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Sample records for fetal hippocampal tissue

  1. Fetal tissue transplant research: ethical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnam, C R

    1996-01-01

    The transplant of cells from fetal tissue shows promise as a therapy for certain diseases. The use and research of fetal tissue, and methods of obtaining the tissue, have raised ethical dilemmas. Consideration must be given concerning the mother, the fetus, and the tissue recipient.

  2. Hippocampal neuron populations are reduced in vervet monkeys with fetal alcohol exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Mark W; Ptito, Maurice; Ervin, Frank R

    2015-01-01

    of pregnancy. Here, we report significant numerical reductions in the principal hippocampal neurons of fetal alcohol-exposed (FAE) offspring, as compared to age-matched, similarly housed conspecifics with isocaloric sucrose exposure. These deficits, particularly marked in CA1 and CA3, are present neonatally...... late pregnancy results in a stable loss of hippocampal neurons and a progressive reduction of hippocampal volume....

  3. Examiner's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Naohiro; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2014-06-01

    The best way to assess fetal condition is to observe the oxygen status of the fetus (as well as to assess the condition of infants, children, and adults). Previously, several fetal oximeters have been developed; however, no instrument has been utilized in clinical practice because of the low-capturing rate of the fetal oxygen saturation. To overcome the problem, we developed a doctor's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximeter, whose sensor volume is one hundredth of the conventional one. Additionally, we prepared transparent gloves. The calculation algorithm of the hemoglobin concentration was derived from the light propagation analysis based on the transport theory. We measured neonatal and fetal oxygen saturation (StO2) with the new tissue oximeter. Neonatal StO was measured at any position of the head regardless of amount of hair. Neonatal StO was found to be around 77%. Fetal StO was detected in every position of the fetal head during labor regardless of the presence of labor pain. Fetal StO without labor pain was around 70% in the first stage of labor and around 60% in the second stage of labor. We concluded that our new concept of fetal tissue oximetry would be useful for detecting fetal StO in any condition of the fetus.

  4. Grafts of fetal locus coeruleus neurons in rat amygdala-piriform cortex suppress seizure development in hippocampal kindling.

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    Barry, D I; Wanscher, B; Kragh, J; Bolwig, T G; Kokaia, M; Brundin, P; Björklund, A; Lindvall, O

    1989-11-01

    Hippocampal kindling was investigated in rats with a 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of the forebrain catecholamine system after implantation of neural tissue from the fetal locus coeruleus region either bilaterally into the amygdala-piriform cortex (i.e., distant to the kindling site) or unilaterally into the hippocampus (close to the kindling site). Lesioned animals with either sham grafts or control grafts consisting of fetal striatal tissue showed a kindling rate much faster than that of normal controls. In contrast, in rats with bilateral locus coeruleus grafts in the amygdala-piriform cortex (implanted at three sites) the development of seizures was similar to that of controls and significantly slower than that in lesioned animals with sham grafts. All these animals had bilateral surviving grafts with a mean of 125 noradrenergic cells per implantation site. In the animals with locus coeruleus grafts in the stimulated hippocampus the kindling rate did not differ from that in the lesioned animals with control grafts. Most of these animals had large surviving grafts and showed a dense noradrenergic reinnervation of the implanted hippocampus. The present findings indicate that grafting of fetal pontine tissue (rich in noradrenergic neurons) to a site distant to the stimulation focus, but important for the generalization and spread of seizures, can retard the development of seizures in hippocampal kindling. Together with the data of our previous report this study also indicates that noradrenergic reinnervation of both hippocampi is important for the seizure-suppressant action in hippocampal kindling of locus coeruleus grafts implanted in the hippocampus.

  5. Continuous fetal tissue pH measurement in labor.

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    Young, B K; Noumoff, J; Klein, S A; Katz, M

    1978-11-01

    Fifty-one women in labor had continuous monitoring of fetal scalp tissue pH, fetal heart rate by ECG, and uterine contractions. A miniature pH electrode secured by a double spiral fetal ECG electrode was used for measurement of fetal pH every 15 seconds. The results were correlated with fetal scalp blood pH values obtained simultaneously. Fetal scalp sampling is intermittent, requires repeated scalp incisions, is subject to errors due to air mixing and coagulation of the blood sample, and is uncomfortable for the parturient. Placement of the tissue pH electrode allows continuous data recording with the minimum discomfort to the patient and the least number of fetal scalp incisions. Clinical use of the tissue pH electrode might be a practical alternative to fetal scalp samples, if the data obtained accurately reflect fetal status.

  6. Parvovirus infection: an immunohistochemical study using fetal and placental tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing Jing; Henwood, Tony; Van Hal, Sebastian; Charlton, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection causes 5% to 15% of cases of nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of immunohistochemistry in diagnosing parvovirus infection in fetal and placental tissue during routine fetal and perinatal autopsies. Histology slides of 20 cases of confirmed parvovirus infection were reviewed, and immunohistochemistry was applied to selected blocks of fetal and placental tissue. Immunohistochemistry was positive in all 20 cases, and histologic viral inclusions were seen in 19 cases. Immunohistochemical staining was closely correlated with histology and was more sensitive than histology in detecting virally infected cells, especially in autolyzed tissue. All cases also had confirmatory evidence of parvovirus infection by polymerase chain reaction of fetal liver and positive maternal serology, where it was available. We conclude that parvovirus immunohistochemistry is a reliable method for diagnosing parvovirus infection, especially in autolyzed tissue where histologic assessment may be suboptimal.

  7. High quality genomic DNA extraction from postmortem fetal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, S; Sebire, N J; Taylor, A M; Abrams, D; Peebles, D; Mein, C; Munroe, P B; Thayyil, S

    2012-11-01

    We examined the yield and quality of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracted from various postmortem fetal tissues. Fetal tissues were collected at the time of autopsy, and DNA was subsequently extracted. The yield and DNA quality was assessed using ultraviolet spectrometry and agarose gel electrophoresis. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess the DNA extracted for genomic testing. The median (range) gestation of the fetuses was 22 (16-41) weeks and the postmortem interval was 5.5 (2-10) days. Non-degraded genomic DNA was successfully extracted from all fetal tissues. Liver tissue had the lowest quality and muscle the highest quality. DNA yield or purity was not influenced by the postmortem interval. High quality genomic DNA can be extracted from fetal muscle, despite postmortem intervals of several days.

  8. Rat fetal ventral mesencephalon grown as solid tissue cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglinger, G U; Sautter, J; Meyer, Morten;

    1998-01-01

    Free-floating roller tube (FFRT) cultures of fetal rat and human nigral tissue are a means for tissue storage prior to grafting in experimental Parkinson's disease. In the present study, FFRT cultures prepared from embryonic-day-14 rat ventral mesencephalon were maintained for 4, 8, 12, or 16 days...

  9. Decreased relative brain tissue levels of inositol in fetal hydrocephalus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.D.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.; Eskes, T.K.A.B.; Heerschap, A.; Berg, P.P. van den

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Inositol seems to play a role in the development of the central nervous system. In this study, the brain tissue level of inositol in fetal hydrocephalus was compared with that of healthy control subjects. STUDY DESIGN: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to examine the inosito

  10. Ethical issues surrounding the transplantation of human fetal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, R E

    1992-12-01

    Organ transplants have been one of the greatest advances in medicine. However, organs from living relatives or cadavers are in short supply, and many people die awaiting a donor organ. Increasing the donor pool by using organs from aborted fetuses has been proposed to increase the supply. In addition, there are benefits of using fetal tissue including its particular usefulness in children, the fact that it is not readily rejected, and its potential for growth. Guidelines for fetal research were issued in 1975, but a research moratorium was imposed in 1988 to allow study of ethical and legal issues. While the federal government delays in lifting the ban, several states have written laws governing experimentation with fetuses. Ethical arguments against using fetal tissue for organ transplant include a concern that this would create a branch of biomedicine which depends on the continuation of induced abortions. This could lead to neglect of research for other therapies. The timing and type of abortion should continue to benefit the mother, rather than the organ recipient. Ethicists debate whether or not use of aborted tissue implies complicity in the abortion process beyond that which exists for all members of a society which permits abortion. They also wonder whether knowing that some good could come of an abortion would influence a woman's decision to have one. Proposals to keep the use of fetal tissue ethical include banning the commercial use of sale of tissues, forbidding designation of the tissue recipient (to prevent harvesting fetal tissue for a relative), separating abortion counseling and management from harvesting of the tissue, and obtaining informed consent (perhaps from a proxy surrogate rather than from the mother) for the use of fetal tissue. When the medical and ethical communities have reached some consensus on these issues, crafted safeguards, and precluded conflicts of interest, then restrictions on government funding should be lifted. Whereas it

  11. Theorizing waste in abortion and fetal ovarian tissue use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arris, Rachel

    2003-01-01

    This article explores the theoretical implications of the concept of waste as it specifically relates to arguments in favour of fetal ovarian tissue use as a source of donor eggs. The author begins by discussing medico-scientific constructions of women's reproductive bodies as wasteful. The article explores the works of Drucilla Cornell on bodily borders, Julia Kristeva on abjection, and Mary Douglas on pollution to develop a nuanced understanding of the relations between waste, women's reproductivity, and abortion in North American mainstream and medico-scientific cultures. This layered reading of waste and abortion deconstructs a significant assumption of arguments in favour of fetal ovarian tissue use as ethical--that such tissue is just "waste." The author suggests that theorizing waste this way may contribute to ethical analyses of uses of other reproductive materials (that is, embryos) that are supported, in part, by an assumption that those materials would otherwise be "wasted."

  12. Maternal molecular hydrogen administration ameliorates rat fetal hippocampal damage caused by in utero ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Yukio; Kotani, Tomomi; Ito, Mikako; Nagai, Taku; Ichinohashi, Yuko; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Ohno, Kinji; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2014-04-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) scavenges hydroxyl radicals. Recently, H2 has been reported to prevent a variety of diseases associated with oxidative stress in model systems and in humans. Here, we studied the effects of H2 on rat fetal hippocampal damage caused by ischemia and reperfusion (IR) on day 16 of pregnancy with the transient occlusion of the bilateral utero-ovarian arteries. Starting 2 days before the operation, we provided the mothers with hydrogen-saturated water ad libitum until vaginal delivery. We observed a significant increase in the concentration of H2 in the placenta after the oral administration of hydrogen-saturated water to the mothers, with less placental oxidative damage after IR in the presence of H2. Neonatal growth retardation was observed in the IR group, which was alleviated by the H2 administration. We analyzed the neuronal cell damage in the CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus at day 7 after birth by immunohistochemical analysis of the 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2׳-deoxyguanosine- and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins. Both oxidative stress markers were significantly increased in the IR group, which was again ameliorated by the H2 intake. Last, 8-week-old rats were subjected to a Morris water maze test. Maternal H2 administration improved the reference memory of the offspring to the sham level after IR injury during pregnancy. Overall, the present results support the idea that maternal H2 intake helps prevent the hippocampal impairment of offspring induced by IR during pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Enabling research with human embryonic and fetal tissue resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrelli, Dianne; Lisgo, Steven; Copp, Andrew J.; Lindsay, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Congenital anomalies are a significant burden on human health. Understanding the developmental origins of such anomalies is key to developing potential therapies. The Human Developmental Biology Resource (HDBR), based in London and Newcastle UK, was established to provide embryonic and fetal material for a variety of human studies ranging from single gene expression analysis to large scale genomic/transcriptomic studies. Increasingly HDBR material is enabling the derivation of stem cell lines and contributing towards developments in tissue engineering. Use of the HDBR and other fetal tissue resources discussed here will contribute to the long term aims of understanding the causation and pathogenesis of congenital anomalies, and developing new methods for their treatment and prevention. PMID:26395135

  14. Delivery of recombinant alphavirus into hippocampal slice tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2012-08-01

    The alphaviruses Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and Sindbis virus (SIN) have been used frequently as expression vectors in vitro and in vivo. Usually, these systems consist of replication-deficient vectors that require a helper vector for packaging of recombinant particles. Replication-proficient vectors have also been engineered. Alphaviral vectors can be used as nucleic-acid-based vectors (DNA and RNA) or infectious particles. High-titer viral production is achieved in alphaviruses facilitates studies in mammalian and nonmammalian cell lines, primary cells in culture, and in vivo. The strong preference for expression in neuronal cells has made alphaviruses particularly useful in neurobiological studies. Unfortunately, their strong cytotoxic effect on host cells, relatively short-term transient expression patterns, and the reasonably high cost of viral production remain drawbacks. However, novel mutant alphaviruses have shown reduced cytotoxicity and prolonged expression. This protocol describes gene delivery of recombinant alphavirus to hippocampal slice cultures. Organotypic slices are covered by a layer of glial cells that impedes the penetration of viral particles to the neurons. Thus, viral particles should be injected manually into the extracellular space of the tissue.

  15. A comparative proteome analysis of hippocampal tissue from schizophrenic and Alzheimer's disease individuals.

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    Edgar, P F; Schonberger, S J; Dean, B; Faull, R L; Kydd, R; Cooper, G J

    1999-03-01

    The proteins expressed by a genome have been termed the proteome. Comparative proteome analysis of brain tissue offers a novel means to identify biologically significant gene products that underlie psychopathology. In this study we collected post mortem hippocampal tissue from the brains of seven schizophrenic, seven Alzheimer's disease (AD) and seven control individuals. Hippocampal proteomes were visualised by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of homogenised tissue. A mean of 549 (s.d. 35) proteins were successfully matched between each disease group and the control group. In comparison with the control hippocampal proteome, eight proteins in the schizophrenic hippocampal proteome were found to be decreased and eight increased in concentration, whereas, in the AD hippocampal proteome, 35 proteins were decreased and 73 were increased in concentration (Pdiazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) by N-terminal sequence analysis. DBI can regulate the action of the GABA(A) receptor. Protein changes involved 6% of the assessed AD hippocampal proteome, whereas, in schizophrenia protein changes involved less than 1% of the assessed hippocampal proteome. We conclude that schizophrenia has a subtle neuropathological presentation and comparative proteome analysis is a viable means by which to investigate diseases of the brain at the molecular level.

  16. What is the value of ultrasound soft tissue measurements in the prediction of abnormal fetal growth?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, N

    2012-02-01

    Abnormal fetal growth increases the complications of pregnancy not only for the baby but also for the mother. Growth abnormalities also have lifelong consequences. These babies are at increased risk of insulin resistance, diabetes and hypertension later in life. It is important to identify these babies antenatally to optimise their clinical care. Although used extensively antenatally to monitor fetal growth, ultrasound has its limitations. Despite the use of more than 50 different formulae to estimate fetal weight, their performance has been poor at the extremes of fetal weight. Over the past 20 years there has been emerging interest in studying fetal soft tissue measurements to improve detection of growth abnormalities. This review paper outlines the value of soft tissue measurements in identifying fetal growth abnormalities, in estimating fetal weight and in managing diabetes mellitus in pregnancy.

  17. Maternal diet during pregnancy has tissue-specific effects upon fetal fatty acid composition and alters fetal immune parameters.

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    Childs, Caroline E; Romijn, Tessa; Enke, Uta; Hoile, Samuel; Calder, Philip C

    2010-01-01

    Both animal and human studies demonstrate that the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content of plasma and/or tissue lipids is increased during pregnancy. We hypothesised that increasing the α-linolenic acid (ALA) or longer chain (n-3) PUFA content of the maternal diet during pregnancy influences fetal fatty acid composition and the fetal immune system. Pregnant rats were fed a low-fat (LF) soybean oil diet, or high-fat (HF) soybean, linseed, salmon or sunflower oil diets from conception to 20d gestation. The ALA-rich Linseed-HF diet resulted in an equivalent eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) status in fetal immune tissues and an equivalent DHA status in the fetal brain to that achieved with the Salmon-HF diet. An (n-3) rich maternal diet during pregnancy associated with the highest expression of CD3 (Salmon-HF) and CD8 (Linseed-HF and Salmon-HF) on fetal thymic CD3(+)CD8(+) cells. The Linseed-HF diet resulted in the highest proportion of CD161(+) cells within the fetal thymus, which correlated with the production of IL-4. These data indicate that dietary ALA supplementation may confer some of the benefits of LC (n-3) PUFA during pregnancy. This should be examined in suitably designed human studies.

  18. Fetal development of subcutaneous white adipose tissue is dependent on Zfp423

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengle Shao

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Our results reveal that Zfp423 is essential for the terminal differentiation of subcutaneous white adipocytes during fetal adipose tissue development. Moreover, our data highlight the striking adverse effects of pathological subcutaneous adipose tissue remodeling on visceral adipose function and systemic nutrient homeostasis in obesity. Importantly, these data reveal the distinct phenotypes that can occur when adiponectin driven transgenes are activated in fetal vs. adult adipose tissue.

  19. Arginine nutrition and fetal brown adipose tissue development in nutrient-restricted sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, M Carey; Dunlap, Kathrin A; Keisler, Duane H; Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is a significant problem worldwide, resulting in increased rates of neonatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risks for metabolic and cardiovascular disease. The present study investigated the role of maternal undernutrition and L-arginine administration on fetal growth and development. Embryo transfer was utilized to generate genetically similar singleton pregnancies. On Day 35 of gestation, ewes were assigned to receive either 50 or 100% of their nutritional requirements. Ewes received i.v. injections of either saline or L-arginine three times daily from Day 100 to Day 125. Fetal growth was assessed at necropsy on Day 125. Maternal dietary manipulation altered circulating concentrations of leptin, progesterone, and amino acids in maternal plasma. Fetal weight was reduced in nutrient-restricted ewes on Day 125 compared with 100% fed ewes. Compared with saline-treated underfed ewes, maternal L-arginine administration did not affect fetal weight but increased weight of the fetal pancreas by 32% and fetal peri-renal brown adipose tissue mass by 48%. These results indicate that L-arginine administration enhanced fetal pancreatic and brown adipose tissue development. The postnatal effects of increased pancreatic and brown adipose tissue growth warrant further study.

  20. Microarray-Based Differential Expression Monitoring of 79 Novel Genes in Human Fetal Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma; Shu-hua; Wang; Dun-cheng; 等

    2003-01-01

    79 ESTs fragments with represents corresponding novel genes were obtained by sequencing and bioinformatics analysis of human fetal kidney cDNA library. Microarray was prepared by using these novel EST fragments by automatic spotting. Expression patters of 79 ESTs of novel genes from human fetal kidney were analyzed in fetal brain and fetal heart tissues of 20-week-and 26-week-age fetus by performing of cDNA chip hybridization. This provides clues for studying exact functions of the novel genes. 8 genes were obtained which were expressed differentially in the fetal brain and heart of 20-week-and 26-week-age respectively. Then differentially expressed genes were identified by Northern analysis. The more exact function of the novel genes is under study.

  1. Multiparametric Phenotypic Screening System for Profiling Bioactive Compounds Using Human Fetal Hippocampal Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Yoshikuni; Murai, Norio; Sasaki, Takeo; Taniguchi, Sachie; Suzuki, Shuichi; Yamazaki, Kazuto; Ito, Masashi

    2015-10-01

    Stem cell research has been progressing rapidly, contributing to regenerative biology and regenerative medicine. In this field, small-molecule compounds affecting stem cell proliferation/differentiation have been explored to understand stem cell biology and support regenerative medicine. In this study, we established a multiparametric screening system to detect bioactive compounds affecting the cell fate of human neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs), using human fetal hippocampal NSCs/NPCs, HIP-009 cells. We examined effects of 410 compounds, which were collected based on mechanisms of action (MOAs) and chemotypes, on HIP-009's cell fate (self-renewal, neuronal and astrocytic differentiation) and morphology by automated multiparametric assays and profiled induced cellular phenotypes. We found that this screening classified compounds with the same MOAs into subgroups according to additional pharmacological effects (e.g., mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 [mTORC1] inhibitors and mTORC1/mTORC2 dual inhibitors among mTOR inhibitors). Moreover, it identified compounds that have off-target effects under matrix analyses of MOAs and structure similarities (e.g., neurotropic effects of amitriptyline among tri- and tetracyclic compounds). Therefore, this automated, medium-throughput and multiparametric screening system is useful for finding compounds that affect the cell fate of human NSCs/NPCs for supporting regenerative medicine and to fingerprint compounds based on human stem cells' multipotency, leading to understanding of stem cell biology.

  2. Are there sex differences in Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements using antenatal ultrasound differ between male and female fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Women who had an ultrasound examination for fetal growth between 20 and 40 weeks gestation were studied. Women with diabetes mellitus were excluded. The fetal anterior abdominal subcutaneous tissue was measured on the anterior abdominal wall in millimetres anterior to the margins of the ribs, using magnification at the level of the abdominal circumference. The fetal sex was recorded after delivery. RESULTS: A total of 557 fetuses were measured, 290 male and 267 female. The FAST measurements increased with gestational age. The FAST increased at the same rate for both male and female fetuses and at any given week there was no sex difference. CONCLUSIONS: The increased fat composition in females reported after birth was not found in abdominal wall subcutaneous fat measurements using ultrasound during pregnancy. Antenatal centile charts for FAST do not need to be based on sex.

  3. Expression and activation of caspase-6 in human fetal and adult tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Godefroy

    Full Text Available Caspase-6 is an effector caspase that has not been investigated thoroughly despite the fact that Caspase-6 is strongly activated in Alzheimer disease brains. To understand the full physiological impact of Caspase-6 in humans, we investigated Caspase-6 expression. We performed western blot analyses to detect the pro-Caspase-6 and its active p20 subunit in fetal and adult lung, kidney, brain, spleen, muscle, stomach, colon, heart, liver, skin, and adrenals tissues. The levels were semi-quantitated by densitometry. The results show a ubiquitous expression of Caspase-6 in most fetal tissues with the lowest levels in the brain and the highest levels in the gastrointestinal system. Caspase-6 active p20 subunits were only detected in fetal stomach. Immunohistochemical analysis of a human fetal embryo showed active Caspase-6 positive apoptotic cells in the dorsal root ganglion, liver, lung, kidney, ovary, skeletal muscle and the intestine. In the adult tissues, the levels of Caspase-6 were lower than in fetal tissues but remained high in the colon, stomach, lung, kidney and liver. Immunohistological analyses revealed that active Caspase-6 was abundant in goblet cells and epithelial cells sloughing off the intestinal lining of the adult colon. These results suggest that Caspase-6 is likely important in most tissues during early development but is less involved in adult tissues. The low levels of Caspase-6 in fetal and adult brain indicate that increased expression as observed in Alzheimer Disease is a pathological condition. Lastly, the high levels of Caspase-6 in the gastrointestinal system indicate a potential specific function of Caspase-6 in these tissues.

  4. Prevention of Simian Virus 40 Tumors by Hamster Fetal Tissue: Influence of Parity Status of Donor Females on Immunogenicity of Fetal Tissue and on Immune Cell Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Anthony J.; Reppucci, Phyllis; Dierlam, Peggy; Rutala, William; Coggin, Joseph H.

    1973-01-01

    Fetal tissue from primiparous hamsters prevented simian virus 40 (SV40) tumorigenesis in male hamsters, whereas fetal tissue from multiparous hamsters did not. The parity status of normal (uninoculated) hamsters also influenced the cytotoxicity of their lymphoid cells against tumor cells. Lymph node cells from nonpregnant primiparous and multiparous animals were cytotoxic in microcytotoxicity tests against SV40, polyoma, and adenovirus 7 tumor cells, but were not active against control BHK cells. Lymph node cells from virgin female donors were inactive. Peritoneal exudate cells from these donors reacted in similar fashion against SV40 tumor cells in vitro and in adoptive transfer tests in vivo. However, the cytotoxicity of peritoneal exudate cells from multiparous hamsters was greatly reduced during pregnancy, a time when noncytotoxic humoral antibody reactive with surface antigen of SV40 tumor cells is present. This humoral antibody is not detected during first pregnancy, and peritoneal exudate cells obtained from pregnant primiparous hamsters demonstrated a high degree of cytotoxicity. PMID:4346032

  5. Development of an artificial neuronal network with post-mitotic rat fetal hippocampal cells by polyethylenimine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingfang; Ma, Jun; Gao, Erjing; He, Yu; Cui, Fuzhai; Xu, Qunyuan

    2008-03-14

    The selection of appropriate surface materials that promote cellular adhesion and growth is an important consideration when designing a simplified neuronal network in vitro. In the past, extracellular matrix proteins such as laminin (LN) or positively charged substances such as poly-l-lysine (PLL) have been used. In this study, we examined the ability of another positively charged polymer, polyethyleneimine (PEI), to promote neuronal adhesion, growth and the formation of a functional neuronal network in vitro. PEI, PLL and LN were used to produce grid-shape patterns on glass coverslips by micro-contact printing. Post-mitotic neurons from the rat fetal hippocampus were cultured on the different polymers and the viability and morphology of these neurons under serum-free culture conditions were observed using fluorescent microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We show that neurons cultured on the PEI- and PLL-coated surfaces adhered to and extended neurites along the grid-shape patterns, whereas neurons cultured on the LN-coated coverslips clustered into clumps of cells. In addition, we found that the neurons on the PEI and PLL-coated grids survived for more than 2 weeks in serum-free conditions, whereas most neurons cultured on the LN-coated grids died after 1 week. Using AFM, we observed some neurosynapse-like structures near the neuronal soma on PEI-coated coverslips. These findings indicate that PEI is a suitable surface for establishing a functional neuronal network in vitro.

  6. Maternal high-fat diets cause insulin resistance through inflammatory changes in fetal adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murabayashi, N; Sugiyama, T; Zhang, L; Kamimoto, Y; Umekawa, T; Ma, N; Sagawa, N

    2013-07-01

    Epidemiological and animal studies have shown that maternal obesity predisposes the offspring to obesity and the metabolic syndrome, possibly via late-onset metabolic programming of the fetus. Little is known, however, about the metabolic effect of maternal obesity on the fetus. This study investigated the effect of a maternal high-fat diet (HFD) on fetal growth and glucose metabolism using a diet-induced obesity mouse model. Female mice (6 weeks old; C57BL/6N) were fed either a normal chow diet (NCD, 10 kcal% fat) or an HFD (60 kcal% fat) for 4 weeks before mating and throughout pregnancy. At 17 days of gestation, gene expression of inflammatory markers and adipokines in fetal subcutaneous adipose tissue was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. HFD mice were overweight, glucose intolerant and insulin resistant compared with NCD mice of the same gestational age. Although fetal body weight was not significantly different, fetal plasma glucose and insulin levels were higher in the HFD group than the NCD group. Furthermore, examination of fetal subcutaneous adipose tissue in the HFD group revealed hypertrophy with an increase in the levels of cluster of differentiation-68, chemokine receptor-2 and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA, but a decrease in the level of glucose transporter-4 mRNA. Maternal HFD causes inflammatory changes in the adipose tissue of offspring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fetal Research

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    Hansen, John T.; Sladek, John R.

    1989-11-01

    This article reviews some of the significant contributions of fetal research and fetal tissue research over the past 20 years. The benefits of fetal research include the development of vaccines, advances in prenatal diagnosis, detection of malformations, assessment of safe and effective medications, and the development of in utero surgical therapies. Fetal tissue research benefits vaccine development, assessment of risk factors and toxicity levels in drug production, development of cell lines, and provides a source of fetal cells for ongoing transplantation trials. Together, fetal research and fetal tissue research offer tremendous potential for the treatment of the fetus, neonate, and adult.

  8. Fetal cardiac muscle contractility decreases with gestational age: a color-coded tissue velocity imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmstedt Nina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Present data regarding how the fetal heart works and develops throughout gestation is limited. However, the possibility to analyze the myocardial velocity profile provides new possibilities to gain further knowledge in this area. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate human fetal myocardial characteristics and deformation properties using color-coded tissue velocity imaging (TVI. Methods TVI recordings from 55 healthy fetuses, at 18 to 42 weeks of gestation, were acquired at a frame rate of 201–273 frames/s for offline analysis using software enabling retrieval of the myocardial velocity curve and 2D anatomical information. The measurements were taken from an apical four-chamber view, and the acquired data was correlated using regression analysis. Results Left ventricular length and width increased uniformly with gestational age. Atrioventricular plane displacement and the E’/A’ ratio also increased with gestational age, while a longitudinal shortening was demonstrated. Conclusions Fetal cardiac muscle contractility decreases with gestational age. As numerous fetal- and pregnancy-associated conditions directly influence the pumping function of the fetal heart, we believe that this new insight into the physiology of the human fetal cardiovascular system could contribute to make diagnosis and risk assessment easier and more accurate.

  9. Tissue culture media supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum contains a castrate level of testosterone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedelaar, J.P.M.; Isaacs, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human prostate cancer cells are routinely maintained in media supplemented with 10% Fetal Calf Serum (FCS) to provide androgen. In the present study, total and free testosterone levels in 10%FCS supplemented tissue culture media were determined and compared to levels in intact and

  10. Maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation upregulates myogenic genes in cattle fetal muscle tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal myogenesis is a critical factor in determining the muscle growth potential of cattle. We hypothesized that maternal nutrient restriction during early gestation would alter the transcriptome of fetal primordial muscle tissue in cattle. A total of 14 Angus-cross heifers were estrus synchroniz...

  11. Tissue engineered fetal skin constructs for pediatric burns

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    Norbury, William B; Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N

    2005-01-01

    The management of patients with partial thickness (second degree) burns is problematic due to the different treatments needed for varying depths of injury. A report recently published in The Lancet describes a novel treatment for deep second degree burns using a fetal skin construct (FSC). The authors included eight pediatric patients with small second degree burns. They showed that FSCs reduced the need for autografting of deep second degree burns, with little hypertrophy of new skin and no skin contraction. This technology is new and exciting, but in our opinion several issues must be addressed before FSCs can enter the clinical arena. All of the patients were included in the treatment group, and therefore no comparison with conventional skin substitutes was possible. There is no mention of the use of laser Doppler in any initial assessment of patients. The debridement carried out before application of the FSC is not elaborated upon, and the surface areas involved in the study were very small in most cases, which limits the relevance to patients with larger burns. The use of FSCs gives us an additional option in a range of possible treatments for this notoriously difficult-to-treat patient group. PMID:16356232

  12. Bioorthogonal chemical imaging of metabolic activities in live mammalian hippocampal tissues with stimulated Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fanghao; Lamprecht, Michael R.; Wei, Lu; Morrison, Barclay; Min, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Brain is an immensely complex system displaying dynamic and heterogeneous metabolic activities. Visualizing cellular metabolism of nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids in brain with chemical specificity has been a long-standing challenge. Recent development in metabolic labeling of small biomolecules allows the study of these metabolisms at the global level. However, these techniques generally require nonphysiological sample preparation for either destructive mass spectrometry imaging or secondary labeling with relatively bulky fluorescent labels. In this study, we have demonstrated bioorthogonal chemical imaging of DNA, RNA, protein and lipid metabolism in live rat brain hippocampal tissues by coupling stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with integrated deuterium and alkyne labeling. Heterogeneous metabolic incorporations for different molecular species and neurogenesis with newly-incorporated DNA were observed in the dentate gyrus of hippocampus at the single cell level. We further applied this platform to study metabolic responses to traumatic brain injury in hippocampal slice cultures, and observed marked upregulation of protein and lipid metabolism particularly in the hilus region of the hippocampus within days of mechanical injury. Thus, our method paves the way for the study of complex metabolic profiles in live brain tissue under both physiological and pathological conditions with single-cell resolution and minimal perturbation.

  13. Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA): somatic stability of an expanded CAG repeat in fetal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedele, K B; Wahl, D; Chahrokh-Zadeh, S; Wirtz, A; Murken, J; Holinski-Feder, E

    1998-08-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a rare X-linked motor neuron degenerative disease caused by an expanded trinucleotide repeat. Unlike most other trinucleotide repeat diseases, SBMA shows limited meiotic instability, and evidence thus far indicates absence of somatic instability in adults. Data regarding the presence of fetal tissue somatic mosaicism is unavailable. We present a family in which a woman whose father had SBMA requested prenatal testing. After informed consent. molecular genetic evaluation showed the male fetus to carry the SBMA repeat elongation. Testing of fetal tissues after elective pregnancy termination showed no somatic mosaicism in the CAG repeat length. This is the first report of molecular genetic analysis of multiple tissues in an affected fetus, and only the second report of prenatal diagnosis in SBMA.

  14. The impact of total bile acid levels on fetal cardiac function in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy using fetal echocardiography: a tissue Doppler imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataalla, Walid M; Ziada, Dina H; Gaber, Rania; Ossman, Ahmed; Bayomy, Suzan; Elemary, Berihan R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess total bile acid (TBA) levels and its impact on systolic and diastolic functions in fetuses of mothers with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and to explore the correlation between TBA levels and fetal cardiac function. The study employed 98 pregnant women with ICP who were divided into two groups according to their bile acid levels. Fifty pregnant women without ICP represented the control group. Significant differences in the myocardial tissue velocities of both mitral and tricuspid valves were found between the fetuses of mothers with ICP and TBA levels of 40 mmol/L. There was a significant increase in neonatal respiratory distress, meconium staining and neonatal TBAs in group II compared to the control group and group I. There was a correlation between maternal TBA levels and preterm delivery, APGAR scores and neonatal TBA levels at birth. There was also a positive correlation between maternal TBA and fetal myocardial tissue velocities of both mitral and tricuspid, and fetal diastolic myocardial tissue Doppler velocities. ICP is a very serious condition especially when maternal TBA levels are >40 mmol/L. Fetal echocardiography with tissue Doppler is a useful tool for fetal assessment in patients with ICP. It could be an indication of induction of labor in cases of ICP and bile acid levels ≥40 mol/L. Neonatal echocardiography is mandatory for follow-up and management of these neonates.

  15. An effective fixative for glucocorticoid receptors in fetal tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, T.; Kurisu, K.

    1982-01-01

    As a preliminary study in an autoradiographic study of glucocorticoid (GC) receptor localization in orofacial tissues of mouse fetuses, a search was made to determine the most effective fixative for preservation of the GC-receptor complex. Twelve-day-old mouse fetuses were administered tritiated triamcinolone acetonide (/sup 3/H-TAC) intraamniotically and subsequently processed by one of the following three procedures: freeze-drying, prefixation with Karnovsky's fixative, or the catechin fixative (Karnovsky's fixative containing 1% D-catechin) and postfixation with osmium tetroxide. Light microscopic autoradiography and liquid scintillation counting of the specimens revealed that the catechin fixative gave the best results for fixation of the steroid-receptor complex and preservation of tissue structure. Light and electron microscopic autoradiographic studies of the time course of the localization of /sup 3/H-TAC in palatal shelves supported the catechin fixative as being the most effective in preservation of GC-receptor or ligand complexes.

  16. Tissue plasminogen activator inhibits NMDA-receptor-mediated increases in calcium levels in cultured hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel D Robinson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available NMDA receptors (NMDARs play a critical role in neurotransmission, acting as essential mediators of many forms of synaptic plasticity, and also modulating aspects of development, synaptic transmission and cell death. NMDAR-induced responses are dependent on a range of factors including subunit composition and receptor location. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA is a serine protease that has been reported to interact with NMDARs and modulate NMDAR activity. In this study we report that tPA inhibits NMDAR-mediated changes in intracellular calcium levels in cultures of primary hippocampal neurons stimulated by low (5 μM but not high (50 μM concentrations of NMDA. tPA also inhibited changes in calcium levels stimulated by presynaptic release of glutamate following treatment with bicucculine/4-AP. Inhibition was dependent on the proteolytic activity of tPA but was unaffected by α2-antiplasmin, an inhibitor of the tPA substrate plasmin, and RAP, a pan-ligand blocker of the low-density lipoprotein receptor, two proteins previously reported to modulate NMDAR activity. These findings suggest that tPA can modulate changes in intracellular calcium levels in a subset of NMDARs expressed in cultured embryonic hippocampal neurons through a mechanism that involves the proteolytic activity of tPA and synaptic NMDARs.

  17. Evidence of a role for melatonin in fetal sheep physiology: direct actions of melatonin on fetal cerebral artery, brown adipose tissue and adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Farfan, Claudia; Valenzuela, Francisco J; Mondaca, Mauricio; Valenzuela, Guillermo J; Krause, Bernardo; Herrera, Emilio A; Riquelme, Raquel; Llanos, Anibal J; Seron-Ferre, Maria

    2008-08-15

    Although the fetal pineal gland does not secrete melatonin, the fetus is exposed to melatonin of maternal origin. In the non-human primate fetus, melatonin acts as a trophic hormone for the adrenal gland, stimulating growth while restraining cortisol production. This latter physiological activity led us to hypothesize that melatonin may influence some fetal functions critical for neonatal adaptation to extrauterine life. To test this hypothesis we explored (i) the presence of G-protein-coupled melatonin binding sites and (ii) the direct modulatory effects of melatonin on noradrenaline (norepinephrine)-induced middle cerebral artery (MCA) contraction, brown adipose tissue (BAT) lypolysis and ACTH-induced adrenal cortisol production in fetal sheep. We found that melatonin directly inhibits the response to noradrenaline in the MCA and BAT, and also inhibits the response to ACTH in the adrenal gland. Melatonin inhibition was reversed by the melatonin antagonist luzindole only in the fetal adrenal. MCA, BAT and adrenal tissue displayed specific high-affinity melatonin binding sites coupled to G-protein (K(d) values: MCA 64 +/- 1 pm, BAT 98.44 +/- 2.12 pm and adrenal 4.123 +/- 3.22 pm). Melatonin binding was displaced by luzindole only in the adrenal gland, supporting the idea that action in the MCA and BAT is mediated by different melatonin receptors. These direct inhibitory responses to melatonin support a role for melatonin in fetal physiology, which we propose prevents major contraction of cerebral vessels, restrains cortisol release and restricts BAT lypolysis during fetal life.

  18. Influence of cortisol on adipose tissue development in the fetal sheep during late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostyn, A; Pearce, S; Budge, H; Elmes, M; Forhead, A J; Fowden, A L; Stephenson, T; Symonds, M E

    2003-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which the late gestation rise in fetal plasma cortisol influenced adipose tIssue development in the fetus. The effect of cortisol on the abundance of adipose tIssue mitochondrial proteins on both the inner (i.e. uncoupling protein (UCP)1) and outer (i.e. voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC)) mitochondrial membrane, together with the long and short forms of the prolactin receptor (PRLR) protein and leptin mRNA was determined. Perirenal adipose tIssue was sampled from ovine fetuses to which (i) cortisol (2-3 mg/day for 5 days) or saline was infused up to 127-130 days of gestation, and (ii) adrenalectomised and intact controls at between 142 and 145 days of gestation (term=148 days). UCP1 protein abundance was significantly lower in adrenalectomised fetuses compared with age-matched controls, and UCP1 was increased by cortisol infusion and with gestational age. Adrenalectomy reduced the concentration of the long form of PRLR, although this effect was only significant for the highest molecular weight isoform. In contrast, neither the short form of PRLR, VDAC protein abundance or leptin mRNA expression was significantly affected by gestational age or cortisol status. Fetal plasma triiodothyronine concentrations were increased by cortisol and with gestational age, an affect abolished by adrenalectomy. When all treatment groups were combined, both plasma cortisol and triiodothyronine concentrations were positively correlated with UCP1 protein abundance. In conclusion, an intact adrenal is necessary for the late gestation rise in UCP1 protein abundance but cortisol does not appear to have a major stimulatory role in promoting leptin expression in fetal adipose tIssue. It remains to be established whether effects on UCP1 protein are directly regulated by cortisol alone or mediated by other anabolic fetal hormones such as triiodothyronine.

  19. Relative IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression in maternal and fetal tissues from diabetic swine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolverton, C.K.; Leaman, D.W.; White, M.E.; Ramsay, T.G. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Fourteen pregnant, crossbred gilts were utilized in this study. Seven gilts were injected with alloxan (50 mg/kg) at day 75 of gestation to induce diabetes. Gilts underwent caesarean section on day 105 of gestation. Samples were collected from maternal skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, uterus and endometrium; and from fetal skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, placenta, liver, lung, kidney, heart, brain and spleen. Tissues were frozen in liquid nitrogen for later analysis of IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression. Samples were pooled and total RNA was isolated using the guanidine isothiocynate method. Total mRNA was analyzed by dot blot hybridization. Blots were probed with {sup 32}P-cDNA for porcine IGF-1 and rat IGF-2. IGF-1 gene expression in maternal tissues was unaffected by diabetes. Maternal diabetes increased IGF-2 mRNA in maternal adipose tissue but exhibited no effect in muscle or uterus. Expression of IGF-2 by maternal endometrium was decreased by diabetes. Maternal diabetes induced an increase in IGF-1 gene expression in muscle and placenta while causing an increase in IGF-2 expression in fetal liver and placenta. IGF-2 mRNA was lower in lung from fetuses of diabetic mothers than in controls. These results suggest that maternal diabetes alters IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression in specific tissues and differential regulation of these genes appears to exist in the mother and developing fetus.

  20. Gene expression variance in hippocampal tissue of temporal lobe epilepsy patients corresponds to differential memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungenberg, Julia; Surano, Natascha; Grote, Alexander; Surges, Rainer; Pernhorst, Katharina; Hofmann, Andrea; Schoch, Susanne; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Becker, Albert J

    2016-02-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a severe brain disorder affecting particularly young adults. TLE is frequently associated with memory deterioration and neuronal damage of the hippocampal formation. It thereby reveals striking parallels to neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). TLE patients differ with respect to their cognitive performance, but currently little is known about relevant molecular-genetic factors. Here, we correlated differential memory performance of pharmacoresistant TLE patients undergoing neurosurgery for seizure control with in-vitro findings of their hippocampal tissues. We analyzed mRNA transcripts and subsequently promoter variants specifically altered in brain tissue of individuals with 'very severe' memory impairment. TLE patients (n=79) were stratified according to preoperative memory impairment using an established four-tiered grading system ranging from 'average' to 'very severely'. Multimodal cluster analyses revealed molecules specifically associated with synaptic function and abundantly expressed in TLE patients with very impaired memory performance. In a subsequent promoter analysis, we found the single nucleotide polymorphism rs744373 C-allele to be associated with high mRNA levels of bridging integrator 1 (BIN1)/Amphiphysin 2, i.e. a major component of the endocytotic machinery and located in a crucial genetic AD risk locus. Using in vitro luciferase transfection assays, we found that BIN1 promoter activation is genotype dependent and strongly increased by reduced binding of the transcriptional repressor TGIF. Our data indicate that poor memory performance in patients with TLE strongly corresponds to distinctly altered neuronal transcript signatures, which - as demonstrated for BIN1 - can correlate with a particular allelic promoter variant. Our data suggest aberrant transcriptional signaling to significantly impact synaptic dynamics in TLE resulting in impaired memory performance and may serve as basis for

  1. Thyroxine inner ring monodeiodinating activity in fetal tissues of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, T.S.; Chopra, I.J.; Boado, R.; Soloman, D.H.; Chua Teco, G.N.

    1988-02-01

    We studied thyroxine (T4) inner ring monodeiodinating activity (5-MA) in various tissues of fetal, maternal, and adult male rats. Tissue homogenates were incubated with 0.26 microM T4 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) containing 10 mM EDTA and 400 mM dithiothreitol (final volume 0.7 ml) for 10 min at 37 degrees C; the 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) generated was measured by radioimmunoassay of ethanol extracts of incubation mixture and the result was corrected for rT3 degradation during incubation. Compared to maternal tissues, T4 to rT3 5-MA in the 14-day-old fetus was increased about 70 times in skeletal muscle (mean +/- SEM, velocity, 5.4 +/- 0.9 versus 0.08 +/- 0.01, pmol rT3/h/mg protein); approximately 8 times in intestine (0.72 +/- 0.17 versus 0.09 +/- 0.03);and approximately 4 times in cerebral cortex (19 +/- 0.5 versus 4.5 +/- 0.9), while it was similar in skin (3.2 +/- 0.48 versus 2.6 +/- 0.52). Hepatic T4 5-MA approximated 1.1 +/- 0.63 in the 14-day-old fetus; it could not be measured reliably in maternal or 19-day fetal tissue because of extensive (greater than 90%) degradation of rT3 during incubation. Relative to mother, T4 5-MA in 19-day fetal tissues was increased approximately 30-fold intestine, approximately 20-fold in skeletal muscle, and approximately 6-fold in cerebral cortex while it was similar in skin. The T4 5-MA in maternal rat tissues did not differ significantly from corresponding values in adult male rat, except skin, where it was lower in the mother rat (2.6 +/- 0.52 versus 4.6 +/- 0.61, p less than 0.05). In summary, relative to adult tissues T4 5-MA is exceedingly active in several fetal tissues, most notably in skeletal muscle followed by intestine and cerebral cortex.

  2. The connective tissue of the adductor canal--a morphological study in fetal and adult specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Flavia; de Vasconcellos Fontes, Ricardo Bragança; da Silva Baptista, Josemberg; Mayer, William Paganini; de Campos Boldrini, Silvia; Liberti, Edson Aparecido

    2009-03-01

    The adductor canal is a conical or pyramid-shaped pathway that contains the femoral vessels, saphenous nerve and a varying amount of fibrous tissue. It is involved in adductor canal syndrome, a claudication syndrome involving young individuals. Our objective was to study modifications induced by aging on the connective tissue and to correlate them to the proposed pathophysiological mechanism. The bilateral adductor canals and femoral vessels of four adult and five fetal specimens were removed en bloc and analyzed. Sections 12 microm thick were obtained and the connective tissue studied with Sirius Red, Verhoeff, Weigert and Azo stains. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photomicrographs of the surfaces of each adductor canal were also analyzed. Findings were homogeneous inside each group. The connective tissue of the canal was continuous with the outer layer of the vessels in both groups. The pattern of concentric, thick collagen type I bundles in fetal specimens was replaced by a diffuse network of compact collagen bundles with several transversal fibers and an impressive content of collagen III fibers. Elastic fibers in adults were not concentrated in the thick bundles but dispersed in line with the transversal fiber system. A dynamic compression mechanism with or without an evident constricting fibrous band has been proposed previously for adductor canal syndrome, possibly involving the connective tissue inside the canal. The vessels may not slide freely during movement. These age-related modifications in normal individuals may represent necessary conditions for this syndrome to develop.

  3. Fetal and adult liver stem cells for liver regeneration and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegel, H C; Lange, Claudia; Kneser, U; Lambrecht, W; Zander, A R; Rogiers, X; Kluth, D

    2006-01-01

    For the development of innovative cell-based liver directed therapies, e.g. liver tissue engineering, the use of stem cells might be very attractive to overcome the limitation of donor liver tissue. Liver specific differentiation of embryonic, fetal or adult stem cells is currently under investigation. Different types of fetal liver (stem) cells during development were identified, and their advantageous growth potential and bipotential differentiation capacity were shown. However, ethical and legal issues have to be addressed before using fetal cells. Use of adult stem cells is clinically established, e.g. transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells. Other bone marrow derived liver stem cells might be mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). However, the transdifferentiation potential is still in question due to the observation of cellular fusion in several in vivo experiments. In vitro experiments revealed a crucial role of the environment (e.g. growth factors and extracellular matrix) for specific differentiation of stem cells. Co-cultured liver cells also seemed to be important for hepatic gene expression of MSC. For successful liver cell transplantation, a novel approach of tissue engineering by orthotopic transplantation of gel-immobilized cells could be promising, providing optimal environment for the injected cells. Moreover, an orthotopic tissue engineering approach using bipotential stem cells could lead to a repopulation of the recipients liver with healthy liver and biliary cells, thus providing both hepatic functions and biliary excretion. Future studies have to investigate, which stem cell and environmental conditions would be most suitable for the use of stem cells for liver regeneration or tissue engineering approaches.

  4. Growth trajectories of the human fetal brain tissues estimated from 3D reconstructed in utero MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Julia A; Habas, Piotr A; Kim, Kio; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Hamzelou, Kia S; Corbett-Detig, James M; Barkovich, A James; Glenn, Orit A; Studholme, Colin

    2011-08-01

    In the latter half of gestation (20-40 gestational weeks), human brain growth accelerates in conjunction with cortical folding and the deceleration of ventricular zone progenitor cell proliferation. These processes are reflected in changes in the volume of respective fetal tissue zones. Thus far, growth trajectories of the fetal tissue zones have been extracted primarily from 2D measurements on histological sections and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, the volumes of major fetal zones-cortical plate (CP), subplate and intermediate zone (SP+IZ), germinal matrix (GMAT), deep gray nuclei (DG), and ventricles (VENT)--are calculated from automatic segmentation of motion-corrected, 3D reconstructed MRI. We analyzed 48 T2-weighted MRI scans from 39 normally developing fetuses in utero between 20.57 and 31.14 gestational weeks (GW). The supratentorial volume (STV) increased linearly at a rate of 15.22% per week. The SP+IZ (14.75% per week) and DG (15.56% per week) volumes increased at similar rates. The CP increased at a greater relative rate (18.00% per week), while the VENT (9.18% per week) changed more slowly. Therefore, CP increased as a fraction of STV and the VENT fraction declined. The total GMAT volume slightly increased then decreased after 25 GW. We did not detect volumetric sexual dimorphisms or total hemispheric volume asymmetries, which may emerge later in gestation. Further application of the automated fetal brain segmentation to later gestational ages will bridge the gap between volumetric studies of premature brain development and normal brain development in utero. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Modifications of erectile tissue components in the penis during the fetal period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla B M Gallo

    Full Text Available The penile erectile tissue has a complex microscopic anatomy with important functions in the mechanism of penile erection. The knowledge of such structures is necessary for understanding the normal physiology of the adult penis. Therefore, it is important to know the changes of these penile structures during fetal development. This study aims to analyze the development of the main components of the erectile tissue, such as collagen, smooth muscle fibers and elastic system fibers, in human fetuses.We studied the penises of 56 human fetuses aged 13 to 36 weeks post-conception (WPC. We used histochemical and immunohistochemical staining, as well as morphometric techniques to analyze the collagen, smooth muscle fibers and elastic system fibers in the corpus cavernosum and in the corpus spongiosum. These elements were identified and quantified as percentage by using the Image J software (NIH, Bethesda, USA. From 13 to 36 WPC, in the corpus cavernosum, the amount of collagen, smooth muscle fibers and elastic system fibers varied from 19.88% to 36.60%, from 4.39% to 29.76% and from 1.91% to 8.92%, respectively. In the corpus spongiosum, the amount of collagen, smooth muscle fibers and elastic system fibers varied from 34.65% to 45.89%, from 0.60% to 11.90% and from 3.22% to 11.93%, respectively.We found strong correlation between the elements analyzed with fetal age, both in corpus cavernosum and corpus spongiosum. The growth rate of these elements was more intense during the second trimester (13 to 24 WPC of gestation, both in corpus cavernosum and in corpus spongiosum. There is greater proportional amount of collagen in the corpus spongiosum than in corpus cavernosum during all fetal period. In the corpus spongiosum, there is about four times more collagen than smooth muscle fibers and elastic system fibers, during all fetal period studied.

  6. Partition of Environmental Chemicals between Maternal and Fetal Blood and Tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Needham, Larry L; Grandjean, Philippe; Heinzow, Birger

    2011-01-01

    .7 times those of cord serum, 2.8 times those of cord tissue and placenta, and 0.7 those of milk. For organohalogen compounds detectable in all matrices, a high degree of correlation between concentrations in maternal serum and the other tissues investigated was generally observed (r(2) > 0.5). Greater...... degree of chlorination resulted in lower transfer from maternal serum into milk. Concentrations of pentachlorbenzene, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, and several polychlorinated biphenyl congeners with low chlorination were higher in fetal samples and showed poor correlation with maternal levels. Perfluorinated......Passage of environmental chemicals across the placenta has important toxicological consequences, as well as for choosing samples for analysis and for interpreting the results. To obtain systematic data, we collected in 2000 maternal and cord blood, cord tissue, placenta, and milk in connection...

  7. Decellularized aorta of fetal pigs as a potential scaffold for small diameter tissue engineered vascular graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guo-feng; HE Zhi-juan; YANG Da-ping; HAN Xue-feng; GUO Tie-fang; HAO Chen-guang; MA Hui; NIE Chun-lei

    2008-01-01

    Background For cardiovascular tissue engineering, acellularized biomaterials from pig have been widely investigated. Our purpose was to study mechanical properties and biocompatibility of decellularized aorta of fetal pigs (DAFP) to determine its potential as scaffold for small diameter tissue engineered vascular graft.Methods Descending aorta of fetal pigs was removed cells using trypsin, ribonuclease and desoxyribonuclease. Mechanical properties of DAFP were evaluated by tensile stress-strain and burst pressure analysis. Assessment of cell adhesion and compatibility was conducted by seeding porcine aortic endothelial cells. To evaluate biocompatibility in vivo, DAFP was implanted subcutaneously into adult male Sprague Dawley rats for 2, 4 and 8 weeks.Results Histochemistry and scanning electron microscopy examination of DAFP revealed well-preserved extracellular matrix proteins and porous three-dimensional structures. Compared with fresh aorta, DAFP had similar ultimate tensile strength, axial compliance and burst pressure. Cell culture studies in vitro showed that porcine aortic endothelial cells adhered and proliferated on the surfaces of DAFP with excellent cell viability. Subdermal implantation demonstrated that the DAFP did not show almost any immunological reaction and exhibited minimal calcification during the whole follow-up period.Conclusion The DAFP has the potential to serve as scaffolds for small diameter tissue engineered vascular graft.

  8. The current status of intrapartum continuous fetal tissue pH measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1991-01-01

    Continuous tissue pH monitoring during labor has now been possible for 15 years. Tissue pH is measured in the intercellular fluid, and the value differs in some cases from the blood pH value because of local capillary flow and local metabolism. The fetal scalp seems to be an area where tissue pH...... and capillary blood pH values are very close, but in acute acidosis there may be a time lag of 10-15 min before tissue pH is equilibrated. Normal values of scalp tissue pH are 7.38 in early labor declining by 0.016 per hour during the first stage of labor and by 0.12 per hour during the second stage of labor....... Tissue pH values below 7.15 are defined as pathological. The correlation coefficient to umbilical artery blood pH (0.71), success rate (67%) and electrode drift (below 0.04) from the largest study of tissue pH monitoring using glass pH electrodes (n = 337) are described....

  9. Effects of Regular Treadmill Exercise on a DNA Oxidative-Damage Marker and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Rat Hippocampal Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoub, Soleiman; Ghadi, Arezoo; Pourbagher, Roghayeh; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Regular exercise can result in changes in the levels of oxidative stress in the hippocampus; however, little attention has been paid to physical-activity-induced neuronal protection to exposure to lead compounds. This study investigated the effects of regular treadmill exercise on a DNA oxidative-damage marker [8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)] and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of hippocampal tissue in lead-acetate exposed rats. Methods This study investigated the effects of 8 weeks of regular treadmill exercise on 8-OHdG and the TAC of hippocampal tissue in lead-acetate-exposed rats. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: baseline, sham (control), lead, and exercise+lead. The exercise program involved running on a treadmill with increasing intensity five times a week for 8 weeks. Animals in the lead and exercise+lead groups received lead acetate at 20 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally three times weekly for 8 weeks. Animals in the sham group received solvent (ethyl oleate) at 30 mg/kg body weight three times weekly for 8 weeks. TAC and 8-OHdG were measured by spectrophotometric and ELISA techniques, respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test with a significance cutoff of p≤0.05. Results The level of 8-OHdG and the TAC were significantly higher and lower, respectively, in the lead group than in the baseline and sham groups (p<0.01). However, the 8-OHdG level and TAC value in hippocampal tissue were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, in the exercise+lead group relative to the lead group (p<0.05). Conclusions The TAC of hippocampal tissue may be directly associated with neural protection mechanisms of exercise following lead acetate injection, and the beneficial effects of regular exercise in preventing hippocampal neuronal damage could be due to decreased hippocampal oxidative stress such as reflected by a lower 8-OHdG level and increased TAC.

  10. A Novel Semiautomated Fractional Limb Volume Tool for Rapid and Reproducible Fetal Soft Tissue Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Lauren M; Kim, Sung Yoon; Lee, Sungmin; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Lee, Wesley

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the reproducibility and efficiency of a semiautomated image analysis tool that rapidly provides fetal fractional limb volume measurements. Fifty pregnant women underwent 3-dimensional sonographic examinations for fractional arm and thigh volumes at a mean menstrual age of 31.3 weeks. Manual and semiautomated fractional limb volume measurements were calculated, with the semiautomated measurements calculated by novel software (5D Limb Vol; Samsung Medison, Seoul, Korea). The software applies an image transformation method based on the major axis length, minor axis length, and limb center coordinates. A transformed image is used to perform a global optimization technique for determination of an optimal limb soft tissue boundary. Bland-Altman analysis defined bias with 95% limits of agreement (LOA) between methods, and timing differences between manual versus automated methods were compared by a paired t test. Bland-Altman analysis indicated an acceptable bias with 95% LOA between the manual and semiautomated methods: mean arm volume ± SD, 1.7% ± 4.6% (95% LOA, -7.3% to 10.7%); and mean thigh volume, 0.0% ± 3.8% (95% LOA, -7.5% to 7.5%). The computer-assisted software completed measurements about 5 times faster compared to manual tracings. In conclusion, semiautomated fractional limb volume measurements are significantly faster to calculate when compared to a manual procedure. These results are reproducible and are likely to reduce operator dependency. The addition of computer-assisted fractional limb volume to standard biometry may improve the precision of estimated fetal weight by adding a soft tissue component to the weight estimation process.

  11. C-Myb(+) erythro-myeloid progenitor-derived fetal monocytes give rise to adult tissue-resident macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffel, Guillaume; Chen, Jinmiao; Lavin, Yonit; Low, Donovan; Almeida, Francisca F; See, Peter; Beaudin, Anna E; Lum, Josephine; Low, Ivy; Forsberg, E Camilla; Poidinger, Michael; Zolezzi, Francesca; Larbi, Anis; Ng, Lai Guan; Chan, Jerry K Y; Greter, Melanie; Becher, Burkhard; Samokhvalov, Igor M; Merad, Miriam; Ginhoux, Florent

    2015-04-21

    Although classified as hematopoietic cells, tissue-resident macrophages (MFs) arise from embryonic precursors that seed the tissues prior to birth to generate a self-renewing population, which is maintained independently of adult hematopoiesis. Here we reveal the identity of these embryonic precursors using an in utero MF-depletion strategy and fate-mapping of yolk sac (YS) and fetal liver (FL) hematopoiesis. We show that YS MFs are the main precursors of microglia, while most other MFs derive from fetal monocytes (MOs). Both YS MFs and fetal MOs arise from erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs) generated in the YS. In the YS, EMPs gave rise to MFs without monocytic intermediates, while EMP seeding the FL upon the establishment of blood circulation acquired c-Myb expression and gave rise to fetal MOs that then seeded embryonic tissues and differentiated into MFs. Thus, adult tissue-resident MFs established from hematopoietic stem cell-independent embryonic precursors arise from two distinct developmental programs.

  12. Measurement of Cu/Zn SOD in placenta, cultured cells, various fetal tissues, decidua and semen by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Akbar, S; Nicolaides, K H; Brown, P R

    1998-07-01

    The concentration of copper/zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) was measured in placental villous tissues (8-20 weeks' gestation), decidual tissues, cultured cells from chorionic villi and amniotic fluid cells, various fetal tissues (8-11 weeks' gestation), spermatozoa, seminal plasma and ovarian follicular fluid using a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The isoenzyme was expressed in all samples expect ovarian follicular fluid. Cu/Zn SOD was also detected in hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. In placental villous tissues the concentration of the enzyme increased with gestation between 8 and 20 weeks of pregnancy (n = 69, r = 0.34, P < 0.005).

  13. A comparison of bioreactors for culture of fetal mesenchymal stem cells for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Teoh, Swee Hin; Teo, Erin Yiling; Khoon Chong, Mark Seow; Shin, Chong Woon; Tien, Foo Toon; Choolani, Mahesh A; Chan, Jerry K Y

    2010-11-01

    Bioreactors provide a dynamic culture system for efficient exchange of nutrients and mechanical stimulus necessary for the generation of effective tissue engineered bone grafts (TEBG). We have shown that biaxial rotating (BXR) bioreactor-matured human fetal mesenchymal stem cell (hfMSC) mediated-TEBG can heal a rat critical sized femoral defect. However, it is not known whether optimal bioreactors exist for bone TE (BTE) applications. We systematically compared this BXR bioreactor with three most commonly used systems: Spinner Flask (SF), Perfusion and Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) bioreactors, for their application in BTE. The BXR bioreactor achieved higher levels of cellularity and confluence (1.4-2.5x, p bioreactors operating in optimal settings. BXR bioreactor-treated scaffolds experienced earlier and more robust osteogenic differentiation on von Kossa staining, ALP induction (1.2-1.6×, p bioreactor-treated grafts, but not with the other three. BXR bioreactor enabled superior cellular proliferation, spatial distribution and osteogenic induction of hfMSC over other commonly used bioreactors. In addition, we developed and validated a non-invasive quantitative micro CT-based technique for analyzing neo-tissue formation and its spatial distribution within scaffolds.

  14. Maternal iron deficiency worsens the associative learning deficits and hippocampal and cerebellar losses in a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Shane M; Tran, Tuan D; Rufer, Echoleah S; Crump, Peter M; Smith, Susan M

    2015-11-01

    Gestational alcohol exposure causes lifelong physical and neurocognitive deficits collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Micronutrient deficiencies are common in pregnancies of alcohol-abusing women. Here we show the most common micronutrient deficiency of pregnancy-iron deficiency without anemia-significantly worsens neurocognitive outcomes following perinatal alcohol exposure. Pregnant rats were fed iron-deficient (ID) or iron-sufficient diets from gestational day 13 to postnatal day (P) 7. Pups received alcohol (0, 3.5, 5.0 g/kg) from P 4 to P 9, targeting the brain growth spurt. At P 32, learning was assessed using delay or trace eyeblink classical conditioning (ECC). Cerebellar interpositus nucleus (IPN) and hippocampal CA1 cellularity was quantified using unbiased stereology. Global analysis of variance revealed that ID and alcohol separately and significantly reduced ECC learning with respect to amplitude (ps ≤ 0.001) and conditioned response [CR] percentage (ps ≤ 0.001). Iron and alcohol interacted to reduce CR percentage in the trace ECC task (p = 0.013). Both ID and alcohol significantly reduced IPN (ps learning impairments persisted even though the offsprings' iron status had normalized. Supporting our previous work, gestational ID exacerbates the associative learning deficits in this rat model of FASD. This is strongly associated with cellular reductions within the ECC neurocircuitry. Significant learning impairments in FASD could be the consequence, in part, of pregnancies in which the mother was also iron inadequate. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Zika Virus Infects Early- and Midgestation Human Maternal Decidual Tissues, Inducing Distinct Innate Tissue Responses in the Maternal-Fetal Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisblum, Yiska; Oiknine-Djian, Esther; Vorontsov, Olesya M; Haimov-Kochman, Ronit; Zakay-Rones, Zichria; Meir, Karen; Shveiky, David; Elgavish, Sharona; Nevo, Yuval; Roseman, Moshe; Bronstein, Michal; Stockheim, David; From, Ido; Eisenberg, Iris; Lewkowicz, Aya A; Yagel, Simcha; Panet, Amos; Wolf, Dana G

    2017-02-15

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as a cause of congenital brain anomalies and a range of placenta-related abnormalities, highlighting the need to unveil the modes of maternal-fetal transmission. The most likely route of vertical ZIKV transmission is via the placenta. The earliest events of ZIKV transmission in the maternal decidua, representing the maternal uterine aspect of the chimeric placenta, have remained unexplored. Here, we show that ZIKV replicates in first-trimester human maternal-decidual tissues grown ex vivo as three-dimensional (3D) organ cultures. An efficient viral spread in the decidual tissues was demonstrated by the rapid upsurge and continued increase of tissue-associated ZIKV load and titers of infectious cell-free virus progeny, released from the infected tissues. Notably, maternal decidual tissues obtained at midgestation remained similarly susceptible to ZIKV, whereas fetus-derived chorionic villi demonstrated reduced ZIKV replication with increasing gestational age. A genome-wide transcriptome analysis revealed that ZIKV substantially upregulated the decidual tissue innate immune responses. Further comparison of the innate tissue response patterns following parallel infections with ZIKV and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) revealed that unlike HCMV, ZIKV did not induce immune cell activation or trafficking responses in the maternal-fetal interface but rather upregulated placental apoptosis and cell death molecular functions. The data identify the maternal uterine aspect of the human placenta as a likely site of ZIKV transmission to the fetus and further reveal distinct patterns of innate tissue responses to ZIKV. Our unique experimental model and findings could further serve to study the initial stages of congenital ZIKV transmission and pathogenesis and evaluate the effect of new therapeutic interventions. In view of the rapid spread of the current ZIKV epidemic and the severe manifestations of congenital ZIKV infection, it is crucial to learn

  16. [Changes of ultrastructure of the capillary endotheliocytes of ischemized and nonaffected muscular tissue after transplantation of human hemopoietic stem cells of fetal liver in experiment in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliutin, R V; Zadorozhna, T D; Medvets'kyĭ, E B; Driuk, M F; Petrenko, A Iu

    2010-04-01

    In experiment was investigated ultrastructure of the capillaries endothelial cells and histological peculiarities of muscular tissue on various stages after transplantation of hemopoietic stem cells of fetal liver (HSCFL). There was proved, that in ischemic environment HSCFL stimulate processes of angiogenesis, and in the case of transplantation into intact muscular tissue they are differentiating into the tissue macrophages, not interfering with muscular tissue structure.

  17. Maternal diet during pregnancy induces gene expression and DNA methylation changes in fetal tissues in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianyong eLan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies in rats and mice have established that maternal nutrition induces epigenetic modifications, sometimes permanently, that alter gene expression in the fetus, which in turn leads to phenotypic changes. However, limited data is available on the influence of maternal diet on epigenetic modifications and gene expression in sheep. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the impact of different maternal dietary energy sources on the expression of imprinted genes in fetuses in sheep. Ewes were naturally bred to a single sire and from d 67 ± 3 of gestation until necropsy (d 130 ± 1, they were fed one of three diets of alfalfa haylage (HY; fiber, corn (CN; starch, or dried corn distiller’s grains (DG; fiber plus protein plus fat. A total of 26 fetuses were removed from the dams and longissimus dorsi, semitendinosus, perirenal adipose depot, and subcutaneous adipose depot tissues were collected for expression and DNA methylation analyses. Expression analysis of nine imprinted genes and three DNA methylatransferase (DNMTs genes showed significant effects of the different maternal diets on the expression of these genes. The methylation levels of CpG islands of both IGF2R and H19 were higher in HY and DG than CN fetuses in both males and females. This result is consistent with the low amino acid content of the CN diet, a source of methyl group donors, compared to HY and DG diets. Thus, results of this study provide evidence of association between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and transcriptomic and epigenomic alterations of imprinted genes and DNMTs in the fetal tissues.

  18. Influence of Echinacea purpurea intake during pregnancy on fetal growth and tissue angiogenic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sommer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of angiogenesis and control of blood vessels sprouting are fundamental to human health, as they play key roles in many physiological and pathological conditions. Intake of different pharmaceuticals with antiangiogenic activity by pregnant women may lead to severe developmental disturbances as it was described in case of thalidomide. It may also cause immunomodulatory effects as it was shown for antibiotics, theobromine, caffeic acid or catechins on the pregnant mice model. At present, Echinacea purpurea-based phytoceuticals are among the most popular herbals in the marketplace. Many compounds of Echinacea extracts (polysaccharides, alkamides, polyphenols, glycoproteins exert immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Echinacea is one of the most powerful and effective remedies against many kinds of bacterial and viral infections. In previous studies we shown significant inhibitory effect of the Echinacea purpurea based remedy on tumour angiogenic activity using cutaneous angiogenesis test, and an inhibitory effect on L-1 sarcoma growth was observed . The aim of the present study was to establish whether pharmaceuticals containing alcoholic extracts of Echinacea purpurea given to pregnant mice influence angiogenic activity and tissue VEGF and bFGF production of their fetuses. We showed that angiogenic activity of tissue homogenates was increased in Esberitox group and diminished in case of Immunal forte as compared to standard diet group. In case of Echinapur group we did not find significant differences in angiogenic activity. VEGF and bFGF concentration were lower in all groups compared to the control. In the case of Echinapur and Esberitox number of fetuses in one litter were slightly lower as compared to control group, but the difference is on the border of statistical significance. In conclusion, there is some possibility that pharmaceuticals containing Echinacea purpurea might influence fetal development in

  19. Influence of Echinacea purpurea intake during pregnancy on fetal growth and tissue angiogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcz, Ewa; Sommer, Ewa; Nartowska, Jadwiga; Balan, Barbara; Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna; Skopińska-Rózewska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    The process of angiogenesis and control of blood vessels sprouting are fundamental to human health, as they play key roles in many physiological and pathological conditions. Intake of different pharmaceuticals with antiangiogenic activity by pregnant women may lead to severe developmental disturbances as it was described in case of thalidomide. It may also cause immunomodulatory effects as it was shown for antibiotics, theobromine, caffeic acid or catechins on the pregnant mice model. At present, Echinacea purpurea-based phytoceuticals are among the most popular herbals in the marketplace. Many compounds of Echinacea extracts (polysaccharides, alkamides, polyphenols, glycoproteins) exert immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Echinacea is one of the most powerful and effective remedies against many kinds of bacterial and viral infections. In previous studies we shown significant inhibitory effect of the Echinacea purpurea based remedy on tumour angiogenic activity using cutaneous angiogenesis test, and an inhibitory effect on L-1 sarcoma growth was observed . The aim of the present study was to establish whether pharmaceuticals containing alcoholic extracts of Echinacea purpurea given to pregnant mice influence angiogenic activity and tissue VEGF and bFGF production of their fetuses. We showed that angiogenic activity of tissue homogenates was increased in Esberitox group and diminished in case of Immunal forte as compared to standard diet group. In case of Echinapur group we did not find significant differences in angiogenic activity. VEGF and bFGF concentration were lower in all groups compared to the control. In the case of Echinapur and Esberitox number of fetuses in one litter were slightly lower as compared to control group, but the difference is on the border of statistical significance. In conclusion, there is some possibility that pharmaceuticals containing Echinacea purpurea might influence fetal development in human also

  20. Influence of Echinacea purpurea intake during pregnancy on fetal growth and tissue angiogenic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Chorostowska-Wynimko

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of angiogenesis and control of blood vessels sprouting are fundamental to human health, as they play key roles in many physiological and pathological conditions. Intake of different pharmaceuticals with antiangiogenic activity by pregnant women may lead to severe developmental disturbances as it was described in case of thalidomide. It may also cause immunomodulatory effects as it was shown for antibiotics, theobromine, caffeic acid or catechins on the pregnant mice model. At present, Echinacea purpurea-based phytoceuticals are among the most popular herbals in the marketplace. Many compounds of Echinacea extracts (polysaccharides, alkamides, polyphenols, glycoproteins exert immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Echinacea is one of the most powerful and effective remedies against many kinds of bacterial and viral infections. In previous studies we shown significant inhibitory effect of the Echinacea purpurea based remedy on tumour angiogenic activity using cutaneous angiogenesis test, and an inhibitory effect on L-1 sarcoma growth was observed . The aim of the present study was to establish whether pharmaceuticals containing alcoholic extracts of Echinacea purpurea given to pregnant mice influence angiogenic activity and tissue VEGF and bFGF production of their fetuses. We showed that angiogenic activity of tissue homogenates was increased in Esberitox group and diminished in case of Immunal forte as compared to standard diet group. In case of Echinapur group we did not find significant differences in angiogenic activity. VEGF and bFGF concentration were lower in all groups compared to the control. In the case of Echinapur and Esberitox number of fetuses in one litter were slightly lower as compared to control group, but the difference is on the border of statistical significance. In conclusion, there is some possibility that pharmaceuticals containing Echinacea purpurea might influence fetal development in

  1. Prospective isolation of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiovascular progenitors that integrate into human fetal heart tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardehali, Reza; Ali, Shah R; Inlay, Matthew A; Abilez, Oscar J; Chen, Michael Q; Blauwkamp, Timothy A; Yazawa, Masayuki; Gong, Yongquan; Nusse, Roeland; Drukker, Micha; Weissman, Irving L

    2013-02-26

    A goal of regenerative medicine is to identify cardiovascular progenitors from human ES cells (hESCs) that can functionally integrate into the human heart. Previous studies to evaluate the developmental potential of candidate hESC-derived progenitors have delivered these cells into murine and porcine cardiac tissue, with inconclusive evidence regarding the capacity of these human cells to physiologically engraft in xenotransplantation assays. Further, the potential of hESC-derived cardiovascular lineage cells to functionally couple to human myocardium remains untested and unknown. Here, we have prospectively identified a population of hESC-derived ROR2(+)/CD13(+)/KDR(+)/PDGFRα(+) cells that give rise to cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro at a clonal level. We observed rare clusters of ROR2(+) cells and diffuse expression of KDR and PDGFRα in first-trimester human fetal hearts. We then developed an in vivo transplantation model by transplanting second-trimester human fetal heart tissues s.c. into the ear pinna of a SCID mouse. ROR2(+)/CD13(+)/KDR(+)/PDGFRα(+) cells were delivered into these functioning fetal heart tissues: in contrast to traditional murine heart models for cell transplantation, we show structural and functional integration of hESC-derived cardiovascular progenitors into human heart.

  2. Maternal Endocrine Adaptation throughout Pregnancy to Nutritional Manipulation: Consequences for Maternal Plasma Leptin and Cortisol and the Programming of Fetal Adipose Tissue Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bispham, J; Gopalakrishnan, G. S; Dandrea, J; Wilson, V; Budge, H; Keisler, D. H; Broughton Pipkin, F; Stephenson, T; Symonds, M. E

    2003-01-01

    .... We investigated the effect of gestational age and maternal nutrition on the maternal plasma concentration of leptin and cortisol together with effects on fetal adipose tissue deposition plus leptin...

  3. Antenatal diagnosis of tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency by quantification of pterins in amniotic fluid and enzyme activity in fetal and extrafetal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, N; Kierat, L; Matasovic, A; Leimbacher, W; Heizmann, C W; Guardamagna, O; Ponzone, A

    1994-05-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiency was undertaken by evaluating the pterin patterns in amniotic fluid and the specific enzyme activities in fetal or extrafetal tissues. This allowed the prenatal diagnosis in 19 pregnancies at risk. In 8 families with a child already affected by dihydropteridine reductase deficiency 4 fetuses were diagnosed as homozygotes and 4 as heterozygotes for the defect. In 11 families with a child affected by 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase deficiency 4 fetuses were homozygous, 4 heterozygous and 3 normal. This study also advanced our knowledge of tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism during fetal development. The key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of BH4 are expressed early and allow the fetus to be autotrophous for its cofactor requirement. In a twin pregnancy, both fetuses were diagnosed to be heterozygotes for dihydropteridine reductase deficiency and primapterin (7-biopterin) in amniotic fluid was increased. This indicates that pterin-4 alpha-carbinolamine dehydratase activity seems to be differently expressed during fetal life. As a consequence, pterins detected in amniotic fluid are of fetal origin and 6- and 7-substituted pterins can be present in amniotic fluid in higher proportions when compared with other body fluids.

  4. Effect of Gestation and Maternal Copper on the Fetal Fluids and Tissues Copper Concentrations in Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd E. Hefnawy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Samples of allantoic, amniotic fluid, fetal liver, kidney, maternal plasma and liver were collected from 30 ewes and classified into either early or late gestation and copper concentrations were measured. Approach: The Cu concentrations in the maternal plasma, allantoic, amniotic fluid, fetal liver and kidney increased significantly (pResults: Significant positive relationships were recorded between age of the fetus and Cu concentrations in the allantoic and amniotic fluid (r = 0.71-0.83, pConclusion: A significant negative correlation was recorded between the Cu concentrations in the maternal liver and fetal age (r = -0.74, p<0.01. Strong fetal-maternal relationships in Cu concentration were evident throughout the gestational period and dams seem to sacrifice Cu levels in order to maintain that in the fetus. Cu concentrations in the amniotic and allantoic fluids could be used as a possible indicator of the Cu status of the fetus throughout gestation.

  5. Evaluation of 2-year-old intrasplenic fetal liver tissue transplants in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupp, Amelie; Danz, Manfred; Müller, Dieter

    2003-01-01

    Liver cell transplantation into host organs like the spleen may possibly provide a temporary relief after extensive liver resection or severe liver disease or may enable treatment of an enzyme deficiency. With time, however, dedifferentiation or malignant transformation of the ectopically transplanted cells may be possible. Thus, in the present study syngenic fetal liver tissue suspensions were transplanted into the spleen of adult male rats and evaluated 2 years thereafter in comparison to orthotopic livers for histopathological changes and (as markers for preneoplastic transformation) for cytochrome P450 (P450) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoform expression. Because inducibility of P450 and GST isoforms may be changed in preneoplastic foci, prior to sacrifice animals were additionally treated either with beta-naphthoflavone, phenobarbital, dexamethasone, or the respective solvent. In the 2-year-old grafts more than 70% of the spleen mass was occupied by the transplant. The transplanted hepatocytes were arranged in cord-like structures. Also few bile ducts were present. Morphologically, no signs of malignancy were visible. With all rats, transplant recipients as well as controls, however, discrete nodular structures were seen in the livers. Due to age, both livers and transplants displayed only a low P450 2B1 and 3A2 and GST class alpha and mu isoform expression. No immunostaining for P450 1A1 was visible. At both sites, beta-naphthoflavone, phenobarbital, or dexamethasone treatment enhanced P450 1A1, P450 2B1 and 3A2, or P450 3A2 expression, respectively. No immunostaining for GST class pi isoforms was seen in the transplants. The livers of both transplant recipients and control rats, however, displayed GST pi-positive foci, corresponding to the nodular structures seen histomorphologically. Compared to the surrounding tissue, these foci also exhibited a more pronounced staining for GST class alpha and mu isoforms and a stronger inducibility of the P450 1A

  6. Cadmium and zinc concentrations in fetal and maternal rat tissues after parenteral administration of cadmium during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazelhoff Roelfzema, W.; Roelofsen, A.M.; Herber, R.F.M.; Copius Peereboom-Stegeman, J.H.J.

    1988-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were determined by solid sampling atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in rat maternal and fetal tissues after exposure to cadmium. Cadmium was administered subcutaneously as CdCl/sub 2/ in saline daily during pregnancy. Two experiments were performed. In expt. I we investigated the tissue concentration at day 19 (gestational age) after addministration of several doses: 0, 1.1, 2.2, 4.4, and 8.8 ..mu..mol Cd/kg/day. In expt. II the course of the Cd and Zn concentrations during pregnancy was investigated by collecting samples at days 14, 16, 18 and 20, after daily injections of 4.4 ..mu..mol Cd/kg. Cadmium concentrations in blood, maternal liver, placenta and fetal liver increased with dose and duration of exposure. Cadmium was heavily accumulated in the liver and transferred to the fetus only in small amounts. The zinc concentration in the maternal liver was positively correlated with the cadmium concentration. In the placenta the zinc concentration was not affected. Zinc in fetal liver was decreased from day 18 onward. Despite relatively high cadmium levels and decreased zinc levels in the fetus, we observed no adverse effects on various reproduction parameters, such as birth weights and obvious malformations.

  7. Magnetic Analysis of Post-mortem Hippocampal Tissue from Alzheimer's Patients: Changes with Progression of the Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, M.; Zinin, P.; Favia, J.; Tatsumi, L.; Kletetschka, G.; Adachi, T.

    2007-12-01

    Increases of iron in the human brain with age have been observed and may be accompanied by the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's. We have measured the magnetic characteristics of several sets of slides of hippocampal tissue from deceased Alzheimer patients. The slides were made available by the Harvard Brain Bank. The pathology of the tissue was classified in the Braak stages I to VI used to describe the progression of the disease. In general, the slides from patients with higher Braak stages and development of fibrillary tangles and plaques had greater magnetic moments than did those with Braak stage II. However, the peak values were at stage IV and V. To mitigate errors due to the inevitable differences in masses of the tissue on individual slides and their precise location in the hippocampus, ratios of magnetic properties were also observed. Ratios of Anhysteretic Remanent Magnetizaton (ARM) to Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (IRM) were obtained and showed a decrease from Stage II to the more advanced stages, with the minimum values at stages IV and V. The acquisition and demagnetization of IRM are consistent with the presence of magnetite, but also indicate a magnetically harder phase.

  8. Do very small adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (a proposed risk factor for insulin insensitivity) have a fetal origin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Hou, Lei; Johnsen, Lærke

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that fetal life malnutrition affects preferences for fat deposition in the body thereby predisposing for visceral adipocity and associated disorders in glucose-insulin regulation. In this study, we aimed to test the hypotheses that late-gestation undernutrition 1) has ...... long-term differential impacts on development, expandability and metabolic features in subcutaneous as compared to perirenal and mesenteric adipose tissues, which 2) will predispose for visceral obesity upon exposure to an obesogenic diet in early postnatal life.......Previous studies have shown that fetal life malnutrition affects preferences for fat deposition in the body thereby predisposing for visceral adipocity and associated disorders in glucose-insulin regulation. In this study, we aimed to test the hypotheses that late-gestation undernutrition 1) has...

  9. Assessment of global DNA methylation in the first trimester fetal tissues exposed to maternal cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fa, Svetlana; Larsen, Trine Vilsbøll; Bilde, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of negative health consequences for the exposed child. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a likely link between the prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and the increased risk in later life for diverse pathologies...... to exposures with an epigenetic impact. We have assessed the influence of maternal cigarette smoking during the first trimester for fetal global DNA methylation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the human fetal intestines and livers as well as the placentas from the first trimester pregnancies. Global DNA...... changes in exposure responses to the first trimester maternal cigarette smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Acknowledging that only examining subsets of global DNA methylation markers and fetal sample availability represents possible limitations for the analyses, our presented results indicate that the first trimester...

  10. Antenatal taurine supplementation increases taurine content in intrauterine growth restricted fetal rat brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Teng, Hui-Yun; Liu, Jing; Wang, Hua-Wei; Zeng, Li; Zhao, Li-Fang

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of antenatal taurine supplementation on taurine content in the brains of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Experiments were performed at the Central Laboratory of Bayi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Military General Hospital in China from January to June 2013. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls, an IUGR group and an IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement group (Taurine group) (n = 5). The IUGR model was induced using a low-protein diet throughout gestation. Rats in the taurine group were fed a diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine for 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Two fetal rats were randomly selected in every litter, and taurine levels in the brains of rats were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that (1) the mean body weight of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement groups was 6.619 ± 0.4132, 4.509 ± 0.454, and 5.176 ± 0.436 g (F = 429.818, P taurine levels in the brains of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and taurine groups were (2.399 ± 0.134) × 10(5), (1.881 ± 0.166) × 10(5) and (2.170 ± 0.191) × 10(5) μg/g (F = 24.828, P taurine levels in IUGR fetal rat brains were lower than in the control animals, and that antenatal taurine supplementation could significantly increase taurine levels in the brains of fetal rats with IUGR.

  11. Cryopreserved amniotic fluid-derived cells: a lifelong autologous fetal stem cell source for heart valve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Dörthe; Achermann, Josef; Odermatt, Bernhard; Genoni, Michele; Zund, Gregor; Hoerstrup, Simon P

    2008-07-01

    Fetal stem cells represent a promising cell source for heart valve tissue engineering. In particular, amniotic fluid-derived cells (AFDC) have been shown to lead to autologous fetal-like heart valve tissues in vitro for pediatric application. In order to expand the versatility of these cells also for adult application, cryopreserved AFDC were investigated as a potential life-long available cell source for heart valve tissue engineering. Human AFDC were isolated using CD133 magnetic beads, and then differentiated and analyzed. After expansion of CD133- as well as CD133+ cells up to passage 7, a part of the cells was cryopreserved. After four months, the cells were re-cultured and phenotyped by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, including expression of CD44, CD105, CD90, CD34, CD31, CD141, eNOS and vWF, and compared to their non-cryopreserved counterparts. The stem cell potential was investigated in differentiation assays. The viability of cryopreserved AFDC for heart valve tissue engineering was assessed by creating heart valve leaflets in vitro. After cryopreservation, amniotic fluid-derived CD133- and CD133+ cells retained their stem cell-like phenotype, expressing mainly CD44, CD90 and CD105. This staining pattern was comparable to that of their non-cryopreserved counterparts. Moreover, CD133- cells demonstrated differentiation potential into osteoblast-like and adipocyte-like cells. CD133+ cells showed characteristics of endothelial-like cells by eNOS, CD141 and beginning vWF expression. When used for the fabrication of heart valve leaflets, cryopreserved CD133- cells produced extracellular matrix elements comparable to their non-cryopreserved counterparts. Moreover, the resulting tissues showed a cellular layered tissue formation covered by functional endothelia. The mechanical properties were similar to those of tissues fabricated from non-cryopreserved cells. The study results suggest that the use of cell bank technology fetal amniotic fluid

  12. Electro-acupuncture for STAT3 expression and nuclear translocation in hippocampal tissues of rats following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihong Kong; Xiaoling Zeng; Guojie Sun; Shenghong Liu

    2006-01-01

    A, 30 min/time, was used. Acupuncture was conducted firstly at ischemia/reperfusion 3 hours, then once every 12 hours. STATS positive nuclear translocation in hippocampal CA1 region of rats was observed with immunohistochemical method at 24, 48 and 72 hours after brain ishcemia/reperfusion, and then STAT3 positive cells were counted.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: STATS positive cells and nuclear translocation in hippocampal CA1 region of rats in each group.RESULTS: All the 72 rats were involved in the result analysis. ①In the control group and sham-operation group, STAT3 positive cells with light cytoplasm and nucleus were decreased, and nuclear translocation was not found. ② In the model group, STATS positive cells were mostly found in the cytoplasm of the hippocampal CA1 region at the ischemic side of rats after ischemia/reperfusion 24 hours. They were significantly more than those in the sham-operation group and control group [(18.00±2.68), (g.00±1.35), (8.00±1.22) cells/ mm2, P <0.01], but cells with nuclear reaction were fewer; At ischemia/reperfusion 48 and 72 hours, STAT3 positive cells were increased, and they were significantly more than those of sham-operation group [(25.00±3.25), (35.00±3.52) cells/mm2, (15.00±1 .g3), (12.00±1.24) cells/mm2, P< 0.01=. Positive cells with nuclear reaction were found dark-stained. ③At ischemia/reperfusion 24, 48 and 72 hours, STATS positive cells were strongly expressed in hippocampal CA1 region at ischemic side of rats of electro-acupuncture group, and they were significantly more than those of model group [(25±3.52), (50±6.31), (75±8.09) cells/mm2, P < 0.01=. STATS positive cells were gradually enhanced with time, and considerable STATS nuclear positive reaction cells were found.CONCLUSION: Electro-acupuncture can activate STAT3 protein expression in hippocampal tissue of rats with local brain ischemia/reperfusion, promote STATS nuclear translocation and function its neuroprotective effect.

  13. Developmental changes in glutathione S-transferase isoforms expression and activity in intrasplenic fetal liver tissue transplants in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupp, Amelie; Anschütz, Tino; Lindström-Seppä, Pirjo; Müller, Dieter

    2003-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterise developmental changes in glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoforms expression and in glutathione conjugation capacity in intrasplenic liver tissue transplants. For this purpose, syngenic fetal liver tissue suspensions were transplanted into the spleens of adult male Fischer 344 rats. Three days, 1, 2, 4 weeks, 2, 4, 6 months and 1 year later, transplant-recipients and control animals were sacrificed and class alpha, mu and pi GST isoforms expression and GST activities using the substrates o-dinitrobenzene and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene were assessed in livers and spleens. In the hepatocytes of the adult livers no class pi, but a distinct class alpha and mu GST expression was seen. The bile duct epithelia were class pi GST positive. Fetal livers displayed almost no class alpha and mu, but a slight class pi GST expression. The same pattern was seen in 3-day-old intrasplenic liver tissue transplants. Up to 2 weeks after surgery the class alpha and mu GST expression increased in the hepatocytes of the transplants, whereas the immunostaining for class pi GST disappeared. No remarkable changes were seen thereafter. Normal conjugation capacities were observed with the livers of both groups of rats. Control spleens displayed only low GST activities. From 2 months after transplantation on activities were significantly higher in transplant-containing spleens than in respective control organs with a further increase up to one year after grafting. These results show that intrasplenically transplanted fetal liver cells proliferate and differentiate into mature cells displaying a GST expression pattern with respective enzyme activities similar to adult liver.

  14. Acquisition of innate-like microbial reactivity in mucosal tissues during human fetal MAIT-cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeansyah, Edwin; Loh, Liyen; Nixon, Douglas F.; Sandberg, Johan K.

    2014-01-01

    Innate-like, evolutionarily conserved MR1-restricted mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells represent a large antimicrobial T-cell subset in humans. Here, we investigate the development of these cells in second trimester human fetal tissues. MAIT cells are rare and immature in the fetal thymus, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. In contrast, mature IL-18Rα+ CD8αα MAIT cells are enriched in the fetal small intestine, liver and lung. Independently of localization, MAIT cells express CD127 and Ki67 in vivo and readily proliferate in response to Escherichia coli in vitro. Maturation is accompanied by the gradual post-thymic acquisition of the PLZF transcription factor and the ability to produce IFNγ and IL-22 in response to bacteria in mucosa. Thus, MAIT cells acquire innate-like antimicrobial responsiveness in mucosa before exposure to environmental microbes and the commensal microflora. Establishment of this arm of immunity before birth may help protect the newborn from a range of pathogenic microbes.

  15. The Effect of Fetal Olfactory Mucosa on Tissue Sparing and Locomotor Recovery after Spinal Cord Hemisection in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah Delaviz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs has been shown to have a neuroprotectiveeffect after transplanted in brain and spinal cord injury (SCI. This study was conductedto determine the possible beneficial results of transplantation of fetal olfactorymucosa (FOM that was the source of OECs in the recovery of locomotor function andin spinal tissue sparing after spinal cord hemisection.Materials and Methods: Forty-eight adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were spinallyhemisected at the L1 level and were randomized into the three groups of 16 animals.The first group, immunosuppressed injured animals were received cyclosporine A (CsAand FOM graft. The second group was received CsA and fetal respiratory mucosa(FRM graft, and the control group; non-immunosuppressed rats were received salineand gel foam. Locomotor performance was assessed weekly for 8 weeks after lesion,using locomotive rating scale developed by Basso, Bresnahan and Beattie (BBB. Afterbehavioral assessment, the spinal cord was examined by a histologist for spinal tissuesparing.Results: From weeks 6-8, the functional recovery of the FOM rats significantly increasedin comparison to the FRM, although a significant difference in tissue sparing was not apparent.From weeks, 2-8 the functional recovery of the FOM and FRM groups as well astissue sparing of the FOM group increased significantly compared to the control group.Conclusion: Thus, the FOM treatment may be effective to promote functional recoveryand partially preserving tissue sparing.

  16. KeyGenes, a Tool to Probe Tissue Differentiation Using a Human Fetal Transcriptional Atlas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roost, M.S.; Iperen, L. van; Ariyurek, Y.; Buermans, H.P.; Arindrarto, W.; Devalla, H.D.; Passier, R.; Mummery, C.L.; Carlotti, F.; Koning, E.J. de; Zwet, E.W. van; Goeman, J.J.; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated derivatives of human pluripotent stem cells in culture are generally phenotypically immature compared to their adult counterparts. Their identity is often difficult to determine with certainty because little is known about their human fetal equivalents in vivo. Cellular identity and s

  17. KeyGenes, a Tool to Probe Tissue Differentiation Using a Human Fetal Transcriptional Atlas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roost, Matthias S; van Iperen, Liesbeth; Ariyurek, Yavuz; Buermans, Henk P; Arindrarto, Wibowo; Devalla, Harsha D; Passier, Robert; Mummery, Christine L; Carlotti, Françoise; de Koning, Eelco J P; van Zwet, Erik W; Goeman, Jelle J; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated derivatives of human pluripotent stem cells in culture are generally phenotypically immature compared to their adult counterparts. Their identity is often difficult to determine with certainty because little is known about their human fetal equivalents in vivo. Cellular identity and

  18. Methylation patterns in fetal tissues generated from gilts inseminated with fresh or cryopreserved semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental influences, such as pollutants, climate, or diet, can alter the epigenetic configuration of gametes. The objective of our study was to evaluate differences in methylation activity of fetal placenta and liver from porcine pregnancies derived from fresh or frozen/thawed semen. Thirty cyc...

  19. Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal cells on fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix as a tissue engineered nerve scaffold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuping Feng; Jiao Wang; Shixin Ling; Zhuo Li; Mingsheng Li; Qiongyi Li; Zongren Ma; Sijiu Yu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix as a scaffold for supporting the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neural cells fol-lowing induction with neural differentiation medium. We performed long-term, continuous observation of cell morphology, growth, differentiation, and neuronal development using several microscopy techniques in conjunction with immunohistochemistry. We examined speciifc neu-ronal proteins and Nissl bodies involved in the differentiation process in order to determine the neuronal differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The results show that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells that differentiate on fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix display neuronal morphology with unipolar and bi/multipolar neurite elongations that express neuro-nal-speciifc proteins, includingβIII tubulin. The bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells grown on fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix and induced for long periods of time with neural differen-tiation medium differentiated into a multilayered neural network-like structure with long nerve ifbers that was composed of several parallel microifbers and neuronal cells, forming a complete neural circuit with dendrite-dendrite to axon-dendrite to dendrite-axon synapses. In addition, growth cones with filopodia were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Paraffin sec-tioning showed differentiated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with the typical features of neuronal phenotype, such as a large, round nucleus and a cytoplasm full of Nissl bodies. The data suggest that the biological scaffold fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix is capable of supporting human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into functional neurons and the subsequent formation of tissue engineered nerve.

  20. Plasticity of fetal cartilaginous cells

    OpenAIRE

    Quintin, Aurelie; Schizas, Constantin; Scaletta, Corinne; Jaccoud, Sandra; Applegate, Lee Ann; Pioletti, Dominique P.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue-specific stem cells found in adult tissues can participate to the repair process following injury. However adult tissues, such as articular cartilage and intervertebral disc, have low regeneration capacity, whereas fetal tissues, such as articular cartilage, show high regeneration ability. The presence of fetal stem cells in fetal cartilaginous tissues and their involvement in the regeneration of fetal cartilage is unknown. The aim of the study was to assess the chondrogenic differenti...

  1. Fetal hippocampal CA3 cell grafts enriched with FGF-2 and BDNF exhibit robust long-term survival and integration and suppress aberrant mossy fiber sprouting in the injured middle-aged hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Muddanna S; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Shetty, Ashok K

    2006-02-01

    Cell transplants that successfully replace the lost neurons and facilitate the reconstruction of the disrupted circuitry in the injured aging hippocampus are invaluable for treating acute head injury, stroke and status epilepticus in the elderly. This is because apt graft integration has the potential to prevent the progression of the acute injury into chronic epilepsy in the elderly. However, neural transplants into the injured middle-aged or aged hippocampus exhibit poor cell survival, suggesting that apt graft augmentation strategies are critical for robust integration of grafted cells into the injured aging hippocampus. We examined the efficacy of pre-treatment and grafting of donor fetal CA3 cells with a blend of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for lasting survival and integration of grafted cells in the injured middle-aged (12 months old) hippocampus of F344 rats. Grafts were placed at 4 days after the kainic-acid-induced hippocampal injury and were analyzed at 6 months post-grafting. We demonstrate that 80% of grafted cells exhibit prolonged survival and 71% of grafted cells differentiate into CA3 pyramidal neurons. Grafts also receive a robust afferent input from the host mossy fibers and project efferent axons into the denervated zones of the dentate gyrus and the CA1 subfield. Consequently, the aberrant sprouting of the dentate mossy fibers, an epileptogenic change that typically ensues after the hippocampal injury, was suppressed. Thus, grafts of fetal CA3 cells enriched with FGF-2 and BDNF exhibit robust integration and dampen the abnormal mossy fiber sprouting in the injured middle-aged hippocampus. Because the aberrantly sprouted mossy fibers contribute to the generation of seizures, the results suggest that the grafting intervention using FGF-2 and BDNF is efficacious for suppressing epileptogenesis in the injured middle-aged hippocampus.

  2. Effects of hippocampal high-frequency electrical stimulation in memory formation and their association with amino acid tissue content and release in normal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Munguía, Hiram; Meneses, Alfredo; Peña-Ortega, Fernando; Gaona, Andres; Rocha, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Hippocampal high frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) at 130 Hz has been proposed as a therapeutical strategy to control neurological disorders such as intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This study was carried out to determine the effects of hippocampal HFS on the memory process and the probable involvement of amino acids. Using the autoshaping task, we found that animals receiving hippocampal HFS showed augmented short-term, but not long-term memory formation, an effect blocked by bicuculline pretreatment and associated with enhanced tissue levels of amino acids in hippocampus. In addition, microdialysis experiments revealed high extracellular levels of glutamate, aspartate, glycine, taurine, and alanine during the application of hippocampal HFS. In contrast, GABA release augmented during HFS and remained elevated for more than 1 h after the stimulation was ended. HFS had minimal effects on glutamine release. The present results suggest that HFS has an activating effect on specific amino acids in normal hippocampus that may be involved in the enhanced short-term memory formation. These data further provide experimental support for the concept that hippocampus may be a promising target for focal stimulation to treat intractable seizures in humans.

  3. Functionally graded beta-TCP/PCL nanocomposite scaffolds: in vitro evaluation with human fetal osteoblast cells for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Seher; Kalyon, Dilhan M; Yu, Xiaojun

    2010-03-01

    The engineering of biomimetic tissue relies on the ability to develop biodegradable scaffolds with functionally graded physical and chemical properties. In this study, a twin-screw-extrusion/spiral winding (TSESW) process was developed to enable the radial grading of porous scaffolds (discrete and continuous gradations) that were composed of polycaprolactone (PCL), beta-tricalciumphosphate (beta-TCP) nanoparticles, and salt porogens. Scaffolds with interconnected porosity, exhibiting myriad radial porosity, pore-size distributions, and beta-TCP nanoparticle concentration could be obtained. The results of the characterization of their compressive properties and in vitro cell proliferation studies using human fetal osteoblast cells suggest the promising nature of such scaffolds. The significant degree of freedom offered by the TSESW process should be an additional enabler in the quest toward the mimicry of the complex elegance of the native tissues.

  4. Expression and localization of VEGF receptors in human fetal skeletal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, M; Sarchielli, E; Toce, M; Acocella, A; Bertolai, R; Ciulli, C; Orlando, C; Sgambati, E; Vannelli, G B

    2012-12-01

    During development the vertebrate skeleton is the product of deriving cells from distinct embryonic lineages. The craniofacial skeleton is formed by migrating cranial neural crest cells, whereas the axial and limb skeletons are derived from mesodermal cells. The Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors (VEGFs) / receptors (VEGFRs) system plays an important role in angiogenesis, as well as osteogenesis, during bone development, growth, and remodeling, attracting endothelial cells and osteoclasts and stimulating osteoblast differentiation. Recent evidence has shown that during development VEGFR-3 is also expressed in neural and glial precursors of forebrain and cerebellum, as well as in the eye. In this study, we found that VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 are expressed in human bone both in fetal and adult life. The gene expression levels were significantly higher in fetal samples especially in mandibles. In addition, higher levels of VEGFR-3 in orofacial district were confirmed by western blotting analysis. We also observed that in fetal mandibular samples VEGFRs colocalized in several osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteoprogenitor cells. Furthermore, some cells coexpressed VEGFR-3 and ET-1, a marker of neural crest cells. The results demonstrated different expression of VEGFRs in human mandibular and femoral bones which could be correlated to their different structure, function and development during organogenesis. VEGFR-3 might represent a specific signal for ectomesenchymal lineage differentiation during early human development.

  5. Repair of full-thickness tendon injury using connective tissue progenitors efficiently derived from human embryonic stem cells and fetal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Shahar; Leshansky, Lucy; Zussman, Eyal; Burman, Michael; Srouji, Samer; Livne, Erella; Abramov, Natalie; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    2010-10-01

    The use of stem cells for tissue engineering (TE) encourages scientists to design new platforms in the field of regenerative and reconstructive medicine. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have been proposed to be an important cell source for cell-based TE applications as well as an exciting tool for investigating the fundamentals of human development. Here, we describe the efficient derivation of connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) from hESC lines and fetal tissues. The CTPs were significantly expanded and induced to generate tendon tissues in vitro, with ultrastructural characteristics and biomechanical properties typical of mature tendons. We describe a simple method for engineering tendon grafts that can successfully repair injured Achilles tendons and restore the ankle joint extension movement in mice. We also show the CTP's ability to differentiate into bone, cartilage, and fat both in vitro and in vivo. This study offers evidence for the possibility of using stem cell-derived engineered grafts to replace missing tissues, and sets a basic platform for future cell-based TE applications in the fields of orthopedics and reconstructive surgery.

  6. Simultaneous transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue and encapsulated genetically modified cells releasing GDNF in a hemi-parkinsonian rat model of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Bouza, Alberto; Di Santo, Stefano; Seiler, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic (VM) neurons for Parkinson's disease (PD) is limited by poor survival and suboptimal integration of grafted tissue into the host brain. In a 6-OHDA rat model of PD we investigated the feasibility of simultaneous transplantation of rat fetal VM tissue...... and polymer-encapsulated C2C12 myoblasts genetically modified to produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor or mocktransfected myoblasts on graft function. Amphetamine-induced rotations were assessed prior and 2, 4, 6 and 9 weeks post-transplantation. We found that rats grafted with VM transplants...

  7. Nuclear factor-kappa B localization and function within intrauterine tissues from term and preterm labor and cultured fetal membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusanovic Juan P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to quantify the nuclear localization and DNA binding activity of p65, the major transactivating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB subunit, in full-thickness fetal membranes (FM and myometrium in the absence or presence of term or preterm labor. Methods Paired full-thickness FM and myometrial samples were collected from women in the following cohorts: preterm no labor (PNL, N = 22, spontaneous preterm labor (PTL, N = 21, term no labor (TNL, N = 23, and spontaneous term labor (STL, N = 21. NF-kappaB p65 localization was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and DNA binding activity was evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-based method. Results Nuclear p65 labeling was rare in amnion and chorion, irrespective of clinical context. In decidua, nuclear p65 labeling was greater in the STL group relative to the TNL cohort, but there were no differences among the TNL, PTL, and PNL cohorts. In myometrium, diffuse p65 nuclear labeling was significantly associated with both term and preterm labor. There were no significant differences in ELISA-based p65 binding activity in amnion, choriodecidual, and myometrial specimens in the absence or presence of term labor. However, parallel experiments using cultured term fetal membranes demonstrated high levels of p65-like binding even the absence of cytokine stimulation, suggesting that this assay may be of limited value when applied to tissue specimens. Conclusions These results suggest that the decidua is an important site of NF-kappaB regulation in fetal membranes, and that mechanisms other than cytoplasmic sequestration may limit NF-kappaB activation prior to term.

  8. Isolation, in vitro culture and identification of a new type of mesenchymal stem cell derived from fetal bovine lung tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengfei; Pu, Yabin; Li, Xiayun; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yuhua; Guan, Weijun; Ma, Yuehui

    2015-09-01

    Lung‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (LMSCs) are considered to be important in lung tissue repair and regenerative processes. However, the biological characteristics and differentiation potential of LMSCs remain to be elucidated. In the present study, fetal lung‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (FLMSCs) were isolated from fetal bovine lung tissues by collagenase digestion. The in vitro culture conditions were optimized and stabilized and the self‑renewal ability and differentiation potential were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the FLMSCs were morphologically consistent with fibroblasts, were able to be cultured and passaged for at least 33 passages and the cell morphology and proliferative ability were stable during the first 10 passages. In addition, FLMSCs were found to express CD29, CD44, CD73 and CD166, however, they did not express hematopoietic cell specific markers, including CD34, CD45 and BOLA‑DRα. The growth kinetics of FLMSCs consisted of a lag phase, a logarithmic phase and a plateau phase, and as the passages increased, the proliferative ability of cells gradually decreased. The majority of FLMSCs were in G0/G1 phase. Following osteogenic induction, FLMSCs were positive for the expression of osteopontin and collagen type I α2. Following neurogenic differentiation, the cells were morphologically consistent with neuronal cells and positive for microtubule‑associated protein 2 and nestin expression. It was concluded that the isolated FLMSCs exhibited typical characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells and that the culture conditions were suitable for their proliferation and the maintenance of stemness. The present study illustrated the potential application of lung tissue as an adult stem cell source for regenerative therapies.

  9. Differences in tissue distribution of iron from various clinically used intravenous iron complexes in fetal avian heart and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicher, Karsten; Brendler-Schwaab, Susanne; Schlösser, Christoph; Catarinolo, Maria; Fütterer, Sören; Langguth, Peter; Enzmann, Harald

    2015-10-01

    Nanomedicines are more complex than most pharmacologically active substances or medicines and have been considered as non-biological complex drugs. For nanomedicines pivotal pharmacokinetic properties cannot be assessed by plasma concentration data from standard bioequivalence studies. Using intravenous iron complexes (IICs) as model we show that fetal avian tissues can be used to study time dependent tissue concentrations in heart and liver. Clear differences were found between equimolar doses of sucrose, gluconate or carboxymaltose coated iron particles. The range in tissue iron concentrations observed with these clinically widely used IICs provides an orientation as to what should be acceptable for any new IICs. Moreover, sensitivity of the experimental model was high enough to detect a 20% difference in tissue iron concentration. For the authorization of generic products under Article 10 (1) of Directive 2001/83/EC a plasma concentration of an active substance in the range of 80%-125% versus the reference product is usually considered acceptable. Based on its high discriminatory sensitivity this method was used to support a positive marketing authorization decision for a generic nanomedicine product.

  10. Screening significantly hypermethylated genes in fetal tissues compared with maternal blood using a methylated-CpG island recovery assay-based microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Aihua; Zhang, Xiangzhong; Wu, Jing; Du, Li; He, Tianwen; Zhang, Xiaozhuang

    2012-06-18

    The noninvasive prenatal diagnosis procedures that are currently used to detect genetic diseases do not achieve desirable levels of sensitivity and specificity. Recently, fetal methylated DNA biomarkers in maternal peripheral blood have been explored for the noninvasive prenatal detection of genetic disorders. However, such efforts have covered only chromosomal aneuploidy, and fetal methylated DNA biomarkers in maternal whole blood for detecting single-gene diseases remain to be discovered. To address this issue, we systematically screened significantly hypermethylated genes in fetal tissues and compared them with maternal peripheral blood potential in an attempt to detect fetal genes in maternal peripheral blood. First, the methylated-CpG island recovery assay combined with a CpG island array was performed for four fetus-toward placental tissues and the corresponding maternal peripheral bloods. Subsequently, direct bisulfite sequencing and combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) were carried out to validate the methylation status of the hypermethylated genes that were identified by the microarray analysis. Three hundred and ten significantly hypermethylated genes in the placental tissues were detected by microarray. From the top 15 hypermethylated genes detected by microarray, two were selected for sequencing validation in placental tissue and chorionic villus samples and four were selected for COBRA validation in four placental tissues, ten amniotic fluids and five chorionic villus samples. The six selected genes were confirmed to be hypermethylated in placental tissue and chorionic villus samples, but methylation of the genes could not be detected in the amniotic fluids. Of the many hypermethylated genes and methylation sites that were found in the fetal tissues, some have great potential to be developed into molecular markers for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of monogenic disorders. Further clinical studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  11. Age-Dependent Changes in Geometry, Tissue Composition and Mechanical Properties of Fetal to Adult Cryopreserved Human Heart Valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geemen, Daphne; Soares, Ana L F; Oomen, Pim J A; Driessen-Mol, Anita; Janssen-van den Broek, Marloes W J T; van den Bogaerdt, Antoon J; Bogers, Ad J J C; Goumans, Marie-José T H; Baaijens, Frank P T; Bouten, Carlijn V C

    2016-01-01

    There is limited information about age-specific structural and functional properties of human heart valves, while this information is key to the development and evaluation of living valve replacements for pediatric and adolescent patients. Here, we present an extended data set of structure-function properties of cryopreserved human pulmonary and aortic heart valves, providing age-specific information for living valve replacements. Tissue composition, morphology, mechanical properties, and maturation of leaflets from 16 pairs of structurally unaffected aortic and pulmonary valves of human donors (fetal-53 years) were analyzed. Interestingly, no major differences were observed between the aortic and pulmonary valves. Valve annulus and leaflet dimensions increase throughout life. The typical three-layered leaflet structure is present before birth, but becomes more distinct with age. After birth, cell numbers decrease rapidly, while remaining cells obtain a quiescent phenotype and reside in the ventricularis and spongiosa. With age and maturation-but more pronounced in aortic valves-the matrix shows an increasing amount of collagen and collagen cross-links and a reduction in glycosaminoglycans. These matrix changes correlate with increasing leaflet stiffness with age. Our data provide a new and comprehensive overview of the changes of structure-function properties of fetal to adult human semilunar heart valves that can be used to evaluate and optimize future therapies, such as tissue engineering of heart valves. Changing hemodynamic conditions with age can explain initial changes in matrix composition and consequent mechanical properties, but cannot explain the ongoing changes in valve dimensions and matrix composition at older age.

  12. Age-Dependent Changes in Geometry, Tissue Composition and Mechanical Properties of Fetal to Adult Cryopreserved Human Heart Valves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne van Geemen

    Full Text Available There is limited information about age-specific structural and functional properties of human heart valves, while this information is key to the development and evaluation of living valve replacements for pediatric and adolescent patients. Here, we present an extended data set of structure-function properties of cryopreserved human pulmonary and aortic heart valves, providing age-specific information for living valve replacements. Tissue composition, morphology, mechanical properties, and maturation of leaflets from 16 pairs of structurally unaffected aortic and pulmonary valves of human donors (fetal-53 years were analyzed. Interestingly, no major differences were observed between the aortic and pulmonary valves. Valve annulus and leaflet dimensions increase throughout life. The typical three-layered leaflet structure is present before birth, but becomes more distinct with age. After birth, cell numbers decrease rapidly, while remaining cells obtain a quiescent phenotype and reside in the ventricularis and spongiosa. With age and maturation-but more pronounced in aortic valves-the matrix shows an increasing amount of collagen and collagen cross-links and a reduction in glycosaminoglycans. These matrix changes correlate with increasing leaflet stiffness with age. Our data provide a new and comprehensive overview of the changes of structure-function properties of fetal to adult human semilunar heart valves that can be used to evaluate and optimize future therapies, such as tissue engineering of heart valves. Changing hemodynamic conditions with age can explain initial changes in matrix composition and consequent mechanical properties, but cannot explain the ongoing changes in valve dimensions and matrix composition at older age.

  13. [Fetal magnetocardiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, P

    1997-09-01

    Fetal magnetocardiography is a new, alternative method for prenatal surveillance. The fetal magnetocardiogram (FMCG) registers the magnetic field produced by conduction currents in the fetal heart. Compared to the fetal electrocardiogram, the propagation of magnetic fields is relatively undisturbed by surrounding tissue. The FMCG thus has the advantage of a higher signal-to-noise ratio and can be acquired earlier pregnancy. Also, the high temporal resolution of the signal permits a significantly more precise determination of fetal heart rate parameters than fetal ultrasound. FMCG registration using a biomagnetometer is noninvasive and can be performed as of the second trimeter. It can be used to examine signal morphology, cardiac time intervals, heart rate variability as well as cardiac magnetic fields. To date, arrhythmic activity has been observed in the form of supraventricular and ventricular ectopies as well as atrial flutter, atrio-ventricular block, atrial tachycardia and Torsades de Pointes tachycardia. We also report here on the presence of short episodes of bradycardia in the second trimester of normal pregnancy. Measurement of the magnetic field strength at various locations above the abdomen has allowed the reconstruction of the fetal cardiac magnetic field and the determination of its relation to the position of the fetus. Signal averaging has permitted the precise examination of signal amplitude and cardiac time intervals and has shown that they increase in the course of pregnancy. Heart rate variability could be quantified in the time and frequency domain as well as using parameters of nonlinear dynamics. The results demonstrated an increase of variability and complexity over gestational age. Furthermore spectral analysis of fetal heart arte data could be associated with sympathetic and parasympathetic activity as well as, with respiration. Although the studies presenting these results have involved only limited numbers of observations, they

  14. Immunohistochemical analysis of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity on the developmental dentate gyrus and hippocampal fimbria in fetal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Tetsushi; Omotehara, Takuya; Hashimoto, Rie; Umemura, Yuria; Yuasa, Hideto; Masuda, Natsumi; Kubota, Naoto; Minami, Kiichi; Yanai, Shogo; Ishihara-Sugano, Mitsuko; Mantani, Youhei; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko

    2015-11-01

    Dioxins are widespread persistent environmental contaminants with adverse impacts on humans and experimental animals. Behavioral and cognitive functions are impaired by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure. TCDD exerts its toxicity via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor. The hippocampus, which plays important roles in episodic memory and spatial function, is considered vulnerable to TCDD-induced neurotoxicity, because it contains the AhR. We herein investigated the effects of TCDD toxicity on hippocampal development in embryonic mice. TCDD was administered to dams at 8.5 days postcoitum with a single dose of 20, 200, 2,000 and 5,000 ng/kg body weight (groups T20, T200, T2000 and T5000, respectively), and the brains were dissected from their pups at embryonic day 18.5. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) immunoreactivities in the dentate gyrus (DG) were reduced in the T5000 group. Granular GFAP immunoreactivity was observed in the hippocampal fimbria, and the number of immunoreactive fimbria was significantly decreased in the T5000 group. The number of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA)-positive cells was decreased in all TCDD-exposed groups and significantly reduced in the T20, T200 and T5000 groups. Together, these results demonstrate that maternal TCDD exposure has adverse impacts on neural stem cells (NSCs), neural precursor cells (NPCs) and granular cells in the DG and disrupts the NSC maintenance and timing of differentiation in the hippocampal fimbria, which in turn interrupt neuronal development in future generations of mice.

  15. Adoptive transfer of T regulatory cells inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in fetal brain tissue in a late-pregnancy preterm birth mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Xiao, Mi; Chen, Ru-Juan; Lin, Xiao-Jie; Siddiq, Muhammad; Liu, Li

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of regulatory T cells (Tregs) on the inflammation resulting from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in prenatal brain tissue, Tregs isolated from pregnant mice were transferred into model mice, and the expression levels of fork head family transcription factor (Foxp3), interleukin-6 (IL-6), CD68 (a marker of microglia), and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) were assessed in the fetal brain tissue. Foxp3, IL-6, and TLR-4 expression were detected by polymerase chain reaction and Western blot; CD68 expression level was detected using immunochemical analysis. Foxp3, IL-6, TLR-4, and CD68 expressions in fetal brain were significantly induced by maternal LPS administration, and the increased expression levels were markedly reduced by adoptive transfer of Tregs. Maternal LPS exposure significantly induced inflammation in perinatal brain tissue, and Tregs negatively regulated this LPS-induced inflammation. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  16. Sexually dimorphic effects of maternal nutrient reduction on expression of genes regulating cortisol metabolism in fetal baboon adipose and liver tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunming; Li, Cun; Myatt, Leslie; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Sun, Kang

    2013-04-01

    Maternal nutrient reduction (MNR) during fetal development may predispose offspring to chronic disease later in life. Increased regeneration of active glucocorticoids by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in metabolic tissues is fundamental to the developmental programming of metabolic syndrome, but underlying mechanisms are unknown. Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD) generates NADPH, the cofactor for 11β-HSD1 reductase activity. CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) regulate 11β-HSD1 expression. We hypothesize that MNR increases expression of fetal C/EBPs, GR, and H6PD, thereby increasing expression of 11β-HSD1 and reductase activity in fetal liver and adipose tissues. Pregnant MNR baboons ate 70% of what controls ate from 0.16 to 0.9 gestation (term, 184 days). Cortisol levels in maternal and fetal circulations increased in MNR pregnancies at 0.9 gestation. MNR increased expression of 11β-HSD1; H6PD; C/EBPα, -β, -γ; and GR in female but not male perirenal adipose tissue and in male but not female liver at 0.9 gestation. Local cortisol level and its targets PEPCK1 and PPARγ increased correspondingly in adipose and liver tissues. C/EBPα and GR were found to be bound to the 11β-HSD1 promoter. In conclusion, sex- and tissue-specific increases of 11β-HSD1, H6PD, GR, and C/EBPs may contribute to sexual dimorphism in the programming of exaggerated cortisol regeneration in liver and adipose tissues and offsprings' susceptibility to metabolic syndrome.

  17. Influence of recipient gender on intrasplenic fetal liver tissue transplants in rats: cytochrome P450-mediated monooxygenase functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupp, Amelie; Hugenschmidt, Sabine; Rost, Michael; Müller, Dieter

    2004-05-01

    Rat livers display a sex-specific cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms expression pattern with consecutive differences in P450-mediated monooxygenase activities, which have been shown to be due to a differential profile of growth hormone (GH) secretion. Parallel to previous investigations on P450 isoforms expression, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the influence of recipient gender on P450-mediated monooxygenase activities in intrasplenic liver tissue transplants in comparison to orthotopic liver. Fetal liver tissue suspensions of mixed gender were transplanted into the spleen of adult male or female syngenic recipients. Four months after grafting transplant-recipients and age-matched controls were treated with beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), phenobarbital (PB), dexamethasone (DEX) or the vehicles and sacrificed 24 or 48 h thereafter. P450-dependent monooxygenase activities were assessed by a series of model reactions for different P450 subtypes in liver and spleen 9000 g supernatants. In spleens of male and female control rats only very low monooxygenase activities were detectable, whereas with most model reactions distinct activities were observed in transplant-containing organs. Livers and transplant-containing spleens from male rats displayed higher basal ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase and testosterone 2alpha-, 2beta-, 6beta-, 14alpha-, 15alpha-, 15beta-, 16alpha-, 16beta- and 17-hydroxylase activities than those from females. On the other hand, like the respective livers, spleens from female transplant-recipients demonstrated more pronounced p-nitrophenol- and testosterone 6alpha- and 7alpha-hydroxylase activities than those from male hosts. With nearly all model reactions gender-specific differences in inducibility by BNF, PB or DEX could be demonstrated in livers as well as in transplant-containing spleens. These results further confirm that the P450 system of intrasplenic liver tissue transplants and the respective orthotopic livers is similarly influenced

  18. Endoglin Expression and The Level of TGF- β are Increased in The Placental Tissue and Correlated with Low Fetal Weight in Malaria Infected Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujarot Dwi Sasmito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria infection during pregnancy can cause accumulation of infected red blood cells in placental intervillous space and induces placental tissue inflammation and hypoxia. This condition triggers endoglin expressionand release of soluble endoglin that can interfere TGF-β binding with the receptor. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between placental endoglin expression and TGF-β level with low fetal weight (LFW in malaria-infected mice. Nine pregnant mice infected with Plasmodium berghei on the day ninth post mating (malaria-infected group and eight normal pregnant mice (non-infected group were used in this study. The mice were sacrificed on the day 18th post mating, and all fetal body weights were measured by analytical scale. Enzyme Link Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA was done to determine the level of placental TGF-β while immunohistochemical staining was performed to examine endoglin expression in placental tissue. The mean of fetal body weights of malaria-infected group was significantly lower than non-infected group (p= 0,002, while the expression of placental endoglin in malaria- infected group was substantially higher than non-infected group (p= 0.003. The level of placental TGF-β in malaria-infected group was also considerably higher than non-infected group, but the difference was not significant (p= 0.064. Pearson correlation test showed that there were significant negative correlations between fetal body weights with the level of placental TGF-β (p= 0.017, r= -0.568 and the expression of placental endoglin (p= 0.002, r= -0.694. Malaria infection in pregnant mice will increase both TGF-β and endoglin in placenta tissue and correlate with low fetal weight.

  19. Evaluation of Placental and Fetal Tissue Specimens for Zika Virus Infection - 50 States and District of Columbia, January-December, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan-Steiner, Sarah; Simeone, Regina; Simon, Elizabeth; Bhatnagar, Julu; Oduyebo, Titilope; Free, Rebecca; Denison, Amy M; Rabeneck, Demi B; Ellington, Sascha; Petersen, Emily; Gary, Joy; Hale, Gillian; Keating, M Kelly; Martines, Roosecelis B; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Ritter, Jana; Lee, Ellen; Davidson, Alexander; Conners, Erin; Scotland, Sarah; Sandhu, Kayleigh; Bingham, Andrea; Kassens, Elizabeth; Smith, Lou; St George, Kirsten; Ahmad, Nina; Tanner, Mary; Beavers, Suzanne; Miers, Brooke; VanMaldeghem, Kelley; Khan, Sumaiya; Rabe, Ingrid; Gould, Carolyn; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Honein, Margaret A; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Jamieson, Denise J; Fischer, Marc; Zaki, Sherif R

    2017-06-23

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause congenital microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1), and detection of Zika virus RNA in clinical and tissue specimens can provide definitive laboratory evidence of recent Zika virus infection. Whereas duration of viremia is typically short, prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA in placental, fetal, and neonatal brain tissue has been reported and can provide key diagnostic information by confirming recent Zika virus infection (2). In accordance with recent guidance (3,4), CDC provides Zika virus testing of placental and fetal tissues in clinical situations where this information could add diagnostic value. This report describes the evaluation of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens tested for Zika virus infection in 2016 and the contribution of this testing to the public health response. Among 546 live births with possible maternal Zika virus exposure, for which placental tissues were submitted by the 50 states and District of Columbia (DC), 60 (11%) were positive by Zika virus reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Among 81 pregnancy losses for which placental and/or fetal tissues were submitted, 18 (22%) were positive by Zika virus RT-PCR. Zika virus RT-PCR was positive on placental tissues from 38/363 (10%) live births with maternal serologic evidence of recent unspecified flavivirus infection and from 9/86 (10%) with negative maternal Zika virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) where possible maternal exposure occurred >12 weeks before serum collection. These results demonstrate that Zika virus RT-PCR testing of tissue specimens can provide a confirmed diagnosis of recent maternal Zika virus infection.

  20. Stages of restricted HIV-1 infection in astrocyte cultures derived from human fetal brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messam, C A; Major, E O

    2000-05-01

    The predominant cell types infected by HIV-1 in AIDS associated encephalopathy are cells of the macrophage/microglial lineage. There has been consistent evidence, however, that astrocytes also become infected although not at the same frequency or level of multiplication as microglial cells. HIV-1 antigens and/or nucleic acid have been identified in astrocytes in brain autopsy tissue from both adult and pediatric AIDS cases. In cell cultures, HIV-1 infection of astrocytes results in an initial productive but non-cytopathogenic infection that diminishes to a viral persistence or latent state. Understanding the nature of HIV-1 infection of astrocytes, which represents the largest population of cells in the brain, will contribute to the understanding of AIDS encephalopathy and the dementia that occurs in nearly one-quarter of all AIDS patients.

  1. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor produced by human umbilical tissue-derived cells is required for its effect on hippocampal dendritic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Janet; Kramer, Brian C; Hoskin, Casey; Thakker-Varia, Smita

    2012-06-01

    The potential for nonembryonic cells to promote differentiation of neuronal cells has therapeutic implications for regeneration of neurons damaged by stroke or injury and avoids many ethical and safety concerns. The authors have assessed the capacity of human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) and human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC) to enhance differentiation of rodent hippocampal neurons. Co-culture of hippocampal cells with hUTC or hMSC in transwell inserts for 3 days resulted in increase of several dendritic parameters including the number and length of primary dendrites. The effect of hUTC or hMSC on dendritic maturation was only apparent on neurons grown for 2 weeks in vitro prior to co-culture. Changes in dendritic morphology in the presence of hUTC were also accompanied by increased expression of the presynaptic marker synaptotagmin and the postsynaptic marker postsynaptic density protein 95 kDa (PSD95) suggesting that there may also be an increase in the number of synapses formed in the presence of hUTC. The effect of hUTC and hMSC on hippocampal cells in co-culture was comparable to those induced by treatment with recombinant human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) implying that a similar factor may be released from hUTC or hMSC. Analysis of hUTC-conditioned medium by ELISA demonstrated that BDNF was indeed secreted. An antibody that blocks the actions of BDNF partially inhibited the actions of hUTC on dendritic morphology suggesting that BDNF is at least one of the factors secreted from the cells to promote dendritic maturation. These results indicate that hUTC secrete biologically active BDNF, which can affect dendritic morphology.

  2. Iodothyronine deiodinase activities in fetal rat tissues at several levels of iodine deficiency: a role for the skin in 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder-van der Elst, J P; van der Heide, D; Morreale de Escobar, G; Obregón, M J

    1998-05-01

    Iodothyronine deiodinases, types I, II, and III (D1, D2, and D3) activities were measured in tissues of fetal rats, at 18 and 21 days of gestation, at several levels of iodine deficiency (ID): mild ID diet (MID) and moderately severe ID, MID + 0.005% perchlorate (MID+P). D2 was present in fetal skin, increased between days 18 and 21, and also in MID and MID+P. In skin, D3 increased during ID at day 18, whereas there was a decrease at day 21. Skin T4 decreased in MID and MID+P, showing an inverse relationship with D2. Skin T3 decreased at day 18 in MID and MID+P but increased at day 21, probably because of the increased D2 and decreased D3, maintaining T3 concentrations. No effect of ID was observed on hepatic D1. D2 increased in brain and brown adipose tissue at day 21 in MID+P. No changes were found in maternal placental D2 and D3, but D2 and D3 increased in the fetal placenta at day 18 in MID+P. A higher level of D2 is present in fetal skin than in the brain. As the activity is increased, in even mild ID (and already at 18 days) it can be concluded that skin D2 is likely to be of considerable physiological importance, at least for fetal thyroid hormone economy, by contributing to the intracellular T3 content of the skin and, possibly, to the plasma T3.

  3. Different effects of scopolamine on learning, memory, and nitric oxide metabolite levels in hippocampal tissues of ovariectomized and Sham-operated rats

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    Hamid Azizi-Malekabadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Different effects of scopolamine on learning, memory, and nitric oxide (NO metabolites in hippocampal tissues of ovariectomized (OVX and sham-operated rats were investigated. The animals in the Sham-Scopolamine (Sham-Sco and OVX-Scopolamine (OVX-Sco Groups were treated with 2 mg/kg scopolamine before undergoing the Morris water maze, while the animals in the Sham and OVX Groups received saline. The time latency and path length were significantly higher in both the Sham-Sco and the OVX-Sco Groups, in comparison with the Sham and OVX Groups, respectively (p<0.001. Significantly lower NO metabolite levels in the hippocampi of the Sham-Sco Group were observed, compared with the Sham Group (p<0.001, while there was no significant difference between the OVX-Sco and OVX Groups. The decreased NO level in the hippocampus may play a role in the learning and memory deficits induced by scopolamine. However, it seems that the effect of scopolamine on hippocampal NO differs between situations of presence and absence of ovarian hormones.

  4. Developmental changes of cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase functions after transplantation of fetal liver tissue suspension into spleens of adult syngenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupp, A; Trautmann, A K; Krausse, T; Klinger, W

    1998-06-01

    Fetal liver tissue suspensions were transplanted into the spleens of adult male syngenic Fisher 344 inbred rats. Animals were sacrificed at 3 days, 1, 2, 4 weeks, and 2, 4 and 6 months after transplantation and cytochrome P450 (P450) dependent monooxygenase functions in spleen and liver 9000 g supernatants were assessed by measuring three model reactions for different P450 subtypes: ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD; mainly 1A), ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation (ECOD; predominantly 1A, 2A, 2B) and ethylmorphine N-demethylation (END; mainly 3A). Values of transplant recipients were compared to those of sham operated and age matched control rats. Spleen weights were significantly higher in transplanted rats, compared to controls or sham operated animals, but there was no influence of the transplants within the spleens on liver weights. With fetal livers at the 21st day of gestation, the day of transplantation, a weak EROD and ECOD, but no END activity was seen. Spleens of controls or sham operated animals displayed nearly no P450 mediated monooxygenase functions. In the explant containing spleens a significant and increasing EROD activity was found from 4 weeks after surgery on and an ECOD activity already 2 weeks after transplantation. END was only slightly enhanced at 6 months after surgery. The livers of all three groups of rats displayed normal EROD, ECOD and END activities. Transplantation of fetal liver tissue suspensions into the spleens did not influence the P450 dependent monooxygenase functions within the livers of the animals. From these results it can be concluded that intrasplenically transplanted liver cells originating from syngenic fetal liver tissue suspensions proliferate and differentiate within the host organs. They display P450 dependent monooxygenase functions with some developmental changes during the observed time period of 6 months.

  5. High-Resolution Magic-Angle Spinning-(1)H-NMR Spectroscopy-Based Metabolic Profiling of Hippocampal Tissue in Rats with Depression-Like Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Hayato; Oshima, Shinji; Ohara, Kousuke; Negishi, Akio; Hiroyama, Hanako; Nemoto, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Daisuke

    2017-06-01

    Depressive disorders cause large socioeconomic effects influencing not only the patients themselves but also their family and broader community as well. To better understand the physiologic factors underlying depression, in this study, we performed metabolomics analysis, an omics technique that comprehensively analyzes small molecule metabolites in biological samples. Specifically, we utilized high-resolution magic-angle spinning-(1)H-NMR (HRMAS-(1)H-NMR) spectroscopy to comprehensively analyze the changes in metabolites in the hippocampal tissue of rats exposed to chronic stress (CS) via multi-step principal component analysis (multi-step PCA). The rats subjected to CS exhibited obvious depression-like behaviors. High correlations were observed between the first principal component (PC1) score in the score plot obtained using multi-step PCA and measurements from depression-like behavioral testing (body weight, sucrose preference test, and open field test). Alanine, glutamate, glutamine, and aspartate levels in the hippocampal tissue were significantly lower, whereas N-acetylaspartate, myo-inositol, and creatine were significantly higher in the CS group compared to the control (non-CS) group. As alanine, glutamate, and glutamine are known to be involved in energy metabolism, especially in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, chronic exogenous stress may have induced abnormalities in energy metabolism in the brains of the rats. The results suggest that N-acetylaspartate and creatine levels may have increased in order to complement the loss of energy-producing activity resulting from the development of the depression-like disorder. Multi-step PCA therefore allowed an exploration of the degree of depression-like symptoms as represented by changes in intrinsic metabolites.

  6. Polymer-ceramic spiral structured scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: effect of hydroxyapatite composition on human fetal osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Chang, Wei; Lee, Paul; Wang, Yuhao; Yang, Min; Li, Jun; Kumbar, Sangamesh G; Yu, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    For successful bone tissue engineering, a scaffold needs to be osteoconductive, porous, and biodegradable, thus able to support attachment and proliferation of bone cells and guide bone formation. Recently, hydroxyapatites (HA), a major inorganic component of natural bone, and biodegrade polymers have drawn much attention as bone scaffolds. The present study was designed to investigate whether the bone regenerative properties of nano-HA/polycaprolactone (PCL) spiral scaffolds are augmented in an HA dose dependent manner, thereby establishing a suitable composition as a bone formation material. Nano-HA/PCL spiral scaffolds were prepared with different weight ratios of HA and PCL, while porosity was introduced by a modified salt leaching technique. Human fetal osteoblasts (hFOBs) were cultured on the nano-HA/PCL spiral scaffolds up to 14 days. Cellular responses in terms of cell adhesion, viability, proliferation, differentiation, and the expression of bone-related genes were investigated. These scaffolds supported hFOBs adhesion, viability and proliferation. Cell proliferation trend was quite similar on polymer-ceramic and neat polymer spiral scaffolds on days 1, 7, and 14. However, the significantly increased amount of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized matrix synthesis was evident on the nano-HA/PCL spiral scaffolds. The HA composition in the scaffolds showed a significant effect on ALP and mineralization. Bone phenotypic markers such as bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteonectin (ON), osteocalcin (OC), and type I collagen (Col-1) were semi-quantitatively estimated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. All of these results suggested the osteoconductive characteristics of HA/PCL nanocomposite and cell maturation were HA dose dependent. For instance, HA∶PCL = 1∶4 group showed significantly higher ALP mineralization and elevated levels of BSP, ON, OC and Col-I expression as compared other lower or higher ceramic ratios

  7. Polymer-ceramic spiral structured scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: effect of hydroxyapatite composition on human fetal osteoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Zhang

    Full Text Available For successful bone tissue engineering, a scaffold needs to be osteoconductive, porous, and biodegradable, thus able to support attachment and proliferation of bone cells and guide bone formation. Recently, hydroxyapatites (HA, a major inorganic component of natural bone, and biodegrade polymers have drawn much attention as bone scaffolds. The present study was designed to investigate whether the bone regenerative properties of nano-HA/polycaprolactone (PCL spiral scaffolds are augmented in an HA dose dependent manner, thereby establishing a suitable composition as a bone formation material. Nano-HA/PCL spiral scaffolds were prepared with different weight ratios of HA and PCL, while porosity was introduced by a modified salt leaching technique. Human fetal osteoblasts (hFOBs were cultured on the nano-HA/PCL spiral scaffolds up to 14 days. Cellular responses in terms of cell adhesion, viability, proliferation, differentiation, and the expression of bone-related genes were investigated. These scaffolds supported hFOBs adhesion, viability and proliferation. Cell proliferation trend was quite similar on polymer-ceramic and neat polymer spiral scaffolds on days 1, 7, and 14. However, the significantly increased amount of alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and mineralized matrix synthesis was evident on the nano-HA/PCL spiral scaffolds. The HA composition in the scaffolds showed a significant effect on ALP and mineralization. Bone phenotypic markers such as bone sialoprotein (BSP, osteonectin (ON, osteocalcin (OC, and type I collagen (Col-1 were semi-quantitatively estimated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. All of these results suggested the osteoconductive characteristics of HA/PCL nanocomposite and cell maturation were HA dose dependent. For instance, HA∶PCL = 1∶4 group showed significantly higher ALP mineralization and elevated levels of BSP, ON, OC and Col-I expression as compared other lower or higher ceramic

  8. Fetal Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Fetal Circulation Updated:Oct 18,2016 click to enlarge The ... fetal heart. These two bypass pathways in the fetal circulation make it possible for most fetuses to survive ...

  9. Fetal life malnutrition was not reflected in the relative abundances of adiponectin and leptin mRNAs in adipose tissue in male mink kits at 9.5 weeks of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Connie Frank; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition in fetal life and during suckling have in some animal studies resulted in adaptive changes related to the fat and glucose metabolism, which in the long term might predispose the offspring for metabolic disorders such as obesity later in life. The objective was to study...... the effect of fetal life malnutrition in male mink on the gene expression of leptin and adiponectin in different adipose tissue sites. Results: Thirty-two male mink, strict carnivore species, exposed to low (FL) or adequate (FA) protein provision the last 16.3 ± 1.8 days of fetal life and randomly assigned.......5 weeks of age. Relative abundances of leptin and adiponectin mRNAs were different between adipose tissue sites and were significantly higher in subcutaneous than in perirenal and mesenteric tissues. Conclusion:Fetal life protein malnutrition in male mink, did not result in adaptive changes in the gene...

  10. Fetal life malnutrition was not reflected in the relative abundances of adiponectin and leptin mRNAs in adipose tissue in male mink kits at 9.5 weeks of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Connie F.; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-01-01

    the effect of fetal life malnutrition in male mink on the gene expression of leptin and adiponectin in different adipose tissue sites. Results: Thirty-two male mink, strict carnivore species, exposed to low (FL) or adequate (FA) protein provision the last 16.3 ± 1.8 days of fetal life and randomly assigned......Background: Malnutrition in fetal life and during suckling have in some animal studies resulted in adaptive changes related to the fat and glucose metabolism, which in the long term might predispose the offspring for metabolic disorders such as obesity later in life. The objective was to study.......5 weeks of age. Relative abundances of leptin and adiponectin mRNAs were different between adipose tissue sites and were significantly higher in subcutaneous than in perirenal and mesenteric tissues. Conclusion:Fetal life protein malnutrition in male mink, did not result in adaptive changes in the gene...

  11. Maternal obesity induced by a 'cafeteria' diet in the rat does not increase inflammation in maternal, placental or fetal tissues in late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Rachael C; Waddell, Brendan J; Mark, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    Obesity during pregnancy can cause serious complications for maternal and infant health. While this has often been attributed to increased inflammation during obese pregnancy, human and animal studies exhibit variable results with respect to the inflammatory status of the mother, placenta and fetus. Cafeteria (CAF) feeding induces more inflammation than standard high-fat feeding in non-pregnant animal models. This study investigated whether maternal obesity induced by a CAF diet increases maternal, fetal or placental inflammation. Maternal obesity was established in rats by 8 weeks of pre-pregnancy CAF feeding. Maternal plasma inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, MCP1, GRO/KC, MIP-2 and TNFα) and expression of inflammatory genes (Tnfα, Il-6, Il-1β, Tlr2, Tlr4, Cox2 and Emr1) in maternal, placental and fetal tissues were measured at day 21 of gestation. Despite CAF animals having 63% more central body fat than controls at day 21 of gestation, plasma inflammatory markers were not increased; indeed, levels of IL-6, IL-12p40 and MIP2 were reduced slightly. Similarly, inflammatory gene expression remained largely unaffected by CAF feeding, except for slight reductions to Tlr4 and Emr1 expression in CAF maternal adipose tissue, and reduced Tlr4 expression in male labyrinth zone (LZ). The junctional zone (JZ) displayed increased Il-6 expression in CAF animals when fetal sexes were combined, but no inflammatory genes were affected by the CAF diet in fetal liver. Maternal obesity induced by a CAF diet before and during pregnancy does not increase the inflammatory status of the mother, placenta or fetus in late gestation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Glutathione-S-transferase and tyrosine hydroxylase activity in human adrenal medulla. Differences between fetal and adult tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César García

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de caracterizar la glándula adrenal humana en estado fetal (10 a 12 semanas y adulta (post-morten se determinaron las actividades específicas de la enzimas glutatión-S-transferasa (GST y tirosina hidroxilasa (TH, así como las de las catecolaminas (CA: adrenalina (A; noradrenalina (NA y dopamina (DA, utilizando Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Resolución con detecci ón electroquímica (HPLC-DE. La GST fue determinada utilizando 1-cloro-2,4- dinitrobenzeno como substrato electrofílico y la actividad TH fue determinada por medición de la L-DOPA formada a partir de la L-tirosina utilizando un HPLCDE. Los resultados indican que la NA fue la principal CA presente en el período fetal estudiado. Una disminución en la actividad de NA acompañado por un ligero incremento en la de A fue detectada con el aumento de la edad fetal. En el tejido adulto la A fue la principal CA y presentó una cantidad de DA (0,046 % del total de CA 35 veces menor que en el tejido fetal (1,60 %. La actividad específica de la TH presentó diferencias al ser comparada con el tejido fetal y fue significativamente mayor (p < 0,001 en el tejido fetal. La actividad de la GST fue también significativamente superior (p < 0,001 en el tejido adulto cuando se comparó con el fetal. Los resultados indican un relativamente pobre aporte de la células fetales, en cuanto a su actividad TH. Los cambios detectados en la actividad enzimática específica de la GST entre el tejido adulto y fetal pueden revelar una diferencia en la capacidad entre estos tejidos para metabolizar xenobioticos y toxinas endógenas. Estos resultados pudieran contribuir a la explicación de los resultados del implante de células catecolaminérgicas en la enfermedad de Parkinson.

  13. Drug resistance in cortical and hippocampal slices from resected tissue of epilepsy patients: no significant impact of P-glycoprotein and Multidrug resistance associated proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora eSandow

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistant patients undergoing epilepsy surgery have a good chance to become sensitive to anticonvulsant medication, suggesting that the resected brain tissue is responsible for drug resistance. Here, we address the question whether P-glycoprotein (Pgp and multidrug resistance associated proteins (MRPs expressed in the resected tissue contribute to drug resistance in vitro. Effects of anti-epileptic drugs (carbamazepine, sodium valproate, phenytoin and two unspecific inhibitors of Pgp and MRPs (verapamil and probenecid on seizure-like events induced in slices from 35 hippocampal and 35 temporal cortex specimens of altogether 51 patients (161 slices were studied. Although in slice preparations the blood brain barrier is not functional, we found that seizure-like events predominantly persisted in the presence of anticonvulsant drugs (90% and also in the presence of verapamil and probenecid (86%. Following subsequent co-administration of antiepileptic drugs and drug transport inhibitors, seizure-like events continued in 63% of 143 slices. Drug sensitivity in slices was recognized either as transition to recurrent epileptiform transients (30% or as suppression (7%, particularly by perfusion with carbamazepine in probenecid containing solutions (43%, 9%. Summarizing responses to co-administration from more than one slice per patient revealed that suppression of seizure-like activity in all slices was only observed in 7 % of patients. Patients whose tissue was completely or partially sensitive (65 % presented with higher seizure frequencies than those with resistant tissue (35 %. However, corresponding subgroups of patients don’t differ with respect to expression rates of drug transporters. Our results imply that parenchymal MRPs and Pgp are not responsible for drug resistance in resected tissue.

  14. Color Tissue Doppler to Analyze Fetal Cardiac Time Intervals: Normal Values and Influence of Sample Gate Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willruth, A M; Steinhard, J; Enzensberger, C; Axt-Fliedner, R; Gembruch, U; Doelle, A; Dimitriou, I; Fimmers, R; Bahlmann, F

    2016-02-04

    Purpose: To assess the time intervals of the cardiac cycle in healthy fetuses in the second and third trimester using color tissue Doppler imaging (cTDI) and to evaluate the influence of different sizes of sample gates on time interval values. Materials and Methods: Time intervals were measured from the cTDI-derived Doppler waveform using a small and large region of interest (ROI) in healthy fetuses. Results: 40 fetuses were included. The median gestational age at examination was 26 + 1 (range: 20 + 5 - 34 + 5) weeks. The median frame rate was 116/s (100 - 161/s) and the median heart rate 143 (range: 125 - 158) beats per minute (bpm). Using small and large ROIs, the second trimester right ventricular (RV) mean isovolumetric contraction times (ICTs) were 39.8 and 41.4 ms (p = 0.17), the mean ejection times (ETs) were 170.2 and 164.6 ms (p < 0.001), the mean isovolumetric relaxation times (IRTs) were 52.8 and 55.3 ms (p = 0.08), respectively. The left ventricular (LV) mean ICTs were 36.2 and 39.4 ms (p = 0.05), the mean ETs were 167.4 and 164.5 ms (p = 0.013), the mean IRTs were 53.9 and 57.1 ms (p = 0.05), respectively. The third trimester RV mean ICTs were 50.7 and 50.4 ms (p = 0.75), the mean ETs were 172.3 and 181.4 ms (p = 0.49), the mean IRTs were 50.2 and 54.6 ms (p = 0.03); the LV mean ICTs were 45.1 and 46.2 ms (p = 0.35), the mean ETs were 175.2 vs. 172.9 ms (p = 0.29), the mean IRTs were 47.1 and 50.0 ms (p = 0.01), respectively. Conclusion: Isovolumetric time intervals can be analyzed precisely and relatively independent of ROI size. In the near future, automatic time interval measurement using ultrasound systems will be feasible and the analysis of fetal myocardial function can become part of the clinical routine.

  15. Influence of recipient gender on cytochrome P450 isoforms expression in intrasplenic fetal liver tissue transplants in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupp, Amelie; Hugenschmidt, Sabine; Danz, Manfred; Müller, Dieter

    2003-06-30

    Rat livers display a sex-specific cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms expression pattern which is regulated by a differential profile of growth hormone (GH) secretion. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether liver cell transplants at an ectopic site are also subject to this influence. Fetal liver tissue suspensions of mixed gender were transplanted into the spleen of adult male or female syngenic recipients. Four months after grafting transplant recipients and age-matched controls were treated with beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), phenobarbital (PB), dexamethasone (DEX) or the solvents and sacrificed 24 or 48 h thereafter. Livers and intrasplenic transplants were evaluated for the expression of the P450 subtypes 1A1, 2B1, 2E1, 3A2 and 4A1 by means of immunohistochemistry. The livers of both male and female rats displayed nearly no P450 1A1, but a distinct P450 2B1, 2E1, 3A2 and 4A1 expression. Whereas no sex differences were seen in the P450 1A1 expression, the immunostaining for P450 2B1, 3A2 and 4A1 was stronger in males and that for P450 2E1 in females. Similarly, in the intrasplenic liver cell transplants almost no P450 1A1, but a noticeable P450 2B1, 2E1, 3A2 and 4A1 expression was observed. Like in the respective livers, the immunostaining for P450 2B1, 3A2 and 4A1 was stronger in the transplants hosted by male than by female rats, whereas the opposite was the case for the P450 2E1 expression. Both in livers and transplants with some sex-specific differences P450 1A1 and 2E1 expression was induced by BNF, that of P450 2B1 by BNF and PB, and that of P450 3A2 by PB and DEX. These results indicate that the P450 system of ectopically transplanted liver cells is influenced by the gender of the recipient organism like that of the orthotopic livers.

  16. Maternal endocrine adaptation throughout pregnancy to nutritional manipulation: consequences for maternal plasma leptin and cortisol and the programming of fetal adipose tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispham, J; Gopalakrishnan, G S; Dandrea, J; Wilson, V; Budge, H; Keisler, D H; Broughton Pipkin, F; Stephenson, T; Symonds, M E

    2003-08-01

    Maternal nutrient restriction at specific stages of gestation has differential effects on fetal development such that the offspring are programmed to be at increased risk of adult disease. We investigated the effect of gestational age and maternal nutrition on the maternal plasma concentration of leptin and cortisol together with effects on fetal adipose tissue deposition plus leptin, IGF-I, IGF-II ligand, and receptor mRNA abundance near to term. Singleton bearing ewes were either nutrient restricted (NR; consuming 3.2-3.8 MJ/d of metabolizable energy) or fed to appetite (consuming 8.7-9.9 MJ/d) over the period of maximal placental growth, i.e. between 28 and 80 d gestation. After 80 d gestation, ewes were either fed to calculated requirements, consuming 6.7-7.5 MJ/d, or were fed to appetite and consumed 8.0-10.9 MJ/d. Pregnancy resulted in a rise in plasma leptin concentration by 28 d gestation, which continued up to 80 d gestation when fed to appetite but not with nutrient restriction. Plasma cortisol was also lower in NR ewes up to 80 d gestation, a difference no longer apparent when food intake was increased. At term, irrespective of maternal nutrition in late gestation, fetuses sampled from ewes NR in early gestation possessed more adipose tissue, whereas when ewes were fed to appetite throughout gestation, fetal adipose tissue deposition and leptin mRNA abundance were both reduced. These changes may result in the offspring of NR mothers being at increased risk of obesity in later life.

  17. Do very small adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (a proposed risk factor for insulin insensitivity) have a fetal origin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Hou, Lei; Johnsen, Lærke;

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that fetal life malnutrition affects preferences for fat deposition in the body thereby predisposing for visceral adipocity and associated disorders in glucose-insulin regulation. In this study, we aimed to test the hypotheses that late-gestation undernutrition 1) has...

  18. Effect of fetal undernutrition and postnatal overfeeding on rat adipose tissue and organ growth at early stages of postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Valverde, D; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, P; Gutierrez-Arzapalo, P Y; López de Pablo, A L; Carmen González, M; López-Giménez, R; Somoza, B; Arribas, S M

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine and perinatal life are critical periods for programming of cardiometabolic diseases. However, their relative role remains controversial. We aimed to assess, at weaning, sex-dependent alterations induced by fetal or postnatal nutritional interventions on key organs for metabolic and cardiovascular control. Fetal undernutrition was induced by dam food restriction (50 % from mid-gestation to delivery) returning to ad libitum throughout lactation (Maternal Undernutrition, MUN, 12 pups/litter). Postnatal overfeeding (POF) was induced by litter size reduction from normally fed dams (4 pups/litter). Compared to control, female and male MUN offspring exhibited: 1) low birth weight and accelerated growth, reaching similar weight and tibial length by weaning, 2) increased glycemia, liver and white fat weights; 3) increased ventricular weight and tendency to reduced kidney weight (males only). Female and male POF offspring showed: 1) accelerated growth; 2) increased glycemia, liver and white fat weights; 3) unchanged heart and kidney weights. In conclusion, postnatal accelerated growth, with or without fetal undernutrition, induces early alterations relevant for metabolic disease programming, while fetal undernutrition is required for heart abnormalities. The progression of cardiac alterations and their role on hypertension development needs to be evaluated. The similarities between sexes in pre-pubertal rats suggest a role of sex-hormones in female protection against programming.

  19. Comparison of gene-specific DNA methylation patterns in equine induced pluripotent stem cell lines with cells derived from equine adult and fetal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Catherine H; Greve, Line; Novakofski, Kira D; Fortier, Lisa A

    2012-07-01

    Cellular pluripotency is associated with expression of the homeobox transcription factor genes NANOG, SOX2, and POU5F1 (OCT3/4 protein). Some reports suggest that mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) may express increased quantities of these genes, creating the possibility that MPCs are more "pluripotent" than other adult cell types. The objective of this study was to determine whether equine bone marrow-derived MPCs had gene expression or DNA methylation patterns that differed from either early fetal-derived or terminally differentiated adult cells. Specifically, this study compared DNA methylation of the NANOG and SOX2 promoter regions and concurrent gene expression of NANOG, SOX2, and POU5F1 in equine induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, fetal fibroblasts, fetal brain cells, adult chondrocytes, and MPCs. Results indicate that NANOG and POU5F1 were not detectable in appreciable quantities in tissues other than the equine iPS cell lines. Equine iPS cells expressed large quantities of all three genes examined. Significantly increased quantities of SOX2 were noted in iPS cells and both fetal-derived cell types compared with adult cells. MPCs and adult chondrocytes expressed equivalent, low quantities of SOX2. Further, NANOG and SOX2 expression inversely correlated with the DNA methylation pattern in the promoter region, such that as gene expression increased, DNA methylation decreased. The equine iPS cell lines examined demonstrated DNA methylation and gene expression patterns that were consistent with pluripotency features described in other species. Results do not support previous reports that NANOG, SOX2, and POU5F1 are poised for increased activity in MPCs compared with other adult cells.

  20. A new formula for estimating fetal weight: The impression of biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, mid-thigh soft tissue thickness and femoral length on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Mojgan; Negahdari, Arezou; Roknsharifi, Shima; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2013-11-01

    Abdominal circumference (AC), biparietal diameters (BPD) and femoral length (FL) are now the main parameters used to obtain estimated fetal weight (EFW). Although the role of soft tissue parameters in determining fetal weight was proved but clinical attention to mid-thigh soft tissue thickness (STT) is limited. To find the impression of STT on birth weight (BW) and represent a new predictive formula. One hundred and fourteen normal singleton term (36-42w) pregnancies with delivery within 72 hours were randomly selected to participate in this prospective cohort study. Variables measured by ultrasonography before birth included: AC, BPD, FL and STT. The actual neonatal BW was also measured after birth. Linear regression model was used and R square and p-value were reported. The mean (SD) of BW was 3406 (405) gr. R square was best fit for the model that STT was added to AC, BPD, FL (r(2): 0.77). R square for the model using BPD, AC, FL and model using BPD, STT, FL was the same (r(2): 0.7). Best fit formula was Log (BW)= 2.461+0.003BPD+0.001AC+0.007STT+0.005FL. 0.67, pSTT (R: 0.50, pSTT (p=0.001) CONCLUSION: This study showed adding STT to other variables in predictive models of fetal weight would provide a nice estimation (r(2)=0.77) and in cases that measuring AC is suboptimal STT may be a good replacement.

  1. Hippocampal formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; van Strien, N.M.; Witter, M.P.; Paxinos, G.

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal formation and parahippocampal region are prominent components of the rat nervous system and play a crucial role in learning, memory, and spatial navigation. Many new details regarding the entorhinal cortex have been discovered since the previous edition, and the growing interest in t

  2. Glutathione-S-transferase and tyrosine hydroxylase activity in human adrenal medulla. Differences between fetal and adult tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Julio César García; Aida Leiva; Salvador Viniegra

    2005-01-01

    Con el objetivo de caracterizar la glándula adrenal humana en estado fetal (10 a 12 semanas) y adulta (post-morten) se determinaron las actividades específicas de la enzimas glutatión-S-transferasa (GST) y tirosina hidroxilasa (TH), así como las de las catecolaminas (CA): adrenalina (A); noradrenalina (NA) y dopamina (DA), utilizando Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Resolución con detecci ón electroquímica (HPLC-DE). La GST fue determinada utilizando 1-cloro-2,4- dinitrobenzeno como substrato el...

  3. POSTEMBRYONIC SUBTOTIPOTENT STEM CELLS DERIVED FROM A VARIETY OF FETAL TISSUES HAVE MULTIPLE DIFFERENTIATION POTENTIAL AND GREATLY CONTRIBUTE TO STEM CELL PLASTICITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To isolate and culture PSSCs from different tissues and determine their characteristics anddifferentiation potential in vitro. Methods: PSSCs were isolated and cultured from human aborted fetal bone mar-row, liver, skin, skeletal muscle, lung and pancreas. Morphology and biological activities were assessed. Pheno-types were analyzed by FACS and immunohistochemieal staining. We tested the potential of PSSCs to differentiateinto multiple cell lineages, such as bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, nerve , endothelial cell and hematopoietic progeni-tor cells. Results: PSSCs could be isolated from human aborted fetal above. PSSCs were a population of adherent cells characterized by a typical fibroblast - like morphology. PSSCs had few endoplasmic reticulum and mitochon- drias. It could be expanded by successive cycles of trypsinization, seeding, and culture ex vitro. PSSCs had a capa-bility of passaging up to 30 times without displaying significant changes in morphology, with a 2 -fold increase in cell number after each passage. Cell cycle analysis revealed that more than 90 % of cells were in the G0/G1 phases, while a small population of cells were actively engaged in proliferation. These cells were positively stained by FITC labeled CD44, CD29, CD13, but negative for CD34, HLA- DR. The culture- expanded PSSCs have multilineage differentiation potential giving rise to cells of osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, myogenic, neurogenic, hematopoietic and endotielial lineages. Conclusion:PSSCs may still remain in a number of tissues after embryonic development,could be identified by their phenotypic and functional characteristics, and contribute significantly to multipotent differentiation outside the tissue of origin.

  4. Biobanking of patient and patient-derived xenograft ovarian tumour tissue: efficient preservation with low and high fetal calf serum based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkema, Nicolette G; Tomar, Tushar; Duiker, Evelien W; Jan Meersma, Gert; Klip, Harry; van der Zee, Ate G J; Wisman, G Bea A; de Jong, Steven

    2015-10-06

    Using patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) for preclinical cancer research demands proper storage of tumour material to facilitate logistics and to reduce the number of animals needed. We successfully established 45 subcutaneous ovarian cancer PDXs, reflecting all histological subtypes, with an overall take rate of 68%. Corresponding cells from mouse replaced human tumour stromal and endothelial cells in second generation PDXs as demonstrated with mouse-specific vimentin and CD31 immunohistochemical staining. For biobanking purposes two cryopreservation methods, a fetal calf serum (FCS)-based (95%v/v) "FCS/DMSO" protocol and a low serum-based (10%v/v) "vitrification" protocol were tested. After primary cryopreservation, tumour take rates were 38% and 67% using either the vitrification or FCS/DMSO-based cryopreservation protocol, respectively. Cryopreserved tumour tissue of established PDXs achieved take rates of 67% and 94%, respectively compared to 91% using fresh PDX tumour tissue. Genotyping analysis showed that no changes in copy number alterations were introduced by any of the biobanking methods. Our results indicate that both protocols can be used for biobanking of ovarian tumour and PDX tissues. However, FCS/DMSO-based cryopreservation is more successful. Moreover, primary engraftment of fresh patient-derived tumours in mice followed by freezing tissue of successfully established PDXs is the preferred way of efficient ovarian cancer PDX biobanking.

  5. Spontaneous intra-uterine growth restriction modulates the endocrine status and the developmental expression of genes in porcine fetal and neonatal adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondret, Florence; Père, Marie-Christine; Tacher, Sandrine; Daré, Sophie; Trefeu, Christine; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle; Louveau, Isabelle

    2013-12-01

    Low birth weight is correlated with low adiposity at birth, a phenotype that influences neonatal survival and later adiposity. A better understanding of events affecting the fetal adipose tissue development and its functionality around birth is thus needed. This study was undertaken to examine the impact of spontaneous intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) on circulating concentrations of hormones and nutrients together with the developmental expression patterns of various genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue of pig fetus during the last third of pregnancy and just after birth. At 71 and 112 days post-conception and 2 days postnatal, pairs of same-sex piglets were chosen within litters to have either a medium (MBW) or a low (LBW) weight (n=6 pairs at each stage). The results indicate that IUGR counteracts the temporal fall of DLK1 gene expression in developing adipose tissue across gestation. It also attenuates the time-dependent increase in expression levels of many genes promoting adipocyte differentiation (PPARG, CEBPA) and lipogenesis (LPL, SREBF1, FASN, FABP4). Opposite responses to IUGR were observed for the IGF system, so that IGF1 mRNA levels were lower (Padipose tissue of LBW piglets compared with MBW piglets. The plasma insulin concentration and the mRNA levels of insulin receptor (INSR) and insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) in adipose tissue were also greater in LBW piglets at day 2 postnatal. The data indicate that IUGR delays the normal ontogeny of adipose tissue across gestation and affects the insulin and IGF axes around birth.

  6. Fetal stem cells obtained from amniotic fluid and wharton's jelly expanded using platelet lysate for tissue engineering applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, A. R.; Aleixo, I; Frias, A.M.; Fernandes, S.; Rocha, L; Reis, R. L.; Neves, N.M

    2012-01-01

    Extra-embryonic tissues, such as amniotic fluid (AF) and Wharton´s Jelly (WJ) of umbilical cord, offer many advantages over both embryonic and adult stem cell sources. These tissues are routinely discarded at parturition and the extracorporeal nature of these cell sources facilitates isolation, as well as the comparatively large volume and ease of physical manipulation theoretically increases the number of stem cells that can be isolated. Autologous approaches to use MSCs, n...

  7. Vigilancia Fetal

    OpenAIRE

    SAONA UGARTE, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    La percepción de la actividad fetal por la madre es la técnica más antigua y menos costosa de controlar el bienestar fetal. Tradicionalmente se ha considerado la disminución o ausencia de movimientos fetales percibidos por la madre, como una señal de alarma, en especial cuando existe insuficiencia útero placentaria. Varios investigadores han descrito el valor del registro diario de movimientos fetales como un método para identificar el feto en peligrote morir. El poder discernir si el feto se...

  8. Levels of PAH-DNA adducts in placental tissue and the risk of fetal neural tube defects in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yue; Jin, Lei; Wang, Linlin; Li, Zhiwen; Zhang, Le; Zhu, Huiping; Finnell, Richard H; Zhou, Guodong; Ren, Aiguo

    2013-06-01

    We examined the relationship between PAH-DNA adduct levels in the placental tissue, measured by a highly sensitive (32)P-postlabeling assay, and the risk of fetal neural tube defects (NTDs). We further explored the interaction between PAH-DNA adducts and placental PAHs with respect to NTD risk. Placental tissues from 80 NTD-affected pregnancies and 50 uncomplicated normal pregnancies were included in this case-control study. Levels of PAH-DNA adducts were lower in the NTD group (8.12 per 10(8) nucleotides) compared to controls (9.92 per 10(8) nucleotides). PAH-DNA adduct concentrations below the median was associated with a 3-fold increased NTD risk. Women with a low PAH-DNA adduct level in concert with a high placental PAH level resulted in a 10-fold elevated risk of having an NTD-complicated pregnancy. A low level of placental PAH-DNA adducts was associated with an increased risk of NTDs; this risk increased dramatically when a low adduct level was coupled with a high placental PAH concentration.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells of Fetal (Wharton's Jelly and Adult (Adipose Tissue Origin during Prolonged In Vitro Expansion: Considerations for Cytotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Christodoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are somatic cells with a dual capacity for self-renewal and differentiation, and diverse therapeutic applicability, both experimentally and in the clinic. These cells can be isolated from various human tissues that may differ anatomically or developmentally with relative ease. Heterogeneity due to biological origin or in vitro manipulation is, nevertheless, considerable and may equate to differences in qualitative and quantitative characteristics which can prove crucial for successful therapeutic use. With this in mind, in the present study we have evaluated the proliferation kinetics and phenotypic characteristics of MSCs derived from two abundant sources, that is, fetal umbilical cord matrix (Wharton's jelly and adult adipose tissue (termed WJSC and ADSC, resp. during prolonged in vitro expansion, a process necessary for obtaining cell numbers sufficient for clinical application. Our results show that WJSC are derived with relatively high efficiency and bear a substantially increased proliferation capacity whilst largely sustaining the expression of typical immunophenotypic markers, whereas ADSC exhibit a reduced proliferation potential showing typical signs of senescence at an early stage. By combining kinetic with phenotypic data we identify culture thresholds up to which both cell types maintain their stem properties, and we discuss the practical implications of their differences.

  10. Transplantation of fetal liver tissue suspension into the spleens of adult syngenic rats: inducibility of cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase functions by beta-naphthoflavone, phenobarbital and dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupp, A; Lau, K; Trautmann, A K; Krausse, T; Klinger, W

    1999-01-01

    In the present study the effects of beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), phenobarbital (PB) and dexamethasone (DEX) on cytochrome P450 (P450) dependent monooxygenase functions were investigated in intrasplenic liver cell explants in comparison to adult liver. Fetal liver tissue suspensions were transplanted into the spleens of 60-90 days old adult male syngenic Fisher 344 inbred rats. 2, 4 or 6 months after surgery, transplant recipients and age matched controls were orally treated with BNF (1x50 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.)), PB (1x50 mg/kg b.wt.), DEX (for 3 days 4 mg/kg b.wt. per day), or the respective solvents (dimethylsulfoxide or 0.9% NaCl). The animals were sacrificed 24 (BNF, DEX) or 48 (PB) hours after the last treatment. P450 mediated monooxygenase functions were measured in spleen and liver 9000 g supernatants by three model reactions for different P450 subtypes: ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD; 1A), ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation (ECOD; 1A, 2A, 2B), and ethylmorphine N-demethylation (END; 3A). Spleen weights were significantly higher in transplanted rats, compared to controls, at all three time points after surgery. Induction with PB or DEX, and in some cases also with BNF, lead to a significant increase in liver weights of transplant recipients and control rats independent of the time after transplantation. In contrast, there was no influence on spleen weights due to BNF or PB. At all time points after surgery, with DEX a marked decrease in body weights, weights of adrenal glands and of lymphatic organs like thymus glands and spleens was observed, with the weights of the transplant containing spleens being still higher in comparison to control organs. Spleens of control animals displayed nearly no P450 mediated monooxygenase functions neither without nor with induction. After transplantation, however, significant EROD and ECOD, but hardly any END activities were seen in the host organs at all three time points after surgery. In transplant containing spleens

  11. [Hippocampal stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollnik, J D; Traitel, B; Dietrich, B; Lenz, O

    2015-02-01

    Unilateral cerebral ischemia of the hippocampus is very rare. This paper reviews the literature and presents the case of a 59-year-old woman with an amnestic syndrome due to a left hippocampal stroke. The patient suffered from retrograde amnesia which was most severe over the 2 days prior to presenting and a slight anterograde amnesia. In addition, a verbal memory disorder was confirmed 1 week after admission by neurological tests. As risk factors, arterial hypertension and a relative hyper-beta lipoproteinemia were found. This case shows that unilateral amnestic stroke, e.g. in the hippocampus region, may be the cause of an amnestic syndrome and should be included in the differential diagnostics.

  12. Molecular cloning and in silico analysis of the duck (Anas platyrhynchos MEF2A gene cDNA and its expression profile in muscle tissues during fetal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hehe Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of myogenic enhancer transcription factor 2a (MEF2A in avian muscle during fetal development is unknown. In this work, we cloned the duck MEF2A cDNA sequence (GenBank accession no. HM460752 and examined its developmental expression profiles in cardiac muscle, non-vascular smooth muscle and skeletal muscle. Duck MEF2A cDNA comprised 1479 bp encoding 492 amino acid residues. In silico analysis showed that MEF2A contained MADS (MCM1, AGAMOUS, DEFICIENS and SRF -serum response factor, MEF2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK transcription domains with high homology to related proteins in other species. Modified sites in these domains were conserved among species and several variants were found. Quantitative PCR showed that MEF2A was expressed in all three muscles at each developmental stage examined, with the expression in smooth muscle being higher than in the other muscles. These results indicate that the conserved domains of duck MEF2A, including the MADS and MEF2 domains, are important for MEF2A transcription factor function. The expression of MEF2A in duck smooth muscle and cardiac muscle suggests that MEF2A plays a role in these two tissues.

  13. A cGMP-applicable expansion method for aggregates of human neural stem and progenitor cells derived from pluripotent stem cells or fetal brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Brandon C; Gowing, Geneviève; Svendsen, Clive N

    2014-06-15

    A cell expansion technique to amass large numbers of cells from a single specimen for research experiments and clinical trials would greatly benefit the stem cell community. Many current expansion methods are laborious and costly, and those involving complete dissociation may cause several stem and progenitor cell types to undergo differentiation or early senescence. To overcome these problems, we have developed an automated mechanical passaging method referred to as "chopping" that is simple and inexpensive. This technique avoids chemical or enzymatic dissociation into single cells and instead allows for the large-scale expansion of suspended, spheroid cultures that maintain constant cell/cell contact. The chopping method has primarily been used for fetal brain-derived neural progenitor cells or neurospheres, and has recently been published for use with neural stem cells derived from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. The procedure involves seeding neurospheres onto a tissue culture Petri dish and subsequently passing a sharp, sterile blade through the cells effectively automating the tedious process of manually mechanically dissociating each sphere. Suspending cells in culture provides a favorable surface area-to-volume ratio; as over 500,000 cells can be grown within a single neurosphere of less than 0.5 mm in diameter. In one T175 flask, over 50 million cells can grow in suspension cultures compared to only 15 million in adherent cultures. Importantly, the chopping procedure has been used under current good manufacturing practice (cGMP), permitting mass quantity production of clinical-grade cell products.

  14. Fetal Macrosomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might need special care in the hospital's neonatal intensive care unit. Keep in mind that your baby might ... References Copel JA, et al. Fetal macrosomia. In: Obstetric Imaging. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www. ...

  15. Fetal Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... needle placement during certain prenatal tests, such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Determine fetal position before ... home. Accessed Aug. 11, 2015. Ghidini A. Diagnostic amniocentesis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 11, ...

  16. Fetal pain

    OpenAIRE

    Adama van Scheltema, Phebe

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the fetus is capable of exhibiting a stress response to intrauterine needling, resulting in alterations in fetal stress hormone levels. Intrauterine transfusions are performed by inserting a needle either in the umbilical cord root at the placental surface (PCI), or in the intrahepatic portion of the umbilical vein (IHV). Aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that fetal hormonal changes during intrauterine transfusion are more pronounced when the needl...

  17. Shotgun proteomic analysis of intervertebral disc tissues from fetal and adult subjects%胎儿和成人椎间盘的shotgun蛋白质组学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜; 赵丹慧; 吴成爱; 田伟; 肖斌; 呼建文

    2010-01-01

    目的 在整体水平上揭示椎间盘生长期和发育成熟期蛋白的表达及差异.方法 对24周胎儿,25和30岁人椎间盘组织进行shotgun蛋白质组学技术分析.提取椎间盘组织蛋白,十二烷基磺酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳结合反向高效液相色谱串联质谱shotgun蛋白质组学技术分析.使用IPI蛋白数据库与基因本体论(GOA)进行蛋白识别及生物信息分析.结果 24周胎儿.25和30岁共识别的非冗余蛋白分别为524,181和172种;仅在胎儿中识别的高质量蛋白有174种,25和30岁共有但胎儿中未识别的高质量蛋白有20种.3个样品的生物化学特性趋势相似.结论 使用shotgun蛋白质组学技术可展示胎儿和成人椎间盘的蛋白质表达谱,揭示生长期和发育成熟期蛋白表达的数量、种类及其差异.%Objective To acquire information on the IVD (intervertebral disc) proteome and analyze the differences of identified proteins during IVD development and maturation by a shotgun proteomics approach so as to identify the global protein expression patterns of IVD tissues from fetus and adults.Methods A 24-week fetus, a 25- and a 30-year-old adult IVD samples were collected and SDS-PAGE,RP-HPLC MS/MS shotgun analyses were performed. Bioinformational analysis with International Protein Index (IPI) database and functional classification with Gene Ontology Annotation (GOA) database were used to evaluate the results. Results A total of 524 proteins were identified in fetal IVD sample while 181and 172 proteins were observed in 25 and 30-year-old samples respectively. Fotty-eight proteins existed in three samples while 84 proteins in the 25-years-old and 30-years-old samples but not in fetus. Only 174high-quality proteins existed in fetal sample while 20 high-quality proteins in 25-year-old and 30-year-old samples. The physico-chemical characteristics of identified proteins displayed similar trends in three samples. Conclusions This study represents the

  18. Innervation and functional characteristics of connective tissues, especially elastic fibers, in human fetal thoracic intervertebral articular capsule and its surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Miya; Yasui, Masaya; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Sugiura, Yasuo

    2003-05-01

    The articular capsules between the thoracic vertebrae, which have physiologically different functions from those of other levels of the vertebrae, have yet to be subjected to neuro-anatomical and fine structural analysis. In the present study, we analyzed serial frozen sections of decalcified thoracic vertebrae in human fetuses, and identified the articular capsule tissue with its unique distribution of elastic fibers. The fine structure of the elastic fibers was studied by transmission electron microscopy. In the early-stage fetus, the fibrous membrane forming the lateral intervertebral articular capsule contained abundant thin elastic fibers consisting of microfibrils. In the late-stage fetus, the lateral capsule of fibrous membrane was occupied by thick elastic fibers. A medial articular capsule, namely the ligamenta flava, contained numerous thick elastic fibers in both early and late-stage fetuses. The distributional differences in nerve fibers between early and late-stage fetuses were determined by immunostaining, using antibodies raised against protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5; ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase). Innervation by PGP 9.5 immunoreactive fibers was limited to the areas of the articular capsules near the blood vessels, which may indicate their functional relation with blood flow. No PGP 9.5 immunoreactive fibers were found in the ligamenta flava of the late-stage fetus. Innervation might be directly involved in the development of the intervertebral articular capsules in normal human fetuses.

  19. 器官移植中流产胎儿组织利用规则探讨%On the Rule of the Use of Fetal Tissue from Abortion in Organ Transplant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邾立军

    2011-01-01

    有关人工流产的伦理争议不能绝对禁止合法流产的胎儿或胎儿组织基于伦理上的用途.为了避免有人为了得到胎儿组织作为医疗用途有意怀孕而人工流产,应当坚持同意对胎儿组织利用的决定与同意人工流产的决定相分离原则.同时,将利用流产胎儿组织进行移植的范围在法律上严格限定.%The use of fetal organ and tissue through induced abortions is challenged, different from spontaneous abortions. In order to prevent intended pregnancy and abortion of getting fetalt issue for medical purposes, it should adhere to spera-tion priciple between consent to use fetal tissue and consent to abortion. Meanwhile, the use of aborted fetal tissue for transplantation should be strictly limited by law.

  20. MR evaluation of fetal demise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, Teresa; Chauvin, Nancy Anne; Johnson, Ann M.; Kramer, Sandra Sue; Epelman, Monica [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Capilla, Elena [Hospital Universitario Clinico San Carlos de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Fetal demise is an uncommon event encountered at MR imaging. When it occurs, recognition by the interpreting radiologist is important to initiate appropriate patient management. To identify MR findings of fetal demise. Following IRB approval, a retrospective search of the radiology fetal MR database was conducted searching the words ''fetal demise'' and ''fetal death.'' Fetuses with obvious maceration or no sonographic confirmation of death were excluded. Eleven cases formed the study group. These were matched randomly to live fetuses of similar gestational age. Images were reviewed independently by three pediatric radiologists. The deceased fetus demonstrates decreased MR soft-tissue contrast and definition of tissue planes, including loss of gray-white matter differentiation in the brain. The signal within the cardiac chambers, when visible, is bright on HASTE sequences from the stagnant blood; the heart is small. Pleural effusions and decreased lung volumes may be seen. Interestingly, the fetal orbits lose their anatomical round shape and become smaller and more elliptical; a dark, irregular rim resembling a mask may be seen. Although fetal demise is uncommonly encountered at MR imaging, radiologists should be aware of such imaging findings so prompt management can be instituted. (orig.)

  1. Tissue-specific and minor inter-individual variation in imprinting of IGF2R is a common feature of Bos taurus Concepti and not correlated with fetal weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bebbere

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R is essential for prenatal growth regulation and shows gene dosage effects on fetal weight that can be affected by in-vitro embryo culture. Imprinted maternal expression of murine Igf2r is well documented for all fetal tissues excluding brain, but polymorphic imprinting and biallelic expression were reported for IGF2R in human. These differences have been attributed to evolutionary changes correlated with specific reproductive strategies. However, data from species suitable for testing this hypothesis are lacking. The domestic cow (Bos taurus carries a single conceptus with a similar gestation length as human. We identified 12 heterozygous concepti informative for imprinting studies among 68 Bos taurus fetuses at Day 80 of gestation (28% term and found predominantly maternal IGF2R expression in all fetal tissues but brain, which escapes imprinting. Inter-individual variation in allelic expression bias, i.e. expression of the repressed paternal allele relative to the maternal allele, ranged from 4.6-8.9% in heart, 4.3-10.2% in kidney, 6.1-11.2% in liver, 4.6-15.8% in lung and 3.2-12.2% in skeletal muscle. Allelic bias for mesodermal tissues (heart, skeletal muscle differed significantly (P<0.05 from endodermal tissues (liver, lung. The placenta showed partial imprinting with allelic bias of 22.9-34.7% and differed significantly (P<0.001 from all other tissues. Four informative fetuses were generated by in-vitro fertilization (IVF with embryo culture and two individuals displayed fetal overgrowth. However, there was no evidence for changes in imprinting or DNA methylation after IVF, or correlations between allelic bias and fetal weight. In conclusion, imprinting of Bos taurus IGF2R is similar to mouse except in placenta, which could indicate an effect of reproductive strategy. Common minor inter-individual variation in allelic bias and absence of imprinting abnormalities in IVF fetuses suggest

  2. Ex vivo culture of human fetal gonads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A; Nielsen, J.E.; Perlman, S

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What are the effects of experimentally manipulating meiosis signalling by addition of retinoic acid (RA) in cultured human fetal gonads? SUMMARY ANSWER: RA-treatment accelerated meiotic entry in cultured fetal ovary samples, while addition of RA resulted in a dysgenetic gonadal...... phenotype in fetal testis cultures. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: One of the first manifestations of sex differentiation is the initiation of meiosis in fetal ovaries. In contrast, meiotic entry is actively prevented in the fetal testis at this developmental time-point. It has previously been shown that RA......-treatment mediates initiation of meiosis in human fetal ovary ex vivo. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This was a controlled ex vivo study of human fetal gonads treated with RA in 'hanging-drop' tissue cultures. The applied experimental set-up preserves germ cell-somatic niche interactions and the investigated...

  3. Fetal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adama van Scheltema, Phebe

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the fetus is capable of exhibiting a stress response to intrauterine needling, resulting in alterations in fetal stress hormone levels. Intrauterine transfusions are performed by inserting a needle either in the umbilical cord root at the placental surface (PCI), o

  4. 钾电流在甲基苯丙胺引起神经元损伤中的作用%The involvement of outward potassium currents in methamphetamine-induced hippocampal neuron damage in fetal rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋雷; 王军; 高蓉; 肖杭; 张劲松

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of methamphetamine (Meth) on the outward K+ currents and elucidate the role of outward K+ channels in Meth induced hippocampal neuron damage.Methods Hippocampal neurons were harvest from 18-day-old embryonic rats and were divided into two groups:the control group and the Meth treated group.Both of 4-AP and TEA sensitive K+ currents were recorded after the treatment of Meth by performing the whole cell patch clamp.Furthermore,the MTT and TUNEL assays were performed to evaluate the effects of K+ channel on hippocampal neuron damage mediated by Meth.For statistical comparison,One-way ANOVA and LSD multiple comparison test or t-test was used.P-value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.Results The density of 4-AP sensitive K+ channel currents in Meth treated group [(120.1 ± 19.6) pA/pF,n =7] were significantly increased when compared with control group [(87.4 ± 12.5) pA/pF,n =10,P <0.01] and the increments of the currents induced by Meth was dose dependent.The MTT data showed that the cell viability was obviously decreased in Meth treated group (48.72 ± 4.38) % relative to the control group (100.07 ± 3.36) %.Moreover,application of K+ channel antagonist,4-AP (61.39 ± 3.15)%,and the high K+ solution (78.25 ± 9.42) % substantially enhanced the cell viability.The TUNEL assay showed there were protective effects of 4-AP and the high K+ solution against neuron damage observed during cells exposed to Meth.Conclusions The increments of 4-AP sensitive K+ channel currents induced by Meth might be involved in hippocampal neuron damage.%目的 探讨甲基苯丙胺(Meth)对外向钾电流的影响及外向型钾通道在Meth引起的海马神经元损伤过程中的作用.方法 以分离出的怀孕18 d Sprague-Dawley大鼠胎鼠的海马神经元作为实验对象,分为对照组和Meth处理组,采用全细胞膜片钳的实验方法,分别记录Meth处理后外向4-AP和TEA敏感型钾电流大小的变

  5. Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Couillard-Després, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    Although significant inconsistencies remain to be clarified, a role for neurogenesis in hippocampal functions, such as cognition, has been suggested by several reports. Yet, investigation in various species of mammals, including humans, revealed that rates of hippocampal neurogenesis are steadily declining with age. The very low levels of hippocampal neurogenesis persisting in the aged brain have been suspected to underlie the cognitive deficits observed in elderly. However, current evidence ...

  6. mRNA Quantification of NIPBL Isoforms A and B in Adult and Fetal Human Tissues, and a Potentially Pathological Variant Affecting Only Isoform A in Two Patients with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puisac, Beatriz; Teresa-Rodrigo, María-Esperanza; Hernández-Marcos, María; Baquero-Montoya, Carolina; Gil-Rodríguez, María-Concepción; Visnes, Torkild; Bot, Christopher; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Kaiser, Frank J; Ramos, Feliciano J; Ström, Lena; Pié, Juan

    2017-02-23

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a congenital developmental disorder characterized by craniofacial dysmorphia, growth retardation, limb malformations, and intellectual disability. Approximately 60% of patients with CdLS carry a recognizable pathological variant in the NIPBL gene, of which two isoforms, A and B, have been identified, and which only differ in the C-terminal segment. In this work, we describe the distribution pattern of the isoforms A and B mRNAs in tissues of adult and fetal origin, by qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction). Our results show a higher gene expression of the isoform A, even though both seem to have the same tissue distribution. Interestingly, the expression in fetal tissues is higher than that of adults, especially in brain and skeletal muscle. Curiously, the study of fibroblasts of two siblings with a mild CdLS phenotype and a pathological variant specific of the isoform A of NIPBL (c.8387A > G; P.Tyr2796Cys), showed a similar reduction in both isoforms, and a normal sensitivity to DNA damage. Overall, these results suggest that the position of the pathological variant at the 3´ end of the NIPBL gene affecting only isoform A, is likely to be the cause of the atypical mild phenotype of the two brothers.

  7. mRNA Quantification of NIPBL Isoforms A and B in Adult and Fetal Human Tissues, and a Potentially Pathological Variant Affecting Only Isoform A in Two Patients with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Puisac

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS is a congenital developmental disorder characterized by craniofacial dysmorphia, growth retardation, limb malformations, and intellectual disability. Approximately 60% of patients with CdLS carry a recognizable pathological variant in the NIPBL gene, of which two isoforms, A and B, have been identified, and which only differ in the C-terminal segment. In this work, we describe the distribution pattern of the isoforms A and B mRNAs in tissues of adult and fetal origin, by qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Our results show a higher gene expression of the isoform A, even though both seem to have the same tissue distribution. Interestingly, the expression in fetal tissues is higher than that of adults, especially in brain and skeletal muscle. Curiously, the study of fibroblasts of two siblings with a mild CdLS phenotype and a pathological variant specific of the isoform A of NIPBL (c.8387A > G; P.Tyr2796Cys, showed a similar reduction in both isoforms, and a normal sensitivity to DNA damage. Overall, these results suggest that the position of the pathological variant at the 3´ end of the NIPBL gene affecting only isoform A, is likely to be the cause of the atypical mild phenotype of the two brothers.

  8. Porcine Fetal Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Cartilage Tissue Engineering%胎猪BMSC体外构建软骨的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘李娜; 何爱娟; 周广东; 曹卫刚

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the optimal seed cell for cartilage engineering by comparing the chondrogenesis capability of porcine fetal bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (fBMSCs) and adult porcine BMSCs (aBMSCs). Methods Fetal pigs with gestational age of 70 days were obtained by the uterine-incision delivery, and primary fBMSCs were isolated from the bone marrow. Primary aBMSCs were isolated from the bone marrow which was aspirated from iliac. Cell morphology of the two kinds of cells at passage 3 were observed after in vitro proliferation. The two kinds of cells at passages 3 were characterized by their osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential. Then the fBMSCs and aBMSCs were separately seeded onto a polyglycolic acid/polylactic acid (PGA/PLA) scaffold with the concentration of 1 ×108 cells/mL. All specimens were harvested after 8 weeks' culture in vitro. Gross observation, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) quantification, total collagen quantification and histology were used to compare related characteristic differences of engineered cartilage formed by the two kinds of cells. Results fBMSCs had better proliferation and multiple differentiation capacity than aBMSCs. The two kinds of cells both formed mature cartilage after 8 weeks of culture in vitro, and the engineered cartilage of aBMSCs group had better appearance. The GAG content and total collagen content of the cartilage formed by fBMSCs were both higher than the cartilage formed by aBMSCs (P<0.01). Histology and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the cartilage formed by fBMSCs have more compact tissue structure. The cartilage matrix staining of cartilage formed by fBMSCs were stronger than that of cartilage formed by aBMSCs. Conclusion The fBMSCs seems to be the optimal seed cells for cartilage tissue engineering.%目的比较胎猪骨髓间充质干细胞(Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells,BMSCs)和成年猪BMSCs构建软骨能力的差异,寻找合适的同种异体组织工

  9. Erythropoietin elevation in the chronically hyperglycemic fetal lamb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipps, A.F. (Univ. of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington) Widness, J.A.; Garcia, J.F.; Raye, J.R.; Swartz, R.

    1982-05-01

    The effects of chronic fetal glucose infusion upon fetal oxygenation and endogenous erythropoietin (Ep) production were studied using the chronically catheterized fetal lamb. Fetal glucose infusion at rates between 5 and 20 mg/kg/min resulted in sustained fetal hyperglycemia. During glucose infusion (maximal glucose concentration achieved = 55.4 +/- 3.7 mg/dl) fetal arterial oxygen contents fell from 5.8 +/- 0.9 to 4.2 +/- 1.0 ml/dl while no changes were observed in simultaneously sampled, noninfused twins. Although plasma insulin concentration rose in the infused fetuses, the elevations were inconstant and no relationship between fetal plasma insulin concentration and decrement in fetal oxygen content was evident. The changes in plasma Ep concentration were noted prior to any significant fetal metabolic acidosis (as evidence of tissue hypoxia) and no changes in plasma Ep concentration were observed in simultaneously sampled noninfused twins. No relationship was apparent between fetal arterial plasma insulin and Ep concentrations. Since neither fetal anemia nor hemodilution occurred in these preparations, glucose-induced fetal hyposemia is the likely mechanism behind elevated fetal Ep concentrations in these experiments. Similarities between this animal model and human fetuses and infants of diabetic mothers suggest that chronic in utero hypoxemia may be a common feature responsible for such diverse abnomalities as polycythemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and late fetal demise. The mechanism behind the glucose-induced fetal hypoxemia is not known.

  10. Fetal fornix transection and gestation length in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, T J; Li, C; Vincent, S E; Nijland, M J

    2006-08-01

    Experiments in several species indicate that the hippocampus influences hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. In fetal sheep, simultaneous ACTH and cortisol rises over the last 30 days of gestation peak at term and are necessary for birth. We hypothesized that if the fetal hippocampal formation is functional in late gestation, loss of hippocampal input to the HPA axis following fetal fornix transection would change gestation length in comparison to controls. At 118-121 days of gestation (dG), stereotaxic technique was used in fetal sheep to sham transect (SHAM; n = 8) or transect (FXTX; n = 6) the dorsal fornix at the level of the hippocampal commissure. No differences were found between SHAM and FXTX fetuses in daily hormone profiles over the last week of gestation or in gestation length (148.0 +/- 1.2 vs. 149.0 +/- 0.4 dG, respectively). We conclude that the fetal hippocampus is immature in late gestation and we speculate that an immature hippocampus is necessary for the loss of negative feedback control that gives rise to the long term, simultaneous increases in ACTH and cortisol that are indispensable for labor and delivery at term in sheep.

  11. Ovine fetal necrobacillosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Boye, Mette; Aalbæk, B.

    2007-01-01

    were found in several tissues. Histologically, placental lesions were characterized by locally diffuse infiltration of neutrophils, closely associated with abundant small Gram-negative and FISH-positive rods, thrombosis and necrosis. Lesions in the fetal-maternal interface were multifocal and consisted...... of villous necrosis and suppurative inflammation. Spread to the fetus from the placenta appeared to occur in two ways. Some fetuses had multifocal necrotizing hepatitis consistent with haematogenous spread through the umbilical vein; further dissemination to other organs occurred. Transplacental spread...

  12. Effects of an overload of animal protein on the rat: brain DNA alterations and tissue morphological modifications during fetal and post-natal stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, A M; Sticchi, R; Boschi, G; Vetrani, A; Salvatore, G

    1985-01-01

    On account of many literature reports about the definite correlation between high animal protein intake and cardiovascular diseases, we have studied the effect of a hyperproteic purified diet (casein 40%, lactalbumin 20%) on fetal and post-natal (not further than 40th day) stage of the rat, when cell subdivision process is faster and therefore damage by nutritional imbalance is certainly more serious. Litters of rats were grouped according to mother's (either hyperproteic or common basic) and rat's (after lactation) diet. Brain DNA and histology of various organs were studied. Hyperproteic diet during fetal stage and lactation would inhibit brain cell subdivision since overall content of brain DNA would be decreased on autoptic finding. Structural changes were also shown in liver, heart, kidney and adrenal cortex, especially when hyperproteic diet was continued even after lactation.

  13. Fetal syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Anne; Chitayat, David; Blaser, Susan; Keating, Sarah; Shannon, Patrick

    2014-08-06

    We explored the prevalence of syringomyelia in a series of 113 cases of fetal dysraphism and hindbrain crowding, of gestational age ranging from 17.5 to 34 weeks with the vast majority less than 26 weeks gestational age. We found syringomyelia in 13 cases of Chiari II malformations, 5 cases of Omphalocele/Exostrophy/Imperforate anus/Spinal abnormality (OEIS), 2 cases of Meckel Gruber syndrome and in a single pair of pyopagus conjoined twins. Secondary injury was not uncommon, with vernicomyelia in Chiari malformations, infarct like histology, or old hemorrhage in 8 cases of syringomyelia. Vernicomyelia did not occur in the absence of syrinx formation. The syringes extended from the sites of dysraphism, in ascending or descending patterns. The syringes were usually in a major proportion anatomically distinct from a dilated or denuded central canal and tended to be dorsal and paramedian or median. We suggest that fetal syringomyelia in Chiari II malformation and other dysraphic states is often established prior to midgestation, has contributions from the primary malformation as well as from secondary in utero injury and is anatomically and pathophysiologically distinct from post natal syringomyelia secondary to hindbrain crowding.

  14. The role of fetal epithelial tissues in the maturation/differentiation of bone marrow-derived precursors into dendritic epidermal T cells (DETC) of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingl, G; Elbe, A; Paer, E; Kilgus, O; Strohal, R; Schreiber, S

    1991-01-01

    Our attempts to clarify the contribution of the thymic vs. the cutaneous microenvironment in the maturation of dendritic epidermal T cell (DETC) precursors into DETC gave diverse results. In one series of experiments, we found that i.v. injection of fetal thymocytes (containing a TCR V gamma 3-expressing subpopulation), but not of adult thymocytes (containing no TCR V gamma 3+ cells) results in the appearance of CD3/TCR V gamma 3+ dendritic epidermal cells (=DETC). In other experiments, we have obtained evidence that transplantation of day 16 fetal skin onto a Thy-1-disparate recipient results in the appearance of donor-type DETC. Our further observation that the transplanted skin contains CD45+/Thy-1+/CD3- lymphocytes, but no mature T cells, therefore implies that fetal skin can provide stimuli promoting the expression of CD3/TCR genes in immature (CD3-) DETC precursors. It remains to be seen whether both or only one of these maturational pathways are (is) followed under physiological conditions.

  15. Fetal epigenetic programming of adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Andrée-Anne; Hivert, Marie-France; Bouchard, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetics generates a considerable interest in the field of research on complex traits, including obesity and diabetes. Recently, we reported a number of epipolymorphisms in the placental leptin and adiponectin genes associated with maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy. Our results suggest that DNA methylation could partly explain the link between early exposure to a detrimental fetal environment and an increased risk to develop obesity and diabetes later in life. This brief report discusses the potential importance of adipokine epigenetic changes in fetal metabolic programming. Additionally, preliminary data showing similarities between methylation variations of different tissues and cell types will be presented along with the challenges and future perspectives of this emerging field of research.

  16. Magnetic resonance methods in fetal neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailath-Pokorny, M; Kasprian, G; Mitter, C; Schöpf, V; Nemec, U; Prayer, D

    2012-10-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an established clinical adjunct for the in-vivo evaluation of human brain development. Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied with MRI from the 18th week of gestation to term and relies primarily on T2-weighted sequences. Recently diffusion-weighted sequences have gained importance in the structural assessment of the fetal brain. Diffusion-weighted imaging provides quantitative information about water motion and tissue microstructure and has applications for both developmental and destructive brain processes. Advanced magnetic resonance techniques, such as spectroscopy, might be used to demonstrate metabolites that are involved in brain maturation, though their development is still in the early stages. Using fetal MRI in addition to prenatal ultrasound, morphological, metabolic, and functional assessment of the fetus can be achieved. The latter is not only based on observation of fetal movements as an indirect sign of activity of the fetal brain but also on direct visualization of fetal brain activity, adding a new component to fetal neurology. This article provides an overview of the MRI methods used for fetal neurologic evaluation, focusing on normal and abnormal early brain development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Medio ambiente fetal Fetal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Bernardo Ospina Arcila

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Con base en el artículo clásico "Monte Everest in utero" se hace un análisis de la situación que afronta el feto con respecto a la disponibilidad de oxígeno; para una mejor comprensión del sufrimiento fetal se revisan los siguientes conceptos: presión barométrica, presión parcial del oxígeno atmosférico, presión parcial del oxígeno inspirado, presión barométrica intranasal, ecuación del gas alveolar y difusión de gases a través de la membrana alvéolo capilar. Based on the classical paper by Eastman "Mount Everest in utero" an analysis is made of the situation faced by the fetus with respect to the availability of oxygen; for a better under. standing of fetal distress the following concepts are reviewed: barometric pressure, partial pressure of atmosferic oxygen, partial pressure of inspired oxygen, barometric intranasal pressure, alveolar gas equation and gas diffusion through alveolo-capilar membrane.

  18. Fetal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokyta, Richard

    2008-12-01

    The fetus reacts to nociceptive stimulations through different motor, autonomic, vegetative, hormonal, and metabolic changes relatively early in the gestation period. With respect to the fact that the modulatory system does not yet exist, the first reactions are purely reflexive and without connection to the type of stimulus. While the fetal nervous system is able to react through protective reflexes to potentially harmful stimuli, there is no accurate evidence concerning pain sensations in this early period. Cortical processes occur only after thalamocortical connections and pathways have been completed at the 26th gestational week. Harmful (painful) stimuli, especially in fetuses have an adverse effect on the development of humans regardless of the processes in brain. Moreover, pain activates a number of subcortical mechanisms and a wide spectrum of stress responses influence the maturation of thalamocortical pathways and other cortical activation which are very important in pain processing.

  19. Hippocampal development at gestation weeks 23 to 36. An ultrasound study on preterm neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajic, Dragan; Raininko, Raili [Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Ewald, Uwe [Uppsala University, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    During fetal development, the hippocampal structures fold around the hippocampal sulcus into the temporal lobe. According to the literature, this inversion should be completed at gestation week (GW) 21. Thereafter, the hippocampal shape should resemble the adult shape. However, incomplete hippocampal inversion (IHI) is found in 19% of the common population. The aim of this study was to study fetal hippocampal development by examining neonates born preterm. We analyzed cranial ultrasound examinations, performed as a part of the routine assessment of all preterm infants, over a 3-year period and excluded the infants with brain pathology. The final material consisted of 158 children born <35 GW. A rounded form (the ratio between the horizontal and vertical diameters of the hippocampal body {<=}1) in coronal slices was considered the sign of IHI. The age at examination was 23-24 GW in 24 neonates, 25-28 GW in 70 neonates, and 29-36 GW in 64 neonates. IHI was found in 50%, 24%, and 14%, respectively. The difference between the neonates <25 GW and {>=}25 GW was statistically highly significant (p < 0.001). The frequency of bilateral IHI was highest in the youngest age group. In the other groups, the left-sided IHI was the most common. In about 50% of the neonates, hippocampal inversion is not completed up to GW 24; but from 25 GW onwards, the frequency and laterality of IHI is similar to that in the adult population. (orig.)

  20. Inducers & Organizers in Human Fetal and Adult Lymphoid Tissues : the characterization of RORC+ innate lymphoid cells and RANKL+ marginal reticular cells in human fetal and adult secondary lymphoid organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hoorweg (Kerim)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The human immune system harbors the potential to generate novel lymphoid organs within inflamed tissues during disease. These tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) resemble lymph nodes and can contain segregated T and B cell areas, germinal centers, high endothelial venules a

  1. MR-determined hippocampal asymmetry in full-term and preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Deanne K; Wood, Stephen J; Doyle, Lex W; Warfield, Simon K; Egan, Gary F; Inder, Terrie E

    2009-02-01

    Hippocampi are asymmetrical in children and adults, where the right hippocampus is larger. To date, no literature has confirmed that hippocampal asymmetry is evident at birth. Furthermore, gender differences have been observed in normal hippocampal asymmetry, but this has not been examined in neonates. Stress, injury, and lower IQ have been associated with alterations to hippocampal asymmetry. These same factors often accompany preterm birth. Therefore, prematurity is possibly associated with altered hippocampal asymmetry. There were three aims of this study: First, we assessed whether hippocampi were asymmetrical at birth, second whether there was a gender effect on hippocampal asymmetry, and third whether the stress of preterm birth altered hippocampal asymmetry. This study utilized volumetric magnetic resonance imaging to compare left and right hippocampal volumes in 32 full-term and 184 preterm infants at term. Full-term infants demonstrated rightward hippocampal asymmetry, as did preterm infants. In the case of preterm infants, hippocampal asymmetry was proportional to total hemispheric asymmetry. This study is the first to demonstrate that the normal pattern of hippocampal asymmetry is present this early in development. We did not find gender differences in hippocampal asymmetry at term. Preterm infants tended to have less asymmetrical hippocampi than full-term infants, a difference which became significant after correcting for hemispheric brain tissue volumes. This study may suggest that hippocampal asymmetry develops in utero and is maintained into adulthood in infants with a normal neurological course.

  2. In vitro analysis and mechanical properties of twin screw extruded single-layered and coextruded multilayered poly(caprolactone) scaffolds seeded with human fetal osteoblasts for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Asli; Yu, Xiaojun; Valdevit, Antonio; Ritter, Arthur; Kalyon, Dilhan M

    2011-12-01

    In vitro culturing and mechanical properties of three types of three-dimensional poly(caprolactone) scaffolds with interconnecting open-foam networks are reported. The scaffolds targeted bone tissue regeneration and were fabricated using twin screw extrusion and coextrusion techniques, for continuous mixing/shaping and formation of single or multilayers with distinct and tailorable porosities and pore sizes. Human fetal preosteoblastic cells, hFOB, were cultured on the extruded and coextruded scaffolds under osteogenic supplements and the samples of the resulting tissue constructs were removed and characterized for cell viability and proliferation using the MTS assay, differentiation, and mineralized matrix synthesis via the alkaline phosphatase, ALP, activity and Alizarin Red staining and cell migration using confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The hFOB cells formed a confluent lining on scaffold surfaces, migrated to the interior and generated abundant extracellular matrix after 2 weeks of culturing, indicative of the promise of such scaffolds for utilization in tissue engineering. The scaffolds and tissue constructs exhibited compressive fatigue behavior that was similar to that of cancellous bone, suggesting the suitability of their use as bone graft substitutes especially for repair of critical-sized defects or nonunion fractures.

  3. Expression of growth differentiation factor 6 in the human developing fetal spine retreats from vertebral ossifying regions and is restricted to cartilaginous tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Aiqun; Shen, Bojiang; Williams, Lisa A; Bhargav, Divya; Gulati, Twishi; Fang, Zhimin; Pathmanandavel, Sarennya; Diwan, Ashish D

    2016-02-01

    During embryogenesis vertebral segmentation is initiated by sclerotomal cell migration and condensation around the notochord, forming anlagen of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs. The factors that govern the segmentation are not clear. Previous research demonstrated that mutations in growth differentiation factor 6 resulted in congenital vertebral fusion, suggesting this factor plays a role in development of vertebral column. In this study, we detected expression and localization of growth differentiation factor 6 in human fetal spinal column, especially in the period of early ossification of vertebrae and the developing intervertebral discs. The extracellular matrix proteins were also examined. Results showed that high levels of growth differentiation factor 6 were expressed in the nucleus pulposus of intervertebral discs and the hypertrophic chondrocytes adjacent to the ossification centre in vertebral bodies, where strong expression of proteoglycan and collagens was also detected. As fetal age increased, the expression of growth differentiation factor 6 was decreased correspondingly with the progress of ossification in vertebral bodies and restricted to cartilaginous regions. This expression pattern and the genetic link to vertebral fusion suggest that growth differentiation factor 6 may play an important role in suppression of ossification to ensure proper vertebral segmentation during spinal development.

  4. Empathy in hippocampal amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadle, J N; Tranel, D; Cohen, N J; Duff, M C

    2013-01-01

    Empathy is critical to the quality of our relationships with others and plays an important role in life satisfaction and well-being. The scientific investigation of empathy has focused on characterizing its cognitive and neural substrates, and has pointed to the importance of a network of brain regions involved in emotional experience and perspective taking (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, anterior insula, cingulate). While the hippocampus has rarely been the focus of empathy research, the hallmark properties of the hippocampal declarative memory system (e.g., representational flexibility, relational binding, on-line processing capacity) make it well-suited to meet some of the crucial demands of empathy, and a careful investigation of this possibility could make a significant contribution to the neuroscientific understanding of empathy. The present study is a preliminary investigation of the role of the hippocampal declarative memory system in empathy. Participants were three patients (1 female) with focal, bilateral hippocampal (HC) damage and severe declarative memory impairments and three healthy demographically matched comparison participants. Empathy was measured as a trait through a battery of gold standard questionnaires and through on-line ratings and prosocial behavior in response to a series of empathy inductions. Patients with hippocampal amnesia reported lower cognitive and emotional trait empathy than healthy comparison participants. Unlike healthy comparison participants, in response to the empathy inductions hippocampal patients reported no increase in empathy ratings or prosocial behavior. The results provide preliminary evidence for a role for hippocampal declarative memory in empathy.

  5. Fetal pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhatalo, S; van Nieuwenhuizen, O

    2000-05-01

    During the last few years a vivid debate, both scientifically and emotionally, has risen in the medical literature as to whether a fetus is able to feel pain during abortion or intrauterine surgery. This debate has mainly been inspired by the demonstration of various hormonal or motor reactions to noxious stimuli at very early stages of fetal development. The aims of this paper are to review the literature on development of the pain system in the fetus, and to speculate about the relationship between "sensing" as opposed to "feeling" pain and the number of reactions associated with painful stimuli. While a cortical processing of pain theoretically becomes possible after development of the thalamo-cortical connections in the 26th week of gestation, noxious stimuli may trigger complex reflex reactions much earlier. However, more important than possible painfulness is the fact that the noxious stimuli, by triggering stress responses, most likely affect the development of an individual at very early stages. Hence, it is not reasonable to speculate on the possible emotional experiences of pain in fetuses or premature babies. A clinically relevant aim is rather to avoid and/or treat any possibly noxious stimuli, and thereby prevent their potential adverse effects on the subsequent development.

  6. Gestational age dependent changes of the fetal brain, liver and adipose tissue fatty acid compositions in a population with high fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Offringa, Pieter J.; Boersma, E. Rudy; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: There are no data on the intrauterine fatty acid (FA) compositions of brain, liver and adipose tissue of infants born to women with high fish intakes. Subjects and methods: We analyzed the brain (n = 18), liver (n = 14) and adipose tissue (n = 11) FA compositions of 20 stillborn infant

  7. Gestational age dependent changes of the fetal brain, liver and adipose tissue fatty acid compositions in a population with high fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Offringa, Pieter J.; Boersma, E. Rudy; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: There are no data on the intrauterine fatty acid (FA) compositions of brain, liver and adipose tissue of infants born to women with high fish intakes. Subjects and methods: We analyzed the brain (n = 18), liver (n = 14) and adipose tissue (n = 11) FA compositions of 20 stillborn

  8. Caspase-3 expression in spinal tissue of retinoic acid induce spiua bifida fetal rat%维甲酸诱导脊柱裂胎鼠脊髓组织中Caspase-3表达情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马英桓; 袁正伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore caspase-3 expression in spinal tissue of retinoic acid induced spina bifida fetal rat. Methods Pregnant Wister rats with 10 days were used. Retinoic acid dissolved in olive oil (40mg /ml) were stomach fed for preparing the rat model of spina bifida malformations 135mg / kg). Control group only received olive oil. The animals were divided into 4 groups: pregnancy of 12 days, 15 days, 17 days and 20 days. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect and compare caspase-3 expression in different groups. Results The expression of caspase-3 increased at the day 15 after pregnancy, and maintained until day 20 in the spinal tissue of modeled fetal rat, which presented significant difference compared to that of control groups at the same pregnant time. At day 15, day 17 and day 20 of pregnancy, the number of caspase-3 positive cells was more in model animals than the control. Conclusions Retinoic acid induced spina bifida fetal rat demonstrates the increased caspase-3 expression in spinal tissue of fetal rats.%目的 本文旨在探讨维甲酸诱导脊柱裂胎鼠脊髓组织Caspase-3表达情况.方法 选取孕10d Wistar大鼠,实验组用溶有维甲酸(40mg/ml)的橄榄油,以135mg/kg经胃管注入给药制作脊柱裂畸形大鼠模型;对照组选取孕10 d Wistar大鼠给等量橄榄油.将实验组及对照组按照孕12、15、17和20 d分为4组.应用免疫组织化学方法比较分析Caspase-3在对照组、畸形组胎鼠脊髓组织细胞中的分布和表达情况.结果 脊柱裂大鼠脊髓神经组织中Caspase-3在15d开始增多,一直持续到20 d胚胎大鼠.其增高情况明显高于同一时间点对照组大鼠.胚胎15、17和20 d显性脊柱裂畸形鼠脊髓组织Caspase-3阳性细胞数多于对照组,荧光强度高于对照组.结论 维甲酸诱导的脊柱裂胎鼠Caspase-3表达明显高于正常发育胎鼠.

  9. The tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasmin extracellular proteolytic system regulates seizure-induced hippocampal mossy fiber outgrowth through a proteoglycan substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y P; Siao, C J; Lu, W; Sung, T C; Frohman, M A; Milev, P; Bugge, T H; Degen, J L; Levine, J M; Margolis, R U; Tsirka, S E

    2000-03-20

    Short seizure episodes are associated with remodeling of neuronal connections. One region where such reorganization occurs is the hippocampus, and in particular, the mossy fiber pathway. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we show here a critical role in vivo for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), an extracellular protease that converts plasminogen to plasmin, to induce mossy fiber sprouting. We identify DSD-1-PG/phosphacan, an extracellular matrix component associated with neurite reorganization, as a physiological target of plasmin. Mice lacking tPA displayed decreased mossy fiber outgrowth and an aberrant band at the border of the supragranular region of the dentate gyrus that coincides with the deposition of unprocessed DSD-1-PG/phosphacan and excessive Timm-positive, mossy fiber termini. Plasminogen-deficient mice also exhibit the laminar band and DSD- 1-PG/phosphacan deposition, but mossy fiber outgrowth through the supragranular region is normal. These results demonstrate that tPA functions acutely, both through and independently of plasmin, to mediate mossy fiber reorganization.

  10. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging: methods and techniques; Fetale Magnetresonanztomographie: Methoden und Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, P.C. [Zentrum fuer Anatomie und Zellbiologie, Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Arbeitsgruppe Integrative Morphologie; Stuhr, F.; Lindner, C.; Prayer, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik

    2006-02-15

    Since the introduction of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into prenatal diagnostics, advances in coil technology and development of ultrafast sequences have further enhanced this technique. At present numerous sequences are available to visualize the whole fetus with high resolution and image quality, even in late stages of pregnancy. Taking into consideration the special circumstances of examination and adjusting sequence parameters to gestational age, fetal anatomy can be accurately depicted. The variety of sequences also allows further characterization of fetal tissues and pathologies. Fetal MRI not only supplies additional information to routine ultrasound studies, but also reveals fetal morphology and pathology in a way hitherto not possible. (orig.) [German] Seit Einfuehrung der fetalen Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) in die praenatale Diagnostik wurde das Verfahren durch neue Spulentechniken und die Entwicklung ultraschneller Sequenzen kontinuierlich weiter entwickelt. Gegenwaertig steht eine Vielzahl von Sequenzen zur Verfuegung, die es erlauben, mit hoher Bildqualitaet und raeumlicher Aufloesung selbst in fortgeschrittenen Schwangerschaftsstadien den gesamten Feten darzustellen. Unter Beruecksichtigung der speziellen Untersuchungsbedingungen und des Schwangerschaftsalters kann so die fetale Anatomie genau abgebildet werden. Die Vielfalt an Sequenzen und deren gezielter Einsatz ermoeglichen es weiter, fetale Gewebe und Pathologien naeher zu charakterisierten. Auf diese Weise liefert die fetale MRT nicht nur Zusatzinformationen zur Routineultraschalluntersuchung, sie gibt auch Aufschluss ueber bestimmte fetale Morphologien und Pathologien, die bisher nicht darstellbar waren. (orig.)

  11. Challenge of Fetal Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports from the National Medical Care Utilization and Expenditure Survey Clearinghouse on Health Indexes Statistical Notes for ... Fetal mortality is a major, but often overlooked, public health problem. Fetal mortality refers to spontaneous intrauterine ...

  12. Neuropeptides and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaben, M J; Gray, W P

    2013-12-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis is important for modulating the behavioural responses to stress and for certain forms of learning and memory. The mechanisms underlying the necessary coupling of neuronal activity to neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) function remain poorly understood. Within the dentate subgranular stem cell niche, local interneurons appear to play an important part in this excitation-neurogenesis coupling via GABAergic transmission, which promotes neuronal differentiation and integration. Neuropeptides such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and galanin have emerged as important mediators for signalling local and extrinsic interneuronal activity to subgranular zone precursors. Here we review the distribution of these neuropeptides and their receptors in the neurogenic area of the hippocampus and their precise effects on hippocampal neurogenesis. We also discuss neuropeptides' potential involvement in functional aspects of hippocampal neurogenesis particularly their involvement in the modulation of learning and memory and behavior responses.

  13. Empathy in hippocampal amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle N Beadle

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The scientific investigation of empathy has become a cornerstone in the field of social cognition. Empathy is critical to the quality of our relationships with others and plays an important role in life satisfaction and well-being. Scientific investigations of empathy have focused on characterizing its cognitive and neural substrates, pointing to a network of brain regions involved in emotional experience and perspective taking (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, anterior insula, cingulate. While the hippocampus has rarely been the focus of empathy research, we propose that there are compelling reasons to inquire about the contribution of the hippocampus to social cognition. We propose that the hallmark properties of the hippocampal declarative memory system (e.g., representational flexibility, relational binding, on-line processing capacity make it well-suited to meet the demands of empathy. The present study is a preliminary investigation of the role of the hippocampal declarative memory system in empathy. Participants were three patients (1 female with focal, bilateral hippocampal (HC damage and severe declarative memory impairments and three healthy demographically matched comparison participants. Empathy was measured as a trait through a battery of gold standard questionnaires and through on-line ratings and prosocial behavior in response to a series of empathy inductions. Patients with hippocampal amnesia reported lower cognitive and emotional trait empathy than healthy comparison participants. In response to the empathy inductions, unlike healthy comparison participants, hippocampal patients reported no increase in empathy ratings or prosocial behavior from the control condition. Taken together, these results provide preliminary evidence for a role of hippocampal declarative memory in empathy.

  14. Fetal behavioral teratology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Gerard H. A.; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Ververs, F. F. Tessa

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound studies of fetal motor behavior provide direct - in vivo - insight in the functioning of the motor component of the fetal central nervous system. In this article, studies are reviewed showing changes in the first timetable of appearance of fetal movements, changes in quality and/or quanti

  15. Evaluation of the fetal ventricular function in hyperthyroidism mother by Tissue Doppler Tei in-dex%妊娠期甲状腺功能亢进孕妇胎儿心功能的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦志平; 申志扬; 卢学峰

    2014-01-01

    目的:采用组织多普勒 Tei 指数评价妊娠期合并甲状腺功能亢进孕妇胎儿心功能的变化。方法选取确诊为妊娠期甲亢孕妇(A 组)及妊娠合并亚临床型甲亢孕妇(B 组)各30例,采用组织多普勒技术分别测定各组孕妇胎儿的左、右心室 Tei 指数,测定胎儿心室腔的大小,计算胎儿左室心肌重量(LVM),另选取30例相同孕周的孕妇作为对照(C 组)。结果妊娠期亚临床甲亢组胎儿左、右室 Tei 指数与正常组比较均降低(P 0.05),妊娠期甲亢组胎儿右室 Tei 指数及左室心肌重量较正常对照组及妊娠期亚临床甲亢组比较均明显升高(P 0. 05). In group A,the right ventricular index and left ventricular mass obviously increased compared with group B and group C(P < 0. 05),but the left ventricular index significantly decreased(P < 0. 05). Conclusions The fetal left and right ventricular function in subclinical hyperthyroidism women increase reactively,and the fetal left ventricular function in hyperthyroidism mother also increases,but the right ventricular func-tion in hyperthyroidism women decreases significantly,while the left ventricular mass apparently increa-ses. The tissue Doppler Tei index can estimate the left and right heart function of fetal in hyperthyroidism mother simply and accurately,and guide the clinical intervention.

  16. Expression of glucocorticoid receptor, mineralocorticoid receptor, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 in the fetal and postnatal ovine hippocampus: ontogeny and effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloboda, Deborah M; Moss, Timothy J M; Li, Shaofu; Matthews, Stephen G; Challis, John R G; Newnham, John P

    2008-05-01

    To determine the expression of glucocorticoid metabolizing and action genes in the hippocampus of fetal, neonatal, and adult sheep. Pregnant ewes (or their fetuses) received intramuscular injections of saline or betamethasone (BETA, 0-5 mg/kg) at 104, 111, 118, and/or 125 days of gestation (dG). Hippocampal tissue was collected prior to (75, 84, and 101 dG), during (109 and 116 dG), or after (121, 132, and 146 dG; 6 and 12 postnatal weeks; 3.5 years of age) saline or BETA injections. Hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11betaHSD)1 and 11betaHSD2 mRNA levels were determined using qRT-PCR. Control animals late in gestation demonstrated a decrease in mRNA encoding GR and 11betaHSD1, whereas 11betaHSD2 was undetectable, consistent with a damping of the negative feedback influence of circulating or locally produced cortisol on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. BETA-administration had transient effects on fetal GR and MR, and early in postnatal life (12 weeks of age) 11betaHSD1 mRNA was increased. Hippocampal MR mRNA was elevated in adult offspring exposed to either one or four doses of maternal BETA (Pglucocorticoid negative feedback, facilitating increased preterm HPA activity and parturition. Adult offspring of BETA-treated mothers demonstrated increased MR and 11betaHSD2 mRNA, therefore it appears that exposure of fetus to high levels of synthetic glucocorticoids may have long-lasting effects on the hippocampal expression of HPA-related genes into adulthood.

  17. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  18. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C; Kasprian, Gregor; Witzani, Linde; Helmer, Hanns; Dietrich, Wolfgang; Eppel, Wolfgang; Langer, Martin

    2006-02-01

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  19. Culturing rat hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audesirk, G; Audesirk, T; Ferguson, C

    2001-01-01

    Cultured neurons are widely used to investigate the mechanisms of neurotoxicity. Embryonic rat hippocampal neurons may be grown as described under a wide variety of conditions to suit differing experimental procedures, including electrophysiology, morphological analysis of neurite development, and various biochemical and molecular analyses.

  20. Thyroid hormones in fetal growth and prepartum maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forhead, A J; Fowden, A L

    2014-06-01

    The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are essential for normal growth and development of the fetus. Their bioavailability in utero depends on development of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid gland axis and the abundance of thyroid hormone transporters and deiodinases that influence tissue levels of bioactive hormone. Fetal T4 and T3 concentrations are also affected by gestational age, nutritional and endocrine conditions in utero, and placental permeability to maternal thyroid hormones, which varies among species with placental morphology. Thyroid hormones are required for the general accretion of fetal mass and to trigger discrete developmental events in the fetal brain and somatic tissues from early in gestation. They also promote terminal differentiation of fetal tissues closer to term and are important in mediating the prepartum maturational effects of the glucocorticoids that ensure neonatal viability. Thyroid hormones act directly through anabolic effects on fetal metabolism and the stimulation of fetal oxygen consumption. They also act indirectly by controlling the bioavailability and effectiveness of other hormones and growth factors that influence fetal development such as the catecholamines and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). By regulating tissue accretion and differentiation near term, fetal thyroid hormones ensure activation of physiological processes essential for survival at birth such as pulmonary gas exchange, thermogenesis, hepatic glucogenesis, and cardiac adaptations. This review examines the developmental control of fetal T4 and T3 bioavailability and discusses the role of these hormones in fetal growth and development with particular emphasis on maturation of somatic tissues critical for survival immediately at birth.

  1. Genesis of lymphoid tissue and development of IgM-positive B cells in human fetal ileum%人胎回肠淋巴组织发生及IgM阳性B细胞的发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蓉; 苏敏; 黄悦; 李红; 姜俸蓉; 许庭良

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨人胎回肠淋巴组织的发生及IgM阳性B细胞在人胎回肠的分布、定位及发育. 方法 收集2003年1月至2005年12月贵阳市各医院妇产科因流产等终止妊娠的9~28周人胎回肠标本30例,男12例、女18例.采用HE染色观察人胎回肠淋巴组织发生,SABC法染色显示IgM阳性B细胞,并用BioMias29图像分析软件对免疫反应阳性细胞进行计数,有关数据作统计学分析.结果 胎龄9周时少量淋巴细胞分布于回肠上皮外的间充质内,其中部分细胞表达膜表面IgM.胎龄17周时固有层内淋巴组织局部聚集形成孤立淋巴小结,小结内含有较多IgM阳性B细胞.自24周起,人胎回肠可见典型的集合淋巴小结.IgM阳性B细胞主要分布于淋巴小结,少量弥散分布在固有层结缔组织或绒毛上皮内.细胞计数显示9~12周人胎回肠IgM阳性B细胞数量为(12.80±5.72)个,随胎龄增加至25~28周人胎回肠IgM阳性B细胞达(201.30±36.35)个,各胎龄组间比较差异显著(P<0.05).结论 24周人胎回肠壁淋巴组织结构基本发育成熟;人胎回肠具有潜在的IgM合成和释放能力,对胎儿肠道免疫功能的建立和健全起着重要作用.%Objective To study genesis of lymphoid tissue and distribution, localization and develop ment of lgM-positive B cells in human fetal ileum. Methods Human fetus specimens from terminated preg nancies, 12 males and 18 females with gestational ages of 9 -28 weeks, were collected from hospitals in Guiyang, China, between Jan. 2003 and Dec. 2005. All pregnant women were informed of the purpose of this study and the protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Guiyang Medical College. HE staining was adopted to observe the genesis of lymphoid tissue in human fetal ileum. IgM-positive B cells were detected by immunohistochemical SABC staining, and counted by BioMias 29 image analysis software. Relevant data were statistically analyzed. Results In the ilea of 9-week fetus

  2. Fetal diffusion imaging: pearls and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprian, Gregor; Del Río, Maria; Prayer, Daniela

    2010-12-01

    Recently, diffusion-weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging of the fetus has evolved from a basic research application to an important diagnostic imaging tool in fetal magnetic resonance imaging. Although technically challenging and still plagued with several sources of artifacts, DWI can add clinically important information, which cannot be provided by any other prenatal imaging modality. Its potential to noninvasively probe tissue structures on the basis of Brownian molecular motion enables the detection of early changes associated with acute fetal diseases, as well as structural alterations of functionally diverse compartments of different fetal organs. In this article, the current clinical applications of fetal brain and body DWI are outlined, as well as its current limitations.

  3. Fetal magnetocardiography: Methods for rapid data reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, John C.; Flynn, Edward R.; Quinn, A.; Weir, A.; Shahani, U.; Bain, R. J. P.; Maas, P.; Donaldson, G. B.

    1997-03-01

    Fetal magnetocardigraphy (fMCG) provides a unique method for noninvasive observations of the fetal heart. Electrical currents generated by excitable tissues within the fetal heart yield measurable external magnetic fields. Measurements are performed with superconducting quantum interference devices inductively coupled to magnetometer or gradiometer coils, and the resulting signals are converted to digital form in the data acquisition system. The measured fields are usually contaminated by fetal and maternal movements (usually respiration), other physiological fields such as skeletal muscle contraction, the maternal cardiac signal, and environmental electromagnetic fields. Sensitivity to relatively distant sources, both physiological and environmental, is substantially reduced by the use of magnetic gradiometers. Other contaminants may be removed by proper signal conditioning which may be automatically applied using "black box" algorithms that are transparent to the user and highly efficient. These procedures can rapidly reduce the complex signal plus noise waveforms to the desired fMCG with minimal operator interference.

  4. 神经母细胞瘤及胚胎肾上腺组织端粒酶基因表达的研究%Studies on telomerase gene expression in neuroblastoma and fetal adrenal tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王焕民; 张金哲; 周春菊; 祝秀丹; 何乐健; 李家驹

    2001-01-01

    目的观察神经母细胞瘤和胚胎肾上腺组织中端粒酶基因(hTR/hTRT)的表达,以及神经母细胞瘤细胞在药物诱导分化时端粒酶基因表达的变化,探讨端粒酶在神经母细胞瘤形成和发展中的作用。方法体外转录法制备生物素标记的hTR、hTRT cRNA探针。神经母细胞瘤存档石蜡标本20例,2~5个月胎儿肾上腺组织石蜡标本12例。应用原位杂交组织化学(ISHH)方法检测hTR及hTRT表达。用维甲酸类似物R9158诱导人神经母细胞瘤细胞系SH-SY-5Y及SK-N-SH,细胞涂片经ISHH检测hTR表达。结果20例神经母细胞瘤中hTR 19例(95.0%)阳性;hTRT18例(90.0%)阳性。各月龄胎儿肾上腺组织均有hTR及hTRT表达,神经嵴细胞和继发皮质细胞内信号强于原发皮质细胞。神经嵴细胞形态极似神经母细胞瘤细胞。维甲酸敏感细胞SH-SY-5Y在R9158作用5 d后出现明显形态学变化,表达hTR的细胞明显减少。维甲酸耐受细胞SK-N-SH无明显变化。结论端粒酶基因在神经母细胞瘤和胚胎肾上腺组织中高表达。神经母细胞瘤细胞在药物诱导下分化时端粒酶基因hTR表达明显降低。端粒酶在神经母细胞瘤形成和发展中有重要作用。%Objective To observe telomerase gene (hTR and hTRT) expression in neuroblastoma (NB) and fetal adrenal tissues, and its alterations during NB cell differentiation induced by retinoic acid anologues (R9158), so as to discuss the role of relomerase in the formation and development of neuroblastoma. Methods The tumor samples came from paraffin-embedded archival materials of 20 cases of NB. 3specimens of fetal adrenal tissue were obtained from fetus of 2,3,4,5 month gestation each. The plasmids,pGRN83-hTR and pBS-hTRT, containing full-length hTR and hTRT complementary DNA respectively,were used as template to generate biotin labeled probes through transcription in vitro. The 5μm paraffinembedded tissue sections underwent in situ

  5. Phlebotomy-induced anemia alters hippocampal neurochemistry in neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Diana J; Tkac, Ivan; Stucker, Sara; Ennis, Kathleen M; Sola-Visner, Martha; Rao, Raghavendra; Georgieff, Michael K

    2015-06-01

    Phlebotomy-induced anemia (PIA) is common in preterm infants. The hippocampus undergoes rapid differentiation during late fetal/early neonatal life and relies on adequate oxygen and iron to support oxidative metabolism necessary for development. Anemia shortchanges these two critical substrates, potentially altering hippocampal development and function. PIA (hematocrit neonatal mice pups from postnatal day (P)3 to P14. Neurochemical concentrations in the hippocampus were determined using in vivo (1)H NMR spectroscopy at 9.4T and compared with control animals at P14. Gene expression was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). PIA decreased brain iron concentration, increased hippocampal lactate and creatine concentrations, and decreased phosphoethanolamine (PE) concentration and the phosphocreatine/creatine ratio. Hippocampal transferrin receptor (Tfrc) gene expression was increased, while the expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IIα (CamKIIα) was decreased in PIA mice. This clinically relevant model of neonatal anemia alters hippocampal energy and phospholipid metabolism and gene expression during a critical developmental period. Low target hematocrits for preterm neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) may have potential adverse neural implications.

  6. Distribution of melatonin receptor in human fetal brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-quan; SHAO Fu-yuan; ZHAO Ying; LIU Zhi-min

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the distribution of 2 kinds of melatonin receptor subtypes (mtl and MT2) in human fetal brain. Methods: The fetal brain tissues were sliced and the distribution ofmelatonin receptors in human fetal brain were detected using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results: Melatonin receptor mtl existed in the cerebellun and hypothalamus, melatonin receptor MT2 exists in hypothalamus, occipital and medulla. Conclusion: Two kinds of melatonin receptors, mtl and MT2 exist in the membrane and cytosol of brain cells, indicating that human fetal brain is a target organ of melatonin.

  7. Correlation between Fetal Subcutaneous Soft Tissue Thickness and Liver Length%胎儿皮下软组织厚度及肝脏长度与体质量的相关性∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田艾军; 唐琴; 张军辉

    2016-01-01

    【目的】探讨胎儿皮下软组织厚度及肝脏长度(LL)与胎儿体质量(EFW)的相关性。【方法】将孕龄为13~40周的1713例正常胎儿按照孕龄分为六组:A组(13~16周);B组(17~20周);C组(21~24周);D组(25~28周);E组(29~32周);F组(33~36周);G组(37~40周)。采用四维超声测量各组胎儿双顶径、头围、腹围、股骨长度、肱骨长度并估测 EFW,同时测量胎儿颈项皮肤厚度(NF)、面颊(CCD)、腹部(ASTT)、肱骨(HSTT)、股骨(FSTT)皮下软组织厚度及 LL,分析各指标与 EFW的相关性。【结果】NF、CCD、ASTT、HSTT、FSTT皮下软组织厚度及 LL与 EFW 呈显著性正相关(r =0.53、0.66、0.60、0.68、0.71、0.88,P <0.05),且 NF、CCD、ASTT、HSTT、FSTT、LL均与孕周呈正相关(r =0.72、0.71、0.68、0.78、0.81、0.82,P <0.05)。【结论】胎儿 NF、CCD、ASTT、HSTT、FSTT皮下软组织厚度及 LL与 EFW相关性,采用四维彩超测量 NF、CCD、ASTT、HSTT、FSTT皮下软组织厚度及 LL 预测 EFW 相对准确,方法简便,值得临床推广应用。%Obj ective]To discuss the clinical evaluation on the correlation between the weight and fetal subcutaneous soft tissue thickness and liver length .[Methods]1 7 1 3 cases of normal fetuses with gestational age from13 to 40 weeks were divided into six groups according to gestational age:group A (13 ~ 16 weeks);group B (17 ~ 20 weeks);group C (21 ~ 24 weeks);group D (25 ~ 28 weeks);Group E (29 to 32 weeks);Group F (33 to 36 weeks);group G (37 ~ 40 weeks).4D ultrasound was used to measure fetal bipa-rietal diameter,head circumference,abdominal circumference,femur length,humerus length,and to estimate the EFW.Measurement of fetal neck skin thickness (NF),cheek-to-cheek diameter (CCD),abdominal soft tissue thickness (ASTT),humeral soft tissue thickness (HSTT),femoral soft tissue thickness (FSTT)sub-cutaneous soft tissue thickness and liver length (LL)were simultaneously conducted,The correlation between the

  8. Fetal stem cell transplantation: Past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tetsuya; Eto, Koji

    2014-09-26

    Since 1928, human fetal tissues and stem cells have been used worldwide to treat various conditions. Although the transplantation of the fetal midbrain substantia nigra and dopaminergic neurons in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease is particularly noteworthy, the history of other types of grafts, such as those of the fetal liver, thymus, and pancreas, should be addressed as there are many lessons to be learnt for future stem cell transplantation. This report describes previous practices and complications that led to current clinical trials of isolated fetal stem cells and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Moreover, strategies for transplantation are considered, with a particular focus on donor cells, cell processing, and the therapeutic cell niche, in addition to ethical issues associated with fetal origin. With the advent of autologous induced pluripotent stem cells and ES cells, clinical dependence on fetal transplantation is expected to gradually decline due to lasting ethical controversies, despite landmark achievements.

  9. Fetal stem cell transplantation: Past, present, and future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsuya; Ishii; Koji; Eto

    2014-01-01

    Since 1928, human fetal tissues and stem cells have been used worldwide to treat various conditions. Although the transplantation of the fetal midbrain substantia nigra and dopaminergic neurons in patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease is particularly noteworthy, the history of other types of grafts, such as those of the fetal liver, thymus, and pancreas, should be addressed as there are many lessons to be learnt for future stem cell transplantation. This report describes previous practices and complications that led to current clinical trials of isolated fetal stem cells and embryonic stem(ES) cells. Moreover, strategies for transplantation are considered, with a particular focus on donor cells, cell processing, and the therapeutic cell niche, in addition to ethical issues associated with fetal origin. With the advent of autologous induced pluripotent stem cells and ES cells, clinical dependence on fetal transplantation is expected to gradually decline due to lasting ethical controversies, despite landmark achievements.

  10. The Increasing Prevalence in Intersex Variation from Toxicological Dysregulation in Fetal Reproductive Tissue Differentiation and Development by Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Alisa L.; Phipps, Laura M.; Tiwari, Sweta; Rudraraju, Hemanth; Dokpesi, Philip O.

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of children are born with intersex variation (IV; ambiguous genitalia/hermaphrodite, pseudohermaphroditism, etc.). Evidence shows that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment can cause reproductive variation through dysregulation of normal reproductive tissue differentiation, growth, and maturation if the fetus is exposed to EDCs during critical developmental times in utero. Animal studies support fish and reptile embryos exhibited IV and sex reversal when exposed to EDCs. Occupational studies verified higher prevalence of offspring with IV in chemically exposed workers (male and female). Chemicals associated with endocrine-disrupting ability in humans include organochlorine pesticides, poly-chlorinated biphenyls, bisphenol A, phthalates, dioxins, and furans. Intersex individuals may have concurrent physical disorders requiring lifelong medical intervention and experience gender dysphoria. An urgent need exists to determine which chemicals possess the greatest risk for IV and the mechanisms by which these chemicals are capable of interfering with normal physiological development in children. PMID:27660460

  11. Fetal Health and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specific prenatal tests to monitor both the mother's health and fetal health during each trimester. With modern technology, health professionals can Detect birth defects Identify problems that ...

  12. ASCITIS FETAL AISLADA

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    La ascitis fetal aislada es una entidad asociada a múltiples patologías, el diagnostico se realiza usualmente cuando fueron descartados las otras causas de ascitis fetal. Se describe el diagnóstico prenatal de un paciente con ascitis fetal aislada compatible con atresia ileal y peritonitis meconial secundaria a perforación de ileon distal. La ascitis fetal se resolvió posterior a la cirugía al segundo día de vida. Este caso tiene un buen pronostico debido al control tanto prenatal como intra ...

  13. Hippocampal sclerosis dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyike, Chiadi U.; Pletnikova, Olga; Sloane, Kelly L.; Sullivan, Campbell; Troncoso, Juan C.; Rabins, Peter V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe characteristics of hippocampal sclerosis dementia. Methods Convenience sample of Hippocampal sclerosis dementia (HSD) recruited from the Johns Hopkins University Brain Resource Center. Twenty-four cases with post-mortem pathological diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis dementia were reviewed for clinical characterization. Results The cases showed atrophy and neuronal loss localized to the hippocampus, amygdala and entorrhinal cortex. The majority (79.2%) had amnesia at illness onset, and many (54.2%) showed abnormal conduct and psychiatric disorder. Nearly 42% presented with an amnesic state, and 37.5% presented with amnesia plus abnormal conduct and psychiatric disorder. All eventually developed a behavioral or psychiatric disorder. Disorientation, executive dysfunction, aphasia, agnosia and apraxia were uncommon at onset. Alzheimer disease (AD) was the initial clinical diagnosis in 89% and the final clinical diagnosis in 75%. Diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) was uncommon (seen in 8%). Conclusion HSD shows pathological characteristics of FTD and clinical features that mimic AD and overlap with FTD. The findings, placed in the context of earlier work, support the proposition that HSD belongs to the FTD family, where it may be identified as an amnesic variant. PMID:24363834

  14. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  15. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and nuclear receptor-regulated genes in fetal and postnatal CD-1 mouse tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Barbara D; Wood, Carmen R; Watkins, Andrew M; Tatum-Gibbs, Katoria; Das, Kaberi P; Lau, Christopher

    2012-07-01

    PPARs regulate metabolism and can be activated by environmental contaminants such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). PFOA induces neonatal mortality, developmental delay, and growth deficits in mice. Studies in genetically altered mice showed that PPARα is required for PFOA-induced developmental toxicity. In this study, pregnant CD-1 mice were dosed orally from GD1 to 17 with water or 5mg PFOA/kg to examine PPARα, PPARβ, and PPARγ expression and profile the effects of PFOA on PPAR-regulated genes. Prenatal and postnatal liver, heart, adrenal, kidney, intestine, stomach, lung, spleen, and thymus were collected at various developmental ages. RNA and protein were examined using qPCR and Western blot analysis. PPAR expression varied with age in all tissues, and in liver PPARα and PPARγ expression correlated with nutritional changes as the pups matured. As early as GD14, PFOA affected expression of genes involved in lipid and glucose homeostatic control. The metabolic disruption produced by PFOA may contribute to poor postnatal survival and persistent weight deficits of CD-1 mouse neonates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Risk of fetal hydrops and non-hydropic late intrauterine fetal death after gestational parvovirus B19 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Martin; Klingel, Karin; Weidner, Andrea; Baisch, Carola; Kandolf, Reinhard; Schalasta, Gunnar; Enders, Gisela

    2010-11-01

    Risk assessment of parvovirus B19 (B19)-associated fetal complications following gestational B19 infection remains controversial. To determine the risk of fetal hydrops or non-hydropic late intrauterine fetal death following acute maternal B19 infection at defined gestational weeks. Observational cohort study of pregnant women with serologic evidence of acute B19 infection. If available, fetal or neonatal tissue samples from cases complicated by fetal loss or hydrops were investigated for the presence of B19 DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or in situ hybridization (ISH). Of 236 women with known pregnancy outcome, 228 had a live birth and 8 a fetal loss. The observed rate of fetal hydrops for all pregnant women was 4.2% (10/236) (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-7.7) and 10.6% (10/94) (95% CI, 5.2-18.7) for those infected between 9 and 20 weeks gestation. Tissue samples from 8 hydrops cases were investigated by PCR or ISH and all were B19 DNA positive. Fetal death occurring during or after gestational week 22 was only observed in one case which was associated with B19-derived fetal hydrops. Our findings demonstrate that although adverse fetal outcome is a rare complication of gestational B19 infection, a relevant risk of fetal hydrops exists particularly for women infected between 9 and 20 weeks' gestation. Cases of B19-derived non-hydropic late intrauterine fetal death were not observed in the present study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Accounting for Fetal Origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The Fetal Origins hypothesis has received considerable empirical support, both within epidemiology and economics. The present study compares the ability of two rival theoretical frameworks in accounting for the kind of path dependence implied by the Fetal Origins Hypothesis. We argue that while...

  18. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  19. Fetal scalp pH testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal scalp blood; Scalp pH testing; Fetal blood testing - scalp; Fetal distress - fetal scalp testing; Labor - fetal scalp testing ... a baby. In these cases, testing the scalp pH can help the doctor decide whether the fetus ...

  20. MRI evaluation of fetal vitality and maturity; Avaliacao da vitalidade e maturidade fetal pela ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, Salete J.F. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Secaf, Eduardo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Magalhaes, Alvaro Cebrian A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina, Dept. de Radiologia

    1995-05-01

    Assessment of fetal vitality is an essential part of feto-maternal medicine. In clinical practice, this is carried out by investigation of the fetal growth pattern and biochemical or biophysical tests of fetal heath. MRI has the ability of characterizing different soft tissues and is the only technique that can display in the uterus the process of physiological myelinization and may well present a noninvasive method to determine lung maturity. MRI is more powerful technique allowing more detailed visualization of the fetal brain, better images can be obtained of areas such as posterior fossa. The major advantage of MRI over imaging modalities is the potential for biochemical and metabolic studies and it will make an important contribution to obstetric research. (author)., 10 refs., 7 figs p.

  1. Effects of postnatal alcohol exposure on hippocampal gene expression and learning in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Moon, Jihye; Ryu, Jinhyun; Jeong, Joo Yeon; Roh, Gu Seob; Kim, Hyun Joon; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung; Kang, Sang Soo

    2016-04-28

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a condition resulting from excessive drinking by pregnant women. Symptoms of FAS include abnormal facial features, stunted growth, intellectual deficits and attentional dysfunction. Many studies have investigated FAS, but its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. This study evaluated the relationship between alcohol exposure during the synaptogenesis period in postnatal mice and subsequent cognitive function in adult mice. We delivered two injections, separated by 2 h, of ethanol (3 g/kg, ethanol/saline, 20% v/v) to ICR mice on postnatal day 7. After 10 weeks, we conducted a behavioral test, sacrificed the animals, harvested brain tissue and analyzed hippocampal gene expression using a microarray. In ethanol-treated mice, there was a reduction in brain size and decreased neuronal cell number in the cortex, and also cognitive impairment. cDNA microarray results indicated that 1,548 genes showed a > 2-fold decrease in expression relative to control, whereas 974 genes showed a > 2-fold increase in expression relative to control. Many of these genes were related to signal transduction, synaptogenesis and cell membrane formation, which are highlighted in our findings.

  2. Adjustable fetal phantom for pulse oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubán, Norbert; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2009-05-01

    As the measuring head of a fetal pulse oximeter must be attached to the head of the fetus inside the mother's uterus during labor, testing, and developing of fetal pulse oximeters in real environment have several difficulties. A fetal phantom could enable evaluation of pulse oximeters in a simulated environment without the restrictions and difficultness of medical experiments in the labor room. Based on anatomic data we developed an adjustable fetal head phantom with three different tissue layers and artificial arteries. The phantom consisted of two arteries with an inner diameter of 0.2 and 0.4 mm. An electronically controlled pump produced pulse waves in the arteries. With the phantom we investigated the sensitivity of a custom-designed wireless pulse oximeter at different pulsation intensity and artery diameters. The results showed that the oximeter was capable of identifying 4% and 2% changes in diameter between the diastolic and systolic point in arteries of over 0.2 and 0.4 mm inner diameter, respectively. As the structure of the phantom is based on reported anatomic values, the results predict that the investigated custom-designed wireless pulse oximeter has sufficient sensitivity to detect the pulse waves and to calculate the R rate on the fetal head.

  3. Recent advances in fetal gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Suzanne M K; Rahim, Ahad A; Chan, Jerry K Y; David, Anna L; Peebles, Donald M; Coutelle, Charles; Waddingtont, Simon N

    2011-04-01

    Over the first decade of this new millennium gene therapy has demonstrated clear clinical benefits in several diseases for which conventional medicine offers no treatment. Clinical trials of gene therapy for single gene disorders have recruited predominantly young patients since older subjects may have suffered irrevocablepathological changes or may not be available because the disease is lethal relatively early in life. The concept of fetal gene therapy is an extension of this principle in that diseases in which irreversible changes occur at or beforebirth can be prevented by gene supplementation or repair in the fetus or associated maternal tissues. This article ccnsiders the enthusiasm and skepticism held for fetal gene therapy and its potential for clinical application. It coversa spectrum of candidate diseases for fetal gene therapy including Pompe disease, Gaucher disease, thalassemia, congenital protein C deficiency and cystic fibrosis. It outlines successful and not-so-successful examples of fetal gene therapy in animal models. Finally the application and potential of fetal gene transfer as a fundamental research tool for developmental biology and generation of somatic transgenic animals is surveyed.

  4. Fetal and neonatal thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandar Mohan Batra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal thyrotoxicosis is a rare disease occurring in 1 out of 70 pregnancies with Grave′s disease or in 1 out of 4000-50,000 deliveries. The mortality is 12-20%, usually from heart failure, but other complications are tracheal compression, infections and thrombocytopenia. It results from transfer of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins from mother to fetus through the placenta. This transplacental transfer begins around 20 th week of pregnancy and reaches its maximum by 30 th week. These autoantibodies bind to the fetal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH receptors and increase the secretion of the thyroid hormones. The mother has an active autoimmune thyroid disease or has been treated for it in the past. She may be absolutely euthyroid due to past treatment by drugs, surgery or radioiodine ablation, but still have active TSH receptor stimulating autoantibodies, which can cause fetal thyrotoxicosis. The other features of this disease are fetal tachycardia, fetal goiter and history of spontaneous abortions and findings of goiter, ascites, craniosyntosis, fetal growth retardation, maceration and hydrops at fetal autopsy. If untreated, this disease can result in intrauterine death. The treatment for this disease consists of giving carbimazole to the mother, which is transferred through the placenta to the fetus. The dose of carbimazole is titrated with the fetal heart rate. If the mother becomes hypothyroid due to carbimazole, thyroxine is added taking advantage of the fact that very little of thyroxine is transferred across the placenta. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis patients are very sick and require emergency treatment. The goal of the treatment is to normalize thyroid functions as quickly as possible, to avoid iatrogenic hypothyroidism while providing management and supportive therapy for the infant′s specific signs and symptoms.

  5. Caffeine-induced activated glucocorticoid metabolism in the hippocampus causes hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis inhibition in fetal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Zhang, Benjian; Liang, Gai; Ping, Jie; Kou, Hao; Li, Xiaojun; Xiong, Jie; Hu, Dongcai; Chen, Liaobin; Magdalou, Jacques; Wang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations have shown that fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are susceptible to adult metabolic syndrome. Clinical investigations and experiments have demonstrated that caffeine is a definite inducer of IUGR, as children who ingest caffeine-containing food or drinks are highly susceptible to adult obesity and hypertension. Our goals for this study were to investigate the effect of prenatal caffeine ingestion on the functional development of the fetal hippocampus and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and to clarify an intrauterine HPA axis-associated neuroendocrine alteration induced by caffeine. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered 20, 60, and 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from gestational days 11-20. The results show that prenatal caffeine ingestion significantly decreased the expression of fetal hypothalamus corticotrophin-releasing hormone. The fetal adrenal cortex changed into slight and the expression of fetal adrenal steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), as well as the level of fetal adrenal endogenous corticosterone (CORT), were all significantly decreased after caffeine treatment. Moreover, caffeine ingestion significantly increased the levels of maternal and fetal blood CORT and decreased the expression of placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11β-HSD-2). Additionally, both in vivo and in vitro studies show that caffeine can downregulate the expression of fetal hippocampal 11β-HSD-2, promote the expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and enhance DNA methylation within the hippocampal 11β-HSD-2 promoter. These results suggest that prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits the development of the fetal HPA axis, which may be associated with the fetal overexposure to maternal glucocorticoid and activated glucocorticoid metabolism in the fetal hippocampus. These results will be beneficial in

  6. MATERNO-FETAL IMMUNOTOLERANCE: AN EVOLUTIONARY VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Paulesu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Medawar (1953, much attention has been given to the immunological paradox of the survival and growth of the semi-allogeneic fetus in the maternal uterus. Numerous studies, mainly on the human placenta, have established fundamental mechanisms of this phenomenon; however, many aspects are still unclear and the complex process has yet to be completely defined. One of the accepted principles is that the secretion and action of mediators, i.e. cytokines, at the materno-fetal interface have a central role. Focusing on the cytokine Interleukin-1 (IL-1 the review highlights the importance of a physiological approach based on evolutionary studies in animals using similar or different reproductive strategies. Data on IL-1 in viviparity and oviparity, two reproductive strategies in which female reproductive tissues have to deal with paternal-derived antigens on sperm, fertilized eggs, and embryo, will be presented and discussed in the light of materno-fetal immuntolerance. Ovuliparity, a reproductive modality in which the eggs are released from the female reproductive tract and fertilization and embryonic development take place in the external environment will also be extensively reported as a negative control in the studies on materno-fetal immunotolerance. The evidence shown reveals that non-mammalian vertebrates with different reproductive strategies represent a good model to understand biological mechanisms allowing fetal acceptance and growth in the maternal tissues.

  7. Normal renal development investigated with fetal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: linde.witzani@aon.at; Brugger, Peter Christian [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Hoermann, Marcus [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Csapone-Balassy, Csilla [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Objective: To evaluate age-dependent changes in fetal kidney measurements with MRI. Patients and methods: Fetal MRI examinations were used to study the kidney length (218 fetuses), signal intensities of renal tissue, renal pelvis, and liver tissue on T2-weighted images (223 fetuses), and the whole-kidney apparent diffusion coefficient (107 fetuses). A 1.5 T superconducting unit with a phased array coil was used in patients from 16 to 39 weeks' gestation. The imaging protocol included T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo, T2-weighted balanced angiography and diffusion-weighted sequences. Slice thickness ranged from 3 to 5 mm. Results: Fetal kidney length as a function of gestational age was expressed by the linear regression: kidney length (mm) = 0.190 x gestational age (d) - 8.034 (R {sup 2} 0.883, p < 0.001). Paired t-test analysis showed a highly statistically significant difference between the ratio of renal tissue signal intensity to renal pelvis signal intensity and the ratio of liver signal intensity to renal pelvis signal intensity on T2-weighted images (t = -50.963, d.f. = 162, p < 0.001), with renal tissue hyperintense to liver tissue. The apparent diffusion coefficient in relation to gestational age was described by the equation: ADC ({mu}m{sup 2}/s) = 0.0302 x square (gestational age (d)) - 14.202 x gestational age (d) + 2728.6 (R {sup 2} = 0.225, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The length, signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and apparent diffusion coefficient of the fetal kidney change significantly with gestational age. The presented data may help in the prenatal diagnosis of renal anomalies.

  8. Normal renal development investigated with fetal MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzani, Linde; Brugger, Peter Christian; Hörmann, Marcus; Kasprian, Gregor; Csapone-Balassy, Csilla; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-02-01

    To evaluate age-dependent changes in fetal kidney measurements with MRI. Fetal MRI examinations were used to study the kidney length (218 fetuses), signal intensities of renal tissue, renal pelvis, and liver tissue on T2-weighted images (223 fetuses), and the whole-kidney apparent diffusion coefficient (107 fetuses). A 1.5 T superconducting unit with a phased array coil was used in patients from 16 to 39 weeks' gestation. The imaging protocol included T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo, T2-weighted balanced angiography and diffusion-weighted sequences. Slice thickness ranged from 3 to 5mm. Fetal kidney length as a function of gestational age was expressed by the linear regression: kidney length (mm)=0.190 x gestational age (d) -8.034 (R(2) = 0.883, p < 0.001). Paired t-test analysis showed a highly statistically significant difference between the ratio of renal tissue signal intensity to renal pelvis signal intensity and the ratio of liver signal intensity to renal pelvis signal intensity on T2-weighted images (t = -50.963, d.f. = 162, p < 0.001), with renal tissue hyperintense to liver tissue. The apparent diffusion coefficient in relation to gestational age was described by the equation: ADC (microm(2)/s) = 0.0302 x square (gestational age (d)) -14.202 x gestational age (d) +2,728.6 (R(2) = 0.225, p < 0.001). The length, signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and apparent diffusion coefficient of the fetal kidney change significantly with gestational age. The presented data may help in the prenatal diagnosis of renal anomalies.

  9. Studies on the isolation, structural analysis and tissue localization of fetal antigen 1 and its relation to a human adrenal-specific cDNA, pG2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Teisner, Børge; Højrup, Peter

    1993-01-01

    , prolines and amino acids (aa) with acidic side-chains indicating that fetal antigen 1 is a compactly folded, strongly hydrophilic molecule. The N-terminal amino acid sequence (37 aa) revealed no homology to other known protein sequences, implying that fetal antigen 1 is a 'novel' human protein. When the aa...... is encoded by the mRNA defined by the cDNA clone pG2, but definitive sequencing and expression studies of this mRNA have not been achieved. Udgivelsesdato: 1993-Apr...

  10. Tissue Engineering Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    skin and certain specialized tissues such as umbilical cord and rooster comb, during fetal development, and in tissue repair and regeneration...hylan preparations precluded testing by tensile stress-strain methods because of the difficulty in clamping ends of the pliant materials. Thus, only...analysis), histology (decalcified histology), and oxygen tension history (early environment and rate of revascularization). Briefly, four identical (1

  11. Reduced hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in neonatal rats after prenatal exposure to propylthiouracil (PTU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Goutam; Magagna-Poveda, Alejandra; Parratt, Carolyn; Umans, Jason G; MacLusky, Neil J; Scharfman, Helen E

    2012-03-01

    Thyroid hormone is critical for central nervous system development. Fetal hypothyroidism leads to reduced cognitive performance in offspring as well as other effects on neural development in both humans and experimental animals. The nature of these impairments suggests that thyroid hormone may exert its effects via dysregulation of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is critical to normal development of the central nervous system and has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. The only evidence of BDNF dysregulation in early development, however, comes from experimental models in which severe prenatal hypothyroidism occurred. By contrast, milder prenatal hypothyroidism has been shown to alter BDNF levels and BDNF-dependent functions only much later in life. We hypothesized that mild experimental prenatal hypothyroidism might lead to dysregulation of BDNF in the early postnatal period. BDNF levels were measured by ELISA at 3 or 7 d after birth in different regions of the brains of rats exposed to propylthiouracil (PTU) in the drinking water. The dose of PTU that was used induced mild maternal thyroid hormone insufficiency. Pups, but not the parents, exhibited alterations in tissue BDNF levels. Hippocampal BDNF levels were reduced at both d 3 and 7, but no significant reductions were observed in either the cerebellum or brain stem. Unexpectedly, more males than females were born to PTU-treated dams, suggesting an effect of PTU on sex determination. These results support the hypothesis that reduced hippocampal BDNF levels during early development may contribute to the adverse neurodevelopmental effects of mild thyroid hormone insufficiency during pregnancy.

  12. Fetal MRI of conjoined twins who switched their relative positions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [University Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Arulrajah, Sahayini [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Meuli, Martin [University Children' s Hospital, Department of Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Brehmer, Ulrike [University Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Beinder, Ernst [University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-03-15

    Conjoined twinning is a very rare occurrence with no genetic predisposition. Twisting of conjoined twins around the axis of their connecting tissue bridge, close to the third trimester, has not been previously reported. We describe a unique case of in utero twisting of conjoined omphalopagus twins who survived without any adverse effects. Fetal US and fetal MRI played a vital role in the diagnosis and perinatal management of these twins. (orig.)

  13. Metabolomics Application in Maternal-Fetal Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Fanos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics in maternal-fetal medicine is still an “embryonic” science. However, there is already an increasing interest in metabolome of normal and complicated pregnancies, and neonatal outcomes. Tissues used for metabolomics interrogations of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns are amniotic fluid, blood, plasma, cord blood, placenta, urine, and vaginal secretions. All published papers highlight the strong correlation between biomarkers found in these tissues and fetal malformations, preterm delivery, premature rupture of membranes, gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, neonatal asphyxia, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The aim of this review is to summarize and comment on original data available in relevant published works in order to emphasize the clinical potential of metabolomics in obstetrics in the immediate future.

  14. Fetal microchimerism in breast and colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Biggar, R J; Stamper, Casey L

    2011-01-01

    . DNA from repository buffy coat specimens was tested for male FMc with quantitative PCR targeting the DYS14gene on the Y chromosome. For this analysis, 89 women who developed breast cancer and 67 women who developed colon cancer were evaluable for FMc. Results were compared to 272 women who remained......1574 Background: Cells acquired by a woman from her baby that durably persist in her blood and tissues is known as fetal microchimerism (FMc). In women with breast cancer, frequency and quantity of FMc in blood and breast tissue is reduced compared to healthy women. Whether the absence of fetal...... microchimerism predicts risk for developing breast cancer is unknown. FMc was evaluated in buffy coat cells from presumed healthy women who later developed breast cancer or colon cancer, a cancer in which prior pregnancy appears protective but has different associations with endocrine risk factors. METHODS...

  15. Metabolomics application in maternal-fetal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanos, Vassilios; Atzori, Luigi; Makarenko, Karina; Melis, Gian Benedetto; Ferrazzi, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomics in maternal-fetal medicine is still an "embryonic" science. However, there is already an increasing interest in metabolome of normal and complicated pregnancies, and neonatal outcomes. Tissues used for metabolomics interrogations of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns are amniotic fluid, blood, plasma, cord blood, placenta, urine, and vaginal secretions. All published papers highlight the strong correlation between biomarkers found in these tissues and fetal malformations, preterm delivery, premature rupture of membranes, gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, neonatal asphyxia, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The aim of this review is to summarize and comment on original data available in relevant published works in order to emphasize the clinical potential of metabolomics in obstetrics in the immediate future.

  16. Magnesium and fetal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, K.

    1988-01-01

    Fetal growth retardation and premature labor are major problems in perinatal medicine today and account for a great deal of the observed fetal morbidity. While the neonatal death rate has steadily declined over the past decade, there has been a lack of concommitant decrease in these two leading problems. Magnesium (Mg/sup ++/) plays a major role in both of these areas of concern. The fact that it is used as a treatment for premature labor has led investigators to look at low Mg/sup ++/ as a possible cause of this poorly understood phenomenon. The second major cause of small for gestational age infants is intrauterine growth retardation, a condition which may be of either fetal or maternal origin. In either case, Mg/sup ++/ may be implicated since it exerts a strong influence on the underlying pathophysiology of placental failure and maternal hypertension. Both of these conditions are mediated by vascular and platelet hyperactivity as well as by and increase in the ration of thromboxane to prostacyclin. Studies in both the human and animal species are beginning to show how Mg/sup ++/ interacts in these conditions to produce such a damaging fetal outcome. The recent use of Doppler velocimetry of the developing fetus has shown reduced fetal vascular and maternal uterine vascular compliance as early as 14 weeks of gestation in those who would be so affected.

  17. Genotype and fetal size affect maternal-fetal amino acid status and fetal endocrinology in Large White × Landrace and Meishan pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Cheryl J; Nwagwu, Margaret O; McArdle, Harry J

    2013-01-01

    This study compared maternal plasma amino acid concentrations, placental protein secretion in vitro and fetal body composition and plasma amino acid and hormone concentrations in feto-placental units from the smallest and a normally-sized fetus carried by Large White × Landrace or Meishan gilts on Day 100 of pregnancy. Compared with Large White × Landrace, Meishan placental tissue secreted more protein and Meishan fetuses contained relatively more fat and protein, but less moisture. Fetal plasma concentrations of insulin, triiodothryonine, thyroxine and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II were higher in Meishan than Large White × Landrace fetuses. In both breeds, fetal cortisol concentrations were inversely related to fetal size, whereas concentrations of IGF-I were higher in average-sized fetuses. Concentrations of 10 amino acids were higher in Large White × Landrace than Meishan gilts, while glutamine concentrations were higher in Meishan gilts. Concentrations of alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and threonine were higher in Meishan than Large White × Landrace fetuses. Average-sized fetuses had higher concentrations of asparagine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, threonine, tyrosine and valine than the smallest fetus. This study revealed novel genotype and fetal size differences in porcine maternal-fetal amino acid status and fetal hormone and metabolite concentrations.

  18. Endocrine interactions in the control of fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, Abigail L; Forhead, Alison J

    2013-01-01

    Hormones are both growth stimulatory and growth inhibitory in utero. They act as environmental and maturational signals in regulating tissue accretion and differentiation during late gestation. They ensure that fetal development is appropriate for the nutrient supply and is optimal for neonatal survival. Growth-stimulatory hormones, such as insulin, the insulin-like growth factors and the thyroid hormones, have anabolic effects on fetal metabolism and increase cellular nutrient uptake and energy production for tissue accretion. Thyroid hormones also have specific effects on tissue differentiation at key developmental milestones. Similarly, leptin appears to affect development of specific fetal tissues and may counterbalance the maturational actions of other hormones near term. Glucocorticoids inhibit growth in utero but are essential for prepartum tissue differentiation in preparation for delivery. They also affect fetal bioavailability of most of the other growth-regulatory hormones. In addition, many of these hormones alter the placental capacity to supply nutrients for fetal growth. In producing a fetoplacental epigenome specific to the prevailing intrauterine environment, hormones interact to produce phenotypical diversity with potential health consequences long after birth.

  19. A Review of Brain Extraction Techniques in Fetal MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Pishghadam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sonography, Maternal Serum Screening, amniocentesis, and sampling are among the techniques utilized to examine a developing fetus and diagnose fetal abnormalities in the uterus. Despite the fact that Sonography is the main technique used for imaging and monitoring, the use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI to evaluate the fetus is growing. Moreover, MRI is used for further examinations in case of abnormalities diagnosed in the ultrasound scan. MRI, in comparison with other imaging techniques, provides the advantage of fetal brain study with higher precision and quality. The first step to study the fetal brain is its extraction from the MRI of the fetal brain. Since the maternal tissue is also present in the MRI of the fetal brain tissue, and due to the differences in the adult and fetus signals of brain tissue, it is not possible to use the adult brain extraction techniques for fetus. Given that semi-automatic segmentation is a time-consuming and tedious task, the need for automatic segmentation is highlighted. This is while the development of the stages of automatic segmentation of brain structures is still a challenge to overcome. In the present paper, we review the techniques for automatic segmentation or brain extraction of fetal MRI.

  20. Effect of ethanol (EtOH) and dietary histidine (His) on fetal brain histamine (Hm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, G.W.J.; Liying Jin (Rutgers-the State Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The authors have previously shown that gestational EtOH consumption decreased free His in fetal tissues, including the brain. His is the precursor of Hm, a neurotransmitter, and since central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction is frequently observed in the offspring of alcoholic women, experiments were conducted to examine the effects of gestational EtOH consumption on fetal brain Hm. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 35% EtOH-calorie liquid diets with three levels of His from gestation day (GD) 7 to 21. Control rats (LHC, MHC and HHC) were pair-fed with isocaloric sucrose substituted for EtOH. ON GD-21, fetal and maternal tissue were analyzed for His and H. In all tissues examined (fetal brain, plasma and liver, and maternal plasma and liver), His was increased with the increase of dietary His. Hm was also increased in fetal brain and liver in 0.8% dietary His groups. EtOH feeding decreased His in all fetal tissues but increased Hm in fetal brain and liver. The values of fetal brain Hm were: 805 {plus minus} 89 vs 574 {plus minus}47 (LHE vs LHC), 690 {plus minus} 29 vs 446 {plus minus} 32 (MHE vs MHC) and 1,335 {plus minus} 165 vs 938 {plus minus} 72 (HHE vs HHC), an increase of 40-50% by EtOH. Alteration in fetal brain Hm may contribute to the CNS dysfunction.

  1. Contribution of maternal thyroxine to fetal thyroxine pools in normal rats near term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morreale de Escobar, G.; Calvo, R.; Obregon, M.J.; Escobar Del Rey, F. (Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Madrid (Spain))

    1990-05-01

    Normal dams were equilibrated isotopically with ({sup 125}I)T4 infused from 11 to 21 days of gestation, at which time maternal and fetal extrathyroidal tissues were obtained to determine their ({sup 125}I)T4 and T4 contents. The specific activity of the ({sup 125}I)T4 in the fetal tissues was lower than in maternal T4 pools. The extent of this change allows evaluation of the net contribution of maternal T4 to the fetal extrathyroidal T4 pools. At 21 days of gestation, near term, this represents 17.5 +/- 0.9% of the T4 in fetal tissues, a value considerably higher than previously calculated. The methodological approach was validated in dams given a goitrogen to block fetal thyroid function. The specific activities of the ({sup 125}I)T4 in maternal and fetal T4 pools were then similar, confirming that in cases of fetal thyroid impairment the T4 in fetal tissues is determined by the maternal contribution. Thus, previous statements that in normal conditions fetal thyroid economy near term is totally independent of maternal thyroid status ought to be reconsidered.

  2. Fetal Biophysical Profile Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. HaghighatKhah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   "nFetal biophysical profile scoring is a sonographic-based method of fetal assessment first described by Manning and Platt in 1980. "nThe biophysical profile score was developed as a method to integrate real-time observations of the fetus and his/her intrauterine environment in order to more comprehensively assess the fetal condition. These findings must be evaluated in the context of maternal/fetal history (i.e., chronic hypertension, post-dates, intrauterine growth restriction, etc, fetal structural integrity (presence or absence of congenital anomalies, and the functionality of fetal support structures (placental and umbilical cord. For example, acute asphyxia due to placental abruption may result in an absence of the acute variables of the biophysical profile score (fetal breathing movements, fetal movement, fetal tone, and fetal heart rate reactivity with a normal amniotic fluid volume. With post maturity the asphyxial event may be intermittent and chronic resulting in a decrease in amniotic fluid volume, but with the acute variables remaining normal. "nWhile the 5 components of the biophysical profile score have remained unchanged since 1980 (Manning, 1980, the definitions of a normal and abnormal parameter have evolved with increasing experience. "nIn 1984 the definition of oligohydramnios was increased from < 1cm pocket of fluid to < 2.0 x 1.0 cm pocket. Oligohydramnios is now defined as a pocket of amniotic fluid < 2.0 x 2.0 cm (Manning, 1995a "nIf the four ultrasound variables are normal, the accuracy of the biophysical profile score was not found to be significantly improved by adding the non-stress test. As a result, in 1987 the profile score was modified to incorporate the non-stress test only when one of the ultrasound variables was abnormal (Manning 1987. Table 1 outlines the current definitions for quantifying a variable as present or absent. "nEach of the 5 components of the biophysical profile score does not have equal

  3. Fetal Programming of Obesity: Maternal Obesity and Excessive Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Kabaran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is an increasing health problem throughout the world. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight, maternal nutrition and maternal weight gain are among the factors that can cause childhood obesity. Both maternal obesity and excessive weight gain increase the risks of excessive fetal weight gain and high birth weight. Rapid weight gain during fetal period leads to changes in the newborn body composition. Specifically, the increase in body fat ratio in the early periods is associated with an increased risk of obesity in the later periods. It was reported that over-nutrition during fetal period could cause excessive food intake during postpartum period as a result of metabolic programming. By influencing the fetal metabolism and tissue development, maternal obesity and excessive weight gain change the amounts of nutrients and metabolites that pass to the fetus, thus causing excessive fetal weight gain which in turn increases the risk of obesity. Fetal over-nutrition and excessive weight gain cause permanent metabolic and physiologic changes in developing organs. While mechanisms that affect these organs are not fully understood, it is thought that the changes may occur as a result of the changes in fetal energy metabolism, appetite control, neuroendocrine functions, adipose tissue mass, epigenetic mechanisms and gene expression. In this review article, the effects of maternal body weight and weight gain on fetal development, newborn birth weight and risk of obesity were evaluated, and additionally potential mechanisms that can explain the effects of fetal over-nutrition on the risk of obesity were investigated [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 427-434

  4. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Hibar (Derrek); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); N. Jahanshad (Neda); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); J.L. Stein; E. Hofer (Edith); M.E. Rentería (Miguel); J.C. Bis (Joshua); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); Ikram, M.K. (M. Kamran); S. Desrivières (Sylvane); M.W. Vernooij (Meike); L. Abramovic; S. Alhusaini (Saud); N. Amin (Najaf); M. Andersson (Micael); K. Arfanakis (Konstantinos); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); L. Athanasiu (Lavinia); T. Axelsson (Tomas); A.H. Beecham (Ashley); A. Beiser (Alexa); M. Bernard (Manon); S.H. Blanton (Susan H.); M.M. Bohlken (Marc M.); M.P.M. Boks (Marco); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); A.M. Brickman (Adam M.); Carmichael, O. (Owen); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); Q. Chen (Qiang); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); V. Chouraki (Vincent); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); F. Crivello (Fabrice); A. den Braber (Anouk); Doan, N.T. (Nhat Trung); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); A.L. Goldman (Aaron L.); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); O. Grimm (Oliver); M.D. Griswold (Michael); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); Gutman, B.A. (Boris A.); J. Hass (Johanna); U.K. Haukvik (Unn); D. Hoehn (David); A.J. Holmes (Avram); M. Hoogman (Martine); D. Janowitz (Deborah); T. Jia (Tianye); Jørgensen, K.N. (Kjetil N.); N. Karbalai (Nazanin); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); S. Kim (Shinseog); M. Klein (Marieke); B. Kraemer (Bernd); P.H. Lee (Phil); D.C. Liewald (David C.); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); M. Luciano (Michelle); C. MacAre (Christine); Marquand, A.F. (Andre F.); M. Matarin (Mar); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); McKay, D.R. (David R.); Milaneschi, Y. (Yuri); S. Muñoz Maniega (Susana); K. Nho (Kwangsik); A.C. Nugent (Allison); P. Nyquist (Paul); Loohuis, L.M.O. (Loes M. Olde); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap); M. Papmeyer (Martina); Pirpamer, L. (Lukas); B. Pütz (Benno); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); Richards, J.S. (Jennifer S.); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); N. Rommelse (Nanda); S. Ropele (Stefan); E.J. Rose (Emma); N.A. Royle (Natalie); T. Rundek (Tatjana); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); Saremi, A. (Arvin); C.L. Satizabal (Claudia L.); L. Schmaal (Lianne); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); Shen, L. (Li); J. Shin (Jean); Shumskaya, E. (Elena); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); R. Sprooten (Roy); V.M. Strike (Vanessa); A. Teumer (Alexander); D. Tordesillas-Gutierrez (Diana); R. Toro (Roberto); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S. Trompet (Stella); D. Vaidya (Dhananjay); J. van der Grond (Jeroen); S. van der Lee (Sven); Van Der Meer, D. (Dennis); M.M.J. Van Donkelaar (Marjolein M. J.); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); T.G.M. van Erp (Theo G.); Van Rooij, D. (Daan); E. Walton (Esther); L.T. Westlye (Lars); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); B.G. Windham (B Gwen); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); Wolfers, T. (Thomas); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); Yang, J. (Jingyun); A.P. Zijdenbos; M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); I. Agartz (Ingrid); L. Almasy (Laura); D. Ames (David); Amouyel, P. (Philippe); O.A. Andreassen (Ole A.); S. Arepalli (Sampath); A.A. Assareh; S. Barral (Sandra); M.E. Bastin (Mark); Becker, D.M. (Diane M.); J.T. Becker; D.A. Bennett (David A.); J. Blangero (John); H. van Bokhoven (Hans); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); H. Brodaty (Henry); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); H.G. Brunner; M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); W. Cahn (Wiepke); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); D.M. Cannon (Dara); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); Cheng, C.-Y. (Ching-Yu); S. Cichon (Sven); M.R. Cookson (Mark); A. Corvin (Aiden); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); A.M. Dale (Anders); G.E. Davies (Gareth); A.J. de Craen (Anton); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); P.L. de Jager (Philip); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); S. Debette (Stéphanie); C. DeCarli (Charles); N. Delanty; C. Depondt (Chantal); A.L. DeStefano (Anita); A. Dillman (Allissa); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); D.A. Drevets (Douglas); Duggirala, R. (Ravi); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); C. Enzinger (Christian); S. Erk; T. Espeseth (Thomas); Fedko, I.O. (Iryna O.); Fernández, G. (Guillén); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); S.E. Fisher (Simon); D. Fleischman (Debra); I. Ford (Ian); M. Fornage (Myriam); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); C. Francks (Clyde); Fukunaga, M. (Masaki); Gibbs, J.R. (J. Raphael); D.C. Glahn (David); R.L. Gollub (Randy); H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); R.C. Green (Robert C.); O. Gruber (Oliver); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Guelfi (Sebastian); Håberg, A.K. (Asta K.); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); J. Hardy (John); C.A. Hartman (C.); Hashimoto, R. (Ryota); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.J. Heslenfeld (Dirk); Ho, B.-C. (Beng-Choon); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); A. Hofman (Albert); F. Holsboer (Florian); G. Homuth (Georg); N. Hosten (Norbert); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M.J. Huentelman (Matthew); H.H. Pol; Ikeda, M. (Masashi); Jack, C.R. (Clifford R.); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); R. Johnson (Robert); Jönsson, E.G. (Erik G.); J.W. Jukema; R. Kahn; Kanai, R. (Ryota); I. Kloszewska (Iwona); Knopman, D.S. (David S.); P. Kochunov (Peter); Kwok, J.B. (John B.); S. Lawrie (Stephen); H. Lemaître (Herve); X. Liu (Xinmin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); O.L. Lopez (Oscar L.); S. Lovestone (Simon); Martinez, O. (Oliver); J.-L. Martinot (Jean-Luc); V.S. Mattay (Venkata S.); McDonald, C. (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); McMahon, F.J. (Francis J.); McMahon, K.L. (Katie L.); P. Mecocci (Patrizia); I. Melle (Ingrid); Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (Andreas); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); Montgomery, G.W. (Grant W.); D.W. Morris (Derek W); T.H. Mosley (Thomas H.); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); M.A. Nalls (Michael); M. Nauck (Matthias); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); M.M. Nöthen (Markus); L. Nyberg (Lars); Ohi, K. (Kazutaka); R.L. Olvera (Rene); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); Pike, G.B. (G. Bruce); S.G. Potkin (Steven); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); S. Reppermund; M. Rietschel (M.); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); N. Seiferth (Nina); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); M. Ryten (Mina); Sacco, R.L. (Ralph L.); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); Schmidt, H. (Helena); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); Sigursson, S. (Sigurdur); Simmons, A. (Andrew); A. Singleton (Andrew); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); Smith, C. (Colin); J.W. Smoller; H. Soininen (H.); V.M. Steen (Vidar); D.J. Stott (David J.); J. Sussmann (Jessika); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); A.W. Toga (Arthur W.); B. Traynor (Bryan); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); M. Tsolaki (Magda); C. Tzourio (Christophe); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); Hernández, M.C.V. (Maria C. Valdés); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); A. van der Lugt (Aad); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); B.N. Vardarajan (Badri); B. Vellas (Bruno); D.J. Veltman (Dick); H. Völzke (Henry); H.J. Walter (Henrik); J. Wardlaw (Joanna); A.M.J. Wassink (Annemarie); M.E. Weale (Michael); Weinberger, D.R. (Daniel R.); Weiner, M.W. (Michael W.); Wen, W. (Wei); E. Westman (Eric); T.J.H. White (Tonya); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Y.); Wright, C.B. (Clinton B.); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); A.B. Zonderman; N.G. Martin (Nicholas); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); M.J. Wright (Margaret); W.T. Longstreth Jr; G. Schumann (Gunter); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); B. Franke (Barbara); L.J. Launer (Lenore); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); S. Seshadri (Sudha); P.M. Thompson (Paul); M.K. Ikram (Kamran)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpi

  5. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, Derrek P; Adams, Hieab H H; Jahanshad, Neda; Chauhan, Ganesh; Stein, Jason L; Hofer, Edith; Renteria, Miguel E; Bis, Joshua C; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Ikram, M Kamran; Desrivières, Sylvane; Vernooij, Meike W; Abramovic, Lucija|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34549072X; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf; Andersson, Micael; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Axelsson, Tomas; Beecham, Ashley H; Beiser, Alexa; Bernard, Manon; Blanton, Susan H; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/286852071; Bralten, Janita; Brickman, Adam M; Carmichael, Owen; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R K; Chouraki, Vincent; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Crivello, Fabrice; Den Braber, Anouk; Doan, Nhat Trung; Ehrlich, Stefan; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Grimm, Oliver; Griswold, Michael E; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gutman, Boris A; Hass, Johanna; Haukvik, Unn K; Hoehn, David; Holmes, Avram J; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Jørgensen, Kjetil N; Karbalai, Nazanin; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H; Liewald, David C M; Lopez, Lorna M; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Marquand, Andre F; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; McKay, David R; Milaneschi, Yuri; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Nho, Kwangsik; Nugent, Allison C; Nyquist, Paul; Loohuis, Loes M Olde; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Papmeyer, Martina; Pirpamer, Lukas; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Richards, Jennifer S; Risacher, Shannon L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rommelse, Nanda; Ropele, Stefan; Rose, Emma J; Royle, Natalie A; Rundek, Tatjana; Sämann, Philipp G; Saremi, Arvin; Satizabal, Claudia L; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J; Shen, Li; Shin, Jean; Shumskaya, Elena; Smith, Albert V; Sprooten, Emma; Strike, Lachlan T; Teumer, Alexander; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Toro, Roberto; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trompet, Stella; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Van der Grond, Jeroen; Van der Lee, Sven J; Van der Meer, Dennis; Van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J; Van Eijk, Kristel R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/344497569; Van Erp, Theo G M; Van Rooij, Daan; Walton, Esther; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Windham, Beverly G; Winkler, Anderson M; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Wolfers, Thomas; Yanek, Lisa R; Yang, Jingyun; Zijdenbos, Alex; Zwiers, Marcel P; Agartz, Ingrid; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Amouyel, Philippe; Andreassen, Ole A; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A; Barral, Sandra; Bastin, Mark E; Becker, Diane M; Becker, James T; Bennett, David A; Blangero, John; van Bokhoven, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I; Brodaty, Henry; Brouwer, Rachel M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304811432; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Cahn, Wiepke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/250566370; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cichon, Sven; Cookson, Mark R; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; Dale, Anders M; Davies, Gareth E; De Craen, Anton J M; De Geus, Eco J C; De Jager, Philip L; De Zubicaray, Greig I; Deary, Ian J; Debette, Stéphanie; DeCarli, Charles; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; DeStefano, Anita; Dillman, Allissa; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drevets, Wayne C; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Enzinger, Christian; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fedko, Iryna O; Fernández, Guillén; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fisher, Simon E; Fleischman, Debra A; Ford, Ian; Fornage, Myriam; Foroud, Tatiana M; Fox, Peter T; Francks, Clyde; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J Raphael; Glahn, David C; Gollub, Randy L; Göring, Harald H H; Green, Robert C; Gruber, Oliver; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guelfi, Sebastian; Håberg, Asta K; Hansell, Narelle K; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Hernandez, Dena G; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huentelman, Matthew; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/142348228; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Jönsson, Erik G; Jukema, J Wouter; Kahn, René S|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073778532; Kanai, Ryota; Kloszewska, Iwona; Knopman, David S; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B; Lawrie, Stephen M; Lemaître, Hervé; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L; Lopez, Oscar L; Lovestone, Simon; Martinez, Oliver; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mattay, Venkata S; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; McMahon, Francis J; McMahon, Katie L; Mecocci, Patrizia; Melle, Ingrid; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Derek W; Mosley, Thomas H; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nalls, Michael A; Nauck, Matthias; Nichols, Thomas E; Niessen, Wiro J; Nöthen, Markus M; Nyberg, Lars; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L; Ophoff, Roel A; Pandolfo, Massimo; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Pike, G Bruce; Potkin, Steven G; Psaty, Bruce M; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Roffman, Joshua L; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rotter, Jerome I; Ryten, Mina; Sacco, Ralph L; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schmidt, Helena; Schofield, Peter R; Sigursson, Sigurdur; Simmons, Andrew; Singleton, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W; Soininen, Hilkka; Steen, Vidar M; Stott, David J; Sussmann, Jessika E; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W; Traynor, Bryan J; Troncoso, Juan; Tsolaki, Magda; Tzourio, Christophe; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hernández, Maria C Valdés; Van der Brug, Marcel; van der Lugt, Aad; van der Wee, Nic J A; Van Haren, Neeltje E M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/271562161; van 't Ent, Dennis; Van Tol, Marie-Jose; Vardarajan, Badri N; Vellas, Bruno; Veltman, Dick J; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Wassink, Thomas H; Weale, Michael E; Weinberger, Daniel R; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; Westman, Eric; White, Tonya; Wong, Tien Y; Wright, Clinton B; Zielke, Ronald H; Zonderman, Alan B; Martin, Nicholas G; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Wright, Margaret J; Longstreth, W T; Schumann, Gunter; Grabe, Hans J; Franke, Barbara; Launer, Lenore J; Medland, Sarah E; Seshadri, Sudha; Thompson, Paul M; Ikram, M Arfan

    2017-01-01

    The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hi

  6. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Hibar (Derrek); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); N. Jahanshad (Neda); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); J.L. Stein; E. Hofer (Edith); M.E. Rentería (Miguel); J.C. Bis (Joshua); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); Ikram, M.K. (M. Kamran); S. Desrivières (Sylvane); M.W. Vernooij (Meike); L. Abramovic; S. Alhusaini (Saud); N. Amin (Najaf); M. Andersson (Micael); K. Arfanakis (Konstantinos); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); L. Athanasiu (Lavinia); T. Axelsson (Tomas); A.H. Beecham (Ashley); A. Beiser (Alexa); M. Bernard (Manon); S.H. Blanton (Susan H.); M.M. Bohlken (Marc M.); M.P.M. Boks (Marco); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); A.M. Brickman (Adam M.); Carmichael, O. (Owen); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); Q. Chen (Qiang); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); V. Chouraki (Vincent); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); F. Crivello (Fabrice); A. den Braber (Anouk); Doan, N.T. (Nhat Trung); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); A.L. Goldman (Aaron L.); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); O. Grimm (Oliver); M.D. Griswold (Michael); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); Gutman, B.A. (Boris A.); J. Hass (Johanna); U.K. Haukvik (Unn); D. Hoehn (David); A.J. Holmes (Avram); M. Hoogman (Martine); D. Janowitz (Deborah); T. Jia (Tianye); Jørgensen, K.N. (Kjetil N.); N. Karbalai (Nazanin); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); S. Kim (Shinseog); M. Klein (Marieke); B. Kraemer (Bernd); P.H. Lee (Phil); D.C. Liewald (David C.); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); M. Luciano (Michelle); C. MacAre (Christine); Marquand, A.F. (Andre F.); M. Matarin (Mar); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); McKay, D.R. (David R.); Milaneschi, Y. (Yuri); S. Muñoz Maniega (Susana); K. Nho (Kwangsik); A.C. Nugent (Allison); P. Nyquist (Paul); Loohuis, L.M.O. (Loes M. Olde); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap); M. Papmeyer (Martina); Pirpamer, L. (Lukas); B. Pütz (Benno); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); Richards, J.S. (Jennifer S.); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); N. Rommelse (Nanda); S. Ropele (Stefan); E.J. Rose (Emma); N.A. Royle (Natalie); T. Rundek (Tatjana); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); Saremi, A. (Arvin); C.L. Satizabal (Claudia L.); L. Schmaal (Lianne); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); Shen, L. (Li); J. Shin (Jean); Shumskaya, E. (Elena); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); R. Sprooten (Roy); V.M. Strike (Vanessa); A. Teumer (Alexander); D. Tordesillas-Gutierrez (Diana); R. Toro (Roberto); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S. Trompet (Stella); D. Vaidya (Dhananjay); J. van der Grond (Jeroen); S. van der Lee (Sven); Van Der Meer, D. (Dennis); M.M.J. Van Donkelaar (Marjolein M. J.); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); T.G.M. van Erp (Theo G.); Van Rooij, D. (Daan); E. Walton (Esther); L.T. Westlye (Lars); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); B.G. Windham (B Gwen); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); Wolfers, T. (Thomas); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); Yang, J. (Jingyun); A.P. Zijdenbos; M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); I. Agartz (Ingrid); L. Almasy (Laura); D. Ames (David); Amouyel, P. (Philippe); O.A. Andreassen (Ole A.); S. Arepalli (Sampath); A.A. Assareh; S. Barral (Sandra); M.E. Bastin (Mark); Becker, D.M. (Diane M.); J.T. Becker; D.A. Bennett (David A.); J. Blangero (John); H. van Bokhoven (Hans); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); H. Brodaty (Henry); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); H.G. Brunner; M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); W. Cahn (Wiepke); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); D.M. Cannon (Dara); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); Cheng, C.-Y. (Ching-Yu); S. Cichon (Sven); M.R. Cookson (Mark); A. Corvin (Aiden); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); A.M. Dale (Anders); G.E. Davies (Gareth); A.J. de Craen (Anton); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); P.L. de Jager (Philip); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); S. Debette (Stéphanie); C. DeCarli (Charles); N. Delanty; C. Depondt (Chantal); A.L. DeStefano (Anita); A. Dillman (Allissa); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); D.A. Drevets (Douglas); Duggirala, R. (Ravi); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); C. Enzinger (Christian); S. Erk; T. Espeseth (Thomas); Fedko, I.O. (Iryna O.); Fernández, G. (Guillén); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); S.E. Fisher (Simon); D. Fleischman (Debra); I. Ford (Ian); M. Fornage (Myriam); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); C. Francks (Clyde); Fukunaga, M. (Masaki); Gibbs, J.R. (J. Raphael); D.C. Glahn (David); R.L. Gollub (Randy); H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); R.C. Green (Robert C.); O. Gruber (Oliver); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Guelfi (Sebastian); Håberg, A.K. (Asta K.); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); J. Hardy (John); C.A. Hartman (C.); Hashimoto, R. (Ryota); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.J. Heslenfeld (Dirk); Ho, B.-C. (Beng-Choon); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); A. Hofman (Albert); F. Holsboer (Florian); G. Homuth (Georg); N. Hosten (Norbert); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M.J. Huentelman (Matthew); H.H. Pol; Ikeda, M. (Masashi); Jack, C.R. (Clifford R.); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); R. Johnson (Robert); Jönsson, E.G. (Erik G.); J.W. Jukema; R. Kahn; Kanai, R. (Ryota); I. Kloszewska (Iwona); Knopman, D.S. (David S.); P. Kochunov (Peter); Kwok, J.B. (John B.); S. Lawrie (Stephen); H. Lemaître (Herve); X. Liu (Xinmin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); O.L. Lopez (Oscar L.); S. Lovestone (Simon); Martinez, O. (Oliver); J.-L. Martinot (Jean-Luc); V.S. Mattay (Venkata S.); McDonald, C. (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); McMahon, F.J. (Francis J.); McMahon, K.L. (Katie L.); P. Mecocci (Patrizia); I. Melle (Ingrid); Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (Andreas); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); Montgomery, G.W. (Grant W.); D.W. Morris (Derek W); T.H. Mosley (Thomas H.); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); M.A. Nalls (Michael); M. Nauck (Matthias); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); M.M. Nöthen (Markus); L. Nyberg (Lars); Ohi, K. (Kazutaka); R.L. Olvera (Rene); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); Pike, G.B. (G. Bruce); S.G. Potkin (Steven); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); S. Reppermund; M. Rietschel (M.); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); N. Seiferth (Nina); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); M. Ryten (Mina); Sacco, R.L. (Ralph L.); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); Schmidt, H. (Helena); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); Sigursson, S. (Sigurdur); Simmons, A. (Andrew); A. Singleton (Andrew); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); Smith, C. (Colin); J.W. Smoller; H. Soininen (H.); V.M. Steen (Vidar); D.J. Stott (David J.); J. Sussmann (Jessika); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); A.W. Toga (Arthur W.); B. Traynor (Bryan); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); M. Tsolaki (Magda); C. Tzourio (Christophe); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); Hernández, M.C.V. (Maria C. Valdés); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); A. van der Lugt (Aad); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); B.N. Vardarajan (Badri); B. Vellas (Bruno); D.J. Veltman (Dick); H. Völzke (Henry); H.J. Walter (Henrik); J. Wardlaw (Joanna); A.M.J. Wassink (Annemarie); M.E. Weale (Michael); Weinberger, D.R. (Daniel R.); Weiner, M.W. (Michael W.); Wen, W. (Wei); E. Westman (Eric); T.J.H. White (Tonya); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Y.); Wright, C.B. (Clinton B.); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); A.B. Zonderman; N.G. Martin (Nicholas); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); M.J. Wright (Margaret); W.T. Longstreth Jr; G. Schumann (Gunter); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); B. Franke (Barbara); L.J. Launer (Lenore); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); S. Seshadri (Sudha); P.M. Thompson (Paul); M.K. Ikram (Kamran)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpi

  7. Fetal fluid and protein dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis fetal fluid and protein dynamics are investigated to gain insight in fetal (patho-)physiology. Studies were performed in fetuses with severe anemia and/or hydrops fetalis. Measurements were performed in fetal blood or amniotic fluid, obtained before or during intrauterine transfusion.

  8. Placental adaptations to the maternal-fetal environment: implications for fetal growth and developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandovici, Ionel; Hoelle, Katharina; Angiolini, Emily; Constância, Miguel

    2012-07-01

    The placenta is a transient organ found in eutherian mammals that evolved primarily to provide nutrients for the developing fetus. The placenta exchanges a wide array of nutrients, endocrine signals, cytokines and growth factors with the mother and the fetus, thereby regulating intrauterine development. Recent studies show that the placenta is not just a passive organ mediating maternal-fetal exchange. It can adapt its capacity to supply nutrients in response to intrinsic and extrinsic variations in the maternal-fetal environment. These dynamic adaptations are thought to occur to maximize fetal growth and viability at birth in the prevailing conditions in utero. However, some of these adaptations may also affect the development of individual fetal tissues, with patho-physiological consequences long after birth. Here, this review summarizes current knowledge on the causes, possible mechanisms and consequences of placental adaptive responses, with a focus on the regulation of transporter-mediated processes for nutrients. This review also highlights the emerging roles that imprinted genes and epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation may play in placental adaptations to the maternal-fetal environment. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. RM fetal en las anomalías del SNC: Aspectos de interés para el obstetra Abnormalities in fetal CNS: Interesting issues to the obstetrician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Recio Rodríguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La resonancia magnética (RM fetal es una técnica de imagen en auge, útil en la valoración del cerebro y columna fetal. Ayuda a estudiar el desarrollo cerebral fetal y se puede realizar un diagnóstico precoz de las anomalías congénitas. La imagen de RM muestra gran resolución de contraste y permite diferenciar mejor que la ecografía entre hallazgos normales y patológicos. Además, algunas malformaciones cerebrales o lesiones destructivas ocultas en la ecografía prenatal pueden ser detectadas por RM. Revisamos las indicaciones, utilidad, seguridad, aspectos técnicos de la RM fetal y la apariencia del desarrollo cerebral fetal, y evaluamos su contribución en el diagnóstico de las patologías de las diferentes regiones cerebrales y de la patología espinal fetal.Fetal MR imaging (MRI is an increasingly available technique used to evaluate the fetal brain and spine, because it provides a unique opportunity to evaluate fetal brain development and to make an early diagnosis of congenital abnormalities. MRI allows a better differentiation between normal and abnormal signal intensity of fetal tissues due to its higher contrast resolution compared to prenatal sonography (US. Therefore, structural abnormalities such as brain malformations and destructive lesions that could be sonographically occult on prenatal sonography can be detected at fetal MRI. We review indications, utility, safety, and technical aspects of fetal MR imaging and the appearance of normal fetal brain development evaluating its contribution in the diagnosis of fetal diseases of different brain regions and spinal disorders.

  10. Serotonin of mast cell origin contributes to hippocampal function

    OpenAIRE

    Nautiyal, Katherine M.; Dailey, Christopher A.; Jahn, Jaquelyn L.; Rodriquez, Elizabeth; Son, Nguyen Hong; Jonathan V. Sweedler; Silver, Rae

    2012-01-01

    In the CNS, serotonin, an important neurotransmitter and trophic factor, is synthesized by both mast cells and neurons. Mast cells, like other immune cells, are born in the bone marrow and migrate to many tissues. We show that they are resident in the mouse brain throughout development and adulthood. Measurements based on capillary electrophoresis with native fluorescence detection indicate that a significant contribution of serotonin to the hippocampal milieu is associated with mast cell act...

  11. Micronutrients and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Caroline H D; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Rao, Shobha; Davies, Anna A; Brown, Nick; Farrant, Hannah J W

    2003-05-01

    Fetal undernutrition affects large numbers of infants in developing countries, with adverse consequences for their immediate survival and lifelong health. It manifests as intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), defined as birth weight fetus is nourished by a complex supply line that includes the mother's diet and absorption, endocrine status and metabolism, cardiovascular adaptations to pregnancy and placental function. Micronutrients are essential for growth, and maternal micronutrient deficiency, frequently multiple in developing countries, may be an important cause of IUGR. Supplementation of undernourished mothers with micronutrients has several benefits but there is little hard evidence of improved fetal growth. However, this has been inadequately tested. Most trials have only used single micronutrients and many were inconclusive because of methodological problems. Several food-based studies (some uncontrolled) suggest benefits from improving maternal dietary quality with micronutrient-dense foods. One trial of a multivitamin supplement (HIV-positive mothers, Tanzania) showed increased birth weight and fewer fetal deaths. Well-conducted randomized controlled trials of adequate sample size and including measures of effectiveness are needed in populations at high risk of micronutrient deficiency and IUGR and should include food-based interventions and better measurements of fetal growth, maternal metabolism, and long-term outcomes in the offspring.

  12. Hippocampal GR expression is increased in elderly depressed females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Joels, M; Swaab, D F; Lucassen, P J

    2012-01-01

    Hyperactivity of the Hypthalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA)-axis is common in major depression and evident from e.g., a frequently exaggerated response to combined application of dexamethasone and CRH in this disorder. HPA-axis activity and hence the secretion of glucocorticoids (GC), the endpoint of the HPA-axis, depends to some extent on GC binding to glucocorticoid receptors (GR) that are abundantly expressed in the hippocampus. To assess whether differences in hippocampal GR expression occur in association with depression, we investigated GR-alpha protein immunoreactivity (ir) in postmortem hippocampal tissue of an elderly cohort of 9 well-characterized depressed patients and 9 control subjects that were pair-wise matched for age, sex, CSF-pH and postmortem delay. Abundant nuclear GR-ir was observed in neurons of the hippocampal Ammon's horn (CA) and dentate gyrus (DG) subregions. GR-ir in the DG correlated positively with age in the depressed but not the control group. Although no significant differences were found in GR-ir between the depressed and control groups, a significant increase in GR-ir was present in depressed females compared to depressed males. Whether this sex difference in hippocampal GR-ir in depression relates to the increased incidence of depression in females awaits further study. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'.

  13. Adrenal glands are essential for activation of glucogenesis during undernutrition in fetal sheep near term

    OpenAIRE

    Fowden, A. L.; Forhead, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    In adults, the adrenal glands are essential for the metabolic response to stress, but little is known about their role in fetal metabolism. This study examined the effects of adrenalectomizing fetal sheep on glucose and oxygen metabolism in utero in fed conditions and after maternal fasting for 48 h near term. Fetal adrenalectomy (AX) had little effect on the rates of glucose and oxygen metabolism by the fetus or uteroplacental tissues in fed conditions. Endogenous glucose production was negl...

  14. MRI of the Fetal Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisstanner, C; Kasprian, G; Gruber, G M; Brugger, P C; Prayer, D

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the possibilities for fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of the fetal brain. For brain pathologies, fetal MRI is usually performed when an abnormality is detected by previous prenatal ultrasound, and is, therefore, an important adjunct to ultrasound. The most commonly suspected brain pathologies referred to fetal MRI for further evaluation are ventriculomegaly, missing corpus callosum, and abnormalities of the posterior fossa. We will briefly discuss the most common indications for fetal brain MRI, as well as recent advances.

  15. Adrenal glands are essential for activation of glucogenesis during undernutrition in fetal sheep near term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, A L; Forhead, A J

    2011-01-01

    In adults, the adrenal glands are essential for the metabolic response to stress, but little is known about their role in fetal metabolism. This study examined the effects of adrenalectomizing fetal sheep on glucose and oxygen metabolism in utero in fed conditions and after maternal fasting for 48 h near term. Fetal adrenalectomy (AX) had little effect on the rates of glucose and oxygen metabolism by the fetus or uteroplacental tissues in fed conditions. Endogenous glucose production was negligible in both AX and intact, sham-operated fetuses in fed conditions. Maternal fasting reduced fetal glucose levels and umbilical glucose uptake in both groups of fetuses to a similar extent but activated glucose production only in the intact fetuses. The lack of fasting-induced glucogenesis in AX fetuses was accompanied by falls in fetal glucose utilization and oxygen consumption not seen in intact controls. The circulating concentrations of cortisol and total catecholamines, and the hepatic glycogen content and activities of key gluconeogenic enzymes, were also less in AX than intact fetuses in fasted animals. Insulin concentrations were also lower in AX than intact fetuses in both nutritional states. Maternal glucose utilization and its distribution between the fetal, uteroplacental, and nonuterine maternal tissues were unaffected by fetal AX in both nutritional states. Ovine fetal adrenal glands, therefore, have little effect on basal rates of fetal glucose and oxygen metabolism but are essential for activating fetal glucogenesis in response to maternal fasting. They may also be involved in regulating insulin sensitivity in utero.

  16. Pooled human platelet lysate versus fetal bovine serum—investigating the proliferation rate, chromosome stability and angiogenic potential of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells intended for clinical use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trojahn Kølle, Stig-Frederik; Oliveri, Roberto S; Glovinski, Peter V

    2013-01-01

    Because of an increasing focus on the use of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in clinical trials, the culture conditions for these cells are being optimized. We compared the proliferation rates and chromosomal stability of ASCs that had been cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM......) supplemented with either pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL) or clinical-grade fetal bovine serum (FBS) (DMEM(pHPL) versus DMEM(FBS))....

  17. Staining protocol for organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolla, Nadine; Galimberti, Ivan; DePaola, Vincenzo; Caroni, Pico

    2006-01-01

    This protocol details a method to immunostain organotypic slice cultures from mouse hippocampus. The cultures are based on the interface method, which does not require special equipment, is easy to execute and yields slice cultures that can be imaged repeatedly, from the time of isolation at postnatal day 6-9 up to 6 months in vitro. The preserved tissue architecture facilitates the analysis of defined hippocampal synapses, cells and entire projections. Time-lapse imaging is based on transgenes expressed in the mice or on constructs introduced through transfection or viral vectors; it can reveal processes that develop over periods ranging from seconds to months. Subsequent to imaging, the slices can be processed for immunocytochemistry to collect further information about the imaged structures. This protocol can be completed in 3 d.

  18. Stillbirth and fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2010-09-01

    The association between stillbirth and fetal growth restriction is strong and supported by a large body of evidence and clinically employed for the stillbirth prediction. However, although assessment of fetal growth is a basis of clinical practice, it is not trivial. Essentially, fetal growth is a result of the genetic growth potential of the fetus and placental function. The growth potential is the driving force of fetal growth, whereas the placenta as the sole source of nutrients and oxygen might become the rate limiting element of fetal growth if its function is impaired. Thus, placental dysfunction may prevent the fetus from reaching its full genetically determined growth potential. In this sense fetal growth and its aberration provides an insight into placental function. Fetal growth is a proxy for the test of the effectiveness of placenta, whose function is otherwise obscured during pregnancy.

  19. Application of hysteroscope in intrauterine adhesion complicated with missed abortion or fetal tissue remaining after failed complete curettage of uterine cavity%宫腔镜在宫腔粘连合并稽留流产或合并妊娠物残留清宫失败诊治中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴书仪

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application value of hysteroscope in intrauterine adhesion complicated with missed abortion or fetal tissue remaining after failed complete curettage of uterine cavity. Methods Process of hysteroscopic diagnosis and treatment in 21 intrauterine adhesion patients complicated with missed abortion or fetal tissue remaining after failed complete curettage of uterine cavity were analyzed. Cure rate of postoperative intrauterine adhesion was provided by clinical follow-up.Results All the 21 cases with intrauterine adhesion complicated with missed abortion or fetal tissue remaining after failed complete curettage of uterine cavity were examined by hysteroscope, and underwent hysteroscopic electrotomy+complete curettage of uterine cavity. After surgery, 3-month artificial menstrual cycle treatment was given to the patients. The effective rate of intrauterine adhesion treatment was 71.4%, but the postoperative endometrial thickness did not meet the normal range.Conclusion Hysteroscopic examination is a good way to determine intrauterine adhesion complicated with missed abortion or fetal tissue remaining after failed complete curettage of uterine cavity. Hysteroscopic electrotomy+complete curettage of uterine cavity are effective, safe and minimally invasive treatment methods of intrauterine adhesion complicated with missed abortion or fetal tissue remaining after failed complete curettage of uterine cavity.%目的:探讨宫腔镜在宫腔粘连合并稽留流产或合并妊娠物残留清宫失败诊治中的应用价值。方法分析21例宫腔粘连合并稽留流产或合并妊娠物残留清宫失败患者经宫腔镜的诊治过程,临床随访术后宫腔粘连的治愈率。结果21例宫腔粘连合并稽留流产或合并妊娠物残留清宫失败患者均经宫腔镜检查明确诊断并行宫腔镜下宫腔粘连切除术+清宫术,术后辅以人工周期治疗3个月,宫腔粘连治疗有效率71.4%,但术后子宫内

  20. MR evaluation of fetal abnormalities by SSFP sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanuma, Makoto; Hasegawa, Makoto; Enomoto, Kyoko; Watabe, Tsuneya; Heshiki, Atsuko (Saitama Medical School, Moroyama (Japan))

    1993-07-01

    We examined the feasibility of fast steady-state free precession (SSFP) MR imaging with time-reversed free induction decay (FID) signal for detecting fetal abnormality. Its strong T[sub 2]-weighted contrast enabled to clearly differentiate fetal part from the amniotic fluid and detect some fluid-filled organs. Although the sequence is very sensitive to motion, short imaging time (20 seconds) with breath-holding minimized motion-related artifacts and provided high quality images. It was also possible to image repeatedly in arbitrary slice orientations within a reasonable examination time. This technique was particularly useful to demonstrate gross fetal anomalies of the body surface and central nervous system without need for a potentially harmful fetal anesthesia. However, due to poor soft tissue contrast supplemental T[sub 1]-weighted images were mandatory. (author).

  1. MRI of normal fetal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor; Krampl, Elisabeth; Ulm, Barbara; Witzani, Linde; Prayer, Lucas; Brugger, Peter C

    2006-02-01

    Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the 18th gestational week (GW) to term, and relies primarily on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences. These maturational changes must be interpreted with a knowledge of the histological background and the temporal course of the respective developmental steps. In addition, MR presentation of developing and transient structures must be considered. Signal changes associated with maturational processes can mainly be ascribed to the following changes in tissue composition and organization, which occur at the histological level: (1) a decrease in water content and increasing cell-density can be recognized as a shortening of T1- and T2-relaxation times, leading to increased T1-weighted and decreased T2-weighted intensity, respectively; (2) the arrangement of microanatomical structures to create a symmetrical or asymmetrical environment, leading to structural differences that may be demonstrated by DW-anisotropy; (3) changes in non-structural qualities, such as the onset of a membrane potential in premyelinating axons. The latter process also influences the appearance of a structure on DW sequences. Thus, we will review the in vivo MR appearance of different maturational states of the fetal brain and relate these maturational states to anatomical, histological, and in vitro MRI data. Then, the development of the cerebral cortex, white matter, temporal lobe, and cerebellum will be reviewed, and the MR appearance of transient structures of the fetal brain will be shown. Emphasis will be placed on the appearance of the different structures with the various sequences. In addition, the possible utility of dynamic fetal sequences in assessing spontaneous fetal movements is discussed.

  2. MRI of normal fetal brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: Daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Krampl, Elisabeth [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Ulm, Barbara [Department of Prenatal Diagnosis, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Lucas [Diagnosezentrum Urania, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the 18th gestational week (GW) to term, and relies primarily on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences. These maturational changes must be interpreted with a knowledge of the histological background and the temporal course of the respective developmental steps. In addition, MR presentation of developing and transient structures must be considered. Signal changes associated with maturational processes can mainly be ascribed to the following changes in tissue composition and organization, which occur at the histological level: (1) a decrease in water content and increasing cell-density can be recognized as a shortening of T1- and T2-relaxation times, leading to increased T1-weighted and decreased T2-weighted intensity, respectively; (2) the arrangement of microanatomical structures to create a symmetrical or asymmetrical environment, leading to structural differences that may be demonstrated by DW-anisotropy; (3) changes in non-structural qualities, such as the onset of a membrane potential in premyelinating axons. The latter process also influences the appearance of a structure on DW sequences. Thus, we will review the in vivo MR appearance of different maturational states of the fetal brain and relate these maturational states to anatomical, histological, and in vitro MRI data. Then, the development of the cerebral cortex, white matter, temporal lobe, and cerebellum will be reviewed, and the MR appearance of transient structures of the fetal brain will be shown. Emphasis will be placed on the appearance of the different structures with the various sequences. In addition, the possible utility of dynamic fetal sequences in assessing spontaneous fetal movements is discussed.

  3. Inverse correspondence between hippocampal perfusion and verbal memory performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Swati; Ally, Brandon A; Hussey, Erin; Wilson, Tracy; Thornton-Wells, Tricia; Gore, John C; Donahue, Manus J

    2013-03-01

    Understanding physiological changes that precede irreversible tissue damage in age-related pathology is central to optimizing treatments that may prevent, or delay, cognitive decline. Cerebral perfusion is a tightly regulated physiological property, coupled to tissue metabolism and function, and abnormal (both elevated and reduced) hippocampal perfusion has been reported in a range of cognitive disorders. However, the size and location of the hippocampus complicates perfusion quantification, as many perfusion techniques acquire data with spatial resolution on the order of or beyond the size of the hippocampus, and are thus suboptimal in this region (especially in the presence of hippocampal atrophy and reduced flow scenarios). Here, the relationship between hippocampal perfusion and atrophy as a function of memory performance was examined in cognitively normal healthy older adults (n = 20; age=67 ± 7 yr) with varying genetic risk for dementia using a custom arterial spin labeling acquisition and analysis procedure. When controlling for hippocampal volume, it was found that hippocampal perfusion correlated inversely (P = 0.04) with memory performance despite absent hippocampal tissue atrophy or white matter disease. The hippocampal flow asymmetry (left hippocampus perfusion-right hippocampus perfusion) was significantly (P = 0.04) increased in APOE-ϵ4 carriers relative to noncarriers. These findings demonstrate that perfusion correlates more strongly than tissue volume with memory performance in cognitively normal older adults, and furthermore that an inverse trend between these two parameters suggests that elevation of neuronal activity, possibly mediated by neuroinflammation and/or excitation/inhibition imbalance, may be closely associated with minor changes in memory performance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Developmental and functional biology of the primate fetal adrenal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesiano, S; Jaffe, R B

    1997-06-01

    The unique characteristics of the primate (particularly human) fetal adrenal were first realized in the early 1900s when its morphology was examined in detail and compared with that of other species. The unusual architecture of the human fetal adrenal cortex, with its unique and disproportionately enlarged fetal zone, its compact definitive zone, and its dramatic remodeling soon after birth captured the interest of developmental anatomists. Many detailed anatomical studies describing the morphology of the developing human fetal adrenal were reported between 1920 and 1960, and these morphological descriptions have not changed significantly. More recently, it has become clear that fetal adrenal cortical growth involves cellular hypertrophy, hyperplasia, apoptosis, and migration and is best described by the migration theory, i.e. cells proliferate in the periphery, migrate centripetally, differentiate during their migration to form the functional cortical zones, and then likely undergo apoptosis in the center of the cortex. Consistent with this model, cells of intermediate phenotype, arranged in columnar cords typical of migration, have been identified between the definitive and fetal zones. This cortical area has been referred to as the transitional zone and, based on the expression of steroidogenic enzymes, we consider it to be a functionally distinct cortical zone. Elegant experiments during the 1950s and 1960s demonstrated the central role of the primate fetal adrenal cortex in establishing the estrogenic milieu of pregnancy. Those findings were among the first indications of the function and physiological role of the human fetal adrenal cortex and led Diczfalusy and co-workers to propose the concept of the feto-placental unit, in which DHEA-S produced by the fetal adrenal cortex is used by the placenta for estrogen synthesis. Tissue and cell culture techniques, together with improved steroid assays, revealed that the fetal zone is the primary source of DHEA

  5. Hippocampal Abnormalities and Seizure Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal volumetry and T2 relaxometry were performed on 84 consecutive patients (adolescents and adults with partial epilepsy submitted to antiepileptic drug (AED withdrawal after at least 2 years of seizure control, in a study at State University of Campinas-UNICAMP, Brazil.

  6. Histological evaluation of acute covering of an experimental neural tube defect with biomatrices in fetal sheep.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, A.J.; Roelofs, L.A.J.; Lammens, M.M.Y.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Wijnen, R.M.H.; Mullaart, R.A.; Moerkerk, H.T.B. van; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Crevels, A.J.; Hanssen, A.; Lotgering, F.K.; Berg, P.P. van den

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the histological effect on the neural tissue of in utero covering of an experimental neural tube defect in fetal lambs, with the use of two different biomatrices. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 23 fetal sheep, surgery was performed at 79 days' gestation. I

  7. Establishment and characterization of feeder-cell-dependent bovine fetal liver cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The establishment and initial characterization of bovine fetal liver cell lines is described. Bovine fetal hepatocytes were cultured from the liver of a 34-day bovine fetus by physical disruption of the liver tissue. Released liver cells and clumps of cells were plated on STO feeder layers and wer...

  8. Fetal congenital lobar emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Soon-Cen; Liu, Min-Chang; Se, Tung-Yi

    2007-03-01

    To report a rare fetal congenital lung anomaly characterized by over inflation of a pulmonary lobe. A 28-year-old systemic lupus erythematous mother, gravida 1 para 0, who had normal prenatal care in our department, was admitted for labor pain and an abnormal fetal heart location was noted incidentally during labor. The baby showed rib retraction in room air but no obvious cyanotic change after delivery. Both the fetus chest X-ray and ultrasound showed a hyperechogenic tumor in the left thoracic cavity with a right-side-shifted heart and trachea. Computed tomography showed a hypodense and multiseptal tumor in the left thoracic cavity with right-sided shift of the heart and trachea. It was a soft, solid tumor in the parenchyma of the left lung and the histopathology confirmed it to be benign congenital lobar emphysema. The favorable outcome in both asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic children suggests that a nonsurgical approach should be considered for these patients.

  9. Circadian rhythms of fetal liver transcription persist in the absence of canonical circadian clock gene expression rhythms in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengwei Li

    Full Text Available The cellular circadian clock and systemic cues drive rhythmicity in the transcriptome of adult peripheral tissues. However, the oscillating status of the circadian clocks in fetal tissues, and their response to maternal cues, are less clear. Most clock genes do not cycle in fetal livers from mice and rats, although tissue level rhythms rapidly emerge when fetal mouse liver explants are cultured in vitro. Thus, in the fetal mouse liver, the circadian clock does not oscillate at the cellular level (but is induced to oscillate in culture. To gain a comprehensive overview of the clock status in the fetal liver during late gestation, we performed microarray analyses on fetal liver tissues. In the fetal liver we did not observe circadian rhythms of clock gene expression or many other transcripts known to be rhythmically expressed in the adult liver. Nevertheless, JTK_CYCLE analysis identified some transcripts in the fetal liver that were rhythmically expressed, albeit at low amplitudes. Upon data filtering by coefficient of variation, the expression levels for transcripts related to pancreatic exocrine enzymes and zymogen secretion were found to undergo synchronized daily fluctuations at high amplitudes. These results suggest that maternal cues influence the fetal liver, despite the fact that we did not detect circadian rhythms of canonical clock gene expression in the fetal liver. These results raise important questions on the role of the circadian clock, or lack thereof, during ontogeny.

  10. The fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiserud, Torvid; Acharya, Ganesh

    2004-12-30

    Accumulating data on the human fetal circulation shows the similarity to the experimental animal physiology, but with important differences. The human fetus seems to circulate less blood through the placenta, shunt less through the ductus venosus and foramen ovale, but direct more blood through the lungs than the fetal sheep. However, there are substantial individual variations and the pattern changes with gestational age. The normalised umbilical blood flow decreases with gestational age, and, at 28 to 32 weeks, a new level of development seems to be reached. At this stage, the shunting through the ductus venosus and the foramen ovale reaches a minimum, and the flow through the lungs a maximum. The ductus venosus and foramen ovale are functionally closely related and represent an important distributional unit for the venous return. The left portal branch represents a venous watershed, and, similarly, the isthmus aorta an arterial watershed. Thus, the fetal central circulation is a very flexible and adaptive circulatory system. The responses to increased afterload, hypoxaemia and acidaemia in the human fetus are equivalent to those found in animal studies: increased ductus venosus and foramen ovale shunting, increased impedance in the lungs, reduced impedance in the brain, increasingly reversed flow in the aortic isthmus and a more prominent coronary blood flow.

  11. Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment affects hippocampal development in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelle W Noorlander

    Full Text Available Synthetic glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk for preterm delivery, to enhance fetal lung maturation. The benefit of this treatment is well established, however caution is necessary because of possible unwanted side effects on development of different organ systems, including the brain. Actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by corticosteroid receptors, which are highly expressed in the hippocampus, a brain structure involved in cognitive functions. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of a single antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the development of the mouse hippocampus. A clinically relevant dose of dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg was administered to pregnant mice at embryonic day 15.5 and the hippocampus was analyzed from embryonic day 16 until adulthood. We investigated the effects of dexamethasone treatment on anatomical changes, apoptosis and proliferation in the hippocampus, hippocampal volume and on total body weight. Our results show that dexamethasone treatment reduced body weight and hippocampal volume transiently during development, but these effects were no longer detected at adulthood. Dexamethasone treatment increased the number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus until birth, but postnatally no effects of dexamethasone treatment on apoptosis were found. During the phase with increased apoptosis, dexamethasone treatment reduced the number of proliferating cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. The number of proliferative cells was increased at postnatal day 5 and 10, but was decreased again at the adult stage. This latter long-term and negative effect of antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the number of proliferative cells in the hippocampus may have important implications for hippocampal network function.

  12. Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment affects hippocampal development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorlander, Cornelle W; Tijsseling, Deodata; Hessel, Ellen V S; de Vries, Willem B; Derks, Jan B; Visser, Gerard H A; de Graan, Pierre N E

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk for preterm delivery, to enhance fetal lung maturation. The benefit of this treatment is well established, however caution is necessary because of possible unwanted side effects on development of different organ systems, including the brain. Actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by corticosteroid receptors, which are highly expressed in the hippocampus, a brain structure involved in cognitive functions. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of a single antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the development of the mouse hippocampus. A clinically relevant dose of dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg) was administered to pregnant mice at embryonic day 15.5 and the hippocampus was analyzed from embryonic day 16 until adulthood. We investigated the effects of dexamethasone treatment on anatomical changes, apoptosis and proliferation in the hippocampus, hippocampal volume and on total body weight. Our results show that dexamethasone treatment reduced body weight and hippocampal volume transiently during development, but these effects were no longer detected at adulthood. Dexamethasone treatment increased the number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus until birth, but postnatally no effects of dexamethasone treatment on apoptosis were found. During the phase with increased apoptosis, dexamethasone treatment reduced the number of proliferating cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. The number of proliferative cells was increased at postnatal day 5 and 10, but was decreased again at the adult stage. This latter long-term and negative effect of antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the number of proliferative cells in the hippocampus may have important implications for hippocampal network function.

  13. Hippocampal sclerosis in dementia, epilepsy, and ischemic injury: differential vulnerability of hippocampal subfields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; Raisanen, Jack M; Herndon, Emily; Burns, Dennis K; Foong, Chan; Habib, Amyn A; White, Charles L

    2014-02-01

    Severe neuronal loss in the hippocampus, that is, hippocampal sclerosis (HS), can be seen in 3 main clinical contexts: dementia (particularly frontotemporal lobar degeneration [FTLD]), temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and hippocampal ischemic injury (H-I). It has been suggested that shared pathogenetic mechanisms may underlie selective vulnerability of the hippocampal subfields such as the CA1 in these conditions. We determined the extent of neuronal loss in cases of HS-FTLD (n=14), HS-TLE (n=35), and H-I (n=20). Immunohistochemistry for zinc transporter 3 was used to help define the CA3/CA2 border in the routinely processed human autopsy tissue samples. The subiculum was involved in 57% of HS-FTLD, 10% of H-I, and 0% of HS-TLE cases (p<0.0001). The CA regions other than CA1 were involved in 57% of HS-TLE, 30% of H-I, and 0% of HS-FTLD cases (p=0.0003). The distal third of CA1 was involved in 79% of HS-FTLD, 35% of H-I, and 37% of HS-TLE cases (p=0.02). The distal third of CA1 was the only area involved in 29% of HS-FTLD, 3% of HS-TLE, and 0% of H-I cases (p=0.019). The proximal-middle CA1 was the only area affected in 50% of H-I, 29% of HS-TLE, and 0% of HS-FTLD cases (p=0.004). These findings support heterogeneity in the pathogenesis of HS.

  14. Fetal vibroacoustic stimulation for facilitation of tests of fetal wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kelvin H; Smyth, Rebecca M D; Wei, Xing

    2013-12-07

    Acoustic stimulation of the fetus has been suggested to improve the efficiency of antepartum fetal heart rate testing. To assess the advantages and disadvantages of the use of fetal vibroacoustic stimulation in conjunction with tests of fetal wellbeing. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2013). All published and unpublished randomised controlled trials assessing the merits of the use of fetal vibroacoustic stimulation in conjunction with tests of fetal wellbeing. All review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Authors of published and unpublished trials were contacted for further information. Altogether 12 trials with a total of 6822 participants were included. Fetal vibroacoustic stimulation reduced the incidence of non-reactive antenatal cardiotocography test (nine trials; average risk ratio (RR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48 to 0.81). Vibroacoustic stimulation compared with mock stimulation evoked significantly more fetal movements when used in conjunction with fetal heart rate testing (one trial, RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.29). Vibroacoustic stimulation offers benefits by decreasing the incidence of non-reactive cardiotocography and reducing the testing time. Further randomised trials should be encouraged to determine not only the optimum intensity, frequency, duration and position of the vibroacoustic stimulation, but also to evaluate the efficacy, predictive reliability, safety and perinatal outcome of these stimuli with cardiotocography and other tests of fetal wellbeing.

  15. Cirugía fetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. B. Juan Luis Leiva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El campo de la cirugía fetal es de reciente comienzo y rápida evolución. Con el avance en las herramientas de diagnóstico antenatal, la capacidad de diagnóstico de condiciones fetales susceptibles de ser tratadas in utero ha dado paso a una serie de procedimientos destinados a dar solución a situaciones que, de no ser por estas intervenciones, terminarían en un resultado adverso perinatal. Las técnicas descritas para la terapia fetal incluyen procedimientos percutáneos guiados por ultrasonido, cirugía fetal abierta y cirugía mínimamente invasiva. En este artículo se presentan las diversas condiciones fetales tributarias de cirugía fetal y se discuten las opciones terapéuticas actuales para cada una.

  16. Nutritional regulation of fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Frank H; Jaquiery, Anne L; Oliver, Mark H

    2013-01-01

    Fetal growth is largely regulated by nutritional supply. The placenta is responsible for fetal nutrient supply for much of pregnancy, but in early pregnancy nutrition is histiotrophic. Both placental size and efficiency, and fetal growth, may be affected by maternal nutritional state before and during very early pregnancy. In contrast, manipulating maternal nutrition during later stages of pregnancy has a smaller than expected effect on fetal growth. Maternal nutrition before and during early pregnancy also has a greater effect on gestation length than maternal nutrition later in pregnancy, suggesting that nutritional status may regulate both fetal growth trajectory and gestation length and that these two outcomes may be linked. Thus, determination of the nutritional factors regulating fetal growth, and potentially postnatal growth and body phenotype, may lie with the maternal nutritional status even before conception.

  17. MRI of the fetal spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Erin M. [Departement of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal spine is a vital complement to fetal sonographic examination. Assessing the wide spectrum of spinal dysraphism, as well as spinal neoplasia, allows for more correct prenatal diagnoses, patient care planning, and patient counselling. Proper appraisal of the value of experimental procedures, such as fetal myelomeningocoele repair, requires a high level of diagnostic accuracy for the selection and follow-up of appropriate candidates. (orig.)

  18. [Non invasive prenatal diagnosis. Fetal nucleic acid analysis in maternal blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesarini, Carla; Argibay, Pablo; Otaño, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    Current prenatal diagnosis of monogeneic and chromosomal diseases, includes invasive procedures which carry a small but significant risk. For many years, analysis of fetal cells in maternal circulation has been studied, however it has failed its clinical use due to the scarcity of these cells and their persistance after delivery. For more than a decade, the presence of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal blood has been identified. These fetal DNA fragments would derive from the placenta and are not detected after delivery, making them a source of fetal material for carrying out diagnosis techniques using maternal blood. However, the vast majority of cell free DNA in maternal circulation is of maternal origin, with the fetal component contributing from 3% to 6% and rising towards term. Available methodologies do not allow separation of fetal from maternal cell free DNA, so current applications have been focused on the analysis of genes not present in the mother, such as Y chromosome sequences, or RHD gene in RhD-negative women, or paternal or de novo mutations. Also, the detection of cell-free fetal RNA in maternal blood offers the possibility of obtaining information regarding genetic expression profiles of embrionic tissues, and using genes expressed only at the feto-placental unit, controls for the presence of fetal material could be established, regardless of maternal genetic tissue. The present article describes the evidences regarding the passage of fetal nucleic acids to maternal circulation, its current prenatal diagnosis application and possible future perspectives.

  19. Fetal microchimeric cells in autoimmune thyroid diseases: harmful, beneficial or innocent for the thyroid gland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepez, Trees; Vandewoestyne, Mado; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) show a female predominance, with an increased incidence in the years following parturition. Fetal microchimerism has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of AITD. However, only the presence of fetal microchimeric cells in blood and in the thyroid gland of these patients has been proven, but not an actual active role in AITD. Is fetal microchimerism harmful for the thyroid gland by initiating a Graft versus Host reaction (GvHR) or being the target of a Host versus Graft reaction (HvGR)? Is fetal microchimerism beneficial for the thyroid gland by being a part of tissue repair or are fetal cells just innocent bystanders in the process of autoimmunity? This review explores every hypothesis concerning the role of fetal microchimerism in AITD.

  20. Glucocorticoid effects on hippocampal protein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlatter, L.K.

    1988-01-01

    Following subcutaneous injection of rats with 5 mg corticosterone, hippocampal slices in vitro show increased ({sup 35}S)-methionine labeling of a cytosolic protein with an apparent molecular weight (M{sub r}) of 35,000 and an isoelectric point (IEP) of 6.6. This labeling is temporally consistent with a transcriptional event, and is steroid- and tissue-specific. The pear serum concentration of steroid occurs one hour or less following the injection. Maximal labeling of this protein is reached whenever serum corticosterone values are approximately 100 ng/ml. When endogenous corticosterone levels are elevated to 100 ng/ml through stressors or exogenous ACTH injections the same maximal increase in synthesis of the 35,000 M{sub r} protein is observed. Adrenalectomy prevents the observed response from occurring following stressor application or ACTH injections. Comparison of the increases observed after administration of the type 2 receptor agonist RU 28362 and aldosterone, which has a higher affinity for the type 1 receptor, shows a 50-fold greater sensitivity of the response to the type 2 receptor agonist. Synthesis of this protein following serum increases of steroid possibly correlates to the theorized function of the type 2 receptor feedback regulation. The similar protein in the liver has an IEP of 6.8 and a slightly higher M{sub r}. A second hippocampal protein with an M{sub r} of 46,000 and an IEP of 6.2 is also increased in labeling. Two additional liver proteins, one of Mr 53,000 (IEP of 6.2) and the other with an M{sub r} of 45,000 (IEP of 8.7-7.8) are increased in the liver following glucocorticoid administration.

  1. Restoration of hippocampal growth hormone reverses stress-induced hippocampal impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin M. Vander Weele

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Though growth hormone (GH is synthesized by hippocampal neurons, where its expression is influenced by stress exposure, its function is poorly characterized. Here, we show that a regimen of chronic stress that impairs hippocampal function in rats also leads to a profound decrease in hippocampal GH levels. Restoration of hippocampal GH in the dorsal hippocampus via viral-mediated gene transfer completely reversed stress-related impairment of two hippocampus-dependent behavioral tasks, auditory trace fear conditioning and contextual fear conditioning, without affecting hippocampal function in unstressed control rats. GH overexpression reversed stress-induced decrements in both fear acquisition and long-term fear memory. These results suggest that loss of hippocampal GH contributes to hippocampal dysfunction following prolonged stress and demonstrate that restoring hippocampal GH levels following stress can promote stress resilience.

  2. Fetal Arthrogryposis Secondary to a Giant Maternal Uterine Leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Vila-Vives

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthrogryposis multiplex congenital is a rare condition defined as contractures in multiple joints at birth due to disorders starting in fetal life. Its etiology is associated with many different conditions and in many instances remains unknown. The final common pathway to all of them is decreased fetal movement (fetal akinesia due to an abnormal intrauterine environment. Causes of decreased fetal movements may be neuropathic abnormalities, abnormalities of connective tissue or muscle, intrauterine vascular compromise, maternal diseases, and space limitations within the uterus. When the cause of arthrogryposis is space limitations in uterus, the most common etiology is oligohydramnios. The same can result from intrauterine tumours as fibroids, although to our knowledge there are only two papers reporting cases of fetal deformities related to uterine leiomyomas. We describe a well-documented exceptional case of arthrogryposis associated with the presence of a large uterine fibroid. It could illustrate the importance of a careful and appropriate assessment of uterine fibroids before and in the course of a pregnancy considering that they can cause both serious maternal and fetal complications.

  3. GLI3 Links Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Human Fetal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily F. Winterbottom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although considerable evidence suggests that in utero arsenic exposure affects children's health, these data are mainly from areas of the world where groundwater arsenic levels far exceed the World Health Organization limit of 10 μg/L. We, and others, have found that more common levels of in utero arsenic exposure may also impact children's health. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression of key developmental genes in fetal placenta in a birth cohort of women using unregulated water supplies in a US region with elevated groundwater arsenic. We identified several genes whose expression associated with maternal arsenic exposure in a fetal sex-specific manner. In particular, expression of the HEDGEHOG pathway component, GLI3, in female placentae was both negatively associated with arsenic exposure and positively associated with infant birth weight. This suggests that modulation of GLI3 in the fetal placenta, and perhaps in other fetal tissues, contributes to arsenic's detrimental effects on fetal growth. We showed previously that arsenic-exposed NIH3T3 cells have reduced GLI3 repressor protein. Together, these studies identify GLI3 as a key signaling node that is affected by arsenic, mediating a subset of its effects on developmental signaling and fetal health.

  4. Human fetal bone cells in delivery systems for bone engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, Diene M H; Scaletta, Corinne; Jaccoud, Sandra; Hirt-Burri, Nathalie; Pioletti, Dominique P; Jaques, Bertrand; Applegate, Lee Ann

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to culture human fetal bone cells (dedicated cell banks of fetal bone derived from 14 week gestation femurs) within both hyaluronic acid gel and collagen foam, to compare the biocompatibility of both matrices as potential delivery systems for bone engineering and particularly for oral application. Fetal bone cell banks were prepared from one organ donation and cells were cultured for up to 4 weeks within hyaluronic acid (Mesolis®) and collagen foams (TissueFleece®). Cell survival and differentiation were assessed by cell proliferation assays and histology of frozen sections stained with Giemsa, von Kossa and ALP at 1, 2 and 4 weeks of culture. Within both materials, fetal bone cells could proliferate in three-dimensional structure at ∼70% capacity compared to monolayer culture. In addition, these cells were positive for ALP and von Kossa staining, indicating cellular differentiation and matrix production. Collagen foam provides a better structure for fetal bone cell delivery if cavity filling is necessary and hydrogels would permit an injectable technique for difficult to treat areas. In all, there was high biocompatibility, cellular differentiation and matrix deposition seen in both matrices by fetal bone cells, allowing for easy cell delivery for bone stimulation in vivo. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. GLI3 Links Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Human Fetal Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbottom, Emily F; Fei, Dennis L; Koestler, Devin C; Giambelli, Camilla; Wika, Eric; Capobianco, Anthony J; Lee, Ethan; Marsit, Carmen J; Karagas, Margaret R; Robbins, David J

    2015-06-01

    Although considerable evidence suggests that in utero arsenic exposure affects children's health, these data are mainly from areas of the world where groundwater arsenic levels far exceed the World Health Organization limit of 10 μg/L. We, and others, have found that more common levels of in utero arsenic exposure may also impact children's health. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression of key developmental genes in fetal placenta in a birth cohort of women using unregulated water supplies in a US region with elevated groundwater arsenic. We identified several genes whose expression associated with maternal arsenic exposure in a fetal sex-specific manner. In particular, expression of the HEDGEHOG pathway component, GLI3, in female placentae was both negatively associated with arsenic exposure and positively associated with infant birth weight. This suggests that modulation of GLI3 in the fetal placenta, and perhaps in other fetal tissues, contributes to arsenic's detrimental effects on fetal growth. We showed previously that arsenic-exposed NIH3T3 cells have reduced GLI3 repressor protein. Together, these studies identify GLI3 as a key signaling node that is affected by arsenic, mediating a subset of its effects on developmental signaling and fetal health.

  6. Robotic patch-stabilizer using wire driven mechanism for minimally invasive fetal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Kobayashi, Yo; Chiba, Toshio; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2009-01-01

    The clinical target of this study is intrauterine patch coverage of fetal myelomeningocele. We propose a new surgical robotic system for intrauterine fetal surgery with patch-stabilizer and laser manipulator. The target disease of the fetal surgery is spina bifida or myelomeningocele, which is incomplete closure in the spinal column and one of the common fetal diseases. In the fetal surgery, the collagen patch is supposed to be stabilized onto the fragile fetal tissue during the laser fixation process. In this study, a prototype of the patch-stabilizer using wire driven mechanism has been developed for precise force control on the patch without damaging fetal tissue. The diameter of the patch-stabilizer's shaft is 2.4 mm. The patch-stabilizer including one ball joint and wire driven mechanism is able to bend through 40 degrees. The stabilizing part holds collagen patch with diamond shape mechanism using wire driven. In this paper, we showed that the patch-stabilizer is developed with the stabilizing force control using the tension control of wires. Results of the experiment showed that the tension of driven wires was controlled at 0.3 N to stabilize the collagen patch onto the lesion surface without the damages of fetal tissues and the influence by the amnion liquid.

  7. Distribution of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in maternal and fetal rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, J A; Duhart, H M; Lipe, G; Binienda, Z; Slikker, W; Kim, C S

    1996-12-06

    The distribution of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was examined in maternal and fetal rabbits. Pregnant New Zealand rabbits (28-30 d gestational age) were anesthetized with ketamine/xylazine and the femoral vein and artery were catheterized for compound administration and sampling. Dams received iv [14C]2,4-D (12.5 microCi/kg) with unlabeled sodium 2,4-D (1, 10, or 40 mg/kg) in saline. Blood and tissue were collected up to 2 h after dosing. Fetal to maternal plasma AUC ratios were 0.09, 0.07, and 0.16 after the 1, 10, or 40 mg/kg dose, respectively. Extraplasma AUCs were greatest in maternal kidney and uterus and lowest in maternal and fetal brain. A greater than fourfold elevation in fetal AUC was found when the dose was increased from 10 to 40 mg/kg, suggesting saturation of maternal plasma binding of 2,4-D. Although the in vitro fetal brain tissue to incubation media ratio was unity (1.03 +/- 0.1, mean +/- SD), fetal brain AUCs were 10% or less of the fetal plasma AUCs, indicating the brain barrier system to 2,4-D is functioning in the late-gestation fetal rabbit. However, its development may not be complete due to the higher brain tissue to plasma ratios in the fetus compared to the dam.

  8. [Effects of nootropic drugs on hippocampal and cortical BDNF levels in mice with different exploratory behavior efficacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firstova, Iu Iu; Dolotov, O V; Kondrakhin, e A; Dubynina, E V; Grivennikov, I A; Kovalev, G I

    2009-01-01

    The influence of subchronic administration of nootropic drugs (piracetam, phenotropil, meclophenoxate, pantocalcine, semax, nooglutil) on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) content in hippocampal and cortical tissues in mice with different exploratory behavior--high efficacy (HE) against low efficacy (LE)--in cross-maze test has been studied. The initial BDNF concentration in hippocamp (but not in cortex) of control HE mice was higher than that in LE mice (LE, 0.091 +/- 0.005 pg/microg; HE, 0.177 +/- 0.005 pg/microg; p nootrope effects, at least partially, via increase in hippocampal BDNF level, which is achieved only under conditions of cognitive deficiency.

  9. Fetal calcifications are associated with chromosomal abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellika Sahlin

    Full Text Available The biological importance of calcifications occasionally noted in fetal tissues (mainly liver at autopsy or ultrasound is largely unexplored. Previous reports hint at an association to infection, circulatory compromise, malformations or chromosomal abnormalities. To identify factors associated with calcifications, we have performed a case-control study on the largest cohort of fetuses with calcifications described thus far.One-hundred and fifty-one fetuses with calcifications and 302 matched controls were selected from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital. Chromosome analysis by karyotyping or quantitative fluorescence-polymerase chain reaction was performed. Autopsy and placenta reports were scrutinized for presence of malformations and signs of infection.Calcifications were mainly located in the liver, but also in heart, bowel, and other tissues. Fetuses with calcifications showed a significantly higher proportion of chromosomal abnormalities than controls; 50% vs. 20% (p<0.001. The most frequent aberrations among cases included trisomy 21 (33%, trisomy 18 (22%, and monosomy X (18%. A similar distribution was seen among controls. When comparing cases and controls with chromosomal abnormalities, the cases had a significantly higher prevalence of malformations (95% vs. 77%, p=0.004. Analyzed the other way around, cases with malformations had a significantly higher proportion of chromosomal abnormalities compared with controls, (66% vs. 31%, p<0.001.The presence of fetal calcifications is associated with high risk of chromosomal abnormality in combination with malformations. Identification of a calcification together with a malformation at autopsy more than doubles the probability of detecting a chromosomal abnormality, compared with identification of a malformation only. We propose that identification of a fetal tissue calcification at autopsy, and potentially also at ultrasound examination, should infer

  10. Fetal MRI in experimental tracheal occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedegaertner, Ulrike [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20251 Hamburg (Germany)]. E-mail: wedegaer@uke.uni-hamburg.de; Schroeder, Hobe J. [Experimental Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Prenatal Medicine, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Adam, Gerhard [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is associated with a high mortality, which is mainly due to pulmonary hypoplasia and secondary pulmonary hypertension. In severely affected fetuses, tracheal occlusion (TO) is performed prenatally to reverse pulmonary hypoplasia, because TO leads to accelerated lung growth. Prenatal imaging is important to identify fetuses with pulmonary hypoplasia, to diagnose high-risk fetuses who would benefit from TO, and to monitor the effect of TO after surgery. In fetal imaging, ultrasound (US) is the method of choice, because it is widely available, less expensive, and less time-consuming to perform than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, there are some limitations for US in the evaluation of CDH fetuses. In those cases, MRI is helpful because of a better tissue contrast between liver and lung, which enables evaluation of liver herniation for the diagnosis of a high-risk fetus. MRI provides the ability to determine absolute lung volumes to detect lung hypoplasia. In fetal sheep with normal and hyperplastic lungs after TO, lung growth was assessed on the basis of cross-sectional US measurements, after initial lung volume determination by MRI. To monitor fetal lung growth after prenatal TO, both MRI and US seem to be useful methods.

  11. Effect of mineralocorticoid receptor blockade on hippocampal-dependent memory in adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenstein, Lisa S; Sheridan, Margaret; Garg, Rajesh; Adler, Gail K

    2015-06-01

    The hippocampus is crucial for paired-associate learning. Obesity is associated with increased mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activity in peripheral and possibly central tissues, decreased hippocampal size in humans, and impaired hippocampal learning in rodents. The MR is expressed in hippocampal neurons, and MR blockade improves hippocampal learning in obese animals. The goal of the study was to determine whether MR blockade would modulate paired-associate learning in men and women with obesity. Men and women ages 20-61 years with BMI between 30-45 kg/m(2) were randomly assigned to placebo (n = 11; 7 women) or 50 mg spironolactone daily (n = 12; 7 women) for six weeks. At baseline and post-treatment, subjects underwent a clinical and hormonal evaluation. They also underwent a computerized task that assesses paired-associate learning and has been shown by functional magnetic resonance imaging to activate the hippocampus. In an ANCOVA model that adjusted for baseline paired-associate learning, age, and race, spironolactone treatment was associated with a significant (P = 0.043) improvement in hippocampal memory as compared to placebo treatment. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that blocking MR with chronic, low-dose spironolactone treatment improves paired-associate learning in individuals with obesity, suggesting that MR activation contributes to hippocampal memory modulation in humans. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  12. Fetal cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychik, J

    2004-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of the fetus is physiologically different than the adult, mature system. Unique characteristics of the myocardium and specific channels of blood flow differentitate the physiology of the fetus from the newborn. Conditions of increased preload and afterload in the fetus, such as sacrococcygeal teratoma and twin-twin transfusion syndrome, result in unique and complex pathophysiological states. Echocardiography has improved our understanding of human fetal cadiovasvular physiology in the normal and diseased states, and has expanded our capability to more effectively treat these disease processes.

  13. HEPATITIS ALOINMUNE FETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez C., Dr.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis aloinmune fetal, conocida anteriormente como hemocromatosis neonatal, ha demostrado en los últimos años ser una enfermedad completamente distinta a la hemocromatosis del adulto, tanto en su etiología como en su la fisiopatología. Este conocimiento abre nuevas perspectivas tanto en la prevención de la enfermedad en futuros embarazos, así como en el tratamiento con inmunoglobulina endovenosa en la madre durante el embarazo y eventualmente el tratamiento postnatal, en el que el trasplante de hígado juega un rol primordial.

  14. Fetal metabolic programming and epigenetic modifications: a systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookoian, Silvia; Gianotti, Tomas Fernández; Burgueño, Adriana L; Pirola, Carlos J

    2013-04-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the notion that epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, both involving chromatin remodeling, contribute to fetal metabolic programming. We use a combination of gene-protein enrichment analysis resources along with functional annotations and protein interaction networks for an integrative approach to understanding the mechanisms underlying fetal metabolic programming. Systems biology approaches suggested that fetal adaptation to an impaired nutritional environment presumes profound changes in gene expression that involve regulation of tissue-specific patterns of methylated cytosine residues, modulation of the histone acetylation-deacetylation switch, cell differentiation, and stem cell pluripotency. The hypothalamus and the liver seem to be differently involved. In addition, new putative explanations have emerged about the question of whether in utero overnutrition modulates fetal metabolic programming in the same fashion as that of a maternal environment of undernutrition, suggesting that the mechanisms behind these two fetal nutritional imbalances are different. In conclusion, intrauterine growth restriction is most likely to be associated with the induction of persistent changes in tissue structure and functionality. Conversely, a maternal obesogenic environment is most probably associated with metabolic reprogramming of glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as future risk of metabolic syndrome (MS), fatty liver, and insulin (INS) resistance.

  15. A grading system for hippocampal sclerosis based on the degree of hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Proper, E.A.; Jansen, G.H.; Veelen, C.W. van; Rijen, P.C. van; Graan, P.N.E. de

    2001-01-01

    Abstract. In patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) a highly variable degree of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) can be observed. For standard neuropathological evaluation after hippocampal resection, neuronal cell loss in the hippocampal subareas is assessed (Wyler score 0-4) [Wyler et al.

  16. Hippocampal GABA transporter distribution in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijns, O.; Karaca, U.; Andrade, P.; Nijs, L. de; Kusters, B.; Peeters, A.; Dings, J.; Pannek, H.; Ebner, A.; Rijkers, K.; Hoogland, G.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine hippocampal expression of neuronal GABA-transporter (GAT-1) and glial GABA-transporter (GAT-3) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and hippocampal sclerosis (HS). METHODS: Hippocampal sections were immunohistochemically stained for GABA-transporter 1 and GABA-transpor

  17. Detection of parvovirus B19 infection in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded placenta and fetal tissues Detecção da infecção pelo parvovírus B19 em placenta e tecidos fetais fixados em formalina e embebidos em parafina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Veiga Quemelo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 infection was first discovered in 1975 and it is implicated in fetal death from hydrops fetalis the world over. Diagnosis is usually made through histological identification of the intranuclear inclusion in placenta and fetal organs. However, these cells may be scarce or uncharacteristic, making definitive diagnosis difficult. We analyzed histologically placentas and fetal organs from 34 cases of non-immune hydrops fetalis, stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE and submitted to immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Of 34 tissue samples, two (5.9% presented typical intranuclear inclusion in circulating normoblasts seen in Hematoxylin and Eosin stained sections, confirmed by immunohistochemistry and PCR. However, PCR of fetal organs was negative in one case in which the placenta PCR was positive. We concluded that parvovirus B19 infection frequency is similar to the literature and that immunohistochemistry was the best detection method. It is highly specific and sensitive, preserves the morphology and reveals a larger number of positive cells than does HE with the advantage of showing cytoplasmic and nuclear positivity, making it more reliable. Although PCR is more specific and sensitive in fresh or ideally fixed material it is not so in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, frequently the only one available in such cases.O parvovírus B19 foi detectado em 1975 e desde sua descoberta tem se mostrado um agente infeccioso importante em seres humanos, cujo diagnóstico pode ser feito pelo exame histológico através do encontro de inclusão nuclear em tecidos fetais ou placentários. No entanto, estas células podem ser escassas ou não apresentarem características típicas, dificultando o diagnóstico. Analisamos placentas e órgãos fetais de 34 casos de hidropisia fetal não-imune corados com Hematoxilina e Eosina (HE e submetidos à reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR e imuno-histoquímica (IH. Em dois

  18. Hippocampal amnesia disrupts creative thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Melissa C; Kurczek, Jake; Rubin, Rachael; Cohen, Neal J; Tranel, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Creativity requires the rapid combination and recombination of existing mental representations to create novel ideas and ways of thinking. The hippocampal system, through its interaction with neocortical storage sites, provides a relational database necessary for the creation, updating, maintenance, and juxtaposition of mental representations used in service of declarative memory. Given this functionality, we hypothesized that hippocampus would play a critical role in creative thinking. We examined creative thinking, as measured by verbal and figural forms of the torrance tests of creative thinking (TTCT), in a group of participants with hippocampal damage and severe declarative memory impairment as well as in a group of demographically matched healthy comparison participants. The patients with bilateral hippocampal damage performed significantly worse than comparison participants on both the verbal and figural portions of the TTCT. These findings suggest that hippocampus plays a role critical in creative thinking, adding to a growing body of work pointing to the diverse ways the hallmark processing features of hippocampus serve a variety of behaviors that require flexible cognition.

  19. Clinical implications of fetal magnetocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartero, H.W.P.; Stinstra, J.G.; Golbach, E.G.M.; Meijboom, E.J.; Peters, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To test the usefulness and reliability of fetal magnetocardiography as a diagnostic or screening tool, both for fetuses with arrhythmias as well as for fetuses with a congenital heart defect. Methods We describe 21 women with either a fetal arrhythmia or a congenital heart defect disc

  20. Restrictive dermopathy and fetal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, EJH; Beemer, FA; Stoutenbeek, P

    2001-01-01

    We report three siblings from consecutive pregnancies affected with restrictive dermopathy (RD). During the second pregnancy, fetal behavioural development and growth were studied extensively using ultrasound at 1-4 week intervals. Dramatic and sudden changes occurred in fetal body movements and gro

  1. Feto-fetal transfusion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, P; Scott, J M; Goel, K M

    1982-01-01

    Out of 42 pairs of liveborn monochorial twins there were 32 pairs with vascular anastomoses. Of these, 11 pairs had feto-fetal transfusion syndrome. There were another 8 pairs of stillborn twin fetuses with vascular communications and in these chronic feto-fetal transfusion syndrome might have resulted in intrauterine death. PMID:6890328

  2. Hormonal Control of Fetal Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Paul S.; Nicoll, Charles S.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on hormonal control of fetal growth, presenting data obtained using a new method for studying the area. Effects of endocrine ablations and congenital deficiencies, studies of hormone/receptor levels, in-vitro techniques, hormones implicated in promoting fetal growth, problems with existing methodologies, and growth of…

  3. Impact of fetal echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson John

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease is now well established for a wide range of cardiac anomalies. Diagnosis of congenital heart disease during fetal life not only identifies the cardiac lesion but may also lead to detection of associated abnormalities. This information allows a detailed discussion of the prognosis with parents. For continuing pregnancies, appropriate preparation can be made to optimize the postnatal outcome. Reduced morbidity and mortality, following antenatal diagnosis, has been reported for coarctation of the aorta, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and transposition of the great arteries. With regard to screening policy, most affected fetuses are in the "low risk" population, emphasizing the importance of appropriate training for those who undertake such obstetric anomaly scans. As a minimum, the four chamber view of the fetal heart should be incorporated into midtrimester anomaly scans, and where feasible, views of the outflow tracts should also be included, to increase the diagnostic yield. Newer screening techniques, such as measurement of nuchal translucency, may contribute to identification of fetuses at high risk for congenital heart disease and prompt referral for detailed cardiac assessment.

  4. Histology-derived volumetric annotation of the human hippocampal subfields in postmortem MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Daniel H.; Pluta, John; Kadivar, Salmon; Craige, Caryne; Gee, James C.; Avants, Brian B.; Yushkevich, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there has been a growing effort to analyze the morphometry of hippocampal subfields using both in vivo and postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, given that boundaries between subregions of the hippocampal formation (HF) are conventionally defined on the basis of microscopic features that often lack discernible signature in MRI, subfield delineation in MRI literature has largely relied on heuristic geometric rules, the validity of which with respect to the underlying anatomy is largely unknown. The development and evaluation of such rules is challenged by the limited availability of data linking MRI appearance to microscopic hippocampal anatomy, particularly in three dimensions (3D). The present paper, for the first time, demonstrates the feasibility of labeling hippocampal subfields in a high resolution volumetric MRI dataset based directly on microscopic features extracted from histology. It uses a combination of computational techniques and manual post-processing to map subfield boundaries from a stack of histology images (obtained with 200 μm spacing and 5 μm slice thickness; stained using the Kluver-Barrera method) onto a postmortem 9.4 Tesla MRI scan of the intact, whole hippocampal formation acquired with 160 μm isotropic resolution. The histology reconstruction procedure consists of sequential application of a graph-theoretic slice stacking algorithm that mitigates the effects of distorted slices, followed by iterative affine and diffeomorphic co-registration to postmortem MRI scans of approximately 1 cm-thick tissue sub-blocks acquired with 200 μm isotropic resolution. These 1 cm blocks are subsequently co-registered to the MRI of the whole HF. Reconstruction accuracy is evaluated as the average displacement error between boundaries manually delineated in both the histology and MRI following the sequential stages of reconstruction. The methods presented and evaluated in this single-subject study can potentially be applied to

  5. Low Concentrations of Alcohol Inhibit BDNF-Dependent GABAergic Plasticity via L-type Ca2+ channel Inhibition in Developing CA3 Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Zucca, Stefano; Valenzuela, C. Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is associated with learning and memory alterations that could be, in part, a consequence of hippocampal damage. The CA3 hippocampal subfield is one of the regions affected by ethanol (EtOH), including exposure during the 3rd trimester-equivalent (i.e. neonatal period in rats). However, the mechanism of action of EtOH is poorly understood. In CA3 pyramidal neurons from neonatal rats, dendritic BDNF release causes long-term potentiation of the frequency of...

  6. Fetal and Maternal Outcomes in Pregnancies Complicated with Fetal Macrosomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkahatim; Ahmed, Salah Roshdy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fetal macrosomia remains a considerable challenge in current obstetrics due to the fetal and maternal complications associated with this condition. Aim: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of fetal macrosomia and associated fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality in the Al Qassim Region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This register-based study was conducted from January 1, 2011 through December 30, 2011 at the Maternity and Child Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Macrosomia was defined as birth weight of 4 kg or greater. Malformed babies and those born dead were excluded. Results: The total number of babies delivered was 9241; of these, 418 were macrosomic. Thus, the prevalence of fetal macrosomia was 4.5%. The most common maternal complications were postpartum hemorrhage (5 cases, 1.2%), perineal tear (7 cases, 1.7%), cervical lacerations (3 cases, 0.7%), and shoulder dystocia (40 cases, 9.6%) that resulted in 4 cases of Erb's palsy (0.96%), and 6 cases of bone fractures (1.4%). The rate of cesarean section among women delivering macrosomic babies was 47.6% (199), while 52.4% (219) delivered vaginally. Conclusion: Despite extensive efforts to reduce fetal and maternal complications associated with macrosomia, considerable fetal and maternal morbidity remain associated with this condition. PMID:22754881

  7. Fetal and maternal outcomes in pregnancies complicated with fetal macrosomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alkhatim Alsammani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal macrosomia remains a considerable challenge in current obstetrics due to the fetal and maternal complications associated with this condition. Aim: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of fetal macrosomia and associated fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality in the Al Qassim Region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This register-based study was conducted from January 1, 2011 through December 30, 2011 at the Maternity and Child Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Macrosomia was defined as birth weight of 4 kg or greater. Malformed babies and those born dead were excluded. Results: The total number of babies delivered was 9241; of these, 418 were macrosomic. Thus, the prevalence of fetal macrosomia was 4.5%. The most common maternal complications were postpartum hemorrhage (5 cases, 1.2%, perineal tear (7 cases, 1.7%, cervical lacerations (3 cases, 0.7%, and shoulder dystocia (40 cases, 9.6% that resulted in 4 cases of Erb′s palsy (0.96%, and 6 cases of bone fractures (1.4%. The rate of cesarean section among women delivering macrosomic babies was 47.6% (199, while 52.4% (219 delivered vaginally. Conclusion: Despite extensive efforts to reduce fetal and maternal complications associated with macrosomia, considerable fetal and maternal morbidity remain associated with this condition.

  8. Fetal acoustic stimulation test for early intrapartum fetal monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, M; Hanwellage, K

    2011-03-01

    The fetal acoustic stimulation test (FAST) is a simple cost effective screening test for antenatal fetal monitoring. The aim of the study was to evaluate the FAST as a screening test for early intrapartum fetal well being. An initial non stress test (NST) followed by a FAST using corometric model 146 was carried out in 486 participants in early labour with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies and > 32 weeks gestation. A repeat NST was recorded in the participants who had an initial non reactive NST. The results of the NST and FAST were compared with fetal outcome. Maternal perception of fetal movements after FAST, results of NST before and after FAST, and the babies' 5 minute APGAR scores were measured. Of the 486 participants 413 (85%) noticed fetal movements after FAST. Initial NST was non reactive in 203 (42%) but 149 (31%) became reactive after FAST. Compared to the NST, FAST had a better sensitivity (97% vs 62%, p fetal well being in early labour. It complements the NST and is better than the NST alone.

  9. Serotonin of mast cell origin contributes to hippocampal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Katherine M; Dailey, Christopher A; Jahn, Jaquelyn L; Rodriquez, Elizabeth; Son, Nguyen Hong; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Silver, Rae

    2012-08-01

    In the central nervous system, serotonin, an important neurotransmitter and trophic factor, is synthesized by both mast cells and neurons. Mast cells, like other immune cells, are born in the bone marrow and migrate to many tissues. We show that they are resident in the mouse brain throughout development and adulthood. Measurements based on capillary electrophoresis with native fluorescence detection indicate that a significant contribution of serotonin to the hippocampal milieu is associated with mast cell activation. Compared with their littermates, mast cell-deficient C57BL/6 Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice have profound deficits in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory and in hippocampal neurogenesis. These deficits are associated with a reduction in cell proliferation and in immature neurons in the dentate gyrus, but not in the subventricular zone - a neurogenic niche lacking mast cells. Chronic treatment with fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, reverses the deficit in hippocampal neurogenesis in mast cell-deficient mice. In summary, the present study demonstrates that mast cells are a source of serotonin, that mast cell-deficient C57BL/6 Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice have disrupted hippocampus-dependent behavior and neurogenesis, and that elevating serotonin in these mice, by treatment with fluoxetine, reverses these deficits. We conclude that mast cells contribute to behavioral and physiological functions of the hippocampus and note that they play a physiological role in neuroimmune interactions, even in the absence of inflammatory responses.

  10. Gestational chronodisruption impairs hippocampal expression of NMDA receptor subunits Grin1b/Grin3a and spatial memory in the adult offspring.

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    Nelson Vilches

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental evidence correlates adverse intrauterine conditions with the onset of disease later in life. For a fetus to achieve a successful transition to extrauterine life, a myriad of temporally integrated humoral/biophysical signals must be accurately provided by the mother. We and others have shown the existence of daily rhythms in the fetus, with peripheral clocks being entrained by maternal cues, such as transplacental melatonin signaling. Among developing tissues, the fetal hippocampus is a key structure for learning and memory processing that may be anticipated as a sensitive target of gestational chronodisruption. Here, we used pregnant rats exposed to constant light treated with or without melatonin as a model of gestational chronodisruption, to investigate effects on the putative fetal hippocampus clock, as well as on adult offspring's rhythms, endocrine and spatial memory outcomes. The hippocampus of fetuses gestated under light:dark photoperiod (12:12 LD displayed daily oscillatory expression of the clock genes Bmal1 and Per2, clock-controlled genes Mtnr1b, Slc2a4, Nr3c1 and NMDA receptor subunits 1B-3A-3B. In contrast, in the hippocampus of fetuses gestated under constant light (LL, these oscillations were suppressed. In the adult LL offspring (reared in LD during postpartum, we observed complete lack of day/night differences in plasma melatonin and decreased day/night differences in plasma corticosterone. In the adult LL offspring, overall hippocampal day/night difference of gene expression was decreased, which was accompanied by a significant deficit of spatial memory. Notably, maternal melatonin replacement to dams subjected to gestational chronodisruption prevented the effects observed in both, LL fetuses and adult LL offspring. Collectively, the present data point to adverse effects of gestational chronodisruption on long-term cognitive function; raising challenging questions about the consequences of

  11. Heterogeneous Distribution of Fetal Microchimerism in Local Breast Cancer Environment.

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    Dragos Nemescu

    Full Text Available Fetal cells enter maternal circulation during pregnancy and persist in the woman's body for decades, achieving a form of physiological microchimerism. These cells were also evidenced in tumors. We investigated the frequency and concentration of fetal microchimerism in the local breast cancer environment. From 19 patients with confirmed breast neoplasia, after breast surgical resection, we collected three fresh specimens from the tumor core, breast tissue at tumor periphery, and adjacent normal breast tissue. The presence of male DNA was analyzed with a quantitative PCR assay for the sex determining region gene (SRY gene. In the group of women who had given birth to at least one son, we detected fetal microchimerism in 100% of samples from tumors and their periphery and in 64% (9 of 14 of those from normal breast tissue. The tissues from the tumor and its periphery carry a significantly increased number of SRY copies compared to its neighboring common breast tissue (p = 0.005. The median of the normalized SRY-signal was about 77 (range, 3.2-21467 and 14-fold (range, 1.3-2690 greater in the tumor and respectively in the periphery than in the normal breast tissue. In addition, the relative expression of the SRY gene had a median 5.5 times larger in the tumor than in its periphery (range, 1.1-389.4. We found a heterogeneous distribution of fetal microchimerism in breast cancer environment. In women with sons, breast neoplasia harbors male cells at significantly higher levels than in peripheral and normal breast tissue.

  12. Heterogeneous Distribution of Fetal Microchimerism in Local Breast Cancer Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemescu, Dragos; Ursu, Ramona Gabriela; Nemescu, Elena Roxana; Negura, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    Fetal cells enter maternal circulation during pregnancy and persist in the woman's body for decades, achieving a form of physiological microchimerism. These cells were also evidenced in tumors. We investigated the frequency and concentration of fetal microchimerism in the local breast cancer environment. From 19 patients with confirmed breast neoplasia, after breast surgical resection, we collected three fresh specimens from the tumor core, breast tissue at tumor periphery, and adjacent normal breast tissue. The presence of male DNA was analyzed with a quantitative PCR assay for the sex determining region gene (SRY) gene. In the group of women who had given birth to at least one son, we detected fetal microchimerism in 100% of samples from tumors and their periphery and in 64% (9 of 14) of those from normal breast tissue. The tissues from the tumor and its periphery carry a significantly increased number of SRY copies compared to its neighboring common breast tissue (p = 0.005). The median of the normalized SRY-signal was about 77 (range, 3.2-21467) and 14-fold (range, 1.3-2690) greater in the tumor and respectively in the periphery than in the normal breast tissue. In addition, the relative expression of the SRY gene had a median 5.5 times larger in the tumor than in its periphery (range, 1.1-389.4). We found a heterogeneous distribution of fetal microchimerism in breast cancer environment. In women with sons, breast neoplasia harbors male cells at significantly higher levels than in peripheral and normal breast tissue.

  13. Hippocampal volume reduction in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

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    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Children with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS, a genetic disorder characterized by diminished drive to breathe during sleep and impaired CO(2 sensitivity, show brain structural and functional changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans, with impaired responses in specific hippocampal regions, suggesting localized injury.We assessed total volume and regional variation in hippocampal surface morphology to identify areas affected in the syndrome. We studied 18 CCHS (mean age+/-std: 15.1+/-2.2 years; 8 female and 32 healthy control (age 15.2+/-2.4 years; 14 female children, and traced hippocampi on 1 mm(3 resolution T1-weighted scans, collected with a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner. Regional hippocampal volume variations, adjusted for cranial volume, were compared between groups based on t-tests of surface distances to the structure midline, with correction for multiple comparisons. Significant tissue losses emerged in CCHS patients on the left side, with a trend for loss on the right; however, most areas affected on the left also showed equivalent right-sided volume reductions. Reduced regional volumes appeared in the left rostral hippocampus, bilateral areas in mid and mid-to-caudal regions, and a dorsal-caudal region, adjacent to the fimbria.The volume losses may result from hypoxic exposure following hypoventilation during sleep-disordered breathing, or from developmental or vascular consequences of genetic mutations in the syndrome. The sites of change overlap regions of abnormal functional responses to respiratory and autonomic challenges. Affected hippocampal areas have roles associated with memory, mood, and indirectly, autonomic regulation; impairments in these behavioral and physiological functions appear in CCHS.

  14. Elevated CYP2C19 expression is associated with depressive symptoms and hippocampal homeostasis impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, M M; Opel, N; Ström, J; Carrillo-Roa, T; Miksys, S; Novalen, M; Renblom, A; Sim, S C; Peñas-Lledó, E M; Courtet, P; Llerena, A; Baune, B T; de Quervain, D J; Papassotiropoulos, A; Tyndale, R F; Binder, E B; Dannlowski, U; Ingelman-Sundberg, M

    2016-11-29

    The polymorphic CYP2C19 enzyme metabolizes psychoactive compounds and is expressed in the adult liver and fetal brain. Previously, we demonstrated that the absence of CYP2C19 is associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in 1472 Swedes. Conversely, transgenic mice carrying the human CYP2C19 gene (2C19TG) have shown an anxious phenotype and decrease in hippocampal volume and adult neurogenesis. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine whether the 2C19TG findings could be translated to humans, (2) evaluate the usefulness of the 2C19TG strain as a tool for preclinical screening of new antidepressants and (3) provide an insight into the molecular underpinnings of the 2C19TG phenotype. In humans, we found that the absence of CYP2C19 was associated with a bilateral hippocampal volume increase in two independent healthy cohorts (N=386 and 1032) and a lower prevalence of major depressive disorder and depression severity in African-Americans (N=3848). Moreover, genetically determined high CYP2C19 enzymatic capacity was associated with higher suicidality in depressed suicide attempters (N=209). 2C19TG mice showed high stress sensitivity, impaired hippocampal Bdnf homeostasis in stress, and more despair-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST). After the treatment with citalopram and 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8OH-DPAT, the reduction in immobility time in the FST was more pronounced in 2C19TG mice compared with WTs. Conversely, in the 2C19TG hippocampus, metabolic turnover of serotonin was reduced, whereas ERK1/2 and GSK3β phosphorylation was increased. Altogether, this study indicates that elevated CYP2C19 expression is associated with depressive symptoms, reduced hippocampal volume and impairment of hippocampal serotonin and BDNF homeostasis.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 29 November 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.204.

  15. Fetal valproate syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmarth G Chandane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal use of anticonvulsant valproic acid can result in a well-recognized cluster of facial dysmorphism, congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental retardation. In this report, we describe a case with typical features of fetal valproate syndrome (FVS. A 26-year-old female with epilepsy controlled on sodium valproate 800 mg/day since 3 years, gave birth to a male child with characteristic features of FVS. She also had 3 spontaneous first-trimester abortions during those 3 years. Sodium valproate, a widely used anticonvulsant and mood regulator, is a well-recognized teratogen that can result in facial dysmorphism, craniosynostosis, neural tube defects, and neurodevelopmental retardation. Therefore, we strongly recommend avoidance of valproic acid and supplementation of folic acid during pregnancy.

  16. Susceptibility of Rat Hippocampal Neurons to Hypothermia during Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung Ah Seo; Sehhyun Kim; Na Mi Lee; Soo Ahn Chae

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the extent of damage due to hypothermia in the mature and immature brain. Methods: Hippocampal tissue cultures at 7 and 14 days in vitro (DIV) were used to represent the immature and mature brain, respectively. The cultures were exposed at 25?#608;for 0, 10, 30, and 60 minutes (n=30 in each subgroup). Propidium iodide fluorescent images were captured 24 and 48 hours after hypothermic injury. Damaged areas of the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1), CA3, and dentate gyrus (...

  17. Fetal pain perception and pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Marc; Jani, Jacques; De Buck, Frederik; Deprest, J

    2006-08-01

    This paper gives an overview of current science related to the concept of fetal pain. We have answered three important questions: (1) does fetal pain exist? (2) does management of fetal pain benefit the unborn child? and (3) which techniques are available to provide good fetal analgesia?

  18. Retained Fetal Bone in Infertile Patients: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensieh ShahrokhTehraninejad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The prolonged retention of fetal bone structure is an uncommon condition after a previous abortion.We describe two cases with fetal bone fragment amongst 3589 hysteroscopies (0.05%, who hadno complaint other than secondary infertility. In both patients, hyperechogenic areas were foundthrough transvaginal ultrasound and the bones were removed by hysteroscopy. Despite meticulousevaluation during hysteroscopy, some bones were not observed and were stable during the nextsonography. According to the formation of fetal bones after 11 weeks of pregnancy; patientswith secondary infertility who have a history of abortion that progressed beyond this time andendometrial hyperechoic areas by transvaginal ultrasound should be evaluated for any retainedfetal bone. Hysteroscopy should be performed under abdominal ultrasonography guide to ensurefetal bone tissue is entirely removed during a single surgery.

  19. An Unusual Origin of Fetal Lymphangioma Filling Right Axilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Oztas, Efser; Saridogan, Erdinc; Ozler, Sibel; Danisman, Nuri

    2016-03-01

    Fetal lymphangioma is a hamartomatous congenital anomaly of the lymphatic system, which is embracing the fetal skin (sometimes mucous membranes) and the subcutaneous tissue. The general consensus is that it occurs as a result of failure in lymphatic drainage. A 36-year-old pregnant woman was referred to our perinatology clinic at 22 weeks' gestation, because of a fetal right-sided axillary mass revealed by ultrasonography. The mass measuring 5x7x7cm in three dimensions had a multilocular structure without colour Doppler flow and well-circumscribed borders. Amniocentesis revealed a normal constitutional karyotyping. Lymphangioma was considered as prediagnosis. A healthy female baby weighing 3470 grams was delivered at term. Neonatal examination and the postnatal MRI confirmed the diagnosis. The baby is still on follow-up with the medical treatment of Sirolimus an anti-proliferative drug, and the mass got smaller significantly in 8 months after delivery.

  20. The Danish Fetal Medicine database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte; Kopp, Tine Iskov; Tabor, Ann

    2016-01-01

    trimester ultrasound scan performed at all public hospitals in Denmark are registered in the database. Main variables/descriptive data: Data on maternal characteristics, ultrasonic, and biochemical variables are continuously sent from the fetal medicine units’Astraia databases to the central database via...... analyses are sent to the database. Conclusion: It has been possible to establish a fetal medicine database, which monitors first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities and second-trimester screening for major fetal malformations with the input from already collected data. The database...

  1. Prenatal programming of postnatal obesity: fetal nutrition and the regulation of leptin synthesis and secretion before birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, I C; Muhlhausler, B S; Duffield, J A; Yuen, B S J

    2004-08-01

    Exposure to either an increased or decreased level of intrauterine nutrition can result in an increase in adiposity and in circulating leptin concentrations in later life. In animals such as the sheep and pig in which fat is deposited before birth, leptin is synthesised in fetal adipose tissue and is present in the fetal circulation throughout late gestation. In the sheep a moderate increase or decrease in the level of maternal nutrition does not alter fetal plasma leptin concentrations, but there is evidence that chronic fetal hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia increase fetal fat mass and leptin synthesis within fetal fat depots. Importantly, there is a positive relationship between the relative mass of the 'unilocular' component of fetal perirenal and interscapular adipose tissue and circulating fetal leptin concentrations in the sheep. Thus, as in the neonate and adult, circulating leptin concentrations may be a signal of fat mass in fetal life. There is also evidence that leptin can act to regulate the lipid storage, leptin synthetic capacity and potential thermogenic functions of fat before birth. Thus, leptin may act as a signal of energy supply and have a 'lipostatic' role before birth. Future studies are clearly required to determine whether the intrauterine and early postnatal nutrient environment programme the endocrine feedback loop between adipose tissue and the central and peripheral neuroendocrine systems that regulate energy balance, resulting in an enhanced risk of obesity in adult life.

  2. [Folates and fetal programming: role of epigenetics and epigenomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéant, Jean-Louis; Daval, Jean-Luc; Vert, Paul; Nicolas, Jean-Pierre

    2012-12-01

    Folates are needed for synthesis of methionine, the precursor of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM). They play therefore a key role in nutrition and epigenomics by fluxing monocarbons towards synthesis or methylation of DNA and RNA, and methylation of gene transregulators, respectively. The deficiency produces intrauterine growth retardation and birth dejects. Folate deficiency deregulates epigenomic mechanisms related to fetal programming through decreased cellular availability of SAM. Epigenetic mechanisms of folate deficiency are illustrated by inheritance of coat colour of agouti mice model and altered expression of Igf2/H19 imprinting genes. Dietary exposure to fumonisin FB1 acts synergistically with folate deficiency on alterations of heterochromatin assembly. Deficiency in folate and vitamin B12 produces impaired fatty acid oxidation in liver and heart through imbalanced methylation and acetylation of PGC1-alpha and decreased expression of SIRT1, and long-lasting cognitive disabilities through impaired hippocampal cell proliferation, differentiation and plasticity and atrophy of hippocampal CA1. Deciphering these mechanisms will help understand the discordances between experimental models and population studies on folate supplementation.

  3. Fetal and maternal analgesia/anesthesia for fetal procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Marc; De Buck, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    For many prenatally diagnosed conditions, treatment is possible before birth. These fetal procedures can range from minimal invasive punctions to full open fetal surgery. Providing anesthesia for these procedures is a challenge, where care has to be taken for both mother and fetus. There are specific physiologic changes that occur with pregnancy that have an impact on the anesthetic management of the mother. When providing maternal anesthesia, there is also an impact on the fetus, with concerns for potential negative side effects of the anesthetic regimen used. The question whether the fetus is capable of feeling pain is difficult to answer, but there are indications that nociceptive stimuli have a physiologic reaction. This nociceptive stimulation of the fetus also has the potential for longer-term effects, so there is a need for fetal analgesic treatment. The extent to which a fetus is influenced by the maternal anesthesia depends on the type of anesthesia, with different needs for extra fetal anesthesia or analgesia. When providing fetal anesthesia, the potential negative consequences have to be balanced against the intended benefits of blocking the physiologic fetal responses to nociceptive stimulation.

  4. Fetal laser therapy: applications in the management of fetal pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Jérôme; Raio, Luigi; Baud, David

    2015-07-01

    Fetoscopic coagulation of placental anastomoses is the treatment of choice for severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. In the present day, fetal laser therapy is also used to treat amniotic bands, chorioangiomas, sacrococcygeal teratomas, lower urinary tract obstructions and chest masses, all of which will be reviewed in this article. Amniotic band syndrome can cause limb amputation by impairing downstream blood flow. Large chorioangiomas (>4 cm), sacrococcygeal teratomas or fetal hyperechoic lung lesions can lead to fetal compromise and hydrops by vascular steal phenomenon or compression. Renal damage, bladder dysfunction and lastly death because of pulmonary hypolasia may be the result of megacystis caused by a posterior urethral valve. The prognosis of these pathologies can be dismal, and therapy options are limited, which has brought fetal laser therapy to the forefront. Management options discussed here are laser release of amniotic bands, laser coagulation of the placental or fetal tumor feeding vessels and laser therapy by fetal cystoscopy. This review, largely based on case reports, does not intend to provide a level of evidence supporting laser therapy over other treatment options. Centralized evaluation by specialists using strict selection criteria and long-term follow-up of these rare cases are now needed to prove the value of endoscopic or ultrasound-guided laser therapy.

  5. Fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells require beta1 integrin function for colonizing fetal liver, spleen, and bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potocnik, A J; Brakebusch, C; Fässler, R

    2000-01-01

    Homing of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) into hematopoietic organs is a prerequisite for the establishment of hematopoiesis during embryogenesis and after bone marrow transplantation. We show that beta1 integrin-deficient HSCs from the para-aortic splanchnopleura and the fetal blood had...... hematolymphoid differentiation potential in vitro and in fetal organ cultures but were unable to seed fetal and adult hematopoietic tissues. Adult beta1 integrin null HSCs isolated from mice carrying loxP-tagged beta1 integrin alleles and ablated for beta1 integrin expression by retroviral cre transduction...... failed to engraft irradiated recipient mice. Moreover, absence of beta1 integrin resulted in sequestration of HSCs in the circulation and their reduced adhesion to endothelioma cells. These findings define beta1 integrin as an essential adhesion receptor for the homing of HSCs....

  6. Maternal Baicalin Treatment Increases Fetal Lung Surfactant Phospholipids in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Ming Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Baicalin is a flavonoid compound purified from the medicinal plant Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and has been reported to stimulate surfactant protein (SP-A gene expression in human lung epithelial cell lines (H441. The aims of this study were to determine whether maternal baicalin treatment could increase lung surfactant production and induce lung maturation in fetal rats. This study was performed with timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. One-day baicalin group mothers were injected intraperitoneally with baicalin (5 mg/kg/day on Day 18 of gestation. Two-day baicalin group mothers were injected intraperitoneally with baicalin (5 mg/kg/day on Days 17 and 18 of gestation. Control group mothers were injected with vehicle alone on Day 18 of gestation. On Day 19 of gestation, fetuses were delivered by cesarean section. Maternal treatment with 2-day baicalin significantly increased saturated phospholipid when compared with control group and total phospholipid in fetal lung tissue when compared with control and 1-day baicalin groups. Antenatal treatment with 2-day baicalin significantly increased maternal growth hormone when compared with control group. Fetal lung SP-A mRNA expression and maternal serum corticosterone levels were comparable among the three experimental groups. Maternal baicalin treatment increases pulmonary surfactant phospholipids of fetal rat lungs and the improvement was associated with increased maternal serum growth hormone. These results suggest that antenatal baicalin treatment might accelerate fetal rat lung maturation.

  7. Novel Roles for the Insulin-Regulated Glucose Transporter-4 in Hippocampally Dependent Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson-Leary, Jiah; McNay, Ewan C

    2016-11-23

    The insulin-regulated glucose transporter-4 (GluT4) is critical for insulin- and contractile-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. GluT4 is also expressed in some hippocampal neurons, but its functional role in the brain is unclear. Several established molecular modulators of memory processing regulate hippocampal GluT4 trafficking and hippocampal memory formation is limited by both glucose metabolism and insulin signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that hippocampal GluT4 might be involved in memory processes. Here, we show that, in male rats, hippocampal GluT4 translocates to the plasma membrane after memory training and that acute, selective intrahippocampal inhibition of GluT4-mediated glucose transport impaired memory acquisition, but not memory retrieval. Other studies have shown that prolonged systemic GluT4 blockade causes insulin resistance. Unexpectedly, we found that prolonged hippocampal blockade of glucose transport through GluT4-upregulated markers of hippocampal insulin signaling prevented task-associated depletion of hippocampal glucose and enhanced both working and short-term memory while also impairing long-term memory. These effects were accompanied by increased expression of hippocampal AMPA GluR1 subunits and the neuronal GluT3, but decreased expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor, consistent with impaired ability to form long-term memories. Our findings are the first to show the cognitive impact of brain GluT4 modulation. They identify GluT4 as a key regulator of hippocampal memory processing and also suggest differential regulation of GluT4 in the hippocampus from that in peripheral tissues. The role of insulin-regulated glucose transporter-4 (GluT4) in the brain is unclear. In the current study, we demonstrate that GluT4 is a critical component of hippocampal memory processes. Memory training increased hippocampal GluT4 translocation and memory acquisition was impaired by GluT4 blockade. Unexpectedly, whereas long

  8. Fetal MRI: techniques and protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Neuroradiology, University Clinics of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-10, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter Christian [Department of Anatomy, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Lucas [Diagnosezentrum Urania, Vienna (Austria)

    2004-09-01

    The development of ultrafast sequences has led to a significant improvement in fetal MRI. Imaging protocols have to be adjusted to the rapidly developing fetal central nervous system (CNS) and to the clinical question. Sequence parameters must be changed to cope with the respective developmental stage, to produce images free from motion artefacts and to provide optimum visualization of the region and focus of interest. In contrast to postnatal studies, every suspect fetal CNS abnormality requires examination of the whole fetus and the extrafetal intrauterine structures including the uterus. This approach covers both aspects of fetal CNS disorders: isolated and complex malformations and cerebral lesions arising from the impaired integrity of the feto-placental unit. (orig.)

  9. Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003407.htm Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution To use the sharing features ... unborn baby is leaking into the mother's blood circulation. The more of the baby's cells there are, ...

  10. The Danish Fetal Medicine Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte K; Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Jørgensen, Finn S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the establishment and organization of the Danish Fetal Medicine Database and to report national results of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 in the 5-year period 2008-2012. DESIGN: National register study using prospectively collected first-trimester screening...... data from the Danish Fetal Medicine Database. POPULATION: Pregnant women in Denmark undergoing first-trimester screening for trisomy 21. METHODS: Data on maternal characteristics, biochemical and ultrasonic markers are continuously sent electronically from local fetal medicine databases (Astraia Gmbh......%. The national screen-positive rate increased from 3.6% in 2008 to 4.7% in 2012. The national detection rate of trisomy 21 was reported to be between 82 and 90% in the 5-year period. CONCLUSION: A national fetal medicine database has been successfully established in Denmark. Results from the database have shown...

  11. Clinically silent polymicrobial amnionitis and intrauterine fetal death associated with a Cu-7 intrauterine contraceptive device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waites, K B; Bobo, R A; Davis, R O; Brookings, E S; Cassell, G H

    1984-12-15

    This article presents a case of silent polymicrobial amnionitis with subsequent intrauterine fetal death in a 34-year old woman who conceived with a Cu-7 IUD in place. There were no apparent pregnancy complications or symptoms of uterine infection during early pregnancy. At 16 weeks gestation, the patient underwent amniocentesis for cytogenetic studies. 5 different microorganisms--Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mitis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum--were isolated from the amniotic fluid. 2 week later, intrauterine fetal death was detected. U. urealyticum was at this point isolated from the cervix and placental and fetal tissues. This organism, which has been associated with chorioamnionitis, spontaneous abortion, and neonatal death, is suspected to have contributed to the fetal death in this case. U. urealyticum can invade the amniotic sac with fetal membranes intact and persist for 8 weeks without overt effects. This case illustrates the risks associated with nonremoval of an IUD after contraceptive failure.

  12. 维生素E对手机辐射致孕鼠及胎鼠脑组织损伤的干预作用%Interference of vitamin E on the brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高娴; 罗芮; 马斌; 王慧; 刘天; 张静; 廉志顺; 崔晞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the interference of vitamin E on brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats.Methods 40 pregnant rats were randomly divided into five groups (positive control,negative control,low,middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups).The low,middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups were supplemented with 5,15 and 30mg/ml vitamin E respectively since the first day of pregnancy.And the negative control group and the positive control group were given peanut oil without vitamin E.All groups except for the negative control group were exposed to 900MHz intensity of cell phone radiation for one hour each time,three times per day for 21 days.After accouchement,the right hippocampus tissue of fetal rats in each group was taken and observed under electron microscope.The vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px),and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in pregnant and fetal rats' brain tissue were tested.Results Compared with the negative control group,the chondriosomes in neuron and neuroglia of brain tissues was swelling,mild edema was found around the capillary,chromatin was concentrated and collected,and bubbles were formed in vascular endothelial cells (VEC) in the positive fetal rat control group,whereas the above phenomenon was un-conspicuous in the middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups.We can see uniform chromatin,abundant mitochondrion,rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes in the high dosage group.The apoptosis has not fond in all groups'sections.In the antioxidase activity analysis,compared with the negative control group,the vitality of SOD and GSH-Px significantly decreased and the content of MDA significantly increased both in the pregnant and fetal rats positive control group (P < 0.05).In fetal rats,the vitality of SOD and GSH-Px significantly increased in the brain tissues of all three different vitamin E dosages groups when compared with the

  13. Light scattering changes follow evoked potentials from hippocampal Schaeffer collateral stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rector, D M; Poe, G R; Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard

    1997-01-01

    -coupled device camera to detect scattered light changes, was lowered to the contralateral dorsal hippocampal surface. Light at 660 +/- 10 (SE) nm illuminated the tissue through optic fibers surrounding the optic probe. An attached bipolar electrode recorded evoked right hippocampal commissural potentials......We assessed relationships of evoked electrical and light scattering changes from cat dorsal hippocampus following Schaeffer collateral stimulation. Under anesthesia, eight stimulating electrodes were placed in the left hippocampal CA field and an optic probe, coupled to a photodiode or a charge...... a complex population synaptic potential that lasted 100-200 ms depending on stimulus intensity and electrode position. Light scattering changes peaked 20 ms after stimuli and occurred simultaneously with population spikes. A long-lasting light scattering component peaked 100-500 ms after the stimulus...

  14. Fetal ocular measurements by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao Bing; Kasprian, Gregor; Hodge, Jacqueline C; Jiang, Xiao Li; Bettelheim, Dieter; Brugger, Peter C; Prayer, Daniela

    2010-11-01

    To present fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ocular measurement ranges by gestational age (GA) in normal and growth-restricted fetuses. A total of 298 pregnant women from the 18th to the 39th week of gestation were imaged using MRI. Ocular measurements including binocular distance (BOD), interocular distance (IOD), transverse ocular diameter (OD) and anterior-posterior (AP) OD were measured. The curve estimation analyses for linear, logarithmic and quadratic models were performed. The ocular measurements of the fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were compared with that of the normal fetuses. The fetal eye resembles an ellipsoid with significantly longer OD and shorter AP (t = - 22.07, p < 0.001). The quadratic model was the best model in predicting growth of the fetal BOD, IOD, OD and AP. The ocular measurements of the fetuses with IUGR were significantly different from that of the normal fetuses (BOD: t = 3.58, p < 0.001; IOD: t = 5.73, p < 0.001; OD: t = 3.52, p < 0.001; AP: t = 2.19, p < 0.05). Fetal ocular growth can be readily assessed by fetal MRI. Using the normative data provided in this study, fetal ocular anomalies may be detected. Ocular size is frequently reduced in the condition of IUGR, with potential pathologic impact on postnatal vision.

  15. Macro- and micromineral composition of fetal pigs and their accretion rates during fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, D C; Watts, M R; St-Pierre, N

    2009-09-01

    Twenty-six crossbreed (Yorkshire x Landrace) sows bred to Duroc boars were used to determine fetal measurements and mineral compositions at various stages of gestation. Sows were fed a vitamin and mineral fortified 15% CP corn soybean meal gestation diet fed at 2.1 kg daily with dietary minerals meeting or in excess of NRC requirements. Sow and litter measurements were evaluated at 5 periods postcoitum (45, 62, 80, 100, 115 d). The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with 3 to 6 observations per mean. Uterine fluid and fetal tissue were collected upon slaughter from the sows during the first 4 measurement periods. The empty uterus and uterine fluid contents were weighed. Individual fetuses were weighed and their length measured. Neonatal pigs from 6 sows were killed by electric shock before colostrum consumption. The fetuses and neonates were subsequently frozen, ground, and analyzed for water, protein, ash, and fat. The mineral profile was determined for the entire litter by inductively coupled plasma analysis technology. The sow and litter was each considered the experimental unit for all measurements and mineral compositions with regression analysis determined from 45 to 115 d of gestation. Results demonstrated that fetal weight increased quadratically (P < 0.01) and uterine fluid increased quadratically (P < 0.01) from 45 to 62 d, but then declined to 100 d postcoitum. The water, protein, ash, and lipid content of the fetus increased quadratically (P < 0.01) from 45 to 115 d of development, with the greatest increase of each component occurring during the last 15 d of development. Each of the macro- and microminerals increased curvilinearly (P < 0.01) as fetal development progressed with approximately 50% of the total litter and fetal macro- and micromineral contents occurring during the last 15 d of gestation. These results indicate that there is a large increase in mineral contents of fetal pigs during late gestation and that there may

  16. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Jahanshad, Neda; Chauhan, Ganesh; Stein, Jason L.; Hofer, Edith; Renteria, Miguel E.; Bis, Joshua C.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Ikram, M. Kamran; Desrivières, Sylvane; Vernooij, Meike W.; Abramovic, Lucija; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf; Andersson, Micael; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Axelsson, Tomas; Beecham, Ashley H.; Beiser, Alexa; Bernard, Manon; Blanton, Susan H.; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brickman, Adam M.; Carmichael, Owen; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Chouraki, Vincent; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Crivello, Fabrice; Den Braber, Anouk; Doan, Nhat Trung; Ehrlich, Stefan; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Grimm, Oliver; Griswold, Michael E.; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gutman, Boris A.; Hass, Johanna; Haukvik, Unn K.; Hoehn, David; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Jørgensen, Kjetil N.; Karbalai, Nazanin; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Marquand, Andre F.; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; McKay, David R.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Nho, Kwangsik; Nugent, Allison C.; Nyquist, Paul; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Papmeyer, Martina; Pirpamer, Lukas; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Richards, Jennifer S.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rommelse, Nanda; Ropele, Stefan; Rose, Emma J.; Royle, Natalie A.; Rundek, Tatjana; Sämann, Philipp G.; Saremi, Arvin; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shen, Li; Shin, Jean; Shumskaya, Elena; Smith, Albert V.; Sprooten, Emma; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Toro, Roberto; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trompet, Stella; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Van der Grond, Jeroen; Van der Lee, Sven J.; Van der Meer, Dennis; Van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; Van Eijk, Kristel R.; Van Erp, Theo G. M.; Van Rooij, Daan; Walton, Esther; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Windham, Beverly G.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Wolfers, Thomas; Yanek, Lisa R.; Yang, Jingyun; Zijdenbos, Alex; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Agartz, Ingrid; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Amouyel, Philippe; Andreassen, Ole A.; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Barral, Sandra; Bastin, Mark E.; Becker, Diane M.; Becker, James T.; Bennett, David A.; Blangero, John; van Bokhoven, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brodaty, Henry; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cichon, Sven; Cookson, Mark R.; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; De Craen, Anton J. M.; De Geus, Eco J. C.; De Jager, Philip L.; De Zubicaray, Greig I.; Deary, Ian J.; Debette, Stéphanie; DeCarli, Charles; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; DeStefano, Anita; Dillman, Allissa; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drevets, Wayne C.; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Enzinger, Christian; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fedko, Iryna O.; Fernández, Guillén; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fisher, Simon E.; Fleischman, Debra A.; Ford, Ian; Fornage, Myriam; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Francks, Clyde; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Glahn, David C.; Gollub, Randy L.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Gruber, Oliver; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guelfi, Sebastian; Håberg, Asta K.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huentelman, Matthew; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack Jr, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Jönsson, Erik G.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kahn, René S.; Kanai, Ryota; Kloszewska, Iwona; Knopman, David S.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Lemaître, Hervé; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Lovestone, Simon; Martinez, Oliver; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mattay, Venkata S.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, Katie L.; Mecocci, Patrizia; Melle, Ingrid; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Derek W.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nalls, Michael A.; Nauck, Matthias; Nichols, Thomas E.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Nyberg, Lars; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pandolfo, Massimo; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Roffman, Joshua L.; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rotter, Jerome I.; Ryten, Mina; Sacco, Ralph L.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schmidt, Helena; Schofield, Peter R.; Sigursson, Sigurdur; Simmons, Andrew; Singleton, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W.; Soininen, Hilkka; Steen, Vidar M.; Stott, David J.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Tsolaki, Magda; Tzourio, Christophe; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hernández, Maria C. Valdés; Van der Brug, Marcel; van der Lugt, Aad; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; van 't Ent, Dennis; Van Tol, Marie-Jose; Vardarajan, Badri N.; Vellas, Bruno; Veltman, Dick J.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; Westman, Eric; White, Tonya; Wong, Tien Y.; Wright, Clinton B.; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Wright, Margaret J.; Longstreth, W. T.; Schumann, Gunter; Grabe, Hans J.; Franke, Barbara; Launer, Lenore J.; Medland, Sarah E.; Seshadri, Sudha; Thompson, Paul M.; Ikram, M. Arfan

    2017-01-01

    The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (rg=−0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness. PMID:28098162

  17. Loss of entorhinal cortex and hippocampal volumes compared to whole brain volume in normal aging: the SMART-Medea study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoops, Arnoud J G; Gerritsen, Lotte; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Mali, Willem P T M; Geerlings, Mirjam I

    2012-07-30

    In non-demented elderly age-related decline in hippocampal volume has often been observed, but it is not clear if this loss is disproportionate relative to other brain tissue. Few studies examined age-related volume loss of the entorhinal cortex. We investigated the association of age with hippocampal and entorhinal cortex (ERC) volumes in a large sample of middle-aged and older persons without dementia. Within the SMART-Medea study, cross-sectional analyses were performed in 453 non-demented subjects (mean age 62±9 years, 81% male) with a history of arterial disease. Hippocampal and ERC volumes were assessed by manual segmentation on three-dimensional fast field-echo sequence T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Automated segmentation was used to quantify volumes of BV and ICV. Hippocampal and ERC volumes were divided by intracranial volume (ICV) as well as total brain volume (BV) to determine whether age-related differences were disproportionate relative to other brain tissue. Total crude hippocampal volume was 5.96±0.7 ml and total crude ERC volume was 0.34±0.06 ml. Linear regression analyses adjusted for sex showed that with increasing age, hippocampal volume divided by ICV decreased (B per year older=-0.01 ml; 95% CI -0.02 to -0.004). However, no age-related decline in hippocampal volume relative to BV was observed (B per year older=0.005 ml; 95% CI -0.002 to 0.01). No age-related decline in ERC volume relative to ICV or BV was observed. In this population of nondemented patients with a history of vascular disease no age-related decline in entorhinal cortex volume was observed and although hippocampal volume decreased with age, it was not disproportionate relative to total brain volume. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Physical exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects are mediated by the adipocyte hormone adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Suk Yu; Li, Ang; Hoo, Ruby L C; Ching, Yick Pang; Christie, Brian R; Lee, Tatia M C; Xu, Aimin; So, Kwok-Fai

    2014-11-04

    Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipocyte-secreted protein with insulin-sensitizing, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties. Evidence is also accumulating that ADN has neuroprotective activities, yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we show that ADN could pass through the blood-brain barrier, and elevating its levels in the brain increased cell proliferation and decreased depression-like behaviors. ADN deficiency did not reduce the basal hippocampal neurogenesis or neuronal differentiation but diminished the effectiveness of exercise in increasing hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, exercise-induced reduction in depression-like behaviors was abrogated in ADN-deficient mice, and this impairment in ADN-deficient mice was accompanied by defective running-induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hippocampal tissue. In vitro analyses indicated that ADN itself could increase cell proliferation of both hippocampal progenitor cells and Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells. The neurogenic effects of ADN were mediated by the ADN receptor 1 (ADNR1), because siRNA targeting ADNR1, but not ADNR2, inhibited the capacity of ADN to enhance cell proliferation. These data suggest that adiponectin may play a significant role in mediating the effects of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and depression, possibly by activation of the ADNR1/AMPK signaling pathways, and also raise the possibility that adiponectin and its agonists may represent a promising therapeutic treatment for depression.

  19. Resilience to chronic stress is mediated by hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaz, Dekel; Loya, Assaf; Gersner, Roman; Haramati, Sharon; Chen, Alon; Zangen, Abraham

    2011-03-23

    Chronic stress is a trigger for several psychiatric disorders, including depression; however, critical individual differences in resilience to both the behavioral and the neurochemical effects of stress have been reported. A prominent mechanism by which the brain reacts to acute and chronic stress is activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is inhibited by the hippocampus via a polysynaptic circuit. Alterations in secretion of stress hormones and levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus were implicated in depression and the effects of antidepressant medications. However, the potential role of hippocampal BDNF in behavioral resilience to chronic stress and in the regulation of the HPA axis has not been evaluated. In the present study, Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to 4 weeks of chronic mild stress (CMS) to induce depressive-like behaviors after lentiviral vectors were used to induce localized BDNF overexpression or knockdown in the hippocampus. The behavioral outcome was measured during 3 weeks after the CMS procedure, then plasma samples were taken for measurements of corticosterone levels, and finally hippocampal tissue was taken for BDNF measurements. We found that hippocampal BDNF expression plays a critical role in resilience to chronic stress and that reduction of hippocampal BDNF expression in young, but not adult, rats induces prolonged elevations in corticosterone secretion. The present study describes a mechanism for individual differences in responses to chronic stress and implicates hippocampal BDNF in the development of neural circuits that control adequate stress adaptations.

  20. Physical exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects are mediated by the adipocyte hormone adiponectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Suk Yu; Li, Ang; Hoo, Ruby L. C.; Ching, Yick Pang; Christie, Brian R.; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Xu, Aimin; So, Kwok-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipocyte-secreted protein with insulin-sensitizing, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties. Evidence is also accumulating that ADN has neuroprotective activities, yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we show that ADN could pass through the blood–brain barrier, and elevating its levels in the brain increased cell proliferation and decreased depression-like behaviors. ADN deficiency did not reduce the basal hippocampal neurogenesis or neuronal differentiation but diminished the effectiveness of exercise in increasing hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, exercise-induced reduction in depression-like behaviors was abrogated in ADN-deficient mice, and this impairment in ADN-deficient mice was accompanied by defective running-induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hippocampal tissue. In vitro analyses indicated that ADN itself could increase cell proliferation of both hippocampal progenitor cells and Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells. The neurogenic effects of ADN were mediated by the ADN receptor 1 (ADNR1), because siRNA targeting ADNR1, but not ADNR2, inhibited the capacity of ADN to enhance cell proliferation. These data suggest that adiponectin may play a significant role in mediating the effects of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and depression, possibly by activation of the ADNR1/AMPK signaling pathways, and also raise the possibility that adiponectin and its agonists may represent a promising therapeutic treatment for depression. PMID:25331877

  1. 水通道蛋白-8在羊水过少产妇胎盘和胎膜组织中的表达及意义%Expressions and significances of aquaporin -8 in placental tissues and fetal membranes of parturient women with oligohydramnios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周岩; 王凤莲

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨水通道蛋白-8在羊水过少和正常羊水量产妇胎盘和胎膜组织中的表达及意义.方法:采用免疫组化方法(SP法)检测15例羊水过少和15例正常羊水量产妇胎盘、胎膜组织中水通道蛋白-8 (AQP8)的蛋白表达水平.结果:AQP8蛋白在羊水过少组和正常羊水量组产妇的胎盘、胎膜组织中均有表达,主要分布于羊膜上皮细胞、绒毛膜滋养细胞和胎盘合体滋养细胞的细胞膜和细胞质中.羊水过少组羊膜、绒毛膜和胎盘组织中的AQP8蛋白表达水平分别为0.088±0.021、0.143±0.021、0.122±0.019,正常羊水量组分别为0.148±0.016、0.158±0.025、0.151±0.025.羊水过少组羊膜、绒毛膜和胎盘组织中AQP8蛋白表达水平均低于正常羊水量组,在羊膜、胎盘中的表达差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);绒毛膜组织中AQP8蛋白表达水平虽低于对照组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:AQP8蛋白在羊水过少临床病例胎盘和胎膜组织中的表达显著减少,提示AQP8在产妇母胎液体交换和羊水膜内吸收途径中发挥重要作用.%Objective: To explore the expressions and significances of aquaporin -8 in placental tissues and fetal membranes of parturient women with oligohydramnios and parturient women with normal volume of amniotic fluid. Methods; Immunohistochemical SP method was used to detect the expression levels of aquaporin - 8 protein in placental tissues and fetal membranes of 15 parturient women with oligohydramnios and 15 parturient women with normal volume of amniotic fluid. Results: Aquaporin -8 protein expressed in placental tissues and fetal membranes of oligohydramnios group and normal amniotic fluid volume group-, mainly in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of amniotic epithelial cells, trophoblast cells and placental syncytiotrophoblastic cells. The expression levels of aquaporin - 8 protein in amniotic membrane, chorion and placenta were (0.088 ±0.021), (0. 143 ±0

  2. Hippocampal subfield volumes in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, B; Passos, I C; Mwangi, B; Amaral-Silva, H; Tannous, J; Wu, M-J; Zunta-Soares, G B; Soares, J C

    2017-01-24

    Volume reduction and shape abnormality of the hippocampus have been associated with mood disorders. However, the hippocampus is not a uniform structure and consists of several subfields, such as the cornu ammonis (CA) subfields CA1-4, the dentate gyrus (DG) including a granule cell layer (GCL) and a molecular layer (ML) that continuously crosses adjacent subiculum (Sub) and CA fields. It is known that cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with mood disorders may be localized to specific hippocampal subfields. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the link between the in vivo hippocampal subfield volumes and specific mood disorders, such as bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present study, we used a state-of-the-art hippocampal segmentation approach, and we found that patients with BD had reduced volumes of hippocampal subfields, specifically in the left CA4, GCL, ML and both sides of the hippocampal tail, compared with healthy subjects and patients with MDD. The volume reduction was especially severe in patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I). We also demonstrated that hippocampal subfield volume reduction was associated with the progression of the illness. For patients with BD-I, the volumes of the right CA1, ML and Sub decreased as the illness duration increased, and the volumes of both sides of the CA2/3, CA4 and hippocampal tail had negative correlations with the number of manic episodes. These results indicated that among the mood disorders the hippocampal subfields were more affected in BD-I compared with BD-II and MDD, and manic episodes had focused progressive effect on the CA2/3 and CA4 and hippocampal tail.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 24 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.262.

  3. [A new ECG electrode concept for the conduction of fetal heart action potentials without penetration of the skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S; Langner, K; Rothe, J; Saling, E

    1982-10-01

    Internal cardiotocography is an important method for reliable supervision of the fetus during labor. The main task is the prevention of fetal hypoxia. However, there is a considerable disadvantage as the electrodes used penetrate the fetal skin, creating a possible entry point for organisms. The concept we have developed forms a new way of decreasing the risk of infection during labor by conducting the fetal heart rate potentials without penetrating the skin. The electrode is fixed to the skin of the presenting part by tissue adhesive and electrical contact between the fetal skin and the wire of the electrode is established through using electrolyte fluid.

  4. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND PROGNOSIS OF FETAL ARRHYTHMIAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-bo Fan; Ming-ying Gai; Jian-qiu Yang; Fei-fei Xing

    2004-01-01

    Objective To explore fetal arrhythmia clinical significance and its correlation with fetal prognosis.Methods Twenty-six cases of fetal arrhythmia detected among 12 799 pregnant women recorded over a ten-year period in Peking Uinon Medical College (PUMC) Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Fetal arrhythmia was diagnosed by fetal auscultation, ultrasonography, electric fetal heart monitoring, and fetal echocardiography.Results Twenty-six fetuses were documented with fetal arrhythmia (3 tachycardia, 4 bradycardia, 19 normal heart rate with irregular fetal cardiac rhythm). The incidence of fetal arrhythmia in our hospital was 0.2%. They were diagnosed at the average of 35 weeks' gestation (15 to 41 weeks). Twenty-two cases were diagnosed by antenatal fetal auscultation, 1 case was diagnosed by ultrasonography, and 3 cases were diagnosed by electric fetal heart monitoring. Fetal echocardiograms were performed on 17 fetuses, 6 cases (35.3%) of which showed that ventricular premature beats with normal structure of fetal heart.All neonates survived postnatally and 24 of them (92.3%) were followed up. Echocardiograms were performed for 16 neonates and 2 of them were identified as atrial septal defects with normal heart rhythms. The results of follow-up showed that the two patients had no apparent clinical manifestation. The echocardiogram showed that atrial septal defect obliterated already.Conclusion The prognosis is well for most of the fetuses with arrhythmias, with low incidence of heart deformation.

  5. Treadmill Exercise Induces Hippocampal Astroglial Alterations in Rats

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    Caren Bernardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise effects on brain health and cognitive performance have been described. Synaptic remodeling in hippocampus induced by physical exercise has been described in animal models, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Changes in astrocytes, the glial cells involved in synaptic remodeling, need more characterization. We investigated the effect of moderate treadmill exercise (20 min/day for 4 weeks on some parameters of astrocytic activity in rat hippocampal slices, namely, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, glutamate uptake and glutamine synthetase (GS activities, glutathione content, and S100B protein content and secretion, as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels and glucose uptake activity in this tissue. Results show that moderate treadmill exercise was able to induce a decrease in GFAP content (evaluated by ELISA and immunohistochemistry and an increase in GS activity. These changes could be mediated by corticosterone, whose levels were elevated in serum. BDNF, another putative mediator, was not altered in hippocampal tissue. Moreover, treadmill exercise caused a decrease in NO content. Our data indicate specific changes in astrocyte markers induced by physical exercise, the importance of studying astrocytes for understanding brain plasticity, as well as reinforce the relevance of physical exercise as a neuroprotective strategy.

  6. Prospective association of fetal liver blood flow at 30 weeks gestation with newborn adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenoue, Satoru; Waffarn, Feizal; Ohashi, Masanao; Sumiyoshi, Kaeko; Ikenoue, Chigusa; Buss, Claudia; Gillen, Daniel L; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Entringer, Sonja; Wadhwa, Pathik D

    2017-08-01

    The production of variation in adipose tissue accretion represents a key fetal adaptation to energy substrate availability during gestation. Because umbilical venous blood transports nutrient substrate from the maternal to the fetal compartment and because the fetal liver is the primary organ in which nutrient interconversion occurs, it has been proposed that variations in the relative distribution of umbilical venous blood flow shunting either through ductus venosus or perfusing the fetal liver represents a mechanism underlying this adaptation. The objective of the present study was to determine whether fetal liver blood flow assessed before the period of maximal fetal fat deposition (ie, the third trimester of gestation) is prospectively associated with newborn adiposity. A prospective study was conducted in a cohort of 62 uncomplicated singleton pregnancies. Fetal ultrasonography was performed at 30 weeks gestation for conventional fetal biometry and characterization of fetal liver blood flow (quantified by subtracting ductus venosus flow from umbilical vein flow). Newborn body fat percentage was quantified by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry imaging at 25.8 ± 3.3 (mean ± standard error of the mean) postnatal days. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the proportion of variation in newborn body fat percentage explained by fetal liver blood flow. Potential confounding factors included maternal age, parity, prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, gestational age at birth, infant sex, postnatal age at dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, and mode of infant feeding. Newborn body fat percentage was 13.5% ± 2.4% (mean ± standard error of the mean). Fetal liver blood flow at 30 weeks gestation was significantly and positively associated with newborn total fat mass (r=0.397; Pliver blood flow explained 13.5% of the variance in newborn fat mass. The magnitude of this association was pronounced particularly in nonoverweight

  7. Principle study on the signal connection at transabdominal fetal pulse oximetry

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    Böttrich Marcel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Transabdominal fetal pulse oximetry is an approach to measure oxygen saturation of the unborn child non-invasively. The principle of pulse oximetry is applied to the abdomen of a pregnant woman, such that the measured signal includes both, the maternal and the fetal pulse curve. One of the major challenges is to extract the shape of the fetal pulse curve from the mixed signal for computation of the oxygen saturation. In this paper we analyze the principle kind of connection of the fetal and maternal pulse curves in the measured signal. A time varying finite element model is used to rebuild the basic measurement environment, including a bulk tissue and two independently pulsing arteries to model the fetal and maternal blood circuit. The distribution of the light fluence rate in the model is computed by applying diffusion equation. From the detectors we extracted the time dependent fluence rate and analyzed the signal regarding its components. The frequency spectra of the signals show peaks at the fetal and maternal basic frequencies. Additional signal components are visible in the spectra, indicating multiplicative coupling of the fetal and maternal pulse curves. We conclude that the underlying signal model of algorithms for robust extraction of the shape of the fetal pulse curve, have to consider additive and multiplicative signal coupling.

  8. Programmed Fetal Membrane Senescence and Exosome-Mediated Signaling: A Mechanism Associated With Timing of Human Parturition

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    Ramkumar Menon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Human parturition is an inflammatory process that involves both fetal and maternal compartments. The precise immune cell interactions have not been well delineated in human uterine tissues during parturition, but insights into human labor initiation have been informed by studies in animal models. Unfortunately, the timing of parturition relative to fetal maturation varies among viviparous species—indicative of different phylogenetic clocks and alarms—but what is clear is that important common pathways must converge to control the birth process. Herein, we hypothesize a novel signaling mechanism initiated by human fetal membrane aging and senescence-associated inflammation. Programmed events of fetal membrane aging coincide with fetal growth and organ maturation. Mechanistically, senescence involves in telomere shortening and activation of p38 mitogen-activated signaling kinase resulting in aging-associated phenotypic transition. Senescent tissues release inflammatory signals that are propagated via exosomes to cause functional changes in maternal uterine tissues. In vitro, oxidative stress causes increased release of inflammatory mediators (senescence-associated secretory phenotype and damage-associated molecular pattern markers that can be packaged inside the exosomes. These exosomes traverse through tissues layers, reach maternal tissues to increase overall inflammatory load transitioning them from a quiescent to active state. Animal model studies have shown that fetal exosomes can travel from fetal to the maternal side. Thus, aging fetal membranes and membrane-derived exosomes cargo fetal signals to the uterus and cervix and may trigger parturition. This review highlights a novel hypothesis in human parturition research based on data from ongoing research using human fetal membrane model system.

  9. Programmed Fetal Membrane Senescence and Exosome-Mediated Signaling: A Mechanism Associated With Timing of Human Parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Ramkumar; Mesiano, Sam; Taylor, Robert N

    2017-01-01

    Human parturition is an inflammatory process that involves both fetal and maternal compartments. The precise immune cell interactions have not been well delineated in human uterine tissues during parturition, but insights into human labor initiation have been informed by studies in animal models. Unfortunately, the timing of parturition relative to fetal maturation varies among viviparous species-indicative of different phylogenetic clocks and alarms-but what is clear is that important common pathways must converge to control the birth process. Herein, we hypothesize a novel signaling mechanism initiated by human fetal membrane aging and senescence-associated inflammation. Programmed events of fetal membrane aging coincide with fetal growth and organ maturation. Mechanistically, senescence involves in telomere shortening and activation of p38 mitogen-activated signaling kinase resulting in aging-associated phenotypic transition. Senescent tissues release inflammatory signals that are propagated via exosomes to cause functional changes in maternal uterine tissues. In vitro, oxidative stress causes increased release of inflammatory mediators (senescence-associated secretory phenotype and damage-associated molecular pattern markers) that can be packaged inside the exosomes. These exosomes traverse through tissues layers, reach maternal tissues to increase overall inflammatory load transitioning them from a quiescent to active state. Animal model studies have shown that fetal exosomes can travel from fetal to the maternal side. Thus, aging fetal membranes and membrane-derived exosomes cargo fetal signals to the uterus and cervix and may trigger parturition. This review highlights a novel hypothesis in human parturition research based on data from ongoing research using human fetal membrane model system.

  10. Programmed Fetal Membrane Senescence and Exosome-Mediated Signaling: A Mechanism Associated With Timing of Human Parturition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Ramkumar; Mesiano, Sam; Taylor, Robert N.

    2017-01-01

    Human parturition is an inflammatory process that involves both fetal and maternal compartments. The precise immune cell interactions have not been well delineated in human uterine tissues during parturition, but insights into human labor initiation have been informed by studies in animal models. Unfortunately, the timing of parturition relative to fetal maturation varies among viviparous species—indicative of different phylogenetic clocks and alarms—but what is clear is that important common pathways must converge to control the birth process. Herein, we hypothesize a novel signaling mechanism initiated by human fetal membrane aging and senescence-associated inflammation. Programmed events of fetal membrane aging coincide with fetal growth and organ maturation. Mechanistically, senescence involves in telomere shortening and activation of p38 mitogen-activated signaling kinase resulting in aging-associated phenotypic transition. Senescent tissues release inflammatory signals that are propagated via exosomes to cause functional changes in maternal uterine tissues. In vitro, oxidative stress causes increased release of inflammatory mediators (senescence-associated secretory phenotype and damage-associated molecular pattern markers) that can be packaged inside the exosomes. These exosomes traverse through tissues layers, reach maternal tissues to increase overall inflammatory load transitioning them from a quiescent to active state. Animal model studies have shown that fetal exosomes can travel from fetal to the maternal side. Thus, aging fetal membranes and membrane-derived exosomes cargo fetal signals to the uterus and cervix and may trigger parturition. This review highlights a novel hypothesis in human parturition research based on data from ongoing research using human fetal membrane model system. PMID:28861041

  11. Evaluation of Fetal Lung Ultrasound Images by Digital Texture Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümmu Yildiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Evaluation of fetal lung maturity in preterm pregnancies without requirement for an invasive procedure such as amniocentesis is of importance. The aim of the present study was to extract numerical features from fetal pulmonary ultrasound images, using computerized texture analysis methods. Material and Method: Twenty fetal ultrasound images from 18 pregnancies that were followed up in our department for threatened preterm delivery between 24-37 weeks of gestational age were included before corticosteroid administration. Transverse sections including well-defined visualization of bilateral fetal lungs without artifacts were evaluated. Regions of interests (ROIs with a 64x64 pixel area and homogenous pulmonary tissue were selected. Images were analyzed with invariant moments (IM, grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM, and wavelet analysis (WA using MATLAB R2014a computer software. Results: The mean gestational age was 30.9 ± 3.2 weeks. A total of 159 features were extracted from the ROIs of each image. Therefore, fetal ultrasound images were coded into numerical values, using advanced texture analysis techniques. Discussion: Assessment of ultrasound images from fetal lungs at different gestational ages was feasible with the introduced digital tissue analysis algorithm. Non-invasive evaluation of fetal lung maturity will subsequently be investigated in line with the defined procedure.

  12. Micro-RNA speciation in fetal, adult and Alzheimer's disease hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukiw, Walter J

    2007-02-12

    Micro-RNAs constitute a family of small noncoding ribonucleic acids that are posttranscriptional regulators of messenger RNA activity. Although micro-RNAs are known to be dynamically regulated during neural development, the role of micro-RNAs in brain aging and neurodegeneration is not known. This study examined micro-RNA abundance in the hippocampal region of fetal, adult and Alzheimer's disease brain. The data indicate that micro-RNAs encoding miR-9, miR-124a, miR-125b, miR-128, miR-132 and miR-219 are abundantly represented in fetal hippocampus, are differentially regulated in aged brain, and an alteration in specific micro-RNA complexity occurs in Alzheimer hippocampus. These data are consistent with the idea that altered micro-RNA-mediated processing of messenger RNA populations may contribute to atypical mRNA abundance and neural dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease brain.

  13. Diagnosis of Chiari III malformation by second trimester fetal MRI with postnatal MRI and CT correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Alice B.; Glenn, Orit A. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Gupta, Nalin [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Neurosurgery, San Francisco, CA (United States); Otto, Carl [California Pacific Medical Center, Department of Perinatology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2007-10-15

    We report a case of Chiari III malformation diagnosed by fetal MRI. Ultrasound (US) performed at a gestational age of 18 weeks demonstrated a posterior skull base cyst. Repeat US at 19 weeks demonstrated neural tissue in the cyst, consistent with an encephalocele. MR imaging at 23 weeks confirmed the presence of an occipital encephalocele, demonstrated additional bony defect in the upper cervical spine, and identified abnormal morphology and position of the brainstem consistent with the diagnosis of Chiari III. Postnatal MRI and CT confirmed the fetal MRI findings and demonstrate the utility of fetal MRI in the early evaluation of songraphically detected posterior fossa abnormalities. (orig.)

  14. Fetal privacy and confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkin, J R

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of new and better contraceptive methods and the ability to facilitate and manipulate fertilization and gestation, couples will gain greater control over their fertility. Once a pregnancy has been established or an in vitro embryo created, the ability to evaluate the embryo and fetus will increase dramatically with progress in human genetic research. Preconception and preimplantation genetic testing and screening are now possible, and the technology to perform prenatal screening early in gestation is advancing rapidly. Nonsurgical methods facilitate induced abortion with a relatively lower degree of trauma upon the woman undergoing the procedure. These capabilities may all be used to enable and even encourage the genetic selection of future children. Despite the ethical concerns associated with prenatal testing and abortion, these services will continue to be an integral aspect of reproductive medicine. As technology advances, however, it will be possible to test and screen for conditions which do not produce serious defects. Genetic conditions which produce relatively mild impacts upon health will be identifiable in the embryo or fetus, while late-onset conditions and genetic factors which have only a probability of affecting health will also be located in the fetal genome. Prospective parents may therefore soon have the capability of selecting their most desirable embryo in vitro, or terminating all undesirable fetuses in vivo until the preferred child is delivered. The medical profession must take some responsibility for establishing guidelines on the use of reproductive technology. The standards of practice for the medical profession must reflect the results of a broad social debate over competing moral values. The author develops an argument for legal and ethical limitations on the application of prenatal testing and screening technology, suggesting that for some medical conditions, respect for the privacy and confidentiality of the fetus

  15. Fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) for fetal monitoring during labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, James P

    2015-12-21

    Hypoxaemia during labour can alter the shape of the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform, notably the relation of the PR to RR intervals, and elevation or depression of the ST segment. Technical systems have therefore been developed to monitor the fetal ECG during labour as an adjunct to continuous electronic fetal heart rate monitoring with the aim of improving fetal outcome and minimising unnecessary obstetric interference. To compare the effects of analysis of fetal ECG waveforms during labour with alternative methods of fetal monitoring. The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (latest search 23 September 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised trials comparing fetal ECG waveform analysis with alternative methods of fetal monitoring during labour. One review author independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. One review author assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Seven trials (27,403 women) were included: six trials of ST waveform analysis (26,446 women) and one trial of PR interval analysis (957 women). The trials were generally at low risk of bias for most domains and the quality of evidence for ST waveform analysis trials was graded moderate to high. In comparison to continuous electronic fetal heart rate monitoring alone, the use of adjunctive ST waveform analysis made no obvious difference to primary outcomes: births by caesarean section (risk ratio (RR) 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96 to 1.08; six trials, 26,446 women; high quality evidence); the number of babies with severe metabolic acidosis at birth (cord arterial pH less than 7.05 and base deficit greater than 12 mmol/L) (average RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.20; six trials, 25,682 babies; moderate quality evidence); or babies with neonatal encephalopathy (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.30 to 1.22; six trials, 26,410 babies; high quality evidence). There were, however, on average

  16. Hippocampal Abnormalities in Prolonged Febrile Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC measurements were used to characterize hippocampal edema within 5 days of a prolonged febrile seizure (PFS in a study at Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

  17. Protective mechanisms of microRNA-27a against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced injuries in hippocampal neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Cai; Ting Wang; Wen-jie Yang; Xing Fen

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic injuries during fetal distress have been shown to cause reduced expression of microRNA-27a (miR-27a), which regulates sensi-tivity of cortical neurons to apoptosis. We hypothesized that miR-27a overexpression attenuates hypoxia-and ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis by regulating FOXO1, an important transcription factor for regulating the oxidative stress response. miR-27a mimic was transfected into hippocampal neurons to overexpress miR-27a. Results showed increased hippocampal neuronal viability and decreased caspase-3 ex-pression. The luciferase reporter gene system demonstrated that miR-27a directly binded to FOXO1 3′UTR in hippocampal neurons and inhibited FOXO1 expression, suggesting that FOXO1 was the target gene for miR-27a. These ifndings conifrm that miR-27a protects hippo-campal neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced injuries. The mechanism might be mediated by modulation of FOXO1 and apoptosis-related gene caspase-3 expression.

  18. Timing of light pulses and photoperiod on the diurnal rhythm of hippocampal neuronal morphology of Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, T; Weil, Z M; Nelson, R J

    2014-06-13

    Rapid remodeling of neurons provides the brain with flexibility to adjust to environmental fluctuations. In Siberian hamsters, hippocampal dendritic morphology fluctuates across the day. To reveal the regulatory mechanism of diurnal remodeling of hippocampal neurons, we investigated the effects of light signals applied under different photoperiodic conditions on dendritic morphology. A 4-h dark pulse during the morning of long days (LD) increased basilar dendritic length, as well as complexity of basilar dendrites of neurons in the CA1. A light pulse during the late night in short days (SD) reduced basilar dendrite branching and increased primary apical dendrites of CA1 neurons. Spine density of dentate gyrus (DG) dendrites was increased by a dark pulse in LD and spine density of CA1 basilar dendrites was decreased by a light pulse in SD. These results indicate that light signals induce rapid remodeling of dendritic morphology in a hippocampal subregion-specific manner. A light pulse in SD decreased hippocampal expression of fetal liver kinase 1 (Flk1), a receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), raising the possibility that VEGF-FLK1 signaling might be involved in the rapid decrease of branching or spine density of CA1 basilar dendrites by light. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Human fetal mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Keelin; Chan, Jerry

    2006-09-01

    Stem cells have been isolated at all stages of development from the early developing embryo to the post-reproductive adult organism. However, the fetal environment is unique as it is the only time in ontogeny that there is migration of stem cells in large numbers into different organ compartments. While fetal neural and haemopoietic stem cells (HSC) have been well characterised, only recently have mesenchymal stem cells from the human fetus been isolated and evaluated. Our group have characterised in human fetal blood, liver and bone marrow a population of non-haemopoietic, non-endothelial cells with an immunophenotype similar to adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). These cells, human fetal mesenchymal stem cells (hfMSC), are true multipotent stem cells with greater self-renewal and differentiation capacity than their adult counterparts. They circulate in first trimester fetal blood and have been found to traffic into the maternal circulation, engrafting in bone marrow, where they remain microchimeric for decades after pregnancy. Though fetal microchimerism has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, the biological role of hfMSC microchimerism is unknown. Potential downstream applications of hfMSC include their use as a target cell for non-invasive pre-natal diagnosis from maternal blood, and for fetal cellular and gene therapy. Using hfMSC in fetal therapy offers the theoretical advantages of avoidance of immune rejection, increased engraftment, and treatment before disease pathology sets in. Aside from allogeneic hfMSC in utero transplantation, the use of autologous hfMSC has been brought a step forward with the development of early blood sampling techniques, efficient viral transduction and clonal expansion. Work is ongoing to determine hfMSC fate post-transplantation in murine models of genetic disease. In this review we will examine what is known about hfMSC biology, as well as discussing areas for future research. The

  20. Two cases of fetal goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Saini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anterior fetal neck masses are rarely encountered. Careful routine ultrasound screening can reveal intrauterine fetal goiters (FGs. The incidence of goitrous hypothyroidism is 1 in 30,000-50,000 live births. The consequences of both FG and impaired thyroid function are serious. Aims and Objectives: To emphasize role of ultrasound in both invasive and non-invasive management of FG. Materials and Methods: Two pregnant patients, during second trimester, underwent routine antenatal ultrasound revealing FG, were investigated and managed. Results: Case 1: Revealed FG with fetal hypothyroidism. Intra-amniotic injection l-thyroxine given. Follow-up ultrasound confirmed the reduction of the goiter size. At birth, thyroid dyshormogenesis was suspected and neonate discharged on 50 mcg levothyroxine/day with normal growth and development so far. Case 2: Hypothyroid mother with twin pregnancy revealed FG, in twin 1, confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging (1.5 × 1.63 cm. The other twin had no thyroid swelling. Cordocentesis confirmed hypothyroidism in twin 1. Maternal thyroxine dose increased as per biochemical parameters leading to reduction in FG size. Mother delivered preterm and none of the twins had thyroid swelling. Fetal euthyroidism was confirmed on biochemical screening. Conclusion: FG during pregnancy should be thoroughly evaluated, diagnosed and immediately treated; although in utero options for fetal hypothyroidism management are available, emphasis should be laid on non-invasive procedures. Newer and better resolution techniques in ultrasonography are more specific and at the same time are less harmful.

  1. Fetal Programming and Cardiovascular Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T.; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25880521

  2. Timed maternal melatonin treatment reverses circadian disruption of the fetal adrenal clock imposed by exposure to constant light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mendez

    Full Text Available Surprisingly, in our modern 24/7 society, there is scant information on the impact of developmental chronodisruption like the one experienced by shift worker pregnant women on fetal and postnatal physiology. There are important differences between the maternal and fetal circadian systems; for instance, the suprachiasmatic nucleus is the master clock in the mother but not in the fetus. Despite this, several tissues/organs display circadian oscillations in the fetus. Our hypothesis is that the maternal plasma melatonin rhythm drives the fetal circadian system, which in turn relies this information to other fetal tissues through corticosterone rhythmic signaling. The present data show that suppression of the maternal plasma melatonin circadian rhythm, secondary to exposure of pregnant rats to constant light along the second half of gestation, had several effects on fetal development. First, it induced intrauterine growth retardation. Second, in the fetal adrenal in vivo it markedly affected the mRNA expression level of clock genes and clock-controlled genes as well as it lowered the content and precluded the rhythm of corticosterone. Third, an altered in vitro fetal adrenal response to ACTH of both, corticosterone production and relative expression of clock genes and steroidogenic genes was observed. All these changes were reversed when the mother received a daily dose of melatonin during the subjective night; supporting a role of melatonin on overall fetal development and pointing to it as a 'time giver' for the fetal adrenal gland. Thus, the present results collectively support that the maternal circadian rhythm of melatonin is a key signal for the generation and/or synchronization of the circadian rhythms in the fetal adrenal gland. In turn, low levels and lack of a circadian rhythm of fetal corticosterone may be responsible of fetal growth restriction; potentially inducing long term effects in the offspring, possibility that warrants further

  3. Updating the Lamellar Hypothesis of Hippocampal Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Robert S Sloviter; Terje eLømo

    2012-01-01

    In 1971, Andersen and colleagues proposed that excitatory activity in the entorhinal cortex propagates topographically to the dentate gyrus, and on through a trisynaptic circuit lying within transverse hippocampal slices or lamellae [Andersen, Bliss, and Skrede. 1971. Lamellar organization of hippocampal pathways. Exp Brain Res 13, 222-238]. In this way, a relatively simple structure might mediate complex functions in a manner analogous to the way independent piano keys can produce a nearly i...

  4. Fetal gut laser microdissection in combination with RNA preamplification enables epithelial-specific transcriptional profiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmerling, J.; Jansen, Jenny; Müller, M.; Haller, D.

    2015-01-01

    Laser microdissection (LMD) technology enables highly specific gene expression analyses of biologically relevant questions at cell- or tissue-specific resolution. Nevertheless, specific cell types are often limited in quantity (i.e. fetal tissue), making high quality RNA extraction and subsequent

  5. Platelet-rich plasma can replace fetal bovine serum in human meniscus cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales, V.K.; Mulder, E.L.W. de; Boer, T. den; Hannink, G.; Tienen, T.G. van; Heerde, W.L. van; Buma, P.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns over fetal bovine serum (FBS) limit the clinical application of cultured tissue-engineered constructs. Therefore, we investigated if platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can fully replace FBS for meniscus tissue engineering purposes. Human PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) were isolated from three h

  6. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) protects hippocampal cells from oxidative stress-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianetto, S; Ramassamy, C; Poirier, J; Quirion, R

    1999-03-20

    It has been postulated that decreases in plasma levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may contribute to the development of some age-related disorders. Along with neuroprotective and memory enhancing effects, DHEA has been shown to display antioxidant properties. Moreover, oxidative stress is known to cause lipid peroxidation and degenerative changes in the hippocampus, an area involved in memory processes and especially afflicted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accordingly, we investigated the antioxidant effects of DHEA in models of oxidative stress using rat primary hippocampal cells and human hippocampal tissue from AD patients and age-matched controls. A pre-treatment of rat primary mixed hippocampal cell cultures with DHEA (10-100 microM) protected against the toxicity induced by H2O2 and sodium nitroprusside. Moreover, DHEA (10-100 microM) was also able to prevent H2O2/FeSO4-stimulated lipid oxidation in both control and AD hippocampal tissues. Taken together, these data suggest that DHEA may be useful in treating age-related central nervous system diseases based on its protective effects in the hippocampus. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  7. Hippocampal neuroplasticity in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykhin, N V; Coupland, N J

    2015-11-19

    One of the most replicated findings has been that hippocampus volume is decreased in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggest that localized differences in hippocampal volume may be more prominent than global differences. Preclinical and post-mortem studies in MDD indicated that different subfields of the hippocampus may respond differently to stress and may also have differential levels of plasticity in response to antidepressant treatment. Advances in high-field MRI allowed researchers to visualize and measure hippocampal subfield volumes in MDD patients in vivo. The results of these studies provide the first in vivo evidence that hippocampal volume reductions in MDD are specific to the cornu ammonis and dentate gyrus hippocampal subfields, findings that appear, on the surface, consistent with preclinical evidence for localized mechanisms of hippocampal neuroplasticity. In this review we discuss how recent advances in neuroimaging allow researchers to further understand hippocampal neuroplasticity in MDD and how it is related to antidepressant treatment, memory function, and disease progression.

  8. Biologicals and Fetal Cell Therapy for Wound and Scar Management

    OpenAIRE

    Hirt-Burri, Nathalie; Ramelet, Albert-Adrien; Raffoul, Wassim; de Buys Roessingh, Anthony; Scaletta, Corinne; Pioletti, Dominique; Applegate, Lee Ann

    2011-01-01

    Few biopharmaceutical preparations developed from biologicals are available for tissue regeneration and scar management. When developing biological treatments with cellular therapy, selection of cell types and establishment of consistent cell banks are crucial steps in whole-cell bioprocessing. Various cell types have been used in treatment of wounds to reduce scar to date including autolog and allogenic skin cells, platelets, placenta, and amniotic extracts. Experience with fetal cells show ...

  9. Impact of fetal-neonatal iron deficiency on recognition memory at two months of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Fengji; Mai, Xiaoqin; Zhan, Jianying; Xu, Lin; Zhao, Zhengyan; Georgieff, Michael; Shao, Jie; Lozoff, Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of fetal-neonatal iron deficiency on recognition memory in early infancy. Perinatal iron deficiency delays or disrupts hippocampal development in animal models and thus may impair related neural functions in human infants, such as recognition memory. Study design Event-related potentials were used in an auditory recognition memory task to compare 2-month-old Chinese infants with iron sufficiency or deficiency at birth. Fetal- neonatal iron deficiency was defined two ways: high zinc protoporphyrin/heme ratio (ZPP/H > 118 μmol/mol) or low serum ferritin (iron deficiency as defined by high cord ZPP/H but not low ferritin. Comparing 35 infants with iron deficiency (ZPP/H > 118 μmol/mol) to 92 with lower ZPP/H (iron-sufficient), only infants with iron sufficiency showed larger LSW amplitude for stranger’s voice than mother’s voice in frontal-central and parietal-occipital locations, indicating the recognition of mother’s voice. Conclusions Infants with iron sufficiency showed electrophysiological evidence of recognizing their mother’s voice, whereas infants with fetal-neonatal iron deficiency did not. Their poorer auditory recognition memory at two months of age is consistent with effects of fetal-neonatal iron deficiency on the developing hippocampus. PMID:26382625

  10. Maternal bisphenol a exposure impacts the fetal heart transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapalamadugu, Kalyan C; Vandevoort, Catherine A; Settles, Matthew L; Robison, Barrie D; Murdoch, Gordon K

    2014-01-01

    Conditions during fetal development influence health and disease in adulthood, especially during critical windows of organogenesis. Fetal exposure to the endocrine disrupting chemical, bisphenol A (BPA) affects the development of multiple organ systems in rodents and monkeys. However, effects of BPA exposure on cardiac development have not been assessed. With evidence that maternal BPA is transplacentally delivered to the developing fetus, it becomes imperative to examine the physiological consequences of gestational exposure during primate development. Herein, we evaluate the effects of daily, oral BPA exposure of pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) on the fetal heart transcriptome. Pregnant monkeys were given daily oral doses (400 µg/kg body weight) of BPA during early (50-100 ± 2 days post conception, dpc) or late (100 ± 2 dpc--term), gestation. At the end of treatment, fetal heart tissues were collected and chamber specific transcriptome expression was assessed using genome-wide microarray. Quantitative real-time PCR was conducted on select genes and ventricular tissue glycogen content was quantified. Our results show that BPA exposure alters transcription of genes that are recognized for their role in cardiac pathophysiologies. Importantly, myosin heavy chain, cardiac isoform alpha (Myh6) was down-regulated in the left ventricle, and 'A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 12', long isoform (Adam12-l) was up-regulated in both ventricles, and the right atrium of the heart in BPA exposed fetuses. BPA induced alteration of these genes supports the hypothesis that exposure to BPA during fetal development may impact cardiovascular fitness. Our results intensify concerns about the role of BPA in the genesis of human metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Maternal bisphenol a exposure impacts the fetal heart transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan C Chapalamadugu

    Full Text Available Conditions during fetal development influence health and disease in adulthood, especially during critical windows of organogenesis. Fetal exposure to the endocrine disrupting chemical, bisphenol A (BPA affects the development of multiple organ systems in rodents and monkeys. However, effects of BPA exposure on cardiac development have not been assessed. With evidence that maternal BPA is transplacentally delivered to the developing fetus, it becomes imperative to examine the physiological consequences of gestational exposure during primate development. Herein, we evaluate the effects of daily, oral BPA exposure of pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta on the fetal heart transcriptome. Pregnant monkeys were given daily oral doses (400 µg/kg body weight of BPA during early (50-100 ± 2 days post conception, dpc or late (100 ± 2 dpc--term, gestation. At the end of treatment, fetal heart tissues were collected and chamber specific transcriptome expression was assessed using genome-wide microarray. Quantitative real-time PCR was conducted on select genes and ventricular tissue glycogen content was quantified. Our results show that BPA exposure alters transcription of genes that are recognized for their role in cardiac pathophysiologies. Importantly, myosin heavy chain, cardiac isoform alpha (Myh6 was down-regulated in the left ventricle, and 'A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 12', long isoform (Adam12-l was up-regulated in both ventricles, and the right atrium of the heart in BPA exposed fetuses. BPA induced alteration of these genes supports the hypothesis that exposure to BPA during fetal development may impact cardiovascular fitness. Our results intensify concerns about the role of BPA in the genesis of human metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Physiology of the fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiserud, Torvid

    2005-12-01

    Our understanding of fetal circulatory physiology is based on experimental animal data, and this continues to be an important source of new insight into developmental mechanisms. A growing number of human studies have investigated the human physiology, with results that are similar but not identical to those from animal studies. It is time to appreciate these differences and base more of our clinical approach on human physiology. Accordingly, the present review focuses on distributional patterns and adaptational mechanisms that were mainly discovered by human studies. These include cardiac output, pulmonary and placental circulation, fetal brain and liver, venous return to the heart, and the fetal shunts (ductus venosus, foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus). Placental compromise induces a set of adaptational and compensational mechanisms reflecting the plasticity of the developing circulation, with both short- and long-term implications. Some of these aspects have become part of the clinical physiology of today with consequences for surveillance and treatment.

  13. Neuroimaging of hippocampal atrophy in early recognition of Alzheimer's disease--a critical appraisal after two decades of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Johannes; Pantel, Johannes

    2016-01-30

    As a characteristic feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) hippocampal atrophy (HA) can be demonstrated in the majority of patients by using neuroimaging techniques in particular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Hippocampal atrophy is associated with declarative memory deficits and can also be associated with changes of adjacent medial temporal substructures such as the parahippocampal gyrus or the the entorhinal cortex. Similar findings are present in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) albeit to a lesser extent. While these finding facilitate the diagnostic process in patients with clinical suspicious AD, the metric properties of hippocampal atrophy for delineating healthy aging from MCI and mild AD still appear to be rather limited; as such it is not sufficient to establish the diagnosis of AD (and even more so of MCI). This limitation partly refers to methodological issues and partly to the fact that hippocampal tissue integrity is subject to various pathogenetic influences other than AD. Moreover,the effects of hippocampal atrophy on the behavioral level (e.g. cognitive deficits) are modulated by the individual's cognitive reserve. From a clinical standpoint these observations are in line with the hypothesis that the onset and course of AD is influenced by a number of peristatic factors which are partly conceptualized in the concepts of brain and/or cognitive reserve. These complex interactions have to be considered when using the presence of hippocampal atrophy in the routine diagnostic procedure of AD.

  14. 维生素E对孕鼠及胎鼠脑组织受手机辐射影响的保护作用%Protective effects of vitamin E against electromagnetic radiation from cell phones in pregnant and fetal rats' brain tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 张裕华; 姜荣平; 廉志顺; 王慧; 罗芮; 郭冬梅; 崔唏

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究妊娠期补充维生素E对母鼠及胎鼠脑组织受手机辐射影响的保护作用.方法 40只受孕大鼠随机分为5组,自妊娠第1天起,维生素E低、中、高剂量组分别按5 mg/kg、15 mg/kg、30 mg/kg的剂量补充,阴性对照组和阳性对照组灌服脱维生素E的花生油,同时给予1h/次、3次/d的手机辐射,连续辐射21 d,分娩后测定母鼠及胎鼠脑组织总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)和ATP酶(Na+ -K+ -ATP酶和Ca+ -Mg+ -ATP酶)的活力变化.结果 阳性对照组T-AOC、Na+ -K+ -ATP酶、Ca+ -Mg+ -ATP酶活性均较阴性对照组下降(P<0.05).与阳性对照组比较,维生素E各剂量组T-AOC含量升高,其中,母鼠维生素E中、高剂量组较阳性对照组升高,胎鼠维生素E低、中、高剂量组均高于阳性对照组(P<0.05).母鼠维生素E各剂量组Na+ -K+ -ATP酶和Ca+ -Mg+ -ATP酶活力均高于阳性对照组,胎鼠维生素E中、高剂量组ATP酶活力较阳性对照组升高(P<0.05).结论 维生素E对受手机辐射影响的母鼠及胎鼠的抗氧化能力和能量代谢有一定的保护作用.%Objective To investigate protective effects of maternal vitamin E supplement against electromagnetic radiation from cell phones in pregnant and fetal rats' brain tissues. Methods 40 pregnant rats were randomly divided into five groups. Low, middle and high dosages of vitamin E groups were supplemented with 5 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg, and 30 mg/kg of vitamin E, respectively. The negative control group and the positive control group were given peanut oil which had vitamin E removed. All groups were exposed to a certain intensity of cell phone radiation for 1 hour each time, 3 times per day for 21 days from the first day of pregnancy. Total anti-oxidant capacity(T-AOC) and ATP enzyme (Na + -K+-ATP enzyme and Ca+-Mg+-ATP enzyme) activities in pregnant and fetal rats' brain tissues were determined after delivery. Results T-AOC, Na+-K+-ATP enzyme activity, and Ca+-Mg+-ATP enzyme activity were

  15. 3D ultrasound in fetal spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, T; Gloning, K-P; Minderer, S; Tutschek, B

    2008-12-01

    3D ultrasound can be used to study the fetal spine, but skeletal mode can be inconclusive for the diagnosis of fetal spina bifida. We illustrate a diagnostic approach using 2D and 3D ultrasound and indicate possible pitfalls.

  16. CORD PROLAPSE, ASSOCIATED FACTORS AND FETAL OUTCOME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted this study to determine profile of pregnancy ... Several factors predispose to cord prolapse, amongst which are breech ... no fetal heart tones and only 31.8% of the babies were alive after ... Fetal death was, more common with.

  17. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  18. Macrosomia - maternal and fetal risk factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    group; 3 cases of second-degree perineal laceration. ,,; 160 cm ... In order to make the diagnosis of fetal macrosomia antenatally ... real-time ultrasonography gives the best estimate of fetal .... Oats IN, Abell OA, Seischer NA, Broomhart GR.

  19. Fetal scalp blood sampling during labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandraharan, Edwin; Wiberg, Nana

    2014-01-01

    and Clinical Excellence guideline considers that fetal scalp blood sampling decreases instrumental delivery without differences in other outcome variables. The fetal scalp is supplied by vessels outside the skull below the level of the cranial vault, which is likely to be compressed during contractions......Fetal cardiotocography is characterized by low specificity; therefore, in an attempt to ensure fetal well-being, fetal scalp blood sampling has been recommended by most obstetric societies in the case of a non-reassuring cardiotocography. The scientific agreement on the evidence for using fetal...... scalp blood sampling to decrease the rate of operative delivery for fetal distress is ambiguous. Based on the same studies, a Cochrane review states that fetal scalp blood sampling increases the rate of instrumental delivery while decreasing neonatal acidosis, whereas the National Institute of Health...

  20. Hippocampal EEG and behaviour in dog. II. Hippocampal EEG correlates with elementary motor acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnolds, D.E.A.T.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Aitink, J.W.; Kamp, A.

    1979-01-01

    A positive correlation has been shown between the speed of forced stepping on a conveyor belt and the amplitude and frequency of the concomitant hippocampal EEG. Significant modulation in the spectral properties of the dog's hippocampal EEG has been found in relation to 3 elementary motor acts: ste

  1. Fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Ulrich J

    2013-01-01

    In fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT), antibodies against paternal antigens present on fetal platelets are produced by the mother. These antibodies will cross the placenta and can cause thrombocytopenia of the unborn. One severe consequence of thrombocytopenia is intracranial bleeding which may lead to death or severe sequelae. FNAIT index cases in one family are usually detected at birth only since antenatal screening programmes have not been installed so far. Subsequent pregnancies of immunized mothers may require special diagnostic and prophylactic interventions, and interdisciplinary counselling and treatment involving obstetricians, pediatricians and immunohematologists may prove useful for optimized care. This short review covers pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic, and therapeutic options in FNAIT.

  2. Obesity elicits interleukin 1-mediated deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erion, Joanna R; Wosiski-Kuhn, Marlena; Dey, Aditi; Hao, Shuai; Davis, Catherine L; Pollock, Norman K; Stranahan, Alexis M

    2014-02-12

    Adipose tissue is a known source of proinflammatory cytokines in obese humans and animal models, including the db/db mouse, in which obesity arises as a result of leptin receptor insensitivity. Inflammatory cytokines induce cognitive deficits across numerous conditions, but no studies have determined whether obesity-induced inflammation mediates synaptic dysfunction. To address this question, we used a treadmill training paradigm in which mice were exposed to daily training sessions or an immobile belt, with motivation achieved by delivery of compressed air on noncompliance. Treadmill training prevented hippocampal microgliosis, abolished expression of microglial activation markers, and also blocked the functional sensitization observed in isolated cells after ex vivo exposure to lipopolysaccharide. Reduced microglial reactivity with exercise was associated with reinstatement of hippocampus-dependent memory, reversal of deficits in long-term potentiation, and normalization of hippocampal dendritic spine density. Because treadmill training evokes broad responses not limited to the immune system, we next assessed whether directly manipulating adiposity through lipectomy and fat transplantation influences inflammation, cognition, and synaptic plasticity. Lipectomy prevents and fat transplantation promotes systemic and central inflammation, with associated alterations in cognitive and synaptic function. Levels of interleukin 1β (IL1β) emerged as a correlate of adiposity and cognitive impairment across both the treadmill and lipectomy studies, so we manipulated hippocampal IL1 signaling using intrahippocampal delivery of IL1 receptor antagonist (IL1ra). Intrahippocampal IL1ra prevented synaptic dysfunction, proinflammatory priming, and cognitive impairment. This pattern supports a central role for IL1-mediated neuroinflammation as a mechanism for cognitive deficits in obesity and diabetes.

  3. Hippocampal atrophy rates in Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, W J.P.; Sluimer, J D.; Barnes, J; van der Flier, W M.; Sluimer, I C.; Fox, N C.; Scheltens, P; Vrenken, H; Barkhof, F

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the added value of hippocampal atrophy rates over whole brain volume measurements on MRI in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and controls. Methods: We included 64 patients with AD (67 ± 9 years; F/M 38/26), 44 patients with MCI (71 ± 6 years; 21/23), and 34 controls (67 ± 9 years; 16/18). Two MR scans were performed (scan interval: 1.8 ± 0.7 years; 1.0 T), using a coronal three-dimensional T1-weighted gradient echo sequence. At follow-up, 3 controls and 23 patients with MCI had progressed to AD. Hippocampi were manually delineated at baseline. Hippocampal atrophy rates were calculated using regional, nonlinear fluid registration. Whole brain baseline volumes and atrophy rates were determined using automated segmentation and registration tools. Results: All MRI measures differed between groups (p < 0.005). For the distinction of MCI from controls, larger effect sizes of hippocampal measures were found compared to whole brain measures. Between MCI and AD, only whole brain atrophy rate differed significantly. Cox proportional hazards models (variables dichotomized by median) showed that within all patients without dementia, hippocampal baseline volume (hazard ratio [HR]: 5.7 [95% confidence interval: 1.5–22.2]), hippocampal atrophy rate (5.2 [1.9–14.3]), and whole brain atrophy rate (2.8 [1.1–7.2]) independently predicted progression to AD; the combination of low hippocampal volume and high atrophy rate yielded a HR of 61.1 (6.1–606.8). Within patients with MCI, only hippocampal baseline volume and atrophy rate predicted progression. Conclusion: Hippocampal measures, especially hippocampal atrophy rate, best discriminate mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from controls. Whole brain atrophy rate discriminates Alzheimer disease (AD) from MCI. Regional measures of hippocampal atrophy are the strongest predictors of progression to AD. GLOSSARY AD = Alzheimer disease; BET = brain

  4. Prediction of fetal acidemia in placental abruption

    OpenAIRE

    MATSUDA, Yoshio; OGAWA, Masaki; KONNO, Jun; MITANI, Minoru; MATSUI, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the major predictive factors for fetal acidemia in placental abruption. Methods A retrospective review of pregnancies with placental abruption was performed using a logistic regression model. Fetal acidemia was defined as a pH of less than 7.0 in umbilical artery. The severe abruption score, which was derived from a linear discriminant function, was calculated to determine the probability of fetal acidemia. Results Fetal acidemia was seen in 43 survivors (43/222, 19%)....

  5. Choriodecidual infection downregulates angiogenesis and morphogenesis pathways in fetal lungs from Macaca nemestrina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M McAdams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrauterine exposure to amniotic fluid (AF cytokines is thought to predispose to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. We evaluated the effects of GBS exposure on RNA expression in fetal lung tissue to determine early molecular pathways associated with fetal lung injury that may progress to BPD. METHODS: Ten chronically catheterized pregnant monkeys (Macaca nemestrina at 118-125 days gestation (term = 172 days received choriodecidual inoculation of either: 1 Group B Streptococcus (n = 5 or 2 saline (n = 5. Cesarean section and fetal necropsy was performed in the first week after GBS or saline inoculation regardless of labor. RNA was extracted from fetal lungs and profiled by microarray. Results were analyzed using single gene, Gene Set, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Validation was by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Despite uterine quiescence in most cases, fetal lung injury occurred in four GBS cases (intra-alveolar neutrophils, interstitial thickening and one control (peri-mortem hemorrhage. Significant elevations of AF cytokines (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 were detected in GBS versus controls (p<0.05. Lung injury was not directly caused by GBS, because GBS was undetectable by culture and PCR in the AF and fetal lungs. A total of 335 genes were differentially expressed greater than 1.5 fold (p<0.05 with GBS exposure associated with a striking upregulation of genes in innate and adaptive immunity and downregulation of pathways for angiogenesis, morphogenesis, and cellular growth and development. CONCLUSIONS: A transient choriodecidual infection may induce fetal lung injury with profound alterations in the genetic program of the fetal lung before signs of preterm labor. Our results provide a window for the first time into early molecular pathways disrupting fetal lung angiogenesis and morphogenesis before preterm labor occurs, which may set the stage for BPD. A strategy to prevent BPD should target the fetus in

  6. Effects of prenatal binge-like ethanol exposure and maternal stress on postnatal morphological development of hippocampal neurons in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowska-Dogru, Ewa; Elibol, Birsen; Dursun, Ilknur; Yürüker, Sinan

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol is one of the most commonly used drugs of abuse negatively affecting human health and it is known as a potent teratogen responsible for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is characterized by cognitive deficits especially pronounced in juveniles but ameliorating in adults. Searching for the potential morphological correlates of these effects, in this study, we compared the course of developmental changes in the morphology of principal hippocampal neurons in fetal-alcohol (A group), intubated control (IC group), and intact control male rats (C group) over a protracted period of the first two postnatal months. Ethanol was administered to the pregnant Wistar dams intragastrically, throughout gestation days (GD) 7-20, at a total dose of 6g/kg/day resulting in the mean blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 246.6±40.9mg/dl. Ten morphometric parameters of Golgi-stained hippocampal neurons (pyramidal and granule) from CA1, CA3, and DG areas were examined at critical postnatal days (PD): at birth (PD1), at the end of the brain growth spurt period (PD10), in juveniles (PD30), and in young adults (PD60). During postnatal development, the temporal pattern of morphometric changes was shown to be region-dependent with most significant alterations observed between PD1-30 in the CA region and between PD10-30 in the DG region. It was also parameter-dependent with the soma size (except for CA3 pyramids), number of primary dendrites, dendrite diameter, dendritic tortuosity and the branch angle demonstrating little changes, while the total dendritic field area, dendritic length, number of dendritic bifurcations, and spine density being highly increased in all hippocampal regions during the first postnatal month. Moderate ethanol intoxication and the maternal intubation stress during gestation, showed similar, transient effects on the neuron development manifested as a smaller soma size in granule cells, reduced dendritic parameters and lower spine density in pyramidal neurons

  7. Practice Bulletin No. 173: Fetal Macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Suspected fetal macrosomia is encountered commonly in obstetric practice. As birth weight increases, the likelihood of labor abnormalities, shoulder dystocia, birth trauma, and permanent injury to the neonate increases. The purpose of this document is to quantify those risks, address the accuracy and limitations of methods for estimating fetal weight, and suggest clinical management for a pregnancy with suspected fetal macrosomia.

  8. Unilateral Huge Hydronephrosis Necessitating Fetal Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşenur Cerrah Celayir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal intervention for obstructive uropathy was first performed at the University of California, San Francisco in 1981. Since then diagnostic criteria for fetal intervention have been laid down to assist in proper patient selection. Unilateral fetal hydronephrosis doesn’t require prenatal intervention; but prenatal intervention might be required in selected cases, especially when hydronephrosis compresses adjacent organs.

  9. The absence of detectable fetal microchimerism in nontransgenic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) bearing transgenic offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkraus, H B; Rothfuss, H; Jones, J A; Dissen, E; Shefferly, E; Lewis, R V

    2012-02-01

    Regulations for the disposal of genetically engineered animals are strict due to concern for their inappropriate introduction into the food chain, and of the possible public health and environmental impacts of these organisms. Nontransgenic animals that give birth to transgenic offspring are treated as if they are transgenic due to concern of fetal cells crossing the placental barrier and residing in the mother (fetal-maternal microchimerism). Determining whether or not fetal-fetal or fetal-maternal transfer of DNA or cells occurs during caprine gestation is critical to effectively protect the public without culling animals that pose no risk. Additionally, fetal-maternal transfer, should it exist in the goat, could contraindicate the rebreeding of nontransgenic dams due to the possible transfer of fetal cells from 1 pregnancy to the fetus of subsequent pregnancies. Fetal-maternal transfer in Capra hircus has not been reported in the literature, although it has been reported in another ruminant, Bos taurus. We examined blood from nontransgenic dams that carried transgenic offspring using a PCR method sensitive enough to detect the presence of a spider silk transgene to a 1:100,000 dilution. At this sensitivity, we did not detect the occurrence of fetal-maternal transfer in 5 nontransgenic dams. Likewise, fetal-fetal transfer was not observed from a transgenic to a nontransgenic twin in utero. To test tissue-specific expression of the silk transgene, proteins purified from standard necropsy tissue from a lactating transgenic dam were examined by Western blot analysis. Silk protein expression was only observed in mammary tissue consistent with the tissue specificity of the β-casein promoter used in the transgenic construct. We report evidence collected from a limited caprine breeding pool against transfer of transgenes in utero from fetus to dam and fetus to fetus. In addition, we show evidence that the β-casein promoter in our expression construct is not expressed

  10. Obesity and Lifespan Health—Importance of the Fetal Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice F. Tarantal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A marked increase in the frequency of obesity at the population level has resulted in an increasing number of obese women entering pregnancy. The increasing realization of the importance of the fetal environment in relation to chronic disease across the lifespan has focused attention on the role of maternal obesity in fetal development. Previous studies have demonstrated that obesity during adolescence and adulthood can be traced back to fetal and early childhood exposures. This review focuses on factors that contribute to early developmental events, such as epigenetic modifications, the potential for an increase in inflammatory burden, early developmental programming changes such as the variable development of white versus brown adipose tissue, and alterations in organ ontogeny. We hypothesize that these mechanisms promote an unfavorable fetal environment and can have a long-standing impact, with early manifestations of chronic disease that can result in an increased demand for future health care. In order to identify appropriate preventive measures, attention needs to be placed both on reducing maternal obesity as well as understanding the molecular, cellular, and epigenetic mechanisms that may be responsible for the prenatal onset of chronic disease.

  11. Epidermal growth factor: a critical factor in fetal maturation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, G D; Waters, M J; Young, I R; Dolling, M; Buntine, D; Hopkins, P S

    1981-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) infused over 3-14 days into fetal sheep of 110-125 days gestation resulted in a number of morphological and endocrine changes. Striking hypertrophy of the skin, wool follicles and their accessory structures was seen, together with a reduction in the ratio of secondary to primary follicles and degenerative changes in wool fibres associated with shedding of fibres. Adrenal, thyroid, liver and kidney weights were increased while thymus weight was decreased. The increase in adrenal size resulted from cortical hypertrophy and was associated with increased cortisol secretion. Thyroid hypertrophy was accompanied by an increase in colloid stores, decreased plasma thyroxine and reverse triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations, unchanged plasma T3 and thyroid-binding globulin and raised thyrotropin (TSH) levels. Thyrotropin receptor affinity and content per gram of tissue were unchanged. Fetal and maternal plasma prolactin and growth hormone levels, and fetal plasma placental lactogen levels, were unchanged, although there was a significant rise in maternal plasma placental lactogen concentrations with high doses of EGF. Other maturational parameters such as switching from fetal to adult haemoglobin and liver glycogen content were unaffected.

  12. Are there fetal stem cells in the maternal brain?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osman Demirhan; Necmi (C)ekin; Deniz Ta(s)temir; Erdal Tun(c); Ali irfan Güzel; Demet Meral; Bülent Demirbek

    2013-01-01

    Fetal cells can enter maternal blood during pregnancy but whether they can also cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the maternal brain remains poorly understood. Previous results suggest that fetal cells are summoned to repair damage to the mother's brain. If this is confirmed, it would open up new and safer avenues of treatment for brain damage caused by strokes and neural diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether a baby's stem cells can enter the maternal brain during pregnancy. Deceased patients who had at least one male offspring and no history of abortion and blood transfusion were included in this study. DNA was extracted from brain tissue samples of deceased women using standard phenol-chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation methods. Genomic DNA was screened by quantitative fluorescent-polymerase chain reaction amplification together with short tandem repeat markers specific to the Y chromosome, and 13, 18, 21 and X. Any foreign DNA residues that could be used to interpret the presence of fetal stem cells in the maternal brain were monitored. Results indicated that fetal stem cells can not cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the maternal brain.

  13. Uteroplacental circulation and fetal vascular function and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburg, Kent L; Louey, Samantha

    2013-09-01

    Although blood flow in the placental vasculature is governed by the same physiological forces of shear, pressure and resistance as in other organs, it is also uniquely specialized on the maternal and fetal sides. At the materno-fetal interface, the independent uteroplacental and umbilicoplacental circulations must coordinate sufficiently to supply the fetus with the nutrients and substrates it needs to grow and develop. Uterine arterial flow must increase dramatically to accommodate the growing fetus. Recent evidence delineates the hormonal and endothelial mechanisms by which maternal vessels dilate and remodel during pregnancy. The umbilical circulation is established de novo during embryonic development but blood does not flow through the placenta until late in the first trimester. The umbilical circulation operates in the interest of maintaining fetal oxygenation over the course of pregnancy, and is affected differently by mechanical and chemical regulators of vascular tone compared to other organs. The processes that match placental vascular growth and fetal tissue growth are not understood, but studies of compromised pregnancies provide clues. The subtle changes that cause the failure of the normally regulated vascular processes during pregnancy have not been thoroughly identified. Likewise, practical and effective therapeutic strategies to reverse detrimental placental perfusion patterns have yet to be investigated.

  14. Diagnóstico prenatal no invasivo: Ácidos nucleicos de origen fetal en sangre materna Non invasive prenatal diagnosis: Fetal nucleic acid analysis in maternal blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sesarini

    2010-12-01

    decade, the presence of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal blood has been identified. These fetal DNA fragments would derive from the placenta and are not detected after delivery, making them a source of fetal material for carrying out diagnosis techniques using maternal blood. However, the vast majority of cell free DNA in maternal circulation is of maternal origin, with the fetal component contributing from 3% to 6% and rising towards term. Available methodologies do not allow separation of fetal from maternal cell free DNA, so current applications have been focused on the analysis of genes not present in the mother, such as Y chromosome sequences, or RHD gene in RhD-negative women, or paternal or de novo mutations. Also, the detection of cell-free fetal RNA in maternal blood offers the possibility of obtaining information regarding genetic expression profiles of embrionic tissues, and using genes expressed only at the feto-placental unit, controls for the presence of fetal material could be established, regardless of maternal genetic tissue. The present article describes the evidences regarding the passage of fetal nucleic acids to maternal circulation, its current prenatal diagnosis application and possible future perspectives.

  15. Differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into epithelial cells induced by fetal intestinal connective tissue%胎儿肠壁结缔组织诱导骨髓间充质干细胞分化为上皮细胞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪维伟; 王蓓; 张建华; 姜蓉

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells have ability of multi-directional differentiation, and can be induced to differentiate into epithelial cells in vitro. The differentiation of epithelial cells in fetal primitive gut is induced by mesochymal cells of intestines. The report of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs)differentiate into epithelial cells induced by intestinal connective tissue has not been identified. OBJECTIVE: To observe the possibility of BMSCs differentiate into epithelial cells induced by fetal intestinal connective tissue. DESIGN: Culture in "vitro and comparative observation. SETTING: The experiment was carried out in the Department of Histology and Embryology, Chongqing Medical University from July 2004 to July 2006. MATERIALS: Epidermal growth factor (EGF, Sigma); CK, CK20 (Zhongshan Bio-Tech, Co.,Ltd). Bone marrow of limbs was collected from 6 aborted fetus samples aged 4-5 months. Adding Ficoll to centrifugalize, BMSCs were isolated, cultured and proliferated. The intestinal segment about 15 mmx5 mm was obtained sterilely from fetal duodenal papilla to colon, then muscular tunic and adventitia were peeled. Enzymatic digestion was used to remove the epithelial cells on the mucosa surface. The lump of intestinal connective tissue was cut into 15 minx5 nun. Fetus samples were provided by Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Clinical College, all the parturients agreed to the offer, and the experiment was approved by the hospital ethical committee. METHODS: The experiment was assigned into 4 groups. In groups A and B, the DAPI labelled BMSCs (3x104) at the third generation were transplanted on the submucosa of intestinal connective tissue;.In groups C and D, the DAPI labelled BMSCs were only cultured on the cover glass; In groups B and D, EGF in final concentration of 10 ng/mL was added. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: After cultured for 12 days, the morphous and distribution of DAPI labelled BMSCs were observed under fluorescence microscope

  16. In an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Prenatal Androgens Suppress Female Fetal Renal Gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T; Späth, Katharina; Boswell, Lyndsey; McNeilly, Alan S; Duncan, W Colin

    2015-01-01

    Increased maternal androgen exposure during pregnancy programmes a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like condition, with metabolic dysfunction, in adult female offspring. Other in utero exposures associated with the development of insulin resistance, such as intrauterine growth restriction and exposure to prenatal glucocorticoids, are associated with altered fetal gluconeogenesis. We therefore aimed to assess the effect of maternal androgenisation on the expression of PEPCK and G6PC in the ovine fetus. Pregnant Scottish Greyface sheep were treated with twice weekly testosterone propionate (TP; 100mg) or vehicle control from day 62 to day 102 of gestation. At day 90 and day 112 fetal plasma and liver and kidney tissue was collected for analysis. PEPCK and G6PC expression were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. PEPCK and G6PC were localised to fetal hepatocytes but maternal androgens had no effect on female or male fetuses. PEPCK and G6PC were also localised to the renal tubules and renal PEPCK (P<0.01) and G6PC (P = 0.057) were lower in females after prenatal androgenisation with no change in male fetuses. These tissue and sex specific observations could not be explained by alterations in fetal insulin or cortisol. The sexual dimorphism may be related to the increase in circulating estrogen (P<0.01) and testosterone (P<0.001) in females but not males. The tissue specific effects may be related to the increased expression of ESR1 (P<0.01) and AR (P<0.05) in the kidney when compared to the fetal liver. After discontinuation of maternal androgenisation female fetal kidney PEPCK expression normalised. These data further highlight the fetal and sexual dimorphic effects of maternal androgenisation, an antecedent to adult disease and the plasticity of fetal development.

  17. In an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS Prenatal Androgens Suppress Female Fetal Renal Gluconeogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Connolly

    Full Text Available Increased maternal androgen exposure during pregnancy programmes a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS-like condition, with metabolic dysfunction, in adult female offspring. Other in utero exposures associated with the development of insulin resistance, such as intrauterine growth restriction and exposure to prenatal glucocorticoids, are associated with altered fetal gluconeogenesis. We therefore aimed to assess the effect of maternal androgenisation on the expression of PEPCK and G6PC in the ovine fetus. Pregnant Scottish Greyface sheep were treated with twice weekly testosterone propionate (TP; 100mg or vehicle control from day 62 to day 102 of gestation. At day 90 and day 112 fetal plasma and liver and kidney tissue was collected for analysis. PEPCK and G6PC expression were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. PEPCK and G6PC were localised to fetal hepatocytes but maternal androgens had no effect on female or male fetuses. PEPCK and G6PC were also localised to the renal tubules and renal PEPCK (P<0.01 and G6PC (P = 0.057 were lower in females after prenatal androgenisation with no change in male fetuses. These tissue and sex specific observations could not be explained by alterations in fetal insulin or cortisol. The sexual dimorphism may be related to the increase in circulating estrogen (P<0.01 and testosterone (P<0.001 in females but not males. The tissue specific effects may be related to the increased expression of ESR1 (P<0.01 and AR (P<0.05 in the kidney when compared to the fetal liver. After discontinuation of maternal androgenisation female fetal kidney PEPCK expression normalised. These data further highlight the fetal and sexual dimorphic effects of maternal androgenisation, an antecedent to adult disease and the plasticity of fetal development.

  18. Hippocampal hyperactivation in presymptomatic familial Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Yakeel T; Budson, Andrew E; Celone, Kim; Ruiz, Adriana; Newmark, Randall; Castrillón, Gabriel; Lopera, Francisco; Stern, Chantal E

    2010-12-01

    The examination of individuals who carry fully penetrant genetic alterations that result in familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) provides a unique model for studying the early presymptomatic disease stages. In AD, deficits in episodic and associative memory have been linked to structural and functional changes within the hippocampal system. This study used functional MRI (fMRI) to examine hippocampal function in a group of healthy, young, cognitively-intact presymptomatic individuals (average age 33.7 years) who carry the E280A presenilin-1 (PS1) genetic mutation for FAD. These PS1 subjects will go on to develop the first symptoms of the disease around the age of 45 years. Our objective was to examine hippocampal function years before the onset of clinical symptoms. Twenty carriers of the Alzheimer's-associated E280A PS1 mutation and 19 PS1-negative control subjects participated. Both groups were matched for age, sex, education level, and neuropsychological test performance. All participants performed a face-name associative encoding task while in a Phillips 1.5T fMRI scanner. Analysis focused on the hippocampal system. Despite identical behavioral performance, presymptomatic PS1 mutation carriers exhibited increased activation of the right anterior hippocampus during encoding of novel face-name associations compared to matched controls. Our results demonstrate that functional changes within the hippocampal memory system occur years before cognitive decline in FAD. These presymptomatic changes in hippocampal physiology in FAD suggest that hippocampal fMRI patterns during associative encoding may also provide a preclinical biomarker in sporadic AD.

  19. Hippocampal place cells, context, and episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David M; Mizumori, Sheri J Y

    2006-01-01

    Although most observers agree that the hippocampus has a critical role in learning and memory, there remains considerable debate about the precise functional contribution of the hippocampus to these processes. Two of the most influential accounts hold that the primary function of the hippocampus is to generate cognitive maps and to mediate episodic memory processes. The well-documented spatial firing patterns (place fields) of hippocampal neurons in rodents, along with the spatial learning impairments observed with hippocampal damage support the cognitive mapping hypothesis. The amnesia for personally experienced events seen in humans with hippocampal damage and the data of animal models, which show severe memory deficits associated with hippocampal lesions, support the episodic memory account. Although an extensive literature supports each of these hypotheses, a specific contribution of place cells to episodic memory has not been clearly demonstrated. Recent data from our laboratory, together with previous findings, indicate that hippocampal place fields and neuronal responses to task-relevant stimuli are highly sensitive to the context, even when the contexts are defined by abstract task demands rather than the spatial geometry of the environment. On the basis of these findings, it is proposed that place fields reflect a more general context processing function of the hippocampus. Hippocampal context representations could serve to differentiate contexts and prime the relevant memories and behaviors. Since episodic memories, by definition, include information about the time and place where the episode occurred, contextual information is a necessary prerequisite for any episodic memory. Thus, place fields contribute importantly to episodic memory as part of the needed context representations. Additionally, recent findings indicate that hippocampal neurons differentiate contexts at progressively finer levels of detail, suggesting a hierarchical coding scheme which

  20. Cell-based and biomaterial approaches to connective tissue repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalling, Simone Suzette

    Connective tissue injuries of skin, tendon and ligament, heal by a reparative process in adults, filling the wound site with fibrotic, disorganized scar tissue that poorly reflects normal tissue architecture or function. Conversely, fetal skin and tendon have been shown to heal scarlessly. Complete regeneration is not intrinsically ubiquitous to all fetal tissues; fetal diaphragmatic and gastrointestinal injuries form scars. In vivo studies suggest that the presence of fetal fibroblasts is essential for scarless healing. In the orthopaedic setting, adult anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) heals poorly; however, little is known about the regenerative capacity of fetal ACL or fetal ACL fibroblasts. We characterized in vitro wound healing properties of fetal and adult ACL fibroblasts demonstrating that fetal ACL fibroblasts migrate faster and elaborate greater quantities of type I collagen, suggesting the healing potential of the fetal ACL may not be intrinsically poor. Similar to fetal ACL fibroblasts, fetal dermal fibroblasts also exhibit robust cellular properties. We investigated the age-dependent effects of dermal fibroblasts on tendon-to-bone healing in rat supraspinatus tendon injuries, a reparative injury model. We hypothesized delivery of fetal dermal fibroblasts would increase tissue organization and mechanical properties in comparison to adult dermal fibroblasts. However, at 1 and 8 weeks, the presence of dermal fibroblasts, either adult or fetal, had no significant effect on tissue histology or mechanical properties. There was a decreasing trend in cross-sectional area of repaired tendons treated with fetal dermal fibroblasts in comparison to adult, but this finding was not significant in comparison to controls. Finally, we synthesized a novel polysaccharide, methacrylated methylcellulose (MA-MC), and fabricated hydrogels using a well-established photopolymerization technique. We characterized the physical and mechanical properties of MA-MC hydrogels in

  1. The Ethics of Aborted Fetal Cells, Tissues and Organs Sharing in the Different Researches%流产胎儿细胞组织器官学科间共用的伦理问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹锡梅; 景雅; 王洪奇

    2011-01-01

    医学研究中仅用动物实验不能满足深层次的科研及临床治疗的需要.流产胎儿是重要的人源性样本之一,在医学研究中的应用为组织器官的发生发育和一些疾病的发病机制及临床治疗提供科学依据,有极高的科研价值.由于其来源有限,通过学科间共用流产胎儿细胞组织器官,缓解样本量不足的问题,却使传统伦理道德面临新困惑.%Animal experiments samples can not meet the need of the deep development of scientific research and clinical treatment in the medical research. Aborted fetus is one of the human body samples in the medical research. It would be great value in the studies of the development of organs and the pathogenesis of some diseases. However, aborted fetuses are limited in the real life. It can alleviate the problem of the insufficient sample by sharing the cells, tissues and organs of the same aborted fetus in the different researches, while the traditional medical ethics is facing an unprecedented confusion

  2. Moxibustion upregulates hippocampal progranulin expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, moxibustion is reported to be useful and has few side effects for chronic fatigue syndrome, but its mechanisms are largely unknown. More recently, the focus has been on the wealth of information supporting stress as a factor in chronic fatigue syndrome, and largely concerns dysregulation in the stress-related hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of moxibustion on behavioral symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome rats and examine possible mechanisms. Rats were subjected to a combination of chronic restraint stress and forced swimming to induce chronic fatigue syndrome. The acupoints Guanyuan (CV4 and Zusanli (ST36, bilateral were simultaneously administered moxibustion. Untreated chronic fatigue syndrome rats and normal rats were used as controls. Results from the forced swimming test, open field test, tail suspension test, real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and western blot assay showed that moxibustion treatment decreased mRNA expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus, and adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone levels in plasma, and markedly increased progranulin mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that moxibustion may relieve the behavioral symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome, at least in part, by modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and upregulating hippocampal progranulin.

  3. Moxibustion upregulates hippocampal progranulin expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Yi; Li Qi; Ji Li; Jing-jing Le; Lei Shao; Xin Du; Jing-cheng Dong

    2016-01-01

    In China, moxibustion is reported to be useful and has few side effects for chronic fatigue syndrome, but its mechanisms are largely un-known. More recently, the focus has been on the wealth of information supporting stress as a factor in chronic fatigue syndrome, and largely concerns dysregulation in the stress-related hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of moxibustion on behavioral symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome rats and examine possible mechanisms. Rats were subjected to a combination of chronic restraint stress and forced swimming to induce chronic fatigue syndrome. The acupointsGuanyuan (CV4) and Zusanli (ST36, bilateral) were simultaneously administered moxibustion. Untreated chronic fatigue syndrome rats and normal rats were used as controls. Results from the forced swimming test, open ifeld test, tail suspension test, real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosor-bent assay, and western blot assay showed that moxibustion treatment decreased mRNA expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus, and adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone levels in plasma, and markedly increased progranulin mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus. These ifndings suggest that moxibustion may relieve the behavioral symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome, at least in part, by modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and upregulating hippocampal progranulin.

  4. Fetal onset of general movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luechinger, Annemarie B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Van Kan, Colette M.; de Vries, JIP

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal qualitative assessment of general movements (GMs) is a tool to evaluate the integrity of the young nervous system. The aim of this investigation was to study the emergence of GMs. Fetal onset of GMs was studied sonographically in 18 fetuses during the first trimester of uncomplicated in vi

  5. Uitrasonographic evaluation of fetal facial anatomy (Ⅰ):ultrasonographic features of normal fetal face in vitro study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李胜利; 陈琮瑛; 刘菊玲; 欧阳淑媛

    2004-01-01

    Background Because of lacking skills in scanning the normal fetal facial structures and their corresponding ultrasonic features, misdiagnoses freguently occur. Therefore, we studied the appearance features and improved displaying skills of fetal facial anatomy in order to provide basis for prenatal diagnosis. Methods Twenty fetuses with normal facial anatomy from induced labor because of other malformations except facial anomalies were immersed in a water bath and then scanned ultrasonographically on coronal, sagittal and transverse planes to define the ultrasonic image features of normal anatomy. The coronal and sagittal planes obtained from the submandibular triangle were used for displaying the soft and hard palate in particular. Results Facial anatomic structures of the fetus can be clearly displayed through the three routine orthogonal planes. However, the soft and hard palate can be displayed on the planes obtained from the submandibular triangle only. Conclusions The superficial soft tissues and deep bony structures of the fetal face can be recognized and evaluated by routine ultrasonographic images, which is a reliable prenatal diagnostic technique to evaluate the fetal facial anatomy. The soft and hard palate can be well demonstrated by the submandibular triangle approach.

  6. Maternal protein restriction and fetal growth: lack of evidence of a role for homocysteine in fetal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley-Evans, Simon C; Lilley, Christina; McMullen, Sarah

    2006-09-01

    The disease-programming effects of a maternal low-protein (MLP) diet in rat pregnancy have been suggested to be attributable of hyperhomocysteinaemia. The aim of the present study was to determine whether MLP feeding impacted upon maternal and day 20 fetal homocysteine concentrations, with ensuing effects upon oxidant/antioxidant status. Sixty-four pregnant rats were fed either MLP diet or control diet before termination of pregnancy at days 4, 10, 18 or 20 gestation (full-term gestation 22 d). Maternal plasma homocysteine concentrations were similar in control and MLP-fed dams at all points in gestation. Fetal plasma homocysteine was similarly unaffected by MLP feeding at day 20 gestation. Activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were similar in livers of mothers and fetuses in the two groups. Whilst catalase activity was not influenced by diet in maternal liver, MLP exposure increased catalase activity in fetal liver at day 20. Oxidative injury (protein carbonyl concentration) was lower in the livers of MLP-fed animals at day 18 gestation (Phomocysteine concentrations prior to day 20 gestation in the rat. There was no evidence of increased oxidative injury in fetal tissue that might explain the long-term programming effects of the diet.

  7. Age-Associated Increase in BMP Signaling Inhibits Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Hanadie; Morgenthaler, Adam; Schlesinger, Christina; Bugaj, Lukasz; Conboy, Irina M; Schaffer, David V

    2015-05-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis, the product of resident neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation, persists into adulthood but decreases with organismal aging, which may contribute to the age-related decline in cognitive function. The mechanisms that underlie this decrease in neurogenesis are not well understood, although evidence in general indicates that extrinsic changes in an aged stem cell niche can contribute to functional decline in old stem cells. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family members are intercellular signaling proteins that regulate stem and progenitor cell quiescence, proliferation, and differentiation in various tissues and are likewise critical regulators of neurogenesis in young adults. Here, we establish that BMP signaling increases significantly in old murine hippocampi and inhibits neural progenitor cell proliferation. Furthermore, direct in vivo attenuation of BMP signaling via genetic and transgenic perturbations in aged mice led to elevated neural stem cell proliferation, and subsequent neurogenesis, in old hippocampi. Such advances in our understanding of mechanisms underlying decreased hippocampal neurogenesis with age may offer targets for the treatment of age-related cognitive decline.

  8. Fetal cell microchimerism develops through the migration of fetus-derived cells to the maternal organs early after implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunami, Rei; Komuro, Mayuko; Yuminamochi, Tsutomu; Hoshi, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Shuji

    2010-03-01

    Fetus-derived cells are present in the blood and tissues of the maternal body over a long period of time, even after delivery, resulting in fetal cell microchimerism. The exact process by which fetal cells cross the placental barrier to enter the maternal circulation is unclear. The objective of this paper was to determine the time during pregnancy that fetal cells with multilineage potential migrate to the maternal organs. Wild type female mice were crossbred with male transgenic mice, expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Total hysterectomies were performed at different time points of pregnancy. On day 60 after surgery, mice were injected with either streptozotocin (STZ) to induce insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, or vehicle. Detection and quantification of fetal cells were then undertaken in a variety of maternal organs via fluorescent microscopy and quantitative PCR amplification of the gfp transgene. In vehicle control mice, fetal cells were detected only in the maternal bone marrow. However on day 30 after STZ injection, fetal cells were detected not only in bone marrow but also in the maternal pancreas, liver and kidney. Histological analysis showed differentiated fetal cells within the pancreatic acinar cells, hepatocytes and tubular epithelial cells. Their morphological appearance was indistinguishable from their maternal counterparts, and their frequency in these organs was constant, regardless of the timing of hysterectomy. These results indicate that most fetal cells with multilineage potential in maternal tissues migrate to the maternal body early after implantation, and thereafter sustain their population over the long term after delivery.

  9. Third trimester ultrasound soft-tissue measurements accurately predicts macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruotti, Giuseppe Maria; Saccone, Gabriele; Martinelli, Pasquale

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of sonographic measurements of fetal soft tissue in the prediction of macrosomia. Electronic databases were searched from their inception until September 2015 with no limit for language. We included only studies assessing the accuracy of sonographic measurements of fetal soft tissue in the abdomen or thigh in the prediction of macrosomia  ≥34 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome was the accuracy of sonographic measurements of fetal soft tissue in the prediction of macrosomia. We generated the forest plot for the pooled sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence interval (CI). Additionally, summary receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves were plotted and the area under the curve (AUC) was also computed to evaluate the overall performance of the diagnostic test accuracy. Three studies, including 287 singleton gestations, were analyzed. The pooled sensitivity of sonographic measurements of abdominal or thigh fetal soft tissue in the prediction of macrosomia was 80% (95% CI: 66-89%) and the pooled specificity was 95% (95% CI: 91-97%). The AUC for diagnostic accuracy of sonographic measurements of fetal soft tissue in the prediction of macrosomia was 0.92 and suggested high diagnostic accuracy. Third-trimester sonographic measurements of fetal soft tissue after 34 weeks may help to detect macrosomia with a high degree of accuracy. The pooled detection rate was 80%. A standardization of measurements criteria, reproducibility, building reference charts of fetal subcutaneous tissue and large studies to assess the optimal cutoff of fetal adipose thickness are necessary before the introduction of fetal soft-tissue markers in the clinical practice.

  10. Effects of antenatal synthetic glucocorticoid on glucocorticoid receptor binding, DNA methylation, and genome-wide mRNA levels in the fetal male hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudo, Ariann; Petropoulos, Sophie; Suderman, Matthew; Moisiadis, Vasilis G; Kostaki, Alisa; Hallett, Michael; Szyf, Moshe; Matthews, Stephen G

    2013-11-01

    The endogenous glucocorticoid (GC) surge in late gestation plays a vital role in maturation of several organ systems. For this reason, pregnant women at risk of preterm labor are administered synthetic glucocorticoids (sGCs) to promote fetal lung development. Animal studies have shown that fetal sGC exposure can cause life-long changes in endocrine and metabolic function. We have previously shown that antenatal sGC treatment is associated with alterations in global DNA methylation and modifications to the hippocampal methylome and acetylome. In this study, we hypothesized that: 1) there are changes in the transcriptional landscape of the fetal hippocampus in late gestation, associated with the endogenous cortisol surge; 2) fetal sGC exposure alters genome-wide transcription in the hippocampus; and 3) these changes in transcription are associated with modified glucocorticoid receptor (GR) DNA binding and DNA methylation. sGC was administered as 2 courses on gestational days (GD) 40, 41, 50, and 51, and the hippocampi of fetal guinea pigs were examined before (GD52) and after (GD65) the endogenous cortisol surge (Term ∼GD67). We also analyzed fetal hippocampi 24 hours and 14 days following maternal sGC injections (n = 3-4/group). Genome-wide modification of transcription and GR DNA binding occurred in late gestation, in parallel with the normal GC surge. Further, sGC exposure had a substantial impact on the hippocampal transcriptome, GR-DNA binding, and DNA methylation at 24 hours and 14 days following the final sGC treatment. These data support the hypothesis that GC exposure in late gestation plays a significant role in modifying the transcriptional and epigenetic landscape of the developing fetal hippocampus and that substantial effects are evident for at least 2 weeks after sGC exposure.

  11. Placental responses to changes in the maternal environment determine fetal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Genelyn eDimasuay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Placental responses to maternal perturbations are complex and remain poorly understood. Altered maternal environment during pregnancy such as hypoxia, stress, obesity, diabetes, toxins, altered nutrition, inflammation, and reduced utero-placental blood flow may influence fetal development, which can predispose to diseases later in life. The placenta being a metabolically active tissue responds to these perturbations by regulating the fetal supply of nutrients and oxygen and secretion of hormones into the maternal and fetal circulation. We have proposed that placental nutrient sensing integrates maternal and fetal nutritional cues with information from intrinsic nutrient sensing signaling pathways to balance fetal demand with the ability of the mother to support pregnancy by regulating maternal physiology, placental growth, and placental nutrient transport. Emerging evidence suggests that the nutrient-sensing signaling pathway mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR plays a central role in this process. Thus, placental nutrient sensing plays a critical role in modulating maternal-fetal resource allocation, thereby affecting fetal growth and the life-long health of the fetus.

  12. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging and human genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengstschlaeger, Markus [Medical Genetics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: markus.hengstschlaeger@meduniwien.ac.at

    2006-02-15

    The use of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in addition to prenatal genetic testing and sonography, has the potential to improve prenatal diagnosis of genetic disorders. MRI plays an important role in the evaluation of fetal abnormalities and malformations. Fetal MRI often enables a differential diagnosis, a determination of the extent of the disorder, the prognosis, and an improvement in therapeutic management. For counseling of parents, as well as to basically understand how genetic aberrations affect fetal development, it is of great importance to correlate different genotypes with fetal MRI data.

  13. Unsupervised fetal cortical surface parcellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdouh, Sonia; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    At the core of many neuro-imaging studies, atlas-based brain parcellations are used for example to study normal brain evolution across the lifespan. These atlases rely on the assumption that the same anatomical features are present on all subjects to be studied and that these features are stable enough to allow meaningful comparisons between different brain surfaces and structures These methods, however, often fail when applied to fetal MRI data, due to the lack of consistent anatomical features present across gestation. This paper presents a novel surface-based fetal cortical parcellation framework which attempts to circumvent the lack of consistent anatomical features by proposing a brain parcellation scheme that is based solely on learned geometrical features. A mesh signature incorporating both extrinsic and intrinsic geometrical features is proposed and used in a clustering scheme to define a parcellation of the fetal brain. This parcellation is then learned using a Random Forest (RF) based learning approach and then further refined in an alpha-expansion graph-cut scheme. Based on the votes obtained by the RF inference procedure, a probability map is computed and used as a data term in the graph-cut procedure. The smoothness term is defined by learning a transition matrix based on the dihedral angles of the faces. Qualitative and quantitative results on a cohort of both healthy and high-risk fetuses are presented. Both visual and quantitative assessments show good results demonstrating a reliable method for fetal brain data and the possibility of obtaining a parcellation of the fetal cortical surfaces using only geometrical features.

  14. Developmental changes in hippocampal associative coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Mary E; Kim, Jangjin; Freeman, John H

    2015-03-11

    Behavioral analyses of the ontogeny of memory have shown that hippocampus-dependent learning emerges relatively late in postnatal development compared with simple associative learning. Maturation of hippocampal mnemonic mechanisms has been hypothesized to underlie the development of the later emerging learning processes. However, the role of hippocampal maturation in learning has not been examined directly. The goal of the present study was to examine developmental changes in hippocampal neuronal coding during acquisition of a hippocampus-dependent learning task. We recorded activity from CA1 pyramidal cells in rat pups while they were trained on trace eyeblink conditioning. Trace eyeblink conditioning is a Pavlovian conditioning task that involves the association of a conditioned stimulus (CS) with an unconditioned stimulus over a stimulus-free trace interval. The inclusion of the trace interval is what makes the task hippocampus dependent. In the present study, rats were trained at 21-23, 24-26, and 31-33 d of age. Previous research from our laboratory and others shows that trace conditioning begins to emerge during the third postnatal week. The results indicate that hippocampal neurons show a substantial increase in responsiveness to task-relevant events during development. Moreover, there is an age-related increase in the proportion of neurons that respond to a combination of trial events (e.g., CS and trace). Our findings indicate that the developmental emergence of hippocampally mediated learning is related to increases in the strength and complexity of CA1 associative coding.

  15. Fetal myocardium in the kidney capsule: an in vivo model of repopulation of myocytes by bone marrow cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Y Zhang

    Full Text Available Debate surrounds the question of whether the heart is a post-mitotic organ in part due to the lack of an in vivo model in which myocytes are able to actively regenerate. The current study describes the first such mouse model--a fetal myocardial environment grafted into the adult kidney capsule. Here it is used to test whether cells descended from bone marrow can regenerate cardiac myocytes. One week after receiving the fetal heart grafts, recipients were lethally irradiated and transplanted with marrow from green fluorescent protein (GFP-expressing C57Bl/6J (B6 donors using normal B6 recipients and fetal donors. Levels of myocyte regeneration from GFP marrow within both fetal myocardium and adult hearts of recipients were evaluated histologically. Fetal myocardium transplants had rich neovascularization and beat regularly after 2 weeks, continuing at checkpoints of 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and12 months after transplantation. At each time point, GFP-expressing rod-shaped myocytes were found in the fetal myocardium, but only a few were found in the adult hearts. The average count of repopulated myocardium with green rod-shaped myocytes was 996.8 cells per gram of fetal myocardial tissue, and 28.7 cells per adult heart tissue, representing a thirty-five fold increase in fetal myocardium compared to the adult heart at 12 months (when numbers of green rod-shaped myocytes were normalized to per gram of myocardial tissue. Thus, bone marrow cells can differentiate to myocytes in the fetal myocardial environment. The novel in vivo model of fetal myocardium in the kidney capsule appears to be valuable for testing repopulating abilities of potential cardiac progenitors.

  16. Growth hormone rescues hippocampal synaptic function after sleep deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, EunYoung; Grover, Lawrence M; Bertolotti, Don; Green, Todd L.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep is required for, and sleep loss impairs, normal hippocampal synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor function and expression, hippocampal NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity, and hippocampal-dependent memory function. Although sleep is essential, the signals linking sleep to hippocampal function are not known. One potential signal is growth hormone. Growth hormone is released during sleep, and its release is suppressed during sleep deprivation. If growth hormone l...

  17. Antithyroid drug-induced fetal goitrous hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ase Krogh; Sundberg, Karin; Brocks, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs can induce fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. This condition can have a critical effect on pregnancy outcome, as well as on fetal growth and neurological development. The purpose of this Review is to clarify if and how fetal goitrous hypothyroidism can...... be prevented, and how to react when prevention has failed. Understanding the importance of pregnancy-related changes in maternal thyroid status when treating a pregnant woman is crucial to preventing fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. Maternal levels of free T(4) are the most consistent indication of maternal...... and fetal thyroid status. In patients with fetal goitrous hypothyroidism, intra-amniotic levothyroxine injections improve fetal outcome. The best way to avoid maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs is to monitor closely the maternal thyroid status, especially estimates of free T(4) levels....

  18. THE MATERNAL-FETAL MEDICINE: AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Berghella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Maternal-Fetal Medicine is contributing to an improvement of maternal well-being and of neonatal health, introducing a number of new and useful technologies. Advances in genomics in the field of prenatal screening and diagnosis allowed the discovery of fragments of cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation and the use of chromosomal microarrays, which can test for microdeletions and microduplications in addition to aneuploidies. Color Doppler applications during pregnancy are expanding exponentially and Doppler flow velocity waveforms indices have provided important information from maternal, placental and fetal circulation with clinical implications. Ultrasound monitoring of fetal growth represents a fundamental tool to evaluate fetal wellbeing and several methods have been developed to improve fetal weight estimation accuracy. The combination of new biophysical and biochemical markers is enriching Maternal-Fetal Medicine and more research will allow to improve pregnancy outcome.

  19. ALTERATIONS IN P-CREB ACTIVITY: A PATHWAY FOR FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME RELATED NEUROTOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Robin; Cameroni, Irene; Toso, Laura; Abebe, Daniel; Bissel, Stephanie; Spong, Catherine Y

    2009-01-01

    Objective Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the leading cause of a spectrum of preventable non-genetic learning and behavioral disorders. In adult (FAS) mice, we measured P-CREB staining in hippocampal subregions to evaluate a possible mechanism underlying FAS learning deficits. Study Design Pregnant C57Bl6/J mice were treated on gestational day 8 with alcohol or control (saline). After learning assessment, the offspring were perfused for immunohistochemistry, brain sections probed using SER 133 P-CREB antibody. Relative staining density was assessed using NIH Image software. Statistical analysis included ANOVA with P<.05 significant. Results In all hippocampal subregions P-CREB staining was greater in the control animals than in the alcohol treated group p=<.0001. Conclusion In utero alcohol exposure decreased P-CREB activity in hippocampal subregions of adult mice. The dentate gyrus had the most robust cumulative decrease in P-CREB staining, suggesting FAS adult learning deficits may correlate to enhanced dentate gyrus neurodegeneration. PMID:19110231

  20. Childhood maltreatment modifies the relationship of depression with hippocampal volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, L.; van Velzen, L.; Schmaal, L.; van der Graaf, Y.; van der Wee, N.; van Tol, M. -J.; Penninx, B.; Geerlings, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Childhood maltreatment (CM) may modify the relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD) and hippocampal volume reduction. To disentangle the impact of MDD and CM on hippocampal volume we investigated the association between MDD and hippocampal volume in persons with and without a

  1. The neglected role of insulin-like growth factors in the maternal circulation regulating fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sferruzzi-Perri, A N; Owens, J A; Pringle, K G; Roberts, C T

    2011-01-01

    Maternal insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play a pivotal role in modulating fetal growth via their actions on both the mother and the placenta. Circulating IGFs influence maternal tissue growth and metabolism, thereby regulating nutrient availability for the growth of the conceptus. Maternal IGFs also regulate placental morphogenesis, substrate transport and hormone secretion, all of which influence fetal growth either via indirect effects on maternal substrate availability, or through direct effects on the placenta and its capacity to supply nutrients to the fetus. The extent to which IGFs influence the mother and/or placenta are dependent on the species and maternal factors, including age and nutrition. As altered fetal growth is associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality and a greater risk of developing degenerative diseases in adult life, understanding the role of maternal IGFs during pregnancy is essential in order to identify mechanisms underlying altered fetal growth and offspring programming.

  2. Management of fetal pain during invasive fetal procedures. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W; Deprest, J; Missant, C; Van de Velde, M

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fetal stress and analgesia draw more and more attention. Evidence that fetuses show a significant endocrinological and hemodynamical response to invasive stimuli, and that these responses can be blocked by analgesia, suggests that fetuses experience a stress response, even if this does not signify they experience "pain". Moreover, it is becoming increasingly clear that experiences of pain of a fetus will be "remembered" by the developing nervous system, perhaps for the entire life of the individual, which can probably lead to abnormal behavioural patterns or altered nociception. But up to now, the entire mechanism of fetal stress response and the optimal analgesic drug, dose and route of administration is not so clear.

  3. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from human fetal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Pascale V

    2016-02-01

    Pluripotency defines the ability of stem cells to differentiate into all the lineages of the three germ layers and self-renew indefinitely. Somatic cells can regain the developmental potential of embryonic stem cells following ectopic expression of a set of transcription factors or, in certain circumstances, via modulation of culture conditions and supplementation with small molecule, that is, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Here, we discuss the use of fetal tissues for reprogramming, focusing in particular on stem cells derived from human amniotic fluid, and the development of chemical reprogramming. We next address the advantages and disadvantages of deriving pluripotent cells from fetal tissues and the potential clinical applications.

  4. Proteolytic processing of anti-Müllerian hormone differs between human fetal testes and adult ovaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn; Petersen, TS; Jeppesen, JV

    2015-01-01

    and specificity of a panel of five novel high-affinity AMH monoclonal antibodies. Two recognize the mature C-terminal form of AMH, whereas three recognize the active pro-mature form of AMH in human tissue. The antibodies were tested on fetal male testicular and mesonephric tissue aged 8-19 weeks post conception...... of AMH was hardly detected in Sertoli cells, but was readily detected in GCs. This particular form was also located to the nucleus in GCs, whereas the other investigated AMH forms remained in the cytoplasm. Interestingly, the distribution of the AMH forms in the fetal serum of boys showed...

  5. Neuromorphic VLSI realization of the hippocampal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anu

    2016-05-01

    The medial entorhinal cortex grid cells, aided by the subicular head direction cells, are thought to provide a matrix which is utilized by the hippocampal place cells for calculation of position of an animal during spatial navigation. The place cells are thought to function as an internal GPS for the brain and provide a spatiotemporal stamp on episodic memories. Several computational neuroscience models have been proposed to explain the place specific firing patterns of the cells of the hippocampal formation - including the GRIDSmap model for grid cells and Bayesian integration for place cells. In this work, we present design and measurement results from a first ever system of silicon circuits which successfully realize the function of the hippocampal formation of brain based on these models.

  6. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Gebara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging.

  7. Inhibitory neuron and hippocampal circuit dysfunction in an aged mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Hazra

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD, a decline in explicit memory is one of the earliest signs of disease and is associated with hippocampal dysfunction. Amyloid protein exerts a disruptive impact on neuronal function, but the specific effects on hippocampal network activity are not well known. In this study, fast voltage-sensitive dye imaging and extracellular and whole-cell electrophysiology were used on entorhinal cortical-hippocampal slice preparations to characterize hippocampal network activity in 12-16 month old female APPswe/PSEN1DeltaE9 (APdE9 mice mice. Aged APdE9 mice exhibited profound disruptions in dentate gyrus circuit activation. High frequency stimulation of the perforant pathway in the dentate gyrus (DG area of APdE9 mouse tissue evoked abnormally large field potential responses corresponding to the wider neural activation maps. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of the identified inhibitory interneurons in the molecular layer of DG revealed that they fail to reliably fire action potentials. Taken together, abnormal DG excitability and an inhibitory neuron failure to generate action potentials are suggested to be important contributors to the underlying cellular mechanisms of early-stage Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology.

  8. Exposure to prenatal stress has deleterious effects on hippocampal function in a febrile seizure rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qulu, Lihle; Daniels, W M U; Mabandla, Musa V

    2015-10-22

    Prenatal stress has been shown to result in the development of a number of neurological disorders in the offspring. Most of these disorders are a result of an altered HPA axis resulting in higher than normal glucocorticoid levels in the affected neonate. This leaves the offspring prone to immune challenges. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of prenatal stress and febrile seizures on behavior and hippocampal function. Pregnant dams were exposed to restraint stress during the third trimester. Following birth, febrile seizures were induced in two week old pups using lipopolysaccharide and kainic acid. A week later, anxiety-like behavior and navigational ability was assessed. Trunk blood was used to measure basal corticosterone concentration and hippocampal tissue was collected and analyzed. Our results show that exposure to prenatal stress increased basal corticosterone concentration. Exposure to prenatal stress exacerbated anxiety-like behavior and impaired the rat's navigational ability. Exposure to prenatal stress resulted in reduced hippocampal mass that was exacerbated by febrile seizures. However, exposure to febrile seizures did not affect hippocampal mass in the absence of prenatal stress. This suggests that febrile seizures are exacerbated by exposure to early life stressors and this may lead to the development of neurological symptoms associated with a malfunctioning hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Localized gene transfer into organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and acute hippocampal slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casaccia-Bonnefil, P; Benedikz, Eirikur; Shen, H;

    1993-01-01

    Viral vectors derived from herpes simplex virus, type-1 (HSV), can transfer and express genes into fully differentiated, post-mitotic neurons. These vectors also transduce cells effectively in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Nanoliter quantities of a virus stock of HSVlac, an HSV vector...... or hippocampal slices. The rapid expression of beta-gal by HSVlac allowed efficient transduction of acute hippocampal slices. Many genes have been transduced and expressed using HSV vectors; therefore, this microapplication method can be applied to many neurobiological questions....

  10. T2 and T2* measurements of fetal brain oxygenation during hypoxia with MRI at 3T: correlation with fetal arterial blood oxygen saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedegaertner, Ulrike; Adam, Gerhard [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Kooijman, Hendrik [Philips Medical Systems, Best (Netherlands); Andreas, Thomas; Beindorff, Nicola; Hecher, Kurt [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Obstetrics and Prenatal Medicine, Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the oxygen saturation of blood in the fetal brain based on T2 and T2* measurements in a fetal sheep model. Five sheep fetuses were investigated during normoxia and hypoxia by 3T MRI. Multi-echo gradient-echo and turbo-spin-echo sequences were performed on the fetal brain. MR-determined oxygen saturation (MR-sO{sub 2}) of blood in the fetal brain was calculated based on T2 and T2* values. Fetal arterial blood oxygen saturation (blood-sO{sub 2}) was measured during the two experimental phases. The slope of MR-sO{sub 2} as a function of blood-sO{sub 2} was estimated and tested for compatibility using the one-sample t-test. During normoxia, mean values for carotid blood oxygen saturation were 67%, 83 ms for T2*, 202 ms for T2 and 96% for MR-sO{sub 2}. During hypoxia, arterial blood oxygen saturation, T2* and calculated MR-sO{sub 2} decreased to 22%, 64 ms, and 68% respectively. The one-sample t-test revealed the slope to be significantly different from 0(T=5.023, df=4, P=0.007). It is feasible to perform quantitative T2 and T2* measurements in the fetal brain. MR-sO{sub 2} and fetal arterial blood oxygen saturation correlated significantly. However, based on these data a reliable quantification of fetal brain tissue oxygenation is not possible. (orig.)

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital fetal heart abnormalities and clinical analysis*

    OpenAIRE

    Li,Hui; Wei, Jun; Ma, Ying; Shang, Tao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of detecting fetal congenital heart disease (CHD) using the five transverse planes technique of fetal echocardiography. Methods: Nine hundred and eighty-two high-risk pregnancies for fetal CHD were included in this study, the fetal heart was scanned with the five transverse planes technique of fetal echocardiography described by Yagel, autopsy was conducted when pregnancy was terminated. Blood from fetal heart was collected for fetal chromosome analysis. A close ...

  12. Fetal organ dosimetry for the Techa River and Ozyorsk offspring cohorts. Pt. 1. A Urals-based series of fetal computational phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Matthew R.; Bolch, Wesley E. [University of Florida, Advanced Laboratory for Radiation Dosimetry Studies (ALRADS), J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, Gainesville, FL (United States); Shagina, Natalia B.; Tolstykh, Evgenia I.; Degteva, Marina O. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Fell, Tim P. [Public Health England, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Health, Didcot, Chilton, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-15

    The European Union's SOLO (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations) project aims to improve understanding of cancer risks associated with chronic in utero radiation exposure. A comprehensive series of hybrid computational fetal phantoms was previously developed at the University of Florida in order to provide the SOLO project with the capability of computationally simulating and quantifying radiation exposures to individual fetal bones and soft tissue organs. To improve harmonization between the SOLO fetal biokinetic models and the computational phantoms, a subset of those phantoms was systematically modified to create a novel series of phantoms matching anatomical data representing Russian fetal biometry in the Southern Urals. Using previously established modeling techniques, eight computational Urals-based phantoms aged 8, 12, 18, 22, 26, 30, 34, and 38 weeks post-conception were constructed to match appropriate age-dependent femur lengths, biparietal diameters, individual bone masses and whole-body masses. Bone and soft tissue organ mass differences between the common ages of the subset of UF phantom series and the Urals-based phantom series illustrated the need for improved understanding of fetal bone densities as a critical parameter of computational phantom development. In anticipation for SOLO radiation dosimetry studies involving the developing fetus and pregnant female, the completed phantom series was successfully converted to a cuboidal voxel format easily interpreted by radiation transport software. (orig.)

  13. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Darío Moreno Fernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a normal developmental process associated with neurobiological changes leading to cognitive alterations with preserved, impaired, and enhanced functions. Evidence from animal and human studies is reviewed to explore the potential role of hippocampal plasticity on age-related cognitive changes with special attention to adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Results from lesion and stimulation strategies, as well as correlation data, support either a direct or modulatory role for adult newborn neurons in cognition at advanced ages. Further research on this topic may help to develop new treatments and to improve the quality of life of older people.

  14. Fetal fibroblasts and keratinocytes with immunosuppressive properties for allogeneic cell-based wound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani, Thomas; Saiagh, Soraya; Knol, Anne-Chantal; Esbelin, Julie; Dréno, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Fetal skin heals rapidly without scar formation early in gestation, conferring to fetal skin cells a high and unique potential for tissue regeneration and scar management. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using fetal fibroblasts and keratinocytes to stimulate wound repair and regeneration for further allogeneic cell-based therapy development. From a single fetal skin sample, two clinical batches of keratinocytes and fibroblasts were manufactured and characterized. Tolerogenic properties of the fetal cells were investigated by allogeneic PBMC proliferation tests. In addition, the potential advantage of fibroblasts/keratinocytes co-application for wound healing stimulation has been examined in co-culture experiments with in vitro scratch assays and a multiplex cytokines array system. Based on keratin 14 and prolyl-4-hydroxylase expression analyses, purity of both clinical batches was found to be above 98% and neither melanocytes nor Langerhans cells could be detected. Both cell types demonstrated strong immunosuppressive properties as shown by the dramatic decrease in allogeneic PBMC proliferation when co-cultured with fibroblasts and/or keratinocytes. We further showed that the indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) activity is required for the immunoregulatory activity of fetal skin cells. Co-cultures experiments have also revealed that fibroblasts-keratinocytes interactions strongly enhanced fetal cells secretion of HGF, GM-CSF, IL-8 and to a lesser extent VEGF-A. Accordingly, in the in vitro scratch assays the fetal fibroblasts and keratinocytes co-culture accelerated the scratch closure compared to fibroblast or keratinocyte mono-cultures. In conclusion, our data suggest that the combination of fetal keratinocytes and fibroblasts could be of particular interest for the development of a new allogeneic skin substitute with immunomodulatory activity, acting as a reservoir for wound healing growth factors.

  15. Fetal Fibroblasts and Keratinocytes with Immunosuppressive Properties for Allogeneic Cell-Based Wound Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani, Thomas; Saiagh, Soraya; Knol, Anne-Chantal; Esbelin, Julie; Dréno, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Fetal skin heals rapidly without scar formation early in gestation, conferring to fetal skin cells a high and unique potential for tissue regeneration and scar management. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using fetal fibroblasts and keratinocytes to stimulate wound repair and regeneration for further allogeneic cell-based therapy development. From a single fetal skin sample, two clinical batches of keratinocytes and fibroblasts were manufactured and characterized. Tolerogenic properties of the fetal cells were investigated by allogeneic PBMC proliferation tests. In addition, the potential advantage of fibroblasts/keratinocytes co-application for wound healing stimulation has been examined in co-culture experiments with in vitro scratch assays and a multiplex cytokines array system. Based on keratin 14 and prolyl-4-hydroxylase expression analyses, purity of both clinical batches was found to be above 98% and neither melanocytes nor Langerhans cells could be detected. Both cell types demonstrated strong immunosuppressive properties as shown by the dramatic decrease in allogeneic PBMC proliferation when co-cultured with fibroblasts and/or keratinocytes. We further showed that the indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) activity is required for the immunoregulatory activity of fetal skin cells. Co-cultures experiments have also revealed that fibroblasts-keratinocytes interactions strongly enhanced fetal cells secretion of HGF, GM-CSF, IL-8 and to a lesser extent VEGF-A. Accordingly, in the in vitro scratch assays the fetal fibroblasts and keratinocytes co-culture accelerated the scratch closure compared to fibroblast or keratinocyte mono-cultures. In conclusion, our data suggest that the combination of fetal keratinocytes and fibroblasts could be of particular interest for the development of a new allogeneic skin substitute with immunomodulatory activity, acting as a reservoir for wound healing growth factors. PMID:23894651

  16. Novel Epigenetic Markers on Chromosome 21 for Noninvasive Prenatal Testing of Fetal Trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da Eun; Lim, Ji Hyae; Kim, Min Hyoung; Park, So Yeon; Ryu, Hyun Mee

    2016-05-01

    Until now, fetal placenta-specific epigenetic markers for noninvasive prenatal testing of fetal trisomy 21 (T21) have been identified based only on differences in tissue-specific epigenetic characteristics between placenta and maternal blood, but these characteristics have not been validated in T21 placenta. We aimed to discover novel epigenetic markers on chromosome 21 that show a hypermethylated pattern in fetal placenta compared with blood, regardless of the presence of T21. We performed a high-resolution tiling array analysis of chromosome 21 using the methylated-CpG binding domain protein-based method. We identified 93 epigenetic regions that showed fetal placenta-specific differential methylation patterns; among these, three regions showed fetal placenta-specific methylation patterns in T21 placenta samples. The methylation patterns of these three regions in the array were confirmed by bisulfite direct sequencing. The three regions were detectable in first-trimester maternal plasma. Moreover, a combination of their methylation ratio achieved high diagnostic accuracy for noninvasive prenatal testing of fetal T21 by further statistical analysis. These three novel regions with fetal placenta-specific differential methylation patterns on chromosome 21 were identified irrespective of the presence of T21. Our findings suggest that epigenetic characteristics of markers according to the presence or absence of T21 should be considered in the development of noninvasive prenatal testing of fetal T21 using fetal placenta-specific epigenetic markers. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lin28b Regulates Fetal Regulatory T Cell Differentiation through Modulation of TGF-β Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronevetsky, Yelena; Burt, Trevor D; McCune, Joseph M

    2016-12-01

    Immune tolerance between the fetus and mother represents an active process by which the developing fetus must not mount immune responses to noninherited Ags on chimeric maternal cells that reside in fetal tissue. This is, in part, mediated by the suppressive influence of CD4(+)FOXP3(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Fetal secondary lymphoid organs have an increased frequency of Tregs and, as compared with adult T cells, fetal naive CD4(+) T cells exhibit a strong predisposition to differentiate into Tregs when stimulated. This effect is mediated by the TCR and TGF-β pathways, and fetal T cells show significantly increased Treg differentiation in response to anti-CD3 and TGF-β stimulation. Naive fetal T cells also exhibit increased signaling through the TGF-β pathway, with these cells demonstrating increased expression of the signaling mediators TGF-βRI, TGF-βRIII, and SMAD2, and higher levels of SMAD2/SMAD3 phosphorylation. Increased fetal Treg differentiation is mediated by the RNA-binding protein Lin28b, which is overexpressed in fetal T cells as compared with adult cells. When Lin28b expression is decreased in naive fetal T cells, they exhibit decreased Treg differentiation that is associated with decreased TGF-β signaling and lowered expression of TGF-βRI, TGF-βRIII, and SMAD2. Lin28b regulates the maturation of let-7 microRNAs, and these TGF-β signaling mediators are let-7 targets. We hypothesize that loss of Lin28b expression in fetal T cells leads to increased mature let-7, which causes decreased expression of TGF-βRI, TGF-βRIII, and SMAD2 proteins. A reduction in TGF-β signaling leads to reduced Treg numbers. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Fetal fibroblasts and keratinocytes with immunosuppressive properties for allogeneic cell-based wound therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Zuliani

    Full Text Available Fetal skin heals rapidly without scar formation early in gestation, conferring to fetal skin cells a high and unique potential for tissue regeneration and scar management. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using fetal fibroblasts and keratinocytes to stimulate wound repair and regeneration for further allogeneic cell-based therapy development. From a single fetal skin sample, two clinical batches of keratinocytes and fibroblasts were manufactured and characterized. Tolerogenic properties of the fetal cells were investigated by allogeneic PBMC proliferation tests. In addition, the potential advantage of fibroblasts/keratinocytes co-application for wound healing stimulation has been examined in co-culture experiments with in vitro scratch assays and a multiplex cytokines array system. Based on keratin 14 and prolyl-4-hydroxylase expression analyses, purity of both clinical batches was found to be above 98% and neither melanocytes nor Langerhans cells could be detected. Both cell types demonstrated strong immunosuppressive properties as shown by the dramatic decrease in allogeneic PBMC proliferation when co-cultured with fibroblasts and/or keratinocytes. We further showed that the indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO activity is required for the immunoregulatory activity of fetal skin cells. Co-cultures experiments have also revealed that fibroblasts-keratinocytes interactions strongly enhanced fetal cells secretion of HGF, GM-CSF, IL-8 and to a lesser extent VEGF-A. Accordingly, in the in vitro scratch assays the fetal fibroblasts and keratinocytes co-culture accelerated the scratch closure compared to fibroblast or keratinocyte mono-cultures. In conclusion, our data suggest that the combination of fetal keratinocytes and fibroblasts could be of particular interest for the development of a new allogeneic skin substitute with immunomodulatory activity, acting as a reservoir for wound healing growth factors.

  19. Effects of pioglitazone on cognition function and expression of TNF-α and Aβ in hippocampal tissues of diabetic rats%吡格列酮对糖尿病大鼠认知功能及海马组织TNF-α、Aβ的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向慧; 徐寒松; 赵胜

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the effects of pioglitazone on cognition function and expression of tumor necrosis factorα(TNF-α) and β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) in hippocampal tissues of diabetic rats. METHODS Forty-five Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group, diabetic model group, and pioglitazone treatment group. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model was established. In the pioglitazone treatment group, the rats were treated with pioglitazone for 12 weeks. The cognition ability of rats was assayed with the Morris water maze test. The expression of TNF-α and Aβ was detected by ELISA. RFSULTS The Morris water maze test showed that escape latency was longer in the pioglitazone treatment group and the diabetic model group than that in the normal control group (P<0. 05), Compared with the diabetic model group, the pioglitazone treatment group showed a significant decrease in the mean time of escape latencies (P<0. 05), and an increased percentage of time spent in the central area and the more times navigating the original platform position(P<0. 05). The expression of TNF-α and Aβ in the pioglitazone treatment and the diabetic model groups was significantly higher than that in normal group (P<0. 01 ). Compared with diabetic model group, the expression of TNF-α and Aβ in pioglitazone treatment group was decreased(P<0. 05). CONCLUSION There exists impairment of cognitive function in diabetic rats, pioglitazone therapy can improve cognition function in diabetic rat. This may be related to it s effect of decreasing the expression of TNF-α and Aβ.%目的:观察吡格列酮对糖尿病大鼠认知功能及海马组织TNF-α、β-淀粉样蛋白(Aβ)的影响.方法:随机将45只Wistar大鼠分为正常对照组、糖尿病组、吡格列酮组,STZ25mg·kg-1腹腔注射建立糖尿病大鼠模型,给予吡格列酮10mg·kg-1·d-1灌胃干预12周后,采用Morris水迷宫试验测试其认知能力,ELISA法检测各组大鼠海马组织TNF-α

  20. Fetal microchimerism and maternal health: a review and evolutionary analysis of cooperation and conflict beyond the womb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddy, Amy M; Fortunato, Angelo; Wilson Sayres, Melissa; Aktipis, Athena

    2015-10-01

    The presence of fetal cells has been associated with both positive and negative effects on maternal health. These paradoxical effects may be due to the fact that maternal and offspring fitness interests are aligned in certain domains and conflicting in others, which may have led to the evolution of fetal microchimeric phenotypes that can manipulate maternal tissues. We use cooperation and conflict theory to generate testable predictions about domains in which fetal microchimerism may enhance maternal health and those in which it may be detrimental. This framework suggests that fetal cells may function both to contribute to maternal somatic maintenance (e.g. wound healing) and to manipulate maternal physiology to enhance resource transmission to offspring (e.g. enhancing milk production). In this review, we use an evolutionary framework to make testable predictions about the role of fetal microchimerism in lactation, thyroid function, autoimmune disease, cancer and maternal emotional, and psychological health. Also watch the Video Abstract.

  1. Fetal iron deficiency induces chromatin remodeling at the Bdnf locus in adult rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phu V; Kennedy, Bruce C; Lien, Yu-Chin; Simmons, Rebecca A; Georgieff, Michael K

    2015-02-15

    Fetal and subsequent early postnatal iron deficiency causes persistent impairments in cognitive and affective behaviors despite prompt postnatal iron repletion. The long-term cognitive impacts are accompanied by persistent downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a factor critical for hippocampal plasticity across the life span. This study determined whether early-life iron deficiency epigenetically modifies the Bdnf locus and whether dietary choline supplementation during late gestation reverses these modifications. DNA methylation and histone modifications were assessed at the Bdnf-IV promoter in the hippocampus of rats [at postnatal day (PND) 65] that were iron-deficient (ID) during the fetal-neonatal period. Iron deficiency was induced in rat pups by providing pregnant and nursing dams an ID diet (4 mg/kg Fe) from gestational day (G) 2 through PND7, after which iron deficiency was treated with an iron-sufficient (IS) diet (200 mg/kg Fe). This paradigm resulted in about 60% hippocampal iron loss on PND15 with complete recovery by PND65. For choline supplementation, pregnant rat dams were given dietary choline (5 g/kg) from G11 through G18. DNA methylation was determined by quantitative sequencing of bisulfite-treated DNA, revealing a small alteration at the Bdnf-IV promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed increased HDAC1 binding accompanied by reduced binding of RNA polymerase II and USF1 at the Bdnf-IV promoter in formerly ID rats. These changes were correlated with altered histone methylations. Prenatal choline supplementation reverses these epigenetic modifications. Collectively, the findings identify epigenetic modifications as a potential mechanism to explicate the long-term repression of Bdnf following fetal and early postnatal iron deficiency.

  2. Fetal evaluation of spine dysraphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulas, Dorothy [George Washington University Medical Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Spinal dysraphism or neural tube defects (NTD) encompass a heterogeneous group of congenital spinal anomalies that result from the defective closure of the neural tube early in gestation with anomalous development of the caudal cell mass. Advances in ultrasound and MRI have dramatically improved the diagnosis and therapy of spinal dysraphism and caudal spinal anomalies both prenatally and postnatally. Advances in prenatal US including high frequency linear transducers and three dimensional imaging can provide detailed information concerning spinal anomalies. MR imaging is a complementary tool that can further elucidate spine abnormalities as well as associated central nervous system and non-CNS anomalies. Recent studies have suggested that 3-D CT can help further assess fetal spine anomalies in the third trimester. With the advent of fetal therapy including surgery, accurate prenatal diagnosis of open and closed spinal dysraphism becomes critical in appropriate counselling and perinatal management. (orig.)

  3. Fetal origin of vascular aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Pitale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is increasingly regarded as an independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension and their complications (e.g. MI and Stroke. It is well known that vascular disease evolve over decades with progressive accumulation of cellular and extracellular materials and many inflammatory processes. Metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are conventionally recognized as risk factors for development of coronary vascular disease (CVD. These conditions are known to accelerate ageing process in general and vascular ageing in particular. Adverse events during intrauterine life may programme organ growth and favour disease later in life, popularly known as, ′Barker′s Hypothesis′. The notion of fetal programming implies that during critical periods of prenatal growth, changes in the hormonal and nutritional milieu of the conceptus may alter the full expression of the fetal genome, leading to permanent effects on a range of physiological.

  4. Fetal surgery for spina bifida: past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzick, N Scott

    2013-02-01

    Open spina bifida or myelomeningocele (MMC) is a common birth defect that is associated with significant lifelong morbidity. Little progress has been made in the postnatal surgical management of the child with spina bifida. Postnatal surgery is aimed at covering the exposed spinal cord, preventing infection, and treating hydrocephalus with a ventricular shunt. Experimental and clinical evidence suggest that the primary cause of the neurologic defects associated with MMC is not simply incomplete neurulation, but rather chronic, mechanical and amniotic-fluid induced chemical trauma that progressively damages the exposed neural tissue during gestation. The cerebrospinal fluid leak through the MMC leads to hindbrain herniation and hydrocephalus. In utero repair of open spina bifida is now performed in selected patients and presents an additional therapeutic alternative for expectant mothers carrying a fetus with MMC. In the past, studies in animal models and clinical case series laid the groundwork for a clinical trial to test the safety and efficacy of fetal MMC repair. In the present, a prospective, randomized study (the MOMS trial) has shown that fetal surgery for MMC before 26 weeks' gestation may preserve neurologic function, reverse the hindbrain herniation of the Chiari II malformation, and obviate the need for postnatal placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. However, this study also demonstrates that fetal surgery is associated with significant risks related to the uterine scar and premature birth. In the future, research will expand our understanding of the pathophysiology of MMC, evaluate the long-term impact of in-utero intervention, and to refine timing and technique of fetal MMC surgery using tissue engineering technology.

  5. Schwann cell cultures from human fetal dorsal root ganglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaping Feng; Hui Zhu; Jiang Hao; Xinmin Wang; Shengping Wu; Li Bai; Xiangming Li; Yun Zha

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Previous studies have used many methods for in vitro Schwann cells (SCs) cul-tures and purification,such as single cell suspension and cytosine arabinoside.However,it has been difficult to obtain sufficient cellular density,and the procedures have been quite tedious.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the feasibility of culturing high-density SCs using fetal human dorsal root ganglion tissue explants.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:Cell culture and immunohistochemistry were performed at the Cen-tral Laboratory of Kunming General Hospital of Chinese PLA between March 2001 and October 2008.MATERIALS:Culture media containing 10% fetal bovine serum,as well as 0.2% collagenase and 0.25% trypsin were purchased from Gibco,USA;mouse anti-human S-100 monoclonal antibody and goat anti-mouse IgG labeled with horseradish peroxidase were provided by Beijing Institute of Bi-ological Products,China.METHODS:Primarily cultured SCs were dissociated from dorsal root ganglia of human aborted fe-tuses at 4-6 months pregnancy.Following removal of the dorsal root ganglion perineurium,the gan-glia were dissected into tiny pieces and digested with 0.2% collagenase and 0.25% trypsin (volume ratio 1:1),then explanted and cultured.SC purification was performed with 5 mL 10% fetal bovine serum added to the culture media,followed by differential adhesion.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:SCs morphology was observed under inverted phase contrast light microscopy.SC purity was evaluated according to percentage of S-100 immunostained cells.RESULTS:SCs were primarily cultured for 5-6 days and then subcultured for 4-5 passages.The highly enriched SC population reached > 95% purity and presented with normal morphology.CONCLUSION:A high purity of SCs was obtained with culture methods using human fetal dorsal root ganglion tissue explants.

  6. Fetal middle cerebral artery blood flow characteristics of gestational hypertension combined with fetal distress in uterus as well as their correlation with hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yin; Jian-Hua Wang

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the fetal middle cerebral artery blood flow characteristics of gestational hypertension combined with fetal distress in uterus as well as their correlation with hypoxia. Methods: Puerperae with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and fetal distress in uterus, puerperae with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy alone and healthy puerperae who gave birth in our hospital between January 2013 and January 2016 were included in group A, group B and group C of the study respectively. At 34-36 weeks of pregnancy, color Doppler ultrasonography was conducted to determine fetal middle cerebral artery blood flow parameters; after childbirth, umbilical arterial blood was collected to determine blood gas analysis parameters, and the placenta tissue was collected to determine oxidative stress and mitochondria damage indexes.Results:Fetal middle cerebral artery S/D, PI and RI of group A were significantly higher than those of group B and group C while umbilical artery pH value and PaO2 as well as HCO3- and BE content were significantly lower than those of group B and group C; fetal middle cerebral artery S/D, PI and RI as well as umbilical artery pH value, PaO2, HCO3- and BE content of group B were not significantly different from those of group C; Nrf2, ARE, NQO1, VitC, SVCT1, SVCT2, ATP, PGC-1α, PGC-1β, NRF1 and NRF2 content in placenta tissue of group A were significantly lower than those of group B and group C while ROS content was significantly higher than those of group B and group C; Nrf2, ARE, NQO1, VitC, SVCT1, SVCT2, ATP, PGC-1α, PGC-1β, NRF1 and NRF2 content in placenta tissue of group B were significantly lower than those of group C while ROS content was significantly higher than that of group C. Fetal middle cerebral artery S/D, PI and RI were negatively correlated with umbilical artery pH value, PaO2, HCO3- and BE content as well as Nrf2, ARE, NQO1, VitC, SVCT1, SVCT2, ATP, PGC-1α, PGC-1β, NRF1 and NRF2 content, and were positively correlated

  7. Myelin-specific T helper 17 cells promote adult hippocampal neurogenesis through indirect mechanisms [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3ny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Niebling

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CD4+ T cells provide a neuro-immunological link in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but the exact mechanisms underlying enhanced neural precursor cell proliferation and the relative contribution of different T helper (Th cell subsets have remained unclear. Here, we explored the proneurogenic potential of interleukin 17-producing T helper (Th17 cells, a developmentally and functionally distinct Th cell subset that is a key mediator of autoimmune neurodegeneration. We found that base-line proliferation of hippocampal precursor cells in a T cell-deficient mouse model of impaired hippocampal neurogenesis can be restored upon adoptive transfer with homogeneous Th17 populations enriched for myelin-reactive T cell receptors. In these experiments, enhanced proliferation was independent of direct interactions of infiltrating Th17 cells with precursor cells or neighboring cells in the hippocampal neurogenic niche. Complementary studies in immunocompetent mice identified several receptors for Th17 cell-derived cytokines with mRNA expression in hippocampal precursor cells and dentate gyrus tissue, suggesting that Th17 cell activity in peripheral lymphoid tissues might promote hippocampal neurogenesis through secreted cytokines.

  8. Alzheimer's disease susceptibility genes APOE and TOMM40, and hippocampal volumes in the Lothian birth cohort 1936.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M Lyall

    Full Text Available The APOE ε and TOMM40 rs10524523 ('523' variable length poly-T repeat gene loci have been significantly and independently associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD related phenotypes such as age of clinical onset. Hippocampal atrophy has been significantly associated with memory impairment, a characteristic of AD. The current study aimed to test for independent effects of APOE ε and TOMM40 '523' genotypes on hippocampal volumes as assessed by brain structural MRI in a relatively large sample of community-dwelling older adults. As part of a longitudinal study of cognitive ageing, participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 underwent genotyping for APOE ε2/ε3/ε4 status and TOMM40 '523' poly-T repeat length, and detailed structural brain MRI at a mean age of 72.7 years (standard deviation = 0.7, N range = 624 to 636. No significant effects of APOE ε or TOMM40 523 genotype were found on hippocampal volumes when analysed raw, or when adjusted for either intracranial or total brain tissue volumes. In summary, in a large community-dwelling sample of older adults, we found no effects of APOE ε or TOMM40 523 genotypes on hippocampal volumes. This is discrepant with some previous reports of significant association between APOE and left/right hippocampal volumes, and instead echoes other reports that found no association. Previous significant findings may partly reflect type 1 error. Future studies should carefully consider: 1 their specific techniques in adjusting for brain size; 2 assessing more detailed sub-divisions of the hippocampal formation; and 3 testing whether significant APOE-hippocampal associations are independent of generalised brain atrophy.

  9. Alzheimer’s Disease Susceptibility Genes APOE and TOMM40, and Hippocampal Volumes in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Donald M.; Royle, Natalie A.; Harris, Sarah E.; Bastin, Mark E.; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Murray, Catherine; Lutz, Michael W.; Saunders, Ann M.; Roses, Allen D.; del Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; Starr, John M.; Porteous, David. J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2013-01-01

    The APOE ε and TOMM40 rs10524523 (‘523’) variable length poly-T repeat gene loci have been significantly and independently associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) related phenotypes such as age of clinical onset. Hippocampal atrophy has been significantly associated with memory impairment, a characteristic of AD. The current study aimed to test for independent effects of APOE ε and TOMM40 ‘523’ genotypes on hippocampal volumes as assessed by brain structural MRI in a relatively large sample of community-dwelling older adults. As part of a longitudinal study of cognitive ageing, participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 underwent genotyping for APOE ε2/ε3/ε4 status and TOMM40 ‘523’ poly-T repeat length, and detailed structural brain MRI at a mean age of 72.7 years (standard deviation = 0.7, N range = 624 to 636). No significant effects of APOE ε or TOMM40 523 genotype were found on hippocampal volumes when analysed raw, or when adjusted for either intracranial or total brain tissue volumes. In summary, in a large community-dwelling sample of older adults, we found no effects of APOE ε or TOMM40 523 genotypes on hippocampal volumes. This is discrepant with some previous reports of significant association between APOE and left/right hippocampal volumes, and instead echoes other reports that found no association. Previous significant findings may partly reflect type 1 error. Future studies should carefully consider: 1) their specific techniques in adjusting for brain size; 2) assessing more detailed sub-divisions of the hippocampal formation; and 3) testing whether significant APOE-hippocampal associations are independent of generalised brain atrophy. PMID:24260406

  10. Fetal growth and developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galjaard, Sander; Devlieger, Roland; Van Assche, Frans A

    2013-01-01

    The environment in utero and in early neonatal life may induce a permanent response in the fetus and the newborn, leading to enhanced susceptibility to later diseases. This review concentrates on the role and mechanisms of events during the antenatal and immediate postnatal period resulting in later life diseases, concentrating on abnormal growth patterns of the fetus. Fetal overgrowth is related to exposure to a diabetic intra uterine environment, increasing the vulnerability to transgenerational obesity and hence an increased sensitivity to more diabetic mothers. This effect has been supported by animal data. Fetal growth restriction is complex due to malnutrition in utero, catch up growth due to a high caloric intake and low physical activity in later life. Metabolic changes and a transgenerational effect of intra uterine malnutrition has been supported by animal data. In recent years the discovery of alterations of the genome due to different influences during embryonic life, called epigenetics, has led to the phenomenon of fetal programming resulting in changing transgenerational metabolic effects.

  11. Electroacupuncture at Du channel and meridian of foot- Taiyang for hippocampal neurons in rats with depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Pi; Wenshu Luo; Lihong Diao; Xiaodan Rao; Haibo Yu; Zhuoxin Yang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term anti-depression treatment can promote the regeneration of hippocampal regeneration. Up-regulation of hippocampal regeneration can reverse or prevent against the injury of stress to cerebrum, especially to hippocampal structure and function. Therefore, promoting hippocampal neuronal regeneration may be a new strategy for treating depression and anxiety.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electro-acupuncture at Du channel and meridian of foot-Taiyang on hippocampal neurons from model rats of depression.DESIGN: A randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Shenzhen Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: Twenty-four Wistar rats, of either gender, aged 2 months old, weighing 200 - 220 g, were provided by the Animal Experimental Center, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Clinical Molecular Biochemical Laboratory, Shenzhen Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine between October 2006 and April 2007.①The involved rats were randomized into 4 groups according to body mass: blank control group,model group, electroacupuncture A group and electroacupuncture B group, with 6 in each. Rats in the blank control group were free to access to water, and were not given any intervention. Rats in the latter 3 groups were developed into rat depression models by chronic stress combined with feeding alone, and received 21-day unpredictable various stresses. Rats in the model group were euthanized at 14 days after modeling,and their brain tissues were harvested. Rats in the electroacupuncture A group were modeled, then points "Baihui" and "Shenting" were chosen, and given electroacupuncture, once a day, 20 minutes once. Rats in the electroacupuncture B group were modeled, then points "Baihui", "Shenting", "Xinshu"and "Ganshu" were chosen, and frequency and therapeutic time were

  12. Fetal magnetic resonance: technique applications and normal fetal anatomy; Resonance magnetica fetal: tecnica aplicaciones y anatomia normal del feto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Darnell, A.; Duran, C.; Mellado, F.; Corona, M [Corporacio Sanitaria del Parc Tauli. Sabadell (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Ultrasonography is the preferred diagnostic imaging technique for intrauterine fetal examination. Nevertheless, circumstances sometimes dictate the use of other techniques in order to analyze fetal structures. The advent of ultra rapid magnetic resonance (MR) sequencing has led to the possibility of doing MR fetal studies, since images are obtained in an extradordiarily short time and are not affected by either maternal or fetal movements. It does not employ ionizing radiations, it provides high-contrast images and it can obtain such images in any plane of space without being influenced by either the child bearer's physical characteristics of fetal position. MR provides good quality images of most fetal organs. It is extremely useful in analysing distinct structures, as well as permitting an evaluation of cervical structures, lungs, diaphragms, intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal structures, and fetal extremities. It can also provide useful information regarding the placenta,umbilical cord, amniotic fluid and uterus. The objective of this work is to describe MR technique as applied to intrauterine fetal examination, and to illustrate normal fetal anatomy as manifested by MR and its applications. (Author) 42 refs.

  13. Fetal Behavior and Heart Rate in Twin Pregnancy : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendais, Iva; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Figueiredo, Barbara; Montenegro, Nuno; Mulder, Eduard J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal movements and fetal heart rate (FHR) are well-established markers of fetal well-being and maturation of the fetal central nervous system. The purpose of this paper is to review and discuss the available knowledge on fetal movements and heart rate patterns in twin pregnancies. There is some evi

  14. Food restriction modifies ultrastructure of hippocampal synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babits, Réka; Szőke, Balázs; Sótonyi, Péter; Rácz, Bence

    2016-04-01

    Consumption of high-energy diets may compromise health and may also impair cognition; these impairments have been linked to tasks that require hippocampal function. Conversely, food restriction has been shown to improve certain aspects of hippocampal function, including spatial memory and memory persistence. These diet-dependent functional changes raise the possibility that the synaptic structure underlying hippocampal function is also affected. To examine how short-term food restriction (FR) alters the synaptic structure of the hippocampus, we used quantitative electron microscopy to analyze the organization of neuropil in the CA1 stratum radiatum of the hippocampus in young rats, consequent to reduced food. While four weeks of FR did not modify the density, size, or shape of postsynaptic spines, the synapses established by these spines were altered, displaying increased mean length, and more frequent perforations of postsynaptic densities. That the number of perforated synapses (believed to be an indicator of synaptic enhancement) increased, and that the CA1 spine population had on average significantly longer PSDs suggests that synaptic efficacy of axospinous synapses also increased in the CA1. Taken together, our ultrastructural data reveal previously unrecognized structural changes at hippocampal synapses as a function of food restriction, supporting a link between metabolic balance and synaptic plasticity.

  15. Relationships between hippocampal activity and breathing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, R M; Poe, G R; Rector, D M;

    1998-01-01

    Single cell discharge, EEG activity, and optical changes accompanying alterations in breathing patterns, as well as the knowledge that respiratory musculature is heavily involved in movement and other behavioral acts, implicate hippocampal regions in some aspects of breathing control. The control...

  16. Nocturnal Mnemonics: Sleep and Hippocampal Memory Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared M. Saletin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available As critical as waking brain function is to learning and memory, an established literature now describes an equally important yet complementary role for sleep in information processing. This overview examines the specific contribution of sleep to human hippocampal memory processing; both the detriments caused by a lack of sleep, and conversely, the proactive benefits that develop following the presence of sleep. First, a role for sleep before learning is discussed, preparing the hippocampus for initial memory encoding. Second, a role for sleep after learning is considered, modulating the post-encoding consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memory. Third, a model is outlined in which these encoding and consolidation operations are symbiotically accomplished, associated with specific NREM sleep physiological oscillations. As a result, the optimal network outcome is achieved, increasing hippocampal independence and hence overnight consolidation, while restoring next-day sparse hippocampal encoding capacity for renewed learning ability upon awakening. Finally, emerging evidence is considered suggesting that, unlike previous conceptions, sleep does not universally consolidate all information equally. Instead, and based on explicit as well as motivational cues during initial encoding, sleep executes the discriminatory offline consolidation only of select information. Consequently, sleep promotes the targeted strengthening of some memories while actively forgetting others; a proposal with significant theoretical and clinical ramifications.

  17. Hippocampal kindling: corticosterone modulation of induced seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloet, E.R. de; Cottrell, G.A.; Nyakas, C.; Bohus, B.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of adrenalectomy (ADX) and corticosterone replacement was studied on seizures induced by hippocampal kindling. A complex series of changes occurred in after-discharge (AD) and behavioural depression (BD) during the immediate hours after ADX, culminating at day 1 in markedly decreased AD a

  18. Stimulus Configuration, Classical Conditioning, and Hippocampal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmajuk, Nestor A.; DiCarlo, James J.

    1991-01-01

    The participation of the hippocampus in classical conditioning is described in terms of a multilayer network portraying stimulus configuration. A model of hippocampal function is presented, and computer simulations are used to study neural activity in the various brain areas mapped according to the model. (SLD)

  19. Hippocampal gamma oscillations increase with memory load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vugt, Marieke K.; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Litt, Brian; Brandt, Armin; Kahana, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Although the hippocampus plays a crucial role in encoding and retrieval of contextually mediated episodic memories, considerable controversy surrounds the role of the hippocampus in short-term or working memory. To examine both hippocampal and neocortical contributions to working memory function, we

  20. Glucocorticoid receptor knockdown and adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijdonk, Leonarda Wilhelmina Antonia van

    2010-01-01

    The research in this thesis is aimed at the elucidation of the role of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in hippocampal neuroplasticity and functioning. To achieve this, we have developed a novel method to specifically knockdown GR in a discrete cell population of the mouse brain. In this thesis I r

  1. Hippocampal theta frequency shifts and operant behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Kamp, A.

    1. 1. A shift of hippocampal dominant theta frequency to 6 c/sec has been demonstrated in the post-reward period in two dogs, which occurs consistently related in time to a well defined behavioural pattern in the course of an operant conditioning paradigm. 2. 2. The frequency shift was detected and

  2. Maternal psychological impact of fetal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklansky, Mark; Tang, Alvin; Levy, Denis; Grossfeld, Paul; Kashani, Iraj; Shaughnessy, Robin; Rothman, Abraham

    2002-02-01

    The maternal psychological impact of fetal echocardiography may be deleterious in the face of newly diagnosed congenital heart disease. This questionnaire-based study prospectively examined the psychological impact of both normal and abnormal fetal echocardiography. Normal fetal echocardiography decreased maternal anxiety, increased happiness, and increased the closeness women felt toward their unborn children. In contrast, when fetal echocardiography detected congenital heart disease, maternal anxiety typically increased, and mothers commonly felt less happy about being pregnant. However, among women who had recently delivered infants with congenital heart disease, those who had had fetal echocardiography during the pregnancy felt less responsible for their infants' defects and tended to have improved their relationships with the infants' fathers after the prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease. Further study of the psychological and medical impact of fetal echocardiography will be necessary to define and optimize the clinical value of this powerful diagnostic tool.

  3. Successful delivery of fetus with fetal inherited thrombophilia after two fetal deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juras, Josip; Ivanisević, Marina; Oresković, Slavko; Mihaljević, Slobodan; Vujić, Goran; Delmis, Josip

    2013-12-01

    A pregnant woman with inherited thrombophilia (factor II mutation--20210A) had two late pregnancy losses. The first pregnancy was not well documented, but the second pregnancy was complicated by fetal thrombophilia and umbilical artery thrombosis, proven after fetal death. During the third pregnancy enoxaparine was introduced in the therapy and early amniocentesis was performed. Fetal thrombophilia was proven again. Early delivery was induced and performed with no complications, resulting in a live healthy infant. A history of miscarriages or recurrent fetal loss should raise suspicion of thrombophilia as a potential cause. It is debatable whether amniocentesis in pursuit of fetal thrombophilia should be performed and whether this will lead to a better perinatal outcome. When fetal thrombophilia is diagnosed, an earlier induction of delivery should be considered, taking into account the fetal extrauterine viability. The aforementioned approach of early delivery in cases of inherited fetal thrombophilia could be a possible solution for better perinatal outcomes.

  4. Fetal macrosomia as an important indicator of fetal malformation syndrome: ultrasonic findings of two cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PA de Jong; MD E.J.M. Wouters; EA Pley

    1989-01-01

    Two extraordinary cases of fetal macrosomia are presented. It is discussed that extreme fetal growth should raise the suspicion of a malformation syndrome and deserves thorough antenatal ultrasonographic examination.

  5. Dentate gyrus expression of nestin-immunoreactivity in patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessio, L; Konopka, H; Escobar, E; Acuña, A; Oddo, S; Solís, P; Seoane, E; Kochen, S

    2015-04-01

    Granule cells pathology in dentate gyrus, have received considerable attention in terms of understanding the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine the nestin (an intermediate filament protein expressed by newly formed cells), immunoreactivity (IR) in granular cells layers of hippocampal tissue extirpated during epilepsy surgical procedure, in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Hippocampal sections of 16 patients with hippocampal sclerosis and drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy were processed using immunoperoxidase with antibody to nestin. Archival material from 8 normal post-mortem hippocampus, were simultaneously processed. Reactive area for nestin-IR, the total number of positive nestin cells per field (20×), and the MGV (mean gray value) was determined by computerized image analysis (ImageJ), and compared between groups. Student's t test was used for statistical analysis. Nestin-IR cells were found in granule cells layers of both controls and patients. Larger reactive somas (p dentate gyrus may reflect changes in dentate gyrus neuroplasticity associated to chronic temporal epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. Further studies are required to determine the clinical implications on memory an emotional alterations such as depression. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ZD7288, a selective hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel blocker, inhibits hippocampal synaptic plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-xue Zhang; Xiao-chun Min; Xu-lin Xu; Min Zheng; Lian-jun Guo

    2016-01-01

    The selective hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel blocker 4-(N-ethyl-N-phenylamino)-1,2-dimeth-yl-6-(methylamino) pyrimidinium chloride (ZD7288) blocks the induction of long-term potentiation in the perforant path–CA3 region in rat hippocampusin vivo. To explore the mechanisms underlying the action of ZD7288, we recorded excitatory postsynaptic potentials in perforant path–CA3 synapses in male Sprague-Dawley rats. We measured glutamate content in the hippocampus and in cultured hip-pocampal neurons using high performance liquid chromatography, and determined intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) using Fura-2. ZD7288 inhibited the induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation, and these effects were mirrored by the nonspeciifc HCN channel blocker cesium. ZD7288 also decreased glutamate release in hippocampal tissue and in cultured hippocampal neurons. Further-more, ZD7288 attenuated glutamate-induced rises in [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner and reversed 8-Br-cAMP-mediated facilitation of these glutamate-induced [Ca2+]i rises. Our results suggest that ZD7288 inhibits hippocampal synaptic plasticity both gluta-mate release and resultant [Ca2+]i increases in rat hippocampal neurons.

  7. Fully automated atlas-based hippocampal volumetry for detection of Alzheimer's disease in a memory clinic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppa, Per; Anker, Ulrich; Spies, Lothar; Bopp, Irene; Rüegger-Frey, Brigitte; Klaghofer, Richard; Gocke, Carola; Hampel, Harald; Beck, Sacha; Buchert, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal volume is a promising biomarker to enhance the accuracy of the diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whereas hippocampal volume is well studied in patient samples from clinical trials, its value in clinical routine patient care is still rather unclear. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to evaluate fully automated atlas-based hippocampal volumetry for detection of AD in the setting of a secondary care expert memory clinic for outpatients. One-hundred consecutive patients with memory complaints were clinically evaluated and categorized into three diagnostic groups: AD, intermediate AD, and non-AD. A software tool based on open source software (Statistical Parametric Mapping SPM8) was employed for fully automated tissue segmentation and stereotactical normalization of high-resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Predefined standard masks were used for computation of grey matter volume of the left and right hippocampus which then was scaled to the patient's total grey matter volume. The right hippocampal volume provided an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 84% for detection of AD patients in the whole sample. This indicates that fully automated MR-based hippocampal volumetry fulfills the requirements for a relevant core feasible biomarker for detection of AD in everyday patient care in a secondary care memory clinic for outpatients. The software used in the present study has been made freely available as an SPM8 toolbox. It is robust and fast so that it is easily integrated into routine workflow.

  8. Placental Histopathologic Changes Associated with Subclinical Malaria Infection and Its Impact on the Fetal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Falgunee K.; Davison, Billie B.; Gamboa, Dionicia; Hernandez, Jean; Branch, OraLee H.

    2010-01-01

    Microscopic examination of placental tissue can provide an accurate assessment of malaria infection during pregnancy. In this cross-sectional study of 193 women in Iquitos, Peru, 1.0% and 6.6% had parasites in the peripheral blood as detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction, respectively. However, 22% had placental malaria pigment indicating past, subclinical infections. Placental tissues with pigment from 24 cases were matched by gravidity and month of delivery to 24 controls and histopathologically examined. Cases had significantly higher number of monocytes in the intervillous space (44.7 versus 25.5; P = 0.012). Pigmented monocytes in fetal vessels were present in 33.3% of cases. This study demonstrated that subclinical malarial infection occurred frequently in pregnant women and is associated with increased presence of monocytes in the placenta. Pigmented monocytes in fetal vessels suggest parasites can breach the placental barrier and enter the fetal circulation. PMID:21036823

  9. Altered fetal growth, placental abnormalities, and stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek; Hansen, Nellie I; Pinar, Halit; Willinger, Marian; Reddy, Uma M; Parker, Corette B; Silver, Robert M; Dudley, Donald J; Stoll, Barbara J; Saade, George R; Koch, Matthew A; Hogue, Carol; Varner, Michael W; Conway, Deborah L; Coustan, Donald; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, stillbirth is one of the leading causes of death. Altered fetal growth and placental abnormalities are the strongest and most prevalent known risk factors for stillbirth. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of association between placental abnormalities, fetal growth, and stillbirth. Population-based case-control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in 5 geographic areas in the U.S. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small (90th percentile) for gestational age at death (stillbirth) or delivery (live birth) using a published algorithm. Placental examination by perinatal pathologists was performed using a standardized protocol. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design. Among 319 singleton stillbirths and 1119 singleton live births at ≥24 weeks at death or delivery respectively, 25 placental findings were investigated. Fifteen findings were significantly associated with stillbirth. Ten of the 15 were also associated with fetal growth abnormalities (single umbilical artery; velamentous insertion; terminal villous immaturity; retroplacental hematoma; parenchymal infarction; intraparenchymal thrombus; avascular villi; placental edema; placental weight; ratio birth weight/placental weight) while 5 of the 15 associated with stillbirth were not associated with fetal growth abnormalities (acute chorioamnionitis of placental membranes; acute chorioamionitis of chorionic plate; chorionic plate vascular degenerative changes; perivillous, intervillous fibrin, fibrinoid deposition; fetal vascular thrombi in the chorionic plate). Five patterns were observed: placental findings associated with (1) stillbirth but not fetal growth abnormalities; (2) fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths only; (3) fetal growth abnormalities in live births only; (4) fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths and live births in a similar manner; (5) a different pattern of fetal growth abnormalities in

  10. Right ventricular nitric oxide signaling in an ovine model of congenital heart disease: a preserved fetal phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameny, Rebecca Johnson; He, Youping; Morris, Catherine; Sun, Christine; Johengen, Michael; Gong, Wenhui; Raff, Gary W; Datar, Sanjeev A; Oishi, Peter E; Fineman, Jeffrey R

    2015-07-01

    We recently reported superior right ventricle (RV) performance in response to acute afterload challenge in lambs with a model of congenital heart disease with chronic left-to-right cardiac shunts. Compared with control animals, shunt lambs demonstrated increased contractility because of an enhanced Anrep effect (the slow increase in contractility following myocyte stretch). This advantageous physiological response may reflect preservation of a fetal phenotype, since the RV of shunt lambs remains exposed to increased pressure postnatally. Nitric oxide (NO) production by NO synthase (NOS) is activated by myocyte stretch and is a necessary intermediary of the Anrep response. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that NO signaling is increased in the RV of fetal lambs compared with controls and shunt lambs have persistence of this fetal pattern. An 8-mm graft was placed between the pulmonary artery and aorta in fetal lambs (shunt). NOS isoform expression, activity, and association with activating cofactors were determined in fetal tissue obtained during late-gestation and in 4-wk-old juvenile shunt and control lambs. We demonstrated increased RNA and protein expression of NOS isoforms and increased total NOS activity in the RV of both shunt and fetal lambs compared with control. We also found increased NOS activation and association with cofactors in shunt and fetal RV compared with control. These data demonstrate preserved fetal NOS phenotype and NO signaling in shunt RV, which may partially explain the mechanism underlying the adaptive response to increased afterload seen in the RV of shunt lambs.

  11. Selective regulation of axonal growth from developing hippocampal neurons by tumor necrosis factor superfamily member APRIL☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Catarina; Chacón, Pedro J.; White, Matthew; Kisiswa, Lilian; Wyatt, Sean; Rodríguez-Tébar, Alfredo; Davies, Alun M.

    2014-01-01

    APRIL (A Proliferation-Inducing Ligand, TNFSF13) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that regulates lymphocyte survival and activation and has been implicated in tumorigenesis and autoimmune diseases. Here we report the expression and first known activity of APRIL in the nervous system. APRIL and one of its receptors, BCMA (B-Cell Maturation Antigen, TNFRSF17), are expressed by hippocampal pyramidal cells of fetal and postnatal mice. In culture, these neurons secreted APRIL, and function-blocking antibodies to either APRIL or BCMA reduced axonal elongation. Recombinant APRIL enhanced axonal elongation, but did not influence dendrite elongation. The effect of APRIL on axon elongation was inhibited by anti-BCMA and the expression of a signaling-defective BCMA mutant in these neurons, suggesting that the axon growth-promoting effect of APRIL is mediated by BCMA. APRIL promoted phosphorylation and activation of ERK1, ERK2 and Akt and serine phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3β in cultured hippocampal pyramidal cells. Inhibition of MEK1/MEK2 (activators of ERK1/ERK2), PI3-kinase (activator of Akt) or Akt inhibited the axon growth-promoting action of APRIL, as did pharmacological activation of GSK-3β and the expression of a constitutively active form of GSK-3β. These findings suggest that APRIL promotes axon elongation by a mechanism that depends both on ERK signaling and PI3-kinase/Akt/GSK-3β signaling. PMID:24444792

  12. Updating the lamellar hypothesis of hippocampal organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Sloviter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1971, Andersen and colleagues proposed that excitatory activity in the entorhinal cortex propagates topographically to the dentate gyrus, and on through a trisynaptic circuit lying within transverse hippocampal slices or lamellae [Andersen, Bliss, and Skrede. 1971. Lamellar organization of hippocampal pathways. Exp Brain Res 13, 222-238]. In this way, a relatively simple structure might mediate complex functions in a manner analogous to the way independent piano keys can produce a nearly infinite variety of unique outputs. The lamellar hypothesis derives primary support from the lamellar distribution of dentate granule cell axons (the mossy fibers, which innervate dentate hilar neurons and area CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons within the confines of a thin transverse hippocampal segment. Following the initial formulation of the lamellar hypothesis, anatomical studies revealed that unlike granule cells, hilar mossy cells, CA3 pyramidal cells, and Layer II entorhinal cells all form axonal projections that are more divergent along the longitudinal axis than the clearly lamellar mossy fiber pathway. The existence of pathways with translamellar distribution patterns has been interpreted, incorrectly in our view, as justifying outright rejection of the lamellar hypothesis [Amaral and Witter. 1989. The three-dimensional organization of the hippocampal formation: a review of anatomical data. Neuroscience 31, 571-591]. We suggest that the functional implications of longitudinally-projecting axons depend not on whether they exist, but on what they do. The observation that focal granule cell layer discharges normally inhibit, rather than excite, distant granule cells suggests that longitudinal axons in the dentate gyrus may mediate "lateral" inhibition and define lamellar function, rather than undermine it. In this review, we attempt a reconsideration of the evidence that most directly impacts the physiological concept of hippocampal lamellar

  13. Immunohistochemical localization of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in the human fetal and adult male reproductive tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschenbaum, A; Liotta, D R; Yao, S; Liu, X H; Klausner, A P; Unger, P; Shapiro, E; Leav, I; Levine, A C

    2000-09-01

    The first rate-limiting step in the conversion of arachidonic acid to PGs is catalyzed by cyclooxygenase (Cox). Two isoforms of Cox have been identified, Cox-1 (constitutively expressed) and Cox-2 (inducible form), which are the products of two different genes. In this study we describe the immunohistochemical localization of Cox-1 and -2 in the human male fetal and adult reproductive tracts. There was no Cox-1 expression in fetal samples (prostate, seminal vesicles, or ejaculatory ducts), and only minimal expression in adult tissues. There was no expression of Cox-2 in the fetal prostate. In a prepubertal prostate there was some Cox-2 expression that localized exclusively to the smooth muscle cells of the transition zone. In adult hyperplastic prostates, Cox-2 was strongly expressed in smooth muscle cells, with no expression in the luminal epithelial cells. Cox-2 was strongly expressed in epithelial cells of both fetal and adult seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts. The Cox-2 staining intensity in the fetal ejaculatory ducts during various times of gestation correlated with previously reported testosterone production rates by the fetal testis. These data indicate that Cox-2 is the predominant isoform expressed in the fetal male reproductive tract, and its expression may be regulated by androgens. The distinct cell type-specific expression patterns of Cox-2 in the prostate (smooth muscle) vs. the seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts (epithelium) may reflect the different roles of PGs in these tissues.

  14. Isolated Fetal Ascite Associated with Cardiac Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vehbi Doğan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fetal ascite is defined as fluid accumulation in peritoneal cavity. It can be seen as isolated disease or an early sign of hydrops fetalis. Once fetal ascite is detected, a careful examination for hydops fetalis and possible underlying disease is necessary, since its prognosis and treatment depends mostly on the cause. Non-immunologic fetal ascite is an uncommon problem occurring for many reasons, such as urinary tract obstruction, congenital infections, genetic and metabolic diseases, gastrointestinal diseases and cardiovascular diseases. Here in this report we present two isolated fetal ascite that occurred secondary to cardiac diseases.

  15. MR imaging of the fetal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, Orit A. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Fetal MRI is clinically performed to evaluate the brain in cases where an abnormality is detected by prenatal sonography. These most commonly include ventriculomegaly, abnormalities of the corpus callosum, and abnormalities of the posterior fossa. Fetal MRI is also increasingly performed to evaluate fetuses who have normal brain findings on prenatal sonogram but who are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental abnormalities, such as complicated monochorionic twin pregnancies. This paper will briefly discuss the common clinical conditions imaged by fetal MRI as well as recent advances in fetal MRI research. (orig.)

  16. Sindrome de respuesta inflamatoria fetal : adaptacion cardiovascular

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arreaza-Graterol, Mortimer; Rojas-Barrera, Juan Diego; Molina-Giraldo, Saulo

    2011-01-01

    Introduccion: el sindrome de respuesta inflamatoria fetal es una condicion caracterizada por reaccion inflamatoria sistemica acompanada de alteraciones bioquimicas como la elevacion de la interleucina 6 (IL-6...

  17. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome a Global Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163096.html Fetal Alcohol Syndrome a Global Problem: Report Countries with highest alcohol use during pregnancy include Belarus, Britain, Denmark, Ireland ...

  18. The expression pattern of two novel cytokines (IL-24 and IL-29) in human fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Judith; Fortunato, Stephen J; Maul, Holger; Menon, Ramkumar

    2010-11-01

    interleukin (IL)-24 and -29 are novel cytokines, produced by immune cells in response to microbial antigens. The functions of these cytokines in the reproductive system are unknown. We examined the expression pattern of IL-24 and IL-29 in human fetal membranes from preterm and term births and in in vitro in response to microbial antigens. fetal membranes collected from cesarean sections at term (normal, not in labor) were placed in culture for 48 h. These membranes were then stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or viral antigen poly-inosinic and cytidylic acid (polyIC) for an additional 24 h. Amniotic fluids (AF) and fetal membranes were also collected from preterm and term deliveries. IL-24 and IL-29 expressions were studied by RT-PCR. ELISA documented culture media and AF cytokine concentrations. IL-24 and IL-29 expressions were seen in cultured fetal membranes regardless of stimulation. Expressions were also found in preterm and term labor membranes, but not in non-labor tissues at term. IL-24 concentrations were higher after LPS stimulation whereas IL-29 concentrations were higher after polyIC-stimulation. AF analysis did not detect either of the cytokines either preterm or term. this is the first study to report IL-24 and IL-29 expressions in human fetal membranes. Higher concentrations of these cytokines in response to distinct infectious stimuli suggest different pathways for fetal immune response during infection.

  19. Negative autoregulation by FAS mediates robust fetal erythropoiesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merav Socolovsky

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Tissue development is regulated by signaling networks that control developmental rate and determine ultimate tissue mass. Here we present a novel computational algorithm used to identify regulatory feedback and feedforward interactions between progenitors in developing erythroid tissue. The algorithm makes use of dynamic measurements of red cell progenitors between embryonic days 12 and 15 in the mouse. It selects for intercellular interactions that reproduce the erythroid developmental process and endow it with robustness to external perturbations. This analysis predicts that negative autoregulatory interactions arise between early erythroblasts of similar maturation stage. By studying embryos mutant for the death receptor FAS, or for its ligand, FASL, and by measuring the rate of FAS-mediated apoptosis in vivo, we show that FAS and FASL are pivotal negative regulators of fetal erythropoiesis, in the manner predicted by the computational model. We suggest that apoptosis in erythroid development mediates robust homeostasis regulating the number of red blood cells reaching maturity.

  20. Placental fetal vascular thrombosis lesions and maternal thrombophilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeksma, F. A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Khong, T. Y.

    Aims: Following intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), the placental fetal vessels undergo regressive changes. These changes are virtually indistinguishable from lesions that are the result of fetal vascular thrombosis (FVT). This study investigated the relation between these lesions and maternal

  1. Complement and contact activation in term neonates after fetal acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, J.; Wagner, M.; Strauss, E.; Obladen, M.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—To evaluate complement and contact activation after fetal acidosis.
METHODS—Fifteen term neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy after umbilical arterial pH 7.20. Determinations of the complement function and C1-inhibitor activity were performed as kinetic tests 22-28 hours after birth. C1q, C1-inhibitor, and factor B concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion and those of C3a, C5a, and factor XIIa by enzyme immunoabsorbent assay.
RESULTS—Median complement function (46 vs 73 %), C1q (4.3 vs 9.1 mg/dl), and factor B (5.2 vs 7.7 mg/dl) decreased after fetal acidosis. The activated split products C3a (260 vs 185 µg/l), C5a (5.0 vs 0.6 µg/l), and factor XIIa (3.2 vs 1.3 µg/l) increased in the neonates after fetal acidosis. No differences were found in the concentration and activity of C1-inhibitor.
CONCLUSIONS—Complement and contact activation occurred in the newborns with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Activation of these systems generates mediators which can trigger inflammation and tissue injury.

 PMID:9577283

  2. Rapid isolation of intact, viable fetal cartilage models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.R.; Chepenik, K.P.; Paynton, B.V.; Cotler, J.M.

    1982-04-01

    A rapid procedure is described for the isolation of viable, intact, femoral cartilage models (humeri and femora) obtained from pregnant rats on the 18th day of gestation. Viability of these models is demonstrated in an in vitro system where the incorporation of /sup 35/S-sulfate was linear with time of incubation and with numbers of cartilage models utilized. Treatment of cartilage models with ice-cold trichloroacetic acid and a boiling water bath prior to incubation with radiolabel, reduced the amount of radioactivity incorporated to 1.3% of that observed for models incubated by routine procedures. Furthermore, digestion of cartilage model homogenates with protease yielded a supernatant from which 51% to 57% of the radioactivity was precipitated as GAG. This method may also be used to isolate fetal cartilage models as early as the 16th day of gestation. with this system, specific biochemical parameters of mammalian fetal chondrogenesis may be surveyed in normally and abnormally developing fetal cartilage free of surrounding soft tissue.

  3. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES AFTER SEIZURE PRECONDITIONING IN THE THREE MAJOR HIPPOCAMPAL CELL LAYERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Karin; Shaw, Renee; Dingledine, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Rodents experience hippocampal damage after status epilepticus (SE) mainly in pyramidal cells while sparing the dentate granule cell layer (DGCL). Hippocampal damage was prevented in rats that had been preconditioned by brief seizures on two consecutive days before SE. To identify neuroprotective genes and biochemical pathways changed after preconditioning we compared the effect of preconditioning on gene expression in the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal and DGCLs, harvested by laser capture microscopy. In the DGCL the expression of 632 genes was altered, compared to only 151 and 58 genes in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cell layers. Most of the differentially expressed genes regulate tissue structure and intra- and extracellular signaling, including neurotransmission. A selective upregulation of energy metabolism transcripts occurred in CA1 pyramidal cells relative to the DGCL. These results reveal a broad transcriptional response of the DGCL to preconditioning, and suggest several mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of preconditioning seizures. PMID:17239605

  4. Is there a relationship between fetal brain function and the fetal behavioral state? A fetal MEG-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer-Schmidt, Isabelle; Raufer, Julia; Brändle, Johanna; Münßinger, Jana; Abele, Harald; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Eswaran, Hari; Preissl, Hubert

    2013-09-01

    Fetal magnetography enables the recording of biomagnetic fetal signals, including fetal heart and fetal brain signals. These signals allow the determination of fetal behavioral states and functional brain signals with auditory evoked responses (AER). In the current study, we investigated how the behavioral state influences the AER and how stimulation affects fetal state. One hundred and four fetuses in three age groups (28-31 weeks, 32-35 weeks and 36-41 weeks) were recorded with and without auditory stimulation. Both sessions were scored for fetal states. The AER latency was determined for each state separately. Forty-five additional subjects were recorded with two sessions of 10 min without stimulation to investigate a possible time effect on state changes. The state distribution was significantly different between stimulation and no stimulation conditions. The AER latencies were significantly shorter in active sleep (P=0.013) and active wakefulness (P=0.004) compared to quiet sleep. Auditory stimulation has an effect on fetal states. The state information should be taken into account for the analysis of AER latencies.

  5. Fetal antigen 1 in healthy adults and patients with pituitary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Støving, René Klinkby;

    2001-01-01

    Immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of human fetal antigen 1 (FA1) in adult human tissues has demonstrated a strong association between FA1 and (neuro)endocrine structures. In the anterior pituitary gland FA1 was colocalized with GH, and the present study was performed to evaluate a ...

  6. Cytogenetic analysis after evaluation of 750 fetal deaths : proposal for diagnostic workup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteweg, Fleurisca J.; Bouman, Katelijne; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Timmer, Albertus; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Ravise, Joke M.; Nijman, Thomas H.; Holm, Andjozien P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate success rates for cytogenetic analysis in different tissues after intrauterine fetal death, and study selection criteria and value of cytogenetic testing in determining cause of death. METHODS: Cytogenetic analyses and the value of this test in determining cause by a multidisc

  7. Cytogenetic analysis after evaluation of 750 fetal deaths - Proposal for diagnostic workup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteweg, Fleurisca J.; Bouman, Katelijne; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Timmer, Albertus; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Ravise, Joke M.; Nijman, Thomas H.; Holm, Andjozien P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate success rates for cytogenetic analysis in different tissues after intrauterine fetal death, and study selection criteria and value of cytogenetic testing in determining cause of death. METHODS: Cytogenetic analyses and the value of this test in determining cause by a multidisc

  8. Maternal-fetal distribution of mercury ( sup 203 Hg) released from dental amalgam fillings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimy, M.J.; Takahashi, Y.; Lorscheider, F.L. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    1990-04-01

    In humans, the continuous release of Hg vapor from dental amalgam tooth restorations is markedly increased for prolonged periods after chewing. The present study establishes a time-course distribution for amalgam Hg in body tissues of adult and fetal sheep. Under general anesthesia, five pregnant ewes had twelve occlusal amalgam fillings containing radioactive 203Hg placed in teeth at 112 days gestation. Blood, amniotic fluid, feces, and urine specimens were collected at 1- to 3-day intervals for 16 days. From days 16-140 after amalgam placement (16-41 days for fetal lambs), tissue specimens were analyzed for radioactivity, and total Hg concentrations were calculated. Results demonstrate that Hg from dental amalgam will appear in maternal and fetal blood and amniotic fluid within 2 days after placement of amalgam tooth restorations. Excretion of some of this Hg will also commence within 2 days. All tissues examined displayed Hg accumulation. Highest concentrations of Hg from amalgam in the adult occurred in kidney and liver, whereas in the fetus the highest amalgam Hg concentrations appeared in liver and pituitary gland. The placenta progressively concentrated Hg as gestation advanced to term, and milk concentration of amalgam Hg postpartum provides a potential source of Hg exposure to the newborn. It is concluded that accumulation of amalgam Hg progresses in maternal and fetal tissues to a steady state with advancing gestation and is maintained. Dental amalgam usage as a tooth restorative material in pregnant women and children should be reconsidered.

  9. Fetal programming and environmental exposures: Implications for prenatal care and preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal programming is an enormously complex process that relies on numerous environmental inputs from uterine tissue, the placenta, the maternal blood supply, and other sources. Recent evidence has made clear that the process is not based entirely on genetics, but rather on a deli...