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Sample records for fetal growth impairments

  1. Stillbirth and fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2010-09-01

    The association between stillbirth and fetal growth restriction is strong and supported by a large body of evidence and clinically employed for the stillbirth prediction. However, although assessment of fetal growth is a basis of clinical practice, it is not trivial. Essentially, fetal growth is a result of the genetic growth potential of the fetus and placental function. The growth potential is the driving force of fetal growth, whereas the placenta as the sole source of nutrients and oxygen might become the rate limiting element of fetal growth if its function is impaired. Thus, placental dysfunction may prevent the fetus from reaching its full genetically determined growth potential. In this sense fetal growth and its aberration provides an insight into placental function. Fetal growth is a proxy for the test of the effectiveness of placenta, whose function is otherwise obscured during pregnancy.

  2. Magnesium and fetal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, K.

    1988-01-01

    Fetal growth retardation and premature labor are major problems in perinatal medicine today and account for a great deal of the observed fetal morbidity. While the neonatal death rate has steadily declined over the past decade, there has been a lack of concommitant decrease in these two leading problems. Magnesium (Mg/sup ++/) plays a major role in both of these areas of concern. The fact that it is used as a treatment for premature labor has led investigators to look at low Mg/sup ++/ as a possible cause of this poorly understood phenomenon. The second major cause of small for gestational age infants is intrauterine growth retardation, a condition which may be of either fetal or maternal origin. In either case, Mg/sup ++/ may be implicated since it exerts a strong influence on the underlying pathophysiology of placental failure and maternal hypertension. Both of these conditions are mediated by vascular and platelet hyperactivity as well as by and increase in the ration of thromboxane to prostacyclin. Studies in both the human and animal species are beginning to show how Mg/sup ++/ interacts in these conditions to produce such a damaging fetal outcome. The recent use of Doppler velocimetry of the developing fetus has shown reduced fetal vascular and maternal uterine vascular compliance as early as 14 weeks of gestation in those who would be so affected.

  3. Micronutrients and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Caroline H D; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Rao, Shobha; Davies, Anna A; Brown, Nick; Farrant, Hannah J W

    2003-05-01

    Fetal undernutrition affects large numbers of infants in developing countries, with adverse consequences for their immediate survival and lifelong health. It manifests as intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), defined as birth weight fetus is nourished by a complex supply line that includes the mother's diet and absorption, endocrine status and metabolism, cardiovascular adaptations to pregnancy and placental function. Micronutrients are essential for growth, and maternal micronutrient deficiency, frequently multiple in developing countries, may be an important cause of IUGR. Supplementation of undernourished mothers with micronutrients has several benefits but there is little hard evidence of improved fetal growth. However, this has been inadequately tested. Most trials have only used single micronutrients and many were inconclusive because of methodological problems. Several food-based studies (some uncontrolled) suggest benefits from improving maternal dietary quality with micronutrient-dense foods. One trial of a multivitamin supplement (HIV-positive mothers, Tanzania) showed increased birth weight and fewer fetal deaths. Well-conducted randomized controlled trials of adequate sample size and including measures of effectiveness are needed in populations at high risk of micronutrient deficiency and IUGR and should include food-based interventions and better measurements of fetal growth, maternal metabolism, and long-term outcomes in the offspring.

  4. Altered fetal growth, placental abnormalities, and stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek; Hansen, Nellie I; Pinar, Halit; Willinger, Marian; Reddy, Uma M; Parker, Corette B; Silver, Robert M; Dudley, Donald J; Stoll, Barbara J; Saade, George R; Koch, Matthew A; Hogue, Carol; Varner, Michael W; Conway, Deborah L; Coustan, Donald; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    stillbirths and live births. The patterns of association between placental abnormalities, fetal growth, and stillbirth provide insights into the mechanism of impaired placental function and stillbirth. They also suggest implications for clinical care, especially for placental findings amenable to prenatal diagnosis using ultrasound that may be associated with term stillbirths.

  5. Fetal growth potential and pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2004-02-01

    Although the association of fetal growth restriction and adverse pregnancy outcomes is well known, lack of sensitivity limits its clinical value. To a large extent, this limitation is a result of traditionally used method to define growth restriction by comparing fetal or birth weight to population norms. The use of population norms, by virtue of their inability to fully consider individual variation, results in high false positive and negative rates. An alternative, calculating fetal individually optimal growth potential, based on physiological determinants of individual growth, is superior in predicting adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Impairment of fetal growth potential identifes some adverse pregnancy outcomes that are not associated with growth restrction defined by population norms. When compared with traditional population-based norms, fetal growth potential is a better predictor of several important adverse outcomes of pregnancy which include: stillbirth, neonatal mortality and morbidity, and long-term adverse neonatal outcomes like neonatal encephalopathy, cerebral palsy and cognitive abilities. Impairment of individual growth potential is also strongly associated with spontaneous preterm delivery. Although definitive interventional trials have not been conducted as yet to validate the clinical value of fetal growth potential, many observational studies, conducted in various populations, indicate its significant promise in this respect.

  6. Nutritional regulation of fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Frank H; Jaquiery, Anne L; Oliver, Mark H

    2013-01-01

    Fetal growth is largely regulated by nutritional supply. The placenta is responsible for fetal nutrient supply for much of pregnancy, but in early pregnancy nutrition is histiotrophic. Both placental size and efficiency, and fetal growth, may be affected by maternal nutritional state before and during very early pregnancy. In contrast, manipulating maternal nutrition during later stages of pregnancy has a smaller than expected effect on fetal growth. Maternal nutrition before and during early pregnancy also has a greater effect on gestation length than maternal nutrition later in pregnancy, suggesting that nutritional status may regulate both fetal growth trajectory and gestation length and that these two outcomes may be linked. Thus, determination of the nutritional factors regulating fetal growth, and potentially postnatal growth and body phenotype, may lie with the maternal nutritional status even before conception.

  7. Hormonal Control of Fetal Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Paul S.; Nicoll, Charles S.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on hormonal control of fetal growth, presenting data obtained using a new method for studying the area. Effects of endocrine ablations and congenital deficiencies, studies of hormone/receptor levels, in-vitro techniques, hormones implicated in promoting fetal growth, problems with existing methodologies, and growth of…

  8. Fetal Growth and Timing of Parturition in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Sun, Wenyu; Troendle, James

    2008-01-01

    Animal studies indicate that either the fetus or the intrauterine environment, both of which set the pattern for fetal growth, may affect the timing of parturition. The authors examined the association between fetal growth and timing of spontaneous onset of labor in humans among low-risk white US women with singleton pregnancies (1987–1991). They restricted the data to pregnancies which had a reliable date of the last menstrual period, normal fetal growth in the first half of pregnancy, and no history of or current pregnancy complications that might have impaired fetal growth (n = 3,360). Subjects received ultrasound examinations at 15–22 and 31–35 weeks’ gestation. Fetal growth was adjusted for parity, fetal sex, and maternal prepregnancy weight and height. Results showed that slower or faster fetal growth in the second half of pregnancy resulted in substantially lower or higher birth weight, respectively. However, fetal growth in the second half of pregnancy, even at extremes (2 standard deviations below or above the mean), did not have a meaningful impact on the timing of parturition; neither did fetal growth acceleration or deceleration in late pregnancy. Thus, in low-risk pregnancies where fetal growth is normal in early gestation, fetal growth in the second half of pregnancy does not affect the timing of normal parturition. PMID:18775925

  9. Fetal growth and timing of parturition in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Sun, Wenyu; Troendle, James

    2008-10-15

    Animal studies indicate that either the fetus or the intrauterine environment, both of which set the pattern for fetal growth, may affect the timing of parturition. The authors examined the association between fetal growth and timing of spontaneous onset of labor in humans among low-risk white US women with singleton pregnancies (1987-1991). They restricted the data to pregnancies which had a reliable date of the last menstrual period, normal fetal growth in the first half of pregnancy, and no history of or current pregnancy complications that might have impaired fetal growth (n = 3,360). Subjects received ultrasound examinations at 15-22 and 31-35 weeks' gestation. Fetal growth was adjusted for parity, fetal sex, and maternal prepregnancy weight and height. Results showed that slower or faster fetal growth in the second half of pregnancy resulted in substantially lower or higher birth weight, respectively. However, fetal growth in the second half of pregnancy, even at extremes (2 standard deviations below or above the mean), did not have a meaningful impact on the timing of parturition; neither did fetal growth acceleration or deceleration in late pregnancy. Thus, in low-risk pregnancies where fetal growth is normal in early gestation, fetal growth in the second half of pregnancy does not affect the timing of normal parturition.

  10. Fetal growth and developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galjaard, Sander; Devlieger, Roland; Van Assche, Frans A

    2013-01-01

    The environment in utero and in early neonatal life may induce a permanent response in the fetus and the newborn, leading to enhanced susceptibility to later diseases. This review concentrates on the role and mechanisms of events during the antenatal and immediate postnatal period resulting in later life diseases, concentrating on abnormal growth patterns of the fetus. Fetal overgrowth is related to exposure to a diabetic intra uterine environment, increasing the vulnerability to transgenerational obesity and hence an increased sensitivity to more diabetic mothers. This effect has been supported by animal data. Fetal growth restriction is complex due to malnutrition in utero, catch up growth due to a high caloric intake and low physical activity in later life. Metabolic changes and a transgenerational effect of intra uterine malnutrition has been supported by animal data. In recent years the discovery of alterations of the genome due to different influences during embryonic life, called epigenetics, has led to the phenomenon of fetal programming resulting in changing transgenerational metabolic effects.

  11. Oxidative stress in mouse sperm impairs embryo development, fetal growth and alters adiposity and glucose regulation in female offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lane

    Full Text Available Paternal health cues are able to program the health of the next generation however the mechanism for this transmission is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are increased in many paternal pathologies, some of which program offspring health, and are known to induce DNA damage and alter the methylation pattern of chromatin. We therefore investigated whether a chemically induced increase of ROS in sperm impairs embryo, pregnancy and offspring health. Mouse sperm was exposed to 1500 µM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, which induced oxidative damage, however did not affect sperm motility or the ability to bind and fertilize an oocyte. Sperm treated with H2O2 delayed on-time development of subsequent embryos, decreased the ratio of inner cell mass cells (ICM in the resulting blastocyst and reduced implantation rates. Crown-rump length at day 18 of gestation was also reduced in offspring produced by H2O2 treated sperm. Female offspring from H2O2 treated sperm were smaller, became glucose intolerant and accumulated increased levels of adipose tissue compared to control female offspring. Interestingly male offspring phenotype was less severe with increases in fat depots only seen at 4 weeks of age, which was restored to that of control offspring later in life, demonstrating sex-specific impacts on offspring. This study implicates elevated sperm ROS concentrations, which are common to many paternal health pathologies, as a mediator of programming offspring for metabolic syndrome and obesity.

  12. Neurodevelopment after fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschat, Ahmet A

    2014-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) can emerge as a complication of placental dysfunction and increases the risk for neurodevelopmental delay. Marked elevations of umbilical artery (UA) Doppler resistance that set the stage for cardiovascular and biophysical deterioration with subsequent preterm birth characterize early-onset FGR. Minimal, or absent UA Doppler abnormalities and isolated cerebral Doppler changes with subtle deterioration and a high risk for unanticipated term stillbirth are characteristic for late-onset FGR. Nutritional deficiency manifested in lagging head growth is the most powerful predictor of developmental delay in all forms of FGR. Extremes of blood flow resistance and cardiovascular deterioration, prematurity and intracranial hemorrhage increase the risks for psychomotor delay and cerebral palsy. In late-onset FGR, regional cerebral vascular redistribution correlates with abnormal behavioral domains. Irrespective of the phenotype of FGR, prenatal tests that provide precise and independent stratification of risks for adverse neurodevelopment have yet to be determined.

  13. The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiserud, Torvid; Piaggio, Gilda; Carroli, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal mortality and morbidity continue to be major global health challenges strongly associated with prematurity and reduced fetal growth, an issue of further interest given the mounting evidence that fetal growth in general is linked to degrees of risk of common noncommunicable d...

  14. Maternal HCV infection is associated with intrauterine fetal growth disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qi-tao; Hang, Li-lin; Zhong, Mei; Gao, Yun-fei; Luo, Man-ling; Yu, Yan-hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Since the evidence regarding the association between maternal hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and impaired intrauterine fetal growth had not been conclusive, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk of maternal HCV infection in association with intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) and/or low birth weight infants (LBW). We performed an extensive literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE through December 1, 2015. The odds ratios (ORs) of HCV infection and IUGR/LBW were calculated and reported with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Statistical analysis was performed using RevMen 5.3 and Stata 10.0. Seven studies involving 4,185,414 participants and 5094 HCV infection cases were included. Significant associations between HCV infection and IUGR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.40–1.68, fixed effect model) as well as LBW were observed (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.43–2.71, random effect model). The results still indicated consistencies after adjusting for multiple risk factors which could affect fetal growth, including maternal age, parity, maternal smoking, alcohol abuse, drugs abuse, coinfected with HBV/HIV and preeclampsia. Our findings suggested that maternal HCV infection was significantly associated with an increased risk of impaired intrauterine fetal growth. In clinical practice, a closer monitoring of intrauterine fetal growth by a series of ultrasound might be necessary for HCV-infected pregnant population. PMID:27583932

  15. Impaired fetal adrenal function in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunfang; Chen, Xiaojun; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Li, Xiaotian

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-associated liver disease of unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the change in maternal and fetal adrenal function in clinical and experimental ICP. Material/Methods The maternal and fetal serum levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were determined in 14 women with ICP and in pregnant rats with estrogen-induced intrahepatic cholestasis. Results In women with ICP, the fetal serum cortisol and DHEAS levels were significantly higher than those in women with normal pregnancy, after correcting the impact of gestational age at delivery. The relationship between fetal cortisol and maternal cholic acid levels was bidirectional; the fetal cortisol tended to increase in mild ICP, while it decreased in severe ICP. In pregnant rats with estrogen-induced cholestasis, the fetal cortisol level was significantly lower in the group with oxytocin injection, compared with the group without oxytocin injection (191.92±18.86 vs. 272.71±31.83 ng/ml, P<0.05). In contrast, the fetal cortisol concentration was increased after oxytocin injection in normal control rats. Conclusions The data indicate that fetal stress-responsive system is stimulated in mild ICP, but it is suppressed in severe ICP, which might contribute to the occurrence of unpredictable sudden fetal death. Further studies are warranted to explore the role of impaired fetal adrenal function in the pathogenesis of ICP and the clinical implications. PMID:21525808

  16. Effect of Placenta Previa on Fetal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARPER, Lorie M.; ODIBO, Anthony O.; MACONES, George A.; CRANE, James P.; CAHILL, Alison G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association between placenta previa and abnormal fetal growth. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of consecutive women undergoing ultrasound between 15–22 weeks. Groups were defined by the presence or absence of complete or partial placenta previa. The primary outcome was intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), defined as a birth weight placenta previa on fetal growth restriction. Results Of 59,149 women, 724 (1.2%) were diagnosed with a complete or partial previa. After adjusting for significant confounding factors (black race, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and single umbilical artery,), the risk of IUGR remained similar (adjusted odds ratio 1.1, 95% CI 0.9–1.5). The presence of bleeding did not impact the risk of growth restriction. Conclusion Placenta previa is not associated with fetal growth restriction. Serial growth ultrasounds are not indicated in patients with placenta previa. PMID:20599185

  17. Ethanol-induced impairment of polyamine homeostasis – A potential cause of neural tube defect and intrauterine growth restriction in fetal alcohol syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi Poodeh, Saeid, E-mail: saeid.haghighi@oulu.fi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Alhonen, Leena [Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, Kuopio (Finland); School of Pharmacy, Biocenter Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland); Salonurmi, Tuire; Savolainen, Markku J. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. • Alcohol administration perturbs polyamine levels in the tissues with various patterns. • Total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc is critical for development. • The deficiency is associated with reduction in endothelial cell sprouting in the head. • Retarded migration of neural crest cells may cause development of neural tube defect. - Abstract: Introduction: Polyamines play a fundamental role during embryogenesis by regulating cell growth and proliferation and by interacting with RNA, DNA and protein. The polyamine pools are regulated by metabolism and uptake from exogenous sources. The use of certain inhibitors of polyamine synthesis causes similar defects to those seen in alcohol exposure e.g. retarded embryo growth and endothelial cell sprouting. Methods: CD-1 mice received two intraperitoneal injections of 3 g/kg ethanol at 4 h intervals 8.75 days post coitum (dpc). The fetal head, trunk, yolk sac and placenta were collected at 9.5 and 12.5 dpc and polyamine concentrations were determined. Results: No measurable quantity of polyamines could be detected in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc, 12 h after ethanol exposure. Putrescine was not detectable in the trunk of the embryo at that time, whereas polyamines in yolk sac and placenta were at control level. Polyamine deficiency was associated with slow cell growth, reduction in endothelial cell sprouting, an altered pattern of blood vessel network formation and consequently retarded migration of neural crest cells and growth restriction. Discussion: Our results indicate that the polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. Alcohol administration, at the critical stage, perturbs polyamine levels with various patterns, depending on the tissue and its developmental stage. The total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc may explain why this

  18. Fetal growth disorders in twin gestations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breathnach, Fionnuala M

    2012-06-01

    Twin growth is frequently mismatched. This review serves to explore the pathophysiologic mechanisms that underlie growth aberrations in twin gestations, the prenatal recognition of abnormal twin growth, and the critical importance of stratifying management of abnormal twin growth by chorionicity. Although poor in utero growth of both twins may reflect maternal factors resulting in global uteroplacental dysfunction, discordant twin growth may be attributed to differences in genetic potential between co-twins, placental dysfunction confined to one placenta only, or one placental territory within a shared placenta. In addition, twin-twin transfusion syndrome represents a distinct entity of which discordant growth is a common feature. Discordant growth is recognized as an independent risk factor for adverse perinatal outcome. Intertwin birth weight disparity of 18% or more should be considered to represent a discordance threshold, which serves as an independent risk factor for adverse perinatal outcome. At this cutoff, perinatal morbidity is found to increase both for the larger and the smaller twin within a discordant pair. There remains uncertainty surrounding the sonographic parameters that are most predictive of discordance. Although heightening of fetal surveillance in the face of discordant twin growth follows the principles applied to singleton gestations complicated by fetal growth restriction, the timing of intervention is largely influenced by chorionicity.

  19. Octreotide therapy and restricted fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geilswijk, Marianne; Andersen, Lise Lotte Torvin; Frost, Morten

    2017-01-01

    growth velocity was normal. We conclude that octreotide treatment during pregnancy may pose a risk of fetal growth restriction and warrants careful consideration. In some cases of familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, blood glucose levels can be successfully managed through diet only, also during......SUMMARY: Hypoglycemia during pregnancy can have serious health implications for both mother and fetus. Although not generally recommended in pregnancy, synthetic somatostatin analogues are used for the management of blood glucose levels in expectant hyperinsulinemic mothers. Recent reports suggest...... that octreotide treatment in pregnancy, as well as hypoglycemia in itself, may pose a risk of fetal growth restriction. During pregnancy, management of blood glucose levels in familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia thus forms a medical dilemma. We report on pregnancy outcomes in a woman with symptomatic familial...

  20. Infertility, infertility treatment, and fetal growth restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Obel, Carsten; Hammer Bech, Bodil

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between infertility, with or without treatment, and fetal growth, as well as perinatal and infant mortality. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 51,041 singletons born of fertile couples (time to pregnancy 12 months or less......), 5,787 born of infertile couples conceiving naturally (time to pregnancy more than 12 months), and 4,317 born after treatment. We defined small for gestational age (SGA) as the lowest 5% of birth weight by sex and gestational age. RESULTS: Crude estimates suggested an increased risk of perinatal...... effect on fetal growth. A small-to-moderate increased risk of perinatal mortality in infertile couples cannot be ruled out due to the small number of cases. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec...

  1. CORRELATION BETWEEN FETAL RENAL VOLUME AND FETAL RENAL DOPPLER IN NORMAL AND GROWTH RESTRICTED FETUSES : AN INITIAL EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetana R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major factors affecting nephrogenesis in utero is intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. Few studies showed reduced weight of the fetal kidney in IUGR fetuses as compared to normally grown fetuses. Reduced blood flow to the kidneys due to fetal hypoxemia in IUGR f o etus leads to increased pulsatility index which is likely to be responsible for impaired nephrogenesis and decreased kidney volume. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE : To estimate if fetal renal artery Doppler could affect fetal renal volume in healthy and growth restricted fetuses after 26 weeks of gestation. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING : Cross sectional study carried out in the De partment radio diagnosis, Lata M angeshkar hospital, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. MATERIAL AND METHOD S : Total 336 patients, which consisted of 309 norma lly grown fetuses and 27 intrauterine growth restricted fetuses were included in the study. Fetal renal volume of individual kidney, combined renal volume and relative renal volumes were calculated using 2 dimensional ultrasound for normal and IUGR fetuses . Fetal renal artery parameters particularly renal arterial pulsatility index were calculated for both the groups. Correlation of fetal renal Doppler parameters with renal volume was estimated for respective groups. RESULTS: Combined kidney volume was sign ificantly reduced in growth restricted fetuses than normal fetuses i.e. mean combined kidney volume for growth restricted fetuses was 12.6cc and for normal fetuses was 19.29cc. Most of the fetal biometric indices were positively correlated with the combine d kidney volume. Increased pulsatility index was seen in growth restricted fetuses i.e. on right side 1.37+/ - 0.35 and on left 1.40+/ - 0.35 i.e. >1 while for normal fetuses was 0.88 +/ - 0.08 on either side i.e. <1. Considerable negative correlation was found between fetal renal artery pulsatility index and renal volume. CONCLUSION: Increased fetal renal artery pulsatility index in intrauterine growth

  2. Effect of Dietary Iron on Fetal Growth in Pregnant Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Andrea C; Bandyopadhyay, Sheila; Wojczyk, Boguslaw S; Spitalnik, Steven L; Hod, Eldad A; Prestia, Kevin A

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder. Children and pregnant women are at highest risk for developing iron deficiency because of their increased iron requirements. Iron-deficiency anemia during pregnancy is associated with adverse effects on fetal development, including low birth weight, growth retardation, hypertension, intrauterine fetal death, neurologic impairment, and premature birth. We hypothesized that pregnant mice fed an iron-deficient diet would have a similar outcome regarding fetal growth to that of humans. To this end, we randomly assigned female C57BL/6 mice to consume 1 of 4 diets (high-iron–low-bioavailability, high-iron–high-bioavailability, iron-replete, and iron-deficient) for 4 wk before breeding, followed by euthanasia on day 17 to 18 of gestation. Compared with all other groups, dams fed the high-iron–high-bioavailability diet had significantly higher liver iron. Hct and Hgb levels in dams fed the iron-deficient diet were decreased by at least 2.5 g/dL as compared with those of all other groups. In addition, the percentage of viable pups among dams fed the iron-deficient diet was lower than that of all other groups. Finally, compared with all other groups, fetuses from dams fed the iron-deficient diet had lower fetal brain iron levels, shorter crown–rump lengths, and lower weights. In summary, mice fed an iron-deficient diet had similar hematologic values and fetal outcomes as those of iron-deficient humans, making this a useful model for studying iron-deficiency anemia during pregnancy. PMID:23582419

  3. Impact of placental insufficiency on fetal skeletal muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura D; Hay, William W

    2016-11-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) caused by placental insufficiency is one of the most common and complex problems in perinatology, with no known cure. In pregnancies affected by placental insufficiency, a poorly functioning placenta restricts nutrient supply to the fetus and prevents normal fetal growth. Among other significant deficits in organ development, the IUGR fetus characteristically has less lean body and skeletal muscle mass than their appropriately-grown counterparts. Reduced skeletal muscle growth is not fully compensated after birth, as individuals who were born small for gestational age (SGA) from IUGR have persistent reductions in muscle mass and strength into adulthood. The consequences of restricted muscle growth and accelerated postnatal "catch-up" growth in the form of adiposity may contribute to the increased later life risk for visceral adiposity, peripheral insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in individuals who were formerly IUGR. This review will discuss how an insufficient placenta results in impaired fetal skeletal muscle growth and how lifelong reductions in muscle mass might contribute to increased metabolic disease risk in this vulnerable population.

  4. In utero glucocorticoid (GLC) exposure reduces fetal skeletal muscle growth in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal undernutrition and stress expose the fetus to above normal levels of GLC and predispose to intrauterine growth restriction. The aim of this study was to determine if fetal GLC exposure impairs skeletal muscle growth independently of maternal undernutrition. Three groups (n=7/group) of timed...

  5. Longitudinal study of computerized cardiotocography in early fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, H.; Arabin, B.; Lees, C. C.; Oepkes, D.; Prefumo, F.; Thilaganathan, B.; Todros, T.; Visser, G. H. A.; Bilardo, C. M.; Derks, J. B.; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, J. J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Hecher, K.; Marlow, N.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, A. T.; Scheepers, H. C. J.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T. M.; Valcamonico, A.; Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Ganzevoort, W.

    Objectives: To explore whether, in early fetal growth restriction (FGR), the longitudinal pattern of fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) can be used to identify imminent fetal distress and whether abnormalities of FHR recordings are associated with 2-year infant outcome. Methods: The

  6. Trophoblast differentiation, fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia.

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    Huppertz, Berthold

    2011-01-01

    The number of hypotheses trying to decipher the etiologies of preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction (FGR) is still increasing. However, for preeclampsia the actual knowledge we have is that the placenta is a prerequisite for the development of the syndrome. The recent years have seen a shift in understanding of the causes of preeclampsia from mostly focusing on the extravillous trophoblast towards the dysregulation of villous trophoblast development and maintenance. It seems as if a failure of the villous syncytiotrophoblast differentiation results in abnormal release of non-apoptotic fragments into maternal blood. In preeclampsia such necrotic or aponecrotic fragments can be found in maternal blood systemically and seem to be causative in the development of the inflammatory response of the mother. In cases with fetal growth restriction (FGR) extravillous trophoblast fails to adequately transform uterine spiral arteries. However, in FGR cases abnormal development of villous cytotrophoblast may have an impact on fetal nutrition without the induction of an inflammatory response of the mother. It is still unclear why the villous trophoblast fails to achieve an adequate turnover both in preeclampsia and in FGR. However, the detection of new biomarkers for preeclampsia such as placental protein 13 (PP13) has helped in clarifying the issue of when the syndrome starts to develop. PP13 levels in maternal serum are significantly altered already at six to seven weeks of gestation in women subsequently developing preeclampsia. Thus, there needs to be a very early alteration of villous development in such placentas. Herein the changes in villous trophoblast in preeclampsia and FGR are compared and differences between both scenarios are presented.

  7. Is abnormal vaginal microflora a risk factor for intrauterine fetal growth restriction?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NatalijaVedmedovska; Dace Rezeberga; GilbertG G Donders

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To conduct a literature review in search of possible preventable causes for fetal growth restriction.Methods:We performed a systematic literature search regarding abnormal vaginal microflora and fetal growth encompassing the last 27-year (starting from 1986) in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central to study the evidence that abnormal vaginal microflora is may be related to diminished fetal growth or small for date birth.Results:Most of the 14 studies suggested a significant role of vaginal organisms in impaired fetal growth, unrelated to preterm birth. The neonatal outcome has shown to be largely linked to the preventable or foreseeable fetal factors, such as genetic abnormalities, but also ascending intrauterine infections. Our previous work suggested a role of vaginal organisms in adverse pregnancy outcome, not only preterm birth, but also impaired fetal growth.Conclusions:There is a need for cohort studies designed to unravel this link between abnormal microflora and FGR, in order to enable preventive actions to protect these small babies from severe damage and death by early screening and treatment.

  8. Effects of maternal obstructive sleep apnoea on fetal growth: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Fung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is associated with reduced fetal growth, and whether nocturnal oxygen desaturation precipitates acute fetal heart rate changes. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a prospective observational study, screening 371 women in the second trimester for OSA symptoms. 41 subsequently underwent overnight sleep studies to diagnose OSA. Third trimester fetal growth was assessed using ultrasound. Fetal heart rate monitoring accompanied the sleep study. Cord blood was taken at delivery, to measure key regulators of fetal growth. RESULTS: Of 371 women screened, 108 (29% were high risk for OSA. 26 high risk and 15 low risk women completed the longitudinal study; 14 had confirmed OSA (cases, and 27 were controls. The median (interquartile range respiratory disturbance index (number of apnoeas, hypopnoeas or respiratory related arousals/hour of sleep was 7.9 (6.1-13.8 for cases and 2.2 (1.3-3.5 for controls (p<0.001. Impaired fetal growth was observed in 43% (6/14 of cases, vs 11% (3/27 of controls (RR 2.67; 1.25-5.7; p = 0.04. Using logistic regression, only OSA (OR 6; 1.2-29.7, p = 0.03 and body mass index (OR 2.52; 1.09-5.80, p = 0.03 were significantly associated with impaired fetal growth. After adjusting for body mass index on multivariate analysis, the association between OSA and impaired fetal growth was not appreciably altered (OR 5.3; 0.93-30.34, p = 0.06, although just failed to achieve statistical significance. Prolonged fetal heart rate decelerations accompanied nocturnal oxygen desaturation in one fetus, subsequently found to be severely growth restricted. Fetal growth regulators showed changes in the expected direction- with IGF-1 lower, and IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 higher- in the cord blood of infants of cases vs controls, although were not significantly different. CONCLUSION: OSA may be associated with reduced fetal growth in late pregnancy. Further

  9. Assessing fetal growth impairments based on family data as a tool for identifying high-risk babies. An example with neonatal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Jørn

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity, as well as with other adverse conditions later in life. Since the birth weight-specific mortality of a second child depends on the birth weight of an older sibling, a failure to achieve the biologically intended size appears to increase the risk of adverse outcome even in babies who are not classified as small for gestation. In this study, we aimed at quantifying the risk of neonatal death as a function of a baby's failure to fulfil its biologic growth potential across the whole distribution of birth weight. Methods We predicted the birth weight of 411,957 second babies born in Denmark (1979–2002, given the birth weight of the first, and examined how the ratio of achieved birth weight to predicted birth weight performed in predicting neonatal mortality. Results For any achieved birth weight category, the risk of neonatal death increased with decreasing birth weight ratio. However, the risk of neonatal death increased with decreasing birth weight, even among babies who achieved their predicted birth weight. Conclusion While a low achieved birth weight was a stronger predictor of mortality, a failure to achieve the predicted birth weight was associated with increased mortality at virtually all birth weights. Use of family data may allow identification of children at risk of adverse health outcomes, especially among babies with apparently "normal" growth.

  10. Insulin-like growth factor and fibroblast growth factor expression profiles in growth-restricted fetal sheep pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochuan; Rozance, Paul J; Hay, William W; Limesand, Sean W

    2012-05-01

    Placental insufficiency results in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), impaired fetal insulin secretion and less fetal pancreatic β-cell mass, partly due to lower β-cell proliferation rates. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) regulate fetal β-cell proliferation and pancreas development, along with transcription factors, such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1). We determined expression levels for these growth factors, their receptors and IGF binding proteins in ovine fetal pancreas and isolated islets. In the IUGR pancreas, relative mRNA expression levels of IGF-I, PDX-1, FGF7 and FGFR2IIIb were 64% (P pancreas compared with controls. In isolated islets from IUGR fetuses, IGF-II and IGFBP-2 mRNA concentrations were 1.5- and 3.7-fold greater (P < 0.05), and insulin mRNA was 56% less (P < 0.05) than control islets. The growth factor expression profiles for IGF and FGF signaling pathways indicate that declines in β-cell mass are due to decreased growth factor signals for both pancreatic progenitor epithelial cell and mature β-cell replication.

  11. Fetal first trimester growth is not associated with kidney outcomes in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bakker (Hanneke); R. Gaillard (Romy); A. Hofman (Albert); I.K.M. Reiss (Irwin); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Impaired fetal growth is associated with increased risks of kidney diseases in later life. Because human development rates are highest during the first trimester, this trimester may be a particularly critical period for kidney outcomes. We have therefore examined the associat

  12. Fetal growth sustained by parenteral nutrition in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Alsina, M E; Saldana, L R; Stringer, C A

    1984-07-01

    Severe maternal nutritional deprivation has been associated with intrauterine growth retardation, premature labor, and increased perinatal mortality and morbidity. The authors present four cases in which total parenteral nutrition was used successfully to support fetal growth in such diverse complications as twin pregnancy with maternal jejunoileal bypass, regional enteritis, and acute pancreatitis. Maintenance of fetal growth as evidenced by serial sonographic examination allows achievement of fetal lung maturation before delivery. In all the cases presented there was no perinatal mortality or morbidity. The main clinical implication of the report is the possible application of total parenteral nutrition to maintain adequate growth in fetuses small for gestational age because of maternal nutritional deprivation.

  13. Human embryonic growth trajectories and associations with fetal growth and birthweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uitert, Evelyne M.; Exalto, Niek; Burton, Graham J.; Willemsen, Sten P.; Koning, Anton H. J.; Eilers, Paul H. C.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Steegers-Theunissen, Regine P. M.

    2013-01-01

    How do human embryonic growth trajectories evolve in the first trimester, and is first-trimester embryonic growth associated with fetal growth and birthweight (BW)? Human embryonic growth rates increase between 9 and 10 weeks of gestation and are associated with mid-pregnancy fetal growth and BW. Fe

  14. Thyroid hormones in fetal growth and prepartum maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forhead, A J; Fowden, A L

    2014-06-01

    The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are essential for normal growth and development of the fetus. Their bioavailability in utero depends on development of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid gland axis and the abundance of thyroid hormone transporters and deiodinases that influence tissue levels of bioactive hormone. Fetal T4 and T3 concentrations are also affected by gestational age, nutritional and endocrine conditions in utero, and placental permeability to maternal thyroid hormones, which varies among species with placental morphology. Thyroid hormones are required for the general accretion of fetal mass and to trigger discrete developmental events in the fetal brain and somatic tissues from early in gestation. They also promote terminal differentiation of fetal tissues closer to term and are important in mediating the prepartum maturational effects of the glucocorticoids that ensure neonatal viability. Thyroid hormones act directly through anabolic effects on fetal metabolism and the stimulation of fetal oxygen consumption. They also act indirectly by controlling the bioavailability and effectiveness of other hormones and growth factors that influence fetal development such as the catecholamines and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). By regulating tissue accretion and differentiation near term, fetal thyroid hormones ensure activation of physiological processes essential for survival at birth such as pulmonary gas exchange, thermogenesis, hepatic glucogenesis, and cardiac adaptations. This review examines the developmental control of fetal T4 and T3 bioavailability and discusses the role of these hormones in fetal growth and development with particular emphasis on maturation of somatic tissues critical for survival immediately at birth.

  15. Childhood cognitive development after fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llurba, E; Baschat, A A; Turan, O M; Harding, J; McCowan, L M

    2013-04-01

    To examine the relationship between prenatal umbilical artery (UA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) Doppler findings and cognitive development at 3 and 6 years in low-birth-weight children. This was a study of 209 low-birth-weight (Cognitive ability at 3 and 6 years' corrected age was assessed using the fourth edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (SBIS) and compared between SGA and FGR groups. An SBIS score development. The median gestational age at diagnosis of abnormal fetal growth was 36.6 (range, 28-41) weeks. There were 87 (41.6%) children classified as having FGR and 122 (58.4%) as SGA. The mean global SBIS score at 3 years was 109.4 (SD, 22.8) and at 6 years it was 110.5 (SD, 13.9). Overall, 22 (10.5%) children had delayed development at 3 years. Total SBIS scores and individual domain scores did not differ between FGR and SGA groups at 3 or 6 years and similar proportions in each group had delayed development. Abnormal prenatal UA and ICA Doppler findings are not associated with lower developmental scores in low-birth-weight children delivered in the third trimester of pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Simvastatin impairs murine melanoma growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Francisco E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statins induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, reduction of angiogenic factors, inhibition of the endothelial growth factor, impairing tissue adhesion and attenuation of the resistance mechanisms. The aim of this study was evaluate the anti-tumoral activity of simvastatin in a B16F10 melanoma-mouse model. Methods Melanoma cells were treated with different concentrations of simvastatin and assessed by viability methods. Melanoma cells (5 × 104 were implanted in two month old C57Bl6/J mice. Around 7 days after cells injection, the oral treatments were started with simvastatin (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.. Tumor size, hematological and biochemical analyses were evaluated. Results Simvastatin at a concentration of 0.8 μM, 1.2 μM and 1.6 μM had toxic effect. Concentration of 1.6 μM induced a massive death in the first 24 h of incubation. Simvastatin at 0.8 μM induces early cell cycle arrest in G0/G1, followed by increase of hypodiploidy. Tumor size were evaluated and the difference of treated group and control, after ten days, demonstrates that simvastatin inhibited the tumor expansion in 68%. Conclusion Simvastatin at 1.6 μM, presented cytototoxicity after 72 h of treatment, with an intense death. In vivo, simvastatin being potentially useful as an antiproliferative drug, with an impairment of growth after ten days.

  17. Endocrine interactions in the control of fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, Abigail L; Forhead, Alison J

    2013-01-01

    Hormones are both growth stimulatory and growth inhibitory in utero. They act as environmental and maturational signals in regulating tissue accretion and differentiation during late gestation. They ensure that fetal development is appropriate for the nutrient supply and is optimal for neonatal survival. Growth-stimulatory hormones, such as insulin, the insulin-like growth factors and the thyroid hormones, have anabolic effects on fetal metabolism and increase cellular nutrient uptake and energy production for tissue accretion. Thyroid hormones also have specific effects on tissue differentiation at key developmental milestones. Similarly, leptin appears to affect development of specific fetal tissues and may counterbalance the maturational actions of other hormones near term. Glucocorticoids inhibit growth in utero but are essential for prepartum tissue differentiation in preparation for delivery. They also affect fetal bioavailability of most of the other growth-regulatory hormones. In addition, many of these hormones alter the placental capacity to supply nutrients for fetal growth. In producing a fetoplacental epigenome specific to the prevailing intrauterine environment, hormones interact to produce phenotypical diversity with potential health consequences long after birth.

  18. Maternal corticosterone regulates nutrient allocation to fetal growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Owen R; Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N; Fowden, Abigail L

    2012-11-01

    Stresses during pregnancy that increase maternal glucocorticoids reduce birth weight in several species. However, the role of natural glucocorticoids in the mother in fetal acquisition of nutrients for growth remains unknown. This study aimed to determine whether fetal growth was reduced as a consequence of altered amino acid supply when mice were given corticosterone in their drinking water for 5 day periods in mid to late pregnancy (day, D, 11-16 or D14-19). Compared to controls drinking tap water, fetal weight was always reduced by corticosterone. At D16, corticosterone had no effect on materno-fetal transfer of [(14)C]methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB), although placental MeAIB accumulation and expression of the Slc38a1 and Slc38a2 transporters were increased. However, at D19, 3 days after treatment ended, materno-fetal transfer of MeAIB was increased by 37% (P < 0.04). During treatment at D19, placental accumulation and materno-fetal transfer of MeAIB were reduced by 40% (P < 0.01), although expression of Slc38a1 was again elevated. Permanent reductions in placental vascularity occurred during the earlier but not the later period of treatment. Placental Hsd11b2 expression, which regulates feto-placental glucocorticoid bioavailability, was also affected by treatment at D19 only. Maternal corticosterone concentrations inversely correlated with materno-fetal MeAIB clearance and fetal weight at D19 but not D16. On D19, weight gain of the maternal carcass was normal during corticosterone treatment but reduced in those mice treated from D11 to D16, in which corticosterone levels were lowest. Maternal corticosterone is, therefore, a physiological regulator of the amino acid supply for fetal growth via actions on placental phenotype.

  19. Fetal growth restriction is associated with malaria in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briand, Valérie; Saal, Jessica; Ghafari, Caline

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the effect of malaria on intrauterine growth restriction on the basis of the fetal growth rate, rather than just the small-for-gestational age z score. Here, we assessed the impact of malaria on IUGR, using data from a longitudinal, ultrasonography-based fol...... and late pregnancy on fetal growth. This stresses the importance of starting preventive measures against malaria as early as possible during pregnancy....... infections tended to have lower z scores than uninfected women. Malaria both in early and late pregnancy was associated with a reduction in fetal growth velocity, which occurred either immediately or with a delay after infection. DISCUSSIONS: We confirmed the deleterious effect of malaria during both early...

  20. MCT8 expression in human fetal cerebral cortex is reduced in severe intrauterine growth restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Shiao Y Chan; Hancox, Laura A; Martín-Santos, Azucena; Loubière, Laurence S; Walter, Merlin N.M.; González, Ana-Maria; Cox, Phillip M; Logan, Ann; Christopher J. McCabe; Franklyn, Jayne A; Kilby, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the thyroid hormone (TH) transporter, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), to human neurodevelopment is highlighted by findings of severe global neurological impairment in subjects with MCT8 (SLC16A2) mutations. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), usually due to uteroplacental failure, is associated with milder neurodevelopmental deficits, which have been partly attributed to dysregulated TH action in utero secondary to reduced circulating fetal TH concentrations and de...

  1. The customized fetal growth potential: a standard for Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Unterscheider, Julia

    2013-01-01

    To identify maternal and pregnancy-related physiological and pathological variables associated with fetal growth and birthweight in Ireland and to develop customized birthweight centile charts for the Irish population that will aid in appropriate identification and selection of growth-restricted fetuses requiring increased antenatal surveillance.

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of a placental infarction hematoma associated with fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia and fetal death: clinicopathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurioles-Garibay, Alma; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Romero, Roberto; Qureshi, Faisal; Ahn, Hyunyoung; Jacques, Suzanne M; Garcia, Maynor; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S

    2014-01-01

    The lesion termed 'placental infarction hematoma' is associated with fetal death and adverse perinatal outcome. Such a lesion has been associated with a high risk of fetal death and abruption placentae. The fetal and placental hemodynamic changes associated with placental infarction hematoma have not been reported. This paper describes a case of early and severe growth restriction with preeclampsia, and progressive deterioration of the fetal and placental Doppler parameters in the presence of a placental infarction hematoma.

  3. Pravastatin ameliorates placental vascular defects, fetal growth, and cardiac function in a model of glucocorticoid excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwoll, Caitlin S; Noble, June; Thomson, Adrian; Tesic, Dijana; Miller, Mark R; Rog-Zielinska, Eva A; Moran, Carmel M; Seckl, Jonathan R; Chapman, Karen E; Holmes, Megan C

    2016-05-31

    Fetoplacental glucocorticoid overexposure is a significant mechanism underlying fetal growth restriction and the programming of adverse health outcomes in the adult. Placental glucocorticoid inactivation by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) plays a key role. We previously discovered that Hsd11b2(-/-) mice, lacking 11β-HSD2, show marked underdevelopment of the placental vasculature. We now explore the consequences for fetal cardiovascular development and whether this is reversible. We studied Hsd11b2(+/+), Hsd11b2(+/-), and Hsd11b2(-/-) littermates from heterozygous (Hsd11b(+/-)) matings at embryonic day (E)14.5 and E17.5, where all three genotypes were present to control for maternal effects. Using high-resolution ultrasound, we found that umbilical vein blood velocity in Hsd11b2(-/-) fetuses did not undergo the normal gestational increase seen in Hsd11b2(+/+) littermates. Similarly, the resistance index in the umbilical artery did not show the normal gestational decline. Surprisingly, given that 11β-HSD2 absence is predicted to initiate early maturation, the E/A wave ratio was reduced at E17.5 in Hsd11b2(-/-) fetuses, suggesting impaired cardiac function. Pravastatin administration from E6.5, which increases placental vascular endothelial growth factor A and, thus, vascularization, increased placental fetal capillary volume, ameliorated the aberrant umbilical cord velocity, normalized fetal weight, and improved the cardiac function of Hsd11b2(-/-) fetuses. This improved cardiac function occurred despite persisting indications of increased glucocorticoid exposure in the Hsd11b2(-/-) fetal heart. Thus, the pravastatin-induced enhancement of fetal capillaries within the placenta and the resultant hemodynamic changes correspond with restored fetal cardiac function. Statins may represent a useful therapeutic approach to intrauterine growth retardation due to placental vascular hypofunction.

  4. Placental adaptations to the maternal-fetal environment: implications for fetal growth and developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandovici, Ionel; Hoelle, Katharina; Angiolini, Emily; Constância, Miguel

    2012-07-01

    The placenta is a transient organ found in eutherian mammals that evolved primarily to provide nutrients for the developing fetus. The placenta exchanges a wide array of nutrients, endocrine signals, cytokines and growth factors with the mother and the fetus, thereby regulating intrauterine development. Recent studies show that the placenta is not just a passive organ mediating maternal-fetal exchange. It can adapt its capacity to supply nutrients in response to intrinsic and extrinsic variations in the maternal-fetal environment. These dynamic adaptations are thought to occur to maximize fetal growth and viability at birth in the prevailing conditions in utero. However, some of these adaptations may also affect the development of individual fetal tissues, with patho-physiological consequences long after birth. Here, this review summarizes current knowledge on the causes, possible mechanisms and consequences of placental adaptive responses, with a focus on the regulation of transporter-mediated processes for nutrients. This review also highlights the emerging roles that imprinted genes and epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation may play in placental adaptations to the maternal-fetal environment. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. GLI3 Links Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Human Fetal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily F. Winterbottom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although considerable evidence suggests that in utero arsenic exposure affects children's health, these data are mainly from areas of the world where groundwater arsenic levels far exceed the World Health Organization limit of 10 μg/L. We, and others, have found that more common levels of in utero arsenic exposure may also impact children's health. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression of key developmental genes in fetal placenta in a birth cohort of women using unregulated water supplies in a US region with elevated groundwater arsenic. We identified several genes whose expression associated with maternal arsenic exposure in a fetal sex-specific manner. In particular, expression of the HEDGEHOG pathway component, GLI3, in female placentae was both negatively associated with arsenic exposure and positively associated with infant birth weight. This suggests that modulation of GLI3 in the fetal placenta, and perhaps in other fetal tissues, contributes to arsenic's detrimental effects on fetal growth. We showed previously that arsenic-exposed NIH3T3 cells have reduced GLI3 repressor protein. Together, these studies identify GLI3 as a key signaling node that is affected by arsenic, mediating a subset of its effects on developmental signaling and fetal health.

  6. GLI3 Links Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Human Fetal Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbottom, Emily F; Fei, Dennis L; Koestler, Devin C; Giambelli, Camilla; Wika, Eric; Capobianco, Anthony J; Lee, Ethan; Marsit, Carmen J; Karagas, Margaret R; Robbins, David J

    2015-06-01

    Although considerable evidence suggests that in utero arsenic exposure affects children's health, these data are mainly from areas of the world where groundwater arsenic levels far exceed the World Health Organization limit of 10 μg/L. We, and others, have found that more common levels of in utero arsenic exposure may also impact children's health. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression of key developmental genes in fetal placenta in a birth cohort of women using unregulated water supplies in a US region with elevated groundwater arsenic. We identified several genes whose expression associated with maternal arsenic exposure in a fetal sex-specific manner. In particular, expression of the HEDGEHOG pathway component, GLI3, in female placentae was both negatively associated with arsenic exposure and positively associated with infant birth weight. This suggests that modulation of GLI3 in the fetal placenta, and perhaps in other fetal tissues, contributes to arsenic's detrimental effects on fetal growth. We showed previously that arsenic-exposed NIH3T3 cells have reduced GLI3 repressor protein. Together, these studies identify GLI3 as a key signaling node that is affected by arsenic, mediating a subset of its effects on developmental signaling and fetal health.

  7. The neglected role of insulin-like growth factors in the maternal circulation regulating fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sferruzzi-Perri, A N; Owens, J A; Pringle, K G; Roberts, C T

    2011-01-01

    Maternal insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play a pivotal role in modulating fetal growth via their actions on both the mother and the placenta. Circulating IGFs influence maternal tissue growth and metabolism, thereby regulating nutrient availability for the growth of the conceptus. Maternal IGFs also regulate placental morphogenesis, substrate transport and hormone secretion, all of which influence fetal growth either via indirect effects on maternal substrate availability, or through direct effects on the placenta and its capacity to supply nutrients to the fetus. The extent to which IGFs influence the mother and/or placenta are dependent on the species and maternal factors, including age and nutrition. As altered fetal growth is associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality and a greater risk of developing degenerative diseases in adult life, understanding the role of maternal IGFs during pregnancy is essential in order to identify mechanisms underlying altered fetal growth and offspring programming.

  8. Early- versus Late-Onset Fetal Growth Restriction Differentially Affects the Development of the Fetal Sheep Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves de Alencar Rocha, Anna Karynna; Allison, Beth J; Yawno, Tamara; Polglase, Graeme R; Sutherland, Amy E; Malhotra, Atul; Jenkin, Graham; Castillo-Melendez, Margie; Miller, Suzanne L

    2017-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common complication of pregnancy, principally caused by suboptimal placental function, and is associated with high rates of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Clinical studies suggest that the time of onset of placental insufficiency is an important contributor towards the neurodevelopmental impairments that are evident in children who had FGR. It is however currently unknown how early-onset and late-onset FGR differentially affect brain development. The aim of this study was to examine neuropathology in early-onset and late-onset FGR fetal sheep and to determine whether they differentially alter brain development. We induced placental insufficiency and FGR via single umbilical artery ligation at either 88 days (early-onset) or 105 days (late-onset) of fetal sheep gestation (term is approx. 147 days), reflecting a period of rapid white matter brain development. Fetal blood samples were collected for the first 10 days after surgery, and all fetuses were sacrificed at 125 days' gestation for brain collection and subsequent histopathology. Our results show that early-onset FGR fetuses became progressively hypoxic over the first 10 days after onset of placental insufficiency, whereas late-onset FGR fetuses were significantly hypoxic compared to controls from day 1 after onset of placental insufficiency (SaO2 46.7 ± 7.4 vs. 65.7 ± 3.9%, respectively, p = 0.03). Compared to control brains, early-onset FGR brains showed widespread white matter injury, with a reduction in both CNPase-positive and MBP-positive density of staining in the periventricular white matter (PVWM), subcortical white matter, intragyral white matter (IGWM), subventricular zone (SVZ), and external capsule (p development that principally mediates altered brain development associated with FGR. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Fetal growth and later maternal death, cardiovascular disease and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob A; Paidas, Michael J; Triche, Elizabeth W

    2012-01-01

    Low birthweight of the offspring has been associated with increased risk of early death and ischemic heart disease in the mother. However, other measurements of fetal growth than the basic birthweight are more accurate. We investigated the relation between the standardized birthweight by gestatio...... by gestational age and gender and the ponderal index and the mother's subsequent mortality and cardiovascular morbidity....

  10. Fetal growth trajectories in Type-1 diabetic pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, E. J. H.; Koopman, C. M.; Vermunt, J. K.; de Valk, H. W.; Visser, G. H. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the individual intrauterine growth patterns of fetuses of insulin-dependent (Type-1) diabetic women and to examine determinants of overgrowth (macrosomia) and its timing. Methods This retrospective longitudinal study examined the developmental trajectories of fetal abdominal ci

  11. Influence of maternal folate status on human fetal growth parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uitert, Evelyne M.; Steegers-Theunissen, Regine P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide periconceptional folic acid supplement use is recommended to prevent neural tube defects. This also stimulated research on maternal folate status in association with fetal growth, an important predictor of perinatal and future development and health. We provide an overview of literature on

  12. Fetal growth trajectories in Type-1 diabetic pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, E. J. H.; Koopman, C. M.; Vermunt, J. K.; de Valk, H. W.; Visser, G. H. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the individual intrauterine growth patterns of fetuses of insulin-dependent (Type-1) diabetic women and to examine determinants of overgrowth (macrosomia) and its timing. Methods This retrospective longitudinal study examined the developmental trajectories of fetal abdominal ci

  13. Consensus definition of fetal growth restriction : a Delphi procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, S. J.; Beune, I. M.; Thilaganathan, B.; Papageorghiou, A.; Baschat, A. A.; Baker, P. N.; Silver, R. M.; Wynia, K.; Ganzevoort, W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine, by expert consensus, a definition for early and late fetal growth restriction (FGR) through a Delphi procedure. Method A Delphi survey was conducted among an international panel of experts on FGR. Panel members were provided with 18 literature-based parameters for defining FG

  14. Analysis of Cry Features in Newborns with Differential Fetal Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeskind, Philip Sanford; Ramey, Craig T.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the relationship between neonatal crying and anthropometric indices of fetal growth. No differences were found between cry features of underweight and overweight infants; both groups required more stimulation than average weight infants to elicit crying. It is suggested that certain cry features may reflect the risk status of neonates…

  15. Impaired fetal myocardial deformation in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuemei; Zhou, Qichang; Zeng, Shi; Zhou, Jiawei; Peng, Qinghai; Zhang, Ming; Ding, Yiling

    2014-07-01

    To investigate changes in fetal myocardial deformation in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy were divided into 2 groups according to the total maternal serum bile acid concentration: mild cholestasis (10-40 μmol/L) and severe cholestasis (>40 μmol/L). Fetal echocardiography and velocity vector imaging were performed on women with cholestasis and control patients. The left ventricular global longitudinal strain and strain rate were measured. Clinical characteristics, maternal serum bile acid levels, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels in umbilical vein blood were compared between groups. The relationships among fetal myocardial deformation, maternal total bile acids, and cord NT-proBNP were analyzed. Twenty women with mild cholestasis, 20 with severe cholestasis, and 40 control patients were enrolled. There were no significant differences in maternal and gestational ages between the case and control groups. Maternal bile acids and NT-proBNP were significantly higher in fetuses of mothers with cholestasis than control fetuses. The left ventricular longitudinal strain (-10.56% ± 1.83% versus -18.36% ± 1.11%; P cholestasis compared with control fetuses. There were positive correlations between fetal myocardial deformation and maternal total bile acids (r = 0.705, 0.643, and 0.690, respectively; P intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Further investigation is needed to determine whether fetal echocardiography and velocity vector imaging can help predict which fetuses of mothers with cholestasis are likely to have poor outcomes. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  16. Chronically Increased Amino Acids Improve Insulin Secretion, Pancreatic Vascularity, and Islet Size in Growth-Restricted Fetal Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura D; Davis, Melissa; Wai, Sandra; Wesolowski, Stephanie R; Hay, William W; Limesand, Sean W; Rozance, Paul J

    2016-10-01

    Placental insufficiency is associated with reduced supply of amino acids to the fetus and leads to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). IUGR fetuses are characterized by lower glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, smaller pancreatic islets with less β-cells, and impaired pancreatic vascularity. To test whether supplemental amino acids infused into the IUGR fetus could improve these complications of IUGR we used acute (hours) and chronic (11 d) direct fetal amino acid infusions into a sheep model of placental insufficiency and IUGR near the end of gestation. IUGR fetuses had attenuated acute amino acid-stimulated insulin secretion compared with control fetuses. These results were confirmed in isolated IUGR pancreatic islets. After the chronic fetal amino acid infusion, fetal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and islet size were restored to control values. These changes were associated with normalization of fetal pancreatic vascularity and higher fetal pancreatic vascular endothelial growth factor A protein concentrations. These results demonstrate that decreased fetal amino acid supply contributes to the pathogenesis of pancreatic islet defects in IUGR. Moreover, the results show that pancreatic islets in IUGR fetuses retain their ability to respond to increased amino acids near the end of gestation after chronic fetal growth restriction.

  17. Fetal Growth, Gestation Length And Phosphoglucomutase-1 Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank D. Johnstone

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates reports that phosphoglucomutase-1 (PGM1 phenotype is associated with fetal growth and gestation length. A total of 350 women were studied, 234 having uncomplicated pregnancies and 114 with a baby weighing greater than 90th centile, corrected for parity, gestation and fetal sex. All women had gestation confirmed by early ultrasound. Conventional cellulose acetate electrophoresis was used to distinguish the three common PGM1 phenotypes and polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing to distinguish the ten PGM1 SUbtypes. Neither PGM I phenotype nor SUbtype were found to be associated with gestation length or standardised birth weight. Logistic regression, where maternal age, parity, fetal sex, maternal weight, gestation and smoking were introduced as explanatory variables in addition to PGM1 phenotype testing against the dependent variables birth weight, standardised birth weight and gestation length, did not show differences related to PGM1 phenotype.

  18. Fetal growth retardation and lack of hypotaurine in ezrin knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Nishimura

    Full Text Available Ezrin is a membrane-associated cytoplasmic protein that serves to link cell-membrane proteins with the actin-based cytoskeleton, and also plays a role in regulation of the functional activities of some transmembrane proteins. It is expressed in placental trophoblasts. We hypothesized that placental ezrin is involved in the supply of nutrients from mother to fetus, thereby influencing fetal growth. The aim of this study was firstly to clarify the effect of ezrin on fetal growth and secondly to determine whether knockout of ezrin is associated with decreased concentrations of serum and placental nutrients. Ezrin knockout mice (Ez(-/- were confirmed to exhibit fetal growth retardation. Metabolome analysis of fetal serum and placental extract of ezrin knockout mice by means of capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry revealed a markedly decreased concentration of hypotaurine, a precursor of taurine. However, placental levels of cysteine and cysteine sulfinic acid (precursors of hypotaurine and taurine were not affected. Lack of hypotaurine in Ez(-/- mice was confirmed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Administration of hypotaurine to heterogenous dams significantly decreased the placenta-to-maternal plasma ratio of hypotaurine in wild-type fetuses but only slightly decreased it in ezrin knockout fetuses, indicating that the uptake of hypotaurine from mother to placenta is saturable and that disruption of ezrin impairs the uptake of hypotaurine by placental trophoblasts. These results indicate that ezrin is required for uptake of hypotaurine from maternal serum by placental trophoblasts, and plays an important role in fetal growth.

  19. Vitamin B12: one carbon metabolism, fetal growth and programming for chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, E C; Katre, P; Yajnik, C S

    2014-01-01

    This review brings together human and animal studies and reviews that examine the possible role of maternal vitamin B12 (B12) on fetal growth and its programming for susceptibility to chronic disease. A selective literature review was undertaken to identify studies and reviews that investigate these issues, particularly in the context of a vegetarian diet that may be low in B12 and protein and high in carbohydrate. Evidence is accumulating that maternal B12 status influences fetal growth and development. Low maternal vitamin B12 status and protein intake are associated with increased risk of neural tube defect, low lean mass and excess adiposity, increased insulin resistance, impaired neurodevelopment and altered risk of cancer in the offspring. Vitamin B12 is a key nutrient associated with one carbon metabolic pathways related to substrate metabolism, synthesis and stability of nucleic acids and methylation of DNA which regulates gene expression. Understanding of factors regulating maternal-fetal one carbon metabolism and its role in fetal programming of non communicable diseases could help design effective interventions, starting with maternal nutrition before conception.

  20. Fetal growth, gestation length and phosphoglucomutase-1 phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, F D; West, J D; Prescott, R J; Steel, J M; Flockhart, J A; Greer, I A; Drago, G A; Whitehouse, D B

    1993-12-01

    This study investigates reports that phosphoglucomutase-1 (PGM1) phenotype is associated with fetal growth and gestation length. A total of 350 women were studied, 234 having uncomplicated pregnancies and 114 with a baby weighing greater than 90th centile, corrected for parity, gestation and fetal sex. All women had gestation confirmed by early ultrasound. Conventional cellulose acetate electrophoresis was used to distinguish the three common PGM1 phenotypes and polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing to distinguish the ten PGM1 subtypes. Neither PGM1 phenotype nor subtype were found to be associated with gestation length or standardised birth weight. Logistic regression, where maternal age, parity, fetal sex, maternal weight, gestation and smoking were introduced as explanatory variables in addition to PGM1 phenotype testing against the dependent variables birth weight, standardised birth weight and gestation length, did not show differences related to PGM1 phenotype. Two possible reasons for the discrepancy with previously published data are discussed. We conclude that the study provides no support for the belief that PGM1 phenotype is related to fetal growth or gestation length and that the original observations could have arisen as a result of statistical artefact due to multiple testing.

  1. Epidermal growth factor: a critical factor in fetal maturation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, G D; Waters, M J; Young, I R; Dolling, M; Buntine, D; Hopkins, P S

    1981-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) infused over 3-14 days into fetal sheep of 110-125 days gestation resulted in a number of morphological and endocrine changes. Striking hypertrophy of the skin, wool follicles and their accessory structures was seen, together with a reduction in the ratio of secondary to primary follicles and degenerative changes in wool fibres associated with shedding of fibres. Adrenal, thyroid, liver and kidney weights were increased while thymus weight was decreased. The increase in adrenal size resulted from cortical hypertrophy and was associated with increased cortisol secretion. Thyroid hypertrophy was accompanied by an increase in colloid stores, decreased plasma thyroxine and reverse triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations, unchanged plasma T3 and thyroid-binding globulin and raised thyrotropin (TSH) levels. Thyrotropin receptor affinity and content per gram of tissue were unchanged. Fetal and maternal plasma prolactin and growth hormone levels, and fetal plasma placental lactogen levels, were unchanged, although there was a significant rise in maternal plasma placental lactogen concentrations with high doses of EGF. Other maturational parameters such as switching from fetal to adult haemoglobin and liver glycogen content were unaffected.

  2. Maternal endotoxin-induced fetal growth restriction in rats: Fetal responses in toll-like receptor

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    Banun Kusumawardani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis as a major etiology of periodontal disease can produce virulence factor, lipopolysaccharide/LPS, which is expected to play a role in the intrauterine fetal growth. Trophoblast at the maternal-fetal interface actively participates in response to infection through the expression of a family of natural immune receptors, toll-like receptor (TLR. Purpose: the aims of study were to identify endotoxin concentration in maternal blood serum of Porphyromonas gingivalis-infected pregnant rats, to characterize the TLR-4 expression in trophoblast cells, and to determine its effect on fetal growth. Methods: Female rats were infected with live-Porphyromonas gingivalis at concentration of 2 x 109 cells/ml into subgingival sulcus area of the maxillary first molar before and/or during pregnancy. They were sacrified on 14th and 20th gestational day. Fetuses were evaluated for weight and length. Endotoxin was detected by limulus amebocyte lysate assay in the maternal blood serum. The TLR-4 expression in trophoblast cells was detected by immunohistochemistry. Update: Consequences of Abnormal Fetal Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Chernausek, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is prevalent worldwide and affects children and adults in multiple ways. These include predisposition to type 2 diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, persistent reduction in stature, and possibly changes in the pattern of puberty. A review of recent literature confirms that the metabolic effects of being born small for gestational age are evident in the very young, persist with age, and are amplified by adiposity. Furthermore...

  3. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Effects of Physiological Fetal Growth Determinants on Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Haram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the fetus, which is strongly associated with the outcome of pregnancy, reflects interplay of several physiological and pathological factors. The assessment of fetal growth is based on comparison of birthweight (BW or estimated fetal weight (EFW to standards which define reference ranges at a spectrum of gestational ages. Most birthweight standards do not take into account effects of physiological determinants of fetal growth. Additionally, gestational age in many standards is based on the menstrual history and is often inaccurate. Fetal growth norms should be based on an early ultrasound estimate of gestational age. Customized standards, which have included only ultrasound-dated pregnancies, seem to be superior to population-based birthweight norms in predicting perinatal mortality and morbidity. Adjustment for individual variation in customized growth curves reduces false-positive diagnosis of IUGR and may lead to a very significant reduction in intervention for suspected IUGR. Customized growth potential identifies better the risk for adverse outcome than the currently used national standards, but customized charts may fail in detecting growth-restricted stillbirth. An individual’s birthweight is the sum of physiological and pathological influences operating during pregnancy. Growth potential norms are a better discriminator of aberrations of fetal growth than population, ultrasound, and customized norms.

  4. Intrauterine growth restriction: effects of physiological fetal growth determinants on diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haram, Kjell; Søfteland, Eirik; Bukowski, Radek

    2013-01-01

    The growth of the fetus, which is strongly associated with the outcome of pregnancy, reflects interplay of several physiological and pathological factors. The assessment of fetal growth is based on comparison of birthweight (BW) or estimated fetal weight (EFW) to standards which define reference ranges at a spectrum of gestational ages. Most birthweight standards do not take into account effects of physiological determinants of fetal growth. Additionally, gestational age in many standards is based on the menstrual history and is often inaccurate. Fetal growth norms should be based on an early ultrasound estimate of gestational age. Customized standards, which have included only ultrasound-dated pregnancies, seem to be superior to population-based birthweight norms in predicting perinatal mortality and morbidity. Adjustment for individual variation in customized growth curves reduces false-positive diagnosis of IUGR and may lead to a very significant reduction in intervention for suspected IUGR. Customized growth potential identifies better the risk for adverse outcome than the currently used national standards, but customized charts may fail in detecting growth-restricted stillbirth. An individual's birthweight is the sum of physiological and pathological influences operating during pregnancy. Growth potential norms are a better discriminator of aberrations of fetal growth than population, ultrasound, and customized norms.

  5. First trimester alcohol exposure alters placental perfusion and fetal oxygen availability affecting fetal growth and development in a non-human primate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Jamie O; Schabel, Matthias C; Roberts, Victoria H J; Wang, Xiaojie; Lewandowski, Katherine S; Grant, Kathleen A; Frias, Antonio E; Kroenke, Christopher D

    2017-03-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure leads to impaired fetal growth, brain development, and stillbirth. Placental impairment likely contributes to these adverse outcomes, but the mechanisms and specific vasoactive effects of alcohol that links altered placental function to impaired fetal development remain areas of active research. Recently, we developed magnetic resonance imaging techniques in nonhuman primates to characterize placental blood oxygenation through measurements of T2* and perfusion using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of first-trimester alcohol exposure on macaque placental function and to characterize fetal brain development in vivo. Timed-pregnant Rhesus macaques (n=12) were divided into 2 groups: control (n=6) and ethanol exposed (n=6). Animals were trained to self-administer orally either 1.5 g/kg/d of a 4% ethanol solution (equivalent to 6 drinks/d) or an isocaloric control fluid from preconception until gestational day 60 (term is G168). All animals underwent Doppler ultrasound scanning followed by magnetic resonance imaging that consisted of T2* and dynamic contrast-enhanced measurements. Doppler ultrasound scanning was used to measure uterine artery and umbilical vein velocimetry and diameter to calculate uterine artery volume blood flow and placental volume blood flow. After noninvasive imaging, animals underwent cesarean delivery for placenta collection and fetal necropsy at gestational day 110 (n=6) or 135 (n=6). Fetal weight and biparietal diameter were significantly smaller in ethanol-exposed animals compared with control animals at gestational day 110. By Doppler ultrasound scanning, placental volume blood flow was significantly lower (P=.04) at gestational day 110 in ethanol-exposed vs control animals. A significant reduction in placental blood flow was evident by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. As we demonstrated recently, T2* values vary

  6. Fetal growth and risk of stillbirth: a population-based case-control study.

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    Radek Bukowski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stillbirth is strongly related to impaired fetal growth. However, the relationship between fetal growth and stillbirth is difficult to determine because of uncertainty in the timing of death and confounding characteristics affecting normal fetal growth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in five geographic areas in the US. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small for gestational age (SGA (90th percentile at death (stillbirth or delivery (live birth using population, ultrasound, and individualized norms. Gestational age at death was determined using an algorithm that considered the time-of-death interval, postmortem examination, and reliability of the gestational age estimate. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design and differential participation rates in various subgroups. Among 527 singleton stillbirths and 1,821 singleton live births studied, stillbirth was associated with SGA based on population, ultrasound, and individualized norms (odds ratio [OR] [95% CI]: 3.0 [2.2 to 4.0]; 4.7 [3.7 to 5.9]; 4.6 [3.6 to 5.9], respectively. LGA was also associated with increased risk of stillbirth using ultrasound and individualized norms (OR [95% CI]: 3.5 [2.4 to 5.0]; 2.3 [1.7 to 3.1], respectively, but not population norms (OR [95% CI]: 0.6 [0.4 to 1.0]. The associations were stronger with more severe SGA and LGA (95th percentile. Analyses adjusted for stillbirth risk factors, subset analyses excluding potential confounders, and analyses in preterm and term pregnancies showed similar patterns of association. In this study 70% of cases and 63% of controls agreed to participate. Analysis weights accounted for differences between consenting and non-consenting women. Some of the characteristics used for individualized fetal growth estimates were missing and were replaced with reference values. However, a

  7. Fetal Growth and Risk of Stillbirth: A Population-Based Case–Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek; Hansen, Nellie I.; Willinger, Marian; Reddy, Uma M.; Parker, Corette B.; Pinar, Halit; Silver, Robert M.; Dudley, Donald J.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Saade, George R.; Koch, Matthew A.; Rowland Hogue, Carol J.; Varner, Michael W.; Conway, Deborah L.; Coustan, Donald; Goldenberg, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Stillbirth is strongly related to impaired fetal growth. However, the relationship between fetal growth and stillbirth is difficult to determine because of uncertainty in the timing of death and confounding characteristics affecting normal fetal growth. Methods and Findings We conducted a population-based case–control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in five geographic areas in the US. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small for gestational age (SGA) (90th percentile) at death (stillbirth) or delivery (live birth) using population, ultrasound, and individualized norms. Gestational age at death was determined using an algorithm that considered the time-of-death interval, postmortem examination, and reliability of the gestational age estimate. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design and differential participation rates in various subgroups. Among 527 singleton stillbirths and 1,821 singleton live births studied, stillbirth was associated with SGA based on population, ultrasound, and individualized norms (odds ratio [OR] [95% CI]: 3.0 [2.2 to 4.0]; 4.7 [3.7 to 5.9]; 4.6 [3.6 to 5.9], respectively). LGA was also associated with increased risk of stillbirth using ultrasound and individualized norms (OR [95% CI]: 3.5 [2.4 to 5.0]; 2.3 [1.7 to 3.1], respectively), but not population norms (OR [95% CI]: 0.6 [0.4 to 1.0]). The associations were stronger with more severe SGA and LGA (95th percentile). Analyses adjusted for stillbirth risk factors, subset analyses excluding potential confounders, and analyses in preterm and term pregnancies showed similar patterns of association. In this study 70% of cases and 63% of controls agreed to participate. Analysis weights accounted for differences between consenting and non-consenting women. Some of the characteristics used for individualized fetal growth estimates were missing and were replaced with reference values. However, a sensitivity

  8. Fetal growth and risk of stillbirth: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek; Hansen, Nellie I; Willinger, Marian; Reddy, Uma M; Parker, Corette B; Pinar, Halit; Silver, Robert M; Dudley, Donald J; Stoll, Barbara J; Saade, George R; Koch, Matthew A; Rowland Hogue, Carol J; Varner, Michael W; Conway, Deborah L; Coustan, Donald; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2014-04-01

    Stillbirth is strongly related to impaired fetal growth. However, the relationship between fetal growth and stillbirth is difficult to determine because of uncertainty in the timing of death and confounding characteristics affecting normal fetal growth. We conducted a population-based case-control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in five geographic areas in the US. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small for gestational age (SGA) (90th percentile) at death (stillbirth) or delivery (live birth) using population, ultrasound, and individualized norms. Gestational age at death was determined using an algorithm that considered the time-of-death interval, postmortem examination, and reliability of the gestational age estimate. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design and differential participation rates in various subgroups. Among 527 singleton stillbirths and 1,821 singleton live births studied, stillbirth was associated with SGA based on population, ultrasound, and individualized norms (odds ratio [OR] [95% CI]: 3.0 [2.2 to 4.0]; 4.7 [3.7 to 5.9]; 4.6 [3.6 to 5.9], respectively). LGA was also associated with increased risk of stillbirth using ultrasound and individualized norms (OR [95% CI]: 3.5 [2.4 to 5.0]; 2.3 [1.7 to 3.1], respectively), but not population norms (OR [95% CI]: 0.6 [0.4 to 1.0]). The associations were stronger with more severe SGA and LGA (95th percentile). Analyses adjusted for stillbirth risk factors, subset analyses excluding potential confounders, and analyses in preterm and term pregnancies showed similar patterns of association. In this study 70% of cases and 63% of controls agreed to participate. Analysis weights accounted for differences between consenting and non-consenting women. Some of the characteristics used for individualized fetal growth estimates were missing and were replaced with reference values. However, a sensitivity analysis using individualized norms

  9. Methionine, homocysteine, one carbon metabolism and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhan, Satish C; Marczewski, Susan E

    2012-06-01

    Methionine and folate are the key components of one carbon metabolism, providing the methyl groups for numerous methyl transferase reactions via the ubiquitous methyl donor, s-adenosyl methionine. Methionine metabolism is responsive to nutrient intake, is regulated by several hormones and requires a number of vitamins (B12, pyridoxine, riboflavin) as co-factors. The critical relationship between perturbations in the mother's methionine metabolism and its impact on fetal growth and development is now becoming evident. The relation of folate intake to fetal teratogenesis has been known for some time. Studies in human pregnancy show a continuous decrease in plasma homocysteine, and an increase in plasma choline concentrations with advancing gestation. A higher rate of transsulfuration of methionine in early gestation and of transmethylation in the 3rd trimester was seen in healthy pregnant women. How these processes are impacted by nutritional, hormonal and other influences in human pregnancy and their effect on fetal growth has not been examined. Isocaloric protein restriction in pregnant rats, resulted in fetal growth restriction and metabolic reprogramming. Isocaloric protein restriction in the non-pregnant rat, resulted in differential expression of a number of genes in the liver, a 50% increase in whole body serine biosynthesis and high rate of transmethylation, suggesting high methylation demands. These responses were associated with a significant decrease in intracellular taurine levels in the liver suggesting a role of cellular osmolarity in the observed metabolic responses. These unique changes in methionine and one carbon metabolism in response to physiological, nutritional and hormonal influences make these processes critical for cellular and organ function and growth.

  10. Effects of protein energy supplementation during pregnancy on fetal growth: a review of the literature focusing on contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, Selma C; Singh, Gurmeet; Mulholland, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Maternal diet during pregnancy is one of the most important factors associated with adequate fetal growth. There are many complications associated with fetal growth restriction that lead to lifelong effects. The aim of this review was to describe the studies examining the effects of protein energy supplementation during pregnancy on fetal growth focusing on the contextual differences. Relevant articles published between 2007 and 2012 were identified through systematic electronic searches of the PubMed, Science Direct, and EBSCO database and the examination of the bibliographies of retrieved articles. The search aimed to identify studies examining pregnant women receiving protein and/or energy during pregnancy and to assess fetal growth measures. Data of effectiveness and practical aspects of protein energy supplementation during pregnancy were extracted and compiled. Twenty studies (11 randomized controlled trials, 8 controlled before and after, and 1 prospective study) were included in this review. Positive outcomes in infants and women cannot be expected if the supplementation is not needed. Therefore, it is essential to correctly select women who will benefit from dietary intervention programs during pregnancy. However, there is currently no consensus on the most effective method of identifying these women. The content of protein in the supplements considering total diet is also an important determinant of fetal growth. Balanced protein energy supplementation (containing up to 20% of energy as protein) given to pregnant women with energy or protein deficit appears to improve fetal growth, increase birth weight (by 95-324 g) and height (by 4.6-6.1 mm), and decrease the percentage of low birth weight (by 6%). Supplements with excess protein (>20% of energy as protein) provided to women with a diet already containing adequate protein may conversely impair fetal growth. There is also no consensus on the best time to start supplementation. Strong quality studies

  11. Effects of protein energy supplementation during pregnancy on fetal growth: a review of the literature focusing on contextual factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, Selma C.; Singh, Gurmeet; Mulholland, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal diet during pregnancy is one of the most important factors associated with adequate fetal growth. There are many complications associated with fetal growth restriction that lead to lifelong effects. The aim of this review was to describe the studies examining the effects of protein energy supplementation during pregnancy on fetal growth focusing on the contextual differences. Methods Relevant articles published between 2007 and 2012 were identified through systematic electronic searches of the PubMed, Science Direct, and EBSCO database and the examination of the bibliographies of retrieved articles. The search aimed to identify studies examining pregnant women receiving protein and/or energy during pregnancy and to assess fetal growth measures. Data of effectiveness and practical aspects of protein energy supplementation during pregnancy were extracted and compiled. Results Twenty studies (11 randomized controlled trials, 8 controlled before and after, and 1 prospective study) were included in this review. Positive outcomes in infants and women cannot be expected if the supplementation is not needed. Therefore, it is essential to correctly select women who will benefit from dietary intervention programs during pregnancy. However, there is currently no consensus on the most effective method of identifying these women. The content of protein in the supplements considering total diet is also an important determinant of fetal growth. Balanced protein energy supplementation (containing up to 20% of energy as protein) given to pregnant women with energy or protein deficit appears to improve fetal growth, increase birth weight (by 95–324 g) and height (by 4.6–6.1 mm), and decrease the percentage of low birth weight (by 6%). Supplements with excess protein (>20% of energy as protein) provided to women with a diet already containing adequate protein may conversely impair fetal growth. There is also no consensus on the best time to start

  12. Doppler changes as the earliest parameter in fetal surveillance to detect fetal compromise in intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Saloni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is estimated that 3-10% of infants are growth restricted. Growth disturbances may have long-term issues. Doppler allows insight into the fetal response to intrauterine stress. Objective. The aim of this study was to detect fetal compromise in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR fetuses by means of biophysical profile (BPP vis-а-vis Doppler velocimetry studies of the fetal umbilical artery, and to find out which of the two is a better and earlier predictor of fetal compromise. Methods. A prospective study was conducted on a total of 50 singleton pregnancies with IUGR between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation. Study patients were managed expectantly with nonstress testing and amniotic fluid assessment, BPP and Doppler velocimetry studies of the fetal umbilical artery. Results. Fetal outcome was poor in 5/50 (10% of the fetuses, defined as presence of all of the following: poor Apgar test score, neonatal intensive care unit stay, necrotizing enterocolitis, and low birth weight. Of the four with abnormal BPP, 50% had poor fetal outcomes. Out of 46 with normal BPP, 6.5% had poor fetal outcomes. Conclusion. Inference drawn from the study is that the Doppler technology provides us the opportunity for repetitive noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring in IUGR pregnancies.

  13. Early rapid growth, early birth: Accelerated fetal growth and spontaneous late preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Goncalves, Luis; Hassan, Sonia; Gomez, Ricardo; Nien, Jyh Kae; Frongillo, Edward A.; Romero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The past two decades in the United States have seen a 24 % rise in spontaneous late preterm delivery (34 to 36 weeks) of unknown etiology. This study tested the hypothesis that fetal growth was identical prior to spontaneous preterm (n=221, median gestational age at birth 35.6 weeks) and term (n=3706) birth among pregnancies followed longitudinally in Santiago, Chile. The hypothesis was not supported: Preterm-delivered fetuses were significantly larger than their term-delivered peers by mid-second trimester in estimated fetal weight, head, limb and abdominal dimensions, and they followed different growth trajectories. Piecewise regression assessed time-specific differences in growth rates at 4-week intervals from 16 weeks. Estimated fetal weight and abdominal circumference growth rates faltered at 20 weeks among the preterm-delivered, only to match and/or exceed their term-delivered peers at 24–28 weeks. After an abrupt decline at 28 weeks attenuating growth rates in all dimensions, fetuses delivered preterm did so at greater population-specific sex and age-adjusted weight than their peers from uncomplicated pregnancies (p<0.01). Growth rates predicted birth timing: one standard score of estimated fetal weight increased the odds ratio for preterm birth from 2.8 prior to 23 weeks, to 3.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.82–7.11, p<0.05) between 23 and 27 weeks. After 27 weeks, increasing size was protective (OR: 0.56, 95% confidence interval, 0.38–0.82, p=0.003). These data document, for the first time, a distinctive fetal growth pattern across gestation preceding spontaneous late preterm birth, identify the importance of mid-gestation for alterations in fetal growth, and add perspective on human fetal biological variability. PMID:18988282

  14. Effect of placenta previa on fetal growth restriction and stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeniel, A Ozgur; Ergenoglu, A Mete; Itil, Ismail Mete; Askar, Niyazi; Meseri, Reci

    2012-08-01

    To examine the association between placenta previa and adverse perinatal outcomes such as low birth weight, preterm delivery, stillbirth and fetal growth restriction (FGR). This retrospective cohort study includes 12,034 delivered pregnant women who were recruited for the study between 2004 and 2010 in Ege University Hospital. Data were collected by browsing the clinic's archives. The association between placenta previa and adverse perinatal outcomes was determined via Chi-square tests and Student's t test. Logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for confounding factors in evaluating the association between placenta previa and the adverse perinatal outcomes. There was no significant relationship between placenta previa and FGR or stillbirth. Low birth weight and preterm delivery were significantly higher in the placenta previa group. According to logistic regression analysis, low birth weight was associated with an OR of 3.01 (95 % CI 2.05-4.52) and preterm delivery was associated with an OR of 8.14 (95 % CI 5.60-11.83); while, placenta previa did not affect FGR and stillbirth significantly. Although there is no consensus on the association between placenta previa and FGR in previous studies, we suggest that placenta previa is not a reason for placental insufficiency. Management of placenta previa especially depends on maternal hemodynamic parameters such as heavy hemorrhage and hypotensive shock rather than fetal well-being protocols based on serial growth ultrasound and fetal Doppler investigation.

  15. What is the value of ultrasound soft tissue measurements in the prediction of abnormal fetal growth?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, N

    2012-02-01

    Abnormal fetal growth increases the complications of pregnancy not only for the baby but also for the mother. Growth abnormalities also have lifelong consequences. These babies are at increased risk of insulin resistance, diabetes and hypertension later in life. It is important to identify these babies antenatally to optimise their clinical care. Although used extensively antenatally to monitor fetal growth, ultrasound has its limitations. Despite the use of more than 50 different formulae to estimate fetal weight, their performance has been poor at the extremes of fetal weight. Over the past 20 years there has been emerging interest in studying fetal soft tissue measurements to improve detection of growth abnormalities. This review paper outlines the value of soft tissue measurements in identifying fetal growth abnormalities, in estimating fetal weight and in managing diabetes mellitus in pregnancy.

  16. [Sonography of fetal growth behavior in maternal diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielscher, K; Renziehausen, K; Döring, E

    1989-01-01

    In the Gynaecological Hospital affiliated to the District Hospital of Karl-Marx-Stadt, which is a care centre for pregnant diabetic women, 363 diabetic women of classes White A-F 1779 were subjected to ultrasonic examinations between 1982 and 1988. In this connection, nominal-value graphs were prepared to show the biparietal diameter (BIP), the medium thorax diameter and the head-thorax index in dependence upon the gestational age. These nominal-value graphs give a general idea of the specific fetal growth behaviour in case of diabetes mellitus. They permit to reliably diagnose a fetal hypertrophy or hypotrophy. Moreover, they provide a starting point for a more effective coverage of gestational diabetics and open up new prospects for insulinisation.

  17. Third trimester fetal growth and umbilical venous blood concentrations of IGF-1, IGFBP-1, and growth hormone at term.

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, J. A.; T C Chang; J. Jones; Robson, S. C.; Preece, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and growth hormone (GH) concentrations were measured in umbilical venous blood after delivery of 78 term newborn infants. Three groups of pregnancies were prospectively identified during the third trimester, according to fetal size and subsequent fetal growth, assessed by repeated ultrasound scans. Fetal size was considered either appropriate for gestational age (AGA) or small for gestational age (SGA...

  18. Fetal hydantoin syndrome: inhibition of placental folic acid transport as a potential mechanism for fetal growth retardation in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will, M.; Barnard, J.A.; Said, H.M.; Ghishan, F.K.

    1985-04-01

    Maternal hydantoin ingestion during pregnancy results in a well defined clinical entity termed ''fetal hydantoin syndrome''. The clinical characteristics of this syndrome includes growth retardation, and congenital anomalies. Because folic acid is essential for protein synthesis and growth, and since hydantoin interferes with intestinal transport of folic acid, the authors postulated that part of the fetal hydantoin syndrome may be due to inhibition of placental folic acid by maternal hydantoin. Therefore, they studied in vivo placental folate transport in a well-established model for fetal hydantoin syndrome in the rat. Our results indicate that maternal hydantoin ingestion, significantly decreased fetal weight and placental and fetal uptake of folate compared to controls. To determine whether maternal hydantoin ingestion has a generalized or specific effect on placental function, they examined placental and fetal zinc transport in the same model. Our results indicate that zinc transport is not altered by hydantoin ingestion. They conclude that maternal hydantoin ingestion results in fetal growth retardation which may be due in part to inhibition of placental folate transport.

  19. Maternal and fetal risk factors affecting perinatal mortality in early and late fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Oya; Selçuk, Selçuk; Kumru, Pınar; Asoğlu, Mehmet Reşit; Mahmutoğlu, Didar; Boza, Barış; Türkyılmaz, Gürcan; Bütün, Zafer; Arısoy, Resul; Tandoğan, Bülent

    2015-12-01

    To determine the factors which affect the perinatal deaths in early and late fetal growth restriction (FGR) fetuses using threshold of estimated fetal weight (EFW) fetuses, defined as an EFW fetuses considered as growth restrictions were confirmed by birth weight. Fetuses with multiple pregnancy, congenital malformation, chromosomal abnormality, and premature rupture of membrane were excluded. Samples were grouped in early and late FGR. Early FGR fetuses was classified as gestational age at birth ≤ 34 weeks and late FGR was classified as gestational age at birth > 34 weeks. Factors which affect the perinatal deaths were analyzed descriptively in early and late FGR. The perinatal mortality was calculated by adding the number of stillbirths and neonatal deaths. The study included 86 early and 185 late FGR fetuses, 31 resulted in perinatal deaths, 28 perinatal deaths were in early FGR, and three perinatal deaths were in late FGR. Perinatal deaths occurred more commonly in early FGR fetuses with an EFW death in early FGR. All three perinatal deaths in late FGR occurred in fetuses with EFW death was found significantly higher in increased vascular impedance of UtAs whatever the umbilical artery Doppler. Only EFW death in late FGR in comparison with early FGR. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. [Fetal lung development on MRT. Normal course and impairment due to premature rupture of membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprian, G; Brugger, P C; Helmer, H; Langer, M; Balassy, C; Prayer, D

    2006-02-01

    A well-organized interplay between many molecular factors as well as mechanical forces influence fetal lung development. At the end of this complex process a sufficiently sized and structurally mature organ should ensure the postnatal survival of the newborn. Besides prenatal ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can now be used to investigate normal and pathological human lung growth in utero. Oligohydramnios, due to premature rupture of membranes (PROM), is an important risk factor for compromised fetal lung growth. In these situations MR volumetry can be used to measure the size of the fetal lung quite accurately. Together with the evaluation of lung signal intensities on T2-weighted sequences, fetuses with pulmonary hypoplasia can be readily detected.

  2. Third trimester growth restriction patterns: individualized assessment using a fetal growth pathology score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deter, Russell L; Lee, Wesley; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Kingdom, John; Romero, Roberto

    2017-07-06

    To qualitatively and quantitatively characterize third trimester growth patterns in fetuses/neonates with growth restriction using Individualized Growth Assessment. Serial fetal size measurements from 73 fetuses with proven growth restriction were evaluated using a novel composite parameter, the Fetal Growth Pathology Score (FGPS1). Third trimester FGPS1 measurements plotted against fetal age were examined for patterns. Identified patterns were characterized using the four components of the FGP1 [head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur diaphysis length (FDL), estimated weight (EWT)]. A secondary characterization using age of onset, duration and magnitude of the growth abnormality process was also performed. Frequencies and magnitudes of abnormal values in different FGPS1 patterns were compared. Five growth restriction patterns were found in 70/73 (95.9%) of the cases, with progressive worsening [Pattern 1 (37.0%)] and abnormal growth identified only at last scan [Pattern 2 (27.4%)] being the most common. These two patterns were usually statistically different from each other and the other three with respect to size parameter abnormalities and abnormal growth process characteristics (MANOVA). Growth abnormalities in all parameters of the FGPS1 contributed to the five abnormality patterns although AC and EWT were most important. The age of onset, duration and magnitude were similar between patterns except for Pattern 2, which had a late onset and a short duration (GLM + contrasts). Our study represents the first detailed evaluation of third trimester growth restriction using methods that consider the growth potential of each fetus. Five distinctive and repetitive patterns were found, suggesting that fetal growth restriction evolves in different ways. Further research is needed to determine the relationships of these patterns to physiological/biochemical changes and adverse outcomes associated with growth restriction.

  3. Fetal Hemodynamics and Fetal Growth Indices by Ultrasound in Late Pregnancy and Birth Weight in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Liu, Yong; Lai, Ya-Ping; Gu, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Dong-Mei; Yang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Background: The offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are prone to macrosomia. However, birth weight is difficult to be correctly estimated by ultrasound because of fetal asymmetric growth characteristics. This study aimed to investigate the correlations between fetal hemodynamics, fetal growth indices in late pregnancy, and birth weight in GDM. Methods: A total of 147 women with GDM and 124 normal controls (NC) were enrolled in this study. Fetal hemodynamic indices, including the systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D), resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI) of umbilical artery (UA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), and renal artery (RA), were collected. Fetal growth indices, including biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), and femur length, were also measured by ultrasound. Birth weight, newborn gender, and maternal clinical data were collected. Results: The independent samples t-test showed that BPD, HC, and AC were larger in GDM than in NC (P 0.05). RA (S/D, PI, and RI) was positively correlated with birth weight in GDM (r = 0.168, 0.207, and 0.184, respectively, P 0.05). Conclusion: Fetal hemodynamic indices in late pregnancy might be helpful for estimating newborn birth weight in women with GDM. PMID:27569240

  4. Volumetric MRI study of the intrauterine growth restriction fetal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, A.; Barlow, S.; Ber, R.; Achiron, R.; Katorza, E. [Tel Aviv University, Sackler School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (Israel)

    2017-05-15

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a pathologic fetal condition known to affect the fetal brain regionally and associated with future neurodevelopmental abnormalities. This study employed MRI to assess in utero regional brain volume changes in IUGR fetuses compared to controls. Retrospectively, using MRI images of fetuses at 30-34 weeks gestational age, a total of 8 brain regions - supratentorial brain and cavity, cerebral hemispheres, temporal lobes and cerebellum - were measured for volume in 13 fetuses with IUGR due to placental insufficiency and in 21 controls. Volumes and their ratios were assessed for difference using regression models. Reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between two observers. In both groups, all structures increase in absolute volume during that gestation period, and the rate of cerebellar growth is higher compared to that of supratentorial structures. All structures' absolute volumes were significantly smaller for the IUGR group. Cerebellar to supratentorial ratios were found to be significantly smaller (P < 0.05) for IUGR compared to controls. No other significant ratio differences were found. ICC showed excellent agreement. The cerebellar to supratentorial volume ratio is affected in IUGR fetuses. Additional research is needed to assess this as a radiologic marker in relation to long-term outcome. (orig.)

  5. Sexual dimorphism in epigenomicresponses of stem cells to extreme fetal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahaye, Fabien; Wijetunga, N. Ari; Heo, Hye J.; Tozour, Jessica N.; Zhao, Yong Mei; Greally, John M.; Einstein, Francine H.

    2014-01-01

    Extreme fetal growth is associated with increased susceptibility to a range of adult diseases through an unknown mechanism of cellular memory. We tested whether heritable epigenetic processes in long-lived CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) showed evidence for re-programming associated with the extremes of fetal growth. Here we show that both fetal growth restriction and over-growth are associated with global shifts towards DNA hypermethylation, targeting cis-regulatory elements in proximity to genes involved in glucose homeostasis and stem cell function. We find a sexually dimorphic response; intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with substantially greater epigenetic dysregulation in males, whereas large for gestational age (LGA) growth predominantly affects females. The findings are consistent with extreme fetal growth interacting with variable fetal susceptibility to influence cellular aging and metabolic characteristics through epigenetic mechanisms, potentially generating biomarkers that could identify infants at higher risk for chronic disease later in life. PMID:25300954

  6. Sexual dimorphism in epigenomic responses of stem cells to extreme fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahaye, Fabien; Wijetunga, N Ari; Heo, Hye J; Tozour, Jessica N; Zhao, Yong Mei; Greally, John M; Einstein, Francine H

    2014-10-10

    Extreme fetal growth is associated with increased susceptibility to a range of adult diseases through an unknown mechanism of cellular memory. We tested whether heritable epigenetic processes in long-lived CD34(+) haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells showed evidence for re-programming associated with the extremes of fetal growth. Here we show that both fetal growth restriction and over-growth are associated with global shifts towards DNA hypermethylation, targeting cis-regulatory elements in proximity to genes involved in glucose homeostasis and stem cell function. We find a sexually dimorphic response; intrauterine growth restriction is associated with substantially greater epigenetic dysregulation in males, whereas large for gestational age growth predominantly affects females. The findings are consistent with extreme fetal growth interacting with variable fetal susceptibility to influence cellular ageing and metabolic characteristics through epigenetic mechanisms, potentially generating biomarkers that could identify infants at higher risk for chronic disease later in life.

  7. The effects of smoking and hypertensive disorders on fetal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irgens Lorentz M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that smoking and pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH are associated with decreased fetal growth. It has been reported that in preeclampsia the fetal growth deficit attributable to smoking is higher, which has been contradicted in other studies. We therefore evaluated the effects on fetal growth of early- and late onset PIH and chronic hypertension and how cigarette smoking modify these effects. We also quantified the proportion of small for gestational age (SGA cases attributable to PIH, chronic hypertension, and smoking. Methods Population-based study based on record of 215598 singleton pregnancies from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Results In severe preeclampsia, mild preeclampsia, transient hypertension, and normotension in term birth, odds ratios (ORs of SGA in smokers compared with non-smokers were 1.4 (95% confidence interval 0.9, 2.2, 1.6 (1.3, 1.9, 2.3 (1.8, 3.1, and 2.0 (1.9, 2.1, respectively. For preterm births, corresponding ORs were 1.3 (0.9, 2.0, 1.8 (1.1, 3.0, 4.1 (1.9, 9.0, and 1.7 (1.4, 2.0, respectively. The effect of early onset PIH was stronger than that in term births, while the effect of smoking was equal in preterm and term newborns. Only in non-smokers who delivered at term, the rates of SGA significantly increased with the severity of PIH (ORs = 1.3 (1.1, 1.5, 1.8 (1.7, 2.0, and 2.5 (2.2, 3.0 for transient hypertension, mild-, and severe preeclampsia, respectively. The combined effects of smoking and hypertension were generally not synergistic. The effect of smoking was not stronger in women who had chronic hypertension. Nor were the effects of chronic hypertension stronger in smokers. PIH explained 21.9 and 2.5% of preterm and term cases of SGA, respectively, while smoking explained 12% of SGA cases. Conclusion The effects of hypertensive disorder and smoking were generally not synergistic, which suggest that they may exert their main actions on separate sites or work through

  8. Sex Differences in Placental Mitochondrial Function Associated with Ozone-Induced Fetal Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal growth restriction is a major underlying cause of infant mortality worldwide. Unfortunately little is known about the mechanisms that drive compromised growth and the role of placental maladaptation on fetal development. In the current study placentas from male and female r...

  9. Risk assessment during pregnancy and labor: optimal fetal growth and monitoring of contractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasak, B

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on risk assessment during pregnancy and labor. Part 1 of this thesis describes risk assessment during pregnancy concentrating on fetal growth in relation to perinatal morbidity, perinatal mortality and implications for maternal health. Perinatal mortality related to fetal growth

  10. Maternal hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy and growth of the fetal and infant head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.H. van Mil (Nina); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); J.J. Bongers-Schokking (Jacoba J.); H.E. Marroun (Hanan); A. Ghassabian (Akhgar); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); T.J. Visser (Theo); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSevere maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy affects fetal brain growth and corticogenesis. This study focused on the effect of maternal hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy on growth of the fetal and infant head. In a population-based birth cohort, we assessed thyroid status

  11. Classification of discordant fetal growth may contribute to risk stratification in monochorionic twin pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, MJC; Vandenbussche, FPHA; Schaap, AHP; Zondervan, HA; Nikkels, PGJ; van Wijngaarden, WJ; van Zalen-Sprock, RM; Sollie-Szarynska, KM; Stoutenbeek, PH

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether classification of discordant growth between fetal twins allows risk stratification in monochorionic twin pregnancies. Methods In 12 twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) pregnancies and 12 cases that were suspected of developing the syndrome, fetal growth was deter

  12. Characterization of fetal growth by repeated ultrasound measurements in the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, K; Guenther, A; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2014-08-01

    Fetal growth during pregnancy has previously been studied in the domesticated guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) after dissecting pregnant females, but there are no studies describing the fetal growth in their wild progenitor, the wild guinea pig (C aperea). In this study, 50 pregnancies of wild guinea pig sows were investigated using modern ultrasound technique. The two most common fetal growth parameters (biparietal diameter [BPD] and crown-rump-length [CRL]) and uterine position were measured. Data revealed similar fetal growth patterns in the wild guinea pig and domesticated guinea pig in the investigated gestation period, although they differ in reproductive milestones such as gestation length (average duration of pregnancy 68 days), average birth weight, and litter mass. In this study, pregnancy lasted on average 60.2 days with a variance of less than a day (0.96 days). The measured fetal growth parameters are strongly correlated with each (R = 0.91; P guinea pig.

  13. Sildenafil citrate increases fetal weight in a mouse model of fetal growth restriction with a normal vascular phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Robert Dilworth

    Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction (FGR is defined as the inability of a fetus to achieve its genetic growth potential and is associated with a significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinically, FGR is diagnosed as a fetus falling below the 5(th centile of customised growth charts. Sildenafil citrate (SC, Viagra™, a potent and selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, corrects ex vivo placental vascular dysfunction in FGR, demonstrating potential as a therapy for this condition. However, many FGR cases present without an abnormal vascular phenotype, as assessed by Doppler measures of uterine/umbilical artery blood flow velocity. Thus, we hypothesized that SC would not increase fetal growth in a mouse model of FGR, the placental-specific Igf2 knockout mouse, which has altered placental exchange capacity but normal placental blood flow. Fetal weights were increased (by 8% in P0 mice following maternal SC treatment (0.4 mg/ml via drinking water. There was also a trend towards increased placental weight in treated P0 mice (P = 0.056. Additionally, 75% of the P0 fetal weights were below the 5(th centile, the criterion used to define human FGR, of the non-treated WT fetal weights; this was reduced to 51% when dams were treated with SC. Umbilical artery and vein blood flow velocity measures confirmed the lack of an abnormal vascular phenotype in the P0 mouse; and were unaffected by SC treatment. (14C-methylaminoisobutyric acid transfer (measured to assess effects on placental nutrient transporter activity per g placenta was unaffected by SC, versus untreated, though total transfer was increased, commensurate with the trend towards larger placentas in this group. These data suggest that SC may improve fetal growth even in the absence of an abnormal placental blood flow, potentially affording use in multiple sub-populations of individuals presenting with FGR.

  14. Is Placental Mitochondrial Function a Regulator that Matches Fetal and Placental Growth to Maternal Nutrient Intake in the Mouse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R Chiaratti

    Full Text Available Effective fetal growth requires adequate maternal nutrition coupled to active transport of nutrients across the placenta, which, in turn requires ATP. Epidemiological and experimental evidence has shown that impaired maternal nutrition in utero results in an adverse postnatal phenotype for the offspring. Placental mitochondrial function might link maternal food intake to fetal growth since impaired placental ATP production, in response to poor maternal nutrition, could be a pathway linking maternal food intake to reduced fetal growth.We assessed the effects of maternal diet on placental water content, ATP levels and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content in mice at embryonic (E day 18 (E18. Females maintained on either low- (LPD or normal- (NPD protein diets were mated with NPD males.To investigate the possibility of an underlying mitochondrial stress response, we studied cultured human trophoblast cells (BeWos. High throughput imaging showed that amino acid starvation induces changes in mitochondrial morphology that suggest stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion. This is a defensive response, believed to increase mitochondrial efficiency, that could underlie the increase in ATP observed in placenta.These findings reinforce the pathophysiological links between maternal diet and conceptus mitochondria, potentially contributing to metabolic programming. The quiet embryo hypothesis proposes that pre-implantation embryo survival is best served by a relatively low level of metabolism. This may extend to post-implantation trophoblast responses to nutrition.

  15. Sildenafil citrate and uteroplacental perfusion in fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Vahid Dastjerdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine whether the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, Sildenafil citrate, affects uteroplacental perfusion. Materials and Methods: Based on a randomized double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial, forty one pregnant women with documented intrauterine growth retardation at 24-37 weeks of gestation were evaluated for the effect of a single dose of Sildenafil citrate on uteroplacental circulation as determined by Doppler ultrasound study of the umbilical and middle cerebral arteries. Statistical analysis included χ2 -test to compare proportions, and independent-samples t-test and paired student′s t-test to compare continuous variables. Results: Sildenafil group fetuses demonstrated a significant decrease in systolic/diastolic ratios (0.60 [SD 0.40] [95% Cl 0.37-0.84], P=0.000, and pulsatility index (0.12 [SD 0.15] [95% Cl 0.02-0.22], P=0.019 for the umbilical artery and a significant increase in middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA PI (0.51 [SD 0.60] [95% Cl 0.16-0.85], P=0.008. Conclusion: Doppler velocimetry index values reflect decreased placental bed vascular resistance after Sildenafil. Sildenafil citrate can improve fetoplacental perfusion in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction. It could be a potential therapeutic strategy to improve uteroplacental blood flow in pregnancies with fetal growth restriction (FGR.

  16. Restriction of placental and fetal growth in sheep alters fetal blood pressure responses to angiotensin II and captopril

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L J; Simonetta, G; Owens, J A; Robinson, J S; McMillen, I C

    1999-01-01

    We have measured arterial blood pressure between 115 and 145 days gestation in normally grown fetal sheep (control group; n = 16) and in fetal sheep in which growth was restricted by experimental restriction of placental growth and development (PR group; n = 13). There was no significant difference in the mean gestational arterial blood pressure between the PR (42.7 ± 2.6 mmHg) and control groups (37.7 ± 2.3 mmHg). Mean arterial blood pressure and arterial PO2 were significantly correlated in control animals (r = 0.53, P captopril (7.5 μg captopril min−1; PR group n = 7, control group n = 6) between 115 and 125 days gestation. After 135 days gestation, there was a significant decrease (P captopril infusion (15 μg captopril min−1; PR group n = 7, control group n = 6).There was a significant effect (F = 14.75; P < 0.001) of increasing doses of angiotensin II on fetal diastolic blood pressure in the PR and control groups. The effects of angiotensin II were different (F = 8.67; P < 0.05) in the PR and control groups at both gestational age ranges.These data indicate that arterial blood pressure may be maintained by different mechanisms in growth restricted fetuses and normally grown counterparts and suggests a role for the fetal renin-angiotensin system in the maintenance of blood pressure in growth restricted fetuses. PMID:10066914

  17. Effects of protein energy supplementation during pregnancy on fetal growth: a review of the literature focusing on contextual factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma C. Liberato

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal diet during pregnancy is one of the most important factors associated with adequate fetal growth. There are many complications associated with fetal growth restriction that lead to lifelong effects. The aim of this review was to describe the studies examining the effects of protein energy supplementation during pregnancy on fetal growth focusing on the contextual differences. Methods: Relevant articles published between 2007 and 2012 were identified through systematic electronic searches of the PubMed, Science Direct, and EBSCO database and the examination of the bibliographies of retrieved articles. The search aimed to identify studies examining pregnant women receiving protein and/or energy during pregnancy and to assess fetal growth measures. Data of effectiveness and practical aspects of protein energy supplementation during pregnancy were extracted and compiled. Results: Twenty studies (11 randomized controlled trials, 8 controlled before and after, and 1 prospective study were included in this review. Positive outcomes in infants and women cannot be expected if the supplementation is not needed. Therefore, it is essential to correctly select women who will benefit from dietary intervention programs during pregnancy. However, there is currently no consensus on the most effective method of identifying these women. The content of protein in the supplements considering total diet is also an important determinant of fetal growth. Balanced protein energy supplementation (containing up to 20% of energy as protein given to pregnant women with energy or protein deficit appears to improve fetal growth, increase birth weight (by 95–324 g and height (by 4.6–6.1 mm, and decrease the percentage of low birth weight (by 6%. Supplements with excess protein (>20% of energy as protein provided to women with a diet already containing adequate protein may conversely impair fetal growth. There is also no consensus on the best time to

  18. Fetal Growth and Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifer, William P.; Andrews, Howard

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated differences in growth between fetuses with and without congenital heart disease (CHD) and tested associations between growth and early childhood neurodevelopment (ND). In this prospective cohort study, fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and controls had biparietal diameter (BPD), head (HC) and abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL), and estimated fetal weight (EFW) recorded serially during pregnancy at 18and controls were assessed using–26 weeks GA (F1), at 27–33 weeks GA (F2), and at 34–40 weeks GA (F3). CHD subjects underwent Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III ND testing at 18 months. Differences between CHD fetuses and controls were assessed using t tests and generalized linear modeling. Correlations between biometry and ND informed regression modeling. We enrolled 41 controls and 68 fetuses with CHD (N = 24 HLHS, N = 21 TGA, N = 23 TOF), 46 of whom had ND scores available. At 18–26 weeks, CHD fetuses were smaller than controls in all biometric parameters. Differences in growth rates were observed for HC, BPD, and AC, but not for FL or EFW. Cognitive score correlated with HC/AC at F2 (r = −0.33, P = 0.04) and mean HC/AC across gestation (r = −0.35, P = 0.03). Language correlated with FL/BPD at F2 (r = 0.34, P = 0.04). In stepwise linear regression, mean HC/AC predicted Cognition (B = −102, P = 0.026, R2 = 0.13) and FL/BPD at F2 predicted Language score (B = 127, P = 0.03, R2 = 0.12). Differences in growth between CHD fetuses and controls can be measured early in pregnancy. In CHD fetuses, larger abdominal relative to head circumference is associated with better 18-month neurodevelopment. PMID:25753684

  19. Effect of maternal alcohol and nicotine intake, individually and in combination, on fetal growth in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leichter, J. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

    1991-03-15

    The effect of maternal ethanol and nicotine administration, separately and in combination, on fetal growth of rats was studied. Nicotine was administered by gavage for the entire gestational period. Alcohol was given in drinking water for 4 weeks prior to mating and 30% throughout gestation. Appropriate pair-fed and ad libitum control animals were included to separate the effect of ethanol and nicotine on the outcome of pregnancy from those produced by the confounding variables of malnutrition. Body weights of fetuses exposed to alcohol alone or in combination with nicotine were significantly lower than those of the pair-fed and ad libitum controls. However, the difference in fetal body weight between the alcohol plus nicotine and the alcohol alone group was not significant. Similarly, in the rats administered nicotine only, fetal weight was not significantly different compared to control animals. The results of this study indicate that maternal alcohol intake impairs fetal growth and nicotine does not, regardless whether it is administered separately or in combination with alcohol for the entire gestational period.

  20. The relationship between maternal and fetal vitamin D, insulin resistance, and fetal growth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2013-05-01

    Evidence for a role of vitamin D in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis is inconclusive. We sought to clarify the relationship between maternal and fetal insulin resistance and vitamin D status. This is a prospective cohort study of 60 caucasian pregnant women. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), glucose, insulin, and leptin were measured in early pregnancy and at 28 weeks. Ultrasound at 34 weeks assessed fetal anthropometry including abdominal wall width, a marker of fetal adiposity. At delivery birth weight was recorded and fetal 25-OHD, glucose, C-peptide, and leptin measured in cord blood. Insulin resistance was calculated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) equation. We found that those with lower 25-OHD in early pregnancy had higher HOMA indices at 28 weeks, (r = -.32, P = .02). No significant relationship existed between maternal or fetal leptin and 25-OHD, or between maternal or fetal 25-OHD and fetal anthropometry or birth weight. The incidence of vitamin D deficiency was high at each time point (15%-45%). These findings lend support to routine antenatal supplementation with vitamin D in at risk populations.

  1. Fish intake during pregnancy, fetal growth, and gestational length in 19 European birth cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Martinez, David; Barros, Henrique; Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Casas, Maribel; Charles, Marie Aline; Cordier, Sylvaine; Eggesbø, Merete; Van Eijsden, Manon; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Govarts, Eva; Halldórsson, Thorhallur I.; Hanke, Wojciech; Haugen, Margaretha; Heppe, Denise H M; Heude, Barbara; Inskip, Hazel M.; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Jansen, Maria; Kelleher, Cecily; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Merletti, Franco; Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina; Mommers, Monique; Murcia, Mario; Oliveira, Andreia; Olsen, Sjúrour F.; Pele, Fabienne; Polanska, Kinga; Porta, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Robinson, Siân M.; Stigum, Hein; Strøm, Marin; Sunyer, Jordi; Thijs, Carel; Viljoen, Karien; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet H.; Kogevinas, Manolis; Vrijheid, Martine; Chatzi, Leda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fish is a rich source of essential nutrients for fetal development, but in contrast, it is also a well-known route of exposure to environmental pollutants. Objective: We assessed whether fish intake during pregnancy is associated with fetal growth and the length of gestation in a panel o

  2. Mother's educational level and fetal growth: The genesis of health inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Silva (Lindsay); P.W. Jansen (Pauline); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); L.R. Arends (Lidia); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); A. Hofman (Albert); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); H. Raat (Hein)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Women of low socio-economic status (SES) give birth to lighter babies. It is unknown from which moment during pregnancy socio-economic differences in fetal weight can be observed, whether low SES equally affects different fetal-growth components, or what the effect of low SES

  3. Fetal growth restriction : Prenatal predictors of neonatal and late functional outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, Jozijntje Christina

    2015-01-01

    The studies reported in this thesis provide insight into the course of fetal growth restriction (FGR) from the prenatal period until school age. In part I we report on fetal cardiac function and found that left, right, and septal longitudinal annular displacement is reduced in FGR compared to age-ma

  4. Fetal growth versus birthweight: the role of placenta versus other determinants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Cecilie Paasche Roland

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Birthweight is used as an indicator of intrauterine growth, and determinants of birthweight are widely studied. Less is known about determinants of deviating patterns of growth in utero. We aimed to study the effects of maternal characteristics on both birthweight and fetal growth in third trimester and introduce placental weight as a possible determinant of both birthweight and fetal growth in third trimester. METHODS: The STORK study is a prospective cohort study including 1031 healthy pregnant women of Scandinavian heritage with singleton pregnancies. Maternal determinants (age, parity, body mass index (BMI, gestational weight gain and fasting plasma glucose of birthweight and fetal growth estimated by biometric ultrasound measures were explored by linear regression models. Two models were fitted, one with only maternal characteristics and one which included placental weight. RESULTS: Placental weight was a significant determinant of birthweight. Parity, BMI, weight gain and fasting glucose remained significant when adjusted for placental weight. Introducing placental weight as a covariate reduced the effect estimate of the other variables in the model by 62% for BMI, 40% for weight gain, 33% for glucose and 22% for parity. Determinants of fetal growth were parity, BMI and weight gain, but not fasting glucose. Placental weight was significant as an independent variable. Parity, BMI and weight gain remained significant when adjusted for placental weight. Introducing placental weight reduced the effect of BMI on fetal growth by 23%, weight gain by 14% and parity by 17%. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we find that placental weight is an important determinant of both birthweight and fetal growth. Our findings indicate that placental weight markedly modifies the effect of maternal determinants of both birthweight and fetal growth. The differential effect of third trimester glucose on birthweight and growth parameters illustrates that

  5. Perinatal Programming of Childhood Asthma: Early Fetal Size, Growth Trajectory during Infancy, and Childhood Asthma Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Turner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “fetal origins hypothesis” or concept of “developmental programming” suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  6. Periconceptional growth hormone treatment alters fetal growth and development in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J M; Wilmoth, T A; Wilson, M E

    2010-05-01

    Research in the area of fetal programming has focused on intrauterine growth restriction. Few studies have attempted to examine programming mechanisms that ultimately lead to lambs with a greater potential for postnatal growth. We previously demonstrated that treatment of ewes with GH at the time of breeding led to an increase in birth weight. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of a single injection of sustained-release GH given during the periconceptional period on fetal growth and development and to determine if the GH axis would be altered in these offspring. Estrus was synchronized using 2 injections of PGF(2alpha); at the time of the second injection, ewes assigned to treatment were also given an injection of sustained-release GH. A maternal jugular vein sample was taken weekly to analyze IGF-I as a proxy for GH to estimate the duration of the treatment effect. In ewes treated with GH, IGF-I increased (P growth and development. Lambs born to ewes treated with GH were larger at birth and had altered organ development, which may indicate that early maternal GH treatment may lead to permanent changes in the developing fetus. The ewe lambs maintained their growth performance to at least 100 d of postnatal life and appeared to have an altered GH axis, as demonstrated by the altered response to GHRH.

  7. Fetal Hemodynamics and Fetal Growth Indices by Ultrasound in Late Pregnancy and Birth Weight in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Liu; Yong Liu; Ya-Ping Lai; Xiao-Ning Gu; Dong-Mei Liu; Min Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background:The offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are prone to macrosomia.However,birth weight is difficult to be correctly estimated by ultrasound because of fetal asymmetric growth characteristics.This study aimed to investigate the correlations between fetal hemodynamics,fetal growth indices in late pregnancy,and birth weight in GDM.Methods:A total of 147 women with GDM and 124 normal controls (NC) were enrolled in this study.Fetal hemodynamic indices,including the systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D),resistance index (RI),pulsatility index (PI) of umbilical artery (UA),middle cerebral artery (MCA),and renal artery (RA),were collected.Fetal growth indices,including biparietal diameter (BPD),head circumference (HC),abdominal circumference (AC),and femur length,were also measured by ultrasound.Birth weight,newborn gender,and matemal clinical data were collected.Results:The independent samples t-test showed that BPD,HC,and AC were larger in GDM than in NC (P < 0.05).Fetal hemodynamic indices of the UA and MCA were lower (P < 0.05),but those of the RA were higher (P < 0.001) in GDM than in NC.Birth weight was higher in GDM than in NC (P < 0.001).Pearson's correlation analysis showed that hemodynamic indices of the UA were negatively correlated with birth weight,BPD,HC,and AC in both groups (P < 0.05).MCA (S/D,PI,and RI) was negatively correlated with birth weight,HC,and AC in GDM (r =-0.164,-0.206,-0.200,-0.226,-0.189,-0.179,-0.196,-0.177,and-0.172,respectively,P < 0.05),but there were no correlations in NC (P > 0.05).RA (S/D,PI,and RI) was positively correlated with birth weight in GDM (r =0.168,0.207,and 0.184,respectively,P < 0.05),but there were no correlations in NC (P > 0.05).Conclusion:Fetal hemodynamic indices in late pregnancy might be helpful for estimating newborn birth weight in women with GDM.

  8. Maternal psychological distress and fetal growth trajectories: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Henrichs (Jens); J.J. Schenk (Jacqueline); S.J. Roza (Sabine); M.P. Lambregtse-van den Berg (Mijke); H.G. Schmidt (Henk); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests, though not consistently, that maternal psychological distress during pregnancy leads to adverse birth outcomes. We investigated whether maternal psychological distress affects fetal growth during the period of mid-pregnancy until birth. M

  9. Maternal psychological distress and fetal growth trajectories : The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, Jens; Schenk, J. J.; Roza, S. J.; van den Berg, M. P.; Schmidt, H. G.; Steegers, E. A. P.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V. W. V.; Verhulst, F. C.; Tiemeier, H.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Previous research suggests, though not consistently, that maternal psychological distress during pregnancy leads to adverse birth outcomes. We investigated whether maternal psychological distress affects fetal growth during the period of mid-pregnancy until birth. Method. Pregnant women

  10. Verbal learning and memory impairment in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine E; Thomas, Kevin G F; Dodge, Neil C; Molteno, Christopher D; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies using the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C) to examine effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure on verbal learning and memory have reported impaired information acquisition (i.e., encoding), rather than retrieval, as the primary mechanism underlying learning and memory impairment. We administered the CVLT-C to 2 independent cohorts to determine whether (i) effects on encoding are also seen at moderate exposure levels, using both categorical (diagnostic/exposure group) and continuous exposure measures; (ii) these deficits are specific or secondary to alcohol-related impairment in IQ; (iii) effects on retrieval can be detected over and above effects on initial encoding; and (iv) effects on learning are attributable to less efficient learning strategy use. We administered the CVLT-C and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to 151 Cape Town heavy and nonexposed children (M = 10.3 years), and 291 Detroit adolescents recruited to over-represent moderate-to-heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (M = 14.4 years). Effects on encoding in the heavily exposed Cape Town cohort and on retrieval in both cohorts were significant after adjustment for IQ. Although effects on retrieval were no longer significant in Cape Town after control for initial encoding, effects on recognition memory continued to be evident in Detroit. Children with full or partial fetal alcohol syndrome were less able to use the semantic cluster encoding strategy implicit in the CVLT-C. Effects on verbal learning were seen primarily in the more heavily exposed Cape Town cohort; effects on recall and recognition memory were also seen at moderate exposure levels in Detroit. These effects were not attributable to alcohol-related impairment in overall intellectual competence. The finding that effects on retention continued to be evident after statistical adjustment for initial encoding in Detroit suggests that a fetal alcohol-related deficit in retrieval is not

  11. Fetal lung development on MRI. Normal course and impairment due to premature rupture of membranes; Fetale Lungenentwicklung in der MRT. Normaler Verlauf und Beeintraechtigung durch vorzeitigen Blasensprung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasprian, G. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik; Zentrum fuer Anatomie und Zellbiologie der Medizinischen Universitaet Wien (Austria). Arbeitsgruppe Integrative Morphologie; Brugger, P.C. [Zentrum fuer Anatomie und Zellbiologie der Medizinischen Universitaet Wien (Austria). Arbeitsgruppe Integrative Morphologie; Helmer, H.; Langer, M. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Klinik fuer Frauenheilkunde; Balassy, C.; Prayer, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik

    2006-02-15

    A well-organized interplay between many molecular factors as well as mechanical forces influence fetal lung development. At the end of this complex process a sufficiently sized and structurally mature organ should ensure the postnatal survival of the newborn. Besides prenatal ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can now be used to investigate normal and pathological human lung growth in utero. Oligohydramnios, due to premature rupture of membranes (PROM), is an important risk factor for compromised fetal lung growth. In these situations MR volumetry can be used to measure the size of the fetal lung quite accurately. Together with the evaluation of lung signal intensities on T2-weighted sequences, fetuses with pulmonary hypoplasia can be readily detected. (orig.) [German] Die fetale Lungenentwicklung wird einerseits durch eine Vielzahl molekularer Faktoren und andererseits durch mechanisch-physiologische Kraefte beeinflusst. Ein geordnetes Zusammenspiel dieser Mechanismen fuehrt zu einem ausreichend grossen und strukturell reifen Organ, das sofort nach der Geburt das Ueberleben des Neugeborenen sicherstellt. Neben der praenatalen Ultraschalluntersuchung bietet nun auch die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) die Moeglichkeit, die normale und pathologische fetale Lungenentwicklung zu untersuchen. Ein wesentlicher Risikofaktor fuer eine Beeintraechtigung der Lungenentwicklung ist die verminderte Fruchtwassermenge nach vorzeitigem Blasensprung. In diesen Faellen kann die MR-Volumetrie dazu eingesetzt werden, die Groesse der fetalen Lungen relativ genau zu bestimmen. Gemeinsam mit der Beurteilung der MR-Signalintensitaeten des Lungengewebes auf T2-gewichteten Sequenzen koennen Feten mit hypoplastischen Lungen mit zunehmender Sicherheit bereits praenatal identifiziert werden. (orig.)

  12. The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts: A Multinational Longitudinal Study of Ultrasound Biometric Measurements and Estimated Fetal Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroli, Guillermo; Widmer, Mariana; Neerup Jensen, Lisa; Giordano, Daniel; Abdel Aleem, Hany; Talegawkar, Sameera A.; Benachi, Alexandra; Diemert, Anke; Tshefu Kitoto, Antoinette; Thinkhamrop, Jadsada; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Tabor, Ann; Kriplani, Alka; Gonzalez Perez, Rogelio; Hecher, Kurt; Hanson, Mark A.; Gülmezoglu, A. Metin; Platt, Lawrence D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Perinatal mortality and morbidity continue to be major global health challenges strongly associated with prematurity and reduced fetal growth, an issue of further interest given the mounting evidence that fetal growth in general is linked to degrees of risk of common noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. Against this background, WHO made it a high priority to provide the present fetal growth charts for estimated fetal weight (EFW) and common ultrasound biometric measurements intended for worldwide use. Methods and Findings We conducted a multinational prospective observational longitudinal study of fetal growth in low-risk singleton pregnancies of women of high or middle socioeconomic status and without known environmental constraints on fetal growth. Centers in ten countries (Argentina, Brazil, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Norway, and Thailand) recruited participants who had reliable information on last menstrual period and gestational age confirmed by crown–rump length measured at 8–13 wk of gestation. Participants had anthropometric and nutritional assessments and seven scheduled ultrasound examinations during pregnancy. Fifty-two participants withdrew consent, and 1,387 participated in the study. At study entry, median maternal age was 28 y (interquartile range [IQR] 25–31), median height was 162 cm (IQR 157–168), median weight was 61 kg (IQR 55–68), 58% of the women were nulliparous, and median daily caloric intake was 1,840 cal (IQR 1,487–2,222). The median pregnancy duration was 39 wk (IQR 38–40) although there were significant differences between countries, the largest difference being 12 d (95% CI 8–16). The median birthweight was 3,300 g (IQR 2,980–3,615). There were differences in birthweight between countries, e.g., India had significantly smaller neonates than the other countries, even after adjusting for gestational age. Thirty-one women had a miscarriage, and three fetuses had

  13. The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts: A Multinational Longitudinal Study of Ultrasound Biometric Measurements and Estimated Fetal Weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torvid Kiserud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal mortality and morbidity continue to be major global health challenges strongly associated with prematurity and reduced fetal growth, an issue of further interest given the mounting evidence that fetal growth in general is linked to degrees of risk of common noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. Against this background, WHO made it a high priority to provide the present fetal growth charts for estimated fetal weight (EFW and common ultrasound biometric measurements intended for worldwide use.We conducted a multinational prospective observational longitudinal study of fetal growth in low-risk singleton pregnancies of women of high or middle socioeconomic status and without known environmental constraints on fetal growth. Centers in ten countries (Argentina, Brazil, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Norway, and Thailand recruited participants who had reliable information on last menstrual period and gestational age confirmed by crown-rump length measured at 8-13 wk of gestation. Participants had anthropometric and nutritional assessments and seven scheduled ultrasound examinations during pregnancy. Fifty-two participants withdrew consent, and 1,387 participated in the study. At study entry, median maternal age was 28 y (interquartile range [IQR] 25-31, median height was 162 cm (IQR 157-168, median weight was 61 kg (IQR 55-68, 58% of the women were nulliparous, and median daily caloric intake was 1,840 cal (IQR 1,487-2,222. The median pregnancy duration was 39 wk (IQR 38-40 although there were significant differences between countries, the largest difference being 12 d (95% CI 8-16. The median birthweight was 3,300 g (IQR 2,980-3,615. There were differences in birthweight between countries, e.g., India had significantly smaller neonates than the other countries, even after adjusting for gestational age. Thirty-one women had a miscarriage, and three fetuses had intrauterine death. The 8,203 sets of

  14. The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts: A Multinational Longitudinal Study of Ultrasound Biometric Measurements and Estimated Fetal Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiserud, Torvid; Piaggio, Gilda; Carroli, Guillermo; Widmer, Mariana; Carvalho, José; Neerup Jensen, Lisa; Giordano, Daniel; Cecatti, José Guilherme; Abdel Aleem, Hany; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Benachi, Alexandra; Diemert, Anke; Tshefu Kitoto, Antoinette; Thinkhamrop, Jadsada; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Tabor, Ann; Kriplani, Alka; Gonzalez Perez, Rogelio; Hecher, Kurt; Hanson, Mark A; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Platt, Lawrence D

    2017-01-01

    Perinatal mortality and morbidity continue to be major global health challenges strongly associated with prematurity and reduced fetal growth, an issue of further interest given the mounting evidence that fetal growth in general is linked to degrees of risk of common noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. Against this background, WHO made it a high priority to provide the present fetal growth charts for estimated fetal weight (EFW) and common ultrasound biometric measurements intended for worldwide use. We conducted a multinational prospective observational longitudinal study of fetal growth in low-risk singleton pregnancies of women of high or middle socioeconomic status and without known environmental constraints on fetal growth. Centers in ten countries (Argentina, Brazil, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Norway, and Thailand) recruited participants who had reliable information on last menstrual period and gestational age confirmed by crown-rump length measured at 8-13 wk of gestation. Participants had anthropometric and nutritional assessments and seven scheduled ultrasound examinations during pregnancy. Fifty-two participants withdrew consent, and 1,387 participated in the study. At study entry, median maternal age was 28 y (interquartile range [IQR] 25-31), median height was 162 cm (IQR 157-168), median weight was 61 kg (IQR 55-68), 58% of the women were nulliparous, and median daily caloric intake was 1,840 cal (IQR 1,487-2,222). The median pregnancy duration was 39 wk (IQR 38-40) although there were significant differences between countries, the largest difference being 12 d (95% CI 8-16). The median birthweight was 3,300 g (IQR 2,980-3,615). There were differences in birthweight between countries, e.g., India had significantly smaller neonates than the other countries, even after adjusting for gestational age. Thirty-one women had a miscarriage, and three fetuses had intrauterine death. The 8,203 sets of ultrasound

  15. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) concentrations during the late first trimester are associated with fetal growth in a fetal sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjaktarovic, Mirjana; Korevaar, Tim I M; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Visser, Theo J; Peeters, Robin P; Steegers, Eric A P

    2017-02-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a pregnancy-specific hormone that regulates placental development. hCG concentrations vary widely throughout gestation and differ based on fetal sex. Abnormal hCG concentrations are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including fetal growth restriction. We studied the association of hCG concentrations with fetal growth and birth weight. In addition, we investigated effect modification by gestational age of hCG measurement and fetal sex. Total serum hCG (median 14.4 weeks, 95 % range 10.1-26.2), estimated fetal weight (measured by ultrasound during 18-25th weeks and >25th weeks) and birth weight were measured in 7987 mother-child pairs from the Generation R cohort and used to establish fetal growth. Small for gestational age (SGA) was defined as a standardized birth weight lower than the 10th percentile of the study population. There was a non-linear association of hCG with birth weight (P = 0.009). However, only low hCG concentrations measured during the late first trimester (11th and 12th week) were associated with birth weight and SGA. Low hCG concentrations measured in the late first trimester were also associated with decreased fetal growth (P = 0.0002). This was the case for both male and female fetuses. In contrast, high hCG concentrations during the late first trimester were associated with increased fetal growth amongst female, but not male fetuses. Low hCG in the late first trimester is associated with lower birth weight due to a decrease in fetal growth. Fetal sex differences exist in the association of hCG concentrations with fetal growth.

  16. Assessment of Fetal Autonomic Nervous System Activity by Fetal Magnetocardiography: Comparison of Normal Pregnancy and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To clarify the developmental activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) of the normal fetus and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) cases using fetal magnetocardiography (FMCG). Subjects and Methods. Normal pregnancy (n = 35) and IUGR (n = 12) cases at 28–39 and 32–37 weeks of gestation, respectively, were included in this study. The R-R interval variability was used to calculate the coefficient of variance (CVRR) and low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio. Results. The ...

  17. Insulin-like growth factors I and II in maternal and fetal guinea pig serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughaday, W H; Yanow, C E; Kapadia, M

    1986-08-01

    The role of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in fetal development has been the subject of much speculation. We undertook studies of maternal and fetal IGF I and II in the guinea pig because the long gestation period and greater size of the fetuses permitted blood sampling over a longer period of gestation and maturation than is possible in the rat. Acid gel filtrates of fetal and maternal serum were prepared, and the IGF I was measured by RIA; IGF II was measured by rat placental membrane radioreceptor assay. Fetal IGF I levels were lower than maternal levels from the 33rd day of estimated gestation to term. Fetal IGF II levels from the 33rd day to the 49th day of gestation were not significantly different from those of maternal serum [1597 +/- 377 (SE) ng/ml vs. 1295 +/- 224] ng/ml. Very high levels of IGF II, in excess of 5000 ng/ml, were observed in fetuses at 50, 55, and 60 days of gestation. Thereafter, fetal IGF II levels fell markedly before term. Fetal and maternal IGFs after 49, 50, 60, and 65 days of pregnancy were compared by isoelectric focusing. The guinea pig normally has two major basic peaks of IGF I, which were present both in maternal and fetal serum. Most maternal and fetal guinea pig sera contained only a single, slightly acidic peak of IGF II. No evidence of a unique fetal IGF was detected by our methods. The very high levels of IGF II reached in fetal guinea pig sera suggest that it may have a role in fetal development.

  18. Knockout maternal adiponectin increases fetal growth in mice: potential role for trophoblast IGFBP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liping; Wattez, Jean-Sebastien; Lee, Samuel; Guo, Zhuyu; Schaack, Jerome; Hay, William W; Zita, Matteo Moretto; Parast, Mana; Shao, Jianhua

    2016-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal adiponectin regulates fetal growth through the endocrine system in the fetal compartment. Adiponectin knockout (Adipoq (-/-) ) mice and in vivo adenovirus-mediated reconstitution were used to study the regulatory effect of maternal adiponectin on fetal growth. Primary human trophoblast cells were treated with adiponectin and a specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist or antagonist to study the underlying mechanism through which adiponectin regulates fetal growth. The body weight of fetuses from Adipoq (-/-) dams was significantly greater than that of wild-type dams at both embryonic day (E)14.5 and E18.5. Adenoviral vector-mediated maternal adiponectin reconstitution attenuated the increased fetal body weight induced by maternal adiponectin deficiency. Significantly increased blood glucose, triacylglycerol and NEFA levels were observed in Adipoq (-/-) dams, suggesting that nutrient supply contributes to maternal adiponectin-regulated fetal growth. Although fetal blood IGF-1 concentrations were comparable in fetuses from Adipoq (-/-) and wild-type dams, remarkably low levels of IGF-binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) were observed in the serum of fetuses from Adipoq (-/-) dams. IGFBP-1 was identified in the trophoblast cells of human and mouse placentas. Maternal fasting robustly increased IGFBP-1 levels in mouse placentas, while reducing fetal weight. Significantly low IGFBP-1 levels were found in placentas of Adipoq (-/-) dams. Adiponectin treatment increased IGFBP-1 levels in primary cultured human trophoblast cells, while the PPARα antagonist, MK886, abolished this stimulatory effect. These results indicate that, in addition to nutrient supply, maternal adiponectin inhibits fetal growth by increasing IGFBP-1 expression in trophoblast cells.

  19. Maternal Obesity and Impaired Fetal and Infant Survival-One More Piece Added to the Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nohr, Ellen A

    2016-01-01

    The association between maternal obesity and increased risks of stillbirth and infant mortality is well documented, but it has often been questioned whether the association is driven by obesity per se or by unmeasured factors such as insulin resistance or genes. In this issue of the Journal, Lindam...... et al. compared the body mass indices (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) of women who had stillbirths and infant deaths with those of their sisters or of population controls. Significant excess risks of both outcomes were observed in obese women (body mass index ≥30), and associations were strongest when...... sister controls were used. Although this careful analysis adds to the existing evidence of a causal relationship between maternal obesity and impaired fetal and infant survival, a biological pathway has not yet been established. Additionally, we are in urgent need of effective tools to reduce obesity...

  20. Polyuria and impaired renal blood flow after asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedackers, J S; Roelfsema, V; Hunter, C J; Heineman, E; Gunn, A J; Bennet, L

    2004-03-01

    Renal impairment is common in preterm infants, often after exposure to hypoxia/asphyxia or other circulatory disturbances. We examined the hypothesis that this association is mediated by reduced renal blood flow (RBF), using a model of asphyxia induced by complete umbilical cord occlusion for 25 min (n = 13) or sham occlusion (n = 6) in chronically instrumented preterm fetal sheep (104 days, term is 147 days). During asphyxia there was a significant fall in RBF and urine output (UO). After asphyxia, RBF transiently recovered, followed within 30 min by a secondary period of hypoperfusion (P preterm fetus was associated with evolving renal tubular dysfunction, as shown by transient polyuria and natriuresis. Despite a prolonged increase in RVR, there was only a modest effect on glomerular function.

  1. [Systemic production of cytokines and growth factors in various forms of syndrome of delayed fetal growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, M V

    2014-11-01

    The syndrome of delayed fetal growth (SDFG) is one of the most wide-spread pathological conditions while course of pregnancy; it is characterized by disorder of the feto-placental system function. Its incidence is from 3 to 8%. The studying of peculiarities of the system and local immune disorders, coinciding with SDFG, would permit to establish the immune mechanisms of its formation. Revealing of immunoregulation disorders on systemic and local levels would promote the creation of a concept, depicting participation of the immune system in formation of asymmetrical and symmetrical forms of SDFG, to elaborate new approaches for prognosis and diagnosis.

  2. Maternal and fetal metabonomic alterations in prenatal nicotine exposure-induced rat intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiang-hua; Yan, You-e; Liang, Gai; Liu, Yan-song; Li, Xiao-jun; Zhang, Ben-jian; Chen, Liao-bin; Yu, Hong; He, Xiao-hua; Wang, Hui

    2014-08-25

    Prenatal nicotine exposure causes adverse birth outcome. However, the corresponding metabonomic alterations and underlying mechanisms of nicotine-induced developmental toxicity remain unclear. The aims of this study were to characterize the metabolic alterations in biofluids in nicotine-induced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rat model. In the present study, pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered with different doses of nicotine (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg d) from gestational day (GD) 11-20. The metabolic profiles of the biofluids, including maternal plasma, fetal plasma and amniotic fluid, were analyzed using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomic techniques. Prenatal nicotine exposure caused noticeably lower body weights, higher IUGR rates of fetal rats, and elevated maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels compared to the controls. The correlation analysis among maternal, fetal serum CORT levels and fetal bodyweight suggested that the levels of maternal and fetal serum CORT presented a positive correlation (r=0.356, n=32, Pfetal (r=-0.639, n=32, Pfetal bodyweight. The fetal metabonome alterations included the stimulation of lipogenesis and the decreased levels of glucose and amino acids. The maternal metabonome alterations involved the enhanced blood glucose levels, fatty acid oxygenolysis, proteolysis and amino acid accumulation. These results suggested that prenatal nicotine exposure is associated with an altered maternal and fetal metabonome, which may be related to maternal increased glucocorticoid level induced by nicotine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Developmental changes in polyamines and autophagic marker levels in normal and growth-restricted fetal pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y H; Lin, G; Dai, Z L; Zhou, T J; Yuan, T L; Feng, C P; Chen, F; Wu, G Y; Wang, J J

    2015-07-01

    Polyamines are essential for embryonic and fetal survival, growth, and development. Additionally, polyamines may induce autophagy in mammalian cells. However, little is known about the availability of polyamines or autophagy in the porcine conceptus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The present study was performed to evaluate the developmental changes of polyamine concentrations in IUGR and normal porcine fetuses as well as autophagic marker levels in the fetal intestinal mucosa during the second half of gestation when most fetal growth occurs. Allantoic fluid (ALF), amniotic fluid (AMF), umbilical vein, and the small-intestinal mucosa were obtained from both IUGR and normal fetal pigs at d 60, 90, and 110 of gestation. Concentrations of polyamines in fetal fluids as well as protein abundances of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B (LC3B), an autophagic marker, in the fetal small-intestinal mucosa were determined. Concentrations of polyamines varied greatly in different fetal compartments and changed substantially with advancing gestation. Concentrations of polyamines in IUGR fetal fluids and the small-intestinal mucosa were markedly different from those in their normal counterparts at d 60 and 90 of gestation, whereas most of the differences were not detected by late (d 110) gestation. Specifically, polyamine levels were lower in the umbilical vein plasma but higher in ALF and AMF from IUGR fetuses. Furthermore, enhanced levels of an autophagic marker were observed in the small-intestinal mucosa of IUGR fetuses throughout mid and late gestation in association with abnormal spermidine levels in fetal plasma. These findings support the notion that enhanced autophagy may be an important survival mechanism in IUGR fetuses. Collectively, our findings provide a new framework for future studies to define the roles for polyamines in the prevention and treatment of IUGR in both human medicine and animal production.

  4. Placental responses to changes in the maternal environment determine fetal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Genelyn eDimasuay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Placental responses to maternal perturbations are complex and remain poorly understood. Altered maternal environment during pregnancy such as hypoxia, stress, obesity, diabetes, toxins, altered nutrition, inflammation, and reduced utero-placental blood flow may influence fetal development, which can predispose to diseases later in life. The placenta being a metabolically active tissue responds to these perturbations by regulating the fetal supply of nutrients and oxygen and secretion of hormones into the maternal and fetal circulation. We have proposed that placental nutrient sensing integrates maternal and fetal nutritional cues with information from intrinsic nutrient sensing signaling pathways to balance fetal demand with the ability of the mother to support pregnancy by regulating maternal physiology, placental growth, and placental nutrient transport. Emerging evidence suggests that the nutrient-sensing signaling pathway mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR plays a central role in this process. Thus, placental nutrient sensing plays a critical role in modulating maternal-fetal resource allocation, thereby affecting fetal growth and the life-long health of the fetus.

  5. An evaluation of fetal glucogenesis in intrauterine growth-retarded pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, A M; Cetin, I; Davoli, E; Baggiani, A M; Fanelli, R; Fennessey, P V; Battaglia, F C; Pardi, G

    1993-07-01

    The presence of fetal glucogenesis was evaluated in nine patients with pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) at the time of fetal blood sampling (FBS) between 29 and 35 weeks of pregnancy. Eight were singleton pregnancies and one was a twin pregnancy in which blood samples were obtained from both twins. A maternal primed-constant infusion of D(U-13C]glucose was performed, and the presence of fetal glucogenesis was assessed by a comparison of steady-state maternal and fetal glucose enrichments. No significant difference was present between maternal and fetal molar percent excess ([MPE] P = .97), and the mean fetal to maternal (F/M) MPE ratio (0.99 +/- 0.01) was not significantly different from 1 (P = .76). F/M MPE ratio was independent of the time of FBS and umbilical venous glucose and lactate concentrations. Thus fetal glucogenesis is not demonstrable in a group of fairly severe growth-retarded fetuses after an overnight fast with this relatively noninvasive approach.

  6. A uniform management approach to optimize outcome in fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seravalli, Viola; Baschat, Ahmet A

    2015-06-01

    A uniform approach to the diagnosis and management of fetal growth restriction (FGR) consistently produces better outcome, prevention of unanticipated stillbirth, and appropriate timing of delivery. Early-onset and late-onset FGR represent two distinct clinical phenotypes of placental dysfunction. Management challenges in early-onset FGR revolve around prematurity and coexisting maternal hypertensive disease, whereas in late-onset disease failure of diagnosis or surveillance leading to unanticipated stillbirth is the primary issue. Identifying the surveillance tests that have the highest predictive accuracy for fetal acidemia and establishing the appropriate monitoring interval to detect fetal deterioration is a high priority. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. MCT8 expression in human fetal cerebral cortex is reduced in severe intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Shiao Y; Hancox, Laura A; Martín-Santos, Azucena; Loubière, Laurence S; Walter, Merlin N M; González, Ana-Maria; Cox, Phillip M; Logan, Ann; McCabe, Christopher J; Franklyn, Jayne A; Kilby, Mark D

    2014-02-01

    The importance of the thyroid hormone (TH) transporter, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), to human neurodevelopment is highlighted by findings of severe global neurological impairment in subjects with MCT8 (SLC16A2) mutations. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), usually due to uteroplacental failure, is associated with milder neurodevelopmental deficits, which have been partly attributed to dysregulated TH action in utero secondary to reduced circulating fetal TH concentrations and decreased cerebral thyroid hormone receptor expression. We postulate that altered MCT8 expression is implicated in this pathophysiology; therefore, in this study, we sought to quantify changes in cortical MCT8 expression with IUGR. First, MCT8 immunohistochemistry was performed on occipital and parietal cerebral cortex sections obtained from appropriately grown for gestational age (AGA) human fetuses between 19 weeks of gestation and term. Secondly, MCT8 immunostaining in the occipital cortex of stillborn IUGR human fetuses at 24-28 weeks of gestation was objectively compared with that in the occipital cortex of gestationally matched AGA fetuses. Fetuses demonstrated widespread MCT8 expression in neurons within the cortical plate and subplate, in the ventricular and subventricular zones, in the epithelium of the choroid plexus and ependyma, and in microvessel wall. When complicated by IUGR, fetuses showed a significant fivefold reduction in the percentage area of cortical plate immunostained for MCT8 compared with AGA fetuses (PMCT8 expression was negatively correlated with the severity of IUGR indicated by the brain:liver weight ratios (r(2)=0.28; PMCT8 expression in the IUGR fetal brain could further compromise TH-dependent brain development.

  8. Fetal heart circumference as a predictor of menstrual age in fetuses affected by disturbances in growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, L M; Guzick, D; Peterson, C; DiNofrio, D; Maloney, J; Nedzeksy, P

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to evaluate the relationship between fetal heart circumference and gestational age and (2) to determine the effect, if any, of disturbances in fetal growth on heart circumference. Heart circumference was measured in 262 women with normal gestations (control group) and in two study groups consisting of 52 large-for-gestational age 32 small-for-gestational age fetuses. Standardized, gestational age-adjusted values in the two study groups were compared with normative data provided by the control group. There was a close correlation (R2 = 0.94) between heart circumference and gestational age in normally growing fetuses. Disturbances of fetal growth (i.e., macrosomia and growth retardation) were found to have an inconsistent effect on heart circumference. Heart circumference cannot be used as an independent parameter for gestational age evaluation in fetuses with disturbances of growth.

  9. Morphological abnormalities, impaired fetal development and decrease in myostatin expression following somatic cell nuclear transfer in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Il-Hwa; Jeong, Yeon-Woo; Shin, Taeyoung; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Park, Jin-Kyu; Ki, Mi-Ran; Han, Seon-Young; Park, Se-Il; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Mi; Kim, Ah-Young; You, Sang-Young; Hwang, Woo-Suk; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2011-05-01

    Several mammals, including dogs, have been successfully cloned using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), but the efficiency of generating normal, live offspring is relatively low. Although the high failure rate has been attributed to incomplete reprogramming of the somatic nuclei during the cloning process, the exact cause is not fully known. To elucidate the cause of death in cloned offspring, 12 deceased offspring cloned by SCNT were necropsied. The clones were either stillborn just prior to delivery or died with dyspnea shortly after birth. On gross examination, defects in the anterior abdominal wall and increased heart and liver sizes were found. Notably, a significant increase in muscle mass and macroglossia lesions were observed in deceased SCNT-cloned dogs. Interestingly, the expression of myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle growth during embryogenesis, was down-regulated at the mRNA level in tongues and skeletal muscles of SCNT-cloned dogs compared with a normal dog. Results of the present study suggest that decreased expression of myostatin in SCNT-cloned dogs may be involved in morphological abnormalities such as increased muscle mass and macroglossia, which may contribute to impaired fetal development and poor survival rates.

  10. Thyroid hormone is required for growth adaptation to pressure load in the ovine fetal heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segar, Jeffrey L; Volk, Ken A; Lipman, Michael H B; Scholz, Thomas D

    2013-03-01

    Thyroid hormone exerts broad effects on the adult heart, but little is known regarding the role of thyroid hormone in the regulation of cardiac growth early in development and in response to pathophysiological conditions. To address this issue, we determined the effects of fetal thyroidectomy on cardiac growth and growth-related gene expression in control and pulmonary-artery-banded fetal sheep. Fetal thyroidectomy (THX) and/or placement of a restrictive pulmonary artery band (PAB) were performed at 126 ± 1 days of gestation (term, 145 days). Four groups of animals [n = 5-6 in each group; (i) control; (ii) fetal THX; (iii) fetal PAB; and (iv) fetal PAB + THX] were monitored for 1 week prior to being killed. Fetal heart rate was significantly lower in the two THX groups compared with the non-THX groups, while mean arterial blood pressure was similar among groups. Combined left and right ventricle free wall + septum weight, expressed per kilogram of fetal weight, was significantly increased in PAB (6.27 ± 0.85 g kg(-1)) compared with control animals (4.72 ± 0.12 g kg(-1)). Thyroidectomy significantly attenuated the increase in cardiac mass associated with PAB (4.94 ± 0.13 g kg(-1)), while THX alone had no detectable effect on heart mass (4.95 ± 0.27 g kg(-1)). The percentage of binucleated cardiomyocytes was significantly decreased in THX and PAB +THX groups (∼16%) compared with the non-THX groups (∼27%). No differences in levels of activated Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase or c-Jun N-terminal kinase were detected among the groups. Markers of cellular proliferation but not apoptosis or expression of growth-related genes were lower in the THX and THX+ PAB groups relative to thyroid-intact animals. These findings suggest that in the late-gestation fetal heart, thyroid hormone has important cellular growth functions in both physiological and pathophysiological states. Specifically, thyroid hormone is required for adaptive fetal cardiac growth in

  11. Developmental programming in response to intrauterine growth restriction impairs myoblast function and skeletal muscle metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, D T; Macko, A R; Nearing, M; Chen, X; Rhoads, R P; Limesand, S W

    2012-01-01

    Fetal adaptations to placental insufficiency alter postnatal metabolic homeostasis in skeletal muscle by reducing glucose oxidation rates, impairing insulin action, and lowering the proportion of oxidative fibers. In animal models of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), skeletal muscle fibers have less myonuclei at birth. This means that myoblasts, the sole source for myonuclei accumulation in fibers, are compromised. Fetal hypoglycemia and hypoxemia are complications that result from placental insufficiency. Hypoxemia elevates circulating catecholamines, and chronic hypercatecholaminemia has been shown to reduce fetal muscle development and growth. We have found evidence for adaptations in adrenergic receptor expression profiles in myoblasts and skeletal muscle of IUGR sheep fetuses with placental insufficiency. The relationship of β-adrenergic receptors shifts in IUGR fetuses because Adrβ2 expression levels decline and Adrβ1 expression levels are unaffected in myofibers and increased in myoblasts. This adaptive response would suppress insulin signaling, myoblast incorporation, fiber hypertrophy, and glucose oxidation. Furthermore, this β-adrenergic receptor expression profile persists for at least the first month in IUGR lambs and lowers their fatty acid mobilization. Developmental programming of skeletal muscle adrenergic receptors partially explains metabolic and endocrine differences in IUGR offspring, and the impact on metabolism may result in differential nutrient utilization.

  12. Developmental Programming in Response to Intrauterine Growth Restriction Impairs Myoblast Function and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Yates

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal adaptations to placental insufficiency alter postnatal metabolic homeostasis in skeletal muscle by reducing glucose oxidation rates, impairing insulin action, and lowering the proportion of oxidative fibers. In animal models of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, skeletal muscle fibers have less myonuclei at birth. This means that myoblasts, the sole source for myonuclei accumulation in fibers, are compromised. Fetal hypoglycemia and hypoxemia are complications that result from placental insufficiency. Hypoxemia elevates circulating catecholamines, and chronic hypercatecholaminemia has been shown to reduce fetal muscle development and growth. We have found evidence for adaptations in adrenergic receptor expression profiles in myoblasts and skeletal muscle of IUGR sheep fetuses with placental insufficiency. The relationship of β-adrenergic receptors shifts in IUGR fetuses because Adrβ2 expression levels decline and Adrβ1 expression levels are unaffected in myofibers and increased in myoblasts. This adaptive response would suppress insulin signaling, myoblast incorporation, fiber hypertrophy, and glucose oxidation. Furthermore, this β-adrenergic receptor expression profile persists for at least the first month in IUGR lambs and lowers their fatty acid mobilization. Developmental programming of skeletal muscle adrenergic receptors partially explains metabolic and endocrine differences in IUGR offspring, and the impact on metabolism may result in differential nutrient utilization.

  13. Maternal-fetal hepatic and placental metabolome profiles are associated with reduced fetal growth in a rat model of maternal obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumme, Karen; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M.

    2016-01-01

    : Metabolomic profiling was used to reveal altered maternal and fetal metabolic pathways in a model of diet induced obesity during pregnancy, leading to reduced fetal growth. Methods: We examined the metabolome of maternal and fetal livers, and placenta following a high fat and salt intake. Sprague–Dawley rats...... were assigned to (a) control diet (CD; 1 % salt, 10 % kcal from fat), (b) high salt diet (SD; 4 % salt, 10 % kcal from fat), (c) high fat diet (HF; 1 % salt, 45 % kcal from fat) or (d) high-fat high-salt diet (HFSD; 4 % salt, 45 % kcal from fat) 21 days prior to pregnancy and during gestation......Introduction: Maternal obesity is associated with a range of pregnancy complications, including fetal growth restriction (FGR), whereby a fetus fails to reach its genetically determined growth. Placental insufficiency and reduced nutrient transport play a role in the onset of FGR. Objectives...

  14. Recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor 121 injection for the prevention of fetal growth restriction in a preeclampsia mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyowati, Sri; Bachnas, Muhammad Adrianes; Anggraini, Nuri Dyah; Yuliantara, Eric Edwin; Prabowo, Wisnu; Anggraini, Nutria Widya Purna; Pramono, Mochammad Besari Adi; Adityawarman; Dachlan, Erry Gumilar; Andonotopo, Wiku

    2017-02-01

    To discover the potential role of recombinant VEGF121 (rVEGF121) injection for the prevention of fetal growth restriction in a preeclampsia (PE) mouse model (Mus musculus). This is an experimental study of 30 pregnant mice that were randomly divided into three groups: normal, PE, and PE with rVEGF121 injection. The PE mouse model was created by injecting anti Qa-2 10 ng iv, which is deleterious to Qa-2 expression (homologous to HLA-G), from the first to the fourth day of gestation. PE was validated by measuring serum levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and placental growth factor(PIGF) and also by kidney histopathology. Recombinant VEGF121 was given on the ninth day until the 11th day of pregnancy; mice were terminated on the 16th day. Fetal weights were acquired with a Denver analytical balance. Serum levels of sFlt-1 and PlGF were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The data were statistically analyzed via analysis of variance (ANOVA). On average, fetal birth weight was 0.7150 g in the normal group, 0.4936 g in the PE group, and 0.6768 g in the PE with rVEGF121 injection group. ANOVA showed significant growth restriction in the PE group (P=0.006), confirming the use of anti Qa-2 as a suitable PE model. Kidney histopathology results, sFlt-1 levels, and PlGF levels also demonstrated that anti Qa-2 consistently conferred hallmarks of PE in mice. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injection prevented fetal growth restriction; comparable fetal weights were observed between the PE model with VEGF treatment and the normal group (P=0.610) but differed from the untreated PE group (P=0.021). Injection of rVEGF121 has the potential to prevent fetal growth restriction in a newly proposed PE mouse model.

  15. Placental vascular dysfunction, fetal and childhood growth, and cardiovascular development: the generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Romy; Steegers, Eric A P; Tiemeier, Henning; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2013-11-12

    Suboptimal fetal nutrition may influence early growth and cardiovascular development. We examined whether umbilical and uterine artery resistance indices, as measures of feto-placental and utero-placental vascular function, respectively, are associated with fetal and childhood growth and cardiovascular development. This study was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study among 6716 mothers and their children. Umbilical artery pulsatility index and uterine artery resistance index and fetal growth were measured in third trimester. Childhood growth was repeatedly assessed from birth to the age of 6 years. We measured body fat distribution, left ventricular mass, and blood pressure at the age of 6 years. Higher third trimester umbilical and uterine artery vascular resistance were associated with lower fetal length and weight growth in third trimester resulting in a smaller size at birth among boys and girls (P values growth became smaller from the age of 6 months onwards, but were still present at the age of 6 years. Higher third trimester umbilical artery vascular resistance, but not uterine artery vascular resistance, was associated with higher childhood body mass index, total fat mass, android/gynoid fat mass ratio, and systolic blood pressure, and with a lower left ventricular mass (P valuesgrowth rates and cardiovascular adaptations in childhood.

  16. WHO multicentre study for the development of growth standards from fetal life to childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merialdi, Mario; Widmer, Mariana; Gülmezoglu, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    both for clinical and scientific reasons. The currently used fetal growth references are derived mainly from North American and European population and may be inappropriate for international use, given possible variances in the growth rates of fetuses from different ethnic population groups. WHO has...... ten developing and industrialized countries: Argentina, Brazil, Democratic Republic of Congo, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Norway, and Thailand. At each centre, 140 pregnant women will be recruited between 8 + 0 and 12 + 6 weeks of gestation. Subsequently, visits for fetal biometry...

  17. Fetal growth and adverse birth outcomes in women receiving prescriptions for acetaminophen during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge

    1999-01-01

    We studied the association between acetaminophen exposure during pregnancy and the prevalence of congenital abnormalities and fetal growth. Our study included 123 women who had received a prescription of acetaminophen during pregnancy and/or 30 days before conception and 13,329 controls who did...... a prescription of acetaminophen during pregnancy and 30 days before conception and 7472 controls. We found no excess risk of malformation [OR = 0.7 (95% CI 0.1-5.5)], and no evidence that acetaminophen should influence fetal growth....

  18. Multilevel Analysis Applied to Fetal Growth Data with Missing Values.

    OpenAIRE

    Bråthen, Eystein Widar

    2006-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation means that the growth of a fetus is restricted as compared with its biological growth potential. This contributes to an increased risk for illnesses or death of the newborn. Therefore it is important to characterize, detect and to follow up clinically any suspected or confirmed growth restriction of the fetus. In this master thesis we aim to describe the course of growth during the pregnancy based on repeated ultrasound measurements and study how the growth d...

  19. Maternal factors associated with fetal growth and birthweight are independent determinants of placental weight and exhibit differential effects by fetal sex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Cecilie Paasche Roland

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Maternal nutritional and metabolic factors influence the developmental environment of the fetus. Virtually any nutritional factor in the maternal blood has to pass the placental membranes to reach the fetal blood. Placental weight is a commonly used measure to summarize placental growth and function. Placental weight is an independent determinant of fetal growth and birthweight and modifies the associations between maternal metabolic factors and fetal growth. We hypothesized that maternal factors known to be related to fetal growth, newborn size and body composition are determinants of placental weight and that effects of maternal metabolic factors on placental weight differ between the genders. METHODS: The STORK study is a prospective longitudinal study including 1031 healthy pregnant women of Scandinavian heritage with singleton pregnancies. Maternal determinants (parity, body mass index, gestational weight gain and fasting plasma glucose of placental weight were explored by linear regression models, stratified by fetal sex. RESULTS: Parity, maternal BMI, gestational weight gain and fasting glucose had positive effects on placental weight. There was a sex specific effect in these associations. Fasting glucose was significantly associated with placental weight in females but not in males. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors known to influence fetal growth, birthweight and neonatal body composition are determinants of placental weight. The effect of maternal factors on placental weight is influenced by sex as illustrated in the relation between maternal glucose and placental weight.

  20. Timing and trajectories of fetal growth related to cognitive development in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T; Zhang, Jun

    2009-12-01

    The authors investigated timing and trajectories of fetal growth in relation to childhood development in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development-Scandinavian Study of Successive Small-for-Gestational Age Births (1986-1988) (n = 1,059). Fetal size was assessed by ultrasound at 17, 25, and 33 gestational weeks and at birth. Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised tests were conducted at ages 1 and 5 years, respectively, producing mental and psychomotor development indexes and verbal and performance intelligence quotients. Relative fetal size was calculated as a standard deviation score at each data point; growth trajectories were explored with longitudinal mixture models. Fetal size at 17, 25, and 33 weeks was positively associated with mental development index; larger size at 33 weeks and at birth was associated with higher verbal intelligence quotient scores (2.61, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 4.15 and 1.90, 95% confidence interval: 0.67, 3.13 increase per 1 standard deviation score, respectively); findings were similar for performance intelligence quotient. Seven trajectories were identified; scores were lower for "small" and "medium-to-small" trajectories than for "medium" and "big" (representing normal size) trajectories: mental development index (P development. Fetal growth trajectories may matter beyond birth.

  1. The relationship between gestational weight gain and fetal growth: time to take stock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Higgins, Amy C; Doolan, Anne; Mullaney, Laura; Daly, Niamh; McCartney, Daniel; Turner, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this article is to review the current evidence on gestational weight gain (GWG). Maternal obesity has emerged as one of the great challenges in modern obstetrics as it is becoming increasingly common and is associated with increased maternal and fetal complications. There has been an upsurge of interest in GWG with an emphasis on the relationship between excessive GWG and increased fetal growth. Recent recommendations from the Institute of Medicine in the USA have revised downwards the weight gain recommendations in pregnancy for obese mothers. We believe that it is time to take stock again about the advice that pregnant women are given about GWG and their lifestyle before, during, and after pregnancy. The epidemiological links between excessive GWG and aberrant fetal growth are weak, particularly in obese women. There is little evidence that intervention studies decrease excessive GWG or improve intrauterine fetal growth. Indeed, there is a potential risk that inappropriate interventions during the course of pregnancy may lead to fetal malnutrition that may have adverse clinical consequences, both in the short- and long-term. It may be more appropriate to shift the focus of attention from monitoring maternal weight to increasing physical activity levels and improving nutritional intakes.

  2. Octreotide therapy and restricted fetal growth: pregnancy in familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Geilswijk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemia during pregnancy can have serious health implications for both mother and fetus. Although not generally recommended in pregnancy, synthetic somatostatin analogues are used for the management of blood glucose levels in expectant hyperinsulinemic mothers. Recent reports suggest that octreotide treatment in pregnancy, as well as hypoglycemia in itself, may pose a risk of fetal growth restriction. During pregnancy, management of blood glucose levels in familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia thus forms a medical dilemma. We report on pregnancy outcomes in a woman with symptomatic familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, type 3. During the patient’s first pregnancy with a viable fetus octreotide treatment was instituted in gestational age 23 weeks to prevent severe hypoglycemic incidences. Fetal growth velocity declined, and at 37 weeks of gestation, intrauterine growth retardation was evident. During the second pregnancy with a viable fetus, blood glucose levels were managed through dietary intervention alone. Thus, the patient was advised to take small but frequent meals high in fiber and low in carbohydrates. Throughout pregnancy, no incidences of severe hypoglycemia occurred and fetal growth velocity was normal. We conclude that octreotide treatment during pregnancy may pose a risk of fetal growth restriction and warrants careful consideration. In some cases of familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, blood glucose levels can be successfully managed through diet only, also during pregnancy.

  3. Fetal growth profiles of macrosomic and non-macrosomic infants of women with pregestational or gestational diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammoud, N. M.; Visser, G. H. A.; Peters, S. A. E.; Graatsma, E. M.; Pistorius, L.; de Valk, H. W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess fetal growth profiles in an unselected group of pregnant women with either Type-1 diabetes (DM1), Type-2 diabetes (DM2) or gestational diabetes (GDM), with emphasis on intergroup differences and development of disproportionate fetal growth and macrosomia. Methods Second-and third

  4. Low PAPP-A in the first trimester is associated with reduced fetal growth rate prior to gestational week 20

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvig, J D; Kirkegaard, I; Winding, Trine Nøhr

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the association between maternal pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and fetal growth from the first to the second trimester.......To evaluate the association between maternal pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and fetal growth from the first to the second trimester....

  5. Fetal growth profiles of macrosomic and non-macrosomic infants of women with pregestational or gestational diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammoud, N. M.; Visser, G. H. A.; Peters, S. A. E.; Graatsma, E. M.; Pistorius, L.; de Valk, H. W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess fetal growth profiles in an unselected group of pregnant women with either Type-1 diabetes (DM1), Type-2 diabetes (DM2) or gestational diabetes (GDM), with emphasis on intergroup differences and development of disproportionate fetal growth and macrosomia. Methods Second-and third

  6. Fetal Growth in Pregnancies Conceived after Gastric Bypass Surgery in Relation to Surgery-to-Conception Interval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lone Nikoline; Gjerris, Anne Cathrine Roslev; Kirkegaard, Ida;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe early and late fetal growth in pregnancies conceived after gastric bypass surgery in relation to time from surgery to conception of pregnancy. METHODS: National cohort study on 387 Danish women, who had laparoscopic or open gastric bypass surgery prior to a singleton...... and early or late fetal growth in pregnancies conceived after gastric bypass surgery....

  7. Zika virus impairs growth in human neurospheres and brain organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcez, Patricia P; Loiola, Erick Correia; Madeiro da Costa, Rodrigo; Higa, Luiza M; Trindade, Pablo; Delvecchio, Rodrigo; Nascimento, Juliana Minardi; Brindeiro, Rodrigo; Tanuri, Amilcar; Rehen, Stevens K

    2016-05-13

    Since the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV), reports of microcephaly have increased considerably in Brazil; however, causality between the viral epidemic and malformations in fetal brains needs further confirmation. We examined the effects of ZIKV infection in human neural stem cells growing as neurospheres and brain organoids. Using immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, we showed that ZIKV targets human brain cells, reducing their viability and growth as neurospheres and brain organoids. These results suggest that ZIKV abrogates neurogenesis during human brain development.

  8. The Role of Placental Homeobox Genes in Human Fetal Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Murthi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction (FGR is an adverse pregnancy outcome associated with significant perinatal and paediatric morbidity and mortality, and an increased risk of chronic disease later in adult life. One of the key causes of adverse pregnancy outcome is fetal growth restriction (FGR. While a number of maternal, fetal, and environmental factors are known causes of FGR, the majority of FGR cases remain idiopathic. These idiopathic FGR pregnancies are frequently associated with placental insufficiency, possibly as a result of placental maldevelopment. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of abnormal placental development in idiopathic FGR is, therefore, of increasing importance. Here, we review our understanding of transcriptional control of normal placental development and abnormal placental development associated with human idiopathic FGR. We also assess the potential for understanding transcriptional control as a means for revealing new molecular targets for the detection, diagnosis, and clinical management of idiopathic FGR.

  9. Maternal vitamin C deficiency during pregnancy results in transient fetal and placental growth retardation in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Janne Gram; Paidi, Maya Devi; Lindblad, Maiken Marie

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Recently, we reported that preferential maternal-fetal vitamin C (vitC) transport across the placenta is likely to be impaired by prolonged maternal vitC deficiency. Maintenance of a basal maternal vitC supply at the expense of the fetus may impair fetal development; however, the knowled......, the present data suggest that vitC plays a role in early fetal development. Low maternal vitC intake during pregnancy may compromise maternal weight gain, placental function and intrauterine development....

  10. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergaz, Zivanit, E-mail: zivanit@hadassah.org.il [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Shoshani-Dror, Dana [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Guillemin, Claire [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Weksler-Zangen, Sarah [Diabetes Research Unit, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School and Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester, Rochester, MN (United States); Ornoy, Asher [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2012-12-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  11. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and fetal organ growth: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devasuda Anblagan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study whether maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with alterations in the growth of fetal lungs, kidneys, liver, brain, and placenta. DESIGN: A case-control study, with operators performing the image analysis blinded. SETTING: Study performed on a research-dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scanner (1.5 T with participants recruited from a large teaching hospital in the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 26 pregnant women (13 current smokers, 13 non smokers were recruited; 18 women (10 current smokers, 8 nonsmokers returned for the second scan later in their pregnancy. METHODS: Each fetus was scanned with MRI at 22-27 weeks and 33-38 weeks gestational age (GA. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Images obtained with MRI were used to measure volumes of the fetal brain, kidneys, lungs, liver and overall fetal size, as well as placental volumes. RESULTS: Exposed fetuses showed lower brain volumes, kidney volumes, and total fetal volumes, with this effect being greater at visit 2 than at visit 1 for brain and kidney volumes, and greater at visit 1 than at visit 2 for total fetal volume. Exposed fetuses also demonstrated lower lung volume and placental volume, and this effect was similar at both visits. No difference was found between the exposed and nonexposed fetuses with regards to liver volume. CONCLUSION: Magnetic resonance imaging has been used to show that maternal smoking is associated with reduced growth of fetal brain, lung and kidney; this effect persists even when the volumes are corrected for maternal education, gestational age, and fetal sex. As expected, the fetuses exposed to maternal smoking are smaller in size. Similarly, placental volumes are smaller in smoking versus nonsmoking pregnant women.

  12. Predictiveness of sonographic fetal weight estimation as a function of prior probability of intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, N V; Levisky, J S; Shearer, D M; Morris, K C; Hansberry, P A

    1988-06-01

    We evaluated the predictiveness of sonographically estimated fetal weight as a function of the estimation of probability of having intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) before obtaining an ultrasound scan (prior probability). The value of the estimated fetal weight resided more in its high specificity than in its sensitivity, hence in its ability to confirm that the fetus is normal. The predictiveness of the method was further enhanced when the fetal weight estimation was placed in the context of the prior probability of IUGR. In particular, the positive predictive value of the test as well as the likelihood of having a growth-retarded infant in spite of an estimated fetal weight within the normal range were considerably higher as the prior probability of IUGR increased. Since the obstetrician using all available evidence is likely to form a rather good estimate of the possibility of IUGR before ordering a scan, this improvement in the predictiveness of estimated fetal weight through a Bayesian approach can be advantageously applied to ultrasound analysis and can effectively support clinical decision making.

  13. Physically demanding work, fetal growth and the risk of adverse birth outcomes. The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijder, Claudia A; Brand, Teus; Jaddoe, Vincent; Hofman, Albert; Mackenbach, Johan P; Steegers, Eric A P; Burdorf, Alex

    2012-08-01

    Work-related risk factors, such as long work hours, and physically demanding work have been suggested to adversely influence pregnancy outcome. The authors aimed to examine associations between various aspects of physically demanding work with fetal growth in different trimesters during pregnancy and the risks of adverse birth outcomes. Associations between physically demanding work and fetal growth were studied in 4680 pregnant women participating in a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards in The Netherlands (2002-2006). Mothers who filled out a questionnaire during mid-pregnancy (response 77% of enrolment) were included if they conducted paid employment and had a spontaneously conceived singleton live born pregnancy. Questions on physical workload were obtained from the Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and concerned questions on lifting, long periods of standing or walking, night shifts and working hours. Fetal growth characteristics were repeatedly measured by ultrasound and were used in combination with measurements at birth. There were no consistent significant associations between physically demanding work nor working hours in relation to small for gestational age, low birth weight or preterm delivery. Women exposed to long periods of standing had lower growth rates for fetal head circumference (HC), resulting in a reduction of approximately 1 cm (3%) of the average HC at birth. Compared with women working 40 h/week had lower growth rates for both fetal weight and HC, resulting in a difference of approximately 1 cm in HC at birth and a difference of 148-198 g in birth weight. Long periods of standing and long working hours per week during pregnancy seem to negatively influence intrauterine growth.

  14. IFPA Meeting 2011 workshop report II: Angiogenic signaling and regulation of fetal endothelial function; placental and fetal circulation and growth; spiral artery remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmer, J N; Burton, G J; Collins, S; Cotechini, T; Crocker, I P; Croy, B A; Cvitic, S; Desforges, M; Deshpande, R; Gasperowicz, M; Groten, T; Haugen, G; Hiden, U; Host, A J; Jirkovská, M; Kiserud, T; König, J; Leach, L; Murthi, P; Pijnenborg, R; Sadekova, O N; Salafia, C M; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, N; Stanek, J; Wallace, A E; Westermeier, F; Zhang, J; Lash, G E

    2012-02-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At IFPA meeting 2011 there were twelve themed workshops, three of which are summarized in this report. These workshops related to vascular systems and circulation in the mother, placenta and fetus, and were divided in to 1) angiogenic signaling and regulation of fetal endothelial function; 2) placental and fetal circulation and growth; 3) spiral artery remodeling.

  15. Physically demanding work, fetal growth and the risk of adverse birth outcomes. The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Snijder (Claudia); T. Brand (Teus); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: Work-related risk factors, such as long work hours, and physically demanding work have been suggested to adversely influence pregnancy outcome. The authors aimed to examine associations between various aspects of physically demanding work with fetal growth in different

  16. Pathophysiology of chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition-induced fetal growth restriction in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerhof, M.G.; Synowiec, S.; Khan, S.; Thaete, L.G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the pathophysiology of chronic nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition-induced fetal growth restriction (FGR) in the rat. Methods. Timed-pregnant rats received L-NAME (2.5 mg/kg/h) with or without endothelin (ET-1) receptor A (ETA) antagonist from day 14 to 21 of gestation. In

  17. Placental Vitamin D-Binding Protein Expression in Human Idiopathic Fetal Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice F. Wookey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D-binding protein is a multifunctional serum protein with multiple actions related to normal health. Vitamin D-binding protein transports vitamin D and influences the metabolism of this key hormone but it also has additional immunomodulatory and actin-clearing properties. We investigated whether vitamin D-binding protein expression is altered in fetal growth restriction-associated placental dysfunction. Protein was extracted from 35 placentae derived from 17 healthy control subjects and 18 gestation-matched subjects with fetal growth restriction (FGR. FGR subjects were further subdivided as idiopathic (n=9 and nonidiopathic (n=9. Vitamin D-binding protein and 25(OH vitamin D were measured by ELISA and normalized to protein concentration. The results showed significantly reduced levels of placental vitamin D-binding protein (control versus FGR, p<0.05, Student’s t-test that were strongly associated with idiopathic fetal growth restriction (p<0.01, Kruskal-Wallis, whereas levels of vitamin D-binding protein were not associated with placental 25(OH vitamin D stores (p=0.295, Pearson’s correlation. As such, vitamin D-binding protein may be a factor in unexplained placental dysfunction associated with idiopathic fetal growth restriction and may potentially serve as a biomarker of this disease.

  18. Paternal Low Protein Diet Programs Preimplantation Embryo Gene Expression, Fetal Growth and Skeletal Development in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Adam J; Sirovica, Slobodan; Stokes, Ben; Isaacs, Mark; Addison, Owen; Martin, Richard A

    2017-02-08

    Defining the mechanisms underlying the programming of early life growth is fundamental for improving adult health and wellbeing. While the association between maternal diet, offspring growth and adult disease risk is well-established, the effect of father's diet on offspring development are largely unknown. Therefore, we fed male mice an imbalanced low protein diet (LPD) to determine the impact on post-fertilisation development and fetal growth. We observed that in preimplantation embryos derived from LPD fed males, expression of multiple genes within the central metabolic AMPK pathway was reduced. In late gestation, paternal LPD programmed increased fetal weight, however, placental weight was reduced, resulting in an elevated fetal:placental weight ratio. Analysis of gene expression patterns revealed increased levels of transporters for calcium, amino acids and glucose within LPD placentas. Furthermore, placental expression of the epigenetic regulators Dnmt1 and Dnmt3L were increased also, coinciding with altered patterns of maternal and paternal imprinted genes. More strikingly, we observed fetal skeletal development was perturbed in response to paternal LPD. Here, while offspring of LPD fed males possessed larger skeletons, their bones comprised lower volumes of high mineral density in combination with reduced maturity of bone apatite. These data offer new insight in the underlying programming mechanisms linking poor paternal diet at the time of conception with the development and growth of his offspring.

  19. Maternal milk consumption, fetal growth, and the risks of neonatal complications: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Heppe (Denise); R.M. van Dam (Rob); S.P. Willemsen (Sten); H. den Breeijen (Hanneke); H. Raat (Hein); A. Hofman (Albert); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Maternal cow-milk consumption may increase birth weight. Previous studies did not assess the association of maternal milk consumption with trimester-specific fetal growth. Objective: The objective was to assess associations of first-trimester maternal milk consumption with fe

  20. Associations of maternal retinal vasculature with subsequent fetal growth and birth size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L.-J. (Ling-Jun); Aris, I. (Izzuddin); Su, L.L. (Lin Lin); Tint, M.T. (Mya Thway); C.Y.-L. Cheung (Carol Yim-Lui); M.K. Ikram (Kamran); Gluckman, P. (Peter); Godfrey, K.M. (Keith M.); Tan, K.H. (Kok Hian); Yeo, G. (George); Yap, F. (Fabian); Kwek, K. (Kenneth); S-M. Saw (Seang-Mei); Y.-S. Chong (Yap-Seng); T.Y. Wong (Tien); Lee, Y.S. (Yung Seng)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjective: We aimed to study the maternal retinal microvasculature at mid-trimester and its relationship with subsequent fetal growth and birth size. Methods: We recruited 732 pregnant women aged 18-46 years in the first trimester with singleton pregnancies. All had retinal photography a

  1. Dietary exposure to contaminants during pregnancy and fetal growth

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte Salles, Talita, 1985-

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: La exposición prenatal a los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (HAP) y a la acrilamida ha sido asociada con la reducción del crecimiento fetal. El papel de la dieta, la principal fuente de exposición a estos compuestos en la población general, sigue siendo incierto. Los objetivos de esta tesis son caracterizar la exposición a través de la dieta a la acrilamida y a los HAP, específicamente el compuesto genotóxico benzo(a)pireno [B(a)P], durante el embarazo, y evaluar los efec...

  2. Dietary -carbamylglutamate and rumen-protected -arginine supplementation ameliorate fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Sun, L W; Wang, Z Y; Deng, M T; Zhang, G M; Guo, R H; Ma, T W; Wang, F

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted with an ovine intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) model to test the hypothesis that dietary -carbamylglutamate (NCG) and rumen-protected -Arg (RP-Arg) supplementation are effective in ameliorating fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes. Beginning on d 35 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements, 50% of NRC recommendations (50% NRC), 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 20 g/d RP-Arg (providing 10 g/d of Arg), and 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 5 g/d NCG product (providing 2.5 g/d of NCG). On d 110, maternal, fetal, and placental tissues and fluids were collected and weighed. Ewe weights were lower ( < 0.05) in nutrient-restricted ewes compared with adequately fed ewes. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation did not alter ( = 0.26) maternal BW in nutrient-restricted ewes. Weights of most fetal organs were increased ( < 0.05) in RP-Arg-treated and NCG-treated underfed ewes compared with 50% NRC-fed ewes. Supplementation of RP-Arg or NCG reduced ( < 0.05) concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, triglycerides, and ammonia in serum of underfed ewes but had no effect on concentrations of lactate and GH. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation markedly improved ( < 0.05) concentrations of AA (particularly arginine-family AA and branched-chain AA) and polyamines in maternal and fetal plasma and in fetal allantoic and amniotic fluids within nutrient-restricted ewes. These novel results indicate that dietary NCG and RP-Arg supplementation to underfed ewes ameliorated fetal growth restriction, at least in part, by increasing the availability of AA in the conceptus and provide support for its clinical use to ameliorate IUGR in humans and sheep industry production.

  3. Variation in Excessive Fetal Growth across Levels of Prenatal Care among Women with Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Nathan L; Probst, Janice C; Liu, Jihong; Bennett, Kevin J; Martin, Amy Brock; Glover, Saundra

    2011-10-01

    Examine the association between prenatal care and excessive fetal growth outcomes among mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We conducted a retrospective analysis of 2004-2007 singleton live births to South Carolina women, limited to those for whom both birth certificate and hospital discharge data were available (N = 179 957). Gestational diabetes mellitus was identified from birth certificate and/or hospital discharge claims. Measures of excessive fetal growth were large for gestational age (90th and 95th percentiles) and macrosomia (birth weight > 4500 g). The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization index was used to measure prenatal care. Gestational diabetes mellitus was recorded for 6.9% of women in the study population. Women with GDM were more likely than other women to have an infant with excessive fetal growth, regardless of the level of prenatal care; however, there was a significant interaction between GDM status and levels of prenatal care. All women with GDM had increased odds for large infant outcomes. However, those receiving inadequate prenatal care were markedly more likely to experience excessive fetal growth outcomes (odds ratio = 1.38, confidence interval = 1.15-1.66) than women also with GDM and intermediate/adequate prenatal care. Similar patterns were noted for large for gestational age (95th) and macrosomia (total birth weight ≥ 4500 g). Observed associations suggest a link between inadequate prenatal care and a higher risk for excessive fetal growth among women with GDM. Further research is needed to clarify the nature of the association and suggest ways to get high-risk women into care sooner.

  4. Maternal and fetal placental growth hormone and IGF axis in type 1 diabetic pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary F Higgins

    Full Text Available AIM: Placental growth hormone (PGH is a major growth hormone in pregnancy and acts with Insulin Like Growth Factor I (IGF-I and Insulin Like Growth Hormone Binding Protein 3 (IGFBP3. The aim of this study was to investigate PGH, IGF-I and IGFBP3 in non-diabetic (ND compared to Type 1 Diabetic (T1DM pregnancies. METHODS: This is a prospective study. Maternal samples were obtained from 25 ND and 25 T1DM mothers at 36 weeks gestation. Cord blood was obtained after delivery. PGH, IGF-I and IGFBP3 were measured using ELISA. RESULTS: There was no difference in delivery type, gender of infants or birth weight between groups. In T1DM, maternal PGH significantly correlated with ultrasound estimated fetal weight (r = 0.4, p = 0.02, birth weight (r = 0.51, p<0.05 and birth weight centile (r = 0.41, p = 0.03 PGH did not correlate with HbA1c. Maternal IGF-I was lower in T1DM (p = 0.03. Maternal and fetal serum IGFBP3 was higher in T1DM. Maternal third trimester T1DM serum had a significant band at 16 kD on western blot, which was not present in ND. CONCLUSION: Maternal T1DM PGH correlated with both antenatal fetal weight and birth weight, suggesting a significant role for PGH in growth in diabetic pregnancy. IGFBP3 is significantly increased in maternal and fetal serum in T1DM pregnancies compared to ND controls, which was explained by increased proteolysis in maternal but not fetal serum. These results suggest that the normal PGH-IGF-I-IGFBP3 axis in pregnancy is abnormal in T1DM pregnancies, which are at higher risk of macrosomia.

  5. IGF2 DNA methylation is a modulator of newborn's fetal growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Julie; Hivert, Marie-France; Perron, Patrice; Poirier, Paul; Guay, Simon-Pierre; Brisson, Diane; Bouchard, Luigi

    2012-10-01

    The insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene, located within a cluster of imprinted genes on chromosome 11p15, encodes a fetal and placental growth factor affecting birth weight. DNA methylation variability at the IGF2 gene locus has been previously reported but its consequences on fetal growth and development are still mostly unknown in normal pediatric population. We collected one hundred placenta biopsies from 50 women with corresponding maternal and cord blood samples and measured anthropometric indices, blood pressure and metabolic phenotypes using standardized procedures. IGF2/H19 DNA methylation and IGF2 circulating levels were assessed using sodium bisulfite pyrosequencing and ELISA, respectively. Placental IGF2 (DMR0 and DMR2) DNA methylation levels were correlated with newborn's fetal growth indices, such as weight, and with maternal IGF2 circulating concentration at the third trimester of pregnancy, whereas H19 (DMR) DNA methylation levels were correlated with IGF2 levels in cord blood. The maternal genotype of a known IGF2/H19 polymorphism (rs2107425) was associated with birth weight. Taken together, we showed that IGF2/H19 epigenotype and genotypes independently account for 31% of the newborn's weight variance. No association was observed with maternal diabetic status, glucose concentrations or prenatal maternal body mass index. This is the first study showing that DNA methylation at the IGF2/H19 genes locus may act as a modulator of IGF2 newborn's fetal growth and development within normal range. IGF2/H19 DNA methylation could represent a cornerstone in linking birth weight and fetal metabolic programming of late onset obesity.

  6. Fetal Parotid Gland Structural Remodeling In Case Of Intrauterine Growth Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy Morozov

    2013-05-01

    (in mkm2, width, height, perimeter (all in mkm. Similar measurements were done in the foci of immature secretory ends of a gland. Additionally the mean height of the epithelial cells layer within the mature secretory end pieces was measured. The differences were analyzed by methods of mathematical statistics using the software Microsoft Excel; data was compared with control measurements by Student’s t-test.Results The results of present research have shown the delayed differentiation of fetal parotid gland’s parenchymal components in case of IUGR. The parenchymal VF did not reach control values.  Furthermore, VF of lobule’s components was also decreased. Ducts lumens appeared to be significantly narrower than at physiological gestation. Interlobular and intralobular connective tissue stroma, in contrast to the controls, occupied vast areas, and their volume fraction was increased. Deficit of the parenchymal components of the gland was enhanced by slower maturation of glands.  In cases with IUGR, differentiated glands occupied smaller area, with reduced width, height and perimeter. Epithelium lining the differentiated glands is characterized by significantly lower height compared to the control group. Delayed differentiation resulted in  higher proportion of immature glands. Their area, width, height and perimeter increased. IUGR was also accompanied with a variety of pathological changes. Conclusion Present evidences suggest that IUGR leads to impaired growth and maturation of the parotid gland. Structural immaturity and lack of differentiated parenchymal elements of the organ may form the basis of its secretory function’s lesion. The finding tends to support the hypothesis that the mechanism behind the increased risk of dental pathology in preterm, low birth weight and retarded children is centred at structural and functional immaturity of salivary gland.

  7. Maternal serum copeptin as a marker for fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf A. Foda

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Maternal serum copeptin level can differentiate between the normal sized and small for gestational age fetuses. Also, it can differentiate between constitutionally small and growth restricted fetuses.

  8. Maternal Administration of Sildenafil Citrate Alters Fetal and Placental Growth and Fetal-Placental Vascular Resistance in the Growth-Restricted Ovine Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyston, Charlotte; Stanley, Joanna L; Oliver, Mark H; Bloomfield, Frank H; Baker, Philip N

    2016-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) causes short- and long-term morbidity. Reduced placental perfusion is an important pathogenic component of IUGR; substances that enhance vasodilation in the uterine circulation, such as sildenafil citrate (sildenafil), may improve placental blood flow and fetal growth. This study aimed to examine the effects of sildenafil in the growth-restricted ovine fetus. Ewes carrying singleton pregnancies underwent insertion of vascular catheters, and then, they were randomized to receive uterine artery embolization (IUGR) or to a control group. Ewes in the IUGR group received a daily infusion of sildenafil (IUGR+SC; n=10) or vehicle (IUGR+V; n=8) for 21 days. The control group received no treatment (n=9). Umbilical artery blood flow was measured using Doppler ultrasound and the resistive index (RI) calculated. Fetal weight, biometry, and placental weight were obtained at postmortem after treatment completion. Umbilical artery RI in IUGR+V fell less than in controls; the RI of IUGR+SC was intermediate to that of the other 2 groups (mean±SEM for control versus IUGR+V versus IUGR+SC: ∆RI, 0.09±0.03 versus -0.01±0.02 versus 0.03±0.02; F(2, 22)=4.21; P=0.03). Compared with controls, lamb and placental weights were reduced in IUGR+V but not in IUGR+SC (control versus IUGR+V versus IUGR+SC: fetal weight, 4381±247 versus 3447±235 versus 3687±129 g; F(2, 24)=5.49; P=0.01 and placental weight: 559.7±35.0 versus 376.2±32.5 versus 475.2±42.5 g; F(2, 24)=4.64; P=0.01). Sildenafil may be a useful adjunct in the management of IUGR. An increase in placental weight and fall in fetal-placental resistance suggests that changes to growth are at least partly mediated by changes to placental growth rather than alterations in placental efficiency.

  9. Fetal, neonatal, infant, and child international growth standards: an unprecedented opportunity for an integrated approach to assess growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Cutberto

    2015-07-01

    The recent publication of fetal growth and gestational age-specific growth standards by the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Project and the previous publication by the WHO of infant and young child growth standards based on the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study enable evaluations of growth from ∼9 wk gestation to 5 y. The most important features of these projects are the prescriptive approach used for subject selection and the rigorous testing of the assertion that growth is very similar among geographically and ethnically diverse nonisolated populations when health, nutrition, and other care needs are met and the environment imposes minimal constraints on growth. Both studies documented that with adequate controls, the principal source of variability in growth during gestation and early childhood resides among individuals. Study sites contributed much less to observed variability. The agreement between anthropometric measurements common to both studies also is noteworthy. Jointly, these studies provide for the first time, to my knowledge, a conceptually consistent basis for worldwide and localized assessments and comparisons of growth performance in early life. This is an important contribution to improving the health care of children across key periods of growth and development, especially given the appropriate interest in pursuing "optimal" health in the "first 1000 d," i.e., the period covering fertilization/implantation, gestation, and postnatal life to 2 y of age. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Chronic Protein Restriction in Mice Impacts Placental Function and Maternal Body Weight before Fetal Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula N Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of resource allocation are essential for maternal and fetal survival, particularly when the availability of nutrients is limited. We investigated the responses of feto-placental development to maternal chronic protein malnutrition to test the hypothesis that maternal low protein diet produces differential growth restriction of placental and fetal tissues, and adaptive changes in the placenta that may mitigate impacts on fetal growth. C57BL/6J female mice were fed either a low-protein diet (6% protein or control isocaloric diet (20% protein. On embryonic days E10.5, 17.5 and 18.5 tissue samples were prepared for morphometric, histological and quantitative RT-PCR analyses, which included markers of trophoblast cell subtypes. Potential endocrine adaptations were assessed by the expression of Prolactin-related hormone genes. In the low protein group, placenta weight was significantly lower at E10.5, followed by reduction of maternal weight at E17.5, while the fetuses became significantly lighter no earlier than at E18.5. Fetal head at E18.5 in the low protein group, though smaller than controls, was larger than expected for body size. The relative size and shape of the cranial vault and the flexion of the cranial base was affected by E17.5 and more severely by E18.5. The junctional zone, a placenta layer rich in endocrine and energy storing glycogen cells, was smaller in low protein placentas as well as the expression of Pcdh12, a marker of glycogen trophoblast cells. Placental hormone gene Prl3a1 was altered in response to low protein diet: expression was elevated at E17.5 when fetuses were still growing normally, but dropped sharply by E18.5 in parallel with the slowing of fetal growth. This model suggests that nutrients are preferentially allocated to sustain fetal and brain growth and suggests the placenta as a nutrient sensor in early gestation with a role in mitigating impacts of poor maternal nutrition on fetal growth.

  11. Limited capacity for glucose oxidation in fetal sheep with intrauterine growth restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura D.; Rozance, Paul J.; Bruce, Jennifer L.; Friedman, Jacob E.; Hay, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetal sheep, produced by placental insufficiency, have lower oxygen concentrations, higher lactate concentrations, and increased hepatic glucose production that is resistant to suppression by insulin. We hypothesized that increased lactate production in the IUGR fetus results from reduced glucose oxidation, during basal and maximal insulin-stimulated conditions, and is used to support glucose production. To test this, studies were performed in late-gestation control (CON) and IUGR fetal sheep under basal and hyperinsulinemic-clamp conditions. The basal glucose oxidation rate was similar and increased by 30–40% during insulin clamp in CON and IUGR fetuses (P fetal muscle and liver, mRNA expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK4), an inhibitor of glucose oxidation, was increased over fourfold. In IUGR fetal liver, but not skeletal muscle, mRNA expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) was increased nearly fivefold. Hepatic expression of the gluconeogenic genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK)1, and PCK2, was correlated with expression of PDK4 and LDHA. Collectively, these in vivo and tissue data support limited capacity for glucose oxidation in the IUGR fetus via increased PDK4 in skeletal muscle and liver. We speculate that lactate production also is increased, which may supply carbon for glucose production in the IUGR fetal liver. PMID:26224688

  12. Fetal alcohol exposure leads to abnormal olfactory bulb development and impaired odor discrimination in adult mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G. Akers (Katherine); S.A. Kushner (Steven); A.T. Leslie (Ana); L. Clarke (Laura); D. van der Kooy (Derek); J.P. Lerch (Jason); P.W. Frankland (Paul)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy exhibit widespread brain abnormalities and a complex array of behavioral disturbances. Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investigate relationships between brain abnormalities and specific

  13. Fetal alcohol exposure leads to abnormal olfactory bulb development and impaired odor discrimination in adult mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G. Akers (Katherine); S.A. Kushner (Steven); A.T. Leslie (Ana); L. Clarke (Laura); D. van der Kooy (Derek); J.P. Lerch (Jason); P.W. Frankland (Paul)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy exhibit widespread brain abnormalities and a complex array of behavioral disturbances. Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investigate relationships between brain abnormalities and specific behavior

  14. Moderate maternal food restriction in mice impairs physical growth, behavior, and neurodevelopment of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akitake, Yoshiharu; Katsuragi, Shinji; Hosokawa, Masato; Mishima, Kenichi; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Hosoda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) occurs in 3% to 7% of all pregnancies. Recent human studies have indicated that neurodevelopmental disabilities, learning disorders, memory impairment, and mood disturbance are common in IUGR offspring. However, the interactions between IUGR and neurodevelopmental disorders are unclear because of the wide range of causes of IUGR, such as maternal malnutrition, placental insufficiency, pregnancy toxemia, and fetal malformations. Meanwhile, many studies have shown that moderate food restriction enhances spatial learning and improves mood disturbance in adult humans and animals. To date, the effects of maternal moderate food restriction on fetal brain remain largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that IUGR would be caused by even moderate food restriction in pregnant females and that the offspring would have neurodevelopmental disabilities. Mid-pregnant mice received moderate food restriction through the early lactation period. The offspring were tested for aspects of physical development, behavior, and neurodevelopment. The results showed that moderate maternal food restriction induced IUGR. Offspring had low birth weight and delayed development of physical and coordinated movement. Moreover, IUGR offspring exhibited mental disabilities such as anxiety and poor cognitive function. In particular, male offspring exhibited significantly impaired cognitive function at 3 weeks of age. These results suggested that a restricted maternal diet could be a risk factor for developmental disability in IUGR offspring and that male offspring might be especially susceptible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lack of Thromboxane Synthase Prevents Hypertension and Fetal Growth Restriction after High Salt Treatment during Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Hsueh Pai

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is a potentially fatal pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder characterized by poor placenta development that can cause fetal growth restriction. PE-associated pathologies, including thrombosis, hypertension, and impaired placental development, may result from imbalances between thromboxane A2 (TXA2 and prostacyclin. Low-dose aspirin, which selectively inhibits TXA2 production, is used to prevent high-risk PE. However, the role of TXA2 in aspirin-mediated protective effects in women with PE is not understood fully. In this study, we examined the role of prostanoids in PE using human samples and an induced PE mouse model. We demonstrated that the administration of salted drinking water (2.7% NaCl to wild-type mice resulted in elevated placental TXA2 synthase (TXAS and plasma TXA2, but not prostacyclin, levels, which was also found in our clinical PE placenta samples. The high salt-treated wild-type pregnant mice had shown unchanged maternal body weight, hypertension (MAP increase 15 mmHg, and decreased pup weight (~50% and size (~24%, but these adverse effects were ameliorated in TXAS knockout (KO mice. Moreover, increased expression of interleukin-1β and downstream phosphorylated-p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase were concordant with apoptosis induction in the placentas of salt water-treated wild-type mice. These alterations were not observed in TXAS KO mice. Together, our data suggest that TXA2 depletion has anti-PE effects due to the prevention of hypertension and placental damage through downregulation of the interleukin-1β pathway.

  16. Lack of Thromboxane Synthase Prevents Hypertension and Fetal Growth Restriction after High Salt Treatment during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Chen-Hsueh; Yen, Ching-Tzu; Chen, Chie-Pein; Yu, I-Shing; Lin, Shu-Wha; Lin, Shu-Rung

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a potentially fatal pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder characterized by poor placenta development that can cause fetal growth restriction. PE-associated pathologies, including thrombosis, hypertension, and impaired placental development, may result from imbalances between thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and prostacyclin. Low-dose aspirin, which selectively inhibits TXA2 production, is used to prevent high-risk PE. However, the role of TXA2 in aspirin-mediated protective effects in women with PE is not understood fully. In this study, we examined the role of prostanoids in PE using human samples and an induced PE mouse model. We demonstrated that the administration of salted drinking water (2.7% NaCl) to wild-type mice resulted in elevated placental TXA2 synthase (TXAS) and plasma TXA2, but not prostacyclin, levels, which was also found in our clinical PE placenta samples. The high salt-treated wild-type pregnant mice had shown unchanged maternal body weight, hypertension (MAP increase 15 mmHg), and decreased pup weight (~50%) and size (~24%), but these adverse effects were ameliorated in TXAS knockout (KO) mice. Moreover, increased expression of interleukin-1β and downstream phosphorylated-p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase were concordant with apoptosis induction in the placentas of salt water-treated wild-type mice. These alterations were not observed in TXAS KO mice. Together, our data suggest that TXA2 depletion has anti-PE effects due to the prevention of hypertension and placental damage through downregulation of the interleukin-1β pathway.

  17. Correlation between maternal and cord blood leptin and fetal growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-05

    Sep 5, 2007 ... Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. 2Obstetrics and ... brain and affects food intake, energy expenditure, and. *Corresponding author. ... further how different intrauterine growth patterns relate to leptin secretion in utero. In addition ...

  18. The association between low 50 g glucose challenge test result and fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Nir; Hiersch, Liran; Peled, Yoav; Hod, Moshe; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Yogev, Yariv

    2013-07-01

    To determine whether a low-GCT result is predictive of low birthweight and to identify the lower GCT threshold for prediction of fetal growth restriction. A retrospective cohort study of 12,899 women who underwent a GCT (24-28 weeks). Women with a low-GCT result (result (70-140 mg/dL). ROC analysis was used to determine the optimal lower GCT threshold for the prediction of growth restriction. Women in the low GCT had significant lower rates of cesarean delivery (18.7% versus 22.5%), shoulder dystocia (0.0% versus 0.3%), mean birthweight (3096 ± 576 versus 3163 ± 545) and birthweight percentile (49.1 ± 27.0 versus 53.1 ± 26.7) and significant higher rates of birthweight result is independently associated with low birthweight and can be used in combination with additional factors for the prediction of fetal growth restriction.

  19. Fetal deficiency of lin28 programs life-long aberrations in growth and glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Gen; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Soysa, T Yvanka de; Zhu, Hao; Seligson, Marc T; Shah, Samar P; Abo-Sido, Nora; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Hagan, John P; Gregory, Richard I; Asara, John M; Cantley, Lewis C; Moss, Eric G; Daley, George Q

    2013-08-01

    LIN28A/B are RNA binding proteins implicated by genetic association studies in human growth and glucose metabolism. Mice with ectopic over-expression of Lin28a have shown related phenotypes. Here, we describe the first comprehensive analysis of the physiologic consequences of Lin28a and Lin28b deficiency in knockout (KO) mice. Lin28a/b-deficiency led to dwarfism starting at different ages, and compound gene deletions showed a cumulative dosage effect on organismal growth. Conditional gene deletion at specific developmental stages revealed that fetal but neither neonatal nor adult deficiency resulted in growth defects and aberrations in glucose metabolism. Tissue-specific KO mice implicated skeletal muscle-deficiency in the abnormal programming of adult growth and metabolism. The effects of Lin28b KO could be rescued by Tsc1 haplo-insufficiency in skeletal muscles. Our data implicate fetal expression of Lin28a/b in the regulation of life-long effects on metabolism and growth, and demonstrate that fetal Lin28b acts at least in part via mTORC1 signaling.

  20. Cystyl aminopeptidase in maternal serum for the antenatal recognition of fetal growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalaswamy, G; Balasubramaniam, N; Kanagasabapathy, A S

    1983-05-01

    An appraisal has been made of the usefulness of cystyl aminopeptidase (CAS, E.C. 3.4.11.3) activity patterns in the in utero detection of fetal growth retardation; 196 pregnancies at risk from placental insufficiency, classified into 9 aetiologic groups were considered. Absolute levels and trend of enzyme activity were studied in all cases and compared with the reference range of CAS activity established in 267 healthy pregnant subjects. Excluding multiple pregnancies, overall predictive value of CAS in defining fetal outcome in 186 'at risk' pregnancies was 72%, overall sensitivity and specificity being 82% and 71% respectively; 48% of the 'at risk' population delivered growth retarded infants, whereas the prevalence of growth retardation as diagnosed by CAS was 54%. Out of the 89 patients who delivered growth retarded infants, 73 exhibited abnormal CAS activity patterns. In twin pregnancies, values of CAS in 73% of the total number of assays were above mean plus 2 standard deviations for the respective gestational period. CAS in maternal serum is advocated as a simple and reliable antepartum indicator of fetal growth retardation and is suitable for the detection of twin pregnancy as early as the second trimester.

  1. Effect of placental factors on growth and function of the human fetal adrenal in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riopel, L.; Branchaud, C.L.; Goodyer, C.G.; Zweig, M.; Lipowski, L.; Adkar, V.; Lefebvre, Y. (McGill Univ.-Montreal Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Quebec (Canada))

    1989-11-01

    Conditioned medium from human placental monolayer cultures (PM) had a marked stimulatory effect on proliferation (3H-thymidine uptake) of human fetal zone adrenal cells in primary monolayer culture, even in the absence of serum. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) also significantly stimulated fetal adrenal cell growth. However, the effects of PM differed from those of EGF and FGF in several respects: (1) maximal response to PM was 2-5 times greater; (2) mitogenic effects of EGF and FGF were suppressed by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), whereas that of 50% PM was not; (3) PM inhibited ACTH-stimulated steroidogenesis (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cortisol), but EGF and FGF did not. Preliminary characterization studies have indicated that approximately half of the placental growth-promoting activity is heat resistant and sensitive to bacterial proteases, and that 50-60% of the activity is lost after dialysis with membranes having a molecular weight cutoff of 3500. These findings suggest a role for the placenta in the growth and differentiated function of the human fetal adrenal gland.

  2. What do placental function tests predict? Observations on placental lactogen levels in growth retardation and fetal distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiekwe, B C; Chard, T

    1982-11-01

    Single blood samples were obtained from an unselected population of 527 women between 36 and 40 wk gestation. Serum placental lactogen levels were lower than normal in patients whose infants were growth retarded or developed fetal distress in labor. These associations were independent; the fetal distress group did not contain an excess of subjects with growth retardation. Thus, the results of a biochemical test reflect dynamic aspects of placental function and not simply the overall growth of fetus and placenta.

  3. Improving metabolic health in obese male mice via diet and exercise restores embryo development and fetal growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole O McPherson

    Full Text Available Paternal obesity is now clearly associated with or causal of impaired embryo and fetal development and reduced pregnancy rates in humans and rodents. This appears to be a result of reduced blastocyst potential. Whether these adverse embryo and fetal outcomes can be ameliorated by interventions to reduce paternal obesity has not been established. Here, male mice fed a high fat diet (HFD to induce obesity were used, to determine if early embryo and fetal development is improved by interventions of diet (CD and/or exercise to reduce adiposity and improve metabolism. Exercise and to a lesser extent CD in obese males improved embryo development rates, with increased cell to cell contacts in the compacting embryo measured by E-cadherin in exercise interventions and subsequently, increased blastocyst trophectoderm (TE, inner cell mass (ICM and epiblast cell numbers. Implantation rates and fetal development from resulting blastocysts were also improved by exercise in obese males. Additionally, all interventions to obese males increased fetal weight, with CD alone and exercise alone, also increasing fetal crown-rump length. Measures of embryo and fetal development correlated with paternal measures of glycaemia, insulin action and serum lipids regardless of paternal adiposity or intervention, suggesting a link between paternal metabolic health and subsequent embryo and fetal development. This is the first study to show that improvements to metabolic health of obese males through diet and exercise can improve embryo and fetal development, suggesting such interventions are likely to improve offspring health.

  4. Characteristics of children whose siblings have fetal alcohol syndrome or incomplete fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvigne, Valborg L; Leonardson, Gary R; Borzelleca, Joseph; Neff-Smith, Martha; Welty, Thomas K

    2009-03-01

    To describe the clinical features of American Indian children born just before and just after a sibling with fetal alcohol syndrome or incomplete fetal alcohol syndrome. Two retrospective case-control studies were conducted of Northern Plains American Indian children with fetal alcohol syndrome or incomplete fetal alcohol syndrome identified from 1981 to 1993 by using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 760.71. Compared with the controls, the 39 siblings born just before children with fetal alcohol syndrome (study 1) and 30 siblings born just before children with incomplete fetal alcohol syndrome (study 2) had more facial dysmorphology (23.1% and 16.7%, respectively), growth delay (38.5% and 10.0%), and central nervous system impairment (48.7% and 33.3%). The 20 siblings born just after children with fetal alcohol syndrome (study 1) and 22 siblings born just after children with incomplete fetal alcohol syndrome (study 2) had more facial dysmorphology (20.0% and 9.1%, respectively), growth delay (45.0% and 22.7%), and central nervous system impairment (50.0% and 31.8%) than the control siblings. The "before" siblings had characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome that could have predicted that the next child was at risk for fetal alcohol syndrome. The "after" siblings had better outcomes than the previous siblings with fetal alcohol syndrome, a finding that was associated with a decrease in maternal alcohol consumption during the after-sibling pregnancy.

  5. Sildenafil citrate for the management of fetal growth restriction and oligohydramnios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhary R

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rana Choudhary,1 Kavita Desai,2 Hetal Parekh,3 Kedar Ganla1 1Department of Reproductive Medicine, Ankoor Fertility Clinic, 2Department of Radiology, Dadar Imaging and Diagnostic Centre, 3IVF Department, Hiranandani Hospital, Mumbai, India Abstract: Fetal growth restriction (FGR and preeclampsia are the major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality, which affect up to 8% of all pregnancies. The pathogenesis in FGR is an abnormal trophoblastic invasion leading to compromised uteroplacental circulation. However, in spite of this understanding and identification of high-risk patients, the management options are limited. There are some new studies which have demonstrated the role of sildenafil citrate in improving vasodilatation of small myometrial vessels and therefore improvement in amniotic fluid index, fetal weight, and even uterine and umbilical artery Doppler patterns. We report here the case of a 31-year-old female with infertility and preconceptional thin endometrium responding well to sildenafil citrate, followed by conception. However, she presented with an early-onset FGR at 26 weeks of gestation, and again after treatment with sildenafil citrate, showed improvement in amniotic fluid index and fetal weight, finally resulting in delivery of a full-term healthy baby with uneventful neonatal course. Keywords: sildenafil citrate, fetal growth restriction, oligohydramnios, thin endometrium

  6. Ultrasonographic assessment of fetal growth in miniature "Shiba" goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiel, Mohamed M M; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to monitor fetal growth in relation to gestational stage to generate formulae which could be used to estimate fetal age in goats. Eight miniature Shiba goats (Capra hircus) were examined weekly by transrectal and transabdominal ultrasound scanning during the gestation period between Day 21 and 126 days of gestation. For accurate judgment, all fetometric parameters were measured at least three times per one examination for each animal. Quantification of the growth of the fetus allowed the development of a number of predictors of fetal age. Low correlations were associated with measurement of the chest diameter (R(2)=0.869), trunk diameter (R(2)=0.8969), tibia length (R(2)=0.8662) and placentome diameter (R(2)=0.8999). Moderate correlation was assessed by calculation of the length of six successive lumbar vertebrae (R(2)=0.9296), femur length (R(2)=0.9278), heart axis length (R(2)=0.9382 and 0.9589; for the longitudinal and transverse axis, respectively), occipitonasal length (R(2)=0.9527), umbilical cord diameter (R(2)=0.9119) and orbit diameter (R(2)=0.9239). A high correlation was estimated in investigating the length of six successive thoracic vertebrae (R(2)=0.9674), braincase diameter (R(2)=0.9831) and crown rump length (R(2)=0.9848). In conclusion, the intrauterine fetal biometry estimation through ultrasound might be useful to predict the accurate gestational age in miniature goats.

  7. Fetal growth and air pollution - A study on ultrasound and birth measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmqvist, Ebba; Liew, Zeyan; Källén, Karin; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Rittner, Ralf; Rylander, Lars; Ritz, Beate

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution has been suggested to affect fetal growth, but more data is needed to assess the timing of exposure effects by using ultrasound measures. It is also important to study effects in low exposure areas to assess eventual thresholds of effects. The MAPSS (Maternal Air Pollution in Southern Sweden) cohort consists of linked registry data for around 48,000 pregnancies from an ultrasound database, birth registry and exposure data based on residential addresses. Measures of air pollution exposure were obtained through dispersion modelling with input data from an emissions database (NOx) with high resolution (100-500m grids). Air pollution effects were assessed with linear regressions for the following endpoints; biparietal diameter, femur length, abdominal diameter and estimated fetal weight measured in late pregnancy and birth weight and head circumference measured at birth. We estimated negative effects for NOx; in the adjusted analyses the decrease of abdominal diameter and femur length were -0.10 (-0.17, -0.03) and -0.13 (-0.17, -0.01)mm, respectively, per 10µg/m(3) increment of NOx. We also estimated an effect of NOx-exposures on birth weight by reducing birth weight by 9g per 10µg/m(3) increment of NOx. We estimated small but statistically significant effects of air pollution on late fetal and birth size and reduced fetal growth late in pregnancy in a geographic area with levels below current WHO air quality guidelines.

  8. 2 year neurodevelopmental and intermediate perinatal outcomes in infants with very preterm fetal growth restriction (TRUFFLE) : a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lees, Christoph C.; Marlow, Neil; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Arabin, Birgit; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Brezinka, Christoph; Calvert, Sandra; Derks, Jan B.; Diemert, Anke; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Ferrazzi, Enrico; Frusca, Tiziana; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Hecher, Kurt; Martinelli, Pasquale; Ostermayer, Eva; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Schlembach, Dietmar; Schneider, K. T. M.; Thilaganathan, Baskaran; Todros, Tullia; Valcamonico, Adriana; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Wolf, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Background No consensus exists for the best way to monitor and when to trigger delivery in mothers of babies with fetal growth restriction. We aimed to assess whether changes in the fetal ductus venosus Doppler waveform (DV) could be used as indications for delivery instead of cardiotocography short

  9. 2 year neurodevelopmental and intermediate perinatal outcomes in infants with very preterm fetal growth restriction (TRUFFLE) : A randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lees, Christoph C.; Marlow, Neil; Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Arabin, Birgit; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Brezinka, Christoph; Calvert, Sandra; Derks, Jan B.; Diemert, Anke; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Ferrazzi, Enrico; Frusca, Tiziana; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Hecher, Kurt; Martinelli, Pasquale; Ostermayer, Eva; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Schlembach, Dietmar; Schneider, K. T M; Thilaganathan, Baskaran; Todros, Tullia; Valcamonico, Adriana; Visser, Gerard H A; Wolf, Hans; Aktas, Ayse; Borgione, Silvia; Chaoui, Rabih; Cornette, Jerome M J; Diehl, Thilo; Van Eyck, Jim; Fratelli, Nicola; Van Haastert, Inge Lot; Lobmaier, Silvia; Lopriore, Enrico; Missfelder-Lobos, Hannah; Mansi, Giuseppina; Martelli, Paola; Maso, Gianpaolo; Maurer-Fellbaum, Ute; Van Charante, Nico Mensing; De Tollenaer, Susanne Mulder; Napolitano, Raffaele; Oberto, Manuela; Oepkes, Dick; Ogge, Giovanna; Van Der Post, Joris; Prefumo, Federico; Preston, Lucy; Raimondi, Francesco; Reiss, Irwin K M; Scheepers, H. C J; Schuit, Ewoud; Skabar, Aldo; Spaanderman, Marc; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Zimmermann, Andrea; Moore, Tamanna; Johnson, Samantha; Rigano, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Background: No consensus exists for the best way to monitor and when to trigger delivery in mothers of babies with fetal growth restriction. We aimed to assess whether changes in the fetal ductus venosus Doppler waveform (DV) could be used as indications for delivery instead of cardiotocography shor

  10. 2 Year Neurodevelopmental and Intermediate Perinatal Outcomes in Infants With Very Preterm Fetal Growth Restriction (TRUFFLE) : A Randomised Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lees, Christoph C.; Marlow, Neil; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Arabin, Birgit; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Brezinka, Christoph; Calvert, Sandra; Derks, Jan B.; Diemert, Anke; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Ferrazzi, Enrico; Frusca, Tiziana; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Hecher, Kurt; Martinelli, Pasquale; Ostermayer, Eva; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Schlembach, Dietmar; Schneider, K. T. M.; Thilaganathan, Baskaran; Todros, Tullia; Valcamonico, Adriana; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Wolf, Hans

    2015-01-01

    There is no consensus on the best methods to monitor fetal growth restriction or to trigger delivery. Previous studies have suggested that the abnormal ductus venosus (DV) pulsatility index is the best discriminating variable for neonatal outcome. This study hypothesized that changes in the fetal DV

  11. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

  12. 2 year neurodevelopmental and intermediate perinatal outcomes in infants with very preterm fetal growth restriction (TRUFFLE) : A randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lees, Christoph C.; Marlow, Neil; Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Arabin, Birgit; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Brezinka, Christoph; Calvert, Sandra; Derks, Jan B.; Diemert, Anke; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Ferrazzi, Enrico; Frusca, Tiziana; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Hecher, Kurt; Martinelli, Pasquale; Ostermayer, Eva; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Schlembach, Dietmar; Schneider, K. T M; Thilaganathan, Baskaran; Todros, Tullia; Valcamonico, Adriana; Visser, Gerard H A; Wolf, Hans; Aktas, Ayse; Borgione, Silvia; Chaoui, Rabih; Cornette, Jerome M J; Diehl, Thilo; Van Eyck, Jim; Fratelli, Nicola; Van Haastert, Inge Lot; Lobmaier, Silvia; Lopriore, Enrico; Missfelder-Lobos, Hannah; Mansi, Giuseppina; Martelli, Paola; Maso, Gianpaolo; Maurer-Fellbaum, Ute; Van Charante, Nico Mensing; De Tollenaer, Susanne Mulder; Napolitano, Raffaele; Oberto, Manuela; Oepkes, Dick; Ogge, Giovanna; Van Der Post, Joris; Prefumo, Federico; Preston, Lucy; Raimondi, Francesco; Reiss, Irwin K M; Scheepers, H. C J; Schuit, Ewoud; Skabar, Aldo; Spaanderman, Marc; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Zimmermann, Andrea; Moore, Tamanna; Johnson, Samantha; Rigano, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Background: No consensus exists for the best way to monitor and when to trigger delivery in mothers of babies with fetal growth restriction. We aimed to assess whether changes in the fetal ductus venosus Doppler waveform (DV) could be used as indications for delivery instead of cardiotocography

  13. Is middle cerebral artery Doppler related to neonatal and 2-year infant outcome in early fetal growth restriction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stampalija, Tamara; Arabin, Birgit; Wolf, Hans; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Lees, Christoph; Brezinka, C.; Derks, J. B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/148835163; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, J. J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Ganzevoort, W.; Hecher, K.; Kingdom, J.; Marlow, N.; Marsal, K.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, A. T.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T.M.; Thilaganathan, B.; Thornton, J.; Todros, T.; Valcamonico, A.; Valensise, H.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Visser, G. H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229317057; Aktas, A.; Borgione, S.; Chaoui, R.; Cornette, J. M.J.; Diehl, T.; van Eyck, J.; Fratelli, N.; van Haastert, I. C.; Lobmaier, S.; Lopriore, E.; Missfelder-Lobos, H.; Mansi, G.; Martelli, P.; Maso, G.; Maurer-Fellbaum, U.; Mensing van Charante, N.; Mulder-de Tollenaer, S.; Napolitano, R.; Oberto, M.; Oepkes, D.; Ogge, G.; van der Post, J. A.M.; Prefumo, F.; Preston, L.; Raimondi, F.; Reiss, I. K.M.; Scheepers, L. S.; Skabar, A.; Spaanderman, M.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.; Zimmermann, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Reduced fetal middle cerebral artery Doppler impedance is associated with hypoxemia in fetal growth restriction. It remains unclear as to whether this finding could be useful in timing delivery, especially in the third trimester. In this regard there is a paucity of evidence from

  14. The effect of superovulation prior to mating on fetal growth in Iambs from Javanese thin-tail ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Manalu

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine fetuses (11 fetuses from 9 non-superovulated ewes and 18 fetuses from 8 superovulated ewes were used to study the effect of superovulation of ewes prior to mating on fetal weight, fetal length, the length of the body and limbs, chest circumference, weights of the body, head, neck, limb, and viscera. Superovulated ewes, though with a higher litter size, had a greater fetal growth as was indicated by the greater fetal weight and length, the length and weight of the body and limb on day 49 of pregnancy. On day 105 of pregnancy, superovulated ewes with multiple fetuses (≥3 had similar fetal growth than nonsuperovulated ewes with single and twin fetuses. However, superovulated ewes with a single fetus had greater fetal growth as was shown by the greater fetal weight and length, the length of the body and limbs, chest circumference, and weight of the body, limb, and viscera when compared to those non-superovulated ewes with a single or twin fetuses. The results of the experiment suggested that superovulation of ewes prior to mating could be used to improve fetal prenatal growth during pregnancy

  15. 2 year neurodevelopmental and intermediate perinatal outcomes in infants with very preterm fetal growth restriction (TRUFFLE) : a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lees, Christoph C.; Marlow, Neil; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Arabin, Birgit; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Brezinka, Christoph; Calvert, Sandra; Derks, Jan B.; Diemert, Anke; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Ferrazzi, Enrico; Frusca, Tiziana; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Hecher, Kurt; Martinelli, Pasquale; Ostermayer, Eva; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Schlembach, Dietmar; Schneider, K. T. M.; Thilaganathan, Baskaran; Todros, Tullia; Valcamonico, Adriana; Visser, G. H. A.; Wolf, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Background No consensus exists for the best way to monitor and when to trigger delivery in mothers of babies with fetal growth restriction. We aimed to assess whether changes in the fetal ductus venosus Doppler waveform (DV) could be used as indications for delivery instead of cardiotocography

  16. Is middle cerebral artery Doppler related to neonatal and 2-year infant outcome in early fetal growth restriction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stampalija, Tamara; Arabin, Birgit; Wolf, Hans; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Lees, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced fetal middle cerebral artery Doppler impedance is associated with hypoxemia in fetal growth restriction. It remains unclear as to whether this finding could be useful in timing delivery, especially in the third trimester. In this regard there is a paucity of evidence from prospec

  17. Is middle cerebral artery Doppler related to neonatal and 2-year infant outcome in early fetal growth restriction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stampalija, Tamara; Arabin, Birgit; Wolf, Hans; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Lees, Christoph; Brezinka, C.; Derks, J. B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/148835163; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, J. J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Ganzevoort, W.; Hecher, K.; Kingdom, J.; Marlow, N.; Marsal, K.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, A. T.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T.M.; Thilaganathan, B.; Thornton, J.; Todros, T.; Valcamonico, A.; Valensise, H.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Visser, G. H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229317057; Aktas, A.; Borgione, S.; Chaoui, R.; Cornette, J. M.J.; Diehl, T.; van Eyck, J.; Fratelli, N.; van Haastert, I. C.; Lobmaier, S.; Lopriore, E.; Missfelder-Lobos, H.; Mansi, G.; Martelli, P.; Maso, G.; Maurer-Fellbaum, U.; Mensing van Charante, N.; Mulder-de Tollenaer, S.; Napolitano, R.; Oberto, M.; Oepkes, D.; Ogge, G.; van der Post, J. A.M.; Prefumo, F.; Preston, L.; Raimondi, F.; Reiss, I. K.M.; Scheepers, L. S.; Skabar, A.; Spaanderman, M.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.; Zimmermann, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Reduced fetal middle cerebral artery Doppler impedance is associated with hypoxemia in fetal growth restriction. It remains unclear as to whether this finding could be useful in timing delivery, especially in the third trimester. In this regard there is a paucity of evidence from prospect

  18. Fetal Growth Restriction at the Limits of Viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G. H. A.; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Lees, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The outcome of early small-for-gestational age and/or intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses is reviewed. In these fetuses the outcome appears to be considerably poorer than that of appropriately grown fetuses and this seems mainly to be caused by intrauterine malnutrition rather than by hypoxemia.

  19. Fetal calf serum-mediated inhibition of neurite growth from ciliary ganglion neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G E; Skaper, S D; Manthorpe, M; Moonen, G; Varon, S

    1984-01-01

    Embryonic chick ciliary ganglion (CG) neurons cultured in fetal calf serum-containing medium have been previously reported to extend neurites on polyornithine (PORN) substrata precoated with a neurite-promoting factor (PNPF) from rat schwannoma-conditioned medium. On PORN substrata alone, however, no neuritic growth occurred. This was interpreted as evidence that PORN was an incompetent substratum for ciliary neuritic growth. In this study, we now find that an untreated PORN substratum allows neuritic growth in serum-free defined medium. When PNPF was added to PORN, a more rapid and extensive neuritic response occurred. After 5 hr of culture, a 60% neuritic response occurred on PNPF/PORN, whereas no neurons initiated neurites until 10-12 hr on PORN. The inhibitory effect of fetal calf serum noted above on PORN could be obtained in part by pretreating the substratum with serum for 1 hr. Maximal inhibitory effects in the PORN pretreatment were achieved after 30 min and were not further improved by treatments up to 4 hr. Bovine serum albumin was also found to inhibit neurite growth on PORN to about 60% of the inhibition obtained by an equivalent amount of serum protein. Fetal calf serum was shown to cause a 15% reduction in the percentage of neurons bearing neurites after its addition to 18-hr serum-free PORN cultures and to cause statistically significant reductions in neurite lengths measured 2 hr later.

  20. Antenatal taurine supplementation increases taurine content in intrauterine growth restricted fetal rat brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Teng, Hui-Yun; Liu, Jing; Wang, Hua-Wei; Zeng, Li; Zhao, Li-Fang

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of antenatal taurine supplementation on taurine content in the brains of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Experiments were performed at the Central Laboratory of Bayi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Military General Hospital in China from January to June 2013. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls, an IUGR group and an IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement group (Taurine group) (n = 5). The IUGR model was induced using a low-protein diet throughout gestation. Rats in the taurine group were fed a diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine for 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Two fetal rats were randomly selected in every litter, and taurine levels in the brains of rats were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that (1) the mean body weight of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement groups was 6.619 ± 0.4132, 4.509 ± 0.454, and 5.176 ± 0.436 g (F = 429.818, P taurine levels in the brains of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and taurine groups were (2.399 ± 0.134) × 10(5), (1.881 ± 0.166) × 10(5) and (2.170 ± 0.191) × 10(5) μg/g (F = 24.828, P taurine levels in IUGR fetal rat brains were lower than in the control animals, and that antenatal taurine supplementation could significantly increase taurine levels in the brains of fetal rats with IUGR.

  1. Ontogeny of expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and its receptors in human fetal skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; FU Xiao-bing; GE Shi-li; SUN Tong-zhu; SHENG Zhi-yong

    2005-01-01

    Objective : To investigate the expression characteristics of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)and its receptors, flg ( FGFR1 ) and bek ( FGFR2), in fetal skin at different gestational ages underlying the relevance of these 3 proteins to skin development and the mechanisms underlying the phenotypic transition from scarless to scarforming healing.Methods: Eighteen specimens of fetal skin biopsies of human embryo were obtained from spontaneous abortions at different gestational ages of 13-32 weeks. Gene expression of bFGF, bek and flg was examined with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The dynamic expression and distribution of these 3 proteins were detected with streptavidin peroxidase ( SP )immunohistochemical staining method.Results: In the early gestational fetal skin, genes of bFGF and flg were strongly expressed and more protein contents of these 2 proteins were found as compared with the genes at late gestation fetal skin (2.446 ± 0.116 and 2.066 ± 0. 152 versus 2.157 ± 0. 101 and 1.818 ± 0.086,respectively, P < 0.05). On the contrary, the levels of gene expression and protein content of bek were not differently expressed in the early gestational fetal skin versus the late ones. Protein particles of bFGF were mainly distributed in the epidermal cells and some fibroblasts. Bek was mainly located in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of epidermal cells while flg protein was principally located in the epidermal cells, endothelial cells and some fibroblasts.Conclusions: The endogenous bFGF and their receptors might be involved in the cutaneous development at fetal stage. The differently expressing levels of bFGF and flg during gestation may be related to scarless or scarforming repair during gestation.

  2. One Carbon Metabolism, Fetal Growth and Long Term Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    One carbon metabolism, or methyl transfer, is critical for metabolism in all cells, is involved in the synthesis of purines, pyrimidines, in the methylation of numerous substrates, proteins, DNA and RNA, and in the expression of a number of genes. Serine is the primary endogenous methyl donor to the one carbon pool. Perturbations in methyl transfer due to nutrient and hormonal changes can have profound effect on cell function, growth and proliferation. It is postulated that at critical stages...

  3. Infection-related perinatal brain injury: the pathogenic role of impaired fetal cardiovascular control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Yves; Coumans, Audrey B C; Jensen, Arne; Hasaart, Tom H M; Berger, Richard

    2003-12-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from clinical and epidemiologic studies that in utero exposure to infection plays an important role in the genesis of fetal or neonatal injury leading to cerebral palsy and chronic lung disease. Thus, after chorioamnionitis the incidence of immature neonates with periventricular white matter damage and periventricular or intraventricular hemorrhage is significantly elevated. Recent clinical and experimental data support the hypothesis that a fetal inflammatory response links antenatal infection with brain white matter damage and subsequent motor handicap. A variety of studies support the view that cytokines released during intrauterine infection directly cause injury to the immature brain. In this review, we provide evidence that in utero exposure to bacterial infection can severely alter fetal cardiovascular function, resulting in dysregulation of cerebral blood flow and subsequent hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

  4. Exposure to Ergot Alkaloids During Gestation Reduces Fetal Growth in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckett, Susan; Pratt, Scott; Andrae, John

    2014-08-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub] is the primary cool season perennial grass in the eastern U.S. Most tall fescue contains an endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum), which produces ergot alkaloids that cause vasoconstriction and could restrict blood flow to the fetus in pregnant animals. The objective of this study was to examine fetal growth during maternal exposure to ergot alkaloids during gestation. Pregnant ewes (n = 16) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: 1) endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue seed (E+; 0.8 ug of ergovaline /g diet DM) and 2) endophyte-free tall fescue seed (E-; 0.0 ug of ergovaline/g diet DM). Birth weight of lambs was reduced by 37% for E+ compared to E-. Organ and muscle weights were also lighter for E+ than E-. Exposure to ergot alkaloids in utero reduces fetal growth and muscle development.

  5. Indicators of fetal growth and bipolar disorder: a Danish national register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øgendahl, Bettina; Agerbo, Esben; Byrne, Majella

    2006-01-01

    Background. Several studies have found an association between indicators of fetal growth and/or obstetric complications and schizophrenia but only a few studies have investigated the possible association between these factors and bipolar disorder. Furthermore, the results of these studies have been......, controlling for potential confounding factors such as parental age at birth, socio-economic indicators and psychiatric history. We identified 196 cases, and each case was time-, age- and sex-matched with 25 normal population-based controls. All cases were between the ages of 12 and 26 years at the time...... with receiving a diagnosis of bipolar disorder.Conclusions. None of the indicators of fetal growth under study could be identified as risk factors for bipolar disorder, suggesting that the etiologies of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, at least in part, are different...

  6. Non-occupational exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth in a general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie N; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2010-01-01

    associations between residential exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth within the Danish National Birth Cohort which consecutively recruited pregnant women from 1996 to 2002 from all over Denmark. Around the 30th pregnancy week, 19,000 mothers were interviewed about use of paint...... in their residence during pregnancy. The mothers were also asked about smoking habits and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy weight, height, parity and occupation. Information on birth weight and gestational age was obtained from national registers. We found that 45% of the mothers had been exposed......Occupational exposure to organic solvents during pregnancy has been associated with reduced fetal growth. Though organic solvents in the form of paint fumes are also found in the home environment, no studies have investigated the effect of such exposure in a general population. We studied...

  7. Stimulation of DNA and Collagen Synthesis by Autologous Growth Factor in Cultured Fetal Rat Calvaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canalis, Ernesto; Peck, William A.; Raisz, Lawrence G.

    1980-11-01

    Conditioned medium derived from organ or cell cultures prepared from 19- to 21-day fetal rat calvaria stimulated the incorporation of [3H]proline into collagen and of [3H]thymidine into DNA in organ cultures of the same tissue. Addition of cortisol enhanced the effect on collagen but not on DNA synthesis. These effects appeared to be due to a nondialyzable and heat-stable growth factor.

  8. Antenatal taurine reduces cerebral cell apoptosis in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Liu; Xiaofeng Wang; Ying Liu; Na Yang; Jing Xu; Xiaotun Ren

    2013-01-01

    From pregnancy to parturition, Sprague-Dawley rats were daily administered a low protein diet to establish a model of intrauterine growth restriction. From the 12th day of pregnancy, 300 mg/kg rine was daily added to food until spontaneous delivery occurred. Brain tissues from normal neo-natal rats at 6 hours after delivery, neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction, and neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction undergoing taurine supplement were obtained for further experiments. The terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated biotin-16-dUTP nick-end labeling assay revealed that the number of apoptotic cel s in the brain tissue of neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction significantly increased. Taurine supplement in pregnant rats reduced cel apoptosis in brain tissue from neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction. nohistochemical staining revealed that taurine supplement increased glial cel line-derived neuro-trophic factor expression and decreased caspase-3 expression in the cerebral cortex of intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rats. These results indicate that taurine supplement reduces cel apoptosis through the glial cel line-derived neurotrophic factor-caspase-3 signaling pathway, resulting in a protective effect on the intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rat brain.

  9. Management of Fetal Growth Arrest in One of Dichorionic Twins: Three Cases and a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Kaku

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive fetal growth restriction (FGR is often an indication for delivery. In dichorionic diamniotic (DD twin pregnancy with growth restriction only affecting one fetus (selective fetal growth restriction: sFGR, the normal twin is also delivered prematurely. There is still not enough evidence about the optimal timing of delivery for DD twins with sFGR in relation to discordance and gestational age. We report three sets of DD twins with sFGR (almost complete growth arrest affecting one fetus for ≥2 weeks before 30 weeks of gestation. The interval from growth arrest to delivery was 21–24 days and the discordance was 33.7–49.8%. A large-scale study showed no difference of overall mortality or the long-term outcome between immediate and delayed delivery for FGR, while many studies have identified a risk of developmental delay following delivery of the normal growth fetus before 32 weeks. Therefore, delivery of DD twins with sFGR should be delayed if the condition of the sFGR fetus permits in order to increase the gestational age of the normal growth fetus.

  10. Peri-Implantation Hormonal Milieu: Elucidating Mechanisms of Abnormal Placentation and Fetal Growth1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainigi, Monica A.; Olalere, Devvora; Burd, Irina; Sapienza, Carmen; Bartolomei, Marisa; Coutifaris, Christos

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have been associated with several adverse perinatal outcomes involving placentation and fetal growth. It is critical to examine each intervention individually in order to assess its relationship to the described adverse perinatal outcomes. One intervention ubiquitously used in ART is superovulation with gonadotropins. Superovulation results in significant changes in the hormonal milieu, which persist during the peri-implantation and early placentation periods. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that the treatment-induced peri-implantation maternal environment plays a critical role in perinatal outcomes. In this study, using the mouse model, we have isolated the exposure to the peri-implantation period, and we examine the effect of superovulation on placentation and fetal growth. We report that the nonphysiologic peri-implantation maternal hormonal environment resulting from gonadotropin stimulation appears to have a direct effect on fetal growth, trophoblast differentiation, and gene expression. This appears to be mediated, at least in part, through trophoblast expansion and invasion. Although the specific molecular and cellular mechanism(s) leading to these observations remain to be elucidated, identifying this modifiable risk factor will not only allow us to improve perinatal outcomes with ART, but help us understand the pathophysiology contributing to these outcomes. PMID:24352558

  11. Shining light in dark corners: diagnosis and management of late-onset fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Teresa M; McCarthy, Elizabeth A; Walker, Susan P

    2015-02-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is the single biggest risk factor for stillbirth. In the absence of any effective treatment for fetal growth restriction, the mainstay of management is close surveillance and timely delivery. While such statements are almost self-evident, the daily clinical challenge of late-onset fetal growth restriction remains; the competing priorities of minimising stillbirth risk, while avoiding excessive obstetric intervention and the neonatal sequelae of iatrogenic preterm birth. This dilemma is made harder because the tools for late-onset FGR diagnosis and surveillance compare poorly to those used in early-onset FGR; screening tests in early pregnancy have limited predictive value; most cases escape clinical detection, a phenomenon set to worsen given the obesity epidemic; there is a failure of consensus on the definition of small for gestational age, and ancillary tools, such as umbilical artery Doppler--of value in identification of preterm FGR--are less useful in the late-preterm period and at term. Most importantly, the problem is common; 96% of all births occur after 32 weeks. This means a poor noise/signal ratio of any test or management algorithm will inevitably have large clinical consequences. Into such a dark corner, we cast some light; a summary on diagnostic criteria, new developments to improve the diagnosis of late-onset FGR and a suggested approach to management. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. Maternal Exposure to Bisphenol-A and Fetal Growth Restriction: A Case-Referent Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Burstyn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a case-referent study of the effect of exposure to bisphenol-A on fetal growth in utero in full-term, live-born singletons in Alberta, Canada. Newborns <10 percentile of expected weight for gestational age and sex were individually matched on sex, maternal smoking and maternal age to referents with weight appropriate to gestational age. Exposure of the fetus to bisphenol-A was estimated from maternal serum collected at 15–16 weeks of gestation. We pooled sera across subjects for exposure assessment, stratified on case-referent status and sex. Individual 1:1 matching was maintained in assembling 69 case and 69 referent pools created from 550 case-referent pairs. Matched pools had an equal number of aliquots from individual women. We used an analytical strategy conditioning on matched set and total pool-level values of covariates to estimate individual-level effects. Pools of cases and referents had identical geometric mean bisphenol-A concentrations (0.5 ng/mL and similar geometric standard deviations (2.3–2.5. Mean difference in concentration between matched pools was 0 ng/mL, standard deviation: 1 ng/mL. Stratification by sex and control for confounding did not suggest bisphenol-A increased fetal growth restriction. Our analysis does not provide evidence to support the hypothesis that bisphenol-A contributes to fetal growth restriction in full-term singletons.

  13. A high-resolution MRI study of linear growth of the human fetal skull base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffery, N. [University Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Anatomy and Development Biology

    2002-04-01

    The skull base, otherwise referred to as the basicranium or cranial base, plays a key role in the process of skull development, providing both support for the brain and an architectural component of the craniofacial complex. Consequently, the fetal skull base has been the focus of numerous studies employing various methods, including sectioning, plain radiography and CT. This paper investigates high-resolution (hr) MRI as an alternative method for looking at and quantifying the fetal skull base. The evaluation tests two basic hypotheses drawn from previous studies. These suggest that the anterior segment of the midline skull base grows more rapidly than the posterior segment and that the width of the posterior cranial fossa increases disproportionately in relation to its length. I imaged 42 formalin preserved human fetuses from museum collections with hrMRI. The T2-weighted image voxels were significantly smaller than those acquired with conventional clinical MRI. Landmarks of the fetal skull base were identified on reformatted axial and sagittal images. Bivariate plots revealed that the growth rate of the anterior skull base is almost twice that of the posterior skull base and that increases in the width of the posterior cranial fossa exceed those in its length. These findings confirm those of previous investigations and show that hrMRI offers a way forward in noninvasive quantification of fetal morphology. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------.

  14. Perinatal morbidity and mortality in early-onset fetal growth restriction : cohort outcomes of the trial of randomized umbilical and fetal flow in Europe (TRUFFLE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lees, C.; Marlow, N.; Arabin, B.; Bilardo, C. M.; Brezinka, C.; Derks, J. B.; Duvekot, J.; Frusca, T.; Diemert, A.; Ferrazzi, E.; Ganzevoort, W.; Hecher, K.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, A. T.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T. M.; Thilaganathan, B.; Todros, T.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Valcamonico, A.; Visser, G. H. A.; Wolf, H.

    2013-01-01

    ObjectivesFew data exist for counseling and perinatal management of women after an antenatal diagnosis of early-onset fetal growth restriction. Yet, the consequences of preterm delivery and its attendant morbidity for both mother and baby are far reaching. The objective of this study was to describe

  15. Perinatal morbidity and mortality in early-onset fetal growth restriction : cohort outcomes of the trial of randomized umbilical and fetal flow in Europe (TRUFFLE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lees, C.; Marlow, N.; Arabin, B.; Bilardo, C. M.; Brezinka, C.; Derks, J. B.; Duvekot, J.; Frusca, T.; Diemert, A.; Ferrazzi, E.; Ganzevoort, W.; Hecher, K.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, A. T.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T. M.; Thilaganathan, B.; Todros, T.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Valcamonico, A.; Visser, G. H. A.; Wolf, H.

    2013-01-01

    ObjectivesFew data exist for counseling and perinatal management of women after an antenatal diagnosis of early-onset fetal growth restriction. Yet, the consequences of preterm delivery and its attendant morbidity for both mother and baby are far reaching. The objective of this study was to describe

  16. Fetal organ growth in response to oesophageal infusion of amniotic fluid, colostrum, milk or gastrin-releasing peptide: a study in fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trahair, J F; Sangild, P T

    2000-01-01

    The hypothesis of the present study was that the infusion of the biological fluids to which the developing gut is normally exposed (i.e. amniotic fluid, colostrum, milk) and a single growth factor (gastrin-releasing peptide), which is found in high concentrations in fetal fluids and milk, could ameliorate the altered growth induced by the elimination of swallowed input secondary to ligation of the oesophagus. At 108-110 days of gestation the fetal oesophagus was ligated and a catheter inserted towards the stomach (32 fetuses). At 117-119 days of gestation saline (n = 5), amniotic fluid (n = 5), colostral whey (n = 5), milk whey (n = 5) or gastrin-releasing peptide (3.6 nmol day(-1), n = 6), was infused for 7 days (4 x 20 mL day(-1)), or no infusion was given (ligated group, n = 6). A further 15 fetuses were not ligated (normal group, n = 15). All fetuses had carotid artery and/or jugular vein catheters implanted. At 124-126 days of gestation the fetus was delivered and fetal body and organ weights recorded. Analysing the results by ANOVA, there were no effects of either ligation alone or infusion after ligation on fetal weight, crown-rump length, or weight relative to bodyweight of heart, adrenal, pancreas, large intestine and cecum. There were significant differences between the infusion groups for lungs, kidney, pancreas, total gut, abomasum, small intestine, spleen, chest and neck thymus, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Ligation alone significantly reduced small intestinal growth and increased kidney and spleen growth. Colostrum infusion enhanced growth of most organs. Gastrin-releasing peptide significantly increased growth of all the immune organs studied. It was concluded that at an age when premature delivery could be encountered, the fetal gut is capable of significant adaptive growth, to varying degrees, depending on the enteral diet. Growth effects in organs distant to the gut suggest that either gastrointestinal uptake and transport of growth factors or

  17. Chymase-producing cells of the innate immune system are required for decidual vascular remodeling and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nicole; Woidacki, Katja; Knöfler, Martin; Meinhardt, Gudrun; Nowak, Désirée; Velicky, Philipp; Pollheimer, Jürgen; Zenclussen, Ana C

    2017-03-22

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is caused by insufficient remodeling of spiral arteries (SAs). The mechanism underlying the relevance of natural killer cells (NKs) and mast cells (MCs) for SA remodeling and its effects on pregnancy outcome are not well understood. We show that NK depletion arrested SA remodeling without affecting pregnancy. MC depletion resulted in abnormally remodeled SAs and IUGR. Combined absence of NKs and MCs substantially affected SA remodeling and impaired fetal growth. We found that α-chymase mast cell protease (Mcpt) 5 mediates apoptosis of uterine smooth muscle cells, a key feature of SA remodeling. Additionally, we report a previously unknown source for Mcpt5: uterine (u) NKs. Mice with selective deletion of Mcpt5(+) cells had un-remodeled SAs and growth-restricted progeny. The human α-chymase CMA1, phylogenetic homolog of Mcpt5, stimulated the ex vivo migration of human trophoblasts, a pre-requisite for SA remodeling. Our results show that chymases secreted by uMCs and uNKs are pivotal to the vascular changes required to support pregnancy. Understanding the mechanisms underlying pregnancy-induced vascular changes is essential for developing therapeutic options against pregnancy complications associated with poor vascular remodeling.

  18. Effect of Zinc Intake on Fetal and Infant Growth Among Chinese Pregnant and Lactating Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between maternal nutrient intake and fetal size or infant growth was studied in 1956 pregnant women, 599 parturients and 1043 lactating women, 318 non-pregnant women included as controls. The study was conducted in eight regions that were representative of all geographical areas of China. The diet was comprised primarily of cereal products with 70% to 85% of the zinc intake derived from plant sources. Women in the third trimester of pregnancy, parturients and lactating women consumed more food than non-pregnant women or women in the first two trimesters of pregnancy. Total energy, protein and iron intakes met the recommended allowances for each stage of reproduction. Calcium and zinc intakes, however, were 50% and 47% of the amount recommended, respectively. Only 7.2% of the women exceeded two-thirds of the recommended zinc intake. The mean intake of zinc was 6.5mg to 9.0 mg each day among all the subjects. Correlation and stepwise regression analysis showed that maternal zinc intake was a predictor factor for fetal dimensions and birthweight. The results of this study show that fetal growth and birthweight are directly related to maternal zinc intake among Chinese women, and that there is no relationship between maternal zinc intake during lactation and infant height, weight, or weight gain from birth.

  19. Effect of Zinc Intake on Fetal and Infant Growth Among Chinese Pregnant and Lactating Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGYUE-XIN; CHENXUE-CUN; 等

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between maternal nutrient intake and fetal size or infant growth was studied in 1956 pregnant women,599 Parturients and 1043 lactating women,318 non-pregnant women included as controls,The study was conducted in eight regions that were representative of all geograthical areas of China,The diet was comprised primarily of cereal products with 70% to 85% of the zinc intake derived from plant sources.Women in the third trimester of pregnancy,parturients and lactating women consumed more food than non-pregnant women or women in the first two trimesters of pregnancy.Total energy,protein and iron intakes met the recommended allowances for each stage of reproduction,Calcium and zinc intakes,howerver,were 50% and 47% of the amount recommended.respectively.Only 7.2% of the women exceeded two-thirds of the recommended zinc intake.The mean intake of zinc was 6.5mg to 9.0mg each day among all the subjects.Correlation and stepwise regression analysis shoed that maternal zine intake was a predictor factor for fetal dimensions and birthweight.The results of this study show that fetal growth and birthweight are directly related to maternal zine intake among Chinese women,and that there is no relationship between maternal zinc intake during lactation and infant height,Weight,or weight gain from birth.

  20. Aortic isthmus Doppler velocimetry: role in assessment of preterm fetal growth restriction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, M M

    2012-02-01

    Intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) is an important pregnancy complication associated with significant adverse clinical outcome, stillbirth, perinatal morbidity and cerebral palsy. To date, no uniformly accepted management protocol of Doppler surveillance that reduces mortality and cognitive morbidity has emerged. Aortic isthmus (AoI) evaluation has been proposed as a potential monitoring tool for IUGR fetuses. In this review, the current knowledge of the relationship between AoI Doppler velocimetry and preterm fetal growth restriction is reviewed. Relevant technical aspects and reproducibility data are reviewed as we discuss AoI Doppler and its place within the existing repertoire of Doppler assessments in placental insufficiency. The AoI is a link between the right and left ventricles which perfuse the lower and upper body, respectively. The clinical use of AoI waveforms for monitoring fetal deterioration in IUGR has been limited, but preliminary work suggests that abnormal AoI impedance indices are an intermediate step between placental insufficiency-hypoxemia and cardiac decompensation. Further prospective studies correlating AoI indices with arterial and venous Doppler indices and perinatal outcome are required before encorporating this index into clinical practice.

  1. Ethnic/racial disparities in the fetal growth outcomes of Ecuadorian newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret Weigel, M; Sanchez, Maria Elena Caiza

    2013-02-01

    Size at birth is an important indicator of future infant morbidity and mortality. Ethnic/racial disparities in birth weight and other fetal growth outcomes are well documented for US and Canadian minority groups but not for those in Latin America. The study compared the growth outcomes of 1,227 full-term Ecuadorian newborns delivered by Afro-descendant and indigenous minority women with those of ethnic majority (mestizo) women. Minority newborns had higher risk for congenital microcephaly but no excess risk for low birth weight or stunted linear growth compared to mestizos. However, minority newborns were significantly heavier at birth, weighing an average of 3-5% more than mestizos. Afro-Ecuadorians newborns also were fatter. The risk profile of Ecuadorian ethnic groups for certain fetal growth outcomes differs from some of those reported for North American minorities. Further studies are needed to investigate the origins of these between-group differences and to develop ethnic specific interventions for adverse growth outcomes.

  2. Growth in Inuit children exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and lead during fetal development and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Renée; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina

    2014-10-01

    Because of their geographical location and traditional lifestyle, Canadian Inuit children are highly exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lead (Pb), environmental contaminants that are thought to affect fetal and child growth. We examined the associations of these exposures with the fetal and postnatal growth of Inuit children. We conducted a prospective cohort study among Inuit from Nunavik (Arctic Québec). Mothers were recruited at their first prenatal visit; children (n=290) were evaluated at birth and at 8-14 years of age. Concentrations of PCB 153 and Pb were determined in umbilical cord and child blood. Weight, height and head circumference were measured at birth and during childhood. Cord blood PCB 153 concentrations were not associated with anthropometric measurements at birth or school age, but child blood PCB 153 concentrations were associated with reduced weight, height and head circumference during childhood. There was no association between cord Pb levels and anthropometric outcomes at birth, but cord blood Pb was related to smaller height and shows a tendency of a smaller head circumference during childhood. Our results suggest that chronic exposure to PCBs during childhood is negatively associated with skeletal growth and weight, while prenatal Pb exposure is related to reduced growth during childhood. This study is the first to link prenatal Pb exposure to poorer growth in school-age children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth trajectories of the human fetal brain tissues estimated from 3D reconstructed in utero MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Julia A; Habas, Piotr A; Kim, Kio; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Hamzelou, Kia S; Corbett-Detig, James M; Barkovich, A James; Glenn, Orit A; Studholme, Colin

    2011-08-01

    In the latter half of gestation (20-40 gestational weeks), human brain growth accelerates in conjunction with cortical folding and the deceleration of ventricular zone progenitor cell proliferation. These processes are reflected in changes in the volume of respective fetal tissue zones. Thus far, growth trajectories of the fetal tissue zones have been extracted primarily from 2D measurements on histological sections and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, the volumes of major fetal zones-cortical plate (CP), subplate and intermediate zone (SP+IZ), germinal matrix (GMAT), deep gray nuclei (DG), and ventricles (VENT)--are calculated from automatic segmentation of motion-corrected, 3D reconstructed MRI. We analyzed 48 T2-weighted MRI scans from 39 normally developing fetuses in utero between 20.57 and 31.14 gestational weeks (GW). The supratentorial volume (STV) increased linearly at a rate of 15.22% per week. The SP+IZ (14.75% per week) and DG (15.56% per week) volumes increased at similar rates. The CP increased at a greater relative rate (18.00% per week), while the VENT (9.18% per week) changed more slowly. Therefore, CP increased as a fraction of STV and the VENT fraction declined. The total GMAT volume slightly increased then decreased after 25 GW. We did not detect volumetric sexual dimorphisms or total hemispheric volume asymmetries, which may emerge later in gestation. Further application of the automated fetal brain segmentation to later gestational ages will bridge the gap between volumetric studies of premature brain development and normal brain development in utero. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Symphysis-fundal height curve in the diagnosis of fetal growth deviations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djacyr Magna Cabral Freire

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To validate a new symphysis-fundal curve for screening fetal growth deviations and to compare its performance with the standard curve adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. METHODS: Observational study including a total of 753 low-risk pregnant women with gestational age above 27 weeks between March to October 2006 in the city of João Pessoa, Northeastern Brazil. Symphisys-fundal was measured using a standard technique recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Estimated fetal weight assessed through ultrasound using the Brazilian fetal weight chart for gestational age was the gold standard. A subsample of 122 women with neonatal weight measurements was taken up to seven days after estimated fetal weight measurements and symphisys-fundal classification was compared with Lubchenco growth reference curve as gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. The McNemar χ2 test was used for comparing sensitivity of both symphisys-fundal curves studied. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the new curve for detecting small for gestational age fetuses was 51.6% while that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health reference curve was significantly lower (12.5%. In the subsample using neonatal weight as gold standard, the sensitivity of the new reference curve was 85.7% while that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health was 42.9% for detecting small for gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic performance of the new curve for detecting small for gestational age fetuses was significantly higher than that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health reference curve.

  5. Fetal Programming and Cardiovascular Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T.; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25880521

  6. Endocrine regulation of fetal skeletal muscle growth: impact on future metabolic health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura D.

    2014-01-01

    Establishing sufficient skeletal muscle mass is essential for lifelong metabolic health. The intrauterine environment is a major determinant of the muscle mass that is present for the life course of an individual, because muscle fiber number is set at the time of birth. Thus, a compromised intrauterine environment from maternal nutrient restriction or placental insufficiency that restricts development of muscle fiber number can have permanent effects on the amount of muscle an individual will live with. Reduced muscle mass due to fewer muscle fibers persists even after compensatory or “catch up” postnatal growth occurs. Furthermore, muscle hypertrophy can only partially compensate for this limitation in fiber number. Compelling associations link low birth weight and decreased muscle mass to future insulin resistance, which can drive the development of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and risk for cardiovascular events later in life. There are gaps in knowledge about the origins of reduced muscle growth at the cellular level and how these patterns are set during fetal development. By understanding the nutrient and endocrine regulation of fetal skeletal muscle growth and development, we can direct research efforts towards improving muscle growth early in life in order to prevent the development of chronic metabolic disease later in life. PMID:24532817

  7. Role of the placental Vitamin D receptor in modulating feto-placental growth in Fetal growth restriction and Preeclampsia-affected pregnancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma eMurthi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction (FGR is a common pregnancy complication that affects up to 5% of pregnancies worldwide. Recent studies demonstrate that Vitamin D deficiency is implicated in reduced fetal growth, which may be rescued by supplementation of Vitamin D. Despite this, the pathway(s by which Vitamin D modulate fetal growth remains to be investigated. Our own studies demonstrate that the Vitamin D receptor (VDR is significantly decreased in placentae from human pregnancies complicated by FGR and contributes to abnormal placental trophoblast apoptosis and differentiation and regulation of cell-cycle genes in vitro. Thus, Vitamin D signalling is important for normal placental function and fetal growth. This review discusses the association of Vitamin D with fetal growth, the function of Vitamin D and its receptor in pregnancy, as well as the functional significance of a placental source of Vitamin D in FGR. Additionally, we propose that for Vitamin D to be clinically effective to prevent and manage FGR, the molecular mechanisms of Vitamin D and its receptor in modulating fetal growth requires further investigation.

  8. Role of the Placental Vitamin D Receptor in Modulating Feto-Placental Growth in Fetal Growth Restriction and Preeclampsia-Affected Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthi, Padma; Yong, Hannah E J; Ngyuen, Thy P H; Ellery, Stacey; Singh, Harmeet; Rahman, Rahana; Dickinson, Hayley; Walker, David W; Davies-Tuck, Miranda; Wallace, Euan M; Ebeling, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common pregnancy complication that affects up to 5% of pregnancies worldwide. Recent studies demonstrate that Vitamin D deficiency is implicated in reduced fetal growth, which may be rescued by supplementation of Vitamin D. Despite this, the pathway(s) by which Vitamin D modulate fetal growth remains to be investigated. Our own studies demonstrate that the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is significantly decreased in placentae from human pregnancies complicated by FGR and contributes to abnormal placental trophoblast apoptosis and differentiation and regulation of cell-cycle genes in vitro. Thus, Vitamin D signaling is important for normal placental function and fetal growth. This review discusses the association of Vitamin D with fetal growth, the function of Vitamin D and its receptor in pregnancy, as well as the functional significance of a placental source of Vitamin D in FGR. Additionally, we propose that for Vitamin D to be clinically effective to prevent and manage FGR, the molecular mechanisms of Vitamin D and its receptor in modulating fetal growth requires further investigation.

  9. Impaired kidney growth in low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida M; Chellakooty, Marla; Boisen, Kirsten A

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is an important risk factor for hypertension and unfavorable prognoses of a number of renal diseases. It is also associated with reduced kidney size and nephron number. A differentiation between the effects of low birth weight versus being born premature or small...... growth-retarded infants (Premature children had smaller kidneys compared to mature at all ages (0 months, P= 0.001; 3 months, P= 0.007; and 18 months, P= 0.042), without any significant catch-up with age...... growth in response to formula feeding. CONCLUSION: Being small for gestational age is associated with small kidneys at birth and impaired kidney growth in early childhood. The present data suggest that intrauterine growth has a regulatory influence on nephron formation and renal function in humans...

  10. Effect of fetal growth on maternal protein metabolism in postabsorptive rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, P.R.; Bistrian, B.R.; Blackburn, G.L.; Istfan, N.

    1987-03-01

    Rates of protein synthesis were measured in whole fetuses and maternal tissues at 17 and 20 days of gestation in postabsorptive rats using continuous infusion of L-(1-/sup 14/C)leucine. Fetal protein degradation rates were derived from the fractional rates of synthesis and growth. Whole-body (plasma) leucine kinetics in the mother showed a significant reduction of the fraction of plasma leucine oxidized in the mothers bearing older fetuses, a slight increase in the plasma flux, with total leucine oxidation and incorporation into protein remaining similar at the two gestational ages. Estimates of fractional protein synthesis in maternal tissues revealed an increase in placental and hepatic rates at 20 days of gestation, whereas the fractional synthetic rate in muscle remained unchanged. A model for estimation of the redistribution of leucine between plasma and tissues is described in detail. This model revealed a more efficient utilization of leucine in fetal protein synthesis in comparison with other maternal tissues, a greater dependency of the fetus on plasma supply of leucine, and a significant increase (2-fold) in the release of leucine from maternal muscle as the fetal requirements increased proportionately with its size. The latter conclusion, supported by nitrogen analysis and the ratio of bound-to-free leucine in maternal tissues, confirms the importance of maternal stores in maintaining the homeostasis of essential amino acids during late pregnancy.

  11. Antenatal taurine supplementation for improving brain ultrastructure in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Liu, L; Chen, H

    2011-05-05

    Changes in brain ultrastructure of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were explored and the effects of antenatal taurine supplementation on their brain ultrastructure were determined. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, IUGR model group and IUGR group given antenatal taurine supplements. Taurine was added to the diet of the taurine group at a dose of 300 mg/kg/d from 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultrastructural changes in the brains of the newborn rats. At the same time, brain cellular apoptosis was detected using TUNEL, and the changes in protein expression of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that: 1) The average body weight and cerebral weight were significantly lower in the IUGR group than in the control group (ptaurine was supplemented (ptaurine supplementation. 3) The results of TUNEL showed that the counts of apoptotic brain cells in IUGR groups were significantly increased from those in control groups and that taurine could significantly decrease brain cell apoptosis (ptaurine-supplementation could significantly increase the counts of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive cells in fetal rats with IUGR (ptaurine can significantly improve the IUGR fetal brain development.

  12. The effect of placenta previa on fetal growth and pregnancy outcome, in correlation with placental pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, E; Miremberg, H; Grinstein, E; Mizrachi, Y; Schreiber, L; Bar, J; Kovo, M

    2016-12-01

    To compare the clinical characteristics and placental histopathology between pregnancies complicated by placenta previa and controls. Between 2009 and 2015, cesarean deliveries (CDs) of 119 pregnancies with placenta previa were identified from which maternal outcomes, neonatal outcomes and placental pathology were reviewed. Results were compared with CDs matched for maternal age and pregnancy complications (control group, n=119). Placental lesions were classified into maternal and fetal vascular supply lesions and inflammatory response. Composite neonatal outcome was defined as one or more of early neonatal complications. Small-for-gestational age (SGA) was defined as birth weight ⩽10th percentile. Placentas from the previa group had higher rates of weights previa group as compared with controls. After controlling for potential confounding bias using multivariable logistic regression models, placenta previa remained statistically significantly associated with placental maternal (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-4.9, P=0.009) and fetal (aOR 7.05, 95% CI 2.4-20.2, Pplacenta previa in the current study. These findings may suggest that abnormal placentation is accompanied by suboptimal implantation that interferes with fetal growth.

  13. High Dosage Folic Acid Supplementation, Oral Cleft Recurrence and Fetal Growth

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    Carla Padovani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the effects of folic acid supplementation on isolated oral cleft recurrence and fetal growth. Patients and Methods: The study included 2,508 women who were at-risk for oral cleft recurrence and randomized into two folic acid supplementation groups: 0.4 and 4 mg per day before pregnancy and throughout the first trimester. The infant outcome data were based on 234 live births. In addition to oral cleft recurrence, several secondary outcomes were compared between the two folic acid groups. Cleft recurrence rates were also compared to historic recurrence rates. Results: The oral cleft recurrence rates were 2.9% and 2.5% in the 0.4 and 4 mg groups, respectively. The recurrence rates in the two folic acid groups both separately and combined were significantly different from the 6.3% historic recurrence rate post the folic acid fortification program for this population (p = 0.0009 when combining the two folic acid groups. The rate of cleft lip with palate recurrence was 2.9% in the 0.4 mg group and 0.8% in the 4 mg group. There were no elevated fetal growth complications in the 4 mg group compared to the 0.4 mg group. Conclusions: The study is the first double-blinded randomized clinical trial (RCT to study the effect of high dosage folic acid supplementation on isolated oral cleft recurrence. The recurrence rates were similar between the two folic acid groups. However, the results are suggestive of a decrease in oral cleft recurrence compared to the historic recurrence rate. A RCT is still needed to identify the effect of folic acid on oral cleft recurrence given these suggestive results and the supportive results from previous interventional and observational studies, and the study offers suggestions for such future studies. The results also suggest that high dosage folic acid does not compromise fetal growth.

  14. Metabolomics Reveals Metabolic Alterations by Intrauterine Growth Restriction in the Fetal Rabbit Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Erwin; Eixarch, Elisenda; Illa, Miriam; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; González-Tendero, Anna; Hogberg, Helena T.; Zhao, Liang; Hartung, Thomas; Gratacos, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Background Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency occurs in 5–10% of pregnancies and is a major risk factor for abnormal neurodevelopment. The perinatal diagnosis of IUGR related abnormal neurodevelopment represents a major challenge in fetal medicine. The development of clinical biomarkers is considered a promising approach, but requires the identification of biochemical/molecular alterations by IUGR in the fetal brain. This targeted metabolomics study in a rabbit IUGR model aimed to obtain mechanistic insight into the effects of IUGR on the fetal brain and identify metabolite candidates for biomarker development. Methodology/Principal Findings At gestation day 25, IUGR was induced in two New Zealand rabbits by 40–50% uteroplacental vessel ligation in one horn and the contralateral horn was used as control. At day 30, fetuses were delivered by Cesarian section, weighed and brains collected for metabolomics analysis. Results showed that IUGR fetuses had a significantly lower birth and brain weight compared to controls. Metabolomics analysis using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) and database matching identified 78 metabolites. Comparison of metabolite intensities using a t-test demonstrated that 18 metabolites were significantly different between control and IUGR brain tissue, including neurotransmitters/peptides, amino acids, fatty acids, energy metabolism intermediates and oxidative stress metabolites. Principle component and hierarchical cluster analysis showed cluster formations that clearly separated control from IUGR brain tissue samples, revealing the potential to develop predictive biomarkers. Moreover birth weight and metabolite intensity correlations indicated that the extent of alterations was dependent on the severity of IUGR. Conclusions IUGR leads to metabolic alterations in the fetal rabbit brain, involving neuronal viability, energy metabolism, amino acid levels, fatty

  15. Metabolomics reveals metabolic alterations by intrauterine growth restriction in the fetal rabbit brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin van Vliet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR due to placental insufficiency occurs in 5-10% of pregnancies and is a major risk factor for abnormal neurodevelopment. The perinatal diagnosis of IUGR related abnormal neurodevelopment represents a major challenge in fetal medicine. The development of clinical biomarkers is considered a promising approach, but requires the identification of biochemical/molecular alterations by IUGR in the fetal brain. This targeted metabolomics study in a rabbit IUGR model aimed to obtain mechanistic insight into the effects of IUGR on the fetal brain and identify metabolite candidates for biomarker development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At gestation day 25, IUGR was induced in two New Zealand rabbits by 40-50% uteroplacental vessel ligation in one horn and the contralateral horn was used as control. At day 30, fetuses were delivered by Cesarian section, weighed and brains collected for metabolomics analysis. Results showed that IUGR fetuses had a significantly lower birth and brain weight compared to controls. Metabolomics analysis using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS and database matching identified 78 metabolites. Comparison of metabolite intensities using a t-test demonstrated that 18 metabolites were significantly different between control and IUGR brain tissue, including neurotransmitters/peptides, amino acids, fatty acids, energy metabolism intermediates and oxidative stress metabolites. Principle component and hierarchical cluster analysis showed cluster formations that clearly separated control from IUGR brain tissue samples, revealing the potential to develop predictive biomarkers. Moreover birth weight and metabolite intensity correlations indicated that the extent of alterations was dependent on the severity of IUGR. CONCLUSIONS: IUGR leads to metabolic alterations in the fetal rabbit brain, involving neuronal viability, energy metabolism, amino

  16. Fetal Exposure to Sertraline Hydrochloride Impairs Pancreatic β-Cell Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Long, Nicole E; Gutgesell, Marie K; Petrik, James J; Holloway, Alison C

    2015-06-01

    Ten percent to 15% of women take selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants during pregnancy. Offspring exposed to SSRIs are more likely to have low birth weight; this is associated with an increased risk of development of diabetes in adulthood in part due to altered pancreatic development. The effects of perinatal exposure to SSRIs on pancreatic development are unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of fetal exposure to sertraline hydrochloride on pregnancy outcomes and pancreatic development. Wistar rats were given vehicle (n = 5) or sertraline hydrochloride (10 mg/kg/d; n = 8) via daily subcutaneous injection from the confirmation of mating until parturition. Results from this animal model demonstrated that offspring born to sertraline-exposed dams have no changes in birth weight but had a reduction in pancreatic β-cell area. The altered pancreatic islet development was a result of altered gene expression regulating islet development and survival. Therefore, fetal exposure to sertraline reduces β-cell capacity at birth, raising concerns regarding the long-term metabolic sequelae of such exposures.

  17. Maternal 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level and Fetal Growth assessed by Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galthen-Sørensen, Mathias; Andersen, Louise Bjørkholt; Sperling, Lene;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency in pregnancy is widespread worldwide. Associations between maternal vitamin D levels and anthropometrics of the newborn have been demonstrated in some, but not all studies. The role of maternal vitamin D levels on fetal bone growth is sparsely...... and femur length (FL) and Z-scores, femoral volume, distal metaphyseal femoral cross-sectional area (CSA) , femoral proximal metaphyseal diameter (PMD), femoral mid-shaft diameter (MSD) and crown rump length (CRL). In one study, 25(OH)D was direct associated with FL, in another study 25(OH)D only correlated...

  18. Serum human placental lactogen levels in intra-uterine fetal growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zail, S S; Safro, I L

    1975-11-12

    Serum human placental lactogen (HPL) levels were measured in the last trimester of pregnancy in 16 mothers who delivered small-for-gestational-age babies. Only 3 patients had levels which were below the normal range, while 4 others had levels close to the lower limit of the normal range. The finding of a normal serum HPL level therefore does not exclude the possibility of intra-uterine fetal growth retardation. No correlation was found between serum HPL levels at 37-39 weeks and infant or placental weights in full-term normal deliveries.

  19. Physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the association between physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures. STUDY DESIGN: Data on 79,692 liveborn singletons from the Danish National Birth Cohort were collected between 1996 and 2002. Mean differences in birthweight......, length, ponderal index, head and abdominal circumference, and placental weight and hazard ratios of small- and large-for-gestational-age babies were calculated. RESULTS: Our data indicated smaller babies in exercising women compared with nonexercisers, but the differences were small, and only a few were...

  20. Is There Hope for Renal Growth on Imaging Studies Following Ureteral Reimplant for Boys With Fetal Hydronephrosis and Urinary Reflux?

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    Ming-Hsien Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reflux nephropathy is thought to be the etiology for renal maldevelopment. We present two boys with fetal hydronephrosis and sterile vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. There was lack of renal growth of the refluxing renal units on surveillance renal ultrasound. Parents elected to undergo open ureteral reimplants. Post-surgical ultrasounds demonstrated improved renal growth.

  1. Human placental lactogen and unconjugated estriol concentrations in twin pregnancy: monitoring of fetal development in intrauterine growth retardation and single intrauterine fetal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, M; Kato, K; Bohnet, H G; Gerhard, I; Weise, H C; Leidenberger, F

    1986-11-01

    Human placental lactogen and unconjugated estriol concentrations in maternal serum were evaluated in 100 uneventful twin pregnancies, and these values were compared with those observed in 16 twin pregnancies associated with intrauterine growth retardation or single intrauterine fetal death. In pregnancies associated with intrauterine growth retardation (n = 8), human placental lactogen levels were at the lower limit of normal range for singleton pregnancies, whereas estriol levels were normal in most cases. When one of the fetuses had died before week 33 of pregnancy (n = 5), both human placental lactogen and estriol levels were low and they were almost at the levels in singleton pregnancy. When intrauterine fetal death occurred after week 36 of pregnancy (n = 3), both hormone levels remained normal until term. Thus human placental lactogen rather than estriol is a good indicator of intrauterine growth retardation in twin pregnancy. Both human placental lactogen and estriol are useful for the monitoring of the surviving fetus in the case of single intrauterine fetal death.

  2. Biochemical Effects of Recombinant Porcine Somatotropin on Pig Fetal Growth and Metabolism: A Review

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    D. Villanueva-Garci­a

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal development is mainly dependent on a close interrelation between nutritional supply use and regulation by hormones and growth factors. Mechanisms during early embryonic development are sensitive to manipulation through selected management strategies of the sow and modifications of this strategy may serve as a model for the examination of molecular and cellular events controlling early embryonic growth. The administration of growth hormone (GH to pregnant sows affects the development of fetuses in a manner dependent on the gestational period of treatment, therefore suggesting that maternal GH plays a significant role in prenatal development. In addition, in well-fed and feed-restricted gilts, treatment with porcine somatotropin (pST during early to mid-pregnancy promotes the growth of their placenta and/or fetuses. Due to an exponential increase in research exploring the role of ST in growth biology, collectively, these studies resulted in an unprecedented increase in our understanding of how ST affects growth of domestic animals. Thus, the main purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the remarkable biological effects that pST has on pig fetal growth.

  3. Maternal protein restriction and fetal growth: lack of evidence of a role for homocysteine in fetal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley-Evans, Simon C; Lilley, Christina; McMullen, Sarah

    2006-09-01

    The disease-programming effects of a maternal low-protein (MLP) diet in rat pregnancy have been suggested to be attributable of hyperhomocysteinaemia. The aim of the present study was to determine whether MLP feeding impacted upon maternal and day 20 fetal homocysteine concentrations, with ensuing effects upon oxidant/antioxidant status. Sixty-four pregnant rats were fed either MLP diet or control diet before termination of pregnancy at days 4, 10, 18 or 20 gestation (full-term gestation 22 d). Maternal plasma homocysteine concentrations were similar in control and MLP-fed dams at all points in gestation. Fetal plasma homocysteine was similarly unaffected by MLP feeding at day 20 gestation. Activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were similar in livers of mothers and fetuses in the two groups. Whilst catalase activity was not influenced by diet in maternal liver, MLP exposure increased catalase activity in fetal liver at day 20. Oxidative injury (protein carbonyl concentration) was lower in the livers of MLP-fed animals at day 18 gestation (Phomocysteine concentrations prior to day 20 gestation in the rat. There was no evidence of increased oxidative injury in fetal tissue that might explain the long-term programming effects of the diet.

  4. Maternal saturated-fat-rich diet promotes leptin resistance in fetal liver lipid catabolism and programs lipid homeostasis impairments in the liver of rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucco, María Belén; Fornes, Daiana; Capobianco, Evangelina; Higa, Romina; Jawerbaum, Alicia; White, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to analyze if an overload of saturated fat in maternal diet induced lipid metabolic impairments in livers from rat fetuses that persist in the offspring and to identify potential mechanisms involving fetal leptin resistance. Female rats were fed either a diet enriched in 25% of saturated fat (SFD rats) or a regular diet (controls). Fetuses of 21days of gestation and offspring of 21 and 140days of age were obtained and plasma and liver were kept for further analysis. Livers from a group of control and SFD fetuses were cultured in the presence or absence of leptin. Leptin or vehicle was administered to control fetuses during the last days of gestation and, on day 21, fetal livers and plasma were obtained. Lipid levels were assessed by thin-layer chromatography and mRNA gene expression of CPT1, ACO and PPARα by RT-PCR. Liver lipid levels were increased and CPT1 and ACO were down-regulated in fetuses and offspring from SFD rats compared to controls. After the culture with leptin, control fetal livers showed increased ACO and CPT1 expression and decreased lipid levels, while fetal livers from SFD rats showed no changes. Fetal administration of leptin induced a decrease in ACO and no changes in CPT1 expression. In summary, our results suggest that a saturated fat overload in maternal diet induces fetal leptin resistance in liver lipid catabolism, which might be contributing to liver lipid alterations that are sustained in the offspring.

  5. New computerized fetal heart rate analysis for surveillance of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, E A; Lobmaier, S; Fischer, T; Schneider, R; Bauer, A; Schneider, K T; Schmidt, G

    2011-05-01

    Decreased fetal heart rate variability is associated with higher perinatal morbidity and mortality in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). This study used a new method [phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA)] to calculate acceleration- and deceleration-related fluctuations of the fetal heart rate. Cardiotocograms from 74 growth-restricted and 161 normal fetuses were included. Both groups were matched for gestational age. The transformed PRSA signal was quantified by the acceleration-related parameter-averaged acceleration capacity (AAC) and compared to the standard short-term variation (STV). Mann-Whitney test and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used for statistical analysis. For AAC, the median values of the IUGR group and control group were 1.97 bpm [interquartile range (IQR): 1.66-2.23] and 2.49 bpm (IQR: 2.24-2.72), respectively. For STV, these values were 5.44 ms (IQR: 4.49-7.38) and 7.79 ms (IQR: 6.35-9.66), respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 81.4% for AAC and 70.5% for STV. The results of AAC are in both groups comparable to STV. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the association of AAC with the clinical outcome of the newborn. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Can anomalies of fetal brain circulation be useful in the management of growth restricted fetuses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Serralde, Jesus Andres Benavides; Cruz-Martinez, Rogelio

    2012-02-01

    Assessment of the fetal cerebral circulation provides important information on the hemodynamic changes associated with chronic hypoxia and intrauterine growth restriction. Despite the incorporation of new US parameters, the landmark for the fetal brain hemodynamic evaluation is still the middle cerebral artery. However, new vascular territories, such as the anterior and posterior cerebral arteries, might provide additional information on the onset of the brain sparing effect. The fractional moving blood volume estimation and three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound indices are new techniques that seem to be promising in identifying cases at earlier stages of vascular deterioration; still, they are not available for clinical application and more information is needed on the reproducibility and advantages of three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound blood flow indices. In the past, the brain sparing effect was considered as a protective mechanism; however, recent information challenges this concept. There is growing evidence of an association between brain sparing effect and increased risk of abnormal neurodevelopment after birth. Even in mild late-onset intrauterine growth restriction affected fetuses with normal umbilical artery blood flow, increased cerebral blood perfusion can be associated with a substantial risk of abnormal neuroadaptation and neurodevelopment during childhood.

  7. Adiponectin supplementation in pregnant mice prevents the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Irving L M H; Rosario, Fredrick J; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-10-13

    Mothers with obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus have low circulating levels of adiponectin (ADN) and frequently deliver large babies with increased fat mass, who are susceptible to perinatal complications and to development of metabolic syndrome later in life. It is currently unknown if the inverse correlation between maternal ADN and fetal growth reflects a cause-and-effect relationship. We tested the hypothesis that ADN supplementation in obese pregnant dams improves maternal insulin sensitivity, restores normal placental insulin/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and nutrient transport, and prevents fetal overgrowth. Compared with dams on a control diet, female C57BL/6J mice fed an obesogenic diet before mating and throughout gestation had increased fasting serum leptin, insulin, and C-peptide, and reduced high-molecular-weight ADN at embryonic day (E) 18.5. Placental insulin and mTORC1 signaling was activated, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) phosphorylation was reduced, placental transport of glucose and amino acids in vivo was increased, and fetal weights were 29% higher in obese dams. Maternal ADN infusion in obese dams from E14.5 to E18.5 normalized maternal insulin sensitivity, placental insulin/mTORC1 and PPARα signaling, nutrient transport, and fetal growth without affecting maternal fat mass. Using a mouse model with striking similarities to obese pregnant women, we demonstrate that ADN functions as an endocrine link between maternal adipose tissue and fetal growth by regulating placental function. Importantly, maternal ADN supplementation reversed the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth. Improving maternal ADN levels may serve as an effective intervention strategy to prevent fetal overgrowth caused by maternal obesity.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Normal versus Fetal Growth Restriction in Pregnancy: The Significance of Maternal Body Mass Index, Nutritional Status, Anemia, and Ultrasonography Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmichaya D. Sawant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction or intrauterine growth restriction is one of the leading causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity in newborns. Fetal growth restriction is a complex multifactorial condition resulting from several fetal and maternal disorders. The objective of this study was twofold: first to examine the correlation between maternal parameters such as body mass index (BMI, nutritional status, anemia, and placental weight and diameter, and their effects on fetal growth and then to evaluate the effect of early screening by ultrasonography (USG on the outcome of growth restricted pregnancies. In this study, 53 cases of fetal growth restriction were compared to 53 normal fetuses delivered in consecutive sequence. Growth restricted fetuses were delivered earlier in gestation, when compared with normal growth fetuses. Maternal anemia and malnutrition have significant association with the fetal growth restriction. Maternal anthropometry, such as low BMI, had effects on placental diameter and weight, which, in turn, adversely affected fetal weight. Thus, early USG screening along with robust screening for maternal BMI, nutritional status, and anemia can assist the obstetric team in providing early diagnosis, prompt intervention, and better outcome in pregnancy with fetal growth restriction.

  9. Structural equation modeling and nested ANOVA: Effects of lead exposure on maternal and fetal growth in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.D. (Rohm and Haas Company, Spring House, PA (United States)); O' Flaherty, E.J.; Shukla, R.; Gartside, P.S. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Ross, R. (Univ. of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1994-01-01

    This study provided an assessment of the effects of lead on early growth in rats based on structural equation modeling and nested analysis of variance (ANOVA). Structural equation modeling showed that lead in drinking water (250, 500, or 1000 ppm) had a direct negative effect on body weight and tail length (i.e., growth) in female rats during the first week of exposure. During the following 2 weeks of exposure, high correlation between growth measurements taken over time resulted in reduced early postnatal growth. By the fourth week of exposure, reduced growth was not evident. Mating began after 8 weeks of exposure, and exposure continued during gestation. Decreased fetal body weight was detected when the effects of litter size, intrauterine position, and sex were controlled in a nested ANOVA. Lead exposure did not appear to affect fetal skeletal development, possibly because lead did not alter maternal serum calcium and phosphorus levels. The effect of lead on individual fetal body weight suggests that additional studies are needed to examine the effect of maternal lead exposure on fetal development and early postnatal growth. 24 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. A computational model of the fetal circulation to quantify blood redistribution in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Garcia-Canadilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding of its determinant factors and its quantitative relation with other aspects of haemodynamic remodeling has been limited. Computational models of the cardiovascular circulation have been proposed for exactly this purpose since they allow both for studying the contributions from isolated parameters as well as estimating properties that cannot be directly assessed from clinical measurements. Therefore, a computational model of the fetal circulation was developed, including the key elements related to fetal blood redistribution and using measured cardiac outflow profiles to allow personalization. The model was first calibrated using patient-specific Doppler data from a healthy fetus. Next, in order to understand the contributions of the main parameters determining blood redistribution, AoI and middle cerebral artery (MCA flow changes were studied by variation of cerebral and peripheral-placental resistances. Finally, to study how this affects an individual fetus, the model was fitted to three IUGR cases with different degrees of severity. In conclusion, the proposed computational model provides a good approximation to assess blood flow changes in the fetal circulation. The results support that while MCA flow is mainly determined by a fall in brain resistance, the AoI is influenced by a balance between increased peripheral-placental and decreased cerebral resistances. Personalizing the model allows for quantifying the balance between cerebral and peripheral

  11. A computational model of the fetal circulation to quantify blood redistribution in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Canadilla, Patricia; Rudenick, Paula A; Crispi, Fatima; Cruz-Lemini, Monica; Palau, Georgina; Camara, Oscar; Gratacos, Eduard; Bijnens, Bart H; Bijens, Bart H

    2014-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI) is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding of its determinant factors and its quantitative relation with other aspects of haemodynamic remodeling has been limited. Computational models of the cardiovascular circulation have been proposed for exactly this purpose since they allow both for studying the contributions from isolated parameters as well as estimating properties that cannot be directly assessed from clinical measurements. Therefore, a computational model of the fetal circulation was developed, including the key elements related to fetal blood redistribution and using measured cardiac outflow profiles to allow personalization. The model was first calibrated using patient-specific Doppler data from a healthy fetus. Next, in order to understand the contributions of the main parameters determining blood redistribution, AoI and middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow changes were studied by variation of cerebral and peripheral-placental resistances. Finally, to study how this affects an individual fetus, the model was fitted to three IUGR cases with different degrees of severity. In conclusion, the proposed computational model provides a good approximation to assess blood flow changes in the fetal circulation. The results support that while MCA flow is mainly determined by a fall in brain resistance, the AoI is influenced by a balance between increased peripheral-placental and decreased cerebral resistances. Personalizing the model allows for quantifying the balance between cerebral and peripheral-placental remodeling

  12. Insulin receptors mediate growth effects in cultured fetal neurons. I. Rapid stimulation of protein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidenreich, K.A.; Toledo, S.P. (Univ. of California-San Diego, La Jolla (USA))

    1989-09-01

    In this study we have examined the effects of insulin on protein synthesis in cultured fetal chick neurons. Protein synthesis was monitored by measuring the incorporation of (3H)leucine (3H-leu) into trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-precipitable protein. Upon addition of 3H-leu, there was a 5-min lag before radioactivity occurred in protein. During this period cell-associated radioactivity reached equilibrium and was totally recovered in the TCA-soluble fraction. After 5 min, the incorporation of 3H-leu into protein was linear for 2 h and was inhibited (98%) by the inclusion of 10 micrograms/ml cycloheximide. After 24 h of serum deprivation, insulin increased 3H-leu incorporation into protein by approximately 2-fold. The stimulation of protein synthesis by insulin was dose dependent (ED50 = 70 pM) and seen within 30 min. Proinsulin was approximately 10-fold less potent than insulin on a molar basis in stimulating neuronal protein synthesis. Insulin had no effect on the TCA-soluble fraction of 3H-leu at any time and did not influence the uptake of (3H)aminoisobutyric acid into neurons. The isotope ratio of 3H-leu/14C-leu in the leucyl tRNA pool was the same in control and insulin-treated neurons. Analysis of newly synthesized proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that insulin uniformly increased the incorporation of 14C-leu into all of the resolved neuronal proteins. We conclude from these data that (1) insulin rapidly stimulates overall protein synthesis in fetal neurons independent of amino acid uptake and aminoacyl tRNA precursor pools; (2) stimulation of protein synthesis is mediated by the brain subtype of insulin receptor; and (3) insulin is potentially an important in vivo growth factor for fetal central nervous system neurons.

  13. Altered transmission of maternal angiotensin II receptor haplotypes in fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Clare; Chappell, Sally; Acharya, Meera; Crane, Richard; Szolin, Stephanie; Symonds, Lyneth; Chevins, Helen; Kalsheker, Noor; Baker, Philip; Morgan, Linda

    2006-02-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) predisposes to significant short- and long-term health problems. Epidemiological studies have suggested a role for inherited factors in its pathogenesis. The angiotensin II receptor genes, AGTR1 and AGTR2, are candidate genes because they mediate processes that are important for placentation. This study investigated AGTR1 and AGTR2 haplotypes and genotypes in FGR. A total of 107 families (father, mother, and baby) with FGR, and 101 families with normal pregnancies were genotyped at five sites in AGTR1 and six sites across AGTR2. All of the participants were white western Europeans. FGR was identified antenatally by ultrasound scans and confirmed postnatally by correcting the birth weight centile for gestation, infant sex, maternal height, weight, and parity. Fetal genes were investigated using transmission disequilibrium testing (TDT), and a case-control comparison of maternal haplotypes was conducted. FGR was associated with maternal (but not paternal) transmission of the AGTR1 haplotype (GenBank AF245699.1) g.4955T, g.5052T, g.5245C, g.5612A, and haplotype g.4955T, g.5052T, g.5245T, g.5612A. Haplotype g.4955A, g.5052G, g.5245T, g.5612G was undertransmitted (P = 0.002). TDT of the AGTR1 genotype showed undertransmission of maternal AGTR1 genotypes g.4955T>A (odds ratio (OR), 0.34 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.14-0.86); P = 0.02), g.5052T>G (OR, 0.18 (0.06-0.48); PG (OR, 0.21 (0.08-0.55); P AGTR1 or AGTR2 (P > 0.10). This is the first study to show distortion of transmission of maternal AGTR1 haplotypes in FGR, which suggests that this gene plays a role in FGR. In particular, maternal-fetal gene sharing may be an important factor. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Average acceleration and deceleration capacity of fetal heart rate in normal pregnancy and in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graatsma, E M; Mulder, E J H; Vasak, B; Lobmaier, S M; Pildner von Steinburg, S; Schneider, K T M; Schmidt, G; Visser, G H A

    2012-12-01

    To study fetal heart rate (FHR), its short term variability (STV), average acceleration capacity (AAC), and average deceleration capacity (ADC) throughout uncomplicated gestation, and to perform a preliminary comparison of these FHR parameters between small-for dates (SFD) and control fetuses. Prospective observational study of 7 h FHR-recordings obtained with a fetal-ECG monitor in the second half of uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 90) and pregnancies complicated by fetal SFD (n = 30). FHR and STV were calculated according to established analysis. True beat-to-beat FHR, recorded at 1 ms accuracy, was used to calculate AAC and ADC using Phase Rectified Signal Averaging (PRSA). Mean values of FHR, STV, AAC, and ADC derived from recordings in SFD fetuses were compared with the reference curves. Compared with the control group the mean z-scores for STV, AAC, and ADC in SFD fetuses were lower by 1.0 SD, 1.5 SD, and 1.7 SD, respectively (p < 0.0001 for all comparisons). In SFD fetuses, both the AAC and ADC z-scores were lower than the STV z-scores (p < 0.02 and p < 0.002, respectively). Analysis of the AAC and ADC as recorded with a high resolution fECG recorder may differentiate better between normal and SFD fetuses than STV.

  15. /sup 125/I-human epidermal growth factor specific binding to placentas and fetal membranes from varoius pregnancy states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, G.E.; Siddiqi, T.A.; Rao, Ch. V.; Carman, F.R.

    1988-01-01

    Specific binding of /sup 125/I-human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) to homogenates of term human placentas and fetal membranes from normal and appropriate for gestational age (N = 20), intrauterine growth retarded (N = 9), twin (N = 11), White class AB diabetic (N = 12), and large for gestational age (N = 13) pregnancies was measured. In all pregnancy states, placentas bound approximately four times more /sup 125/I-hEGF than did fetal membranes (P<0.0001). There was no significant differnce in /sup 125/I-hEGF binding to fetal membranes from the various pregnancy states (P<0.05). /sup 125/I-hEGF specific binding to placentas from intrauterine growth retarded or twin pregnancies was significantly greater compared with placentas from normal and appropriate for gestational age pregnancies (P<0.05). The binding to placentas from pregnancies complicated by White class AB diabetes or large for gestational age infants, on the other hand, was not significantly different from that to placentas from normal and appropriate for gestational age pregnancies. /sup 125/I-hEGF specific binding did not differ between placentas from intrauterine growth retarded or twin pregnancies (P<0.05). Placental and fetal membrane /sup 125/I-hEGF binding did not vary with fetal sex, maternal race, placental weight, or gestational age between 37 to 42 weeks (P<0.05). Placental but not fetal membrane /sup 125/I-hEGF binding increased with increasing infant weight when appropriate for gestational age and large for gestational age infants were included (P<0.05, r = 0.38, N = 32) but not for intrauterine growth retarded, appropriate for gestational age, or large for gestational age infants alone.

  16. Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I produced by fetal rat pancreatic islets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharfmann, R.; Corvol, M.; Czernichow, P. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (Unit 30), Paris (France))

    1989-06-01

    Pancreatic islets were prepared from 22-day-old rat fetuses. After 5 days of culture in dishes allowing cell attachment, neoformed islets were kept free floating in RPMI-1640 medium (16.5 mM glucose, 1% fetal calf serum). The islets were then pulsed with ({sup 3}H)leucine and ({sup 35}S)methionine for 24 h. The conditioned medium was acidified with acetic acid (final pH 2.7), desalted, concentrated, and gel filtered on Bio-Gel P100 in acid conditions. The radioactive material that comigrated with immunoreactive insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I) produced by the islets was pooled, concentrated, and further characterized by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 Bondapak column with a linear gradient of acetonitrile (20-80%). The radioactive material that eluted as pure IGF-I (40% acetonitrile) was further studied by chromatofocusing on a Pharmacia PBE 94 column. A sharp radioactive peak containing ({sup 3}H)leucine and ({sup 35}S)methionine was eluted at pH 8.55. This material was immunoprecipitated with an antiserum to IGF-I. This study demonstrated that fetal islet cells synthesize molecules that are, by several criteria, equivalent to native IGF-I.

  17. Regulation Effect of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor on Human Fetal Choroid Vascularization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinsongZhao; YiWang; 等

    2002-01-01

    Purpose:To investigate the spatial and temporal regulation effect of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) on human fetal choroids vascularization.Methods:The eyeballs of 54 human fetuses from the 9th week to the 40th week due to accidental abortion were studied by immunohistochemically stainin for the expression of VEGF and proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA).Results: (1)The distribution of VEGF expression in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) decreased with the incrase of age,the peak of which was between the 9th and 14th week.(2)PCNA immunoreactivity was localized within choriocapillaris endothelium .The expression level decreased alone with fetus age.In this period the choriocapillaris endothelium kept proliferation,differentiation,canalization and remodeled to form the choroids vessels(3)Statistically significant correlations were shown between the expression of VEGF in the PRE and that of PCNA in choriocapillaris endothelium(r=0.933,P<0.01).Couclusin:VEGF expression in PRE was positively involved in modulating human fetal choroids vascularization .Eye Science 2000;16:11-14.

  18. Regulation Effect of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor on Human Fetal Choroid Vascularization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinsong Zhao; Yue Song; Yi Wang; Xiaoguang Zhang

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the spatial and temporal regulation effect of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) on human fetal choroid vascularization. Methods: The eyeballs of 54 human fetuses from the 9th week to the 40th week due to accidental abortion were studied by immunohistochemically staining for the expression of VEGF and proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Results: (1) The distribution of VEGF expression in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) decreased with the increase of age, the peak of which was between the 9th and 14th week. (2) PCNA immunoreactivity was localized within choriocapillaris endothelium. The expression level decreased alone with fetus age. In this period the choriocapillaris endothelium kept proliferation, differentiation, canalization and remodelled to form the choroid vessels. (3)Statistically significant correlations were shown between the expression of VEGF in the PRE and that of PCNA in choriocapillaris endothelium(r =0. 933, P < 0. 01). Conclusion: VEGF expression in RPE was positively involved in modulating human fetal choroid vascularization. Eye Science 2000; 16:11 ~ 14.

  19. Excess Maternal Fructose Consumption Increases Fetal Loss and Impairs Endometrial Decidualization in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saben, Jessica L; Asghar, Zeenat; Rhee, Julie S; Drury, Andrea; Scheaffer, Suzanne; Moley, Kelle H

    2016-02-01

    The most significant increase in metabolic syndrome over the previous decade occurred in women of reproductive age, which is alarming given that metabolic syndrome is associated with reproductive problems including subfertility and early pregnancy loss. Individuals with metabolic syndrome often consume excess fructose, and several studies have concluded that excess fructose intake contributes to metabolic syndrome development. Here, we examined the effects of increased fructose consumption on pregnancy outcomes in mice. Female mice fed a high-fructose diet (HFrD) for 6 weeks developed glucose intolerance and mild fatty liver but did not develop other prominent features of metabolic syndrome such as weight gain, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia. Upon mating, HFrD-exposed mice had lower pregnancy rates and smaller litters at midgestation than chow-fed controls. To explain this phenomenon, we performed artificial decidualization experiments and found that HFrD consumption impaired decidualization. This appeared to be due to decreased circulating progesterone as exogenous progesterone administration rescued decidualization. Furthermore, HFrD intake was associated with decreased bone morphogenetic protein 2 expression and signaling, both of which were restored by exogenous progesterone. Finally, expression of forkhead box O1 and superoxide dismutase 2 [Mn] proteins were decreased in the uteri of HFrD-fed mice, suggesting that HFrD consumption promotes a prooxidative environment in the endometrium. In summary, these data suggest that excess fructose consumption impairs murine fertility by decreasing steroid hormone synthesis and promoting an adverse uterine environment.

  20. Ultrasonographic Fetal Growth Charts: An Informatic Approach by Quantitative Analysis of the Impact of Ethnicity on Diagnoses Based on a Preliminary Report on Salentinian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Tinelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear guidance on fetal growth assessment is important because of the strong links between growth restriction or macrosomia and adverse perinatal outcome in order to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. Fetal growth curves are extensively adopted to track fetal sizes from the early phases of pregnancy up to delivery. In the literature, a large variety of reference charts are reported but they are mostly up to five decades old. Furthermore, they do not address several variables and factors (e.g., ethnicity, foods, lifestyle, smoke, and physiological and pathological variables, which are very important for a correct evaluation of the fetal well-being. Therefore, currently adopted fetal growth charts are inadequate to support the melting pot of ethnic groups and lifestyles of our society. Customized fetal growth charts are needed to provide an accurate fetal assessment and to avoid unnecessary obstetric interventions at the time of delivery. Starting from the development of a growth chart purposely built for a specific population, in the paper, authors quantify and analyse the impact of the adoption of wrong growth charts on fetal diagnoses. These results come from a preliminary evaluation of a new open service developed to produce personalized growth charts for specific ethnicity, lifestyle, and other parameters.

  1. Effect of maternal activity during gestation on maternal behavior, fetal growth, umbilical blood flow, and farrowing characteristics in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, E K; Berg, E P; Berg, E L; Vonnahme, K A

    2013-02-01

    Yorkshire gilts either remained in their individual stall from d 40 to term (CON; n = 7) or were subjected to exercise for 30 min 3 times per week from mid to late gestation (EX; n = 7) to determine the impact of increased maternal activity during gestation on maternal behavior, fetal growth, umbilical blood flow, and parturition. In parity 1, maternal body composition (10th rib back fat and LM area), maternal behavior, and farrowing characteristics were recorded. In parities 1 and 2, fetal growth, fetal heart rate, pulsatility index and resistance index, and umbilical blood flow were monitored beginning at d 39 of gestation continuing to d 81 of gestation. Exercise continued until d 104. Gilts allowed to exercise sat less (P gestation in the pig increased umbilical blood flow and appeared to reduce maternal restlessness, impacts on offspring development in postnatal life are not known.

  2. Reactivity of blood vessels in response to prostaglandin E2 in placentas from pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Oded; Bar, Jacob; Barnea, Ofer; Golan, Abraham; Kovo, Michal

    2012-05-01

    The authors aimed to study the contractility responses of normal and fetal growth restriction (FGR) placentas to prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2) ) and to correlate the results to subsequent placental histological analysis. A dual-perfused single cotyledon model was used. Placentas from pregnancies complicated by FGR and from normal pregnancies were obtained. Selected cotyledons were cannulated and dually perfused. Following stabilization, three concentrations of PGE(2) (0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 mg/mL) were administered to the fetal arterial side causing contraction/relaxation response. Fetal perfusion pressure was measured continuously during these contraction and relaxation phases. Following the perfusion experiments, the placentas were analyzed for fetal or maternal origin vascular lesions. A total of 21 complete experiments were performed (16 normal, 5 FGR). In response to PGE(2) , FGR placentas exhibited lower change in the perfusion pressure and lower relaxation time constant. Basal perfusion pressure did not differ significantly between the two groups. Placental histopathology lesions, fetal or maternal origin, were more common in the FGR compared with the controls placentas, 80% versus 25%, respectively, P=  0.047. The lower vascular reactivity in response to PGE(2) and the presence of fetal and maternal vascular placental lesions suggest a mechanism explaining the altered vascular supply in FGR. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Ultrasonography estimates of fetal growth in fetuses affected by trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Sarah N; Saller, Devereux N; Catov, Janet M; Canavan, Timothy P

    2016-06-01

    To construct growth curves specific for fetuses with trisomy 21 (T21) and to compare them with the reference-based standard. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of ultrasonography examinations from women with singleton pregnancies with a confirmed diagnosis of T21 who sought care at an academic tertiary-care center in the USA between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2013. Growth curves were constructed using linear regression and compared with the Hadlock standard. The study included 425 ultrasonography examinations from 235 women. The head circumference and femur length were smaller than the reference standards at all gestational ages (head circumference: P=0.017; femur length: P<0.001). The abdominal circumference was larger than the reference standard from 29weeks onward (P<0.001). The biparietal diameter was smaller in the second trimester and in the late third trimester (P<0.001). The overall estimated fetal weight was not different from the reference standard. The T21-specific growth curves indicate anthropometric differences between T21 fetuses and the general population. Once validated, such individual growth curves could allow for more accurate prenatal assessment and management of fetuses affected by T21. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fetal and neonatal levels of omega-3: effects on neurodevelopment, nutrition, and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombaldi Bernardi, Juliana; de Souza Escobar, Renata; Ferreira, Charles Francisco; Pelufo Silveira, Patrícia

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition in pregnancy, during lactation, childhood, and later stages has a fundamental influence on overall development. There is a growing research interest on the role of key dietary nutrients in fetal health. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) play an important role in brain development and function. Evidence from animal models of dietary n-3 LCPUFAs deficiency suggests that these fatty acids promote early brain development and regulate behavioral and neurochemical aspects related to mood disorders (stress responses, depression, and aggression and growth, memory, and cognitive functions). Preclinical and clinical studies suggest the role of n-3 LCPUFAs on neurodevelopment and growth. n-3 LCPUFAs may be an effective adjunctive factor for neural development, growth, and cognitive development, but further large-scale, well-controlled trials and preclinical studies are needed to examine its clinical mechanisms and possible benefits. The present paper discusses the use of n-3 LCPUFAs during different developmental stages and the investigation of different sources of consumption. The paper summarizes the role of n-3 LCPUFAs levels during critical periods and their effects on the children's neurodevelopment, nutrition, and growth.

  5. Fetal and Neonatal Levels of Omega-3: Effects on Neurodevelopment, Nutrition, and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rombaldi Bernardi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition in pregnancy, during lactation, childhood, and later stages has a fundamental influence on overall development. There is a growing research interest on the role of key dietary nutrients in fetal health. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs play an important role in brain development and function. Evidence from animal models of dietary n-3 LCPUFAs deficiency suggests that these fatty acids promote early brain development and regulate behavioral and neurochemical aspects related to mood disorders (stress responses, depression, and aggression and growth, memory, and cognitive functions. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest the role of n-3 LCPUFAs on neurodevelopment and growth. n-3 LCPUFAs may be an effective adjunctive factor for neural development, growth, and cognitive development, but further large-scale, well-controlled trials and preclinical studies are needed to examine its clinical mechanisms and possible benefits. The present paper discusses the use of n-3 LCPUFAs during different developmental stages and the investigation of different sources of consumption. The paper summarizes the role of n-3 LCPUFAs levels during critical periods and their effects on the children’s neurodevelopment, nutrition, and growth.

  6. Functional brain development in growth-restricted and constitutionally small fetuses: a fetal magnetoencephalography case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, E C; Schleger, F; Preissl, H; Braendle, J; Eswaran, H; Abele, H; Brucker, S; Kiefer-Schmidt, I

    2015-08-01

    Fetal magnetoencephalography records fetal brain activity non-invasively. Delayed brain responses were reported for fetuses weighing below the tenth percentile. To investigate whether this delay indicates delayed brain maturation resulting from placental insufficiency, this study distinguished two groups of fetuses below the tenth percentile: growth-restricted fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler velocity (IUGR) and constitutionally small-for-gestational-age fetuses with normal umbilical artery Doppler findings (SGA) were compared with fetuses of adequate weight for gestational age (AGA), matched for age and behavioural state. A case-control study of matched pairs. Fetal magnetoencephalography-Center at the University Hospital of Tuebingen. Fourteen IUGR fetuses and 23 SGA fetuses were matched for gestational age and fetal behavioural state with 37 healthy, normal-sized fetuses. A 156-channel fetal magentoencephalography system was used to record fetal brain activity. Light flashes as visual stimulation were applied to the fetus. The Student's t-test for paired groups was performed. Latency of fetal visual evoked magnetic responses (VER). The IUGR fetuses showed delayed VERs compared with controls (IUGR, 233.1 ms; controls, 184.6 ms; P = 0.032). SGA fetuses had similar evoked response latencies compared with controls (SGA, 216.1 ms; controls, 219.9 ms; P = 0.828). Behavioural states were similarly distributed. Visual evoked responses are delayed in IUGR fetuses, but not in SGA. Fetal behavioural state as an influencing factor of brain response latency was accounted for in the comparison. This reinforces that delayed brain maturation is the result of placental insufficiency. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. Effect of behavior training on learning and memory of young rats with fetal growth restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xuelan; Gou Wenli; Huang Pu; Li Chunfang; Sun Yunping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of behavior training on the learning and memory of young rats with fetal growth restriction (FGR). Methods: The model of FGR was established by passive smoking method to pregnant rats.The new-born rats were divided into FGR group and normal group, and then randomly subdivided into trained and untrained group respectively. Morris water maze behavior training was performed on postnatal months 2 and 4, then learning and memory abilities of young rats were measured by dark-avoidance testing and step-down testing. Results: In the dark-avoidance and step-down testing, the young rats' performance of FGR group was worse than that of control group, and the trained group was better than the untrained group significantly. Conclusion: FGR young rats have descended learning and memory abilities. Behavior training could improve the young rats' learning and memory abilities, especially for the FGR young rats.

  8. Taijiao:a traditional Chinese approach to enhancing fetal growth through maternal physical and mental health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fung-Kei Cheng

    2016-01-01

    abstract Despite the fact that Taijiao (traditional Chinese eugenics) has been part of the Chinese obstetrical culture over the years, there is insufficient scientific evidence for its effectiveness. This literature review analyzes the discourse on Taijiao associated with physical and psychological maternalefetal symbiosis, together with relevant peripheral research outcomes. Taijiao combines maternal health and external environment for benefits in fetal growth through preventive, indirect, and direct measures. Discussing practical im-plications and future research directions, this review reveals a modernized Taijiao to be a holistic, non-invasive pregnancy management system using a multi-disciplinary approach that enhances infantile life quality, reduces negative consequences of pregnancy deficits and child development, and saves public health expenditure.

  9. [Intelligence level and structure in school age children with fetal growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Ma, Hong-Wei; Tian, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Fang

    2009-10-01

    To study the intelligence level and structure in school age children with fetal growth restriction (FGR). The intelligence levels were tested by the Wechsler Children Scales of Intelligence (C-WISC) in 54 children with FGR and in 84 normal children. The full intelligence quotient (FIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) in the FGR group were 105.9+/-10.3, 112.4+/-11.2 and 97.1+/-10.6 respectively, and they all were in a normal range. But the PIQ was significantly lower than that in the control group (104.8+/-10.5; pintelligence level of children with FGR is normal, but there are imbalances in the intelligence structure and dysfunctions in performance ability related to right cerebral hemisphere. Performance trainings should be done from the infancy in children with FGR.

  10. Fetal growth in relation to gestational weight gain in women with Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parellada, C B; Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Ringholm, Lene

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate fetal growth in relation to gestational weight gain in women with Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 142 consecutive pregnancies in 28 women of normal weight, 39 overweight women and 75 obese women with Type 2 diabetes (pre-pregnancy BMI ....001) and prevalence of large-for-gestational-age infants (48 vs. 20%; P women with non-excessive gestational weight gain, the median weight gain in the first half of pregnancy was 371, 114 and 81 g/week, and in the second half of pregnancy 483, 427 and 439 g....../week, respectively. In multiple linear regression analysis, gestational weight gain was associated with a higher infant birth weight z-score independent of pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking, HbA1c and insulin dose at last visit, ethnicity and parity [β=0.1 (95% CI 0.06-0.14), P

  11. Relationships among acylation-stimulating protein, insulin resistance, lipometabolism, and fetal growth in gestational diabetes mellitus women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M; Liu, B; Wu, M-F; Chen, H-T; Cianflone, K; Wang, Z-L

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential relationship between acylation-stimulating protein (ASP), insulin resistance, lipometabolism, the intrauterine metabolic environment and fetal growth in well-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) women. A total of 55 well-controlled GDM women, 66 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and their newborns, were included in this study. Fasting maternal and cord blood ASP, serum lipid profiles, glucose level, insulin level, HOMA-IR, in addition to neonatal anthropometry data, were measured. Maternal blood ASP in GDM is higher than that in NGT. In the GDM group, maternal blood ASP has a positive correlation with TG, FFA and HOMA-IR. Maternal and cord blood ASP levels of LGA fetuses correlate with elevated birth weight and SF4. Similarly, cord blood ASP levels of LGA fetuses also correlate with birth weight and SF4 in the NGT group. The maternal blood ASP level of GDM mothers is associated with lipometabolism, insulin resistance and LGA fetal growth. Nevertheless, the cord blood ASP level correlates with FFA of GDM mothers, LGA fetal growth of GDM and NGT mothers. ASP may be a biomarker for evaluating insulin resistance of GDM and LGA fetal growth.

  12. Fetal and childhood growth patterns associated with bone mass in school-age children: The generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Heppe (Denise); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); H. Raat (Hein); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); A. Hofman (Albert); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractLow birth weight is associated with lower bone accrual in children and peak bone mass in adults. We assessed how different patterns of longitudinal fetal and early childhood growth influence bone properties at school age. In 5431 children participating in a population-based prospective

  13. Maternal caffeine intake from coffee and tea, fetal growth, and the risks of adverse birth outcomes: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bakker (Rachel); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); A. Obradov (Aleksandra); H. Raat (Hein); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Caffeine is a widely used and accepted pharmacologically active substance. The effect of caffeine intake during pregnancy on fetal growth and development is still unclear. Objective: We examined the associations of maternal caffeine intake, on the basis of coffee and tea

  14. Fetal growth and preterm birth in children exposed to maternal or paternal rheumatoid arthritis. A nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Ane L; Wu, Chunsen; Olsen, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess indicators of fetal growth and risk of preterm birth in children of parents with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Through linkage of Danish national registries, we identified all children born in Denmark between 1977 and 2008. We used general linear regression models...

  15. Fetal Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Differentiating towards Chondrocytes Acquire a Gene Expression Profile Resembling Human Growth Plate Cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gool, S.A.; Emons, J.A.M.; Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Decker, E.; Sticht, C.; van Houwelingen, J.C.; Goeman, J.J.; Kleijburg, C.; Scherjon, S.; Gretz, N.; Wit, J.M.; Rappold, G.; Post, Janine Nicole; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We used human fetal bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hfMSCs) differentiating towards chondrocytes as an alternative model for the human growth plate (GP). Our aims were to study gene expression patterns associated with chondrogenic differentiation to assess whether

  16. Phthalate levels in cord blood are associated with preterm delivery and fetal growth parameters in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Huang

    Full Text Available Data concerning the effects of phthalate exposure on preterm delivery and fetal growth are limited in humans. In this paper, we assessed the relationship between 15 phthalate levels in cord blood and preterm delivery and fetal growth parameters in 207 Chinese women going into labor. Exposure to phthalates except DCHP was associated with gestational age reduction and preterm delivery (p<0.05. There were associations between phthalates and fetal growth parameters, many of which disappeared when analyses were adjusted for gestational age, especially in male infants (Only DEEP was associated with birth weight; DEP, DNHP, BBP, DNP with abdominal circumference; DEP, DBP, DCHP, DEHP with femur length in female infants. And DPP, DBEP was associated with birth length in male infants. p<0.05. This study indicates that prenatal exposure to phthalates is associated with younger gestational age and preterm delivery. Also, phthalate exposure may adversely affect fetal growth parameters via gestational age reduction and preterm delivery with a significant gender effect.

  17. Maternal caffeine intake from coffee and tea, fetal growth, and the risks of adverse birth outcomes: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bakker (Rachel); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); A. Obradov (Aleksandra); H. Raat (Hein); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Caffeine is a widely used and accepted pharmacologically active substance. The effect of caffeine intake during pregnancy on fetal growth and development is still unclear. Objective: We examined the associations of maternal caffeine intake, on the basis of coffee and tea cons

  18. The impact of laser therapy on fetal growth discordance in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome O impacto da terapia a laser no crescimento fetal na sindrome de transfusão feto-fetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato A. Moreira de Sa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the impact of laser therapy on inter-twin discordance in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS. METHODS: biparietal diameter (BPD, head circumference (HC, abdominal circumference (AC, femur length (FL and estimated fetal weight were prospectively collected during a five-year period (1999 to 2004. The inter-twin discordance was expressed as a percentage of the largest twin's measurements. The measurements were made the day before laser, twice following laser and after delivery. The mean values of discordance in measurements and in fetal weight were calculated. ANOVA was used to compare mean values. RESULTS: the mean (SD discordance for BPD, HC, AC, FL and estimated fetal weight the day before laser were 8.53% (5.28, 8.75% (2.76, 16.19% (4.85, 12.92% (5.13 and 28.50% (6.46 respectively. At the at 2nd ultrasound assessment after surgery were 4.37% (3.55, 3.73% (2.71, 8.90% (4.42, 6.61% (4.99 and 19.11% (8.01 respectively; and at birth the weight discordance was 18.55% (8.74. There was a significant decrease in discordance for HC and AC for each ultrasound assessment. CONCLUSIONS: there was a decrease in fetal growth discordance following laser therapy in TTTS. These changes might be related to re-adaptation of blood flow following laser therapy.OBJETIVOS: avaliar impacto da terapia a laser no crescimento fetal na Sindrome de transfusão feto-fetal (STFF. MÉTODOS: diâmetro biparietal (DBP, circunferência cefálica (CC e abdominal (CA, comprimento do fêmur (CF e peso fetal foram colhidos prospectivamente no período de cinco anos (1999 a 2004. A discordância entre os gêmeos foi expressa como porcentagem da medida do maior. As medidas foram feitas um dia antes do laser, duas vezes após e depois do nascimento. A cada exame e pós-parto foram calculadas médias das discordâncias entre medidas e peso fetal. ANOVA foi usada para comparar as médias. RESULTADOS: a discordância média (SD para DBP, CC, CA, CF e peso fetal

  19. Fetal growth in pregnancies conceived after gastric bypass surgery in relation to surgery-to-conception interval: a Danish national cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lone Nikoline Nørgaard

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe early and late fetal growth in pregnancies conceived after gastric bypass surgery in relation to time from surgery to conception of pregnancy. METHODS: National cohort study on 387 Danish women, who had laparoscopic or open gastric bypass surgery prior to a singleton pregnancy in which first trimester screening was performed between January 2008 and June 2011. Data were derived from national registers (Danish National Registry of Patients and Danish National Birth Registry, Pregnancy Complications and Abortion-clinical quality database (PreCAb and the Danish Fetal Medicine Database. Main outcome measures were early and late fetal growth in relation to time from bariatric surgery to conception of the pregnancy. Early fetal growth was expressed as "Fetal Growth Index": the ratio between the estimated number of days from first trimester ultrasound to second trimester ultrasound biometries and the actual calender time elapsed in days. Late fetal growth was expressed as the observed versus expected birthweight according to gestational age (GA. RESULTS: The surgery-to-conception interval ranged from 3 to 1851 days with a mean value of 502 (SD, 351 days. The mean "fetal growth index" was 0.99 (SD, 0.02 days/day and thus significantly lower than in the background population (mean, 1.04 (SD, 0.09 days/day, p<0.0001. The proportion of infants being small for gestational age was 18.8% and the proportion of large for gestational age infants was 6.7%. The correlation coefficients between surgery-to-conception time and "fetal growth index" and birthweight according to GA were 0.01 (p = 0.8 and 0.04 (p = 0.4, respectively. CONCLUSION: Fetal growth index was lower than reported in the background population. No correlation was found between the surgery-to-conception interval and early or late fetal growth in pregnancies conceived after gastric bypass surgery.

  20. Impaired NLRP3 inflammasome activity during fetal development regulates IL-1β production in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashish A; Jen, Roger; Kan, Bernard; Sharma, Abhinav; Marchant, Elizabeth; Tang, Anthony; Gadawski, Izabelle; Senger, Christof; Skoll, Amanda; Turvey, Stuart E; Sly, Laura M; Côté, Hélène C F; Lavoie, Pascal M

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production is impaired in cord blood monocytes. However, the mechanism underlying this developmental attenuation remains unclear. Here, we analyzed the extent of variability within the Toll-like receptor (TLR)/NLRP3 inflammasome pathways in human neonates. We show that immature low CD14 expressing/CD16(pos) monocytes predominate before 33 weeks of gestation, and that these cells lack production of the pro-IL-1β precursor protein upon LPS stimulation. In contrast, high levels of pro-IL-1β are produced within high CD14 expressing monocytes, although these cells are unable to secrete mature IL-1β. The lack of secreted IL-1β in these monocytes parallels a reduction of NLRP3 induction following TLR stimulation resulting in a lack of caspase-1 activity before 29 weeks of gestation, whereas expression of the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD and function of the P2×7 receptor are preserved. Our analyses also reveal a strong inhibitory effect of placental infection on LPS/ATP-induced caspase-1 activity in cord blood monocytes. Lastly, secretion of IL-1β in preterm neonates is restored to adult levels during the neonatal period, indicating rapid maturation of these responses after birth. Collectively, our data highlight important developmental mechanisms regulating IL-1β responses early in gestation, in part due to a downregulation of TLR-mediated NLRP3 expression. Such mechanisms may serve to limit potentially damaging inflammatory responses in a developing fetus. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Intrauterine Growth Restriction and the Fetal Programming of the Hedonic Response to Sweet Taste in Newborn Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Caroline; Agranonik, Marilyn; Portella, André Krumel; Filion, Françoise; Johnston, Celeste C.; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased risk for adult metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, which seems to be related to altered food preferences in these individuals later in life. In this study, we sought to understand whether intrauterine growth leads to fetal programming of the hedonic responses to sweet. Sixteen 1-day-old preterm infants received 24% sucrose solution or water and the taste reactivity was filmed and analyzed. Spearman correlation demonstrated a positive correlation between fetal growth and the hedonic response to the sweet solution in the first 15 seconds after the offer (r = 0.864, P = 0.001), without correlation when the solution given is water (r = 0.314, P = 0.455). In fact, the more intense the intrauterine growth restriction, the lower the frequency of the hedonic response observed. IUGR is strongly correlated with the hedonic response to a sweet solution in the first day of life in preterm infants. This is the first evidence in humans to demonstrate that the hedonic response to sweet taste is programmed very early during the fetal life by the degree of intrauterine growth. The altered hedonic response at birth and subsequent differential food preference may contribute to the increased risk of obesity and related disorders in adulthood in intrauterine growth-restricted individuals. PMID:22851979

  2. Intrauterine Growth Restriction and the Fetal Programming of the Hedonic Response to Sweet Taste in Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ayres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased risk for adult metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, which seems to be related to altered food preferences in these individuals later in life. In this study, we sought to understand whether intrauterine growth leads to fetal programming of the hedonic responses to sweet. Sixteen 1-day-old preterm infants received 24% sucrose solution or water and the taste reactivity was filmed and analyzed. Spearman correlation demonstrated a positive correlation between fetal growth and the hedonic response to the sweet solution in the first 15 seconds after the offer (r=0.864, P=0.001, without correlation when the solution given is water (r=0.314, P=0.455. In fact, the more intense the intrauterine growth restriction, the lower the frequency of the hedonic response observed. IUGR is strongly correlated with the hedonic response to a sweet solution in the first day of life in preterm infants. This is the first evidence in humans to demonstrate that the hedonic response to sweet taste is programmed very early during the fetal life by the degree of intrauterine growth. The altered hedonic response at birth and subsequent differential food preference may contribute to the increased risk of obesity and related disorders in adulthood in intrauterine growth-restricted individuals.

  3. Effect of fetal undernutrition and postnatal overfeeding on rat adipose tissue and organ growth at early stages of postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Valverde, D; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, P; Gutierrez-Arzapalo, P Y; López de Pablo, A L; Carmen González, M; López-Giménez, R; Somoza, B; Arribas, S M

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine and perinatal life are critical periods for programming of cardiometabolic diseases. However, their relative role remains controversial. We aimed to assess, at weaning, sex-dependent alterations induced by fetal or postnatal nutritional interventions on key organs for metabolic and cardiovascular control. Fetal undernutrition was induced by dam food restriction (50 % from mid-gestation to delivery) returning to ad libitum throughout lactation (Maternal Undernutrition, MUN, 12 pups/litter). Postnatal overfeeding (POF) was induced by litter size reduction from normally fed dams (4 pups/litter). Compared to control, female and male MUN offspring exhibited: 1) low birth weight and accelerated growth, reaching similar weight and tibial length by weaning, 2) increased glycemia, liver and white fat weights; 3) increased ventricular weight and tendency to reduced kidney weight (males only). Female and male POF offspring showed: 1) accelerated growth; 2) increased glycemia, liver and white fat weights; 3) unchanged heart and kidney weights. In conclusion, postnatal accelerated growth, with or without fetal undernutrition, induces early alterations relevant for metabolic disease programming, while fetal undernutrition is required for heart abnormalities. The progression of cardiac alterations and their role on hypertension development needs to be evaluated. The similarities between sexes in pre-pubertal rats suggest a role of sex-hormones in female protection against programming.

  4. Fetal growth restriction and the programming of heart growth and cardiac insulin-like growth factor 2 expression in the lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kimberley C W; Zhang, Lei; McMillen, I Caroline; Botting, Kimberley J; Duffield, Jaime A; Zhang, Song; Suter, Catherine M; Brooks, Doug A; Morrison, Janna L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Reduced growth in fetal life together with accelerated growth in childhood, results in a ∼50% greater risk of coronary heart disease in adult life. It is unclear why changes in patterns of body and heart growth in early life can lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. We aimed to investigate the role of the insulin-like growth factors in heart growth in the growth-restricted fetus and lamb. Hearts were collected from control and placentally restricted (PR) fetuses at 137–144 days gestation and from average (ABW) and low (LBW) birth weight lambs at 21 days of age. We quantified cardiac mRNA expression of IGF-1, IGF-2 and their receptors, IGF-1R and IGF-2R, using real-time RT-PCR and protein expression of IGF-1R and IGF-2R using Western blotting. Combined bisulphite restriction analysis was used to assess DNA methylation in the differentially methylated region (DMR) of the IGF-2/H19 locus and of the IGF-2R gene. In PR fetal sheep, IGF-2, IGF-1R and IGF-2R mRNA expression was increased in the heart compared to controls. LBW lambs had a greater left ventricle weight relative to body weight as well as increased IGF-2 and IGF-2R mRNA expression in the heart, when compared to ABW lambs. No changes in the percentage of methylation of the DMRs of IGF-2/H19 or IGF-2R were found between PR and LBW when compared to their respective controls. In conclusion, a programmed increased in cardiac gene expression of IGF-2 and IGF-2R may represent an adaptive response to reduced substrate supply (e.g. glucose and/or oxygen) in order to maintain heart growth and may be the underlying cause for increased ventricular hypertrophy and the associated susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to ischaemic damage later in life. PMID:21807611

  5. Fetal growth restriction and the programming of heart growth and cardiac insulin-like growth factor 2 expression in the lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kimberley C W; Zhang, Lei; McMillen, I Caroline; Botting, Kimberley J; Duffield, Jaime A; Zhang, Song; Suter, Catherine M; Brooks, Doug A; Morrison, Janna L

    2011-10-01

    Reduced growth in fetal life together with accelerated growth in childhood, results in a ~50% greater risk of coronary heart disease in adult life. It is unclear why changes in patterns of body and heart growth in early life can lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. We aimed to investigate the role of the insulin-like growth factors in heart growth in the growth-restricted fetus and lamb. Hearts were collected from control and placentally restricted (PR) fetuses at 137-144 days gestation and from average (ABW) and low (LBW) birth weight lambs at 21 days of age. We quantified cardiac mRNA expression of IGF-1, IGF-2 and their receptors, IGF-1R and IGF-2R, using real-time RT-PCR and protein expression of IGF-1R and IGF-2R using Western blotting. Combined bisulphite restriction analysis was used to assess DNA methylation in the differentially methylated region (DMR) of the IGF-2/H19 locus and of the IGF-2R gene. In PR fetal sheep, IGF-2, IGF-1R and IGF-2R mRNA expression was increased in the heart compared to controls. LBW lambs had a greater left ventricle weight relative to body weight as well as increased IGF-2 and IGF-2R mRNA expression in the heart, when compared to ABW lambs. No changes in the percentage of methylation of the DMRs of IGF-2/H19 or IGF-2R were found between PR and LBW when compared to their respective controls. In conclusion, a programmed increased in cardiac gene expression of IGF-2 and IGF-2R may represent an adaptive response to reduced substrate supply (e.g. glucose and/or oxygen) in order to maintain heart growth and may be the underlying cause for increased ventricular hypertrophy and the associated susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to ischaemic damage later in life.

  6. Fetal effects of epidermal growth factor deficiency induced in rats by autoantibodies against epidermal growth factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba; Jørgensen, P E

    1995-01-01

    , the amount of surfactant protein-A was decreased, suggesting a delayed lung maturation. The offspring of EGF-immunized rats had dry and wrinkled skin. The skin was thin and the hair follicles were immature. This suggests a role for EGF in the growth and development of the skin. The liver/body weight ratio...

  7. The role of blood flow distribution in the regulation of cerebral oxygen availability in fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Oded; Bar, Jacob; Kovo, Michal; Malinger, Gustavo; Golan, Abraham; Barnea, Ofer

    2012-04-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) elicits hemodynamic compensatory mechanisms in the fetal circulation. These mechanisms are complex and their effect on the cerebral oxygen availability is not fully understood. To quantify the contribution of each compensatory mechanism to the fetal cerebral oxygen availability, a mathematical model of the fetal circulation was developed. The model was based on cardiac-output distribution in the fetal circulation. The compensatory mechanisms of FGR were simulated and their effects on cerebral oxygen availability were analyzed. The mathematical analysis included the effects of cerebral vasodilation, placental resistance to blood flow, degree of blood shunting by the ductus venosus and the effect of maternal-originated placental insufficiency. The model indicated a unimodal dependency between placental blood flow and cerebral oxygen availability. Optimal cerebral oxygen availability was achieved when the placental blood flow was mildly reduced compared to the normal flow. This optimal ratio was found to increase as the hypoxic state of FGR worsens. The model indicated that cerebral oxygen availability is increasingly dependent on the cardiac output distribution as the fetus gains weight. Copyright © 2011 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adequacy of maternal iron status protects against behavioral, neuroanatomical, and growth deficits in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echoleah S Rufer

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are the leading non-genetic cause of neurodevelopmental disability in children. Although alcohol is clearly teratogenic, environmental factors such as gravidity and socioeconomic status significantly modify individual FASD risk despite equivalent alcohol intake. An explanation for this variability could inform FASD prevention. Here we show that the most common nutritional deficiency of pregnancy, iron deficiency without anemia (ID, is a potent and synergistic modifier of FASD risk. Using an established rat model of third trimester-equivalent binge drinking, we show that ID significantly interacts with alcohol to impair postnatal somatic growth, associative learning, and white matter formation, as compared with either insult separately. For the associative learning and myelination deficits, the ID-alcohol interaction was synergistic and the deficits persisted even after the offsprings' iron status had normalized. Importantly, the observed deficits in the ID-alcohol animals comprise key diagnostic criteria of FASD. Other neurobehaviors were normal, showing the ID-alcohol interaction was selective and did not reflect a generalized malnutrition. Importantly ID worsened FASD outcome even though the mothers lacked overt anemia; thus diagnostics that emphasize hematological markers will not identify pregnancies at-risk. This is the first direct demonstration that, as suggested by clinical studies, maternal iron status has a unique influence upon FASD outcome. While alcohol is unquestionably teratogenic, this ID-alcohol interaction likely represents a significant portion of FASD diagnoses because ID is more common in alcohol-abusing pregnancies than generally appreciated. Iron status may also underlie the associations between FASD and parity or socioeconomic status. We propose that increased attention to normalizing maternal iron status will substantially improve FASD outcome, even if maternal alcohol abuse

  9. Adequacy of maternal iron status protects against behavioral, neuroanatomical, and growth deficits in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufer, Echoleah S; Tran, Tuan D; Attridge, Megan M; Andrzejewski, Matthew E; Flentke, George R; Smith, Susan M

    2012-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are the leading non-genetic cause of neurodevelopmental disability in children. Although alcohol is clearly teratogenic, environmental factors such as gravidity and socioeconomic status significantly modify individual FASD risk despite equivalent alcohol intake. An explanation for this variability could inform FASD prevention. Here we show that the most common nutritional deficiency of pregnancy, iron deficiency without anemia (ID), is a potent and synergistic modifier of FASD risk. Using an established rat model of third trimester-equivalent binge drinking, we show that ID significantly interacts with alcohol to impair postnatal somatic growth, associative learning, and white matter formation, as compared with either insult separately. For the associative learning and myelination deficits, the ID-alcohol interaction was synergistic and the deficits persisted even after the offsprings' iron status had normalized. Importantly, the observed deficits in the ID-alcohol animals comprise key diagnostic criteria of FASD. Other neurobehaviors were normal, showing the ID-alcohol interaction was selective and did not reflect a generalized malnutrition. Importantly ID worsened FASD outcome even though the mothers lacked overt anemia; thus diagnostics that emphasize hematological markers will not identify pregnancies at-risk. This is the first direct demonstration that, as suggested by clinical studies, maternal iron status has a unique influence upon FASD outcome. While alcohol is unquestionably teratogenic, this ID-alcohol interaction likely represents a significant portion of FASD diagnoses because ID is more common in alcohol-abusing pregnancies than generally appreciated. Iron status may also underlie the associations between FASD and parity or socioeconomic status. We propose that increased attention to normalizing maternal iron status will substantially improve FASD outcome, even if maternal alcohol abuse continues. These findings

  10. Adequacy of Maternal Iron Status Protects against Behavioral, Neuroanatomical, and Growth Deficits in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attridge, Megan M.; Andrzejewski, Matthew E.; Flentke, George R.; Smith, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are the leading non-genetic cause of neurodevelopmental disability in children. Although alcohol is clearly teratogenic, environmental factors such as gravidity and socioeconomic status significantly modify individual FASD risk despite equivalent alcohol intake. An explanation for this variability could inform FASD prevention. Here we show that the most common nutritional deficiency of pregnancy, iron deficiency without anemia (ID), is a potent and synergistic modifier of FASD risk. Using an established rat model of third trimester-equivalent binge drinking, we show that ID significantly interacts with alcohol to impair postnatal somatic growth, associative learning, and white matter formation, as compared with either insult separately. For the associative learning and myelination deficits, the ID-alcohol interaction was synergistic and the deficits persisted even after the offsprings’ iron status had normalized. Importantly, the observed deficits in the ID-alcohol animals comprise key diagnostic criteria of FASD. Other neurobehaviors were normal, showing the ID-alcohol interaction was selective and did not reflect a generalized malnutrition. Importantly ID worsened FASD outcome even though the mothers lacked overt anemia; thus diagnostics that emphasize hematological markers will not identify pregnancies at-risk. This is the first direct demonstration that, as suggested by clinical studies, maternal iron status has a unique influence upon FASD outcome. While alcohol is unquestionably teratogenic, this ID-alcohol interaction likely represents a significant portion of FASD diagnoses because ID is more common in alcohol-abusing pregnancies than generally appreciated. Iron status may also underlie the associations between FASD and parity or socioeconomic status. We propose that increased attention to normalizing maternal iron status will substantially improve FASD outcome, even if maternal alcohol abuse continues. These

  11. Prenatal testosterone-induced fetal growth restriction is associated with down-regulation of rat placental amino acid transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankins Gary DV

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure of pregnant mothers to elevated concentrations of circulating testosterone levels is associated with fetal growth restriction and delivery of small-for-gestational-age babies. We examined whether maternal testosterone crosses the placenta to directly suppress fetal growth or if it modifies placental function to reduce the capacity for transport of nutrients to the fetus. Methods Pregnant rats were exposed to testosterone propionate (TP; 0.5 mg/kg by daily subcutaneous injection from gestational days (GD 15-19. Maternal and fetal testosterone levels, placental nutrient transport activity and expression of transporters and birth weight of pups and their anogenital distances were determined. Results This dose of TP doubled maternal testosterone levels but had no effect on fetal testosterone levels. Maternal daily weight gain was significantly lower only on GD 19 in TP treated dams compared to controls. Placental weight and birth weight of pups were significantly reduced, but the anogenital distance of pups were unaffected by TP treatment. Maternal plasma amino acids concentrations were altered following testosterone exposure, with decreases in glutamine, glycine, tyrosine, serine, proline, and hydroxyproline and increases in asparagine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, histidine and arginine. In the TP dams, placental system A amino acid transport activity was significantly reduced while placental glucose transport capacity was unaffected. Decreased expression of mRNA and protein levels of slc38a2/Snat2, an amino acid transporter, suggests that reduced transporter proteins may be responsible for the decrease in amino acid transport activity. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggest that increased maternal testosterone concentrations do not cross the placenta to directly suppress fetal growth but affects amino acid nutrient delivery to the fetus by downregulating specific amino acid transporter activity.

  12. How to monitor pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction and delivery before 32 weeks : Post-hoc analysis of TRUFFLE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzevoort, W.; Van Charante, N. Mensing; Thilaganathan, B.; Prefumo, F.; Arabin, B.; Bilardo, C. M.; Brezinka, C.; Derks, J. B.; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, J. J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Hecher, K.; Marlow, N.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, A. T.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T. M.; Todros, T.; Valcamonico, A.; Visser, G. H. A.; Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Lees, C. C.; Wolf, H.

    Objectives In the recent TRUFFLE study, it appeared that, in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR) between 26 and 32 weeks' gestation, monitoring of the fetal ductus venosus (DV) waveform combined with computed cardiotocography (CTG) to determine timing of delivery increased the

  13. Nicotine-induced retardation of chondrogenesis through down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling pathway to inhibit matrix synthesis of growth plate chondrocytes in fetal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yu; Cao, Hong; Cu, Fenglong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Lei, Youying [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tan, Yang [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chen, Liaobin, E-mail: lbchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Previous studies have confirmed that maternal tobacco smoking causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and skeletal growth retardation. Among a multitude of chemicals associated with cigarette smoking, nicotine is one of the leading candidates for causing low birth weights. However, the possible mechanism of delayed chondrogenesis by prenatal nicotine exposure remains unclear. We investigated the effects of nicotine on fetal growth plate chondrocytes in vivo and in vitro. Rats were given 2.0 mg/kg·d of nicotine subcutaneously from gestational days 11 to 20. Prenatal nicotine exposure increased the levels of fetal blood corticosterone and resulted in fetal skeletal growth retardation. Moreover, nicotine exposure induced the inhibition of matrix synthesis and down-regulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling in fetal growth plates. The effects of nicotine on growth plates were studied in vitro by exposing fetal growth plate chondrocytes to 0, 1, 10, or 100 μM of nicotine for 10 days. Nicotine inhibited matrix synthesis and down-regulated IGF-1 signaling in chondrocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure induces delayed chondrogenesis and that the mechanism may involve the down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling and the inhibition of matrix synthesis by growth plate chondrocytes. The present study aids in the characterization of delayed chondrogenesis caused by prenatal nicotine exposure, which might suggest a candidate mechanism for intrauterine origins of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. - Highlights: ► Prenatal nicotine-exposure could induce delayed chondrogenesis in fetal rats. ► Nicotine inhibits matrix synthesis of fetal growth plate chondrocytes. ► Nicotine inhibits IGF-1 signaling pathway in fetal growth plate chondrocytes.

  14. Birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation and fetal susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ladinig

    Full Text Available The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1 were necropsied along with their fetuses 21 days later. Ovulation rates and litter size did not differ between groups, but fetuses from low birth weight gilts were shorter, lighter and demonstrated evidence of asymmetric growth with large brain:organ weight ratios (i.e. brain sparing. The number of intrauterine growth retarded fetuses, defined by brain:organ weight ratios greater than 1 standard deviation from the mean, was significantly greater in low, compared to high, birth weight gilts. Although γδ T cells significantly decreased over time in high compared to low birth weight gilts, viral load in serum and tissues, gilt serum cytokine levels, and litter outcome, including the percent dead fetuses per litter, did not differ by birth weight group. Thus, this study provided no substantive evidence that the severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is affected by dam birth weight. However, intrauterine growth retarded fetuses had lower viral loads in both fetal thymus and in endometrium adjacent to the umbilical stump. Crown rump length did not significantly differ between fetuses that survived and those that died at least one week prior to termination. Taken together, this study clearly demonstrates that birth weight is a transgenerational trait in pigs, and provides evidence that larger fetuses are more susceptible to transplacental PRRSv infection.

  15. Serial measurements of serum human placental lactogen (hPL) and serial ultrasound examinations in the evaluation of fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Steen; von Tabouillot, D; Schioler, V

    2000-01-01

    was associated with a trend towards low and decreasing hPL and with an increasing intrauterine growth velocity and birth weight deviation. In conclusion the rate of change of serial hPL measurements correlated well to intrauterine fetal growth velocity in the third trimester as estimated by ultrasound......PL MoM values was carried out for each pregnancy to find the slope of the line (hPL-slope); at least 3 serum hPL values were required. The estimated fetal weight and weight-for-age at birth was expressed in Z-scores. The individual intrauterine growth velocity was calculated by regression analysis...... deviation, smoking in pregnancy and diagnosis of preeclampsia. A significant correlation was found between the hPL-slope and the intrauterine fetal growth velocity (r=0.34), and between hPL-slope and birth weight deviation (r=0.32). Mean hPL was correlated to birth weight deviation (r=0.27), but only very...

  16. Reversible Fetal Renal Impairment following Angiotensin Receptor Blocking Treatment during Third Trimester of Pregnancy: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Tal; Levitt, Lorinne

    2016-01-01

    Background. Late pregnancy usage of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) may cause severe oligohydramnios due to fetal renal impairment. Affected neonates will often suffer from fatal, renal, and respiratory failure. Case. A 39-year-old multigravida admitted due to anhydramnios secondary to valsartan (ARB) exposure at 30 weeks' gestation. Following secession of treatment amniotic fluid volume returned to normal. Delivery was induced at 34 weeks' gestation following premature rupture of membranes and maternal fever. During the two-year follow-up, no signs of renal insufficiency were noted. Conclusions. This description of reversible fetal renal damage due to ARB intake during pregnancy is the first to show no adverse renal function in a two-year follow-up period. This case may help clinicians counsel patients with pregnancies complicated by exposure to these drugs. PMID:27672462

  17. Reversible Fetal Renal Impairment following Angiotensin Receptor Blocking Treatment during Third Trimester of Pregnancy: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Saar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Late pregnancy usage of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB may cause severe oligohydramnios due to fetal renal impairment. Affected neonates will often suffer from fatal, renal, and respiratory failure. Case. A 39-year-old multigravida admitted due to anhydramnios secondary to valsartan (ARB exposure at 30 weeks’ gestation. Following secession of treatment amniotic fluid volume returned to normal. Delivery was induced at 34 weeks’ gestation following premature rupture of membranes and maternal fever. During the two-year follow-up, no signs of renal insufficiency were noted. Conclusions. This description of reversible fetal renal damage due to ARB intake during pregnancy is the first to show no adverse renal function in a two-year follow-up period. This case may help clinicians counsel patients with pregnancies complicated by exposure to these drugs.

  18. Arterial flow regulator enables transplantation and growth of human fetal kidneys in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, N K; Gu, J; Gu, S; Osorio, R W; Concepcion, W; Gu, E

    2015-06-01

    Here we introduce a novel method of transplanting human fetal kidneys into adult rats. To overcome the technical challenges of fetal-to-adult organ transplantation, we devised an arterial flow regulator (AFR), consisting of a volume adjustable saline-filled cuff, which enables low-pressure human fetal kidneys to be transplanted into high-pressure adult rat hosts. By incrementally withdrawing saline from the AFR over time, blood flow entering the human fetal kidney was gradually increased until full blood flow was restored 30 days after transplantation. Human fetal kidneys were shown to dramatically increase in size and function. Moreover, rats which had all native renal mass removed 30 days after successful transplantation of the human fetal kidney were shown to have a mean survival time of 122 days compared to 3 days for control rats that underwent bilateral nephrectomy without a prior human fetal kidney transplant. These in vivo human fetal kidney models may serve as powerful platforms for drug testing and discovery.

  19. Risk factors and outcomes associated with first-trimester fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.O. Mook-Kanamori (Dennis); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); P.H.C. Eilers (Paul); H. Raat (Hein); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractContext: Adverse environmental exposures lead to developmental adaptations in fetal life. The influences of maternal physical characteristics and lifestyle habits on first-trimester fetal adaptations and the postnatal consequences are not known. Objective: To determine the risk factors

  20. The effects of food and maternal conditions in fetal growth and size in wild reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje Skogland

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available Fetal growth rates and birth weights were studied in four wild reindeer areas in Southern Norway (Hardangervidda, Hallingskarvet, Knutshø, Forelhogna, representing high and low density populations, with a 5-fold difference in mean lichen winter-food availability. Fetal growth was depressed by 42% in the high-densitv Hardangervidda population, and mean birth weights were 3.7 vs. 6.2 kg, with a 10 days difference in mean birth dates. Fetal size was better correlated with maternal weight, than age. Maternal weights increased until 5 yrs. of age and then decreased in the high-density Hardangervidda population (but not so in the low density Knutshø-Forclhogna populations. 55% of the offspring died before weaning in the Hardangervidda herd, but no significant calf losses were found amont the large-sized does in the food-abundant areas.Effekter av ernæring og simlas kondisjon på vekst og størrelse av foster hos villrein.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Fostervekst og fødselsvekter ble undersøkt i fire villreinområder i Sør-Norge (Hardangervidda, Hallingskarvet, Knutshø og Forelhogna som representerer høg- og lågtetthetsstammer, med en 5-foldig forskjell i gjennomsnittlig lavbeite-tilgang om vinteren. Fosterveksten ble nedsatt med 42% i høgtetthetsstammen på Hardangervidda og fødselsvektene var i gjennomsnitt 3,7 kg, mot 6,2 kg i det beste området, og med en 10 dagers forsinkelse i midlere fødselsdato. Fosterets størrelse var korrelert med morens vekt, som igjen var avhengig av hennes alder. Hos de minste simlene i det dårligste området økte vektene til 5-års alder, for deretter å avta for hvert gjenlevende år. Hos simlene i det beste området økte vektene til 10-års alder, og var da dobbelt så tunge som fra det dårligste området. 55% av avkommet døde før de var avvent med diing hos Hardangervidda-simlene, mens det ikke var noen statistisk målbar dødelighet hos kalvene i Knutshø-Forelhogna.Ravinnon vaikutus ja

  1. Association of maternal and umbilical cord blood leptin concentrations and abnormal color Doppler indices of umbilical artery with fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Zareaan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal growth restriction (FGR is a condition with heterogeneous pathophysiology which characterized by fetal weight less than the tenth percentile for gestational age. Several factors have impact on maternal, placental and fetal due to growth restriction. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between levels of leptin in the cord, and serum leptin of mothers also abnormal color Doppler indices of umbilical artery with fetal growth restriction. Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in Isfahan, Iran, 2015-2016. We recruited 40 women with singleton pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (Group I and 40 pregnant women with normal fetal growth (Group II with matched age. Maternal serum and umbilical artery leptin levels were determined with Enzyme-Linked immunosorben method. Also, color Doppler ultrasound of umbilical artery was performed. Results: Mean maternal and fetal leptin levels were lower in the FGR group compared to the normal group (36.58±(20.99 and 7.42 ±(4.08vs. 47.32±(22.50 and 30.49±(14.50 respectively. Also, mean fetal leptin level was lower in the group with abnormal color Doppler sonographic indices compared to the normal group (7. 40 ±(4.10vs 27.06±(15.80, respectively. Conclusion: This study indicated that maternal and fetal leptin levels are correlated with FGR originating from damaged placental function; also fetal leptin level can indicate changes in color Doppler sonographic indices.

  2. Diagnóstico precoce da restrição do crescimento fetal pela estimativa ultra-sonográfica do peso fetal Early diagnosis of intra-uterine growth restriction by ultrasonographic estimation of fetal weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Marta Martins

    2005-02-01

    disease, no history of addictions, gemellarity or malformed fetuses. All mothers performed ultrasonographic exams at the 25th and 27th weeks for estimation of the fetal weight. Results: The exams were able to detect the inadequate development of those fetuses small-for-gestational-age group. The cut-off values for echographic fetal weight were established as 775 grams and 1015 grams for the 25th and 27th weeks, respectively A mathematical model was developed, capable of quantifying the probability of newborns exhibiting insufficient intra-uterine growth, being small-for-gestational-age.

  3. Programming of maternal and offspring disease: impact of growth restriction, fetal sex and transmission across generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jean N; Wlodek, Mary E; Moritz, Karen M; Cuffe, James S M

    2016-09-01

    Babies born small are at an increased risk of developing myriad adult diseases. While growth restriction increases disease risk in all individuals, often a second hit is required to unmask 'programmed' impairments in physiology. Programmed disease outcomes are demonstrated more commonly in male offspring compared with females, with these sex-specific outcomes partly attributed to different placenta-regulated growth strategies of the male and female fetus. Pregnancy is known to be a major risk factor for unmasking a number of conditions and can be considered a 'second hit' for women who were born small. As such, female offspring often develop impairments of physiology for the first time during pregnancy that present as pregnancy complications. Numerous maternal stressors can further increase the risk of developing a maternal complication during pregnancy. Importantly, these maternal complications can have long-term consequences for both the mother after pregnancy and the developing fetus. Conditions such as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and hypertension as well as thyroid, liver and kidney diseases are all conditions that can complicate pregnancy and have long-term consequences for maternal and offspring health. Babies born to mothers who develop these conditions are often at a greater risk of developing disease in adulthood. This has implications as a mechanism for transmission of disease across generations. In this review, we discuss the evidence surrounding long-term intergenerational implications of being born small and/or experiencing stress during pregnancy on programming outcomes.

  4. Time is on whose side? Time trends in the association between maternal social disadvantage and offspring fetal growth. A study of 1,409,339 births in Denmark 1981-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust H; Diderichsen, Finn; Davey-Smith, George;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fetal growth is highly socially patterned and is related to health across the life course, but how the social patterns of fetal growth change over time remains understudied. We examined the time trends in maternal social disadvantage in relation to fetal growth in the context of a univ......OBJECTIVE: Fetal growth is highly socially patterned and is related to health across the life course, but how the social patterns of fetal growth change over time remains understudied. We examined the time trends in maternal social disadvantage in relation to fetal growth in the context...... motherhood (-0.14), single motherhood (-0.13), poverty (-0.12) and weakest for unemployment (-0.04). The deficit in fetal growth increased over time for all associations except for unemployment. Also, the measures of social adversity increasingly clustered within individuals over time. CONCLUSION: Maternal...

  5. Suspected Fetal Growth Restriction at 37 Weeks: A Comparison of Doppler and Placental Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, William M; Millington, Karmaine A; Ibekwe, Tochi O; Ural, Serdar H

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Our objective was determining if abnormal Doppler evaluation had a higher prevalence of placental pathology compared to normal Doppler in suspected fetal growth restriction (FGR) of cases delivered at 37 weeks. Study Design. This retrospective cohort study of suspected FGR singletons with antenatal Doppler evaluation delivered at 37 weeks had a primary outcome of the prevalence of placental pathology related to FGR. Significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05. Results. Of 100 pregnancies 46 and 54 were in the abnormal and normal Doppler cohorts, respectively. Placental pathology was more prevalent with any abnormal Doppler, 84.8% versus 55.6%, odds ratio (OR) 4.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.55, 13.22, and p = 0.002. Abnormal middle cerebral artery (MCA) Doppler had a higher prevalence: 96.2% versus 54.8%, OR 20.7, 95% CI: 2.54, 447.1, and p < 0.001. Conclusion. Abnormal Doppler was associated with more placental pathology in comparison to normal Doppler in fetuses with suspected FGR. Abnormal MCA Doppler had the strongest association.

  6. Suspected Fetal Growth Restriction at 37 Weeks: A Comparison of Doppler and Placental Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M. Curtin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Our objective was determining if abnormal Doppler evaluation had a higher prevalence of placental pathology compared to normal Doppler in suspected fetal growth restriction (FGR of cases delivered at 37 weeks. Study Design. This retrospective cohort study of suspected FGR singletons with antenatal Doppler evaluation delivered at 37 weeks had a primary outcome of the prevalence of placental pathology related to FGR. Significance was defined as p≤0.05. Results. Of 100 pregnancies 46 and 54 were in the abnormal and normal Doppler cohorts, respectively. Placental pathology was more prevalent with any abnormal Doppler, 84.8% versus 55.6%, odds ratio (OR 4.46, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.55, 13.22, and p=0.002. Abnormal middle cerebral artery (MCA Doppler had a higher prevalence: 96.2% versus 54.8%, OR 20.7, 95% CI: 2.54, 447.1, and p<0.001. Conclusion. Abnormal Doppler was associated with more placental pathology in comparison to normal Doppler in fetuses with suspected FGR. Abnormal MCA Doppler had the strongest association.

  7. Helicobacter plyori's virulence and infection persistence define pre-eclampsea complicated by fetal growth retardation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simona Cardaropoli; Alessandro Rolfo; Annalisa Piazzese; Antonio Ponzetto; Tullia Todros

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To better understand the pathogenic role of Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) in pre-eclampsia (PE), and whether it is associated or not with fetal growth retardation (FGR). METHODS: Maternal blood samples were collected from 62 consecutive pregnant women with a diagnosis of PE and/or FGR, and from 49 women with uneventful pregnancies (controls). Serum samples were evaluated by immunoblot assay for presence of specific antibodies against H. Pylori antigens [virulence: cytotoxin-associated antigen A (CagA); ureases; heat shock protein B; flagellin A; persistence: vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA)]. Maternal complete blood count and liver enzymes levels were assessed at delivery by an automated analyzer. RESULTS: A significantly higher percentage of H. Pylori seropositive women were found among PE cases (85.7%) compared to controls (42.9%, P < 0.001). There were no differences between pregnancies complicated by FGR without maternal hypertension (46.2%) and controls. Importantly, persistent and virulent infections (VacA/CagA seropositive patients, intermediate leukocyte blood count and aspartate aminotransferase levels) were exclusively associated with pre-eclampsia complicated by FGR, while virulent but acute infections (CagA positive/VacA negative patients, highest leukocyte blood count and aspartate aminotransferase levels) specifically correlated with PE without FGR. CONCLUSION: Our data strongly indicate that persistent and virulent H. Pylori infections cause or contribute to PE complicated by FGR, but not to PE without feto-placental compromise.

  8. Blood folic acid, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels in pregnant women with fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H L; Cao, L Q; Chen, H Y

    2016-12-19

    Deficiencies in nutrients such as folic acid and vitamin B12 may play a role in fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, whether folic acid, vitamin B12, or homocysteine is associated with FGR in Chinese populations remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between these nutrient deficiencies and FGR in pregnant Chinese women. We selected 116 mother and infant pairs, and categorized the neonates into the FGR, appropriate for gestational age, and large for gestational age groups. Birth weight, body length, head circumference, body mass index (BMI), and Rohrer's body index of the newborns were measured. Serum folic acid, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels were measured in mothers during the first three days of their hospital stay. Results showed that the FGR group exhibited reduced folic acid and vitamin B12 levels and elevated homocysteine levels than those in the other two groups. Folic acid and vitamin B12 levels were positively correlated with birth weight, head circumference, and BMI, whereas homocysteine level was negatively correlated with these variables. The FGR ratio in the folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency group was higher than that in the sufficiency group (χ(2) = 4.717 and 4.437, P = 0.029 and 0.035, respectively). In addition, elevated homocysteine was associated with FGR (χ(2) = 5.366, P = 0.021). In conclusion, we found that folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency was associated with elevated homocysteine levels, which may increase susceptibility to FGR.

  9. Serial measurements of serum human placental lactogen (hPL) and serial ultrasound examinations in the evaluation of fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Steen; von Tabouillot, D; Schioler, V;

    2000-01-01

    weakly to intrauterine growth velocity (r=0.08). hPL-slope and intrauterine growth velocity independently predicted birth weight deviation. Heavy smoking which was stopped before the third trimester was not associated with low intrauterine growth velocity, but with a low hPL-slope. Preeclampsia...... and to the deviation in birth weight, but hPL seems to have a separate physiological significance, since it did not pick up when smoking was stopped and growth velocity was normalised and it did not at all detect the increased growth associated with preeclampsia.......Serial serum hPL measurements and serial ultrasound fetometry were compared in the evaluation of fetal growth by relating these two parameters to size at birth and to clinical factors known to influence size at birth. The data were from a prospective study of 1000 consecutive pregnant women...

  10. Effects of hyperthyroidism on expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and apoptosis in fetal adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, T; Hulya Uz, Y; Karabacak, R; Karaboga, I; Demirtas, S; Cagatay Cicek, A

    2015-11-26

    This study investigated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular density, and apoptosis in fetal rat adrenal glands with hyperthyroidism in late gestation. Twelve mature female Wistar albino rats with the same biological and physiological features were used for this study. Rats were divided into two groups: control and hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism was induced by daily subcutaneous injections of L-thyroxine (250 μg/kg) before pregnancy for 21 days and during pregnancy. Rats in the control and hyperthyroidism groups were caged according to the number of male rats. Zero day of pregnancy (Day 0) was indicated when the animals were observed to have microscopic sperm in vaginal smears. Pregnant rats were sacrificed on the 20th day of pregnancy; blood from each animal was collected to determine the concentrations of maternal adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroxine. Rat fetuses were then quickly removed from the uterus, and the adrenal glands of the fetuses were dissected. VEGF expression, vascular density, and apoptosis were analyzed in fetal rat adrenal glands. Maternal serum levels of the adrenocorticotropic hormone and free thyroxine were significantly higher in the hyperthyroidism group than in the control group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of VEGF positive cells and vessel density significantly increased in the hyperthyroidism rat fetal adrenal group compared with the control group. Hyperthyroidism did not change the fetal and placental weights and the number of fetuses. This study demonstrates that hyperthyroidism may have an effect on the development of rat adrenal glands mediated by VEGF expression, angiogenesis, and apoptosis.

  11. Effects of Prenatal Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation on Fetal Growth Factors: A Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Alison D.; Schulze, Kerry J.; Nanayakkara-Bind, Ashika; Arguello, Margia; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Ali, Hasmot; Wu, Lee; West, Keith P.; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal multiple micronutrient (MM) supplementation improves birth weight through increased fetal growth and gestational age, but whether maternal or fetal growth factors are involved is unclear. Our objective was to examine the effect of prenatal MM supplementation on intrauterine growth factors and the associations between growth factors and birth outcomes in a rural setting in Bangladesh. In a double-blind, cluster-randomized, controlled trial of MM vs. iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation, we measured placental growth hormone (PGH) at 10 weeks and PGH and human placental lactogen (hPL) at 32 weeks gestation in maternal plasma (n = 396) and insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in cord plasma (n = 325). Birth size and gestational age were also assessed. Early pregnancy mean (SD) BMI was 19.5 (2.4) kg/m2 and birth weight was 2.68 (0.41) kg. There was no effect of MM on concentrations of maternal hPL or PGH, or cord insulin, IGF-1, or IGFBP-1. However, among pregnancies of female offspring, hPL concentration was higher by 1.1 mg/L in the third trimester (95% CI: 0.2, 2.0 mg/L; p = 0.09 for interaction); and among women with height pregnancy nutritional status and sex of the offspring, but this should be examined in other studies. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00860470 PMID:26431336

  12. Two cases of fetal goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Saini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anterior fetal neck masses are rarely encountered. Careful routine ultrasound screening can reveal intrauterine fetal goiters (FGs. The incidence of goitrous hypothyroidism is 1 in 30,000-50,000 live births. The consequences of both FG and impaired thyroid function are serious. Aims and Objectives: To emphasize role of ultrasound in both invasive and non-invasive management of FG. Materials and Methods: Two pregnant patients, during second trimester, underwent routine antenatal ultrasound revealing FG, were investigated and managed. Results: Case 1: Revealed FG with fetal hypothyroidism. Intra-amniotic injection l-thyroxine given. Follow-up ultrasound confirmed the reduction of the goiter size. At birth, thyroid dyshormogenesis was suspected and neonate discharged on 50 mcg levothyroxine/day with normal growth and development so far. Case 2: Hypothyroid mother with twin pregnancy revealed FG, in twin 1, confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging (1.5 × 1.63 cm. The other twin had no thyroid swelling. Cordocentesis confirmed hypothyroidism in twin 1. Maternal thyroxine dose increased as per biochemical parameters leading to reduction in FG size. Mother delivered preterm and none of the twins had thyroid swelling. Fetal euthyroidism was confirmed on biochemical screening. Conclusion: FG during pregnancy should be thoroughly evaluated, diagnosed and immediately treated; although in utero options for fetal hypothyroidism management are available, emphasis should be laid on non-invasive procedures. Newer and better resolution techniques in ultrasonography are more specific and at the same time are less harmful.

  13. Fetal Growth Restriction Induces Heterogeneous Effects on Vascular Biomechanical and Functional Properties in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañas, Daniel; Herrera, Emilio A.; García-Herrera, Claudio; Celentano, Diego; Krause, Bernardo J.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with a variety of cardiometabolic diseases in adulthood which could involve remodeling processes of the vascular walls that could start in the fetal period. However, there is no consensus whether this remodeling affects in a similar way the whole vascular system. We aimed to determine the effects of FGR on the vasoactive and biomechanical properties of umbilical and systemic vessels in fetal guinea pigs. Methods: FGR was induced by implanting ameroid occluders at mid-gestation in uterine arteries of pregnant guinea pigs, whilst the control group was exposed to simulated surgery. At the term of gestation, systemic arteries (aorta, carotid and femoral) and umbilical vessels were isolated to determine ex vivo contractile and biomechanical responses (stretch-stress until rupture) on a wire myograph, as well as opening angle and residual stresses. Histological characteristics in tissue samples were measured by van Gieson staining. Results: Aorta and femoral arteries from FGR showed an increased in biomechanical markers of stiffness (p < 0.01), contractile capacity (p < 0.05) and relative media thickness (p < 0.01), but a reduced internal diameter (p < 0.001), compared with controls. There were no differences in the biomechanical properties of carotid and umbilical from control and FGR fetuses, but FGR umbilical arteries had a decreased contractile response to KCl (p < 0.05) along with a reduced relative media thickness (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Altogether, these changes in functional, mechanical and morphological properties suggest that FGR is associated with a heterogeneous pro-constrictive vascular remodeling affecting mainly the lower body fetal arteries. These effects would be set during a pathologic pregnancy in order to sustain the fetal blood redistribution in the FGR and may persist up to adulthood increasing the risk of a cardiovascular disease. PMID:28344561

  14. Relationship between leptin levels in maternal blood,amniotic fluid,arterial and venous cord blood and fetal growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽莎; 薛昭卿; 宋岩峰; 何晓宇

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship between leptin concentration and fetal growth.Methods: Levels of leptin in maternal serum, amniotic fluid, arterial and venouscord blood of 65 normal parturients (gestational age 37-42weeks) were measured by ra-dioimmunoassay (RIA) method. At the same time, maternal blood lipids were detected.Neonates were divided into three groups: small for gestational age (SGA) group (n=10), appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group (n=45), large for gestational age(LGA) group (n= 10). Statistical analysis was performed by t test, variance analysisand correlation analysis.Results: (1) There was no obvious correlation between leptin concentrations in ma-ternal serum and arterial/ venous cord blood, amniotic fluid, and also no correlationwith birth weight and placental weight (P>0.05). Maternal body mass index signifi-cantly correlated with birth weight and neonatal length and leptin levels in arterial andvenous cord blood (P<0.01). Leptin levels in arterial and venous cord blood positivelycorrelated significantly with placental and neonatal weight and body length (P<0.01)and negatively correlated with high density lipoprotein (P<0. 01). There was no obvi-ous correlation between fetal gender and leptin concentrations in maternal serum, arteri-al and venous cord blood and amniotic fluid; (2) Leptin levels in arterial and venouscord blood , placental weight in LGA group were significantly higher than those in SGAand AGA group (P<0.05). Among three groups, leptin concentrations in maternalblood were significantly higher than those in arterial and venous cord blood (P<0.05).Conclusions: (1)Fetal leptin is synthesized in uterus, born of itself and placenta.Leptin levels in arterial and venous cord blood are related to the intrauterine growthpattern. It might positively regulate birth weight and body fat content. (2)Either mater-nal or fetal leptin was not correlated with fetal gender. There is no gender difference infetal leptin

  15. Fetal Growth Retardation And Its Relationship To Maternal Blood Lead Levels, Antioxidants And Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragab H. EL-Yamani* and Ahmed E. Karim

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead intoxication in human being has been documented since the second century BC and its deleterious effects continue to be a major health hazard for the population, it is demonstrated that lead exposure might decrease the defense mechanism of the cell to the oxidative stress, and therefore, elevate the reactive oxygen species (ROS generation which enhance vascular reactivity. Since vitamin E (Vit. E and vitamin C (Vit. C are natural antioxidants, changes in their status may reflect alterations in free radical production rate and their concentrations are biological markers of oxidative stress. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between maternal blood lead levels and the antioxidants Vit.E and Vit.C in a step to understand the mechanism of action of lead and its possible influence on maternal blood pressure and fetal growth at the lower community exposure levels. The study included, 42 patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH with or without proteinuria, 31 patients with fetal growth retardation (FGR and 23 women with uncomplicated pregnancy. We demonstrated that, the maternal blood lead levels were significantly high in the PIH (30.5 ±0.978 µg/dl and FGR groups (28.87 ±1.21 µg/dl as compared with the uncomplicated pregnancy group (17.82 ±110µg/dl at P0.00l Vit.E concentrations were significantly lower in both PIH and FGR (0.941 ±0.033 mg/dl and 0.866 ± 0.055 mg/dl respectively when compared with normal group (2.00±0.085 mg/dl. Regarding Vit.C in the 2 studied groups there was significantly low levels in PIH group (0.772 ±0.030 mg/dl and FGR (0.847 ±0.039 mg/dl in comparison with control group (l.23 ±0.06 mg/dl. We observed significant negative correlation between maternal blood lead levels and Vit.E in PIH and FGR group. A significant negative correlation was also observed between maternal lead levels and Vit.C in both studied groups. We concluded that high blood lead levels in pregnancy are associated

  16. Lifetime racism and blood pressure changes during pregnancy: implications for fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmert, Clayton J; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Srinivas, Sindhu K; Glynn, Laura M; Hobel, Calvin J; Sandman, Curt A

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that exposure to racism partially explains why African American women are 2 to 3 times more likely to deliver low birth weight and preterm infants. However, the physiological pathways by which racism exerts these effects are unclear. This study examined how lifetime exposure to racism, in combination with maternal blood pressure changes during pregnancy, was associated with fetal growth. African American pregnant women (n = 39) reported exposure to childhood and adulthood racism in several life domains (e.g., at school, at work), which were experienced directly or indirectly, meaning vicariously experienced when someone close to them was treated unfairly. A research nurse measured maternal blood pressure at 18 to 20 and 30 to 32 weeks gestation. Standardized questionnaires and trained interviewers assessed maternal demographics. Neonatal length of gestation and birth weight data were collected from medical charts. Childhood racism interacted with diastolic blood pressure to predict birth weight. Specifically, women with two or more domains of indirect exposure to racism in childhood and increases in diastolic blood pressure between 18 and 32 weeks had lower gestational age adjusted birth weight than the other women. A similar pattern was found for direct exposure to racism in childhood. Increases in diastolic blood pressure between the second and third trimesters predicted lower birth weight, but only when racism exposure in childhood (direct or indirect) was relatively high. Understanding pregnant African American women's lifetime direct and indirect experiences with racism in combination with prenatal blood pressure may improve identification of highest risk subgroups within this population. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Hepatic hemodynamics and fetal growth: a relationship of interest for further research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharona Vonck

    Full Text Available It is well known that hepatic hemodynamics is an important physiologic mechanism in the regulation of cardiac output (CO. It has been reported that maternal cardiac output relates to neonatal weight at birth.In this study, we assessed the correlation between maternal hepatic vein Doppler flow parameters, cardiac output and neonatal birth weight.Healthy women with uncomplicated second or third trimester pregnancy attending the outpatient antenatal clinic of Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg in Genk (Belgium, had a standardized combined electrocardiogram-Doppler ultrasound with Impedance Cardiography, for measurement of Hepatic Vein Impedance Index (HVI  =  [maximum velocity - minimum velocity]/maximum velocity, venous pulse transit time (VPTT  =  time interval between corresponding ECG and Doppler wave characteristics and cardiac output (heart rate x stroke volume. After delivery, a population-specific birth weight chart, established from a cohort of 27000 neonates born in the index hospital, was used to define customized birth weight percentiles (BW%. Correlations between HVI, VPTT, CO and BW% were calculated using Spearman's ρ, linear regression analysis and R2 goodness of fit in SPSS 22.0.A total of 73 women were included. There was a negative correlation between HVI and VPTT (ρ = -0.719, p < 0.001. Both HVI and VPTT correlated with CO (ρ = -0.403, p < 0.001 and ρ = 0.332, p < 0.004 resp. and with BW% (ρ =  -0.341, p < 0.003 and ρ = 0.296, p < 0.011 resp..Our data illustrate that the known contribution of hepatic hemodynamics in the regulation of cardiac output is also true for women with uncomplicated pregnancies. Our study is the first to illustrate a potential link between maternal hepatic hemodynamics and neonatal birth weight. Whether this link is purely associative or whether hepatic vascular physiology has a direct impact on fetal growth is to be evaluated in more extensive clinical and experimental research.

  18. Influence of Echinacea purpurea intake during pregnancy on fetal growth and tissue angiogenic activity.

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    Ewa Sommer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of angiogenesis and control of blood vessels sprouting are fundamental to human health, as they play key roles in many physiological and pathological conditions. Intake of different pharmaceuticals with antiangiogenic activity by pregnant women may lead to severe developmental disturbances as it was described in case of thalidomide. It may also cause immunomodulatory effects as it was shown for antibiotics, theobromine, caffeic acid or catechins on the pregnant mice model. At present, Echinacea purpurea-based phytoceuticals are among the most popular herbals in the marketplace. Many compounds of Echinacea extracts (polysaccharides, alkamides, polyphenols, glycoproteins exert immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Echinacea is one of the most powerful and effective remedies against many kinds of bacterial and viral infections. In previous studies we shown significant inhibitory effect of the Echinacea purpurea based remedy on tumour angiogenic activity using cutaneous angiogenesis test, and an inhibitory effect on L-1 sarcoma growth was observed . The aim of the present study was to establish whether pharmaceuticals containing alcoholic extracts of Echinacea purpurea given to pregnant mice influence angiogenic activity and tissue VEGF and bFGF production of their fetuses. We showed that angiogenic activity of tissue homogenates was increased in Esberitox group and diminished in case of Immunal forte as compared to standard diet group. In case of Echinapur group we did not find significant differences in angiogenic activity. VEGF and bFGF concentration were lower in all groups compared to the control. In the case of Echinapur and Esberitox number of fetuses in one litter were slightly lower as compared to control group, but the difference is on the border of statistical significance. In conclusion, there is some possibility that pharmaceuticals containing Echinacea purpurea might influence fetal development in

  19. Influence of Echinacea purpurea intake during pregnancy on fetal growth and tissue angiogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcz, Ewa; Sommer, Ewa; Nartowska, Jadwiga; Balan, Barbara; Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna; Skopińska-Rózewska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    The process of angiogenesis and control of blood vessels sprouting are fundamental to human health, as they play key roles in many physiological and pathological conditions. Intake of different pharmaceuticals with antiangiogenic activity by pregnant women may lead to severe developmental disturbances as it was described in case of thalidomide. It may also cause immunomodulatory effects as it was shown for antibiotics, theobromine, caffeic acid or catechins on the pregnant mice model. At present, Echinacea purpurea-based phytoceuticals are among the most popular herbals in the marketplace. Many compounds of Echinacea extracts (polysaccharides, alkamides, polyphenols, glycoproteins) exert immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Echinacea is one of the most powerful and effective remedies against many kinds of bacterial and viral infections. In previous studies we shown significant inhibitory effect of the Echinacea purpurea based remedy on tumour angiogenic activity using cutaneous angiogenesis test, and an inhibitory effect on L-1 sarcoma growth was observed . The aim of the present study was to establish whether pharmaceuticals containing alcoholic extracts of Echinacea purpurea given to pregnant mice influence angiogenic activity and tissue VEGF and bFGF production of their fetuses. We showed that angiogenic activity of tissue homogenates was increased in Esberitox group and diminished in case of Immunal forte as compared to standard diet group. In case of Echinapur group we did not find significant differences in angiogenic activity. VEGF and bFGF concentration were lower in all groups compared to the control. In the case of Echinapur and Esberitox number of fetuses in one litter were slightly lower as compared to control group, but the difference is on the border of statistical significance. In conclusion, there is some possibility that pharmaceuticals containing Echinacea purpurea might influence fetal development in human also

  20. Influence of Echinacea purpurea intake during pregnancy on fetal growth and tissue angiogenic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Chorostowska-Wynimko

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of angiogenesis and control of blood vessels sprouting are fundamental to human health, as they play key roles in many physiological and pathological conditions. Intake of different pharmaceuticals with antiangiogenic activity by pregnant women may lead to severe developmental disturbances as it was described in case of thalidomide. It may also cause immunomodulatory effects as it was shown for antibiotics, theobromine, caffeic acid or catechins on the pregnant mice model. At present, Echinacea purpurea-based phytoceuticals are among the most popular herbals in the marketplace. Many compounds of Echinacea extracts (polysaccharides, alkamides, polyphenols, glycoproteins exert immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Echinacea is one of the most powerful and effective remedies against many kinds of bacterial and viral infections. In previous studies we shown significant inhibitory effect of the Echinacea purpurea based remedy on tumour angiogenic activity using cutaneous angiogenesis test, and an inhibitory effect on L-1 sarcoma growth was observed . The aim of the present study was to establish whether pharmaceuticals containing alcoholic extracts of Echinacea purpurea given to pregnant mice influence angiogenic activity and tissue VEGF and bFGF production of their fetuses. We showed that angiogenic activity of tissue homogenates was increased in Esberitox group and diminished in case of Immunal forte as compared to standard diet group. In case of Echinapur group we did not find significant differences in angiogenic activity. VEGF and bFGF concentration were lower in all groups compared to the control. In the case of Echinapur and Esberitox number of fetuses in one litter were slightly lower as compared to control group, but the difference is on the border of statistical significance. In conclusion, there is some possibility that pharmaceuticals containing Echinacea purpurea might influence fetal development in

  1. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Fetal Growth: A Large Prospective Cohort Study in China

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    Min-Shan Lu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There was limited evidence revealing the association of Chinese maternal dietary patterns with fetal growth. We aimed to examine the relationship of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy to neonatal birth weight and birth weight for gestational age in a Chinese population. A total of 6954 mother-child pairs were included from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cluster analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. The following six dietary patterns were identified: “Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups” (n 1026, 14.8%, “Dairy” (n 1020, 14.7%, “Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts” (n 799, 11.5%, “Meats” (n 1066, 15.3%, “Vegetables” (n 1383, 19.9%, and “Varied” (n 1224, 17.6%. The mean neonatal birth weight Z scores of women in the above patterns were 0.02, 0.07, 0.20, 0.01, 0.06, and 0.14, respectively. Women in the “Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts” and “Varied” groups had significantly heavier infants compared with those in the “Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups” group. Compared with women in the “Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups” group, those in the “Varied” group had marginally significantly lower odds of having a small-for-gestational age (SGA infant after adjustment for other confounders (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.57, 1.04, p = 0.08. These findings suggest that compared to a traditional Cantonese diet high in cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups, a diet high in fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts might be associated with a higher birth weight, while a varied diet might be associated with a greater birth weight and also a decreased risk of having a SGA baby.

  2. The influence of maternal Lewis, Secretor and ABO(H) blood groups on fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P; Greer, I A

    2011-12-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with thrombosis of the placenta and an increased risk of subsequent vascular disease in the mother and fetus. The products of interactions between ABO(H), Lewis and Secretor genes are also associated with thrombosis and vascular disease risk. A prospective case-control study of mothers with a severe FGR pregnancy (cases, n = 128; controls, n = 288) was performed to determine whether FGR is associated with particular maternal blood groups. No association with ABO(H) status was observed, but FGR was more common in maternal secretors (odds ratio [OR] 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-2.69) and consequently in those mothers expressing Le(b) on their red cells (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.15-2.83), with a reduced risk in non-secretors and those expressing Le(a). Given the association between blood groups and both activated protein C resistance (APCR) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) levels, post hoc pilot studies on first-trimester APCR and VWF antigen levels and blood group genotypes were performed. No relationship with Lewis or Secretor was observed. Despite this, lower first-trimester VWF levels were observed in pregnancies subsequently complicated by FGR.  This is the first study reporting a relationship between maternal Secretor/Lewis status and FGR. A link between blood groups and FGR is plausible, as both are associated with cardiovascular disease. We observed no relationship between Lewis/Secretor status and VWF or APCR, but this should be confirmed in a larger study. Thus, the mechanism whereby Secretor and/or Lewis influences FGR is unknown. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  3. Smoking-Induced Changes in the Maternal Immune, Endocrine, and Metabolic Pathways and Their Impact on Fetal Growth: A Topical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabra, Sally; Gratacós, Eduard; Gómez Roig, Maria Dolores

    2017-01-01

    Perinatal maternal smoking exposure (PMSE) is one of the major environmental risk factors encountered by the fetus. PMSE is usually associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes that may manifest at different stages of life. Nevertheless, fetal growth restriction is the most common smoking-induced side effect. PMSE induces changes in the maternal multiple organ systems. These alterations may affect placentation, which subsequently affects fetal growth. It is worthy to note, however, that the extent of maternal smoking-induced changes depends mainly on the maternal level of susceptibility. Hence, the perinatal pregnancy outcomes vary depending on the interaction between the triad: the maternal, fetal, and placental modifications, making it more complex. In this review, we try to unveil the effect of smoking-induced maternal changes on the maternal immune, endocrine, and metabolic pathways and their impact on fetal growth. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Imprinted anomalies in fetal and childhood growth disorders: the model of Russell-Silver and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netchine, Irène; Rossignol, Sylvie; Azzi, Salah; Brioude, Fréderic; Le Bouc, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Fetal growth is a complex process. Its restriction is associated with morbidity and long term metabolic consequences. Imprinted genes have a critical role in mammalian fetal growth. The human chromosome 11p15 encompasses two imprinted domains regulated by their own differentially methylated region (DMR), also called Imprinted Control Region (ICR1 at the H19/IGF-2 domain, paternally methylated), and ICR2 at the KCNQ1/CDKN1C domain (maternally methylated). Loss of imprinting at these two domains is implicated in two growth disorders clinically opposite. A loss of DNA methylation (LOM) at ICR1 is identified in over 50% of patients with Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS), characterized by intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, spared cranial growth, frequent body asymmetry and severe feeding difficulties. Inversely, a gain of methylation at ICR1 is found in 10% of patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), an overgrowth syndrome with an enhanced childhood tumor risk. We have identified over 150 RSS patients with 11p15 LOM allowing long-term follow-up studies and proposal of clinical guidelines. We also found that ∼10% of RSS patients and ∼25% of BWS patients have multilocus LOM at imprinted regions other than ICR1 or ICR2 11p15, respectively. Recent studies have identified cis-acting regulatory elements and trans-acting factors involved in the regulation of 11p15 imprinting, establishing new potential mechanisms of RSS and BWS.

  5. Antenatal betamethasone and fetal growth in prematurely born children: implications for temperament traits at the age of 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Lano, Aulikki; Peltoniemi, Outi; Hallman, Mikko; Kari, M Anneli

    2009-01-01

    We explored whether repeated dose of antenatal betamethasone and variation in intrauterine growth of prematurely born children predict temperament characteristics at the age of 2 years. The patients (n = 142) were prematurely born children (mean gestational age: 31.0 weeks; range: 24.6-35.0 weeks) who participated in a randomized and blinded trial testing the effects of a repeated dose of antenatal betamethasone in imminent preterm birth. Fetal growth was estimated as weight, length, and head circumference in SDs according to Finnish growth charts. Parents assessed their toddlers' temperament with 201 items of the Early Childhood Temperament Questionnaire (mean child corrected age: 2.1 years). No significant main effects of repeated betamethasone on toddler temperament existed. However, a significant interaction between study group and duration of exposure to betamethasone emerged; those exposed to a repeated dose for >24 hours before delivery were more impulsive. One-SD increases in weight, length, and head circumference at birth were associated with 0.14- to 0.19-SD lower levels of negative affectivity (fearfulness, anger proneness, and sadness); 1-SD increases in length, weight, and head circumference at birth were associated with 0.14- to 0.18-SD higher levels of effortful control (self-regulation). Repeated antenatal betamethasone did not induce alterations in toddler temperament. The results, however, suggest that a longer duration of exposure is associated with higher impulsivity scores. Regardless of betamethasone exposure, slower fetal growth exerted influences on temperament. Our findings indicate prenatal programming of psychological development and imply that more attention is needed to support the development of infants born at the lower end of the fetal growth distribution.

  6. Expression of epigenetic machinery genes is sensitive to maternal obesity and weight loss in relation to fetal growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, Polina E; Voisin, Sarah; Jouin, Mélanie; Jouneau, Luc; Prézelin, Audrey; Lecoutre, Simon; Breton, Christophe; Jammes, Hélène; Junien, Claudine; Gabory, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity impacts fetal growth and pregnancy outcomes. To counteract the deleterious effects of obesity on fertility and pregnancy issue, preconceptional weight loss is recommended to obese women. Whether this weight loss is beneficial/detrimental for offspring remains poorly explored. Epigenetic mechanisms could be affected by maternal weight changes, perturbing expression of key developmental genes in the placenta or fetus. Our aim was to investigate the effects of chronic maternal obesity on feto-placental growth along with the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. We also tested whether preconceptional weight loss could alleviate these effects. Female mice were fed either a control diet (CTRL group), a high-fat diet (obese (OB) group), or a high-fat diet switched to a control diet 2 months before conception (weight loss (WL) group). At mating, OB females presented an obese phenotype while WL females normalized metabolic parameters. At embryonic day 18.5 (E18.5), fetuses from OB females presented fetal growth restriction (FGR; -13 %) and 28 % of the fetuses were small for gestational age (SGA). Fetuses from WL females normalized this phenotype. The expression of 60 epigenetic machinery genes and 32 metabolic genes was measured in the fetal liver, placental labyrinth, and junctional zone. We revealed 23 genes altered by maternal weight trajectories in at least one of three tissues. The fetal liver and placental labyrinth were more responsive to maternal obesity than junctional zone. One third (18/60) of the epigenetic machinery genes were differentially expressed between at least two maternal groups. Interestingly, genes involved in the histone acetylation pathway were particularly altered (13/18). In OB group, lysine acetyltransferases and Bromodomain-containing protein 2 were upregulated, while most histone deacetylases were downregulated. In WL group, the expression of only a subset of these genes was normalized. This study highlights the high

  7. [Fetal magnetocardiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, P

    1997-09-01

    demonstrate the potential of the method in the examination of the fetal conductive system, arrhythmias, congential defects, growth, development of the autonomic system, acidosis and distress. Furthermore, first results in pathological cases indicate that it may become a valuable tool in prenatal diagnostics. Improvements in instrumentation as well as prospective multicenter studies with larger numbers of appropriate subjects are required to determine whether magnetocardiography will establish itself as a new tool in clinical fetal, surveillance.

  8. Prenatal origin of obesity and their complications: Gestational diabetes, maternal overweight and the paradoxical effects of fetal growth restriction and macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, Asher

    2011-09-01

    Pregestational (PGDM) and gestational (GDM) diabetes may be associated with a variety of fetal effects including increased rate of spontaneous abortions, intrauterine fetal death, congenital anomalies, neurodevelopmental problems and increased risk of perinatal complications. Additional problems of concern are fetal growth disturbances causing increased or decreased birth weight. Optimal control of maternal blood glucose is known to reduce these changes. Among the long lasting effects of these phenomena are a high rate of overweight and obesity at childhood and a high tendency to develop the "metabolic syndrome" characterized by hypertension, cardio-vascular complications and type 2 diabetes. Similarly, maternal overweight and obesity during pregnancy or excessive weight gain are also associated with increased obesity and complications in the offspring. Although there are different causes for fetal growth restriction (FGR) or for fetal excessive growth (macrosomis), paradoxically both are associated with the "metabolic syndrome" and its long term consequences. The exact mechanism(s) underlying these long term effects on growth are not fully elucidated, but they involve insulin resistance, fetal hyperleptinemia, hypothalamic changes and most probably epigenetic changes. Preventive measures to avoid the metabolic syndrome and its complications seem to be a tight dietary control and physical activity in the children born to obese or diabetic mothers or who had antenatal growth disturbances for other known or unknown reasons.

  9. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional Doppler assessment of fetal growth restriction with different severity and onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Oded; Barnea, Ofer; Shalev, Josef; Barkat, Jonathan; Kovo, Michal; Golan, Abraham; Bar, Jacob

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the role of three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler ultrasonography in the assessment of fetal growth-restriction (FGR) with various degrees of severity and onset, and compare the results with the analysis of two-dimensional (2D) Doppler. Vascular indices extracted from 3D Doppler measurements of the placenta were compared with indices of flow-velocity waveforms extracted from 2D Doppler measurements of the major sites of the fetal circulation between FGR (study group) and uncomplicated pregnancies (control group) from 25 to 38 weeks' gestation. Three-dimensional indices were significantly lower in pregnancies complicated by FGR compared with uncomplicated pregnancies. When measured in placental periphery, vascularization index was 9.4 ± 9.6 in FGR pregnancies compared with 16 ± 14.7, P = 0.04. Flow index was 33.9 ± 6.9 compared with 38.7 ± 4.9, P = 0.03 and the vascularization-flow index was 3.8 ± 4.3 compared with 6.5 ± 6, respectively, P = 0.03. Among the conventional 2D indices, umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery pulsatility indices were not significantly different between the FGR and control groups. Higher rate of maternal or fetal compartment vascular lesions were detected in the FGR group. Three-dimensional Doppler was found to be more strongly associated with placental vascular compromise than conventional 2D Doppler, regardless of severity and onset of fetal growth restriction. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Mental disorders, functional impairment, and nerve growth factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salles FHM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fanny Helena Martins Salles,1 Pedro San Martin Soares,1 Carolina David Wiener,1 Thaise Campos Mondin,1 Paula Moraes da Silva,1 Karen Jansen,1–3 Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza,1 Ricardo Azevedo da Silva,1 Jean Pierre Oses1–3 1Translational Science on Brain Disorders, Department of Health and Behavior, Catholic University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; 2Translational Psychiatry Program, 3Center of Excellence on Mood Disorders, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth Medical School, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Nerve growth factor (NGF is an important member of the neurotrophin family and its alteration has been associated with psychiatric disorders. Functionality consists of the activities that an individual can perform, as well as their social participation, which is an important factor in analyzing the carrier living conditions of subjects with psychiatric suffering. Several studies have evaluated functionality in bipolar disorder; however, no studies have evaluated the functionality in other mental disorders. There are also few studies investigating the association between functionality and the biological bases of mental disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the serum NGF levels in psychiatric patients and to verify a possible association between the serum neurotrophic levels and functionality. This was a cross-sectional study with a convenient sample obtained from the Public Mental Health Service from the south of Brazil. The final sample was composed of 286 patients enrolled from July 2013 to October 2014. Data was collected using a sociodemographic questionnaire, and the diagnosis was confirmed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I and a Functioning Assessment Short Test. The serum NGF levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistic

  11. Intrauterine Growth Restricted Rats Exercised at Pregnancy: Maternal-Fetal Repercussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvino, S B; Netto, A O; Sinzato, Y K; Campos, K E; Calderon, I M P; Rudge, M V C; Volpato, G T; Zambrano, E; Damasceno, D C

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of swimming in pregnant rats born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and their offspring, IUGR rats were obtained using the streptozotocin-induced severe diabetic (SD) rats. In this study, the nondiabetic parental generation presented 10 rats and diabetic parental generation presented 116 rats. Of these, the mated nondiabetic female rats were 10 and the number of diabetic rats was 45. In relation to term pregnancy, there were 10 animals in the nondiabetic group and 15 rats in the diabetic group. In the offspring of SD rats (IUGR group), 43 females were classified as small for pregnancy age, 19 rats were classified as appropriate for pregnancy age, and 0 female was classified as large for pregnancy age. The nondiabetic and SD pregnant rats generated offspring with appropriate (control [C]) and small (IUGR) weight for pregnancy age, respectively. At adult life, the C group was maintained as nonexercised C group and IUGR rats were distributed into 2 subgroups, namely, nonexercised (IUGR) and exercised (IUGRex). The rate of mated rats in the IUGR group was reduced compared to the C group. During pregnancy, the IUGR rats presented hyperinsulinemia, impaired reproductive outcomes, decreased body weight, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperlactacidemia. The IUGRex presented reduced insulin and triglyceride levels. Thus, swimming improved lipid metabolism and increased insulin sensitivity. However, the offspring showed retarded growth, reinforcing the need to stimulate the exercise practice in women under supervision with different professional expertise to promote appropriate gestational conditions and improve perinatal outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION AND ITS CORRELATION WITH FETAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : IUGR is one of the most serious challenges in both developed and developing contraries . I t is the single most important factor that determines in chances of child survival. In our country PGRF remain one of the commonest cause of neonates morbidity and mortality 30% of neonatal death are done to IUGR . D espite of all efforts by government 10 0% antenatal care is poor but women are seeking health facility for delivery at time ever more important to identify such high risk pregnancy and manage for better met and fetal examination (one step in 3 rd trimester can be used as a screening procedure f or detection of IUGR babies. MATERIAL AND METHODS : all pregnant women coming to the facility diagnosed to have IUGR by clinical method ( SFH, AG , clinical assessment of liquor were included in the study for duration of one year. M aternal and fetal outcome was noted in terms of mode of delivery and neonatal death, still birth, SGA, AGA. Apgar score of all the babies was noted to assess morbidity. OBSERVATION : O f the total antenatal women 200 were identify as IUGR by clinical method out of which most of were from age group 21 - 25 years comprising 72.4% of total cases. Maternal weight and height influence weight of the babies 75% IUGR babies were noted in height less than 145 cm. 78.5% were unbooked and 64 belong to rural population. various risk maternal factor s like hypertensive disorder 26%, anemia 16.5%, previous history of IUGR 9%, antepartum haemorrhage 6%, diabetes 1%, rh negative 4.5%, heart disease 1%, recurrent abortion 5% in 17% no identified risk factors were found, 80% were delivered vaginal, 67.5% b abies were SGA after birth as asses sed by clinical method, 68%, had A pgar score less than 7. Perinatal mortality constituted 27.3% of the babies. DISCUSSION : I ntrauterine growth restriction is one of the common abnormality encountered by the obstetrician, when present it increases perinatal morbidity and mortality. it is a

  13. Maternal undernutrition from early- to mid-gestation leads to growth retardation, cardiac ventricular hypertrophy, and increased liver weight in the fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonnahme, Kimberly A; Hess, Bret W; Hansen, Thomas R; McCormick, Richard J; Rule, Daniel C; Moss, Gary E; Murdoch, William J; Nijland, Mark J; Skinner, Donal C; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P

    2003-07-01

    Early gestation is critical for placentomal growth, differentiation, and vascularization, as well as fetal organogenesis. The fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis proposes that alterations in fetal nutrition and endocrine status result in developmental adaptations that permanently change structure, physiology, and metabolism, thereby predisposing individuals to cardiovascular, metabolic, and endocrine disease in adult life. Multiparous ewes were fed to 50% (nutrient restricted) or 100% (control fed) of total digestible nutrients from Days 28 to 78 of gestation. All ewes were weighed weekly and diets adjusted for individual weight loss or gain. Ewes were killed on Day 78 of gestation and gravid uteri recovered. Fetal body and organ weights were determined, and numbers, morphologies, diameters, and weights of all placentomes were obtained. From Day 28 to Day 78, restricted ewes lost 7.4% of body weight, while control ewes gained 7.5%. Maternal and fetal blood glucose concentrations were reduced in restricted versus control pregnancies. Fetuses were markedly smaller in the restricted group than in the control group. Further, restricted fetuses exhibited greater right- and left-ventricular and liver weights per unit fetal weight than control fetuses. No treatment differences were observed in any gross placentomal measurement. However, caruncular vascularity was enhanced in conceptuses from nutrient-restricted ewes but only in twin pregnancies. While these alterations in fetal/placental development may be beneficial to early fetal survival in the face of a nutrient restriction, their effects later in gestation as well as in postnatal life need further investigation.

  14. The value of predicting restriction of fetal growth and compromise of its wellbeing: Systematic quantitative overviews (meta-analysis of test accuracy literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Stephen C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction of fetal growth and compromise of fetal wellbeing remain significant causes of perinatal death and childhood disability. At present, there is a lack of scientific consensus about the best strategies for predicting these conditions before birth. Therefore, there is uncertainty about the best management of pregnant women who might have a growth restricted baby. This is likely to be due to a dearth of clear collated information from individual research studies drawn from different sources on this subject. Methods/Design A series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses will be undertaken to determine, among pregnant women, the accuracy of various tests to predict and/or diagnose fetal growth restriction and compromise of fetal wellbeing. We will search Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, MEDION, citation lists of review articles and eligible primary articles and will contact experts in the field. Independent reviewers will select studies, extract data and assess study quality according to established criteria. Language restrictions will not be applied. Data synthesis will involve meta-analysis (where appropriate, exploration of heterogeneity and publication bias. Discussion The project will collate and synthesise the available evidence regarding the value of the tests for predicting restriction of fetal growth and compromise of fetal wellbeing. The systematic overviews will assess the quality of the available evidence, estimate the magnitude of potential benefits, identify those tests with good predictive value and help formulate practice recommendations.

  15. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorocarboxylic Acids (PFCAs) and Fetal and Postnatal Growth in the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Adgent, Margaret; Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Chen, Pau-Chung; Hsiung, Chao A.; Wang, Shu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) are environmentally and biologically persistent synthetic chemicals. PFCAs include perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA; C8) and long-chain PFCAs (C9–C20). Studies examining long-chain PFCAs and fetal and postnatal growth are limited. Objectives: We investigated the associations of prenatal exposure to long-chain PFCAs with fetal and postnatal growth. Methods: For 223 Taiwanese mothers and their term infants, we measured PFOA and four long-chain PFCAs (ng/mL) in third-trimester maternal serum; infant weight (kg), length and head circumference (cm) at birth; and childhood weight and height at approximately 2, 5, 8, and 11 years of age. For each sex, we used multivariable linear regression to examine associations between ln-transformed prenatal PFCAs and continuous infant measures, and logistic regression to examine small for gestational age (SGA). Linear mixed models were applied to prenatal PFCAs and childhood weight and height z-scores. Results: In girls, prenatal perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDeA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) concentrations were inversely associated with birth weight [e.g., βbirth weight (kg) = –0.06, 95% CI: –0.11, –0.01 per 1 ln-unit PFUnDA increase]; prenatal PFDeA and PFUnDA were associated with elevated odds of SGA; and PFDeA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA were associated with lower average childhood height z-score. In boys, prenatal PFNA, and PFDoDA were associated with reductions in height at certain ages in childhood, but not with size at birth. Conclusions: Prenatal exposure to long-chain PFCAs may interfere with fetal and childhood growth in girls, and childhood growth in boys. Citation: Wang Y, Adgent M, Su PH, Chen HY, Chen PC, Hsiung CA, Wang SL. 2016. Prenatal exposure to perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and fetal and postnatal growth in the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1794–1800;

  16. Short-term maternal psychological stress in the post-conception period in ewes affects fetal growth and gestation length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer; Ferguson, Drewe; Jauregui, Guillermo; Panarace, Martín; Medina, Mariano; Lehnert, Sigrid; Hill, Jonathan R

    2008-08-01

    Fetal development can be influenced by maternal environment in the peri-conceptional period. This study investigated the effect of maternal feed intake and psychological stress within the first 6 days after conception on embryo development and fetal growth. Superovulated ewes (n=40) were artificially inseminated with semen from one ram. Ewes were then divided into four groups (n=10): group 1 (control) was fed at maintenance level, group 2 (high) at 2x maintenance, and group 3 (low) at 0.5x maintenance on days 2-6 after conception. Group 4 (stress) was fed at maintenance level and then an intense physical and psychological stress challenge was applied for 1 h only on days 2 and 3 after conception. Embryos were recovered at day 6. A total of 113 transferable grade embryos were transferred singly into synchronized untreated recipients, while the remaining embryos (n=165) were fixed and stained for cell counts. Post-conception maternal stress or feed intake did not alter the cell count or grade of day 6 embryos. Fetuses from the stress group had longer crown-rump lengths at day 30 and longer femur length at day 58. Fetuses from the stressed and high feed groups had greater abdominal circumferences at day 85. Subsequent birth weights were not significantly different. Ewes carrying lambs from the stress treatment had shorter gestation lengths. These results show that short-term perturbations of the post-conception maternal environment have measurable effects on fetal development and gestation length.

  17. Overexpression of transforming growth factor-beta1 in fetal monkey lung results in prenatal pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantal, A F; Chen, H; Shi, T T; Lu, C-H; Fang, A B; Buckley, S; Kolb, M; Gauldie, J; Warburton, D; Shi, W

    2010-10-01

    Altered transforming growth factor (TGF)-β expression levels have been linked to a variety of human respiratory diseases, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia and pulmonary fibrosis. However, a causative role for aberrant TGF-β in neonatal lung diseases has not been defined in primates. Exogenous and transient TGF-β1 overexpression in fetal monkey lung was achieved by transabdominal ultrasound-guided fetal intrapulmonary injection of adenoviral vector expressing TGF-β1 at the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The lungs were then harvested near term, and fixed for histology and immunohistochemistry. Lung hypoplasia was observed where TGF-β1 was overexpressed during the second trimester. The most clearly marked phenotype consisted of severe pulmonary and pleural fibrosis, which was independent of the gestational time point when TGF-β1 was overexpressed. Increased cell proliferation, particularly in α-smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts, was detected within the fibrotic foci. But epithelium to mesenchyme transdifferentiation was not detected. Massive collagen fibres were deposited on the inner and outer sides of the pleural membrane, with an intact elastin layer in the middle. This induced fibrotic pathology persisted even after adenoviral-mediated TGF-β1 overexpression was no longer evident. Therefore, overexpression of TGF-β1 within developing fetal monkey lung results in severe and progressive fibrosis in lung parenchyma and pleural membrane, in addition to pulmonary hypoplasia.

  18. Therapeutic effect of hyperbaric and normobaric oxygen therapy on experimental fetal growth restriction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting WAN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the therapeutic effect of hyperbaric and normobaric oxygen on experimental fetal growth restriction(FGR in rats.Methods Forty pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups(8 each: control group(group N,did nothing to rats,sham operation group(group M,rats were only anesthetized on day 12 of gestation and did nothing else except that,FGR model group(group F,rats accepted partial ligation of both uterine arteries and veins on day 12 of gestation and no therapy after that,hyperbaric oxygen therapy group(group A,rats accepted hyperbaric oxygen treatment after the operation,normobaric hyperoxia therapy group(group B,rats accepted normobaric oxygen treatment after the operation.On day 21 of gestation,the fetuses and placentas in all groups were surgically taken out and weighted,and the incidence of FGR and mortality in the fetus,and pathological changes of placentas were analyzed.Results Newborn’s weight in group F,N,M,A and B respectively were 3.26±0.49g,4.57±0.37g,4.46±0.36g,4.11±0.37g and 4.08±0.32g,and the placenta weight were 0.40±0.05g,0.54±0.07g,0.53±0.08g,0.47±0.05g and 0.46±0.05g.Newborn’s weight and placenta in group F were significantly lower than that in group N and M(P 0.05.FGR rates in group N,M,F,A and B respectively were 1.33%,2.94%,83.10%,13.63% and 13.89%,and mortality rates were 1.33%,1.47%,11.27%,6.06% and 6.94%.The incidence of FGR and the mortality in group F were significantly higher than that in group N(P < 0.01,and in group A and B were significantly lower than that in group N(P < 0.01.Blood stasis and villous ischemia were found in placenta of FGR model rats.Placental microcirculation was significantly improved in treatment groups.Conclusion Both hyperbaric oxygen and normobaric oxygen have a similar and good therapeutic effect on experimental FGR in rats.

  19. [Influence of maternal nutritional status, weight gain and energy intake on fetal growth in high-risk pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Roseli Mieko Yamamoto; Paiva, Letícia Vieira; Costa, Verbênia Nunes; Liao, Adolfo Wenjaw; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2012-03-01

    To analyze the influence of maternal nutritional status, weight gain and energy consumption on fetal growth in high-risk pregnancies. A prospective study from August 2009 to August 2010 with the following inclusion criteria: puerperae up to the 5th postpartum day; high-risk singleton pregnancies (characterized by medical or obstetrical complications during pregnancy); live fetus at labor onset; delivery at the institution; maternal weight measured on the day of delivery, and presence of medical and/or obstetrical complications characterizing pregnancy as high-risk. Nutritional status was assessed by pregestational body mass index and body mass index in late pregnancy, and the patients were classified as: underweight, adequate, overweight and obese. A food frequency questionnaire was applied to evaluate energy consumption. We investigated maternal weight gain, delivery data and perinatal outcomes, as well as fetal growth based on the occurrence of small for gestational age and large for gestational age neonates. We included 374 women who were divided into three study groups according to newborn birth weight: adequate for gestational age (270 cases, 72.2%), small for gestational age (91 cases, 24.3%), and large for gestational age (13 cases, 3.5%). Univaried analysis showed that women with small for gestational age neonates had a significantly lower mean pregestational body mass index (23.5 kg/m², ppregnancy (27.7 kg/m², ppregnancy (25.3%, ppregnancy (34.3 kg/m², ppregnancy (53.8%, ppregnancy (OR=0.9; CI95% 0.8-0.9, ppregnancy (OR=3.6; 95%CI 1.1-11.7, p=0.04). The maternal nutritional status at the end of pregnancy in high-risk pregnancies is independently associated with fetal growth, the body mass index during late pregnancy is a protective factor against small for gestational age neonates, and maternal obesity is a risk factor for large for gestational age neonates.

  20. Effects of hyperthyroidism on expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and apoptosis in fetal adrenal glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karaca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, vascular density, and apoptosis in fetal rat adrenal glands with hyperthyroidism in late gestation. Twelve mature female Wistar albino rats with the same biological and physiological features were used for this study. Rats were divided into two groups: control and hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism was induced by daily subcutaneous injections of L-thyroxine (250 μg/kg before pregnancy for 21 days and during pregnancy. Rats in the control and hyperthyroidism groups were caged according to the number of male rats. Zero day of pregnancy (Day 0 was indicated when the animals were observed to have microscopic sperm in vaginal smears. Pregnant rats were sacrificed on the 20th day of pregnancy; blood from each animal was collected to determine the concentrations of maternal adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroxine. Rat fetuses were then quickly removed from the uterus, and the adrenal glands of the fetuses were dissected. VEGF expression, vascular density, and apoptosis were analyzed in fetal rat adrenal glands. Maternal serum levels of the adrenocorticotropic hormone and free thyroxine were significantly higher in the hyperthyroidism group than in the control group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of VEGF positive cells and vessel density significantly increased in the hyperthyroidism rat fetal adrenal group compared with the control group. Hyperthyroidism did not change the fetal and placental weights and the number of fetuses. This study demonstrates that hyperthyroidism may have an effect on the development of rat adrenal glands mediated by VEGF expression, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. 

  1. Glucose replacement to euglycemia causes hypoxia, acidosis, and decreased insulin secretion in fetal sheep with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozance, Paul J; Limesand, Sean W; Barry, James S; Brown, Laura D; Hay, William W

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional interventions for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have raised concerns for fetal toxicity, the mechanisms of which are unknown. Most of these attempts did not aim to normalize fetal metabolic conditions. Therefore, we used a model of IUGR to determine whether normalization of fetal hypoglycemia for 2 wks would be tolerated and increase insulin concentrations and pancreatic beta-cell mass. IUGR fetuses received either a direct saline infusion (Sal, the control group) or a 30% dextrose infusion (Glu) to normalize glucose concentrations. Neither insulin concentrations (0.11 +/- 0.01 Glu vs. 0.10 +/- 0.01 ng/mL Sal) nor beta-cell mass (65.2 +/- 10.3 Glu vs. 74.7 +/- 18.4 mg Sal) changed. Glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was lower in the Glu group. Glu fetuses became progressively more hypoxic: O2 content 1.4 +/- 0.5 Glu vs. 2.7 +/- 0.4 mM Sal, p < 0.05. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Paco2) (53.6 +/- 0.8 Glu vs. 51.6 +/- 0.8 Sal, p < 0.05) and lactate (7.74 +/- 3.82 Glu vs. 2.47 +/- 0.55 mM Sal, p < 0.0001) were greater and pH lower (7.275 +/- 0.071 Glu vs. 7.354 +/- 0.003 Sal, p < 0.01) in the Glu group. We conclude that correction of fetal hypoglycemia is not well tolerated and fails to increase insulin concentrations or beta-cell mass in IUGR fetuses.

  2. High fat diet induced developmental defects in the mouse: oocyte meiotic aneuploidy and fetal growth retardation/brain defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri M Luzzo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is associated with poor outcomes across the reproductive spectrum including infertility, increased time to pregnancy, early pregnancy loss, fetal loss, congenital abnormalities and neonatal conditions. Furthermore, the proportion of reproductive-aged woman that are obese in the population is increasing sharply. From current studies it is not clear if the origin of the reproductive complications is attributable to problems that arise in the oocyte or the uterine environment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the developmental basis of the reproductive phenotypes in obese animals by employing a high fat diet mouse model of obesity. We analyzed very early embryonic and fetal phenotypes, which can be parsed into three abnormal developmental processes that occur in obese mothers. The first is oocyte meiotic aneuploidy that then leads to early embryonic loss. The second is an abnormal process distinct from meiotic aneuploidy that also leads to early embryonic loss. The third is fetal growth retardation and brain developmental abnormalities, which based on embryo transfer experiments are not due to the obese uterine environment but instead must be from a defect that arises prior to the blastocyst stage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that reproductive complications in obese females are, at least in part, from oocyte maternal effects. This conclusion is consistent with IVF studies where the increased pregnancy failure rate in obese women returns to the normal rate if donor oocytes are used instead of autologous oocytes. We postulate that preconceptional weight gain adversely affects pregnancy outcomes and fetal development. In light of our findings, preconceptional counseling may be indicated as the preferable, earlier target for intervention in obese women desiring pregnancy and healthy outcomes.

  3. Effect of nebivolol treatment during pregnancy on the genital circulation, fetal growth and postnatal development in the Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoama, Kassem; Yassine Mallem, Mohamed; Thorin, Chantal; Betti, Eric; Desfontis, Jean-Claude

    2015-07-05

    The aim of study was to evaluate the effects of nebivolol, a cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic receptor blocker of the third generation with vasodilatory properties, vs. bisoprolol on the genital circulation, uterine vasculature, fetal growth and postnatal development in pregnant Wistar rats. Non invasive measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and heart rate (HR), and invasive measurement of genital blood flow (GBF) were taken in pregnant rats, by tail cuff and transonic probe methods respectively, after an oral treatment by gastric gavage with nebivolol (8mg/kg/day) or bisoprolol (10mg/kg/day) from day 11 to day 18 of pregnancy. Other morphometrical and histological measurements were performed on the ovarian and uterine arteries to evaluate the effect of nebivolol on the uterine vasculature. Furthermore, postnatal mortality and pup growth were recorded. The data demonstrated that nebivolol (compared with bisoprolol) induced a significant decrease in SBP, HR and GBF while DBP remained unchanged. Moreover, nebivolol increased the diameter and the length of ovarian and uterine arteries and the number of uterine artery segmental branches. The results also showed that the body weight gain of newborns in the nebivolol group was significantly lower vs. bisoprolol and vs. control with a higher mortality rate. The nebivolol action is not only limited to its favorable hemodynamic effects represented by a decrease in blood pressure, but it also produces adverse effects on fetal growth and postnatal development that may limit its therapeutic use in females during pregnancy.

  4. Metabolomic analysis reveals differences in umbilical vein plasma metabolites between normal and growth-restricted fetal pigs during late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gang; Liu, Chuang; Feng, Cuiping; Fan, Zhiyong; Dai, Zhaolai; Lai, Changhua; Li, Zhen; Wu, Guoyao; Wang, Junjun

    2012-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) remains a major problem for both human health and animal production due to its association with high rates of neonatal morbidity and mortality, low efficiency of food utilization, permanent adverse effects on postnatal growth and development, and long-term health and productivity of the offspring. However, the underlying mechanisms for IUGR are largely unknown. In this study, one IUGR fetus and one normal body weight (NBW) fetus were obtained from each of 9 gilts at each of 2 gestational ages (d 90 and 110). Metabolomes of umbilical vein plasma in IUGR and NBW fetuses were determined by MS, while hormones, amino acids, and related metabolites in maternal and fetal plasma were measured using assay kits and chromatographic methods. Metabolites (including glucose, urea, ammonia, amino acids, and lipids) in umbilical vein plasma exhibited a cluster of differences between IUGR and NBW fetuses on d 90 and 110 of gestation. These changes in the IUGR group are associated with disorders of nutrient and energy metabolism as well as endocrine imbalances, which may contribute to the retardation of fetal growth and development. The findings help provide information regarding potential mechanisms responsible for IUGR in swine and also have important implications for the design of effective strategies to prevent, diagnose, and treat IUGR in other mammalian species, including humans.

  5. Treatment with oral beta-blockers during pregnancy complicated by maternal heart disease increases the risk of fetal growth restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, A S; Hedegaard, M; Søndergaard, L

    2014-01-01

    standard hypothesis tests. Associations were estimated by correlational analysis and multivariable regression. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Proportion of infants born small for gestational age (SGA). RESULTS: More of the infants exposed to beta-blockers were SGA compared with non-exposed infants (29.4 versus 15......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect on fetal growth of treatment with oral beta-blockers during pregnancy in women with congenital or acquired heart disease. DESIGN: Historical matched cohort study. SETTING: Centre for Pregnant Women with Heart Disease, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark...

  6. Social inequality in fetal growth: a comparative study of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in the period 1981-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Diderichsen, F; Arntzen, A

    2008-01-01

    , gradients in fetal growth by parental education existed. Low parental education was associated with lower birthweight, increased risk of SGA and decreased risk of LGA. Mother's education exerted the strongest influence on outcomes, whereas father's education had a weaker effect. The educational gradients...... as measured by the SII were generally steepest in Denmark, followed by Norway, Sweden, and Finland. From 1981 to 2000, the educational gradients in birthweight decreased in all countries, except Denmark where it increased. All countries experienced small decreases in the educational gradient in SGA over time...

  7. Artificial Neural Networks, and Evolutionary Algorithms as a systems biology approach to a data-base on fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Maria E; Buscema, Massimo; Smerieri, Arianna; Montanini, Luisa; Grossi, Enzo

    2013-12-01

    One of the specific aims of systems biology is to model and discover properties of cells, tissues and organisms functioning. A systems biology approach was undertaken to investigate possibly the entire system of intra-uterine growth we had available, to assess the variables of interest, discriminate those which were effectively related with appropriate or restricted intrauterine growth, and achieve an understanding of the systems in these two conditions. The Artificial Adaptive Systems, which include Artificial Neural Networks and Evolutionary Algorithms lead us to the first analyses. These analyses identified the importance of the biochemical variables IL-6, IGF-II and IGFBP-2 protein concentrations in placental lysates, and offered a new insight into placental markers of fetal growth within the IGF and cytokine systems, confirmed they had relationships and offered a critical assessment of studies previously performed.

  8. Role of Insulinlike Growth Factor 1 in Fetal Development and in the Early Postnatal Life of Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Ann; Ley, David; Hansen-Pupp, Ingrid; Hallberg, Boubou; Ramenghi, Luca A; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Smith, Lois E H; Hård, Anna-Lena

    2016-09-01

    The neonatal period of very preterm infants is often characterized by a difficult adjustment to extrauterine life, with an inadequate nutrient supply and insufficient levels of growth factors, resulting in poor growth and a high morbidity rate. Long-term multisystem complications include cognitive, behavioral, and motor dysfunction as a result of brain damage as well as visual and hearing deficits and metabolic disorders that persist into adulthood. Insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a major regulator of fetal growth and development of most organs especially the central nervous system including the retina. Glucose metabolism in the developing brain is controlled by IGF-1 which also stimulates differentiation and prevents apoptosis. Serum concentrations of IGF-1 decrease to very low levels after very preterm birth and remain low for most of the perinatal development. Strong correlations have been found between low neonatal serum concentrations of IGF-1 and poor brain and retinal growth as well as poor general growth with multiorgan morbidities, such as intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that early supplementation with IGF-1 can improve growth in catabolic states and reduce brain injury after hypoxic/ischemic events. A multicenter phase II study is currently underway to determine whether intravenous replacement of human recombinant IGF-1 up to normal intrauterine serum concentrations can improve growth and development and reduce prematurity-associated morbidities.

  9. Influence of fetal growth velocity and smallness at birth on adrenal function in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jensen, Rikke; vielwerth, Signe; Larsen, Torben;

    2011-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is susceptible to programming during fetal development and may be linked to risk of disease later in life. In a former prospective study the cohort was divided into those born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) or small for gestational age (SGA; birth...

  10. Fetal hemodynamic adaptive changes related to intrauterine growth the generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.O. Verburg (Bero Olof); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy); A. Hofman (Albert); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground-It has been suggested that an adverse fetal environment increases susceptibility to hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life. This increased risk may result from suboptimal development of the heart and main arteries in utero and from adaptive cardiovascular change

  11. Organochlorine compounds and ultrasound measurements of fetal growth in the INMA cohort (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.-J. Lopez-Espinosa (Maria-Jose); M. Murcia (Mario); A. Iñiguez (Andrés); E. Vizcaino (Esther); O. Costa (Olga); A. Fernández-Somoano (Ana); M. Basterrechea (Mikel); A. Lertxundi (Aitana); M. Guxens (Mònica ); M. Gascon (Mireia); F. Goñi-Irigoyen (Fernando); J.O. Grimalt (Joan O.); A. Tardón (Adonina); F. Ballester (Ferran)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Several studies have reported decreases in birth size associated with exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs), but uncertainties remain regarding the critical windows of prenatal exposure and the effects on fetal body segments. Objective: We examined the relationship betwe

  12. Human imprinting anomalies in fetal and childhood growth disorders: clinical implications and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzi, Salah; Brioude, Fréderic; Le Bouc, Yves; Netchine, Irène

    2014-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is among the most important epigenetic mechanisms whereby expression of a subset of genes is restricted to a single parental allele. Loss of imprinting (LOI) through hypo or hyper methylation is involved in various human syndromes. These LOI occur early during development and usually impair growth. Some imprinting syndromes are the consequences of genetic anomalies, such as uniparental disomies (UPD) or copy number variations (deletion or duplications) involving the imprinted domains; others are due to LOI at the imprinting control regions (ICR) regulating each domain. Imprinting disorders are phenotypically heterogeneous, although some share various common clinical features such that diagnosis may be difficult. Multilocus imprinting defects associated with several syndromes have been increasingly reported in recent years, although there are no obvious clinical differences between monolocus and multilocus LOI patients. Subsequently, some rare mutations of transacting factors have been identified in patients with multilocus imprinting defects but they do not explain the majority of the cases; this therefore implies that other factors are involved. By contrast, no mutation of a transacting factor has yet been identified in monolocus LOI. The effect of the environment on the regulation of imprinting is clearly illustrated by studies of assisted reproductive technology (ART). The regulation of imprinting is complex and involves a huge range of genetic and environmental factors; the identification of these factors will undoubtedly help to elucidate the regulation of imprinting and contribute to the understanding of imprinting disorders. This would be beneficial for diagnostics, clinical follow up and the development of treatment guidelines.

  13. Gestational dietary protein is associated with sex specific decrease in blood flow, fetal heart growth and post-natal blood pressure of progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Medrano, Juan H; Copping, Katrina J; Hoare, Andrew; Wapanaar, Wendela; Grivell, Rosalie; Kuchel, Tim; Miguel-Pacheco, Giuliana; McMillen, I Caroline; Rodgers, Raymond J; Perry, Viv E A

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes is higher in pregnancies where the fetus is male. Sex specific differences in feto-placental perfusion indices identified by Doppler assessment have recently been associated with placental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction. This study aims to investigate sex specific differences in placental perfusion and to correlate these changes with fetal growth. It represents the largest comprehensive study under field conditions of uterine hemodynamics in a monotocous species, with a similar long gestation period to the human. Primiparous 14 mo heifers in Australia (n=360) and UK (n=180) were either individually or group fed, respectively, diets with differing protein content (18, 14, 10 or 7% crude protein (CP)) from 60 d prior to 98 days post conception (dpc). Fetuses and placentae were excised at 98 dpc (n = 48). Fetal development an median uterine artery blood flow were assessed monthly from 36 dpc until term using B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography. MUA blood flow to the male feto-placental unit increased in early pregnancy associated with increased fetal growth. Protein restriction before and shortly after conception (-60 d up to 23 dpc) increased MUA diameter and indices of velocity during late pregnancy, reduced fetal heart weight in the female fetus and increased heart rate at birth, but decreased systolic blood pressure at six months of age. Sex specific differences both in feto-placental Doppler perfusion indices and response of these indices to dietary perturbations were observed. Further, maternal diet affected development of fetal cardiovascular system associated with altered fetal haemodynamics in utero, with such effects having a sex bias. The results from this study provide further insight into the gender specific circulatory differences present in the fetal period and developing cardiovascular system.

  14. Up-regulation of the fetal baboon hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in intrauterine growth restriction: coincidence with hypothalamic glucocorticoid receptor insensitivity and leptin receptor down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cun; Ramahi, Emma; Nijland, Mark J; Choi, Jaeyhek; Myers, Dean A; Nathanielsz, Peter W; McDonald, Thomas J

    2013-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is an important fetal developmental problem resulting from 2 broad causes: maternal undernutrition and/or decreased fetal nutrient delivery to the fetus via placental insufficiency. IUGR is often accompanied by up-regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). Sheep studies show fetal HPAA autonomy in late gestation. We hypothesized that IUGR, resulting from poor fetal nutrient delivery, up-regulates the fetal baboon HPAA in late gestation, driven by hypothalamo-pituitary glucocorticoid receptor (GR) insensitivity and decreased fetal leptin in peripheral plasma. Maternal baboons were fed as ad libitum controls or nutrient restricted to produce IUGR (fed 70% of the control diet) from 0.16 to 0.9 gestation. Peripheral ACTH, cortisol, and leptin were measured by immunoassays. CRH, arginine vasopressin (AVP), GR, leptin receptor (ObRb), and pro-opiomelanocortin peptide expression were determined immunohistochemically. IUGR fetal peripheral cortisol and ACTH, but not leptin, were increased (P HPAA activation was aided by GR insensitivity and decreased ObRb expression in the PVN, and (3) the anterior pituitary is not a site for ObRb effects on the HPAA.

  15. Maternal serum ferritin as a clinical tool at 34-36 weeks' gestation for distinguishing subgroups of fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkurt, Mehmet Ozgur; Akkurt, Iltac; Altay, Metin; Coskun, Bora; Erkaya, Salim; Sezik, Mekin

    2017-02-01

    To compare maternal ferritin levels across pregnancies with fetal growth restriction including SGA and IUGR compared to appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Three groups were enrolled: AGA, SGA (birth weight below 10th percentile for gestational age with no placental insufficiency findings), and IUGR (birth weight below 5th percentile for gestational age accompanied by abnormal umbilical artery Doppler waveforms and/or oligohydramnios). Maternal serum ferritin samples were obtained at gestational weeks 34 through 36, and delivery occurred at or beyond 36 weeks. A total of 126 pregnancies with AGA (36%), SGA (40%), and IUGR (24%) were enrolled. The mean maternal serum ferritin level was higher in the IUGR group than in the AGA group (59 μg/l versus 32.5 μg/l, p serum ferritin cutoff of 48 μg/l was found to be optimal for distinguishing between IUGR and AGA with a sensitivity of 67.7%, specificity of 92%, PPV of 84%, NPV of 82%, diagnostic accuracy of 82.7%, LR + of 8 and LR- of 0.3, respectively. Maternal serum ferritin levels differ in pregnancies with IUGR. The role of maternal serum ferritin measurements as a clinical tool for distinguishing different forms of fetal growth restriction warrants further investigation.

  16. Fetal antigen 1 (FA1), a circulating member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) superfamily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Krogh, T N; Støving, René Klinkby;

    1997-01-01

    We describe an ELISA technique for quantification of fetal antigen 1 (FA1), a glycoprotein belonging to the EGF-superfamily. The ELISA is based on immunospecifically purified polyclonal antibodies and has a dynamic range of 0.7-5.3 ng/ml, intra- and inter-assay C.V.s of less than 3.2% and an aver......We describe an ELISA technique for quantification of fetal antigen 1 (FA1), a glycoprotein belonging to the EGF-superfamily. The ELISA is based on immunospecifically purified polyclonal antibodies and has a dynamic range of 0.7-5.3 ng/ml, intra- and inter-assay C.V.s of less than 3...

  17. Fetal and Neonatal Levels of Omega-3: Effects on Neurodevelopment, Nutrition, and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Rombaldi Bernardi; Renata de Souza Escobar; Charles Francisco Ferreira; Patrícia Pelufo Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition in pregnancy, during lactation, childhood, and later stages has a fundamental influence on overall development. There is a growing research interest on the role of key dietary nutrients in fetal health. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) play an important role in brain development and function. Evidence from animal models of dietary n-3 LCPUFAs deficiency suggests that these fatty acids promote early brain development and regulate behavioral and neurochemical aspects ...

  18. The influence of maternal undernutrition in ovine twin pregnancy on fetal growth and Doppler flow-velocity waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, J P; Kelly, R W; Patterson, L; James, I

    1991-11-01

    The effects on placental blood flow velocity of maternal undernutrition during mid pregnancy were investigated in 38 twin bearing pregnant sheep by Doppler analysis of umbilical and uteroplacental arterial waveforms. Mid pregnancy undernutrition resulted in fetal growth restriction manifest at term gestation by reduced mean birth weight. Arterial waveform systolic/diastolic ratios from the umbilical and uteroplacental arterial circulations were not influenced by maternal nutrition either during the dietary deprivation or during a subsequent period of dietary supplementation. An effect of heart rate on systolic/diastolic ratios could not be demonstrated. The results indicate that the fetus responds to mid pregnancy maternal undernutrition with restricted growth but without alterations in systolic/diastolic ratios in umbilical or uteroplacental arterial waveforms.

  19. Human fetal liver stromal cells that overexpress bFGF support growth and maintenance of human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiafei Xi

    Full Text Available In guiding hES cell technology toward the clinic, one key issue to be addressed is to culture and maintain hES cells much more safely and economically in large scale. In order to avoid using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs we isolated human fetal liver stromal cells (hFLSCs from 14 weeks human fetal liver as new human feeder cells. hFLSCs feeders could maintain hES cells for 15 passages (about 100 days. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF is known to play an important role in promoting self-renewal of human embryonic stem (hES cells. So, we established transgenic hFLSCs that stably express bFGF by lentiviral vectors. These transgenic human feeder cells--bFGF-hFLSCs maintained the properties of H9 hES cells without supplementing with any exogenous growth factors. H9 hES cells culturing under these conditions maintained all hES cell features after prolonged culture, including the developmental potential to differentiate into representative tissues of all three embryonic germ layers, unlimited and undifferentiated proliferative ability, and maintenance of normal karyotype. Our results demonstrated that bFGF-hFLSCs feeder cells were central to establishing the signaling network among bFGF, insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2, and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β, thereby providing the framework in which hES cells were instructed to self-renew or to differentiate. We also found that the conditioned medium of bFGF-hFLSCs could maintain the H9 hES cells under feeder-free conditions without supplementing with bFGF. Taken together, bFGF-hFLSCs had great potential as feeders for maintaining pluripotent hES cell lines more safely and economically.

  20. Diet quality in early pregnancy and its effects on fetal growth outcomes: the Infancia y Medio Ambiente (Childhood and Environment) Mother and Child Cohort Study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bernal, Clara L; Rebagliato, Marisa; Iñiguez, Carmen; Vioque, Jesús; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva M; Murcia, Mario; Bolumar, Francisco; Marco, Alfredo; Ballester, Ferran

    2010-06-01

    Maternal diet has been associated with fetal growth outcomes; however, evidence is scarce on the role of dietary quality. The objective was to assess the effect of diet quality during the first trimester of pregnancy, as measured by the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) adapted for pregnancy, on fetal growth. We studied 787 women and their newborns from a Spanish cohort study. Diet quality was assessed by using a modification of the AHEI. Adjusted birth weight, birth length, and head circumference were used as continuous outcomes. We used a customized model to define fetal growth restriction in weight, length, and head circumference. After adjustment of multivariate models, a positive association was observed between diet quality and adjusted birth weight and adjusted birth length. The greatest differences were found between the fourth and first quintiles of the AHEI. Newborns of women in the fourth quintile were on average 126.3 g (95% CI: 38.5, 213.9 g) heavier and 0.47 cm (95% CI: 0.08, 0.86 cm) longer than those in the lowest quintile (P for trend = 0.009 and 0.013, respectively). Women with the highest AHEI scores had a significantly lower risk of delivering a fetal growth-restricted infant for weight (odds ratio: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.55; P for trend = 0.001) than did women in the lowest quintile, but this was not the case for fetal growth restriction in length (P for trend = 0.538) or head circumference (P for trend = 0.070). A high-quality diet in the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with birth size and the risk of fetal growth restriction.

  1. Deletion of PREPl causes growth impairment and hypotonia in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mari Lone

    Full Text Available Genetic studies of rare diseases can identify genes of unknown function that strongly impact human physiology. Prolyl endopeptidase-like (PREPL is an uncharacterized member of the prolyl peptidase family that was discovered because of its deletion in humans with hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome (HCS. HCS is characterized by a number of physiological changes including diminished growth and neonatal hypotonia or low muscle tone. HCS patients have deletions in other genes as well, making it difficult to tease apart the specific role of PREPL. Here, we develop a PREPL null (PREPL(-/- mouse model to address the physiological role of this enzyme. Deletion of exon 11 from the Prepl gene, which encodes key catalytic amino acids, leads to a loss of PREPL protein as well as lower Prepl mRNA levels. PREPL(-/- mice have a pronounced growth phenotype, being significantly shorter and lighter than their wild type (PREPL(+/+ counterparts. A righting assay revealed that PREPL(-/- pups took significantly longer than PREPL(+/+ pups to right themselves when placed on their backs. This deficit indicates that PREPL(-/- mice suffer from neonatal hypotonia. According to these results, PREPL regulates growth and neonatal hypotonia in mice, which supports the idea that PREPL causes diminished growth and neonatal hypotonia in humans with HCS. These animals provide a valuable asset in deciphering the underlying biochemical, cellular and physiological pathways that link PREPL to HCS, and this may eventually lead to new insights in the treatment of this disease.

  2. Prostaglandin E2 regulation of amnion cell vascular endothelial growth factor expression: relationship with intramembranous absorption rate in fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Cecilia Y; Beardall, Michael K; Anderson, Debra F; Brace, Robert A

    2014-08-01

    We hypothesized that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulates amniotic fluid transport across the amnion by upregulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in amnion cells and that amniotic PGE2 concentration correlates positively with intramembranous (IM) absorption rate in fetal sheep. The effects of PGE2 at a range of concentrations on VEGF 164 and caveolin-1 gene expressions were analyzed in cultured ovine amnion cells. IM absorption rate, amniotic fluid (AF) volume, and PGE2 concentration in AF were determined in late-gestation fetal sheep during control conditions, isovolumic fetal urine replacement (low IM absorption rate), or intra-amniotic fluid infusion (high IM absorption rate). In ovine amnion cells, PGE2 induced dose- and time-dependent increases in VEGF 164 mRNA levels and reduced caveolin-1 mRNA and protein levels. VEGF receptor blockade abolished the caveolin-1 response, while minimally affecting the VEGF response to PGE2. In sheep fetuses, urine replacement reduced amniotic PGE2 concentration by 58%, decreased IM absorption rate by half, and doubled AF volume (P amniotic fluid infusion increased IM absorption rate and AF volume (P amniotic PGE2 concentration was unchanged. Neither IM absorption rate nor AF volume correlated with amniotic PGE2 concentration under each experimental condition. Although PGE2 at micromolar concentrations induced dose-dependent responses in VEGF and caveolin-1 gene expression in cultured amnion cells consistent with a role of PGE2 in activating VEGF to mediate AF transport across the amnion, amniotic PGE2 at physiological nanomolar concentrations does not appear to regulate IM absorption rate or AF volume.

  3. Relationship between fetal growth restriction and angiogenesis factors%胎儿生长受限与血管生成因子的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄赟博; 刘倩倩; 余艳红

    2014-01-01

    Placenta is an important organ to maintain fetal growth, metabolism, maternal and fetal physiologic balance. Angiogenesis is a critical factor in placental development involved in fetal blood circulation and vascular changes in the endometrium and placenta. Angiogenesis is closely related to angiogenesis factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor and placenta growth factor. Fetal growth restriction threats the fetal health in gestation and also increases the long-term likeliness of several diseases. In this review, the authors summarize the findings in current studies of the relationship between angiogenesis factors and fetal growth restriction.%胎盘是胎儿生长发育、代谢循环及维持母胎生理平衡的重要脏器。血管形成是胎盘发育的关键,其不仅包括胎儿血液循环,还包括子宫内膜和胎盘的血管变化。血管的形成与血管生成因子如血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)、胎盘生长因子(PLGF)等密切相关。胎儿生长受限(FGR)属严重高危妊娠,不仅对胎儿在妊娠期的健康造成威胁,还会增加分娩后远期多种疾病的发病率。目前已有关于血管生成因子与胎儿生长受限之间的研究,现将两者之间的关系作一综述。

  4. The Molecular Epidemiology of Chronic Aflatoxin Driven Impaired Child Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul Craig

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic secondary fungal metabolites that contaminate dietary staples in tropical regions; chronic high levels of exposure are common for many of the poorest populations. Observations in animals indicate that growth and/or food utilization are adversely affected by aflatoxins. This review highlights the development of validated exposure biomarkers and their use here to assess the role of aflatoxins in early life growth retardation. Aflatoxin exposure occurs in utero and continues in early infancy as weaning foods are introduced. Using aflatoxin-albumin exposure biomarkers, five major studies clearly demonstrate strong dose response relationships between exposure in utero and/or early infancy and growth retardation, identified by reduced birth weight and/or low HAZ and WAZ scores. The epidemiological studies include cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys, though aflatoxin reduction intervention studies are now required to further support these data and guide sustainable options to reduce the burden of exposure. The use of aflatoxin exposure biomarkers was essential in understanding the observational data reviewed and will likely be a critical monitor of the effectiveness of interventions to restrict aflatoxin exposure. Given that an estimated 4.5 billion individuals live in regions at risk of dietary contamination the public health concern cannot be over stated. PMID:24455429

  5. Maternal and fetal placental growth hormone and IGF axis in type 1 diabetic pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, Mary F

    2012-01-01

    Placental growth hormone (PGH) is a major growth hormone in pregnancy and acts with Insulin Like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) and Insulin Like Growth Hormone Binding Protein 3 (IGFBP3). The aim of this study was to investigate PGH, IGF-I and IGFBP3 in non-diabetic (ND) compared to Type 1 Diabetic (T1DM) pregnancies.

  6. Expression of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF), TrkA, and p75NTR in Developing Human Fetal Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsiadis, Thimios A.; Pagella, Pierfrancesco

    2016-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is important for the development and the differentiation of neuronal and non-neuronal cells. NGF binds to specific low- and high-affinity cell surface receptors, respectively, p75NTR and TrkA. In the present study, we examined by immunohistochemistry the expression patterns of the NGF, p75NTR, and TrkA proteins during human fetal tooth development, in order to better understand the mode of NGF signaling action in dental tissues. The results obtained show that these molecules are expressed in a wide range of dental cells of both epithelial and mesenchymal origin during early stages of odontogenesis, as well as in nerve fibers that surround the developing tooth germs. At more advanced developmental stages, NGF and TrkA are localized in differentiated cells with secretory capacities such as preameloblasts/ameloblasts secreting enamel matrix and odontoblasts secreting dentine matrix. In contrast, p75NTR expression is absent from these secretory cells and restricted in proliferating cells of the dental epithelium. The temporospatial distribution of NGF and p75NTR in fetal human teeth is similar, but not identical, with that observed previously in the developing rodent teeth, thus indicating that the genetic information is well-conserved during evolution. The expression patterns of NGF, p75NTR, and TrkA during odontogenesis suggest regulatory roles for NGF signaling in proliferation and differentiation of epithelial and mesenchymal cells, as well as in attraction and sprouting of nerve fibers within dental tissues. PMID:27536251

  7. Avaliação Ultra-Sonográfica do Crescimento Fetal com uso do Diâmetro Transverso do Cerebelo Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Fetal Growth with the use of the Transverse Cerebellar Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Nery

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a eficácia do diâmetro transverso do cerebelo (DTC, por meio da ultra-sonografia, na evolução do crescimento fetal e relacioná-lo com a idade gestacional, diâmetro biparietal (DBP, circunferência cefálica (CC, circunferência abdominal (CA e comprimento do fêmur (CF. Métodos: foi realizado um estudo prospectivo e longitudinal com 254 gestantes consideradas de baixo risco, com idade gestacional de 20 a 40 semanas. Somente 55 gestantes foram incluídas no estudo, segurados os critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Todos os exames, ou seja, as 217 avaliações ultra-sonográficas foram realizadas pelo autor (LN, sendo no mínimo três e no máximo seis exames para cada gestante, com intervalo de uma a cinco semanas. Foram estabelecidos padrões de normalidade entre os percentis 10 e 90 para cada idade gestacional, com confirmação após o parto. Resultados: o diâmetro transverso do cerebelo apresentou uma boa correlação com a idade gestacional, tanto como variável dependente (R² = 0,90, como variável independente (R² = 0,92. Uma correlação significativa na avaliação do crescimento fetal foi encontrada entre o DTC e os vários parâmetros fetais: DBP e CC (R² = 0,92, CF (R² = 0,90 e CA (R² = 0,89. Conclusões: o diâmetro transverso do cerebelo é um parâmetro que deve ser utilizado no acompanhamento do desenvolvimento e do crescimento fetal devido a sua curva de crescimento de padrão ascendente. Qualquer alteração para mais ou menos na curva de crescimento pode ser útil na detecção dos desvios do crescimento fetal.Purpose: to evaluate the effectiveness of the transverse cerebellar diameter (TCD, by ultrasonography, in the evolution of the fetal growth, and to relate it to gestational age, biparietal diameter (BPD, head circumference (HC, abdominal circumference (AC and femur length (FL. Method: a prospective and longitudinal study was performed on 254 pregnant women considered of low risk, with a

  8. Dietary Echinacea purpurea during murine pregnancy: effect on maternal hemopoiesis and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, G; Johns, T; Miller, S C

    2006-01-01

    The medicinal benefits of Echinacea sp. plants in several disease conditions, including insect bites, respiratory ailments, and even cancer and AIDS, have been touted for decades. Echinacea sp.-based phytoceuticals are among the top selling herbals in the Western marketplace today. However, evidence is very scant concerning the effects of using Echinacea species herbals during pregnancy. While available data indicates that fetal malformations do not occur during pregnancy in humans consuming this herb, there are no formal studies aimed at assessing the possibility that consuming Echinacea herbals may promote spontaneous abortions, thereby reducing the number of live births upon which to assess the presence or absence of malformations. We undertook a study in which pregnant mice were fed daily Echinacea purpurea from pregnancy onset until gestational days 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14. Maternal spleen and bone marrow were taken for enumeration of cells in each of five separate hemopoietic lineages/organ, and fetal status was recorded. The data indicate that the significant, pregnancy-induced elevation in splenic lymphocytes and nucleated erythroid cells was all but eliminated in those females which consumed E. purpurea daily throughout their pregnancy. Moreover, consuming E. purpurea during pregnancy reduced the number of viable fetuses. The data may be extrapolated to suggest that in humans, abstention from consuming Echinacea products during the early/mid stages of pregnancy, may be prudent.

  9. Fetal Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Fetal Circulation Updated:Oct 18,2016 click to enlarge The ... fetal heart. These two bypass pathways in the fetal circulation make it possible for most fetuses to survive ...

  10. Rho GTPase inactivation impairs lens growth and integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vasantha; Wawrousek, Eric; Tamm, Ernst R; Zigler, Samuel

    2002-02-01

    To elucidate the significance of Rho GTPase signaling on lens growth and structural integrity, we have selectively inactivated Rho GTPase in the ocular lens. To achieve this tissue-specific inactivation, a transgene encoding the C3-exoenzyme from Clostridium botulinum has been expressed in mice under transcriptional control of the lens-specific alphaA-crystallin promoter. C3-exoenzyme is known to selectively inactivate all Rho GTPase isoforms by ADP-ribosylating an asparagine residue at position 41. Mice expressing the C3-exoenzyme transgene exhibited selective ocular defects, including cataract and microphthalmia. Extralenticular effects included ocular hemorrhage (blood accumulation in the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye) and abnormalities of the iris including focal attachments to lens and cornea (synechiae). C3-transgene expression was found only in the lens and not in the other ocular tissues as determined by RT-PCR analysis. Histologic examination of the eyes of C3 transgenic mice from two independent lines revealed extensive abnormalities of the lens, including defective fiber cell differentiation and elongation, ruptured posterior lens capsule, and thickened anterior lens capsule. Electron microscopic analysis of hemorrhaged C3 eyes showed abnormalities in the posterior hyaloid vessels. Collectively these data reveal the importance of Rho GTPase signaling in regulating lens growth and maintenance of lens transparency.

  11. [The imbalance of metal-containing proteins and free metal ions in the amniotic fluid during fetal growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelova, T N; Linde, V A; Gunko, V O; Selyutina, S N

    2016-01-01

    The levels of zinc, copper, iron, and magnesium ions, and some of their binding proteins have been investigated in an amniotic fluid under the fetal growth retardation (FGR). FGR, developed under conditions of placental insufficiency, is characterized by a decrease in the content of zinc, iron, and magnesium ions and by an increase in the copper content in the amniotic fluid in the II and III trimesters of pregnancy. During these trimesters the levels of ceruloplasmin, ferritin, and Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase were lower in FGR, while the level of zinc-a-2-glycoprotein was higher than during the same periods of normal pregnancy. Changes in the parameters studied in the amniotic fluid were associated with developmental disorders of the newborns. These changes obviously have a pathogenetic importance in the development of FGR, and the levels of metal ions and their ratio in the amniotic fluid can be used as markers of the pre- and postnatal pathology.

  12. Impaired Perinatal Growth and Longevity: A Life History Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah M. Sloboda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Life history theory proposes that early-life cues induce highly integrated responses in traits associated with energy partitioning, maturation, reproduction, and aging such that the individual phenotype is adaptively more appropriate to the anticipated environment. Thus, maternal and/or neonatally derived nutritional or endocrine cues suggesting a threatening environment may favour early growth and reproduction over investment in tissue reserve and repair capacity. These may directly affect longevity, as well as prioritise insulin resistance and capacity for fat storage, thereby increasing susceptibility to metabolic dysfunction and obesity. These shifts in developmental trajectory are associated with long-term expression changes in specific genes, some of which may be underpinned by epigenetic processes. This normative process of developmental plasticity may prove to be maladaptive in human environments in transition towards low extrinsic mortality and energy-dense nutrition, leading to the development of an inappropriate phenotype with decreased potential for longevity and/or increased susceptibility to metabolic disease.

  13. A prospective observational study of early fetal growth velocity and its association with birth weight, gestational age at delivery, preeclampsia, and perinatal mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudeva, Akhila, E-mail: akhilavasudeva@gmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104, Karnataka State (India); Abraham, Anu Annie, E-mail: anuannieabraham@yahoo.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104, Karnataka State (India); Kamath, Asha, E-mail: aashakamat@gmail.com [Department of Community Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, A Constituent College of Manipal University (India)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: We aimed to measure early fetal growth velocity and to correlate this with the birth weight, gestational age at delivery, and with the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes specifically preeclampsia and perinatal mortality. Methods: A data based prospective observational study, wherein sonographic biometry data and specific pregnancy outcome related data were collected from pregnant women's records, starting soon after their first antenatal visit. Early fetal growth velocity was measured using BPD growth between 11 and 14 weeks scan and anomaly scan and standardizing this by Z scoring. Results: Out of 607 fetuses, 41 (6.7%) were slow growing, 531 (87.4%) normally growing, and 35 (5.7%) fast growing (Z scoring <10th{sup ,} 10–90th, and >90th percentiles respectively). As fetal growth velocity increased, the mean birth weight decreased from 2958.7 ± 388.9 (<10th centile), 2742.1 ± 576.6 (10–90th centile), to 2339.3 ± 729.4 (>90th centile); and gestational age at delivery decreased from 38.5 ± 1.3 (<10th centile), 37.5 ± 2.1 (10–90th centile), to 36.4 ± 2.2 (>90th centile), and both these trends were statistically significant (p < 0.001).Faster growing fetuses had a higher risk of preterm delivery(spontaneous + indicated) compared to other 2 groups [OR 4.42 (2.18,8.98)], and slower growing fetuses had a higher risk of postdated deliveries compared to other 2 groups [OR 3.042 (1.44, 6.45)].We found no significant association between early fetal growth velocity and incidence of small for gestational age at birth/low birth weight at term, preeclampsia, and perinatal mortality. Conclusions: Early fetal growth velocity between first and second trimesters, may be one of the important factors influencing ultimate birthweight and gestational age at delivery.

  14. Maternal plasma concentrations of the placental specific sFLT-1 variant, sFLT-1 e15a, in fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Kirsten R; Kaitu'u-Lino, Tu'uhevaha J; Cannon, Ping; Tuohey, Laura; De Silva, Manarangi S; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Acuña, Stephanie; Galaz, José; Tong, Stephen; Illanes, Sebastián E

    2017-03-01

    sFLT-1 e15a is a recently described sFlt-1 variant that is placental and primate specific. As such, it may have potential as a biomarker. Using a newly developed ELISA, we measured maternal plasma sFLT-1 e15a levels in women with fetal growth restriction and pre-eclampsia. We performed a nested case-control study where we measured total sFLT-1 and sFLT-1 e15a plasma protein concentrations. Samples, selected from a prospective cohort study, consisted of 87 healthy controls, 11 cases that developed term preeclampsia and 20 cases where there was fetal growth restriction. We also measured sFLT-1 and sFLT-1 e15a plasma concentrations in a separate cohort: 15 cases of preterm preeclampsia and 24 healthy controls. The prospective case-control cohort demonstrated significantly increased sFLT-1 e15a among cases with term fetal growth restriction (p preeclampsia (p preeclampsia and term fetal growth restriction. Further assessment of the benefit for sFLT-1 e15a testing in prediction or diagnosis of these disease states is warranted.

  15. Is high consumption of fatty fish during pregnancy a risk factor for fetal growth retardation? A study of 44,824 Danish pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldorsson, Th I; Meltzer, H M; Thorsdottir, I;

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between fish consumption during pregnancy and fetal growth among 44,824 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). They evaluated the associations between consumption of total fish, fatty fish, and lean fish in midpregnancy and birth weight, birth l...

  16. Mental disorders, functional impairment, and nerve growth factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Fanny Helena Martins; Soares, Pedro San Martin; Wiener, Carolina David; Mondin, Thaise Campos; da Silva, Paula Moraes; Jansen, Karen; de Mattos Souza, Luciano Dias; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Oses, Jean Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is an important member of the neurotrophin family and its alteration has been associated with psychiatric disorders. Functionality consists of the activities that an individual can perform, as well as their social participation, which is an important factor in analyzing the carrier living conditions of subjects with psychiatric suffering. Several studies have evaluated functionality in bipolar disorder; however, no studies have evaluated the functionality in other mental disorders. There are also few studies investigating the association between functionality and the biological bases of mental disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the serum NGF levels in psychiatric patients and to verify a possible association between the serum neurotrophic levels and functionality. This was a cross-sectional study with a convenient sample obtained from the Public Mental Health Service from the south of Brazil. The final sample was composed of 286 patients enrolled from July 2013 to October 2014. Data was collected using a sociodemographic questionnaire, and the diagnosis was confirmed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I) and a Functioning Assessment Short Test. The serum NGF levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistic 21.0 software. NGF serum levels were increased significantly in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder compared with patients with no obsessive–compulsive disorder (P=0.015). An increase in serum NGF levels in generalized anxiety disorder patients was observed compared with patients with no generalized anxiety disorder (P=0.047). NGF was negatively associated with autonomy (P=0.024, r=−0.136), work (P=0.040, r=−0.124), and cognition (P=0.024, r=−0.137), thereby showing that changes in serum levels of NGF are associated with functionality in mental disorders. PMID:28053561

  17. Potential role of IGF-1 z score to predict permanent linear growth impairment in children with IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica J; Mitchell, Paul D; Hood, Helen C; Grand, Richard J; Cohen, Laurie E

    2014-04-01

    In this pilot study, we analyzed serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)- and IGF-binding protein-3-for-age z scores from 54 inflammatory bowel disease children with no, temporary, or permanent growth impairment. Although our findings did not reach statistical significance, patients with permanent linear growth impairment had lower IGF-1-for-age z scores (-1.76 [-2.25 to -0.43]) compared with those with no or temporary growth impairment (-0.84 [-1.49 to -0.3]) and -1.16 [-1.59 to -1.51], respectively). IGF-binding protein-3 levels were similar across the 3 groups. In the absence of significant inflammation and malnutrition, lower IGF-1-for-age z scores may help distinguish patients likely to have permanent growth impairment from those whose growth impairment is likely to be temporary.

  18. A longitudinal study of intrauterine growth and the placental growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor I axis in maternal circulation: association between placental GH and fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, Marla; Vangsgaard, K; Larsen, T

    2004-01-01

    above -2 SD. Placental GH levels were detectable in all samples from as early as 5 wk gestation and increased significantly throughout pregnancy to approximately 37 wk when peak levels of 22 ng/ml (range, 4.64-69.22 ng/ml) were reached. Subsequently, placental GH levels decreased until birth. The change...... in placental GH during 24.5-37.5 wk gestation was positively associated with fetal growth rate (P = 0.027) and birth weight (P = 0.027). Gestational age at peak placental GH values (P = 0.007) was associated with pregnancy length. A positive association between the change in placental GH and the change in IGF......The aim of the study was 1) to evaluate the association of maternal serum levels of placental GH and IGF-I with fetal growth, and 2) to establish reference data for placental GH, IGF-I, and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in normal pregnancies based on longitudinal measurements. A prospective...

  19. A longitudinal study of intrauterine growth and the placental growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor I axis in maternal circulation: association between placental GH and fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, Marla; Vangsgaard, K; Larsen, T;

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was 1) to evaluate the association of maternal serum levels of placental GH and IGF-I with fetal growth, and 2) to establish reference data for placental GH, IGF-I, and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in normal pregnancies based on longitudinal measurements. A prospective...... above -2 SD. Placental GH levels were detectable in all samples from as early as 5 wk gestation and increased significantly throughout pregnancy to approximately 37 wk when peak levels of 22 ng/ml (range, 4.64-69.22 ng/ml) were reached. Subsequently, placental GH levels decreased until birth. The change...... in placental GH during 24.5-37.5 wk gestation was positively associated with fetal growth rate (P = 0.027) and birth weight (P = 0.027). Gestational age at peak placental GH values (P = 0.007) was associated with pregnancy length. A positive association between the change in placental GH and the change in IGF...

  20. Biochemical Effects of Recombinant Porcine Somatotropin on Pig Fetal Growth and Metabolism: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    D. Villanueva-Garci­a; S. A.  Olmos-Hernandez; D. Mota-Rojas; M. Gonzalez-Lozano; M. E. Trujillo-Ortega; Acosta, B.; D. L. Reyes; R. Rami­rez; Ma. Alonso-Spilsbury

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal development is mainly dependent on a close interrelation between nutritional supply use and regulation by hormones and growth factors. Mechanisms during early embryonic development are sensitive to manipulation through selected management strategies of the sow and modifications of this strategy may serve as a model for the examination of molecular and cellular events controlling early embryonic growth. The administration of growth hormone (GH) to pregnant sows affects the development...

  1. Impaired growth of denervated muscle contributes to contracture formation following neonatal brachial plexus injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Sia; Peterson, Elizabeth; Kim, Annie; Wylie, Christopher; Cornwall, Roger

    2011-03-02

    The etiology of shoulder and elbow contractures following neonatal brachial plexus injury is incompletely understood. With use of a mouse model, the current study tests the novel hypothesis that reduced growth of denervated muscle contributes to contractures following neonatal brachial plexus injury. Unilateral brachial plexus injuries were created in neonatal mice by supraclavicular C5-C6 nerve root excision. Shoulder and elbow range of motion was measured four weeks after injury. Fibrosis, cross-sectional area, and functional length of the biceps, brachialis, and subscapularis muscles were measured over four weeks following injury. Muscle satellite cells were cultured from denervated and control biceps muscles to assess myogenic capability. In a comparison group, shoulder motion and subscapularis length were assessed following surgical excision of external rotator muscles. Shoulder internal rotation and elbow flexion contractures developed on the involved side within four weeks following brachial plexus injury. Excision of the biceps and brachialis muscles relieved the elbow flexion contractures. The biceps muscles were histologically fibrotic, whereas fatty infiltration predominated in the brachialis and rotator cuff muscles. The biceps and brachialis muscles displayed reduced cross-sectional and longitudinal growth compared with the contralateral muscles. The upper subscapularis muscle similarly displayed reduced longitudinal growth, with the subscapularis shortening correlating with internal rotation contracture. However, excision of the external rotators without brachial plexus injury caused no contractures or subscapularis shortening. Myogenically capable satellite cells were present in denervated biceps muscles despite impaired muscle growth in vivo. Injury of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus leads to impaired growth of the biceps and brachialis muscles, which are responsible for elbow flexion contractures, and impaired growth of the subscapularis

  2. Impairment of social behaviour persists two years after embryonic alcohol exposure in zebrafish: A model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Yohaan; Rampersad, Mindy; Gerlai, And Robert

    2015-10-01

    Zebrafish naturally form social groups called shoals. Previously, we have shown that submerging zebrafish eggs into low concentrations of alcohol (0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 vol/vol% external bath concentration) during development (24h post-fertilization) for two hours resulted in impaired shoaling response in seven month old young adult zebrafish. Here we investigate whether this embryonic alcohol exposure induced behavioural deficit persists to older age. Zebrafish embryos were exposed either to fresh system water (control) or to 1% alcohol for two hours, 24h after fertilization, and were raised in a high-density tank system. Social behaviour was tested by presenting the experimental fish with a computer animated group of zebrafish images, while automated tracking software measured their behaviour. Control fish were found to respond strongly to animated conspecific images by reducing their distanceand remaining close to the images during image presentation, embryonic alcohol treated fish did not. Our results suggest that the impaired shoaling response of the alcohol exposed fish was not due to altered motor function or visual perception, but likely to a central nervous system alteration affecting social behaviour itself. We found the effects of embryonic alcohol exposure on social behaviour not to diminish with age, a result that demonstrates the deleterious and potentially life-long consequences of exposure to even small amount of alcohol during embryonic development in vertebrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. FETAL FIBRONECTIN AND PHOSPHORILATED INSULIN- LIKE GROWTH FACTOR BINDING PROTEIN-1 AS PREDICTORS OF SPONTANEUS PRETERM DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Hadži-Lega

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to assess the combined use of cervical length, fetal fibronectin and cervical phosphorylated insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (phIGFBP-1 in the prediction of preterm delivery in symptomatic women in the following 14 days. Cervical length was prospectively measured in 58 consecutive singleton pregnancies with intact membranes and regular contractions at 24–36 weeks; fetal fibronectin and phIGFBP-1 were also assessed. Demographic data was evaluated (history of previous preterm delivery, history of spontaneous abortion, parity, BMI, maternal age, Islamic or Orthodox religion. Values of all variables were evaluated (demographic data, cervical length and values of phIGFBP1 and fetal fibronectin alone and in combination with cervical length of ≤ 15mm and more than 15 mm. PhIGFPB was positive in 30 patients (22 of them gave birth in 14 days. In women with cervical length less than 15 mm phIGFBP-1, it was positive in 9 pregnant women who were delivered in 14 days. In women with cervical length less than 25 mm phIGFBP-1 was positive in 26 patients (2 of them gave birth in 14 days. In patients with cervical length more than 25 mm phIGFBP-1 was positive in 4 patients (2 of them gave birth in 14 days. Using logistic regression we confirmed that with OR 0.117 and CI 95% (0.046-0.295 and p<0.01 odds for preterm birth among patients with negative test results, phIGFBP-1 was by 0.117 lower than the odds for preterm birth among patients with positive test results. Using the same test, we confirmed that with OR=14,722 (CI 95% 5.27-41.1, (p<0.01 cervical length less than 25 mm was a good predictor of preterm delivery in symptomatic patients. Probability for delivery in the following 14 days in patients with positive phIGFBP-1 and cervical length≤15 mm is 0.88 or probability for not delivering in those patients is 0.12. Eighty-eight percents of patients with positive phIGFBP-1 and cervical length ≤15 mm will give birth

  4. Region-specific growth effects in the developing rat prostate following fetal exposure to estrogenic ultraviolet filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofkamp, Luke; Bradley, Sarahann; Tresguerres, Jesus; Lichtensteiger, Walter; Schlumpf, Margret; Timms, Barry

    2008-07-01

    Exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors is a potential risk factor for humans. Many of these chemicals have been shown to exhibit disruption of normal cellular and developmental processes in animal models. Ultraviolet (UV) filters used as sunscreens in cosmetics have previously been shown to exhibit estrogenic activity in in vitro and in vivo assays. We examined the effects of two UV filters, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) and 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC), in the developing prostate of the fetal rat. Pregnant Long Evans rats were fed diets containing doses of 4-MBC and 3-BC that resulted in average daily intakes of these chemicals corresponding to the lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL) and the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) doses in prior developmental toxicity studies. Using digital photographs of serial sections from postnatal day 1 animals, we identified, contoured, and aligned the epithelial ducts from specific regions of the developing prostate, plus the accessory sex glands and calculated the total volume for each region from three-dimensional, surface-rendered models. Fetal exposure to 4-MBC (7.0 mg/kg body weight/day) resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.05) in tissue volume in the prostate and accessory sex glands. Treated males exhibited a 62% increase in the number of ducts in the caudal dorsal prostate. Increased distal branching morphogenesis appears to be a consequence of exposure in the ventral region, resulting in a 106% increase in ductal volume. 4-MBC exposure during development of the male reproductive accessory sex glands exhibited classical growth effects associated with estrogenic endocrine disruptors. The different regional responses suggest that the two developmental processes of ductal outgrowth and branching morphogenesis are affected independently by exposure to the environmental chemicals.

  5. Fetal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, John T.; Sladek, John R.

    1989-11-01

    This article reviews some of the significant contributions of fetal research and fetal tissue research over the past 20 years. The benefits of fetal research include the development of vaccines, advances in prenatal diagnosis, detection of malformations, assessment of safe and effective medications, and the development of in utero surgical therapies. Fetal tissue research benefits vaccine development, assessment of risk factors and toxicity levels in drug production, development of cell lines, and provides a source of fetal cells for ongoing transplantation trials. Together, fetal research and fetal tissue research offer tremendous potential for the treatment of the fetus, neonate, and adult.

  6. Impaired fetal muscle development and JAK-STAT activation mark disease onset and progression in a mouse model for merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Andreia M; Wuebbles, Ryan D; Sarathy, Apurva; Fontelonga, Tatiana M; Deries, Marianne; Burkin, Dean J; Thorsteinsdóttir, Sólveig

    2017-06-01

    Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A) is a dramatic neuromuscular disease in which crippling muscle weakness is evident from birth. Here, we use the dyW mouse model for human MDC1A to trace the onset of the disease during development in utero. We find that myotomal and primary myogenesis proceed normally in homozygous dyW-/- embryos. Fetal dyW-/- muscles display the same number of myofibers as wildtype (WT) muscles, but by E18.5 dyW-/- muscles are significantly smaller and muscle size is not recovered post-natally. These results suggest that fetal dyW-/- myofibers fail to grow at the same rate as WT myofibers. Consistent with this hypothesis between E17.5 and E18.5 dyW-/- muscles display a dramatic drop in the number of Pax7- and myogenin-positive cells relative to WT muscles, suggesting that dyW-/- muscles fail to generate enough muscle cells to sustain fetal myofiber growth. Gene expression analysis of dyW-/- E17.5 muscles identified a significant increase in the expression of the JAK-STAT target gene Pim1 and muscles from 2-day and 3-week old dyW-/- mice demonstrate a dramatic increase in pSTAT3 relative to WT muscles. Interestingly, myotubes lacking integrin α7β1, a laminin-receptor, also show a significant increase in pSTAT3 levels compared with WT myotubes, indicating that α7β1 can act as a negative regulator of STAT3 activity. Our data reveal for the first time that dyW-/- mice exhibit a myogenesis defect already in utero. We propose that overactivation of JAK-STAT signaling is part of the mechanism underlying disease onset and progression in dyW-/- mice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Placental determinants of fetal growth: identification of key factors in the insulin-like growth factor and cytokine systems using artificial neural networks

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    Faleschini Elena

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes and relationships of components of the cytokine and IGF systems have been shown in placenta and cord serum of fetal growth restricted (FGR compared with normal newborns (AGA. This study aimed to analyse a data set of clinical and biochemical data in FGR and AGA newborns to assess if a mathematical model existed and was capable of identifying these two different conditions in order to identify the variables which had a mathematically consistent biological relevance to fetal growth. Methods Whole villous tissue was collected at birth from FGR (N = 20 and AGA neonates (N = 28. Total RNA was extracted, reverse transcribed and then real-time quantitative (TaqMan RT-PCR was performed to quantify cDNA for IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IL-6. The corresponding proteins with TNF-α in addition were assayed in placental lysates using specific kits. The data were analysed using Artificial Neural Networks (supervised networks, and principal component analysis and connectivity map. Results The IGF system and IL-6 allowed to predict FGR in approximately 92% of the cases and AGA in 85% of the cases with a low number of errors. IGF-II, IGFBP-2, and IL-6 content in the placental lysates were the most important factors connected with FGR. The condition of being FGR was connected mainly with the IGF-II placental content, and the latter with IL-6 and IGFBP-2 concentrations in placental lysates. Conclusion These results suggest that further research in humans should focus on these biochemical data. Furthermore, this study offered a critical revision of previous studies. The understanding of this system biology is relevant to the development of future therapeutical interventions possibly aiming at reducing IL-6 and IGFBP-2 concentrations preserving IGF bioactivity in both placenta and fetus.

  8. Fetal intestinal fibroblasts respond to insulin-like growth factor (IGF-II better than adult intestinal fibroblasts

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    Fillenwarth Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared IGF responses of fetal and adult intestinal fibroblasts to identify a developmental difference in the IGF-axis. Intestinal fibroblasts were isolated from maternal and fetal jejunum. Media was conditioned at confluence and one week afterwards. The proliferative response at confluence to 5 nM IGF-I or -II was compared. Results There were no significant differences in IGFBP expression at confluence. Post-confluence, fetal fibroblasts had no significant changes in IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 expression. Post-confluent maternal fibroblasts had increased IGFBP-3 levels that were significant compared to the fetal fibroblasts. IGF-I increased in post-confluent fetal fibroblasts, while in maternal fibroblasts it decreased (p Conclusion Fetal intestinal fibroblasts respond to IGF-II with greater proliferation and do not have the increased IGFBPs seen post-confluence in adult intestinal fibroblasts.

  9. The effect of maternal undernutrition in early gestation on gestation length and fetal and postnatal growth in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleal, Jane K; Poore, Kirsten R; Newman, James P; Noakes, David E; Hanson, Mark A; Green, Lucy R

    2007-10-01

    In utero undernutrition in humans may result in cardiovascular (CV), metabolic, and growth adaptations. In sheep, maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy, without effects on fetal or birth weight, results in altered CV control in the offspring. Adjustment of gestation length after undernutrition could be a strategy to enhance postnatal health/survival. The aim of this study was to determine in sheep the effect of a 50% reduction in maternal nutrient intake [undernutrition group (U) versus 100%, control group (C)] during 1-31 d of gestation (dGA) on gestation length and offspring size. By 28 dGA, U ewes had gained less weight than C, and twin-bearing ewes had gained less weight than singleton-bearing ewes regardless of group (p<0.05). In different-sex twin pairs, maternal undernutrition resulted in longer gestation compared with C (146.5+/-0.6 versus 144.6+/-0.6 d, p<0.05). Increased weight gain by weaning (20.8+/-0.8 versus 17.9+/-0.8 kg, p<0.05) was observed in U male twins. These findings suggest that the strategy (i.e. growth rate or length of time in utero) adopted by the fetus to enhance immediate survival depends on offspring number and sex. This is likely to reflect the degree of constraint imposed on the fetus.

  10. Fetal mesenchymal stromal cells differentiating towards chondrocytes acquire a gene expression profile resembling human growth plate cartilage.

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    Sandy A van Gool

    Full Text Available We used human fetal bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hfMSCs differentiating towards chondrocytes as an alternative model for the human growth plate (GP. Our aims were to study gene expression patterns associated with chondrogenic differentiation to assess whether chondrocytes derived from hfMSCs are a suitable model for studying the development and maturation of the GP. hfMSCs efficiently formed hyaline cartilage in a pellet culture in the presence of TGFβ3 and BMP6. Microarray and principal component analysis were applied to study gene expression profiles during chondrogenic differentiation. A set of 232 genes was found to correlate with in vitro cartilage formation. Several identified genes are known to be involved in cartilage formation and validate the robustness of the differentiating hfMSC model. KEGG pathway analysis using the 232 genes revealed 9 significant signaling pathways correlated with cartilage formation. To determine the progression of growth plate cartilage formation, we compared the gene expression profile of differentiating hfMSCs with previously established expression profiles of epiphyseal GP cartilage. As differentiation towards chondrocytes proceeds, hfMSCs gradually obtain a gene expression profile resembling epiphyseal GP cartilage. We visualized the differences in gene expression profiles as protein interaction clusters and identified many protein clusters that are activated during the early chondrogenic differentiation of hfMSCs showing the potential of this system to study GP development.

  11. Indoor Exposure and Adverse Birth Outcomes Related to Fetal Growth, Miscarriage and Prematurity—A Systematic Review

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    Evridiki Patelarou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review was to summarize existing epidemiological evidence of the association between quantitative estimates of indoor air pollution and all-day personal exposure with adverse birth outcomes including fetal growth, prematurity and miscarriage. We carried out a systematic literature search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases with the aim of summarizing and evaluating the results of peer-reviewed epidemiological studies undertaken in “westernized” countries that have assessed indoor air pollution and all-day personal exposure with specific quantitative methods. This comprehensive literature search identified 16 independent studies which were deemed relevant for further review and two additional studies were added through searching the reference lists of all included studies. Two reviewers independently and critically appraised all eligible articles using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP tool. Of the 18 selected studies, 14 adopted a prospective cohort design, three were case-controls and one was a retrospective cohort study. In terms of pollutants of interest, seven studies assessed exposure to electro-magnetic fields, four studies assessed exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, four studies assessed PM2.5 exposure and three studies assessed benzene, phthalates and noise exposure respectively. Furthermore, 12 studies examined infant growth as the main birth outcome of interest, six examined spontaneous abortion and three studies assessed gestational age at birth and preterm delivery. This survey demonstrates that there is insufficient research on the possible association of indoor exposure and early life effects and that further research is needed.

  12. The effect of maternal hyperoxygenation on fetal circulatory system in normal growth and IUGR fetuses. What we can learn from this impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Nizar; Thaler, Israel; Beloosesky, Ron; Dabaja, Hanin; Ganem, Nadir; Abecassis, Philippe; Ginsberg, Yuval; Weiner, Zeev

    2017-03-21

    The objectives of study were to assess and compare the effects of maternal hyperoxygenation on fetal circulation, in fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation and normal fetal growth. Twelve singleton pregnant women with normal fetal growth and 12 singleton pregnant women with intrauterine growth restriction were recruited. Mean gestational age of 35.2 ± 3.5 and 34.7 ± 3.9 weeks, respectively. Doppler blood flow velocity waveforms were obtained from the middle cerebral artery, umbilical, main and proximal right pulmonary arteries. Pulsatility indices were calculated for all the vessels. Peak systolic velocity was determined for the middle cerebral artery. Following baseline measurements; each woman received 70% humidified oxygen for 10 min. Doppler measurements were then repeated. The pulsatility index in the middle cerebral artery increased significantly from 1.5 ± 0.27 to 1.88 ± 0.48, respectively (p = .006) in the high-risk group. However, it did not change significantly in the low-risk group. Hyperoxygenation caused a significant decrease in pulsatility indices in the pulmonary arteries for both groups. Hyperoxygenation interrupts the relative brain-sparing effect in the intrauterine growth retardation group, but it did not significantly change the pulsatility index of the middle cerebral artery in fetuses with adequate weight. The pulsatility index in the pulmonary arteries decreased significantly following hyperoxygenation.

  13. Fetal growth trajectories in pregnancies of European and South Asian mothers with and without gestational diabetes, a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenum, Anne Karen; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Nakstad, Britt; Rognerud-Jensen, Odd Harald; Birkeland, Kåre I.; Vangen, Siri

    2017-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to examine the impact of gestational diabetes (GDM), from before the GDM-diagnosis is made, on fetal growth trajectories, and to compare it in Europeans and South Asians; two ethnic groups with dissimilar fetal growth patterns. Methods We studied European (n = 349) and South Asian (n = 184) pregnant women, from the population-based STORK-Groruddalen cohort in Oslo, Norway. Mothers were enrolled in early pregnancy, screened for GDM in gestational week 28 ±2, and classified as “non-GDM”, “mild GDM” or “moderate/severe GDM”. We measured fetal head circumference, abdominal circumference and femur length by ultrasound, and estimated fetal weight in gestational week 24, 32 and 37, and performed corresponding measurements at birth. Results In non-GDM pregnancies, South Asian fetuses (n = 156) had a slower growth from gestational week 24, compared with Europeans (n = 310). More than two thirds of the European mothers later diagnosed with GDM were overweight or obese in early pregnancy, while this was not observed in South Asians. Fetuses of GDM mothers tended to be smaller than fetuses of non-GDM mothers in week 24, but thereafter grew faster until birth. This pattern was especially pronounced in fetuses of South Asian mothers with moderate/severe GDM. In week 24 these fetuses had a -0.95 SD (95% CI: -1.53, -0.36) lower estimated fetal weight than their non-GDM counterparts. In contrast, at birth they were 0.45 SD (0.09, 0.81) larger. Conclusions Offspring of GDM mothers were smaller in mid pregnancy, but subsequently grew faster until birth, compared with offspring of non-GDM mothers. This pattern was most prominent in South Asian mothers with moderate to severe GDM. However, the most remarkable characteristic of these fetuses was not a large size at birth, but the small size in mid pregnancy, before the GDM diagnosis was set. PMID:28253366

  14. Association between maternal-fetal genetic histocompatibility and maternal undernutrition in mice: influence on intrauterine growth Associação entre histocompatibilidade genética materno-fetal e desnutrição materna em camundongos: influência no crescimento fetal

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    Celso M. Rebello

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal-fetal genetic histocompatibility and the association of that condition with maternal undernutrition regarding fetal growth and litter size. STUDY DESIGN: Fetuses that were either syngeneic or allogeneic with the mothers were bred, using mice of well-defined syngeneic strains (A/J and Balb/c. Pregnant mice were fed using either unrestricted normal diet with 22% protein, consumed ad libitum, or a diet containing 14% protein, with intake restricted to 70% of that consumed by the unrestricted group. At the end of gestation, the number of fetoplacental units and fetal losses, the fetal and placental weight, and the weights of fetal brain and liver were recorded. RESULTS: Fetuses from undernourished mothers showed a reduction in body, placental, and brain weight (P OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da histocompatibilidade genética materno-fetal e sua associação com a desnutrição materna em relação ao crescimento fetal e número de fetos. MÉTODOS: Fetos singênicos ou alogênicos em relação às respectivas mães foram obtidos através de cruzamentos de camundongos com linhagens genéticas bem definidas (A/J e Balb/c. As fêmeas grávidas foram alimentadas ad libitum com dieta normal contendo 22% de proteínas ou dieta com restrição, contendo 14% de proteína e aporte máximo de 70% do total consumido pelo grupo em dieta livre. No final da gestação, o número de unidades feto-placentárias e de perdas fetais, o peso da placenta e do feto, assim como o peso do cérebro e do fígado foram anotados. RESULTADOS: Os fetos das mães submetidas à desnutrição mostraram redução no peso corpóreo, placentário e cerebral (p<0.01, sendo que a associação entre a compatibilidade genética materno-fetal resultou em maior restrição ao crescimento fetal (p<0.01. Foi observada uma redução no número de fetos viáveis por fêmea entre os animais do grupo de restri

  15. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use…

  16. Prenatal Doppler flow patterns and neonatal circulation in fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, Jozien C; Boelen, Maaike R; Schmitz, Danique M; Casarella, Lucia; van der Laan, Michelle E; Bos, Arend F; Bilardo, Caterina M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate, in growth-restricted fetuses, whether prenatal Doppler parameters are correlated with neonatal circulatory changes. METHODS: In 43 cases of suspected FGR, serial Doppler measurements of the umbilical artery (UA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA) were performed (last me

  17. Occupational exposure to chemicals and fetal growth: the Generation R Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, C.A.; Roeleveld, N.; Velde, E. te; Steegers, E.A.P.; Raat, H.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Burdorf, A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Developmental diseases, such as birth defects, growth restriction and preterm delivery, account for >25% of infant mortality and morbidity. Several studies have shown that exposure to chemicals during pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes. The aim of this study was to

  18. Occupational exposure to chemicals and fetal growth: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Snijder (Claudia); N. Roeleveld (Nel); E.R. te Velde (Egbert); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); H. Raat (Hein); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground Developmental diseases, such as birth defects, growth restriction and preterm delivery, account for >25 of infant mortality and morbidity. Several studies have shown that exposure to chemicals during pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes. The aim of this study

  19. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use…

  20. Paraquat increases connective tissue growth factor expression and impairs lung fibroblast proliferation and viscoelasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N; Xie, Y-P; Pang, L; Zang, X-X; Wang, J; Shi, D; Wu, Y; Liu, X-L; Wang, G-H

    2014-12-01

    This in vitro study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of paraquat-induced damage using cultured human fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5 cells), in order to promote the development of improved therapies for paraquat poisoning. Paraquat's effects on proliferation were examined by flow cytometry, on viscoelasticity by the micropipette aspiration technique, and on connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Paraquat was found to significantly reduce the proliferation index of MRC-5 cells in a concentration-dependent manner (p paraquat led to a significant and time-dependent increase in CTGF expression (p paraquat-induced lung fibrosis but may represent useful targets of improved molecular-based therapies for paraquat poisoning.

  1. Impaired hair growth and wound healing in mice lacking thyroid hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Jurado, Constanza; García-Serrano, Laura; Martínez-Fernández, Mónica; Ruiz-Llorente, Lidia; Paramio, Jesus M; Aranda, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Both clinical and experimental observations show that the skin is affected by the thyroidal status. In hypothyroid patients the epidermis is thin and alopecia is common, indicating that thyroidal status might influence not only skin proliferation but also hair growth. We demonstrate here that the thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) mediate these effects of the thyroid hormones on the skin. Mice lacking TRα1 and TRβ (the main thyroid hormone binding isoforms) display impaired hair cycling associated to a decrease in follicular hair cell proliferation. This was also observed in hypothyroid mice, indicating the important role of the hormone-bound receptors in hair growth. In contrast, the individual deletion of either TRα1 or TRβ did not impair hair cycling, revealing an overlapping or compensatory role of the receptors in follicular cell proliferation. In support of the role of the receptors in hair growth, TRα1/TRβ-deficient mice developed alopecia after serial depilation. These mice also presented a wound-healing defect, with retarded re-epithelialization and wound gaping, associated to impaired keratinocyte proliferation. These results reinforce the idea that the thyroid hormone nuclear receptors play an important role on skin homeostasis and suggest that they could be targets for the treatment of cutaneous pathologies.

  2. Conditional expression of constitutively active estrogen receptor {alpha} in chondrocytes impairs longitudinal bone growth in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Kazuhiro [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Tsukui, Tohru [Experimental Animal Laboratory, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Imazawa, Yukiko; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Inoue, Satoshi, E-mail: INOUE-GER@h.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Anti-Aging Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conditional transgenic mice expressing constitutively active estrogen receptor {alpha} (caER{alpha}) in chondrocytes were developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of caER{alpha} in chondrocytes impaired longitudinal bone growth in mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer caER{alpha} affects chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This mouse model is useful for understanding the physiological role of ER{alpha}in vivo. -- Abstract: Estrogen plays important roles in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, which are essential steps for longitudinal bone growth; however, the mechanisms of estrogen action on chondrocytes have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we generated conditional transgenic mice, designated as caER{alpha}{sup ColII}, expressing constitutively active mutant estrogen receptor (ER) {alpha} in chondrocytes, using the chondrocyte-specific type II collagen promoter-driven Cre transgenic mice. caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice showed retardation in longitudinal growth, with short bone lengths. BrdU labeling showed reduced proliferation of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the proliferating layer of the growth plate of tibia in caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice. In situ hybridization analysis of type X collagen revealed that the maturation of hypertrophic chondrocytes was impaired in caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice. These results suggest that ER{alpha} is a critical regulator of chondrocyte proliferation and maturation during skeletal development, mediating longitudinal bone growth in vivo.

  3. Early growth and development impairments in patients with ganglioside GM3 synthase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Wang, A; Wang, D; Bright, A; Sency, V; Zhou, A; Xin, B

    2016-05-01

    Ganglioside GM3 synthase is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of gangliosides. GM3 synthase deficiency (GSD) causes a complete absence of GM3 and all downstream biosynthetic derivatives. The individuals affected by this disorder manifest severe irritability, intractable seizures and profound intellectual disability. However, we have found that most newborns seem symptom-free for a period of time after birth. In order to further understand the onset of the disease, we investigated the early growth and development of patients with this condition through this study. We compared 37 affected individuals with their normal siblings and revealed that all children with GSD had relatively normal intrauterine growth and development, as their weight, length and head circumference were similar to their normal siblings at birth. However, the disease progresses quickly after birth and causes significant constitutional impairments of growth and development by 6 months of age. Neither breastfeeding nor gastrostomy tube placement made significant difference on growth and development as all groups of patients showed the similar pattern. We conclude that GSD causes significant postnatal growth and developmental impairments and the amount of gangliosides in breast milk and general nutritional intervention do not seem to alter these outcomes.

  4. Impact of Restricted Maternal Weight Gain on Fetal Growth and Perinatal Morbidity in Obese Women With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Rasmussen, S.S.; Kelstrup, Louise

    2013-01-01

    ) gestational weight gains were 3.7 kg (-4.7 to 5 kg) and 12.1 kg (5.5-25.5 kg), respectively. Prepregnancy BMI was 33.5 kg/m(2) (30-53 kg/m(2)) vs. 36.8 kg/m(2) (30-48 kg/m(2)), P = 0.037, and median HbA(1c) was 6.7% at first visit in both groups and decreased to 5.7 and 6.0%, P = 0.620, in late pregnancy......OBJECTIVESince January 2008, obese women with type 2 diabetes were advised to gain 0-5 kg during pregnancy. The aim with this study was to evaluate fetal growth and perinatal morbidity in relation to gestational weight gain in these women.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSA retrospective cohort comprised...... the records of 58 singleton pregnancies in obese women (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) with type 2 diabetes giving birth between 2008 and 2011. Birth weight was evaluated by SD z score to adjust for gestational age and sex.RESULTSSeventeen women (29%) gained ≤5 kg, and the remaining 41 gained >5 kg. The median (range...

  5. Color Doppler monitoring of changes of utero-placental-fetal circulation in normal pregnancy and intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Wen, L; Ma, T; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Q; Gao, S; Zhao, M; Wu, H; Hu, J

    1997-01-01

    The utero-placental-fetal circulation (UPFC) of 150 subjects during second and third trimester was examined by using color Doppler. Of them 89 were normal woman and 58 were patients with intrauterine growth retardation IUGR). Our results showed that UPFC was increased gradually during normal pregnant period. In IUGR patients it was revealed that TAV and Q of UmA, UmV and UtA decreased at 20th week of gestation, especially after 30th week. PI, RI and S/D ratio of UmA were increased, but TAV, Q of UmA and UmV were markly reduced, so was UtA. PI were increased, but the changes of RI, S/D ratio in UtA were not significant. Hemodynamical findings of UmA, UmV and UtA were abnormal in 92.53% of IUGR patients. Only 81.03% present abnormal S/D ratio of UmA (P UPFC function directly. It is one of the best methods for monitoring IUGR and might be used for early diagnosis of IUGR. The main pathophysiological changes of IUGR were UPFC obstruction and placental disfunction.

  6. Growth and development of rabbit oocytes in vitro: effect of fetal bovine serum concentration on culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, H; Kida, Y; Miyamoto, Y; Kitada, K; Matsumoto, K; Saeki, K; Taniguchi, T; Hosoi, Y

    2012-09-15

    The objective was to develop a culture system that produced blastocyst stage embryos from rabbit oocytes grown in vitro. Two experiments were performed. First, various concentrations of fetal bovine serum (FBS, 0, 0.05, 0.5 and 5%) were used in the culture medium for in vitro growth (IVG) of oocytes recovered from follicles 200 to 299 μm in diameter. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was performed on mature oocytes obtained after IVG for 8 days and in vitro maturation for 14 to 16 h. Rates of survival and pronuclear formation after ICSI were higher for oocytes grown in a medium with 0.05% FBS compared to oocytes grown in a medium lacking FBS (97.6 vs. 76.9%, 97.5 vs. 70%, P cultured in 0.05% FBS, oxygen consumption and the number of cells were analyzed. Blastocysts from oocytes grown in vitro with 0.05% FBS had reduced oxygen consumption and number of cells compared with those from ovulated oocytes (21.66 ± 4.54 × 10(14) vs. 50.19 ± 4.61 × 10(14) mol/sec, 244 ± 25 vs. 398 ± 24, P vitro with 0.05% FBS achieved pregnancy, but pregnancies were not maintained to term. In conclusion, the addition of 0.05% FBS to the culture medium for IVG improved developmental competence of rabbit oocytes grown in vitro.

  7. Do miRNAs Play a Role in Fetal Growth Restriction? A Fresh Look to a Busy Corner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Chiofalo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Placenta is the crucial organ for embryo and fetus development and plays a critical role in the development of fetal growth restriction (FGR. There are increasing evidences on the role of microRNAs (miRNAs in a variety of pregnancy-related complications such as preeclampsia and FGR. More than 1880 miRNAs have been reported in humans and most of them are expressed in placenta. In this paper, we aimed to review the current evidence about the topic. According to retrieved data, controversial results about placental expression of miRNAs could be due (at least in part to the different experimental methods used by different groups. Despite the fact that several authors have demonstrated a relatively easy and feasible detection of some miRNAs in maternal whole peripheral blood, costs of these tests should be reduced in order to increase cohorts and have stronger evidence. In this regard, we take the opportunity to solicit future studies on large cohort and adequate statistical power, in order to identify a panel of biomarkers on maternal peripheral blood for early diagnosis of FGR.

  8. Effects of Nerve Growth Factor on Proliferation and DNA Synthesis of Cultured Human Fetal Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wensheng Li; Jun Wen; Deyong Jiang; Jianguang Ding

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of nerve growth factor(NGF)on proliferation and DNAthesis of cultured human fetal retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)cells in vitro.Methods: Primary culture and subculture of human fetal retinal pigment epithelium cellswere established in vitro first. Cultured RPE cells were treated with NGF by variousconcentrations 0μg/L, 50μg/L, 100μg/L, 200μg/L and 300μg/L(final concentration)for 48 hs.After 48 hs, cells proliferation was measured with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT)assay method and the amount of DNA was determined by the absorbance at 280nm of nucleic acid & protein analysis.Results: The A values of 100 μg/L, 200 μg/L, 300 μg/L NGF was(0. 213 7 ± 0. 23 3),(0. 218 8 ±0. 018 1), (0. 232 2 ±0. 016 4) as compared with(0. 189 7 ±0. 015 2) of Avalue of 0 μg/L NGF respectively, q value was 3.63,4.40, 6. 42 and P value was0. 015, 0. 000, 0. 000(q-test). The DNA concentrations of 100 μg/L, 200 μg/L, 300μg/L and 400 μg/L NGF was (981. 220 4 ± 123.535 7), (1 375. 848 4 ±244. 471 8),(1 658.707 1 ± 176. 938 1), (2 353.086 3 ±609. 906 4) μg/ml as compared with(666. 818 8 ± 141. 330 2) μg/ml of DNA concentration of 0 μg/L NGF respectively, qvalue was 3.63,8.20,11.47,19.46, P value was 0. 024,0. 000,0. 000,0. 000 (q-test).Conclusion: The data suggested that NGF could stimulate the proliferation and DNAsynthesis of cultured of hRPE cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner.

  9. Associations of blood pressure change in pregnancy with fetal growth and gestational age at delivery: findings from a prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Tilling, Kate; Fraser, Abigail; Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2014-07-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are associated with intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth. However, the associations of patterns of blood pressure change during pregnancy with these outcomes have not been studied in detail. We studied repeat antenatal blood pressure measurements of 9697 women in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (median [interquartile range], 10 [9-11] measurements per woman). Bivariate linear spline models were used to relate blood pressure changes to perinatal outcomes. Higher systolic, but not diastolic, blood pressure at baseline (8 weeks of gestation) and a greater increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure between 18 and 36 weeks of gestation were associated with lower offspring birth weight and being smaller for gestational age in confounder-adjusted models. For example, the mean difference (95% confidence interval) in birth weight per 1 mm Hg/wk greater increase in systolic blood pressure between 18 and 30 weeks was -71 g (-134 to -14) and between 30 and 36 weeks was -175 g (-208 to -145). A smaller decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure before 18 weeks and a greater increase between 18 and 36 weeks were associated with a shorter gestation (percentage difference in gestational duration per 1 mm Hg/wk greater increase in systolic blood pressure between 18 and 30 weeks was -0.60% [-1.01 to -0.18] and between 30 and 36 weeks was -1.01% [-1.36 to -0.74]). Associations remained strong when restricting to normotensive women. We conclude that greater increases in blood pressure, from the 18-week nadir, are related to reduced fetal growth and shorter gestation even in women whose blood pressure does not cross the threshold for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. GROWTH RATE OF HUMAN FETAL LUNG WITH INCREASE IN GESTATIO NAL AGE: A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY

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    Rajkumari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The present study was designed to find out a relationship between growth rate of lung of the human fetuses at different gestational weeks and that of lung weight/body weight ratio with increase in gestational weeks. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This morphological study was carried out at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Regional Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital, Imphal, Manipur with the permission of the Medical Superintendent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried ou t on 63 ( S ixty three fetuses of different gestational ages ranging from 11 th to 36 th gestational weeks obtained from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Regional Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital, Imphal. The gross morphological parameter s such as weights of fetuses and lungs were noted. The mean  SD values of the fetuses and lung weights were measured. The data were statistically and graphically analyzed. RESULTS: The growth rate of left and right lungs showed a minimal value of about 1. 80 gm upto 13 th gestational week and thereafter showed a gradual increase from 13 th to 20 th week and then showed a moderately steep rise and was found to be almost similar upto 24 th week showing an average weight of about 18 gm. From 24 th week, the growth rate of right lung was found slightly faster than that of left lung upto the 36 th gestational week. The differential rate of the lung weight/body weight ratios was observed as follows: a steep fall from 11 th to 12 th week, then a gradual increase from 12 th to 14 th week, then a moderately steep fall from 14 th to 16 th week and then a gradual fall upto 20 th week, a gradual increase from 20 th to 24 th week, then a gradual fall from 24 th to 31 st week and then remained almost constant upto 36 th week. CONCLUSION: T he present study revealed that the growth rate of both the lungs increased gradually upto 20 th week and then a moderate steep rise from 20 th to 24 th week. A significant and

  11. Altered feto-placental vascularization, feto-placental malperfusion and fetal growth restriction in mice with Egfl7 loss of function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacko, Lauretta A; Hurtado, Romulo; Hinds, Samantha; Poulos, Michael G; Butler, Jason M; Stuhlmann, Heidi

    2017-07-01

    EGFL7 is a secreted angiogenic factor produced by embryonic endothelial cells. To understand its role in placental development, we established a novel Egfl7 knockout mouse. The mutant mice have gross defects in chorioallantoic branching morphogenesis and placental vascular patterning. Microangiography and 3D imaging revealed patchy perfusion of Egfl7(-/-) placentas marked by impeded blood conductance through sites of narrowed vessels. Consistent with poor feto-placental perfusion, Egfl7 knockout resulted in reduced placental weight and fetal growth restriction. The placentas also showed abnormal fetal vessel patterning and over 50% reduction in fetal blood space. In vitro, placental endothelial cells were deficient in migration, cord formation and sprouting. Expression of genes involved in branching morphogenesis, Gcm1, Syna and Synb, and in patterning of the extracellular matrix, Mmrn1, were temporally dysregulated in the placentas. Egfl7 knockout did not affect expression of the microRNA embedded within intron 7. Collectively, these data reveal that Egfl7 is crucial for placental vascularization and embryonic growth, and may provide insight into etiological factors underlying placental pathologies associated with intrauterine growth restriction, which is a significant cause of infant morbidity and mortality. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Maternal serum placental growth hormone, but not human placental lactogen or insulin growth factor-1, is positively associated with fetal growth in the first half of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N G; Juul, A; Christiansen, M

    2010-01-01

    To investigate if maternal levels of human placental lactogen (hPL), placental growth hormone (PGH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are associated with growth rate of the biparietal diameter (BPD) in the first half of pregnancy.......To investigate if maternal levels of human placental lactogen (hPL), placental growth hormone (PGH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are associated with growth rate of the biparietal diameter (BPD) in the first half of pregnancy....

  13. [Ultrasonic and biochemical detection and prenatal treatments of intra-uterine fetal growth retardation (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneoka, T; Aso, M; Nobori, M; Aonuma, M; Shimizu, H; Shirakawa, K

    1980-01-01

    Efficacy of three ultrasonographic and six biochemical methods for the detection of intrauterine growth retardation were assessed in prospective studies of 40 cases associated with short uterine fundal height less than -1.5 SD and/or small ultrasonographically determined total intrauterine volume (TIUV) less than -1 SD of normal populations. Prenatal treatments, consisting of bed rest, high protein diet, intravenous drip infusion of 10% maltose, 500 ml per day, for more than 12 days, etc., were administered on them. Fifteen cases (37.5%) delivered small-for-date infants, 9 of which complicated by toxemia of pregnancy. At the final determinations, small TIUV were found in all small-for-date cases (100%), short biparietal diameter 80.0%, and short longitudinal intracavital uterine length 53.3% of 15 small-for-date cases. In biochemical parameters, low maternal plasma estriol levels were found in 73.3%, low plasma human placental lactogen levels 66.7%, low urinary estriol excretion 53.3%, abnormal plasma alpha-fetoprotein levels 33.3%, and low plasma progesterone levels 20.0% of 15 small-for-date cases. Nineteen cases (47.5%) demonstrated remarkable increases in TIUV following prenatal treatments, and delivered appropriate-for-date infants. Despite of marked growth in biophysical parameters, abnormal biochemical values were mostly not improved by these treatments.

  14. Impaired Cerebellar Maturation, Growth Restriction, and Circulating Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in Preterm Rabbit Pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsdóttir, Kristbjörg; Länsberg, John-Kalle; Sveinsdóttir, Snjólaug; Garwicz, Martin; Ohlsson, Lennart; Hellström, Ann; Smith, Lois; Gram, Magnus; Ley, David

    2017-10-04

    Cerebellar growth is impeded following very preterm birth in human infants and the observed reduction in cerebellar volume is associated with neurodevelopmental impairment. Decreased levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are associated with decreased cerebellar volume. The relationship between preterm birth, circulating IGF-1, and key cell populations supporting cerebellar proliferation is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of preterm birth on postnatal growth, circulating IGF-1, and cerebellar maturation in a preterm rabbit pup model. Preterm rabbit pups (PT) were delivered by cesarean section at day 29 of gestation, cared for in closed incubators with humidified air, and gavage fed with formula. Control term pups (T) delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery at day 32 of gestation were housed and fed by their lactating doe. In vivo perfusion-fixation for immunohistochemical evaluation of cerebellar proliferation, cell maturation, and apoptosis was performed at repeated time points in PT and T pups. Results show that the mean weight of the pups and circulating IGF-1 protein levels were lower in the PT group at all time points (p Preterm birth in rabbit pups is associated with lower circulating levels of IGF-1, decreased postnatal growth, and decreased cerebellar EGL proliferation and Purkinje cell maturation. The preterm rabbit pup model exhibits important characteristics of human preterm birth, and may thus be suitable for the evaluation of interventions aiming to modify growth and cerebellar development in the preterm population. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Predictors of growth or attrition of the first language in Latino children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Gutiérrez-Clellen, Vera F; Sweet, Monica

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the factors that may help understand the differential rates of language development in the home language (i.e., Spanish) of Latino preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI). Children were randomly assigned to either bilingual or English-only small group interventions and followed from preschool to kindergarten. Predictors of Spanish growth included the language of intervention, the child's level of language development or severity, the child's socio-emotional skills, and the child's level of English use. Spanish performance outcomes were assessed over time using a series of longitudinal models with baseline and post-treatment measures nested within child. Children demonstrated growth on Spanish outcomes over time. The language of instruction and the child's level of vocabulary and socio-emotional development at baseline were significant predictors of differences in rates of growth in the home language. Clinicians may need to take into consideration these factors when making clinical recommendations.

  16. Maternal Stress Affects Fetal Growth but Not Developmental Instability in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Bots

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Developmental instability (DI, often measured by fluctuating asymmetry (FA or the frequency of phenodeviants (fPD, is thought to increase with stress. However, specifically for stressors of maternal origin, evidence of such negative associations with DI is scarce. Whereas effects of maternal stress on DI have predominately been examined retroactively in humans, very little is known from experiments with well-defined stress levels in animal model systems. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of maternal exposure to three doses (plus a control of a toxic compound affecting maternal condition on DI of their offspring in rabbits. Presence of maternal stress induced by the treatment was confirmed by a decrease in food consumption and weight gain of gravid females in the medium and high dose. Major abnormalities and mortality were unaffected by dose, suggesting the lack of toxic effects of the compound on the offspring. In spite of string maternal stress, offspring FA did not increase with dose. The treatment did lead to elevated fPD, but most were transient, reflecting growth retardation. Furthermore, a consistent association between fPD and FA was absent. These findings indicate that DI is not increased by maternal stress in this animal model.

  17. NLRP3 Deficiency Improves Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension But Not Fetal Growth Restriction During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasuna, Koumei; Karasawa, Tadayoshi; Usui, Fumitake; Kobayashi, Motoi; Komada, Tadanori; Kimura, Hiroaki; Kawashima, Akira; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Taniguchi, Shun'ichiro; Takahashi, Masafumi

    2015-11-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by elevated blood pressure, proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Although sterile inflammation appears to be involved, its pathogenesis remains unclear. Recent evidence indicates that sterile inflammation is mediated through the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes, composed of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), and caspase-1. Here we investigated the role of the NLRP3 inflammasomes in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia using Nlrp3(-/-) and Asc(-/-) (Nlrp3 and Asc deficient) pregnant mice. During pregnancy in mice, continuous infusion of high-dose angiotensin II (AngII) induced hypertension, proteinuria, and IUGR, whereas infusion of low-dose AngII caused hypertension alone. AngII-induced hypertension was prevented in Nlrp3(-/-) mice but not in Asc(-/-), indicating that NLRP3 contributes to gestational hypertension independently of ASC-mediated inflammasomes. Although NLRP3 deficiency had no effect on IUGR, it restored the IL-6 up-regulation in the placenta and kidney of AngII-infused mice. Furthermore, treatment with hydralazine prevented the development of gestational hypertension but not IUGR or IL-6 expression in the placenta and kidney. These findings demonstrate that NLRP3 contributes to the development of gestational hypertension independently of the inflammasomes and that IUGR and kidney injury can occur independent of blood pressure elevation during pregnancy.

  18. Impact on fetal growth of prenatal exposure to pesticides due to agricultural activities: a prospective cohort study in Brittany, France

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    Rouget Florence

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide use is widespread in agriculture. Several studies have shown that pesticides used in agricultural fields can contaminate the domestic environment and thus be an important source of pesticide exposure of populations residing nearby. Epidemiological studies that have examined the health effects of in utero pesticide exposure from residence near agricultural activities suggest adverse effects, but the results are inconsistent. Our purpose was to investigate the effect on intrauterine growth of such exposure due to agricultural activities in the residential municipality. Methods A prospective birth cohort recruited 3421 pregnant women in a French agricultural region (Brittany, 2002-2006 through gynecologists, ultrasonographers, and maternity hospitals during routine prenatal care visits before 19 weeks of gestation. The national agricultural census in 2000 provided the percentages of the municipality area devoted to cultivation of corn, wheat, colza, peas, potatoes, and fresh vegetables. Results Birth weight and the risk of fetal growth restriction were not associated with agricultural activities in the municipality of residence in early pregnancy. Children whose mother lived in a municipality where peas were grown had a smaller head circumference at birth than those in municipalities not growing peas (-0.2 cm, p = 0.0002. Head circumference also tended to be lower when wheat was grown, but not to a statistically significant degree (p-trend = 0.10. Risk of an infant with a small head circumference was higher for mothers living in a municipality where peas (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.2-3.6 or potatoes (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.9-2.4 were grown. Conclusions Agricultural activities in the municipality of residence may have negative effects on cranial growth. Cultivation of pea crops and, to a lesser degree, potato and wheat crops, may negatively affect head circumference. Insecticides, including organophosphate insecticides, were

  19. Cortical peroxynitration of nerve growth factor in aged and cognitively impaired rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Martin A; Cuello, A Claudio

    2012-09-01

    Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN), a system involved in learning and memory processes, are highly dependent on a continuous supply of biologically active nerve growth factor (NGF). Age-related cholinergic atrophy and cell loss in normal brains is apparently not complemented by reductions in the levels of NGF as could be expected. In the present work, cortical proNGF/NGF were immunoprecipitated from cortical brain homogenates from young and aged and behaviorally characterized rats and resolved with antinitrotyrosine antibodies to reveal nitration of tyrosine residues in proteins. Cortical proNGF in aged and cognitively impaired rats was found to be a target for peroxynitrite-mediated oxidative damage with correlative impact on decrease in choline acetyltransferase activity. These studies provide evidence for oxidative stress damage of NGF molecules in the cerebral cortex of cognitively impaired aged rats as previously shown in AD human brains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Restoration of hippocampal growth hormone reverses stress-induced hippocampal impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin M. Vander Weele

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Though growth hormone (GH is synthesized by hippocampal neurons, where its expression is influenced by stress exposure, its function is poorly characterized. Here, we show that a regimen of chronic stress that impairs hippocampal function in rats also leads to a profound decrease in hippocampal GH levels. Restoration of hippocampal GH in the dorsal hippocampus via viral-mediated gene transfer completely reversed stress-related impairment of two hippocampus-dependent behavioral tasks, auditory trace fear conditioning and contextual fear conditioning, without affecting hippocampal function in unstressed control rats. GH overexpression reversed stress-induced decrements in both fear acquisition and long-term fear memory. These results suggest that loss of hippocampal GH contributes to hippocampal dysfunction following prolonged stress and demonstrate that restoring hippocampal GH levels following stress can promote stress resilience.

  1. Non-compliance with growth hormone treatment in children is common and impairs linear growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne S Cutfield

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: GH therapy requires daily injections over many years and compliance can be difficult to sustain. As growth hormone (GH is expensive, non-compliance is likely to lead to suboptimal growth, at considerable cost. Thus, we aimed to assess the compliance rate of children and adolescents with GH treatment in New Zealand. METHODS: This was a national survey of GH compliance, in which all children receiving government-funded GH for a four-month interval were included. Compliance was defined as ≥ 85% adherence (no more than one missed dose a week on average to prescribed treatment. Compliance was determined based on two parameters: either the number of GH vials requested (GHreq by the family or the number of empty GH vials returned (GHret. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. FINDINGS: 177 patients were receiving GH in the study period, aged 12.1 ± 0.6 years. The rate of returned vials, but not number of vials requested, was positively associated with HVSDS (p < 0.05, such that patients with good compliance had significantly greater linear growth over the study period (p<0.05. GHret was therefore used for subsequent analyses. 66% of patients were non-compliant, and this outcome was not affected by sex, age or clinical diagnosis. However, Maori ethnicity was associated with a lower rate of compliance. INTERPRETATION: An objective assessment of compliance such as returned vials is much more reliable than compliance based on parental or patient based information. Non-compliance with GH treatment is common, and associated with reduced linear growth. Non-compliance should be considered in all patients with apparently suboptimal response to GH treatment.

  2. Safeguarding of Fetal Growth by Mast Cells and Natural Killer Cells: Deficiency of One Is Counterbalanced by the Other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Meyer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Uterine natural killer cells (uNKs and mast cells (uMCs are of crucial importance for spiral artery (SA remodeling and placentation. Mice deficient for both NKs and MCs including uNKs and uMCs show markedly impaired SA remodeling and their fetuses are growth-retarded. In contrast, the absence of either NKs or MCs results in only minor impairment. This suggests that uNKs can compensate for the effects of uMCs on SA remodeling and vice versa. To test this hypothesis, we assessed uNK numbers in uMC-deficient mice as well as uMC numbers in uNK-depleted mice. Notably, uMC-deficient C57BL/6J-KitW-sh/W-sh (W-sh mice showed markedly increased numbers of uNKs in contrast to wild type, and the transfer of bone marrow-derived MCs reverted this phenotype. Vice versa, uNK-deficient C57BL/6NTac-IL15tm1ImxN5 (IL-15−/− mice had significantly increased numbers of uMCs and MC-specific proteases. Our results suggest that uNKs and uMCs can counterbalance their effects at the feto–maternal interface and jointly promote SA remodeling and placentation.

  3. Growth and development of the ovary and small follicle pool from mid fetal life to pre-puberty in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stansfield Fiona J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Follicle numbers and developing ovarian morphology, particularly with reference to the presence of interstitial tissue, are intimately linked within the ovary of the African elephant during the period spanning mid-gestation to puberty. These have not been previously quantified in any studies. The collection of 7 sets of elephant fetal ovaries between 11.2 and 20.2 months of gestation, and 29 pairs of prepubertal calf ovaries between 2 months and 9 years of age during routine management off-takes of complete family groups in private conservancies in Zimbabwe provided an opportunity for a detailed study of this period. Results The changing morphology of the ovary is described as the presumptive cortex and medulla components of the fetal ovary settled into their adult form. Interstitial tissue dominated the ovary in late fetal life and these cells stained strongly for 3β–hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. This staining continued postnatally through to 4.5 years of age suggesting continued secretion of progestagens by the ovary during this period. The considerable growth of antral follicles peaked at 28% of ovarian volume at around 16.7 months of fetal age. The numbers of small follicles (primordial, early primary and true primary, counted in the cortex using stereological protocols, revealed fewer small follicles in the ovaries of animals aged 0 to 4.5 years of age than during either late fetal life or prepubertal life. Conclusions The small follicle populations of the late-fetal and prepubertal ovaries of the African elephant were described along with the changing morphology of these organs. The changes noted represent a series of events that have been recorded only in the elephant and the giraffe species to date. The expansion of the interstitial tissue of the fetal ovary and its continued presence in early post natal life may well contribute to the control of follicle development in these early years. Further

  4. Comparative gene expression profiling of placentas from patients with severe pre-eclampsia and unexplained fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurahashi Hiroki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been well documented that pre-eclampsia and unexplained fetal growth restriction (FGR have a common etiological background, but little is known about their linkage at the molecular level. The aim of this study was to further investigate the mechanisms underlying pre-eclampsia and unexplained FGR. Methods We analyzed differentially expressed genes in placental tissue from severe pre-eclamptic pregnancies (n = 8 and normotensive pregnancies with or (n = 8 without FGR (n = 8 using a microarray method. Results A subset of the FGR samples showed a high correlation coefficient overall in the microarray data from the pre-eclampsia samples. Many genes that are known to be up-regulated in pre-eclampsia are also up-regulated in FGR, including the anti-angiogenic factors, FLT1 and ENG, believed to be associated with the onset of maternal symptoms of pre-eclampsia. A total of 62 genes were found to be differentially expressed in both disorders. However, gene set enrichment analysis for these differentially expressed genes further revealed higher expression of TP53-downstream genes in pre-eclampsia compared with FGR. TP53-downstream apoptosis-related genes, such as BCL6 and BAX, were found to be significantly more up-regulated in pre-eclampsia than in FGR, although the caspases are expressed at equivalent levels. Conclusions Our current data indicate a common pathophysiology for FGR and pre-eclampsia, leading to an up-regulation of placental anti-angiogenic factors. However, our findings also suggest that it may possibly be the excretion of these factors into the maternal circulation through the TP53-mediated early-stage apoptosis of trophoblasts that leads to the maternal symptoms of pre-eclampsia.

  5. The interaction between epidermal growth factor (EGF) and matrix metalloproteinase induces the development of sweat glands in human fetal skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jianfu; Fu Xiaobing; Sheng Zhiyong

    2001-01-01

    Objective:The development of sweat glands is a very complicated biological process involving many factors. In this study, we explore the inter-relationship between epidermal growth factor (EGF),matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2,MMP-7) and development of sweat glands in human embryos. Furthermore, we hope to elucidate the mechanism(s) underlying the induction of epidermal stem cells into sweat gland cells. Methods:Skin biospies of human embryos obtained from spontaneous abortions at different gestational ages from 11 to 31 weeks were used in this study. The dynamical expression of EGF, MMP-2, MMP-7 and keratin-7 (K7) in developing sweat gland cells or extracellular stroma surrounding the sweat gland cells were examined with S-P immunohistochemical methods.The localization of the cellular sources of MMP-2 and MMP 7 was examined with in situ hybridization. Results:At 14-20 wk of gestation, a gradual increase in EGF immunoreactivity was observed not only in developing sweat gland buds but also in extracellular stroma surrounding the buds,and the expression intensity peaked at 20-22 wk of gesta- tional age. All mRNA-positive buds or cells in developing sweat glands contained corresponding immunoreactive proteins. Positive immunostaining for K7 appeared in early sweat gland buds at 14-16wk of gestation, and from then on, K7 was concentrated in developing sweat gland cords or cells. Conclusions: The morphogenesis of sweat gland in human fetal skin begins at 14-16wk of gestational age, and essentially completes by 24wk. There is a close relationship among EGF,extracellular matrix remodeling and morphogenesis of sweat glands, and EGF is one of the inducers in the development and maturity of sweat gland buds or cells.

  6. The Predictive Value of Plasma Fibronectin Concentration on Fetal Growth Retardation at Earlier Stage of the Third Trimester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Zehua; XIONG; Guirong; ZHU; Ying

    2001-01-01

    In order to evaluate the predictive value of maternal plasma fibronectin (FN) concentration at 24-34 weeks on fetal intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), a prospective double-blinded study was performed. The maternal plasma FN concentrations were measured by using a rate nephelometric procedure in the 130 initial normal nulliparous pregnant woman at 24-34 gestational weeks.The outcome of pregnancies and birth weight of their infants were followed up. IUGR was defined as that the birth weight was less than the 10th percentile for gestational age. The receiver operating characteristic curves and predictive values of FN predicting on outcome of pregnancy with IUGR were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) In a cohort of 130 initially normal nulliparous pregnant women, IUGR occurred in 14 cases during the follow-up; (2) The plasma FN levels in the women with IUGR (467.58± 104.43 mg/L) were significantly higher than in the normal control group (299. 44±105.55 mg/L, P<0. 01). However, there was no significant difference in the mean maternal age,gravidity, sampling gestational ages, delivering gestational ages between the two groups (P>0. 05);(3) The areas under ROC curve for predicting the outcome of pregnancy in IUGR was 0. 893; (4)At the cut point of 475 mg/L FN level, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and Kappa index for predicting the outcomes of pregnancy in IUGR were 57. 14 %,95. 69 %, 61.54 %, 94.87 %, 0. 5455 respectively. It was concluded that the maternal plasma FN might be used as an earlier predictor for screening of IUGR.

  7. [Color Doppler monitoring the utero-placental-fetal circulation variety of normal pregnancy and intrauterine growth retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Wen, L; Ma, T

    1998-04-01

    To study the utero-placental-fetal circulation (UPFC) in normal pregnancy and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) cases. Color doppler ultrasound was used to detect UPFC in 150 second and third trimester pregnant women, of which 89 cases were normal pregnancy and 58 cases were IUGR. 3 cases were IUGR with chronic renal failure. Hemodynamical value of the umbilical artery (UmA), umbilical vein (UmV) and uterine artery (UtA) were examined directly. The indices included time average velocity (TAV), pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI), systolic/diastolic (S/D) ratio, blood flow volume (Q). The maternal serum estriol (E3), human placental lactogen (HPL) and plasma thromboxane B2 (TXB2)/6-keto-PGF1 alpha (6-KP) were measured simultaneously. The result shows that in normal pregnancy group UPFC is abundant gradually with increasing gestational age. In IUGR group 92.53% of cases showed that TAV and Q of UmA, UmV markedly decreased and PI, RI and S/D ratio of UmA elevated at 20 weeks of gestation. There were significant difference between the two groups, maternal serum E3, HPL level in IUGR group were significantly lower than that of the normal pregnancy group, 6-KP level reduced, and TXB2/6-KP ratio significantly increased. Using color doppler ultrasound examining hemodynamical changes of UmA, UmV and UtA could observe UPFC function directly. It is one of the best method to early diagnose and predict the prognosis of IUGR.

  8. Levels of Adipokines in Amniotic Fluid and Cord Blood Collected from Dichorionic-Diamniotic Twins Discordant for Fetal Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Mi Lee

    Full Text Available To compare the concentrations of adipokines in amniotic fluid (AF and cord blood collected from discordant dichorionic-diamniotic (DCDA twin fetuses.The study population included DCDA twins discordant for fetal growth (birth weight difference >10% who either underwent mid-trimester amniocentesis for routine clinical indication (Cohort 1 or whose amniotic fluid was collected at the time of delivery (Cohort 2. In both cohorts, cord blood was collected at delivery.A total of 92 twin pairs were enrolled (n = 49 in Cohort 1; n = 43 in Cohort 2. In Cohort 1, the concentrations of adiponectin (median, 68.5 ng/mL vs 61.4 ng/mL; p<0.05 and leptin (median, 13.9 ng/mL vs 11.2 ng/mL; p<0.1 in mid-trimester AF were significantly higher in smaller compared with larger twins. In Cohort 2, the concentration of serpin E1 (median, 246.0 ng/mL vs 182.8 ng/mL; p<0.01 in AF at delivery was significantly higher in smaller twins, but no difference was noted in adiponectin and leptin concentrations. Levels of adiponectin (median, 10425.5 ng/mL vs 11552.0 ng/mL; p<0.005 and leptin (median, 2.1 ng/mL vs 2.6 ng/mL; p<0.005 were significantly lower in the cord blood of smaller twins whereas cord blood concentrations of serpin E1 (median, 15.5 ng/mL vs 13.3 ng/mL; p<0.05 was higher in the smaller twins.In discordant DCDA twin pairs, concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, and serpin E1 in mid-trimester AF, AF at delivery, and cord blood at birth vary significantly but predictably between the smaller and larger twins.

  9. The effect of supervised prenatal exercise on fetal growth: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Henry W; Boulé, Normand G; Chari, Radha; Davenport, Margie H

    2015-05-01

    To estimate the influence of structured prenatal exercise on newborn birth weight, macrosomia, and growth restriction. A structured search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Sport Discus, Ovid's All EBM Reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases up to January 13, 2015. The search combined keywords and MeSH-like terms including, but not limited, to "physical activity," "exercise," "pregnancy," "gestation," "neonatal," and "randomized controlled trial." Articles reporting randomized controlled trials comparing standard care with standard care plus supervised prenatal exercise for which birth size was available were included. Supervision was defined as at least one exercise session performed with study personnel every 2 weeks throughout the program. Interventions consisting solely of pelvic floor exercises, stretching, or relaxation were excluded. Our search yielded 1,036 publications of which 79 were assessed for eligibility. Twenty-eight studies reporting on 5,322 pregnancies were subsequently included in the analysis. Our meta-analysis demonstrated that prenatal exercise reduced the odds of having a large newborn (birth weight greater than 4,000 g or greater than the 90th percentile for gestational age and sex) by 31% (odds ratio [OR] 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55-0.86; I 25%) without altering the risk of having a small newborn (birth weight less than 2,500 g or less than the 10th percentile for gestational age and sex) (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.72-1.46; I 0%) or gestational age at delivery (weighted mean difference -0.00 weeks, 95% CI -0.09 to 0.09; I 0%). Newborns of mothers assigned to exercise were lighter than those of nonexercising controls (weighted mean difference -31 g, 95% CI -57 to -4; I 0%). Maternal gestational weight gain (weighted mean difference -1.1 kg, 95% CI -1.5 to -0.6; I 53%) and odds of cesarean delivery (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69-0.94; I 0%) were also reduced. These data demonstrate that structured prenatal exercise reduces the risk of having a large

  10. Expression of growth differentiation factor 6 in the human developing fetal spine retreats from vertebral ossifying regions and is restricted to cartilaginous tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Aiqun; Shen, Bojiang; Williams, Lisa A; Bhargav, Divya; Gulati, Twishi; Fang, Zhimin; Pathmanandavel, Sarennya; Diwan, Ashish D

    2016-02-01

    During embryogenesis vertebral segmentation is initiated by sclerotomal cell migration and condensation around the notochord, forming anlagen of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs. The factors that govern the segmentation are not clear. Previous research demonstrated that mutations in growth differentiation factor 6 resulted in congenital vertebral fusion, suggesting this factor plays a role in development of vertebral column. In this study, we detected expression and localization of growth differentiation factor 6 in human fetal spinal column, especially in the period of early ossification of vertebrae and the developing intervertebral discs. The extracellular matrix proteins were also examined. Results showed that high levels of growth differentiation factor 6 were expressed in the nucleus pulposus of intervertebral discs and the hypertrophic chondrocytes adjacent to the ossification centre in vertebral bodies, where strong expression of proteoglycan and collagens was also detected. As fetal age increased, the expression of growth differentiation factor 6 was decreased correspondingly with the progress of ossification in vertebral bodies and restricted to cartilaginous regions. This expression pattern and the genetic link to vertebral fusion suggest that growth differentiation factor 6 may play an important role in suppression of ossification to ensure proper vertebral segmentation during spinal development.

  11. Protein or energy restriction during late gestation alters fetal growth and visceral organ mass: an evidence of intrauterine programming in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z X; Wu, D Q; Sun, Z H; Tan, Z L; Qiao, J Y; Ran, T; Tang, S X; Zhou, C S; Han, X F; Wang, M; Kang, J H; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of maternal protein or energy restriction during late gestation on postnatal fetal growth and visceral organ mass of goats. Eighty pregnant goats with similar age (2.0 ± 0.3 yr) and body weight (BW, 20.0 ± 1.0 kg before pregnancy) were assigned to 3 dietary treatments during late gestation: control (CON), 40% protein restricted (PR) and 40% energy restricted (ER) diets until parturition, after which offspring received normal diets for nutritional recovery. Kids were killed and visceral tissues were harvested at birth and week 6. Maternal protein or energy restriction decreased (P nutritional recovery, there was no difference (P = 0.91) in BW among groups; the kids from nutritional restriction groups showed a greater (P goats, particularly the proportional responses of fetal organs relative to BW, including thymus, small intestine, kidney and liver. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. First trimester maternal serum placenta growth factor (PIGF)concentrations in pregnancies with fetal trisomy 21 or trisomy 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, K; Liao, A W; Ong, C Y; Geerts, L; Nicolaides, K H

    2001-09-01

    Placenta growth factor (PIGF), an angiogenic factor belonging to the vascular endothelial growth factor family, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) were measured in maternal serum from 45 pregnancies with trisomy 21, 45 with trisomy 18 and 493 normal controls at 10-13 completed weeks of gestation. In the normal pregnancies maternal serum PIGF levels increased exponentially with gestation. The median multiple of the median (MoM) PIGF concentration in the trisomy 21 group (1.26 MoM) was significantly higher (ptrisomy 18 group the median PIGF was lower (0.889 MoM) but this did not quite reach significance (p=0.064). The corresponding median MoM values for PAPP-A were 1.00 MoM for the controls, 0.49 MoM for trisomy 21 and 0.16 MoM for trisomy 18. The median MoM values for free beta-hCG were 1.00 MoM for the controls, 2.05 MoM for trisomy 21 and 0.38 MoM for trisomy 18. In the control group there was a small but significant correlation of PIGF with free beta-hCG (r=+0.1024) and PAPP-A (r=+0.2288). In the trisomy 18 group there was a significant association between PIGF and free beta-hCG (r=+0.2629) but not with PAPP-A (r=+0.0038). In the trisomy 21 group there was a small but significant association with PAPP-A (r=+0.1028) but not with free beta-hCG (r=+0.0339). The separation of affected and unaffected pregnancies in maternal serum PIGF is small, and therefore it is unlikely that measurement of PIGF would improve screening for these abnormalities provided by the combination of fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum PAPP-A and free beta-hCG. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Impairs Small Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Neonatal Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Zhong, Xiang; Ahmad, Hussain; Li, Wei; Wang, Yuanxiao; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2014-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a very common problem in both piglet and human neonate populations. We hypothesized that IUGR neonates have impaired intestinal mucosal immunity from birth. Using neonatal piglets as IUGR models, immune organ weights, the weight and length of the small intestine (SI), intestinal morphology, intraepithelial immune cell numbers, levels of cytokines and immunoglobulins, and the relative gene expression of cytokines in the SI were investigated. IUGR neonatal piglets were observed to have lower absolute immune organ weight and SI length, decreased relative weights of the thymus, spleen, mesenteric lymph node, and thinner but longer SIs. Damaged and jagged villi, shorter microvilli, presence of autophagosomes, swelled mitochondria, and decreased villus surface areas were also found in the SIs of IUGR neonatal piglets. We also found a smaller number of epithelial goblet cells and lymphocytes in the SIs of IUGR neonates. In addition, we detected reduced levels of the cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ and decreased gene expression of cytokines in IUGR neonates. In conclusion, IUGR was shown to impair the mucosal immunity of the SI in neonatal piglets, and the ileum was the major site of impairment.

  14. Genetic deletion of fibroblast growth factor 14 recapitulates phenotypic alterations underlying cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, T K; Alshammari, M A; Nenov, M N; Hoxha, E; Cambiaghi, M; Marcinno, A; James, T F; Singh, P; Labate, D; Li, J; Meltzer, H Y; Sacchetti, B; Tempia, F; Laezza, F

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive processing is highly dependent on the functional integrity of gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) interneurons in the brain. These cells regulate excitability and synaptic plasticity of principal neurons balancing the excitatory/inhibitory tone of cortical networks. Reduced function of parvalbumin (PV) interneurons and disruption of GABAergic synapses in the cortical circuitry result in desynchronized network activity associated with cognitive impairment across many psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. However, the mechanisms underlying these complex phenotypes are still poorly understood. Here we show that in animal models, genetic deletion of fibroblast growth factor 14 (Fgf14), a regulator of neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission, leads to loss of PV interneurons in the CA1 hippocampal region, a critical area for cognitive function. Strikingly, this cellular phenotype associates with decreased expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) and also coincides with disrupted CA1 inhibitory circuitry, reduced in vivo gamma frequency oscillations and impaired working memory. Bioinformatics analysis of schizophrenia transcriptomics revealed functional co-clustering of FGF14 and genes enriched within the GABAergic pathway along with correlatively decreased expression of FGF14, PVALB, GAD67 and VGAT in the disease context. These results indicate that Fgf14−/− mice recapitulate salient molecular, cellular, functional and behavioral features associated with human cognitive impairment, and FGF14 loss of function might be associated with the biology of complex brain disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:27163207

  15. Behaviour of postnatally growth-impaired mice during malnutrition and after partial weight recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Reinhard C.; Kolb, Andreas F.; Lillico, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Early malnutrition is a highly prevalent condition in developing countries. Different rodent models of postnatal early malnutrition have been used to approach the subject experimentally, inducing early malnutrition by maternal malnutrition, temporal maternal separation, manipulation...... of litter size or the surgical nipple ligation to impair lactation. Studies on the behaviour of (previously) malnourished animals using animal models have produced sometimes contradictory results regarding the effects of early postnatal malnutrition and have been criticized for introducing potential...... confounding factors. The present paper is a first report on the behavioural effects of early malnutrition induced by an alternative approach: mice nursed by a-casein-deficient knockout dams showed a severe growth delay during early development and substantial catch-up growth after weaning when compared...

  16. Role of growth hormone-releasing hormone in sleep and growth impairments induced by upper airway obstruction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasiuk, A; Berdugo-Boura, N; Troib, A; Segev, Y

    2011-10-01

    Upper airway obstruction (UAO) can lead to abnormal growth hormone (GH) homeostasis and growth retardation but the mechanisms are unclear. We explored the effect of UAO on hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone (GHRH), which has a role in both sleep and GH regulation. The tracheae of 22-day-old rats were narrowed; UAO and sham-operated animals were sacrificed 16 days post-surgery. To stimulate slow-wave sleep (SWS) and GH secretion, rats were treated with ritanserin (5-HT(2) receptor antagonist). Sleep was measured with a telemetric system. Hypothalamic GHRH, hypothalamic GHRH receptor (GHRHR) and GH receptor, and orexin were analysed using ELISA, real-time PCR and Western blot. UAO decreased hypothalamic GHRH, GHRHR and GH receptor levels, while orexin mRNA increased (psleep and slow-wave activity was reduced (pgrowth impairment (pgrowth retardation in UAO is associated with a reduction in hypothalamic GHRH content. Our findings show that abnormalities in the GHRH/GH axis underlie both growth retardation and SWS-disorder UAO.

  17. Prenatal cocaine exposure impairs cognitive function of progeny via insulin growth factor II epigenetic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Hou, Jing; Chen, Bo; Shao, Xue; Zhu, Ruiming; Bu, Qian; Gu, Hui; Li, Yan; Zhang, Baolai; Du, Changman; Fu, Dengqi; Kong, Jueying; Luo, Li; Long, Hailei; Li, Hongyu; Deng, Yi; Zhao, Yinglan; Cen, Xiaobo

    2015-10-01

    Studies have showed that prenatal cocaine exposure (PCOC) can impair cognitive function and social behavior of the offspring; however, the mechanism underlying such effect is poorly understood. Insulin-like growth factor II (Igf-II), an imprinted gene, has a critical role in memory consolidation and enhancement. We hypothesized that epigenetic regulation of hippocampal Igf-II may attribute to the cognitive deficits of PCOC offspring. We used Morris water maze and open-field task to test the cognitive function in PCOC offspring. The epigenetic alteration involved in hippocampal Igf-II expression deficit in PCOC offspring was studied by determining Igf-II methylation status, DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) expressions and L-methionine level. Moreover, IGF-II rescue experiments were performed and the downstream signalings were investigated in PCOC offspring. In behavioral tests, we observed impaired spatial learning and memory and increased anxiety in PCOC offspring; moreover, hippocampal IGF-II mRNA and protein expressions were significantly decreased. Hippocampal methylation of cytosine-phospho-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides in differentially methylated region (DMR) 2 of Igf-II was elevated in PCOC offspring, which may be driven by the upregulation of L-methionine and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1. Importantly, intra-hippocampal injection of recombinant IGF-II reactivated the repressed calcium calmodulin kinase II α (CaMKIIα) and reversed cognitive deficits in PCOC offspring. Collectively, our findings suggest that cocaine exposure during pregnancy impairs cognitive function of offspring through epigenetic modification of Igf-II gene. Enhancing IGF-II signaling may represent a novel therapeutical strategy for cocaine-induced cognitive impairment.

  18. Vigilancia Fetal

    OpenAIRE

    SAONA UGARTE, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    La percepción de la actividad fetal por la madre es la técnica más antigua y menos costosa de controlar el bienestar fetal. Tradicionalmente se ha considerado la disminución o ausencia de movimientos fetales percibidos por la madre, como una señal de alarma, en especial cuando existe insuficiencia útero placentaria. Varios investigadores han descrito el valor del registro diario de movimientos fetales como un método para identificar el feto en peligrote morir. El poder discernir si el feto se...

  19. Restrictive dermopathy and fetal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, EJH; Beemer, FA; Stoutenbeek, P

    2001-01-01

    We report three siblings from consecutive pregnancies affected with restrictive dermopathy (RD). During the second pregnancy, fetal behavioural development and growth were studied extensively using ultrasound at 1-4 week intervals. Dramatic and sudden changes occurred in fetal body movements and gro

  20. Association between fetal weight and amniotic fluid index in women of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Wadnere

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The placenta is important for fetal growth and well-being. Defective placentation and impaired placental circulation may result in anomalies in fetal growth. Placental volume in the second trimester appears to be closely related to the neonatal weight. The association of body weight with urine output has been observed in human neonates. Our goal is to assess the association of the amniotic fluid index (AFI with the estimated fetal weight (EFW. Materials and Methods : Thirteen hundred and ninety-three pregnant women were prospectively studied by means of an ultrasound over a 12-month period. The fetal weight (FW was estimated using a combination of fetal parameters - bi-parietal diameter, fetal trunk cross-sectional area, and femur length. AFI was assessed using the four quadrant method. The level of statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Result s: There was no statistically significant association between AFI and EFW (P > 0.05; r = 0.413. We also did not find a significant association between AFI and EFW for all subdivisions of gestation age, except in the 24 - 28 weeks and 29 - 32 weeks′ groups. Conclusion : The FW calculations and amniotic index show a variation in values in late pregnancy. There does not appear to be a linear association between the ultrasound estimate of FW and the amniotic index. The implication of this is that the fetal size need not be taken into cognizance when alterations in amniotic fluid values are noted.

  1. GENETIC DEFECTS IN THE GROWTH HORMONE-IGF-I AXIS CAUSING GROWTH HORMONE INSENSITIVITY AND IMPAIRED LINEAR GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin O. Savage

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Human genetic defects in the growth hormone (GH –IGF-I axis affecting the IGF system present with growth failure as their principal clinical feature. This is usually associated with GH insensitivity (GHI presenting in childhood as severe or mild short stature. Dysmorphic features and metabolic abnormalities may also be present. The field of GHI due to mutations affecting GH action has evolved radidly since the first description of the extreme phenotype related to homozygous GH receptor (GHR mutations in 1966. A continuum of genetic, phenotypic, and biochemical abnormalities can be defined associated with clinically relevant defects in linear growth. The mechanisms of the GH–IGF-I axis in the regulation of normal human growth is discussed followed by descriptions of mutations in GHR, STAT5B, IGF-I, IGFALS, IGF1R and GH1 defects causing bioinactive GH or anti-GH antibodies. These GH-IGF-I axis defects are associated with a range of clinical, and hormonal characteristics. An up-dated approach to the clinical assessment of the patient with GHI focussing on investigation of the GH–IGF-I axis and relevant molecular studies contributing to the identification of causative genetic defects is also discussed.

  2. Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award Lecture: Searching for an early pregnancy 3-D morphometric ultrasound marker to predict fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S L; Stevenson, G N; Noble, J A; Impey, L

    2013-03-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, even in term babies. An effective screening test to identify pregnancies at risk of FGR, leading to increased antenatal surveillance with timely delivery, could decrease perinatal mortality and morbidity. Placental volume, measured with commercially available packages and a novel, semi-automated technique, has been shown to predict small for gestational age babies. Placental morphology measured in 2-D in the second trimester and ex-vivo post delivery, correlates with FGR. This has also been investigated using 2-D estimates of diameter and site of cord insertion obtained using the Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL) software. Data is presented describing a pilot study of a novel 3-D method for defining compactness of placental shape. We prospectively recruited women with a singleton pregnancy and BMI of <35. A 3-D ultrasound scan was performed between 11 and 13 + 6 weeks' gestation. The placental volume, total placental surface area and the area of the utero-placental interface were calculated using our validated technique. From these we generated dimensionless indices including sphericity (ψ), standardised placental volume (sPlaV) and standardised functional area (sFA) using Buckingham π theorem. The marker for FGR used was small for gestational age, defined as <10th customised birth weight centile (cSGA). Regression analysis examined which of the morphometric indices were independent predictors of cSGA. Data were collected for 143 women, 20 had cSGA babies. Only sPlaV and sFA were significantly correlated to birth weight (p < 0.001). Regression demonstrated all dimensionless indices were inter-dependent co-factors. ROC curves showed no advantage for using sFA over the simpler sPlaV. The generated placental indices are not independent of placental volume this early in gestation. It is hoped that another placental ultrasound marker based on vascularity can improve the

  3. Effect of nebivolol treatment during pregnancy on the intrauterine fetal growth, mortality and pup postnatal development in the l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoama, Kassem; Mallem, Mohamed Yassine; Thorin, Chantal; Betti, Eric; Desfontis, Jean-Claude

    2016-11-15

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of nebivolol vs. bisoprolol treatment on the intrauterine fetal growth, mortality and postnatal development in N(ω)-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced in normotensive pregnant Wistar rats by daily administration of l-NAME (100mg/kg/day, in the drinking water) for the period of pregnancy. After 9 days of l-NAME treatment, rats with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) more than 140/90mmHg were considered hypertensive. Then, some of them were treated from day 11 to day 18 of pregnancy with nebivolol (8mg/kg/day) or bisoprolol (10mg/kg/day) via oral gavage. SBP, DBP and heart rate (HR) were re-evaluated by tail cuff method on day 19 of pregnancy and morphometrical or histological studies were performed on day 20. In addition, the mortality and postnatal development of newborn pups were assessed in all groups. The l-NAME administration during pregnancy induced an increase in SBP and DBP while HR did not change. Nebivolol or bisoprolol treatment completely prevented the elevation of SBP and DBP induced by l-NAME with a reduction in HR in pregnant and non-pregnant rats. The intra-uterine fetal growth and the postnatal development of newborn rats in nebivolol-treated hypertensive group were significantly lower vs. control and higher vs. bisoprolol-treated group with a higher mortality in the both types of treatments vs. control rats. The nebivolol and bisoprolol administration produce adverse effects on fetal growth and postnatal development, that limits their therapeutic use in females during pregnancy.

  4. Fetal macrosomia as an important indicator of fetal malformation syndrome: ultrasonic findings of two cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PA de Jong; MD E.J.M. Wouters; EA Pley

    1989-01-01

    Two extraordinary cases of fetal macrosomia are presented. It is discussed that extreme fetal growth should raise the suspicion of a malformation syndrome and deserves thorough antenatal ultrasonographic examination.

  5. Is high consumption of fatty fish during pregnancy a risk factor for fetal growth retardation? A study of 44,824 Danish pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldorsson, Th I; Meltzer, H M; Thorsdottir, I; Knudsen, V; Olsen, S F

    2007-09-15

    The authors examined the relation between fish consumption during pregnancy and fetal growth among 44,824 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). They evaluated the associations between consumption of total fish, fatty fish, and lean fish in midpregnancy and birth weight, birth length, and head circumference among singleton full-term infants. Fish consumption was ascertained by food frequency questionnaire. The birth of infants classified below the 10th percentile for gestational age and gender was significantly increased among women who consumed more than 60 g of fish per day, as compared with women who consumed 5 g or less per day. Adjusted odds ratios were 1.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.49) for birth weight and 1.21 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.43) for head circumference. The adjusted odds ratio was borderline significant for birth length (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.45). These increases in risk were followed by small decreases in average values for these growth measures. Furthermore, the inverse association for total fish consumption could be explained by consumption of fatty fish, while no association was found for lean fish. These results indicate that consumption of fatty fish, a known route of exposure to persistent organic pollutants, could be associated with reduced fetal growth.

  6. Efficient proliferation and maturation of fetal liver cells in three-dimensional culture by stimulation of oncostatin M, epidermal growth factor, and dimethyl sulfoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Toshie; Ehashi, Tomo; Ohshima, Norio; Miyoshi, Hirotoshi

    2009-05-01

    For the purpose of applying fetal liver cells (FLCs) as a cell source to tissue-engineered bioartificial livers, three-dimensional (3-D) cultures of FLCs using a porous polymer scaffold, as well as monolayer cultures as a control, were simultaneously performed. To achieve efficient growth and differentiation, the FLCs were cultured in the growth medium for the first 3 weeks and then cultured in the differentiation medium for 3 more weeks. In these cultures, stimulating factors (oncostatin M (OSM), epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)) were added to the media, and their effects were examined. When the growth medium containing OSM and EGF was used, EGF stimulated the growth of FLCs synergistically with OSM. For the differentiation of FLCs into mature hepatocytes, DMSO added to the differentiation medium remarkably enhanced albumin secretion in the 3-D and monolayer cultures, although HGF was effective only in the monolayer culture. Microscopic observation proved that FLCs exhibited hepatocyte-like morphology only in the media containing DMSO. In conclusion, successive supply of the growth medium containing EGF and OSM and the differentiation medium containing DMSO efficiently induced the growth of the 3-D cultured FLCs and their differentiation into mature hepatocytes.

  7. Fetal and neonatal thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandar Mohan Batra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal thyrotoxicosis is a rare disease occurring in 1 out of 70 pregnancies with Grave′s disease or in 1 out of 4000-50,000 deliveries. The mortality is 12-20%, usually from heart failure, but other complications are tracheal compression, infections and thrombocytopenia. It results from transfer of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins from mother to fetus through the placenta. This transplacental transfer begins around 20 th week of pregnancy and reaches its maximum by 30 th week. These autoantibodies bind to the fetal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH receptors and increase the secretion of the thyroid hormones. The mother has an active autoimmune thyroid disease or has been treated for it in the past. She may be absolutely euthyroid due to past treatment by drugs, surgery or radioiodine ablation, but still have active TSH receptor stimulating autoantibodies, which can cause fetal thyrotoxicosis. The other features of this disease are fetal tachycardia, fetal goiter and history of spontaneous abortions and findings of goiter, ascites, craniosyntosis, fetal growth retardation, maceration and hydrops at fetal autopsy. If untreated, this disease can result in intrauterine death. The treatment for this disease consists of giving carbimazole to the mother, which is transferred through the placenta to the fetus. The dose of carbimazole is titrated with the fetal heart rate. If the mother becomes hypothyroid due to carbimazole, thyroxine is added taking advantage of the fact that very little of thyroxine is transferred across the placenta. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis patients are very sick and require emergency treatment. The goal of the treatment is to normalize thyroid functions as quickly as possible, to avoid iatrogenic hypothyroidism while providing management and supportive therapy for the infant′s specific signs and symptoms.

  8. Severe life events and impaired fetal growth: a nation-wide study with complete follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Andersen, Per Kragh; Olsen, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To estimate the association between severe maternal life events and infants small for gestational age at different gestational ages at birth. METHODS: From 1980 to 1992 all women exposed to severe life events such as death or first hospitalization for cancer or acute myocardial...

  9. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Birgitte; Madsen, Kenneth L; Jansen, Anna M;

    2013-01-01

    Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here...... was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported...... dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus...

  10. Unsafe Child Feces Disposal is Associated with Environmental Enteropathy and Impaired Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Oldja, Lauren; Biswas, Shwapon; Perin, Jamie; Sack, R Bradley; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Shahnaij, Mohammad; Haque, Rashidul; Parvin, Tahmina; Azmi, Ishrat J; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Talukder, Kaisar A; Faruque, Abu G

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between unsafe child feces disposal, environmental enteropathy, and impaired growth, we conducted a prospective cohort study of 216 young children in rural Bangladesh. Using a prospective cohort study design in rural Bangladesh, unsafe child feces disposal, using the Joint Monitoring Program definition, was assessed using 5-hour structured observation by trained study personnel as well as caregiver reports. Anthropometric measurements were collected at baseline and at a 9-month follow-up. Stool was analyzed for fecal markers of environmental enteropathy: alpha-1-antitrypsin, myeloperoxidase, neopterin (combined to form an environmental enteropathy disease activity score), and calprotectin. Among 216 households with young children, 84% had an unsafe child feces disposal event during structured observation and 75% had caregiver reported events. There was no significant difference in observed unsafe child feces disposal events for households with or without an improved sanitation option (82% vs 85%, P = .72) or by child's age (P = .96). Children in households where caregivers reported unsafe child feces disposal had significantly higher environmental enteropathy scores (0.82-point difference, 95% CI 0.11-1.53), and significantly greater odds of being wasted (weight-for-height z score <-2 SDs) (9% vs 0%, P = .024). In addition, children in households with observed unsafe feces disposal had significantly reduced change in weight-for-age z-score (-0.34 [95% CI -0.68, -0.01] and weight-for-height z score (-0.52 [95% CI -0.98, -0.06]). Unsafe child feces disposal was significantly associated with environmental enteropathy and impaired growth in a pediatric population in rural Bangladesh. Interventions are needed to reduce this high-risk behavior to protect the health of susceptible pediatric populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fetal metabolic programming and epigenetic modifications: a systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookoian, Silvia; Gianotti, Tomas Fernández; Burgueño, Adriana L; Pirola, Carlos J

    2013-04-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the notion that epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, both involving chromatin remodeling, contribute to fetal metabolic programming. We use a combination of gene-protein enrichment analysis resources along with functional annotations and protein interaction networks for an integrative approach to understanding the mechanisms underlying fetal metabolic programming. Systems biology approaches suggested that fetal adaptation to an impaired nutritional environment presumes profound changes in gene expression that involve regulation of tissue-specific patterns of methylated cytosine residues, modulation of the histone acetylation-deacetylation switch, cell differentiation, and stem cell pluripotency. The hypothalamus and the liver seem to be differently involved. In addition, new putative explanations have emerged about the question of whether in utero overnutrition modulates fetal metabolic programming in the same fashion as that of a maternal environment of undernutrition, suggesting that the mechanisms behind these two fetal nutritional imbalances are different. In conclusion, intrauterine growth restriction is most likely to be associated with the induction of persistent changes in tissue structure and functionality. Conversely, a maternal obesogenic environment is most probably associated with metabolic reprogramming of glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as future risk of metabolic syndrome (MS), fatty liver, and insulin (INS) resistance.

  12. In vitro characteristics of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells isolated from rabbit fetal lung. I. Effects of culture media and nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutz, E; Yeger, H; Wong, V; Bienkowski, E; Chan, W

    1985-12-01

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine (NE) cells, dispersed throughout the airway mucosa as single cells and as innervated clusters (neuroepithelial bodies), were isolated from rabbit fetal lung and studied in short-term culture. The effects of culture media and nerve growth factor (NGF) on in vitro maintenance, differentation, and cell kinetics of isolated NE cells were examined. For demonstration of NE cells in intact lung, during cell separation and after culture, immunostaining for serotonin, formaldehyde-induced fluorescence method, histochemical reaction for acetylcholinesterase, and electron microscopy were used. The isolation procedure consisted of mechanical and enzymatic dissociation of lung tissue followed by separation of isolated cells on a discontinuous gradient of Percoll, resulting in 5- to 10-fold enrichment in NE cells. Cell fractions enriched in NE cells were cultured up to 7 days either in supplemented alpha-minimal essential medium with fetal bovine serum or in defined, hormone-supplemented, serum-free medium. NGF (2.5 S 5 to 50 ng/ml) was added to both serum-supplemented and serum-free media; cultures without NGF served as control. The number of serotonin-immunoreactive NE cells maintained in serum-supplemented medium (0.5% fetal bovine serum) increased significantly (p less than 0.05) on days 4 and 7 compared with cultures grown in serum-free medium. NE cells maintained in serum-supplemented medium incorporated [3H]thymidine and their labeling index was significantly increased (p less than 0.01) on day 7, whereas few or no NE cells were labeled in cultures grown in serum-free medium. NGF had no effect on the maintenance or kinetics of NE cells. Cultured NE cells formed elongated (unipolar or bipolar) neurite-like cytoplasmic processes with a button-like ending, regardless of the presence of NGF. Amine accumulated in perinuclear cytoplasm and in button-like endings. Staining for acetylcholinesterase (strongly positive in intact neuroepithelial bodies) was

  13. Elevated 20-HETE Impairs Coronary Collateral Growth in Metabolic Syndrome Via Endothelial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Gregory; Soler, Amanda; Hutcheson, Rebecca; Hunter, Ian; Bradford, Chastity; Hutcheson, Brenda; Gotlinger, Katherine H; Jiang, Houli; Falck, John R; Proctor, Spencer; Laniado Schwartzman, Michal; Rocic, Petra

    2016-12-23

    Coronary collateral growth (CCG) is impaired in metabolic syndrome (MetS). microRNA-145 (miR-145-Adv) delivery to our rat model of metabolic syndrome (JCR) completely restored and neutrophil depletion significantly improved CCG. We determined whether low endogenous levels of miR-145 in MetS allowed for elevated production of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), which in turn, resulted in excessive neutrophil accumulation and endothelial dysfunction leading to impaired CCG. Rats underwent 0-9 days of repetitive ischemia (RI). RI-induced cardiac CYP4F (neutrophil-specific 20-HETE synthase) expression and 20-HETE levels were increased (4-fold) in JCR vs. normal rats. miR-145-Adv and 20-HETE antagonists abolished, and neutrophil depletion (blocking antibodies) reduced (~60%) RI-induced increases in CYP4F expression and 20-HETE production in JCR rats. Impaired CCG in JCR rats (collateral-dependent blood flow using microspheres) was completely restored by 20-HETE antagonists ((collateral-dependent zone)CZ/(normal zone)NZ flow ratio was 0.76±0.07 in JCR+20-SOLA, 0.84±0.05 in JCR+20-HEDGE vs. 0.11±0.02 in JCR vs. 0.84±0.03 in normal rats). In JCR rats, elevated 20-HETE was associated with excessive expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and neutrophil infiltration which were reversed by miR-145-Adv. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation of coronary arteries, eNOS Ser1179 phosphorylation, eNOS-dependent NO.- production and endothelial cell survival were compromised in JCR rats. These parameters of endothelial dysfunction were completely reversed by 20-HETE antagonism or miR-145-Adv delivery, whereas neutrophil depletion resulted in partial reversal (~70%). We conclude that low miR-145 in MetS allows for increased 20-HETE, mainly from neutrophils, which compromises endothelial cell survival and function leading to impaired CCG. 20-HETE antagonists could provide viable therapy for restoration of CCG in MetS.

  14. Fetal growth-retardation and brain-sparing by malnutrition are associated to changes in neurotransmitters profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Contreras, C; Valent, D; Vázquez-Gómez, M; Arroyo, L; Isabel, B; Astiz, S; Bassols, A; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A

    2017-04-01

    The present study assesses possible changes in the levels of different neurotransmitters (catecholamines and indoleamines) in fetuses affected by nutrient shortage. Hence, we determined the concentration of catecholamines and indoleamines at the hypothalamus of 56 swine fetuses obtained at both 70 and 90days of pregnancy (n=33 and 23 fetuses, respectively). The degree of fetal development and the fetal sex affected the neurotransmitters profile at both stages. At Day 70, there were found higher mean concentrations of l-DOPA in both female and male fetuses with severe IUGR; male fetuses with severe IUGR also showed higher concentrations of TRP than normal male littermates. At Day 90 of pregnancy, the differences between sexes were more evident. There were no significant effects from either severe IUGR on the neurotransmitter profile in male fetuses. However, in the females, a lower body-weight was related to lower concentrations of l-DOPA and TRP and those female fetuses affected by severe IUGR evidenced lower HVA concentration. In conclusion, the fetal synthesis and use of neurotransmitters increase with time of pregnancy but, in case of IUGR, both catecholamines and indoleamines pathways are affected by sex-related effects. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Extrapituitary growth hormone and growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Steve; Baudet, Marie-Laure

    2014-09-01

    While growth hormone (GH) is obligatory for postnatal growth, it is not required for a number of growth-without-GH syndromes, such as early embryonic or fetal growth. Instead, these syndromes are thought to be dependent upon local growth factors, rather than pituitary GH. The GH gene is, however, also expressed in many extrapituitary tissues, particularly during early development and extrapituitary GH may be one of the local growth factors responsible for embryonic or fetal growth. Moreover, as the expression of the GH receptor (GHR) gene mirrors that of GH in extrapituitary tissues the actions of GH in early development are likely to be mediated by local autocrine or paracrine mechanisms, especially as extrapituitary GH expression occurs prior to the ontogeny of pituitary somatotrophs or the appearance of GH in the circulation. The extrapituitary expression of pituitary somatotrophs or the appearance of GH in the circulation. The extrapituitary expression of GH in embryos has also been shown to be of functional relevance in a number of species, since the immunoneutralization of endogenous GH or the blockade of GH production is accompanied by growth impairment or cellular apoptosis. The extrapituitary expression of the GH gene also persists in some central and peripheral tissues postnatally, which may reflect its continued functional importance and physiological or pathophysiological significance. The expression and functional relevance of extrapituitary GH, particularly during embryonic growth, is the focus of this brief review.

  16. Temporal proteomic analysis reveals continuous impairment of intestinal development in neonatal piglets with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Weizong; Lin, Gang; Li, Defa; Wu, Guoyao; Wang, Junjun

    2010-02-01

    Efficiency of nutrient utilization is reduced in neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) compared with those with a normal birth weight (NBW). However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we applied temporal proteomic approach, coupled with histological and biochemical analyses, to study dynamic changes of the proteome in the small intestinal mucosa of IUGR piglets during the nursing period (Days 1, 7 and 21). We identified 56 differentially expressed protein spots between IUGR and NBW piglets. These proteins participate in key biological processes, including (1) absorption, digestion and transport of nutrients; (2) cell structure and motility; (3) glucose and energy metabolism; (4) lipid metabolism; (5) amino acid metabolism; (6) mineral and vitamin metabolism; (7) cellular redox homeostasis; (8) stress response; and (9) apoptosis. The results of our temporal proteomics analysis reveal continuous impairment of intestinal development in neonatal piglets with IUGR. The findings have important implications for understanding metabolic defects in the small intestine of IUGR neonates and are expected to provide new strategies to improve their survival and growth.

  17. Fetal Macrosomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might need special care in the hospital's neonatal intensive care unit. Keep in mind that your baby might ... References Copel JA, et al. Fetal macrosomia. In: Obstetric Imaging. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www. ...

  18. Fetal Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... needle placement during certain prenatal tests, such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Determine fetal position before ... home. Accessed Aug. 11, 2015. Ghidini A. Diagnostic amniocentesis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 11, ...

  19. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Holst

    Full Text Available Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1 as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate with vesicles budding from the TGN and to possess membrane-sculpting properties in vitro. In mouse pituitary, PICK1 co-localized with the BAR domain protein ICA69, and PICK1 deficiency abolished ICA69 protein expression. In the Drosophila brain, PICK1 and ICA69 co-immunoprecipitated and showed mutually dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of

  20. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Birgitte; Madsen, Kenneth L; Jansen, Anna M; Jin, Chunyu; Rickhag, Mattias; Lund, Viktor K; Jensen, Morten; Bhatia, Vikram; Sørensen, Gunnar; Madsen, Andreas N; Xue, Zhichao; Møller, Siri K; Woldbye, David; Qvortrup, Klaus; Huganir, Richard; Stamou, Dimitrios; Kjærulff, Ole; Gether, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs) domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1) as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate with vesicles budding from the TGN and to possess membrane-sculpting properties in vitro. In mouse pituitary, PICK1 co-localized with the BAR domain protein ICA69, and PICK1 deficiency abolished ICA69 protein expression. In the Drosophila brain, PICK1 and ICA69 co-immunoprecipitated and showed mutually dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of peptidergic endocrine

  1. Fetal pain

    OpenAIRE

    Adama van Scheltema, Phebe

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the fetus is capable of exhibiting a stress response to intrauterine needling, resulting in alterations in fetal stress hormone levels. Intrauterine transfusions are performed by inserting a needle either in the umbilical cord root at the placental surface (PCI), or in the intrahepatic portion of the umbilical vein (IHV). Aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that fetal hormonal changes during intrauterine transfusion are more pronounced when the needl...

  2. A Comparative Study of Growth Kinetics, In Vitro Differentiation Potential and Molecular Characterization of Fetal Adnexa Derived Caprine Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somal, Anjali; Bhat, Irfan A.; B., Indu; Pandey, Sriti; Panda, Bibhudatta S. K.; Thakur, Nipuna; Sarkar, Mihir; Chandra, Vikash; Saikumar, G.; Sharma, G. Taru

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted with an objective of isolation, in vitro expansion, growth kinetics, molecular characterization and in vitro differentiation of fetal adnexa derived caprine mesenchymal stem cells. Mid-gestation gravid caprine uteri (2–3 months) were collected from abattoir to derive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from fetal adnexa {amniotic fluid (cAF), amniotic sac (cAS), Wharton’s jelly (cWJ) and cord blood (cCB)} and expanded in vitro. These cultured MSCs were used at the 3rd passage (P3) to study growth kinetics, localization as well as molecular expression of specific surface antigens, pluripotency markers and mesenchymal tri-lineage differentiation. In comparison to cAF and cAS MSCs, cWJ and cCB MSCs showed significantly (P<0.05) higher clonogenic potency, faster growth rate and low population doubling (PDT) time. All the four types of MSCs were positive for alkaline phosphatase (AP) and differentiated into chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic lineages. These stem cells expressed MSC surface antigens (CD73, CD90 and CD105) and pluripotency markers (Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, KLF, cMyc, FoxD3) but did not express CD34, a hematopoietic stem cell marker (HSC) as confirmed by RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometric analysis. The relative mRNA expression of MSC surface antigens (CD73, CD90 and CD105) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cWJ MSCs compared to the other cell lines. The mRNA expression of Oct4 was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cWJ, whereas mRNA expression of KLF and cMyc was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cWJ and cAF than that of cAS and cCB. The comparative assessment revealed that cWJ MSCs outperformed MSCs from other sources of fetal adnexa in terms of growth kinetics, relative mRNA expression of surface antigens, pluripotency markers and tri-lineage differentiation potential, hence, these MSCs could be used as a preferred source for regenerative medicine. PMID:27257959

  3. The effect of maternal diabetes on pre- and postnatal growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammoud, NM

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: The abnormal intrauterine environment in case o