. However, there are a number of challenges associated with the evaluation of morphological parameters from the NI-FECG, including low signal to noise ratio of the NI-FECG and methodological challenges for getting reference annotations and evaluating the accuracy of segmentation algorithms. This work aims to validate the measurement of the fetal QT interval in term laboring women using a NI-FECG electrocardiogram monitor. Fetal electrocardiogram data were recorded from 22 laboring women at term using the NI-FECG and an invasive fetal scalp electrode simultaneously. A total of 105 one-minute epochs were selected for analysis. Three pediatric electrophysiologists independently annotated individual waveforms and averaged waveforms from each epoch. The intervals measured on the averaged cycles taken from the NI-FECG and the fetal scalp electrode showed a close agreement; the root mean square error between all corresponding averaged NI-FECG and fetal scalp electrode beats was 13.6 ms, which is lower than the lowest adult root mean square error of 16.1 ms observed in related adult QT studies. These results provide evidence that NI-FECG technology enables accurate extraction of the fetal QT interval.

  2. Graduates of Character - Values and Character: Higher Education and Graduate Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur, James; Wilson, Kenneth; Godfrey, Ray; Gray, Ben; Newton, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Graduates of Character is the product of an empirical enquiry into the values, virtues, dispositions and attitudes of a sample of students and employees who volunteered to be involved. The research team sought host sites which would offer a diverse set of interviewees in gender, ethnicity, religion and aspiration. In this study we discuss what character is taken to mean by students and employees in their years of higher education and employment. We examine what their values are, what...

  3. A feature extraction technique based on character geometry for character recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Gaurav, Dinesh Dileep

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a geometry based technique for feature extraction applicable to segmentation-based word recognition systems. The proposed system extracts the geometric features of the character contour. This features are based on the basic line types that forms the character skeleton. The system gives a feature vector as its output. The feature vectors so generated from a training set, were then used to train a pattern recognition engine based on Neural Networks so that the system can be benchmarked.

  4. Analysis of Hamlet's Complex Character By Hamlet's Relationship with Other Major Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左欣

    2002-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to reveal the complexity of the character of Hamlet in Shakespeare's tragedy-Hamlet and the importance of the role that his pretense of lunacy plays in the plot. The different sides of his personality are revealed by the analysis of some of Hamlet's behavior. The argument is also established that the hero's pretense of lunacy is a device in the plot which allows the full display of the character's complexity.

  5. The number of fetal cells in maternal blood is associated to exercise and fetal gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Kirkegaard, Ida; Christensen, Connie Britta;

    were then stained with a cocktail of fetal cell-specific antibodies, identified and counted. Results: Participants carrying male fetuses had higher median number of fcmbs per 30 mL blood than those carrying female fetuses (5 vs. 3, p=0.004). Exercise within 3 hours (1.5 vs. 4, p=0.02) and 24 hours (2......Introduction: We have established a robust method to specifically identify and isolate a placental fetal cell in maternal blood (fcmbs) at a gestational age of 12 weeks. The concentration of these cells, however, varies considerably among pregnant women (median 3 fcmbs/30 mL blood, range 0...... activity was obtained by a questionnaire and a structured interview. The number of fcmbs was assessed in 30 mL blood processed by a proprietary method developed in-house. Fetal cells in the blood, binding to fetal cell specific antibodies, were initially isolated by magnetic cell sorting. The fetal cells...

  6. FETAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY: A STUDY OF CLINICAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajanish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : S tructural abnormalities of the heart and great vessels are fairly common congenital lab normalities with the incidenceof8 in 1000 live births. With the advent of real time scanners fetal cardia can atomy can be analyze d echocardiographically. The earlier diagnosis will make an impact on clinical management of fetus with congenital heart disease. It helps intimely triage and optimal management of specific congenital heart disease either structural , functional orarrhythmia . OBJECTIVES : This study was conducted to note the spectrum of congenital heart diseases detected on fetal echo in pregnant mothers referred with high risk for CHD sand to assess the outcome of prenatally detected congenital heart diseases. MATERIAL S AND METHODS : T he study is aprospective descriptive study conducted in a tertiary care pediatric hospital in Mumbai over period of one year . P regnant mothers were referred for fetal echo , where pregnancy was considered as high risk for CHDs due to maternal , fetalfactorsorabnormallevel 1 scan.Fetal echowas performed by a trained pediatric cardiologistat 18 to 20 week of gestation using HP sonos 2000 echocardiographicmachinewith3/3.5 Hz transducer. Cardiac lesionsandoutcome of pregnancy was noted by postnatal follow - up of patients. RESULTS : A total of 170 patients underwent fetal echo , 13 patients have not delivered and 48 were lost to follow - up. Fetal echo was normal in 130(76.4% and abnormalities were detected in 40(23.5%.Structural anomalies were seen in 24(14.1% , arrhythmia in 5(2.9% and functional abnormalities in 11(6.4%.On outcome analysis84 (77.1% arealive , IUD /terminationof pregnancyoccurred in 18(16.5% , neonatal death in 6 (5.5% , infant death in 1 (0.9%. CONCLUSIONS : All ranges of CHDs can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography . O utcome of prenatally detected complex congenital heart disease is poor ; nonetheless earlier detection provides a n opportunity for early interventions and

  7. THE CHARACTER, ORGANIZATION CHANGE AND INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo F. Wijaya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The success of building an integrated information system is an expectation of every company management to achieve effective and efficient working system. However, in the real business practices, not a few companies failed in building an integrated information system caused by the absence of several factors: strong commitment, hard work and smart effort conducted by a team. The team determines the success level in building an integrated information system. A factor of intelligence and mental maturity of users in running a new information system that has not been known is also another key to success. Therefore, it takes a good users character supported by a management decision to make management changes to achieve the building success level. This study aims to address the role of character and organization changes in achieving a success building an integrated information system.

  8. Analysis of photonic crystal fiber sensor character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xuan; LIU Feng; BI Wei-hong

    2007-01-01

    The special character of a PCF which is used as a gas or liquid sensor is discussed. The field distribution is analyzed when the solid core PCF is injected with different medium that has different relative dielectric constant (or refractive index). And the experiential formulas of the relation between refractive index of some kinds of liquid and their concentration are given,in order to measure the concentration of the relative liquid. At the same time, the effect of propagation constant on PCF sensor character is also discussed. Furthermore, the photonic band-gap (PBG) ofPCF (PBG-PCF) is calculated at different medium relative dielectric constant, when it is injected with different medium. That is the principle basis for this kind of PCF sensors.

  9. Cultivating character: the art of living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Steve; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Kitcher, Philip; Tiberius, Valerie

    2016-11-01

    Nearly everyone agrees that knowledge is gained through diligent study and investigation, but there is far greater ambiguity when it comes to the meaning of wisdom and how it is acquired. What is wisdom, and how can it be attained? Is there an empirical relationship between wisdom and the cultivation of character, as Aristotle and others have argued? Are the development of virtue and the fulfillment of our innate potential prerequisites to living the good life? Steven Paulson, moderator and executive producer of To the Best of our Knowledge, led a discussion with philosopher Philip Kitcher, philosopher Valerie Tiberius, and psychologist Lisa Feldman Barrett on role of wisdom in the interplay between positive emotions, virtues, and character. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. The character map in deformation quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Cattaneo, Alberto S; Willwacher, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The third author recently proved that the Shoikhet-Dolgushev L-infinity-morphism from Hochschild chains of the algebra of smooth functions on manifold to differential forms extends to cyclic chains. Localization at a solution of the Maurer-Cartan equation gives an isomorphism, which we call character map, from the periodic cyclic homology of a formal associative deformation of the algebra of functions to de Rham cohomology. We prove that the character map is compatible with the Gauss-Manin connection, extending a result of Calaque and Rossi on the compatibility with the cap product. As a consequence, the image of the periodic cyclic cycle 1 is independent of the deformation parameter and we compute it to be the A-roof genus of the manifold. Our results also imply the Tamarkin-Tsygan index Theorem.

  11. Dyslexia and Configural Perception of Character Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W Houpt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyslexia is a complex and heterogeneous disorder characterized by unexpected difficulty in learning to read. Although it is considered to be biologically based, the degree of variation has made the nature and locus of dyslexia difficult to ascertain. Hypotheses regarding the cause have ranged from low-level perceptual deficits to higher order cognitive deficits, such as phonological processing and visual-spatial attention. We applied the capacity coefficient, a measure obtained from a mathematical cognitive model of response times to measure how efficiently participants processed different classes of stimuli. The capacity coefficient was used to test the extent to which individuals with dyslexia can be distinguished from normal reading individuals based on their ability to take advantage of word, pronounceable nonword, consonant sequence or unfamiliar context when categorizing character strings. Within subject variability of the capacity coefficient across character string types was fairly regular across normal reading adults and consistent with a previous study of word perception with the capacity coefficient - words and pseudowords were processed at supercapacity and unfamiliar characters strings at limited-capacity. Two distinct patterns were observed in individuals with dyslexia. One group had a profile similar to the normal reading adults while the other group showed very little variation in capacity across conditions. It is possible that these individuals used a similar strategy for all four conditions and were able to generalize this strategy when processing unfamiliar characters. This difference across dyslexia groups may be used to identify sub-types of the disorder and suggest significant differences in word level processing among these subtypes. Therefore, this approach may be useful in further delineating among types of dyslexia, which in turn may lead to better understanding of the etiologies of dyslexia.

  12. Australian National Character and Australian English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝米娜

    2015-01-01

    <正>Language and culture have very intimate relationship.From the perspective of sociolinguistics,language is the verbal expression of culture,for a culture’s language contains everything its speakers can think about and every way they have of thinking about things.In other words,there are always cultural elements behind the language phenomenon.National character,the concept

  13. Gaskell’s Characters Challenging Gender Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Gillian M. E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates women characters of Elizabeth Gaskell0’s social novels set in England’s industrial era. While in some ways a traditional woman of her age, Gaskell assumes responsibility and nurture as a duty of men as well as women, and shows her powerful women escaping gender norms, making her worthy of more notice as a social critic than she often gains.

  14. Plasma deposited fluorinated films on porous membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gancarz, Irena [Department of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Wrocław University of Technology, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Bryjak, Marek, E-mail: marek.bryjak@pwr.edu.pl [Department of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Wrocław University of Technology, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Kujawski, Jan; Wolska, Joanna [Department of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Wrocław University of Technology, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Kujawa, Joanna; Kujawski, Wojciech [Nicolaus Copernicus University, Faculty of Chemistry, 7 Gagarina St., 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2015-02-01

    75 KHz plasma was used to modify track etched poly(ethylene terephthalate) membranes and deposit on them flouropolymers. Two fluorine bearing monomers were used: perflourohexane and hexafluorobenzene. The modified surfaces were analyzed by means of attenuated total reflection infra-red spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and wettability. It was detected that hexaflourobenxene deposited to the larger extent than perflourohaxane did. The roughness of surfaces decreased when more fluoropolymer was deposited. The hydrophobic character of surface slightly disappeared during 20-days storage of hexaflourobenzene modified membrane. Perfluorohexane modified membrane did not change its character within 120 days after modification. It was expected that this phenomenon resulted from post-reactions of oxygen with radicals in polymer deposits. The obtained membranes could be used for membrane distillation of juices. - Highlights: • Plasma deposited hydrophobic layer of flouropolymers. • Deposition degree affects the surface properties. • Hydrohilization of surface due to reaction of oxygen with entrapped radicals. • Possibility to use modified porous membrane for water distillation and apple juice concentration.

  15. Review: Fetal-maternal communication via extracellular vesicles - Implications for complications of pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Stefanie; Elfeky, Omar; Kinhal, Vyjayanthi; Dutta, Suchismita; Lai, Andrew; Jayabalan, Nanthini; Nuzhat, Zarin; Palma, Carlos; Rice, Gregory E; Salomon, Carlos

    2016-12-05

    The maternal physiology experiences numerous changes during pregnancy which are essential in controlling and maintaining maternal metabolic adaptations and fetal development. The human placenta is an organ that serves as the primary interface between the maternal and fetal circulation, thereby supplying the fetus with nutrients, blood and oxygen through the umbilical cord. During gestation, the placenta continuously releases several molecules into maternal circulation, including hormones, proteins, RNA and DNA. Interestingly, the presence of extracellular vesicles (EVs) of placental origin has been identified in maternal circulation across gestation. EVs can be categorised according to their size and/or origin into microvesicles (∼150-1000 nm) and exosomes (∼40-120 nm). Microvesicles are released by budding from the plasmatic membrane, whereas exosome release is by fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasmatic membrane. Exosomes released from placental cells have been found to be regulated by oxygen tension and glucose concentration. Furthermore, maternal exosomes have the ability to stimulate cytokine release from endothelial cells. In this review, we will discuss the role of EVs during fetal-maternal communication during gestation with a special emphasis on exosomes.

  16. Prenatal Diagnosis of Isolated Fetal Hydrocolpos Secondary to Congenital Imperforate Hymen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Jhy Tseng

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old primigravida was referred to our hospital at 36 weeks of gestation with a fetal pelvic mass. Ultrasonography showed the fluid-filled area to be a 9 × 4 × 5-cm pear-shaped retrovesical mass with a funnel-shaped blind pouch at the distal end of the fetal vagina. Marked left hydronephrosis resulting from mass compression was also detected. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging further defined a pelvic lesion extending cephalically into the abdomen and caudally into the vagina. Membranal protrusion of the introitus was clearly identified. Therefore, the diagnosis of congenital imperforate hymen with hydrocolpos was established. At 38 weeks of gestation, a 2,966-g female infant was delivered vaginally with good Apgar scores. Physical examination of the neonate revealed a bulging membrane covering the vaginal opening. The presence of syndromic disorders (McKusick-Kaufman, Ellis-van Creveld or Bardet-Biedl syndromes, genitourinary and anorectal anomalies were excluded. The karyotype was 46, XX. A hymenotomy was performed on the second day of life. The infant recovered fully after hymenotomy.

  17. Hermeneutical Field Theory and the Structural Character of Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, William Leonard

    Through a series of exploratory case studies focusing on hermeneutics, phenomenology, relativity, field theory, quantum mechanics, chronobiology, chaos theory, holographic theory and various aspects of mathematics, a set of hermeneutical constraints and degrees of freedom are generated. There are a set of eight field equations given in the thesis which give qualitative symbolic expression to the aforementioned spectrum of constraints and degrees of freedom that constitute the structural character of understanding. However, as is sometimes the case with their quantitative mathematical counterparts, the hermeneutical field equations are capable of giving a variety of descriptions or solutions for one and the same set of conditions. The task, therefore, is to try to sort out those solutions which have reflective properties with respect to the structural character of reality from those which do not have such properties. The thesis addresses this task by introducing the idea of hermeneutical field theory. In this theory the notion of a semiotic operator or semiotic quantum plays a central role. More specifically, this quantum is considered to be the carrier of hermeneutical force. It arises as a field property at the complex, horizontal membrane-manifold linking human consciousness with different levels of scale of reality. When taken collectively, the aforementioned set of equations gives expression to the structural character of hermeneutical field theory. Therefore, when one begins to run concrete variables through the theory underlying these equations, one encounters various kinds of hermeneutical constraints and degrees of freedom. These constraints and degrees of freedom characterize the dialectical engagement of consciousness and reality as one seeks to acquire understanding concerning the above mentioned variables and the context which gives rise to them. Hermeneutical field theory is really the study of the factors that affect the state of the six internal

  18. Boy or Girl? Maternal Psychological Correlates of Knowing Fetal Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotila, Letitia E; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2014-10-01

    Ultrasound provides a reliable, convenient way to determine fetal sex, but not all expectant mothers pursue this knowledge. We used logistic regression to investigate whether maternal personality, parenting perfectionism, and gender role beliefs were associated with knowing fetal sex in a recent sample of first-time expectant mothers. We also tested whether conscientiousness and extraversion moderated the association between gender role beliefs and knowing fetal sex. Mothers who were more open to experience were less likely to know fetal sex, whereas mothers high in parenting perfectionism were more likely to know fetal sex. Conscientious mothers who espoused more egalitarian gender role beliefs were less likely to know fetal sex.

  19. On-Line Recognition Of Cursive Korean Characters By Descriptions Of Basic Character Patterns And Their Connected Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heedong; Nakajima, Masayuki; Agui, Takeshi

    1988-10-01

    The present paper reports an on-line recognition method of cursive Korean characters. In the present method, we treat a Korean character pattern as a finite sequence of basic character patterns. After extracting candidate basic character patterns from an input character pattern, we determine basic character patterns making a Korean character from the candidates by connecting processing. We described basic character patterns and their connected patterns used in the present method according to their features. By extracting and connecting basic character patterns based on the descriptions, we improve description ability of patterns and processing speed. Precise description ability of patterns and extracting candidates can remove unstable writing movements and can separate strokes stably.

  20. The Binary Perfect Phylogeny with Persistent characters

    CERN Document Server

    Braghin, Chiara; Trucco, Gabriella; Bonizzoni, Paola

    2011-01-01

    The near-perfect phylogeny over binary set of characters has been proposed as an extension of the too restrictive model of the perfect phylogeny in order to model biological events such as homoplasy. However the model appears to be too general to model some situations and is computationally inefficient on some instances. In this paper we consider the problem of reconstructing a near-perfect phylogeny where only a type of homoplasy is allowed in the tree: we consider back mutations according to notion of {\\em persistency}, that is characters can be gained and lost at most once. The notion of persistency leads to the problem of the Persistent Perfect Phylogeny (referred as P-PPH). By exploring combinatorial properties of the problem we develop an exact algorithm for solving the P-PPH problem that in the worst case runs in time that is exponential in the number of characters, but is polynomial in the number of species. Indeed, we show that the P-PPH problem can be restated as a special case of the Incomplete Per...

  1. Rank-frequency relation for Chinese characters

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, W B; Li, B; Wang, Q A

    2013-01-01

    The Zipf's law states that the ordered frequencies $f_1>f_2> ...$ of different words in a text hold $f_r\\propto r^{-\\gamma}$ with $\\gamma\\approx 1$ and rank $r$. The law applies to many languages with alphabetical writing systems, but was so far found to be absent for the rank-frequency relation of the Chinese characters, the main (and oldest) example of the logographic writing system. Here we show that the Zipf's law for Chinese characters perfectly holds for sufficiently short texts (few thousand different characters). The scenario of its validity is similar to the Zipf's law for words in short English texts. We focus on short texts, since for the sake of the rank-frequency analysis, long texts are just mixtures of shorter, thematically homogenous pieces. For long texts (or for mixtures of short texts), the Zipf's law holds for a relatively small range of ranks, but it is still important, since for all Chinese texts (we studied) it carries out $simeq 40%$ of the overall frequency. The previous results on th...

  2. Font generation of personal handwritten Chinese characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jeng-Wei; Wang, Chih-Yin; Ting, Chao-Lung; Chang, Ray-I.

    2014-01-01

    Today, digital multimedia messages have drawn more and more attention due to the great achievement of computer and network techniques. Nevertheless, text is still the most popular media for people to communicate with others. Many fonts have been developed so that product designers can choose unique fonts to demonstrate their idea gracefully. It is commonly believed that handwritings can reflect one's personality, emotion, feeling, education level, and so on. This is especially true in Chinese calligraphy. However, it is not easy for ordinary users to customize a font of their personal handwritings. In this study, we performed a process reengineering in font generation. We present a new method to create font in a batch mode. Rather than to create glyphs of characters one by one according to their codepoints, people create glyphs incrementally in an on-demand manner. A Java Implementation is developed to read a document image of user handwritten Chinese characters, and make a vector font of these handwritten Chinese characters. Preliminary experiment result shows that the proposed method can help ordinary users create their personal handwritten fonts easily and quickly.

  3. Temporal Dynamics of the Modulation of Character Structure and Phonetic Radical in Chinese Character Processing—an ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Hsiao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese orthography, with semantic and phonetic radicals configured in different character structures, provides a unique opportunity to examine visual word processing. Previous ERP research showed that when participants silently named centrally presented characters, there was greater left hemisphere lateralization in N170 amplitude for sP characters (right-heavy, with a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right than Ps characters (the opposite configuration, suggesting that characters with different structures are processed differently in the brain. Here we utilize four additional character types, sS (right-heavy, no phonetic radical; Ss (the opposite configuration; Syp and Sys characters (symmetric structure, with and without phonetic radical respectively to further examine how phonetic radical and character structure influence Chinese character processing. A significant interaction was found between character structure and hemisphere in P120 latency, suggesting that the modulation of character structure happens as early as 120 ms after the stimulus onset. Furthermore, the hemispheric asymmetry effects in N170 and P200 were found to be influenced by both phonetic radical and character structure, while N350 appeared to be modulated by phonetic radical only. These findings demonstrate that the modulation of character structure and phonetic radical have different time courses in Chinese character processing.

  4. Adjustable fetal phantom for pulse oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubán, Norbert; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2009-05-01

    As the measuring head of a fetal pulse oximeter must be attached to the head of the fetus inside the mother's uterus during labor, testing, and developing of fetal pulse oximeters in real environment have several difficulties. A fetal phantom could enable evaluation of pulse oximeters in a simulated environment without the restrictions and difficultness of medical experiments in the labor room. Based on anatomic data we developed an adjustable fetal head phantom with three different tissue layers and artificial arteries. The phantom consisted of two arteries with an inner diameter of 0.2 and 0.4 mm. An electronically controlled pump produced pulse waves in the arteries. With the phantom we investigated the sensitivity of a custom-designed wireless pulse oximeter at different pulsation intensity and artery diameters. The results showed that the oximeter was capable of identifying 4% and 2% changes in diameter between the diastolic and systolic point in arteries of over 0.2 and 0.4 mm inner diameter, respectively. As the structure of the phantom is based on reported anatomic values, the results predict that the investigated custom-designed wireless pulse oximeter has sufficient sensitivity to detect the pulse waves and to calculate the R rate on the fetal head.

  5. Occupational lifting, fetal death and preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocevic, Emina; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and risk of fetal death and preterm birth using a job exposure matrix (JEM). METHODS: For 68,086 occupationally active women in the Danish National Birth Cohort, interview information on occupational lifting...... the JEM. We used Cox regression models with gestational age as underlying time variable and adjustment for covariates. RESULTS: We observed 2,717 fetal deaths and 3,128 preterm births within the study cohort. No exposure-response relation was observed for fetal death, but for women with a prior fetal...... death, we found a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.87 (95% CI 1.37, 6.01) for stillbirth (fetal death ≥22 completed gestational weeks) among those who lifted >200 kg/day. For preterm birth, we found an exposure-response relation for primigravid women, reaching a HR of 1.43 (95% CI 1.13, 1.80) for total loads >200...

  6. Recent advances in fetal gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Suzanne M K; Rahim, Ahad A; Chan, Jerry K Y; David, Anna L; Peebles, Donald M; Coutelle, Charles; Waddingtont, Simon N

    2011-04-01

    Over the first decade of this new millennium gene therapy has demonstrated clear clinical benefits in several diseases for which conventional medicine offers no treatment. Clinical trials of gene therapy for single gene disorders have recruited predominantly young patients since older subjects may have suffered irrevocablepathological changes or may not be available because the disease is lethal relatively early in life. The concept of fetal gene therapy is an extension of this principle in that diseases in which irreversible changes occur at or beforebirth can be prevented by gene supplementation or repair in the fetus or associated maternal tissues. This article ccnsiders the enthusiasm and skepticism held for fetal gene therapy and its potential for clinical application. It coversa spectrum of candidate diseases for fetal gene therapy including Pompe disease, Gaucher disease, thalassemia, congenital protein C deficiency and cystic fibrosis. It outlines successful and not-so-successful examples of fetal gene therapy in animal models. Finally the application and potential of fetal gene transfer as a fundamental research tool for developmental biology and generation of somatic transgenic animals is surveyed.

  7. Magnetocardiography in the diagnosis of fetal arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, P; Hailer, B; Bader, W; Geissler, J; Trowitzsch, E; Grönemeyer, D H

    1999-11-01

    To examine the possible use of magnetocardiography in the diagnosis of fetal arrhythmias. Investigation of routinely examined pregnant women, as well as women referred because of arrhythmias or other reasons. Sixty-three women between the 13th and 42nd week of pregnancy. Recording of 189 fetal magnetocardiograms, of which 173 traces (92%) demonstrated sufficient fetal signal strength to permit evaluation. After digital subtraction of the maternal artefact, all fetal complexes were identified and the recording was examined for arrhythmic events. Short bradycardic episodes, not associated with any pathological condition, were found in 26% of all recordings, usually in mid-pregnancy. In 12 cases, isolated extrasystoles of no clinical importance could be identified. There were nine traces which revealed multiple arrhythmias including ventricular and supraventricular ectopic beats, bigeminy and trigeminy, sino-atrial block and atrio-ventricular conduction disturbances. Furthermore, two cases with tachycardia were found. Magnetocardiography offers a simple noninvasive method for examination of the fetal cardiac electrophysiological signal. It may thus be useful in the identification and classification of clinically relevant arrhythmia and aid in decisions concerning treatment.

  8. Seafloor character--Offshore of Salt Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Salt Point, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_SaltPoint.zip," which...

  9. Arithmetic harmonic analysis on character and quiver varieties II

    CERN Document Server

    Hausel, Tamas; Rodriguez-Villegas, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We study connections between the topology of generic character varieties of fundamental groups of punctured Riemann surfaces, Macdonald polynomials, quiver representations, Hilbert schemes on surfaces, modular forms and multiplicities in tensor products of irreducible characters of finite general linear groups.

  10. Seafloor character--Offshore of Fort Ross, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Fort Ross, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_OffshoreFortRoss.zip,"...

  11. Brief Analysis on Jean Eyre’s Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiu-nan

    2014-01-01

    Charlotte Bronte creates a new woman image-Jean Eyre in Jean Eyre. Analyzing briefly Jean’s characters makes us know why the characer has eternal vitality. The character of Jean Eyre is still of great practical significance.

  12. Seafloor character--Offshore of Salt Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Salt Point, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_SaltPoint.zip," which...

  13. Seafloor character--Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Bodega Head, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_BodegaHead.zip,"...

  14. Hierarchical Approximate Matching for Retrieval of Chinese Historical Calligraphy Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia-Fen Zhang; Yue-Ting Zhuang; Jiang-Qin Wu; Fei Wu

    2007-01-01

    As historical Chinese calligraphy works are being digitized, the problem of retrieval becomes a new challenge. But, currently no OCR technique can convert calligraphy character images into text, nor can the existing Handwriting Character Recognition approach does not work for it. This paper proposes a novel approach to efficiently retrieving Chinese calligraphy characters on the basis of similarity: calligraphy character image is represented by a collection of discriminative features, and high retrieval speed with reasonable effectiveness is achieved. First, calligraphy characters that have no possibility similar to the query are filtered out step by step by comparing the character complexity, stroke density and stroke protrusion. Then, similar calligraphy characters are retrieved and ranked according to their matching cost produced by approximate shape match. In order to speed up the retrieval, we employed high dimensional data structure-PK-tree. Finally, the efficiency of the algorithm is demonstrated by a preliminary experiment with 3012 calligraphy character images.

  15. Seafloor character--Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Bodega Head, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_BodegaHead.zip,"...

  16. Seafloor character--Offshore of Fort Ross, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Fort Ross, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_OffshoreFortRoss.zip,"...

  17. Automatic real-time tracking of fetal mouth in fetoscopic video sequence for supporting fetal surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Xie, Tianliang; Ohya, Jun; Zhang, Bo; Sato, Yoshinobu; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

    2013-03-01

    Recently, a minimally invasive surgery (MIS) called fetoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) was developed to treat severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) via fetoscopy, by which a detachable balloon is placed into the fetal trachea for preventing pulmonary hypoplasia through increasing the pressure of the chest cavity. This surgery is so dangerous that a supporting system for navigating surgeries is deemed necessary. In this paper, to guide a surgical tool to be inserted into the fetal trachea, an automatic approach is proposed to detect and track the fetal face and mouth via fetoscopic video sequencing. More specifically, the AdaBoost algorithm is utilized as a classifier to detect the fetal face based on Haarlike features, which calculate the difference between the sums of the pixel intensities in each adjacent region at a specific location in a detection window. Then, the CamShift algorithm based on an iterative search in a color histogram is applied to track the fetal face, and the fetal mouth is fitted by an ellipse detected via an improved iterative randomized Hough transform approach. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed automatic approach can accurately detect and track the fetal face and mouth in real-time in a fetoscopic video sequence, as well as provide an effective and timely feedback to the robot control system of the surgical tool for FETO surgeries.

  18. The relationship between maternal and fetal vitamin D, insulin resistance, and fetal growth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2013-05-01

    Evidence for a role of vitamin D in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis is inconclusive. We sought to clarify the relationship between maternal and fetal insulin resistance and vitamin D status. This is a prospective cohort study of 60 caucasian pregnant women. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), glucose, insulin, and leptin were measured in early pregnancy and at 28 weeks. Ultrasound at 34 weeks assessed fetal anthropometry including abdominal wall width, a marker of fetal adiposity. At delivery birth weight was recorded and fetal 25-OHD, glucose, C-peptide, and leptin measured in cord blood. Insulin resistance was calculated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) equation. We found that those with lower 25-OHD in early pregnancy had higher HOMA indices at 28 weeks, (r = -.32, P = .02). No significant relationship existed between maternal or fetal leptin and 25-OHD, or between maternal or fetal 25-OHD and fetal anthropometry or birth weight. The incidence of vitamin D deficiency was high at each time point (15%-45%). These findings lend support to routine antenatal supplementation with vitamin D in at risk populations.

  19. Functions of Maternally-Derived Taurine in Fetal and Neonatal Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochitani, Shiro

    2017-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a sulfur-containing organic acid, which has various physiological functions, including membrane stabilization, cell-volume regulation, mitochondrial protein translocation, anti-oxidative activity, neuroprotection against neurotoxicity and modulation of intracellular calcium levels. Taurine also activates GABAA receptors and glycine receptors. Mammalian fetuses and infants are dependent on taurine delivered from their mothers via either the placenta or their mother's milk. Taurine is a molecule that links mother-fetus or mother-infant bonding.This review describes the functions of taurine and the mechanisms of action of taurine in fetal and brain development. Taurine is involved in regulating the proliferation of neural progenitors, migration of newly-generated neurons, and the synapse formation of neurons after migration during fetal and neonatal development. In this review, we also discuss the environmental factors that might influence the functional roles of taurine in neural development.

  20. Glucocorticoid-induced fetal programming alters the functional complement of angiotensin receptor subtypes within the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwathmey, TanYa M; Shaltout, Hossam A; Rose, James C; Diz, Debra I; Chappell, Mark C

    2011-03-01

    We examined the impact of fetal programming on the functional responses of renal angiotensin receptors. Fetal sheep were exposed in utero to betamethasone (BMX; 0.17 mg/kg) or control (CON) at 80 to 81 days gestation with full-term delivery. Renal nuclear and plasma membrane fractions were isolated from sheep age 1.0 to 1.5 years for receptor binding and fluorescence detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or nitric oxide (NO). Mean arterial blood pressure and blood pressure variability were significantly higher in the BMX-exposed adult offspring versus CON sheep. The proportion of nuclear AT(1) receptors sensitive to losartan was 2-fold higher (67 ± 6% vs 27 ± 9%; Pprogramming.