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Sample records for fetal lamb model

  1. Prenatal cleft lip and maxillary alveolar defect repair in a 2-step fetal lamb model.

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    Wenghoefer, M.H.; Deprest, J.; Goetz, W.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Bergé, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: As there is no satisfying animal model simulating the complex cleft lip and palate anatomy in a standardized defect on one hand, and comprising the possibilities for extensive surgical procedures on the other hand, an improved fetal lamb model for cleft surgery was developed. MATERIALS AND

  2. Ex-Vivo Uterine Environment (EVE Therapy Induced Limited Fetal Inflammation in a Premature Lamb Model.

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    Yuichiro Miura

    Full Text Available Ex-vivo uterine environment (EVE therapy uses an artificial placenta to provide gas exchange and nutrient delivery to a fetus submerged in an amniotic fluid bath. Development of EVE may allow us to treat very premature neonates without mechanical ventilation. Meanwhile, elevations in fetal inflammation are associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. In the present study, we analysed fetal survival, inflammation and pulmonary maturation in preterm lambs maintained on EVE therapy using a parallelised umbilical circuit system with a low priming volume.Ewes underwent surgical delivery at 115 days of gestation (term is 150 days, and fetuses were transferred to EVE therapy (EVE group; n = 5. Physiological parameters were continuously monitored; fetal blood samples were intermittently obtained to assess wellbeing and targeted to reference range values for 2 days. Age-matched animals (Control group; n = 6 were surgically delivered at 117 days of gestation. Fetal blood and tissue samples were analysed and compared between the two groups.Fetal survival time in the EVE group was 27.0 ± 15.5 (group mean ± SD hours. Only one fetus completed the pre-determined study period with optimal physiological parameters, while the other 4 animals demonstrated physiological deterioration or death prior to the pre-determined study end point. Significant elevations (p0.05 in surfactant protein mRNA expression level between the two groups.In this study, we achieved limited fetal survival using EVE therapy. Despite this, EVE therapy only induced a modest fetal inflammatory response and did not promote lung maturation. These data provide additional insight into markers of treatment efficacy for the assessment of future studies.

  3. Antenatal Maternally-Administered Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors Normalize eNOS Expression in the Fetal Lamb Model of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

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    Shue, Eveline H; Schecter, Samuel C.; Gong, Wenhui; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Johengen, Michael; Iqbal, Corey; Derderian, S. Christopher; Oishi, Peter; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Miniati, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Pulmonary hypertension (pHTN), a main determinant of survival in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), results from in utero vascular remodeling. Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors have never been used antenatally to treat pHTN. The purpose of this study is to determine if antenatal PDE5 inhibitors can prevent pHTN in the fetal lamb model of CDH. Methods CDH were created in pregnant ewes. Postoperatively, pregnant ewes received oral placebo or tadalafil, a PDE5 inhibitor, until delivery. Near term gestation, lambs underwent resuscitations, and lung tissue was snap frozen for protein analysis. Results Mean cGMP levels were 0.53±0.11 in placebo-treated fetal lambs and 1.73±0.21 in tadalafil-treated fetal lambs (p=0.002). Normalized expression of eNOS was 82±12% in Normal-Placebo, 61±5% in CDH-Placebo, 116±6% in Normal-Tadalafil, and 86±8% in CDH-Tadalafil lambs. Normalized expression of β-sGC was 105±15% in Normal-Placebo, 82±3% in CDH-Placebo, 158±16% in Normal-Tadalafil, and 86±8% in CDH-Tadalafil lambs. Endothelial NOS and β-sGC were significantly decreased in CDH (p = 0.0007 and 0.01 for eNOS and β-sGC, respectively), and tadalafil significantly increased eNOS expression (p = 0.0002). Conclusions PDE5 inhibitors can cross the placental barrier. β-sGC and eNOS are downregulated in fetal lambs with CDH. Antenatal PDE5 inhibitors normalize eNOS and may prevent in utero vascular remodeling in CDH. PMID:24439578

  4. Early bladder outlet obstruction in fetal lambs induces renal dysplasia and the prune-belly syndrome.

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    Gonzalez, R; Reinberg, Y; Burke, B; Wells, T; Vernier, R L

    1990-03-01

    A model of posterior urethral valves in fetal lambs was developed in order to evaluate the effect of intrauterine urinary obstruction on the developing kidney. Complete urethral obstruction was induced in five fetal lambs at 43 to 45 days of gestation. Two control fetal lambs underwent sham operations. At full term (140 days), two of the five experimental lambs and both control lambs were available for postmortem examination. Results of gross and histological examination of the control lambs were normal. In contrast, the kidneys of the experimental lambs were markedly asymmetrical in size. Histological examination of the kidneys in experimental lambs showed cystic dilatation of the collecting ducts and occasional cystic dilatation of Bowman's spaces, features compatible with obstruction. Also noted were peripheral cortical cysts and primitive tubules lined with cuboidal epithelium and surrounded by fibromuscular collarettes, characteristic of renal dysplasia. One of the infant lambs had many characteristics of the prune-belly syndrome, including a wrinkled, markedly distended abdomen, deficient abdominal wall musculature, flared chest wall, limb deformities, and undescended testes. These results suggest that early in utero urethral obstruction (at the beginning of the second third of gestation) causes renal dysplasia. The results also support the hypothesis that the prune-belly syndrome results from abdominal distention that occurs early in gestation.

  5. Factors associated with fetal losses in ewe lambs on a New Zealand sheep farm.

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    Ridler, A L; Vallee, E; Corner, R A; Kenyon, P R; Heuer, C

    2015-11-01

    As part of a production study of ewe lambs on a large farm in the Waikato region of New Zealand in 2011, pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken twice by trans-abdominal ultrasonography at 68-103 and 97-132 days of gestation. At the second pregnancy diagnosis 257/3,790 (6.8%) ewe lambs had evidence of non-viable fetuses or absence of a pregnancy that was present at the previous pregnancy diagnosis (fetal loss). Serum antibody titres for Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona appeared generally higher in 10 ewe lambs with fetal loss compared with 10 that were still pregnant. Histopathological investigation was not able to confirm that fetal loss was associated with leptospial infection. In the 2012-born cohort of ewe lambs 443 were vaccinated with a bivalent leptospirosis vaccine and 882 unvaccinated. Serum was collected from 124 non-vaccinated ewe lambs between January and December 2013 for measurement of antibodies to Leptospira serovar Pomona and L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo-bovis using a microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Less than 5% of these ewe lambs were seropositive until May, but by August 85% and 48% of animals were seropositive to Leptospira serovars Hardjo-bovis and Pomona, respectively. Fetal loss in non-vaccinated ewe lambs was 78/882 (9%) compared with 23/443 (5%) in vaccinated ewe lambs. Combined data from the 2011- and 2012-born ewe lambs (n=5,115) were analysed using a logistic regression model and fetal loss as the dependent variable. In the final model fetal loss was associated with pre-mating bodyweight (p=0.003), weight change from pre-mating to initial pregnancy diagnosis (pewe lambs, there were associations between fetal loss and being seropositive to Leptospira serovar Pomona using titre cut-points of 1:48 and 1:768 (pewe lambs achieving target pre-mating weights and liveweight gains during pregnancy. Infection with Leptospira serovar Pomona was associated with fetal loss in the 2012-born cohort and the possibility of infection with this

  6. Early cerebral hemodynamic, metabolic and histological changes in hypoxic-ischemic fetal lambs during postnatal life

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    Carmen eRey-Santano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The hemodynamic, metabolic and biochemical changes produce during transition from fetal to neonatal life could be aggravated if asphyctic event occur during fetal life. The aim of the study was to examine the regional cerebral blood flow (RCBF, histological changes, and cerebral brain metabolism in preterm lambs, and to analyze the role of oxidative stress for the first hours of postnatal life following severe fetal asphyxia. 18 chronically instrumented fetal lambs were assigned to: hypoxic-ischemic group, following fetal asphyxia animals were delivered and maintained on intermittent-positive-pressure-ventilation for 3 hours, and non-injured animals that were managed similarly to the previous group and used as control group. During hypoxic-ischemic insult, injured group developed acidosis, hypoxia, hypercapnia, latacidaemia and tachycardia in comparison to control group, without hypotension. Intermittent-positive-pressure-ventilation transiently improved gas exchange and cardiovascular parameters. After HI injury and during ventilation-support, the increased RCBF in inner zones was maintained for hypoxic-ischemic group, but cortical flow did not exhibit differences compared to the control group. Also, the increase of TUNEL positive cells (apoptosis and antioxidant enzymes, and decrease of ATP reserves was significantly higher in the brain regions where the RCBF were not increased.In conclusion, early metabolic, histological and hemodynamic changes involved in brain damage have been intensively investigated and reported in premature asphyctic lambs for the first 3 hours of postnatal life. Those changes have been described in human neonates, so our model could be useful to test the security and the effectiveness of different neuroprotective or ventilatory strategies when are applied in the first hours after fetal hypoxic-ischemic injury.

  7. Myocardial effects of fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion in lambs with CDH.

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    Zambaiti, Elisa; Bussani, Rossana; Calcaterra, Valeria; Zandonà, Lorenzo; Silvestri, Furio; Peiró, José Luis; Marotta, Mario; Andreatta, Erika; Pelizzo, Gloria

    2016-04-01

    Fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) may reduce pulmonary hypertension and ameliorate postnatal cardiac output. The effects of sustained early (ETO) and late (LTO) tracheal occlusion on left ventricular (LV) cells in the lamb model have not been described. CDH was created in lambs at 70 days' gestation (term = 145 days). ETO (85 days) or LTO (105 days) was sustained till term. After cesarean section (140 days) fetuses were euthanized and hearts harvested. LV myocardial cells were studied by histological and immunofluorescence (TGF-beta 1, endothelin-1) assays in CDH, ETO, LTO, and the control group (two subjects per group). Small intramyocardial arteries were evaluated by traditional histology. LV myocardial histology in CDH and LTO was similar. ETO-induced LV myocardial cell enlargement and increased endothelin-1 and TGF-beta 1 staining; a weaker immunofluorescence signal was observed in LTO compared with ETO. Myocardial vascular wall thickness was greater in CDH than in controls. ETO was associated with a vascular wall thickness within the range of controls. With only two fetuses in each group, only an explorative evaluation was possible. The time point at which TO is performed seems to have an effect on cardiac morphology. Functional studies as well as confirmation in clinical samples are mandatory. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Investigation of fetal loss in ewe lambs in relation to liveweight changes and progesterone concentrations in early to mid gestation.

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    Ridler, A L; Corner-Thomas, R A; Kenyon, P R; Griffiths, K J

    2017-01-01

    To investigate associations between changes in liveweight and fetal loss in ewe lambs and to determine whether fetal loss was associated with concentrations of progesterone in early and mid-gestation. Ewe lambs on two commercial sheep farms (Flock A; n=504 and Flock B; n=460) in the southern North Island of New Zealand were weighed, and body condition score was assessed, prior to breeding and throughout pregnancy. Pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken approximately 56 (PD1), 80 (PD2) and 110 (PD3) days after the start of breeding and fetal loss determined. Blood samples were collected from a cohort of 407 ewe lambs between 45-54 and 73-84 days of gestation. Those that subsequently were diagnosed with fetal loss (n=16) were matched with ewe lambs that maintained pregnancy (n=16), and concentrations of progesterone were measured in the plasma samples from these animals. Fetal loss was diagnosed in 55/472 (11.7%) pregnant ewes from Flock A and 14/378 (3.7%) from Flock B. In both flocks the change in conceptus-free liveweight (CFLW) between PD1 and PD2 differed between ewe lambs with and without fetal loss; in Flock A the mean change was -59.9 (95% CI=-80.1 to -39.7) g/day vs. -3.43 (95% CI=-9.8 to 3.0) g/day (pewe lambs with fetal loss than in those that maintained pregnancy (25.8 (95% CI=-13.8 to 65.4) g/day vs. 181.9 (95% CI=175.1-188.7) g/day) (p0.05) in early and mid-gestation mean concentrations of progesterone in plasma between ewe lambs that had fetal loss compared with those that maintained pregnancy. Ewe lambs with fetal loss had a marked reduction in CFLW in the 24-30 days leading up to the identification of the fetal loss compared with those that maintained pregnancy. Early and mid-gestation concentrations of progesterone in plasma were similar between ewe lambs who went on to have fetal loss and those that maintained pregnancy.

  9. Brief mechanical ventilation causes differential epithelial repair along the airways of fetal, preterm lambs.

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    Deptula, Nicole; Royse, Emily; Kemp, Matthew W; Miura, Yuichiro; Kallapur, Suhas G; Jobe, Alan H; Hillman, Noah H

    2016-08-01

    Mechanical ventilation of preterm lambs causes lung inflammation and injury to the airway epithelium, which is repaired by 15 days after ventilation. In mice, activated basal cells (p63+, KRT14+, KRT8+) initiate injury repair to the trachea, whereas club cells coordinate distal airway repair. In both human and sheep, basal cells line the pseudostratified airways to the distal bronchioles with club cells only present in terminal bronchioles. Mechanical ventilation causes airway epithelial injury that is repaired through basal cell activation in the fetal lung. Ewes at 123 ± 1 day gestational age had the head and chest of the fetus exteriorized and tracheostomy placed. With placental circulation intact, fetal lambs were mechanically ventilated with up to 15 ml/kg for 15 min with 95% N2/5% CO2 Fetal lambs were returned to the uterus for up to 24 h. The trachea, left mainstem bronchi, and peripheral lung were evaluated for epithelial injury and cellular response consistent with repair. Peripheral lung tissue had inflammation, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, epithelial growth factor receptor ligand upregulation, increased p63 expression, and proliferation of pro-SPB, TTF-1 positive club cells. In bronchi, KRT14 and KRT8 mRNA increased without increases in Notch pathway mRNA or proliferation. In trachea, mRNA increased for Notch ligands, SAM pointed domain-containing Ets transcription factor and mucin 5B, but not for basal cell markers. A brief period of mechanical ventilation causes differential epithelial activation between trachea, bronchi, and peripheral lung. The repair mechanisms identified in adult mice occur at different levels of airway branching in fetal sheep with basal and club cell activation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Experimental modelling of the consequences of brief late gestation asphyxia on newborn lamb behaviour and brain structure.

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    Margie Castillo-Melendez

    Full Text Available Brief but severe asphyxia in late gestation or at the time of birth may lead to neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and is associated with long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. We undertook this study to examine the consequences of transient in utero asphyxia in late gestation fetal sheep, on the newborn lamb after birth. Surgery was undertaken at 125 days gestation for implantation of fetal catheters and placement of a silastic cuff around the umbilical cord. At 132 days gestation (0.89 term, the cuff was inflated to induce umbilical cord occlusion (UCO, or sham (control. Fetal arterial blood samples were collected for assessment of fetal wellbeing and the pregnancy continued until birth. At birth, behavioral milestones for newborn lambs were recorded over 24 h, after which the lambs were euthanased for brain collection and histopathology assessments. After birth, UCO lambs displayed significant latencies to (i use all four legs, (ii attain a standing position, (iii find the udder, and (iv successfully suckle--compared to control lambs. Brains of UCO lambs showed widespread pathologies including cell death, white matter disruption, intra-parenchymal hemorrhage and inflammation, which were not observed in full term control brains. UCO resulted in some preterm births, but comparison with age-matched preterm non-UCO control lambs showed that prematurity per se was not responsible for the behavioral delays and brain structural abnormalities resulting from the in utero asphyxia. These results demonstrate that a single, brief fetal asphyxic episode in late gestation results in significant grey and white matter disruption in the developing brain, and causes significant behavioral delay in newborn lambs. These data are consistent with clinical observations that antenatal asphyxia is causal in the development of neonatal encephalopathy and provide an experimental model to advance our understanding of neuroprotective therapies.

  11. Experimental Modelling of the Consequences of Brief Late Gestation Asphyxia on Newborn Lamb Behaviour and Brain Structure

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    Yawno, Tamara; Witjaksono, Anissa; Miller, Suzie L.; Walker, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Brief but severe asphyxia in late gestation or at the time of birth may lead to neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and is associated with long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. We undertook this study to examine the consequences of transient in utero asphyxia in late gestation fetal sheep, on the newborn lamb after birth. Surgery was undertaken at 125 days gestation for implantation of fetal catheters and placement of a silastic cuff around the umbilical cord. At 132 days gestation (0.89 term), the cuff was inflated to induce umbilical cord occlusion (UCO), or sham (control). Fetal arterial blood samples were collected for assessment of fetal wellbeing and the pregnancy continued until birth. At birth, behavioral milestones for newborn lambs were recorded over 24 h, after which the lambs were euthanased for brain collection and histopathology assessments. After birth, UCO lambs displayed significant latencies to (i) use all four legs, (ii) attain a standing position, (iii) find the udder, and (iv) successfully suckle - compared to control lambs. Brains of UCO lambs showed widespread pathologies including cell death, white matter disruption, intra-parenchymal hemorrhage and inflammation, which were not observed in full term control brains. UCO resulted in some preterm births, but comparison with age-matched preterm non-UCO control lambs showed that prematurity per se was not responsible for the behavioral delays and brain structural abnormalities resulting from the in utero asphyxia. These results demonstrate that a single, brief fetal asphyxic episode in late gestation results in significant grey and white matter disruption in the developing brain, and causes significant behavioral delay in newborn lambs. These data are consistent with clinical observations that antenatal asphyxia is causal in the development of neonatal encephalopathy and provide an experimental model to advance our understanding of neuroprotective therapies. PMID:24223120

  12. A Parallelized Pumpless Artificial Placenta System Significantly Prolonged Survival Time in a Preterm Lamb Model.

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    Miura, Yuichiro; Matsuda, Tadashi; Usuda, Haruo; Watanabe, Shimpei; Kitanishi, Ryuta; Saito, Masatoshi; Hanita, Takushi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu

    2016-05-01

    An artificial placenta (AP) is an arterio-venous extracorporeal life support system that is connected to the fetal circulation via the umbilical vasculature. Previously, we published an article describing a pumpless AP system with a small priming volume. We subsequently developed a parallelized system, hypothesizing that the reduced circuit resistance conveyed by this modification would enable healthy fetal survival time to be prolonged. We conducted experiments using a premature lamb model to test this hypothesis. As a result, the fetal survival period was significantly prolonged (60.4 ± 3.8 vs. 18.2 ± 3.2 h, P lamb fetuses to survive for a significantly longer period when compared with previous studies. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  13. ECoG and breathing activity in fetal lambs after undercut of cerebral cortex.

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    Ioffe, S; Jansen, A H; Chernick, V

    1984-10-01

    Reduction of cortical inhibition has been suggested as a possible mechanism for the transition from episodic fetal to continuous postnatal breathing. Twelve fetal lambs were chronically decorticated at 112-115 days gestation. Lateral rectus, neck, and diaphragmatic electromyogram (EMG), electrocorticogram (ECoG), and tracheal and arterial blood pressure were monitored after allowing 3 days for recovery. The fetal lambs were studied for 4-28 days in 2- to 4-h sessions/day. There were no episodes of low-voltage high-frequency ECoG activity. The mean duration (+/- SD) of rapid eye movements (REM) measured by lateral rectus EMG [11 +/- 7.9 min and periods of tonic activity or silence [non-REM (NREM)], 14 +/- 7.4 min] in decorticated fetuses were not statistically different from REM (12 +/- 5.1 min) and NREM (15 +/- 6.8 min) sleep periods in intact fetuses. After decortication, the percentage of time (+/- SD) occupied by different states were phasic diaphragmatic EMG activity 36 +/- 7.8%, tonic diaphragmatic EMG 21 +/- 8.6%, and diaphragmatic silence 43 +/- 14.2%. Phasic diaphragmatic EMG activity occurred together with REM, the latter being present 45 +/- 3.7% of the time. Despite decortication, between 115 and 125 days gestation ECoG changed from a trace alternans to a high-voltage low-frequency pattern. We conclude that the cerebral cortex is not responsible for apnea during fetal life. In addition, these data suggest that the cerebral cortex may normally be the source of ECoG synchrony.

  14. Distending Pressure Did Not Activate Acute Phase or Inflammatory Responses in the Airways and Lungs of Fetal, Preterm Lambs.

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    Rebecca Y Petersen

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation at birth causes airway injury and lung inflammation in preterm sheep. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP is being increasingly used clinically to transition preterm infants at birth.To test if distending pressures will activate acute phase reactants and inflammatory changes in the airways of fetal, preterm lambs.The head and chest of fetal lambs at 128±1 day GA were surgically exteriorized. With placental circulation intact, fetal lambs were then randomized to one of five 15 minute interventions: PEEP of 0, 4, 8, 12, or 16 cmH2O. Recruitment volumes were recorded. Fetal lambs remained on placental support for 30 min after the intervention. The twins of each 0 cmH2O animal served as controls. Fetal lung fluid (FLF, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL, right mainstem bronchi and peripheral lung tissue were evaluated for inflammation.Recruitment volume increased from 0.4±0.04 mL/kg at 4 cmH2O to 2.4±0.3 mL/kg at 16 cmH2O. The lambs were surfactant deficient, and all pressures were below the opening inflection pressure on pressure-volume curve. mRNA expression of early response genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines did not increase in airway tissue or lung tissue at any pressure compared to controls. FLF and BAL also did not have increases in early response proteins. No histologic changes or Egr-1 activation was present at the pressures used.Distending pressures as high as 16 cmH2O did not recruit lung volume at birth and did not increase markers of injury in the lung or airways in non-breathing preterm fetal sheep.

  15. Decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and function contribute to impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative stress in fetal lambs with persistent pulmonary hypertension.

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    Afolayan, Adeleye J; Eis, Annie; Alexander, Maxwell; Michalkiewicz, Teresa; Teng, Ru-Jeng; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan; Konduri, Girija G

    2016-01-01

    Impaired vasodilation in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction. We investigated the hypothesis that a decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase level leads to impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and function in a lamb model of PPHN induced by prenatal ductus arteriosus constriction. We ventilated PPHN lambs with 100% O2 alone or with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). We treated pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) from normal and PPHN lambs with detaNONOate, an NO donor. We observed decreased mitochondrial (mt) DNA copy number, electron transport chain (ETC) complex subunit levels, and ATP levels in PAECs and lung tissue of PPHN fetal lambs at baseline compared with gestation matched controls. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α) and sirtuin-1, which facilitate mitochondrial biogenesis, were decreased in PPHN. Ventilation with 100% O2 was associated with larger decreases in ETC subunits in the lungs of PPHN lambs compared with unventilated PPHN lambs. iNO administration, which facilitated weaning of FiO2 , partly restored mtDNA copy number, ETC subunit levels, and ATP levels. DetaNONOate increased eNOS phosphorylation and its interaction with heat shock protein 90 (HSP90); increased levels of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) mRNA, protein, and activity; and decreased the mitochondrial superoxide levels in PPHN-PAECs. Knockdown of eNOS decreased ETC protein levels in control PAECs. We conclude that ventilation with 100% O2 amplifies oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in PPHN, which are partly improved by iNO and weaning of oxygen. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Mathematical modeling of respiratory system mechanics in the newborn lamb.

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    Le Rolle, Virginie; Samson, Nathalie; Praud, Jean-Paul; Hernández, Alfredo I

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model of the respiratory mechanics is used to reproduce experimental signal waveforms acquired from three newborn lambs. As the main challenge is to determine specific lamb parameters, a sensitivity analysis has been realized to find the most influent parameters, which are identified using an evolutionary algorithm. Results show a close match between experimental and simulated pressure and flow waveforms obtained during spontaneous ventilation and pleural pressure variations acquired during the application of positive pressure, since root mean square errors equal to 0.0119, 0.0052 and 0.0094. The identified parameters were discussed in light of previous knowledge of respiratory mechanics in the newborn.

  17. Predicting the carcass composition of lambs by a simultaneous equations model

    OpenAIRE

    Cadavez, Vasco

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop models to predict lamb carcass composition by simultaneous equations model (SEM), and to compare t he efficiency of the ordinary least squares (OLS), weight least squares (WLS), and seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR) estimators. Forty male lambs, 22 of Churro Galego Bragançano Portuguese local breed and 18 of Suffolk breed were used. Lambs were slaughtered and carcasses were weighed approximately 30 min after slaughter in orde...

  18. Regulation of myocardial glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4 in chronically anemic fetal lambs.

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    Ralphe, J Carter; Nau, Peter N; Mascio, Christopher E; Segar, Jeffrey L; Scholz, Thomas D

    2005-10-01

    Little is known about the chronic adaptations that take place in the fetal heart to allow for increased substrate delivery in response to chronic stress. Because glucose is an important fuel for the fetal cardiomyocytes, we hypothesized that myocardial glucose transporters 1 and 4 (GLUT1 and GLUT4, respectively) are up-regulated in the fetal sheep heart that is chronically stressed by anemia. Fetal sheep at 128 d gestation underwent daily isovolumic hemorrhage and determination of myocardial blood flow, oxygen consumption, and substrate utilization. At the end of 3 or 7 d of anemia, myocardial levels of GLUT1 and GLUT4 mRNA and protein were measured and subcellular localization was determined. Despite stable heart rate and blood pressure, anemia caused a nearly 4-fold increase in right and left ventricular (RV and LV) free wall blood flow. No significant change in myocardial glucose uptake was found and serum insulin levels remained stable. Both 3-d RV and LV and 7-d RV mRNA and protein levels of GLUT1 and GLUT4 were unchanged; 7-d LV GLUT1 and GLUT4 mRNA levels were also stable. However, LV GLUT1 protein levels declined significantly, whereas LV GLUT4 protein levels were increased. In the steady state, GLUT4 protein localized to the sarcolemma membrane. These findings suggest that the glucose transporters are post-transcriptionally regulated in myocardium of chronically anemic fetal sheep with changes that mimic normal postnatal development. Unlike the postnatal heart, localization of GLUT4 to the cell membrane suggests the importance of GLUT4 in basal glucose uptake in the stressed fetal heart.

  19. Decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and function contribute to impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative stress in fetal lambs with persistent pulmonary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Afolayan, Adeleye J.; Eis, Annie; Alexander, Maxwell; Michalkiewicz, Teresa; Teng, Ru-Jeng; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan; Konduri, Girija G.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired vasodilation in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction. We investigated the hypothesis that a decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase level leads to impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and function in a lamb model of PPHN induced by prenatal ductus arteriosus constriction. We ventilated PPHN lambs with 100% O2 alone or with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). We treated pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) from normal and...

  20. Bladder changes after several coverage modalities in the surgically induced model of myelomeningocele in lambs.

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    Burgos, L; Encinas, J L; García-Cabezas, M Á; Peiró, J L; López-Santamaría, M; Jaureguízar, E

    2014-01-01

    To assess the presence of early bladder abnormalities in a prenatally corrected and uncorrected animal model of Myelomeningocele (MMC). A MMC-like lesion was surgically created in 18 fetal lambs between the 60th and the 80th day of gestation. Eight of them did not undergo fetal repair (group A), three were repaired with an open two-layer closure (group B), three using BioGlue® (groupC) and four fetoscopically (group D). At term, bladders were examined macroscopically and histopathological changes were assessed using H-E and Masson Trichrome. Five animals in group A (5/8, 62%), two in group B (2/3, 66%), one in group C (1/3, 33%) and one in group D (1/4, 25%) survived. Macroscopically bladders in group A were severely dilated and showed thinner walls. Microscopically they showed a thin layer of colagenous tissue (Blue layer. BL) lying immediately subjacent to the urothelium. The muscular layers were thinner. Non compliant pattern with thick wall and low capacity was also found in the non corrected model. Group B and the control showed preservation of muscular layers and absence of BL. Groups C and D presented BL but also preservation of muscular layers. Bladder changes in a surgically-induced model of MMC can be described using histopathological data. Both extremes of bladder changes can be observed in the model. These changes were completely prevented with open fetal surgery and partially with other coverage modalities. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Fetal growth restriction and the programming of heart growth and cardiac insulin-like growth factor 2 expression in the lamb.

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    Wang, Kimberley C W; Zhang, Lei; McMillen, I Caroline; Botting, Kimberley J; Duffield, Jaime A; Zhang, Song; Suter, Catherine M; Brooks, Doug A; Morrison, Janna L

    2011-10-01

    Reduced growth in fetal life together with accelerated growth in childhood, results in a ~50% greater risk of coronary heart disease in adult life. It is unclear why changes in patterns of body and heart growth in early life can lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. We aimed to investigate the role of the insulin-like growth factors in heart growth in the growth-restricted fetus and lamb. Hearts were collected from control and placentally restricted (PR) fetuses at 137-144 days gestation and from average (ABW) and low (LBW) birth weight lambs at 21 days of age. We quantified cardiac mRNA expression of IGF-1, IGF-2 and their receptors, IGF-1R and IGF-2R, using real-time RT-PCR and protein expression of IGF-1R and IGF-2R using Western blotting. Combined bisulphite restriction analysis was used to assess DNA methylation in the differentially methylated region (DMR) of the IGF-2/H19 locus and of the IGF-2R gene. In PR fetal sheep, IGF-2, IGF-1R and IGF-2R mRNA expression was increased in the heart compared to controls. LBW lambs had a greater left ventricle weight relative to body weight as well as increased IGF-2 and IGF-2R mRNA expression in the heart, when compared to ABW lambs. No changes in the percentage of methylation of the DMRs of IGF-2/H19 or IGF-2R were found between PR and LBW when compared to their respective controls. In conclusion, a programmed increased in cardiac gene expression of IGF-2 and IGF-2R may represent an adaptive response to reduced substrate supply (e.g. glucose and/or oxygen) in order to maintain heart growth and may be the underlying cause for increased ventricular hypertrophy and the associated susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to ischaemic damage later in life.

  2. Dynamic model for the transfer of CS-137 through the soil-grass-lamb foodchain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A dynamic radioecological model for the transfer of radiocaesium through the soil-grass-lamb foodchain was constructed on the basis of field data collected in 1990–1993 from the Nordic countries: Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The model assumes an initial soil....... The implementation of the metabolism of the lamb includes an assumption of a biological halflife of three weeks for radiocaesium....

  3. Predictive Models for Normal Fetal Cardiac Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Anita; Pike, Jodi I; McCarter, Robert; Fulgium, Amanda L; Wilson, Emmanuel; Donofrio, Mary T; Sable, Craig A

    2016-12-01

    Clinicians rely on age- and size-specific measures of cardiac structures to diagnose cardiac disease. No universally accepted normative data exist for fetal cardiac structures, and most fetal cardiac centers do not use the same standards. The aim of this study was to derive predictive models for Z scores for 13 commonly evaluated fetal cardiac structures using a large heterogeneous population of fetuses without structural cardiac defects. The study used archived normal fetal echocardiograms in representative fetuses aged 12 to 39 weeks. Thirteen cardiac dimensions were remeasured by a blinded echocardiographer from digitally stored clips. Studies with inadequate imaging views were excluded. Regression models were developed to relate each dimension to estimated gestational age (EGA) by dates, biparietal diameter, femur length, and estimated fetal weight by the Hadlock formula. Dimension outcomes were transformed (e.g., using the logarithm or square root) as necessary to meet the normality assumption. Higher order terms, quadratic or cubic, were added as needed to improve model fit. Information criteria and adjusted R 2 values were used to guide final model selection. Each Z-score equation is based on measurements derived from 296 to 414 unique fetuses. EGA yielded the best predictive model for the majority of dimensions; adjusted R 2 values ranged from 0.72 to 0.893. However, each of the other highly correlated (r > 0.94) biometric parameters was an acceptable surrogate for EGA. In most cases, the best fitting model included squared and cubic terms to introduce curvilinearity. For each dimension, models based on EGA provided the best fit for determining normal measurements of fetal cardiac structures. Nevertheless, other biometric parameters, including femur length, biparietal diameter, and estimated fetal weight provided results that were nearly as good. Comprehensive Z-score results are available on the basis of highly predictive models derived from gestational

  4. Utility of large-animal models of BPD: chronically ventilated preterm lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertine, Kurt H

    2015-05-15

    This paper is focused on unique insights provided by the preterm lamb physiological model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Connections are also made to insights provided by the former preterm baboon model of BPD, as well as to rodent models of lung injury to the immature, postnatal lung. The preterm lamb and baboon models recapitulate the clinical setting of preterm birth and respiratory failure that require prolonged ventilation support for days or weeks with oxygen-rich gas. An advantage of the preterm lamb model is the large size of preterm lambs, which facilitates physiological studies for days or weeks during the evolution of neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD). To this advantage is linked an integrated array of morphological, biochemical, and molecular analyses that are identifying the role of individual genes in the pathogenesis of neonatal CLD. Results indicate that the mode of ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation vs. less invasive high-frequency nasal ventilation, is related to outcomes. Our approach also includes pharmacological interventions that test causality of specific molecular players, such as vitamin A supplementation in the pathogenesis of neonatal CLD. The new insights that are being gained from our preterm lamb model may have important translational implications about the pathogenesis and treatment of BPD in preterm human infants. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Effect of Testosterone on Neuronal Morphology and Neuritic Growth of Fetal Lamb Hypothalamus-Preoptic Area and Cerebral Cortex in Primary Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika C Reddy

    Full Text Available Testosterone plays an essential role in sexual differentiation of the male sheep brain. The ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN, is 2 to 3 times larger in males than in females, and this sex difference is under the control of testosterone. The effect of testosterone on oSDN volume may result from enhanced expansion of soma areas and/or dendritic fields. To test this hypothesis, cells derived from the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA and cerebral cortex (CTX of lamb fetuses were grown in primary culture to examine the direct morphological effects of testosterone on these cellular components. We found that within two days of plating, neurons derived from both the HPOA and CTX extend neuritic processes and express androgen receptors and aromatase immunoreactivity. Both treated and control neurites continue to grow and branch with increasing time in culture. Treatment with testosterone (10 nM for 3 days significantly (P < 0.05 increased both total neurite outgrowth (35% and soma size (8% in the HPOA and outgrowth (21% and number of branch points (33% in the CTX. These findings indicate that testosterone-induced somal enlargement and neurite outgrowth in fetal lamb neurons may contribute to the development of a fully masculine sheep brain.

  6. Animal models in fetal medicine and obstetrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Andersen, Maria; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Duvald, Christina Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    Animal models remain essential to understand the fundamental mechanisms occurring in fetal medicine and obstetric diseases, such as intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. These vary regarding the employed method used for induction of the disease, and vary regarding...... the animal characteristics (size, number of fetuses, placenta barrier type, etc). While none of these exactly mirrors the human condition, different pregnant animal models (mice, rats, guinea pigs, chinchillas, rabbits, sheep and pigs) are here described with respect to advantages and limitations...

  7. VARIABILITY OF CONTINUOUSLY MEASURED ARTERIAL PH AND BLOOD-GAS VALUES IN THE NEAR-TERM FETAL LAMB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOUDSTRA, BR; DEWOLF, BTHM; SMITS, TM; NATHANIELSZ, PW; ZIJLSTRA, WG; AARNOUDSE, JG

    1995-01-01

    In fetal sheep, arterial blood gas values show considerable spontaneous fluctuations. The aim of the present study was to obtain quantitative data on fetal blood gas variability. Accurate assessment of the intraindividual variations can hardly be obtained from intermittent blood samples, but

  8. A model-dependent approach to the non-relativistic Lamb shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Valdes, J. F.; Bruce, S. A.

    2018-02-01

    The precise observation of the Lamb shift, between the 2s_{1/2} and 2p_{1/2} levels in hydrogen, was a genuine motivation for the development of modern quantum electrodynamics. According to Dirac theory, the 2s_{1/2} and 2p_{1/2} levels should have equal energies. However, "radiative corrections" due to the interaction between the atomic electron and the vacuum, shift the 2s_{1/2} level higher in energy by around 4.37493× 10^{-6} eV or 2π\\hbar× 1057.85 MHz relative to the 2p_{1/2} level. The measurement of Lamb and Retherford provided the stimulus for renormalization theory which has been so successful in handling troublesome divergences. The Lamb shift is still a central theme in atomic physics. W.E. Lamb was the first to see that this tiny shift, so elusive and hard to measure, would clarify in a fundamental way our thinking about particles and fields. In this article, the Lamb shift for the 2 s energy level in hydrogen is assessed for three different electron models by using the variational principle. It is then verified that this shift arises mostly from the interaction of a bound electron with the zero-point fluctuations of the free electromagnetic field (Welton's interpretation). We briefly comment on the construct validity of the proposed electron models.

  9. Numerical Time-Domain Modeling of Lamb Wave Propagation Using Elastodynamic Finite Integration Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Rappel

    2014-01-01

    integration technique (EFIT as well as its validation with analytical results. Lamb wave method is a long range inspection technique which is considered to have unique future in the field of structural health monitoring. One of the main problems facing the lamb wave method is how to choose the most appropriate frequency to generate the waves for adequate transmission capable of properly propagating in the material, interfering with defects/damages, and being received in good conditions. Modern simulation tools based on numerical methods such as finite integration technique (FIT, finite element method (FEM, and boundary element method (BEM may be used for modeling. In this paper, two sets of simulation are performed. In the first set, group velocities of lamb wave in a steel plate are obtained numerically. Results are then compared with analytical results to validate the simulation. In the second set, EFIT is employed to study fundamental symmetric mode interaction with a surface braking defect.

  10. Fetal Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Models: Systems Information on Fetal Biometry and Gross Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduljalil, Khaled; Johnson, Trevor N; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2017-12-20

    Postulating fetal exposure to xenobiotics has been based on animal studies; however, inter-species differences can make this problematic. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models may capture the rapid changes in anatomical, biochemical, and physiological parameters during fetal growth over the duration of pregnancy and help with interpreting laboratory animal data. However, these models require robust information on the longitudinal variations of system parameter values and their covariates. The objective of this study was to present an extensive analysis and integration of the available biometric data required for creating a virtual human fetal population by means of equations that define the changes of each parameter with gestational age. A comprehensive literature search was carried out on the parameters defining the growth of a fetus during in-utero life including weight, height, and body surface area in addition to other indices of fetal size, body fat, and water. Collated data were assessed and integrated through a meta-analysis to develop mathematical algorithms to describe growth with fetal age. Data for the meta-analysis were obtained from 97 publications, of these, 15 were related to fetal height or length, 32 to fetal weight, 4 to fetal body surface area, 8 to crown length, 5 to abdominal circumference, 12 to head circumference, 14 to body fat, and 12 to body water. Various mathematical algorithms were needed to describe parameter values from the time of conception to birth. The collated data presented in this article enabled the development of mathematical functions to describe fetal biometry and provide a potentially useful resource for building anthropometric features of fetal physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models.

  11. Identification of damage in composite structures using Gaussian mixture model-processed Lamb waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Ma, Shuxian; Yue, Dong

    2018-04-01

    Composite materials have comprehensively better properties than traditional materials, and therefore have been more and more widely used, especially because of its higher strength-weight ratio. However, the damage of composite structures is usually varied and complicated. In order to ensure the security of these structures, it is necessary to monitor and distinguish the structural damage in a timely manner. Lamb wave-based structural health monitoring (SHM) has been proved to be effective in online structural damage detection and evaluation; furthermore, the characteristic parameters of the multi-mode Lamb wave varies in response to different types of damage in the composite material. This paper studies the damage identification approach for composite structures using the Lamb wave and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). The algorithm and principle of the GMM, and the parameter estimation, is introduced. Multi-statistical characteristic parameters of the excited Lamb waves are extracted, and the parameter space with reduced dimensions is adopted by principal component analysis (PCA). The damage identification system using the GMM is then established through training. Experiments on a glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composite laminate plate are conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed approach in terms of damage classification. The experimental results show that different types of damage can be identified according to the value of the likelihood function of the GMM.

  12. Lamb wave propagation modelling and simulation using parallel processing architecture and graphical cards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paćko, P; Bielak, T; Staszewski, W J; Uhl, T; Spencer, A B; Worden, K

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates new parallel computation technology and an implementation for Lamb wave propagation modelling in complex structures. A graphical processing unit (GPU) and computer unified device architecture (CUDA), available in low-cost graphical cards in standard PCs, are used for Lamb wave propagation numerical simulations. The local interaction simulation approach (LISA) wave propagation algorithm has been implemented as an example. Other algorithms suitable for parallel discretization can also be used in practice. The method is illustrated using examples related to damage detection. The results demonstrate good accuracy and effective computational performance of very large models. The wave propagation modelling presented in the paper can be used in many practical applications of science and engineering. (paper)

  13. PrPSc accumulation in fetal cotyledons of scrapie-resistant lambs is influenced by fetus location in the uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverson, Janet; O'Rourke, Katherine I; Baszler, Timothy V

    2006-04-01

    Placentae from scrapie-infected ewes have been shown to accumulate PrPSc when the genotype of the fetus is of a susceptible genotype (VRQ/VRQ, ARQ/VRQ or ARQ/ARQ). Cotyledons from fetuses of genotypes ARR/ARR, ARQ/ARR and ARQ/VRR have previously been shown to be resistant to PrPSc accumulation. By using ewes from a naturally infected scrapie flock, cotyledons from fetuses of multiple births of different genotypes were examined. PrPSc was detected in fetal cotyledons of genotype ARQ/ARQ, but not in cotyledons from their dizygotic twin of genotype ARQ/ARR. This confirms earlier reports of single fetuses of these genotypes, but is the first description of such a finding in twin fetuses, one of each genotype. It is also demonstrated that cotyledons from sibling fetuses of genotypes ARQ/VRQ and ARQ/ARQ have different patterns of PrPSc accumulation depending on whether the dam is of genotype ARQ/ARQ or ARQ/VRQ. Lastly, it is shown that cotyledons from fetuses with resistant genotypes are weakly positive for PrPSc when they have shared the same pregnant uterine horn with a fetus of a susceptible genotype with cotyledons positive for the detection of PrPSc. Additionally, a PCR product for the Sry gene, a product specific to males, was found in cotyledons from female fetuses that had shared a uterine horn with a male fetus. This indicates that some sharing of fetal blood occurs between placentomes and fetuses residing in the same uterine horn, which can result in PrPSc accumulation in cotyledons with resistant genotypes.

  14. Mathematical models of human cerebellar development in the fetal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Krzysztof; Nowakowska-Kotas, Marta; Kędzia, Alicja

    2018-04-01

    The evaluation of cerebellar growth in the fetal period forms a part of a widely used examination to identify any features of abnormalities in early stages of human development. It is well known that the development of anatomical structures, including the cerebellum, does not always follow a linear model of growth. The aim of the study was to analyse a variety of mathematical models of human cerebellar development in fetal life to determine their adequacy. The study comprised 101 fetuses (48 males and 53 females) between the 15th and 28th weeks of fetal life. The cerebellum was exposed and measurements of the vermis and hemispheres were performed, together with statistical analyses. The mathematical model parameters of fetal growth were assessed for crown-rump length (CRL) increases, transverse cerebellar diameter and ventrodorsal dimensions of the cerebellar vermis in the transverse plane, and rostrocaudal dimensions of the cerebellar vermis and hemispheres in the frontal plane. A variety of mathematical models were applied, including linear and non-linear functions. Taking into consideration the variance between models and measurements, as well as correlation parameters, the exponential and Gompertz models proved to be the most suitable for modelling cerebellar growth in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the linear model gave a satisfactory approximation of cerebellar growth, especially in older fetuses. The proposed models of fetal cerebellar growth constructed on the basis of anatomical examination and objective mathematical calculations could be useful in the estimation of fetal development. © 2018 Anatomical Society.

  15. Stand basal area model for Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When evaluating the predictive accuracy of the final model, the first measurement was used for estimation of random parameters. The Chapman–Richards model was finally selected for the basic model based on model-fitting statistics, and both the fitting model and validation data with site-, block- and plot-level random ...

  16. Effects of formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV in the perinatal lamb model of RSV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J Derscheid

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most frequent cause of bronchiolitis in infants and children worldwide. There are currently no licensed vaccines or effective antivirals. The lack of a vaccine is partly due to increased caution following the aftermath of a failed clinical trial of a formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine (FI-RSV conducted in the 1960's that led to enhanced disease, necessitating hospitalization of 80% of vaccine recipients and resulting in two fatalities. Perinatal lamb lungs are similar in size, structure and physiology to those of human infants and are susceptible to human strains of RSV that induce similar lesions as those observed in infected human infants. We sought to determine if perinatal lambs immunized with FI-RSV would develop key features of vaccine-enhanced disease. This was tested in colostrum-deprived lambs immunized at 3-5 days of age with FI-RSV followed two weeks later by RSV infection. The FI-RSV-vaccinated lambs exhibited several key features of RSV vaccine-enhanced disease, including reduced RSV titers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung, and increased infiltration of peribronchiolar and perivascular lymphocytes compared to lambs either undergoing an acute RSV infection or naïve controls; all features of RSV vaccine-enhanced disease. These results represent a first step proof-of-principle demonstration that the lamb can develop altered responses to RSV following FI-RSV vaccination. The lamb model may be useful for future mechanistic studies as well as the assessment of RSV vaccines designed for infants.

  17. Fetal programming by co-twin rivalry in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas, J; Caja, G

    2014-01-01

    Fetal rivalry for space and nutrients compromises intrauterine environment and fetal growth, this leading to further consequences during adult life (i.e., fetal programming). Focusing on sheep, relevant fetal programming effects have been revealed on body composition and growth although little is known about their potential impact on the reproductive performance of adult ewes. This research focused on the analysis of fetal programming-related effects on 41,475 litter size (LS) records from 7,177 purebred Ripollesa ewes. Fetal programming sources of variation accounted for the linear and quadratic effect of absolute birth BW (ABBW), relative birth BW (RBBW) of twin-born ewes (i.e., both magnitude and direction of the birth BW difference between the ewe and its co-twin), and sex of twin ewe's littermate (SLM). More specifically, data were analyzed under a threshold mixed model and the statistical relevance of models accounting for different combinations of ABBW, RBBW, and SLM effects was compared by Bayes factors (BF; i.e., the ratio between the posterior probability of 2 competing models). The model accounting for RBBW and discarding both ABBW and SLM effects was clearly preferred; its posterior probability was 35.2 to 362.3 times higher than from remaining models and provided very strong (31.6 100) supporting the relevance of RBBW and the negligibility of both ABBW and SLM. Single-born ewes were included as reference group and they reached a predicted LS of 1.189 lambs per lambing. Twin-born ewes being >600 g lighter than their co-twins suffered from an impaired reproductive ability with 1.162 lambs per lambing (95% credible interval [95CI], 1.147 to 1.179), and this estimate increased until ewes were 151 to 300 g lighter than their co-twins (1.226 lambs per lambing; 95CI, 1.208 to 1.244). Remaining categories (i.e., ewes being heavier or equal than their co-twins) did not provide significant differences and showed an enhanced reproductive ability of approximately

  18. Optical coherence elastography assessment of corneal viscoelasticity with a modified Rayleigh-Lamb wave model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-Hao; Raghunathan, Raksha; Aglyamov, Salavat R; Vantipalli, Srilatha; Twa, Michael D; Larin, Kirill V

    2017-02-01

    The biomechanical properties of the cornea play a critical role in forming vision. Diseases such as keratoconus can structurally degenerate the cornea causing a pathological loss in visual acuity. UV-A/riboflavin corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) is a clinically available treatment to stiffen the cornea and restore its healthy shape and function. However, current CXL techniques do not account for pre-existing biomechanical properties of the cornea nor the effects of the CXL treatment itself. In addition to the inherent corneal structure, the intraocular pressure (IOP) can also dramatically affect the measured biomechanical properties of the cornea. In this work, we present the details and development of a modified Rayleigh-Lamb frequency equation model for quantifying corneal biomechanical properties. After comparison with finite element modeling, the model was utilized to quantify the viscoelasticity of in situ porcine corneas in the whole eye-globe configuration before and after CXL based on noncontact optical coherence elastography measurements. Moreover, the viscoelasticity of the untreated and CXL-treated eyes was quantified at various IOPs. The results showed that the stiffness of the cornea increased after CXL and that corneal stiffness is close to linear as a function of IOP. These results show that the modified Rayleigh-Lamb wave model can provide an accurate assessment of corneal viscoelasticity, which could be used for customized CXL therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. GPU-based local interaction simulation approach for simplified temperature effect modelling in Lamb wave propagation used for damage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijanka, P; Radecki, R; Packo, P; Staszewski, W J; Uhl, T

    2013-01-01

    Temperature has a significant effect on Lamb wave propagation. It is important to compensate for this effect when the method is considered for structural damage detection. The paper explores a newly proposed, very efficient numerical simulation tool for Lamb wave propagation modelling in aluminum plates exposed to temperature changes. A local interaction approach implemented with a parallel computing architecture and graphics cards is used for these numerical simulations. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data. The results demonstrate that the proposed approach could be used efficiently to produce a large database required for the development of various temperature compensation procedures in structural health monitoring applications. (paper)

  20. Modelling of Lamb wave interaction with open and closed fatigue cracks for damage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B C; Staszewski, W J

    2010-01-01

    Lamb waves are the most widely used guided ultrasonic waves for structural damage detection. Lamb wave propagation in complex structures is very complicated due to multiple reflections and mode conversion at geometrical and material features. Numerical simulations can significantly ease wave propagation analysis for damage detection. The local interaction simulation approach is used for Lamb wave interaction with fatigues cracks in an aluminium plate. The results, investigated for various crack lengths, are validated experimentally. The study shows that Lamb wave amplitude and arrival time are different for fully open and closed fatigue cracks. As a result damage detection sensitivity could be affected.

  1. Punting Lamb

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, T.; Malcolm, Bill

    2011-01-01

    We present in clear, readable terms how to understand the risky aspects of a ewe purchase decision. Expected lamb prices in the future are an important driver of ewe prices now. We derive easy methods of determining the relationship between future lamb prices and current ewe prices. This lends to an evaluation of rules of thumb showing that the 'bet' and the 'odds' are keys to good investment.

  2. Maternal-fetal hepatic and placental metabolome profiles are associated with reduced fetal growth in a rat model of maternal obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumme, Karen; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M.

    2016-01-01

    : Metabolomic profiling was used to reveal altered maternal and fetal metabolic pathways in a model of diet induced obesity during pregnancy, leading to reduced fetal growth. Methods: We examined the metabolome of maternal and fetal livers, and placenta following a high fat and salt intake. Sprague–Dawley rats....... Metabolites from maternal and fetal livers, and placenta were identified using gas and liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Results: Maternal HF intake resulted in reduced fetal weight. Altered metabolite profiles were observed in the HF maternal and fetal liver, and placenta...... and fetal response to increased fat consumption seems likely to involve palmitoleic acid utilization as an adaptive response during maternal obesity....

  3. Modeling and experimental investigations of Lamb waves focusing in anisotropic plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapuis, Bastien [Departement Materiaux et Structures Composites, ONERA, 29 avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92322 Chatillon Cedex (France); Terrien, Nicolas [CETIM, 74 route de la Joneliere, 44326 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Royer, Daniel, E-mail: Bastien.Chapuis@onera.fr [Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique, ESPCI, Universite Paris 7, CNRS UMR 7587, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of Lamb waves focusing in anisotropic plates is theoretically and experimentally investigated. An analysis based on a far field approximation of the Green's function shows that Lamb waves focusing is analog to the phonon focusing effect. In highly anisotropic structures like composite plates the focusing of A{sub 0} and S{sub 0} mode is strong; the energy propagates preferentially in the fibre directions, which are minima of the slowness. This has to be taken into account when developing, for example, a transducer array for structural health monitoring systems based on Lamb waves in order to avoid dead zones.

  4. Rapid isolation of intact, viable fetal cartilage models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.R.; Chepenik, K.P.; Paynton, B.V.; Cotler, J.M.

    1982-04-01

    A rapid procedure is described for the isolation of viable, intact, femoral cartilage models (humeri and femora) obtained from pregnant rats on the 18th day of gestation. Viability of these models is demonstrated in an in vitro system where the incorporation of /sup 35/S-sulfate was linear with time of incubation and with numbers of cartilage models utilized. Treatment of cartilage models with ice-cold trichloroacetic acid and a boiling water bath prior to incubation with radiolabel, reduced the amount of radioactivity incorporated to 1.3% of that observed for models incubated by routine procedures. Furthermore, digestion of cartilage model homogenates with protease yielded a supernatant from which 51% to 57% of the radioactivity was precipitated as GAG. This method may also be used to isolate fetal cartilage models as early as the 16th day of gestation. with this system, specific biochemical parameters of mammalian fetal chondrogenesis may be surveyed in normally and abnormally developing fetal cartilage free of surrounding soft tissue.

  5. Rapid isolation of intact, viable fetal cartilage models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.R.; Chepenik, K.P.; Paynton, B.V.; Cotler, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    A rapid procedure is described for the isolation of viable, intact, femoral cartilage models (humeri and femora) obtained from pregnant rats on the 18th day of gestation. Viability of these models is demonstrated in an in vitro system where the incorporation of 35 S-sulfate was linear with time of incubation and with numbers of cartilage models utilized. Treatment of cartilage models with ice-cold trichloroacetic acid and a boiling water bath prior to incubation with radiolabel, reduced the amount of radioactivity incorporated to 1.3% of that observed for models incubated by routine procedures. Furthermore, digestion of cartilage model homogenates with protease yielded a supernatant from which 51% to 57% of the radioactivity was precipitated as GAG. This method may also be used to isolate fetal cartilage models as early as the 16th day of gestation. with this system, specific biochemical parameters of mammalian fetal chondrogenesis may be surveyed in normally and abnormally developing fetal cartilage free of surrounding soft tissue

  6. FETAL METABOLIC PROGRAMMING OF THE SMALL INTESTINE IN A COPENHAGEN SHEEP MODEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Anne Marie Dixen; Khanal, Prabhat; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft

    Fetal metabolic programming states that early life nutrition is implicated with the risk of later disease development and both under- and overnutrition during gestation might predispose individuals to develop obesity or diabetes later in life. Obesity operations called “gastric bypass” operations...... have shown unexpected involvement of the small intestine in diabetes pathophysiology as it in most cases result in a complete resolution of the diabetes before weight loss. Therefore we hypothesize that the small intestine is a subject of metabolic programming and that this programming can predispose...... for diabetes development. Twin-pregnant ewes where fed a Normal, a Low or a High diet during the last 6 weeks of gestation and the twin lambs where fed either a Conventional or a High fat, High carbohydrate (HCHF) diet during the first 6 months of life. Feeding challenge tests were performed on all lambs...

  7. Mild Diabetes Models and Their Maternal-Fetal Repercussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Damasceno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of diabetes in pregnancy leads to hormonal and metabolic changes making inappropriate intrauterine environment, favoring the onset of maternal and fetal complications. Human studies that explore mechanisms responsible for changes caused by diabetes are limited not only for ethical reasons but also by the many uncontrollable variables. Thus, there is a need to develop appropriate experimental models. The diabetes induced in laboratory animals can be performed by different methods depending on dose, route of administration, and the strain and age of animal used. Many of these studies are carried out in neonatal period or during pregnancy, but the results presented are controversial. So this paper, addresses the review about the different models of mild diabetes induction using streptozotocin in pregnant rats and their repercussions on the maternal and fetal organisms to propose an adequate model for each approached issue.

  8. Impacts of post-mortem ageing prior to freezing on technological and oxidative properties of coarse ground lamb sausage in a model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhui Choe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ageing time of lamb loins prior to freezing on technological characteristics and oxidation stability of coarse ground lamb loin sausage using in a model system. Methods Lamb loins (M. longissimus lumborum, n = 25 were aged at −1.5°C for 0, 1, 2, 3, and 8 wk and then frozen for the remaining days (a total of 30 wk. The aged/frozen/thawed lamb loins were ground, and model sausages were formulated with 75% aged/frozen/thawed lamb loin, 25% water, 1.5% sodium chloride (NaCl and 0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate. The pH and thaw/purge loss of aged/frozen/thawed lamb loins were evaluated, and protein functionality (protein solubility and emulsifying capacity, water-holding capacity and textural properties of model sausages were determined. Cooked model sausages were vacuum-packaged in a plastic bag and displayed under continuous fluorescent natural white light (3°C±1°C. Colour and lipid oxidation of the cooked model sausages were evaluated on 0 and 21 d of display storage. Results Ageing prior to freezing had no impact on pH and purge/thaw loss of lamb loins and the colour of cooked sausages (p>0.05 made from the loins. Lamb loins aged for at least 3 wk prior to freezing numerically improved total and myofibrillar protein solubilities (p>0.05 and emulsion activity index (p = 0.009 of meat batter, but decreased cooking loss (p = 0.003 and lipid oxidation (p<0.05 of model sausages. Conclusion This study suggests that post-mortem ageing of raw meat prior to freezing could improve water-holding capacity and lipid oxidative stability of sausage made from the meat.

  9. Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation: a sheep model of fetal hydrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, H E; Estes, J M; Hedrick, M H; Bealer, J F; Harrison, M R; Adzick, N S

    1994-05-01

    Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) can be diagnosed in utero. Nonimmune hydrops associated with CCAM is a predictor of fetal demise. Fetuses with prenatally diagnosed large CCAM tumors and hydrops have undergone successful in utero resection. An animal model is needed to understand the pathophysiology of CCAM and hydrops. To create a model of CCAM and hydrops, the authors implanted an intrathoracic tissue expander in six fetal sheep at 120 days' gestation. The inflatable tissue expander was implanted in the right side of the chest, and arterial, venous, intrathoracic, and intraamniotic pressure catheters were placed. Each day, the expander was inflated with 25 to 50 mL of saline (maximum, 150 mL), ultrasound examination was performed, and all pressure measurements were taken. In all six fetuses, hydrops developed after expander inflation. Expander inflation correlated with an increase in central venous pressure (CVP) (4 +/- 2 mm Hg v 16 +/- 2 mm Hg [mean +/- SD]; P inflating an intrathoracic tissue expander in fetal sheep. Based on this model, hydrops associated with CCAM results from obstruction of cardiac venous return and central venous hypertension. This pathophysiology is reversed by expander deflation, which simulates in utero CCAM resection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Sildenafil Citrate Increases Fetal Weight in a Mouse Model of Fetal Growth Restriction with a Normal Vascular Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, Mark Robert; Andersson, Irene; Renshall, Lewis James; Cowley, Elizabeth; Baker, Philip; Greenwood, Susan; Sibley, Colin Peter; Wareing, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is defined as the inability of a fetus to achieve its genetic growth potential and is associated with a significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinically, FGR is diagnosed as a fetus falling below the 5th centile of customised growth charts. Sildenafil citrate (SC, Viagra™), a potent and selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, corrects ex vivo placental vascular dysfunction in FGR, demonstrating potential as a therapy for this condition. However, many FGR cases present without an abnormal vascular phenotype, as assessed by Doppler measures of uterine/umbilical artery blood flow velocity. Thus, we hypothesized that SC would not increase fetal growth in a mouse model of FGR, the placental-specific Igf2 knockout mouse, which has altered placental exchange capacity but normal placental blood flow. Fetal weights were increased (by 8%) in P0 mice following maternal SC treatment (0.4 mg/ml) via drinking water. There was also a trend towards increased placental weight in treated P0 mice (P = 0.056). Additionally, 75% of the P0 fetal weights were below the 5th centile, the criterion used to define human FGR, of the non-treated WT fetal weights; this was reduced to 51% when dams were treated with SC. Umbilical artery and vein blood flow velocity measures confirmed the lack of an abnormal vascular phenotype in the P0 mouse; and were unaffected by SC treatment. 14C-methylaminoisobutyric acid transfer (measured to assess effects on placental nutrient transporter activity) per g placenta was unaffected by SC, versus untreated, though total transfer was increased, commensurate with the trend towards larger placentas in this group. These data suggest that SC may improve fetal growth even in the absence of an abnormal placental blood flow, potentially affording use in multiple sub-populations of individuals presenting with FGR. PMID:24204949

  11. Sildenafil citrate increases fetal weight in a mouse model of fetal growth restriction with a normal vascular phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Robert Dilworth

    Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction (FGR is defined as the inability of a fetus to achieve its genetic growth potential and is associated with a significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinically, FGR is diagnosed as a fetus falling below the 5(th centile of customised growth charts. Sildenafil citrate (SC, Viagra™, a potent and selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, corrects ex vivo placental vascular dysfunction in FGR, demonstrating potential as a therapy for this condition. However, many FGR cases present without an abnormal vascular phenotype, as assessed by Doppler measures of uterine/umbilical artery blood flow velocity. Thus, we hypothesized that SC would not increase fetal growth in a mouse model of FGR, the placental-specific Igf2 knockout mouse, which has altered placental exchange capacity but normal placental blood flow. Fetal weights were increased (by 8% in P0 mice following maternal SC treatment (0.4 mg/ml via drinking water. There was also a trend towards increased placental weight in treated P0 mice (P = 0.056. Additionally, 75% of the P0 fetal weights were below the 5(th centile, the criterion used to define human FGR, of the non-treated WT fetal weights; this was reduced to 51% when dams were treated with SC. Umbilical artery and vein blood flow velocity measures confirmed the lack of an abnormal vascular phenotype in the P0 mouse; and were unaffected by SC treatment. (14C-methylaminoisobutyric acid transfer (measured to assess effects on placental nutrient transporter activity per g placenta was unaffected by SC, versus untreated, though total transfer was increased, commensurate with the trend towards larger placentas in this group. These data suggest that SC may improve fetal growth even in the absence of an abnormal placental blood flow, potentially affording use in multiple sub-populations of individuals presenting with FGR.

  12. Effect of Bile Acid on Fetal Lung in Rat Model of Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the correlation between maternal bile acid (BA level and fetal pulmonary surfactant in rats and study the effects of BA on fetal lung in rat model of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Methods. Forty pregnant rats were treated with (A 5.5 mg/kg BA, (B 1.4 mg/kg BA, and (C 1 ml physiological saline. Levels of total bile acid (TBA, ALT, AST, TBIL, DBIL, and SP-A were determined and the lungs of fetal rats were analyzed for pathological changes. Results. Groups A and B intervened with BA showed significant higher level of TBA in both maternal and fetal serum, more mortality rate of fetal rats, more concentration of SP-A in fetal serum, and wider alveolus mesenchyme of fetal rats than the control Group C. Higher level of BA associated with increased fetal risk and lower numerical density of mitochondria in type II alveolar epithelial cells. The levels of TBA in maternal serum were found to have significant positive correlation with those in fetal serum and SP-A level but negatively with the area of alveolus and the numerical density of lamellar body. Conclusions. The TBA level in maternal serum showed significant association with lung pathological changes in fetal rats.

  13. Searching for the best model: ambiguity of inverse solutions and application to fetal magnetoencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrba, J; Robinson, S E; McCubbin, J; Lowery, C L; Eswaran, H; Murphy, P; Preissl, H

    2007-01-01

    Fetal brain signals produce weak magnetic fields at the maternal abdominal surface. In the presence of much stronger interference these weak fetal fields are often nearly indistinguishable from noise. Our initial objective was to validate these weak fetal brain fields by demonstrating that they agree with the electromagnetic model of the fetal brain. The fetal brain model is often not known and we have attempted to fit the data to not only the brain source position, orientation and magnitude, but also to the brain model position. Simulation tests of this extended model search on fetal MEG recordings using dipole fit and beamformers revealed a region of ambiguity. The region of ambiguity consists of a family of models which are not distinguishable in the presence of noise, and which exhibit large and comparable SNR when beamformers are used. Unlike the uncertainty of a dipole fit with known model plus noise, this extended ambiguity region yields nearly identical forward solutions, and is only weakly dependent on noise. The ambiguity region is located in a plane defined by the source position, orientation, and the true model centre, and will have a diameter approximately 0.67 of the modelled fetal head diameter. Existence of the ambiguity region allows us to only state that the fetal brain fields do not contradict the electromagnetic model; we can associate them with a family of models belonging to the ambiguity region, but not with any specific model. In addition to providing a level of confidence in the fetal brain signals, the ambiguity region knowledge in combination with beamformers allows detection of undistorted temporal waveforms with improved signal-to-noise ratio, even though the source position cannot be uniquely determined

  14. Effect of the Anti-Oxidant Tempol on Fetal Growth in a Mouse Model of Fetal Growth Restriction1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Joanna L.; Andersson, Irene J.; Hirt, Cassandra J.; Moore, Linn; Dilworth, Mark R.; Chade, Alejandro R.; Sibley, Colin P.; Davidge, Sandra T.; Baker, Philip N.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fetal growth restriction (FGR) greatly increases the risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality and is associated with increased uterine artery resistance and levels of oxidative stress. There are currently no available treatments for this condition. The hypothesis that the antioxidant 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (Tempol) would improve uterine artery function and rescue fetal growth was tested in a mouse model of FGR, using the endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mouse (Nos3−/−). Pregnant Nos3−/− and control C57BL/6J mice were treated with the superoxide dismutase-mimetic Tempol (1 mmol/L) or vehicle from Gestational Day 12.5 to 18.5. Tempol treatment significantly increased pup weight (P Tempol significantly increased end diastolic velocity in Nos3−/− mice (P Tempol treatment. Placental System A activity was reduced in Nos3−/− mice (P Tempol. Treatment of Nos3−/− mice with Tempol, however, was associated with reduced vascular density in the placental bed (P Tempol is able to improve fetal growth in a mouse model of FGR. This was associated with an increase in uterine artery blood flow velocity but not an improvement in uterine artery function or placental System A activity. PMID:22423051

  15. Effect of the anti-oxidant tempol on fetal growth in a mouse model of fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Joanna L; Andersson, Irene J; Hirt, Cassandra J; Moore, Linn; Dilworth, Mark R; Chade, Alejandro R; Sibley, Colin P; Davidge, Sandra T; Baker, Philip N

    2012-07-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) greatly increases the risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality and is associated with increased uterine artery resistance and levels of oxidative stress. There are currently no available treatments for this condition. The hypothesis that the antioxidant 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (Tempol) would improve uterine artery function and rescue fetal growth was tested in a mouse model of FGR, using the endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mouse (Nos3(-/-)). Pregnant Nos3(-/-) and control C57BL/6J mice were treated with the superoxide dismutase-mimetic Tempol (1 mmol/L) or vehicle from Gestational Day 12.5 to 18.5. Tempol treatment significantly increased pup weight (P Tempol significantly increased end diastolic velocity in Nos3(-/-) mice (P Tempol treatment. Placental System A activity was reduced in Nos3(-/-) mice (P Tempol. Treatment of Nos3(-/-) mice with Tempol, however, was associated with reduced vascular density in the placental bed (P Tempol is able to improve fetal growth in a mouse model of FGR. This was associated with an increase in uterine artery blood flow velocity but not an improvement in uterine artery function or placental System A activity.

  16. Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Models: Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Fetal Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Damasceno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose homeostasis is controlled by endocrine pancreatic cells, and any pancreatic disturbance can result in diabetes. Because 8% to 12% of diabetic pregnant women present with malformed fetuses, there is great interest in understanding the etiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, and treatment of gestational diabetes. Hyperglycemia enhances the production of reactive oxygen species, leading to oxidative stress, which is involved in diabetic teratogenesis. It has also been suggested that maternal diabetes alters embryonic gene expression, which might cause malformations. Due to ethical issues involving human studies that sometimes have invasive aspects and the multiplicity of uncontrolled variables that can alter the uterine environment during clinical studies, it is necessary to use animal models to better understand diabetic pathophysiology. This review aimed to gather information about pathophysiological mechanisms and fetal outcomes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. To understand the pathophysiological mechanisms and factors involved in diabetes, the use of pancreatic regeneration studies is increasing in an attempt to understand the behavior of pancreatic beta cells. In addition, these studies suggest a new preventive concept as a treatment basis for diabetes, introducing therapeutic efforts to minimize or prevent diabetes-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage, and teratogenesis.

  17. Correlation of a new index reflecting the fluctuation of parasympathetic tone and fetal acidosis in an experimental study in a sheep model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Garabedian

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system plays a leading role in the control of fetal homeostasis. Fetal heart rate variability (HRV analysis is a reflection of its activity. We developed a new index (the Fetal Stress Index, FSI reflecting parasympathetic tone. The objective of this study was to evaluate this index as a predictor of fetal acid-base status. This was an experimental study on chronically instrumented fetal lambs (n = 11, surgery at 128 +/- 2 days gestational age, term = 145 days. The model was based on 75% occlusion of the umbilical cord for a maximum of 120 minutes or until an arterial pH ≤ 7.20 was reached. Hemodynamic, gasometric and FSI parameters were recorded throughout the experimentation. We studied the FSI during the 10 minutes prior to pH samplings and compared values for pH>7.20 and pH≤ 7.20. In order to analyze the FSI evolution during the 10 minutes periods, we analyzed the minimum, maximum and mean values of the FSI (respectively FSImin, FSImax and FSImean over the periods. 11 experimentations were performed. During occlusion, the heart rate dropped with an increase in blood pressure (respectively 160(155-182 vs 106(101-120 bpm and 42(41-45 vs 58(55-62 mmHg after occlusion. The FSImin was 38.6 (35.2-43.3 in the group pH>7.20 and was higher in the group pH less than 7.20 (46.5 (43.3-52.0, p = 0.012. The correlation of FSImin was significant for arterial pH (coefficient of -0.671; p = 0.004 and for base excess (coefficient of -0.632; p = 0.009. The correlations were not significant for the other parameters. In conclusion, our new index seems well correlated with the fetal acid-base status. Other studies must be carried out in a situation close to the physiology of labor by sequential occlusion of the cord.

  18. Immune tolerance induction using fetal directed placental injection in rodent models: a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Takahashi

    Full Text Available Induction of the immune response is a major problem in replacement therapies for inherited protein deficiencies. Tolerance created in utero can facilitate postnatal treatment. In this study, we aimed to induce immune tolerance towards a foreign protein with early gestational cell transplantation into the chorionic villi under ultrasound guidance in the murine model.Pregnant C57BL/6 (B6 mice on day 10 of gestation were anesthetized and imaged by high resolution ultrasound. Murine embryos and their placenta were positioned to get a clear view in B-mode with power mode of the labyrinth, which is the equivalent of chorionic villi in the human. Bone marrow cells (BMCs from B6-Green Fluorescence Protein (B6GFP transgenic mice were injected into the fetal side of the placenta which includes the labyrinth with glass microcapillary pipettes. Each fetal mouse received 2 x 105 viable GFP-BMCs. After birth, we evaluated the humoral and cell-mediated immune response against GFP.Bone marrow transfer into fetal side of placenta efficiently distributed donor cells to the fetal mice. The survival rate of this procedure was 13.5%(5 out of 37. Successful engraftment of the B6-GFP donor skin grafts was observed in all recipient (5 out of 5 mice 6 weeks after birth. Induction of anti-GFP antibodies was completely inhibited. Cytotoxic immune reactivity of thymic cells against cells harboring GFP was suppressed by ELISPOT assay.In this study, we utilized early gestational placental injection targeting the murine fetus, to transfer donor cells carrying a foreign protein into the fetal circulation. This approach is sufficient to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune tolerance against the foreign protein.

  19. Modeling the high-frequency complex modulus of silicone rubber using standing Lamb waves and an inverse finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Ulf; Lindahl, Olof; Andersson, Britt

    2014-12-01

    To gain an understanding of the high-frequency elastic properties of silicone rubber, a finite element model of a cylindrical piezoelectric element, in contact with a silicone rubber disk, was constructed. The frequency-dependent elastic modulus of the silicone rubber was modeled by a fourparameter fractional derivative viscoelastic model in the 100 to 250 kHz frequency range. The calculations were carried out in the range of the first radial resonance frequency of the sensor. At the resonance, the hyperelastic effect of the silicone rubber was modeled by a hyperelastic compensating function. The calculated response was matched to the measured response by using the transitional peaks in the impedance spectrum that originates from the switching of standing Lamb wave modes in the silicone rubber. To validate the results, the impedance responses of three 5-mm-thick silicone rubber disks, with different radial lengths, were measured. The calculated and measured transitional frequencies have been compared in detail. The comparison showed very good agreement, with average relative differences of 0.7%, 0.6%, and 0.7% for the silicone rubber samples with radial lengths of 38.0, 21.4, and 11.0 mm, respectively. The average complex elastic moduli of the samples were (0.97 + 0.009i) GPa at 100 kHz and (0.97 + 0.005i) GPa at 250 kHz.

  20. Prolonged exposure to acetaminophen reduces testosterone production by the human fetal testis in a xenograft model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Driesche, Sander; Macdonald, Joni; Anderson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Most common male reproductive disorders are linked to lower testosterone exposure in fetal life, although the factors responsible for suppressing fetal testosterone remain largely unknown. Protracted use of acetaminophen during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of cryptorchidism in sons......, but effects on fetal testosterone production have not been demonstrated. We used a validated xenograft model to expose human fetal testes to clinically relevant doses and regimens of acetaminophen. Exposure to a therapeutic dose of acetaminophen for 7 days significantly reduced plasma testosterone (45...... the final dose) in exposed host mice were substantially below those reported in humans after a therapeutic oral dose. Subsequent in utero exposure studies in rats indicated that the acetaminophen-induced reduction in testosterone likely results from reduced expression of key steroidogenic enzymes (Cyp11a1...

  1. Modelling lamb carcase pH and temperature decline parameters: relationship to shear force and abattoir variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, David L; Holman, Benjamin W B; van de Ven, Remy J

    2015-02-01

    Carcase pH and temperature decline rates influence lamb tenderness; therefore pH decline parameters are beneficial when modelling tenderness. These include pH at temperature 18 °C (pH@Temp18), temperature when pH is 6 (Temp@pH6), and pH at 24 h post-mortem (pH24). This study aimed to establish a relationship between shear force (SF) as a proxy for tenderness and carcase pH decline parameters estimated using both linear and spline estimation models for the m. longissimus lumborum (LL). The study also compared abattoirs regarding their achievement of ideal pH decline, indicative of optimal tenderness. Based on SF measurements of LL and m. semimembranosus collected as part of the Information Nucleus slaughter programme (CRC for Sheep Industry Innovation) this study found significant relationships between tenderness and pH24LL, consistent across the meat cuts and ageing periods examined. Achievement of ideal pH decline was shown not to have significantly differed across abattoirs, although rates of pH decline varied significantly across years within abattoirs.

  2. Modeling of phase velocity and frequency spectrum of guided Lamb waves in piezoelectric-semiconductor multilayered structures made of AlAs and GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmani, Cherif; Takali, Farid; Njeh, Anouar

    2017-11-01

    Modeling of guided Lamb waves propagation in piezoelectric-semiconductor multilayered structures made of AlAs and GaAs is evaluated in this paper. Here, the Legendre polynomial method is used to calculate dispersion curves, frequency spectrum and field distributions of guided Lamb waves propagation modes in AlAs, GaAs, AlAs/GaAs and AlAs/GaAs/AlAs-1/2/1 structures. In fact, formulations are given for open-circuit surface. Consequently, the polynomial method is numerically stable according to the total number of layers and the frequency range. This analysis is meaningful for the applications of the piezoelectric-semiconductor multilayered structures made of AlAs and GaAs such as in novel acoustic devices.

  3. Statistical shape (ASM) and appearance (AAM) models for the segmentation of the cerebellum in fetal ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes López, Misael; Arámbula Cosío, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    The cerebellum is an important structure to determine the gestational age of the fetus, moreover most of the abnormalities it presents are related to growth disorders. In this work, we present the results of the segmentation of the fetal cerebellum applying statistical shape and appearance models. Both models were tested on ultrasound images of the fetal brain taken from 23 pregnant women, between 18 and 24 gestational weeks. The accuracy results obtained on 11 ultrasound images show a mean Hausdorff distance of 6.08 mm between the manual segmentation and the segmentation using active shape model, and a mean Hausdorff distance of 7.54 mm between the manual segmentation and the segmentation using active appearance model. The reported results demonstrate that the active shape model is more robust in the segmentation of the fetal cerebellum in ultrasound images.

  4. Phospholipid profile of amniotic fluid in ovine model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH): the effect of fetal tracheal occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimmi, Maria Chiara; Ballico, Maurizio; Amoroso, Francesco; Calcaterra, Valeria; Marotta, Mario; Peiro, Jose Luis; Pelizzo, Gloria

    2015-03-06

    Fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion has been proposed as a prenatal intervention to ameliorate congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) prognosis. Tracheal occlusion (TO) prevents pulmonary fluid egress, leading to tissue expansion, reversal of lung hypoplasia, and potential maturation. Fetal lung maturity strongly correlates with amniotic fluid (AF) phospholipidic composition. In this preliminary study, we characterized the AF phospholipidic profile in CDH-induced, TO-treated, and healthy fetal lambs to define the prenatal treatment benefits of TO on lung maturity. CDH induction was performed at 70 days of gestation, TO was carried out at 102 days of gestation, and caesarean section was carried out at 136 days of gestation. AF samples, taken at 102-136 days of gestation, were evaluated using mass spectrometry. The analysis focused on phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and sphingomyelins (SMs). The most abundant phosphatidylcholine species retrieved in healthy AF was POPC [PC(18:1/16:0)], while the level of DPPC [PC(16:0/16:0)] was extremely low at both gestational ages. CDH induction caused a decrease in POPC and many other PCs. A substantial return of some PCs, in particular POPC, PC(34:2) and PC(18:0/16:0), to a more physiological level was prompted by TO. SMs were unaltered. The AF phospholipidic profile could provide prenatal prognostic markers of CDH and possible indices of lung maturation after fetal treatment.

  5. HoBi-like pestivirus experimental infection in pregnant ewes: Reproductive disorders and generation of persistently infected lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Losurdo, Michele; Larocca, Vittorio; Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Varello, Katia; Patruno, Giovanni; Camero, Michele; Sciarra, Marina; Occhiogrosso, Leonardo; Tempesta, Maria; Iulini, Barbara; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2015-08-05

    In order to evaluate sheep as experimental model to test the efficacy of HoBi-like pestivirus vaccines for cattle, 10 sheep at different stages of pregnancy (30 or 50 days) were experimentally infected with the Italian prototype isolate Italy-1/10-1. Irrespective of the stage of pregnancy, virus inoculation resulted in reproductive failures, consisting of abortion, stillbirths or birth of weak or persistently infected (PI) lambs. Aborted fetuses, stillborn and dead lambs displayed extensive histopathological changes, consisting of hemorrhages, congestion and mononuclear infiltration in major organs. Pestiviral antigens were detected by immunohistochemistry in most tissues with remarkable signals in lungs and kidneys. PI lambs were constantly viremic, shed the virus through the nasal secretions and feces and, in all cases but one, did not have detectable HoBi-like pestivirus antibodies before the assumption of colostrum. The single seropositive infected lamb showed low-titer viremia and viral shedding that ceased only several weeks after the 3-month observation period. The study proves that sheep are susceptible to the reproduction failures caused by HoBi-like pestivirus infection and can serve as a suitable model for the evaluation of the fetal protection induced by homologous experimental vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental influences on age at first lambing and lambing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different environmental factors on age at first lambing and lambing interval of Yankasa sheep kept at the National Animal Production Research Institute, Shika, were studied. Least-squares means ( ± SE) for age at first lambing and lambing interval were respectively, 597.2 ±12.6 days and 253.1± 2.9 days.

  7. In an in-vitro model using human fetal membranes, 17-α hydroxyprogesterone caproate is not an optimal progestogen for inhibition of fetal membrane weakening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Moore, Robert M; Mercer, Brian M; Mansour, Joseph M; Mesiano, Sam; Schatz, Frederick; Lockwood, Charles J; Moore, John J

    2017-12-01

    The progestogen 17-α hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC) is 1 of only 2 agents recommended for clinical use in the prevention of spontaneous preterm delivery, and studies of its efficacy have been conflicting. We have developed an in-vitro model to study the fetal membrane weakening process that leads to rupture in preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes (pPROM). Inflammation/infection associated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induction and decidual bleeding/abruption associated thrombin release are leading causes of preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes. Both agents (TNF-α and thrombin) cause fetal membrane weakening in the model system. Furthermore, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a critical intermediate for both TNF-α and thrombin-induced fetal membrane weakening. In a previous report, we demonstrated that 3 progestogens, progesterone, 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), each inhibit both TNF-α- and thrombin-induced fetal membrane weakening at 2 distinct points of the fetal membrane weakening pathway. Each block both the production of and the downstream action of the critical intermediate granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. The objective of the study was to characterize the inhibitory effects of 17-OHPC on TNF-α- and thrombin-induced fetal membrane weakening in vitro. Full-thickness human fetal membrane fragments from uncomplicated term repeat cesarean deliveries were mounted in 2.5 cm Transwell inserts and cultured with/without 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate (10 -9 to 10 -7 M). After 24 hours, medium (supernatant) was removed and replaced with/without the addition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (20 ng/mL) or thrombin (10 U/mL) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (200 ng/mL). After 48 hours of culture, medium from the maternal side compartment of the model was assayed for granulocyte-macrophage colony

  8. Normalisation of surfactant protein -A and -B expression in the lungs of low birth weight lambs by 21 days old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yin Soo

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR induced by placental restriction (PR in the sheep negatively impacts lung and pulmonary surfactant development during fetal life. Using a sheep model of low birth weight (LBW, we found that there was an increase in mRNA expression of surfactant protein (SP-A, -B and -C in the lung of LBW lambs but no difference in the protein expression of SP-A or -B. LBW also resulted in increased lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein (LAMP-3 mRNA expression, which may indicate an increase in either the density of type II Alveolar epithelial cells (AEC or maturity of type II AECs. Although there was an increase in glucocorticoid receptor (GR and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD-1 mRNA expression in the lung of LBW lambs, we found no change in the protein expression of these factors, suggesting that the increase in SP mRNA expression is not mediated by increased GC signalling in the lung. The increase in SP mRNA expression may, in part, be mediated by persistent alterations in hypoxia signalling as there was an increase in lung HIF-2α mRNA expression in the LBW lamb. The changes in the hypoxia signalling pathway that persist within the lung after birth may be involved in maintaining SP production in the LBW lamb.

  9. Lamb Wave Assessment of Fiber Volume Fraction in Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Michael D.; Smith, Barry T.; Prosser, W. H.; Zalameda, Joseph N.

    1998-01-01

    Among the various techniques available, ultrasonic Lamb waves offer a convenient method of examining composite materials. Since the Lamb wave velocity depends on the elastic properties of a material, an effective tool exists to evaluate composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. Lamb waves can propagate over long distances and are sensitive to the desired in-plane elastic properties of the material. This paper discusses a study in which Lamb waves were used to examine fiber volume fraction variations of approximately 0.40-0.70 in composites. The Lamb wave measurements were compared to fiber volume fractions obtained from acid digestion tests. Additionally, a model to predict the fiber volume fraction from Lamb wave velocity values was evaluated.

  10. Regulation of adpose tissue development ion the fetus: the fetal pig model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausman, G.J.; Campion, D.R.; Martin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    We have examined genetic, endocrine, nutritional and neural influences on metabolic and structural differentiation of the fetal pig subcutaneous depot. As in man, the subcutaneous depot in the pig is the largest depot of the body; it is similar anatomically in both species. Studies of fetuses from genetically lean and obese sows illustrate the full utility of the fetal pig model. The following measurements have been obtained from fetuses (110 days of gestation) from lean and obese sows: adipocyte size and number, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and other lipogenic enzyme activities, radiolabelled substrate flux studies of lipid metabolism, enzyme histochemistry of lipogenic enzymes, body composition, levels of plasma hormones and metabolites and lipid clearance values. Of these measurements, an elevated fat cell LPL activity and depressed plasma growth hormone level were the most important abnormalities in obese fetuses. Experimentally induced alterations in the fetal endocrine profile have shown that pituitary associated hormones may control fetal adipocyte replication; whereas, pancreatic hormones may control adipocyte hypertrophy and maturation. Studies of the fetal pig should lead to identification of specific factors responsible for adipocyte abnormalities of obesity

  11. Fetal-Maternal Interactions in the Synepitheliochorial Placenta Using the eGFP Cloned Cattle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mess, Andrea; Perecin, Felipe; Bressan, Fabiana Fernandes; Mesquita, Ligia Garcia; Miglino, Maria Angelica; Pimentel, José RodrigoValim; Neto, Paulo Fantinato; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate mechanisms of fetal-maternal cell interactions in the bovine placenta, we developed a model of transgenic enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (t-eGFP) expressing bovine embryos produced by nuclear transfer (NT) to assess the distribution of fetal-derived products in the bovine placenta. In addition, we searched for male specific DNA in the blood of females carrying in vitro produced male embryos. Our hypothesis is that the bovine placenta is more permeable to fetal-derived products than described elsewhere. Methodology/Principal Findings Samples of placentomes, chorion, endometrium, maternal peripheral blood leukocytes and blood plasma were collected during early gestation and processed for nested-PCR for eGFP and testis-specific Y-encoded protein (TSPY), western blotting and immunohistochemistry for eGFP detection, as well as transmission electron microscopy to verify the level of interaction between maternal and fetal cells. TSPY and eGFP DNA were present in the blood of cows carrying male pregnancies at day 60 of pregnancy. Protein and mRNA of eGFP were observed in the trophoblast and uterine tissues. In the placentomes, the protein expression was weak in the syncytial regions, but intense in neighboring cells on both sides of the fetal-maternal interface. Ultrastructurally, our samples from t-eGFP expressing NT pregnancies showed to be normal, such as the presence of interdigitating structures between fetal and maternal cells. In addition, channels-like structures were present in the trophoblast cells. Conclusions/Significance Data suggested that there is a delivery of fetal contents to the maternal system on both systemic and local levels that involved nuclear acids and proteins. It not clear the mechanisms involved in the transfer of fetal-derived molecules to the maternal system. This delivery may occur through nonclassical protein secretion; throughout transtrophoblastic-like channels and/or by apoptotic processes previously

  12. Function and failure of the fetal membrane: Modelling the mechanics of the chorion and amnion.

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    Stefaan W Verbruggen

    Full Text Available The fetal membrane surrounds the fetus during pregnancy and is a thin tissue composed of two layers, the chorion and the amnion. While rupture of this membrane normally occurs at term, preterm rupture can result in increased risk of fetal mortality and morbidity, as well as danger of infection in the mother. Although structural changes have been observed in the membrane in such cases, the mechanical behaviour of the human fetal membrane in vivo remains poorly understood and is challenging to investigate experimentally. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop simplified finite element models to investigate the mechanical behaviour and rupture of the fetal membrane, particularly its constituent layers, under various physiological conditions. It was found that modelling the chorion and amnion as a single layer predicts remarkably different behaviour compared with a more anatomically-accurate bilayer, significantly underestimating stress in the amnion and under-predicting the risk of membrane rupture. Additionally, reductions in chorion-amnion interface lubrication and chorion thickness (reported in cases of preterm rupture both resulted in increased membrane stress. Interestingly, the inclusion of a weak zone in the fetal membrane that has been observed to develop overlying the cervix would likely cause it to fail at term, during labour. Finally, these findings support the theory that the amnion is the dominant structural component of the fetal membrane and is required to maintain its integrity. The results provide a novel insight into the mechanical effect of structural changes in the chorion and amnion, in cases of both normal and preterm rupture.

  13. Prenatal centrifugation: A model for fetal programming of adult weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Rushing, Linda; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.

    2005-08-01

    'Fetal programming' is a newly emerging field that is revealing astounding insights into the prenatal origins of adult disease, including metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rat pups conceived, gestated and born at 2-g have significantly reduced birth weights and increased adult body weights as compared to 1-g controls. Offspring were produced by mating young adult male and female rats that were adapted to 2-g centrifugation. Female rats underwent conception, pregnancy and birth at 2-g. Newborn pups in the 2-g condition were removed from the centrifuge and fostered to non-manipulated, newly parturient dams maintained at 1-g. Comparisons were made with 1-g stationary controls, also cross- fostered at birth. As compared to 1-g controls, birth weights of pups gestated and born at 2-g were significantly reduced. Pup body weights were significantly reduced until Postnatal day (P)12. Beginning on P63, body weights of 2-g-gestated offspring exceeded those of 1-g controls by 7-10%. Thus, prenatal rearing at 2-g restricts neonatal growth and increases adult body weight. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 2-g centrifugation alters the intrauterine milieu, thereby inducing persistent changes in adult phenotype.

  14. Termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormalities: main arguments and a decision-tree model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Semir; Altunyurt, Sabahattin; Yıldırım, Nuri; Keskinoğlu, Pembe; Çankaya, Tufan; Bora, Elçin; Erçal, Derya; Özer, Erdener

    2015-11-01

    By looking through our ethical committee cases, we demonstrate the main arguments we use for making a judgment in face of fetal abnormalities. Our decision making model is a simplified algorithm of the arguments and concepts we use in scientific-ethic discussion. A retrospective analysis was conducted from single, tertiary referral center of patients evaluated for fetal abnormalities from 2004 to 2014. We hypothesized that all our judgments would fit into a decision-tree model. 553 fetal abnormality cases were discussed, 348 (63%) were given termination of pregnancy (TOP) proposal. When detected genetic disorders (n:100) and with mental retardation risk (n:93) ended up with TOP proposal. For incompatibility with life cases (n:111) and the multimorbidity cases (n:44) the committee suggest TOP, regardless of gestational age. The highest family approval ratios were in chromosomal abnormalities/genetic disorders group (93%), and the lowest figures were in mental retardation risk group (80%). Continuously changing literature on prenatal and postnatal therapy options and the long term outcome of various fetal abnormalities influence committee decisions. Theoretical high success rates and inconsistent data on long term prognosis of some anomaly groups resulted in heterogenous decisions and various approval ratios. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Prediction of Fetal Darunavir Exposure by Integrating Human Ex-Vivo Placental Transfer and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalkwijk, Stein; Buaben, Aaron O; Freriksen, Jolien J M; Colbers, Angela P; Burger, David M; Greupink, Rick; Russel, Frans G M

    2017-07-25

    Fetal antiretroviral exposure is usually derived from the cord-to-maternal concentration ratio. This static parameter does not provide information on the pharmacokinetics in utero, limiting the assessment of a fetal exposure-effect relationship. The aim of this study was to incorporate placental transfer into a pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to simulate and evaluate fetal darunavir exposure at term. An existing and validated pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of maternal darunavir/ritonavir exposure was extended with a feto-placental unit. To parameterize the model, we determined maternal-to-fetal and fetal-to-maternal darunavir/ritonavir placental clearance with an ex-vivo human cotyledon perfusion model. Simulated maternal and fetal pharmacokinetic profiles were compared with observed clinical data to qualify the model for simulation. Next, population fetal pharmacokinetic profiles were simulated for different maternal darunavir/ritonavir dosing regimens. An average (±standard deviation) maternal-to-fetal cotyledon clearance of 0.91 ± 0.11 mL/min and fetal-to-maternal clearance of 1.6 ± 0.3 mL/min was determined (n = 6 perfusions). Scaled placental transfer was integrated into the pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. For darunavir 600/100 mg twice a day, the predicted fetal maximum plasma concentration, trough concentration, time to maximum plasma concentration, and half-life were 1.1, 0.57 mg/L, 3, and 21 h, respectively. This indicates that the fetal population trough concentration is higher or around the half-maximal effective darunavir concentration for a resistant virus (0.55 mg/L). The results indicate that the population fetal exposure after oral maternal darunavir dosing is therapeutic and this may provide benefits to the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Moreover, this integrated approach provides a tool to prevent fetal toxicity or

  16. An extra-uterine system to physiologically support the extreme premature lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Emily A.; Davey, Marcus G.; Hornick, Matthew A.; McGovern, Patrick E.; Mejaddam, Ali Y.; Vrecenak, Jesse D.; Mesas-Burgos, Carmen; Olive, Aliza; Caskey, Robert C.; Weiland, Theodore R.; Han, Jiancheng; Schupper, Alexander J.; Connelly, James T.; Dysart, Kevin C.; Rychik, Jack; Hedrick, Holly L.; Peranteau, William H.; Flake, Alan W.

    2017-04-01

    In the developed world, extreme prematurity is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity due to a combination of organ immaturity and iatrogenic injury. Until now, efforts to extend gestation using extracorporeal systems have achieved limited success. Here we report the development of a system that incorporates a pumpless oxygenator circuit connected to the fetus of a lamb via an umbilical cord interface that is maintained within a closed `amniotic fluid' circuit that closely reproduces the environment of the womb. We show that fetal lambs that are developmentally equivalent to the extreme premature human infant can be physiologically supported in this extra-uterine device for up to 4 weeks. Lambs on support maintain stable haemodynamics, have normal blood gas and oxygenation parameters and maintain patency of the fetal circulation. With appropriate nutritional support, lambs on the system demonstrate normal somatic growth, lung maturation and brain growth and myelination.

  17. Paternal genetic contribution influences fetal vulnerability to maternal alcohol consumption in a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

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    Laura J Sittig

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol exposure causes in the offspring a collection of permanent physiological and neuropsychological deficits collectively termed Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD. The timing and amount of exposure cannot fully explain the substantial variability among affected individuals, pointing to genetic influences that mediate fetal vulnerability. However, the aspects of vulnerability that depend on the mother, the father, or both, are not known.Using the outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD and inbred Brown Norway (BN rat strains as well as their reciprocal crosses, we administered ethanol (E, pair-fed (PF, or control (C diets to the pregnant dams. The dams' plasma levels of free thyroxine (fT4, triiodothyronine (T3, free T3 (fT3, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were measured to elucidate potential differences in maternal thyroid hormonal environment, which affects specific aspects of FASD. We then compared alcohol-exposed, pair fed, and control offspring of each fetal strain on gestational day 21 (G21 to identify maternal and paternal genetic effects on bodyweight and placental weight of male and female fetuses.SD and BN dams exhibited different baseline hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid function. Moreover, the thyroid function of SD dams was more severely affected by alcohol consumption while that of BN dams was relatively resistant. This novel finding suggests that genetic differences in maternal thyroid function are one source of maternal genetic effects on fetal vulnerability to FASD. The fetal vulnerability to decreased bodyweight after alcohol exposure depended on the genetic contribution of both parents, not only maternal contribution as previously thought. In contrast, the effect of maternal alcohol consumption on placental weight was consistent and not strain-dependent. Interestingly, placental weight in fetuses with different paternal genetic contributions exhibited opposite responses to caloric restriction (pair feeding. In summary

  18. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

  19. Investigation of mechanisms involved in regulation of progesterone catabolism using an overfed versus underfed ewe-lamb model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, F C S Z; Canavessi, A M O; Wiltbank, M C; Bastos, M R; Lemes, A P; Mourão, G B; Susin, I; Coutinho, L L; Sartori, R

    2017-12-01

    Alterations in progesterone (P4) catabolism due to high feed intake underlie some effects of nutrition on reproduction. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that high feed intake could potentially increase P4 catabolism, likely due to increased liver blood flow. However, there could also be an opposing action due to increased circulating insulin, which has been shown to inhibit hepatic expression of key enzymes involved in P4 catabolism. To test which effect would have the greatest impact on circulating P4 during a 1- and 2 -mo time frame, we used a noncyclic ewe model. The plane of nutrition was controlled, and effects on circulating insulin, P4 catabolism in response to exogenous P4, and steady state mRNA for key hepatic enzymes were evaluated. Twenty-four F Dorper × Santa Inês ewe lambs (5 mo old and approximately 25 kg BW) were used. After 14 d of adaptation, ewes were randomized into 2 groups: ad libitum fed (Ad), with intake of 3.8% DM/kg BW, or restricted feed intake (R), with 2% DM/kg BW, for 8 wk. At wk 4 and 8, ewes received an intravaginal P4 implant to evaluate P4 catabolism. As designed, Ad ewes had greater daily feed intake than R ewes (means of 1.8 [SE 0.03] and 0.6 kg/ewe [SE 0.01]; ewe [SE 0.03]; ewes than in R ewes (least squares means of 8.2 [SE 0.93] vs. 1.5 μIU/mL [SE 0.16], respectively, at wk 4 and 12.0 [SE 1.02] vs. 2.2 μIU/mL [SE 0.18], respectively, at wk 8; ewes than in R ewes (least squares means of 3.2 [SE 0.32] vs. 5.5 ng/mL [SE 0.32], respectively, at wk 4 and 2.8 [SE 0.28] vs. 5.2 ng/mL [SE 0.28], respectively, at wk 8; ewes with high feed intake. Unexpectedly, there was no effect of diet on hepatic mRNA concentrations for , , , or at wk 4 or 8 in spite of dramatically elevated insulin. Therefore, high energy/feed intake primarily increased P4 catabolism with no evidence for offsetting effects due to insulin-induced changes in hepatic P4 metabolizing enzymes.

  20. Effect of drugs on chemoreceptor responsiveness in fetal sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekkooi, P. F.; Baan, J.; Teitel, D. F.; Rudolph, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of the drugs ketamine, morphine, pentobarbital, and propranolol on fetal chemoreceptor responsiveness. Eleven fetal lambs (gestational age 125-133 d) were chronically instrumented with a catheter in a hindlimb artery and vein and a forelimb artery; a

  1. Fetal myocardium in the kidney capsule: an in vivo model of repopulation of myocytes by bone marrow cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Y Zhang

    Full Text Available Debate surrounds the question of whether the heart is a post-mitotic organ in part due to the lack of an in vivo model in which myocytes are able to actively regenerate. The current study describes the first such mouse model--a fetal myocardial environment grafted into the adult kidney capsule. Here it is used to test whether cells descended from bone marrow can regenerate cardiac myocytes. One week after receiving the fetal heart grafts, recipients were lethally irradiated and transplanted with marrow from green fluorescent protein (GFP-expressing C57Bl/6J (B6 donors using normal B6 recipients and fetal donors. Levels of myocyte regeneration from GFP marrow within both fetal myocardium and adult hearts of recipients were evaluated histologically. Fetal myocardium transplants had rich neovascularization and beat regularly after 2 weeks, continuing at checkpoints of 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and12 months after transplantation. At each time point, GFP-expressing rod-shaped myocytes were found in the fetal myocardium, but only a few were found in the adult hearts. The average count of repopulated myocardium with green rod-shaped myocytes was 996.8 cells per gram of fetal myocardial tissue, and 28.7 cells per adult heart tissue, representing a thirty-five fold increase in fetal myocardium compared to the adult heart at 12 months (when numbers of green rod-shaped myocytes were normalized to per gram of myocardial tissue. Thus, bone marrow cells can differentiate to myocytes in the fetal myocardial environment. The novel in vivo model of fetal myocardium in the kidney capsule appears to be valuable for testing repopulating abilities of potential cardiac progenitors.

  2. Effects of nanotoxicity on female reproductivity and fetal development in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianling; Zhang, Qiu; Wang, Zhiping; Yan, Bing

    2013-04-29

    The extensive application of nanomaterials in industry, medicine and consumer products has raised concerns about their potential toxicity. The female population is particularly vulnerable and deserves special attention because toxicity in this group may impact both female reproductivity and fetal development. Mouse and zebrafish models each have their own unique features and studies using these models to examine the potential toxicity of various nanoparticles are compared and summarized in this review. Several nanoparticles exhibit detrimental effects on female reproductivity as well as fetal development, and these adverse effects are related to nanoparticle composition, surface modification, dose, exposure route and animal species. Limited studies on the mechanisms of nanotoxicity are also documented and reviewed herein.

  3. Effects of Nanotoxicity on Female Reproductivity and Fetal Development in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianling Sun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The extensive application of nanomaterials in industry, medicine and consumer products has raised concerns about their potential toxicity. The female population is particularly vulnerable and deserves special attention because toxicity in this group may impact both female reproductivity and fetal development. Mouse and zebrafish models each have their own unique features and studies using these models to examine the potential toxicity of various nanoparticles are compared and summarized in this review. Several nanoparticles exhibit detrimental effects on female reproductivity as well as fetal development, and these adverse effects are related to nanoparticle composition, surface modification, dose, exposure route and animal species. Limited studies on the mechanisms of nanotoxicity are also documented and reviewed herein.

  4. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergaz, Zivanit; Shoshani-Dror, Dana; Guillemin, Claire; Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza; Weksler-Zangen, Sarah; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K.; Ornoy, Asher

    2012-01-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  5. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergaz, Zivanit, E-mail: zivanit@hadassah.org.il [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Shoshani-Dror, Dana [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Guillemin, Claire [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Weksler-Zangen, Sarah [Diabetes Research Unit, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School and Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester, Rochester, MN (United States); Ornoy, Asher [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2012-12-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  6. Impact of alternative definitions of contemporary groups on genetic evaluations of traits recorded at lambing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, N; Pabiou, T; Wall, E; McDermott, K; Berry, D P

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of alternative contemporary group definitions for lambing traits on genetic evaluations in the Irish multibreed sheep population. Three lambing traits were considered for analysis: lambing difficulty, birth weight, and survival. Eight alternative contemporary group definitions were investigated for each lambing trait; all contemporary groups were formed within flock of lambing and included (flock by) week of lambing, week of lambing by litter size (i.e., singles vs. multiples), 2-wk interval (i.e., fortnight) of lambing, fortnight of lambing by litter size, month of lambing, and month of lambing by litter size or were based on an optimized algorithm that creates contemporary groups based on animals from the same flock that are born in close proximity of date. Three alternative scenarios were modeled for each of the lambing traits using the contemporary group definitions: the first scenario (termed Current Scenario) represented the editing criteria currently employed in the Irish national genetic evaluations; the second scenario (No Restriction Scenario) removed any restriction on number of records per contemporary group, and the final scenario (Variation Scenario) included only data from contemporary groups with some variability in the dependent variable. Variance components and EBV for each of the 3 lambing traits were estimated using linear mixed models. The direct heritability estimates ranged from 0.09 ± 0.02 to 0.29 ± 0.02 for lambing difficulty, 0.11 ± 0.01 to 0.24 ± 0.01 for birth weight, and 0.05 ± 0.02 to 0.10 ± 0.02 for lamb survival. Irrespective of lambing trait, greater estimated accuracy of the sire EBV was achieved with the No Restriction Scenario. Results for the ability to predict future lambing characteristics, based on only the direct and maternal EBV, revealed that the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for the dichotomized lambing assistance phenotype varied from 0

  7. Animal models for clinical and gestational diabetes: maternal and fetal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Ana CI

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes in pregnant women is associated with an increased risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity and remains a significant medical challenge. Diabetes during pregnancy may be divided into clinical diabetes and gestational diabetes. Experimental models are developed with the purpose of enhancing understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases that affect humans. With regard to diabetes in pregnancy, experimental findings from models will lead to the development of treatment strategies to maintain a normal metabolic intrauterine milieu, improving perinatal development by preventing fetal growth restriction or macrosomia. Based on animal models of diabetes during pregnancy previously reported in the medical literature, the present study aimed to compare the impact of streptozotocin-induced severe (glycemia >300 mg/dl and mild diabetes (glycemia between 120 and 300 mg/dl on glycemia and maternal reproductive and fetal outcomes of Wistar rats to evaluate whether the animal model reproduces the maternal and perinatal results of clinical and gestational diabetes in humans. Methods On day 5 of life, 96 female Wistar rats were assigned to three experimental groups: control (n = 16, severe (n = 50 and mild diabetes (n = 30. At day 90 of life, rats were mated. On day 21 of pregnancy, rats were killed and their uterine horns were exposed to count implantation and fetus numbers to determine pre- and post-implantation loss rates. The fetuses were classified according to their birth weight. Results Severe and mild diabetic dams showed different glycemic responses during pregnancy, impairing fetal glycemia and weight, confirming that maternal glycemia is directly associated with fetal development. Newborns from severe diabetic mothers presented growth restriction, but mild diabetic mothers were not associated with an increased rate of macrosomic fetuses. Conclusion Experimental models of severe diabetes during pregnancy

  8. Left-right difference in fetal liver oxygenation during hypoxia estimated by BOLD MRI in a fetal sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, A; Holm, D; Pedersen, M; Tietze, A; Stausbøl-Grøn, B; Duus, L; Uldbjerg, N

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure differences in oxygenation between the left and right sides of the fetal liver during varying oxygenation levels. Eight ewes carrying singleton fetuses at gestational age 125 days (term, 145 days) were included in the study. Under anesthesia the ewes were ventilated with gas containing different levels of oxygen, thereby subjecting the fetuses to hyperoxia (mean ± SD maternal arterial partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), 23.2 ± 8.2 kPa) and hypoxia (mean maternal arterial pO2, 7.1 ± 0.5 kPa). Changes in oxygenation within the fetal liver were assessed by blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). During hyperoxia there was no difference between the BOLD signal in the left and right sides of the fetal liver; mean change in BOLD (ΔBOLD)(hyperox), -0.9 ± 3.7%. During hypoxia, however, the decrease in the BOLD signal was more pronounced in the right side as compared with the left side, thereby creating a significant increase in the left-right difference in the BOLD signal; mean ΔBOLD(hypox), 5.2 ± 2.2% (P = 0.002, paired t-test). The left-right difference was directly proportional to the degree of hypoxia (R2 = 0.86, P = 0.007). To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating differences in oxygenation between the left and right sides of the fetal liver during hypoxia, a difference that can be explained by increased ductus venosus shunting. Thus, the BOLD MRI technique is a promising non-invasive tool that might be useful for the future monitoring of the human fetus. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Joint modelling of repeated measurements and event time: Application to performance traits and survival of lambs bred in sub-humid tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renard Didier

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We considered the analysis of a study for Dorper, Red Maasai and crossbred lambs born over a period of 6 years at the Diani Estate, Kenya. The study was designed to compare survival and performance traits of genotypes with differing susceptibilities to helminthiasis. The available data include information on time to death and repeated measurements of body weight, packed cell volume (PCV and faecal egg count (FEC of the animals. In the paper, we consider joint modelling of the survival time and the repeated measurements. Such an approach allows to account for the possible association between the survival and repeated measurement processes. The advantages and limitations of the joint modelling are discussed and illustrated using the Diani Estate study data.

  10. Neuroprotective effects of propofol, thiopental, etomidate, and midazolam in fetal rat brain in ischemia-reperfusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Ferhat; Hasturk, Askin Esen; Yaman, Mehmet; Arca, Turkan; Kilinc, Kamer; Sargon, Mustafa Fevzi; Kaptanoglu, Erkan

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of propofol, thiopental, etomidate, and midazolam as anesthetic drugs in fetal rat brain in the ischemia-reperfusion (IR) model. Pregnant rats of day 19 were randomly allocated into eight groups. Fetal brain ischemia was induced by clamping the utero-ovarian artery bilaterally for 30 min and reperfusion was achieved by removing the clamps for 60 min. In the control group, fetal rat brains were obtained immediately after laparotomy. In the sham group, fetal rat brains were obtained 90 min after laparotomy. In the IR group, IR procedure was performed. No treatment was given in the IR group. One milliliter intralipid solution, 40 mg/kg propofol, 3 mg/kg thiopental, 0.1 mg/kg etomidate, and 3 mg/kg midazolam was administered intraperitoneally in the vehicle group, propofol group, thiopental group, etomidate group, and midazolam group, respectively, 20 min before IR procedure. At the end of the reperfusion period, the whole brains of the fetal rats were removed for evaluation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and for examination by electron microscopy. According to lipid peroxidation data, all the anesthetic drugs provide neuroprotection; however, ultrastructural findings and mitochondrial scoring confirms that only propofol and midazolam provides a strong neuroprotective effect. Propofol and midazolam may be used to protect fetal brain in case of acute fetal distress and hypoxic injury as a first choice anesthetic drug in cesarean delivery.

  11. Fetal Tachyarrhythmia - Part II: Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn A. Oudijk

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The decision to initiate pharmacological intervention in case of fetal tachycardia depends on several factors and must be weighed against possible maternal and/or fetal adverse effects inherent to the use of antiarrhythmics. First, the seriousness of the fetal condition must be recognized. Many studies have shown that in case of fetal tachycardia, there is a significant predisposition to congestive heart failure and subsequent development of fetal hydrops and even sudden cardiac death1,2,3 Secondly, predictors of congestive heart failure have been suggested in several studies, such as the percentage of time that the tachycardia is present, the gestational age at which the tachycardia occurs4, the ventricular rate5 and the site of origin of the tachycardia6. However, the sensitivity of these predictors is low and they are therefore clinically not very useful. In addition, hemodynamic compromise may occur in less than 24 - 48 hours as has been shown in the fetal lamb7 and in tachycardic fetuses8,9. On the other hand, spontaneous resolution of the tachycardia has also been described10. Thirdly, transplacental management of fetuses with tricuspid regurgitation11, congestive heart failure or fetal hydrops is difficult12,13, probably as a result of limited transplacental transfer of the antiarrhythmic drug14,15. In case of fetal hydrops, conversion rates are decreased and time to conversion is increased13. Treatment of sustained fetal tachycardia is therefore to be preferred above expectant management, although some centers oppose this regimen and suggest that in cases with (intermittent fetal SVT not complicated by congestive heart failure or fetal hydrops, conservative management and close surveillance might be a reasonable alternative16,17,18.

  12. A computational model of the fetal circulation to quantify blood redistribution in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Garcia-Canadilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding of its determinant factors and its quantitative relation with other aspects of haemodynamic remodeling has been limited. Computational models of the cardiovascular circulation have been proposed for exactly this purpose since they allow both for studying the contributions from isolated parameters as well as estimating properties that cannot be directly assessed from clinical measurements. Therefore, a computational model of the fetal circulation was developed, including the key elements related to fetal blood redistribution and using measured cardiac outflow profiles to allow personalization. The model was first calibrated using patient-specific Doppler data from a healthy fetus. Next, in order to understand the contributions of the main parameters determining blood redistribution, AoI and middle cerebral artery (MCA flow changes were studied by variation of cerebral and peripheral-placental resistances. Finally, to study how this affects an individual fetus, the model was fitted to three IUGR cases with different degrees of severity. In conclusion, the proposed computational model provides a good approximation to assess blood flow changes in the fetal circulation. The results support that while MCA flow is mainly determined by a fall in brain resistance, the AoI is influenced by a balance between increased peripheral-placental and decreased cerebral resistances. Personalizing the model allows for quantifying the balance between cerebral and peripheral

  13. Stoichiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB, an outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Gehring, K; Cheng, C H; Nikaido, H; Jap, B K

    1991-01-01

    We have directly measured the stoichiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB. Scatchard plots and computer fitting of flow dialysis (rate-of-dialysis) experiments clearly establish three independent binding sites per LamB trimer, with a dissociation constant of approximately 60 microM for maltoheptaose. The current model for LamB's function as a specific pore is discussed with respect to the symmetry in LamB's kinetic properties and the implications of our results.

  14. Irradiation of chilled lamb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1985-04-01

    Chilled, vacuum-packed New Zealand lamb loins have been irradiated at doses between 1-8 kGy. The report outlines the methods used and provides dosimetry details. An appendix summarises the results of a taste trial conducted on the irradiated meat by the Meat Industry Research Institute of New Zealand. This showed that, even at 1 kGy, detectable flavours were induced by the radiation treatment

  15. Fetal programming of CVD and renal disease: animal models and mechanistic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley-Evans, Simon C

    2013-08-01

    The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis postulates that exposure to a less than optimal maternal environment during fetal development programmes physiological function, and determines risk of disease in adult life. Much evidence of such programming comes from retrospective epidemiological cohorts, which demonstrate associations between birth anthropometry and non-communicable diseases of adulthood. The assertion that variation in maternal nutrition drives these associations is supported by studies using animal models, which demonstrate that maternal under- or over-nutrition during pregnancy can programme offspring development. Typically, the offspring of animals that are undernourished in pregnancy exhibit a relatively narrow range of physiological phenotypes that includes higher blood pressure, glucose intolerance, renal insufficiency and increased adiposity. The observation that common phenotypes arise from very diverse maternal nutritional insults has led to the proposal that programming is driven by a small number of mechanistic processes. The remodelling of tissues during development as a consequence of maternal nutritional status being signalled by endocrine imbalance or key nutrients limiting processes in the fetus may lead to organs having irreversibly altered structures that may limit their function with ageing. It has been proposed that the maternal diet may impact upon epigenetic marks that determine gene expression in fetal tissues, and this may be an important mechanism connecting maternal nutrient intakes to long-term programming of offspring phenotype. The objective for this review is to provide an overview of the mechanistic basis of fetal programming, demonstrating the critical role of animal models as tools for the investigation of programming phenomena.

  16. Fetal progenitor cell transplantation treats methylmalonic aciduria in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, Nicole E.; Pennell, Samuel D.; Wood, Leonie R.; Pitt, James J.; Allen, Katrina J.; Peters, Heidi L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fetal cells were transplanted into a methylmalonic acid mouse model. ► Cell engraftment was detected in liver, spleen and bone marrow. ► Biochemical disease correction was measured in blood samples. ► A double dose of 5 million cells (1 week apart) proved more effective. ► Higher levels of engraftment may be required for greater disease correction. -- Abstract: Methylmalonic aciduria is a rare disorder caused by an inborn error of organic acid metabolism. Current treatment options are limited and generally focus on disease management. We aimed to investigate the use of fetal progenitor cells to treat this disorder using a mouse model with an intermediate form of methylmalonic aciduria. Fetal liver cells were isolated from healthy fetuses at embryonic day 15–17 and intravenously transplanted into sub-lethally irradiated mice. Liver donor cell engraftment was determined by PCR. Disease correction was monitored by urine and blood methylmalonic acid concentration and weight change. Initial studies indicated that pre-transplantation sub-lethal irradiation followed by transplantation with 5 million cells were suitable. We found that a double dose of 5 million cells (1 week apart) provided a more effective treatment. Donor cell liver engraftment of up to 5% was measured. Disease correction, as defined by a decrease in blood methylmalonic acid concentration, was effected in methylmalonic acid mice transplanted with a double dose of cells and who showed donor cell liver engraftment. Mean plasma methylmalonic acid concentration decreased from 810 ± 156 (sham transplanted) to 338 ± 157 μmol/L (double dose of 5 million cells) while mean blood C3 carnitine concentration decreased from 20.5 ± 4 (sham transplanted) to 5.3 ± 1.9 μmol/L (double dose of 5 million cells). In conclusion, higher levels of engraftment may be required for greater disease correction; however these studies show promising results for cell transplantation biochemical

  17. Utero-fetal unit and pregnant woman modeling using a computer graphics approach for dosimetry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anquez, Jérémie; Boubekeur, Tamy; Bibin, Lazar; Angelini, Elsa; Bloch, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Potential sanitary effects related to electromagnetic fields exposure raise public concerns, especially for fetuses during pregnancy. Human fetus exposure can only be assessed through simulated dosimetry studies, performed on anthropomorphic models of pregnant women. In this paper, we propose a new methodology to generate a set of detailed utero-fetal unit (UFU) 3D models during the first and third trimesters of pregnancy, based on segmented 3D ultrasound and MRI data. UFU models are built using recent geometry processing methods derived from mesh-based computer graphics techniques and embedded in a synthetic woman body. Nine pregnant woman models have been generated using this approach and validated by obstetricians, for anatomical accuracy and representativeness.

  18. Performance of autumn lambing ewes and lambs on irrigated and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Performance of autumn lambing ewes and lambs on irrigated and dryland winter pastures. A. D. Lyle1, J. F. de Villiers2 and T. J. Dugmore2. 1Kokstad Research Station, Private Bag X501, Kokstad 4700. 2KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs. P Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg, 3200. Introduction.

  19. Fetal MRI; Fetales MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondin, D. [Inst. fuer Diagn. Radiologie, Uniklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany); Turowski, B. [Inst. fuer Diagn. Radiologie, Neuroradiologie, Uniklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany); Schaper, J. [Inst. fuer Diagn. Radiologie, Kinderradiologie, Uniklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    Ultrasonography is the method of choice for prenatal malformation screening, but it does not always provide sufficient information for correct diagnosis or adequate abnormality evaluation. Fetal MRI is increasingly being used to complete sonographic findings. It was initially used for evaluation of cerebral abnormalities but is increasingly being applied to other fetal areas. In vivo investigation of fetal brain maturation has been enhanced by MRI. An adequate analysis of fetal chest and abdomen can be achieved with fast T2-, T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The advantages include the great field of view and the excellent soft tissue contrast. This allows correct diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia and evaluation of the consequences on pulmonary growth. Other pulmonary malformations, such as cystic adenomatoid malformation, sequestration and brochogenic cysts, can also be easily identified. Renal position can be quickly determined using DWI sequences and renal agenesia can be easily diagnosed with only one sequence. Prenatal MRI is virtually as effective as postnatal examination, dispenses with transport of a potentially very ill newborn, and provides logistic advantages. Therefore, prenatal MRI is useful for adequate postnatal treatment of newborns with malformations. (orig.)

  20. A Drosophila model for fetal alcohol syndrome disorders: role for the insulin pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly D. McClure

    2011-05-01

    Prenatal exposure to ethanol in humans results in a wide range of developmental abnormalities, including growth deficiency, developmental delay, reduced brain size, permanent neurobehavioral abnormalities and fetal death. Here we describe the use of Drosophila melanogaster as a model for exploring the effects of ethanol exposure on development and behavior. We show that developmental ethanol exposure causes reduced viability, developmental delay and reduced adult body size. We find that flies reared on ethanol-containing food have smaller brains and imaginal discs, which is due to reduced cell division rather than increased apoptosis. Additionally, we show that, as in mammals, flies reared on ethanol have altered responses to ethanol vapor exposure as adults, including increased locomotor activation, resistance to the sedating effects of the drug and reduced tolerance development upon repeated ethanol exposure. We have found that the developmental and behavioral defects are largely due to the effects of ethanol on insulin signaling; specifically, a reduction in Drosophila insulin-like peptide (Dilp and insulin receptor expression. Transgenic expression of Dilp proteins in the larval brain suppressed both the developmental and behavioral abnormalities displayed by ethanol-reared adult flies. Our results thus establish Drosophila as a useful model system to uncover the complex etiology of fetal alcohol syndrome.

  1. Perinatal changes in myocardial supply and flux of fatty acids, carbohydrates, and ketone bodies in lambs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelds, B; Gratama, JWC; Knoester, H; Takens, J; Smid, GB; Aarnoudse, JG; Heymans, HSA; Kuipers, JRG

    No information is available on perinatal changes in myocardial metabolism in vivo. We measured myocardial supply and flux of fatty acids, carbohydrates, and ketone bodies in chronically instrumented fetal, newborn (1-4 days), and juvenile (7 wk) lambs, by measuring aorta-coronary sinus concentration

  2. Fetal echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaubal, Nitin G.; Chaubal, Jyoti

    2009-01-01

    USG performed with a high-end machine, using a good cine-loop facility is extremely helpful in the diagnosis of fetal cardiac anomalies. In fetal echocardiography, the four-chamber view and the outflow-tract view are used to diagnose cardiac anomalies. The most important objective during a targeted anomaly scan is to identify those cases that need a dedicated fetal echocardiogram. Associated truncal and chromosomal anomalies need to be identified. This review shows how fetal echocardiography, apart from identifying structural defects in the fetal heart, can be used to look at rhythm abnormalities and other functional aspects of the fetal heart

  3. A protective antiarrhythmic role of ursodeoxycholic acid in an in vitro rat model of the cholestatic fetal heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragoli, Michele; Kadir, Siti H Sheikh Abdul; Sheppard, Mary N; Salvarani, Nicoló; Virta, Matilda; Wells, Sarah; Lab, Max J; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; Moshkov, Alexey; Hague, William M; Rohr, Stephan; Williamson, Catherine; Gorelik, Julia

    2011-10-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy may be complicated by fetal arrhythmia, fetal hypoxia, preterm labor, and, in severe cases, intrauterine death. The precise etiology of fetal death is not known. However, taurocholate has been demonstrated to cause arrhythmia and abnormal calcium dynamics in cardiomyocytes. To identify the underlying reason for increased susceptibility of fetal cardiomyocytes to arrhythmia, we studied myofibroblasts (MFBs), which appear during structural remodeling of the adult diseased heart. In vitro, they depolarize rat cardiomyocytes via heterocellular gap junctional coupling. Recently, it has been hypothesized that ventricular MFBs might appear in the developing human heart, triggered by physiological fetal hypoxia. However, their presence in the fetal heart (FH) and their proarrhythmogenic effects have not been systematically characterized. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that ventricular MFBs transiently appear in the human FH during gestation. We established two in vitro models of the maternal heart (MH) and FH, both exposed to increasing doses of taurocholate. The MH model consisted of confluent strands of rat cardiomyocytes, whereas for the FH model, we added cardiac MFBs on top of cardiomyocytes. Taurocholate in the FH model, but not in the MH model, slowed conduction velocity from 19 to 9 cm/s, induced early after depolarizations, and resulted in sustained re-entrant arrhythmias. These arrhythmic events were prevented by ursodeoxycholic acid, which hyperpolarized MFB membrane potential by modulating potassium conductance. These results illustrate that the appearance of MFBs in the FH may contribute to arrhythmias. The above-described mechanism represents a new therapeutic approach for cardiac arrhythmias at the level of MFB. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  4. Recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor 121 injection for the prevention of fetal growth restriction in a preeclampsia mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyowati, Sri; Bachnas, Muhammad Adrianes; Anggraini, Nuri Dyah; Yuliantara, Eric Edwin; Prabowo, Wisnu; Anggraini, Nutria Widya Purna; Pramono, Mochammad Besari Adi; Adityawarman; Dachlan, Erry Gumilar; Andonotopo, Wiku

    2017-02-01

    To discover the potential role of recombinant VEGF121 (rVEGF121) injection for the prevention of fetal growth restriction in a preeclampsia (PE) mouse model (Mus musculus). This is an experimental study of 30 pregnant mice that were randomly divided into three groups: normal, PE, and PE with rVEGF121 injection. The PE mouse model was created by injecting anti Qa-2 10 ng iv, which is deleterious to Qa-2 expression (homologous to HLA-G), from the first to the fourth day of gestation. PE was validated by measuring serum levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and placental growth factor(PIGF) and also by kidney histopathology. Recombinant VEGF121 was given on the ninth day until the 11th day of pregnancy; mice were terminated on the 16th day. Fetal weights were acquired with a Denver analytical balance. Serum levels of sFlt-1 and PlGF were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The data were statistically analyzed via analysis of variance (ANOVA). On average, fetal birth weight was 0.7150 g in the normal group, 0.4936 g in the PE group, and 0.6768 g in the PE with rVEGF121 injection group. ANOVA showed significant growth restriction in the PE group (P=0.006), confirming the use of anti Qa-2 as a suitable PE model. Kidney histopathology results, sFlt-1 levels, and PlGF levels also demonstrated that anti Qa-2 consistently conferred hallmarks of PE in mice. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injection prevented fetal growth restriction; comparable fetal weights were observed between the PE model with VEGF treatment and the normal group (P=0.610) but differed from the untreated PE group (P=0.021). Injection of rVEGF121 has the potential to prevent fetal growth restriction in a newly proposed PE mouse model.

  5. Lambing Ease is Heritable but not Correlated to Litter Size in Danish Meat Sheep Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Christian; Valasek, P; Pedersen, Jørn

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of lambing ease (LE) and litter size (LS) in four common Danish meat sheep breeds. Data from 1990 to 2006 were analysed. A bivariate animal model was used for estimation of genetic parameters. Lambing ease showed a low heritability, both...... the LE and LS was found, which means that selection to improve one trait should not affect the other trait. Lambing ease should therefore be included in the selection criterion....

  6. Choline prevents fetal overgrowth and normalizes placental fatty acid and glucose metabolism in a mouse model of maternal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Juha; Greenwald, Esther; Jack-Roberts, Chauntelle; Ajeeb, Tamara T; Malysheva, Olga V; Caudill, Marie A; Axen, Kathleen; Saxena, Anjana; Semernina, Ekaterina; Nanobashvili, Khatia; Jiang, Xinyin

    2017-11-01

    Maternal obesity increases placental transport of macronutrients, resulting in fetal overgrowth and obesity later in life. Choline participates in fatty acid metabolism, serves as a methyl donor and influences growth signaling, which may modify placental macronutrient homeostasis and affect fetal growth. Using a mouse model of maternal obesity, we assessed the effect of maternal choline supplementation on preventing fetal overgrowth and restoring placental macronutrient homeostasis. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat (HF, 60% kcal from fat) diet or a normal (NF, 10% kcal from fat) diet with a drinking supply of either 25 mM choline chloride or control purified water, respectively, beginning 4 weeks prior to mating until gestational day 12.5. Fetal and placental weight, metabolites and gene expression were measured. HF feeding significantly (P<.05) increased placental and fetal weight in the HF-control (HFCO) versus NF-control (NFCO) animals, whereas the HF choline-supplemented (HFCS) group effectively normalized placental and fetal weight to the levels of the NFCO group. Compared to HFCO, the HFCS group had lower (P<.05) glucose transporter 1 and fatty acid transport protein 1 expression as well as lower accumulation of glycogen in the placenta. The HFCS group also had lower (P<.05) placental 4E-binding protein 1 and ribosomal protein s6 phosphorylation, which are indicators of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 activation favoring macronutrient anabolism. In summary, our results suggest that maternal choline supplementation prevented fetal overgrowth in obese mice at midgestation and improved biomarkers of placental macronutrient homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Thinking outside the curve, part II: modeling fetal-infant mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charnigo Richard

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Greater epidemiologic understanding of the relationships among fetal-infant mortality and its prognostic factors, including birthweight, could have vast public health implications. A key step toward that understanding is a realistic and tractable framework for analyzing birthweight distributions and fetal-infant mortality. The present paper is the second of a two-part series that introduces such a framework. Methods We propose estimating birthweight-specific mortality within each component of a normal mixture model representing a birthweight distribution, the number of components having been determined from the data rather than fixed a priori. Results We address a number of methodological issues related to our proposal, including the construction of confidence intervals for mortality risk at any given birthweight within a component, for odds ratios comparing mortality within two different components from the same population, and for odds ratios comparing mortality within analogous components from two different populations. As an illustration we find that, for a population of white singleton infants, the odds of mortality at 3000 g are an estimated 4.15 times as large in component 2 of a 4-component normal mixture model as in component 4 (95% confidence interval, 2.04 to 8.43. We also outline an extension of our framework through which covariates could be probabilistically related to mixture components. This extension might allow the assertion of approximate correspondences between mixture components and identifiable subpopulations. Conclusions The framework developed in this paper does not require infants from compromised pregnancies to share a common birthweight-specific mortality curve, much less assume the existence of an interval of birthweights over which all infants have the same curve. Hence, the present framework can reveal heterogeneity in mortality that is undetectable via a contaminated normal model or a 2

  8. Fetal echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007340.htm Fetal echocardiography To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fetal echocardiography is a test that uses sound waves ( ultrasound ) ...

  9. Gene expression profiling in a mouse model identifies fetal liver- and placenta-derived potential biomarkers for Down Syndrome screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen L A Pennings

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a first step to identify novel potential biomarkers for prenatal Down Syndrome screening, we analyzed gene expression in embryos of wild type mice and the Down Syndrome model Ts1Cje. Since current Down Syndrome screening markers are derived from placenta and fetal liver, these tissues were chosen as target. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Placenta and fetal liver at 15.5 days gestation were analyzed by microarray profiling. We confirmed increased expression of genes located at the trisomic chromosomal region. Overall, between the two genotypes more differentially expressed genes were found in fetal liver than in placenta. Furthermore, the fetal liver data are in line with the hematological aberrations found in humans with Down Syndrome as well as Ts1Cje mice. Together, we found 25 targets that are predicted (by Gene Ontology, UniProt, or the Human Plasma Proteome project to be detectable in human serum. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Fetal liver might harbor more promising targets for Down Syndrome screening studies. We expect these new targets will help focus further experimental studies on identifying and validating human maternal serum biomarkers for Down Syndrome screening.

  10. The health effects of fetal microchimerism can be modeled in companion dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil R; Hansen, Sarah A; Axiak-Bechtel, Sandra M; Bryan, Jeffrey N

    2013-01-01

    Fetal microchimerism (FMC) has been described to have a range of effects on health and disease. Y-chromosomal DNA has been detected in Golden Retrievers suggesting persistent FMC. In that report, nine dogs had evidence of microchimerism without prior pregnancy. To further understand this finding, a dam with prior male live births giving birth to her fourth litter of puppies, all females, was evaluated for FMC along with two of her daughters. All three female dogs had evidence of Y-chromosomal DNA in their blood. This suggests that male cells carried by the dam from previous pregnancy trafficked to her daughters to establish microchimerism in younger siblings. Companion dogs share many of the same cancers as humans, have out-bred genetics, and share the human environment, making them optimal models of human disease. Understanding the impact of FMC on health and disease of dogs could elucidate mechanisms useful for clinical interventions in humans.

  11. Gene expression profiling in a mouse model identifies fetal liver- and placenta-derived potential biomarkers for Down syndrome screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.L.A.; Rodenburg, W.; Imholz, S.; Koster, M.P.H.; van Oostrom, C.T.M.; Breit, T.M.; Schielen, P.C.J.I.; de Vries, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: As a first step to identify novel potential biomarkers for prenatal Down Syndrome screening, we analyzed gene expression in embryos of wild type mice and the Down Syndrome model Ts1Cje. Since current Down Syndrome screening markers are derived from placenta and fetal liver, these tissues

  12. Transabdominal and transcervical chorionic villus sampling models to teach maternal-fetal medicine fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWeeney, Dennis T; Schwendemann, Wade D; Nitsche, Joshua F; Rose, Carl H; Davies, Norman P; Watson, William J; Brost, Brian C

    2012-08-01

    Many fellowship programs in maternal-fetal medicine (MFM) lack sufficient exposure and training in chorionic villus sampling (CVS). We describe a novel training model of transabdominal and transcervical CVS. A porcine heart simulated a 12-week human uterus with a cervical canal created at the apex of the heart. A piglet was placed within a water-filled condom, which was placed inside the "uterus." A second water-filled condom simulated a maternal bladder. Fresh human placenta was placed between the condom and uterine wall. A zipper-sealed freezer bag with ultrasonic gel simulated an abdominal wall. Transabdominal ultrasound was utilized with this model to perform CVS. The design involved four MFM specialists and three fellows. Twenty-three faculty MFM specialists and eight MFM fellows endorsed the fidelity of both models. One hundred percent of attendees of a procedural workshop agreed that these models could be used to teach proper technique to fellows and faculty. We report a novel training model for transabdominal and transcervical CVS to teach proper technique in a nonclinical setting. Copyright © 2012 by Thieme Medical Publishers

  13. Maternal smoking as a model for environmental epigenetic changes affecting birthweight and fetal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Melissa A; Anders, Amber M; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2013-01-01

    Although the association between maternal smoking and low birthweight infants has been well established, the mechanisms behind reduced fetal growth are still being elucidated. While many infants are exposed to tobacco smoke in utero, not all are born growth restricted or small for gestational age. Many hypotheses have emerged to explain the differential response to in utero maternal tobacco smoke exposure (MTSE). Studies have shown that both maternal and fetal genotypes may contribute to the discrepant outcomes. However, the contribution of epigenetic changes cannot be ignored. In this review we address two important questions regarding the effect of MTSE on the fetal epigenome. First, does exposure to maternal tobacco smoke in utero alter the fetal epigenome? Secondly, could these alterations be associated with the reduced fetal growth observed with MTSE?

  14. Nutritional intra-amniotic therapy increases survival in a rabbit model of fetal growth restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illa, Miriam; Pla, Laura; Zamora, Monica; Crispi, Fatima; Gratacos, Eduard

    2018-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the perinatal effects of a prenatal therapy based on intra-amniotic nutritional supplementation in a rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Methods IUGR was surgically induced in pregnant rabbits at gestational day 25 by ligating 40–50% of uteroplacental vessels of each gestational sac. At the same time, modified-parenteral nutrition solution (containing glucose, amino acids and electrolytes) was injected into the amniotic sac of nearly half of the IUGR fetuses (IUGR-T group n = 106), whereas sham injections were performed in the rest of fetuses (IUGR group n = 118). A control group without IUGR induction but sham injection was also included (n = 115). Five days after the ligation procedure, a cesarean section was performed to evaluate fetal cardiac function, survival and birth weight. Results Survival was significantly improved in the IUGR fetuses that were treated with intra-amniotic nutritional supplementation as compared to non-treated IUGR animals (survival rate: controls 71% vs. IUGR 44% p = 0.003 and IUGR-T 63% vs. IUGR 44% p = 0.02), whereas, birth weight (controls mean 43g ± SD 9 vs. IUGR 36g ± SD 9 vs. IUGR-T 35g ± SD 8, p = 0.001) and fetal cardiac function were similar among the IUGR groups. Conclusion Intra-amniotic injection of a modified-parenteral nutrient solution appears to be a promising therapy for reducing mortality among IUGR. These results provide an opportunity to develop new intra-amniotic nutritional strategies to reach the fetus by bypassing the placental insufficiency. PMID:29466434

  15. Etiopathology of Arnold-Chiari malformation: a fetal rat model of dysraphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, G; Manzur, T; Nagle, C; Martinez-Ferro, M

    2010-01-01

    We report an experimental fetal rat model with the aim of comparing two surgical methods used to check Arnold-Chiari Malformation (ACM) by dysraphism. We also wanted to (1) determine which type(s) of ACM akin to human anatomical findings were generated with the model and (2) study whether a cerebrospinal fluid pressure gradient could be responsible for ACM's etiopathology. At E20, a mean of two fetuses per pregnant rat underwent an incision at the 2-3 lumbar level, deep into the medulla oblongata central canal, by two different surgical methods. Cesarian section was performed at E22. Dysraphic fetuses were examined clinically. Those born alive and controls without lesions were anatomically and histologically studied. Method 2 was better than method 1 at reproducing the model. 100% of operated fetuses showed no spontaneous motility or sensibility to pressure on the posterior limbs in addition to anatomopathological evidence of type II ACM. A high rate of ACM could be checked by dysraphism with both methods. The opening of the central canal was demonstrated to generate a cerebrospinal fluid pressure gradient responsible for the herniation of encephalic structures comparable with human ACM. We believe this model may be useful for evaluating further strategies for prenatal treatment. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Crack Detection with Lamb Wave Wavenumber Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara; Rogge, Matt; Yu, Lingyu

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present our study of Lamb wave crack detection using wavenumber analysis. The aim is to demonstrate the application of wavenumber analysis to 3D Lamb wave data to enable damage detection. The 3D wavefields (including vx, vy and vz components) in time-space domain contain a wealth of information regarding the propagating waves in a damaged plate. For crack detection, three wavenumber analysis techniques are used: (i) two dimensional Fourier transform (2D-FT) which can transform the time-space wavefield into frequency-wavenumber representation while losing the spatial information; (ii) short space 2D-FT which can obtain the frequency-wavenumber spectra at various spatial locations, resulting in a space-frequency-wavenumber representation; (iii) local wavenumber analysis which can provide the distribution of the effective wavenumbers at different locations. All of these concepts are demonstrated through a numerical simulation example of an aluminum plate with a crack. The 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) was used to obtain the 3D wavefields, of which the vz (out-of-plane) wave component is compared with the experimental measurement obtained from a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) for verification purposes. The experimental and simulated results are found to be in close agreement. The application of wavenumber analysis on 3D EFIT simulation data shows the effectiveness of the analysis for crack detection. Keywords: : Lamb wave, crack detection, wavenumber analysis, EFIT modeling

  17. Effect of dexamethasone on fetal hepatic glutamine-glutamate exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Timmerman (Michelle); C. Teng; R.B. Wilkening; P.V. Fennessey (Paul); F.C. Battaglia (Frederick); G. Meschia

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIntravenous infusion of dexamethasone (Dex) in the fetal lamb causes a two- to threefold increase in plasma glutamine and other glucogenic amino acids and a decrease of plasma glutamate to approximately one-third of normal. To explore the underlying

  18. Intake, evaluation of small ruminant nutrition system model and prediction of body composition of Santa Ines lambs fed diets with different levels of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana Sérvulo Gomes Maia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrient intake and suitability test of the SRNS nutritional model for dry matter intake (DMI and average daily gain (ADG, and Hankins and Howe equations to estimate the carcass and empty body chemical composition of 35 Santa Ines lambs, non-castrated, with initial body weight of 14.77 ± 1.26 kg and two months old. After 10 days of adaptation, five animals were slaughtered serving as reference group for estimates of empty body weight (EBW and initial body composition. The remaining animals were distributed in randomized block design with five treatments with different levels of metabolizable energy (1.13, 1.40, 1.73, 2.22 and 2.60 Mcal/kg DM. Quadratic effect was observed for DMI, expressed in g/d, % BW and g/BW0.75, with maximum DM intake of 867.25 g/d. Non fiber carbohydrates (NFC and total digestible nutrients (TDN intakes, expressed in g/d, increased with increases in ME levels and the intakes of neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and fibrous carbohydrates (FC, expressed in g/d, presented decreasing linear effect. The DMI and ADG observed and predicted by SRNS model showed a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.68 and 0.98, respectively. Comparing the chemical composition of the carcass and HH section, observed that HH section estimated satisfactorily the protein and ether extract of carcass of animals, with Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.77 and 0.92, respectively, while the water content was underestimated with Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.42. The rib section also satisfactorily estimated to ether extract and protein in the empty body (r = 0.96 and 0.86, respectively.

  19. Circulatory responses to asphyxia differ if the asphyxia occurs in utero or ex utero in near-term lambs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina S Sobotka

    Full Text Available A cornerstone of neonatal resuscitation teaching suggests that a rapid vagal-mediated bradycardia is one of the first signs of perinatal compromise. As this understanding is based primarily on fetal studies, we investigated whether the heart rate and blood pressure response to total asphyxia is influenced by whether the animal is in utero or ex utero.Fetal sheep were instrumented at ∼ 139 days of gestation and then asphyxiated by umbilical cord occlusion until mean arterial blood pressure decreased to ∼ 20 mmHg. Lambs were either completely submerged in amniotic fluid (in utero; n = 8 throughout the asphyxia or were delivered and then remained ex utero (ex utero; n = 8 throughout the asphyxia. Heart rate and arterial blood pressure were continuously recorded.Heart rate was higher in ex utero lambs than in utero lambs. Heart rates in in utero lambs rapidly decreased, while heart rates in ex utero lambs initially increased following cord occlusion (for ∼ 1.5 min before they started to decrease. Mean arterial pressure initially increased then decreased in both groups.Heart rate response to asphyxia was markedly different depending upon whether the lamb was in utero or ex utero. This indicates that the cardiovascular responses to perinatal asphyxia are significantly influenced by the newborn's local environment. As such, based solely on heart rate, the stage and severity of a perinatal asphyxic event may not be as accurate as previously assumed.

  20. Circulatory responses to asphyxia differ if the asphyxia occurs in utero or ex utero in near-term lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, Kristina S; Morley, Colin; Ong, Tracey; Polglase, Graeme R; Aridas, James D S; Miller, Suzanne L; Schmölzer, Georg M; Klingenberg, Claus; Moss, Timothy J M; Jenkin, Graham; Hooper, Stuart B

    2014-01-01

    A cornerstone of neonatal resuscitation teaching suggests that a rapid vagal-mediated bradycardia is one of the first signs of perinatal compromise. As this understanding is based primarily on fetal studies, we investigated whether the heart rate and blood pressure response to total asphyxia is influenced by whether the animal is in utero or ex utero. Fetal sheep were instrumented at ∼ 139 days of gestation and then asphyxiated by umbilical cord occlusion until mean arterial blood pressure decreased to ∼ 20 mmHg. Lambs were either completely submerged in amniotic fluid (in utero; n = 8) throughout the asphyxia or were delivered and then remained ex utero (ex utero; n = 8) throughout the asphyxia. Heart rate and arterial blood pressure were continuously recorded. Heart rate was higher in ex utero lambs than in utero lambs. Heart rates in in utero lambs rapidly decreased, while heart rates in ex utero lambs initially increased following cord occlusion (for ∼ 1.5 min) before they started to decrease. Mean arterial pressure initially increased then decreased in both groups. Heart rate response to asphyxia was markedly different depending upon whether the lamb was in utero or ex utero. This indicates that the cardiovascular responses to perinatal asphyxia are significantly influenced by the newborn's local environment. As such, based solely on heart rate, the stage and severity of a perinatal asphyxic event may not be as accurate as previously assumed.

  1. Circulatory Responses to Asphyxia Differ if the Asphyxia Occurs In Utero or Ex Utero in Near-Term Lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, Kristina S.; Morley, Colin; Ong, Tracey; Polglase, Graeme R.; Aridas, James D. S.; Miller, Suzanne L.; Schmölzer, Georg M.; Klingenberg, Claus; Moss, Timothy J. M.; Jenkin, Graham; Hooper, Stuart B.

    2014-01-01

    Background A cornerstone of neonatal resuscitation teaching suggests that a rapid vagal-mediated bradycardia is one of the first signs of perinatal compromise. As this understanding is based primarily on fetal studies, we investigated whether the heart rate and blood pressure response to total asphyxia is influenced by whether the animal is in utero or ex utero. Methods Fetal sheep were instrumented at ∼139 days of gestation and then asphyxiated by umbilical cord occlusion until mean arterial blood pressure decreased to ∼20 mmHg. Lambs were either completely submerged in amniotic fluid (in utero; n = 8) throughout the asphyxia or were delivered and then remained ex utero (ex utero; n = 8) throughout the asphyxia. Heart rate and arterial blood pressure were continuously recorded. Results Heart rate was higher in ex utero lambs than in utero lambs. Heart rates in in utero lambs rapidly decreased, while heart rates in ex utero lambs initially increased following cord occlusion (for ∼1.5 min) before they started to decrease. Mean arterial pressure initially increased then decreased in both groups. Conclusions Heart rate response to asphyxia was markedly different depending upon whether the lamb was in utero or ex utero. This indicates that the cardiovascular responses to perinatal asphyxia are significantly influenced by the newborn's local environment. As such, based solely on heart rate, the stage and severity of a perinatal asphyxic event may not be as accurate as previously assumed. PMID:25393411

  2. Choline Supplementation Normalizes Fetal Adiposity and Reduces Lipogenic Gene Expression in a Mouse Model of Maternal Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack-Roberts, Chauntelle; Joselit, Yaelle; Nanobashvili, Khatia; Bretter, Rachel; Malysheva, Olga V; Caudill, Marie A; Saxena, Anjana; Axen, Kathleen; Gomaa, Ahmed; Jiang, Xinyin

    2017-08-18

    Maternal obesity increases fetal adiposity which may adversely affect metabolic health of the offspring. Choline regulates lipid metabolism and thus may influence adiposity. This study investigates the effect of maternal choline supplementation on fetal adiposity in a mouse model of maternal obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat (HF) diet or a control (NF) diet and received either 25 mM choline supplemented (CS) or control untreated (CO) drinking water for 6 weeks before timed-mating and throughout gestation. At embryonic day 17.5, HF feeding led to higher ( p < 0.05) percent total body fat in fetuses from the HFCO group, while the choline supplemented HFCS group did not show significant difference versus the NFCO group. Similarly, HF feeding led to higher ( p < 0.05) hepatic triglyceride accumulation in the HFCO but not the HFCS fetuses. mRNA levels of lipogenic genes such as Acc1 , Fads1 , and Elovl5 , as well as the transcription factor Srebp1c that favors lipogenesis were downregulated ( p < 0.05) by maternal choline supplementation in the HFCS group, which may serve as a mechanism to reduce fat accumulation in the fetal liver during maternal HF feeding. In summary, maternal choline supplementation improves indices of fetal adiposity in obese dams at late gestation.

  3. In an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Prenatal Androgens Suppress Female Fetal Renal Gluconeogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T.; Späth, Katharina; Boswell, Lyndsey; McNeilly, Alan S.; Duncan, W. Colin

    2015-01-01

    Increased maternal androgen exposure during pregnancy programmes a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like condition, with metabolic dysfunction, in adult female offspring. Other in utero exposures associated with the development of insulin resistance, such as intrauterine growth restriction and exposure to prenatal glucocorticoids, are associated with altered fetal gluconeogenesis. We therefore aimed to assess the effect of maternal androgenisation on the expression of PEPCK and G6PC in the ovine fetus. Pregnant Scottish Greyface sheep were treated with twice weekly testosterone propionate (TP; 100mg) or vehicle control from day 62 to day102 of gestation. At day 90 and day 112 fetal plasma and liver and kidney tissue was collected for analysis. PEPCK and G6PC expression were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. PEPCK and G6PC were localised to fetal hepatocytes but maternal androgens had no effect on female or male fetuses. PEPCK and G6PC were also localised to the renal tubules and renal PEPCK (P<0.01) and G6PC (P = 0.057) were lower in females after prenatal androgenisation with no change in male fetuses. These tissue and sex specific observations could not be explained by alterations in fetal insulin or cortisol. The sexual dimorphism may be related to the increase in circulating estrogen (P<0.01) and testosterone (P<0.001) in females but not males. The tissue specific effects may be related to the increased expression of ESR1 (P<0.01) and AR (P<0.05) in the kidney when compared to the fetal liver. After discontinuation of maternal androgenisation female fetal kidney PEPCK expression normalised. These data further highlight the fetal and sexual dimorphic effects of maternal androgenisation, an antecedent to adult disease and the plasticity of fetal development. PMID:26148093

  4. Fetal Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  5. Fetal MSCs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Derived from extra embryonic tissues (amniotic fluid, placenta, cord blood, Wharton's Jelly) and fetal tissues (aborted fetuses). Derived from extra embryonic tissues (amniotic fluid, placenta, cord blood, Wharton's Jelly) and fetal tissues (aborted fetuses). In comparison ...

  6. Supplementary feeding of lambs grazing Italian ryegrass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DeVilliersJ

    Villiers et al., 1993). Table 1 Number of ewes and lambs used, supplement consumed by lambs, average daily gain (ADG), weaning weight of lambs and pasture height of Italian ryegrass during two seasons. Treatments. Control (no creep feed) Forward creep. Amount supplemented (g/day). 100. 250. Ad lib. Season 1:.

  7. Fetal nutrition in lecithotrophic squamate reptiles: toward a comprehensive model for evolution of viviparity and placentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James R

    2013-07-01

    The primary pattern of embryonic nutrition for squamate reptiles is lecithotrophy; with few exceptions, all squamate embryos mobilize nutrients from yolk. The evolution of viviparity presents an opportunity for an additional source of embryonic nutrition through delivery of uterine secretions, or placentotrophy. This pattern of embryonic nutrition is thought to evolve through placental supplementation of lecithotrophy, followed by increasing dependence on placentotrophy. This review analyzes the relationship between reproductive mode and pattern of embryonic nutrition in three lecithotrophic viviparous species, and oviparous counterparts, for concordance with a current model for the evolution of viviparity and placentation. The assumptions of the model, that nutrients for oviparous embryos are mobilized from yolk, and that this source is not disrupted in the transition to viviparity, are supported for most nutrients. In contrast, calcium, an essential nutrient for embryonic development, is mobilized from both yolk and eggshell by oviparous embryos and reduction of eggshell calcium is correlated with viviparity. If embryonic fitness is compromised by disruption of a primary source of calcium, selection may not favor evolution of viviparity, yet viviparity has arisen independently in numerous squamate lineages. Studies of fetal nutrition in reproductively bimodal species suggest a resolution to this paradox. If uterine calcium secretion occurs during prolonged intrauterine egg retention, calcium placentotrophy evolves prior to viviparity as a replacement for eggshell calcium and embryonic nutrition will not be compromised. This hypothesis is integrated into the current model for evolution of viviparity and placentation to address the unique attributes of calcium nutrition. The sequence of events requires a shift in timing of uterine calcium secretion and the embryonic mechanism of calcium retrieval to be responsive to calcium availability. Regulation of uterine

  8. Numerical modeling of the fetal blood flow in the placental circulatory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Alexander; Gallucci, Sergio; Mirbod, Parisa

    2015-11-01

    The placenta is a unique organ of exchange between the growing fetus and the mother. It incorporates almost all functions of the adult body, acting as the fetal lung, digestive and immune systems, to mention a few. The exchange of oxygen and nutrients takes place at the surface of the villous tree. Using an idealized geometry of the fetal villous trees in the mouse placenta, in this study we performed 3D computational analysis of the unsteady fetal blood flow, gas, and nutrient transport over the chorionic plate. The fetal blood was treated as an incompressible Newtonian fluid, and the oxygen and nutrient were treated as a passive scalar dissolved in blood plasma. The flow was laminar, and a commercial CFD code (COMSOL Multiphysics) has been used for the simulation. COMSOL has been selected because it is multi-physics FEM software that allows for the seamless coupling of different physics represented by partial differential equations. The results clearly illustrate that the specific branching pattern and the in-plane curvature of the fetal villous trees affect the delivery of blood, gas and nutrient transport to the whole placenta.

  9. Lung regeneration by fetal lung tissue implantation in a mouse pulmonary emphysema model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyama, Koh; Sakiyama, Shoji; Yoshida, Mitsuteru; Kenzaki, Koichiro; Toba, Hiroaki; Kawakami, Yukikiyo; Okumura, Kazumasa; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Kondo, Kazuya; Tangoku, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The mortality and morbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are high. However, no radical therapy has been developed to date. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether fetal mouse lung tissue can grow and differentiate in the emphysematous lung. Fetal lung tissue from green fluorescent protein C57BL/6 mice at 16 days' gestation was used as donor material. Twelve-month-old pallid mice were used as recipients. Donor lungs were cut into small pieces and implanted into the recipient left lung by performing thoracotomy under anesthesia. The recipient mice were sacrificed at day 7, 14, and 28 after implantation and used for histological examination. Well-developed spontaneous pulmonary emphysema was seen in 12-month-old pallid mice. Smooth and continuous connection between implanted fetal lung tissue and recipient lung was recognized. Air space expansion and donor tissue differentiation were observed over time. We could clearly distinguish the border zones between injected tissue and native tissue by the green fluorescence of grafts. Fetal mouse lung fragments survived and differentiated in the emphysematous lung of pallid mice. Implantation of fetal lung tissue in pallid mice might lead to further lung regeneration research from the perspective of respiratory and exercise function. J. Med. Invest. 63: 182-186, August, 2016.

  10. Fingolimod against endotoxin-induced fetal brain injury in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, And; Sezik, Mekin; Ozmen, Ozlem; Asci, Halil

    2017-11-01

    Fingolimod is a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator used for multiple sclerosis treatment and acts on cellular processes such as apoptosis, endothelial permeability, and inflammation. We hypothesized that fingolimod has a positive effect on alleviating preterm fetal brain injury. Sixteen pregnant rats were divided into four groups of four rats each. On gestational day 17, i.p. endotoxin was injected to induce fetal brain injury, followed by i.p. fingolimod (4 mg/kg maternal weight). Hysterotomy for preterm delivery was performed 6 h after fingolimod. The study groups included (i) vehicle controls (i.p. normal saline only); (ii) positive controls (endotoxin plus saline); (iii) saline plus fingolimod; and (iv) endotoxin plus fingolimod treatment. Brain tissues of the pups were dissected for evaluation of interleukin (IL)-6, caspase-3, and S100β on immunohistochemistry. Maternal fingolimod treatment attenuated endotoxin-related fetal brain injury and led to lower immunoreactions for IL-6, caspase-3, and S100β compared with endotoxin controls (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Antenatal maternal fingolimod therapy had fetal neuroprotective effects by alleviating preterm birth-related fetal brain injury with inhibitory effects on inflammation and apoptosis. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Early neonatal lamb mortality: postmortem findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmøy, I H; Waage, S; Granquist, E G; L'Abée-Lund, T M; Ersdal, C; Hektoen, L; Sørby, R

    2017-02-01

    An investigation of stillbirth and early neonatal lamb mortality was conducted in sheep flocks in Norway. Knowledge of actual causes of death are important to aid the interpretation of results obtained during studies assessing the risk factors for lamb mortality, and when tailoring preventive measures at the flock, ewe and individual lamb level. This paper reports on the postmortem findings in 270 liveborn lambs that died during the first 5 days after birth. The lambs were from 17 flocks in six counties. A total of 27% died within 3 h after birth, 41% within 24 h and 80% within 2 days. Most lambs (62%) were from triplet or higher order litters. In 81% of twin and larger litters, only one lamb died. The most frequently identified cause of neonatal death was infectious disease (n=97, 36%); 48% (n=47) of these died from septicaemia, 25% (n=24) from pneumonia, 22% (n=21) from gastrointestinal infections and 5% (n=5) from other infections. Escherichia coli accounted for 65% of the septicaemic cases, and were the most common causal agent obtained from all cases of infection (41%). In total, 14% of neonatal deaths resulted from infection by this bacterium. Traumatic lesions were the primary cause of death in 20% (n=53) of the lambs. A total of 46% of these died within 3 h after birth and 66% within 24 h. Severe congenital malformations were found in 10% (n=27) of the lambs, whereas starvation with no concurrent lesions was the cause of death in 6% (n=17). In 16% (n=43) of the lambs, no specific cause of death was identified, lambs from triplet and higher order litters being overrepresented among these cases. In this study, the main causes of neonatal lamb mortality were infection and traumatic lesions. Most neonatal deaths occurred shortly after birth, suggesting that events related to lambing and the immediate post-lambing period are critical for lamb survival.

  12. Using structural equation modelling to jointly estimate maternal and fetal effects on birthweight in the UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, Nicole M; Freathy, Rachel M; Neale, Michael C; Evans, David M

    2018-02-13

    To date, 60 genetic variants have been robustly associated with birthweight. It is unclear whether these associations represent the effect of an individual's own genotype on their birthweight, their mother's genotype, or both. We demonstrate how structural equation modelling (SEM) can be used to estimate both maternal and fetal effects when phenotype information is present for individuals in two generations and genotype information is available on the older individual. We conduct an extensive simulation study to assess the bias, power and type 1 error rates of the SEM and also apply the SEM to birthweight data in the UK Biobank study. Unlike simple regression models, our approach is unbiased when there is both a maternal and a fetal effect. The method can be used when either the individual's own phenotype or the phenotype of their offspring is not available, and allows the inclusion of summary statistics from additional cohorts where raw data cannot be shared. We show that the type 1 error rate of the method is appropriate, and that there is substantial statistical power to detect a genetic variant that has a moderate effect on the phenotype and reasonable power to detect whether it is a fetal and/or a maternal effect. We also identify a subset of birthweight-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have opposing maternal and fetal effects in the UK Biobank. Our results show that SEM can be used to estimate parameters that would be difficult to quantify using simple statistical methods alone. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  13. Noise exposure during pregnancy, birth outcomes and fetal development: meta-analyses using quality effects model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D; Dimitrakova, Elena D

    2014-01-01

    Many women are exposed daily to high levels of occupational and residential noise, so the effect of noise exposure on pregnancy should be considered because noise affects both the fetus and the mother herself. However, there is a controversy in the literature regarding the adverse effects of occupational and residential noise on pregnant women and their fetuses. The aim of this study was to conduct systematic review of previously analyzed studies, to add additional information omitted in previous reviews and to perform meta-analyses on the effects of noise exposure on pregnancy, birth outcomes and fetal development. Previous reviews and meta-analyses on the topic were consulted. Additionally, a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Internet was carried out. Twenty nine studies were included in the meta-analyses. Quality effects meta-analytical model was applied. Women exposed to high noise levels (in most of the studies ≥ 80 dB) during pregnancy are at a significantly higher risk for having small-for-gestational-age newborn (RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.38), gestational hypertension (RR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.58) and infant with congenital malformations (RR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.79). The effect was not significant for preeclampsia, perinatal death, spontaneous abortion and preterm birth. The results are consistent with previous findings regarding a higher risk for small-for-gestational-age. They also highlight the significance of residential and occupational noise exposure for developing gestational hypertension and especially congenital malformations.

  14. Fetal programming of blood pressure in a transgenic mouse model of altered intrauterine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiossi, Giuseppe; Costantine, Maged M; Tamayo, Esther; Hankins, Gary D V; Saade, George R; Longo, Monica

    2016-12-01

    Nitric oxide is essential in the vascular adaptation to pregnancy, as knockout mice lacking nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) have abnormal utero-placental perfusion, hypertension and growth restriction. We previously showed with ex vivo studies on transgenic animals lacking NOS3 that adverse intrauterine environment alters fetal programming of vascular reactivity in adult offspring. The current research shows that altered vascular reactivity correlates with higher blood pressure in vivo. Our data suggest that higher blood pressure depends on both genetic background (NOS3 deficiency) and uterine environment, becomes more evident with age (> 7 postnatal weeks), activity and stress, is gender specific (preponderant among males), and can be affected by the sleep-awake cycle. In utero or early postnatal life (programming is associated with abnormal blood pressure (BP) profiles in vivo. Mice lacking a functional endothelial nitric oxide synthase (KO, NOS3 -/- ) and wild-type mice (WT, NOS3 +/+ ) were crossbred to generate homozygous NOS3 -/- (KO), maternally derived heterozygous NOS3 +/- (KOM: mother with adverse intrauterine environment from NOS3 deficiency), paternally derived heterozygous NOS3 +/- (KOP: mother with normal in utero milieu) and NOS3 +/+ (WT) litters. BP was measured in vivo at 7, 14 and 21 weeks of age. After univariate analysis, multivariate population-averaged linear regression models were used to identify factors affecting BP. When compared to WT offspring, systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean (MAP) BP progressively increased from KOP, to KOM, and peaked among KO (P 7 postnatal weeks), higher locomotor activity, daytime recordings, and recent blood pressure transducer insertion (P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed that KOM had higher SBP than KOP (P < 0.05). Our study indicates that adverse intrauterine environment contributes, along with multiple other factors, to account for hypertension; moreover, in utero or early postnatal life may represent

  15. Fetal Macrosomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lifestyle counts Fetal macrosomia Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  16. Fetal Macrosomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... identification of fetal macrosomia useful? European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2012;161:170. Negrato CA, et al. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with diabetes. 2012;4:41. Frequently ...

  17. Increased fetal abortion rate in autoimmune thyroid disease is related to circulating TPO autoantibodies in an autoimmune thyroiditis animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yin Lau; Ng, Hang Pong; Lau, Kam Shing; Liu, Wei Min; O, Wai Sum; Yeung, William S B; Kung, Annie W C

    2009-05-01

    To determine the fertility and abortion rates in a mouse model of autoimmune thyroiditis and its relationship with circulating anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody. Experimental animal study. University research laboratory. C57bl/6 mice. Female C57bl/6 mice immunized with recombinant mouse TPO (rmTPO) in complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) or glutathione-S-transferase (GST-CFA) were allowed to mate. The pregnant mice were killed on day 14 of pregnancy for assessment of fetal development. The effects of TPO antibody on preimplantation embryo development and implantation rate were also studied. Litter size, resorption rate, preimplantation embryo development, and implantation rate. All of the mice immunized with rmTPO-CFA possessed anti-TPO antibody. They had reduced litter size and increased incidence of resorbed fetus compared with the control. Higher serum TSH levels, but not T(4) levels, were demonstrated after rmTPO-CFA immunization. Anti-TPO antibody bound to preimplantation embryos. Treatment of the embryos with the antibody marginally decreased the formation of 3/4-cell embryos but had no effect on the subsequent development and implantation compared with the nonimmune control sera. Autoimmune thyroiditis is associated with reduced fertility and higher incidence of fetal loss. The anti-TPO antibody may affect post-implantation embryo development, leading to fetal loss.

  18. Coding and quantification of a facial expression for pain in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesgen, M J; Beausoleil, N J; Leach, M; Minot, E O; Stewart, M; Stafford, K J

    2016-11-01

    human observers scored the images from Experiment II. Changes in facial action units were also quantified objectively by a researcher using image measurement software. In both experiments LGS scores were analyzed using a linear MIXED model to evaluate the effects of tail docking on observers' perception of facial expression changes. Kendall's Index of Concordance was used to measure reliability among observers. In Experiment I, human observers were able to use the LGS to differentiate docked lambs from control lambs. LGS scores significantly increased from before to after treatment in docked lambs but not control lambs. In Experiment II there was a significant increase in LGS scores after docking. This was coupled with changes in other validated indicators of pain after docking in the form of pain-related behaviour. Only two components, Mouth Features and Orbital Tightening, showed significant quantitative changes after docking. The direction of these changes agree with the description of these facial action units in the LGS. Restraint affected people's perceptions of pain as well as quantitative measures of LGS components. Freely moving lambs were scored lower using the LGS over both periods and had a significantly smaller eye aperture and smaller nose and ear angles than when they were held. Agreement among observers for LGS scores were fair overall (Experiment I: W=0.60; Experiment II: W=0.66). This preliminary study demonstrates changes in lamb facial expression associated with pain. The results of these experiments should be interpreted with caution due to low lamb numbers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An Advanced Model to Precisely Estimate the Cell-Free Fetal DNA Concentration in Maternal Plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongbin Kang

    Full Text Available With the speedy development of sequencing technologies, noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT has been widely applied in clinical practice for testing for fetal aneuploidy. The cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA concentration in maternal plasma is the most critical parameter for this technology because it affects the accuracy of NIPT-based sequencing for fetal trisomies 21, 18 and 13. Several approaches have been developed to calculate the cffDNA fraction of the total cell-free DNA in the maternal plasma. However, most approaches depend on specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP allele information or are restricted to male fetuses.In this study, we present an innovative method to accurately deduce the concentration of the cffDNA fraction using only maternal plasma DNA. SNPs were classified into four maternal-fetal genotype combinations and three boundaries were added to capture effective SNP loci in which the mother was homozygous and the fetus was heterozygous. The median value of the concentration of the fetal DNA fraction was estimated using the effective SNPs. A depth-bias correction was performed using simulated data and corresponding regression equations for adjustments when the depth of the sequencing data was below 100-fold or the cffDNA fraction is less than 10%.Using our approach, the median of the relative bias was 0.4% in 18 maternal plasma samples with a median sequencing depth of 125-fold. There was a significant association (r = 0.935 between our estimations and the estimations inferred from the Y chromosome. Furthermore, this approach could precisely estimate a cffDNA fraction as low as 3%, using only maternal plasma DNA at the targeted region with a sequencing depth of 65-fold. We also used PCR instead of parallel sequencing to calculate the cffDNA fraction. There was a significant association (r = 98.2% between our estimations and those inferred from the Y chromosome.

  20. Fetal origins of hematopoietic failure in a murine model of Fanconi anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimae-Lanning, Ashley N; Goloviznina, Natalya A; Kurre, Peter

    2013-03-14

    Hematopoietic failure is the predominant clinical manifestation of Fanconi anemia (FA), a rare, recessively inherited disorder. Mutations in 1 of 15 genes that coordinately function in a complex pathway to maintain DNA integrity also predispose patients to constitutional defects in growth and development. The hematologic manifestations have been considered to reflect the progressive loss of stem cells from the postnatal bone marrow microenvironment. Ethical concerns preclude the study of human hematopoiesis in utero. We report significant late gestational lethality and profound quantitative and qualitative deficiencies in the murine Fancc(-/-) fetal liver hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell pool. Fancc(-/-) fetal liver hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells revealed a significant loss of quiescence and decline in serial repopulating capacity, but no substantial difference in apoptosis or levels of reactive oxygen species. Our studies suggest that compromised hematopoiesis in Fancc(-/-) animals is developmentally programmed and does not arise de novo in bone marrow.

  1. Phenotypic Changes of Maximum Daily Growth Trait in Baluchi Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Saraee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A total number of 116,984 weight records belonging to 12,397 Baluchi lambs reared in Abbas Abad breeding station during years 1978-2008 were used for phenotypic evaluation of maximum daily growth (MDG and analysis of environmental factors affecting this trait. The initial data were performed by FOXPRO program and then Gompertz non-linear model was fitted on the weight records of individual lambs using non-linear procedure of SAS software. MDG was estimated for each lamb. The analysis of environmental factors on the trait was carried out by a linear mixed model consisting of effects of year and month of birth, lamb sex, birth type, covariates of dam age and birth weight, interaction between year and sex, year-birth type, birth type-sex, and random effect of lamb’s sire. All factors had significant effect on MDG. A non significant phenotypic trend (0.092±0.043 g/y was revealed for MDG.

  2. A rapid, fully non-contact, hybrid system for generating Lamb wave dispersion curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, M S; Yuan, F G

    2015-08-01

    A rapid, fully non-contact, hybrid system which encompasses an air-coupled transducer (ACT) and a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) is presented for profiling A0 Lamb wave dispersion of an isotropic aluminum plate. The ACT generates ultrasonic pressure incident upon the surface of the plate. The pressure waves are partially refracted into the plate. The LDV is employed to measure the out-of-plane velocity of the excited Lamb wave mode at some distances where the Lamb waves are formed in the plate. The influence of the ACT angle of incidence on Lamb wave excitation is investigated and Snell's law is used to directly compute Lamb wave dispersion curves including phase and group velocity dispersion curves in aluminum plates from incident angles found to generate optimal A0 Lamb wave mode. The measured curves are compared to results obtained from a two-dimensional (2-D) Fast Fourier transform (FFT), Morlet wavelet transform (MWT) and theoretical predictions. It was concluded that the experimental results obtained using Snell's law concept are well in accordance with the theoretical solutions. The high degree of accuracy in the measured data with the theoretical results proved a high sensitivity of the air-coupled and laser ultrasound in characterizing Lamb wave dispersion in plate-like structures. The proposed non-contact hybrid system can effectively characterize the dispersive relation without knowledge of neither the materials characteristics nor the mathematical model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. How old are Germanic lambs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrieland, Seán D.

    2017-01-01

    Gothic and Gutnish lamb with the meaning ‘sheep’ sets these two languages apart from the rest of Germanic, and is the most common piece of evidence used to claim they share a close connection. Yet the same meaning is found in the descendants of Proto-Fennic *lambaz, a loan from Proto-Germanic, an......Gothic and Gutnish lamb with the meaning ‘sheep’ sets these two languages apart from the rest of Germanic, and is the most common piece of evidence used to claim they share a close connection. Yet the same meaning is found in the descendants of Proto-Fennic *lambaz, a loan from Proto......-Germanic, and speaks for Gothic and Gutnish preserving the original Proto-Germanic meaning of the etymon. These semantics provide a missing link for connecting Pro-to-Germanic *lambiz- with PIE *h₁él-n-/*h₁l-ón- ‘red deer’....

  4. fteated bagacillo diets for lambs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hemicellulose digest., 070. 35,2b. 14,1c. 66,8d. 50,8c. 65,7d. 55,Oc. aMeans based on three animals/treatment. b.c.dMeansin the same line bearing different superscript letters differ significantly (P < 0,05). Table 3 Nitrogen balance and Cr203 recovery in lambs fed NaOH-treated and untreated bagacillo/molasses diets.

  5. Enhanced insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in young lambs with placental insufficiency-induced intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Leticia E; Chen, Xiaochuan; Hay, William W; Limesand, Sean W

    2017-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with persistent metabolic complications, but information is limited for IUGR infants. We determined glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and insulin sensitivity in young lambs with placental insufficiency-induced IUGR. Lambs with hyperthermia-induced IUGR ( n = 7) were compared with control lambs ( n = 8). GSIS was measured at 8 ± 1 days of age, and at 15 ± 1 days, body weight-specific glucose utilization rates were measured with radiolabeled d-glucose during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEC). IUGR lambs weighed 23% less ( P insulin concentrations were not different between IUGR and controls for either study. First-phase insulin secretion was enhanced 2.3-fold in IUGR lambs compared with controls. However, second-phase insulin concentrations, glucose-potentiated arginine-stimulated insulin secretion, and β-cell mass were not different, indicating that IUGR β-cells have an intrinsic enhancement in acute GSIS. Compared with controls, IUGR lambs had higher body weight-specific glucose utilization rates and greater insulin sensitivity at fasting (1.6-fold) and hyperinsulinemic periods (2.4-fold). Improved insulin sensitivity for glucose utilization was not due to differences in skeletal muscle insulin receptor and glucose transporters 1 and 4 concentrations. Plasma lactate concentrations during HEC were elevated in IUGR lambs compared with controls, but no differences were found for glycogen content or citrate synthase activity in liver and muscle. Greater insulin sensitivity for glucose utilization and enhanced acute GSIS in young lambs are predicted from fetal studies but may promote conditions that exaggerate glucose disposal and lead to episodes of hypoglycemia in IUGR infants. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Fetal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adama van Scheltema, Phebe

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the fetus is capable of exhibiting a stress response to intrauterine needling, resulting in alterations in fetal stress hormone levels. Intrauterine transfusions are performed by inserting a needle either in the umbilical cord root at the placental surface (PCI),

  7. Acceleration and deceleration capacity of fetal heart rate in an in-vivo sheep model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo W Rivolta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fetal heart rate (FHR variability is an indirect index of fetal autonomic nervous system (ANS integrity. FHR variability analysis in labor fails to detect early hypoxia and acidemia. Phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA is a new method of complex biological signals analysis that is more resistant to non-stationarities, signal loss and artifacts. It quantifies the average cardiac acceleration and deceleration (AC/DC capacity. OBJECTIVE: The aims of the study were: (1 to investigate AC/DC in ovine fetuses exposed to acute hypoxic-acidemic insult; (2 to explore the relation between AC/DC and acid-base balance; and (3 to evaluate the influence of FHR decelerations and specific PRSA parameters on AC/DC computation. METHODS: Repetitive umbilical cord occlusions (UCOs were applied in 9 pregnant near-term sheep to obtain three phases of MILD, MODERATE, and SEVERE hypoxic-acidemic insult. Acid-base balance was sampled and fetal ECGs continuously recorded. AC/DC were calculated: (1 for a spectrum of T values (T = 1÷50 beats; the parameter limits the range of oscillations detected by PRSA; (2 on entire series of fetal RR intervals or on "stable" series that excluded FHR decelerations caused by UCOs. RESULTS: AC and DC progressively increased with UCOs phases (MILD vs. MODERATE and MODERATE vs. SEVERE, p<0.05 for DC [Formula: see text] = 2-5, and AC [Formula: see text] = 1-3. The time evolution of AC/DC correlated to acid-base balance (0.4<[Formula: see text]<0.9, p<0.05 with the highest [Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text]. PRSA was not independent from FHR decelerations caused by UCOs. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first in-vivo evaluation of PRSA on FHR analysis. In the presence of acute hypoxic-acidemia we found increasing values of AC/DC suggesting an activation of ANS. This correlation was strongest on time scale dominated by parasympathetic modulations. We identified the best performing [Formula: see text] parameters

  8. Diving into the world of alcohol teratogenesis: a review of zebrafish models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Yohaan; Buckley, Desire M; Eberhart, Johann K

    2017-08-17

    The term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) refers to the entire suite of deleterious outcomes resulting from embryonic exposure to alcohol. Along with other reviews in this special issue, we provide insight into how animal models, specifically the zebrafish, have informed our understanding of FASD. We first provide a brief introduction to FASD. We discuss the zebrafish as a model organism and its strengths for alcohol research. We detail how zebrafish has been used to model some of the major defects present in FASD. These include behavioral defects, such as social behavior as well as learning and memory, and structural defects, disrupting organs such as the brain, sensory organs, heart, and craniofacial skeleton. We provide insights into how zebrafish research has aided in our understanding of the mechanisms of ethanol teratogenesis. We end by providing some relatively recent advances that zebrafish has provided in characterizing gene-ethanol interactions that may underlie FASD.

  9. Techniques for capturing bighorn sheep lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua B.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Goldstein, Elise J.; Parsons, Zachary D.; Karsch, Rebekah C.; Stiver, Julie R.; Cain, James W.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Low lamb recruitment is a major challenge facing managers attempting to mitigate the decline of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and investigations into the underlying mechanisms are limited because of the inability to readily capture and monitor bighorn sheep lambs. We evaluated 4 capture techniques for bighorn sheep lambs: 1) hand-capture of lambs from radiocollared adult females fitted with vaginal implant transmitters (VITs), 2) hand-capture of lambs of intensively monitored radiocollared adult females, 3) helicopter net-gunning, and 4) hand-capture of lambs from helicopters. During 2010–2012, we successfully captured 90% of lambs from females that retained VITs to ≤1 day of parturition, although we noted differences in capture rates between an area of high road density in the Black Hills (92–100%) of South Dakota, USA, and less accessible areas of New Mexico (71%), USA. Retention of VITs was 78% with pre-partum expulsion the main cause of failure. We were less likely to capture lambs from females that expelled VITs ≥1 day of parturition (range = 80–83%) or females that were collared without VITs (range = 60–78%). We used helicopter net-gunning at several sites in 1999, 2001–2002, and 2011, and it proved a useful technique; however, at one site, attempts to capture lambs led to lamb predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). We attempted helicopter hand-captures at one site in 1999, and they also were successful in certain circumstances and avoided risk of physical trauma from net-gunning; however, application was limited. In areas of low accessibility or if personnel lack the ability to monitor females and/or VITs for extended periods, helicopter capture may provide a viable option for lamb capture.

  10. Exposure of lambs to atmospheric ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, J.G.; Curtis, S.E.; Lewis, J.M.; Hinds, F.C.; Simon, J.

    1976-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of chronic exposure to atmospheric ammonia at a concentration of 75 ppm on weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion by lambs. Lambs were weighed and then randomly allotted to four dynamic air-pollutant exposure chambers. Initial weights (mean +/- SE) of lambs were 22.1 +/- .46 kg and 27.5 +/- 1.54 kg for trials 1 and 2, respectively (n=12 in both trials). Lambs in two chambers (controls) were maintained in an atmosphere of filtered room air. Lambs in the other two chambers (NH/sub 3/ -exposed) were exposed to an atmosphere of filtered air plus atmospheric ammonia at a concentration of 75 ppm. Exposure period was 28 days in both trials. Feed and water were available at all times. Lamb weight gain and feed disappearance were determined weekly. Upon termination of each trial, one lamb was randomly selected from each chamber, sacrificed, and gross and histopathologic structural changes noted. Weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion data for the two trials were combined for statistical analysis. Control lambs gained on the average .09 kg/day (.28 vs .19) more (P<.01) and consumed on the average .68 kg of feed (4.53 vs 5.21) less per kilogram of weight gain (P<.10) than did NH/sub 3/-exposed lambs. Ammonia-exposed lambs in both trials showed profuse lacrimation, severe coughing and sneezing, and profuse nasal discharge, which was bloody in some instances. Gross and histopathologic findings appeared to be qualitatively similar between treatments, but more pronounced in NH/sub 3/-exposed lambs.

  11. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE OF FETAL OVARIES AND FETAL GERM CELLS TO ENDOMETRIOSIS CAUSES DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION IN PRE-IMPLANTATION EMBRYOS OF FIRST AND SECOND GENERATION EMBRYOS OFFSPRING IN AN ENDOMETRIOSIS MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, Julie A.; Taylor, Kristen H.; Davis, J. Wade; Sharpe-Timms, Kathy L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Characterize multigenerational gene expression anomalies in 8-cell stage embryos associated with developmental exposure to endometriosis. Design Using an endometriosis model in rats (F0 founder generation), evaluate gene expression in F1 (fetal exposure) and F2 (fetal germ cell exposure) generation 8-cell stage embryos. Setting Laboratory Animals Endometriosis model in rats (Endo) and controls (Sham) Interventions F0 Endo and Sham rats were bred. Half of the pregnant rats were euthanatized on gestational day 3 (F1 8-cell stage embryos); the others gestated to term (F1 females). Adult F1 females were bred and F2 8-cell embryos collected. Main outcome measures Maintenance of differential gene expression in F1 and F2 generation 8-cell embryos in endometriosis. Results Developmental exposure to endometriosis altered gene signaling pathways including apoptosis, cell cycle process, response to oxidative stress, negative regulation of molecular function and RNA processing. Apoptotic genes Diablo, Casp3, Parp1, Cad and Dnaja3 were increased, Nfkbia transcripts decreased in F1 Endo versus F1 Sham embryos. In F2 Endo versus Sham embryos, Casp3 and Cad were significantly increased plus Parp1 and Nfkbia tended to be elevated. Conclusions Fetal and germ cell exposure to endometriosis alters apoptotic gene expression in first and second generation 8-cell stage embryos, supporting the hypothesis of multigenerational inheritance from exposure to endometriosis in utero. PMID:23954358

  12. Surfactant phosphatidylcholine metabolism and surfactant function in preterm, ventilated lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobe, A.H.; Ikegami, M.; Seidner, S.R.; Pettenazzo, A.; Ruffini, L.

    1989-01-01

    Preterm lambs were delivered at 138 days gestational age and ventilated for periods up to 24 h in order to study surfactant metabolism and surfactant function. The surfactant-saturated phosphatidylcholine pool in the alveolar wash was 13 +/- 4 mumol/kg and did not change from 10 min to 24 h after birth. Trace amounts of labeled natural sheep surfactant were mixed with fetal lung fluid at birth. By 24 h, 80% of the label had become lung-tissue-associated, yet there was no loss of label from phosphatidylcholine in the lungs when calculated as the sum of the lung tissue plus alveolar wash. De novo synthesized phosphatidylcholine was labeled with choline given by intravascular injection at 1 h of age. Labeled phosphatidylcholine accumulated in the lung tissue linearly to 24 h, and the labeled phosphatidylcholine moved through lamellar body to alveolar pools. The turnover time for alveolar phosphatidylcholine was estimated to be about 13 h, indicating an active metabolic pool. A less surface-active surfactant fraction recovered as a supernatant after centrifugation of the alveolar washes at 40,000 x g increased from birth to 10 min of ventilation, but no subsequent changes in the distribution of surfactant phosphatidylcholine in surfactant fractions occurred. The results were consistent with recycling pathway(s) that maintained surface-active surfactant pools in preterm ventilated lambs

  13. Sildenafil Therapy Normalizes the Aberrant Metabolomic Profile in the Comt(-/-) Mouse Model of Preeclampsia/Fetal Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Joanna L; Sulek, Karolina; Andersson, Irene J; Davidge, Sandra T; Kenny, Louise C; Sibley, Colin P; Mandal, Rupasri; Wishart, David S; Broadhurst, David I; Baker, Philip N

    2015-12-15

    Preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) are serious complications of pregnancy, associated with greatly increased risk of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. These complications are difficult to diagnose and no curative treatments are available. We hypothesized that the metabolomic signature of two models of disease, catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT(-/-)) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (Nos3(-/-)) knockout mice, would be significantly different from control C57BL/6J mice. Further, we hypothesised that any differences in COMT(-/-) mice would be resolved following treatment with Sildenafil, a treatment which rescues fetal growth. Targeted, quantitative comparisons of serum metabolic profiles of pregnant Nos3(-/-), COMT(-/-) and C57BL/6J mice were made using a kit from BIOCRATES. Significant differences in 4 metabolites were observed between Nos3(-/-) and C57BL/6J mice (p treatment with Sildenafil, only 5 of the 18 previously identified differences in metabolites (p treatment, Sildenafil, is able to normalize the aberrant metabolomic profile in COMT(-/-) mice; as this treatment moves into clinical trials, this information may assist in assessing possible mechanisms of action.

  14. The Use of Trace Eyeblink Classical Conditioning to Assess Hippocampal Dysfunction in a Rat Model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tuan D; Amin, Aenia; Jones, Keith G; Sheffer, Ellen M; Ortega, Lidia; Dolman, Keith

    2017-08-05

    Neonatal rats were administered a relatively high concentration of ethyl alcohol (11.9% v/v) during postnatal days 4-9, a time when the fetal brain undergoes rapid organizational change and is similar to accelerated brain changes that occur during the third trimester in humans. This model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) produces severe brain damage, mimicking the amount and pattern of binge-drinking that occurs in some pregnant alcoholic mothers. We describe the use of trace eyeblink classical conditioning (ECC), a higher-order variant of associative learning, to assess long-term hippocampal dysfunction that is typically seen in alcohol-exposed adult offspring. At 90 days of age, rodents were surgically prepared with recording and stimulating electrodes, which measured electromyographic (EMG) blink activity from the left eyelid muscle and delivered mild shock posterior to the left eye, respectively. After a 5 day recovery period, they underwent 6 sessions of trace ECC to determine associative learning differences between alcohol-exposed and control rats. Trace ECC is one of many possible ECC procedures that can be easily modified using the same equipment and software, so that different neural systems can be assessed. ECC procedures in general, can be used as diagnostic tools for detecting neural pathology in different brain systems and different conditions that insult the brain.

  15. Adjustment factors of birth weight and four postnatal weights for type of birth and rearing, sex of lambs and dam age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subandriyo

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Many factors contribute to variation in lamb weights. Factors such as age of lamb, sex, type of birth and rearing, and ewe age at lambing obscure genetic differences among lambs. Variation associated with these factors make selection for increased weight less effective. To improve selection response, selection must be based on genotypic rather than environmentally induced superiority. It is well-documented that corrections for classifiable sources of variation render selection and culling more accurate, thereby increasing rates of genetic improvement. The objective of this study were to develop within breed adjustment factors for post-natal lamb weights . Field records from Suffolk and Dorset lambs collected in the U.S . National Sheep Improvement Program (NSIP from 1986 through 1989 were used to develop within-breed birth/rearing type, lamb sex, and dam age adjustment factors for birth weight (BW and 30-d (W3o, 60-d (Woo, 90-d (W9o, and 120-4 (Wtm weights. Data were analyzed using general linear models. Within breed and age group adjustment for lamb-age differences were suggested because growth rates vary among breeds and among the four postnatal lamb-age groups . Within-breed multiplicative adjustment of the five traits for the effects of birth/rearing type, lamb sex and dam age were suggested because variances of these factors were significantly (P<0.01 heterogenous.

  16. Study of Lamb Waves for Non-Destructive Testing Behind Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, P.; Ploix, M.-A.; Chaix, J.-F.; Gueudré, C.; Corneloup, G.; Baqué, F. AF(; )

    2018-01-01

    The inspection and control of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) is a major issue for the nuclear industry. Ultrasonic solutions are under study because of the opacity of liquid sodium. In this paper, the use of leaky Lamb waves is considered for non-destructive testing (NDT) on parallel and immersed structures assimilated as plates. The first phase of our approach involved studying the propagation properties of leaky Lamb waves. Equations that model the propagation of Lamb waves in an immersed plate were solved numerically. The phase velocity can be experimentally measured using a two dimensional Fourier transform. The group velocity can be experimentally measured using a short-time Fourier transform technique. Attenuation of leaky Lamb waves is mostly due to the re-emission of energy into the surrounding fluid, and it can be measured by these two techniques.

  17. FETAL METABOLIC PROGRAMMING OF THE SMALL INTESTINE IN A COPENHAGEN SHEEP MODEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Anne Marie Dixen; Khanal, Prabhat; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft

    Fetal metabolic programming states that early life nutrition is implicated with the risk of later disease development and both under- and overnutrition during gestation might predispose individuals to develop obesity or diabetes later in life. Obesity operations called “gastric bypass” operations...... have shown unexpected involvement of the small intestine in diabetes pathophysiology as it in most cases result in a complete resolution of the diabetes before weight loss. Therefore we hypothesize that the small intestine is a subject of metabolic programming and that this programming can predispose...... effects on gene-expression, however the results vary between genes. These observations suggest that small intestine function has been programmed by the late-gestation Low or High diet at gene expression level, whereas the physiological metabolic functions has mainly been affected by the HCHF diet...

  18. A new model for fetal programming: maternal Ramadan-type fasting programs nephrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohany, M; Ashton, N; Harrath, A H; Nyengaard, J R; Alomar, S Y; Alwasel, S

    2018-01-10

    The effect of maternal Ramadan-type fasting (RTF) on the outcome of pregnancy, kidney development and nephron number in male rat offspring was investigated in current study. Pregnant rats were given food and water ad libitum during pregnancy (control) or restricted for 16 h per day (RTF). Kidney structure was examined during fetal life, at birth, and in early and late adulthood. Maternal body weight, food intake, relative food intake and plasma glucose levels were significantly lower (Pfasting reduced nephron number (by ~31%) with unchanged kidney and total glomerular volumes. Mean glomerular volume was significantly higher in RTF offspring. Assessment of renal structure revealed mild glomerulosclerosis with enlarged lobulated glomeruli in the renal cortex and high interstitial fibrosis in the medulla of RTF kidneys. Taken together, gestational fasting delays nephrogenesis and reduces nephron number in the kidneys of the offspring, that could be partially owing to increased apoptosis.

  19. Bacteriologic and Histopathologic Studies in Pneumonic Lambs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mortality in lambs is known to be caused by pneumonia and other bacterial agents. Lamb pneumonia is an infectious disease of young lambs caused primarily by the bacterial organism Pasterella haemolytica. Lung samples recovered from dead lambs were tested bacteriologically and histopathologically to determine the ...

  20. Males are from Mars, and females are from Venus: sex-specific fetal brain gene expression signatures in a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Andrea G; Guedj, Faycal; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Sverdlov, Deanna; Neri, Caterina; Bianchi, Diana W

    2016-05-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in children, including autism spectrum disorders, developmental delay, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We previously identified second-trimester amniotic fluid and term cord blood gene expression patterns suggesting dysregulated brain development in fetuses of obese compared with lean women. We sought to investigate the biological significance of these findings in a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity. We evaluated sex-specific differences in fetal growth, brain gene expression signatures, and associated pathways. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a 60% high-fat diet or 10% fat control diet for 12-14 weeks prior to mating. During pregnancy, obese dams continued on the high-fat diet or transitioned to the control diet. Lean dams stayed on the control diet. On embryonic day 17.5, embryos were weighed and fetal brains were snap frozen. RNA was extracted from male and female forebrains (10 per diet group per sex) and hybridized to whole-genome expression arrays. Significantly differentially expressed genes were identified using a Welch's t test with the Benjamini-Hochberg correction. Functional analyses were performed using ingenuity pathways analysis and gene set enrichment analysis. Embryos of dams on the high-fat diet were significantly smaller than controls, with males more severely affected than females (P = .01). Maternal obesity and maternal obesity with dietary change in pregnancy resulted in significantly more dysregulated genes in male vs female fetal brains (386 vs 66, P Maternal obesity with and without dietary change in pregnancy was associated with unique brain gene expression signatures for each sex, with an overlap of only 1 gene. Changing obese dams to a control diet in pregnancy resulted in more differentially expressed genes in the fetal brain than maternal obesity alone. Functional analyses identified common

  1. Males are from Mars, females are from Venus: sex-specific fetal brain gene expression signatures in a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    EDLOW, Andrea G.; GUEDJ, Faycal; PENNINGS, Jeroen L.A.; SVERDLOV, Deanna; NERI, Caterina; BIANCHI, Diana W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Maternal obesity is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in children, including autism spectrum disorders, developmental delay, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We previously identified second trimester amniotic fluid and term cord blood gene expression patterns suggesting dysregulated brain development in fetuses of obese compared to lean women. OBJECTIVES We sought to investigate the biological significance of these findings in a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity. We evaluated sex-specific differences in fetal growth, brain gene expression signatures and associated pathways. STUDY DESIGN Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a 60% high-fat diet or 10% fat control diet for 12–14 weeks prior to mating. During pregnancy, obese dams continued on the high-fat diet (HFD/HFD), or transitioned to the CD (HFD/CD). Lean dams stayed on the control diet. On embryonic day 17.5, embryos were weighed and fetal brains were snap frozen. RNA was extracted from male and female forebrains (10/diet group/sex) and hybridized to whole genome expression arrays. Significantly differentially expressed genes were identified using Welch’s t-test with the Benjamini-Hochberg correction. Functional analyses were performed using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. RESULTS Embryos of HFD/HFD dams were significantly smaller than controls, with males more severely affected than females (p=0.01). Maternal obesity and maternal obesity with dietary change in pregnancy resulted in significantly more dysregulated genes in male versus female fetal brains (386 vs 66, pMaternal obesity with and without dietary change in pregnancy was associated with unique brain gene expression signatures for each sex, with overlap of only one gene. Changing obese dams to a control diet in pregnancy resulted in more differentially expressed genes in the fetal brain than maternal obesity alone. Functional

  2. Modeling of coarctation of aorta in human fetuses using 3D/4D fetal echocardiography and computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhou, Yue; Wang, Jingying; Liu, Xiaowei; Ge, Shuping; He, Yihua

    2017-12-01

    We sought to develop a hemodynamic model of aortic and ductal arches using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and 3D/4D spatio-temporal image correlation (STIC) fetal echocardiography and to investigate the hemodynamics of coarctation of aorta (CoA) in human fetuses using this approach. We obtained 3D/4D STIC fetal echocardiographic images of the aortic and ductal arches (DA) in five normal fetuses. Based on these images, we simulated the hemodynamics in the two arches using CFD. Subsequently, we reduced the dimensions of aortic isthmus from 100% to 85%, 70%, 55%, 40%, and 25% of the original dimension digitally. Numerical simulation was repeated in each condition, and flow profile, velocity, pressure, and wall shear stress (WSS) were compared with those of the baseline normal aortic and ductal arches. With the progressive narrowing in the aortic isthmus, there were alterations in the flow profile, velocity, pressure, and WSS. The downstream vortexes disappeared, and the double helix profile became single helix. When the aortic isthmus reduced by 55% in dimension, there was an exponential increase in velocity and WSS and decrease in pressure. The aortic and ductal arch geometry and flow lead to the alterations in flow profile, velocity, pressure, and WSS in the aortic isthmus in normal and CoA models, which are conductive of ductal issue migration into these areas. A 55% reduction in the dimension of aortic isthmus is associated with exponential change in velocity, pressure, and WSS, a probable threshold for hemodynamically significant CoA. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Associations between trichostrongylid worm egg count and productivity measures in Dorper lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Joshua P A; Gardner, Graham E; Dobson, Robert J; Jacobson, Caroline; Bell, Kevin

    2011-08-25

    Two flocks of pure bred Dorper lambs were managed separately according to sex (283 ewe lambs and 212 ram lambs) in southern Western Australia. Faecal sample collection, weighing and body condition assessments were performed for each lamb on 2 occasions, specifically pre-weaning (approximately 14 weeks of age) and post-weaning (approximately 9 months of age). Body condition score (BCS) was assessed using a scale of 1 (very thin, emaciated) to 5 (excessively fat). Faecal worm egg counts (WECs) were measured using a modified McMaster technique and larval cultures were performed to identify trichostrongylid nematode genera present. Eye muscle and c-site fat depths were measured using ultrasound at post-weaning. Lambs received an abamectin anthelmintic treatment at weaning (18 weeks of age). Worm egg count data was assessed for normality of data distribution and homogeneity of variance. This data was transformed using log(10)(WEC+25) to stabilise variances between groups prior to statistical analyses and general linear models were used to assess relationships between WEC and productivity measures. Mean WECs were 564 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) and 514 EPG at pre- and post-weaning in the ewe flock and 552 EPG and 480 EPG at pre- and post-weaning in the ram flock. Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. larvae were identified. No lambs with WECWEC>1000 EPG post-weaning. Ewe and ram lambs with WEC>1000 EPG at pre-weaning were 42 (12-145 95% CI) and 37 (9-153) times more likely to have WEC>1000 EPG at post-weaning than lambs with WEC 501-1000 EPG at pre-weaning. There were no significant relationships between WEC and live weight in the ram flock, while relationships between WEC and live weight were inconsistent in the ewe lamb flock. There was no relationship between WEC and eye muscle or c-site fat depth. Significant negative relationships between WEC and BCS were identified at pre- and post-weaning for both flocks. Lambs

  4. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protects against lipopolysaccharide induced diaphragm weakness in preterm lambs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanakeswary Karisnan

    Full Text Available Chorioamnionitis (inflammation of the fetal membranes is strongly associated with preterm birth and in utero exposure to inflammation significantly impairs contractile function in the preterm lamb diaphragm. The fetal inflammatory response to intra-amniotic (IA lipopolysaccharide (LPS is orchestrated via interleukin 1 (IL-1. We aimed to determine if LPS induced contractile dysfunction in the preterm diaphragm is mediated via the IL-1 pathway. Pregnant ewes received IA injections of recombinant human IL-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1ra (Anakinra; 100 mg or saline (Sal 3 h prior to second IA injections of LPS (4 mg or Sal at 119d gestational age (GA. Preterm lambs were killed after delivery at 121d GA (term = 150 d. Muscle fibres dissected from the right hemi-diaphragm were mounted in an in vitro muscle test system for assessment of contractile function. The left hemi-diaphragm was snap frozen for molecular and biochemical analyses. Maximum specific force in lambs exposed to IA LPS (Sal/LPS group was 25% lower than in control lambs (Sal/Sal group; p=0.025. LPS-induced diaphragm weakness was associated with higher plasma IL-6 protein, diaphragm IL-1β mRNA and oxidised glutathione levels. Pre-treatment with rhIL-1ra (rhIL-1ra/LPS ameliorated the LPS-induced diaphragm weakness and blocked systemic and local inflammatory responses, but did not prevent the rise in oxidised glutathione. These findings indicate that LPS induced diaphragm dysfunction is mediated via IL-1 and occurs independently of oxidative stress. Therefore, the IL-1 pathway represents a potential therapeutic target in the management of impaired diaphragm function in preterm infants.

  5. Co-transplantation of GDNF-overexpressing neural stem cells and fetal dopaminergic neurons mitigates motor symptoms in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingli Deng

    Full Text Available Striatal transplantation of dopaminergic (DA neurons or neural stem cells (NSCs has been reported to improve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD, but the low rate of cell survival, differentiation, and integration in the host brain limits the therapeutic efficacy. We investigated the therapeutic effects of intracranial co-transplantation of mesencephalic NSCs stably overexpressing human glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF-mNSCs together with fetal DA neurons in the 6-OHDA rat model of PD. Striatal injection of mNSCs labeled by the contrast enhancer superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO resulted in a hypointense signal in the striatum on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images that lasted for at least 8 weeks post-injection, confirming the long-term survival of injected stem cells in vivo. Co-transplantation of GDNF-mNSCs with fetal DA neurons significantly reduced apomorphine-induced rotation, a behavioral endophenotype of PD, compared to sham-treated controls, rats injected with mNSCs expressing empty vector (control mNSCs plus fetal DA neurons, or rats injected separately with either control mNSCs, GDNF-mNSCs, or fetal DA neurons. In addition, survival and differentiation of mNSCs into DA neurons was significantly greater following co-transplantation of GDNF-mNSCs plus fetal DA neurons compared to the other treatment groups as indicated by the greater number of cell expressing both the mNSCs lineage tracer enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP and the DA neuron marker tyrosine hydroxylase. The success of cell-based therapies for PD may be greatly improved by co-transplantation of fetal DA neurons with mNSCs genetically modified to overexpress trophic factors such as GDNF that support differentiation into DA cells and their survival in vivo.

  6. Observation of the Phononic Lamb Shift with a Synthetic Vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rentrop

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to classical empty space, the quantum vacuum fundamentally alters the properties of embedded particles. This paradigm shift allows one to explain the discovery of the celebrated Lamb shift in the spectrum of the hydrogen atom. Here, we engineer a synthetic vacuum, building on the unique properties of ultracold atomic gas mixtures, offering the ability to switch between empty space and quantum vacuum. Using high-precision spectroscopy, we observe the phononic Lamb shift, an intriguing many-body effect originally conjectured in the context of solid-state physics. We find good agreement with theoretical predictions based on the Fröhlich model. Our observations establish this experimental platform as a new tool for precision benchmarking of open theoretical challenges, especially in the regime of strong coupling between the particles and the quantum vacuum.

  7. Different in vitro culture systems affect the birth weight of lambs from vitrified ovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, L; Sanna, D; Dattena, M; Mayorga Muñoz, I M

    2015-02-01

    It has been reported that different in vitro culture systems affect the birth weight of lambs. The aim of this study was to test body weight and lambing rate of lambs born from five different in vitro culture systems after vitrification. Oocytes of Sarda sheep were matured in TCM-199 plus 0.4% bovine serum albumin (BSA) using systems: (i) 4 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA (BSA4); (ii) 8 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA (BSA8); (iii) BSA8-hyaluronan (BSA8-HA); (iv) BSA8-charcoal-stripped FBS (BSA8-CH); or (v) with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS; serum) and fertilized with fresh semen. The presumptive zygotes were cultured up to the blastocyst stage with BSA8, BSA8-HA, BSA8-CH or serum or BSA4. In the third and fifth days of culture 5% charcoal-stripped FBS was added into BSA8-CH and serum, while 8 mg/ml or 4 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA was added as BSA8, BSA8-HA and BSA4 respectively; 6 mg/ml HA was added to BSA8-HA. In total, 240 vitrified blastocysts were transferred into synchronized ewes. The lambing rate was not significant different between BSA groups or between serum groups (BSA8-CH and serum), while serum groups showed significant lower values when compared with BSA groups. Only BSA8 groups produced heavy lambs (≥4.5 kg) with a significant difference between BSA4 and BSA8 groups (P < 0.05).

  8. Fetal syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Anne; Chitayat, David; Blaser, Susan; Keating, Sarah; Shannon, Patrick

    2014-08-06

    We explored the prevalence of syringomyelia in a series of 113 cases of fetal dysraphism and hindbrain crowding, of gestational age ranging from 17.5 to 34 weeks with the vast majority less than 26 weeks gestational age. We found syringomyelia in 13 cases of Chiari II malformations, 5 cases of Omphalocele/Exostrophy/Imperforate anus/Spinal abnormality (OEIS), 2 cases of Meckel Gruber syndrome and in a single pair of pyopagus conjoined twins. Secondary injury was not uncommon, with vernicomyelia in Chiari malformations, infarct like histology, or old hemorrhage in 8 cases of syringomyelia. Vernicomyelia did not occur in the absence of syrinx formation. The syringes extended from the sites of dysraphism, in ascending or descending patterns. The syringes were usually in a major proportion anatomically distinct from a dilated or denuded central canal and tended to be dorsal and paramedian or median. We suggest that fetal syringomyelia in Chiari II malformation and other dysraphic states is often established prior to midgestation, has contributions from the primary malformation as well as from secondary in utero injury and is anatomically and pathophysiologically distinct from post natal syringomyelia secondary to hindbrain crowding.

  9. Mammary fibroadenoma in a lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvenc, Tolga; Yarim, Murat; Kabak, Yonca B.; Sozgen, Yuksel

    2007-01-01

    A fibroadenoma was diagnosed in the left udder of a 3-month-old female Chios lamb. No recurrence was observed after surgery. Grossly, the tumor had a whitish-gray lobular appearance, and the lobules were interlaced with thin septa. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of proliferating fibroepithelial tissue, including differentiated ducts lined by whorls and interlacing bundles of abundant loose fibrovascular stroma. Immunohistochemistry revealed the ductal epithelium to be positive for pancytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and loose fibrovascular stroma was positive for vimentin and basal cells covering the ductal epithelium of alpha-smooth-muscle actin. Immunostaining for the estrogen and progesterone receptors was negative. A diagnosis of mammary fibroadenoma was made based on the histological and immunohistochemical findings. PMID:17993758

  10. Heterogeneity of variance components for preweaning growth in Romane sheep due to the number of lambs reared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poivey Jean-Paul

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pre-weaning growth rate of lambs, an important component of meat market production, is affected by maternal and direct genetic effects. The French genetic evaluation model takes into account the number of lambs suckled by applying a multiplicative factor (1 for a lamb reared as a single, 0.7 for twin-reared lambs to the maternal genetic effect, in addition to including the birth*rearing type combination as a fixed effect, which acts on the mean. However, little evidence has been provided to justify the use of this multiplicative model. The two main objectives of the present study were to determine, by comparing models of analysis, 1 whether pre-weaning growth is the same trait in single- and twin-reared lambs and 2 whether the multiplicative coefficient represents a good approach for taking this possible difference into account. Methods Data on the pre-weaning growth rate, defined as the average daily gain from birth to 45 days of age on 29,612 Romane lambs born between 1987 and 2009 at the experimental farm of La Sapinière (INRA-France were used to compare eight models that account for the number of lambs per dam reared in various ways. Models were compared using the Akaike information criteria. Results The model that best fitted the data assumed that 1 direct (maternal effects correspond to the same trait regardless of the number of lambs reared, 2 the permanent environmental effects and variances associated with the dam depend on the number of lambs reared and 3 the residual variance depends on the number of lambs reared. Even though this model fitted the data better than a model that included a multiplicative coefficient, little difference was found between EBV from the different models (the correlation between EBV varied from 0.979 to 0.999. Conclusions Based on experimental data, the current genetic evaluation model can be improved to better take into account the number of lambs reared. Thus, it would be of

  11. Medio ambiente fetal Fetal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Bernardo Ospina Arcila

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Con base en el artículo clásico "Monte Everest in utero" se hace un análisis de la situación que afronta el feto con respecto a la disponibilidad de oxígeno; para una mejor comprensión del sufrimiento fetal se revisan los siguientes conceptos: presión barométrica, presión parcial del oxígeno atmosférico, presión parcial del oxígeno inspirado, presión barométrica intranasal, ecuación del gas alveolar y difusión de gases a través de la membrana alvéolo capilar. Based on the classical paper by Eastman "Mount Everest in utero" an analysis is made of the situation faced by the fetus with respect to the availability of oxygen; for a better under. standing of fetal distress the following concepts are reviewed: barometric pressure, partial pressure of atmosferic oxygen, partial pressure of inspired oxygen, barometric intranasal pressure, alveolar gas equation and gas diffusion through alveolo-capilar membrane.

  12. Maternal buprenorphine treatment and fetal neurobehavioral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Lauren M; Velez, Martha; McConnell, Krystle; Spencer, Nancy; Tuten, Michelle; Jones, Hendree E; King, Van L; Gandotra, Neeraj; Milio, Lorraine A; Voegtline, Kristin; DiPietro, Janet A

    2017-05-01

    Gestational opioid use/misuse is escalating in the United States; however, little is understood about the fetal effects of medications used to treat maternal opioid use disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of maternal buprenorphine administration on longitudinal fetal neurobehavioral development. Forty-nine buprenorphine-maintained women who attended a substance use disorder treatment facility with generally uncomplicated pregnancies underwent fetal monitoring for 60 minutes at times of trough and peak maternal buprenorphine levels. Data were collected at 24, 28, 32, and 36 weeks gestation. Fetal neurobehavioral indicators (ie, heart rate, motor activity, and their integration [fetal movement-fetal heart rate coupling]) were collected via an actocardiograph, digitized and quantified. Longitudinal data analysis relied on hierarchic linear modeling. Fetal heart rate, heart rate variability, and heart rate accelerations were significantly reduced at peak vs trough maternal buprenorphine levels. Effects were significant either by or after 28 weeks gestation and tended to intensify with advancing gestation. Fetal motor activity and fetal movement-fetal heart rate coupling were depressed from peak to trough at 36 weeks gestation. Polysubstance exposure did not significantly affect fetal neurobehavioral parameters, with the exception that fetuses of heavier smokers moved significantly less than those of lighter smokers at 36 weeks gestation. By the end of gestation, higher maternal buprenorphine dose was related to depression of baseline fetal cardiac measures at trough. Maternal buprenorphine administration has acute suppressive effects on fetal heart rate and movement, and the magnitude of these effects increases as gestation progresses. Higher dose (≥13 mg) appears to exert greater depressive effects on measures of fetal heart rate and variability. These findings should be balanced against comparisons to gestational methadone effects

  13. Increasing fetal ovine number per gestation alters fetal plasma clinical chemistry values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywicki, Micaela; Blohowiak, Sharon E; Magness, Ronald R; Segar, Jeffrey L; Kling, Pamela J

    2016-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is interconnected with developmental programming of lifelong pathophysiology. IUGR is seen in human multifetal pregnancies, with stepwise rises in fetal numbers interfering with placental nutrient delivery. It remains unknown whether fetal blood analyses would reflect fetal nutrition, liver, and excretory function in the last trimester of human or ovine IUGR In an ovine model, we hypothesized that fetal plasma biochemical values would reflect progressive placental, fetal liver, and fetal kidney dysfunction as the number of fetuses per gestation rose. To determine fetal plasma biochemical values in singleton, twin, triplet, and quadruplet/quintuplet ovine gestation, we investigated morphometric measures and comprehensive metabolic panels with nutritional measures, liver enzymes, and placental and fetal kidney excretory measures at gestational day (GD) 130 (90% gestation). As anticipated, placental dysfunction was supported by a stepwise fall in fetal weight, fetal plasma glucose, and triglyceride levels as fetal number per ewe rose. Fetal glucose and triglycerides were directly related to fetal weight. Plasma creatinine, reflecting fetal renal excretory function, and plasma cholesterol, reflecting placental excretory function, were inversely correlated with fetal weight. Progressive biochemical disturbances and growth restriction accompanied the rise in fetal number. Understanding the compensatory and adaptive responses of growth-restricted fetuses at the biochemical level may help explain how metabolic pathways in growth restriction can be predetermined at birth. This physiological understanding is important for clinical care and generating interventional strategies to prevent altered developmental programming in multifetal gestation. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  14. Modelos linear e não linear em análises genéticas para sobrevivência de crias de ovinos da raça Santa Inês Linear and nonlinear models in genetic analyses of lamb survival in the Santa Inês hair sheep breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H. Sousa

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Registros de sobrevivência do nascimento ao desmame de 3846 crias de ovinos da raça Santa Inês foram analisados por modelos de reprodutor linear e não linear (modelo de limiar, para estimar componentes de variância e herdabilidade. Os modelos usados para sobrevivência, analisada como característica da cria, incluíram os efeitos fixos de sexo, da combinação tipo de nascimento-criação da cria e da idade da ovelha ao parto, efeito da covariável peso da cria ao nascer e efeitos aleatórios de reprodutor, da classe rebanho-ano-estação e do resíduo. Componentes de variância para o modelo linear foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML e para o modelo não linear por uma aproximação da máxima verossimilhança marginal (MML, pelo programa CMMAT2. O coeficiente de herdabilidade (h² estimado pelo modelo de limiar foi de 0,29, e pelo modelo linear, 0,14. A correlação de ordem de Spearman entre as capacidades de transmissão dos reprodutores, com base nos dois modelos foi de 0,96. As estimativas de h² obtidas indicam a possibilidade de se obter, por seleção, ganho genético para sobrevivência.Records of 3,846 lambs survival from birth to weaning of Santa Inês hair sheep breed, were analyzed by linear and non linear sire models (threshold model to estimate variance components and heritability (h². The models that were used to analyze survival, considered in this study as a lamb trait, included the fixed effects of sex of the lamb, combination of type of birth-rearing of lamb, and age of ewe, birth weight of lamb as covariate, and random effects of sire, herd-year-season and residual. Variance components were obtained using restricted maximum likelihood (REML, in linear model and marginal maximum likelihood in threshold model through CMMAT2 program. Estimate of heritability (h² obtained by threshold model was 0.29 and by linear model was 0.14. Rank correlation of Spearman, between sire solutions

  15. Effects of excess thromboxane A2 on placental development and nutrient transporters in a Mus musculus model of fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbins, Karen J; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Brown, Ashley S; Wieben, Matthew; Law, Richard C; Fung, Camille M

    2018-01-17

    Hypertensive disease of pregnancy (HDP) with placental insufficiency is the most common cause of fetal growth restriction (FGR) in the developed world. Despite the known negative consequences of HDP both to the mother and fetus, little is known about the longitudinal placental changes that occur as HDP progresses in pregnancy. This is because longitudinal sampling of human placentae during each gestation is impossible. Therefore, using a mouse model of thromboxane A2-analog infusion to mimic human HDP in the last trimester, we calculated placental efficiencies based on fetal and placental weights, quantified spongiotrophoblast and labyrinth thicknesses and vascular density within these layers, examined whether hypoxia signaling pathway involving vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and its receptors (VEGFR1, VEGFR2) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contributed to vascular change, and examined nutrient transporter abundance including glucose transporters 1 and 3 (GLUT1, GLUT3), neutral amino acid transporters 1, 2, and 4 (SNAT1, SNAT2, and SNAT4), fatty acid transporters 2 and 4 (FATP2, FATP4) and fatty acid translocase (CD36) from embryonic day 15.5 to 19 in a 20-day C57Bl/6J mouse gestation. We conclude that early-to-mid gestation hypertensive placentae show compensatory mechanisms to preserve fetal growth by increasing placental efficiencies and maintaining abundance of important nutrient transporters. As placental vascular network diminishes over late hypertension, placental efficiency diminishes and fetal growth fails. Neither hypoxia signaling pathway nor MMPs mediated the vascular diminution in this model. Hypertensive placentae surprisingly exhibit a sex-differential expression of nutrient transporters in late gestation despite showing fetal growth failure in both sexes. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. 7 CFR 59.303 - Mandatory reporting of lamb carcasses and boxed lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with § 59.10(b): (1) The price for each lot of each lamb carcass transaction, quoted in dollars... price for each lot of each boxed lamb cut sale, quoted in dollars per hundredweight on a F.O.B. plant... recent version of the Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications (IMPS), when applicable; (v) USDA yield...

  17. Distant mesenchymal progenitors contribute to skin wound healing and produce collagen: evidence from a murine fetal microchimerism model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Seppanen

    Full Text Available The contribution of distant and/or bone marrow-derived endogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSC to skin wounds is controversial. Bone marrow transplantation experiments employed to address this have been largely confounded by radiation-resistant host-derived MSC populations. Gestationally-acquired fetal MSC are known to engraft in maternal bone marrow in all pregnancies and persist for decades. These fetal cells home to damaged maternal tissues, mirroring endogenous stem cell behavior. We used fetal microchimerism as a tool to investigate the natural homing and engraftment of distant MSC to skin wounds. Post-partum wild-type mothers that had delivered transgenic pups expressing luciferase under the collagen type I-promoter were wounded. In vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI was then used to track recruitment of fetal cells expressing this mesenchymal marker over 14 days of healing. Fetal cells were detected in 9/43 animals using BLI (Fisher exact p = 0.01 versus 1/43 controls. These collagen type I-expressing fetal cells were specifically recruited to maternal wounds in the initial phases of healing, peaking on day 1 (n = 43, p<0.01. This was confirmed by detection of Y-chromosome+ve fetal cells that displayed fibroblast-like morphology. Histological analyses of day 7 wounds revealed vimentin-expressing fetal cells in dermal tissue. Our results demonstrate the participation of distant mesenchymal cells in skin wounds. These data imply that endogenous MSC populations are likely recruited from bone marrow to wounds to participate in healing.

  18. Determining the optimal age for recording the retinal vascular pattern image of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Olivares, M A; Caja, G; Carné, S; Salama, A A K; Adell, N; Puig, P

    2012-03-01

    Newborn Ripollesa lambs (n = 143) were used to assess the optimal age at which the vascular pattern of the retina can be used as a reference for identification and traceability. Retinal images from both eyes were recorded from birth to yearling (d 1, 8, 30, 82, 180, and 388 of age) in duplicate (2,534 images) using a digital camera specially designed for livestock (Optibrand, Fort Collins, CO). Intra- and inter-age image comparisons (9,316 pairs of images) were carried out, and matching score (MS) was used as the exclusion criterion of lamb identity (MS ovino mayor," 6 mo of age and ~35 kg of BW, n = 59); and yearling replacement lambs (YR; >12 mo of age and ~50 kg of BW, n = 25). Values of MS were treated with a model based on the 1-inflated bivariate beta distribution, and treated data were compared by using a likelihood ratio test. Intra-age image comparisons showed that average MS and percentage of images with MS ≥70 increased (P 0.05); no differences were detected for 30-d images (97.4 and 98.0%, respectively, for RR and YR lambs; P > 0.05). Total percentage of matching was achieved when images were obtained from older lambs (180 and 388 d). In conclusion, retinal imaging was a useful tool for verifying the identity and auditing the traceability of live lambs from suckling to yearling. Matching scores were satisfactory when the reference retinal images were obtained from 1-mo-old or older lambs.

  19. Maternal administration of solithromycin, a new, potent, broad-spectrum fluoroketolide antibiotic, achieves fetal and intra-amniotic antimicrobial protection in a pregnant sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelan, Jeffrey A; Kemp, Matthew W; Payne, Matthew S; Johnson, David; Stock, Sarah J; Saito, Masatoshi; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Newnham, John P

    2014-01-01

    Solithromycin (CEM-101) is a new antibiotic that is highly potent against Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma spp. and active against many other antibiotic-resistant organisms. We have explored the maternal-amniotic-fetal pharmacokinetics of CEM-101 in a pregnant sheep model to assess its potential for treating intrauterine and antenatal infection. Chronically catheterized pregnant ewes (n = 6 or 7) received either a single maternal intravenous (i.v.) infusion of CEM-101 (10 mg/kg of body weight), a single intra-amniotic (i.a.) injection (1.4 mg/kg of estimated fetal weight), or a combined i.v. and i.a. dose. Maternal plasma (MP), fetal plasma (FP), and amniotic fluid (AF) samples were taken via catheter at intervals of 0 to 72 h postadministration, and concentrations of solithromycin and its bioactive polar metabolites (N-acetyl [NAc]-CEM-101 and CEM-214) were determined. Following maternal i.v. infusion, peak CEM-101 concentrations in MP, FP, and AF were 1,073, 353, and 214 ng/ml, respectively, representing a maternal-to-fetal plasma transfer efficiency of 34%. A single maternal dose resulted in effective concentrations (>30 ng/ml) in MP, FP, and AF sustained for >12 h. NAc-CEM-101 and CEM-214 exhibited delayed accumulation and clearance in FP and AF, resulting in an additive antimicrobial effect (>48 h). Intra-amniotic solithromycin injection resulted in elevated (∼50 μg/ml) and sustained CEM-101 concentrations in AF and significant levels in FP, although the efficiency of amniotic-to-fetal transfer was low (∼1.5%). Combined i.v. and i.a. administration resulted in primarily additive concentrations of CEM-101 in all three compartments. Our findings suggest that CEM-101 may provide, for the first time, an effective antimicrobial approach for the prevention and treatment of intrauterine infection and early prevention of preterm birth.

  20. Maternal choline modifies fetal liver copper, gene expression, DNA methylation, and neonatal growth in the tx-j mouse model of Wilson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Valentina; Shibata, Noreene M; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Islam, Mohammad S; Keen, Carl L; Kim, Kyoungmi; Tillman, Brittany; French, Samuel W; Halsted, Charles H; LaSalle, Janine M

    2014-01-01

    Maternal diet can affect fetal gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms. Wilson disease (WD), which is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in ATP7B encoding a biliary copper transporter, is characterized by excessive hepatic copper accumulation, but variability in disease severity. We tested the hypothesis that gestational supply of dietary methyl groups modifies fetal DNA methylation and expression of genes involved in methionine and lipid metabolism that are impaired prior to hepatic steatosis in the toxic milk (tx-j) mouse model of WD. Female C3H control and tx-j mice were fed control (choline 8 mmol/Kg of diet) or choline-supplemented (choline 36 mmol/Kg of diet) diets for 2 weeks throughout mating and pregnancy to gestation day 17. A second group of C3H females, half of which were used to cross foster tx-j pups, received the same diet treatments that extended during lactation to 21 d postpartum. Compared with C3H, fetal tx-j livers had significantly lower copper concentrations and significantly lower transcript levels of Cyclin D1 and genes related to methionine and lipid metabolism. Maternal choline supplementation prevented the transcriptional deficits in fetal tx-j liver for multiple genes related to cell growth and metabolism. Global DNA methylation was increased by 17% in tx-j fetal livers after maternal choline treatment (P < 0.05). Maternal dietary choline rescued the lower body weight of 21 d tx-j mice. Our results suggest that WD pathogenesis is modified by maternal in utero factors, including dietary choline. PMID:24220304

  1. Lamb Wave Damage Quantification Using GA-Based LS-SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fuqiang; Wang, Ning; He, Jingjing; Guan, Xuefei; Yang, Jinsong

    2017-06-12

    Lamb waves have been reported to be an efficient tool for non-destructive evaluations (NDE) for various application scenarios. However, accurate and reliable damage quantification using the Lamb wave method is still a practical challenge, due to the complex underlying mechanism of Lamb wave propagation and damage detection. This paper presents a Lamb wave damage quantification method using a least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) and a genetic algorithm (GA). Three damage sensitive features, namely, normalized amplitude, phase change, and correlation coefficient, were proposed to describe changes of Lamb wave characteristics caused by damage. In view of commonly used data-driven methods, the GA-based LS-SVM model using the proposed three damage sensitive features was implemented to evaluate the crack size. The GA method was adopted to optimize the model parameters. The results of GA-based LS-SVM were validated using coupon test data and lap joint component test data with naturally developed fatigue cracks. Cases of different loading and manufacturer were also included to further verify the robustness of the proposed method for crack quantification.

  2. Turmeric Extract Rescues Ethanol-Induced Developmental Defect in the Zebrafish Model for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Connors, Craig T; Mohammed, Arooj S; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, Kathleen; Marrs, James A; Chism, Grady W

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure causes the most frequent preventable birth disorder, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The effect of turmeric extracts in rescuing an ethanol-induced developmental defect using zebrafish as a model was determined. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms underlying FASD. We hypothesize that antioxidant inducing properties of turmeric may alleviate ethanol-induced defects. Curcuminoid content of the turmeric powder extract (5 mg/mL turmeric in ethanol) was determined by UPLC and found to contain Curcumin (124.1 ± 0.2 μg/mL), Desmethoxycurcumin (43.4 ± 0.1 μg/mL), and Bisdemethoxycurcumin (36.6 ± 0.1 μg/mL). Zebrafish embryos were treated with 100 mM (0.6% v/v) ethanol during gastrulation through organogenesis (2 to 48 h postfertilization (hpf)) and supplemented with turmeric extract to obtain total curcuminoid concentrations of 0, 1.16, 1.72, or 2.32 μM. Turmeric supplementation showed significant rescue of the body length at 72 hpf compared to ethanol-treated embryos. The mechanism underlying the rescue remains to be determined. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Attenuation Analysis of Lamb Waves Using the Chirplet Transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerber, Florian; Sprenger, Helge; Niethammer, Marc; Luangvilai, Kritsakorn; Jacobs, Laurence J.

    2010-01-01

    Guided Lamb waves are commonly used in nondestructive evaluation to monitor plate-like structures or to characterize properties of composite or layered materials. However, the dispersive propagation and multimode excitability of Lamb waves complicate their analysis. Advanced signal processing

  4. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Ceccanti; Sara De Nicolò; Rosanna Mancinelli; George Chaldakov; Valentina Carito; Marco Ceccanti; Giovanni Laviola; Paola Tirassa; Marco Fiore

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA an...

  5. Xenon and sevoflurane provide analgesia during labor and fetal brain protection in a perinatal rat model of hypoxia-ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yang

    Full Text Available It is not possible to identify all pregnancies at risk of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Many women use some form of analgesia during childbirth and some anesthetic agents have been shown to be neuroprotective when used as analgesics at subanesthetic concentrations. In this study we sought to understand the effects of two anesthetic agents with presumptive analgesic activity and known preconditioning-neuroprotective properties (sevoflurane or xenon, in reducing hypoxia-induced brain damage in a model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. The analgesic and neuroprotective effects at subanesthetic levels of sevoflurane (0.35% or xenon (35% were tested in a rat model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. Analgesic effects were measured by assessing maternal behavior and spinal cord dorsal horn neuronal activation using c-Fos. In separate experiments, intrauterine fetal asphyxia was induced four hours after gas exposure; on post-insult day 3 apoptotic cell death was measured by caspase-3 immunostaining in hippocampal neurons and correlated with the number of viable neurons on postnatal day (PND 7. A separate cohort of pups was nurtured by a surrogate mother for 50 days when cognitive testing with Morris water maze was performed. Both anesthetic agents provided analgesia as reflected by a reduction in the number of stretching movements and decreased c-Fos expression in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Both agents also reduced the number of caspase-3 positive (apoptotic neurons and increased cell viability in the hippocampus at PND7. These acute histological changes were mirrored by improved cognitive function measured remotely after birth on PND 50 compared to control group. Subanesthetic doses of sevoflurane or xenon provided both analgesia and neuroprotection in this model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. These data suggest that anesthetic agents with neuroprotective properties may be effective in preventing HIE and should be

  6. Energy requirements of Dorper crossbred ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, K D; Jiang, C G; Tu, Y; Zhang, N F; Liu, J; Ma, T; Zhao, Y G; Xu, G S; Diao, Q Y

    2014-05-01

    The ME and NE requirements of Dorper crossbred ewe lambs grown from 35 to 50 kg BW were assessed in a comparative slaughter trial. Thirty-five ewe lambs (33.5 ± 0.6 kg BW) of F1 crosses of purebred Dorper and thin-tailed Han sheep were used: 7 lambs were slaughtered at the start of the trial to provide baseline measures of body composition and 7 lambs were fed ad libitum and slaughtered when they reached 43 kg BW to provide intermediate measures of body composition. The remaining 21 lambs were divided into 3 groups of 7 lambs each and fed a pelleted mixed diet (concentrate:roughage = 44:56, DM basis) for ad libitum intake or 65 or 45% of ad libitum intake. All 3 groups were slaughtered when the ad libitum group reached 50 kg BW. Total body energy, N, fat, ash, and moisture content were measured. In a separate trial, 15 ewe lambs (39.5 ± 0.7 kg BW) of F1 crosses of purebred Dorper and thin-tailed Han sheep were housed in metabolism cages to evaluate the ME value of the diet at each of the 3 levels of feed intake. In vivo methane production was measured by open-circuit respirometry along with the collection of all feces and urine. The daily NEm requirement of the ewe lambs was 280 kJ/kg metabolic BW (BW(0.75)) or 292 kJ/kg metabolic shrunk BW (SBW(0.75)), whereas the daily ME requirement for maintenance was 418 kJ/kg BW(0.75) or 437 kJ/kg SBW(0.75), with a partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance of 0.67. The NEg requirement ranged from 1.37 to 3.94 MJ/d for ADG from 100 to 250 g BW, and the partial efficiency of ME utilization for gain was 0.44. The NE and ME requirements of Dorper × thin-tailed Han crossbred ewe lambs were lower than the recommendations of the United States' nutritional system.

  7. A fetal whole ovarian culture model for the evaluation of CrVI-induced developmental toxicity during germ cell nest breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, Jone A.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Banu, Sakhila K.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A, dioxin, pesticides, and cigarette smoke, has been linked to several ovarian diseases such as premature ovarian failure (POF) and early menopause in women. Hexavalent chromium (CrVI), one of the more toxic heavy metals, is widely used in more than 50 industries. As one of the world's leading producers of Cr compounds, the U.S. is facing growing challenges in protecting human health against adverse effects of CrVI. Our recent findings demonstrated that in vivo CrVI exposure during gestational period caused POF in F1 offspring. Our current research focus is three-fold: (i) to identify the effect of CrVI on critical windows of great vulnerability of fetal ovarian development; (ii) to understand the molecular mechanism of CrVI-induced POF; (iii) to identify potential intervention strategies to mitigate or inhibit CrVI effects. In order to accomplish these goals we used a fetal whole ovarian culture system. Fetuses were removed from the normal pregnant rats on gestational day 13.5. Fetal ovaries were cultured in vitro for 12 days, and treated with or without 0.1 ppm potassium dichromate (CrVI) from culture day 2–8, which recapitulated embryonic day 14.5–20.5, in vivo. Results showed that CrVI increased germ cell/oocyte apoptosis by increasing caspase 3, BAX, p53 and PUMA; decreasing BCL2, BMP15, GDF9 and cKIT; and altering cell cycle regulatory genes and proteins. This model system may serve as a potential tool for high throughput testing of various drugs and/or EDCs in particular to assess developmental toxicity of the ovary. - Highlights: • CrVI (0.1 ppm, a regulatory dose) increased germ cell apoptosis of fetal ovaries. • CrVI (0.1 ppm) increased pro-apoptotic proteins. • CrVI (0.1 ppm) decreased cyclins and CDK1 and cell survival proteins. • CrVI (0.1 ppm) increased oxidative stress during fetal ovarian development. • We propose fetal ovarian culture model for high

  8. The role of thresholds in the response of lambs to vaccination with irradiated Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windon, R.G.; Dineen, J.K.; Gregg, P.; Donald, A.D.; Griffiths, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    A piecewise logarithmic model fitted to worm counts of ewe lambs vaccinated and challenged in pens with a range of doses of irradiated and normal Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae respectively, indicated that the threshold for response to both vaccine (V 0 =4400) and challenge dose is exceeded by 5000 larvae. Whereas response was vaccine dose dependent, it was independent of challenge dose. Ram lambs vaccinated at low dose levels were as resistant against challenge as ewe lambs, but by contrast, failed to show increased protection after vaccination with high doses of irradiated larvae. Serum titre of antiworm complement-fixing antibodies at the time of challenge also indicated that ram lambs were less responsive immunologically than ewe lambs following vaccination at the higher dose levels. A field study showed that response to vaccination was only apparent after transfer of the sheep to heavily contaminated pastures, suggesting that previous exposure of the vaccinated animals to the low dose of infective larvae available on a lightly contaminated pasture constituted a challenge which was below the threshold. (author)

  9. Lambing and neonatal behaviour of Djallonke x Sahel crossbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observations were made oflhe behaviour of 52 ewes during lambing. The parameters recorded were duration and distance of isolation of dam from the main flock, grooming and rejection of lambs by their dams. The effects of age and parity of dam and birth weight and sex of lamb on these behavioural characteristics were ...

  10. Major causes of lamb mortality at Ebinat woreda, Amhara National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A year-round (from September 2008 to August 2009) study was conducted to investigate causes of lamb mortality at Ebinat woreda, Amhara National Regional State, northwestern Ethiopia. Two hundred and forty one lambs under the age of six months were exploited for analysis of this study. Out of the 241 lambs observed, ...

  11. Acephalous lamb from an in vitro-produced sheep embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Shirazi, Abolfazl; Ahmadi, Ebrahim; Jadidi, Majid; Shams-Esfandabadi, Naser; Heidari, Banafsheh

    2009-01-01

    This is the first report of an acephalous lamb from the transfer of an in vitro-produced sheep embryo. Twelve in vitro-fertilized embryos were transferred to 4 recipient ewes (3 embryos/ewe). Two ewes remained pregnant: one delivered a normal female lamb, the other a male acephalous lamb. Possible contributing factors are discussed.

  12. Prenatal Intestinal Obstruction Affects the Myenteric Plexus and Causes Functional Bowel Impairment in Fetal Rat Experimental Model of Intestinal Atresia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khen-Dunlop, Naziha; Sarnacki, Sabine; Victor, Anais; Grosos, Celine; Menard, Sandrine; Soret, Rodolphe; Goudin, Nicolas; Pousset, Maud; Sauvat, Frederique; Revillon, Yann; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine; Neunlist, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Background Intestinal atresia is a rare congenital disorder with an incidence of 3/10 000 birth. About one-third of patients have severe intestinal dysfunction after surgical repair. We examined whether prenatal gastrointestinal obstruction might effect on the myenteric plexus and account for subsequent functional disorders. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied a rat model of surgically induced antenatal atresia, comparing intestinal samples from both sides of the obstruction and with healthy rat pups controls. Whole-mount preparations of the myenteric plexus were stained for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to analyze mRNAs for inflammatory markers. Functional motility and permeability analyses were performed in vitro. Phenotypic studies were also performed in 8 newborns with intestinal atresia. In the experimental model, the proportion of nNOS-immunoreactive neurons was similar in proximal and distal segments (6.7±4.6% vs 5.6±4.2%, p = 0.25), but proximal segments contained a higher proportion of ChAT-immunoreactive neurons (13.2±6.2% vs 7.5±4.3%, p = 0.005). Phenotypic changes were associated with a 100-fold lower concentration-dependent contractile response to carbachol and a 1.6-fold higher EFS-induced contractile response in proximal compared to distal segments. Transcellular (p = 0.002) but not paracellular permeability was increased. Comparison with controls showed that modifications involved not only proximal but also distal segments. Phenotypic studies in human atresia confirmed the changes in ChAT expression. Conclusion Experimental atresia in fetal rat induces differential myenteric plexus phenotypical as well as functional changes (motility and permeability) between the two sides of the obstruction. Delineating these changes might help to identify markers predictive of motility dysfunction and to define guidelines for post-surgical care. PMID:23667464

  13. Neuroaxonal dystrophy in Australian Merino lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessell, A E; Finnie, J W; Blumbergs, P C; Manavis, J; Jerrett, I V

    2012-07-01

    Neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD) is a morphological abnormality in man and animals that is characterized by the occurrence of numerous axonal swellings (spheroids) in the nervous system. NAD has been described in Suffolk lambs in the USA, Merino lambs in Australia and several breeds of sheep in New Zealand. This paper describes the clinicopathological changes of only the second occurrence of NAD reported in Merino lambs. There were some features (myelin loss, gliosis and visual impairment) in these Australian cases that have not been reported previously in ovine NAD. Application of immunohistochemical markers of axonal transport suggested that disruption of this transport mechanism contributed to spheroid development. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Maternal pravastatin prevents altered fetal brain development in a preeclamptic CD-1 mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa R Carver

    Full Text Available Using an animal model, we have previously shown that preeclampsia results in long-term adverse neuromotor outcomes in the offspring, and this phenotype was prevented by antenatal treatment with pravastatin. This study aims to localize the altered neuromotor programming in this animal model and to evaluate the role of pravastatin in its prevention.For the preeclampsia model, pregnant CD-1 mice were randomly allocated to injection of adenovirus carrying sFlt-1 or its control virus carrying mFc into the tail vein. Thereafter they received pravastatin (sFlt-1-pra "experimental group" or water (sFlt-1 "positive control" until weaning. The mFc group ("negative control" received water. Offspring at 6 months of age were sacrificed, and whole brains underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. MRIs were performed using an 11.7 Tesla vertical bore MRI scanner. T2 weighted images were acquired to evaluate the volumes of 28 regions of interest, including areas involved in adaptation and motor, spatial and sensory function. Cytochemistry and cell quantification was performed using neuron-specific Nissl stain. One-way ANOVA with multiple comparison testing was used for statistical analysis.Compared with control offspring, male sFlt-1 offspring have decreased volumes in the fimbria, periaquaductal gray, stria medullaris, and ventricles and increased volumes in the lateral globus pallidus and neocortex; however, female sFlt-1 offspring showed increased volumes in the ventricles, stria medullaris, and fasciculus retroflexus and decreased volumes in the inferior colliculus, thalamus, and lateral globus pallidus. Neuronal quantification via Nissl staining exhibited decreased cell counts in sFlt-1 offspring neocortex, more pronounced in males. Prenatal pravastatin treatment prevented these changes.Preeclampsia alters brain development in sex-specific patterns, and prenatal pravastatin therapy prevents altered neuroanatomic programming in this animal model.

  15. Fetal Origins of Life Stage Disease: A Zebrafish Model for the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the U.S., childhood obesity has more than doubled in children and quadrupled in adolescents in the past 30 years, affects 35% of adults, and costs the U.S. healthcare industry >$200 billion annually. The chemical environment in the womb may cause susceptibility to different life-stage and life-long metabolic diseases including obesity. The challenge is to understand if exposures during developmentally sensitive windows impact life-stage disease, such as obesity, by increasing adipose tissue mass. In vitro models lack the integrated systems approach needed to assess adipose development, while mammalian models are impractical in a screen of thousands of chemicals. Therefore, an obesogen screening method was developed to interrogate bioactivity using a full systems approach, in a vertebrate zebrafish model with complete metabolic activity, at a time when the full signaling repertoire is expressed and active, to optimally examine how chemical dose and duration impact life-stage adipose mass. A time-line for adipose depot formation was mapped in zebrafish 6−14 days post fertilization (dpf) using the lipophilic dye, Nile Red, in combination with fluorescent microscopy. Those time points were then used to investigate the impact of embryonic tributyltin chloride (TBT, a known obesogen) exposure (10nM daily renewal, 0−5dpf) on adipose mass. Fluorescent microscopy revealed adipose depots that were larger and appeared 2 days earlier in TBT treated compared to contro

  16. On Lamb and Rayleigh wave convergence in viscoelastic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenadic, Ivan Z; Urban, Matthew W; Aristizabal, Sara; Mitchell, Scott A; Humphrey, Tye C; Greenleaf, James F, E-mail: Nenadic.Ivan@mayo.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, 55905 (United States)

    2011-10-21

    Characterization of the viscoelastic material properties of soft tissue has become an important area of research over the last two decades. Our group has been investigating the feasibility of using a shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) method to excite Lamb waves in organs with plate-like geometry to estimate the viscoelasticity of the medium of interest. The use of Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry to quantify the mechanical properties of viscoelastic solids has previously been reported. Two organs, the heart wall and the spleen, can be readily modeled using plate-like geometries. The elasticity of these two organs is important because they change in pathological conditions. Diastolic dysfunction is the inability of the left ventricle (LV) of the heart to supply sufficient stroke volumes into the systemic circulation and is accompanied by the loss of compliance and stiffening of the LV myocardium. It has been shown that there is a correlation between high splenic stiffness in patients with chronic liver disease and strong correlation between spleen and liver stiffness. Here, we investigate the use of the SDUV method to quantify the viscoelasticity of the LV free-wall myocardium and spleen by exciting Rayleigh waves on the organ's surface and measuring the wave dispersion (change of wave velocity as a function of frequency) in the frequency range 40-500 Hz. An equation for Rayleigh wave dispersion due to cylindrical excitation was derived by modeling the excised myocardium and spleen with a homogenous Voigt material plate immersed in a nonviscous fluid. Boundary conditions and wave potential functions were solved for the surface wave velocity. Analytical and experimental convergence between the Lamb and Rayleigh waves is reported in a finite element model of a plate in a fluid of similar density, gelatin plate and excised porcine spleen and left-ventricular free-wall myocardium.

  17. On Lamb and Rayleigh wave convergence in viscoelastic tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenadic, Ivan Z; Urban, Matthew W; Aristizabal, Sara; Mitchell, Scott A; Humphrey, Tye C; Greenleaf, James F

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of the viscoelastic material properties of soft tissue has become an important area of research over the last two decades. Our group has been investigating the feasibility of using a shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) method to excite Lamb waves in organs with plate-like geometry to estimate the viscoelasticity of the medium of interest. The use of Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry to quantify the mechanical properties of viscoelastic solids has previously been reported. Two organs, the heart wall and the spleen, can be readily modeled using plate-like geometries. The elasticity of these two organs is important because they change in pathological conditions. Diastolic dysfunction is the inability of the left ventricle (LV) of the heart to supply sufficient stroke volumes into the systemic circulation and is accompanied by the loss of compliance and stiffening of the LV myocardium. It has been shown that there is a correlation between high splenic stiffness in patients with chronic liver disease and strong correlation between spleen and liver stiffness. Here, we investigate the use of the SDUV method to quantify the viscoelasticity of the LV free-wall myocardium and spleen by exciting Rayleigh waves on the organ's surface and measuring the wave dispersion (change of wave velocity as a function of frequency) in the frequency range 40-500 Hz. An equation for Rayleigh wave dispersion due to cylindrical excitation was derived by modeling the excised myocardium and spleen with a homogenous Voigt material plate immersed in a nonviscous fluid. Boundary conditions and wave potential functions were solved for the surface wave velocity. Analytical and experimental convergence between the Lamb and Rayleigh waves is reported in a finite element model of a plate in a fluid of similar density, gelatin plate and excised porcine spleen and left-ventricular free-wall myocardium.

  18. Capacitive lamb wave transducers with multiple even-modes for biochemical detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Li-Feng; Shao, Jin-Ping

    2010-08-01

    The high-order even-modes of high-aspect-ratio rectangular diaphragms are further exploited in this paper to excite Lamb waves. Thus the capacitive Lamb wave transducer (CLWT) can be excited by not only the second-order mode but also higher order even-modes, so that we can obtain higher operation frequencies, and make the CLWTs operate at several different frequencies for different applications. An optimized design with a 3μm thick silicon plate and submicrometer thick conducting silicon diaphragms is given according to the characteristics of the lowest order Lamb wave (i.e. A0 wave) and the TDK model for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUT) with high-aspect-ratio rectangular diaphragms. Such a CLWT with multiple even-modes is significant and attractive for gas and liquid sensing in the field of biochemical measurements.

  19. Lamb shift of Unruh detector levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbrecht, Bjoern [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Prokopec, Tomislav [Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITF) and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2006-06-07

    We argue that the energy levels of an Unruh detector experience an effect similar to the Lamb shift in quantum electrodynamics. As a consequence, the spectrum of energy levels in a curved background is different from that in flat space. As examples, we consider a detector in an expanding universe and in Rindler space, and for the latter case we suggest a new expression for the local virtual energy density seen by an accelerated observer. In the ultraviolet domain, that is when the space between the energy levels is larger than the Hubble rate or the acceleration of the detector, the Lamb shift quantitatively dominates over the thermal response rate.

  20. Heterogeneity of p53 dependent genomic responses following ethanol exposure in a developmental mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Sandra M.; Middleton, Frank A.

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure can produce structural and functional deficits in the brain and result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). In rodent models acute exposure to a high concentration of alcohol causes increased apoptosis in the developing brain. A single causal molecular switch that signals for this increase in apoptosis has yet to be identified. The protein p53 has been suggested to play a pivotal role in enabling cells to engage in pro-apoptotic processes, and thus figures prominently as a hub molecule in the intracellular cascade of responses elicited by alcohol exposure. In the present study we examined the effect of ethanol-induced cellular and molecular responses in primary somatosensory cortex (SI) and hippocampus of 7-day-old wild-type (WT) and p53-knockout (KO) mice. We quantified apoptosis by active caspase-3 immunohistochemistry and ApopTag™ labeling, then determined total RNA expression levels in laminae of SI and hippocampal subregions. Immunohistochemical results confirmed increased incidence of apoptotic cells in both regions in WT and KO mice following ethanol exposure. The lack of p53 was not protective in these brain regions. Molecular analyses revealed a heterogeneous response to ethanol exposure that varied depending on the subregion, and which may go undetected using a global approach. Gene network analyses suggest that the presence or absence of p53 alters neuronal function and synaptic modifications following ethanol exposure, in addition to playing a classic role in cell cycle signaling. Thus, p53 may function in a way that underlies the intellectual and behavioral deficits observed in FASD. PMID:28723918

  1. Challenge of Fetal Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Technical Information Service NCHS The Challenge of Fetal Mortality Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir NCHS Data ... and ethnicity What is the impact of fetal mortality on U.S. families? In 2005, a total of ...

  2. Estimation of Inbreeding Coefficient and Its Effects on Lamb Survival in Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad almasi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The mating of related individuals produces an inbred offspring and leads to an increased homozygosity in the progeny, genetic variance decrease within families and increase between families. The ration of homozygosity for individuals was calculated by inbreeding coefficient. Inbred individuals may carry two alleles at a locus that are replicated from one gene in the previous generations, called identical by descent. The inbreeding coefficient should be monitored in a breeding program, since it plays an important role at decreasing of homeostasis, performance, reproduction and viability. The trend of inbreeding is an indicator for determining of inbreeding level in the herd. Inbreeding affects both phenotypic means of traits and genetic variances within population, thus it is an important factor for delimitations of genetic progress in a population. Reports showed an inbreeding increase led to decrease of phenotypic value in some of the productive and reproductive traits. Materials and Methods In the current study, the pedigree data of 14030 and 6215 records of Baluchi and Iranblack lambs that collected from 1984 to 2011 at the Abbasabad Sheep Breeding Station in Mashhad, Iran, 3588 records of Makoei lambs that collected from 1994 to 2011 at the Makoei sheep breeding station and 6140, records of Zandi lambs that collected from 1991 to 2011 at the Khejir Sheep Breeding Station in Tehran, Iran were used to estimating the inbreeding coefficient and its effects on lamb survival in these breeds. Lamb survival trait was scored as 1 and 0 for lamb surviving and not surviving at weaning weight, respectively. Inbreeding coefficient was estimated by relationship matrix algorithm (A=TDT' methodology using the CFC software program. Effects of inbreeding coefficient on lamb survival were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood (REML method under 12 different animal models using ASReml 3.0 computer programme. Coefficient of inbreeding for each

  3. Modeling maternal fetal RSV F vaccine induced antibody transfer in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Gregory M; Fries, Louis F; Smith, Gale; Kpamegan, Eloi; Lu, Hanxin; Guebre-Xabier, Mimi; Hickman, Somia P; Flyer, David

    2015-11-25

    Protection of newborns and young infants against RSV disease via maternal immunization mediated by transplacental transfer of antibodies is under evaluation in third-trimester pregnant women with the RSV recombinant F nanoparticle vaccine (RSV F vaccine). Since the hemichorial placental architecture in guinea pigs and humans is similar, the guinea pig model was employed to assess RSV F vaccine immunogenicity in pregnant sows and to compare RSV-specific maternal antibody levels in their pups. Thirty (30) presumptive pregnant guinea pigs were immunized on gestational day 25 and 46 with placebo (PBS), 30μg RSV F, or 30μg RSV F+400μg aluminum phosphate. Sera at delivery/birth (sows/pups) and 15 and 30 days post-partum (pups) were analyzed for the presence of anti-F IgG, palivizumab-competitive antibody (PCA) and RSV/A microneutralization (MN). The rates of pregnancy and stillbirth were similar between controls and vaccinees. The vaccine induced high levels of anti-F IgG, PCA and MN in sows, with the highest levels observed in adjuvanted vaccinees. Placental transfer to pups was proportional to the maternal antibody levels, with concentration effects observed for all immune measures. The RSV F vaccine was safe and immunogenic in pregnant guinea pigs and supported robust transplacental antibody transfer to their pups. Relative concentration of antibodies in the pups was observed even in the presence of high levels of maternal antibody. Guinea pigs may be an important safety and immunogenicity model for preclinical assessment of candidate vaccines for maternal immunization. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in the Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor after Fetal Tracheal Occlusion in an Experimental Model of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanz-López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, an angiogenic factor secreted by type II pneumocytes, could play a role in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH pathogenesis. Animal studies suggest that VEGF accelerates lung growth. Aim. To quantify VEGF on fetal lungs in a nitrofen rat model for CDH and to analyze the effect of tracheal occlusion (TO in VEGF in fetal lung rats after nitrofen and in control rats not exposed to nitrofen. Methods. Pregnant rats received nitrofen on day 9.5 of gestation. Fetuses were divided into 2 groups: those that underwent TO on day 20 and those that did not. On day 21, fetuses were delivered, and the lungs were dissected for subsequent VEGF quantification. Results. CDH was detected in 43% of the fetuses that received nitrofen. Fetuses with CDH showed significantly reduced lung weight/fetal weight ratio and lower VEGF levels than the remainder. A higher VEGF value was observed after TO. Conclusions. VEGF protein was significantly lower in fetuses with CDH. TO induced a significant increase in VEGF compared to the fetuses that did not undergo TO. Although not statistically significant, we observed higher VEGF levels in fetuses with CDH and TO compared to fetuses with CDH and no further intervention.

  5. Low pasture allowance until late gestation in ewes: behavioural and physiological changes in ewes and lambs from lambing to weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-de-Melo, A; Ungerfeld, R; Hötzel, M J; Orihuela, A; Pérez-Clariget, R

    2017-02-01

    Low pasture allowance during gestation affects ewes' BW at parturition, the bond with their lamb, lamb development, and thus also may affect their responses to weaning. The objectives were to determine if native pasture allowance from before conception until late pregnancy affects ewe-lamb behaviours at lambing, ewes' milk yield, lambs' BW, and the behavioural and physiological changes of ewes and lambs at weaning. From 23 days before conception until 122 days of pregnancy, 24 ewes grazed on two different native pasture allowances: high (10 to 12 kg of dry matter (DM)/100 kg of BW per day; HPA treatment; n=12) or low (5 to 8 kg of DM/100 kg of BW per day; LPA treatment; n=12). Thereafter, all ewes grazed on Festuca arundinacea and received rice bran and crude glycerine. Ewes' body condition score (BCS) and BW were recorded during pregnancy and postpartum periods. Milk yield was determined on days 32, 41 and 54 after lambing. Lambs' BW was recorded from birth until 72 days after lambing. Latency from parturition until the ewe licked her lamb, maternal behaviour score (a test that evaluates maternal attachment to the lamb) and latency for lamb to stand up and suckle were determined. The behaviour of the lambs and ewes was recorded before and after weaning (at 65 days). The ewes' serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were measured before and after weaning. The HPA ewes presented greater BW (Pestablishment of the mother-young bond, nor the ewes' behavioural responses at weaning. Lambs reared by ewes that grazed on low pasture allowance during pregnancy presented fewer behavioural changes and a lower decrease of albumin concentration after weaning. Lambs' BW was not affected by the feeding received by their mothers.

  6. Noninfectious Fever in the Near-Term Pregnant Rat Induces Fetal Brain Inflammation: A Model for the Consequences of Epidural-Associated Maternal Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Scott; Pancaro, Carlo; Bonney, Iwona; Marchand, James E

    2017-12-01

    Women laboring with epidural analgesia experience fever much more frequently than do women who chose other forms of analgesia, and maternal intrapartum fever is associated with numerous adverse consequences, including brain injury in the fetus. We developed a model of noninfectious inflammatory fever in the near-term pregnant rat to simulate the pathophysiology of epidural-associated fever and hypothesized that it would produce fetal brain inflammation. Twenty-four pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were studied at 20 days gestation (term: 22 days). Dams were treated by injection of rat recombinant interleukin (IL)-6 or vehicle at 90-minute intervals, and temperature was monitored every 30 minutes. Eight hours after the first treatment, dams were delivered of fetuses and then killed. Maternal IL-6 was measured at delivery. Fetal brains (n = 24) were processed and stained for ED-1/CD68, a marker for activated microglia, and cell counts in the lateral septal and hippocampal brain regions were measured. Fetal brains were also stained for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a downstream marker of neuroinflammation. Eight fetal brains were further analyzed for quantitative forebrain COX-2 by Western blotting compared to a β-actin standard. Maternal temperature and IL-6 levels were compared between treatments, as were cell counts, COX-2 staining, and COX-2 levels by Mann-Whitney U test, repeated-measures analysis of variance, or Fisher exact test, as appropriate. Injection of rat IL-6 at 90-minute intervals produced an elevation of maternal temperature compared to vehicle (P fever is inducible in the near-term pregnant rat by injection of IL-6 at levels comparable to those observed during human epidural labor analgesia. Maternal IL-6 injection causes neuroinflammation in the fetus.

  7. Identifying a window of vulnerability during fetal development in a maternal iron restriction model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Mihaila

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well acknowledged from observations in humans that iron deficiency during pregnancy can be associated with a number of developmental problems in the newborn and developing child. Due to the obvious limitations of human studies, the stage during gestation at which maternal iron deficiency causes an apparent impairment in the offspring remains elusive. In order to begin to understand the time window(s during pregnancy that is/are especially susceptible to suboptimal iron levels, which may result in negative effects on the development of the fetus, we developed a rat model in which we were able to manipulate and monitor the dietary iron intake during specific stages of pregnancy and analyzed the developing fetuses. We established four different dietary-feeding protocols that were designed to render the fetuses iron deficient at different gestational stages. Based on a functional analysis that employed Auditory Brainstem Response measurements, we found that maternal iron restriction initiated prior to conception and during the first trimester were associated with profound changes in the developing fetus compared to iron restriction initiated later in pregnancy. We also showed that the presence of iron deficiency anemia, low body weight, and changes in core body temperature were not defining factors in the establishment of neural impairment in the rodent offspring.Our data may have significant relevance for understanding the impact of suboptimal iron levels during pregnancy not only on the mother but also on the developing fetus and hence might lead to a more informed timing of iron supplementation during pregnancy.

  8. Effect of weaning age on hair sheep lamb and ewe production traits in an accelerated lambing system in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Weis, A J

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of weaning age on lamb and ewe productivity in an accelerated lambing system. St. Croix White (STX) and Dorper × St. Croix White (DRPX) lambs were assigned at birth based on breed, gender, and litter size to be weaned at 63 (Early-1; 106 lambs and 68 ewes) or 90 d of age (Late-1; 99 lambs and 60 ewes) in Exp.1 or at 63 (Early-2; 77 lambs and 57 ewes) or 120 d of age (Late-2; 75 lambs and 56 ewes) in Exp. 2. After weaning, lambs were weighed weekly and fed a concentrate ration (2% BW·lamb·d) while grazing guinea grass pastures. In Exp. 1, weaning weight was greater ( ewes than for Early-1 ewes (20.9 ± 0.8 vs. 17.4 ± 0.8 kg, respectively). Ewe efficiency ([ewe BW at weaning/litter weaning weight] × 100) was greater ( ewes than for Early-1 ewes (50.7 ± 1.9 vs. 42.3 ± 1.8%, respectively). Lamb weight gain between 63 and 90 d of age was lower ( ewes than in Early-2 ewes (27.2 ± 1.0 vs. 17.5 ± 0.9 kg, respectively). Ewe efficiency was greater ( ewes than for Early-2 ewes (68.1 ± 2.2 vs. 41.9 ± 2.0%, respectively). Lamb weight gain between 63 and 120 d of age was not different ( > 0.06) between Early-2 and Late-2 lambs (5.1 ± 0.2 vs. 5.6 ± 0.3 kg, respectively). In Exp. 1 and 2, ewe BW at breeding and lambing and weaning and lambing rate were not different among weaning ages of lambs ( > 0.17). The Early-1 ewes exhibited estrus earlier than Late-1 ewes (10.9 ± 0.9 vs. 13.9 ± 1.0 d, respectively) but there was no difference ( > 0.63) between Early-2 and Late-2 ewes. Weaning hair lambs at 90 or 120 d of age can be done in an accelerated lambing system with no detrimental effect on lamb or ewe productivity. Late weaning resulted in a decreased number of days that lambs received high-cost, imported feed without a reduction in growth, resulting in savings of US$6 to $15 per lamb.

  9. Excitation of plane Lamb wave in plate-like structures under applied surface loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kai; Xu, Xinsheng; Zhao, Zhen; Yang, Zhengyan; Zhou, Zhenhuan; Wu, Zhanjun

    2018-02-01

    Lamb waves play an important role in structure health monitoring (SHM) systems. The excitation of Lamb waves has been discussed for a long time with absorbing results. However, little effort has been made towards the precise characterization of Lamb wave excitation by various transducer models with mathematical foundation. In this paper, the excitation of plane Lamb waves with plane strain assumption in isotropic plate structures under applied surface loading is solved with the Hamiltonian system. The response of the Lamb modes excited by applied loading is expressed analytically. The effect of applied loading is divided into the product of two parts as the effect of direction and the effect of distribution, which can be changed by selecting different types of transducer and the corresponding transducer configurations. The direction of loading determines the corresponding displacement of each mode. The effect of applied loading on the in-plane and normal directions depends on the in-plane and normal displacements at the surface respectively. The effect of the surface loading distribution on the Lamb mode amplitudes is mainly reflected by amplitude versus frequency or wavenumber. The frequencies at which the maxima and minima of the S0 or A0 mode response occur depend on the distribution of surface loading. The numerical results of simulations conducted on an infinite aluminum plate verify the theoretical prediction of not only the direction but also the distribution of applied loading. A pure S0 or A0 mode can be excited by selecting the appropriate direction and distribution at the corresponding frequency.

  10. Economic effect of pneumonia and pleurisy in lambs in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin-Ray, K A; Stevenson, M A; Heuer, C; Cogger, N

    2008-06-01

    To estimate the cost of pneumonia and pleurisy in lambs to the sheep industry in New Zealand, in order to provide a reference for future cost-benefit calculations for control programmes to reduce the incidence of pneumonia. An estimate of the economic cost of pneumonia and pleurisy in lambs was based on: cohort studies of the association between growth rate and the extent of pneumonic lesions at slaughter (n=14 flocks), the prevalence of moderate to severe (MS) pneumonia (> or =10% lung surface area affected) and pleurisy (n=1,719 flocks), the correlation between the prevalence of MS pneumonia and economic loss at the flock level, and data on annual slaughter statistics and carcass value in New Zealand. A stochastic spreadsheet model was developed and run with 1,000 iterations. Input variables represented by probability distributions were growth rate, average cost of loss according to the prevalence of pneumonia per month, carcass value, prevalence of pleurisy, and carcasses downgraded for pleurisy, and annual national slaughter statistics. The output was a posterior distribution of the annual cost of disease. The cost of pneumonia only included the loss associated with reduced growth rate, while mortality due to pneumonia was assumed to be low and was ignored. The cost of pleurisy included the loss associated with downgraded or condemned carcasses. Thus, the simulated annual average cost of pneumonia was NZ$28.1 (95% CI=NZ$15.0-42.0) million, and that of pleurisy NZ$25.1 (95% CI=NZ$10.2-48.1) million. The combined cost of pneumonia and pleurisy averaged NZ$53.2 (95% CI=NZ$32.4-78.9) million. The parameters with the greatest impact on the combined cost of pneumonia and pleurisy were prevalence of pleurisy between March and May, and cost of reduced growth due to pneumonia for lambs slaughtered in June. The average cost of pneumonia and pleurisy to the sheep industry in New Zealand due to reduced lamb growth and decreased carcass value is likely to be between NZ$32

  11. Digital atlas of fetal brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Teresa; Weinberger, E. [Department of Radiology, Seattle Children' s Hospital, Seattle, WA (United States); Matesan, Manuela [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Bulas, Dorothy I. [Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Fetal MRI can be performed in the second and third trimesters. During this time, the fetal brain undergoes profound structural changes. Interpretation of appropriate development might require comparison with normal age-based models. Consultation of a hard-copy atlas is limited by the inability to compare multiple ages simultaneously. To provide images of normal fetal brains from weeks 18 through 37 in a digital format that can be reviewed interactively. This will facilitate recognition of abnormal brain development. T2-W images for the atlas were obtained from fetal MR studies of normal brains scanned for other indications from 2005 to 2007. Images were oriented in standard axial, coronal and sagittal projections, with laterality established by situs. Gestational age was determined by last menstrual period, earliest US measurements and sonogram performed on the same day as the MR. The software program used for viewing the atlas, written in C, permits linked scrolling and resizing the images. Simultaneous comparison of varying gestational ages is permissible. Fetal brain images across gestational ages 18 to 37 weeks are provided as an interactive digital atlas and are available for free download. Improved interpretation of fetal brain abnormalities can be facilitated by the use of digital atlas cataloging of the normal changes throughout fetal development. Here we provide a description of the atlas and a discussion of normal fetal brain development. (orig.)

  12. Digital atlas of fetal brain MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Teresa; Weinberger, E.; Matesan, Manuela; Bulas, Dorothy I.

    2010-01-01

    Fetal MRI can be performed in the second and third trimesters. During this time, the fetal brain undergoes profound structural changes. Interpretation of appropriate development might require comparison with normal age-based models. Consultation of a hard-copy atlas is limited by the inability to compare multiple ages simultaneously. To provide images of normal fetal brains from weeks 18 through 37 in a digital format that can be reviewed interactively. This will facilitate recognition of abnormal brain development. T2-W images for the atlas were obtained from fetal MR studies of normal brains scanned for other indications from 2005 to 2007. Images were oriented in standard axial, coronal and sagittal projections, with laterality established by situs. Gestational age was determined by last menstrual period, earliest US measurements and sonogram performed on the same day as the MR. The software program used for viewing the atlas, written in C, permits linked scrolling and resizing the images. Simultaneous comparison of varying gestational ages is permissible. Fetal brain images across gestational ages 18 to 37 weeks are provided as an interactive digital atlas and are available for free download. Improved interpretation of fetal brain abnormalities can be facilitated by the use of digital atlas cataloging of the normal changes throughout fetal development. Here we provide a description of the atlas and a discussion of normal fetal brain development. (orig.)

  13. Glycosylation defects underlying fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: a novel pathogenetic model. "When the wine goes in, strange things come out" - S.T. Coleridge, The Piccolomini.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binkhorst, M.; Wortmann, S.B.; Funke, S.; Kozicz, L.T.; Wevers, R.A.; Morava, E.

    2012-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is an umbrella term used to describe the craniofacial dysmorphic features, malformations, and disturbances in growth, neurodevelopment and behavior occurring in individuals prenatally exposed to alcohol. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) represents the severe end of

  14. Genetic analysis of ewe stayability and its association with lamb growth and adult production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kott, R W

    2009-11-01

    Records from 2,525 adult Targhee ewes and 10,099 lambs were used to estimate genetic parameters in an animal model for ewe stayability (STAY), productive life (PL), adult BW (AW) and BCS, fleece characteristics, and number of lambs born (NLB) and for lamb BW at birth and approximately 45 d, 120 d (120W; weaning), 12 mo, and 18 mo of age. Stayabilities were analyzed as overall stayability (STAYn|2), which indicated presence or absence of a ewe at n yr of age, given that she was present at 2 yr of age, or marginal stayability (STAYn|n-1) recording the presence of a ewe at n yr of age, given that she was present in the previous year. Productive life was measured as the age of ewe in years at her last lambing. Lamb BW were corrected for age at weighing; BW taken at or before weaning were adjusted for effects of type of birth and rearing, age of dam, and sex using National Sheep Improvement Program methods. The NLB was likewise adjusted for effects of ewe age before analysis. Birth year was included as a fixed effect for all traits. Year of record and, for AW and CS, the number of lambs born or born and reared were also included in models for adult traits. Models for all traits included random additive genetic and residual effects. Random maternal genetic and dam permanent environmental effects were also included in the model for lamb (pre)weaning BW, and random permanent environmental effects of the ewe were included in models for adult traits. The heritability estimate for PL was 0.05 (P ewe fitness characteristics. Genetic correlations between STAY5|4 and 120W, AW, and NLB were not different from zero (0.06, 0.13, and -0.06, respectively; P > 0.10). However, genetic correlations between STAY6|2 and 120W, AW, and NLB were all negative, with values of -0.17, -0.32 (P < 0.05), and -0.03, respectively, indicating a possible small antagonism between STAY and genetic effects on body size.

  15. Effects of glucose and insulin on fetal glucose oxidation and oxygen consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, W.W. Jr.; DiGiacomo, J.E.; Meznarich, H.K.; Hirst, K.; Zerbe, G.

    1989-01-01

    Glucose and insulin clamp experiments were performed in late-gestation fetal lambs to quantify the separate and combined effects of physiological concentrations of fetal glucose (G; 7.3-62.6 mg/dl) and insulin (I; 2-119 uU/ml) on fetal glucose metabolism and O2 consumption. Fetal glucose utilization rate (GUR) varied from 2.82 to 15.12 mg.min-1.kg-1. Fetal CO 2 production from fetal glucose carbon oxidation (CO 2 Pr) varied from 32 to 234 mumol.min-1.kg-1 and was directly related to G and I [CO 2 Pr = -0.00868 + 0.00578 (G) + 0.000901 (I) - 0.0000619 (G)2, r = 0.88] and to GUR (CO 2 Pr = 0.0159 GUR - 0.0130, r = 0.89). CO 2 Pr accounted for 54.7% of the mean GUR and for 35.9% of the mean umbilical O 2 uptake (UO2U), ranging from 26.0% in the control studies to 36.5% in hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic studies and to 45.1% in hyperinsulinemic-hyperglycemic studies. UO 2 U varied from 0.200 to I [UO 2 U = 0.303 + [0.000813 (G)] + [0.0000461 (I)], r = 0.89] and to GUR (UO2U = 0.0098 GUR + 0.275, r = 0.91). These results define independent (additive) effects of G and I on glucose oxidation in the late gestation fetal lamb and demonstrate the necessity for considering the levels of both G and I when studying these aspects of fetal metabolism

  16. Does heart rate variability reflect the systemic inflammatory response in a fetal sheep model of lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durosier, Lucien D; Cao, Mingju; Frasch, Martin G; Herry, Christophe L; Seely, Andrew J E; Cortes, Marina; Burns, Patrick; Desrochers, André; Fecteau, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Fetal inflammatory response occurs during chorioamnionitis, a frequent and often subclinical inflammation associated with increased risk for brain injury and life-lasting neurologic deficits. No means of early detection exist. We hypothesized that systemic fetal inflammation without septic shock will be reflected in alterations of fetal heart rate (FHR) variability (fHRV) distinguishing baseline versus inflammatory response states.In chronically instrumented near-term fetal sheep (n = 24), we induced an inflammatory response with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injected intravenously (n = 14). Ten additional fetuses served as controls. We measured fetal plasma inflammatory cytokine IL-6 at baseline, 1, 3, 6, 24 and 48 h. 44 fHRV measures were determined continuously every 5 min using continuous individualized multi-organ variability analysis (CIMVA). CIMVA creates an fHRV measures matrix across five signal-analytical domains, thus describing complementary properties of fHRV. Using principal component analysis (PCA), a widely used technique for dimensionality reduction, we derived and quantitatively compared the CIMVA fHRV PCA signatures of inflammatory response in LPS and control groups.In the LPS group, IL-6 peaked at 3 h. In parallel, PCA-derived fHRV composite measures revealed a significant difference between LPS and control group at different time points. For the LPS group, a sharp increase compared to baseline levels was observed between 3 h and 6 h, and then abating to baseline levels, thus tracking closely the IL-6 inflammatory profile. This pattern was not observed in the control group. We also show that a preselection of fHRV measures prior to the PCA can potentially increase the difference between LPS and control groups, as early as 1 h post LPS injection.We propose a fHRV composite measure that correlates well with levels of inflammation and tracks well its temporal profile. Our results highlight the potential role of HRV to study and monitor the

  17. 250 DPI at 1000 Hz acquisition rate S0 lamb wave digitizing pen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolovski, Jean-Pierre; Fournier, Danièle

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents an active stylus (X, Y) flat digitizing tablet (AST). The tablet features an acquisition rate of 1000 pts/s with 0.1 mm resolution. The cordless stylus incorporates a 1-mA low-power pulse generator. Precision is limited by diffraction to about ±0.3 mm on a 57 x 57 mm region of a 71 x 71 x 1 mm digitizing plate. Selective generation and detection of the S(0) Lamb mode with a precessing tip is the key feature of this tablet. We first highlight the ultrasonic propagation inside the stylus tip and stability of Lamb wave generation when the stylus is inclined, rotated, and slid. Then, modeling of the limitations imposed by diffraction of a 1-MHz burst S(0) plane Lamb wave packet is carried out. The model takes into account high-order zero crossing detection as well as reflections and shear horizontal (SH) conversions of the S(0) Lamb mode at free edges of a glass plate. Reflection and transmission through an isotropic PZT bar are also calculated. Finally, localization precision by time difference of arrival (TDOA) is calculated and experimentally verified near the borders of the plate, taking into account the angular sensitivity of the precessing tip.

  18. Using Swiss Webster mice to model Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD): An analysis of multilevel time-to-event data through mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Peter; Aras, Radha; Martin, Katie; Favero, Carlita

    2016-05-15

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) collectively describes the constellation of effects resulting from human alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Even with public awareness, the incidence of FASD is estimated to be upwards of 5% in the general population and is becoming a global health problem. The physical, cognitive, and behavioral impairments of FASD are recapitulated in animal models. Recently rodent models utilizing voluntary drinking paradigms have been developed that accurately reflect moderate consumption, which makes up the majority of FASD cases. The range in severity of FASD characteristics reflects the frequency, dose, developmental timing, and individual susceptibility to alcohol exposure. As most rodent models of FASD use C57BL/6 mice, there is a need to expand the stocks of mice studied in order to more fully understand the complex neurobiology of this disorder. To that end, we allowed pregnant Swiss Webster mice to voluntarily drink ethanol via the drinking in the dark (DID) paradigm throughout their gestation period. Ethanol exposure did not alter gestational outcomes as determined by no significant differences in maternal weight gain, maternal liquid consumption, litter size, or pup weight at birth or weaning. Despite seemingly normal gestation, ethanol-exposed offspring exhibit significantly altered timing to achieve developmental milestones (surface righting, cliff aversion, and open field traversal), as analyzed through mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards models. These results confirm Swiss Webster mice as a viable option to study the incidence and causes of ethanol-induced neurobehavioral alterations during development. Future studies in our laboratory will investigate the brain regions and molecules responsible for these behavioral changes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Derivation of a new lamb survival trait for the New Zealand sheep industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderick, S; Auvray, B; Newman, S-A; Dodds, K G; Gengler, N; Everett-Hincks, J M

    2015-08-01

    Previous research identified that a review of the current industry New Zealand lamb survival trait was necessary as its recording accuracy was reliant on farmers notifying their Sheep Improvement Limited bureau of lamb deaths. This paper reports the decision rules and genetic parameters for a new lamb survival trait for the New Zealand sheep industry. These rules define the new lamb survival trait (NEWSUR) using lamb birth fate (BFATE) codes and the presence/absence of lamb weight measurements. Six univariate animal models were tested and used to estimate variance or covariance components and the resulting direct and maternal heritabilities for NEWSUR. The models differed in the way they adjust for the effect of day of birth, the exclusion or inclusion of a litter (dam/year of birth) random effect, and the application or not of a logit transformation of the phenotypes. For both the linear and logistic methods, models including the random effect of litter provided the best fit for NEWSUR according to log-likelihood values. Log-likelihoods for the linear and logistic models cannot be compared; therefore, a cross-validation method was used to assess whether the logit transformation was appropriate by analyzing the predictive ability of the models. The mean square errors were slightly lower for the linear compared with the logistic model, and therefore, the linear model was recommended for industry use. The heritability attributed to direct effects ranged from 2 to 5.5%. A direct heritability of 5.5% resulted from a linear model without litter effect and omitting the effect of day of birth on survival, whereas a direct heritability of 2% resulted from the logistic model fitting a random litter effect. The heritability attributed to maternal genetic effects ranged from 1.9 to 7.7%. A maternal genetic heritability of 7.7% resulted from the logistic model omitting the litter effect, whereas a maternal genetic heritability of 1.9% resulted from the linear model fitting a

  20. [Fetal death in utero].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudigoz, R C; Revillard, J P; Audra, P; Luciani, F; Malvolti, B; Griot, J P; Frappart, L; Lafont, S

    1986-11-01

    152 cases of fetal death in utero are reported. The most frequent etiologies were: vasculorenal syndromes: 28.3 p. cent, idiopathic DPPNIs and RCIUs: 28 p. cent, accidental causes (trauma, funicular syndromes): 19.5 p. cent. Cause of death was unknown or imprecise in 18.4 p. cent of cases. Repeated fetal deaths in utero were rare: 5 observations. The authors consider the management of fetal death in utero, associated immunological problems and how to deal with subsequent pregnancies.

  1. FEASIBILITY OF OPERATING A LAMB SLAUGHTER PLANT IN NORTH DAKOTA

    OpenAIRE

    Nudell, Daniel J.; Petry, Timothy A.

    1997-01-01

    A group of North Dakota lamb producers who are members of Valley Wool Growers Association identified several niche markets for high quality North Dakota lambs. The potential availability of a closed, but formerly federally inspected, livestock slaughter and meat processing facility in Steele County heightened their interest in determining the feasibility of a cooperatively owned lamb slaughter and processing facility. The cooperative would be patterned after existing and proposed slaughter co...

  2. Fetal breathing and movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, K.; Marsal, K.

    1983-01-01

    Objective investigation of fetal motor activity largely depends on the availability of non-invasive, safe and reliable measurement techniques. Until recently such methods were not available, and therefore most of their knowledge concerning fetal physiology had to be derived from experiments on animals. Introduction of modern techniques, particularly those based on ultrasound, into perinatal research opened up new possibilities of objectively measuring fetal motor function in humans. The development of the ultrasound real-time B-mode technique rapidly attracted the interest of physiologists and clinicians in this field of fetal medicine

  3. Congenital lumbar vertebrae agenesis in a lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajli Abbasi, Mohammad; Shojaei, Bahador; Azari, Omid

    2017-01-01

    Congenital agenesis of lumbar vertebrae was diagnosed in a day-old female lamb based on radiology and clinical examinations. There was no neurological deficit in hindlimb and forelimb associated with standing disability. Radiography of the abdominal region revealed absence of lumbar vertebrae. Necropsy confirmed clinical and radiographic results. No other anomaly or agenesis was seen macroscopically in the abdominal and thoracic regions as well as vertebral column. Partial absence of vertebral column has been reported in human and different animal species, as an independent occurrence or associated with other organs anomalies. The latter has been designated as caudal regression syndrome. Vertebral agenesis may arise from irregularity in the differentiation of somites to the sclerotome or sclerotome to the vertebral primordium. Most of the previously reported cases of agenesis were related to the lumbosacral region, lonely or along with other visceral absences. This case was the first report of congenital agenesis of lumbar vertebrae in a lamb.

  4. Quantitative Estimation of Transmitted and Reflected Lamb Waves at Discontinuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyung Jin; Sohn, Hoon

    2010-01-01

    For the application of Lamb wave to structural health monitoring(SHM), understanding its physical characteristic and interaction between Lamb wave and defect of the host structure is an important issue. In this study, reflected, transmitted and mode converted Lamb waves at discontinuity of a plate structure were simulated and the amplitude ratios are calculated theoretically using Modal decomposition method. The predicted results were verified comparing with finite element method(FEM) and experimental results simulating attached PZTs. The result shows that the theoretical prediction is close to the FEM and the experimental verification. Moreover, quantitative estimation method was suggested using amplitude ratio of Lamb wave at discontinuity

  5. Acquisition of Forgaging Skills by Lambs Eating Grass or Shrub

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Enrique R.

    1988-01-01

    I studied the acquisition of foraging skills by lambs eating shrub or grass in three experiments. The general approach was to isolate those skills involved in prehending forage from those related to the acceptance of novel foods. Treatment lambs received 15 times more exposure to grass or shrub than did control lambs. Lambs were tested in 2.5 x 2.5 meter monocultures of shrub or grass 5 min/d, on two separate occasions. Height, bulk density and spatial arrangement of plant material were contr...

  6. Dispersion of Lamb waves under a periodic metal grating in aluminum nitride plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, Natalya F

    2014-09-01

    Dispersion of Lamb waves propagating in AlN plates with a periodic Al grating on the top surface and an Al electrode on the bottom surface is investigated using the numerical technique SDA-FEM-SDA, which combines finite element modeling (FEM) analysis of the electrode region with spectral-domain analysis (SDA) of the adjacent multi-layered half-spaces. Characteristics of zero-order and higher-order Lamb waves are presented as functions of plate thickness and spectral frequency, which varies in the first Brillouin zone. The structures of typical Lamb waves are examined via visualization of the instantaneous displacement fields in the AlN plate confined between the grating and the bottom electrode. The mechanism of building hybrid modes, which arise from intermode coupling between the counter-propagating Lamb waves of different symmetry and order, is illustrated by two examples of modes propagating with wavelengths λ = 3p and λ = 4p, where p is the pitch of the grating.

  7. Effects of a chronic stress treatment on vaccinal response in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrez, A; Boissy, A; Guilloteau, L; Andanson, S; Souriau, A; Laroucau, K; Chaillou, E; Deiss, V

    2017-05-01

    Farming systems can expose animals to chronic mild stress which is known to induce negative affective state. Affective state in animals, as in humans, can be assessed through behavioral cues. This study aimed to describe the effect of a chronic mild stress, known to induce a negative affective state, on sheep health through their response to vaccination. The study used 15 lambs subjected to a model of chronic mild stress for 15 weeks and 15 lambs reared under conventional farming as a control group. After 7 weeks of stressful treatment, the lambs were individually exposed to a judgment bias test to assess a putative stress-induced 'pessimism.' After 15 weeks of stressful treatment, antibody immune response was measured after an injection of a live vaccine challenge (Chlamydia abortus attenuated vaccine strain 1B). Stressed lambs displayed a pessimistic-like perception in the judgment bias test, revealing a negative affective state. Stressed and control animals showed different immunological reactions to vaccine challenge: stressed sheep had lower hemoglobin concentrations and higher platelet, granulocyte and acute-phase protein concentrations. Antibody response induced by the vaccine strain was not different between stressed and control sheep. Our results suggest that negative affective state induced by chronic stress treatment may induce a stronger inflammatory response to vaccine challenge in sheep. Improvement of animal health may be achieved through consideration of stressors that may affect the emotional and immunological state of sheep.

  8. Intratracheal atomized surfactant provides similar outcomes as bolus surfactant in preterm lambs with respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milesi, Ilaria; Tingay, David G; Zannin, Emanuela; Bianco, Federico; Tagliabue, Paolo; Mosca, Fabio; Lavizzari, Anna; Ventura, Maria Luisa; Zonneveld, C Elroy; Perkins, Elizabeth J; Black, Don; Sourial, Magdy; Dellacá, Raffaele L

    2016-07-01

    Aerosolization of exogenous surfactant remains a challenge. This study is aimed to evaluate the efficacy of atomized poractant alfa (Curosurf) administered with a novel atomizer in preterm lambs with respiratory distress syndrome. Twenty anaesthetized lambs, 127 ± 1 d gestational age, (mean ± SD) were instrumented before birth and randomized to receive either (i) positive pressure ventilation without surfactant (Control group), (ii) 200 mg/kg of bolus instilled surfactant (Bolus group) at 10 min of life or (iii) 200 mg/kg of atomized surfactant (Atomizer group) over 60 min from 10 min of life. All lambs were ventilated for 180 min with a standardized protocol. Lung mechanics, regional lung compliance (electrical impedance tomography), and carotid blood flow (CBF) were measured with arterial blood gas analysis. Dynamic compliance and oxygenation responses were similar in the Bolus and Atomizer groups, and both better than Control by 180 min (all P < 0.05; two-way ANOVA). Both surfactant groups demonstrated more homogeneous regional lung compliance throughout the study period. There were no differences in CBFConclusion:In a preterm lamb model, atomized surfactant resulted in similar gas exchange and mechanics as bolus administration. This study suggests evaluation of supraglottic atomization with this system when noninvasive support is warranted.

  9. Thin layer Characterization by ZGV Lamb modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cès, Maximin; Clorennec, Dominique; Royer, Daniel; Prada, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic non-destructive testing of plates can be performed with Lamb modes guided by the structure. Non contact generation and detection of the elastic waves can be achieved with optical means such as a pulsed laser source and an interferometer. With this setup, we propose a method using zero group velocity (ZGV) Lamb modes rather than propagating modes. These ZGV modes have noteworthy properties, in particular their group velocity vanishes, whereas their phase velocity remains finite. Thus, a significant part of the energy deposited by the pulsed laser can be trapped in the source area. For example, in a homogeneous isotropic plate and at the minimum frequency of the S1-Lamb mode a very sharp resonance can be observed, the frequency of which only depends on the plate thickness, for a given material. In fact, other ZGV modes exist and the set of ZGV resonance frequencies provide a local and absolute measurement of Poisson's ratio. These non-propagating modes can also be used to characterize multi-layered structures. Experimentally, we observed that a thin (500 nm) gold layer deposited on a thick (1.5 mm) Duralumin plate induces a sensitive down-shift of the set of ZGV resonance frequencies. This shift, which is typically 5 kHz for the S1-Lamb mode at 1.924 MHz, can be approximated by a formula providing the layer thickness. Thickness down to 100 nm can be estimated by this method. Such a sensitivity with conventional ultrasound inspection by acoustic microscopy would require an operating frequency in the GHz range.

  10. Thin layer Characterization by ZGV Lamb modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ces, Maximin; Clorennec, Dominique; Royer, Daniel; Prada, Claire, E-mail: maximin.ces@espci.fr [Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique, ESPCI- Universite Paris 7- CNRS UMR 7587, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75231 Paris Cedex 05- France (France)

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic non-destructive testing of plates can be performed with Lamb modes guided by the structure. Non contact generation and detection of the elastic waves can be achieved with optical means such as a pulsed laser source and an interferometer. With this setup, we propose a method using zero group velocity (ZGV) Lamb modes rather than propagating modes. These ZGV modes have noteworthy properties, in particular their group velocity vanishes, whereas their phase velocity remains finite. Thus, a significant part of the energy deposited by the pulsed laser can be trapped in the source area. For example, in a homogeneous isotropic plate and at the minimum frequency of the S{sub 1}-Lamb mode a very sharp resonance can be observed, the frequency of which only depends on the plate thickness, for a given material. In fact, other ZGV modes exist and the set of ZGV resonance frequencies provide a local and absolute measurement of Poisson's ratio. These non-propagating modes can also be used to characterize multi-layered structures. Experimentally, we observed that a thin (500 nm) gold layer deposited on a thick (1.5 mm) Duralumin plate induces a sensitive down-shift of the set of ZGV resonance frequencies. This shift, which is typically 5 kHz for the S{sub 1}-Lamb mode at 1.924 MHz, can be approximated by a formula providing the layer thickness. Thickness down to 100 nm can be estimated by this method. Such a sensitivity with conventional ultrasound inspection by acoustic microscopy would require an operating frequency in the GHz range.

  11. Prevalence of footrot in Swedish slaughter lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Ann-Kristin J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Footrot is a world-wide contagious disease in sheep and goats. It is an infection of the epidermis of the interdigital skin, and the germinal layers of the horn tissue of the feet. The first case of footrot in Swedish sheep was diagnosed in 2004. Due to difficulties in distinguishing benign footrot from early cases of virulent footrot and because there is no possibility for virulence testing of strains of Dichelobacter nodosus in Sweden, the diagnosis is based of the presence or absence of clinical signs of footrot in sheep flocks. Ever since the first diagnosed case the Swedish Animal Health Service has worked intensively to stop the spread of infection and control the disease at flock level. However, to continue this work effectively it is important to have knowledge about the distribution of the disease both nationally and regionally. Therefore, the aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of footrot in Swedish lambs at abattoirs and to assess the geographical distribution of the disease. Methods A prevalence study on footrot in Swedish lambs was performed by visual examination of 2000 feet from 500 lambs submitted from six slaughter houses. Each foot was scored according to a 0 to 5 scoring system, where feet with score ≥2 were defined as having footrot. Moreover, samples from feet with footrot were examined for Dichelobacter nodosus by culture and PCR. Results The prevalence of footrot at the individual sheep level was 5.8%, and Dichelobacter nodosus was found by culture and PCR in 83% and 97% of the samples from feet with footrot, respectively. Some minor differences in geographical distribution of footrot were found in this study. Conclusions In a national context, the findings indicate that footrot is fairly common in Swedish slaughter lambs, and should be regarded seriously.

  12. Changes in concentrations of trace minerals in lambs fed sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets with or without dietary sodium molybdate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, M; Burke, J M; Coffey, K P; Kegley, E B; Miller, J E; Smyth, E; Welborn, M G; Terrill, T H; Mosjidis, J A; Rosenkrans, C

    2016-04-01

    Prolonged feeding of sericea lespedeza (SL) previously led to reduced serum concentrations of Mo, a cofactor in an enzyme complex that may be involved in weight gain. The current objective was to determine the effect of Mo supplementation on changes in serum, fecal, urine, and liver concentrations of trace minerals in lambs fed SL leaf meal pellets. Thirty ram lambs weaned in May (84 ± 1.5 d of age and 27 ± 1.1 kg; D 0) were blocked by BW, breed type (full or three-fourths Katahdin), and EBV of parasite resistance and randomly assigned to be fed 900 g/d of an alfalfa-based supplement (CON; = 10) or a SL-based supplement ( = 20) for 103 d. Supplements were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and to meet trace mineral requirements. Within the SL group, individual lambs were administered either 5 mL water or 5 mL of water with 163.3 mg of sodium molybdate (SLMO). Serum was collected on d 28, 56, and 104; a liver sample was collected by biopsy on d 104 to determine concentrations of trace minerals. Data were analyzed using a mixed model and orthogonal contrasts. Serum concentrations of Mo increased in response to the drench and were greatest in SLMO lambs and then CON lambs and lowest in SL lambs ( trace minerals associated with metalloproteins-Mo, copper, selenium, and zinc-were reduced in the liver of SL- and/or SLMO-fed lambs. These reductions could be associated with the lower weight gains previously observed after prolonged feeding of SL.

  13. Efficacy and economic analysis of two treatment regimens using toltrazuril in lambs naturally infected with Eimeria spp. on pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Rodrigues, Fernando; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; de Menezes, Fernanda Rezer; Sangioni, Luis Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; de Avila Botton, Sônia

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy and the economic viability of two anticoccidial treatment regimens tested in lambs naturally exposed to Eimeria spp. re-infections in a grazing system during a 140-day period. Twenty-four suckling lambs were distributed into three groups based on the individual count of oocysts per gram of feces (OPG) and body weight. Animals were treated with toltrazuril 5% (20 mg/kg) at 14- (GI) or 21-day (GII) intervals, and GIII was kept as untreated control. A cost-benefit analysis of each treatment regimen was calculated. Additionally, economic analysis was performed on four hypothetical scenarios, in which lambs could be having 10, 25, 50, or 85% decrease in their expected body weight gain due to clinical. Efficacy of toltrazuril against Eimeria spp. was 96.9-99.9% (GI) and 74.2-99.9% (GII). E. ovinoidalis was most frequently identified, but no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed in lambs. There were no differences in weight gain among the groups. The cost of treatment per lamb was $13.09 (GI) and $7.83 (GII). The estimation model showed that the cost-benefit ratio favored treatment with toltrazuril when lambs fail to gain weight. In the studied flock, the break-even point for toltrazuril administered at 14-day intervals was reached with 85% decrease in mean weight gain. In conclusion, toltrazuril can be used at 14-day intervals to control Eimeria spp. (re)-infection in lambs raised on pasture. This treatment regimen was not economically feasible for subclinical coccidiosis; however, it may be feasible when used to prevent weight loss caused by clinical coccidiosis.

  14. A Fatigue Crack Size Evaluation Method Based on Lamb Wave Simulation and Limited Experimental Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingjing; Ran, Yunmeng; Liu, Bin; Yang, Jinsong; Guan, Xuefei

    2017-09-13

    This paper presents a systematic and general method for Lamb wave-based crack size quantification using finite element simulations and Bayesian updating. The method consists of construction of a baseline quantification model using finite element simulation data and Bayesian updating with limited Lamb wave data from target structure. The baseline model correlates two proposed damage sensitive features, namely the normalized amplitude and phase change, with the crack length through a response surface model. The two damage sensitive features are extracted from the first received S₀ mode wave package. The model parameters of the baseline model are estimated using finite element simulation data. To account for uncertainties from numerical modeling, geometry, material and manufacturing between the baseline model and the target model, Bayesian method is employed to update the baseline model with a few measurements acquired from the actual target structure. A rigorous validation is made using in-situ fatigue testing and Lamb wave data from coupon specimens and realistic lap-joint components. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated under different loading and damage conditions.

  15. A Fatigue Crack Size Evaluation Method Based on Lamb Wave Simulation and Limited Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing He

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic and general method for Lamb wave-based crack size quantification using finite element simulations and Bayesian updating. The method consists of construction of a baseline quantification model using finite element simulation data and Bayesian updating with limited Lamb wave data from target structure. The baseline model correlates two proposed damage sensitive features, namely the normalized amplitude and phase change, with the crack length through a response surface model. The two damage sensitive features are extracted from the first received S0 mode wave package. The model parameters of the baseline model are estimated using finite element simulation data. To account for uncertainties from numerical modeling, geometry, material and manufacturing between the baseline model and the target model, Bayesian method is employed to update the baseline model with a few measurements acquired from the actual target structure. A rigorous validation is made using in-situ fatigue testing and Lamb wave data from coupon specimens and realistic lap-joint components. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated under different loading and damage conditions.

  16. Upregulating CXCR4 in human fetal mesenchymal stem cells enhances engraftment and bone mechanics in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gemma N; Moschidou, Dafni; Lay, Kenneth; Abdulrazzak, Hassan; Vanleene, Maximilien; Shefelbine, Sandra J; Polak, Julia; de Coppi, Paolo; Fisk, Nicholas M; Guillot, Pascale V

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells have considerable potential to repair damaged organs and tissues. We previously showed that prenatal transplantation of human first trimester fetal blood mesenchymal stem cells (hfMSCs) in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta (oim mice) led to a phenotypic improvement, with a marked decrease in fracture rate. Donor cells differentiated into mature osteoblasts, producing bone proteins and minerals, including collagen type Iα2, which is absent in nontransplanted mice. This led to modifications of the bone matrix and subsequent decrease of bone brittleness, indicating that grafted cells directly contribute to improvement of bone mechanical properties. Nevertheless, the therapeutic effect was incomplete, attributing to the limited level of engraftment in bone. In this study, we show that although migration of hfMSCs to bone and bone marrow is CXCR4-SDF1 (SDF1 is stromal-derived factor) dependent, only a small number of cells present CXCR4 on the cell surface despite high levels of internal CXCR4. Priming with SDF1, however, upregulates CXCR4 to increase the CXCR4(+) cell fraction, improving chemotaxis in vitro and enhancing engraftment in vivo at least threefold in both oim and wild-type bone and bone marrow. Higher engraftment in oim bones was associated with decreased bone brittleness. This strategy represents a step to improve the therapeutic benefits of fetal cell therapy toward being curative.

  17. Accounting for Fetal Origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The Fetal Origins hypothesis has received considerable empirical support, both within epidemiology and economics. The present study compares the ability of two rival theoretical frameworks in accounting for the kind of path dependence implied by the Fetal Origins Hypothesis. We argue that while...

  18. Evaluation of Columbia, USMARC-Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: VIII. Quality measures of lamb longissimus dorsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousel, M R; Notter, D R; Leeds, T D; Zerby, H N; Moeller, S J; Taylor, J B; Lewis, G S

    2014-07-01

    Quality measures of lamb longissimus dorsi were evaluated in 514 crossbred wether lambs to assess sire breed differences. Wethers were produced over 3 yr from single-sire matings of 22 Columbia, 22 U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC)-Composite (Composite), 21 Suffolk, and 17 Texel rams to adult Rambouillet ewes. Lambs were reared to weaning in an extensive western rangeland production system and finished in a feedlot on a high-energy finishing diet. One of three harvest groups were randomly assigned to each lamb, and lambs were transported to The Ohio State University abattoir when the mean BW of wethers remaining in the feedlot reached 54.4, 61.2, or 68.0 kg. After harvest, subjective lean quality scores were assigned and LM pH (immediately after and 24 h after harvest), color (quantified as Minolta L*, a*, and b*), intramuscular fat (IMF), cooking loss percentage, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) were determined. Statistical models included fixed effects of sire breed, year of birth, and harvest group and random effects of sire (nested within sire breed and year) and maternal grandsire. Year and harvest group were significant (P lean quality (P > 0.28). At comparable numbers of days on feed, Texel-sired wethers had the greatest (more desirable; P lean quality scores while Composite- and Suffolk-sired lambs were intermediate and Columbia-sired lambs had the lowest (less desirable). Minolta L* values were greater (P 0.05) sire breed effects were detected for LM pH at or 24 h after harvest, Minolta a* and b*, IMF, percentage of cooking loss, and WBSF at comparable numbers of days on feed. At comparable chilled carcass weight, significant (P lean quality score. Texel-sired lambs had greater scores than Columbia- and Suffolk-sired lambs, but Composite-sired lambs did not differ from lambs sired by the other sire breeds. Sire breed effects were not detected (P > 0.15) for LM pH at or 24 h after harvest, Minolta L*, a*, and b*, cooking loss percentage, IMF

  19. Disruption of Endothelial Cell Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Lambs with Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shruti; Fratz, Sohrab; Kumar, Sanjiv; Rafikov, Ruslan; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Rafikova, Olga; Lu, Qing; Burns, Tantiana; Dasarathy, Sridevi; Wright, Johnny; Schreiber, Christian; Radman, Monique; Fineman, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The mitochondrial dysfunction in our lamb model of congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow (PBF) (Shunt) is associated with disrupted carnitine metabolism. Our recent studies have also shown that asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels are increased in Shunt lambs and ADMA increases the nitration of mitochondrial proteins in lamb pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAEC) in a nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent manner. Thus, we determined whether there was a mechanistic link between endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), ADMA, and the disruption of carnitine homeostasis in PAEC. Results: Exposure of PAEC to ADMA induced the redistribution of eNOS to the mitochondria, resulting in an increase in carnitine acetyl transferase (CrAT) nitration and decreased CrAT activity. The resulting increase in acyl-carnitine levels resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction and the disruption of mitochondrial bioenergetics. Since the addition of l-arginine prevented these pathologic changes, we examined the effect of l-arginine supplementation on carnitine homeostasis, mitochondrial function, and nitric oxide (NO) signaling in Shunt lambs. We found that the treatment of Shunt lambs with l-arginine prevented the ADMA-mediated mitochondrial redistribution of eNOS, the nitration-mediated inhibition of CrAT, and maintained carnitine homeostasis. In turn, adenosine-5′-triphosphate levels and eNOS/heat shock protein 90 interactions were preserved, and this decreased NOS uncoupling and enhanced NO generation. Innovation: Our data link alterations in cellular l-arginine metabolism with the disruption of mitochondrial bioenergetics and implicate altered carnitine homeostasis as a key player in this process. Conclusion: l-arginine supplementation may be a useful therapy to prevent the mitochondrial dysfunction involved in the pulmonary vascular alterations secondary to increased PBF. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1739–1752. PMID:23244702

  20. Antenatal antioxidant treatment with melatonin to decrease newborn neurodevelopmental deficits and brain injury caused by fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Suzanne L; Yawno, Tamara; Alers, Nicole O; Castillo-Melendez, Margie; Supramaniam, Veena G; VanZyl, Niel; Sabaretnam, Tharani; Loose, Jan M; Drummond, Grant R; Walker, David W; Jenkin, Graham; Wallace, Euan M

    2014-04-01

    Fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a serious pregnancy complication associated with increased rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality, and ultimately with long-term neurodevelopmental impairments. No intervention currently exists that can improve the structure and function of the IUGR brain before birth. Here, we investigated whether maternal antenatal melatonin administration reduced brain injury in ovine IUGR. IUGR was induced in pregnant sheep at 0.7 gestation and a subset of ewes received melatonin via intravenous infusion until term. IUGR, IUGR + melatonin (IUGR + MLT) and control lambs were born naturally, neonatal behavioral assessment was used to examine neurological function and at 24 hr after birth the brain was collected for the examination of neuropathology. Compared to control lambs, IUGR lambs took significantly longer to achieve normal neonatal lamb behaviors, such as standing and suckling. IUGR brains showed widespread cellular and axonal lipid peroxidation, and white matter hypomyelination and axonal damage. Maternal melatonin administration ameliorated oxidative stress, normalized myelination and rescued axonopathy within IUGR lamb brains, and IUGR + MLT lambs demonstrated significant functional improvements including a reduced time taken to attach to and suckle at the udder after birth. Based on these observations, we began a pilot clinical trial of oral melatonin administration to women with an IUGR fetus. Maternal melatonin was not associated with adverse maternal or fetal effects and it significantly reduced oxidative stress, as evidenced by reduced malondialdehyde levels, in the IUGR + MLT placenta compared to IUGR alone. Melatonin should be considered for antenatal neuroprotective therapy in human IUGR. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effectiveness of individualized lung recruitment strategies at birth: an experimental study in preterm lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingay, David G; Rajapaksa, Anushi; Zannin, Emanuela; Pereira-Fantini, Prue M; Dellaca, Raffaele L; Perkins, Elizabeth J; Zonneveld, Cornelis E E; Adler, Andy; Black, Don; Frerichs, Inéz; Lavizzari, Anna; Sourial, Magdy; Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Mosca, Fabio; Davis, Peter G

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory transition at birth involves rapidly clearing fetal lung liquid and preventing efflux back into the lung while aeration is established. We have developed a sustained inflation (SI OPT ) individualized to volume response and a dynamic tidal positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (open lung volume, OLV) strategy that both enhance this process. We aimed to compare the effect of each with a group managed with PEEP of 8 cmH 2 O and no recruitment maneuver (No-RM), on gas exchange, lung mechanics, spatiotemporal aeration, and lung injury in 127 ± 1 day preterm lambs. Forty-eight fetal-instrumented lambs exposed to antenatal steroids were ventilated for 60 min after application of the allocated strategy. Spatiotemporal aeration and lung mechanics were measured with electrical impedance tomography and forced-oscillation, respectively. At study completion, molecular and histological markers of lung injury were analyzed. Mean (SD) aeration at the end of the SI OPT and OLV groups was 32 (22) and 38 (15) ml/kg, compared with 17 (10) ml/kg (180 s) in the No-RM (P = 0.024, 1-way ANOVA). This translated into better oxygenation at 60 min (P = 0.047; 2-way ANOVA) resulting from better distal lung tissue aeration in SI OPT and OLV. There was no difference in lung injury. Neither SI OPT nor OLV achieved homogeneous aeration. Histological injury and mRNA biomarker upregulation were more likely in the regions with better initial aeration, suggesting volutrauma. Tidal ventilation or an SI achieves similar aeration if optimized, suggesting that preventing fluid efflux after lung liquid clearance is at least as important as fluid clearance during the initial inflation at birth. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. and post-weaning performance of lambs on Italian ryegrass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pre- and post-weaning performance. * To whom conespondence should be addressed. lntroduction. The optimum stocking rate for ewes and lambs on Italian rye- grass will depend on the specific production system, the weaning mass to be achieved and the marketing strategy of the producer for the lambs after weaning.

  3. Current trends in lamb production with particular reference to New ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current trends in lamb production with particular reference to New Zealand. Information on the production, processing, and marketing of lamb in New Zealand is presented. Consideration is given to new practices such as genetics and animal breeding, nutrition, and flock management that have been introduced in sheep.

  4. Ammoniated maize residue for the fattening of lambs | Seed | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of ammoniated maize residue as a replacement for maize meal in the diet for fattening lambs, was investigated. Ammoniation of maize residue increased average daily DMI and ADG at the 0 and 20oh concentrate levels. The feed conversions to carcass in lambs fed untreated maize residue with 40,60 or 80% ...

  5. Studies on Compensatory Growth in Black Head Persian (BHP) Lambs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the first eight weeks, lambs on H treatment had higher growth rates, dressing percentages, and gut and carcass fats, lower proportions of lean, bone, gut fill, leanfat and lean:bone ratios than animals on L treatment. In the last eight weeks, lambs on LH grew faster than those on HH. When the whole period was considered ...

  6. Response of SA Mutton Merino ewes and their lambs to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lambs reared by ewes supplemented with enriched oats and triticale were heavier (P ≤ 0,05) at weaning, with faster (P ≤ 0,05) growth rates than control group lambs ... minerale en 'n ionofoor verryk, en vir 90 dae teen 500 g per ooi per dag aan SA Vleismerino-ooie tydens laatdragtigheid en laktasie as aanvulling gevoer.

  7. Carcass characteristics of Karadi lambs as affect by different levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... different levels of dietary supplement of rumen degradable ... fed diets supplemented with NS as compared with those lambs fed diet without NS. However, live ..... Performance of Karadi lambs as affected by N. sativa fed with different levels of RDN on weight cuts of half cold carcass weight, fat tail weight ...

  8. Cryptosporidium in Calves, Lambs and Kids at Haramaya, eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was carried out from November 2010 to April 2011 to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in calves, lambs and kids and to assess potential risk factors in Haramaya, eastern Ethiopia. Hence, fecal samples from a total of 237 study animals (133 calves, 63 lambs and 41 kids) were tested with ...

  9. Lamb Production Costs: Analyses of Composition and Elasticities Analysis of Lamb Production Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Raineri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since lamb is a commodity, producers cannot control the price of the product they sell. Therefore, managing production costs is a necessity. We explored the study of elasticities as a tool for basing decision-making in sheep production, and aimed at investigating the composition and elasticities of lamb production costs, and their influence on the performance of the activity. A representative sheep production farm, designed in a panel meeting, was the base for calculation of lamb production cost. We then performed studies of: i costs composition, and ii cost elasticities for prices of inputs and for zootechnical indicators. Variable costs represented 64.15% of total cost, while 21.66% were represented by operational fixed costs, and 14.19% by the income of the factors. As for elasticities to input prices, the opportunity cost of land was the item to which production cost was more sensitive: a 1% increase in its price would cause a 0.2666% increase in lamb cost. Meanwhile, the impact of increasing any technical indicator was significantly higher than the impact of rising input prices. A 1% increase in weight at slaughter, for example, would reduce total cost in 0.91%. The greatest obstacle to economic viability of sheep production under the observed conditions is low technical efficiency. Increased production costs are more related to deficient zootechnical indexes than to high expenses.

  10. The effect of prenatal pravastatin treatment on altered fetal programming of postnatal growth and metabolic function in a preeclampsia-like murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnold, Mollie; Tamayo, Esther; Kechichian, Talar; Gamble, Phyllis; Longo, Monica; Hankins, Gary D V; Saade, George R; Costantine, Maged M

    2014-06-01

    Preeclampsia alters fetal programming and results in long-term metabolic consequences in the offspring. Pravastatin has been shown to prevent preeclampsia in animal models. Our aim was to characterize the effects of preeclampsia on fetal programming of adult growth and metabolic function, and evaluate the role of preventive pravastatin therapy, using a well characterized murine model. CD-1 mice were injected through the tail vein with adenovirus carrying soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) and randomly allocated to pravastatin (5 mg/kg/day; sFlt-1/prav, n = 7) or water (sFlt-1, n = 6) until weaning. A control group was injected with adenovirus carrying the murine immunoglobulin G2α Fc fragment (mFc, n = 8). Male and female offspring (6-8/group) were weighed every month until 6 months of age. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance testing was performed after 16 hours of fasting at 3 and 6 months of age; glucose and insulin responses were measured. sFlt-1 offspring weight was lower than mFc control (P < .001) until 2 months of age for females and 5 months of age for males (P < .001). There were no differences in postnatal growth between mFc and sFlt-1/prav offspring. At 3 and 6 months, female sFlt-1 offspring had higher glucose response compared with mFc and sFlt-1/prav. Three-month-old male sFlt-1 had lower insulin response compared with mFc offspring. Preeclampsia alters postnatal growth and metabolic function in the adult offspring in this animal model. Maternal therapy with prav prevents some of these alterations in the offspring. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Transport on Live Weight and Behavior of Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Andronie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study has monitored the effects of transport stress on some biochemical indicators of stress and behavior lambs at time of slaughter. The research was carried out in the cold season, on a number of 120 lambs, transported for 6h- 16h, to be slaughtered. During our research, we followed the changes in bodyweight, behaviours expressed by sheep, and plasma cortisol levels. Bodyweight loss recorded in the slaughterhouse to 24 hours of departure transportation was of 4-5%. The behavioural manifestations of lambs were different from the destination, depending on journey duration. Lambs behaviour was different depending on the journey, the resting and watering were mostly present manifestations. Increased in cortisol levels measured at 3 h after leaving the vehicle was maintained at 9 h after the journey. Increased duration of rest before slaughter can reduce the stress of transport in case of lambs ensures obtaining good quality meat.

  12. Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for the control of Phoma valerianellae on lamb`s lettuce seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, A.; Koch, E.; Stephan, D.; Kromphardt, C.; Jahn, M.; Krauthausen, H.J.; Forsberg, G.; Werner, S.; Amein, T.; Wright, S.A.I.; Tinivella, F.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify seed treatment methods for eradicating Phoma valerianellae from lamb`s lettuce seeds in organic vegetable production. Using seeds naturally infested with the pathogen, the effect of three physical methods (hot water, aerated steam, electron treatment) and

  13. Fetal body movement monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1990-03-01

    Recording fetal activity serves as an indirect measure of central nervous system integrity and function. The coordination of whole body movement, which requires complex neurologic control, is likely similar to that of the newborn infant. Short-term observations of the fetus are best performed using real-time ultrasound imaging. Monitoring fetal motion has been shown to be clinically worthwhile in predicting impending death or compromise, especially when placental insufficiency is longstanding. The presence of a vigorous fetus is reassuring. Perceived inactivity requires a reassessment of any underlying antepartum complication and a more precise evaluation by fetal heart rate testing or real-time ultrasonography before delivery is contemplated.

  14. A rodent model of low- to moderate-dose ethanol consumption during pregnancy: patterns of ethanol consumption and effects on fetal and offspring growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probyn, Megan E; Zanini, Simone; Ward, Leigh C; Bertram, John F; Moritz, Karen M

    2012-01-01

    It is unknown whether low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption adversely affects postnatal health. The aim of the present study was to develop a rodent model of low-moderate-dose prenatal ethanol (EtOH) exposure. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet with or without 6% v/v EtOH throughout gestation and the pattern of dietary consumption determined. Fetal bodyweights and hepatic alcohol-metabolising gene expression were measured on embryonic Day (E) 20 and offspring growth studied until 1 year. At E8 the plasma EtOH concentration was 0.03%. There was little difference in dietary consumption between the two treatment groups. At E20, EtOH-exposed fetuses were significantly lighter than controls and had significantly decreased ADH4 and increased CYP2E1 gene expression. Offspring killed on postnatal Day (PN) 30 did not exhibit any growth deficits. Longitudinal repeated measures of offspring growth demonstrated slower growth in males from EtOH-fed dams between 7 and 12 months of age; a cohort of male pups killed at 8 months of age had a reduced crown-rump length and kidney weight. In conclusion, a liquid diet of 6% v/v EtOH fed to pregnant dams throughout gestation caused a 3-8% reduction in fetal growth and brain sparing, with growth differences observed in male offspring later in life. This model will be useful for future studies on the effects of low-moderate EtOH on the developmental origins of health and disease.

  15. Intramyocardial transplantation and tracking of human mesenchymal stem cells in a novel intra-uterine pre-immune fetal sheep myocardial infarction model: a proof of concept study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Y Emmert

    Full Text Available Although stem-cell therapies have been suggested for cardiac-regeneration after myocardial-infarction (MI, key-questions regarding the in-vivo cell-fate remain unknown. While most available animal-models require immunosuppressive-therapy when applying human cells, the fetal-sheep being pre-immune until day 75 of gestation has been proposed for the in-vivo tracking of human cells after intra-peritoneal transplantation. We introduce a novel intra-uterine myocardial-infarction model to track human mesenchymal stem cells after direct intra-myocardial transplantation into the pre-immune fetal-sheep. Thirteen fetal-sheep (gestation age: 70-75 days were included. Ten animals either received an intra-uterine induction of MI only (n = 4 or MI+intra-myocardial injection (IMI;n = 6 using micron-sized, iron-oxide (MPIO labeled human mesenchymal stem cells either derived from the adipose-tissue (ATMSCs;n = 3 or the bone-marrow (BMMSCs;n = 3. Three animals received an intra-peritoneal injection (IPI;n = 3; ATMSCs;n = 2/BMMSCs;n = 1. All procedures were performed successfully and follow-up was 7-9 days. To assess human cell-fate, multimodal cell-tracking was performed via MRI and/or Micro-CT, Flow-Cytometry, PCR and immunohistochemistry. After IMI, MRI displayed an estimated amount of 1×10(5-5×10(5 human cells within ventricular-wall corresponding to the injection-sites which was further confirmed on Micro-CT. PCR and IHC verified intra-myocardial presence via detection of human-specific β-2-microglobulin, MHC-1, ALU-Sequence and anti-FITC targeting the fluorochrome-labeled part of the MPIOs. The cells appeared viable, integrated and were found in clusters or in the interstitial-spaces. Flow-Cytometry confirmed intra-myocardial presence, and showed further distribution within the spleen, lungs, kidneys and brain. Following IPI, MRI indicated the cells within the intra-peritoneal-cavity involving the liver and kidneys. Flow

  16. Impact induced damage assessment by means of Lamb wave image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudela, Pawel; Radzienski, Maciej; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research is an analysis of full wavefield Lamb wave interaction with impact-induced damage at various impact energies in order to find out the limitation of the wavenumber adaptive image filtering method. In other words, the relation between impact energy and damage detectability will be shown. A numerical model based on the time domain spectral element method is used for modeling of Lamb wave propagation and interaction with barely visible impact damage in a carbon-epoxy laminate. Numerical studies are followed by experimental research on the same material with an impact damage induced by various energy and also a Teflon insert simulating delamination. Wavenumber adaptive image filtering and signal processing are used for damage visualization and assessment for both numerical and experimental full wavefield data. It is shown that it is possible to visualize and assess the impact damage location, size and to some extent severity by using the proposed technique.

  17. Quantitative and histological assessment of maternal-fetal transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in guinea pigs: An experimental model of congenital Chagas disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatziri Torres-Vargas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of Trypanosoma cruzi infection on fertility, gestation outcome, and maternal-fetal transmission in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus.Animals were infected with T. cruzi H4 strain (TcI lineage before gestation (IBG or during gestation (IDG. Tissue and sera samples of dams and fetuses were obtained near parturition.All IBG and IDG dams were seropositive by two tests, and exhibited blood parasite load of 1.62±2.2 and 50.1±62 parasites/μl, respectively, by quantitative PCR. Histological evaluation showed muscle fiber degeneration and cellular necrosis in all infected dams. Parasite nests were not detected in infected dams by histology. However, qPCR analysis detected parasites-eq/g heart tissue of 153±104.7 and 169.3±129.4 in IBG and IDG dams, respectively. All fetuses of infected dams were positive for anti-parasite IgG antibodies and tissue parasites by qPCR, but presented a low level of tissue inflammatory infiltrate. Fetuses of IDG (vs. IBG dams exhibited higher degree of muscle fiber degeneration and cellular necrosis in the heart and skeletal tissues. The placental tissue exhibited no inflammatory lesions and amastigote nests, yet parasites-eq/g of 381.2±34.3 and 79.2±84.9 were detected in IDG and IBG placentas, respectively. Fetal development was compromised, and evidenced by a decline in weight, crow-rump length, and abdominal width in both groups.T. cruzi TcI has a high capacity of congenital transmission even when it was inoculated at a very low dose before or during gestation. Tissue lesions, parasite load, and fetal under development provide evidence for high virulence of the parasite during pregnancy. Despite finding of high parasite burden by qPCR, placentas were protected from cellular damage. Our studies offer an experimental model to study the efficacy of vaccines and drugs against congenital transmission of T. cruzi. These results also call for T. cruzi screening in pregnant women and adequate follow up of

  18. Evaluation of vaccination with Neospora caninum protein for prevention of fetal loss associated with experimentally induced neosporosis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark C; Tuo, Wenbin; Dubey, J P

    2004-10-01

    To evaluate the immunologic response of a killed tachyzoite vaccine against Neospora caninum and its effectiveness in preventing fetal loss associated with experimentally induced neosporosis in sheep. 30 Dorset ewes. Ewes were randomly allocated to receive vaccination on days 1 and 60 of the study with a killed N caninum tachyzoite preparation in a commercially available adjuvant or a saline-adjuvant mixture. A ram was placed on pasture with the ewes from days 15 to 60. Blood was collected from ewes before primary and booster vaccinations and prior to experimental challenge with N caninum tachyzoite performed on day 90; sera were assessed via Neospora agglutination (NA) and immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) assays. Blood was collected from lambs before they suckled, and sera were tested for antibodies against N caninum. Of the 14 vaccinated ewes that became pregnant, 12 gave birth to live-born lambs; in contrast, 5 of 11 pregnant control ewes gave birth to live-born lambs. Whereas vaccination improved fetal survival in pregnant ewes challenged with N caninum tachyzoites, it did not appear to have any appreciable effect on transmission of N caninum to offspring, as indicated by results of NA and IFA assays. The N caninum tachyzoite vaccine used in this study appeared to provide protection against fetal loss associated with experimentally induced neosporosis in a high proportion of pregnant ewes.

  19. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with ...

  20. Fetal and neonatal thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandar Mohan Batra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal thyrotoxicosis is a rare disease occurring in 1 out of 70 pregnancies with Grave′s disease or in 1 out of 4000-50,000 deliveries. The mortality is 12-20%, usually from heart failure, but other complications are tracheal compression, infections and thrombocytopenia. It results from transfer of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins from mother to fetus through the placenta. This transplacental transfer begins around 20 th week of pregnancy and reaches its maximum by 30 th week. These autoantibodies bind to the fetal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH receptors and increase the secretion of the thyroid hormones. The mother has an active autoimmune thyroid disease or has been treated for it in the past. She may be absolutely euthyroid due to past treatment by drugs, surgery or radioiodine ablation, but still have active TSH receptor stimulating autoantibodies, which can cause fetal thyrotoxicosis. The other features of this disease are fetal tachycardia, fetal goiter and history of spontaneous abortions and findings of goiter, ascites, craniosyntosis, fetal growth retardation, maceration and hydrops at fetal autopsy. If untreated, this disease can result in intrauterine death. The treatment for this disease consists of giving carbimazole to the mother, which is transferred through the placenta to the fetus. The dose of carbimazole is titrated with the fetal heart rate. If the mother becomes hypothyroid due to carbimazole, thyroxine is added taking advantage of the fact that very little of thyroxine is transferred across the placenta. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis patients are very sick and require emergency treatment. The goal of the treatment is to normalize thyroid functions as quickly as possible, to avoid iatrogenic hypothyroidism while providing management and supportive therapy for the infant′s specific signs and symptoms.

  1. Epidemiology of fetal death in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Agudelo, A; Belizán, J M; Díaz-Rossello, J L

    2000-05-01

    To identify risk factors associated with fetal death, and to measure the rate and the risk of fetal death in a large cohort of Latin American women. We analyzed 837,232 singleton births recorded in the Perinatal Information System Database of the Latin American Center for Perinatology and Human Development (CLAP) between 1985 and 1997. The risk factors analyzed included fetal factors and maternal sociodemographic, obstetric, and clinical characteristics. Adjusted relative risks were obtained, after adjustment for potential confounding factors, through multiple logistic regression models based on the method of generalized estimating equations. There were 14,713 fetal deaths (rate=17.6 per 1000 births). The fetal death risk increased exponentially as pregnancy advanced. Thirty-seven percent of all fetal deaths occurred at term, and 64% were antepartum. The main risk factors associated with fetal death were lack of antenatal care (adjusted relative risk [aRR]=4.26; 95% confidence interval, 3.84-4.71) and small for gestational age (aRR=3.26; 95% CI, 3.13-3.40). In addition, the risk of death during the intrapartum period was almost tenfold higher for fetuses in noncephalic presentations. Other risk factors associated with stillbirth were: third trimester bleeding, eclampsia, chronic hypertension, preeclampsia, syphilis, gestational diabetes mellitus, Rh isoimmunization, interpregnancy interval or =4, maternal age > or =35 years, illiteracy, premature rupture of membranes, body mass index > or =29.0, maternal anemia, previous abortion, and previous adverse perinatal outcomes. There are several preventable factors that should be dealt with in order to reduce the gap in fetal mortality between Latin America and developed countries.

  2. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  3. Non-contact estimation of the bond quality in soldered thin laminate by laser generated lamb waves; Laser reiki ramuha ni yoru handazuke sekisohaku no setsugo seijo no hisesshoku hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, H.; Futatsugi, T.; Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama-Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering

    1998-03-20

    The bond quality of a solder-bonded copper laminated plate was modeled into rigid contact (rc) and slip contact (sc) to calculate the velocity dispersion of lamb waves. The velocity dispersion of laser generated lamb waves was measured, and the bond quality or the thickness of a solder layer was evaluated by non-contact. In the model whose bond surface is rc, the velocity dispersion of lamb waves can be calculated under conditions where the stress and displacement in an interface are continuous. In the model whose bond surface is sc, it can be calculated under conditions where an interface slips freely. Weak bond indicates the velocity dispersion between rc and sc. In this model, the velocity dispersion can also be calculated by a change in the thickness of a solder layer and used for quantitative evaluation of a bond interface. A three-layer solder bond manufactured for trial could be evaluated from the velocity dispersion of laser lamb waves. At the room temperature, the change in bond quality near the solder melting point of bond laminate that was judged as rc was investigated. When the solidus temperature is exceeded, the amplitude of lamb waves and the velocity dispersion changed largely. The amplitude of lamb waves increases as the liquid phase ratio increases. The bond quality near the solder melting point can be evaluated using lamb waves. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. [Spina bifida aperta in a sheep lamb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, N; Hilbe, M; Kircher, P; Bleull, U

    2015-01-01

    The case report describes the symptoms and diagnostic methods of a spina bifida aperta in a new born lamb. The most relevant clinical findings were recumbency immediately after birth with normal consciousness and suckling reflexes, alterations of the skin and coat in the lumbosacral region as well as dysuria. The biochemical and haematological screening of the blood indicated no abnormalities. While the radiological examination of the spine showed no clear evidence of the cause of the clinical sings the ultrasound and computed tomography examination revealed an incomplete closure of the vertebral arch between the 4th lumbar and the 3rd sacral vertebrae. Additionally, a hernia with similar density to the spinal cord was present in the same region of the spine. Based on the findings the lamb was euthanized. The pathological examination confirmed the incomplete closure of the vertebral arch and moreover a myelomeningocele has been diagnosed. In the histopathological examination the white and grey matter were separated in the area of the macroscopic visible lesions. Due to non-specific clinical symptoms imagining diagnostics can be crucial to confirm the diagnosis of this rare syndrome.

  5. Lamb wave propagation in monocrystalline silicon wafers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Paul; Pizzolato, Marco; Robyr, Jean-Luc; Masserey, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Monocrystalline silicon wafers are widely used in the photovoltaic industry for solar panels with high conversion efficiency. Guided ultrasonic waves offer the potential to efficiently detect micro-cracks in the thin wafers. Previous studies of ultrasonic wave propagation in silicon focused on effects of material anisotropy on bulk ultrasonic waves, but the dependence of the wave propagation characteristics on the material anisotropy is not well understood for Lamb waves. The phase slowness and beam skewing of the two fundamental Lamb wave modes A 0 and S 0 were investigated. Experimental measurements using contact wedge transducer excitation and laser measurement were conducted. Good agreement was found between the theoretically calculated angular dependency of the phase slowness and measurements for different propagation directions relative to the crystal orientation. Significant wave skew and beam widening was observed experimentally due to the anisotropy, especially for the S 0 mode. Explicit finite element simulations were conducted to visualize and quantify the guided wave beam skew. Good agreement was found for the A 0 mode, but a systematic discrepancy was observed for the S 0 mode. These effects need to be considered for the non-destructive testing of wafers using guided waves.

  6. BLOOD METABOLIC HORMONES AND LEPTIN IN GROWING LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Antunović

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the concentration of blood metabolic hormones and leptin levels in growing lambs. The research was carried out on Tsigai lambs in two periods (suckling and fattening during the winter feeding season. Lambs were suckling and ate a food mixture and alfalfa hay ad libitum, while during the fattening period they were fed only with the above mentioned mixture and alfalfa hay ad libitum. Their blood was analyzed on 35th and 75th day of age. Concentrations of minsulin, leptin and thyroid hormones were determined in the blood serum of lambs during both periods. In the blood of fattening lambs significantly higher (P0.05 insulin concentrations (1.05 and 0.54 μU/mL, were determined, compared to suckling lambs. A significant strong positive correlation between serum leptin and insulin (r = 0.85, P0.05. The concentration of thyroid hormones did not significantly differ depending on the period of measurement. These changes indicate that the measurement concentrations of metabolic hormones and leptin in blood are very important in order to understand the changes of metabolism and nutrient supply in growing lambs.

  7. Characterization of Awassi lamb fattening systems: a Syrian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Birgitte Wiedemann; Iñiguez, Luis; Mueller, Joaquin; Wurzinger, Maria; Knaus, W F

    2010-10-01

    Intensive lamb fattening systems are evolving in developing Middle Eastern countries due to high demand for lambs at favorable prices; however, little is known about their characteristics and constraints. A survey was conducted in Syria involving 241 farmers to characterize the fattening production systems and main constraints, with emphasis on feeding, management, labor, and marketing. Most farmers (90%) considered the income from fattening to be from medium to high, and 57% expressed that lamb fattening along with alternative income sources compose the family's livelihood strategies. Fattening systems offer employment to family members. Market price was the main decision factor to buy and sell lambs, but this was only part of various marketing aspects. Male lambs usually bought at markets at the mean age of 4 months (mean weight of 31 kg) are sold after fattening at a 50-60 kg weight range. The average yearly fattening cycle was 2.7 batches, and the average number of lambs per batch was 232. For 65% (n = 241) of the farmers the major constraint to fattening was feeding cost, and for about a half of farmers (51%, n = 241), disease outbreaks and prices for veterinarian services constituted the second important constraint. Research on least-cost fattening diets and curbing disease problems to increase farmer's income margins is needed. It is expected that due to existing commonalities, the information emerging from this study regarding major constraints to Awassi lamb fattening systems could be useful for an across-synthesis on Awassi fattening production in the region.

  8. Changes in hematology, serum biochemistry, and gastrointestinal nematode infection in lambs fed sericea lespedeza with or without dietary sodium molybdate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, M; Burke, J M; Coffey, K P; Kegley, E B; Miller, J E; Huff, G R; Smyth, E; Terrill, T H; Mosjidis, J A; Rosenkrans, C

    2015-04-01

    Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) is a legume rich in condensed tannins that can be grazed or fed to small ruminants for parasite control. Condensed tannins, a secondary plant compound in SL, may lead to unintended consequences such as changes in production. In our preliminary research, there was consistently a reduction in serum and liver concentrations of Mo. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of SL with or without Mo supplementation on changes in BW, hematology, and serum biochemistry in lambs. Thirty ram lambs weaned in May (84 ± 1.5 d of age; 27 ± 1.1 kg) were blocked by BW, breed type (full or three-fourths Katahdin), and EBV of parasite resistance and randomly assigned to be fed 900 g of alfalfa-based supplement (CON; n = 10) or SL-based supplement (n = 20) for 103 d. Supplements were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and to meet trace mineral requirements. Within the SL diet, half of the lambs received 490 mg sodium molybdate weekly (SLMO). Body condition scores and BW were determined every 14 d and blood and feces collected to determine hematological and serum biochemical profiles and fecal egg counts (FEC). Data were analyzed using a mixed model with repeated measures and orthogonal contrasts. The white blood cell counts tended to be reduced in SL- and SLMO-fed lambs compared with CON-fed lambs (P reduction in neutrophils (P reduction in blood packed cell volume (P dietary treatments disappeared after 42 d of feeding (treatment × day, P Body weight and FEC were similar among dietary treatments. Means of all measurements were within a normal range, even though there were subtle but significant differences between dietary groups. Feeding a diet high in condensed tannin-rich SL did not lead to serious effects on hematology or serum biochemistry in lambs.

  9. New Predictive Model at 11+0to 13+6Gestational Weeks for Early-Onset Preeclampsia With Fetal Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying; Chen, Xu; Cui, Hong-Yan; Li, Xing; Xu, Ya-Ling

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine a predictive model for early-onset preeclampsia with fetal growth restriction (FGR) to be used at 11 +0 to 13 +6 gestational weeks, by combining the maternal serum level of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), placental growth factor (PLGF), placental protein 13 (PP13), soluble endoglin (sEng), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and uterine artery Doppler. This was a retrospective cohort study of 4453 pregnant women. Uterine artery Doppler examination was conducted in the first trimester. Maternal serum PAPP-A, PLGF, PP13, and sEng were measured. Mean arterial pressure was obtained. Women were classified as with/without early-onset preeclampsia, and women with preeclampsia were classified as with/without FGR. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the value of the model. There were 30 and 32 pregnant women with early-onset preeclampsia with and without FGR. The diagnosis rate of early-onset preeclampsia with FGR was 67.4% using the predictive model when the false positive rate was set at 5% and 73.2% when the false positive rate was 10%. The predictive model (MAP, uterine artery Doppler measurements, and serum biomarkers) had some predictive value for the early diagnosis (11 +0 to 13 +6 gestational weeks) of early-onset preeclampsia with FGR.

  10. Proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) for the authentication of regionally unique South African lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Sara W; Muller, Magdalena; Alewijn, Martin; Koot, Alex H; van Ruth, Saskia M; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2017-10-15

    The volatile fingerprints of South African lamb meat and fat were measured by proton-transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to evaluate it as an authentication tool. Meat and fat of the Longissimus lumborum (LL) of lambs from six different regions were assessed. Analysis showed that the volatile fingerprints were affected by the origin of the meat. The classification of the origin of the lamb was achieved by examining the calculated and recorded fingerprints in combination with chemometrics. Four different partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models were fitted to the data to classify lamb meat and fat samples into "region of origin" (six different regions) and "origin" (Karoo vs. Non-Karoo). The estimation models classified samples 100% correctly. Validation of the first two models gave 42% (fat) and 58% (meat) correct classification of region, while the second two models performed better with 92% (fat) and 83% (meat) correct classification of origin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The relationship between maternal and fetal vitamin D, insulin resistance, and fetal growth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2013-05-01

    Evidence for a role of vitamin D in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis is inconclusive. We sought to clarify the relationship between maternal and fetal insulin resistance and vitamin D status. This is a prospective cohort study of 60 caucasian pregnant women. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), glucose, insulin, and leptin were measured in early pregnancy and at 28 weeks. Ultrasound at 34 weeks assessed fetal anthropometry including abdominal wall width, a marker of fetal adiposity. At delivery birth weight was recorded and fetal 25-OHD, glucose, C-peptide, and leptin measured in cord blood. Insulin resistance was calculated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) equation. We found that those with lower 25-OHD in early pregnancy had higher HOMA indices at 28 weeks, (r = -.32, P = .02). No significant relationship existed between maternal or fetal leptin and 25-OHD, or between maternal or fetal 25-OHD and fetal anthropometry or birth weight. The incidence of vitamin D deficiency was high at each time point (15%-45%). These findings lend support to routine antenatal supplementation with vitamin D in at risk populations.

  12. Fatty acid composition of meat of Sarda suckling lamb

    OpenAIRE

    Manca, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of dietary fat has an important role in human nutrition because can help to reduce the risk of appearance of some diseases. In this work fatty acid profile of meat of Sarda suckling lamb was studied in order to improve meat fat quality in relation to human health. Aim of this thesis was firstly to assess the effect of different management systems, indoor vs. outdoor, on fatty acid profile of meat of Sarda suckling lamb. Lambs which followed their mother on pasture h...

  13. [MODELS OF CLINICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF CELL FREE FETAL DNA IN THE MATERNAL SERUM SCREENING TEST-ANALYSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankova, M; Chaveeva, P; Stratieva, V

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening by definition is a way of identifying pregnancies, with a high enough risk to specific fetal damage as to justify the subsequent invasive diagnosis among the seemingly normal pregnancies. [1] The aim of the prenatal screening test is to reach the high diagnostic frequency (DR > 95%), with low false-positive rate (FPR tests (NIPT) are widely adopted and use in clinical practice: 1st Trimester Combined screening (First trimester Combined Screening) and 2nd trimester biochemical screening (Second trimester biochemical screening) and in the last few years through screening Fetal DNA in Maternal serum (cfDNA screening). Since the introduction of the sfDNA test were examined and discussed the results of several ways of application: (1) as a primary screening method without preceding the result of 1st trimester combined screening for chromosomal abnormalities, (2) as a contingent test after 1st trimester combined screening in high risk pregnancies (> 1:100) (3) as a contingent test after 1st trimester combined screening, when the calculated risk is between ( 1:10 to 1:2500). The purpose of the study: to compare the results of different ways of application screening through cfDNA: detection rate (DR) for Tri21, Tri18 and Tri13, procentage of invasive diagnostics and cost-effectiveness ratio of cfDNA test in comparison with the 1st trimester combined screening. To establish the most suitable algorithm for application of cfDNA test. Analyzed were the results of several randomized multi-center clinical studies whose data are processed through a meta-analysis. cfDNA-test has a higher DR for Tri21 for lower FPR, compared to the combined screening in 1st trimester (cfDNA-DR 99%, 1st trimester screening-DR 96% and 0.4%FPR, respectively FPR 5%), but although it is with better results and reduces the incidence of invasive tests, does not justify the significant difference in price-performance ratio. On the other hand cfDNA-test is with a lower detection rate for

  14. The simulation of Lamb waves in a cracked plate using the scaled boundary finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravenkamp, Hauke; Prager, Jens; Saputra, Albert A; Song, Chongmin

    2012-09-01

    The scaled boundary finite element method is applied to the simulation of Lamb waves for ultrasonic testing applications. With this method, the general elastodynamic problem is solved, while only the boundary of the domain under consideration has to be discretized. The reflection of the fundamental Lamb wave modes from cracks of different geometry in a steel plate is modeled. A test problem is compared with commercial finite element software, showing the efficiency and convergence of the scaled boundary finite element method. A special formulation of this method is utilized to calculate dispersion relations for plate structures. For the discretization of the boundary, higher-order elements are employed to improve the efficiency of the simulations. The simplicity of mesh generation of a cracked plate for a scaled boundary finite element analysis is illustrated.

  15. Pulmonary alveolar and vascular morphometry after gel plug occlusion of the trachea in a fetal rabbit model of CDH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elattal, Ramy; Rich, Barrie S; Harmon, Carroll M; Muensterer, Oliver J

    2013-01-01

    Tracheal occlusion (TO) induces lung growth in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) but is also associated with drawbacks. We devised a temporary gel plug that induced lung growth when placed in the fetal trachea. This study evaluates the effects of temporary versus permanent TO on histologic radial alveolar count (RAC) and vascular morphometrics. Experimental CDH was created surgically in 64 New Zealand White rabbit fetuses on gestational day (GD) 24. On GD 27, these fetuses were randomized to intratracheal instillation of a fibrin gel plug (GP), tracheal suture ligation (SL), intratracheal instillation of normal saline (NS), or sham amniotomy (SH). Non-manipulated fetuses served as controls (NM). Histologic lung sections were assessed blindly for RAC and relative arterial adventitial thickness (%AT) as a variable for vascular remodelling. Results were statistically compared. RAC was significantly lower in the ipsilateral lung of SH fetuses than in the contralateral lung (p = 0.011). Mean RAC was higher after SL (p < 0.001) and GP (p = 0.03) compared to SH. Furthermore, %AT was higher in GP (50 ± 28, p < 0.001) and SL (45 ±2 6, p = 0.003) fetuses than in controls (36 ± 19). Temporary and permanent TO leads to increased RAC; this effect was more pronounced with permanent TO. Both interventions were associated with an increased %AT. These findings may explain the adverse clinical effects of TO, despite causing accelerated lung growth. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Body Weight Evolution in Suffolk x Turcana Crossbred Lambs Reared in Sibiu Region During Lambing up to Weaning Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Popa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Current study wascarried out in a commercial farm from Sibiu county. In autumn 2010, two groupof Turcana breed ewes were established, first group was mated with Suffolkrams, while the second group was mated with Turcana rams. During the lambingseason which occurred in February 2011, two experimental groups of lambs wereestablished, made up of one of the two genotypes each, F1 Suffolk xTurcana and Turcana purebreds, both male and female lambs, respectively. Lambswere allowed to suckle maternal milk from birth until weaning (90 days of age.Body weight of the lambs was evaluated at 30, 60 and 90 days of age. Bodyweight of the Suffolk x Turcana crossbreds from both sexes was significantlyhigher (p≤0.001 at all four stages of the evaluation (birth, 30, 60 and 90days of age, compared with Turcana lambs. Differences in body weight betweenthe two genotypes increased with age, and at the age of 90 days reached 6.33 kgin male lambs and 7.47 kg in females. Results have shown that Suffolk x Turcanacrossbred lambs weaned at the age of 90 days register heavier weights of 25.52kg in males and 23.87 kg in females, compared with purebred Turcana lambs,which register average weights of 18.58 kg in males and 16.69 kg in females.

  17. Effect of body position and ventilation on umbilical artery and venous blood flows during delayed umbilical cord clamping in preterm lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stuart B; Crossley, Kelly J; Zahra, Valerie A; van Vonderen, Jeroen; Moxham, Alison; Gill, Andrew W; Kluckow, Martin; Te Pas, Arjan B; Wallace, Euan M; Polglase, Graeme R

    2017-07-01

    While delayed umbilical cord clamping (UCC) is thought to facilitate placental to infant blood transfusion, the physiological factors regulating flow in the umbilical arteries and veins during delayed UCC is unknown. We investigated the effects of gravity, by changing fetal height relative to the placenta, and ventilation on umbilical blood flows and the cardiovascular transition during delayed UCC at birth. Catheters and flow probes were implanted into preterm lambs (128 days) prior to delivery to measure pulmonary, carotid, umbilical artery (UaBF) and umbilical venous (UvBF) blood flows. Lambs were placed either 10 cm below or 10 cm above the ewe. Ventilation commenced 2-3 min before UCC and continued for 30 min after UCC. Gravity reduced umbilical and cerebral flows when lambs were placed below the midline, but the reduction in UaBF and UvBF was similar. Ventilation during delayed UCC reduced UvBF and UaBF by similar amounts, irrespective of the lamb's position, such that flows into and out of the placenta remained balanced. The effects of ventilation on umbilical flows were much greater than the effects of gravity, but no net placental to lamb blood transfusion could be detected under any condition. Cardiovascular parameters, cerebral oxygen kinetics and final blood volumes were similar in both groups 5 min after UCC. Gravity caused small transient effects on umbilical and cerebral flow, but given changes were similar in umbilical arteries and veins, no net placental transfusion was detected. Ventilation during delayed UCC has a markedly greater influence on cardiovascular function in the newborn. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (LDUV) method for quantifying mechanical properties of viscoelastic solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenadic, Ivan Z; Urban, Matthew W; Mitchell, Scott A; Greenleaf, James F [Basic Ultrasound Research Laboratory, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2011-04-07

    Diastolic dysfunction is the inability of the left ventricle to supply sufficient stroke volumes under normal physiological conditions and is often accompanied by stiffening of the left-ventricular myocardium. A noninvasive technique capable of quantifying viscoelasticity of the myocardium would be beneficial in clinical settings. Our group has been investigating the use of shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV), a noninvasive ultrasound-based method for quantifying viscoelasticity of soft tissues. The primary motive of this study is the design and testing of viscoelastic materials suitable for validation of the Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (LDUV), an SDUV-based technique for measuring viscoelasticity of tissues with plate-like geometry. We report the results of quantifying viscoelasticity of urethane rubber and gelatin samples using LDUV and an embedded sphere method. The LDUV method was used to excite antisymmetric Lamb waves and measure the dispersion in urethane rubber and gelatin plates. An antisymmetric Lamb wave model was fitted to the wave speed dispersion data to estimate elasticity and viscosity of the materials. A finite element model of a viscoelastic plate submerged in water was used to study the appropriateness of the Lamb wave dispersion equations. An embedded sphere method was used as an independent measurement of the viscoelasticity of the urethane rubber and gelatin. The FEM dispersion data were in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. Viscoelasticity of the urethane rubber and gelatin obtained using the LDUV and embedded sphere methods agreed within one standard deviation. LDUV studies on excised porcine myocardium sample were performed to investigate the feasibility of the approach in preparation for open-chest in vivo studies. The results suggest that the LDUV technique can be used to quantify the mechanical properties of soft tissues with a plate-like geometry.

  19. Lamb Wave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry (LDUV) Method for Quantifying Mechanical Properties of Viscoelastic Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadic, Ivan Z.; Urban, Matthew W.; Mitchell, Scott A.; Greenleaf, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Diastolic dysfunction is the inability of the left ventricle to supply sufficient stroke volumes under normal physiological conditions and is often accompanied by stiffening of the left-ventricular myocardium. A noninvasive technique capable of quantifying viscoelasticity of the myocardium would be beneficial in clinical settings. Our group has been investigating the use of Shearwave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry (SDUV), a noninvasive ultrasound based method for quantifying viscoelasticity of soft tissues. The primary motive of this study is the design and testing of viscoelastic materials suitable for validation of the Lamb wave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry (LDUV), an SDUV-based technique for measuring viscoelasticity of tissues with plate-like geometry. We report the results of quantifying viscoelasticity of urethane rubber and gelatin samples using LDUV and an embedded sphere method. The LDUV method was used to excite antisymmetric Lamb waves and measure the dispersion in urethane rubber and gelatin plates. An antisymmetric Lamb wave model was fitted to the wave speed dispersion data to estimate elasticity and viscosity of the materials. A finite element model of a viscoelastic plate submerged in water was used to study the appropriateness of the Lamb wave dispersion equations. An embedded sphere method was used as an independent measurement of the viscoelasticity of the urethane rubber and gelatin. The FEM dispersion data were in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. Viscoelasticity of the urethane rubber and gelatin obtained using the LDUV and embedded sphere methods agreed within one standard deviation. LDUV studies on excised porcine myocardium sample were performed to investigate the feasibility of the approach in preparation for open-chest in vivo studies. The results suggest that the LDUV technique can be used to quantify mechanical properties of soft tissues with a plate-like geometry. PMID:21403186

  20. Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (LDUV) method for quantifying mechanical properties of viscoelastic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenadic, Ivan Z; Urban, Matthew W; Mitchell, Scott A; Greenleaf, James F

    2011-01-01

    Diastolic dysfunction is the inability of the left ventricle to supply sufficient stroke volumes under normal physiological conditions and is often accompanied by stiffening of the left-ventricular myocardium. A noninvasive technique capable of quantifying viscoelasticity of the myocardium would be beneficial in clinical settings. Our group has been investigating the use of shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV), a noninvasive ultrasound-based method for quantifying viscoelasticity of soft tissues. The primary motive of this study is the design and testing of viscoelastic materials suitable for validation of the Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (LDUV), an SDUV-based technique for measuring viscoelasticity of tissues with plate-like geometry. We report the results of quantifying viscoelasticity of urethane rubber and gelatin samples using LDUV and an embedded sphere method. The LDUV method was used to excite antisymmetric Lamb waves and measure the dispersion in urethane rubber and gelatin plates. An antisymmetric Lamb wave model was fitted to the wave speed dispersion data to estimate elasticity and viscosity of the materials. A finite element model of a viscoelastic plate submerged in water was used to study the appropriateness of the Lamb wave dispersion equations. An embedded sphere method was used as an independent measurement of the viscoelasticity of the urethane rubber and gelatin. The FEM dispersion data were in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. Viscoelasticity of the urethane rubber and gelatin obtained using the LDUV and embedded sphere methods agreed within one standard deviation. LDUV studies on excised porcine myocardium sample were performed to investigate the feasibility of the approach in preparation for open-chest in vivo studies. The results suggest that the LDUV technique can be used to quantify the mechanical properties of soft tissues with a plate-like geometry.

  1. Sildenafil citrate treatment enhances amino acid availability in the conceptus and fetal growth in an ovine model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, M Carey; Bazer, Fuller W; Spencer, Thomas E; Wu, Guoyao

    2010-02-01

    Adequate placental blood flow is essential for the optimal delivery of nutrients from mother to fetus for conceptus growth. Restricted fetal development results from pathophysiological and environmental factors that alter utero-placental blood flow, placental function, and, therefore, nutrient availability in the fetus. To test this hypothesis, 0, 75, or 150 mg/d sildenafil citrate (Viagra) was administered subcutaneously from d 28 to 115 of gestation to either nutrient-restricted [50% of NRC requirements) or adequately-fed ewes (100% of NRC requirements). On d 115, maternal, fetal, and placental tissues and fluids were collected. Concentrations of total amino acids and polyamines in uterine venous and arterial sera, amniotic and allantoic fluids, and fetal umbilical venous serum were lower (P < 0.05) in nutrient-restricted ewes than in adequately fed ewes, as were the ratios of total amino acids in fetal umbilical venous serum to uterine arterial serum. Sildenafil citrate dose-dependently increased (P < 0.05) total amino acids and polyamines in amniotic fluid, allantoic fluid, and fetal serum without affecting values in maternal serum. Fetal weight was lower (P < 0.05) in nutrient-restricted ewes on d 115. Sildenafil citrate treatment dose-dependently increased (P < 0.05) fetal weight in both nutrient-restricted and adequately fed ewes. This study supports the hypothesis that long-term sildenafil citrate treatment enhances fetal growth, at least in part, by increasing the availability of amino acids in the conceptus. These findings may lead to the clinical use of sildenafil citrate in human pregnancies suspected to be at risk for intrauterine fetal growth retardation.

  2. Background Lamb waves in the Earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Fukao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Lamb waves of the Earth's atmosphere in the millihertz band have been considered as transient phenomena excited only by large events [e.g. the major volcanic eruption of Krakatoa in 1833, the impact of Siberian meteorite in 1908, the testing of large nuclear tests and the huge earthquakes, Garrett1969]. In a case of the solid Earth, observation of background free oscillations in the millihertz band-now known as Earth's background free oscillations or seismic hum, has been firmly established. Above 5 mHz, their dominant excitation sources are oceanic infragravity waves. At 3.7 and 4.4 mHz an elasto-acoustic resonance between the solid Earth and the atmosphere was observed [Nishida et al., 2000]. These seismic observations show that the contribution of atmospheric disturbances to the seismic hum is dominant below 5 mHz. Such contribution implies background excitations of acoustic-gravity waves in this frequency range. For direct detection of the background acoustic-gravity waves, our group conducted observations using an array of barometers [Nishida et al. 2005]. However, the spatial scale of the array of about 10 km was too small to detect acoustic modes below 10 mHz. Since then, no direct observations of these waves have been reported. In 2011, 337 high-resolution microbarometers were installed on a continental scale at USArray Transportable Array. The large and dense array enables us to detect the background atmospheric waves. Here, we show the first evidence of background Lamb waves in the Earth's atmosphere from 0.2 to 10 mHz, based on the array analysis of microbarometer data from the USArray in 2012. The observations suggest that the excitation sources are atmospheric disturbances in the troposphere. Theoretically, their energy in the troposphere tunnels into the thermosphere at a resonant frequency via thermospheric gravity wave, where the observed amplitudes indeed take a local minimum. The energy leak through the frequency window could partly contribute to

  3. Intrapartum fetal heart rate profiles with and without fetal asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, J A; Pancham, S R; Worthington, D N

    1977-04-01

    Fetal heart rate profiles for periods up to 12 hours prior to delivery have been reviewed in 515 patients with a fetus at risk. Mechanisms other than fetal asphyxia will cause fetal heart rate decelerations, and fetal asphyxia may in some instances develop in the absence of total or late decelerations. However, an increasing incidence of total decelerations and late decelerations and particularly a marked pattern of total decelerations and late decelerations are of value in the prediction of fetal asphyxia. Fetal heart rate deceleration patterns can predict the probability of fetal asphyxia at the time of initial intervention, while a progression of fetal heart rate deceleration patterns in the individual fetus can be of assistance in the subsequent scheduling of serial acid-base assessments during labor.

  4. Foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in young lambs: pathogenesis and tissue tropism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryan, Eoin; Horsington, Jacquelyn; Durand, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in adult sheep usually causes milder clinical signs than in cattle or pigs, and is often subtle enough to go undiagnosed. In contrast, FMD in lambs has been reported to cause high mortality during field outbreaks. In order to investigate the pathogenesis of FMD in lambs...... examined for histopathological lesions, and in situ hybridisation (ISH) was used to localise viral RNA within histological sections. The contact-infected lambs became infected approximately 24 h after the ewes were inoculated. Vesicular lesions developed on the feet of all lambs and on the caudo......-lateral part of the tongues of six of the eight inoculated lambs and three of the four contact-infected lambs. Although no lambs developed severe clinical signs, one of the contact-infected lambs died acutely at 5 days post-exposure. Histological examination of the heart from this lamb showed multi-focal areas...

  5. Fetal heart development in the nitrofen-induced CDH rat model: the role of mechanical and nonmechanical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia-Pinto, Jorge; Baptista, Maria J; Pedrosa, Carla; Estevão-Costa, José; Flake, Alan W; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F

    2003-10-01

    In congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), it was recently shown that early and late gestational lung underdevelopment is caused by nonmechanical and mechanical factors, respectively. Heart underdevelopment, which might predict lung hypoplasia, is commonly attributed to mechanical factors. The authors analyzed whether nonmechanical and mechanical factors affect cardiac growth and correlations between lung and heart weights during gestation. Left-sided CDH was induced in pregnant Wistar rats by administration of nitrofen on E9.5. At selected gestational ages (E18, E20, and E22), the lungs and heart were harvested, weighed, and analyzed for DNA and protein contents. Left lung and heart weights were correlated at those gestational ages. Two experimental groups: nitrofen without CDH (nitrofen), and nitrofen with CDH (CDH), were compared with normal controls. At E18, both nitrofen-exposed groups presented similar and significant left lung (LL) hypoplasia. As gestation progressed (E20 and E22), in the nitrofen group left lung (LL) hypoplasia decreased, whereas in the CDH group LL hypoplasia was exacerbated relative to normal controls. In contrast, at E18 and E20, heart-to-body weight ratios as well as cardiac DNA and protein contents were reduced significantly in all animals exposed to nitrofen, with no significant differences observed between nitrofen and CDH groups. As gestation progressed, the difference between cardiac parameters in nitrofen-exposed and normal control rats diminished, and at E22 no significant differences were documented. In the CDH group, significant correlations were seen between lung and heart weights at E18 (r = 0.65; P <.05) and E20 (r = 0.4; P <.05), whereas at term gestation (E22) no significant correlation was observed (r = 0.21, not significant). Nonmechanical factors, which might be directed by nitrofen, play a role in the pathogenesis of lung and heart hypoplasia manifested precociously in fetal life, whereas mechanical compression might

  6. TLR4 response mediates ethanol-induced neurodevelopment alterations in a model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, María; Montesinos, Jorge; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Forteza, Jerónimo; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Guerri, Consuelo

    2017-07-24

    Inflammation during brain development participates in the pathogenesis of early brain injury and cognitive dysfunctions. Prenatal ethanol exposure affects the developing brain and causes neural impairment, cognitive and behavioral effects, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Our previous studies demonstrate that ethanol activates the innate immune response and TLR4 receptor and causes neuroinflammation, brain damage, and cognitive defects in the developmental brain stage of adolescents. We hypothesize that by activating the TLR4 response, maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy triggers the release of cytokines and chemokines in both the maternal sera and brains of fetuses/offspring, which impairs brain ontogeny and causes cognitive dysfunction. WT and TLR4-KO female mice treated with or without 10% ethanol in the drinking water during gestation and lactation were used. Cytokine/chemokine levels were determined by ELISA in the amniotic fluid, maternal serum, and cerebral cortex, as well as in the offspring cerebral cortex. Microglial and neuronal markers (evaluated by western blotting), myelin proteins (immunohistochemical and western blotting) and synaptic parameters (western blotting and electron microscopy) were assessed in the cortices of the WT and TLR4-KO pups on PND 0, 20, and 66. Behavioral tests (elevated plus maze and passive avoidance) were performed in the WT and TLR4-KO mice on PND 66 exposed or not to ethanol. We show that alcohol intake during gestation and lactation increases the levels of several cytokines/chemokines (IL-1β, IL-17, MIP-1α, and fractalkine) in the maternal sera, amniotic fluid, and brains of fetuses and offspring. The upregulation of cytokines/chemokines is associated with an increase in activated microglia markers (CD11b and MHC-II), and with a reduction in some synaptic (synaptotagmin, synapsin IIa) and myelin (MBP, PLP) proteins in the brains of offspring on days 0, 20, and 66 (long-term effects

  7. Effect of different grazing pressure by lambs grazing Lolium perenne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    high (HGP), medium (MGP) and low (LGP), corresponding to 30, 50 and 75 g available DM/kg BW/day, respectively] on the quality of herbage consumed by lambs grazing Lolium perenne and Dactylis glomerata pastures in spring.

  8. Occipital condylar dysplasia in a Jacob lamb ( Ovis aries ) | Lee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multihorned) phenotype. We describe a four-horned Jacob lamb that exhibited progressive congenital hindlimb ataxia and paresis, and was euthanased four weeks post-partum. Necropsy and CT-scan revealed deformity and asymmetry of the ...

  9. Damage Detection Using Lamb Waves for Structural Health Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crider II, Jeffrey S

    2007-01-01

    .... This study evaluates Lamb wave approaches used to detect simulated cracks in laboratory experiments on thin plates to detect more realistic damage in a test article representing the complex geometry...

  10. Sex differences in the fetal programming of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Daniela; Ojeda, Norma B; Alexander, Barbara T

    2008-01-01

    Numerous clinical and experimental studies support the hypothesis that the intrauterine environment is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. This review examined the mechanisms linking an adverse fetal environment and increased risk for chronic disease in adulthood with an emphasis on gender differences and the role of sex hormones in mediating sexual dimorphism in response to a suboptimal fetal environment. This review focuses on current findings from the PubMed database regarding animal models of fetal programming of hypertension, sex differences in phenotypic outcomes, and potential mechanisms in offspring of mothers exposed to an adverse insult during gestation. For the years 1988 to 2007, the database was searched using the following terms: fetal programming, intrauterine growth restriction, low birth weight, sex differences, estradiol, testosterone, high blood pressure, and hypertension. The mechanisms involved in the fetal programming of adult disease are multifactorial and include alterations in the regulatory systems affecting the long-tterm control of arterial pressure. Sex differences have been observed in animal models of fetal programming, and recent studies suggest that sex hormones may modulate activity of regulatory systems, leading to a lower incidence of hypertension and vascular dysfunction in females compared with males. Animal models of fetal programming provide critical support for the inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure. Experimental models demonstrate that sex differences are observed in the pathophysiologic response to an adverse fetal environment. A role for sex hormone involvement is strongly suggested,with modulation of the renin-angiotensin system as a possible mechanism.

  11. Effects of Transport on Live Weight and Behavior of Lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Andronie; Adina Ciurea; Viorel Andronie; Dumitru Curcă

    2011-01-01

    The study has monitored the effects of transport stress on some biochemical indicators of stress and behavior lambs at time of slaughter. The research was carried out in the cold season, on a number of 120 lambs, transported for 6h- 16h, to be slaughtered. During our research, we followed the changes in bodyweight, behaviours expressed by sheep, and plasma cortisol levels. Bodyweight loss recorded in the slaughterhouse to 24 hours of departure transportation was of 4-5%. The behavioural manif...

  12. Very Low Dose Fetal Exposure to Chernobyl Contamination Resulted in Increases in Infant Leukemia in Europe and Raises Questions about Current Radiation Risk Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Busby

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Following contamination from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 excess infant leukemia (0–1 y was reported from five different countries, Scotland, Greece, Germany, Belarus and Wales and Scotland combined. The cumulative absorbed doses to the fetus, as conventionally assessed, varied from 0.02 mSv in the UK through 0.06 mSv in Germany, 0.2 mSv in Greece and 2 mSv in Belarus, where it was highest. Nevertheless, the effect was real and given the specificity of the cohort raised questions about the safety of applying the current radiation risk model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP to these internal exposures, a matter which was discussed in 2000 by Busby and Cato [7,8] and also in the reports of the UK Committee examining Radiation Risk from Internal Emitters. Data on infant leukemia in the United Kingdom, chosen on the basis of the cohorts defined by the study of Greece were supplied by the UK Childhood Cancer Research Group. This has enabled a study of leukemia in the combined infant population of 15,466,845 born in the UK, Greece, and Germany between 1980 and 1990. Results show a statistically significant excess risk RR = 1.43 (95% CI 1.13 < RR < 1.80 (2-tailed; p = 0.0025 in those born during the defined peak exposure period of 01/07/86 to 31/12/87 compared with those born between 01/01/80 and 31/12/85 and 01/01/88 and 31/12/90. The excess risks in individual countries do not increase monotonically with the conventionally calculated doses, the relation being biphasic, increasing sharply at low doses and falling at high doses. This result is discussed in relation to fetal/cell death at higher doses and also to induction of DNA repair. Since the cohort is chosen specifically on the basis of exposure to internal radionuclides, the result can be expressed as evidence for a significant error in the conventional modeling for such internal fetal exposures.

  13. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure inhibits gastroesophageal reflux in newborn lambs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamal Djeddi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using esophageal pHmetry, nasal CPAP (nCPAP has been shown to decrease acid gastroesophageal reflux (GER in adult humans. Although both GER (mainly non-acid and nCPAP use are very frequent in newborns, the effect of nCPAP on GER in early life is unknown. Having recently shown that the newborn lamb is a unique model for studying neonatal GER, our main objective was to assess the effect of nCPAP on GER in newborn lambs. METHODS: Eight newborn lambs, aged 2-3 days, were studied. Continuous esophageal pH-Impedance monitoring and polysomnography were performed for six hours during both spontaneous breathing and nCPAP application at 6 cmH2O (nCPAP(6, in a randomized order. Results were compared in the two experimental conditions, as well as without CPAP during the following 6 hours. RESULTS: i nCPAP(6 virtually abolished GER [mean ± SD reflux number for 6 h = 9.1 ± 8.6 without nCPAP(6 vs. 0.6 ± 1 with nCPAP(6, P<0.05]; ii GER number was also reduced during the 6 h-period following nCPAP(6 application (18 ± 16 without nCPAP(6 vs. 7 ± 8.1 with nCPAP(6, P<0.05; iii nCPAP(6 decreased the depth and duration of lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. CONCLUSIONS: nCPAP inhibits GER in the newborn lamb. Further clinical studies using different levels of nasal CPAP are needed to confirm this result in human infants.

  14. Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with Worm Control in Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew G. Coulter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There are currently little or no data on the role of endemic disease control in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from livestock. In the present study, we have used an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-compliant model to calculate GHG emissions from naturally grazing lambs under four different anthelmintic drug treatment regimes over a 5-year study period. Treatments were either “monthly” (NST, “strategic” (SPT, “targeted” (TST or based on “clinical signs” (MT. Commercial sheep farming practices were simulated, with lambs reaching a pre-selected target market weight (38 kg removed from the analysis as they would no longer contribute to the GHG budget of the flock. Results showed there was a significant treatment effect over all years, with lambs in the MT group consistently taking longer to reach market weight, and an extra 10% emission of CO2e per kg of weight gain over the other treatments. There were no significant differences between the other three treatment strategies (NST, SPT and TST in terms of production efficiency or cumulated GHG emissions over the experimental period. This study has shown that endemic disease control can contribute to a reduction in GHG emissions from animal agriculture and help reduce the carbon footprint of livestock farming.

  15. A dynamic counterpart of Lamb vector in viscous compressible aerodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L Q; Wu, J Z; Shi, Y P; Zhu, J Y

    2014-01-01

    The Lamb vector is known to play a key role in incompressible fluid dynamics and vortex dynamics. In particular, in low-speed steady aerodynamics it is solely responsible for the total force acting on a moving body, known as the vortex force, with the classic two-dimensional (exact) Kutta–Joukowski theorem and three-dimensional (linearized) lifting-line theory as the most famous special applications. In this paper we identify an innovative dynamic counterpart of the Lamb vector in viscous compressible aerodynamics, which we call the compressible Lamb vector. Mathematically, we present a theorem on the dynamic far-field decay law of the vorticity and dilatation fields, and thereby prove that the generalized Lamb vector enjoys exactly the same integral properties as the Lamb vector does in incompressible flow, and hence the vortex-force theory can be generalized to compressible flow with exactly the same general formulation. Moreover, for steady flow of polytropic gas, we show that physically the force exerted on a moving body by the gas consists of a transverse force produced by the original Lamb vector and a new longitudinal force that reflects the effects of compression and irreversible thermodynamics. (paper)

  16. Impact Localization Using Lamb Wave and Spiral FSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimal, Nischal

    Wear and tear exists in almost every physical infrastructure. Modern day science has something in its pocket to early detect such wear and tear known as Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). SHM features a key role in tracking a structural failure and could prevent loss of human lives and money. The size and prices of presently available defect detection devices make them not suitable for on-site SHM. The exploitation of directional transducers and Lamb wave propagation for SHM has been proposed. The basis of the project was to develop an accurate localization algorithm and implementation of Lamb waves to detect the crack present in the plate like structures. In regards, the use of Frequency Steerable Acoustic Transducer (FSAT) was studied. The theory governing the propagation of Lamb wave was reviewed. The derivation of the equations and dispersion curve of Lamb waves are included. FSAT was studied from both theoretical and application view of point. The experiments carried out give us better understanding of the FSAT excitation and Lamb wave generation and detection. The Lamb wave generation and crack localization algorithm was constructed and with the proposed algorithm, simulated impacts are detected.

  17. Multisite randomised controlled trial to evaluate polypropylene clips applied to the breech of lambs as an alternative to mulesing. II: multivariate analysis of relationships between clip treatment and operator, sheep, farm and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiee, A R; Playford, M C; Evans, I; Lindon, G; Stevenson, M; Lean, I J

    2012-11-01

    A multivariate analysis approach was used to evaluate both the effects of application of occlusive polypropylene clips to the breech on bare area measurements and scores of lambs, and the influence of operator, region, sheep, farm and environmental factors on outcomes. A randomised controlled trial using 32,028 lambs was conducted on 208 commercial wool-growing properties across Australia. Differences in bare area measurements and scores between groups were estimated and analysed using a mixed model to investigate the effects of operator differences, farm and environmental factors and the interactions among these factors. Clip-treated lambs with higher body weight at visit 1 had higher bare area measures and scores, but lower changes in dag and urine scores. Lambs with tight skin showed improved response in bare area scores and measurements after clip treatment, but lambs with a high wrinkle score at visit 1 showed less response to the treatment in their urine, dag and wrinkle and bare area scores. These effects of the clip treatment were not significantly influenced by estimated fleece fibre diameter, operator or region, but were significantly influenced by farm. The effect of occlusive clips on breech measurements and scores was significantly influenced by body weight, skin type and thickness, wrinkle score and sex of the lamb, but not by region, operator or estimated fibre diameter. The clip treatment significantly improved characteristics that influence the susceptibility of lambs to flystrike under most conditions. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  18. Human fetal anatomy: MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, J C; Lowe, T; Cohen, J M; Kutler, M

    1985-12-01

    Twenty-four pregnant women carrying 26 fetuses (two sets of twins) were imaged with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 0.35 T following sonographic evaluation. Each study was retrospectively evaluated to determine which of 33 normal fetal structures were visible on the images and which imaging parameters were most useful for depicting fetal anatomy. Fetal motion degraded fetal images in all but two cases, both with oligohydramnios and in the third trimester of gestation. Nevertheless, many fetal structures were identifiable, particularly in the third trimester. Visualization of fetal anatomy improved with intravenous maternal sedation in five cases. Relatively T1-weighted images occasionally offered the advantage of less image degradation owing to fetal motion and improved contrast between different fetal structures. More T2 weighting was believed to be advantageous in one case for outlining the fetal head and in one case for delineation of the brain. In many cases, structures were similarly identifiable (though with different signal intensities) regardless of the parameters selected. The authors conclude that MR imaging of many fetal structures is currently unsatisfactory and is probably of limited value, particularly in the first and second trimesters. However, the relative frequency and detail with which the fetal head and liver can be depicted indicate that these may be areas for further investigation, and the potential utility of imaging fetal fat warrants further investigation.

  19. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Ceccanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA and TrkB, including their phosphorylated patterns. METHODS: We used aged male CD-1 mice early exposed to ethanol solution or red wine at same ethanol concentration (11% vol. RESULTS We found elevations in NGF and BDNF in the thyroid of aged mice exposed to ethanol solution only but not in the red wine group. In the testis NGF resulted to be increased only in the ethanol solution group. In the adrenal glands data showed an elevation in NGF in both the ethanol solution group and red wine. No changes in TrkA, TrkB, phospho-TrkA and phospho-TrkB were revealed in all tissues examined. CONCLUSIONS Early administration of ethanol may induce long-lasting changes in the mouse thyroid, testis and adrenal glands at NGF and BDNF levels.

  20. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccanti, Mauro; De Nicolò, Sara; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Chaldakov, George; Carito, Valentina; Ceccanti, Marco; Laviola, Giovanni; Tirassa, Paola; Fiore, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA and TrkB, including their phosphorylated patterns. We used aged male CD-1 mice early exposed to ethanol solution or red wine at same ethanol concentration (11% vol). We found elevations in NGF and BDNF in the thyroid of aged mice exposed to ethanol solution only but not in the red wine group. In the testis NGF resulted to be increased only in the ethanol solution group. In the adrenal glands data showed an elevation in NGF in both the ethanol solution group and red wine. No changes in TrkA, TrkB, phospho-TrkA and phospho-TrkB were revealed in all tissues examined. Early administration of ethanol may induce long-lasting changes in the mouse thyroid, testis and adrenal glands at NGF and BDNF levels.

  1. Supplementation of glycerol or fructose via drinking water to grazing lambs on tissue glycogen level and lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi-Lagreca, G; Duckett, S K

    2017-06-01

    Lambs ( = 18; 40.1 ± 7.4 kg BW) were used to assess supplementation of glycerol or fructose via drinking water on growth, tissue glycogen levels, postmortem glycolysis, and lipogenesis. Lambs were blocked by BW and allocated to alfalfa paddocks (2 lambs/paddock and 3 paddocks/treatment). Each paddock within a block was assigned randomly to drinking water treatments for 30 d: 1) control (CON), 2) 120 g fructose/L of drinking water (FRU), or 3) 120 g glycerol/L of drinking water (GLY). Lambs grazed alfalfa with free access to water treatments for 28 d and then were fasted in indoor pens for a final 2 d with access to only water treatments. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS with water treatment and time (when appropriate) in the model. During the 28-d grazing period, ADG was greater ( glycogen content × postmortem time was significant ( = 0.003) in LM and semitendinosus (ST) muscles. Glycogen content in the LM was greater ( Glycogen content in ST did not differ between treatments ( > 0.05). Liver glycogen content was over 14-fold greater ( glycogen branching enzyme in the liver. Overall, glycerol supplementation improved growth, reduced BW shrink during fasting, increased glycogen content in muscle and the liver, and stimulated de novo lipogenesis.

  2. An individualized approach to sustained inflation duration at birth improves outcomes in newborn preterm lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingay, David G; Lavizzari, Anna; Zonneveld, Cornelis E E; Rajapaksa, Anushi; Zannin, Emanuela; Perkins, Elizabeth; Black, Don; Sourial, Magdy; Dellacà, Raffaele L; Mosca, Fabio; Adler, Andy; Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Frerichs, Inéz; Davis, Peter G

    2015-11-15

    A sustained first inflation (SI) at birth may aid lung liquid clearance and aeration, but the impact of SI duration relative to the volume-response of the lung is poorly understood. We compared three SI strategies: 1) variable duration defined by attaining volume equilibrium using real-time electrical impedance tomography (EIT; SIplat); 2) 30 s beyond equilibrium (SIlong); 3) short 30-s SI (SI30); and 4) positive pressure ventilation without SI (no-SI) on spatiotemporal aeration and ventilation (EIT), gas exchange, lung mechanics, and regional early markers of injury in preterm lambs. Fifty-nine fetal-instrumented lambs were ventilated for 60 min after applying the allocated first inflation strategy. At study completion molecular and histological markers of lung injury were analyzed. The time to SI volume equilibrium, and resultant volume, were highly variable; mean (SD) 55 (34) s, coefficient of variability 59%. SIplat and SIlong resulted in better lung mechanics, gas exchange and lower ventilator settings than both no-SI and SI30. At 60 min, alveolar-arterial difference in oxygen was a mean (95% confidence interval) 130 (13, 249) higher in SI30 vs. SIlong group (two-way ANOVA). These differences were due to better spatiotemporal aeration and tidal ventilation, although all groups showed redistribution of aeration towards the nondependent lung by 60 min. Histological lung injury scores mirrored spatiotemporal change in aeration and were greatest in SI30 group (P < 0.01, Kruskal-Wallis test). An individualized volume-response approach to SI was effective in optimizing aeration, homogeneous tidal ventilation, and respiratory outcomes, while an inadequate SI duration had no benefit over positive pressure ventilation alone. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are pregnant or trying to get pregnant. Prevention Avoiding alcohol during pregnancy prevents FAS. Counseling can help women ... the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Read more ... HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A. ...

  4. Detection of fetal-specific DNA after enrichment for trophoblasts using the monoclonal antibody LK26 in model systems but failure to demonstrate fetal DNA in maternal peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, T V; Sørensen, S; Morling, N

    1999-01-01

    chain reaction (PCR) and automated fluorescence-based genotyping. After successful initial experiments using retroplacental blood samples with a high number of trophoblast cells or an artificial mixture of trophoblast cells and blood, several versions of the enrichment method were attempted......Trophoblast cells can be detected in maternal blood during normal human pregnancy and DNA from these cells may be used for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of inherited diseases. The possibility of enriching trophoblast cells from maternal blood samples using a monoclonal antibody (LK26) against...... on peripheral maternal blood samples. However, it was not possible to detect fetal DNA sequences in these samples, most probably due to the extremely low number of trophoblast cells. Positive identification and retrieval of trophoblast cells in suspension or trophoblast nuclear material prepared on microscope...

  5. IFPA meeting 2014 workshop report: Animal models to study pregnancy pathologies; new approaches to study human placental exposure to xenobiotics; biomarkers of pregnancy pathologies; placental genetics and epigenetics; the placenta and stillbirth and fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaux, S; Erwich, J J H M; Favaron, P O; Gil, S; Gallot, D; Golos, T G; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Guibourdenche, J; Heazell, A E P; Jansson, T; Laprévote, O; Lewis, R M; Miller, R K; Monk, D; Novakovic, B; Oudejans, C; Parast, M; Peugnet, P; Pfarrer, C; Pinar, H; Roberts, C T; Robinson, W; Saffery, R; Salomon, C; Sexton, A; Staff, A C; Suter, M; Tarrade, A; Wallace, J; Vaillancourt, C; Vaiman, D; Worton, S A; Lash, G E

    2015-04-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At IFPA meeting 2014 there were six themed workshops, five of which are summarized in this report. These workshops related to various aspects of placental biology but collectively covered areas of animal models, xenobiotics, pathological biomarkers, genetics and epigenetics, and stillbirth and fetal growth restriction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fetal Cardiac Doppler Signal Processing Techniques: Challenges and Future Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abdulrahman Alnuaimi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The fetal Doppler Ultrasound (DUS is commonly used for monitoring fetal heart rate and can also be used for identifying the event timings of fetal cardiac valve motions. In early-stage fetuses, the detected Doppler signal suffers from noise and signal loss due to the fetal movements and changing fetal location during the measurement procedure. The fetal cardiac intervals, which can be estimated by measuring the fetal cardiac event timings, are the most important markers of fetal development and well-being. To advance DUS-based fetal monitoring methods, several powerful and well-advanced signal processing and machine learning methods have recently been developed. This review provides an overview of the existing techniques used in fetal cardiac activity monitoring and a comprehensive survey on fetal cardiac Doppler signal processing frameworks. The review is structured with a focus on their shortcomings and advantages, which helps in understanding fetal Doppler cardiogram signal processing methods and the related Doppler signal analysis procedures by providing valuable clinical information. Finally, a set of recommendations are suggested for future research directions and the use of fetal cardiac Doppler signal analysis, processing, and modeling to address the underlying challenges.

  7. Fetal Cardiac Doppler Signal Processing Techniques: Challenges and Future Research Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuaimi, Saeed Abdulrahman; Jimaa, Shihab; Khandoker, Ahsan H

    2017-01-01

    The fetal Doppler Ultrasound (DUS) is commonly used for monitoring fetal heart rate and can also be used for identifying the event timings of fetal cardiac valve motions. In early-stage fetuses, the detected Doppler signal suffers from noise and signal loss due to the fetal movements and changing fetal location during the measurement procedure. The fetal cardiac intervals, which can be estimated by measuring the fetal cardiac event timings, are the most important markers of fetal development and well-being. To advance DUS-based fetal monitoring methods, several powerful and well-advanced signal processing and machine learning methods have recently been developed. This review provides an overview of the existing techniques used in fetal cardiac activity monitoring and a comprehensive survey on fetal cardiac Doppler signal processing frameworks. The review is structured with a focus on their shortcomings and advantages, which helps in understanding fetal Doppler cardiogram signal processing methods and the related Doppler signal analysis procedures by providing valuable clinical information. Finally, a set of recommendations are suggested for future research directions and the use of fetal cardiac Doppler signal analysis, processing, and modeling to address the underlying challenges.

  8. Long-term genomic and epigenomic dysregulation as a consequence of prenatal alcohol exposure: a model for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan L Kleiber

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is abundant evidence that prenatal alcohol exposure leads to a range of behavioural and cognitive impairments, categorized under the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs. These disorders are pervasive in Western cultures and represent the most common preventable source of neurodevelopmental disabilities. The genetic and epigenetic etiology of these phenotypes, including those factors that may maintain these phenotypes throughout the lifetime of an affected individual, has become a recent topic of investigation. This review integrates recent data that has progressed our understanding FASD as a continuum of molecular events, beginning with cellular stress response and ending with a long-term ‘footprint’ of epigenetic dysregulation across the genome. It reports on data from multiple ethanol-treatment paradigms in mouse models that identify changes in gene expression that occur with respect to neurodevelopmental timing of exposure and ethanol dose. These studies have identified patterns of genomic alteration that are dependent on the biological processes occurring at the time of ethanol exposure. This review also adds to evidence that epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNA regulation may underlie long-term changes to gene expression patterns. These may be initiated by ethanol-induced alterations to DNA and histone methylation, particularly in imprinted regions of the genome, affecting transcription which is further fine-tuned by altered microRNA expression. These processes are likely complex, genome-wide, and interrelated. The proposed model suggests a potential for intervention, given that epigenetic changes are malleable and may be altered by postnatal environment. This review accentuates the value of mouse models in deciphering the molecular etiology of FASD, including those processes that may provide a target for the ammelioration of this common yet entirely preventable disorder.

  9. Phenotypic characterisation of colour stability of lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Robin H; D'Antuono, Mario F; Gilmour, Arthur R; Warner, Robyn D

    2014-02-01

    A study was undertaken, using 2701 overwrapped loin samples aged for 5 days and subjected to a simulated retail display (SRD) for 3 days; sourced from lambs in the Cooperative Research Centre for Sheep Industry Innovation information nucleus flock, born 2007-2009. The ratio of reflectance of light in the wavelengths of 630 nm and 580 nm (oxy/met) was measured daily during the SRD, using a Hunterlab spectrophotometer. A series of linear mixed models was fitted to the oxy/met and time data to compare 4 breed types and identify relevant covariates, of 19, using a forward selection process. Breed type, pH at 24 h post slaughter and Linoleic acid concentration (LA) were the most important factors and covariates, in that order. Merino breed type, high pH and high LA reduced colour stability. Fitting a spline model to predict the time for oxy/met to reach a set value, represents an alternative to comparing oxy/met at a set time, for describing colour stability. Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. The Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebel, Tobias

    2010-06-25

    The subject of this thesis is the first measurement of the 2S-2P Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen ({mu}p). In this project, which has been performed at the proton-accelerator facility of the Paul-Scherrer-Institute in Switzerland, the exotic analogon to the classical Lamb shift in hydrogen has been examined by laser spectroscopy. Negative muons are produced at a specially developed low-energy muon beam at a rate of 330 s{sup -1} and are stopped in 1 hPa of H{sub 2} gas. In the gas, highly excited {mu}p atoms are formed, most of which promptly cascade to the ground state within {proportional_to}100 ns. Only a fraction of 1.1% forms {mu}p atoms in the long-lived 2S state with a lifetime of 1.0 {mu}s. An elaborate laser system triggered on every incoming muon delivers 0.2 mJ laser pulses at {lambda}{approx_equal}6 {mu}m with 500 s{sup -1} repetition rate. The laser illuminates the {mu}p atoms 900 ns after the prompt muon cascade inducing the 2S-2P transition when on resonance. A 1.9 keV K{sub {alpha}} X-ray is emitted in the subsequent deexcitation to the 1S ground state and is recorded by large area avalanche photodiodes. The laser induced K{sub {alpha}} events are clearly distinguishable from the exponential background. For the 2S{sub 1/2}{sup F=1} - 2P{sub 3/2}{sup F=2} transition in {mu}p, it is given by {nu}{sub 2S-2P}=49 881 695 (711)MHz with a relative accuracy of 1.4 x 10{sup -5}. Assuming the correctness of the bound-state QED calculations of the Lamb shift in {mu}p, a new value for the rms proton charge radius r{sub p} can be derived: r{sub p}=0:84192(65) fm. Using the precisely measured 1S-2S transition frequency in hydrogen (relative accuracy of 1.4 parts in 10{sup 14}) and combining it with our new value of r{sub p}, a new value for the Rydberg constant R{sub {infinity}} can be derived with a relative accuracy of 1.5 parts in 10{sup 12}: R{sub {infinity}}=10 973 731.568 161(16)m{sup -1}. Beside the 2S{sub 1/2}{sup F=1}-2P{sub 3/2}{sup F=2} transition in {mu

  11. Effect of creep feeding system on performance of suckling lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh S, A.; Saleh, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty seven newly born Barki Lambs of about 3.84 kg live body weight were randomly divided into three groups of nine lambs each. Their weights were recorded at birth. Lambs in the first group were served as controls and fed on their dam's milk only (milk basis) > The second group was fed on their dam's milk in addition to concentrate feed mixture (CFM) as creep feeding> Group three was fed on their dam's milk; concentrate feed mixture and lactic acid producing bacteria. Concentrate feed mixture was offered daily in the morning for lambs under creep feeding system, started at 7 days from birth. Lambs were kept with their mothers in the same pens. Blood samples were collected at 7.30 and 60 days old from the jugular vein of each animal. Total gain, average daily gain and weaning weight of lambs were higher (P<0.05) in groups II and III than control group. Both groups II and III showed no significant difference in weight gain. The higher values serum total proteins were recorded in groups II and III. Values of serum total proteins were recorded in groups II and III . Values of serum albumin were similar in all different groups. However, group III recorded the highest values of globin. Blood serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) activities were not affected by treatment. It was clearly observed that GPT values were increased with age in all groups. Values for serum glucose were decreased with age until weaning, while serum urea nitrogen was increased with age. The differences among treatments in creatinine concentrations were not significant. Total triiodothyronine (T4) and total thyroxine (T4) concentrations were not significantly different between experimental groups. It is concluded that creep feeding promotes growth in lambs during suckling period and can be successfully used for a short fattening period

  12. Late foetal life nutrient restriction and sire genotype affect postnatal performance of lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Tauson, Anne-Helen; Blache, D.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment investigates the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in late gestation on the offsprings' postnatal metabolism and performance. Forty purebred Shropshire twin lambs born to ewes fed either a high-nutrition diet (H) (according to standard) or a low-nutrition (L) diet (50% during....... Their glucose concentrations and growth rates were both increased. Plasma glucose concentrations in LM-lambs became similar to those observed in H-lambs post-weaning. However, LM-lambs continued to be lighter than the other groups throughout the experimental period and were unable to compensate for the reduced...... weight at birth despite having the highest daily fractional growth rates. LG-lambs had the highest plasma glucose concentrations of all four groups of lambs, and they indeed reached body weights comparable to those of the H-lambs by 145 days of age. The increased growth rate post-weaning in L-lambs...

  13. Mutations in the human laminin beta2 (LAMB2) gene and the associated phenotypic spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matejas, Verena; Hinkes, Bernward; Alkandari, Faisal; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Annexstad, Ellen; Aytac, Mehmet B.; Barrow, Margaret; Bláhová, Kveta; Bockenhauer, Detlef; Cheong, Hae Il; Maruniak-Chudek, Iwona; Cochat, Pierre; Dötsch, Jörg; Gajjar, Priya; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Janssen, Françoise; Kagan, Mikhail; Kariminejad, Ariana; Kemper, Markus J.; Koenig, Jens; Kogan, Jillene; Kroes, Hester Y.; Kuwertz-Bröking, Eberhard; Lewanda, Amy F.; Medeira, Ana; Muscheites, Jutta; Niaudet, Patrick; Pierson, Michel; Saggar, Anand; Seaver, Laurie; Suri, Mohnish; Tsygin, Alexey; Wühl, Elke; Zurowska, Aleksandra; Uebe, Steffen; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Antignac, Corinne; Zenker, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Mutations of LAMB2 typically cause autosomal recessive Pierson syndrome, a disorder characterized by congenital nephrotic syndrome, ocular and neurologic abnormalities, but may occasionally be associated with milder or oligosymptomatic disease variants. LAMB2 encodes the basement membrane protein

  14. A comparison of the different animal models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and their use in studying complex behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R Patten

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal ethanol exposure (PNEE has been linked to widespread impairments in brain structure and function. There are a number of animal models that are used to study the structural and functional deficits caused by prenatal ethanol exposure, including, but not limited to: invertebrates, fish, rodents and non-human primates. Animal models enable a researcher to control important variables such as the route of ethanol administration, as well as the timing, frequency and amount of ethanol exposure. Each animal model and system of exposure has its place, depending on the research question being undertaken. In this review we will examine the different routes of ethanol administration and the various animal models of FASD that are commonly used in research, emphasizing their strengths and limitations. We will also present an up-to-date summary on the effects of prenatal/neonatal ethanol exposure on behavior across the lifespan, focusing on learning and memory, olfaction, social, executive and motor functions. Special emphasis will be placed where the various animal models best represent deficits observed in the human condition and offer a viable test bed to examine potential therapeutics for humans with FASD.

  15. Model-based analysis of costs and outcomes of non-invasive prenatal testing for Down's syndrome using cell free fetal DNA in the UK National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Stephen; Karlsen, Saffron; Chung, Nancy; Hill, Melissa; Chitty, Lyn S

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for Down's syndrome (DS) using cell free fetal DNA in maternal blood has the potential to dramatically alter the way prenatal screening and diagnosis is delivered. Before NIPT can be implemented into routine practice, information is required on its costs and benefits. We investigated the costs and outcomes of NIPT for DS as contingent testing and as first-line testing compared with the current DS screening programme in the UK National Health Service. We used a pre-existing model to evaluate the costs and outcomes associated with NIPT compared with the current DS screening programme. The analysis was based on a hypothetical screening population of 10,000 pregnant women. Model inputs were taken from published sources. The main outcome measures were number of DS cases detected, number of procedure-related miscarriages and total cost. At a screening risk cut-off of 1∶150 NIPT as contingent testing detects slightly fewer DS cases, has fewer procedure-related miscarriages, and costs the same as current DS screening (around UK£280,000) at a cost of £500 per NIPT. As first-line testing NIPT detects more DS cases, has fewer procedure-related miscarriages, and is more expensive than current screening at a cost of £50 per NIPT. When NIPT uptake increases, NIPT detects more DS cases with a small increase in procedure-related miscarriages and costs. NIPT is currently available in the private sector in the UK at a price of £400-£900. If the NHS cost was at the lower end of this range then at a screening risk cut-off of 1∶150 NIPT as contingent testing would be cost neutral or cost saving compared with current DS screening. As first-line testing NIPT is likely to produce more favourable outcomes but at greater cost. Further research is needed to evaluate NIPT under real world conditions.

  16. SP-B and SP-C containing new synthetic surfactant for treatment of extremely immature lamb lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Atsuyasu; Ikegami, Machiko

    2012-01-01

    Although superiority of synthetic surfactant over animal-driven surfactant has been known, there is no synthetic surfactant commercially available at present. Many trials have been made to develop synthetic surfactant comparable in function to animal-driven surfactant. The efficacy of treatment with a new synthetic surfactant (CHF5633) containing dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, SP-B analog, and SP-C analog was evaluated using immature newborn lamb model and compared with animal lung tissue-based surfactant Survanta. Lambs were treated with a clinical dose of 200 mg/kg CHF5633, 100 mg/kg Survanta, or air after 15 min initial ventilation. All the lambs treated with air died of respiratory distress within 90 min of age. During a 5 h study period, Pco(2) was maintained at 55 mmHg with 24 cmH(2)O peak inspiratory pressure for both groups. The preterm newborn lamb lung functions were dramatically improved by CHF5633 treatment. Slight, but significant superiority of CHF5633 over Survanta was demonstrated in tidal volume at 20 min and dynamic lung compliance at 20 and 300 min. The ultrastructure of CHF5633 was large with uniquely aggregated lipid particles. Increased uptake of CHF5633 by alveolar monocytes for catabolism was demonstrated by microphotograph, which might be associated with the higher treatment dose of CHF5633. The higher catabolism of CHF5633 was also suggested by the similar amount of surfactant lipid in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) between CHF5633 and Survanta groups, despite the 2-fold higher treatment dose of CHF5633. Under the present ventilation protocol, lung inflammation was minimal for both groups, evaluated by inflammatory cell numbers in BALF and expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα mRNA in the lung tissue. In conclusion, the new synthetic surfactant CHF5633 was effective in treating extremely immature newborn lambs with surfactant deficiency during the 5 h study period.

  17. SP-B and SP-C containing new synthetic surfactant for treatment of extremely immature lamb lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuyasu Sato

    Full Text Available Although superiority of synthetic surfactant over animal-driven surfactant has been known, there is no synthetic surfactant commercially available at present. Many trials have been made to develop synthetic surfactant comparable in function to animal-driven surfactant. The efficacy of treatment with a new synthetic surfactant (CHF5633 containing dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, SP-B analog, and SP-C analog was evaluated using immature newborn lamb model and compared with animal lung tissue-based surfactant Survanta. Lambs were treated with a clinical dose of 200 mg/kg CHF5633, 100 mg/kg Survanta, or air after 15 min initial ventilation. All the lambs treated with air died of respiratory distress within 90 min of age. During a 5 h study period, Pco(2 was maintained at 55 mmHg with 24 cmH(2O peak inspiratory pressure for both groups. The preterm newborn lamb lung functions were dramatically improved by CHF5633 treatment. Slight, but significant superiority of CHF5633 over Survanta was demonstrated in tidal volume at 20 min and dynamic lung compliance at 20 and 300 min. The ultrastructure of CHF5633 was large with uniquely aggregated lipid particles. Increased uptake of CHF5633 by alveolar monocytes for catabolism was demonstrated by microphotograph, which might be associated with the higher treatment dose of CHF5633. The higher catabolism of CHF5633 was also suggested by the similar amount of surfactant lipid in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF between CHF5633 and Survanta groups, despite the 2-fold higher treatment dose of CHF5633. Under the present ventilation protocol, lung inflammation was minimal for both groups, evaluated by inflammatory cell numbers in BALF and expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα mRNA in the lung tissue. In conclusion, the new synthetic surfactant CHF5633 was effective in treating extremely immature newborn lambs with surfactant deficiency during the 5 h study period.

  18. The Fetal Cleft palate: V. Elucidation of the Mechanism of Palatal Clefting in the Congenital Caprine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal ingestion of Nicotiana glauca from gestation days 32 through 41 results in a high incidence of cleft palate in Spanish goats. This caprine cleft palate model was used to evaluate the temporal sequence of palatal shelf fusion throughout the period of cleft induction with the poisonous plant...

  19. Biglycan and decorin differentially regulate signaling in the fetal membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiping; Horgan, Casie E.; Carr, Olivia; Owens, Rick T.; Iozzo, Renato V.; Lechner, Beatrice E.

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of newborn mortality in the United States and about one third of cases are caused by preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes, a complication that is frequently observed in patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome. Notably, a subtype of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome is caused by expression of abnormal biglycan and decorin proteoglycans. As compound deficiency of these two small leucine-rich proteoglycans is a model of preterm birth, we investigated the fetal membranes of Bgn−/−;Dcn−/− double-null and single-null mice. Our results showed that biglycan signaling supported fetal membrane remodeling during early gestation in the absence of concomitant changes in TGFβ levels. In late gestation, biglycan signaling acted in a TGFβ–dependent manner to aid in membrane stabilization. In contrast, decorin signaling supported fetal membrane remodeling at early stages of gestation in a TGFβ–dependent manner, and fetal membrane stabilization at later stages of gestation without changes in TGFβ levels. Furthermore, exogenous soluble decorin was capable of rescuing the TGFβ signaling pathway in fetal membrane mesenchymal cells. Collectively, these findings provide novel targets for manipulation of fetal membrane extracellular matrix stability and could represent novel targets for research on preventive strategies for preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes. PMID:24373743

  20. Ichthyosis fetalis in a cross-bred lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Antonio Carlos Lopes; Borges, Pedro Augusto Cordeiro; Paiva, Silvano Alves; Pierezan, Felipe; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2017-10-01

    Ichthyosis is a dermatological disease characterized by varying degrees of generalized hyperkeratosis and alopecia. Two congenital forms of ichthyosis are recognized in animals: fetalis (IF) and congenita. The disease occurs rarely in cattle, swine, dogs, chickens and a goat; it has not been reported in sheep. To provide clinical, laboratory and pathological assessments of a case of IF in a cross-bred lamb. A male cross-bred lamb. Physical examination revealed apathy, fever, ectropion and eclabium. Generalized thickening and scaling of the skin was noted; this was most severe on the face, ears, inner thighs, limbs and perineum. Deep fissures and wounds were present on the hind limbs and forelimbs. The lamb was monitored for 75 days. During this period, lesions progressed and occasionally obstructed the nostrils and increasingly made it difficult for the lamb to flex major limb joints. Postmortem findings included severe epidermal thickening, multiple subcutaneous abscesses, ectropion and corneal scars. Histological findings revealed diffuse orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, follicular keratosis, irregular epidermal hyperplasia and atrophy of the sebaceous glands. Serum vitamin A concentration was within the normal range for the species. This case report describes a case of presumptive ichthyosis fetalis in a lamb. Greater awareness by practitioners is required for this disease to be included in the differential diagnosis of dermatopathies in this species. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  1. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection and effect on lamb growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinshamn Håvard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge in sheep farming during the grazing season along the coast of south-western Norway is tick-borne fever (TBF caused by the bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum that is transmitted by the tick Ixodes ricinus. Methods A study was carried out in 2007 and 2008 to examine the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum infection and effect on weaning weight in lambs. The study included 1208 lambs from farms in Sunndal Ram Circle in Møre and Romsdal County in Mid-Norway, where ticks are frequently observed. All lambs were blood sampled and serum was analyzed by an indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IFA to determine an antibody status (positive or negative to A. phagocytophilum infection. Weight and weight gain and possible effect of infection were analyzed using ANOVA and the MIXED procedure in SAS. Results The overall prevalence of infection with A. phagocytophilum was 55%. A lower weaning weight of 3% (1.34 kg, p A. phagocytophilum infection compared to seronegative lambs at an average age of 137 days. Conclusions The results show that A. phagocytophilum infection has an effect on lamb weight gain. The study also support previous findings that A. phagocytophilum infection is widespread in areas where ticks are prevalent, even in flocks treated prophylactic with acaricides.

  2. Lamb meat colour stability as affected by dietary tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Pennisi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one male Comisana lambs were divided into three groups at 45 days of age and were individually penned for 60 days. Seven lambs were fed a concentrate-based diet (C, seven lambs received the same concentrate with the addiction of tannins from quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii; T, whereas the remaining animals were fed exclusively fresh vetch (Vicia sativa; H. Colour descriptors (a*, b* and H* and metmyoglobin (MMb percentages were measured on minced semimembranosus muscle over 14 days of refrigerated storage in a high oxygen atmosphere. Regardless of dietary treatment, meat redness decreased, while yellowness and hue angle increased (P < 0.001 over storage duration. However, higher a* values, lower b* values and lower H* values were observed in meat from both H- and T-fed animals as compared to meat from C-fed lambs (P = 0.012; P = 0.02; P = 0.003, respectively. Metmyoglobin formation increased over time (P < 0.001, but H diet resulted in lower metmyoglobin percentages than C diet (P = 0.007. We conclude that the inclusion of tannins into the concentrate improved meat colour stability compared to a tannin-free concentrate. Moreover, the protective effect of tannins against meat discolouration was comparable to that obtained by feeding lambs fresh herbage.

  3. Development of customized fetal growth charts in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghi, Tullio; Prefumo, Federico; Fichera, Anna; Lanna, Mariano; Periti, Enrico; Persico, Nicola; Viora, Elsa; Rizzo, Giuseppe

    2017-05-01

    Twin gestations are at significantly higher risk of fetal growth restriction in comparison with singletons. Using fetal biometric charts customized for obstetrical and parental characteristics may facilitate an accurate assessment of fetal growth. The objective of the study was to construct reference charts for the gestation of fetal biometric parameters stratified by chorionicity and customized for obstetrical and parental characteristics. Fetal biometric measurements obtained from serial ultrasound examinations in uncomplicated twin pregnancies delivering after 36 weeks of gestation were collected by 19 Italian fetal medicine units under the auspices of the Società Italiana di Ecografia Ostetrica e Ginecologica. The measurements acquired in each fetus at each examination included biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length. Multilevel linear regression models were used to adjust for the serial ultrasonographic measurements obtained and the clustering of each fetus in twin pregnancy. The impact of maternal and paternal characteristics (height, weight, ethnicity), parity, fetal sex, and mode of conception was also considered. Models for each parameter were stratified by fetal chorionicity and compared with our previously constructed growth curves for singletons. The data set included 1781 twin pregnancies (dichorionic, n = 1289; monochorionic diamniotic, n = 492) with 8923 ultrasonographic examinations with a median of 5 (range, 2-8) observations per pregnancy in dichorionic and 6 in (range, 2-11) monochorionic pregnancies. Growth curves of twin pregnancies differed from those of singletons, and differences were more marked in monochorionic twins and during the third trimester. A significant influence of parental characteristics was found. Curves of fetal biometric measurements in twins are influenced by parental characteristics. There is a reduction in the growth rate during the third trimester. The reference limits for

  4. Effect of supplementary feeding to ewes and suckling lambs on ewe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A trial was conducted to determine the effects on the performance of creep feeding suckling lambs and supplementing ewes that were grazing wheat stubble. Eight experimental units of South African Mutton Merino (SAMM) ewes and lambs were used in a 2 (supplementing ewes or not) x 2 (creep feeding lambs or not) ...

  5. Myopathy and hepatic lipidosis in weaned lambs due to vitamin E deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Paula; Langs, Lisa; Boermans, Herman; Martin, John; McNally, John

    2004-03-01

    A sheep flock experienced losses in weaned lambs from myopathy and hepatic lipidosis. Investigation revealed painful ambulation, illthrift, and unexpected death in lambs with normal selenium levels, deficient vitamin E levels, and elevated muscle and liver enzyme levels. Vitamin E deficiency should be considered when investigating myopathy and illthrift in lambs.

  6. Ancient art, rhetoric and the Lamb of God metaphor in John 1:29 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-03

    Jul 3, 2015 ... Biblical scholars have given diverse explanations for the Lamb of God metaphor in John. 1:29 and 1:36. Most scholars are of the opinion that 'amnos' refers to the Passover lamb. This explanation is not obvious from the context of the Fourth Gospel. To understand the metaphor 'lamb' or 'amnos' of God, one ...

  7. Ancient art, rhetoric and the Lamb of God metaphor in John 1:29 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biblical scholars have given diverse explanations for the Lamb of God metaphor in John 1:29 and 1:36. Most scholars are of the opinion that 'amnos' refers to the Passover lamb. This explanation is not obvious from the context of the Fourth Gospel. To understand the metaphor 'lamb' or 'amnos' of God, one should ...

  8. Performance, carcass traits and costs of Suffolk lambs finishing systems with early weaning and controlled suckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rodrigo Fernandes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The performance, carcass traits and finishing costs of Suffolk lambs were evaluated in three systems: (1 lambs weaned with 22 kg of body weight (BW and supplemented with concentrate on pasture until slaughter; (2 lambs weaned with 22 kg BW and fed in feedlot until slaughter; (3 lambs maintained in controlled nursing after 22 kg BW and creep fed in feedlot until slaughter. Average daily gain (ADG was 224 g/d for lambs weaned and supplemented with concentrate on pasture, 386 g/d for lambs weaned in feedlot and 481 g/d for lambs under controlled nursing. Empty body weight and visceral fat deposition were highest in lambs from feedlot systems. Carcass weights and carcass yields were highest for lambs in controlled nursing. Finishing total costs were highest in controlled nursing and lowest in the system with weaning in feedlot. High concentrate diet associated with controlled nursing in feedlot allowed lambs to reach the growth potential and carcasses with higher weights, higher yields and higher fat content. After weaning, lambs in feedlot fed with high concentrate diet had higher weight gain than lambs supplemented with concentrate on pasture. Carcasses produced under these two systems presented the same characteristics. The system with weaning in feedlot showed the lowest cost per kg carcass.

  9. A Comparison of the Growth and Milk Conversion Rates of Lambs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth rate of local (LL), Dorper (DD) and crossbred (DL) lambs and of local (LL) Boer (BB) and crossbread (BL) goat kids were studies over two seasons of kidding/lambing until 24 weeks of age. The kids and lambs suckled their dams indoors for one month. Thereafter, both the dams and the young grazed natural pastures ...

  10. Studies on risk factors of mortality in lambs in Sokoto, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mortality in lambs is complex problem which may result from a variety of climatic, nutritional, management, infectious, genetic and other factors. Associated with death are other factors which could be of maternal or lamb origin that predisposes the young lamb to early death. Records of sex, breed, age, birth weight, type of ...

  11. Performance of lambs out of ewes from different genetic groups and submitted to flushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luis de Azambuja Ribeiro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to analyze the productive performance of lambs, out of ewes of different genetic groups and submitted to different feeding managements before and during the mating season, from birth until weaning. One hundred and twenty-six lambs were used, from the genetic groups ½ Corriedale + ½ Texel (11, Hampshire Down (73, Ile de France (26 and Suffolk (16, born in two consecutive years. The ewes were submitted to three feeding managements: T1 – without supplementation, T2 - supplemented with 600 g/day of corn grain, and T3 - supplemented with 600 g/ day of a ration containing 75% of corn and 25% of soybean meal. Body weight and weight gain were analysed individually and by litter size. Flushing did not influence weight and weight gain of lambs. Twin lambs, in the individual analysis, showed lower body weight and weight gain compared to single lambs, but in the analysis by litter size, the sum of the twin lambs showed greater body weight and weight gain compared to single lambs. Differences in body weight and weight gain were observed among the genetic groups and between the sexes, where males were heavier and presented greater weight gain. Twin lambs showed higher mortality than single lambs. Although flushing can provide greater number of lambs, a considerable profit was not verified. It is concluded that flushing do not influence in the performance of lambs, and that twin lambs show higher mortality than single ones, and flushing is not profitable.

  12. How Respiratory Pathogens Contribute to Lamb Mortality in a Poorly Performing Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) Herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mary E; Fox, Karen A; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica; Killion, Halcyon J; Amundson, Sierra; Miller, Michael W; Edwards, William H

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) ewes and their lambs in captivity to examine the sources and roles of respiratory pathogens causing lamb mortality in a poorly performing herd. After seven consecutive years of observed December recruitments of sheep from the remnant Gribbles Park herd in Colorado, US were captured and transported to the Thorne-Williams Wildlife Research Center in Wyoming in March 2013. Ewes were sampled repeatedly over 16 mo. In April 2014, ewes were separated into individual pens prior to lambing. Upon death, lambs were necropsied and tested for respiratory pathogens. Six lambs developed clinical respiratory disease and one lamb was abandoned. Pathology from an additional six lambs born in 2013 was also evaluated. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae , leukotoxigenic Mannheimia spp., leukotoxigenic Bibersteinia trehalosi , and Pasteurella multocida all contributed to lamb pneumonia. Histopathology suggested a continuum of disease, with lesions typical of pasteurellosis predominating in younger lambs and lesions typical of mycoplasmosis predominating in older lambs. Mixed pathology was observed in lambs dying between these timeframes. We suspected that all the ewes in our study were persistently infected and chronically shedding the bacteria that contributed to summer lamb mortality.

  13. Effects of continuous versus intermittent transport on plasma constituents and antibody response of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczel, P D; Friend, T H; Caldwell, D J; Archer, G; Ameiss, K

    2007-02-01

    Recommendations for transportation of lambs, horses, calves, and pigs from a committee of the European Commission, which required rest stops of 6 or 24 h, every 8 h, were evaluated using Rambouillet x Suffolk lambs. The lambs of 17.6 +/- 0.5 kg of BW were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: transported for 22 h (continuous; n = 15); transported for 8 h, unloaded and rested for 6 h, transported for 8 h, unloaded and rested for 24 h, transported for 6 h (rested, n = 15); or remained in the home pasture throughout the study (control, n = 16). Off-trailer rest with food and water occurred in novel pens. Food deprivation in the continuous lambs was reflected by a decrease (P lambs. Electrolytes varied within and among all 3 treatments (P lambs compared with control lambs at 22 h (P lambs relative to the control lambs. Differences (P lambs indicated the rest stops were sufficient to maintain BW during transport; however, these results were confounded by the control lambs losing a similar (P = 0.50) percentage of their initial BW as the continuous lambs at 22 h. The rest stops eliminated the physiological indicators of food deprivation and maintained BW but did not alleviate evidence of immunosuppression, and 52 h was required to complete the otherwise 22-h-long trip.

  14. The effect of colostrum intake on blood plasma proteome profile in newborn lambs: low abundance proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; de Almeida, André Martinho; Ventosa, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Colostrum intake by newborn lambs plays a fundamental role in the perinatal period, ensuring lamb survival. In this study, blood plasma samples from two groups of newborn lambs (Colostrum group and Delayed Colostrum group) at 2 and 14 h after birth were treated to reduce the content of high abund...

  15. Effect of ewe prolificacy potential and stocking rate on ewe and lamb performance in a grass-based lamb production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, E; McHugh, N; Boland, T M; Creighton, P

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of ewe prolificacy potential (PP; predicted number of lambs born per ewe per year) as dictated by sire breed type, stocking rate (SR; ewes per ha), and their interaction on ewe and lamb performance in a temperate grass-based lamb production system. The study was a 2 × 3 factorial design, consisting of 2 differing ewe PP and 3 SR which included 180 medium prolificacy potential (MP- Suffolk-sired crossbred ewes) and 180 high prolificacy potential ewes (HP- Belclare-sired crossbred ewes) allocated to 1 of 3 ( = 60 ewes) SR: low (LSR; 10 ewes per ha), medium (MSR; 12 ewes per ha) or high (HSR: 14 ewes per ha). Each treatment was managed in a 5-paddock rotational grazing system for the duration of the study. Medium prolificacy ewes were consistently heavier ( ewes, with HP ewes having a higher BCS at lambing and 6 wk post-lambing (PL; ewes had a higher BW ( ewes which did not differ from each other. Lambs born to MP ewes were heavier at birth and weaning ( Ewe PP had no effect on lifetime ADG or d to slaughter (DTS) with HP lambs yielding a higher carcass weight ( ewe PP by SR interaction existed for DTS, with MP lambs at the LSR reaching slaughter weight earlier ( ewes produced a higher average born ( ewe ( ewe PP and SR increased. Lambing difficulty, ewe mother ability and lamb viability did not differ by ewe PP or SR. In conclusion, the lack of interaction between ewe PP and SR on many key performance measures in this study demonstrates the potential to increase the live weight of lamb weaned per ha through the use of higher ewe PP and SR levels, with no effect of ewe PP on lifetime lamb performance even as SR increased, with reductions in lamb performance primarily occurring at the HSR.

  16. Fetal warfarin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathienkijkanchai, Achara; Wasant, Pornswan

    2005-11-01

    Fetuses exposed to Warfarin in the first trimester of pregnancy have an increased risk of embryopathy which consists of nasal hypoplasia and stippled epiphyses, known as fetal warfarin syndrome or warfarin embryopathy. We herein report a first case of an infant with fetal warfarin syndrome in Thailand. The patient was an offspring of a 34-year-old mother with history of SLE and arterial embolism for several years. She had an unplanned pregnancy while taking warfarin. The patient developed difficulty breathing in the first few hours after birth from severe nasal hypoplasia. He also had short limbs, brachydactyly, nail hypoplasia, and calcifications in the epiphyseal regions of humeri, femora and vertebrae radiographically. The patient eventually died from respiratory failure at 6 months of age.

  17. Fetal cardiac assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, K.R.

    1983-01-01

    The better understanding of fetal cardiovascular physiology coupled with improved technology for non-invasive study of the fetus now enable much more detailed assessment of fetal cardiac status than by heart rate alone. Even the latter, relatively simple, measurement contains much more information than was previously realized. It is also increasingly clear that no single measurement will provide the answer to all clinical dilemmas either on cardiac function or the welfare of the fetus as a whole. There are obvious clinical advantages in measuring several variables from one signal and the measurement of heart rate, heart rate variation and waveform from the ECG in labour is a potentially useful combination. Systolic time intervals or flow measurements could easily be added or used separately by combining real-time and Doppler ultrasound probes

  18. Bloqueo auriculoventricular completo fetal

    OpenAIRE

    Bustos,Paola; Santiago,Claudia; Bahamondes,Francisco; Jaramillo,Luis

    2002-01-01

    Uno de los disturbios más graves del ritmo cardíaco fetal es el bloqueo aurículoventricular completo o de 3er grado (BAVC), condición de fácil detección clínica y ecocardiográfica, y muchas veces de altísima mortalidad fetal, que indica la necesidad de intervención terapéutica urgente. Se presenta el caso clínico de una paciente que teniendo el antecedente de un RN anterior con el mismo diagnóstico, se envía a nuestro servicio con bradiarritmia en el feto actual, para realizar estudio y trata...

  19. Fetal varicella syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal varicella syndrome is a rare condition of the newborn, presenting with cutaneous scars, limb defects and ocular and central nervous system abnormalities. It is due to varicella or zoster developing in the fetus following maternal varicella infection during early pregnancy. We are reporting one such patient who presented with a linear, depressed, erythematous scar over the left forearm and axillary fold, with a history of maternal chicken pox during the first trimester of pregnancy.

  20. Computed tomography assessment of peripubertal craniofacial morphology in a sheep model of binge alcohol drinking in the first trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Sharla M; Lenox, Mark W; Kornegay, Joe N; Shen, Li; Ai, Huisi; Ren, Xiaowei; Goodlett, Charles R; Cudd, Tim A; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-11-01

    Identification of facial dysmorphology is essential for the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS); however, most children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) do not meet the dysmorphology criterion. Additional objective indicators are needed to help identify the broader spectrum of children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure. Computed tomography (CT) was used in a sheep model of prenatal binge alcohol exposure to test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of craniofacial bone volumes and linear distances could identify alcohol-exposed lambs. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups: heavy binge alcohol, 2.5 g/kg/day (HBA); binge alcohol, 1.75 g/kg/day (BA); saline control (SC); and normal control (NC). Intravenous alcohol (BA; HBA) or saline (SC) infusions were given three consecutive days per week from gestation day 4-41, and a CT scan was performed on postnatal day 182. The volumes of eight skull bones, cranial circumference, and 19 linear measures of the face and skull were compared among treatment groups. Lambs from both alcohol groups showed significant reduction in seven of the eight skull bones and total skull bone volume, as well as cranial circumference. Alcohol exposure also decreased four of the 19 craniofacial measures. Discriminant analysis showed that alcohol-exposed and control lambs could be classified with high accuracy based on total skull bone volume, frontal, parietal, or mandibular bone volumes, cranial circumference, or interorbital distance. Total skull volume was significantly more sensitive than cranial circumference in identifying the alcohol-exposed lambs when alcohol-exposed lambs were classified using the typical FAS diagnostic cutoff of ≤10th percentile. This first demonstration of the usefulness of CT-derived craniofacial measures in a sheep model of FASD following binge-like alcohol exposure during the first trimester suggests that volumetric measurement of cranial bones may be a novel biomarker

  1. An experimental model for the transplantation of fetal central nervous system cells to the injured spinal cord in rats Modelo experimental de transplante de células do sistema nervoso central fetal para lesão de medula espinal em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa de Barros Filho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Traumatic spinal cord injury is one of the most disabling conditions occurring in man and thus stimulates a strong interest in its histopathological, biochemical, and functional changes, primarily as we search for preventive and therapeutic methods. PURPOSE: To develop an experimental model for transplantation of cells from the fetal rat central nervous system to the site of an injured spinal cord of an adult rat in which the transplanted cells survive and become integrated. This experimental model will facilitate investigations of factors that promote regeneration and functional recovery after spinal cord trauma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen adult Wistar rats underwent laminectomy, and an spinal cord lesion was made with microdissection. Fetal spinal cord tissue was then transplanted to the site of the injury. The rats were monitored over a 48-hour period, and then their vertebral column was completely removed for histological analysis. RESULTS: In 60% of transplanted rats, the fetal tissue at the injured site remained viable in the site of the lesion.INTRODUÇÃO: A lesão traumática da medula espinal consiste numa das mais incapacitantes lesões que o ser humano pode sofrer e tem despertado grande interesse no conhecimento das alterações histopatológicas, bioquímicas, funcionais e principalmente na busca de métodos de prevenção e tratamento. OBJETIVO: Propor um modelo experimental de transplante de células do sistema nervoso fetal de ratos para o sítio de lesão medular de ratos adultos que permitisse sua sobrevivência e integração para possibilitar protocolos de pesquisa para identificar outros fatores de regeneração e recuperação funcional pós trauma raquimedular. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se 15 ratos adultos que foram submetidos a laminectomia e lesão de 5mm de hemimelula realizada com auxílio de microscópio óptico. Os ratos tiveram seu sítio de lesão medular transplantado com células do

  2. Maternal protein-energy malnutrition during early pregnancy in sheep impacts the fetal ornithine cycle to reduce fetal kidney microvascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Louise J; Sinclair, Kevin D; Kwong, Wing Y; Sturrock, Craig; Clifford, Bethan L; Giles, Tom C; Gardner, David S

    2014-11-01

    This paper identifies a common nutritional pathway relating maternal through to fetal protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and compromised fetal kidney development. Thirty-one twin-bearing sheep were fed either a control (n=15) or low-protein diet (n=16, 17 vs. 8.7 g crude protein/MJ metabolizable energy) from d 0 to 65 gestation (term, ∼ 145 d). Effects on the maternal and fetal nutritional environment were characterized by sampling blood and amniotic fluid. Kidney development was characterized by histology, immunohistochemistry, vascular corrosion casts, and molecular biology. PEM had little measureable effect on maternal and fetal macronutrient balance (glucose, total protein, total amino acids, and lactate were unaffected) or on fetal growth. PEM decreased maternal and fetal urea concentration, which blunted fetal ornithine availability and affected fetal hepatic polyamine production. For the first time in a large animal model, we associated these nutritional effects with reduced micro- but not macrovascular development in the fetal kidney. Maternal PEM specifically impacts the fetal ornithine cycle, affecting cellular polyamine metabolism and microvascular development of the fetal kidney, effects that likely underpin programming of kidney development and function by a maternal low protein diet. © FASEB.

  3. Nonprimary Cytomegalovirus Fetal Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Sofia; Gonçalves, Daniela; Taipa, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Maria do Céu

    2016-04-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common congenital viral infection, causing hearing, visual and psychomotor impairment. Preexisting maternal CMV immunity substantially reduces, but not eliminates, the risk of fetal infection and affectation. This article is about a case of nonprimary maternal CMV infection during pregnancy, with vertical transmission, resulting in severe fetal affectation. Preconceptional analysis indicated maternal CMV past infection. Pregnancy progressed uneventfully until the 20th week ultrasound (US), which revealed cerebral abnormalities: thin and hyperechogenic cerebral cortex with prominent lateral ventricles, bilateral periventricular hyperechogenicities, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and absent corpus callosum. The MRI suggested these findings were compatible with congenital infection rather than primary brain malformation.The fetal karyotype was normal. The title of CMV's IgG antibodies almost tripled. Since the first semester, analysis of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for CMV DNA in the amniotic fluid was negative. The pregnancy was terminated at 23 weeks. Neuropathological findings at autopsy showed severe brain lesions associated with CMV infection. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  4. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Valproic acid silencing of ascl1b/Ascl1 results in the failure of serotonergic differentiation in a zebrafish model of fetal valproate syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, John; Ribes, Vanessa; Moore, Steven; Constable, Sean C; Sasai, Noriaki; Gerety, Sebastian S; Martin, Darren J; Sergeant, Chris P; Wilkinson, David G; Briscoe, James

    2014-01-01

    Fetal valproate syndrome (FVS) is caused by in utero exposure to the drug sodium valproate. Valproate is used worldwide for the treatment of epilepsy, as a mood stabiliser and for its pain-relieving properties. In addition to birth defects, FVS is associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which is characterised by abnormal behaviours. Valproate perturbs multiple biochemical pathways and alters gene expression through its inhibition of histone deacetylases. Which, if any, of these mechanisms is relevant to the genesis of its behavioural side effects is unclear. Neuroanatomical changes associated with FVS have been reported and, among these, altered serotonergic neuronal differentiation is a consistent finding. Altered serotonin homeostasis is also associated with autism. Here we have used a chemical-genetics approach to investigate the underlying molecular defect in a zebrafish FVS model. Valproate causes the selective failure of zebrafish central serotonin expression. It does so by downregulating the proneural gene ascl1b, an ortholog of mammalian Ascl1, which is a known determinant of serotonergic identity in the mammalian brainstem. ascl1b is sufficient to rescue serotonin expression in valproate-treated embryos. Chemical and genetic blockade of the histone deacetylase Hdac1 downregulates ascl1b, consistent with the Hdac1-mediated silencing of ascl1b expression by valproate. Moreover, tonic Notch signalling is crucial for ascl1b repression by valproate. Concomitant blockade of Notch signalling restores ascl1b expression and serotonin expression in both valproate-exposed and hdac1 mutant embryos. Together, these data provide a molecular explanation for serotonergic defects in FVS and highlight an epigenetic mechanism for genome-environment interaction in disease.

  6. Valproic acid silencing of ascl1b/Ascl1 results in the failure of serotonergic differentiation in a zebrafish model of fetal valproate syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal valproate syndrome (FVS is caused by in utero exposure to the drug sodium valproate. Valproate is used worldwide for the treatment of epilepsy, as a mood stabiliser and for its pain-relieving properties. In addition to birth defects, FVS is associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD, which is characterised by abnormal behaviours. Valproate perturbs multiple biochemical pathways and alters gene expression through its inhibition of histone deacetylases. Which, if any, of these mechanisms is relevant to the genesis of its behavioural side effects is unclear. Neuroanatomical changes associated with FVS have been reported and, among these, altered serotonergic neuronal differentiation is a consistent finding. Altered serotonin homeostasis is also associated with autism. Here we have used a chemical-genetics approach to investigate the underlying molecular defect in a zebrafish FVS model. Valproate causes the selective failure of zebrafish central serotonin expression. It does so by downregulating the proneural gene ascl1b, an ortholog of mammalian Ascl1, which is a known determinant of serotonergic identity in the mammalian brainstem. ascl1b is sufficient to rescue serotonin expression in valproate-treated embryos. Chemical and genetic blockade of the histone deacetylase Hdac1 downregulates ascl1b, consistent with the Hdac1-mediated silencing of ascl1b expression by valproate. Moreover, tonic Notch signalling is crucial for ascl1b repression by valproate. Concomitant blockade of Notch signalling restores ascl1b expression and serotonin expression in both valproate-exposed and hdac1 mutant embryos. Together, these data provide a molecular explanation for serotonergic defects in FVS and highlight an epigenetic mechanism for genome-environment interaction in disease.

  7. Sexual dimorphism in activation of placental autophagy in obese women with evidence for fetal programming from a placenta-specific mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralimanoharan, Sribalasubashini; Gao, Xiaoli; Weintraub, Susan; Myatt, Leslie; Maloyan, Alina

    2016-05-03

    The incidence of maternal obesity and its co-morbidities (diabetes, cardiovascular disease) continues to increase at an alarming rate, with major public health implications. In utero exposure to maternal obesity has been associated with development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in the offspring as a result of developmental programming. The placenta regulates maternal-fetal metabolism and shows significant changes in its function with maternal obesity. Autophagy is a cell-survival process, which is responsible for the degradation of damaged organelles and misfolded proteins. Here we show an activation of autophagosomal formation and autophagosome-lysosome fusion in placentas of males but not females from overweight (OW) and obese (OB) women vs. normal weight (NW) women. However, total autophagic activity in these placentas appeared to be decreased as it showed an increase in SQSTM1/p62 and a decrease in lysosomal biogenesis. A mouse model with a targeted deletion of the essential autophagy gene Atg7 in placental tissue showed significant placental abnormalities comparable to those seen in human placenta with maternal obesity. These included a decrease in expression of mitochondrial genes and antioxidants, and decreased lysosomal biogenesis. Strikingly, the knockout mice were developmentally programmed as they showed an increased sensitivity to high-fat diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, increased adiposity, and cardiac remodeling. In summary, our results indicate a sexual dimorphism in placental autophagy in response to maternal obesity. We also show that autophagy plays an important role in placental function and that inhibition of placental autophagy programs the offspring to obesity, and to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Long-term altered immune responses following fetal priming in a non-human primate model of maternal immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Destanie R; Careaga, Milo; Van de Water, Judy; McAllister, Kim; Bauman, Melissa D; Ashwood, Paul

    2017-07-01

    Infection during pregnancy can lead to activation of the maternal immune system and has been associated with an increased risk of having an offspring later diagnosed with a neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or schizophrenia (SZ). Most maternal immune activation (MIA) studies to date have been in rodents and usually involve the use of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). However, since NDD are based on behavioral changes, a model of MIA in non-human primates could potentially provide data that helps illuminate complex behavioral and immune outputs in human NDD. In this study twenty-one pregnant rhesus macaques were either given three injections over 72 hours of poly I:C-LC, a double stranded RNA analog (viral mimic), or saline as a control. Injections were given near the end of the first trimester or near the end of the second trimester to determine if there were differences in immune output due to the timing of MIA.An additional three non-treated animals were used as controls. The offspring were followed until 4 years of age, with blood collected at the end of their first (year 1) and fourth (year 4) years to assess dynamic cellular immune function. Induced responses from peripheral immune cells were measured using multiplex assays.At one year of age, MIA exposed offspring displayed elevated production of innate inflammatory cytokines including: interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12p40, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α at baseline and following stimulation. At four years of age, the MIA exposed offspring continued to display elevated IL-1β, and there was also a pattern of an increased production of T-cell helper type (T H )-2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13. Throughout this time period, the offspring of MIA treated dams exhibited altered behavioral phenotypes including increased stereotyped behaviors. During the first two years, stereotyped behaviors were associated with innate cytokine production

  9. Characterization of the human laminin beta2 chain locus (LAMB2): linkage to a gene containing a nonprocessed, transcribed LAMB2-like pseudogene (LAMB2L) and to the gene encoding glutaminyl tRNA synthetase (QARS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durkin, M E; Jäger, A C; Khurana, T S

    1999-01-01

    The laminin beta2 chain is an important constituent of certain kidney and muscle basement membranes. We have generated a detailed physical map of a 110-kb genomic DNA segment surrounding the human laminin beta2 chain gene (LAMB2) on chromosome 3p21.3-->p21.2, a region paralogous with the chromosome...... 7q22-->q31 region that contains the laminin beta1 chain gene locus (LAMB1). Several CpG islands and a novel polymorphic microsatellite marker (D3S4594) were identified. The 3' end of LAMB2 lies 16 kb from the 5' end of the glutaminyl tRNA synthetase gene (QARS). About 20 kb upstream of LAMB2 we...... found a gene encoding a transcribed, non-processed LAMB2-like pseudogene (LAMB2L). The sequence of 1.75 kb of genomic DNA at the 3' end of LAMB2L was similar to exons 8-12 of the laminin beta2 chain gene. The LAMB2L-LAMB2-QARS cluster lies telomeric to the gene encoding the laminin-binding protein...

  10. Fetal magnetic resonance: technique applications and normal fetal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.; Darnell, A.; Duran, C.; Mellado, F.; Corona, M

    2003-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the preferred diagnostic imaging technique for intrauterine fetal examination. Nevertheless, circumstances sometimes dictate the use of other techniques in order to analyze fetal structures. The advent of ultra rapid magnetic resonance (MR) sequencing has led to the possibility of doing MR fetal studies, since images are obtained in an extradordiarily short time and are not affected by either maternal or fetal movements. It does not employ ionizing radiations, it provides high-contrast images and it can obtain such images in any plane of space without being influenced by either the child bearer's physical characteristics of fetal position. MR provides good quality images of most fetal organs. It is extremely useful in analysing distinct structures, as well as permitting an evaluation of cervical structures, lungs, diaphragms, intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal structures, and fetal extremities. It can also provide useful information regarding the placenta,umbilical cord, amniotic fluid and uterus. The objective of this work is to describe MR technique as applied to intrauterine fetal examination, and to illustrate normal fetal anatomy as manifested by MR and its applications. (Author) 42 refs

  11. Fetal Therapy Model of Myelomeningocele with Three-Dimensional Skin Using Amniotic Fluid Cell-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Kajiwara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Myelomeningocele (MMC is a congenital disease without genetic abnormalities. Neurological symptoms are irreversibly impaired after birth, and no effective treatment has been reported to date. Only surgical repairs have been reported so far. In this study, we performed antenatal treatment of MMC with an artificial skin using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs generated from a patient with Down syndrome (AF-T21-iPSCs and twin-twin transfusion syndrome (AF-TTTS-iPSCs to a rat model. We manufactured three-dimensional skin with epidermis generated from keratinocytes derived from AF-T21-iPSCs and AF-TTTS-iPSCs and dermis of human fibroblasts and collagen type I. For generation of epidermis, we developed a protocol using Y-27632 and epidermal growth factor. The artificial skin was successfully covered over MMC defect sites during pregnancy, implying a possible antenatal surgical treatment with iPSC technology.

  12. Using lamb waves tomonitor moisture absorption thermally fatigues composite laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sun; Cho, Youn Ho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Nondestructive evaluation for material health monitoring is important in aerospace industries. Composite laminates are exposed to heat cyclic loading and humid environment depending on flight conditions. Cyclic heat loading and moisture absorption may lead to material degradation such as matrix breaking, debonding, and delamination. In this paper, the moisture absorption ratio was investigated by measuring the Lamb wave velocity. The composite laminates were manufactured and subjected to different thermal aging cycles and moisture absorption. For various conditions of these cycles, not only changes in weight and also ultrasonic wave velocity were measured, and the Lamb wave velocity at various levels of moisture on a carbon-epoxy plate was investigated. Results from the experiment show a linear correlation between moisture absorption ratio and Lamb wave velocity at different thermal fatigue stages. The presented method can be applied as an alternative solution in the online monitoring of composite laminate moisture levels in commercial flights.

  13. Microbiological contamination of lamb carcasses at abattoirs of Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Kahraman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of a hundred lamb carcasses were sampled over a 12 month period at abattoirs in Istanbul, Turkey. Each sample examined for total aerobic mesophilic counts (TMC, Enterobacteriaceae count (EC, Salmonella spp. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes was obtained from 100 cm2 areas on four sides of lamb carcasses using the wet and dry cotton swab technique. The study revealed that total aerobic mesophilic counts in all carcasses ranged between 4.18 and 5.95 log/cm2; Enterobacteriaceae counts between 1.60 and 2.30 CFU/cm2. All samples were negative for Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. Furthermore Salmonella spp. was detected on four carcasses. The data confirms bacteriological monitoring of lamb carcasses as a useful criteria for the verification of slaughter hygiene.

  14. Maternal melatonin administration mitigates coronary stiffness and endothelial dysfunction, and improves heart resilience to insult in growth restricted lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tare, Marianne; Parkington, Helena C; Wallace, Euan M; Sutherland, Amy E; Lim, Rebecca; Yawno, Tamara; Coleman, Harold A; Jenkin, Graham; Miller, Suzanne L

    2014-06-15

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with impaired cardiac function in childhood and is linked to short- and long-term morbidities. Placental dysfunction underlies most IUGR, and causes fetal oxidative stress which may impact on cardiac development. Accordingly, we investigated whether antenatal melatonin treatment, which possesses antioxidant properties, may afford cardiovascular protection in these vulnerable fetuses. IUGR was induced in sheep fetuses using single umbilical artery ligation on day 105-110 of pregnancy (term 147). Study 1: melatonin (2 mg h(-1)) was administered i.v. to ewes on days 5 and 6 after surgery. On day 7 fetal heart function was assessed using a Langendorff apparatus. Study 2: a lower dose of melatonin (0.25 mg h(-1)) was administered continuously following IUGR induction and the ewes gave birth normally at term. Lambs were killed when 24 h old and coronary vessels studied. Melatonin significantly improved fetal oxygenation in vivo. Contractile function in the right ventricle and coronary flow were enhanced by melatonin. Ischaemia-reperfusion-induced infarct area was 3-fold greater in IUGR hearts than in controls and this increase was prevented by melatonin. In isolated neonatal coronary arteries, endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability was reduced in IUGR, and was rescued by modest melatonin treatment. Melatonin exposure also induced the emergence of an indomethacin-sensitive vasodilation. IUGR caused marked stiffening of the coronary artery and this was prevented by melatonin. Maternal melatonin treatment reduces fetal hypoxaemia, improves heart function and coronary blood flow and rescues cardio-coronary deficit induced by IUGR. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  15. Cirugía fetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. B. Juan Luis Leiva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El campo de la cirugía fetal es de reciente comienzo y rápida evolución. Con el avance en las herramientas de diagnóstico antenatal, la capacidad de diagnóstico de condiciones fetales susceptibles de ser tratadas in utero ha dado paso a una serie de procedimientos destinados a dar solución a situaciones que, de no ser por estas intervenciones, terminarían en un resultado adverso perinatal. Las técnicas descritas para la terapia fetal incluyen procedimientos percutáneos guiados por ultrasonido, cirugía fetal abierta y cirugía mínimamente invasiva. En este artículo se presentan las diversas condiciones fetales tributarias de cirugía fetal y se discuten las opciones terapéuticas actuales para cada una.

  16. Stress responses in lambs castrated with three different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sandra Nicolussi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted to evaluate the animal response to stress in lambs caused by three different castration techniques. Forty-six male lambs aged 4-5 months were randomly allocated to one of four groups including Burdizzo (B, scrotal ablation (SA, orchiectomy (OR and control handling (H. Local anaesthesia (lidocaine 2% was administered in both spermatic cords and the scrotal neck of lambs before each treatment. Blood samples were collected at -30, -10, +1, +20, +40, +60, +120, and +180 minutes. Serum cortisol concentrations were determined using a competitive immunoassay and the area under the curve (AUC was calculated for each lamb. The following biochemical parameters were assayed for each animal at each time point: alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK and glucose (GLU. The time needed for total lesion resolution and weight gain of each animal was recorded. Orchiectomy elicits the greatest cortisol response, significantly greater than that seen in similarly handled controls (P≤0.01, Burdizzo and scrotal ablation groups (P≤0.05. The serum cortisol AUC was higher in the scrotal ablation group (P≤0.05 than controls, but lower than in the orchiectomy group (P≤0.05. The Burdizzo group didn’t differ from controls. Serum glucose levels of the castrated lambs differed significantly from the control group, following a trend similar to cortisol. No change was seen in ALT, AST, LDH or CK. No difference in weight gain was seen among the groups. Our results suggest that use of the Burdizzo is the preferable castration technique for adult lambs, while scrotal ablation is a valid surgical alternative to orchiectomy and permits more rapid wound healing that is ideal for extensive management where flocks are not under close observation.

  17. Symmetry properties of second harmonics generated by antisymmetric Lamb waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wujun; Xiang, Yanxun; Liu, Chang-Jun; Deng, Mingxi; Xuan, Fu-Zhen

    2018-03-01

    Symmetry properties of second harmonics generated by antisymmetric primary Lamb waves are systematically studied in this work. In theory, the acoustic field of second harmonic Lamb waves is obtained by using the perturbation approximation and normal modal method, and the energy flux transfer from the primary Lamb waves to second harmonics is mainly explored. Symmetry analyses indicate that either the symmetric or antisymmetric Lamb waves can merely generate the symmetric second harmonics. Finite element simulations are performed on the nonlinear Lamb wave propagation of the antisymmetric A0 mode in the low frequency region. The signals of the second harmonics and the symmetric second harmonic s0 mode are found to be exactly equivalent in the time domain. The relative acoustic nonlinearity parameter A2/A12 oscillates with the propagation distance, and the oscillation amplitude and spatial period are well consistent with the theoretical prediction of the A0-s0 mode pair, which means that only the second harmonic s0 mode is generated by the antisymmetric primary A0 mode. Experiments are further conducted to examine the cumulative generation of symmetric second harmonics for the antisymmetric-symmetric mode pair A3-s6. Results show that A2/A12 increases linearly with the propagation distance, which means that the symmetric second harmonic s6 mode is generated cumulatively by the antisymmetric primary A3 mode. The present investigation systematically corroborates the proposed theory that only symmetric second harmonics can be generated accompanying the propagation of antisymmetric primary Lamb waves in a plate.

  18. Combined fetal inflammation and postnatal hypoxia causes myelin deficits and autism-like behavior in a rat model of diffuse white matter injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborg, Erik; Achterberg, E J Marijke; van Kammen, Caren M; van der Toorn, Annette; Groenendaal, Floris; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Heijnen, Cobi J; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Benders, Manon N J L; Nijboer, Cora H A

    2018-01-01

    Diffuse white matter injury (WMI) is a serious problem in extremely preterm infants, and is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome, including cognitive impairments and an increased risk of autism-spectrum disorders. Important risk factors include fetal or perinatal inflammatory insults

  19. Combined fetal inflammation and postnatal hypoxia causes myelin deficits and autism-like behavior in a rat model of diffuse white matter injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborg, Erik; Achterberg, E J Marijke; van Kammen, Caren M; van der Toorn, Annette; Groenendaal, Floris; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Heijnen, Cobi J; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Benders, Manon N J L; Nijboer, Cora H A

    Diffuse white matter injury (WMI) is a serious problem in extremely preterm infants, and is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome, including cognitive impairments and an increased risk of autism-spectrum disorders. Important risk factors include fetal or perinatal inflammatory insults

  20. Effects of GDNF pretreatment on function and survival of transplanted fetal ventral mesencephalic cells in the 6-OHDA rat model of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andereggen, Lukas; Meyer, Morten; Guzman, Raphael

    2009-01-01

    Transplantation of fetal dopaminergic (DA) neurons offers an experimental therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). The low availability and the poor survival and integration of transplanted cells in the host brain are major obstacles in this approach. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDN...

  1. Melatonin modulates the fetal cardiovascular defense response to acute hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakor, Avnesh S; Allison, Beth J; Niu, Youguo; Botting, Kimberley J; Serón-Ferré, Maria; Herrera, Emilio A; Giussani, Dino A

    2015-08-01

    Experimental studies in animal models supporting protective effects on the fetus of melatonin in adverse pregnancy have prompted clinical trials in human pregnancy complicated by fetal growth restriction. However, the effects of melatonin on the fetal defense to acute hypoxia, such as that which may occur during labor, remain unknown. This translational study tested the hypothesis, in vivo, that melatonin modulates the fetal cardiometabolic defense responses to acute hypoxia in chronically instrumented late gestation fetal sheep via alterations in fetal nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Under anesthesia, 6 fetal sheep at 0.85 gestation were instrumented with vascular catheters and a Transonic flow probe around a femoral artery. Five days later, fetuses were exposed to acute hypoxia with or without melatonin treatment. Fetal blood was taken to determine blood gas and metabolic status and plasma catecholamine concentrations. Hypoxia during melatonin treatment was repeated during in vivo NO blockade with the NO clamp. This technique permits blockade of de novo synthesis of NO while compensating for the tonic production of the gas, thereby maintaining basal cardiovascular function. Melatonin suppressed the redistribution of blood flow away from peripheral circulations and the glycemic and plasma catecholamine responses to acute hypoxia. These are important components of the fetal brain sparing response to acute hypoxia. The effects of melatonin involved NO-dependent mechanisms as the responses were reverted by fetal treatment with the NO clamp. Melatonin modulates the in vivo fetal cardiometabolic responses to acute hypoxia by increasing NO bioavailability. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Testing strategies for embryo-fetal toxicity of human pharmaceuticals. Animal models vs. in vitro approaches: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Jan Willem; Chapin, Robert E; Haenen, Bert; Jacobs, Abigail C; Piersma, Aldert

    2012-06-01

    Reproductive toxicity testing is characterized by high animal use. For registration of pharmaceutical compounds, developmental toxicity studies are usually conducted in both rat and rabbits. Efforts have been underway for a long time to design alternatives to animal use. Implementation has lagged, partly because of uncertainties about the applicability domain of the alternatives. The reproductive cycle is complex and not all mechanisms of development can be mimicked in vitro. Therefore, efforts are underway to characterize the available alternative tests with regard to the mechanism of action they include. One alternative test is the mouse embryonic stem cell test (EST), which has been studied since the late 1990s. It is a genuine 3R "alternative" assay as it is essentially animal-free. A meeting was held to review the state-of-the-art of various in vitro models for prediction of developmental toxicity. Although the predictivity of individual assays is improving, a battery of several assays is likely to have even higher predictivity, which is necessary for regulatory acceptance. The workshop concluded that an important first step is a thorough survey of the existing rat and rabbit studies, to fully characterize the frequency of responses and the types of effects seen. At the same time, it is important to continue the optimization of in vitro assays. As more experience accumulates, the optimal conditions, assay structure, and applicability of the alternative assays are expected to emerge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. MRI of the fetal spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Erin M.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal spine is a vital complement to fetal sonographic examination. Assessing the wide spectrum of spinal dysraphism, as well as spinal neoplasia, allows for more correct prenatal diagnoses, patient care planning, and patient counselling. Proper appraisal of the value of experimental procedures, such as fetal myelomeningocoele repair, requires a high level of diagnostic accuracy for the selection and follow-up of appropriate candidates. (orig.)

  4. Hypoxia and Fetal Heart Development

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, A.J.; Zhang, L

    2010-01-01

    Fetal hearts show a remarkable ability to develop under hypoxic conditions. The metabolic flexibility of fetal hearts allows sustained development under low oxygen conditions. In fact, hypoxia is critical for proper myocardial formation. Particularly, hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor play central roles in hypoxia-dependent signaling in fetal heart formation, impacting embryonic outflow track remodeling and coronary vessel growth. Although HIF is not th...

  5. MRI of the fetal spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Erin M. [Departement of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal spine is a vital complement to fetal sonographic examination. Assessing the wide spectrum of spinal dysraphism, as well as spinal neoplasia, allows for more correct prenatal diagnoses, patient care planning, and patient counselling. Proper appraisal of the value of experimental procedures, such as fetal myelomeningocoele repair, requires a high level of diagnostic accuracy for the selection and follow-up of appropriate candidates. (orig.)

  6. Immunization with irradiated larvae against Dictyocaulus filaria in young lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, D.N.; Sharma, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    In the lungworm-endemic areas of Kashmir, 6-10 week old lambs of Karnah and Kashmir Merino breeds were vaccinated with two doses of 50 kR gamma-irradiated larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria, given a month apart. Assessed on the basis of reduced prevalence and significantly lower faecal larval output over an eight-month observation period, vaccinated lambs showed a high degree of resistance to naturally acquired D. filaria infection. The results also show that vaccination against D. filaria provided some degree of protection against infection with other lungworm species. (Auth.)

  7. Vaccination of lambs with irradiated larvae of Bunostomum trigonocephalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, V.K.; Singh, K.S.; Subramanian, G.

    1987-01-01

    Vaccination with a single dose of 2,000 infective larvae of Bunostomum trigonocephalum, irradiated at 40 kR, caused 80 per cent reduction in worm establishment and such lambs withstood a challenge infection which was otherwise fatal to non-vaccinated lambs. The female worms, which developed from irradiated larvae, were irregular in shape, had cuticular thickening at the genital opening and in many male worms the copulatory bursa was rudimentary. The sex ratio was adversely affected in worms developing from irradiated larvae. The population had preponderant sterile females and a very few male worms. (author)

  8. Intragenic regions required for LamB export.

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, S A; Bremer, E; Silhavy, T J

    1984-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains containing a series of lamB-lacZ fusions have been isolated and characterized. Each of these fusions specifies a hybrid protein with LamB sequences at the NH2 terminus and a large functional COOH-terminal fragment of beta-galactosidase. The amount of LamB present in the various hybrid proteins ranges from as few as 4 amino acids to a complete signal sequence (25 amino acids) plus 49 amino acids of the mature protein. With respect to hybrid protein export these fusions...

  9. Mineral requirements for growth of wool and hair lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabelle Auxiliadora Molina de Almeida Teixeira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the body composition and the mineral requirements for growth of wool and hair lambs. A total of 34 castrated lambs with an initial body weight (BW of 19.9±0.8 kg were used; 17 of these lambs were of the genotype Ideal × Ile de France and 17 were Santa Inês. Ten lambs (5 of each genotype were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment to establish their initial body composition. The remaining lambs were assigned to one of three diets (40% roughage and 60% concentrate, 60% roughage and 40% concentrate, or 80% roughage and 20% concentrate in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. All of the diets were provided ad libitum. When the group under 40% roughage and 60% concentrate reached 35 kg BW, all of the animals were slaughtered. Linear regressions were used to determine the relationship between the shrunk BW and the empty body weight (EBW for each genotype. These equations were compared and revealed differences between the genotypes. The allometric equations were calculated using the relationship between the amount of minerals and the EBW. The equations of a given mineral for each genotype were compared to verify if they were statistically different. The equations for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium differed between genotypes. The same equations were used to estimate the major body mineral composition per kilogram of EBW. The net requirement for gain of the fleece-free Ideal × Ile de France lambs ranged from 7.77 to 6.80 g Ca, 4.54 to 4.14 g P, 0.30 to 0.27 g Mg, 1.18 to 1.07 g K and 0.84 to 0.76 g Na per kg BW gain, and the requirements of the Santa Inês animals ranged from 9.57 to 8.37 g Ca, 5.39 to 4.91 g P, 0.36 to 0.33 g Mg, 1.18 to 1.07 g K and 0.90 to 0.81 g Na per kg BW gain for the lambs weighting 20 to 35 kg. Santa Inês lambs showed higher requirements for Ca, P, Mg and Na.

  10. Frequency response of Lamb-Oseen vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Rodríguez, F. J.; Parras, L.; del Pino, C.

    2016-12-01

    In this numerical study we present the frequency response of the Lamb-Oseen (Gaussian) vortex for two synthetic jet configurations. The first one consists of an annular axial jet that is superimposed on the Gaussian vortex. The other configuration deals with an off-axis, single-point, axial jet (SPI). We detect that the system responds to the forcing for a given axial wavenumber, k, exciting natural modes of the vortex by a resonance mechanism. We propose an explanation for the physical mechanism responsible for the maximum energy gain obtained by comparing our results with the different branches found theoretically by Fabre et al (2006 J. Fluid Mech. 551 235-74). We find high energy gains in both cases ({G}∞ ≃ {10}3 for the annular jet and {G}∞ ≃ {10}4 for the SPI jet), so these types of forcing are able to produce responses of the system strong enough to reach a non-linear state. Axisymmetric modes, with azimuthal wavenumber m = 0, produce the highest energy gain while applying an annular forcing. However, other modes, such as the helical one m = 1 and also double helix modes with m = 2, contribute in the SPI configuration. We find that the best region to be tested experimentally in both cases is the region that corresponds to the L2 branch described by Fabre and his collaborators. Furthermore, and whenever using these L2 branch frequencies, the response of the system is always axisymmetric, independently of the type of excitation. Finally, we conclude that the energy gain with the SPI jet is one order of magnitude greater than for the annular jet, so that the single-point off-axis jet is a feasible candidate to design a control device.

  11. Optimal Design of Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer Used to Generate Lamb Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan LIU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic ultrasonic transducer is the core component of the electromagnetic ultrasonic testing equipment. This paper establishes a three-dimensional model of the electromagnetic ultrasonic transducer used to generate Lamb wave, then by uniform design experiment and finite element analysis, the paper obtains the law between the eddy current density, the conductor width, length of the coil, the lift off distance, and the permanent magnets thickness. The law is verified by the experiment. It provides an overall principle for the optimal design of electromagnetic ultrasonic transducer.

  12. Fetal and maternal dose assessment for diagnostic scans during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafat Motavalli, Laleh; Miri Hakimabad, Hashem; Hoseinian Azghadi, Elie

    2016-05-01

    Despite the concerns about prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation, the number of nuclear medicine examinations performed for pregnant women increased in the past decade. This study attempts to better quantify radiation doses due to diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures during pregnancy with the help of our recently developed 3, 6, and 9 month pregnant hybrid phantoms. The reference pregnant models represent the adult female international commission on radiological protection (ICRP) reference phantom as a base template with a fetus in her gravid uterus. Six diagnostic scintigraphy scans using different radiopharmaceuticals were selected as typical diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. Furthermore, the biokinetic data of radioiodine was updated in this study. A compartment representing iodide in fetal thyroid was addressed explicitly in the biokinetic model. Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo transport method. Tabulated dose coefficients for both maternal and fetal organs are provided. The comparison was made with the previously published fetal doses calculated for stylized pregnant female phantoms. In general, the fetal dose in previous studies suffers from an underestimation of up to 100% compared to fetal dose at organ level in this study. A maximum of difference in dose was observed for the fetal thyroid compared to the previous studies, in which the traditional models did not contain the fetal thyroid. Cumulated activities of major source organs are primarily responsible for the discrepancies in the organ doses. The differences in fetal dose depend on several other factors including chord length distribution between fetal organs and maternal major source organs, and anatomical differences according to gestation periods. Finally, considering the results of this study, which was based on the realistic pregnant female phantoms, a more informed evaluation of the risks and benefits of the different procedures could be made.

  13. Consumer acceptance of Italian or New Zealander lamb meat: an Italian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Giangrande

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Central location test was performed to compare heavy Apennine lamb meat to New Zealander lamb meat in order to create a Protected Geographical Indication for lamb meat. Roasted New-Zealander and heavy Apennine lamb legs were tested by 106 consumers according to the following experimental plan: blind phase (B without any possibility to recognize the meat type tasted, expected phase (E in which were described the characteristics of the two types of meat without tasting, informed phase (I in which the tasted meat was recognized in provenience. Results showed in a nine point scale of appreciation for flavour, juiciness and overall pleasure, the highest values in Apennine lamb meat. B test showed the highest value for overall pleasure (P<0.01. Interaction, Italian lamb x Informed test showed the highest values for all the parameters except for overall liking for which Italian lamb x E test showed the highest values. About foreign lamb meat B test showed higher values than I and E test. Information about lamb meat origin showed disconfirmation for tenderness in Italian lamb meat. Foreign lamb meat showed a positive disconfirmation for flavour and overall pleasure, that confirm the better perception by consumers in blind consumption than in the informed one.

  14. Model-based analysis of costs and outcomes of non-invasive prenatal testing for Down's syndrome using cell free fetal DNA in the UK National Health Service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Morris

    Full Text Available Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT for Down's syndrome (DS using cell free fetal DNA in maternal blood has the potential to dramatically alter the way prenatal screening and diagnosis is delivered. Before NIPT can be implemented into routine practice, information is required on its costs and benefits. We investigated the costs and outcomes of NIPT for DS as contingent testing and as first-line testing compared with the current DS screening programme in the UK National Health Service.We used a pre-existing model to evaluate the costs and outcomes associated with NIPT compared with the current DS screening programme. The analysis was based on a hypothetical screening population of 10,000 pregnant women. Model inputs were taken from published sources. The main outcome measures were number of DS cases detected, number of procedure-related miscarriages and total cost.At a screening risk cut-off of 1∶150 NIPT as contingent testing detects slightly fewer DS cases, has fewer procedure-related miscarriages, and costs the same as current DS screening (around UK£280,000 at a cost of £500 per NIPT. As first-line testing NIPT detects more DS cases, has fewer procedure-related miscarriages, and is more expensive than current screening at a cost of £50 per NIPT. When NIPT uptake increases, NIPT detects more DS cases with a small increase in procedure-related miscarriages and costs.NIPT is currently available in the private sector in the UK at a price of £400-£900. If the NHS cost was at the lower end of this range then at a screening risk cut-off of 1∶150 NIPT as contingent testing would be cost neutral or cost saving compared with current DS screening. As first-line testing NIPT is likely to produce more favourable outcomes but at greater cost. Further research is needed to evaluate NIPT under real world conditions.

  15. Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring during Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ015 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring During Labor • What is fetal heart rate monitoring? • Why is fetal heart rate monitoring ...

  16. Fetal Echocardiography/Your Unborn Baby's Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Fetal Echocardiography / Your Unborn Baby's Heart Updated:Oct 6,2016 ... Your Risk • Symptoms & Diagnosis Introduction Common Tests Fetal Echocardiography/Your Unborn Baby's Heart - Fetal Echocardiogram Test - Detection ...

  17. Massive Fetal Ascites: Vaginal Delivery After Trans- Abdominal Fetal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a care of acute fetal acites diagnosed by ultrasonograhy at 29 weeks gestation in a primigravida who used herbel fertility drugs for conception and through the fist 8 weeks of gestation. Under ultrasound guidance the fetal peritoneal cavity was canulated via the material abdomen with an 18G intravenous canular.

  18. Serum thyroid hormones and tissue 5'-monodeiodinase activity in acutely thyroidectomized newborn lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polk, D.H.; Wu, S.Y.; Fisher, D.A.

    1986-08-01

    After either total thyroidectomy or sham operation in full-term fetal sheep, fetuses were delivered and serial blood samples were obtained for measurements of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and catecholamines. Despite comparable serum T4 values, serum T3 values were lower in the thyroidectomized animals. Four hours after birth, the animals were killed with an intravenous overdose of barbiturate. Brain, thyroid, liver, kidney, and brown adipose tissues were dissected and analyzed for thyroxine 5'-monodeiodinase (5'-MDI) activity in vitro. 5'-MDI activity was comparable in all tissues from sham-operated and thyroidectomized lambs. Plasma epinephrine and norepinehprine concentrations, mean arterial pressure, mean pulse, rectal temperature, and arterial blood gas values were similar in the two groups of animals. These data support the hypothesis that the thyroid gland is the major source of T3 for the T3 surge in the immediate newborn period. They also indicate that the neonatal T3 surge has limited immediate metabolic significance in euthyroid newborns.

  19. HEPATITIS ALOINMUNE FETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez C., Dr.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis aloinmune fetal, conocida anteriormente como hemocromatosis neonatal, ha demostrado en los últimos años ser una enfermedad completamente distinta a la hemocromatosis del adulto, tanto en su etiología como en su la fisiopatología. Este conocimiento abre nuevas perspectivas tanto en la prevención de la enfermedad en futuros embarazos, así como en el tratamiento con inmunoglobulina endovenosa en la madre durante el embarazo y eventualmente el tratamiento postnatal, en el que el trasplante de hígado juega un rol primordial.

  20. Fetal and Neonatal Arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggi, Edgar; Öhman, Annika

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are an important aspect of fetal and neonatal medicine. Premature complexes of atrial or ventricular origin are the main cause of an irregular heart rhythm. The finding is typically unrelated to an identifiable cause and no treatment is required. Tachyarrhythmia most commonly relates to supraventricular reentrant tachycardia, atrial flutter, and sinus tachycardia. Several antiarrhythmic agents are available for the perinatal treatment of tachyarrhythmias. Enduring bradycardia may result from sinus node dysfunction, complete heart block and nonconducted atrial bigeminy as the main arrhythmia mechanisms. The management and outcome of bradycardia depend on the underlying mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fatty Acids Profile of Intramuscular Fat in Light Lambs Traditionally and Artificially Reared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan MARGETÍN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of 40 carcasses of light lambs of the synthetic population of Slovak Dairy sheep from (a artificial rearing (AR and (b traditional rearing (TR was assessed on the basis of fatty acids profile of intramuscular fat (IMF. Lambs from AR in comparison with TR were of lower quality as assessed on the basis of fatty acids (FAs profile. The content of conjugated linolic acid (CLA in the fat of TR lambs was severalfold higher (0.749 vs. 0.193 g.100g-1 FAME, P<0.001 than in AR lambs. Similarly, the content of trans-vaccenic (TVA, á-linolenic (ALA, rumenic (RA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA was in TR lambs significantly higher (P<0.001 than in AR lambs (0.955 vs. 0.111; 0.715 vs. 0.251; 0.672 vs. 0.148; 0.352 vs. 0.061; 0.252 vs. 0.079 g.100g-1 FAME. In contrary, the content of linoleic acid (LA, the ratio of LA/ALA and n-6/n-3 in AR lambs was higher than in TR lambs (9.07 vs. 4.81 g.100 g-1 FAME; 39.11 vs. 6.80; 14.56 vs. 3.25, P<0.001. In TR lambs the content of n-3 PUFA and BCFA was significantly higher (P<0.001 than in AR lambs (2.08 vs. 0.84 and 1.95 vs. 0.45. The value of thrombogenic index was higher in AR lambs in comparison with TR lambs (1.44 vs. 1.31; P<0.05. Significant differences between FAs of IMF of ram lambs and ewe lambs were observed only in the case of arachidonic acid (P<0.05.

  2. Maternal-fetal distribution of mercury (203Hg) released from dental amalgam fillings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vimy, M.J.; Takahashi, Y.; Lorscheider, F.L.

    1990-01-01

    In humans, the continuous release of Hg vapor from dental amalgam tooth restorations is markedly increased for prolonged periods after chewing. The present study establishes a time-course distribution for amalgam Hg in body tissues of adult and fetal sheep. Under general anesthesia, five pregnant ewes had twelve occlusal amalgam fillings containing radioactive 203Hg placed in teeth at 112 days gestation. Blood, amniotic fluid, feces, and urine specimens were collected at 1- to 3-day intervals for 16 days. From days 16-140 after amalgam placement (16-41 days for fetal lambs), tissue specimens were analyzed for radioactivity, and total Hg concentrations were calculated. Results demonstrate that Hg from dental amalgam will appear in maternal and fetal blood and amniotic fluid within 2 days after placement of amalgam tooth restorations. Excretion of some of this Hg will also commence within 2 days. All tissues examined displayed Hg accumulation. Highest concentrations of Hg from amalgam in the adult occurred in kidney and liver, whereas in the fetus the highest amalgam Hg concentrations appeared in liver and pituitary gland. The placenta progressively concentrated Hg as gestation advanced to term, and milk concentration of amalgam Hg postpartum provides a potential source of Hg exposure to the newborn. It is concluded that accumulation of amalgam Hg progresses in maternal and fetal tissues to a steady state with advancing gestation and is maintained. Dental amalgam usage as a tooth restorative material in pregnant women and children should be reconsidered

  3. Comparison of triticale cultivars with maize grain for finishing lambs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of triticale cultivars with maize grain for finishing lambs. TS Brand, GD van der Merwe. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  4. Temperature-compensated aluminum nitride lamb wave resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ming; Yen, Ting-Ta; Lai, Yun-Ju; Felmetsger, Valery V; Hopcroft, Matthew A; Kuypers, Jan H; Pisano, Albert P

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, the temperature compensation of AlN Lamb wave resonators using edge-type reflectors is theoretically studied and experimentally demonstrated. By adding a compensating layer of SiO2 with an appropriate thickness, a Lamb wave resonator based on a stack of AlN and SiO2 layers can achieve a zero first-order temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF). Using a composite membrane consisting of 1 microm AlN and 0.83 microm SiO2, a Lamb wave resonator operating at 711 MHz exhibits a first-order TCF of -0.31 ppm/degrees C and a second-order TCF of -22.3 ppb/degrees C(2) at room temperature. The temperature-dependent fractional frequency variation is less than 250 ppm over a wide temperature range from -55 degrees C to 125 degrees C. This temperature-compensated AlN Lamb wave resonator is promising for future applications including thermally stable oscillators, filters, and sensors.

  5. Fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of lambs' meat as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    one of the most promising steps in improving meat quality because of its antioxidant properties. The colour of meat is seen as the most .... Table 1 The effect of dietary antioxidant and fat source on the fatty acid content of muscle and subcutaneous fat tissue of S.A. Mutton Merino lamb meat. Parameter. (% of total fatty acids).

  6. Anomalous Dispersion of the S1 Lamb Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The S1 mode of the Lamb spectrum of an isotropic plate exhibits negative group velocity in a narrow frequency domain. This anomalous behavior is explained analytically by examining the slope of each mode first in its initial state and then near its turning points.

  7. A comparison between female lambs of the Dorper and two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lamb production in both extensive and intensive production areas and to act as dam lines in terminal crossbreeding pro- grarnmes. Emphasis was placed on small size, earlier ..... C.Z. Roux and H.H. Meissner for valuable corrunents and suggestions with respect to the ana- lysis of the data. References. BRIEN, F.D., 1987.

  8. Observations on the lambing interval of the cape bushbuck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A record of births from three Cape bushbuck ewes at Queens Park Zoo, East London, from November 1971 to December 1974, indicated that the mean lambing interval of Tragelaphus scriptus sylvaticus in captivity is 249 days and that ewes reach sexual maturity at approximately one year of age.

  9. The influence of reproduction and lambing season of the Dohne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of reproduction and lambing season of the Dohne. Merino on different wool production traits. Ortrud Steinhagen. Animal and Dair-v Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene,. 1675 Republic of South Africa. P.J. de Wet. Department of Sheep and Wool Science, University of Stellenbosch,. Stellenbosch ...

  10. Production response of lambs receiving creep feed while grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the production responses of lambs receiving either creep feed or not while grazing two different pastures. The production of ewes within each treatment was also recorded. The study was conducted at both the Kromme Rhee and Langgewens Research Farms. At Kromme Rhee, sheep ...

  11. Maize silage as a finisher feed for Merino lambs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hannes

    2013-09-08

    Sep 8, 2013 ... Forage conservation plays an important role in animal production systems in South Africa. Large parts ... used in sheep production systems. European .... more lean growth. Table 2 Mean (±SE) growth parameters of Merino lambs fed four diets, differing in silage content. Maize silage inclusion level. P-Value.

  12. Using the Mystery of the Cyclopic Lamb to Teach Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jamie L.

    2010-01-01

    I present a learning cycle that explores different biotechnologies using the process of in situ hybridization as a platform. Students are presented with a cyclopic lamb and must use biotechnology to discover the mechanism behind the deformity. Through this activity, students learn about signal transduction and discover the processes of polymerase…

  13. A comparison between female lambs of the Dorper and two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison between female lambs of the Dorper and two synthetic composites with respect o feed intake, growth and efficiency ... the Dorper as compared to the combined Synthetic group. Both intercept (SL = 0.(n0) and slope (SL = 0.033) ... Biological efficiency in meat producing animals can be expressed as a ratio of ...

  14. Effects of gentling on behavior and meat quality of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Within few hours after parturition lambs develop a strong and selective relationship with their mothers (Poindron and Le Neindre, 1980. In order to increase the amount of milk available for transformation, lambs often are prematurely separated from the ewes, thus inducing an early disruption of the mother-young relationship. A number of authors demonstrated that the lack of the maternal bond can inhibit the welfare state of the lambs (Sevi et al., 2001 and reduced animal welfare can have detrimental effects on meat quality in many animals species (Gregory, 1998 as well as in sheep (Napolitano et al., 2002a. A possible recover from conditions of poor animal welfare may be attained through the administration of gentle contacts by humans (Boivin et al., 2000 which may supply an additional social bond with members of a different animal species. The present study aims to verify the effect of artificial rearing on lamb welfare and meat quality, and assess the possibility to increase both by means of gentling.

  15. Effect of different grazing pressures by lambs grazing Lolium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    high (HGP), medium (MGP) and low (LGP), corresponding to 30, 50 and 75 g available DM/kg BW/day, respectively] on the performance of lambs grazing Lolium perenne and Dactylis glomerata pastures in spring. Feed intakes and average ...

  16. Effect of micronized zeolite addition to lamb concentrate feeds on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of micronized zeolite addition to lamb concentrate feeds on growth performance and some blood chemistry and metabolites. ... No differences were observed between the groups in terms of blood urea nitrogen, plasma glucose, serum creatinine, triglyceride, sodium, potassium and chlorine concentration. However ...

  17. Major causes of lamb mortality at Ebinat woreda, Amhara National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rearing and marketing inefficiencies, the small-scale stock producers are not optimally .... Each lamb was put on a sack attached to the hook of the scale and then ..... A Handbook. Rome: FAO. Pp. 24. Tibbo, M., 2006. Productivity and Health of Indigenous Sheep Breeds and Crossbreds in the Central Ethiopian Highlands.

  18. Case report - Achondroplastic syndrome in a West African dwarf lamb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three week old, male, West African Dwarf (WAD) lamb presented with disproportionate hind limb was diagnosed of having achondroplastic syndrome by physical and radiological examination. Physical examination showed the right hind limb was deformed at the level of the tarsus, metatarsus and phalanges. Radiological ...

  19. Fenbendazole efficacy in lambs: a comparison of oral dosing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fenbendazole efficacy in lambs: a comparison of oral dosing and feed block additive modes of administration. ... The mean haematocrit values, mean percentage egg reduction and mean liveweight gains were higher at the end of the trial for the single monthly dosed group than for the untreated control group, while the ...

  20. Production response of lambs receiving creep feed while grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Agriculture (Western Cape)

    analysis of variance with treatment (creep feed or no creep feed) and birth status (single and twins) as main factors. Provision a ... At both locations, birth status had no effect on the production parameters for ewes or lambs. Keywords: Creep ... supplementation are of vital importance (De Villiers, 1991; Brand et al., 1999).

  1. An attempt to reduce polyspermic penetration in lamb oocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavík, Tomáš; Libik, M.; Wierzchos, E.; Fulka, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 51, - (2005), s. 34-39 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/0927; GA AV ČR IBS5045313; GA MZe(CZ) QG50052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : lamb oocyte Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.719, year: 2005

  2. Carcass yield and characteristics of Karadi lambs as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of two levels of rumen undegradable nitrogen (7 and 10 g UDN/kg DM) fed with two levels of Nigella sativa (0 and 7.5 g NS/ kg DM) supplementation to rations of karadi lambs on carcass characteristics, using 2 x 2 factorial experiment. Sixteen individual Karadi male ...

  3. Response of lambs to continuous and rotational grazing at four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was grazed either continuously or rotationally at four grazing intensities by three successive sets of weaned lambs for the winter, spring and summer periods, respectively. The "put-and-take" system was applied. In the case of continuous grazing, amounts of available dry matter (DM) per hectare were varied, whereas with ...

  4. Effect of fenbendazole on growth promotion in Mecheri lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ranganathan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the study was to find out the effect of fenbendazole on the growth promotion in stunted mecheri lambs. Materials and methods: The study was conducted with three groups of ten mecheri lambs each. Group I served as untreated control and group II and III were treated with fenbendazole @ 5 mg/kg body weight and 7.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively. All the lambs were subjected to haemato-biochemical observations, body weight recording and collection of faeces for egg counting before and after the treatment. Results: Fenbendazole in both the doses had beneficial effect on haemato-biochemical observations like haemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, total protein, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase besides showing efficacy as an anthelmintic. The drug also increased body weight gain significantly at higher dose as compared to untreated control. Conclusion: The results support that fenbendazole has the potential for modulating growth of stunted mecheri lambs. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 113-115

  5. Metabolic responses to moderate exercise in lambs with aortopulmonary shunts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaufort-Krol, GCM; Takens, J; Zijlstra, WG; Molenkamp, MC; Gerding, AM; Kuipers, JRG

    In a previous study we found, after an overnight fast of 18 hours, a lower arterial glucose concentration and a depressed glycogenolysis in lambs with aortopulmonary left-to-right shunts. During exercise, glucose and free fatty acids (FFA) concentrations normally increase. The aim of this study was

  6. Effects of sunflower soap stocks on light lamb meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, C; Giráldez, J F; Morán, L; Mateo, J; Villalobos-Delgado, L H; Andrés, S; Bodas, R

    2017-08-01

    Thirty-two lambs were used to study the effect of sunflower soap stocks (SS), a by-product from the vegetable oil refinery industry, on meat chemical composition, fatty acid profile, volatile compounds, and consumer acceptability. Lambs were finished (average length of fattening period 35 ± 7.3 d, 26.8 ± 0.09 kg final BW) on a pelleted total mixed ration (TMR) with no SS (00SS) or including 15, 30 or 60 g SS/kg (15SS, 30SS, and 60SS, respectively). Sunflower soap stocks decreased the percentage of SFA, increased the proportion of -MUFA ( 0.05). Atherogenicity and saturation indexes decreased by 31% and 27%, respectively, in SS groups compared to control (linear 0.05). However, certain volatile compounds (benzene and toluene) and 10-18:1 fatty acid, known potential hazards for human health, were increased in meat from lambs fed TMR with SS. For this reason, only inclusion rates up to 15 g SS/kg TMR seem to sustain a satisfactory balance between beneficial and detrimental effects on lamb meat composition and quality.

  7. Suitable feeding systems for fat lamb production | Reyneke | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 1 (1971) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Suitable feeding systems for fat lamb production.

  8. Effect of maternal haemoglobin variants and lamb genotype on pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-weaning growth trait of sheep of Northern Nigerian (Balami, Uda and Yankasa) subjected to diallel crossing were estimated using 127 lambs. The study was conducted at National Animal Production Research Institute (NAPRI), Zaria, Nigeria. Blood (5ml) samples were collected from ewes and rams that produce the ...

  9. Multiple congenital skeletal malformations in a lamb associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A ewe was relieved of dystocia by manual manipulation. The lamb was found to be malformed. There were multiple skeletal malformations which included brachygnathia, arthrogryposis and kyphoscoliosis. Other malformations included patella absence, resulting in bowing of both fore and hind limbs with poorly developed ...

  10. Dirac equation, hydrogen atom spectrum and the Lamb shift in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using this Hamiltonian we calculate the energy shift of the ground state as well the 2 P 1 / 2 , 2 S 1 / 2 levels. In all the cases, the energy shift depends on the dynamical non-commutative parameter τ . Using the accuracy of the energy measurement, we obtain an upper bound for τ . We also study the Lamb shift in DNCS.

  11. Food safety management systems performance in the lamb production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oses, S.M.; Luning, P.A.; Jacxsens, L.; Jaime, I.; Rovira, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a performance measurement of implemented food safety management system (FSMS) along the lamb chain using an FSMS-diagnostic instrument (FSMS-DI) and a Microbiological Assessment Scheme (MAS). Three slaughterhouses, 1 processing plant and 5 butcher shops were evaluated. All the

  12. Production response of lambing ewes receiving supplementary feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production response of lambing ewes receiving supplementary feed while grazing wheat stubble. T.S. Brand, B. Aucamp, A. Durand. Abstract. (South African J of Animal Science: 2000, 30, Supplement 1: 17-18). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  13. Lambing behaviour of Merino ewes from lines subjected to divergent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No line difference was observed in the period that ewes spent grooming. Ewes caring for viable multiples groomed their offspring for a longer period than those caring for singles. Mature ewes tended to groom their lambs for a longer period than primi-parous maidens. A higher proportion of High (H) line ewes groomed their ...

  14. Lambing behaviour of Merino ewes from lines subjected to divergent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lambing behaviour of Merino ewes from lines subjected to divergent selection for multiple rearing ability from the same base population. ... likely than those in the H line to graze. The latter group of ewes was more likely to stand with their offspring at this stage. South African Journal of Animal Science Vol.32(1) 2002: 57-65 ...

  15. Response of SA Mutton Merino ewes and their lambs to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth rate. The ewes receiving supplement succeeded in main- taining a higher (P < 0,05) average live mass during lactation than the unsupplemented control group. ... minerale en 'n ionofoor verryk, en vir 90 dae teen 500 g per ooi per dag aan SA ... Keywords: Enriched small grains, lamb growth, stubble grazing,.

  16. Identification of Bifidobacterium strains from faeces of lambs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bunešová, V.; Vlková, E.; Killer, Jiří; Rada, V.; Ročková, Š.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 105, 1-3 (2012), 355-360 ISSN 0921-4488 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/08/1091; GA ČR GD525/08/H060 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : bifidobacterium * identification * lambs Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2012

  17. Reduced Stress Tensor and Dissipation and the Transport of Lamb Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie-Zhi; Zhou, Ye; Wu, Jian-Ming

    1996-01-01

    We develop a methodology to ensure that the stress tensor, regardless of its number of independent components, can be reduced to an exactly equivalent one which has the same number of independent components as the surface force. It is applicable to the momentum balance if the shear viscosity is constant. A direct application of this method to the energy balance also leads to a reduction of the dissipation rate of kinetic energy. Following this procedure, significant saving in analysis and computation may be achieved. For turbulent flows, this strategy immediately implies that a given Reynolds stress model can always be replaced by a reduced one before putting it into computation. Furthermore, we show how the modeling of Reynolds stress tensor can be reduced to that of the mean turbulent Lamb vector alone, which is much simpler. As a first step of this alternative modeling development, we derive the governing equations for the Lamb vector and its square. These equations form a basis of new second-order closure schemes and, we believe, should be favorably compared to that of traditional Reynolds stress transport equation.

  18. Transmission characteristics of the S0 and A0 Lamb waves at contacting edges of plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Naoki; Biwa, Shiro

    2017-11-01

    In order to gain basic insight into the interaction between ultrasonic guided waves and structural discontinuities with contacting surfaces, the transmission characteristics of Lamb waves at contacting edges of two plates are studied experimentally. The edges of two 2.5-mm thick aluminum alloy plates are mated together to constitute a contacting interface of plates and subjected to different levels of compressive loading. The transmission measurements of the lowest-order symmetric (S0) and antisymmetric (A0) Lamb modes across the contacting interface are performed in a frequency range below the cut-off frequencies of the higher-order modes. As a result, it is found that the transmission coefficient of the S0 mode increases monotonically with the applied contact pressure, but the transmission coefficient of the A0 mode exhibits non-monotonic dependence on the contact pressure and the frequency showing a local minimum. For the incidence of the S0 mode, the resonance at the contacting interface is observed as a long-time oscillation tail in the transmission waveform. The resonance frequency is found to increase with the contact pressure. The experimental results are discussed in the light of the theoretical results based on the spring-type interface model. The normal and tangential stiffnesses of the contacting interface are identified from the transmission coefficients as well as from the resonance frequency. The estimated interfacial stiffnesses increase monotonically with the contact pressure, and indicate their dependence on the frequency. Implications of the present results to the Lamb-wave based characterization of the plate contact condition are discussed briefly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Restrictive dermopathy and fetal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, EJH; Beemer, FA; Stoutenbeek, P

    We report three siblings from consecutive pregnancies affected with restrictive dermopathy (RD). During the second pregnancy, fetal behavioural development and growth were studied extensively using ultrasound at 1-4 week intervals. Dramatic and sudden changes occurred in fetal body movements and

  20. Ultrasonic Fetal Cephalometry: Percentiles Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamme, P.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements by ultrasound of the biparietal diameter of the fetal head during pregnancy are a reliable guide to fetal growth. As a ready means of comparison with the normal we constructed from 4,170 measurements in 1,394 cases a curve showing the percentiles distribution of biparietal diameters for each week of gestation. PMID:5070162

  1. Drug treatment of fetal tachycardias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudijk, Martijn A.; Ruskamp, Jopje M.; Ambachtsheer, Barbara E.; Ververs, Tessa F. F.; Stoutenbeek, Philip; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Meijboom, Erik J.

    2002-01-01

    The pharmacological treatment of fetal tachycardia (FT) has been described in various publications. We present a study reviewing the necessity for treatment of FT, the regimens of drugs used in the last two decades and their mode of administration. The absence of reliable predictors of fetal hydrops

  2. Cardiac output measurement in ventilated lambs with a significant left-to-right shunt using the modified carbon dioxide fick method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boode, W.P. de; Hopman, J.C.W.; Wijnen, M.H.W.A.; Tanke, R.B.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Liem, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It remains a great challenge to measure systemic blood flow in critically ill newborns. In a former study we validated the modified carbon dioxide Fick (mCO(2)F) method for measurement of cardiac output in a newborn lamb model. In this new study we studied the influence of a

  3. Cardiac output measurement with transpulmonary ultrasound dilution is feasible in the presence of a left-to-right shunt: a validation study in lambs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrancken, S.L.A.G.; Boode, W.P. de; Hopman, J.C.W.; Singh, S.; Liem, K.D.; Heyst, A.F.J. van

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac output (CO) monitoring remains complex in newborns as most of the current technologies fail to accurately measure systemic blood flow in the presence of shunts. We validated CO measurements using transpulmonary ultrasound dilution (TPUD) in a neonatal lamb model with a

  4. Impact of fetal echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, John M

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease is now well established for a wide range of cardiac anomalies. Diagnosis of congenital heart disease during fetal life not only identifies the cardiac lesion but may also lead to detection of associated abnormalities. This information allows a detailed discussion of the prognosis with parents. For continuing pregnancies, appropriate preparation can be made to optimize the postnatal outcome. Reduced morbidity and mortality, following antenatal diagnosis, has been reported for coarctation of the aorta, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and transposition of the great arteries. With regard to screening policy, most affected fetuses are in the “low risk” population, emphasizing the importance of appropriate training for those who undertake such obstetric anomaly scans. As a minimum, the four chamber view of the fetal heart should be incorporated into midtrimester anomaly scans, and where feasible, views of the outflow tracts should also be included, to increase the diagnostic yield. Newer screening techniques, such as measurement of nuchal translucency, may contribute to identification of fetuses at high risk for congenital heart disease and prompt referral for detailed cardiac assessment

  5. Impact of fetal echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson John

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease is now well established for a wide range of cardiac anomalies. Diagnosis of congenital heart disease during fetal life not only identifies the cardiac lesion but may also lead to detection of associated abnormalities. This information allows a detailed discussion of the prognosis with parents. For continuing pregnancies, appropriate preparation can be made to optimize the postnatal outcome. Reduced morbidity and mortality, following antenatal diagnosis, has been reported for coarctation of the aorta, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and transposition of the great arteries. With regard to screening policy, most affected fetuses are in the "low risk" population, emphasizing the importance of appropriate training for those who undertake such obstetric anomaly scans. As a minimum, the four chamber view of the fetal heart should be incorporated into midtrimester anomaly scans, and where feasible, views of the outflow tracts should also be included, to increase the diagnostic yield. Newer screening techniques, such as measurement of nuchal translucency, may contribute to identification of fetuses at high risk for congenital heart disease and prompt referral for detailed cardiac assessment.

  6. Damage evaluation of laminated composite material using a new acoustic emission Lamb-based and finite element techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Jalal; Najfabadi, Mehdi Ahmadi; Toudeshky, Hossein Hosseini; Akhlaghi, Mehdi

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a very promising procedure is proposed to evaluate delamination using Acoustic Emission (AE) technique in composite laminates. First, a new procedure was developed to decompose the fundamental Lamb wave modes in small size specimens. The damage mechanisms in End Notched Flexure (ENF) in woven and unidirectional specimens were then discriminated using Fuzzy Clustering Method (FCM). Afterwards, the crack-arrest phenomenon was examined in each specimen. After that, experimental and Cohesive Zone Modeling (CZM) techniques were conducted to characterize the delamination using ENF specimens. The results showed how, it is possible to successfully decrease the effect of propagating media such as attenuation of AE signals using the new proposed methodology. As a final point, the results of this study could lead to efficiently distinguishing different damages in laminated composite using AE Lamb-based technique.

  7. Adiponectin Enhances Mouse Fetal Fat Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Liping; Yoo, Hyung sun; Madon, Alysha; Kinney, Brice; Hay, William W.; Shao, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    Maternal obesity increases offspring birth weight and susceptibility to obesity. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone with a prominent function in maintaining energy homeostasis. In contrast to adults, neonatal blood adiponectin levels are positively correlated with anthropometric parameters of adiposity. This study was designed to investigate the role of adiponectin in maternal obesityenhanced fetal fat deposition. By using high-fat diet?induced obese mouse models, our study showed t...

  8. The truth is in the isotopes: Authenticating regionally unique South African lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Sara W; Muller, Magdalena; Butler, Mike; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2018-01-15

    Stable isotope ratios ( 13 C/ 12 C and 15 N/ 14 N) of South African lambs from different regions were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Homogenised and defatted meat of the Longissimus lumborum muscle was assessed. The Rûens and Hantam Karoo regions had the lowest (P≤0.05) δ 13 C values related to the presence of C 3 plants (lucerne and Karoo bushes, respectively). The Northern Karoo, Namibia and Bushmanland had the highest δ 13 C values likely due to a high proportion of dietary C 4 grass species. The δ 15 N values were highest for Central Karoo, Semi-extensive, Namibia and Hantam Karoo, while Rûens and Feedlot had the lowest nitrogen isotope values (P≤0.05). Classification of origin (Karoo vs. Non-Karoo) using discriminant analysis allowed 95% and 90% correct classification of the samples for the estimation model and validation models, respectively. The results confirm that IRMS provides sufficient discriminative power to classify lamb meat of varying origin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ewes Direct Most Maternal Attention towards Lambs that Show the Greatest Pain-Related Behavioural Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futro, Agnieszka; Masłowska, Katarzyna; Dwyer, Cathy M.

    2015-01-01

    Although neonatal farm animals are frequently subjected to painful management procedures, the role of maternal behaviour in pain coping, has not been much studied. We investigated whether ewes were able to distinguish between lambs in pain and those that were not, and whether their behaviour altered depending on the severity of lamb pain. Eighty male lambs were allocated to one of 4 pain treatments within 24 hours of birth. Lambs were either handled only (C), bilaterally castrated with tight rubber rings (RR), as for RR but with the application of a Burdizzo clamp immediately proximal to the ring (Combined) or subjected to short scrotum castration (SSC) where the testicles were retained within the abdomen and only the scrotum removed. The behaviour of the ewe, treated lamb and untreated sibling where present (n = 54) were recorded for 30 minutes after treatment. Castration treatment increased the expression of abnormal standing and lying postures, specific pain-related behaviours (head-turning, stamping/kicking, easing quarters, tail wagging) and composite pain scores (PEwes expressed more licking/sniffing responses to the RR and SSC lambs than towards the Combined and C lambs (PEwes with two lambs also directed more attention towards the treated than the untreated lamb (Pewes are able to discriminate between lambs in pain and those that are not, and that their response is increased with a greater severity of pain. PMID:26217942

  10. Relationships between prenatal ewe traits, milk production, and preweaning performance of twin lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danso, A S; Morel, P C H; Kenyon, P R; Blair, H T

    2016-08-01

    There is limited information on factors affecting twin lamb growth before weaning, which limits the options available to farmers to actively manage lamb growth. Data from 2 multiyear experiments involving 402 twin-bearing Romney ewes were used to evaluate the effects of prenatal ewe traits (live weight at mating and set stocking and BCS at mating and set stocking) and combined twin lamb birth weight on ewe milk production and lamb growth from birth to weaning as well as the proportion of variation in twin lamb growth that could be explained by these variables. Additionally, the effect of accumulated ewe milk yield over a 42-d period (MY; Days 0 to 42) and accumulated milk components (protein, fat, and lactose) on twin lamb growth were investigated. The effects of prenatal variables on MY, birth weight, and combined twin lamb live weight gain from Day 0 to 42 (LWG) were inconsistent across the 2 experiments. In addition, prenatal ewe traits ( ewe MY ( = 0.43 for Exp. 1 and = 0.30 for Exp. 2). Lactose, fat, and milk CP yields explained 47 and 42% of the variation in lamb LWG in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Lactose and milk CP yield positively affected ( ewe traits had a minimal effect on milk yield and twin lamb growth to weaning. Milk yield and composition explained the greatest proportion of variation in LWG. This suggests that farmers should select ewes with higher milk yields to maximize twin lamb growth to weaning. However, less than 50% of the variation in LWG and weaning live weight was explained by the measured ewe and lamb parameters. Therefore, further studies are required to determine additional ewe or lamb variables that control variation in twin lamb growth.

  11. A method for estimating fetal weight based on body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Chen; Jie, Yu; Xiu-E, Gao; Gui-Chuan, Fan; Wen-Long, Zhang

    2018-04-02

    Fetal weight is an important factor to determine the delivery mode of pregnant women. The change of fetal weight is significant, according to regular health monitoring of pregnant women. Conventional methods of fetal weight estimation, namely those based on B-ultrasound, are very complicated and the costs are high. In this paper, we propose a new method based on body composition. An abdominal four-segment impedance model is first established upon pregnant women, as well as the method of calculation. A body composition based method is then given to estimate the fetal weight, with the solution given explicitly. Analyses of clinical data reveal the smallness of the error between the estimated value and the actual value. The error between B-ultrasound and the present method is less than 15%.

  12. Change in electrocardiogram T-wave amplitude during umbilical cord compression is predictive of fetal condition in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, T; Okamura, K; Tanigawara, S; Shintaku, Y; Akagi, K; Endo, H; Yajima, A

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness of the dynamic change in T/QRS ratio in fetal electrocardiograms in predicting the fetal condition when repetitive variable decelerations are seen in intrapartum cardiotocograms. We investigated the relationship, using linear regression and Wilcoxon's test, between T/QRS and blood gas values, catecholamine concentrations, and blood pressure during repetitive cord compression in five chronically instrumented lamb fetuses. T/QRS during cord compression correlated significantly (p less than 0.01) with fetal arterial pH (r = -0.7711), norepinephrine concentration (r = 0.7551), and duration of elevated blood pressure during compression (r = -0.8619). Fetal arterial pH and base excess were lower, the duration of elevated blood pressure during compression was shorter, and carbon dioxide partial pressure and catecholamine concentrations were higher in the stage with higher (greater than 0.50) T/QRS during compression (p less than 0.005). We can estimate the severity of fetal distress by measuring T/QRS near the bottom of the decelerations.

  13. MR evaluation of fetal demise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victoria, Teresa; Chauvin, Nancy Anne; Johnson, Ann M.; Kramer, Sandra Sue; Epelman, Monica; Capilla, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Fetal demise is an uncommon event encountered at MR imaging. When it occurs, recognition by the interpreting radiologist is important to initiate appropriate patient management. To identify MR findings of fetal demise. Following IRB approval, a retrospective search of the radiology fetal MR database was conducted searching the words ''fetal demise'' and ''fetal death.'' Fetuses with obvious maceration or no sonographic confirmation of death were excluded. Eleven cases formed the study group. These were matched randomly to live fetuses of similar gestational age. Images were reviewed independently by three pediatric radiologists. The deceased fetus demonstrates decreased MR soft-tissue contrast and definition of tissue planes, including loss of gray-white matter differentiation in the brain. The signal within the cardiac chambers, when visible, is bright on HASTE sequences from the stagnant blood; the heart is small. Pleural effusions and decreased lung volumes may be seen. Interestingly, the fetal orbits lose their anatomical round shape and become smaller and more elliptical; a dark, irregular rim resembling a mask may be seen. Although fetal demise is uncommonly encountered at MR imaging, radiologists should be aware of such imaging findings so prompt management can be instituted. (orig.)

  14. Cerebral Organoids Recapitulate Epigenomic Signatures of the Human Fetal Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongyuan Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells recapitulate the early three-dimensional organization of the human brain, but whether they establish the epigenomic and transcriptional programs essential for brain development is unknown. We compared epigenomic and regulatory features in cerebral organoids and human fetal brain, using genome-wide, base resolution DNA methylome and transcriptome sequencing. Transcriptomic dynamics in organoids faithfully modeled gene expression trajectories in early-to-mid human fetal brains. We found that early non-CG methylation accumulation at super-enhancers in both fetal brain and organoids marks forthcoming transcriptional repression in the fully developed brain. Demethylated regions (74% of 35,627 identified during organoid differentiation overlapped with fetal brain regulatory elements. Interestingly, pericentromeric repeats showed widespread demethylation in multiple types of in vitro human neural differentiation models but not in fetal brain. Our study reveals that organoids recapitulate many epigenomic features of mid-fetal human brain and also identified novel non-CG methylation signatures of brain development.

  15. Comparison between human fetal and adult skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, N.A.; Schouten, K.C.; Middelkoop, E.; Ulrich, M.

    2010-01-01

    Healing of early-gestation fetal wounds results in scarless healing. Since the capacity for regeneration is probably inherent to the fetal skin itself, knowledge of the fetal skin composition may contribute to the understanding of fetal wound healing. The aim of this study was to analyze the

  16. The Danish Fetal Medicine database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte; Kopp, Tine Iskov; Tabor, Ann

    2016-01-01

    trimester ultrasound scan performed at all public hospitals in Denmark are registered in the database. Main variables/descriptive data: Data on maternal characteristics, ultrasonic, and biochemical variables are continuously sent from the fetal medicine units’Astraia databases to the central database via...... analyses are sent to the database. Conclusion: It has been possible to establish a fetal medicine database, which monitors first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities and second-trimester screening for major fetal malformations with the input from already collected data. The database...

  17. Impact of two myostatin (MSTN mutations on weight gain and lamb carcass classification in Norwegian White Sheep (Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blichfeldt Thor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to estimate the effect of two myostatin (MSTN mutations in Norwegian White Sheep, one of which is close to fixation in the Texel breed. Methods The impact of two known MSTN mutations was examined in a field experiment with Norwegian White Sheep. The joint effect of the two MSTN mutations on live weight gain and weaning weight was studied on 644 lambs. Carcass weight gain from birth to slaughter, carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat classes were calculated in a subset of 508 lambs. All analyses were carried out with a univariate linear animal model. Results The most significant impact of both mutations was on conformation and fat classes. The largest difference between the genotype groups was between the wild type for both mutations and the homozygotes for the c.960delG mutation. Compared to the wild types, these mutants obtained a conformation score 5.1 classes higher and a fat score 3.0 classes lower, both on a 15-point scale. Conclusions Both mutations reduced fatness and increased muscle mass, although the effect of the frameshift mutation (c.960delG was more important as compared to the 3'-UTR mutation (c.2360G>A. Lambs homozygous for the c.960delG mutation grew more slowly than those with other MSTN genotypes, but had the least fat and the largest muscle mass. Only c.960delG showed dominance effects.

  18. Primary care fetal assessment - low-cost fetal arousal testing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tic cells iver utopsy l ever, . 1990; fr J mphasis ry. 1971;. lQ Dis oducmg. IVe phoma: 1993; rd·. 3rd ed. ant of ,ts. 10: ,th. 83: 51: SAMJ. SHORT. REPORT. Primary care fetal ... Education of mothers about the importance of fetal movements is used to ... thumb and middle finger supporting the rim of the top of the can. The index ...

  19. Determinants of the intention to purchase an autochthonous local lamb breed: Spanish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Azucena; Maza, María Teresa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the paper is to study consumers' acceptability for a lamb meat from a local autochthonous breed. An intention to purchase model was developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and estimated using data from a survey conducted in Spain. Results indicated that consumers were willing to buy this lamb meat because 86% of respondents said that they probably/definitely would buy it, although only 23% would if the meat is not available in their usual meat store. Then, the lack of availability in the market is an aspect limiting its consumption. The most important factors explaining the intention to purchase for consumers who would purchase this meat if it were not available in their usual store are the importance attached to the animal breed and their social embeddedness with the local area. An appropriate food policy would be to inform consumers about the importance of the animal breed in the quality of the meat and the local origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transmission of Lamb waves and resonance at an adhesive butt joint of plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Naoki; Biwa, Shiro

    2016-12-01

    The transmission behavior of Lamb waves and the possible occurrence of resonance at an adhesive butt joint of plates are studied experimentally. To this purpose, two 2.5-mm thick aluminum alloy plates are bonded at their edges using cyanoacrylate-based adhesive. Bonded plate specimens with different joint conditions are prepared by changing the bonding procedure. The measurements are performed for the transmission characteristics of the lowest-order symmetric (S0) and antisymmetric (A0) Lamb modes for the frequency range of 0.4-0.6MHz below the cut-off frequency of the higher-order modes. The experimental results show that the transmission coefficients of the S0 and A0 modes exhibit different frequency-dependent characteristics depending on the joint condition. Furthermore, for the incidence of the S0 mode at the center frequency of 1MHz, the transmitted S0 mode in weakly bonded specimens shows a long oscillation tail due to the resonance effect. The experimental results are discussed in the light of the theoretical results based on the spring-type interface model. The interfacial stiffnesses identified from the transmission coefficients are shown to be correlated with the bonding condition of the joint and give reasonable estimates of the resonance frequencies of weakly bonded specimens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A preliminary study of the effects of organic farming on oocyte quality in ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casao, A; María, G A; Abecia, J A

    2017-02-01

    This study tested whether feeding Rasa Aragonesa ewes certified organic feed, from 15 days before mating until lamb weaning, improved oocyte quality and in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF) performances of the offspring. In a second experiment, ovaries from ewe lambs that were bred on an organic farm and were of the same breed were compared with those from conventionally bred animals. The number (± standard error of the mean) of healthy oocytes per ewe lamb did not differ significantly between organic (12.2 ± 3.3) and conventionally (13.6 ± 4.0) fed ewes. Ovaries from ewe lambs born on an organic farm had significantly (P ewe lamb (39.6 ± 5.2) than did those born on a conventional farm (25.0 ± 4.2), and higher IVM (76.5% vs. 53.1%, P ewe lambs, although organic feeding alone was insufficient to improve quality.

  2. Assessment of fetal radiation dose to patients and staff in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei, E.K.

    2000-07-01

    A major source of uncertainty in the estimation of fetal absorbed radiation dose is the influence of fetal size and position as these change with gestational age. Consequently, dose to the fetus is related to gestational age. Most studies of fetal dose estimation during pregnancy assume that the uterus dose is equal to fetal dose. These dose estimates do not take account of gestational age and individual fetal depth, factors which are significant when calculating dose. To establish both positional and size data for estimation of fetal absorbed dose from radiological examinations, the depths from the mother's anterior surface to the mid-line of the fetal head and abdomen were measured from ultrasound scans in 215 pregnant women. Depths were measured along a ray path projected in the anterior-posterior direction from the mother's abdomen. The fetal size was estimated from measurements of the fetal abdominal and head circumference, femur length and the biparietal diameter. The effects of fetal presentation, maternal bladder volume, placenta location, gestational age and maternal AP thickness on fetal depth and size were analysed. A Monte Carlo (MC) model was developed, and used to derive factors for converting dose-area product and free-in-air entrance surface dose from medical exposure of a pregnant patient to absorbed dose to the uterus/embryo, and for converting uterus dose to fetal dose in the later stages of pregnancy. Also presented are factors for converting thermoluminescence dosimeter reading from occupational exposure of a pregnant worker to equivalent dose to the fetus. The MC model was verified experimentally by direct measurement of uterus depth dose in a female Rando phantom, and also by comparison with other experimental work and MC results in the literature. The application of the various conversion factors is demonstrated by a review of the dose estimation process in 50 cases of fetal irradiation from medical exposures. (author)

  3. Assessment of fetal radiation dose to patients and staff in diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osei, E.K

    2000-07-01

    A major source of uncertainty in the estimation of fetal absorbed radiation dose is the influence of fetal size and position as these change with gestational age. Consequently, dose to the fetus is related to gestational age. Most studies of fetal dose estimation during pregnancy assume that the uterus dose is equal to fetal dose. These dose estimates do not take account of gestational age and individual fetal depth, factors which are significant when calculating dose. To establish both positional and size data for estimation of fetal absorbed dose from radiological examinations, the depths from the mother's anterior surface to the mid-line of the fetal head and abdomen were measured from ultrasound scans in 215 pregnant women. Depths were measured along a ray path projected in the anterior-posterior direction from the mother's abdomen. The fetal size was estimated from measurements of the fetal abdominal and head circumference, femur length and the biparietal diameter. The effects of fetal presentation, maternal bladder volume, placenta location, gestational age and maternal AP thickness on fetal depth and size were analysed. A Monte Carlo (MC) model was developed, and used to derive factors for converting dose-area product and free-in-air entrance surface dose from medical exposure of a pregnant patient to absorbed dose to the uterus/embryo, and for converting uterus dose to fetal dose in the later stages of pregnancy. Also presented are factors for converting thermoluminescence dosimeter reading from occupational exposure of a pregnant worker to equivalent dose to the fetus. The MC model was verified experimentally by direct measurement of uterus depth dose in a female Rando phantom, and also by comparison with other experimental work and MC results in the literature. The application of the various conversion factors is demonstrated by a review of the dose estimation process in 50 cases of fetal irradiation from medical exposures. (author)

  4. Clinical implications from monitoring fetal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1982-12-15

    The monitoring of fetal motion in high-risk pregnancies has been shown to be worthwhile in predicting fetal distress and impending fetal death. The maternal recording of perceived fetal activity is an inexpensive surveillance technique which is most useful when there is chronic uteroplacental insufficiency or when a stillbirth may be expected. The presence of an active, vigorous fetus is reassuring, but documented fetal inactivity required a reassessment of the underlying antepartum complication and further fetal evaluation with real-time ultrasonography, fetal heart rate testing, and biochemical testing. Fetal distress from such acute changes as abruptio placentae or umbilical cord compression may not be predicted by monitoring fetal motion. Although not used for routine clinical investigation, electromechanical devices such as tocodynamometry have provided much insight into fetal behavioral patterns at many stages of pregnancy and in pregnancies with an antepartum complication.

  5. The Danish Fetal Medicine Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte K; Petersen, Olav B; Jørgensen, Finn S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the establishment and organization of the Danish Fetal Medicine Database and to report national results of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 in the 5-year period 2008-2012. DESIGN: National register study using prospectively collected first-trimester screening...... data from the Danish Fetal Medicine Database. POPULATION: Pregnant women in Denmark undergoing first-trimester screening for trisomy 21. METHODS: Data on maternal characteristics, biochemical and ultrasonic markers are continuously sent electronically from local fetal medicine databases (Astraia Gmbh......%. The national screen-positive rate increased from 3.6% in 2008 to 4.7% in 2012. The national detection rate of trisomy 21 was reported to be between 82 and 90% in the 5-year period. CONCLUSION: A national fetal medicine database has been successfully established in Denmark. Results from the database have shown...

  6. Fetal programming of renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dötsch, Jörg; Plank, Christian; Amann, Kerstin

    2012-04-01

    Results from large epidemiological studies suggest a clear relation between low birth weight and adverse renal outcome evident as early as during childhood. Such adverse outcomes may include glomerular disease, hypertension, and renal failure and contribute to a phenomenon called fetal programming. Other factors potentially leading to an adverse renal outcome following fetal programming are maternal diabetes mellitus, smoking, salt overload, and use of glucocorticoids during pregnancy. However, clinical data on the latter are scarce. Here, we discuss potential underlying mechanisms of fetal programming, including reduced nephron number via diminished nephrogenesis and other renal (e.g., via the intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system) and non-renal (e.g., changes in endothelial function) alterations. It appears likely that the outcomes of fetal programming may be influenced or modified postnatally, for example, by the amount of nutrients given at critical times.

  7. Purcell effect and Lamb shift as interference phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybin, Mikhail V; Mingaleev, Sergei F; Limonov, Mikhail F; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2016-02-10

    The Purcell effect and Lamb shift are two well-known physical phenomena which are usually discussed in the context of quantum electrodynamics, with the zero-point vibrations as a driving force of those effects in the quantum approach. Here we discuss the classical counterparts of these quantum effects in photonics, and explain their physics trough interference wave phenomena. As an example, we consider a waveguide in a planar photonic crystal with a side-coupled defect, and demonstrate a perfect agreement between the results obtained on the basis of quantum and classic approaches and reveal their link to the Fano resonance. We find that in such a waveguide-cavity geometry the Purcell effect can modify the lifetime by at least 25 times, and the Lamb shift can exceed 3 half-widths of the cavity spectral line.

  8. Ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets containing castor seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicory, Isis Miranda Carvalho; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Tosto, Manuela Silva Libanio; Costa-Lopes, Lívia Santos; Souza, Fábio Nicory Costa; de Oliveira Nascimento, Camila

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the substitution of soybean meal for castor seed meal (CSM) in diets for feedlot lambs and the effects of these diets on their ingestive behavior. Fifty male Santa Inês lambs were used. The diets were composed of Tifton 85 hay and a concentrate containing detoxified CSM substituting 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 % of the soybean meal. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of the CSM levels on the feeding, rumination, idle times, chews and time spent chewing per bolus, total chewing time, number of boli chewed, and number of chews per day. The dry matter (DM) intake decreased linearly (P  0.05) the numbers of feeding, rumination, and idle periods, but had a quadratic effect (P ingestive behavior.

  9. Analysis of fetal movements by Doppler actocardiogram and fetal B-mode imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, K; Tatsumura, M; Utsu, M

    1999-12-01

    We have presented that fetal surveillance may be enhanced by use of the fetal actocardiogram and by computerized processing of fetal motion as well as fetal B-mode ultrasound imaging. Ultrasonic Doppler fetal actogram is a sensitive and objective method for detecting and recording fetal movements. Computer processing of the actograph output signals enables powerful, detailed, and convenient analysis of fetal physiologic phenomena. The actocardiogram is a useful measurement tool not only in fetal behavioral studies but also in evaluation of fetal well-being. It reduces false-positive, nonreactive NST and false-positive sinusoidal FHR pattern. It is a valuable tool to predict fetal distress. The results of intrapartum fetal monitoring are further improved by the antepartum application of the actocardiogram. Quantified fetal motion analysis is a useful, objective evaluation of the embryo and fetus. This method allows monitoring of changes in fetal movement, as well as frequency, amplitude, and duration. Furthermore, quantification of fetal motion enables evaluation of fetal behavior states and how these states relate to other measurements, such as changes in FHR. Numeric analysis of both fetal actogram and fetal motion from B-mode images is a promising application in the correlation of fetal activity or behavior with other fetal physiologic measurements.

  10. Maternal Intuition of Fetal Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McFadzen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Fetal gender speculation is a preoccupation of many expecting parents, and pregnant women commonly profess to intuitively know the gender of their unborn babies. This study objectively compared pregnant mothers’ perceptions of fetal gender to sonographically proven gender determinations. Also, success rates from previously published studies, noninvasive prenatal testing and a myriad of gender determination methods were observed and reported for context. Methods: All pregnant women presenting for second-trimester screening ultrasound (at 17–23 weeks gestation in the obstetrics department of a single health center were asked to participate. A medical sonographer described the ultrasound examination, obtained appropriate consent and medical history. Each mother was asked if she had any perception as to the fetal gender and her answer documented. Mothers who had foreknowledge of fetal gender were excluded. Frequencies of actual gender were compared with observed frequencies of the maternal prediction using chi-squared test. Results: Approximately 40% (n = 411 of our study population (N = 1,026 indicated having an intuition or perception of fetal gender. These women correctly predicted the gender of their babies 51% of the time (P = 0.6571. Women who expressed a “strong” degree of intuition (n = 53 fared better, accurately predicting fetal gender at a rate of 62%, though the difference in this smaller subcohort also failed to demonstrate statistical significance (P = 0.0741. Conclusions: Intuition of fetal gender is professed by almost half of mothers though, when present, is no better at accurately predicting fetal gender than flipping a coin.

  11. Origin assignment by multi-element stable isotopes of lamb tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shumin; Guo, Boli; Wei, Yimin

    2016-12-15

    The carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen isotopic compositions in lamb meat and wool samples under two feeding regimes from five different regions of China were determined by IRMS, which is to investigate their potential for assigning the lamb meat according to geographical origins. The δ(13)C, δ(15)N and δ(2)H values in lamb tissues had significant differences among different regions, with the δ(13)C value is highly related to that of the lamb feeds (pH value is significantly correlated with lamb drinking water (pH values of lamb muscle are all highly correlated with the wool samples. A total correct classification of 88.9% and 83.8% were obtained from the combination of C, N and H isotopes of lamb muscle and wool, respectively. These results demonstrate that multi-element isotopes are effective in identifying the geographical origin of lamb meat. Moreover, both muscle and hair tissue can be used for lamb traceability. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. SLC9B1 methylation predicts fetal intolerance of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Anna K; Conneely, Karen N; Kilaru, Varun; Cobb, Dawayland; Payne, Jennifer L; Meilman, Samantha; Corwin, Elizabeth J; Kaminsky, Zachary A; Dunlop, Anne L; Smith, Alicia K

    2018-01-01

    Fetal intolerance of labor is a common indication for delivery by Caesarean section. Diagnosis is based on the presence of category III fetal heart rate tracing, which is an abnormal heart tracing associated with increased likelihood of fetal hypoxia and metabolic acidemia. This study analyzed data from 177 unique women who, during their prenatal visits (7-15 weeks and/or 24-32 weeks) to Atlanta area prenatal care clinics, consented to provide blood samples for DNA methylation (HumanMethylation450 BeadChip) and gene expression (Human HT-12 v4 Expression BeadChip) analyses. We focused on 57 women aged 18-36 (mean 25.4), who had DNA methylation data available from their second prenatal visit. DNA methylation patterns at CpG sites across the genome were interrogated for associations with fetal intolerance of labor. Four CpG sites (P value intolerance of labor. DNA methylation and gene expression were negatively associated when examined longitudinally during pregnancy using a linear mixed-effects model. Positive predictive values of methylation of these four sites ranged from 0.80 to 0.89, while negative predictive values ranged from 0.91 to 0.92. The four CpG sites were also associated with fetal intolerance of labor in an independent cohort (the Johns Hopkins Prospective PPD cohort). Therefore, fetal intolerance of labor could be accurately predicted from maternal blood samples obtained between 24-32 weeks gestation. Fetal intolerance of labor may be accurately predicted from maternal blood samples obtained between 24-32 weeks gestation by assessing DNA methylation patterns of SLC9B1. The identification of pregnant women at elevated risk for fetal intolerance of labor may allow for the development of targeted treatments or management plans.

  13. Toxicokinetics of domoic acid in the fetal rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maucher Fuquay, Jennifer; Muha, Noah; Wang, Zhihong; Ramsdell, John S

    2012-03-29

    Domoic acid (DA) is a potent neurotoxin that has both marine wildlife and human health impacts, including developmental effects during prenatal exposure in rodent models. However, little is known regarding DA toxicokinetics in the fetal unit during maternal-fetal transfer. Tissue distribution and toxicokinetics of DA were investigated in pregnant rats and their pups just prior to birth at gestational day 20. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were given an intravenous dose of 1.0 mg DA/kg and samples of maternal plasma, fetal plasma, placenta, amniotic fluid and fetal brain were taken at intervals over 24 h. Toxicokinetic parameters were determined using WinNonLin software analysis. Maternal plasma DA log concentration-time curves fit a two compartment pharmacokinetic profile, with alpha and beta half-lives of elimination of 26.9 and 297 min, respectively. Placenta had a C(max) of 752 ng/mL and a terminal half-life of 577 min. Maternal-fetal transfer between the plasma compartments was 31% with a fetal plasma C(max) of 86 ng/mL at 60 min and terminal half-life of 553 min. Amniotic fluid and fetal brain had overall averages of 27±12 ng/mL and 8.12 ng/g, respectively, and did not show evidence of elimination over 24 h. The longer fetal retention of DA, particularly in amniotic fluid, indicates that the fetus may be continually re-exposed during gestation, which could potentially lead to a disease state even at small exposure dose. This has implications for the California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), which exhibit an epilepsy-like disease that arises months after DA producing blooms. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Análise de agrupamento na seleção de modelos de regressão não-lineares para curvas de crescimento de ovinos cruzados Cluster analysis applied to nonlinear regression models selection to growth curves of crossed lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Gomes da Silveira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo utilizar a análise de agrupamento para classificar modelos de regressão não-lineares usados para descrever a curva de crescimento de ovinos cruzados, tendo em vista os resultados de diferentes avaliadores de qualidade de ajuste. Para tanto, utilizaram-se dados de peso-idade dos seguintes cruzamentos entre raças de ovinos de corte: Dorper x Morada Nova, Dorper x Rabo Largo e Dorper x Santa Inês. Após a indicação do melhor modelo, objetivou-se ainda aplicar a técnica de identidade de modelos a fim de identificar o cruzamento mais produtivo. Foram ajustados doze modelos não-lineares, cuja qualidade de ajuste foi medida pelo coeficiente de determinação ajustado, critérios de informação de Akaike e Bayesiano, erro quadrático médio de predição e coeficiente de determinação de predição. A análise de agrupamento indicou o modelo Richards como o mais adequado para descrever as curvas de crescimento dos três grupos genéticos considerados, e os testes de identidade de modelos indicaram o cruzamento Dorper x Santa Inês como sendo o mais indicado para a pecuária local.This study had the objectives to use the cluster analysis in order to classify nonlinear regression models used to describe the growth curve in relation to different quality fit evaluators. Were utilized weight-age data from the following crossbred beef lambs Dorper x Morada Nova, Dorper x Rabo Largo e Dorper x Santa Inês. After the choice of the best model, we aimed also to apply the model identity in order to identify the most efficient crossbred group. Eleven nonlinear models were used, whose fit quality was measured by determination coefficient, Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, mean quadratic error of prediction and predicted determination coefficient. The cluster analysis indicated the Richards as the best model for the three data sets, and the model identity tests revealed that the Dorper x Santa In

  15. Factors affecting the colour of lamb meat from the longissimus muscle during display: the influence of muscle weight and muscle oxidative capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calnan, H B; Jacob, R H; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2014-02-01

    Spectrophotometric measures were used to determine the redness:browness (R630/R580) of 4238 lamb longissimus muscle after 3 days under simulated display. The results were analysed using linear mixed effects models. Environmental factors represented by effects such as kill group and site of production produced the greatest variation of up to 2.76 units in R630/R580. Isocitrate dehydrogenase activity, reflecting muscle oxidative capacity, reduced R630/R580 by 0.5 units. Selection for high muscling sires increased R630/R580 by 0.27 units, likely due to changes in muscle oxidative capacity. Lamb carcass weight also increased R630/R580 by 0.5 units. Analysis of genotypic factors influencing lamb size and growth rate such as sire type and dam breed further supported that increased growth rate improves meat R630/R580. Our findings suggest that breeding for increased growth rate and increased muscle weight could result in Australian lamb meat retaining its red colour for extended periods whilst on display. © 2013.

  16. Inclusion of Tarchonanthus camphoratus in finishing diets for lambs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    body mass of ca. 30 kg, were randomly allocated to four groups. The lambs in each group received one of four experi- mental diets on an ad libitum basis. ... Physical composition. (air-dry basis) (%). Maize meal. Voennolb. Protein concentrate C. T. camphoratus. Salt. Dicalcium phosphate. 28,2. 10,0. 10,3. 50,0. 0,5. 1,0. 38,7.

  17. Duration of passive immunity to small ruminant lentiviruses in lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Sampaio de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the passive immunity against small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV in lambs, this study was conducted from two experimental groups. The first one (G1 was established by nine lambs subjected to artificial feeding of colostrum of goats positive for SRLV. The second one (G2 was the control group, consisting of ten lambs subjected to suckling of colostrum from their negative mothers. Blood samples were obtained before the first feeding, after 24 hours of birth and at 7, 15, 30, 50, 70, 90 and 120 days of age. The concentrations of total serum protein (TSP, albumin (ALB, globulin (GLOB and immunoglobulin G (IgG were determined and antibodies to SRLV were surveyed from the techniques of agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa and immunoblotting (IB. In both groups, the lowest averages of TSP, GLOB and IgG were observed at birth and the highest averages were observed at 24 hours of life, due to absorption of colostral immunoglobulins. For G1, transfer of immunity could also be detected by immunodiagnostic tests. At birth, the animals were seronegative. After 24 hours, all animals were positive in three serological tests. Negative results began to be observed after 15 days of age by the AGID test. As for Elisa testing, all animals remained reagent until 50 days old. Only IB was able to detect anti-SRLV at 70 days. Regarding G2, all animals tested negative in AGID and IB, from birth until 120 days of age. However, false-positive results were observed until day 15 in Elisa, due to nonspecific reactions. These data are consistent with the sensitivity and specificity of serological tests and show that starting at 90 days of age, colostral antibodies to SRLV are no longer detected in the serum of lambs.

  18. Carcass characteristics of Karadi lambs as affect by different levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the work described here was to investigate the effect of two levels of Nigella sativa (0 and 7.5 g NS / kg DM) supplementation to rations of Karadi lambs fed three levels of rumen degradable nitrogen (1, 1.3 and 1.6 g RDN / MJ of ME) on carcass characteristics, using 2 x 3 factorial experiment. Twenty four ...

  19. Desert bighorn sheep lambing habitat: Parturition, nursery, and predation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsch, Rebekah C.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.

    2016-01-01

    Fitness of female ungulates is determined by neonate survival and lifetime reproductive success. Therefore, adult female ungulates should adopt behaviors and habitat selection patterns that enhance survival of neonates during parturition and lactation. Parturition site location may play an important role in neonatal mortality of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) when lambs are especially vulnerable to predation, but parturition sites are rarely documented for this species. Our objectives were to assess environmental characteristics at desert bighorn parturition, lamb nursery, and predation sites and to assess differences in habitat characteristics between parturition sites and nursery group sites, and predation sites and nursery group sites. We used vaginal implant transmitters (VITs) to identify parturition sites and capture neonates. We then compared elevation, slope, terrain ruggedness, and visibility at parturition, nursery, and lamb predation sites with paired random sites and compared characteristics of parturition sites and lamb predation sites to those of nursery sites. When compared to random sites, odds of a site being a parturition site were highest at intermediate slopes and decreased with increasing female visibility. Odds of a site being a predation site increased with decreasing visibility. When compared to nursery group sites, odds of a site being a parturition site had a quadratic relationship with elevation and slope, with odds being highest at intermediate elevations and intermediate slopes. When we compared predation sites to nursery sites, odds of a site being a predation were highest at low elevation areas with high visibility and high elevation areas with low visibility likely because of differences in hunting strategies of coyote (Canis latrans) and puma (Puma concolor). Parturition sites were lower in elevation and slope than nursery sites. Understanding selection of parturition sites by adult females and how habitat

  20. Epigenetic regulation and fetal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquel, Christine; El-Osta, Assam; Le Bouc, Yves

    2008-02-01

    Fetal programming encompasses the role of developmental plasticity in response to environmental and nutritional signals during early life and its potential adverse consequences (risk of cardiovascular, metabolic and behavioural diseases) in later life. The first studies in this field highlighted an association between poor fetal growth and chronic adult diseases. However, environmental signals during early life may lead to adverse long-term effects independently of obvious effects on fetal growth. Adverse long-term effects reflect a mismatch between early (fetal and neonatal) environmental conditions and the conditions that the individual will confront later in life. The mechanisms underlying this risk remain unclear. However, experimental data in rodents and recent observations in humans suggest that epigenetic changes in regulatory genes and growth-related genes play a significant role in fetal programming. Improvements in our understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms at play in fetal programming would make it possible to identify biomarkers for detecting infants at high risk of adult-onset diseases. Such improvements should also lead to the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  1. Maternal hurricane exposure and fetal distress risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Sammy; Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Peek, Lori; Weiler, Stephan

    2010-10-01

    Logistic regression and spatial analytic techniques are used to model fetal distress risk as a function of maternal exposure to Hurricane Andrew. First, monthly time series compare the proportion of infants born distressed in hurricane affected and unaffected areas. Second, resident births are analyzed in Miami-Dade and Broward counties, before, during, and after Hurricane Andrew. Third, resident births are analyzed in all Florida locales with 100,000 or more persons, comparing exposed and unexposed gravid females. Fourth, resident births are analyzed along Hurricane Andrew's path from southern Florida to northeast Mississippi. Results show that fetal distress risk increases significantly with maternal exposure to Hurricane Andrew in second and third trimesters, adjusting for known risk factors. Distress risk also correlates with the destructive path of Hurricane Andrew, with higher incidences of fetal distress found in areas of highest exposure intensity. Hurricane exposed African-American mothers were more likely to birth distressed infants. The policy implications of in utero costs of natural disaster exposure are discussed. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Role of fetal DNA in preeclampsia (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konečná, Barbora; Vlková, Barbora; Celec, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Preeclampsia is an autoimmune disorder characterized by hypertension. It begins with abnormal cytotrophoblast apoptosis, which leads to inflammation and an increase in the levels of anti-angiogenic factors followed by the disruption of the angiogenic status. Increased levels of fetal DNA and RNA coming from the placenta, one of the most commonly affected organs in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, have been found in pregnant women with the condition. However, it remains unknown as to whether this is a cause or a consequence of preeclampsia. Few studies have been carried out on preeclampsia in which an animal model of preeclampsia was induced by an injection of different types of DNA that are mimic fetal DNA and provoke inflammation through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) or cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP). The specific mechanisms involved in the development of preeclampsia are not yet fully understood. It is hypothesized that the presence of different fragments of fetal DNA in maternal plasma may cause for the development of preeclampsia. The function of DNase during preeclampsia also remains unresolved. Studies have suggested that its activity is decreased or the DNA is protected against its effects. Further research is required to uncover the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and focus more on the condition of patients with the condition.

  3. CRAMBE CAKE (Crambe abyssinica hochst ON LAMB DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Breda Canova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative feedstuffs in animal diet, such as residues derived from the biodiesel production aims to increase productivity and reduce costs in animal production. Them aim of this study was to evaluate the substitution effect of 0, 22, 44 and 64% of soybean meal protein by Crambe cake (Crambe abyssinica Hochst protein in lamb diet. In the in vivo experiment, 20 lambs were used and evaluated the apparent digestibility, nitrogen balance and voluntary DM intake. The replacement of the protein resulted in a linear decrease in apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, ether extract (EE, gross energy (GE, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, cellulose (CEL and the percentage of total digestible nutrients (TDN, which resulted in decreased daily DM intake. The blood level of urea, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were not affected. In vitro gas production technique (GP evaluation of diets showed a significantly decrease (P<0.05 of the total gas and methane production without altering the true degradability of DM and OM and the partition factor (PF. Replacement of soybean meal protein by the Crambe cake protein decreased digestibility of the fiber fraction of the diet, the voluntary intake of DM and methane, without altering rumen fermentation. Crambe cake can be utilized as lamb's food, because, despite reduced intake, assure a large energy intake and similarity to soybean meal protein.

  4. Mineral mixtures from solid salt residues for lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bomfim Manera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate water, mineral, feed and nutrient voluntary intakes, in addition to dry matter and nutrient digestibility and the nitrogen balance of lambs fed three mineral supplements. The first treatment consisted of solid salt residue (SSR from an aquaculture tank; the second contained SSR from desalination waste; and the third treatment was control, which corresponded to the supplementation of a commercial mineral supplement. The study lasted 20 days, the first 15 of which were used for animals to adapt to the pens and diets, and the last five days were used for data collection. Twenty-four castrated male lambs with a body weight of 19.72±2.52 kg were utilized in the experiment. The mineral supplements evaluated did not affect the intake and digestibility of the dry matter and nutrients, the water and mineral-salt intake or nitrogen balance. Mineral supplements produced from the SSR from aquaculture tanks and from the desalination waste did not reduce feed, nutrient and water intakes or nutrient digestibility, which suggests that these raw materials can be used in the elaboration of mineral mixtures for lambs.

  5. Intrauterine Transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Persistently Infected Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snorre Stuen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which causes the disease tick-borne fever (TBF, is the most important tick-borne pathogen in European animals. TBF may contribute to severe welfare challenges and economic losses in the Norwegian sheep industry. The bacterium causes a persistent infection in sheep and several other animal species. The objective of this study was to investigate whether intrauterine transmission occurs in persistently infected sheep. The study included thirteen 5–6-month-old unmated ewes, of which twelve were experimentally infected with A. phagocytophilum (GenBank acc. no. M73220. Four to six weeks later, all ewes were mated, and nine became pregnant. Blood samples were collected from these ewes and their offspring. If the lamb died, tissue samples were collected. The samples were analyzed with real-time PCR (qPCR targeting the msp2 gene. PCR-positive samples were further analyzed by semi-nested PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing. A total of 20 lambs were born, of which six died within two days. Six newborn lambs (30% were PCR-positive (qPCR, of which one was verified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The present study indicates that intrauterine transmission of A. phagocytophilum in persistently infected sheep may occur. The importance of these findings for the epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum needs to be further investigated.

  6. Intrauterine Transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Persistently Infected Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuen, Snorre; Okstad, Wenche; Sagen, Anne Mette

    2018-02-28

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which causes the disease tick-borne fever (TBF), is the most important tick-borne pathogen in European animals. TBF may contribute to severe welfare challenges and economic losses in the Norwegian sheep industry. The bacterium causes a persistent infection in sheep and several other animal species. The objective of this study was to investigate whether intrauterine transmission occurs in persistently infected sheep. The study included thirteen 5-6-month-old unmated ewes, of which twelve were experimentally infected with A. phagocytophilum (GenBank acc. no. M73220). Four to six weeks later, all ewes were mated, and nine became pregnant. Blood samples were collected from these ewes and their offspring. If the lamb died, tissue samples were collected. The samples were analyzed with real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting the msp2 gene. PCR-positive samples were further analyzed by semi-nested PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing. A total of 20 lambs were born, of which six died within two days. Six newborn lambs (30%) were PCR-positive (qPCR), of which one was verified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The present study indicates that intrauterine transmission of A. phagocytophilum in persistently infected sheep may occur. The importance of these findings for the epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum needs to be further investigated.

  7. Metabolism of exogenously administered natural surfactant in the newborn lamb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatz, T.; Ikegami, M.; Jobe, A.

    1982-09-01

    (/sup 3/H)-Palmitate labeled natural lamb surfactant and free (/sup 14/C)-choline were mixed with the lung fluid of 11 term lambs at cesarean section, before the first breath. After receiving the isotope, the lambs were delivered, allowed to breathe spontaneously, and were subsequently sacrificed from 5 min to 96 h of age. Alveolar washes, lung homogenates, microsomal and lamellar body fractions of lungs, and pulmonary alveolar macrophages were examined for the presence of labeled phosphatidylcholine. Analysis of the labeled natural surfactant kinetic data revealed an apparent t 1/2 of phosphatidylcholine in the whole lung of 6.0 days. This half-life can be interpreted only as a rough estimate. Appearance of considerable (/sup 3/H) labeled phosphatidylcholine in the lung homogenates demonstrated uptake of phosphatidylcholine from alveoli into lung tissue. The surfactant-associated label in homogenates was localized preferentially to lamellar body fractions. Some of the administered (/sup 14/C)-choline appeared in phosphatidylcholine. Almost all of this labeled phosphatidylcholine was associated with the homogenate. Extremely small % of administered (3H) and (14C) were found in pulmonary alveolar macrophages.

  8. Structural Features in Tunica Media of the Aorta in Lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalma CSIBI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In blood vessels situated just after the heart, an irregular blood flow occurs due to some specific structural elements of the tunica media. The current paper describes the histological aspects of some post-cardiac arterial sections in lamb. The tissue samples were collected from five 30 days old male lambs (Țurcană breed. Histological specimens from different regions of the aorta were harvested (i.e., the ascending aorta, aortic arch, thoracic and abdominal regions of the descending aorta. From the specified regions, small pieces (cca. 0.5 cm were fixed in neutral 10% buffered formalin. The tissues were subsequently embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned at 5 μm, and stained with Goldner’s trichrome and Verhoeff methods. Tissue analysis was performed using an Olympus system for image acquisition and analysis. Histological appearance of the assessed segments of the aorta in lamb is unusual. Major changes occur in tunica media of the aorta. In the ascending aorta, aortic arch and thoracic regions of the aorta, the histological outline is somewhat the same. The internal region of the media possesses the typical lamellar arrangement. Concerning the outer part of tunica media, the smooth muscle has a tendency to form bundles of various sizes. The muscle islands are not present in the media of abdominal region of the aorta, which exhibits the classic pattern of elastic arteries.

  9. Maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy impairs an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-like pathway in sheep fetal coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Praveen; Ghatta, Srinivas; Dubey, Nidhi; Lemley, Caleb O; Johnson, Mary Lynn; Modgil, Amit; Vonnahme, Kimberly; Caton, Joel S; Reynolds, Lawrence P; Sun, Chengwen; O'Rourke, Stephen T

    2014-07-15

    The mechanisms underlying developmental programming are poorly understood but may be associated with adaptations by the fetus in response to changes in the maternal environment during pregnancy. We hypothesized that maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy alters vasodilator responses in fetal coronary arteries. Pregnant ewes were fed a control [100% U.S. National Research Council (NRC)] or nutrient-restricted (60% NRC) diet from days 50 to 130 of gestation (term = 145 days); fetal tissues were collected at day 130. In coronary arteries isolated from control fetal lambs, relaxation to bradykinin was unaffected by nitro-l-arginine (NLA). Iberiotoxin or contraction with KCl abolished the NLA-resistant response to bradykinin. In fetal coronary arteries from nutrient-restricted ewes, relaxation to bradykinin was fully suppressed by NLA. Large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel (BKCa) currents did not differ in coronary smooth muscle cells from control and nutrient-restricted animals. The BKCa openers, BMS 191011 and NS1619, and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid [a putative endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)] each caused fetal coronary artery relaxation and BKCa current activation that was unaffected by maternal nutrient restriction. Expression of BKCa-channel subunits did not differ in fetal coronary arteries from control or undernourished ewes. The results indicate that maternal undernutrition during pregnancy results in loss of the EDHF-like pathway in fetal coronary arteries in response to bradykinin, an effect that cannot be explained by a decreased number or activity of BKCa channels or by decreased sensitivity to mediators that activate BKCa channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. Under these conditions, bradykinin-induced relaxation is completely dependent on nitric oxide, which may represent an adaptive response to compensate for the absence of the EDHF-like pathway. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Maternal obesity accelerates fetal pancreatic beta-cell but not alpha-cell development in sheep: prenatal consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Stephen P; Zhang, Liren; Zhu, Meijun; Miller, Myrna M; Smith, Derek T; Hess, Bret W; Moss, Gary E; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Nijland, Mark J

    2009-09-01

    Maternal obesity affects offspring weight, body composition, and organ function, increasing diabetes and metabolic syndrome risk. We determined effects of maternal obesity and a high-energy diet on fetal pancreatic development. Sixty days prior to breeding, ewes were assigned to control [100% of National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or obesogenic (OB; 150% NRC) diets. At 75 days gestation, OB ewes exhibited elevated insulin-to-glucose ratios at rest and during a glucose tolerance test, demonstrating insulin resistance compared with control ewes. In fetal studies, ewes ate their respective diets from 60 days before to 75 days after conception when animals were euthanized under general anesthesia. OB and control ewes increased in body weight by approximately 43% and approximately 6%, respectively, from diet initiation until necropsy. Although all organs were heavier in fetuses from OB ewes, only pancreatic weight increased as a percentage of fetal weight. Blood glucose, insulin, and cortisol were elevated in OB ewes and fetuses on day 75. Insulin-positive cells per unit pancreatic area were 50% greater in fetuses from OB ewes as a result of increased beta-cell mitoses rather than decreased programmed cell death. Lambs of OB ewes were born earlier but weighed the same as control lambs; however, their crown-to-rump length was reduced, and their fat mass was increased. We conclude that increased systemic insulin in fetuses from OB ewes results from increased glucose exposure and/or cortisol-induced accelerated fetal beta-cell maturation and may contribute to premature beta-cell function loss and predisposition to obesity and metabolic disease in offspring.

  11. Fetal Valproate Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu-Albayrak, Hatice; Bulut, Cahide; Çaksen, Hüseyin

    2017-04-01

    There have been several reports of congenital malformations in the offspring of mothers who took valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy as a treatment for epilepsy. Herein, we describe four cases with typically similar facial features of fetal valproate syndrome accompanied to minor skeletal abnormalities. The first case was a 16-month-old girl, presenting with facial dysmorphism, and finger abnormalities. Her mother took VPA (1500 mg/d) up to the 10 th gestational week and at a dosage of 1000 mg/d through the pregnancy. The second patient was 5-year-old boy with speech disability, bilateral cryptorchidism, facial dysmorphism, and finger abnormalities whose mother took VPA (1000 mg/d) through pregnancy. The third 19-month-old patient was the brother of the second patient who had facial dysmorphism, bilateral cryptorchidism, and finger abnormalities. His mother also took VPA (1000 mg/d) through pregnancy. The fourth 3-year and 6 month-old boy with minor facial dysmorphism and sternum deformity was exposed to VPA (500 mg/d) in utero. In conclusion, there is a recognizable spectrum of abnormalities in some infants exposed to VPA without dose-depence and the common facial dysmorphic features and minor skeletal abnormalities that may occur within the both low and high dose VPA use. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Fetal abdominal wall defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prefumo, Federico; Izzi, Claudia

    2014-04-01

    The most common fetal abdominal wall defects are gastroschisis and omphalocele, both with a prevalence of about three in 10,000 births. Prenatal ultrasound has a high sensitivity for these abnormalities already at the time of the first-trimester nuchal scan. Major unrelated defects are associated with gastroschisis in about 10% of cases, whereas omphalocele is associated with chromosomal or genetic abnormalities in a much higher proportion of cases. Challenges in management of gastroschisis are related to the prevention of late intrauterine death, and the prediction and treatment of complex forms. With omphalocele, the main difficulty is the exclusion of associated conditions, not all diagnosed prenatally. An outline of the postnatal treatment of abdominal wall defects is given. Other rarer forms of abdominal wall defects are pentalogy of Cantrell, omphalocele, bladder exstrophy, imperforate anus, spina bifida complex, prune-belly syndrome, body stalk anomaly, and bladder and cloacal exstrophy; they deserve multidisciplinary counselling and management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Screening for fetal aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Britton D; Norton, Mary E

    2016-02-01

    Screening is currently recommended in pregnancy for a number of genetic disorders, chromosomal aneuploidy, and structural birth defects in the fetus regardless of maternal age or family history. There is an overwhelming array of sonographic and maternal serum-based options available for carrying out aneuploidy risk assessment in the first and/or second trimester. As with any screening test, the patient should be made aware that a "negative" test or "normal" ultrasound does not guarantee a healthy baby and a "positive" test does not mean the fetus has the condition. The woman should have both pre- and post-test counseling to discuss the benefits, limitations, and options for additional testing. Rapid advancements of genetic technologies have made it possible to screen for the common aneuploidies traditionally associated with advanced maternal age with improved levels of accuracy beyond serum and ultrasound based testing. Prenatal screening for fetal genetic disorders with cell-free DNA has transformed prenatal care with yet unanswered questions related to the financial, ethical, and appropriate application in the provision of prenatal risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Noninvasive Fetal ECG analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Gari D.; Silva, Ikaro; Behar, Joachim; Moody, George B.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important advances achieved in the field of adult electrocardiography signal processing, the analysis of the non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram (NI-FECG) remains a challenge. Currently no gold standard database exists which provides labelled FECG QRS complexes (and other morphological parameters), and publications rely either on proprietary databases or a very limited set of data recorded from few (or more often, just one) individuals. The PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2013 enables to tackle some of these limitations by releasing a set of NI-FECG data publicly to the scientific community in order to evaluate signal processing techniques for NI-FECG extraction. The Challenge aim was to encourage development of accurate algorithms for locating QRS complexes and estimating the QT interval in noninvasive FECG signals. Using carefully reviewed reference QRS annotations and QT intervals as a gold standard, based on simultaneous direct FECG when possible, the Challenge was designed to measure and compare the performance of participants’ algorithms objectively. Multiple challenge events were designed to test basic FHR estimation accuracy, as well as accuracy in measurement of inter-beat (RR) and QT intervals needed as a basis for derivation of other FECG features. This editorial reviews the background issues, the design of the Challenge, the key achievements, and the follow-up research generated as a result of the Challenge, published in the concurrent special issue of Physiological Measurement. PMID:25071093

  15. Increased fetal cell trafficking in murine lung following complete pregnancy loss from exposure to lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kirby L; Tao, Kai; Stroh, Helene; Kallenbach, Lisa; Peter, Inga; Richey, Lauren; Rust, Daniel; Bianchi, Diana W

    2010-03-15

    To determine whether chemically induced miscarriage affects fetomaternal trafficking in a mouse model, we measured the amount of fetal DNA present in various maternal organs by polymerase chain reaction amplification following exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). As the frequency of fetal cells and the number of animals with detectable microchimerism following LPS injection were significantly increased, particularly in lung tissue compared to controls, with no signs of an inflammatory response, we conclude that LPS-induced miscarriage results in increased murine fetomaternal cell trafficking, supporting a relationship between fetal loss and the establishment of fetal cell microchimerism. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Effects of cord compression on fetal blood flow distribution and O2 delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itskovitz, J.; LaGamma, E.F.; Rudolph, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors used the radionuclide microsphere technique in nine fetal lambs to examine the effect of partial cord compression on distribution of cardiac output and O 2 delivery to fetal organs and venous flow patterns. With a 50% reduction in umbilical blood flow the fraction of fetal cardiac output distributed to the brain, heart, carcass, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract increased. Pulmonary blood flow fell. O 2 delivery to the brain and myocardium was maintained but was reduced to peripheral, renal, and gastrointestinal circulations. Hepatic blood flow decreased and O 2 delivery fell by 75%. The proportion of umbilical venous blood passing through the ductus venosus increased from 43.9 to 71.8%. The preferential distribution of ductus venosus blood flow through the foramen ovale was enhanced and the proportion of O 2 delivery to upper body organs derived from the ductus venosus increased. Abdominal inferior vena caval blood flow increased, and it was also preferentially distributed through the foramen ovale and constituted the major fraction of the arterial blood supply to the upper body organs. Thus cord compression modified the distribution of cardiac output and the patterns of venous returns in the fetus. This pattern of circulatory response differs from that observed with other causes of reduced O 2 delivery

  17. Antenatal fetal magnetocardiography: a new method for fetal surveillance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, A; Weir, A; Shahani, U; Bain, R; Maas, P; Donaldson, G

    1994-10-01

    To establish the reliability of fetal magnetocardiography as a method of measuring the time intervals of the fetal heart during the antenatal period. A prospective study. Wellcome Biomagnetism Unit, Southern General Hospital. One hundred and six low risk pregnant women at 20 to 42 weeks gestation. Success in obtaining QRS complexes, P waves and T waves. Correlation of time intervals with fetal outcome. The technique was acceptable to pregnant women. A QRS complex was successfully demonstrated in 68 (67%) of the unaveraged traces. Using off-line averaging techniques on these 68 cases, P waves were obtained in 75% and T waves in 72%. Although good quality traces were obtained throughout the range of gestational ages, in general it was more difficult below 28 weeks. QRS duration (R2 = 7%, P = 0.02) demonstrated a positive linear correlation with increasing gestation. Of the 35 (51%) cases with umbilical vein pH analysis available, only one result was less than 7.2. No significant relation was found between measurements of the fetal waveforms and the pH results. The technique of fetal magnetocardiography provides a significant advance in the technological field for the demonstration of QRS complexes and the full PQRST waveforms in gestations from 20 weeks onwards. With further technical improvements the clinical impact of this technique can be assessed more fully.

  18. A longitudinal study of factors associated with acute and chronic mastitis and their impact on lamb growth rate in 10 suckler sheep flocks in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Claire; Smith, Edward Mark; Green, Laura Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    A 2-year prospective, longitudinal study of 10 suckler sheep flocks in Great Britain was run to identify factors associated with acute mastitis (AM) and chronic mastitis, and their impact on lamb growth rate. Data were collected on AM, intramammary masses (IMM; a marker for chronic mastitis), udder and teat conformation, teat lesions, body condition, ewe nutrition, litter size, lamb weight and general flock management. Each flock was visited twice each year, approximately 4 weeks before lambing and 9 weeks into lactation, for two years and all ewes present at a visit were examined. There were 7021 examinations in total. AM was reported in 2.1-3.0% of ewes/year; this ranged from 0.0% to 37.1% by flock. IMM were detected in 4.7% of ewes in pregnancy and 10.9% of ewes in lactation. Once an IMM had been detected there was an increased risk of future IMM although IMM were not consistently present. The majority of ewes had good udder conformation to suckle lambs. Factors associated with AM, IMM in pregnant and lactating ewes, udder conformation and lamb daily live weight gain were explored using mixed effect multivariable models. An increased risk of AM was associated with underfeeding protein in pregnancy (OR 4.05), forward pointing teats (OR 2.54), downward pointing teats (OR 4.68), rearing≥2 lambs (OR 2.65), non-traumatic teat lesions (OR 2.09); and marginally associated with the presence of IMM. An increased risk of IMM in lactation was associated with AM during lactation (OR 12.39), IMM in pregnancy (OR 4.79), IMM in the previous lactation (OR 4.77), underfeeding energy in pregnancy (OR 6.66) and traumatic teat lesions (OR 2.48). An increased risk of IMM in pregnancy was associated with IMM in the previous pregnancy, IMM in the previous lactation and underfeeding energy in the previous lactation (OR 2.95). Lower lamb daily live weight gain was associated with traumatic teat lesions, IMM in lactation (-0.01kg/day) and AM (-0.04kg/day). We conclude that inadequate

  19. Effects of weaning age on growth, nutrient digestibility and metabolism, and serum parameters in Hu lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Chai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of weaning age on growth performance, nutrient digestion and metabolism, and serological indicators, and to obtain an optimal weaning age in Hu lambs. Forty-eight newborn Hu lambs (birth weight, 2.53 ± 0.14 kg were randomly divided into 4 groups. The lambs in control group (ER suckled their dams. The lambs in other three experimental groups were weaned on milk replacer at 10, 20, and 30 days of age (EW10, EW20, and EW30 groups, respectively. The results were as follows: 1 lambs in EW10 and EW30 groups had a lower (P  0.05 among groups; however, the apparent digestibility and deposition of calcium in early weaned lambs were lower (P < 0.05 than those in ewe-reared lambs. 4 The albumin content in EW30 group was lower (P < 0.05 than that in ER group; the globulin content in EW30 group was higher (P < 0.05 than that in other groups; the content of serum insulin-like growth factor-Ⅰ in weaned lambs tended to increase compared with lambs in ER group. Finally, the growth rate of lambs decreased within 10 days post-weaning, but early weaning boosted creep feed intake, leading to better growth and health later in life. The Hu lambs can be weaned on milk replacer and creep feed at 10 days of age.

  20. Two cases of fetal goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Saini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anterior fetal neck masses are rarely encountered. Careful routine ultrasound screening can reveal intrauterine fetal goiters (FGs. The incidence of goitrous hypothyroidism is 1 in 30,000-50,000 live births. The consequences of both FG and impaired thyroid function are serious. Aims and Objectives: To emphasize role of ultrasound in both invasive and non-invasive management of FG. Materials and Methods: Two pregnant patients, during second trimester, underwent routine antenatal ultrasound revealing FG, were investigated and managed. Results: Case 1: Revealed FG with fetal hypothyroidism. Intra-amniotic injection l-thyroxine given. Follow-up ultrasound confirmed the reduction of the goiter size. At birth, thyroid dyshormogenesis was suspected and neonate discharged on 50 mcg levothyroxine/day with normal growth and development so far. Case 2: Hypothyroid mother with twin pregnancy revealed FG, in twin 1, confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging (1.5 × 1.63 cm. The other twin had no thyroid swelling. Cordocentesis confirmed hypothyroidism in twin 1. Maternal thyroxine dose increased as per biochemical parameters leading to reduction in FG size. Mother delivered preterm and none of the twins had thyroid swelling. Fetal euthyroidism was confirmed on biochemical screening. Conclusion: FG during pregnancy should be thoroughly evaluated, diagnosed and immediately treated; although in utero options for fetal hypothyroidism management are available, emphasis should be laid on non-invasive procedures. Newer and better resolution techniques in ultrasonography are more specific and at the same time are less harmful.

  1. Fetal Programming and Cardiovascular Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T.; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25880521

  2. Fetal programming and cardiovascular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2015-04-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption, or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes, and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology, and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress, and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. © 2015 American Physiological Society.

  3. 78 FR 31367 - Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...] RIN 0581-AD29 Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and... (including veal), lamb, chicken, goat, and pork; ground beef, ground lamb, ground chicken, ground goat, and... processing and slaughtering firms, 38 chicken processing firms, and 4,335 retailers. This totals 7,181 firms...

  4. 78 FR 15645 - Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm-Raised Fish and Shellfish, Perishable...), lamb, chicken, goat, and pork; ground beef, ground lamb, ground chicken, ground goat, and ground pork... chicken processing firms, and 4,335 retailers. This totals 7,181 firms that [[Page 15646

  5. Influence of Production System, Sex and Litter Size on Growth Rates in Turcana Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Gavojdian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lamb meat production has become the main source of income in the Romanian sheep farming industry, representing over 66% of the total returns. Turcana breed represents over 70% of the national flock, and 92% of the sheep bred in western Romania. However, meat production potential and growth rates of the breed are low, and thus strategies to improve performance of the Turcana lambs need to be identified. Aim of the current research was to evaluate the effects that sex and litter size have on the growth rates of lambs from Turcana breed under extensive and semi-intensive production systems. Weaning weight was significantly (p≤0.001 influenced by the production system, with lambs reared extensively registering a average body weights of 18.23±0.094 kg at the age of 90 days, while the semi-intensively reared lambs registered an average weight of 20.19±0.082 kg. It was concluded that all three factors taken into study significantly influence growth rates in Turcana lambs and that weight of the lamb(s at the age of 28 days should be included as a selection trait within the Turcana breed genetic improvement plan.

  6. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance and carcass characteristics in wool and hair lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel M. Romero-Maya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics of wool and hair lambs. For this purpose, 48 lambs averaging 31.3 kg body weight, of which twenty were wool (Ramboullet x Suffolk and twenty eight were hair (Tabasco lambs, and four levels of RAC (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg diet, dry matter basis were used. Wool lambs fed 20 and 30 mg RAC had higher (P<0.05 total gain weight and lower feed conversion than 0 and 10 mg RAC. Wool lambs fed 20 mg RAC had the highest carcass weight, dressing, legs weight and longissimus area as compared to 0, 10 and 30 mg RAC.  In hair lambs there were not effect of RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics.It was concluded that addition of RAC to finishing diets offered the best growth performance and carcass traits in wool lambs as compared to hair lambs

  7. Microbial performance of food safety management systems implemented in the lamb production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oses, S.M.; Luning, P.A.; Jacxsens, L.; Santillana, S.; Jaime, I.; Rovira, J.

    2012-01-01

    The actual microbial status of the lamb production chain at three slaughterhouses, one processing plant, and five butcher shops selling whole or cut lamb carcasses to consumers was assessed with a previously developed microbial assessment scheme. All studied establishments had a food safety

  8. Effects of different protein sources of diet on yield and quality of lamb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained in the study of the effects of different protein sources in diet on fattening parameters, yield and quality of meat from weaned lambs are presented in this study. Experiment was conducted on 60 lambs of MIS population, weaned at the age of 60 days and divided into three groups. The effect of use of three ...

  9. PZT-on-silicon RF-MEMS Lamb wave resonators and filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yagubizade, H.

    2013-01-01

    Lamb-wave piezoelectric RF-MEMS resonators have demonstrated promising performance, such as low motional impedance and high Q-factor. Lamb-wave resonators are still in the perfectioning state and therefore there is a great demand for further understanding of various issues such as reducing the

  10. Cane molasses and NaOH teated bagacillo diets for lambs | Chicco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cane molasses and NaOH teated bagacillo diets for lambs. C.F. Chicco, G Garcia, C Fernandez, C.R. Prays. Abstract. The eftect of alkali-treated bag acillo in diets varying in proportion of bagacillo and mollasses was studied in lambs. The bagacillo was treated with a concentration solution of NaOH in a horizontald rum-type ...

  11. Electrophoretic pattern of sera from lambs and kids vaccinated with irradiated Amphistome metacercariae (Cercariae indicae XXVI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, Md.; Rao, B.V.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary work has been done to study certain responses induced by irradiated amphistome metacercariae used as a vaccine to immunise lambs, kids and calves. The electrophoretic pattern of the sera collected from lambs and kids vaccinated with gamma irradiated amphistome matacercariae (C.I. XXVI) has been reported in this study. (author). 10 refs., 1 table

  12. Isolation and molecular characterization of Clostridium perfringens from healthy Merino lambs in Patagonia region, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mignaqui, A. C.; Marcellino, R. B.; Ronco, Troels

    2017-01-01

    The presence and molecular characterization of Clostridium perfringens in healthy Merino lambs over a six-month period was investigated in this study. Overall, a high prevalence of C. perfringens was detected, even in day-old lambs. Even though the majority of the isolates were characterized...

  13. Effect of breed and feeding on the carcass characteristics of the Chilote breed lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ramírez-Retamal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilote sheep has been developed in an isolated environment, based on grazing lands with low nutritive value belonging to small-scale producers, because of which there is little information about the use of this breed for meat production. The objective of this work was to determine the effects on lamb carcasses of two breeds with different productive purposes and fed on pastures with different nutritional quality. Three groups of lambs were used. The first and second groups were composed of 13 and 11 Chilote lambs respectively, and the third composed of six Suffolk Down lambs. Lambs remained with their mothers, the first group on naturalized pasture and the rest on rangeland. Animals were slaughtered at 90 d of age. Live weight, carcass weight and yield, and several zoometric parameters were determined, as well as the weight of commercial cuts and the muscle, bone and fat ratios. Hide and hoof weights were also measured. For the effect of breed, Chilote lamb is narrower (P < 0.05 than Suffolk Down, but with a higher proportion of hide (P < 0.05 and hooves (P < 0.05. The type of pasture only affected hot carcass yield, which was higher in Chilote lamb with naturalized pasture than with rangeland (P < 0.05. There were no effects of breed or pasture type on the main characteristics of the lamb carcasses.

  14. Sheep experimentally infected with sarcocystis from dogs. I. Disease in young lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, R G; Fayer, R; Johnson, A J

    1977-08-01

    Eight Polled Dorset lambs were orally inoculated with Sarcocystis ovicanis sporocysts. Two lambs that received 100,000 or 200,000 sporocysts became clinically ill, recovered, and were killed 67 and 88 days after inoculation (DAI). Numerous intramuscular cysts were found in their skeletal and cardiac muscles. Three lambs received 100,000 sporocysts, three lambs received 1 million sporocysts, and three lambs received no sporocysts. After an acute clinical illness characterized by anemia, inappetence, weight loss, fever, and reduced serum protein, all lambs that received 100,000 sporocysts died 27 to 29 DAI and all that received 1 million sporocysts died 24 or 25 DAI. Hemorrhage involving the striated muscle and visceral organs was the most apparent gross lesion. The heart appeared most severely affected. Schizonts were found in vascular endothelial cells of all six inoculated lambs. Uninoculated lambs remained healthy, and neither lesions nor parasites were found in any tissues. Dogs fed tissues containing S. ovicanis cysts produced sporocytes 11 to 37 days after feeding; cats fed similar stages produced no sporocysts. Dogs fed tissues containing schizonts produced no sporocysts.

  15. studies on risk factors of mortality in lambs in sokoto, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. A.A

    The effect of birth weight showed 47 (57.31%) mortalities in lambs less than. 2kg at birth. Higher deaths were seen during the wet season ... conditions, the loss in Australia is 5 -. 20% with 80% of such deaths occurring within the first ..... single lambs and starvation is more likely among them leading to starvation and death.

  16. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. 311.28 Section 311.28 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves, pigs...

  17. The effect of stocking rate on the performance of ewes and lambs on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    after the ewes were injected with 0.5 ml oxytocin (5 I.U.) ... change, initial lamb mass, mean milk production, season, birth status and sex. Results and Discussion. Chemical composition. The chemical composition of the .... Table 4 The performanceof suckling lambs on Italian ryegrass grazed for 84 days at five different.

  18. Principle study on the signal connection at transabdominal fetal pulse oximetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böttrich Marcel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Transabdominal fetal pulse oximetry is an approach to measure oxygen saturation of the unborn child non-invasively. The principle of pulse oximetry is applied to the abdomen of a pregnant woman, such that the measured signal includes both, the maternal and the fetal pulse curve. One of the major challenges is to extract the shape of the fetal pulse curve from the mixed signal for computation of the oxygen saturation. In this paper we analyze the principle kind of connection of the fetal and maternal pulse curves in the measured signal. A time varying finite element model is used to rebuild the basic measurement environment, including a bulk tissue and two independently pulsing arteries to model the fetal and maternal blood circuit. The distribution of the light fluence rate in the model is computed by applying diffusion equation. From the detectors we extracted the time dependent fluence rate and analyzed the signal regarding its components. The frequency spectra of the signals show peaks at the fetal and maternal basic frequencies. Additional signal components are visible in the spectra, indicating multiplicative coupling of the fetal and maternal pulse curves. We conclude that the underlying signal model of algorithms for robust extraction of the shape of the fetal pulse curve, have to consider additive and multiplicative signal coupling.

  19. Legendre polynomial modeling for vibrations of guided Lamb waves modes in [001]c, [011]c and [111]c polarized (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (x = 0.29 and 0.33) piezoelectric plates: Physical phenomenon of multiple intertwining of An and Sn modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmani, Cherif; Takali, Farid; Njeh, Anouar

    2017-12-01

    Guided wave devices have recently become one of the most important applications in the industry because such waves are directly related to applications in sensor technology, chemical sensing, agricultural science, fields of bio-sensing and surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that are used in electronic filters and signal processing. On that account, this numerical investigation aims to study the propagation behavior of guided Lamb waves in a (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3- x PbTiO3 [PMN- x PT] ( x=0.29 or 0.33) piezoelectric single crystal plate. In fact, the PMN- xPT ( x=0.29 or 0.33) piezoelectric crystals are being polarized along [001]c, [011]c and [111]c of the cubic reference directions so that the macroscopic symmetries are tetragonal 4 mm, orthogonal mm2 and rhombohedral 3 m, respectively. Both open- and short-circuit conditions are considered. Here, the Legendre polynomial method is proposed to solve the guided Lamb waves equations. The validity of the proposed method is illustrated by comparison with the ordinary differential equation (ODE). The convergence of this method is discussed. Consequently, the converged results are obtained with very low truncation order M . This constitutes a major advantage of the present method when compared with the other matrix methods. There is cross-crossings among multiple modes for both symmetric ( Sn) and the anti-symmetric ( An) guided Lamb waves propagation. A displacement field has been illustrated to judge whether Sn and An modes cross with each other. Moreover, electric displacement, stress field and electric potential for the open-circuit case were presented for both S0 and A0 Lamb modes.

  20. Can Romney lambs whose scrotums have been shortened by the use of a rubber ring be used as an alternative to vasectomised Perendale rams for inducing early breeding activity in Romney ewe lambs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Pr; Morris, St; West, Dm

    2008-12-01

    To determine if exposure to ram lambs whose scrotums had been shortened by the use of a rubber ring would induce reproductive activity in ewe lambs, and determine if this technique was an effective alternative to vasectomised mature rams. Seven hundred and forty-nine Romney ewe lambs, 7-8 months of age, were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. Treatments included exposure for 17 days prior to breeding to either mature vasectomised rams (Vasec), or ram lambs whose scrotums has been shortened via a rubber ring (Ram SS), or not being exposed to either vasectomised or short-scrotum ram lambs (Unteased). Using crayon marks, ewe lambs were identified as having been marked during the first 17 days only, during both 17-day periods, during the second 17 days only, or not marked. Hoggets were weighed on the day of introduction of entire rams. All ewe lambs were diagnosed for pregnancy status using ultrasound. Unteased ewe lambs and those exposed to ram lambs whose scrotums had been shortened by the use of a rubber ring were less (pewe lambs exposed to mature vasectomised rams. Twin-bearing ewe lambs were heavier (pewe lambs to mature vasectomised rams is an effective means of increasing the numbers of ewe lambs bred and pregnant to the first 17 days of breeding. In contrast, a 17-day exposure to ram lambs whose scrotums had been shortened by the use of a rubber ring, at the ratios utilised in the present study, were not a suitable alternative to mature vasectomised rams for inducing early breeding activity in ewe lambs.