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Sample records for fetal con hidrops

  1. Hidropesía fetal en una gestante con enfermedad hipertensiva grave. Presentación de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Maribel Rodríguez Matos; Laritza Isabel Mengana Fontes; Mayda Urrutia Carmenaty

    2013-01-01

    La hidropesía fetal es un grave proceso de elevada mortalidad perinatal, de etiología multifactorial, caracterizado por un síndrome edematoso generalizado, con o sin acumulación de líquido en las cavidades serosas del organismo fetal. Se presenta un caso de hidropesía fetal no inmunológica en una paciente de sexo femenino, de color de piel blanca y de 20 años de edad con enfermedad hipertensiva grave, diagnosticada mediante ultrasonido, como estudio de bienestar fetal a las 35,1 semanas de ge...

  2. Hidropesía fetal en una gestante con enfermedad hipertensiva grave. Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Rodríguez Matos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La hidropesía fetal es un grave proceso de elevada mortalidad perinatal, de etiología multifactorial, caracterizado por un síndrome edematoso generalizado, con o sin acumulación de líquido en las cavidades serosas del organismo fetal. Se presenta un caso de hidropesía fetal no inmunológica en una paciente de sexo femenino, de color de piel blanca y de 20 años de edad con enfermedad hipertensiva grave, diagnosticada mediante ultrasonido, como estudio de bienestar fetal a las 35,1 semanas de gestación, cuando fue remitida desde su área de salud por presentar cifras de tensión arterial de 160/100 mmHg. A su llegada al cuerpo de guardia de ginecobstetricia del hospital Héroes del Baire de la Isla de la Juventud se constataron cifras de 140/90 mmHg, se presentaba asintomática, por lo que se ingresó para estudio y tratamiento. Teniendo en cuenta el examen físico y el resultado del ultrasonido obstétrico, se decidió la interrupción de embarazo por cesárea de urgencia. Se recibió un recién nacido pretérmino de aspecto malformado. Se decide la presentación del caso por lo poco común de esta patología asociada a una enfermedad hipertensiva grave lo que incrementa el riesgo perinatal.

  3. Hidropesía fetal en una gestante con enfermedad hipertensiva grave. Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Rodríguez Matos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La hidropesía fetal es un grave proceso de elevada mortalidad perinatal, de etiología multifactorial, caracterizado por un síndrome edematoso generalizado, con o sin acumulación de líquido en las cavidades serosas del organismo fetal. Se presenta un caso de hidropesía fetal no inmunológica en una paciente de sexo femenino, de color de piel blanca y de 20 años de edad con enfermedad hipertensiva grave, diagnosticada mediante ultrasonido, como estudio de bienestar fetal a las 35,1 semanas de gestación, cuando fue remitida desde su área de salud por presentar cifras de tensión arterial de 160/100 mmHg. A su llegada al cuerpo de guardia de ginecobstetricia del hospital Héroes del Baire de la Isla de la Juventud se constataron cifras de 140/90 mmHg, se presentaba asintomática, por lo que se ingresó para estudio y tratamiento. Teniendo en cuenta el examen físico y el resultado del ultrasonido obstétrico, se decidió la interrupción de embarazo por cesárea de urgencia. Se recibió un recién nacido pretérmino de aspecto malformado. Se decide la presentación del caso por lo poco común de esta patología asociada a una enfermedad hipertensiva grave lo que incrementa el riesgo perinatal.

  4. Hidrops fetal no inmune por anemia diseritropoyética congénita

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco G,Laura; Paredes R,Blanca; Rodríguez G,Roberto; Muñoz M,Mar; Deiros B,Lucía

    2011-01-01

    La anemia diseritropoyética congénita se engloba dentro de un grupo raro y heterogéneo de trastornos eritrocitarios caracterizados por eritropoyesis ineficaz, anemia megaloblástica, hemosiderosis secundaria e hidrops fetal. Presentamos el caso de un feto de 20 semanas con hidrops como consecuencia de una anemia fetal intensa por eritropoyesis ineficaz. Ante el hallazgo de hidrops fetal no inmune es fundamental un diagnóstico etiológico precoz para ofrecer a la pareja las alternativas terapéut...

  5. Transfusión intrauterina en hidrops fetal por Parvovirus B19: a propósito de un caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Hidrops fetal no inmunológico diagnosticado a las 22 semanas de gestación, secundario a infección por Parvovirus B19, tratado exitosamente con cinco transfusiones intrauterinas. Parto vaginal con recién nacido de término sin estigmas de enfermedad. Enfatizamos la importancia de sospechar el diagnóstico, el manejo basado en Vmax de ACM y la capacidad actual de tratamiento exitoso a través de transfusiones intrauterinas.

  6. Respuesta productiva de conejos alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico de avena, como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poblete Pérez Cecilia Eva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta productiva de conejos raza californiana alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico (FVH deavena como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial (CC, fue evaluada en condiciones de desiertoen el norte de Chile. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos de alimentación, equivalentes a 0, 25, 50, 75 y100% de reemplazo de la dieta diaria con FVH, el cual fue cosechado y utilizado directamente diez díasdespués de la siembra. Cuarenta y cinco conejos destetados a los 31 días fueron evaluados en un diseñocompletamente al azar hasta alcanzar un peso de sacrificio de 2 kg de peso vivo. La calidad del FVH deavena fue considerada como buena, presentando similar valor nutritivo que el CC. Las variables evaluadasy sus respectivos rangos fueron: consumo de materia seca promedio (59.17 - 104.73 g/día, gananciade peso vivo promedio (16.35 - 29.10 g/animal por día, conversión alimenticia promedio (3.31 - 3.93 kgMS/kg PV, tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio (53 - 91 días, peso vivo final (1430 - 2044 g/animal, pesode la canal (1235 - 1385 g/animal y rendimiento de la canal (59.19 - 62.25%. El reemplazo de hasta50% de la dieta base con FVH de avena no afectó significativamente (P ≤ 0.05 el consumo de alimento,tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio, peso vivo final y rendimiento de la canal, haciendo posible su uso comorecurso forrajero alternativo en la alimentación de conejos en etapa de engorde en condiciones de desierto.

  7. Respuesta productiva de conejos alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico de avena, como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fabián Fuentes Carmona

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta productiva de conejos raza californiana alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico (FVH de avena como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial (CC, fue evaluada en condiciones de desierto en el norte de Chile. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos de alimentación, equivalentes a 0, 25, 50, 75 y 100% de reemplazo de la dieta diaria con FVH, el cual fue cosechado y utilizado directamente diez días después de la siembra. Cuarenta y cinco conejos destetados a los 31 días fueron evaluados en un diseño completamente al azar hasta alcanzar un peso de sacrificio de 2 kg de peso vivo. La calidad del FVH de avena fue considerada como buena, presentando similar valor nutritivo que el CC. Las variables evaluadas y sus respectivos rangos fueron: consumo de materia seca promedio (59.17 - 104.73 g/día, ganancia de peso vivo promedio (16.35 - 29.10 g/animal por día, conversión alimenticia promedio (3.31 - 3.93 kg MS/kg PV, tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio (53 - 91 días, peso vivo final (1430 - 2044 g/animal, peso de la canal (1235 - 1385 g/animal y rendimiento de la canal (59.19 - 62.25%. El reemplazo de hasta 50% de la dieta base con FVH de avena no afectó significativamente (P < 0.05 el consumo de alimento, tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio, peso vivo final y rendimiento de la canal, haciendo posible su uso como recurso forrajero alternativo en la alimentación de conejos en etapa de engorde en condiciones de desierto.

  8. Respuesta productiva de conejos alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico de avena, como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial Productive response of rabbits fed with green hydroponic oats forage as partial replacement of commercial concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fabián Fuentes Carmona

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta productiva de conejos raza californiana alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico (FVH de avena como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial (CC, fue evaluada en condiciones de desierto en el norte de Chile. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos de alimentación, equivalentes a 0, 25, 50, 75 y 100% de reemplazo de la dieta diaria con FVH, el cual fue cosechado y utilizado directamente diez días después de la siembra. Cuarenta y cinco conejos destetados a los 31 días fueron evaluados en un diseño completamente al azar hasta alcanzar un peso de sacrificio de 2 kg de peso vivo. La calidad del FVH de avena fue considerada como buena, presentando similar valor nutritivo que el CC. Las variables evaluadas y sus respectivos rangos fueron: consumo de materia seca promedio (59.17 - 104.73 g/día, ganancia de peso vivo promedio (16.35 - 29.10 g/animal por día, conversión alimenticia promedio (3.31 - 3.93 kg MS/kg PV, tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio (53 - 91 días, peso vivo final (1430 - 2044 g/animal, peso de la canal (1235 - 1385 g/animal y rendimiento de la canal (59.19 - 62.25%. El reemplazo de hasta 50% de la dieta base con FVH de avena no afectó significativamente (P The productive response of Californian rabbits fed with hydroponic green oats forage (HGOF as a partial replacement of commercial concentrate (CC was evaluated under desert conditions in northern Chile. Five treatments were established as follow: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement of daily diet with HGOF, which was harvested and used directly at 10 days after sowing. Forty-five rabbits weaned at 31 days were evaluated in a completely randomized design until slaughter weight of 2.0 kg. HGOF quality was considered as good, presenting similar nutritional value to CC. The variables assessed and range values were: average dry matter intake (59.17-104.73 g/d, average weight gain (16.35-29.10 g/ rabbit for day, feed conversion average (3.31-3.93 kg DM/ kg LW, time of

  9. Producción de Forraje Verde Hidropónico y su Aceptación en Ganado Lechero Producción de Forraje Verde Hidropónico y su Aceptación en Ganado Lechero

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriel Córdova Duarte; Manuel Enrique Romero Valdez; Elizabeth Odalmira Hernández Gallardo

    2012-01-01

    ...: BookmanOldStyle;">El estudio precisó la técnica de producción de forraje verde hidropónico (FVH) y su aceptación en ganado lechero. La producción se realizó en un invernadero con capacidad para 1 440 charolas de 40 x 60 cm...

  10. Ascitis fetal masiva idiopática aislada

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    Yolimar Navarro Briceño

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available La ascitis fetal esta comúnmente asociada a malformaciones gastrointestinales y urinarias, anemia, infección y anomalías cromosómicas. La ascitis fetal masiva idiopática es rara. Se reporta un caso de una embarazada de 33 años referida a las 17 semanas después que se detectó ascitis en ausencia de anomalías estructurales. La evaluación cardiaca y las pruebas diagnósticas de infecciones virales fueron negativas. A las 28 semanas se detectó ascitis masiva sin otros signos de hidrops fetal. La velocidad sistólica pico de la arteria cerebral media fetal estaba elevada. El Doppler de la arteria umbilical, crecimiento fetal y volumen de líquido amniótico estaban normales. El ecocardiograma fetal estaba normal. Se realizó la amniocentesis con resultados normales del cariotipo. A pesar de la persistencia de la ascitis masiva durante el seguimiento, el crecimiento fetal y el volumen de líquido amniótico eran normales con valores elevados de la velocidad sistólica pico de la arteria cerebral media fetal. A las 33 semanas la paciente se realizó cesárea de emergencia por sufrimiento fetal agudo. Se obtuvo un recién nacido vivo femenino normal con valores normales de hemoglobina al nacer. El flujo vascular hepático, vesical y hepato-portal fueron normales. La ascitis se resolvió completamente al octavo día después del nacimiento y el recién nacido fue dado de alta a los 15 días.

  11. Producción de Forraje Verde Hidropónico y su Aceptación en Ganado Lechero

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Enrique Romero Valdez; Gabriel Córdova Duarte; Elizabeth Odalmira Hernández Gallardo

    2009-01-01

    El estudio precisó la técnica de producción de forraje verde hidropónico (FVH) y su aceptación en ganado lechero. La producción se realizó en un invernadero con capacidad para 1 440 charolas de 40 x 60 cm. La semilla de cebada y las charolas se desinfectaron, luego se mezclo paja de trigo con el grano de cebada, esa mezcla se ubicó en charolas que se colocaron inclinadas en estantes verticales. Las charolas se regaron por goteo, dos minutos cada dos horas. La producción obtenida a los ocho dí...

  12. SÍNDROME ANTIFOSFOLÍPIDOS Y TROMBOCITOPENIA MATERNA EN GEMELAR BICORIÓNICO CON RESTRICCIÓN FETAL GRAVE

    OpenAIRE

    Hasbun H., Jorge; Conte L.,Guillermo; Sepúlveda L,Waldo; Manríquez S,María Angélica; Martínez M,José

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta un caso clínico de síndrome antifosfolípidos con antecedente de mortinato y tratamiento anticoagulante prolongado. En la segunda gestación (gemelar bicoriónico) desarrolla una restricción fetal precoz selectiva en un gemelo, seguido de detención definitiva de su crecimiento en semana 25. Luego del tratamiento de una trombocitopenia materna intercurrente se decidió la interrupción del embarazo en semana 28 por operación cesárea. Ambos gemelos de 860 y 406 gramos sobrevivieron en bu...

  13. Tratamiento estomatológico en el paciente adolescente con síndrome alcohólico fetal. Caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Leonor Pinzón-Te; Rodrigo Serrano-Piña; Karen Ledezma-Gómez

    2015-01-01

    El síndrome alcohólico fetal es un conjunto de manifestaciones que se manifiestan en el recién nacido cuando la madre tomó bebidas alcohólicas durante el embarazo. Se presenta el caso clínico del tratamiento estomatológico de una adolescente de 17 años de edad con síndrome alcohólico fetal, con características intra- y extraorales, utilizando técnicas de manejo de conductas básicas y avanzadas con base en la clasificación de la American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Por ot...

  14. Maduración biológica, su relación con la edad dentaria en niños malnutridos fetales

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    Miriam Machado Martínez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available realizó un estudio longitudinal cuya muestra de estudio estuvo conformada por niños con bajo peso debido a malnutrición fetal, en el Hospital Ginecoobstétrico Docente Provincial "Mariana Grajales" de la ciudad de Santa Clara, entre los años 90 y 93, con edades actuales entre 6 y 8 años, y un grupo control de igual cantidad de niños con crecimiento y desarrollo normal. A todos se les evaluó la edad dentaria con el objetivo de determinar la asociación con la madurez biológica. Los resultados reflejan la influencia de la malnutrición fetal en el desarrollo de la dentición, lo que determina que la edad diagnosticada por el desarrollo dentario es menor en los casos que presentan esta alteración al nacer, mientras que en los niños no afectados (grupo control existe una tendencia al adelanto en el desarrollo dentario en relación con la edad cronológica.A longitudinal study was carried out in a sample of 100 fetal malnutrition-derived low birthweight children, aged 6-8 years at the time of study, who were born at "Mariana Grajales" provincial teaching gynecobstetric hospital located in Santa Clara City from 1990 to 1993, and a control group of 100 children with normal growth and development. Dental age was assessed in all the children to determine its relation with biological maturity. The results showed the effect of fetal malnutrition on the development of dentition, which indicated that age diagnosed by dental development is lower in children presenting with this disorder at birth whereas in non-affected children (control group the tendency is that dental development moves ahead of the real chronological age.

  15. Ascitis fetal masiva idiopática aislada

    OpenAIRE

    Yolimar Navarro Briceño; Joel Santos Bolívar; Eduardo Reyna Villasmil

    2016-01-01

    La ascitis fetal esta comúnmente asociada a malformaciones gastrointestinales y urinarias, anemia, infección y anomalías cromosómicas. La ascitis fetal masiva idiopática es rara. Se reporta un caso de una embarazada de 33 años referida a las 17 semanas después que se detectó ascitis en ausencia de anomalías estructurales. La evaluación cardiaca y las pruebas diagnósticas de infecciones virales fueron negativas. A las 28 semanas se detectó ascitis masiva sin otros signos de hidrops fetal. La v...

  16. Experiencia clínica con una prueba de diagnóstico antenatal no invasivo con ADN fetal libre para trisomías 21, 18, y 13, en población general

    OpenAIRE

    Vera P-G.,Claudio; Carvajal C,Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la prueba antenatal no invasiva (NIPT) de ADN fetal libre de células como método de cribado para las trisomías 21, 18, y 13 en práctica clínica obstétrica. Método: Estudio observacional de mujeres embarazadas que se sometieron a pruebas de cribado antenatal para trisomía fetal desde el 30 de julio de 2012 al 1 de diciembre de 2012. NIPT se ofreció a todas las pacientes, además del cribado combinado de primer trimestre (FTS). Resultados: La cohorte incluyó a 289 mujeres con u...

  17. EXPERIMENTACIÓN FETAL, TRASPLANTES, COSMÉTICA Y SU RELACIÓN CON EL ABORTO PROVOCADO

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    José Luis Redondo Calderón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La generalización del aborto provocado da lugar a gran cantidad de células, tejidos y órganos que se emplean en diversos campos de la Medicina bien en investigación o en tratamientos. Entre ellos destacan la Cardiología, Hematología, Metabolismo, Embriología, Neurología, Inmunología, Oftalmología, Dermatología y Trasplantes. También implica a potenciadores del sabor y cosméticos. El utilitarismo ha propiciado que se multipliquen los bancos de células y tejidos procedentes de abortos provocados. Se manipula el lenguaje para su justificación. Surgen unos intereses creados y una complicidad con el aborto por parte de los investigadores y de la sociedad. No pueden separarse como dos actos el aborto y la «donación» de tejido fetal, hay una relación simbiótica ya que se utilizan tejidos frescos. No es posible un consentimiento válido. Se observa la contradicción de que no se desea ni se valora al nasciturus pero sí sus órganos. Cuando se quitan los derechos a alguien es porque se le quiere explotar como a un nuevo esclavo. La investigación debe tener unas bases morales. No debe incrementarse el conocimiento a cualquier precio. No todo lo legal y bien intencionado es moralmente aceptable. El deber de omisión es aplicable. Los medios para alcanzar un objetivo deben ser éticos. Es necesario un esfuerzo educativo para recuperar el respeto al embrión y feto humanos. Algunos progresos técnicos no son conformes a la naturaleza y dignidad humanas. Deben potenciarse la investigación y los tratamientos que demuestren que no recurren a células, tejidos ni órganos procedentes de abortos provocados.

  18. Produção de sementes de alface em cultivo hidropônico

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    Menezes Nilson Lemos de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de alface das cultivares Deyse e Regina foram produzidas em estufa, no sistema hidropônico, com elevados rendimentos por planta e boa qualidade de sementes, quando comparados a resultados de sistema convencional, de canteiros em campo. Esses dados sugerem estudos de produção de sementes de alface em cultivo protegido.

  19. Evaluación de dos niveles de reemplazo de ingredientes en dietas tradicionales por forraje hidropónico de maíz (zea mays l) para cerdos confinados en la fase de crecimiento y acabado

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, N; Rodriguez, J.

    2009-01-01

    Debido a los costos de producción que representa cerca del 70% en la alimentación de cerdos se requiere investigar de ingredientes no tradicionales que puedan ser incorporados en la industria porcina. En base a esto se realizó una investigación en INIAP Estación Boliche donde el objetivo general fue la evaluación de dos niveles de reemplazo de ingredientes en dietas tradicionales por Forraje Hidropónico de Maíz para cerdos confinados en la fase de crecimiento y acabado con tres tratamientos: ...

  20. Evaluación de soluciones nutritivas para el cultivo hidropónico de "fresa" Fragaria x ananassa

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    Enoc Jara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de determinar soluciones nutritivas 6ptimas para "fresa" Fragarias x ananassa Duchesne cv. Chandler bajo un sistema hidropónico en grava muy fina, se evaluaron dos soluciones nutritivas en la etapa vegetativa y tres en la etapa de fructificación de la planta, durante los meses Diciembre de 1996 a Agosto de 1997. Se realizó muestreos destructivos a los 60, 90, 160, 190 y 220 días después de iniciado el tratamiento para determinar el crecimiento de la planta, su absorción de nutrientes y el contenido de azúcares reductores en los frutos. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos en la etapa vegetativa pero sí en la etapa reproductiva al evaluar la altura de la planta, número de flores y frutos, porcentaje de azúcares reductores y peso de los frutos. En cuanto al porcentaje de N, P, K, Ca, Mg y Fe no se encontraron diferencias significativas. Combinaciones de 200:40:300 ppm de N: P: K en la etapa reproductiva favorecieron el mayor rendimiento en la planta.

  1. ASCITIS FETAL AISLADA

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    La ascitis fetal aislada es una entidad asociada a múltiples patologías, el diagnostico se realiza usualmente cuando fueron descartados las otras causas de ascitis fetal. Se describe el diagnóstico prenatal de un paciente con ascitis fetal aislada compatible con atresia ileal y peritonitis meconial secundaria a perforación de ileon distal. La ascitis fetal se resolvió posterior a la cirugía al segundo día de vida. Este caso tiene un buen pronostico debido al control tanto prenatal como intra ...

  2. Cistoadenocarcinoma mucinoso de ovario en estadio terminal, en embarazo complicado con muerte fetal tardía. Presentación de un caso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansy Díaz Pérez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos un caso de Cistoadenocarcinoma mucinoso de ovario en un embarazo de 36.4 semanas de gestación complicado con muerte fetal tardía. que ingresó en el Hospital Materno Provincial “Isabel María de Valdivia y Salas de Sancti-Spíritus” diagnosticándose el tumor de ovario en un estadío avanzado de la enfermedad con un cuadro clínico florido y múltiples hallazgos al exámen físico que motivó varios planteamientos y dudas en el diagnóstico ,no realizándose el mismo durante la vigilancia prenatal habitual ni durante la ecografía pélvica que se realiza durante esta, siendo un hallazgo durante la laparotomía exploradora ya cuando la paciente se encontraba en la fase final del cuadro que la lleva al fallecimiento en la Unidad de cuidados intensivos al tercer día del ingreso con asistencia ventilatoria y múltiples complicaciones.

  3. EFECTO DE LA MADURACIÓN in vitro DE OOCITOS BOVINOS CON SUERO FETAL BOVINO SOBRE SU ACTIVIDAD MITOCONDRIAL POST-DESVITRIFICACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Vásquez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la maduración in vitro (MIV con suero fetal bovino (SFB sobre la actividad mitocondrial (potencial de membrana de oocitos bovinos desvitrificados. Materiales y métodos. Se recolectaron oocitos bovinos a partir de ovarios post-mortem, para su posterior MIV en medio Sintetic Oviductal Fluid Amino Acids (SOFaa en tratamientos con y sin SFB. Posteriormente, fueron destinados para su criopreservación mediante vitrificación en Open Pulled Straw (OPS. Los oocitos fueron desvitrificados y evaluados para su potencial de membrana mitocondrial mediante el uso del colorante fluorescente JC-1. Los datos fueron analizados mediante la prueba t de Student y un análisis de varianza. Resultados. Los resultados evidenciaron una diferencia estadística (p<0.05 entre los tratamientos de MIV para los niveles cuantificados de potencial de membrana mitocondrial de los oocitos desvitrificados, con promedios de 39.8 ± 2.38% y 50.3 ± 2.59% para MIV con y sin suero respectivamente. No se encontró un efecto del suero en la MIV, sobre la distribución de mitocondrias de alto potencial de membrana, sin embargo, se observó diferencia estadística (p<0.05 para este parámetro entre los oocitos frescos y desvitrificados. Conclusiones. La presencia de SFB en la MIV de oocitos bovinos, ejerció un efecto deletéreo sobre el potencial de membrana mitocondrial posterior a la criopreservación, y esta última modifica las proporciones de los patrones de distribución de mitocondrias de alto potencial de membrana de los oocitos bovinos madurados in vitro.

  4. Taquiarritmia fetal: Una revisión práctica Fetal tachyarrhythmia

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    Juan F Jaramillo D

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Las frecuencias anormalmente rápidas sobre un corazón con una estructura menos distensible, rodeado por una coraza que sólo le permite defenderse con la frecuencia cardiaca para sostener el gasto cardiaco, hacen que este sea un corazón con márgenes estrechos de tolerancia frente a las taquiarritmias. Las frecuencias persistentes y superiores a 220 latidos por minuto, generan presiones anormalmente altas sobre todo el corazón y el sistema venoso. Hidrops y edema placentario son secuelas finales antes de la muerte fetal, y aún hasta este punto se pueden controlar y revertir. Aunque en teoría cualquier tipo de arritmias común en la vida extrauterina se podría desencadenar en el feto, 90% de éstas están incluidas en la taquicardia supraventricular reciprocante y en el flutter. Ambos tipos de arritmias pueden responder a la digoxina, aunque algunas son refractarias a este medicamento. La aplicación de ultrasonido sobre el corazón, permite no sólo descartar anomalías cardiacas asociadas, sino realizar protocolos de tratamiento. La medición de la relación de los tiempos ventrículo atrial:atrio ventricular, permite considerar otro tipo de arritmias como la taquicardia ectópica de la unión y la forma permanente reciprocante de la unión, etc., e incluir otros anti-arrítmicos, como amiodarona, flecainida, sotalol, entre otros. La principal vía de uso de los anti-arrítmicos es la transplacentaria. Por lo tanto, no sólo el feto se expone a posibles efectos secundarios, sino también la madre. Un grupo multidisciplinario enfrentará esta situación con el fin de ofrecer el mejor resultado para los dos.A heart with a not much distensible structure, surrounded by a membrane, and only able to react with the heart rate for maintaining its cardiac output, has a narrow margin of tolerance in front of tachyarrhythmias. Persistent heart rates >200/min generate abnormally high pressure on the heart and the venous system. Hydrops and placental

  5. Pulsioximetría fetal. Nuevo método de control fetal intraparto: Estudio comparativo con técnicas invasivas acerca del bienestar fetal Fetal pulse oximetry. Intrapartum foetal hipoxia evaluation: Comparative study with invasive techniques concerning foetal welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fernández Andrés

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. La pulsioximetría, técnica que mide de forma continua la saturación de oxígeno en sangre (%SpO2, se ha convertido en un método de monitorización estándar en anestesia, cuidados intensivos, neonatología, etc., pudiendo llegar a ser útil a los obstetras en la monitorización del bienestar fetal durante el parto. Tiene la ventaja de ser mínimamente invasiva y fácil de usar. La saturación de hemoglobina fetal oxigenada es un buen parámetro para medir el contenido-déficit fetal de oxígeno. Una saturación menor del 30% durante un periodo de tiempo superior a 10 minutos se correlaciona con una pHmetría de micromuestra de cuero cabelludo fetal Pulse oximetry is a technique that continuously measures the blood oxygen saturation (%SpO2; it has become a standard monitoring method in Anaesthesia, Intensive Care, Neonatology, etc; and it can be helpful in Obstetrics during delivery to monitor foetal welfare. Its advantages are that it is minimally invasive and easy to use. Moreover, SpO2 is a good parameter for measuring oxygen carriage. A saturation below 30% during a time period over 10 minutes is correlated with an acid-base equilibrium (ABE of foetal scalp blood sample below 7.20, and it is predictive of worse perinatal outcomes. The objectives are: 1. The combined use of both techniques (foetal pulse oximetry and ABE, provides equivalent perinatal outcomes but decreases the Caesarean Intrapartum Rate due to suspicion of a loss of foetal welfare. 2. A correlation was found between foetal pulse oximetry and acid-base equilibrium data such as pH, pO2 and EB. Subjects and methods. Data was gathered on two groups of eighty patients. In the first group we carried out a follow up of delivery under serialized pH-metry, and in the other group, control of the foetuses was carried out in a combined form with pHmetry and pulse oximetry. Results. Statistically significant results were obtained concerning delivery in the comparative study

  6. Síndrome de costillas cortas y polidactilia: displasia esquelética fetal incompatible con la vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmo Huertas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome costillas cortas polidactilia es una categoría descriptiva para un grupo de displasias esqueléticas incompatibles con la vida, caracterizadas por tórax estrecho, costillas extremadamente pequeñas, micromelia, polidactilia y anomalías viscerales. Las 4 variantes establecidas son SRPS I (tipo Saldino-Noonan, SRPS II (tipo Majewski, SRPS III (tipo Verma-Naumoff y SRPS IV (tipo Beemer-Langer. Se piensa que todas las variantes son heredadas en forma autosómica recesiva. Debido a la frecuente superposición fenotípica, existe controversia si las variantes son debidas a expresión variable o a heterogeneidad genética. Presentamos un caso de un feto masculino, con signos ecográficos característicos de displasia esquelética, tales como micromelia, tórax estrecho en forma de campana, hipertelorismo, implantación baja de las orejas y polidactilia, que nació de parto vaginal y falleció a los 2 días de vida, producto de insuficiencia respiratoria, la cual presentó desde el nacimiento.

  7. Enraizamento de microestacas de mirtileiro provenientes de microjardim clonal semi-hidropônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Camargo Nascimento

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de microjardins clonais hidropônicos tem sido relatado com sucesso para espécies florestais e pode vir a se tornar uma excelente alternativa para espécies frutíferas de difícil propagação, como é o caso do mirtilo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o enraizamento de microestacas de mirtileiro provenientes de dois sistemas de cultivo (convencional e semi-hidropônico, submetidas a diferentes concentrações de AIB (ácido indolbutírico. As microestacas de mirtileiro das cultivares Bluebelle e Woodard foram submetidas a diferentes concentrações de AIB (0; 500; 1.000; 1.500 e 2.000 mg.L-1, acondicionadas em caixas plásticas contendo vermiculita e, aos 90 dias de cultivo, avaliou-se o seu rendimento. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com vinte tratamentos, contendo quatro repetições, compostas por dez microestacas cada. Foram avaliados as porcentagem de sobrevivência e de enraizamento, o comprimento da maior raiz, o número de brotações, o comprimento médio das brotações, o número de folhas e as massas fresca e seca radiculares. O sistema semi-hidropônico proporcionou um rendimento de microestacas significativamente superior ao convencional; entretanto, este material apresentou menores porcentagens de sobrevivência e enraizamento. Todos os tratamentos, inclusive aquele sem a presença de AIB, apresentaram porcentagens de enraizamento superiores a 50%.

  8. Evaluación de la Actividad Nitrato Reductasa y Crecimiento Hidropónico de Lechuga (Lactuca Sativa L. ‘Crufia’) en Función de Cuatro Soluciones Nutritivas

    OpenAIRE

    Malca Soto, Flori; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Perú

    2013-01-01

    El experimento se realizó en la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Lima – Perú; 2009-2010), con el objetivo de determinar los efectos de la aplicación de cuatro soluciones nutritivas (150, 200, 250 y 300 mg N/L) sobre los parámetros: nitrato reductasa, materia fresca y seca, diámetro de cabeza, número de hojas y área foliar en dos sistemas hidropónicos: raíz  flotante  y  usando  arena.  Se presentaron en las lechugas tratadas con 300 mg N/L, en raíz flotante y usando arena, los mayores ...

  9. Eliminación de nutrientes mediante el empleo de cultivos hidropónicos

    OpenAIRE

    Lozita Theilig, Susana

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación se presenta como una alternativa para la reducción de la contaminación por nutrientes que produce el vertido de aguas residuales provenientes de núcleos urbanos que acaban en lagos, lagunas o embalses acelerando los procesos de eutrofización de los mismos. El objetivo de esta tesis es analizar la reducción de nutrientes, fundamentalmente nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio, del agua residual doméstica sometida a tratamiento a través de cultivos hidropónico...

  10. Automatización de sistemas de cultivos hidropónicos

    OpenAIRE

    Marinelli, Marcelo; Lombardo, Graciela; Kornuta, Carlos; Wurn, Guillermo; Solonezen, Lisandro; Cichanowski, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo de esta línea de investigación es desarrollar, implementar y evaluar sistemas de control de distintos dispositivos de cultivos hidropónicos, utilizando sistemas embebidos y minicomputadores de placas de hardware libre, de bajo costo. El software del sistema utiliza técnicas de lógica difusa para evaluar las variables del proceso y generar señales de control. Se evaluaron distintos tipos de sensores de humedad, temperatura, conductividad eléctrica y pH. Se seleccionaron distinta...

  11. Medio ambiente fetal Fetal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Bernardo Ospina Arcila

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Con base en el artículo clásico "Monte Everest in utero" se hace un análisis de la situación que afronta el feto con respecto a la disponibilidad de oxígeno; para una mejor comprensión del sufrimiento fetal se revisan los siguientes conceptos: presión barométrica, presión parcial del oxígeno atmosférico, presión parcial del oxígeno inspirado, presión barométrica intranasal, ecuación del gas alveolar y difusión de gases a través de la membrana alvéolo capilar. Based on the classical paper by Eastman "Mount Everest in utero" an analysis is made of the situation faced by the fetus with respect to the availability of oxygen; for a better under. standing of fetal distress the following concepts are reviewed: barometric pressure, partial pressure of atmosferic oxygen, partial pressure of inspired oxygen, barometric intranasal pressure, alveolar gas equation and gas diffusion through alveolo-capilar membrane.

  12. Estudio ecográfico del timo fetal Relevancia clínica de la hipoplasia y-o involución tímica fetal en gestantes diabéticas con tratamiento insulínico

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    La hiperglucemia materna lleva a una situación de hiperglucemia e hiperinsulinismo fetal. Ambas situaciones crónicas tienen consecuencias en la vida fetal y en la vida adulta de estos niños. Esta demostrado que estos niños presentan una hipertrofia de todos los órganos excepto en sistema nervioso central y el timo. En los últimos años ha habido un incremento en el estudio de la medición del timo por ecografía como posible marcador de patología en estas situaciones de compromiso materno fetal....

  13. A enfermeira pediatra cuidando de crianças/ adolescentes com Síndrome Alcoólica Fetal (SAF La enfermera pediatra cuidando de niños/adolescentes con el Síndrome Alcohólico Fetal (SAF The pediatrician nurse taking care of children/adolescents with Fetal Alcoholic Syndrome (SAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Atanazio do Nascimento

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo realizado em uma instituição pública de Neurologia com seis crianças que apresentavam diagnóstico de síndrome alcoólica fetal (SAF. Os Objetivos foram: Descrever as necessidades humanas básicas afetadas em crianças com SAF; identificar as áreas de desenvolvimento defasadas; e avaliar o desenvolvimento das crianças. Metodologia: Pesquisa qualitativa, aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética e Pesquisa do Hospital Escola São Francisco de Assis (HESFA e Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery. O desenvolvimento infantil foi avaliado com a Escala de Desenvolvimento de Heloisa Marinho. Resultados: Todas as crianças apresentaram defasagem na área mental, social e física. As crianças apresentaram alheamento, timidez, recusa em verbalizar e manter contato visual, hiperatividade; dificuldade de aprendizagem; dificuldade na coordenação motora; timidez; e agitação psicomotora. As necessidades afetadas foram: hidratação, higiene oral, higiene corporal, comunicação, coordenação motora, aprendizagem, educação alimentar e visão. Todos apresentaram grande defasagem em relação à idade cronológica, idade de desenvolvimento e idade gráfica e baixo quociente de desenvolvimento.El estudio fue realizado en una Institución pública de Neurología, con seis niños con el Síndrome Alcohólico Fetal (SAF. Los Objetivos eran: Describir las necesidades humanas básicas afectadas en los niños con el Síndrome Alcohólico Fetal (SAF. Identificar las áreas de desarrollo dañadas. Evaluar el desarrollo de los niños con el Síndrome Alcohólico Fetal (SAF. Metodología: Investigación Cualitativa, aprobada por el Comité de Ética y Investigación del Hospital Escuela São Francisco de Assis (HESFA y Escuela de Enfermería Anna Nery. El desarrollo infantil se evaluó por la Escala de Desarrollo de Heloisa Marinho. Resultados: Todos los niños presentaron defasaje en el área mental, social y física. Los niños presentaron alienación, timidez, y

  14. Proyecto de factibilidad para la creación de una empresa de producción y comercialización de forraje verde hidropónico ubicado en la parroquia El Valle perteneciente al cantón Cuenca

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Yupa, Sandra Elizabeth; Guaillas Chumbay, Blanca Asucena

    2012-01-01

    El presente estudio se planteó con la finalidad de contribuir en la alimentación de los animales vacunos, ovinos, porcinos, bovinos, equinos, caprinos, cuyes, aves de corral y conejos que consumen hierba en la Parroquia El Valle en zonas afectadas por sequía y lluvia. Para realizar esta investigación se plantea la implementación de un negocio de producción y comercialización de Forraje Verde Hidropónico en la Parroquia El Valle; para esto se utilizaron los cuatro estudios necesarios para eval...

  15. Fetal Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Fetal Circulation Updated:Oct 18,2016 click to enlarge The ... fetal heart. These two bypass pathways in the fetal circulation make it possible for most fetuses to survive ...

  16. Fetal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, John T.; Sladek, John R.

    1989-11-01

    This article reviews some of the significant contributions of fetal research and fetal tissue research over the past 20 years. The benefits of fetal research include the development of vaccines, advances in prenatal diagnosis, detection of malformations, assessment of safe and effective medications, and the development of in utero surgical therapies. Fetal tissue research benefits vaccine development, assessment of risk factors and toxicity levels in drug production, development of cell lines, and provides a source of fetal cells for ongoing transplantation trials. Together, fetal research and fetal tissue research offer tremendous potential for the treatment of the fetus, neonate, and adult.

  17. Cirugía fetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. B. Juan Luis Leiva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El campo de la cirugía fetal es de reciente comienzo y rápida evolución. Con el avance en las herramientas de diagnóstico antenatal, la capacidad de diagnóstico de condiciones fetales susceptibles de ser tratadas in utero ha dado paso a una serie de procedimientos destinados a dar solución a situaciones que, de no ser por estas intervenciones, terminarían en un resultado adverso perinatal. Las técnicas descritas para la terapia fetal incluyen procedimientos percutáneos guiados por ultrasonido, cirugía fetal abierta y cirugía mínimamente invasiva. En este artículo se presentan las diversas condiciones fetales tributarias de cirugía fetal y se discuten las opciones terapéuticas actuales para cada una.

  18. Diferentes cores de armadilhas adesivas na cultura da alface hidropônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina da Silva Borba

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar qual a cor mais atrativa para os insetos-praga mosca-minadora (Liriomyza trifolii e tripes (Thrips tabaci. O experimento foi desenvolvido na empresa BioPlanta Hidroponia situada em Ivoti/RS, no período de 07/02/2012 a 03/04/2012, na cultura da alface, variedade Mouse, cultivada em ambiente protegido. Foram confeccionadas em cartelas plásticas de 10 x 15 cm, armadilhas nas cores amarela, branco, azul e verde, tendo sua superfície coberta por cola entomológica. Foram dispostas 12 repetições aleatórias de cada cor, sendo que cada mesa de cultivo hidropônico recebeu quatro cartelas de cores distintas. Foi feita a contagem dos insetos coletados semanalmente durante 9 semanas e os dados analisados pelo Programa Winstat 2.0 e as médias comparadas pelo Teste de Duncan, em nível de 5% de probabilidade de erro. As armadilhas de coloração amarela se mostraram mais atrativas para L. trifolii, enquanto a coloração azul se mostrou mais atrativa para T. tabaci.

  19. Conferencia clínico-patológica (CPC: insuficiencia corticosuprarrenal debida a infiltración crónica granulomatosa con necrosis de caseificación = Clinico-pathological conference (CPC: adrenal insufficiency due to chronic granulomatous infiltration with caseous necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cataño Correa, Juan Carlos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta y discute el caso de una paciente de 39 años de edad, en embarazo, quien consultó el 29/07/2010, hacia la semana 28 de la gestación, por dolor en el hemiabdomen superior de 20 días de evolución. Entre sus antecedentes de importancia tenía los de una comunicación interauricular tipo ostium secundum, corregida quirúrgicamente el 20/07/2009, y prolapso leve de la válvula mitral. A su ingreso al hospital se le encontró actividad uterina, por la que había estado hospitalizada durante 13 días en otra institución en la que le administraron medicamentos para útero-inhibición y maduración pulmonar fetal; se le diagnosticaron además diabetes gestacional e hidropesía fetal no inmune. Evolucionó tórpidamente con irritabilidad uterina, dolor abdominal, taquicardia y taquipnea, y al tercer día de estancia en la unidad de cuidado intensivo tuvo parto vaginal difícil, que requirió el uso de fórceps; posterior al alumbramiento presentó dolor lumbar y colapso hemodinámico que obligaron a la administración de tratamiento vasopresor con norepinefrina y vasopresina; sin embargo, siguió acidótica e hipotensa, con tendencia a la bradicardia, y finalmente falleció.

  20. Proteinuria masiva como factor pronostico para morbimortalidad materno-fetal en pacientes con preeclampsia severa: reporte de un caso y revision de la literatura

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castillo-Zamora, Marcos; Alvarez-Jaramillo, Juliana; Escandon-Baron, Ana Maria; Marquez-Duque, Juan Manuel; Paramo-Diaz, Laura Isabel; Rojas-Figueroa, Ana Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Se realizo una busqueda de literatura medica relativa al caso en las bases de datos Medline/PubMed, JSTOR y Lilacs con la terminologia MeSH "pregnancy", "preeclampsia", "proteinuria" y "nephrotic syndrome". Palabras clave...

  1. Vigilancia Fetal

    OpenAIRE

    SAONA UGARTE, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    La percepción de la actividad fetal por la madre es la técnica más antigua y menos costosa de controlar el bienestar fetal. Tradicionalmente se ha considerado la disminución o ausencia de movimientos fetales percibidos por la madre, como una señal de alarma, en especial cuando existe insuficiencia útero placentaria. Varios investigadores han descrito el valor del registro diario de movimientos fetales como un método para identificar el feto en peligrote morir. El poder discernir si el feto se...

  2. PRODUCCIÓN Y CALIDAD FISICOQUÍMICA DE LECHE DE CABRAS SUPLEMENTADAS CON FORRAJE VERDE HIDROPÓNICO DE MAÍZ

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Garc\\u00EDa-Carrillo; Lilia Salas-P\\u00E9rez; Juan Ram\\u00F3n Esparza-Rivera; Pablo Preciado-Rangel; Jaime Romero-Paredes

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la producción y calidad fisicoquímica de leche de cabras al ser suplementadas con dietas que contenían forraje verde hidropónico de maíz. Este estudio se desarrolló en la Comarca Lagunera de Coahuila, México durante los meses de marzo a agosto de 2011. Para la dieta 1 se empleó una relación 85:15 (base seca) de alfalfa henificada y forraje verde hidropónico (AH: FVH). La dieta 2 se formuló con una relación 70:30 de AH y FVH, mientras que la dieta t...

  3. CURVAS DE BIOMETRÍA FETAL CON EDAD GESTACIONAL DETERMINADA POR ECOGRAFÍA DE PRIMER TRIMESTRE: CLÍNICA ALEMANA DE SANTIAGO

    OpenAIRE

    Astudillo D,Julio; Yamamoto C,Masami; Carrillo T.,Jorge; Polanco G,Max; Hernández A,Alfredo; Pedraza S,Daniel; Valentini Ch,París; Valdivia M,Juan; Insunza F.,Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    Antecedentes: La gran mayoría de las curvas ultrasonográficas de crecimiento intrauterino han sido basadas en una edad gestacional (EG) determinada por fecha de última menstruación segura y confiable, la que es discordante con la ecografía de primer trimestre hasta en un 20%. Objetivo: Presentación de un normograma para diámetro biparietal (DBP), circunferencia abdominal (CA) y fémur (F), en embarazos únicos con EG calculada por ecografía de primer trimestre. Métodos: En la Unidad de Ultrason...

  4. Crescimento e conteúdo de nutrientes minerais em mudas de mirtileiro em sistema convencional e semi-hidropônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Camargo Nascimento

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O mirtileiro possui alto potencial econômico, no entanto, sua expansão de cultivo é limitada pela dificuldade de propagação. O cultivo hidropônico possibilita melhor crescimento devido à eficiência no fornecimento de nutrientes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o crescimento e o conteúdo de nutrientes minerais de mudas micropropagadas de mirtileiro em sistema convencional e semi-hidropônico. Mudas das cultivares Bluebelle e Woodard, com 3 meses de aclimatização, foram submetidas a dois sistemas de cultivo: sistema convencional,em que foram mantidas em sacos de polietileno contendo Plantmax® + vermiculita (1:1 e irrigadas com solução nutritiva a cada 15 dias; e sistema semi-hidropônico, na qual permaneceram em floreiras plásticas contendo areia, sendo irrigadas com solução nutritiva diariamente. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos, com quatro repetições compostas por doze plantas. Foram avaliados mensalmente a altura da parte aérea, número de brotações e comprimento médio das brotações, e aos 90 dias a massa fresca da parte aérea, massa fresca e seca radicular e análise nutricional das folhas. O sistema semi-hidropônico proporcionou melhores resultados para todas as variáveis avaliadas, em ambas as cultivares. As mudas cultivadas no sistema semi-hidropônico apresentaram teores de nutrientes mais elevados e adequados para esta cultura.

  5. Complicações obstétricas em gestações com feto portador de anomalia incompatível com a sobrevida neonatal Complicaciones obstétricas en gestaciones con feto portador de anomalía incompatible con la sobrevivencia neonatal Obstetric complications in pregnancies with fetal anomalies incompatible with neonatal survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Cristina Paquier Sala

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as complicações obstétricas mais comuns encontradas nos períodos gestacional, parto e puerpério imediato de gestantes com fetos portadores de anomalias incompatíveis com a vida. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo, onde avaliou-se 78 prontuários de pacientes atendidas no pré-natal da Disciplina de Medicina Fetal da Universidade Federal de São Paulo que tiveram partos nessa mesma instituição, entre 2000 e 2006. RESULTADOS: As principais complicações obstétricas identificadas foram:variação do volume de líquido amniótico em 68%; abortamento, parto pré-termo e a gravidez prolongada estiveram presentes em 6,4%, 55,1% e 3,8% das gestações, respectivamente; óbito fetal intra-uterino em 17,9%; descolamento prematuro da placenta ocorreu em 6,4% e histerectomia em 2,6%. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados sugerem aumento de risco materno em gestações com fetos portadores de anomalias graves, fato que demonstra necessidade de avaliação especializada caso a caso.OBJETIVO: Describir las complicaciones obstétricas más comunes encontradas en los períodos de gestación, parto y puerperio inmediato de embarazadas con fetos portadores de anomalías incompatibles con la vida. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, que evaluó 78 fichas médicas de pacientes atendidos en el prenatal de la Disciplina de Medicina Fetal de la Universidad Federal de Sao Paulo que tuvieron partos en esa misma institución, entre 2000 y 2006. RESULTADOS: Las principales complicaciones obstétricas identificadas fueron: variación del volumen de líquido amniótico en 68%; abortamiento, parto pre-término y embarazo prolongado estuvieron presentes en 6,4%, 55,1% y 3,8% de las gestaciones, respectivamente; muerte fetal intra-uterina en 17,9%; desprendimiento prematuro de la placenta ocurrió en 6,4% e histerectomía en 2,6%. CONCLUSIÓN: Éstos resultados sugieren un aumento del riesgo materno en gestaciones con fetos portadores de anomal

  6. PRODUCCIÓN Y CALIDAD FISICOQUÍMICA DE LECHE DE CABRAS SUPLEMENTADAS CON FORRAJE VERDE HIDROPÓNICO DE MAÍZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Garc\\u00EDa-Carrillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la producción y calidad fisicoquímica de leche de cabras al ser suplementadas con dietas que contenían forraje verde hidropónico de maíz. Este estudio se desarrolló en la Comarca Lagunera de Coahuila, México durante los meses de marzo a agosto de 2011. Para la dieta 1 se empleó una relación 85:15 (base seca de alfalfa henificada y forraje verde hidropónico (AH: FVH. La dieta 2 se formuló con una relación 70:30 de AH y FVH, mientras que la dieta testigo tuvo una relación 87.5:12.5 de alfalfa henificada y vaina de mezquite. Se utilizó un diseño en triple cuadro latino. La producción y calidad de leche fueron mayores al suministrar la dieta compuesta con alfalfa henificada y forraje verde hidropónico de maíz al 30%.

  7. Fetal Macrosomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might need special care in the hospital's neonatal intensive care unit. Keep in mind that your baby might ... References Copel JA, et al. Fetal macrosomia. In: Obstetric Imaging. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www. ...

  8. Fetal Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... needle placement during certain prenatal tests, such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Determine fetal position before ... home. Accessed Aug. 11, 2015. Ghidini A. Diagnostic amniocentesis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 11, ...

  9. Telas agrícolas como subcobertura no cultivo de alface hidropônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alexandre de Lima Sales

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes tipos de telas de sombreamento utilizadas como subcobertura no cultivo hidropônico de alface. Para isso, foi conduzido um experimento em estufas cobertas com filme plástico de 150µm com três tipos de subcobertura: tela termorrefletora, preta, vermelha e um ambiente controle sem o uso de tela. Para avaliar a modificação ambiental ocasionada pelos tratamentos, foram instalados em cada estufa e no ambiente externo um termohigrômetro data logger, que registrou a temperatura a cada 15 minutos do dia 18/05/2011 ao dia 14/06/2011. Posteriormente, foram calculados os graus-dia acumulados em cada ambiente. Para analisar as variações de crescimento das plantas nas diferentes condições de cultivo, foram realizadas cinco coletas ao longo do período experimental. Após a coleta das plantas, elas eram levadas ao laboratório para contagem do número de folhas maiores que 10cm de comprimento e para a determinação do índice de área foliar. Os resultados indicaram que o uso das telas alterou os padrões da temperatura, quando o uso das telas termorrefletora e preta reduziu a temperatura máxima em 4,7 e 3,6ºC, respectivamente, em relação ao ambiente controle, permitindo um menor acúmulo térmico no período experimental. Quanto às alterações morfológicas ocasionadas pelas modificações ambientais, foi possível constatar que o uso das telas termorrefletora e preta aumentou o número de folhas maiores que 10cm e o índice de área foliar. O uso de tela preta ou termorrefletora como subcobertura em estufas pode ser uma alternativa viável para incrementar a produção de alface em condições tropicais

  10. Fetal pain

    OpenAIRE

    Adama van Scheltema, Phebe

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the fetus is capable of exhibiting a stress response to intrauterine needling, resulting in alterations in fetal stress hormone levels. Intrauterine transfusions are performed by inserting a needle either in the umbilical cord root at the placental surface (PCI), or in the intrahepatic portion of the umbilical vein (IHV). Aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that fetal hormonal changes during intrauterine transfusion are more pronounced when the needl...

  11. [Fetal magnetocardiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, P

    1997-09-01

    Fetal magnetocardiography is a new, alternative method for prenatal surveillance. The fetal magnetocardiogram (FMCG) registers the magnetic field produced by conduction currents in the fetal heart. Compared to the fetal electrocardiogram, the propagation of magnetic fields is relatively undisturbed by surrounding tissue. The FMCG thus has the advantage of a higher signal-to-noise ratio and can be acquired earlier pregnancy. Also, the high temporal resolution of the signal permits a significantly more precise determination of fetal heart rate parameters than fetal ultrasound. FMCG registration using a biomagnetometer is noninvasive and can be performed as of the second trimeter. It can be used to examine signal morphology, cardiac time intervals, heart rate variability as well as cardiac magnetic fields. To date, arrhythmic activity has been observed in the form of supraventricular and ventricular ectopies as well as atrial flutter, atrio-ventricular block, atrial tachycardia and Torsades de Pointes tachycardia. We also report here on the presence of short episodes of bradycardia in the second trimester of normal pregnancy. Measurement of the magnetic field strength at various locations above the abdomen has allowed the reconstruction of the fetal cardiac magnetic field and the determination of its relation to the position of the fetus. Signal averaging has permitted the precise examination of signal amplitude and cardiac time intervals and has shown that they increase in the course of pregnancy. Heart rate variability could be quantified in the time and frequency domain as well as using parameters of nonlinear dynamics. The results demonstrated an increase of variability and complexity over gestational age. Furthermore spectral analysis of fetal heart arte data could be associated with sympathetic and parasympathetic activity as well as, with respiration. Although the studies presenting these results have involved only limited numbers of observations, they

  12. Qualidade pós-colheita da alface hidropônica em ambiente protegido sob malhas termorefletoras e negra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Lígia Dantas de Morais

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que a duração da exposição, a qualidade e intensidade de luz afetam as características de qualidade das hortaliças folhosas, conduziu-se um experimento, em ambiente protegido, com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade pós-colheita da alface hidropônica, sob os efeitos das malhas de sombreamento, com diferentes percentagens de atenuação da radiação solar. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com três repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos por quatro malhas termorefletoras (40; 50; 60 e 70% de sombreamento e uma testemunha, com malha negra 50%. Em cada parcela, representada por um sistema hidropônico individual, foi cultivada a alface (cv. Olinda, Crespa, sendo avaliada sua qualidade por ocasião da colheita e após quatro dias de armazenamento refrigerado (7,6 ± 1ºC e 27 ± 5 % UR. Observou-se que o excesso de sombreamento, ocasionado pelas malhas termorefletoras 60 e 70% e malha negra 50%, comprometeram a aparência da alface. As plantas submetidas ao sombreamento com a malha termorefletora 40% apresentaram menor perda de massa, ao final de quatro dias de armazenamento. Os graus de sombreamento ocasionados pelas malhas termorefletoras e pela malha negra não influenciaram nos teores de ácido cítrico, sólidos solúveis, vitamina C e clorofila total da alface.

  13. Podridão de raízes causada por Pythium aphanidermatum, em cultivares de alface produzidas em sistema hidropônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayame Vegette Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A podridão de raízes, causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e outras espécies de Pythium, é a principal doença da alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar quatro cultivares comerciais de alface em relação à sensibilidade a podridão de raízes, causada por P. aphanidermatum. Os estudos foram realizados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água com plântulas de alface das cultivares crespa (Vera e Verônica e lisa (Regina e Elisa, infestadas ou não com o patógeno. Com as mesmas cultivares foram realizados quatro experimentos em sistemas hidropônicos (Nutrient Film Technique, sendo dois em estufa coberta com plástico e sombrite e dois em estufa coberta apenas com plástico. As plântulas, infectadas ou não com P. aphanidermatum, foram transplantadas para os sistemas infestados ou não. Foi avaliada a severidade da doença e o desenvolvimento das plantas. Todas as cultivares foram suscetíveis à podridão de raízes nos experimentos realizados in vitro e in vivo. A presença do sombrite não reduziu a podridão de raízes em cultivares de alface produzidas no sistema hidropônico. A cultivar Regina apresentou maior massa de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, na presença ou ausência do patógeno, sendo a mais indicada para o cultivo hidropônico na época mais quente do ano.

  14. HEPATITIS ALOINMUNE FETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez C., Dr.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis aloinmune fetal, conocida anteriormente como hemocromatosis neonatal, ha demostrado en los últimos años ser una enfermedad completamente distinta a la hemocromatosis del adulto, tanto en su etiología como en su la fisiopatología. Este conocimiento abre nuevas perspectivas tanto en la prevención de la enfermedad en futuros embarazos, así como en el tratamiento con inmunoglobulina endovenosa en la madre durante el embarazo y eventualmente el tratamiento postnatal, en el que el trasplante de hígado juega un rol primordial.

  15. Alteraciones bioquímicas de los lípidos en los alimentos vegetales. II. Metabolismo de los hidroperóxidos lipídicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamora, R.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The enzymes of the lipoxygenase pathway in plant foods are reviewed. This part analyzes the enzymes related to the descomposition or transformation of the lipidic hydroperoxides. Lipoxygenase, hydroperoxide lyase, enal isomerase, alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, hydroperoxide dehydrase, alene oxide ciclase and 12-Oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase in plants are described. Posible control mechanisms of the lipoxygenase pathway are also considered.

    Los enzimas responsables de la degradación enzimática de los lípidos en los alimentos vegetales son examinados en este trabajo. Esta parte describe la descomposición o transformación de los hidroperóxidos lipídicos producida por la lipoxigenasa, hidroperóxido liasa, enal isomerasa, alcohol deshidrogenasa, aldehído deshidrogenasa, hidroperóxido dehidrasa, óxido de aleño ciclasa y ácido 12-Oxofitodienoico reductasa, así como los distintos mecanismos de control de la ruta.

  16. Fetal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adama van Scheltema, Phebe

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the fetus is capable of exhibiting a stress response to intrauterine needling, resulting in alterations in fetal stress hormone levels. Intrauterine transfusions are performed by inserting a needle either in the umbilical cord root at the placental surface (PCI), o

  17. SÍNTESIS SELECTIVA DE BENZALDEHÍDO USANDO ZEOLITAS MODIFICADAS CON METALES DE TRANSICIÓN

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Saux; Candelaria Leal; Pierella, Liliana B.

    2012-01-01

    Se estudió la oxidación selectiva de estireno para la obtención de benzaldehído sobre zeolitas ZSM-5 modificadas con diferentes metales de transición (cromo, cobalto, hierro, zinc, manganeso y cobre) y utilizando peróxido de hidrógeno como oxidante. Dado que los mejores resultados se obtuvieron utilizando Cr-ZSM-5, estos materiales se estudiaron evaluando el efecto del tiempo de reacción, la masa de catalizador, la relación molar estireno/hidroperóxido, la naturaleza del solvente y la tempera...

  18. Fetal syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Anne; Chitayat, David; Blaser, Susan; Keating, Sarah; Shannon, Patrick

    2014-08-06

    We explored the prevalence of syringomyelia in a series of 113 cases of fetal dysraphism and hindbrain crowding, of gestational age ranging from 17.5 to 34 weeks with the vast majority less than 26 weeks gestational age. We found syringomyelia in 13 cases of Chiari II malformations, 5 cases of Omphalocele/Exostrophy/Imperforate anus/Spinal abnormality (OEIS), 2 cases of Meckel Gruber syndrome and in a single pair of pyopagus conjoined twins. Secondary injury was not uncommon, with vernicomyelia in Chiari malformations, infarct like histology, or old hemorrhage in 8 cases of syringomyelia. Vernicomyelia did not occur in the absence of syrinx formation. The syringes extended from the sites of dysraphism, in ascending or descending patterns. The syringes were usually in a major proportion anatomically distinct from a dilated or denuded central canal and tended to be dorsal and paramedian or median. We suggest that fetal syringomyelia in Chiari II malformation and other dysraphic states is often established prior to midgestation, has contributions from the primary malformation as well as from secondary in utero injury and is anatomically and pathophysiologically distinct from post natal syringomyelia secondary to hindbrain crowding.

  19. Relación nitrato/amonio/urea y concentración de potasio en la producción de tomate hidropónico Relation nitrate / ammonium / urea and potassium concentration in hydroponic tomato production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Parra Terraza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. IB-9 fueron cultivadas en un sistema hidropónico con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de la relación nitrato, amonio, urea (100/0/0, 85/15/0, 85/0/15y85/7.5/7.5 y la concentración de potasio (7 y 9 mol m-³ en el rendimiento de fruto y composición mineral de las plantas. El rendimiento de fruto no fue afectado por los tratamientos, por lo que se puede sustituir 15% del total de nitrógeno nítrico de la solución nutritiva con un porcentaje igual de nitrógeno amoniacal o ureico, o una mezcla de amonio y urea, cada una a 7.5%. El contenido de fósforo en las hojas aumentó significativamente con la interacción de 85/15/0 y 9 mol m-³ de potasio, mientras que la concentración de calcio en las hojas disminuyó estadísticamente con 100/0/0 y 9 mol m-³ de potasio.Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. IB-9 were grown in ahydroponic system in orderto evaluate the effect of the ratio nitrate, ammonium, urea (100/0/0, 85/15/0, 85 / 0/15 and 85/7.5/7.5 and the concentration of potassium (7 and 9 mol m-³ in fruit yield and mineral composition of plants. The fruit yield was unaffected by the treatments, so that it can substitute 15% of the total nitrate nitrogen to the nutrient solution with an equal percentage of nitrogen or urea, or a mixture of ammonia and urea, each at 7.5 %. The phosphorus content in leaves was significantly increased by the interaction of 85/15/0 and 9 mol of potassium m-³, while the calcium concentration in leaves 100/0/0 statistically decreased and 9 mol m-³ potassium.

  20. Evaluación del perfil metabólico lipídico en cerdas gestantes y su relación con la nutrición fetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Duque G.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el metabolismo lipídico de cerdas gestantes como respuesta a la modificación del nivel graso de la dieta y su efecto sobre la nutrición fetal a través de indicadores metabólicos. Materiales y métodos. Cincuenta y seis cerdas gestantes primíparas o multíparas se seleccionaron para suministrarles una dieta sin adición de grasa extra (SAp o SAm o con adición de grasa extra (AGp o AGm. La dieta SA consistió en suministrar 3 kg/día de una dieta comercial convencional, en la dieta AG se redujo el maíz y se incluyó aceite de soya para proporcionar 20% de grasa extra. Las muestras sanguíneas se colectaron a los 85, 100, 113 días de gestación y a las 24 horas posparto, asimismo, al 50% de los lechones nacidos vivos de cada camada. Se analizaron concentraciones séricas de colesterol (CT, triglicéridos (TG, lipoproteínas de alta (HDL y baja densidad (LDL, ácidos grasos no esterificados (NEFA y betahidroxibutirato (BHB. Resultados. Las concentraciones séricas de HDL, LDL, CT, NEFA, BHB y TG, (p<0.01 aumentaron tanto en las cerdas primíparas como multíparas al día 100 y 113, pero disminuyeron a las 24 horas posparto. Los metabolitos sanguíneos en los lechones bajo la influencia de los dos tratamientos presentaron diferencias significativas (p<0.01. Conclusiones. No se encontró efecto de la modificación de la grasa en la dieta sobre LDL y NEFA; para los restantes indicadores se presentó diferencia en las cerdas en gestación. No se encontró correlación entre los indicadores metabólicos de las madres y los lechones.

  1. Potencial de rizobactérias na promoção de crescimento e controle da podridãoradicular em alface hidropônica

    OpenAIRE

    Matheus Aparecido Pereira Cipriano; Flávia Rodrigues Alves Patrício; Sueli dos Santos Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Os objetivos do trabalho foram avaliar se isolados de rizobactérias do grupo fluorescente do gênero Pseudomonas: 1) produzem metabólitos envolvidos na promoção do crescimento (AIA e HCN); 2) têm potencial para controle biológico de Pythium aphanidermatum; 3) podem promover o crescimento de plantas de alface cultivadas em sistema hidropônico; 4) e verificar se há correspondência nas interações in vitro e in vivo desses microrganismos. Com esses objetivos, placas de Petri contendo meio de cultu...

  2. Características técnicas y resultados maternos y perinatales de las pacientes isoinmunizadas sometidas a transfusión fetal intrauterina Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, Medellín, Colombia, 1998-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Rebolledo López

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available

    OBJETIVO: describir las características sociodemográficas, clínicas y técnicas y los resultados maternos y perinatales de las pacientes isoinmunizadas sometidas a transfusión fetal intrauterina (TFI en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl (HUSVP de Medellín, Colombia, entre los años 1998 y 2006.

    METODOLOGÍA: se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de 13 pacientes isoinmunizadas que requirieron TFI en el HUSVP entre 1998 y 2006. Se analizaron variables como ruptura prematura de membranas ovulares (RPMO, corioamnionitis, sufrimiento fetal agudo (SFA, muerte perinatal e hidropesía fetal; además se describen las características técnicas de las transfusiones así como las complicaciones relacionadas con el procedimiento.

    RESULTADOS: a un total de 13 madres isoinmunizadas se les hicieron 29 TFI. La tasa de supervivencia fetal fue del 77%. Se complicaron 5 de las madres (38,5% así: RPMO en 3 casos (23% y corioamnionitis en 2 (15,4%. Seis fetos (46,1% presentaron al menos una complicación. Tres fetos fallecieron (23%, 2 (15,4% presentaron hidropesía inmune, y en 4 (30,8% hubo SFA. En total se realizaron 29 transfusiones durante las cuales hubo 11complicaciones en 6 fetos así: bradicardia fetal 4 (13,7%, desgarro del cordón 1 (3,4%, hematomas del cordón 2 (6,8% y sangrado postransfusión 4

  3. Fetal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokyta, Richard

    2008-12-01

    The fetus reacts to nociceptive stimulations through different motor, autonomic, vegetative, hormonal, and metabolic changes relatively early in the gestation period. With respect to the fact that the modulatory system does not yet exist, the first reactions are purely reflexive and without connection to the type of stimulus. While the fetal nervous system is able to react through protective reflexes to potentially harmful stimuli, there is no accurate evidence concerning pain sensations in this early period. Cortical processes occur only after thalamocortical connections and pathways have been completed at the 26th gestational week. Harmful (painful) stimuli, especially in fetuses have an adverse effect on the development of humans regardless of the processes in brain. Moreover, pain activates a number of subcortical mechanisms and a wide spectrum of stress responses influence the maturation of thalamocortical pathways and other cortical activation which are very important in pain processing.

  4. Acúmulo de nutrientes por cultivares de alface em cultivo hidropônico no inverno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Mário César

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de seis cultivares de alface do grupo americana, em sistema hidropônico "NFT". O experimento foi conduzido na UNIOESTE, de junho a agosto de 2001 em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e seis tratamentos, constituídos pelos cultivares Lorca, Tainá, Havem, Empire 2000, Lucy Brown e Kaesar. Avaliaram-se a produção de matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea, concentração e absorção de macro e micronutrientes. As cultivares Lorca e Havem obtiveram maior produção de matéria fresca, não diferindo estatisticamente entre si, estas apenas apresentaram concentração menor dos nutrientes Ca e Cu em relação às demais cultivares. Em termos de concentração de nutrientes na parte aérea, não houve diferença estatística entre as cultivares para os nutrientes N, P, K e Mn. Nos nutrientes Ca, Mg, Cu e Zn, ocorreu grande variação na concentração. No acúmulo de nutrientes (kg.ha-1, não observou-se diferença estatística entre as cultivares para N e P, enquanto para os outros nutrientes avaliados, as cultivares Lorca, Havem e Empire 2000 foram superiores, sendo também as que apresentaram maior produção de matéria fresca e seca.

  5. Desempenho de cultivares de alface crespa em dois ambientes de cultivo em sistema hidropônico Performance of lettuce cultivars grown in two environments, in the NFT hydroponic system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SF Blat; SV Sanchez; JAC Araújo; D Bolonhezi

    2011-01-01

    ..., Belíssima, Locarno, Crespona Gigante e Verônica) em dois ambientes de cultivo (casa de vegetação climatizada e não climatizada) em sistema hidropônico NFT. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados para cada ambiente com...

  6. Recipientes e substratos na produção de mudas e no cultivo hidropônico de tomilho (Thymus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Donegá

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bandejas com diferente número de células (128, 200 e 288 e dois substratos (fibra de casca de coco e casca de pinus foram avaliados para a produção de mudas de tomilho e sobre o desempenho das plantas em sistema hidropônico. Para ambos os experimentos, o delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso. As mudas provenientes de estaquia foram avaliadas aos 30 dias quanto ao comprimento e massa seca de raízes. Aos 40 dias após o transplante das mudas, as plantas cultivadas em sistema hidropônico foram avaliadas quanto à massa fresca da parte aérea, massa seca da parte aérea e massa seca das raízes. A maior massa seca de raízes foi obtida para as mudas cultivadas em substrato à base de casca de fibra de coco. As mudas com maior comprimento de raízes foram obtidas nas bandejas com 128 e 200 células. As plantas de tomilho provenientes de mudas produzidas em bandejas de 128 células apresentaram maior massa fresca da parte aérea, massa seca da parte aérea e massa seca das raízes.

  7. Teor de nitrato em alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônico e convencional Level of nitrate in lettuce cultivated in hydroponic and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete R. Yonamini Beninni

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O monitoramento do teor de nitrato nos alimentos é importante, uma vez que poderão ser formados compostos prejudiciais à saúde humana e animal após sua ingestão. Com o objetivo de avaliar o teor de nitrato presente em alface, foram coletadas e analisadas as folhas de alface crespa comercializada no Município de Londrina, cultivada em sistemas hidropônico e convencional. Os valores encontrados variaram entre 26 e 2.568 mg.kg-1 de peso fresco, sendo que as plantas cultivadas em sistema hidropônico apresentaram teores superiores em relação às cultivadas em sistema convencional, porém abaixo do limite máximo de nitrato permitido para alface, na Europa.The control of the nitrate level in foods is important because this substance may be harmful to human and animal health. The aim of this work was to evaluate nitrate levels in lettuce produced in hydroponic and conventional systems and commercialized in Londrina, Brazil. The nitrate concentration ranged from 26 to 2,568 mg.kg-1 fresh weight. Hydroponic lettuce showed higher levels of nitrate but in all cases the level of nitrate was lower than the maximum allowed by the Comission of the European Communities.

  8. Fetal pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhatalo, S; van Nieuwenhuizen, O

    2000-05-01

    During the last few years a vivid debate, both scientifically and emotionally, has risen in the medical literature as to whether a fetus is able to feel pain during abortion or intrauterine surgery. This debate has mainly been inspired by the demonstration of various hormonal or motor reactions to noxious stimuli at very early stages of fetal development. The aims of this paper are to review the literature on development of the pain system in the fetus, and to speculate about the relationship between "sensing" as opposed to "feeling" pain and the number of reactions associated with painful stimuli. While a cortical processing of pain theoretically becomes possible after development of the thalamo-cortical connections in the 26th week of gestation, noxious stimuli may trigger complex reflex reactions much earlier. However, more important than possible painfulness is the fact that the noxious stimuli, by triggering stress responses, most likely affect the development of an individual at very early stages. Hence, it is not reasonable to speculate on the possible emotional experiences of pain in fetuses or premature babies. A clinically relevant aim is rather to avoid and/or treat any possibly noxious stimuli, and thereby prevent their potential adverse effects on the subsequent development.

  9. Acute supplementation of amino acids increases net protein accretion in IUGR fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura D; Rozance, Paul J; Thorn, Stephanie R; Friedman, Jacob E; Hay, William W

    2012-08-01

    Placental insufficiency decreases fetal amino acid uptake from the placenta, plasma insulin concentrations, and protein accretion, thus compromising normal fetal growth trajectory. We tested whether acute supplementation of amino acids or insulin into the fetus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) would increase net fetal protein accretion rates. Late-gestation IUGR and control (CON) fetal sheep received acute, 3-h infusions of amino acids (with euinsulinemia), insulin (with euglycemia and euaminoacidemia), or saline. Fetal leucine metabolism was measured under steady-state conditions followed by a fetal muscle biopsy to quantify insulin signaling. In CON, increasing amino acid delivery rates to the fetus by 100% increased leucine oxidation rates by 100%. In IUGR, amino acid infusion completely suppressed fetal protein breakdown rates but increased leucine oxidation rate by only 25%, resulting in increased protein accretion rates by 150%. Acute insulin infusion, however, had very little effect on amino acid delivery rates, fetal leucine disposal rates, or fetal protein accretion rates in CON or IUGR fetuses despite robust signaling of the fetal skeletal muscle insulin-signaling cascade. These results indicate that, when amino acids are given directly into the fetal circulation independently of changes in insulin concentrations, IUGR fetal sheep have suppressed protein breakdown rates, thus increasing net fetal protein accretion.

  10. Valvoplastia aórtica por cateter-balão em emergência materno-fetal na adolescência Valvuloplastia aórtica por catéter con balón en emergencia materno-fetal en la adolescencia Aortic valvuloplasty with balloon catheter in maternal-fetal emergency in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walkiria Samuel Avila

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O aumento do débito cardíaco durante a gravidez é causa de insuficiência cardíaca em portadoras de estenose valvar aórtica grave. A valvoplastia aórtica percutânea tem sido associada a graves complicações e reestenose valvar em curto prazo. O presente caso mostrou que a valvoplastia aórtica percutânea permitiu o alcance do parto com sobrevida da mãe e do feto, e que a interrupção do tratamento no pós-parto resultou em morte materna no puerpério tardio.El aumento del gasto cardiaco durante el embarazo es la causa de insuficiencia cardiaca en portadoras de estenosis valvular aórtica severa. Se viene asociando la valvuloplastia aórtica percutánea a severas complicaciones y reestenosis valvular en corto plazo. El presente caso reveló que la valvuloplastia aórtica percutánea permitió el alcance del parto con sobrevida de la madre y del feto, y que la interrupción del tratamiento en el postparto resultó en muerte materna en el puerperio tardío.The increase of cardiac output during pregnancy is the cause of heart failure in women with severe aortic valvular stenosis. Percutaneous aortic valvuloplasty has been associated with severe complications and short-term valvar restenosis. This case showed that percutaneous aortic valvuloplasty allowed both mother and fetus to survive after childbirth, and that postpartum treatment interruption resulted in maternal death in late postpartum care.

  11. Challenge of Fetal Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports from the National Medical Care Utilization and Expenditure Survey Clearinghouse on Health Indexes Statistical Notes for ... Fetal mortality is a major, but often overlooked, public health problem. Fetal mortality refers to spontaneous intrauterine ...

  12. Taquiarritmias supraventriculares fetales refractarias al tratamiento inicial Fetal supraventricular tachyarrhythmias refractory to initial therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Malvino

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Las arritmias fetales representan un motivo infrecuente de ingreso a la unidad de cuidados intensivos. Se presenta tres casos de gestantes entre 27 y 32 semanas, con el diagnóstico de taquiarri-tmias supraventriculares fetales sostenidas, que exhibían fracaso en el intento inicial de reversión con digoxina. Dos casos con taquicardia supraventricular respondieron favorablemente cuando se asoció flecainida. Un feto hidrópico con aleteo auricular y bloqueo 2:1 no revirtió con la asociación de flecainida ni amiodarona a la digoxina y requirió la interrupción de la gestación en la 30ª semana. El neonato presentó disfunción tiroidea transitoria atribuida a la administración de amiodarona.Fetal arrhythmia is an unusual cause of admission in critical care unit. We report three cases of pregnant patients with gestational age of 27 to 32 weeks, with diagnosis of fetal sustained supraventricular tachyarrhymias; which were resistant to digoxin as first line therapy. Two fetuses had supraventricular tachycardia and were converted with flecainide in association with digoxin. A remaining hydropic fetus suffering atrial flutter with 2:1 auriculo-ventricular conduction, failed to restore sinus rhythm with digoxin alone or in association with flecainide nor amiodarone, and required premature c-section at 30ª week of gestation. Due to amiodarone administration the neonate suffered transient neonatal hypothyroidism.

  13. Fetal behavioral teratology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Gerard H. A.; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Ververs, F. F. Tessa

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound studies of fetal motor behavior provide direct - in vivo - insight in the functioning of the motor component of the fetal central nervous system. In this article, studies are reviewed showing changes in the first timetable of appearance of fetal movements, changes in quality and/or quanti

  14. Crescimento e produção de tomate cereja em sistema hidropônico com rejeito de dessalinização.

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes,Jonath Werissimo da Silva; Dias,Nildo da Silva; Oliveira,André Moreira de; BLANCO, Flávio Favaro; Sousa Neto,Osvaldo Nogueira de

    2012-01-01

    A produtividade agrícola sustentável é o maior desafio nas regiões áridas e semiáridas por causa da escassez de água para irrigação, sendo comum o uso de água salobra para irrigação. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a resposta do tomate cereja (Lycopersicon esculentum L., cv. Samambaia) sob quatro níveis de salinidade da solução nutritiva com adição de rejeito salino em sistema de produção hidropônico. As plantas de tomate foram cultivadas em vasos com substrato de fibra de coco e irriga...

  15. Frecuencia cardiaca y movimientos fetales posterior a la administracion de betametasona para maduración pulmonar fetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolima Ruiz Lopez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue demostrar las modificaciones de la frecuencia cardiaca y los movimientos fetales producidas por la administración de betametasona para maduración pulmonar fetal. Se realizó una investigación de tipo explicativa, prospectiva y longitudinal con un diseño cuasi-experimental y una muestra no probabilística de 106 gestantes entre 24 y 34 semanas, con diagnóstico de amenaza de parto pretérmino tratadas con betametasona (12 mg intramuscular cada 24 horas por dos dosis que acudieron al Hospital Central “Dr. Urquinaona”. Se evaluaron los movimientos fetales y frecuencia cardiaca materna y fetal. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la frecuencia cardiaca materna comparado con los valores iniciales (p = ns. Se observó que el valor inicial de la frecuencia cardiaca fetal fue de 135,1±9,7 latidos por minuto para aumentar luego a 137,2±8,9 latidos por minuto (p = ns para presentar un nuevo aumento hasta (142,9±9,9 latidos por minuto que fue significativo comparado con los valores iniciales (p < 0,05. Se observó una disminución significativa de movimientos fetales medidos en 30 minutos después de la primera inyección (23,1±6,0 movimientos comparado con 14,8±7,0 movimientos, para aumentar después de la segunda inyección pero aun presentando valores significativamente más bajos comparado con los valores iniciales (20,0 ±6,7 movimientos; p < 0,05. Se concluye que la administración de betametasona para maduración pulmonar fetal produce incremento significativo en la frecuencia cardiaca y reducción marcada de los movimientos fetales. Abstract Fetal heart rate and movements after betamethasone administration for fetal lung maturity The objective of research was to demonstrate fetal heart rate and movements modifications by the use of betamethasone for fetal lung maturity. An explicative, prospective and longitudinal research was done with a quasi-experimental design and a non

  16. Evaluación de la severidad, proporcionalidad y riesgo de muerte de recién nacidos de muy bajo peso con restricción del crecimiento fetal: análisis multicéntrico sudamericano An assessment of the severity, proportionality and risk of mortality of very low birth weight infants with fetal growth restriction: a multicenter South American analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Grandi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: 1 evaluar la severidad y la proporcionalidad de los PEG para diferentes grados de prematurez; 2 estimar el riesgo de mortalidad de los PEG según la severidad y proporcionalidad. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Diseño observacional y analítico. Población: todos los recién nacidos de muy bajo peso (RNMPB entre 25 y 36 semanas que mantiene el grupo NEOCOSUR (n = 1.518. Índices antropométricos: a peso de nacimiento (PN 0,55 y la transformación z del índice ponderal (Ponderal Index, PI = g/cm³ x 100. Restricción del crecimiento intrauterino (RCIU asimétrico: score z OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical severity and proportionality of small for gestational age, very low birth weight neonates (< 1,500 g and to estimate the neonatal mortality risk associated with the condition of being small for gestational age according to the degree of severity and proportionality. METHODS: Observational design. All of the NEOCOSUR Collaborative Group's very low birth weight infants (25-36 weeks' gestation were included (n = 1,518. Anthropometric indices: birth weight < 3rd and 10th percentile. Severity (fetal growth ratio = observed weight/mean birth weight for gestational age; no growth restriction: fetal growth ratio 0.90-1.10, mild: fetal growth ratio 0.80-0.89, moderate: fetal growth ratio 0.75-0.79 and severe: fetal growth ratio < 0.75. Proportionality: coefficient of bimodality and z score for ponderal index (PI = g/cm³ *100. Neonatal mortality until discharge. RESULTS: < 3rd percentile: 13.5% (p < 0.001; < 10th percentile: 31% (p < 0.001; fetal growth ratio: 0.90±0.21 (p < 0.001, mild restriction: 20.8%, moderate restriction: 8.7% and severe restriction: 32.6%. Coefficient of bimodality: 0.53; PI z score < -1: 8%. Maternal hypertensive disease was systematically associated with being small for gestational age (aOR 1.20, 95% CI 0.86-1.67, fetal growth ratio < 0.89 (aOR 1.71, 1.24-2.36 and PI z score < -1 (aOR 1.60, 1.03-2.41. Adjusted odds ratios

  17. Fetal Health and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specific prenatal tests to monitor both the mother's health and fetal health during each trimester. With modern technology, health professionals can Detect birth defects Identify problems that ...

  18. Concentration and accumulation of macronutrients in hydroponic and conventional lettuce/ Concentração e acúmulo de macronutrientes em alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônico e convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Silvia Vieira J. Neves

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da absorção e do acúmulo de nutrientes é importante para determinação de épocas e de quantidades de adubação das culturas. O experimento teve como objetivo determinar a concentração e o acúmulo dos macronutrientes em alface cv. Verônica ao longo do seu desenvolvimento, cultivada em sistemas hidropônico e convencional. O delineamento estatístico foi em blocos, com seis repetições e parcelas subdivididas, tendo como parcela principal os sistemas hidropônico e convencional e como subparcela as épocas de coleta das amostras. A cada sete dias, colhiam-se plantas para análises químicas de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Plantas cultivadas em sistema hidropônico apresentaram período de cultivo mais curto do que no sistema convencional. As concentrações de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S no ponto de colheita para a parte aérea das plantas cultivadas em sistema hidropônico foram: 44,80; 8,54; 87,42; 10,29; 3,31; 2,32 g Kg-1, e para as plantas cultivadas em sistema convencional foram: 38,24; 5,74; 78,33; 12,23; 3,11 e 3,87 g Kg-1, respectivamente. O acúmulo de nutrientes pela parte aérea foi 581,10; 110,60; 1.135,76; 133,81; 42,97 e 30,08 mg por planta de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S para as cultivadas em sistema hidropônico e 372,78; 56,11; 765,84; 119,05; 30,46 e 37,81 mg por planta, respectivamente, para as cultivadas em sistema convencional.

  19. Accounting for Fetal Origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The Fetal Origins hypothesis has received considerable empirical support, both within epidemiology and economics. The present study compares the ability of two rival theoretical frameworks in accounting for the kind of path dependence implied by the Fetal Origins Hypothesis. We argue that while...

  20. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  1. Fetal scalp pH testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal scalp blood; Scalp pH testing; Fetal blood testing - scalp; Fetal distress - fetal scalp testing; Labor - fetal scalp testing ... a baby. In these cases, testing the scalp pH can help the doctor decide whether the fetus ...

  2. Alterações sensoriais em alface hidropônica cv. Regina minimamente processada e armazenada sob refrigeração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freire Júnior Murillo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o aumento da demanda por frutas e hortaliças minimamente processadas, a manutenção da qualidade destes produtos é um fator fundamental. O consumidor exige um produto fresco, de aspecto saudável, com boas características de cor, bem como outros atributos desejáveis na sua aparência. Foram avaliadas algumas alterações sensoriais em alface hidropônica, cv. Regina, minimamente processada, acondicionada em sacos plásticos termosoldados e armazenadas a 2ºC e 10ºC. Independente da temperatura de armazenamento, até o terceiro dia, nenhum comprometimento do produto houve para qualquer dos aspectos de qualidade analisados: cor, frescor, escurecimento da nervura central, escurecimento de bordas, aspecto de podre e sabor de cozido. No armazenamento a 2ºC a alface apresentou uma vida de prateleira de sete dias, sem comprometimento das suas principais características de aparência, ou seja, não houve escurecimento e a cor e o frescor se mantiveram inalterados. Para o produto armazenado a 10ºC, as alterações ocorridas tornaram o produto indesejável após o terceiro dia.

  3. Fetal and neonatal thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandar Mohan Batra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal thyrotoxicosis is a rare disease occurring in 1 out of 70 pregnancies with Grave′s disease or in 1 out of 4000-50,000 deliveries. The mortality is 12-20%, usually from heart failure, but other complications are tracheal compression, infections and thrombocytopenia. It results from transfer of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins from mother to fetus through the placenta. This transplacental transfer begins around 20 th week of pregnancy and reaches its maximum by 30 th week. These autoantibodies bind to the fetal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH receptors and increase the secretion of the thyroid hormones. The mother has an active autoimmune thyroid disease or has been treated for it in the past. She may be absolutely euthyroid due to past treatment by drugs, surgery or radioiodine ablation, but still have active TSH receptor stimulating autoantibodies, which can cause fetal thyrotoxicosis. The other features of this disease are fetal tachycardia, fetal goiter and history of spontaneous abortions and findings of goiter, ascites, craniosyntosis, fetal growth retardation, maceration and hydrops at fetal autopsy. If untreated, this disease can result in intrauterine death. The treatment for this disease consists of giving carbimazole to the mother, which is transferred through the placenta to the fetus. The dose of carbimazole is titrated with the fetal heart rate. If the mother becomes hypothyroid due to carbimazole, thyroxine is added taking advantage of the fact that very little of thyroxine is transferred across the placenta. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis patients are very sick and require emergency treatment. The goal of the treatment is to normalize thyroid functions as quickly as possible, to avoid iatrogenic hypothyroidism while providing management and supportive therapy for the infant′s specific signs and symptoms.

  4. Estudo da utilização do efluente de biodigestor no cultivo hidropônico do meloeiro Utilization of biodigestor effluent in the hydroponic cultivation of melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz V. E. Villela Junior

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se o aproveitamento do efluente de biodigestor no cultivo hidropônico do meloeiro, desenvolveu-se a presente pesquisa. O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Engenharia Rural da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias da UNESP, campus de Jaboticabal, cultivando-se o meloeiro (Cucumis melo L. cv. Bonus nº 2. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualisados, com 6 repetições, cujos tratamentos foram: 1 cultivo hidropônico em sistema fechado tipo NFT ("nutrient film technique" com uso de solução nutritiva organo-mineral (biofertilizante com complementação mineral; 2 cultivo hidropônico em sistema fechado tipo NFT, com uso de solução nutritiva 100% mineral; 3 cultivo hidropônico em sistema aberto, com substrato e solução nutritiva organo-mineral e 4 cultivo hidropônico em sistema aberto, com substrato e solução nutritiva 100% mineral. O biofertilizante e o substrato foram obtidos a partir do efluente de biodigestor, produzido com estrume bovino. As plantas cultivadas no tratamento 1 tiveram desenvolvimento prejudicado, devido ao acúmulo de partículas sólidas junto ao sistema radicular. O tratamento 2 proporcionou às plantas desenvolvimento vegetativo mais rápido e maior produtividade. Os frutos produzidos no tratamento 2 apresentaram maior peso, formato mais alongado e maior teor de sólidos solúveis totais. A substituição parcial de adubos minerais por biofertilizante mostrou-se possível em sistema hidropônico aberto com substrato.With the objective to use effluent of biodigestor in the hydroponic cultivation, an experiment was conducted in the Department of Rural Engineering Faculty of Agricultural and Veterenary Sciences of UNESP, campus of Jaboticabal where a melon crop (Cucumis melo L. cv. Bonus nº 2 was cultivated. The experimental design used was a randomized blocks, with 6 repetitions and the treatments studied were: 1 hydroponic cultivation in closed system type NFT

  5. Proyecto de inversión para la producción de jitomate hidropónico en la comunidad de Santiago Apóstol Ocotlán, Oaxaca

    OpenAIRE

    Jerónimo Vásquez, Bernarda

    2015-01-01

    Elaboración de un estudio de caso para obtener el Grado de Maestría en Administración de la Empresa Industrial. El presente trabajo desarrolla la evaluación financiera de un proyecto de inversión para la producción de jitomate hidropónico, el cual pretende resolver las siguientes necesidades: Mejorar la situación de vida actual de familias de los productores. Combatir el desempleo que existe en la zona indígena de Oaxaca. Ofrecer al mercado un producto nutritivo. Aumentar los rendimi...

  6. Alteraciones bioquímicas de los lípidos en los alimentos vegetales. I. Formación de los hidroperóxidos lipídicos

    OpenAIRE

    Zamora, R.; Hidalgo, F. J.; Alaiz, M.

    1991-01-01

    The enzymes of the lipoxygenase pathway in plant foods are reviewed. This part analyzes the enzymes related to the formation of the lipidic hydroperoxides. Lipases and lipoxygenases in plant foods are described.

    En este trabajo se hace una revisión de los enzimas responsables de la degradación enzimática de los Iípidos en los alimentos vegetales. Esta primera parte describe la formación de los hidroperóxidos lipídicos producida por la acción secuencial de lipasas y lipoxige...

  7. Indução de resistência sistêmica por rizobactérias em cultivos hidropônicos Induction of systemic resistance by rhizobacteria in hydroponic system

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Souza Bernardes; Flávia Rodrigues Alves Patrício; Amaury Silva Santos; Sueli dos Santos Freitas

    2010-01-01

    Rizobactérias do grupo fluorescente de Pseudomonas spp. foram selecionadas quanto a sua capacidade na promoção de crescimento em plântulas de alface (Lactuca sativa L.) e atividade antagônica contra Pythium aphanidermatum a partir de teste in vitro. Em seguida, em sistema hidropônico, foi avaliada a aplicação prévia dos isolados visando reduzir os danos provocados por P. aphanidermatum em pepino (Cucumis sativus) por resistência sistêmica induzida (RSI), pela adoção da técnica "raízes subdivi...

  8. Magnesium and fetal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, K.

    1988-01-01

    Fetal growth retardation and premature labor are major problems in perinatal medicine today and account for a great deal of the observed fetal morbidity. While the neonatal death rate has steadily declined over the past decade, there has been a lack of concommitant decrease in these two leading problems. Magnesium (Mg/sup ++/) plays a major role in both of these areas of concern. The fact that it is used as a treatment for premature labor has led investigators to look at low Mg/sup ++/ as a possible cause of this poorly understood phenomenon. The second major cause of small for gestational age infants is intrauterine growth retardation, a condition which may be of either fetal or maternal origin. In either case, Mg/sup ++/ may be implicated since it exerts a strong influence on the underlying pathophysiology of placental failure and maternal hypertension. Both of these conditions are mediated by vascular and platelet hyperactivity as well as by and increase in the ration of thromboxane to prostacyclin. Studies in both the human and animal species are beginning to show how Mg/sup ++/ interacts in these conditions to produce such a damaging fetal outcome. The recent use of Doppler velocimetry of the developing fetus has shown reduced fetal vascular and maternal uterine vascular compliance as early as 14 weeks of gestation in those who would be so affected.

  9. Cultivo de girassol em sistema hidropônico sob diferentes níveis de salinidade Sunflower cultivation in a hydroponic system under different salinity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Amilton Santos Júnior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas hidropônicos tem se constituído em uma das alternativas para equacionar os fatores naturais adversos à produção agropecuária presentes nas regiões semiáridas do Brasil, como solos rasos, pedregosos e pouco férteis, além da escassez de recursos hídricos em quantidade e qualidade (teores elevados de sais. Este trabalho buscou estudar os componentes de produção do girassol (variedade EMBRAPA 122/V-2000 destinados à obtenção de aquênios e forragem (fitomassa, cultivado em sistema hidropônico, utilizando a fibra de coco como substrato e irrigado com água salobra de diferentes salinidades. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 com três repetições, de modo que foram estudados cinco níveis de salinidade e duas densidades de plantio - uma ou duas plantas por vaso. As águas de irrigação foram compostas por 50% da solução nutritiva padrão e 50% de água de abastecimento, adicionada de níveis crescentes de NaCl, resultando em uma condutividade elétrica final da solução (CEs de 1,7; 4,3; 6,0; 9,0 e 11,5 dS m-1. Verificou-se que a densidade diferenciada das plantas de girassol afetou positivamente os componentes de produção de aquênios e fitomassa da cultura indicando maior viabilidade quando se utiliza duas plantas por vaso.Hydroponic systems have constituted an alternative for combating the adverse natural factors of agricultural production in the semi-arid regions of Brazil, such as shallow rocky and infertile soils, and the scarcity of good quality water resources (high salt content. This work studied the yield of the sunflower (variety EMBRAPA 122/V-2000 destined for achene and fodder (phytomass production, grown hydroponically, using coconut fiber as substrate and irrigated with brackish water of varying salinities. The experimental layout used was completely randomized into a 5 x 2 factorial design with three replications, five levels of water

  10. Efecto de diferentes concentraciones de potasio en parámetros de calidad en jitomate hidropónico Efecto de diferentes concentraciones de potasio en parámetros de calidad en jitomate hidropónico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel René Díaz Serrano

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to improve the quality of tomatoes by the manipulation of ionic relations in the nutritive solution based on the hypothesis that potassium influences carotenoid syntheses in tomato fruits. Two experiments were done using a ‘Gabriela’ tomato hybrid in a hydroponic culture system within an intermediate technology greenhouse. A standard solution (SS was applied in the vegetative stage, and different solutions with different potassium concentrations (K were applied in the reproductive stage (SR1 = 20 % K, SR2 = 40 % K, SR3 = 60 % K and SR4 = 45 % K, where the percentage of potassium is given with respect to total cation percentage. All nutritive solutions had values of 30 mg L-1 for total ionic concentration, 6.5, for pH and approximately 3 dS m-1 for CE. In the first experiment, three treatments (SR1, SR2 and SR3 were each tested eight times, and in the second experiment, two treatments (SR2 and SR4 were each tested sixteen times. Treatment SR4 significantly surpassed SR2 in all the quality parameters for each one of selected clusters (the 1st, 3th, 5th, 7th and 9th except in β-carotene and pH. Potassium significantly affects the concentration of nutraceuticals such as lycopene and β-carotene, which can both be used as inner tomato quality indicators based on analytical and sensorial properties.El manejo de las relaciones iónicas en la solución nutritiva con la hipótesis de que el potasio puede mejorar la calidad del jitomate, por la influencia de la síntesis de carotenoides de los frutos de jitomate fue el principal propósito de este trabajo. Se realizaron dos experimentos con el hibrido ‘Gabriela’ en un sistema de cultivo sin suelo dentro de un invernadero de tecnología intermedia. En la etapa vegetativa se aplicó una solución estándar (SS y en la etapa reproductiva se aplicaron soluciones con diferentes concentraciones de potasio (K (SR1 (20 % K, SR2 (40 % K, SR3 (60 % K y SR4 (45 % K

  11. Produção de crisântemo (Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.Tzvelev para corte sob cultivo hidropônico em argila expandida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Barbosa

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar as condições ideais para o cultivo hidropônico do crisântemo 'Yellow Polaris' para flor-de-corte em argila expandida saturada por solução nutritiva recirculante e sua eficiência em relação ao cultivo convencional, realizou-se um experimento no outono-inverno e um na primavera-verão. Utilizou-se argila expandida das seguintes classes granulométricas: 4-10,4-13, 10-13 e 13-20 mm de diâmetro, saturada duas ou três vezes ao dia por solução nutritiva (14,49; 1,95; 12,9; 1,51; 1,00 e 0,5 mmol/L de N; P; K; Ca; Mg e S e 30; 5; 50; 40; 2 e 0,1 umol/L de B; Cu; Fe; Mn; Zn e Mo respectivamente. Foi realizado um tratamento adicional usando-se sistema convencional de cultivo. As plantas cultivadas em argila expandida no outono/inverno tiveram produções de matérias fresca e seca, número de inflorescências e altura de haste significativamente superiores às cultivadas no sistema convencional. Essas características foram favorecidas quando o cultivo ocorreu nas três menores classes granulométricas de argila expandida com saturação nutritiva duas vezes ao dia. No cultivo de primavera-verão, os resultados foram semelhantes aos obtidos no sistema convencional. Nesse caso, outros fatores como época do cultivo, temperatura e umi-dade podem ter limitado uma melhor absorção de nutrientes pelas plantas cultivadas em argila expandida.

  12. Crescimento de alface hidropônica sob diferentes intervalos de irrigação Hydroponic lettuce growth under differents irrigation intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Zanella

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O intervalo entre irrigações é um importante critério a ser observado durante o cultivo hidropônico de hortaliças. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produtividade de duas cultivares de alface (Lactuca sativa L., Regina 2000 e Lucy Brown sob três intervalos de irrigação. O experimento foi conduzido no Centro Universitário Luterano de Ji-Paraná (CEULJI/ULBRA, entre setembro e dezembro de 2006. Foram testados três intevalos entre irrigações: 5; 15 e 30 minutos. Cada tratamento constou de quatro repetições de cada cultivar, em delineamento inteiramente casualisado. Analisou-se o número de folhas.planta-1, a massa fresca e massa seca total de cada planta. O aumento no intervalo entre irrigações levou a uma menor produção da alface. Assim, o intervalo de 5 minutos entre irrigações promoveu o maior ganho de massa para as duas cultivares avaliadas.The interval among irrigations is an important criterion taken into account during the hidroponic cultivation of vegetables. Thus, the present work aimed to evaluate the productivity of two lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cultivars, Regina 2000 and Lucy Brown, in three irrigations intervals. The experiment was carried out at the Centro Universitário Luterano de Ji-Paraná (CEULJ/ULBRA, from September to December 2006. Three intervals between irrigations were used: 5; 15 and 30 minutes. Each treatment had four replications of both cultivars, in a complete randomized outline. The number of leaves.plant-1, total fresh mass and total dry mass were analyzed. There was an increase of the lettuce production according to the increase of the irrigation interval. Thus, 5 minutes among irrigations promoted the greater gain of mass for both cultivars evaluated.

  13. Uso do rejeito da dessalinização de água salobra no cultivo da alface (Lactuca sativa L.) em sistema hidropônico NFT Use of the desalted wastewater for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production in NFT hydroponic system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rafaelly Suzanye da Silva Santos; Nildo da Silva Dias; Osvaldo Nogueira de Sousa Neto; Marcelo Tavares Gurgel

    2010-01-01

    ... hidropônico NFT foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação no departamento de ciências ambientais da UFERSA, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os...

  14. Fetal Biophysical Profile Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. HaghighatKhah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   "nFetal biophysical profile scoring is a sonographic-based method of fetal assessment first described by Manning and Platt in 1980. "nThe biophysical profile score was developed as a method to integrate real-time observations of the fetus and his/her intrauterine environment in order to more comprehensively assess the fetal condition. These findings must be evaluated in the context of maternal/fetal history (i.e., chronic hypertension, post-dates, intrauterine growth restriction, etc, fetal structural integrity (presence or absence of congenital anomalies, and the functionality of fetal support structures (placental and umbilical cord. For example, acute asphyxia due to placental abruption may result in an absence of the acute variables of the biophysical profile score (fetal breathing movements, fetal movement, fetal tone, and fetal heart rate reactivity with a normal amniotic fluid volume. With post maturity the asphyxial event may be intermittent and chronic resulting in a decrease in amniotic fluid volume, but with the acute variables remaining normal. "nWhile the 5 components of the biophysical profile score have remained unchanged since 1980 (Manning, 1980, the definitions of a normal and abnormal parameter have evolved with increasing experience. "nIn 1984 the definition of oligohydramnios was increased from < 1cm pocket of fluid to < 2.0 x 1.0 cm pocket. Oligohydramnios is now defined as a pocket of amniotic fluid < 2.0 x 2.0 cm (Manning, 1995a "nIf the four ultrasound variables are normal, the accuracy of the biophysical profile score was not found to be significantly improved by adding the non-stress test. As a result, in 1987 the profile score was modified to incorporate the non-stress test only when one of the ultrasound variables was abnormal (Manning 1987. Table 1 outlines the current definitions for quantifying a variable as present or absent. "nEach of the 5 components of the biophysical profile score does not have equal

  15. Plasticity of fetal cartilaginous cells

    OpenAIRE

    Quintin, Aurelie; Schizas, Constantin; Scaletta, Corinne; Jaccoud, Sandra; Applegate, Lee Ann; Pioletti, Dominique P.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue-specific stem cells found in adult tissues can participate to the repair process following injury. However adult tissues, such as articular cartilage and intervertebral disc, have low regeneration capacity, whereas fetal tissues, such as articular cartilage, show high regeneration ability. The presence of fetal stem cells in fetal cartilaginous tissues and their involvement in the regeneration of fetal cartilage is unknown. The aim of the study was to assess the chondrogenic differenti...

  16. Experiencia de producción de lechuga americana (Lactuca sativa hidropónica, tipo NFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Brenes-Peralta

    2014-06-01

    En el Centro de Prácticas Docentes e Investigación Agropecuaria de la Escuela de Agronegocios del Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica (TEC se cuenta, actualmente, con un sistema de este tipo NFT donde estableció una actividad de fortalecimiento que ha resultado en la observación de ciertas características a partir de la experiencia generada, de la cual se espera fomentar el uso de la hidroponía, así como divulgar información técnica y de buenas prácticas en este tipo de cultivo entre usuarios interesados.

  17. Fetal fluid and protein dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis fetal fluid and protein dynamics are investigated to gain insight in fetal (patho-)physiology. Studies were performed in fetuses with severe anemia and/or hydrops fetalis. Measurements were performed in fetal blood or amniotic fluid, obtained before or during intrauterine transfusion.

  18. Controle biológico da podridão radicular (Pythium aphanidermatum e promoção de crescimento por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 e Bacillus subtilis GB03 em alface hidropônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élida Barbosa Corrêa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Podridões radiculares causadas por espécies de Pythium são um importante problema em cultivos hidropônicos. Sintomas de subdesenvolvimento são observados nas plantas parasitadas pelo patógeno, sendo muitas vezes não diagnosticados pelo produtor. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o controle biológico da podridão radicular causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e a promoção de crescimento por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 e Bacillus subtilis GB03, reconhecidos agentes de controle biológico de doenças de plantas. A inoculação das plantas com P. aphanidermatum ocasionou o subdesenvolvimento, sendo essa diminuição de 20%. A adição dos agentes de biocontrole na solução nutritiva teve um efeito positivo no aumento da massa (6% a 13%, no número de folhas (4% a 7% e no teor de clorofila (3% das plantas de alface. Entretanto, maiores estudos devem ser realizados para melhorar a capacidade de controle da doença e de promoção de crescimento pelos agentes de biocontrole estudados no cultivo de alface hidropônica.

  19. Micronutrients and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Caroline H D; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Rao, Shobha; Davies, Anna A; Brown, Nick; Farrant, Hannah J W

    2003-05-01

    Fetal undernutrition affects large numbers of infants in developing countries, with adverse consequences for their immediate survival and lifelong health. It manifests as intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), defined as birth weight fetus is nourished by a complex supply line that includes the mother's diet and absorption, endocrine status and metabolism, cardiovascular adaptations to pregnancy and placental function. Micronutrients are essential for growth, and maternal micronutrient deficiency, frequently multiple in developing countries, may be an important cause of IUGR. Supplementation of undernourished mothers with micronutrients has several benefits but there is little hard evidence of improved fetal growth. However, this has been inadequately tested. Most trials have only used single micronutrients and many were inconclusive because of methodological problems. Several food-based studies (some uncontrolled) suggest benefits from improving maternal dietary quality with micronutrient-dense foods. One trial of a multivitamin supplement (HIV-positive mothers, Tanzania) showed increased birth weight and fewer fetal deaths. Well-conducted randomized controlled trials of adequate sample size and including measures of effectiveness are needed in populations at high risk of micronutrient deficiency and IUGR and should include food-based interventions and better measurements of fetal growth, maternal metabolism, and long-term outcomes in the offspring.

  20. MRI of the Fetal Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisstanner, C; Kasprian, G; Gruber, G M; Brugger, P C; Prayer, D

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the possibilities for fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of the fetal brain. For brain pathologies, fetal MRI is usually performed when an abnormality is detected by previous prenatal ultrasound, and is, therefore, an important adjunct to ultrasound. The most commonly suspected brain pathologies referred to fetal MRI for further evaluation are ventriculomegaly, missing corpus callosum, and abnormalities of the posterior fossa. We will briefly discuss the most common indications for fetal brain MRI, as well as recent advances.

  1. Maternal nutrition during the first 50 days of gestation alters bovine fetal hepatic metabolic transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that maternal nutrition during the first 50 d of gestation would alter the metabolic transcriptome of the bovine fetal liver. Fourteen beef heifers were estrus synchronized and assigned to 2 treatments at breeding (CON, 100% of requirements to gain 0.45kg/d; RES, 60% of CON). Heifers...

  2. [Relationship between the level of maternal glycated hemoglobin and fetal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martínez, Karla Lucía; Oseguera-Torres, Luis Fernando; Ávalos-Nuño, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la diabetes mellitus constituye la alteración metabólica más frecuentemente asociada al embarazo. A medida que se optimiza el manejo de la diabetes durante la gestación, disminuye la frecuencia y severidad de las complicaciones fetales y neonatales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar la relación que existe entre el nivel de hemoglobina glucosilada materna y la cardiomiopatía hipertrófica fetal. Métodos: estudio transversal analítico de julio a noviembre del 2015. Se incluyeron pacientes con embarazo simple de las 28-37 semanas con diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus pregestacional o gestacional. Se les realizó un ecocardiograma fetal, asimismo se les efectuó la medición de hemoglobina glucosilada. Resultados: se incluyeron 104 pacientes embarazadas diabéticas en el estudio, 83 pacientes en el grupo con hemoglobina glucosilada normal y 21 con hemoglobina glucosilada alterada. De las 104 pacientes, 12 presentaron cardiomiopatía hipertrófica fetal; 5 del grupo con hemoglobina glucosilada normal y 7 del grupo con hemoglobina glucosilada alterada. Se identificó que existe una clara asociación reportada previamente entre el grado de descontrol metabólico materno y la presencia de complicaciones fetales y neonatales. Conclusiones: se observó una correlación positiva entre los valores de hemoglobina glucosilada materna elevada y el aumento del grosor del septum interventricular fetal. La evaluación ecocardiográfica fetal es recomendada en todas las embarazadas con diabetes mellitus gestacional y pregestacional.

  3. Stillbirth and fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2010-09-01

    The association between stillbirth and fetal growth restriction is strong and supported by a large body of evidence and clinically employed for the stillbirth prediction. However, although assessment of fetal growth is a basis of clinical practice, it is not trivial. Essentially, fetal growth is a result of the genetic growth potential of the fetus and placental function. The growth potential is the driving force of fetal growth, whereas the placenta as the sole source of nutrients and oxygen might become the rate limiting element of fetal growth if its function is impaired. Thus, placental dysfunction may prevent the fetus from reaching its full genetically determined growth potential. In this sense fetal growth and its aberration provides an insight into placental function. Fetal growth is a proxy for the test of the effectiveness of placenta, whose function is otherwise obscured during pregnancy.

  4. Fetal congenital lobar emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Soon-Cen; Liu, Min-Chang; Se, Tung-Yi

    2007-03-01

    To report a rare fetal congenital lung anomaly characterized by over inflation of a pulmonary lobe. A 28-year-old systemic lupus erythematous mother, gravida 1 para 0, who had normal prenatal care in our department, was admitted for labor pain and an abnormal fetal heart location was noted incidentally during labor. The baby showed rib retraction in room air but no obvious cyanotic change after delivery. Both the fetus chest X-ray and ultrasound showed a hyperechogenic tumor in the left thoracic cavity with a right-side-shifted heart and trachea. Computed tomography showed a hypodense and multiseptal tumor in the left thoracic cavity with right-sided shift of the heart and trachea. It was a soft, solid tumor in the parenchyma of the left lung and the histopathology confirmed it to be benign congenital lobar emphysema. The favorable outcome in both asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic children suggests that a nonsurgical approach should be considered for these patients.

  5. Cronograma de amostragem de plantas de alface hidropônica para ajuste de curvas de crescimento Hydroponic lettuce sampling chronogram for fitting growth curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Machado dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O ajuste de curvas de crescimento de plantas de alface durante seu ciclo necessita de amostragens no tempo, o que restringe o número de efeitos de tratamentos estudados. Com o objetivo de determinar o cronograma de amostragem de plantas de alface em hidroponia para o ajuste de curvas de crescimento até a fase de maturação das sementes, foram realizados dois cultivos em casa de vegetação durante a primavera e o outono, em área pertencente ao Departamento de Fitotecnia, na UFSM, Santa Maria, RS. A partir do ajuste de um modelo de crescimento com amostragem diária, simularam-se diferentes cronogramas de amostragem para o ajuste do mesmo modelo. Para encontrar o cronograma de maior intervalo entre amostragens, ou seja, menor número de coletas, foi comparado o ajuste do modelo de amostragem diária com os ajustes dos modelos dos diferentes intervalos de amostragens simulados, dois a dois, pelo teste F. Foram realizadas simulações considerando desde a data de transplante até a produção de sementes, para variáveis de fitomassa seca da planta e de partes da planta e área foliar. Em experimentos realizados com alface hidropônica na primavera, para o ciclo completo, recomendam-se amostragens a cada 3, 8, 20 e 9 dias para fitomassa seca relativa total da planta de alface, de folhas, de raiz e área foliar, respectivamente; enquanto que, para experimentos realizados no outono, é recomendável utilizar intervalos de amostragens a cada 2, 11, 12 e 11 dias, respectivamente.The fitting of growth curves for lettuce plants requires many samplings within o time interval, while can restrict the number of studied treatments. With the aim o determine sampling chronogram hidroponic lettuce for the fitting of growth curves until maturation of seeds. Two greenhouse trials were carried out in spring an autumn, at UFSM experimental area, Santa Maria, RS. Different sampling interval were simulated using the fitting of a daily model. The optimum sampling

  6. Hydroponic lettuce yield in differents electrical conductivity/ Produção de alface hidropônico em diferentes condutividades elétricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Rumiko Yonamini Beninni

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In hydroponic culture is common to evaluate the concentration of nutrient solution through electrical conductivity (EC. The aim of this work was to evaluate the best electrical conductivity of nutrient solution to lettuce crop, cv. Verônica. Four treatments were studied in differents electrical conductivity of nutrient solution. The Hoagland & Arnon (1950 nutrient solution was used as pattern, which to make several dilution until to get ideal quantities of each nutrient to reach the differents electrical conductivity: 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 3,0 mS cm-1. The statistic design were blocks, with four treatments and six replications. In the treatment EC = 1,0 mS cm-1 was obtained good yield, with apropriate concentration of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S and low level of nitrate, lower than the maximum allowed by the Comission of the European Communities.Em cultivos hidropônicos é usual avaliar o teor de nutrientes da solução nutritiva através da condutividade elétrica. Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a melhor condutividade elétrica da solução nutritiva para o cultivo de alface tipo crespa cultivar Verônica. Testaram-se 4 tratamentos que consistiram em diferentes condutividades elétricas da solução nutritiva. A solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon (1950 foi utilizada como padrão, da qual realizou-se várias diluições até a obtenção de quantidades ideais de cada nutriente para atingir as diferentes condutividades elétricas: 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; e 3,0 mS cm-1. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi blocos, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. A partir dos resultados obtidos pôde-se concluir que o tratamento CE = 1,0 mS cm-1 proporcionou boa produção, com concentrações adequadas de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e baixo teor de nitrato, estando abaixo do limite máximo de nitrato permitido para alface, na Europa.

  7. Avaliação da biomassa foliar de morangueiro hidropônico em diferentes ambientes protegidos Leaf biomass evaluation of hydroponic strawberry in greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Costa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se experimentos na Faculdade de Engenharia Agrícola na Universidade Estadual de Campinas, utilizando quatro cultivares de morangueiro [Fragaria x ananassa (Weston Duchesne ex Rozier], quatro sistemas de produção hidropônica (canal de 100mm, canal de 150mm, canal de 150mm, com vaso contendo fibra de coco e tubo vertical contendo casca de arroz carbonizada e três ambientes protegidos (casa-de-vegetação sem resfriamento evaporativo do ar e sem injeção aérea de CO2, casa-de-vegetação com injeção aérea de CO2 e sem resfriamento evaporativo do ar e casa-de-vegetação com injeção aérea de CO2 e resfriamento evaporativo do ar. Foram avaliados os parâmetros foliares massa fresca foliar (MFF e massa seca foliar (MSF em gramas e área foliar (AF em mm², correlacionando à biomassa da planta. O melhor sistema foi o de canais de 150mm com vaso contendo fibra de coco. O melhor ambiente foi o de resfriamento evaporativo do ar e injeção aérea de CO2.Analyses were made in the experimental field of the Agricultural Engineering College at State University of Campinas (Unicamp. Four varieties of strawberry [Fragaria x ananassa (Weston Duchesne ex Rozier] were tested in four hydroponics production systems (100mm and 150mm channels and 150mm channel with a vase containing coconut fiber and a vertical pipe containing carbonized rice rusk. Three greenhouses were tested: i a greenhouse without air evaporative cooling nor CO2 aerial injection, ii a greenhouse with CO2 aerial injection and without air evaporative cooling and iii a greenhouse with CO2 aerial injection and air evaporative cooling. It was analyzed the leaf fresh (MFF and dry mass in gram (MSF and the leaf area in mm² (AF. The best hydroponics system was 150mm channel with a vase containing coconut fiber. The best environment condition was the one with air evaporative cooling and aerial injection of CO2.

  8. The fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiserud, Torvid; Acharya, Ganesh

    2004-12-30

    Accumulating data on the human fetal circulation shows the similarity to the experimental animal physiology, but with important differences. The human fetus seems to circulate less blood through the placenta, shunt less through the ductus venosus and foramen ovale, but direct more blood through the lungs than the fetal sheep. However, there are substantial individual variations and the pattern changes with gestational age. The normalised umbilical blood flow decreases with gestational age, and, at 28 to 32 weeks, a new level of development seems to be reached. At this stage, the shunting through the ductus venosus and the foramen ovale reaches a minimum, and the flow through the lungs a maximum. The ductus venosus and foramen ovale are functionally closely related and represent an important distributional unit for the venous return. The left portal branch represents a venous watershed, and, similarly, the isthmus aorta an arterial watershed. Thus, the fetal central circulation is a very flexible and adaptive circulatory system. The responses to increased afterload, hypoxaemia and acidaemia in the human fetus are equivalent to those found in animal studies: increased ductus venosus and foramen ovale shunting, increased impedance in the lungs, reduced impedance in the brain, increasingly reversed flow in the aortic isthmus and a more prominent coronary blood flow.

  9. Tolerância de genótipos de cereais de inverno ao alumínio em cultivo hidropônico e em campo Tolerance of small graine cereal genotypes to aluminum on hydroponic and field cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Portaluppi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a capacidade de crescimento radicular de 75 genótipos de cereais de inverno em cultivo hidropônico, em diferentes concentrações de alumínio, avaliar a relação entre o grau de tolerância/sensibilidade, em solução hidropônica, e a resistência/suscetibilidade ao crestamento em campo. Os cereais cevada, triticale, centeio, trigo e Aegilops tauschii foram avaliados em hidroponia, com concentrações de Al3+ que variaram entre 0,5 (cevada, 2 e 6 (triticale, 6 e 10 (centeio e 2 mg L-1 (trigo e Ae. tauschii. Os delineamentos experimentais foram inteiramente casualizados. Em campo, foram avaliados os mesmos genótipos, exceto Ae. tauschii, em solo com pH 4,4 e 4,85, corrigido a 1/2 e 1/4 do índice SMP. Utilizou-se uma escala de notas com variação de escores de 0,5 (altamente resistente a 5 (altamente suscetível. Foi observada elevada relação entre a tolerância ao alumínio em hidroponia e a resistência ao crestamento em campo. A seleção de cereais em meio hidropônico pode ser considerada eficiente como ferramenta de apoio aos programas de melhoramento genético para essa característica.The objective of this work was to determine the root growth capacity of 75 genotypes of small graine cereals in hydroponic culture under different aluminum concentrations, and to assess the relationship betwen the level of tolerance/sensitivity in hydroponic solution and the resistance/susceptibility index in the field. Barley, triticale, rye, wheat and Aegilops tauschii were evaluated in hydroponics, with Al3+ concentrations that varied between 0.5 (barley, 2 and 6 (triticale, 6 and 10 (rye and 2 mg L-1 (wheat and Ae. tauschii. The experiments' designs were completely randomized. In the field trial, the same genotypes were assessed, except for Ae. tauschii, in soil with pH 4.4 and 4.85 adjusted to 1/2 and 1/4 of the SMP index. A score scale ranging from 0.5 (highly resistant to 5 (highly susceptible was used

  10. Fetal vibroacoustic stimulation for facilitation of tests of fetal wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kelvin H; Smyth, Rebecca M D; Wei, Xing

    2013-12-07

    Acoustic stimulation of the fetus has been suggested to improve the efficiency of antepartum fetal heart rate testing. To assess the advantages and disadvantages of the use of fetal vibroacoustic stimulation in conjunction with tests of fetal wellbeing. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2013). All published and unpublished randomised controlled trials assessing the merits of the use of fetal vibroacoustic stimulation in conjunction with tests of fetal wellbeing. All review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Authors of published and unpublished trials were contacted for further information. Altogether 12 trials with a total of 6822 participants were included. Fetal vibroacoustic stimulation reduced the incidence of non-reactive antenatal cardiotocography test (nine trials; average risk ratio (RR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48 to 0.81). Vibroacoustic stimulation compared with mock stimulation evoked significantly more fetal movements when used in conjunction with fetal heart rate testing (one trial, RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.29). Vibroacoustic stimulation offers benefits by decreasing the incidence of non-reactive cardiotocography and reducing the testing time. Further randomised trials should be encouraged to determine not only the optimum intensity, frequency, duration and position of the vibroacoustic stimulation, but also to evaluate the efficacy, predictive reliability, safety and perinatal outcome of these stimuli with cardiotocography and other tests of fetal wellbeing.

  11. Nutritional regulation of fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Frank H; Jaquiery, Anne L; Oliver, Mark H

    2013-01-01

    Fetal growth is largely regulated by nutritional supply. The placenta is responsible for fetal nutrient supply for much of pregnancy, but in early pregnancy nutrition is histiotrophic. Both placental size and efficiency, and fetal growth, may be affected by maternal nutritional state before and during very early pregnancy. In contrast, manipulating maternal nutrition during later stages of pregnancy has a smaller than expected effect on fetal growth. Maternal nutrition before and during early pregnancy also has a greater effect on gestation length than maternal nutrition later in pregnancy, suggesting that nutritional status may regulate both fetal growth trajectory and gestation length and that these two outcomes may be linked. Thus, determination of the nutritional factors regulating fetal growth, and potentially postnatal growth and body phenotype, may lie with the maternal nutritional status even before conception.

  12. MRI of the fetal spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Erin M. [Departement of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal spine is a vital complement to fetal sonographic examination. Assessing the wide spectrum of spinal dysraphism, as well as spinal neoplasia, allows for more correct prenatal diagnoses, patient care planning, and patient counselling. Proper appraisal of the value of experimental procedures, such as fetal myelomeningocoele repair, requires a high level of diagnostic accuracy for the selection and follow-up of appropriate candidates. (orig.)

  13. Relação K:Ca e aplicação de silício na solução nutritiva para o cultivo hidropônico de coentro

    OpenAIRE

    Mateus Augusto Donegá

    2010-01-01

    O manejo da solução nutritiva leva em consideração as concentrações e as relações entre os nutrientes para a obtenção de elevada produtividade e qualidade das hortaliças cultivadas em sistemas hidropônicos. A relação adequada entre K e Ca é fundamental para tornar máxima a absorção desses elementos, uma vez que o excesso de K pode reduzir a absorção de Ca e viceversa. Além dos elementos considerados essenciais, os benéficos como o silício pode estimular a absorção de outros nutrientes, dentre...

  14. La Escuela de Ingeniería Industrial Presenta Módulo de Invernadero Hidropónico Climatizado Automáticamente, como Alternativa de Producción en Cadenas Productivas Hortifrutícolas y otras Similares

    OpenAIRE

    Benavente, Dennis; Universidad Alas Peruanas; Vizcarra Rodríguez, Juan; Ruelas, Percy; Huaita, Asencio; Begazo, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Los módulos de invernaderos hidropónicos climatizados automáticamente para propiciar un sistema de producción alternativo a la agricultura tradicional permiten mejorar el balance tecnológico en las cadenas productivas de distintas hortalizas y vegetales similares, reduciendo las grandes brechas entre tecnologías y procesos usados actualmente en la producción de estos vegetales en la región sur del Perú y los utilizados en otros países considerados líderes en la aplicación de las mejores práct...

  15. La muerte fetal y la muerte neonatal tienen origen multifactorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Huiza

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar los factores etiopatogénicos asociados a la muerte fetal y neonatal de una población de la ciudad de Lima, Perú. Lugar: Hospital San Bartolomé en Lima, entre 1 de enero de 1996 y 31 de diciembre de 2000. Material y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de todos los casos de muerte fetal mayor de 20 semanas de gestación y muerte neonatal antes de los 28 días de nacimiento sometidos a estudio de autopsia y anatomía patológica. Resultados: La prevalencia de muerte fetal fue 1,68% (508/30125 y de muerte neonatal 1,44% (434/30125. Todas las muertes fetales y 58,8% (255/434 de las muertes neonatales tuvieron autopsia. De 508 muertes fetales, 92 (18% presentaron signos de autólisis, que no permitieron una apropiada identificación de los procesos etiopatogénicos involucrados. Las muertes fetales estuvieron asociadas a prematuridad (60,5%, defecto nutricional/vascular (78,1%, privación social (60,8%, anomalías congénitas anatómicas (14,6% y respuesta inflamatoria (12,9%. La muerte neonatal estuvo asociada a la prematuridad (71,7%, privación social (61,1%, defecto nutricional/vascular (59,6%, anomalía congénita anatómica (28,6%, respuesta inflamatoria (20,0%. Conclusiones: La muerte fetal es consecuencia de factores patogénicos que interactúan tempranamente con la unidad madre-embrión/feto. La mayoría de los tejidos muertos de los fetos/neonatos muestra manifestaciones de varios factores etiopatogénicos en forma simultánea.

  16. Eficacia de la postura materna manos-rodillas para corregir la posición fetal occipitoposterior en el parto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Y. Molina-Reyes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo principal: Valorar la rotación fetal de posición occipitoposterior (OP a occipitoanterior (OA durante el parto con la postura "manos-rodillas" (MR frente a la postura "decúbito lateral (DL hacia la espalda fetal". Metodología: Ensayo clínico multicéntrico. Mediante asignación aleatoria, 65 gestantes con posición fetal OP adoptaron la postura MR (grupo MR y 70 gestantes la postura DL hacia la espalda fetal (grupo DL durante 30 minutos. Resultados principales: Similar rotación fetal a OA durante la intervención del grupo MR frente al grupo DL (55,4% vs. 54,3%; Odds Ratio de 1,04 para un intervalo de confianza al 95%:0,53-2,06. Tampoco hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas para los resultados de duración y tipo de terminación del parto entre los grupos. Conclusión principal: Para mejorar los resultados de los partos con posición fetal occipitoposterior recomendamos la adopción de las posturas MR y DL hacia la espalda fetal durante el parto, pues ambas tienen similar eficacia de rotación fetal a occipitoanterior.

  17. Ovine fetal necrobacillosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Boye, Mette; Aalbæk, B.

    2007-01-01

    were found in several tissues. Histologically, placental lesions were characterized by locally diffuse infiltration of neutrophils, closely associated with abundant small Gram-negative and FISH-positive rods, thrombosis and necrosis. Lesions in the fetal-maternal interface were multifocal and consisted...... of villous necrosis and suppurative inflammation. Spread to the fetus from the placenta appeared to occur in two ways. Some fetuses had multifocal necrotizing hepatitis consistent with haematogenous spread through the umbilical vein; further dissemination to other organs occurred. Transplacental spread...

  18. Fetal cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychik, J

    2004-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of the fetus is physiologically different than the adult, mature system. Unique characteristics of the myocardium and specific channels of blood flow differentitate the physiology of the fetus from the newborn. Conditions of increased preload and afterload in the fetus, such as sacrococcygeal teratoma and twin-twin transfusion syndrome, result in unique and complex pathophysiological states. Echocardiography has improved our understanding of human fetal cadiovasvular physiology in the normal and diseased states, and has expanded our capability to more effectively treat these disease processes.

  19. Caracterización de la mortalidad fetal tardía en Villa Clara.

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Antonio Suárez González; Mario Gutiérrez Machado; Alexis Corrales Gutiérrez

    2011-01-01

    Fundamento: Eventos como la mortalidad fetal tardía agreden la evolución normal esperada en el embarazo, con una connotación en la mujer, la pareja y la comunidad. Objetivo: Caracterizar la mortalidad fetal tardía según factores asociados. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de las 74 muertes fetales registradas en el Hospital Universitario Ginecoobstétrico Mariana Grajales de Santa Clara, durante los años 2009 y 2010. Se analizaron las variables: edad materna, antecedentes patológicos...

  20. Prolonged infusion of amino acids increases leucine oxidation in fetal sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewski, Anne M.; Gadhia, Monika M.; O'Meara, Meghan C.; Thorn, Stephanie R.; Rozance, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal high-protein supplements designed to increase birth weight have not been successful. We recently showed that maternal amino acid infusion into pregnant sheep resulted in competitive inhibition of amino acid transport across the placenta and did not increase fetal protein accretion rates. To bypass placental transport, singleton fetal sheep were intravenously infused with an amino acid mixture (AA, n = 8) or saline [control (Con), n = 10] for ∼12 days during late gestation. Fetal leucine oxidation rate increased in the AA group (3.1 ± 0.5 vs. 1.4 ± 0.6 μmol·min−1·kg−1, P Fetal protein accretion (2.6 ± 0.5 and 2.2 ± 0.6 μmol·min−1·kg−1 in AA and Con, respectively), synthesis (6.2 ± 0.8 and 7.0 ± 0.9 μmol·min−1·kg−1 in AA and Con, respectively), and degradation (3.6 ± 0.6 and 4.5 ± 1.0 μmol·min−1·kg−1 in AA and Con, respectively) rates were similar between groups. Net fetal glucose uptake decreased in the AA group (2.8 ± 0.4 vs. 3.9 ± 0.1 mg·kg−1·min−1, P Fetal insulin and IGF-I concentrations did not change. Fetal glucagon increased in the AA group (119 ± 24 vs. 59 ± 9 pg/ml, P fetal glucose uptake rates were inversely proportional to fetal glucagon (r2 = 0.38, P fetal skeletal muscle were similar between groups. In summary, prolonged infusion of amino acids directly into normally growing fetal sheep increased leucine oxidation. Amino acid-stimulated increases in fetal glucagon, cortisol, and NE may contribute to a shift in substrate oxidation by the fetus from glucose to amino acids. PMID:22454287

  1. Clinical implications of fetal magnetocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartero, H.W.P.; Stinstra, J.G.; Golbach, E.G.M.; Meijboom, E.J.; Peters, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To test the usefulness and reliability of fetal magnetocardiography as a diagnostic or screening tool, both for fetuses with arrhythmias as well as for fetuses with a congenital heart defect. Methods We describe 21 women with either a fetal arrhythmia or a congenital heart defect disc

  2. Restrictive dermopathy and fetal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, EJH; Beemer, FA; Stoutenbeek, P

    2001-01-01

    We report three siblings from consecutive pregnancies affected with restrictive dermopathy (RD). During the second pregnancy, fetal behavioural development and growth were studied extensively using ultrasound at 1-4 week intervals. Dramatic and sudden changes occurred in fetal body movements and gro

  3. Feto-fetal transfusion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, P; Scott, J M; Goel, K M

    1982-01-01

    Out of 42 pairs of liveborn monochorial twins there were 32 pairs with vascular anastomoses. Of these, 11 pairs had feto-fetal transfusion syndrome. There were another 8 pairs of stillborn twin fetuses with vascular communications and in these chronic feto-fetal transfusion syndrome might have resulted in intrauterine death. PMID:6890328

  4. Hormonal Control of Fetal Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Paul S.; Nicoll, Charles S.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on hormonal control of fetal growth, presenting data obtained using a new method for studying the area. Effects of endocrine ablations and congenital deficiencies, studies of hormone/receptor levels, in-vitro techniques, hormones implicated in promoting fetal growth, problems with existing methodologies, and growth of…

  5. Impact of fetal echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson John

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease is now well established for a wide range of cardiac anomalies. Diagnosis of congenital heart disease during fetal life not only identifies the cardiac lesion but may also lead to detection of associated abnormalities. This information allows a detailed discussion of the prognosis with parents. For continuing pregnancies, appropriate preparation can be made to optimize the postnatal outcome. Reduced morbidity and mortality, following antenatal diagnosis, has been reported for coarctation of the aorta, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and transposition of the great arteries. With regard to screening policy, most affected fetuses are in the "low risk" population, emphasizing the importance of appropriate training for those who undertake such obstetric anomaly scans. As a minimum, the four chamber view of the fetal heart should be incorporated into midtrimester anomaly scans, and where feasible, views of the outflow tracts should also be included, to increase the diagnostic yield. Newer screening techniques, such as measurement of nuchal translucency, may contribute to identification of fetuses at high risk for congenital heart disease and prompt referral for detailed cardiac assessment.

  6. Production of peach grafts under hydroponic conditions Produção de mudas de pêssego enxertadas em sistema hidropônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline das Graças Souza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to study the feasibility of producing Okinawa rootstocks and peach grafts using a hydroponic system. The study was conducted in two phases. The growth and development of Okinawa rootstocks under hydroponic conditions were determined in the first phase, and in the second phase, the viability of grafting production of peach cultivars Aurora and Diamante associated with different types of rootstocks. The parameters analysed were the time required for 60 to 75% plants to reach the stages of transplanting (15 cm height and grafting (4 to 6 cm stem diameter, the percentage of sprouting grafts determined 20 days after grafting, and the height of the shoots measured every 7 days until grafts were 40 cm high measured from the crown. Although 13% of the Okinawa rootstocks grown under hydroponic conditions presented undesirable genetic segregation characteristics, transplanting was reached at 30 days after transference (DAT to hydroponic conditions and grafting at 61 DAT. Proximal pruning at 5 cm gave rise to grafts of 47.53 cm in height at 116 DAT, and both cultivar showed 100% graft sprouting with the cultivar Aurora presenting higher growth.Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de estudar a viabilidade da produção de porta-enxerto 'Okinawa' e de mudas enxertadas em sistema hidropônico. O experimento foi conduzido em duas etapas. Na primeira etapa, pesquisaram-se o tempo de germinação e o desenvolvimento vegetativo das plantas do porta-enxerto 'Okinawa' e na segunda etapa a viabilidade de produção de mudas enxertadas de pêssego das cultivares 'Aurora' e 'Diamante', associada a diferentes tipos de desmama dos enxertos. As características avaliadas referiram-se ao tempo para que 60 a 75% das plântulas atingissem o ponto de repicagem (15 cm de altura e o ponto de enxertia (diâmetro de 4 a 6 mm coletados semanalmente, a percentagem de pegamento da enxertia foi avaliada aos 20 dias após a enxertia e o

  7. Substratos na produção hidropônica de mudas de hortelã Mint seedlings assessment of different substrates in hydroponic cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Paulus

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento normal e a formação de plantas com qualidade comercial dependem da produção de boas mudas e para isso, faz-se necessário o uso de um substrato adequado à espécie. A hidroponia mostra-se uma técnica promissora em virtude das vantagens que esse método apresenta: economia de substrato, produção de mudas com alto índice de pegamento e de qualidade. O experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (RS. com objetivo de avaliar o efeito de substratos (sem substrato, substrato espuma fenólica e substrato organo-mineral, para produção de mudas de hortelã (Mentha x villosa em cultivo hidropônico através do método de propagação vegetativa por estaquia. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e 20 repetições, usando-se uma planta por repetição. As variáveis analisadas foram: número de folhas e altura de planta aos 7; 14; 21 e 28 dias após o transplante, e fitomassa seca e fresca 35 dias após o transplante. O substrato espuma fenólica apresentou os melhores resultados na produção de fitomassa fresca (2,65 g planta-1 e seca (0,23 g planta¹. Para as demais variáveis analisadas os substratos espuma fenólica e organo-mineral não diferiram significativamente entre si, mas foram superiores ao tratamento sem substrato (direto em solução.The normal growth and the formation of plants with quality for commercialization depends on good seedlings production. The right substrate has to be used. Hydroponic cultivation holds certain advantages: saving substrate, resulting in good establishment of the crop and quality of seedlings production. The experiment was carried out at the University of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The effect of substrates (without substrate, phenolic foam substrate and organicmineral substrates was determined on the production of mint (Mentha x villosa transplants by cuttings vegetable methods in hydroponics. The experimental

  8. Produção de alface hidropônica em três ambientes de cultivo Production of hydroponic lettuce in three environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edílson Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Propôs-se avaliar a produção hidropônica de alface-crespa, variedade "Vera", em bancadas inclinadas com canais de 100 mm, utilizando a técnica de filme de solução nutritiva, em resposta à aplicação de dióxido de carbono e ao resfriamento evaporativo. Realizaram-se cinco ciclos de cultivo nos períodos de 20-3 a 17-4-2000 (C1; 25-5 a 29-6-2000 (C2; 13-7 a 21-8-2000 (C3; 27-8 a 2-10-2000 (C4 e 12-12-2000 a 10-1-2001 (C5. Avaliaram-se três casas de vegetação, sendo casa de vegetação sem sistema de resfriamento evaporativo do ar e sem injeção aérea de CO2 (A1; casa de vegetação com injeção aérea de CO2 e sem sistema de resfriamento evaporativo do ar (A2, e casa de vegetação com injeção aérea de CO2 e com sistema de resfriamento evaporativo do ar do tipo meio poroso-exaustor (A3. Avaliaram-se as massas frescas e secas em gramas, o número de folhas e a área foliar em mm². Utilizou-se do delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em que, no ciclo C1, utilizaram-se 48 repetições por ambiente; para os ciclos C2, C3 e C5, foram 64 repetições, e para o ciclo C4, foram 24 repetições. O ambiente climatizado com incremento de dióxido de carbono promoveu melhor desenvolvimento das plantas, com maior número de folhas comercializáveis. Em ambientes não climatizados, o incremento de CO2 não resultou em aumento de produtividade da alface para a maioria dos ciclos. Em épocas de temperaturas mais elevadas, obtiveram-se plantas maiores, com maior número de folhas.It was proposed to evaluate the hydroponic lettuce production, variety "Vera", on inclined benches with channels of 100 mm, and Nutrient Film Technique, as answer to carbon dioxide application and evaporative cooling. There were five cycles of cultivation from March, 20th to April, 17th (C1; from May, 25th to June, 29th (C2; from July, 13th to August, 20th (C3; from August, 27th to October, 10th (C4; from December, 12th to January, 10th (C5. In three greenhouses were

  9. Fetal and Maternal Outcomes in Pregnancies Complicated with Fetal Macrosomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkahatim; Ahmed, Salah Roshdy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fetal macrosomia remains a considerable challenge in current obstetrics due to the fetal and maternal complications associated with this condition. Aim: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of fetal macrosomia and associated fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality in the Al Qassim Region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This register-based study was conducted from January 1, 2011 through December 30, 2011 at the Maternity and Child Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Macrosomia was defined as birth weight of 4 kg or greater. Malformed babies and those born dead were excluded. Results: The total number of babies delivered was 9241; of these, 418 were macrosomic. Thus, the prevalence of fetal macrosomia was 4.5%. The most common maternal complications were postpartum hemorrhage (5 cases, 1.2%), perineal tear (7 cases, 1.7%), cervical lacerations (3 cases, 0.7%), and shoulder dystocia (40 cases, 9.6%) that resulted in 4 cases of Erb's palsy (0.96%), and 6 cases of bone fractures (1.4%). The rate of cesarean section among women delivering macrosomic babies was 47.6% (199), while 52.4% (219) delivered vaginally. Conclusion: Despite extensive efforts to reduce fetal and maternal complications associated with macrosomia, considerable fetal and maternal morbidity remain associated with this condition. PMID:22754881

  10. Fetal and maternal outcomes in pregnancies complicated with fetal macrosomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alkhatim Alsammani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal macrosomia remains a considerable challenge in current obstetrics due to the fetal and maternal complications associated with this condition. Aim: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of fetal macrosomia and associated fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality in the Al Qassim Region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This register-based study was conducted from January 1, 2011 through December 30, 2011 at the Maternity and Child Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Macrosomia was defined as birth weight of 4 kg or greater. Malformed babies and those born dead were excluded. Results: The total number of babies delivered was 9241; of these, 418 were macrosomic. Thus, the prevalence of fetal macrosomia was 4.5%. The most common maternal complications were postpartum hemorrhage (5 cases, 1.2%, perineal tear (7 cases, 1.7%, cervical lacerations (3 cases, 0.7%, and shoulder dystocia (40 cases, 9.6% that resulted in 4 cases of Erb′s palsy (0.96%, and 6 cases of bone fractures (1.4%. The rate of cesarean section among women delivering macrosomic babies was 47.6% (199, while 52.4% (219 delivered vaginally. Conclusion: Despite extensive efforts to reduce fetal and maternal complications associated with macrosomia, considerable fetal and maternal morbidity remain associated with this condition.

  11. Fetal acoustic stimulation test for early intrapartum fetal monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, M; Hanwellage, K

    2011-03-01

    The fetal acoustic stimulation test (FAST) is a simple cost effective screening test for antenatal fetal monitoring. The aim of the study was to evaluate the FAST as a screening test for early intrapartum fetal well being. An initial non stress test (NST) followed by a FAST using corometric model 146 was carried out in 486 participants in early labour with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies and > 32 weeks gestation. A repeat NST was recorded in the participants who had an initial non reactive NST. The results of the NST and FAST were compared with fetal outcome. Maternal perception of fetal movements after FAST, results of NST before and after FAST, and the babies' 5 minute APGAR scores were measured. Of the 486 participants 413 (85%) noticed fetal movements after FAST. Initial NST was non reactive in 203 (42%) but 149 (31%) became reactive after FAST. Compared to the NST, FAST had a better sensitivity (97% vs 62%, p fetal well being in early labour. It complements the NST and is better than the NST alone.

  12. Cirugía fetal del mielomeningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Otayza M., Dr.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El Mielomeningocele (MMC es una malformación congénita frecuente asociada a morbimortalidad importante. El manejo post natal estándar no ha ofrecido cambios significativos en sus resultados en los últimos años. La publicación del MOMS (Management of Myelomeningocele study en 2011 demostró que la cirugía fetal del MMC disminuía la necesidad de derivativa de líquido cefalorraquídeo, revertía la herniación del tronco cerebral y mejoraba la calidad de la marcha a los 30 meses de vida, a pesar de un mayor número de parto prematuro y complicaciones maternas. Estos resultados motivaron a nuestro grupo a iniciar una experiencia en cirugía fetal del MMC. Este trabajo generó un protocolo de manejo en Clínica Las Condes contabilizando a la fecha 26 casos operados con resultados alentadores. Los avances en esta técnica siguen adelante en pos de disminuir la incidencia de parto prematuro, abriendo la posibilidad al tratamiento intrauterino de otras patologías.

  13. Increased fetal insulin concentrations for one week fail to improve insulin secretion or β-cell mass in fetal sheep with chronically reduced glucose supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavezzi, Jinny R; Thorn, Stephanie R; O'Meara, Meghan C; LoTurco, Dan; Brown, Laura D; Hay, William W; Rozance, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition during pregnancy and placental insufficiency are characterized by impaired development of fetal pancreatic β-cells. Prolonged reduced glucose supply to the fetus is a feature of both. It is unknown if reduced glucose supply, independent of other complications of maternal undernutrition and placental insufficiency, would cause similar β-cell defects. Therefore, we measured fetal insulin secretion and β-cell mass following prolonged reduced fetal glucose supply in sheep. We also tested whether restoring physiological insulin concentrations would correct any β-cell defects. Pregnant sheep received either a direct saline infusion (CON = control, n = 5) or an insulin infusion (HG = hypoglycemic, n = 5) for 8 wk in late gestation (75 to 134 days) to decrease maternal glucose concentrations and reduce fetal glucose supply. A separate group of HG fetuses also received a direct fetal insulin infusion for the final week of the study with a dextrose infusion to prevent a further fall in glucose concentration [hypoglycemic + insulin (HG+I), n = 4]. Maximum glucose-stimulated insulin concentrations were 45% lower in HG fetuses compared with CON fetuses. β-Cell, pancreatic, and fetal mass were 50%, 37%, and 40% lower in HG compared with CON fetuses, respectively (P < 0.05). Insulin secretion and β-cell mass did not improve in the HG+I fetuses. These results indicate that chronically reduced fetal glucose supply is sufficient to reduce pancreatic insulin secretion in response to glucose, primarily due to reduced pancreatic and β-cell mass, and is not correctable with insulin.

  14. MR evaluation of fetal demise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, Teresa; Chauvin, Nancy Anne; Johnson, Ann M.; Kramer, Sandra Sue; Epelman, Monica [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Capilla, Elena [Hospital Universitario Clinico San Carlos de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Fetal demise is an uncommon event encountered at MR imaging. When it occurs, recognition by the interpreting radiologist is important to initiate appropriate patient management. To identify MR findings of fetal demise. Following IRB approval, a retrospective search of the radiology fetal MR database was conducted searching the words ''fetal demise'' and ''fetal death.'' Fetuses with obvious maceration or no sonographic confirmation of death were excluded. Eleven cases formed the study group. These were matched randomly to live fetuses of similar gestational age. Images were reviewed independently by three pediatric radiologists. The deceased fetus demonstrates decreased MR soft-tissue contrast and definition of tissue planes, including loss of gray-white matter differentiation in the brain. The signal within the cardiac chambers, when visible, is bright on HASTE sequences from the stagnant blood; the heart is small. Pleural effusions and decreased lung volumes may be seen. Interestingly, the fetal orbits lose their anatomical round shape and become smaller and more elliptical; a dark, irregular rim resembling a mask may be seen. Although fetal demise is uncommonly encountered at MR imaging, radiologists should be aware of such imaging findings so prompt management can be instituted. (orig.)

  15. Fetal valproate syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmarth G Chandane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal use of anticonvulsant valproic acid can result in a well-recognized cluster of facial dysmorphism, congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental retardation. In this report, we describe a case with typical features of fetal valproate syndrome (FVS. A 26-year-old female with epilepsy controlled on sodium valproate 800 mg/day since 3 years, gave birth to a male child with characteristic features of FVS. She also had 3 spontaneous first-trimester abortions during those 3 years. Sodium valproate, a widely used anticonvulsant and mood regulator, is a well-recognized teratogen that can result in facial dysmorphism, craniosynostosis, neural tube defects, and neurodevelopmental retardation. Therefore, we strongly recommend avoidance of valproic acid and supplementation of folic acid during pregnancy.

  16. Fetal pain perception and pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Marc; Jani, Jacques; De Buck, Frederik; Deprest, J

    2006-08-01

    This paper gives an overview of current science related to the concept of fetal pain. We have answered three important questions: (1) does fetal pain exist? (2) does management of fetal pain benefit the unborn child? and (3) which techniques are available to provide good fetal analgesia?

  17. The Danish Fetal Medicine database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte; Kopp, Tine Iskov; Tabor, Ann

    2016-01-01

    trimester ultrasound scan performed at all public hospitals in Denmark are registered in the database. Main variables/descriptive data: Data on maternal characteristics, ultrasonic, and biochemical variables are continuously sent from the fetal medicine units’Astraia databases to the central database via...... analyses are sent to the database. Conclusion: It has been possible to establish a fetal medicine database, which monitors first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities and second-trimester screening for major fetal malformations with the input from already collected data. The database...

  18. Sobrepeso y obesidad como causas de óbito fetal: revisión sistemática de literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Pinzon Gómez, Maria del Pilar; Rios Galindo, Alejandra Paola

    2015-01-01

    La obesidad es una de las causas de óbito fetal documentadas en la literatura, pero actualmente no hay datos conclusivos sobre el efecto del sobrepeso como causa de óbito. Con la presente revisión sistemática se pretendió evaluar la evidencia relacionada con las alteraciones de peso como causa de óbito fetal. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura en múltiples bases de datos incluyendo la mejor evidencia relacionada con el tema en un periodo de cinco años. El sobrepeso/obesi...

  19. Fetal and maternal analgesia/anesthesia for fetal procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Marc; De Buck, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    For many prenatally diagnosed conditions, treatment is possible before birth. These fetal procedures can range from minimal invasive punctions to full open fetal surgery. Providing anesthesia for these procedures is a challenge, where care has to be taken for both mother and fetus. There are specific physiologic changes that occur with pregnancy that have an impact on the anesthetic management of the mother. When providing maternal anesthesia, there is also an impact on the fetus, with concerns for potential negative side effects of the anesthetic regimen used. The question whether the fetus is capable of feeling pain is difficult to answer, but there are indications that nociceptive stimuli have a physiologic reaction. This nociceptive stimulation of the fetus also has the potential for longer-term effects, so there is a need for fetal analgesic treatment. The extent to which a fetus is influenced by the maternal anesthesia depends on the type of anesthesia, with different needs for extra fetal anesthesia or analgesia. When providing fetal anesthesia, the potential negative consequences have to be balanced against the intended benefits of blocking the physiologic fetal responses to nociceptive stimulation.

  20. Fetal laser therapy: applications in the management of fetal pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Jérôme; Raio, Luigi; Baud, David

    2015-07-01

    Fetoscopic coagulation of placental anastomoses is the treatment of choice for severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. In the present day, fetal laser therapy is also used to treat amniotic bands, chorioangiomas, sacrococcygeal teratomas, lower urinary tract obstructions and chest masses, all of which will be reviewed in this article. Amniotic band syndrome can cause limb amputation by impairing downstream blood flow. Large chorioangiomas (>4 cm), sacrococcygeal teratomas or fetal hyperechoic lung lesions can lead to fetal compromise and hydrops by vascular steal phenomenon or compression. Renal damage, bladder dysfunction and lastly death because of pulmonary hypolasia may be the result of megacystis caused by a posterior urethral valve. The prognosis of these pathologies can be dismal, and therapy options are limited, which has brought fetal laser therapy to the forefront. Management options discussed here are laser release of amniotic bands, laser coagulation of the placental or fetal tumor feeding vessels and laser therapy by fetal cystoscopy. This review, largely based on case reports, does not intend to provide a level of evidence supporting laser therapy over other treatment options. Centralized evaluation by specialists using strict selection criteria and long-term follow-up of these rare cases are now needed to prove the value of endoscopic or ultrasound-guided laser therapy.

  1. Fetal MRI: techniques and protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Neuroradiology, University Clinics of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-10, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter Christian [Department of Anatomy, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Lucas [Diagnosezentrum Urania, Vienna (Austria)

    2004-09-01

    The development of ultrafast sequences has led to a significant improvement in fetal MRI. Imaging protocols have to be adjusted to the rapidly developing fetal central nervous system (CNS) and to the clinical question. Sequence parameters must be changed to cope with the respective developmental stage, to produce images free from motion artefacts and to provide optimum visualization of the region and focus of interest. In contrast to postnatal studies, every suspect fetal CNS abnormality requires examination of the whole fetus and the extrafetal intrauterine structures including the uterus. This approach covers both aspects of fetal CNS disorders: isolated and complex malformations and cerebral lesions arising from the impaired integrity of the feto-placental unit. (orig.)

  2. Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003407.htm Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution To use the sharing features ... unborn baby is leaking into the mother's blood circulation. The more of the baby's cells there are, ...

  3. The Danish Fetal Medicine Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte K; Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Jørgensen, Finn S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the establishment and organization of the Danish Fetal Medicine Database and to report national results of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 in the 5-year period 2008-2012. DESIGN: National register study using prospectively collected first-trimester screening...... data from the Danish Fetal Medicine Database. POPULATION: Pregnant women in Denmark undergoing first-trimester screening for trisomy 21. METHODS: Data on maternal characteristics, biochemical and ultrasonic markers are continuously sent electronically from local fetal medicine databases (Astraia Gmbh......%. The national screen-positive rate increased from 3.6% in 2008 to 4.7% in 2012. The national detection rate of trisomy 21 was reported to be between 82 and 90% in the 5-year period. CONCLUSION: A national fetal medicine database has been successfully established in Denmark. Results from the database have shown...

  4. Fetal ocular measurements by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao Bing; Kasprian, Gregor; Hodge, Jacqueline C; Jiang, Xiao Li; Bettelheim, Dieter; Brugger, Peter C; Prayer, Daniela

    2010-11-01

    To present fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ocular measurement ranges by gestational age (GA) in normal and growth-restricted fetuses. A total of 298 pregnant women from the 18th to the 39th week of gestation were imaged using MRI. Ocular measurements including binocular distance (BOD), interocular distance (IOD), transverse ocular diameter (OD) and anterior-posterior (AP) OD were measured. The curve estimation analyses for linear, logarithmic and quadratic models were performed. The ocular measurements of the fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were compared with that of the normal fetuses. The fetal eye resembles an ellipsoid with significantly longer OD and shorter AP (t = - 22.07, p < 0.001). The quadratic model was the best model in predicting growth of the fetal BOD, IOD, OD and AP. The ocular measurements of the fetuses with IUGR were significantly different from that of the normal fetuses (BOD: t = 3.58, p < 0.001; IOD: t = 5.73, p < 0.001; OD: t = 3.52, p < 0.001; AP: t = 2.19, p < 0.05). Fetal ocular growth can be readily assessed by fetal MRI. Using the normative data provided in this study, fetal ocular anomalies may be detected. Ocular size is frequently reduced in the condition of IUGR, with potential pathologic impact on postnatal vision.

  5. Estrutura da comunidade de Chlorococcales sensu lato (Chlorophyceae em diferentes hábitats aquáticos e hidroperíodos Structure of the Chlorococcales sensu lato (Chlorophyceae community in different aquatic habitats and hydroperiods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezilda Carvalho Torgan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visa avaliar a riqueza, a densidade, a diversidade específica e a distribuição da comunidade de Chlorococcales s.l. em zonas pelágicas e litorâneas de diferentes hábitats aquáticos (lagoas isoladas, lagoas interligadas, banhados, açudes e arroios em dois hidroperíodos (águas altas e baixas em região subtropical no sul do Brasil. As amostragens de fitoplâncton foram realizadas em duas áreas, situadas entre as coordenadas 30(040´ - 30(010´ S e 50(030´ - 51(031´W no ano de 2003, com a obtenção simultânea de dados de temperatura, condutividade, pH, transparência e profundidade da água. Os resultados revelaram que as médias de riqueza e de diversidade específica foram maiores na zona litorânea e significativamente maiores (p24°C. Dentre os táxons observados, Desmodesmus heteracanthus (Guerr. Hentschke et Torgan, D. lunatus (W. et G. S. West Hegew. e Monoraphidium griffithii (Berk. Kom-Legn., mostraram-se indicadoras de hábitats e D. armatus (Chod. Hegew., D. denticulatus (Lagerh. An, Friedl et Hegew. e D. lunatus foram indicadoras de hidroperíodo. Este estudo demonstra a importância do hábitat e do hidroperíodo, na estrutura da comunidade de Chlorococcales s.l.This study aims to evaluate richness, density specific diversity and distribution of the Chlorococcales s.l. community in pelagic and littoral zones of different aquatic habitats (isolated lagoons, interlinked lagoons, swamps, reservoirs and streams during two hydroperiods (high and low water in a subtropical region in Southern Brazil. Phytoplankton sampling was carried out in two areas, situated within the coordinates 30(040´ - 30(010´ S and 50(030´ - 51(031´ W, in 2003 with simultaneous information on temperature, conductivity, pH, transparency and depth of water. The results showed that richness and specific diversity averages were higher in the littoral zone and significantly higher (p24°C. Among the observed taxa Desmodesmus heteracanthus

  6. SÍNTESIS SELECTIVA DE BENZALDEHÍDO USANDO ZEOLITAS MODIFICADAS CON METALES DE TRANSICIÓN

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    Clara Saux

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la oxidación selectiva de estireno para la obtención de benzaldehído sobre zeolitas ZSM-5 modificadas con diferentes metales de transición (cromo, cobalto, hierro, zinc, manganeso y cobre y utilizando peróxido de hidrógeno como oxidante. Dado que los mejores resultados se obtuvieron utilizando Cr-ZSM-5, estos materiales se estudiaron evaluando el efecto del tiempo de reacción, la masa de catalizador, la relación molar estireno/hidroperóxido, la naturaleza del solvente y la temperatura de reacción. Los mejores resultados de las condiciones evaluadas se obtuvieron trabajando con una relación molar sustrato/oxidante de 0,45 y utilizando acetonitrilo como solvente, dado su carácter aprótico y de mayor polaridad de los solventes evaluados (acetonitrilo, acetona, 2-butanol y 2-propanol. El aumento en la temperatura de reacción mostró un incremento en la conversión de estireno, el cual se desaceleró al superar los 60 oC por descomposición térmica del peróxido de hidrógeno.

  7. Tolerance to salinity of chicory plants grown in hydroponics Tolerância do almeirão à salinidade em cultivo hidropônico

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    Jerônimo Luiz Andriolo

    2008-08-01

    Cl. Quatro níveis salinos foram comparados, mediante adição de 0,697 (T2, 1,627 (T3; 2,556 (T4 e 3,485 (T5g L-1 de NaCl. A solução nutritiva foi fornecida quatro vezes ao dia, em sistema fechado. O delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado foi empregado com quatro repetições em parcelas subdivididas. A colheita foi realizada aos 31 dias após a semeadura, mediante corte da parte aérea das plantas a 0,02m de altura. A massa fresca e seca de ambas as cultivares decresceu por efeito da salinidade. Para níveis similares de condutividade elétrica, o decréscimo na massa fresca foi maior nas plantas da cultivar Amarelo. A adição de NaCl na solução nutritiva é uma técnica que pode ser empregada para reduzir o teor de água das plantas de almeirão em cultivo hidropônico.

  8. Cultivo hidropônico da alface empregando substratos: uma alternativa a NFT? Growing lettuce plants in hydroponics using substrates: an alternative for the NFT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo L. Andriolo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido um dispositivo experimental para o cultivo da alface em sistema hidropônico fechado empregando substratos. As bancadas foram constituídas por telhas de cimento amianto, cujos canais foram preenchidos com brita basáltica. Sobre a brita foram dispostos os substratos, formando uma camada de 0,05 m de altura, com a superfície revestida com filme de polietileno opaco branco. As mudas foram produzidas em bandejas de poliestireno e plantadas em orifícios feitos sobre a superfície do filme de polietileno. Uma solução nutritiva completa foi fornecida diariamente, por meio de tubos gotejadores localizados na superfície da camada de substrato e abaixo do filme de polietileno. A solução drenada foi recolhida por gravidade para dentro do reservatório principal. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, no período entre 16 de maio e 24 de junho e 1º e 28 de outubro de 2003, empregando as cultivares Regina e Mimosa e os substratos areia média e substrato orgânico Plantmax® Folhosas HA. No decorrer dos experimentos, houve diminuição dos valores de pH da solução nutritiva, tendo sido feita apenas uma correção em cada um dos experimentos. No dia mais quente do experimento de primavera, a temperatura foi mais elevada na areia, sem diferença significativa do substrato orgânico, cuja média situou-se 5,4ºC acima da temperatura da solução nutritiva e 0,4ºC acima daquela do ar. As médias mais elevadas das variáveis de crescimento e desenvolvimento foram observadas no substrato orgânico no outono, enquanto, na primavera, foram constatadas nos tratamentos tendo areia como substrato. O emprego dos substratos permitiu uma redução em torno de 92,4% no tempo de funcionamento da motobomba e simplificou tanto o manejo da fertirrigação como os controles da solução nutritiva.An experimental set-up to grow lettuce plants in a closed hydroponic growing system using substrates was made up and tested. Commercial fibber cement tiles

  9. Bioinformatics Approaches for Fetal DNA Fraction Estimation in Noninvasive Prenatal Testing

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    Xianlu Laura Peng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of cell-free fetal DNA molecules in plasma of pregnant women has created a paradigm shift in noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT. Circulating cell-free DNA in maternal plasma has been increasingly recognized as an important proxy to detect fetal abnormalities in a noninvasive manner. A variety of approaches for NIPT using next-generation sequencing have been developed, which have been rapidly transforming clinical practices nowadays. In such approaches, the fetal DNA fraction is a pivotal parameter governing the overall performance and guaranteeing the proper clinical interpretation of testing results. In this review, we describe the current bioinformatics approaches developed for estimating the fetal DNA fraction and discuss their pros and cons.

  10. Tolerância ao alumínio em cultivares de aveia branca sob cultivo hidropônico Tolerance to the aluminum in oat cultivars under hydroponic culture

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    José Antonio Gonzalez da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O emprego do cultivo hidropônico para avaliar a tolerância à toxicidade pelo alumínio em genótipos de aveia pode ser feito por meio da medida da retomada do crescimento de raiz. Avaliaram-se 12 cultivares de aveia branca indicadas para o cultivo no Sul do Brasil com o intuito de caracterizar a tolerância ao alumínio, de maneira a ser estrategicamente recomendadas e/ou incluídas em blocos de cruzamento na obtenção de constituições genéticas de elevado potencial produtivo e tolerante ao íon metálico. Foram utilizadas doses de 10, 15 e 20 mg L-1 de alumínio na solução hidropônica e o delineamento experimental adotado foi o completamente casualizado, com três repetições, seguindo o esquema fatorial (12 x 3. As doses empregadas são altamente eficientes na identificação de genótipos de aveia tolerantes e sensíveis ao alumínio tóxico. As cultivares UPF 16, URS 21, UFRGS 14, UPF 19 e UFRGS 17 expressam tolerância.The use of hidroponic culture to evaluate tolerance to aluminum toxicity in oat genotypes can be performed by measuring root regrowth, allowing phenotypically to discriminate tolerant genetic constitutions sensitivity. Twelve white oat cultivars indicated for cultivation in Southern Brazil were evaluated aiming at to characterize their aluminum tolerance, in order to use them as parents in crosses or to recommend them for in cultivation regions. Aluminum concentration of 10, 15 and 20 mg L-1 were used in the hydroponic solution arranged in complete randomized blocks with three replications in 12 x 3 factorial designs. Concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 mg L-1 were highly efficient for the identification of tolerant and sensitive oat genotypes. Cultivars UPF 16, URS 21, UFRGS 14, UPF 19 and UFRGS 17 showed aluminum.

  11. Indução de resistência sistêmica por rizobactérias em cultivos hidropônicos Induction of systemic resistance by rhizobacteria in hydroponic system

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    Fernanda Souza Bernardes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rizobactérias do grupo fluorescente de Pseudomonas spp. foram selecionadas quanto a sua capacidade na promoção de crescimento em plântulas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. e atividade antagônica contra Pythium aphanidermatum a partir de teste in vitro. Em seguida, em sistema hidropônico, foi avaliada a aplicação prévia dos isolados visando reduzir os danos provocados por P. aphanidermatum em pepino (Cucumis sativus por resistência sistêmica induzida (RSI, pela adoção da técnica "raízes subdivididas". As variáveis massa da matéria seca (parte aérea e raízes e comprimento radicular foram utilizadas na avaliação. A produção de compostos antagônicos e/ou promotores de crescimento pelos isolados de Pseudomonas spp. fluorescente foi verificada de modo a associar sua atividade com os resultados obtidos nos testes in vitro e em hidroponia. No experimento in vitro os isolados Ps 140B e Ps 140C proporcionaram maior crescimento das plantas (raiz e hipocótilo de alface nos tratamentos com e sem patógeno. Alguns dos isolados avaliados no experimento hidropônico demonstraram uma possível expressão da RSI. Não houve correspondência entre os compostos produzidos e a promoção de crescimento vegetal ou controle da doença.Rhizobacteria of the fluorescent group of Pseudomonas spp. were selected for both their capacity in the growth promotion of lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa L. and antagonistic activity against Pythium aphanidermatum from test in vitro. Then, in hydroponic system was assayed the previous application of the Pseudomonas strains in order to reduce damages caused by P. aphanidermatum in cucumber (Cucumis sativus for induced systemic resistance (ISR, using a technical split-root. The variables shoots and roots dry weight and root length were used in evaluation. The production of antagonistic and/or growth promoters compounds by rhizobacteria strains was observed to associate its activity with the results obtained in the

  12. Desempenho de cultivares de alface em cultivo hidropônico sob dois níveis de condutividade elétrica Evaluation of two electric conductivity levels on the hidroponic cultivation of lettuce

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    Adriana G Magalhães

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi comparar cultivares de alface de folhas soltas lisas, submetidas a estresse osmótico em soluções nutritivas sob cultivo hidropônico. Foram realizados dois experimentos, cada um com uma condutividade elétrica (C.E. de 2,0 dS m-1 e 2,5 dS m-1. Os tratamentos foram as cultivares de alface Babá de Verão, Floresta, Luisa, Manoa, Regina 579, Saia Véia e Vitória Verdinha. O delineamento experimental foi blocos casualizados, com três repetições. A colheita foi feita aos 45 dias após a semeadura. Nenhuma cultivar se destacou no conjunto das características avaliadas, embora a Manoa tenha apresentado o maior índice de queima de bordas das folhas, sem diferir estatisticamente da Saia Véia e Babá de Verão. As cultivares Regina 579 e Vitória Verdinha são as preferidas dos produtores hidropônico de Pernambuco, devido à falta de genótipos mais adaptados a essa modalidade de cultivo, e por apresentarem folhas lisas, levemente enrugadas e de textura macia.The aim of this work was to compare loose-leaf lettuce cultivars submitted to osmotic stress in nutrient solutions in hydroponic culture. Two experiments were carried out, with electric conductivity of 2.0 or 2.5 dS m-1. The treatments were the cultivars Babá de Verão, Floresta, Luisa, Manoa, Regina 579, Saia Véia, and Vitória Verdinha. The experimental design was randomized blocks with three replications. Harvest was performed 45 days after sowing. None among the cultivars differed clearly on the characteristics evaluated. However, "Manoa" showed the highest rate of leaf-edge burning, without significant difference in comparison to "Saia Véia" and "Babá de Verão" for summer. The cultivars Regina 579 and Vitória Verdinha are preferred by the growers of hydroponic vegetables of Pernambuco, due to the lack of better genotypes for this type of cultivation and due to the presence of smooth slightly-wrinkled leaves with soft texture.

  13. Análise do resfriamento da solução nutritiva para cultivo hidropônico do morangueiro Nutrient solution cooling evaluation for hydroponic cultivation of strawberry plant

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    Luiz V. E. Villela Júnior

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo a produção hidropônica de morangos com resfriamento da solução nutritiva, em Jaboticabal - SP. O experimento foi conduzido no Setor de Plasticultura do Departamento de Engenharia Rural da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal, em casa de vegetação coberta com filme de polietileno, sendo o transplantio realizado em 9-1-2002. Foram avaliadas duas variedades de morango: Campinas e "Sweet Charlie", cultivadas em sistema hidropônico tipo NFT, com ou sem resfriamento da solução nutritiva. A solução nutritiva resfriada foi mantida à temperatura de aproximadamente 12 ºC, por meio de um trocador de calor. A variedade "Sweet Charlie" apresentou melhores resultados para peso médio dos pseudofrutos, diâmetro médio longitudinal, diâmetro médio transversal, número médio de pseudofrutos e produtividade. O resfriamento da solução nutritiva conferiu maior número de pseudofrutos colhidos, maior produtividade e maior teor de sólidos solúveis totais aos pseudofrutos da variedade "Sweet Charlie". No entanto, o resfriamento da solução nutritiva não causou efeitos sobre a variedade Campinas.This work had as its major aim the hydroponic production of strawberries with the cooling of the nutrient solution, in Jaboticabal - SP - Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a covered greenhouse with a plastic film and seed transplantation achieved on January 9, 2002. Two varieties of strawberries were evaluated: Campinas and Sweet Charlie, both cultivated under the hydroponic system NFT type with or without cooling the nutrient solution. The cooling of the nutrient solution at about 12 °C was in a heating exchange device. The Sweet Charlie variety presented the best results for both the average weight and number of pseudofruit, longitudinal average diameter, cross average diameter, average number of pseudofruit and productivity. The cooling of the nutrient solution confered greater number of pseudofruit collected and

  14. Teor de clorofila e perfil de sais minerais de Chlorella vulgaris cultivada em solução hidropônica residual Chlorophyll content and minerals profile in the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in hydroponic wastewater

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    Fabiano Cleber Bertoldi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de microalgas representa uma potencial fonte de biomassa rica em clorofila e sais minerais como: fósforo, ferro, manganês, cobre, zinco, magnésio e cálcio. Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a composição de minerais, bem como determinar o teor de clorofila a e b da microalga Chlorella vulgaris cultivada em solução hidropônica residual em três diferentes concentrações comparadas com um cultivo controle. Os resultados mostraram que os teores de clorofila a e b da microalga não apresentaram diferença significativa entre os cultivos. Com relação à composição dos sais minerais, a Chlorella cultivada na solução residual mais concentrada apresentou valores superiores quando comparada com a cultivada nos demais cultivos. Dessa forma, a biomassa da Chlorella vulgaris demonstrou ser uma potencial fonte de clorofila e de sais minerais, quando cultivada em solução hidropônica residual, possibilitando a utilização desse resíduo de forma sustentável.The microalgaes cultive represents a potential source of biomass rich in chlorophyll and minerals as: P, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mg and Ca. This research was aimed at evaluating the composition of minerals, as well as, determining the content of chlorophyll a and b from the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in hydroponic wastewater in three different concentrations compared with the control cultive. The results showed that the contents of chlorophyll a and b of the microalgae did not show significant difference between the cultives. In relation to the composition of the minerals, the Chlorella cultivated in the most concentrated wastewater, showed higher values when compared with the one cultivated in the others cultures. In this manner, the Chlorella vulgaris biomass demonstrated to be a potential source of chlorophyll and minerals, when cultivated in hydroponic wastewater, allowing the use of this residue in a sustainable way.

  15. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND PROGNOSIS OF FETAL ARRHYTHMIAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-bo Fan; Ming-ying Gai; Jian-qiu Yang; Fei-fei Xing

    2004-01-01

    Objective To explore fetal arrhythmia clinical significance and its correlation with fetal prognosis.Methods Twenty-six cases of fetal arrhythmia detected among 12 799 pregnant women recorded over a ten-year period in Peking Uinon Medical College (PUMC) Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Fetal arrhythmia was diagnosed by fetal auscultation, ultrasonography, electric fetal heart monitoring, and fetal echocardiography.Results Twenty-six fetuses were documented with fetal arrhythmia (3 tachycardia, 4 bradycardia, 19 normal heart rate with irregular fetal cardiac rhythm). The incidence of fetal arrhythmia in our hospital was 0.2%. They were diagnosed at the average of 35 weeks' gestation (15 to 41 weeks). Twenty-two cases were diagnosed by antenatal fetal auscultation, 1 case was diagnosed by ultrasonography, and 3 cases were diagnosed by electric fetal heart monitoring. Fetal echocardiograms were performed on 17 fetuses, 6 cases (35.3%) of which showed that ventricular premature beats with normal structure of fetal heart.All neonates survived postnatally and 24 of them (92.3%) were followed up. Echocardiograms were performed for 16 neonates and 2 of them were identified as atrial septal defects with normal heart rhythms. The results of follow-up showed that the two patients had no apparent clinical manifestation. The echocardiogram showed that atrial septal defect obliterated already.Conclusion The prognosis is well for most of the fetuses with arrhythmias, with low incidence of heart deformation.

  16. Fetal privacy and confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkin, J R

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of new and better contraceptive methods and the ability to facilitate and manipulate fertilization and gestation, couples will gain greater control over their fertility. Once a pregnancy has been established or an in vitro embryo created, the ability to evaluate the embryo and fetus will increase dramatically with progress in human genetic research. Preconception and preimplantation genetic testing and screening are now possible, and the technology to perform prenatal screening early in gestation is advancing rapidly. Nonsurgical methods facilitate induced abortion with a relatively lower degree of trauma upon the woman undergoing the procedure. These capabilities may all be used to enable and even encourage the genetic selection of future children. Despite the ethical concerns associated with prenatal testing and abortion, these services will continue to be an integral aspect of reproductive medicine. As technology advances, however, it will be possible to test and screen for conditions which do not produce serious defects. Genetic conditions which produce relatively mild impacts upon health will be identifiable in the embryo or fetus, while late-onset conditions and genetic factors which have only a probability of affecting health will also be located in the fetal genome. Prospective parents may therefore soon have the capability of selecting their most desirable embryo in vitro, or terminating all undesirable fetuses in vivo until the preferred child is delivered. The medical profession must take some responsibility for establishing guidelines on the use of reproductive technology. The standards of practice for the medical profession must reflect the results of a broad social debate over competing moral values. The author develops an argument for legal and ethical limitations on the application of prenatal testing and screening technology, suggesting that for some medical conditions, respect for the privacy and confidentiality of the fetus

  17. Fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) for fetal monitoring during labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, James P

    2015-12-21

    Hypoxaemia during labour can alter the shape of the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform, notably the relation of the PR to RR intervals, and elevation or depression of the ST segment. Technical systems have therefore been developed to monitor the fetal ECG during labour as an adjunct to continuous electronic fetal heart rate monitoring with the aim of improving fetal outcome and minimising unnecessary obstetric interference. To compare the effects of analysis of fetal ECG waveforms during labour with alternative methods of fetal monitoring. The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (latest search 23 September 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised trials comparing fetal ECG waveform analysis with alternative methods of fetal monitoring during labour. One review author independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. One review author assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Seven trials (27,403 women) were included: six trials of ST waveform analysis (26,446 women) and one trial of PR interval analysis (957 women). The trials were generally at low risk of bias for most domains and the quality of evidence for ST waveform analysis trials was graded moderate to high. In comparison to continuous electronic fetal heart rate monitoring alone, the use of adjunctive ST waveform analysis made no obvious difference to primary outcomes: births by caesarean section (risk ratio (RR) 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96 to 1.08; six trials, 26,446 women; high quality evidence); the number of babies with severe metabolic acidosis at birth (cord arterial pH less than 7.05 and base deficit greater than 12 mmol/L) (average RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.20; six trials, 25,682 babies; moderate quality evidence); or babies with neonatal encephalopathy (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.30 to 1.22; six trials, 26,410 babies; high quality evidence). There were, however, on average

  18. Human fetal mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Keelin; Chan, Jerry

    2006-09-01

    Stem cells have been isolated at all stages of development from the early developing embryo to the post-reproductive adult organism. However, the fetal environment is unique as it is the only time in ontogeny that there is migration of stem cells in large numbers into different organ compartments. While fetal neural and haemopoietic stem cells (HSC) have been well characterised, only recently have mesenchymal stem cells from the human fetus been isolated and evaluated. Our group have characterised in human fetal blood, liver and bone marrow a population of non-haemopoietic, non-endothelial cells with an immunophenotype similar to adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). These cells, human fetal mesenchymal stem cells (hfMSC), are true multipotent stem cells with greater self-renewal and differentiation capacity than their adult counterparts. They circulate in first trimester fetal blood and have been found to traffic into the maternal circulation, engrafting in bone marrow, where they remain microchimeric for decades after pregnancy. Though fetal microchimerism has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, the biological role of hfMSC microchimerism is unknown. Potential downstream applications of hfMSC include their use as a target cell for non-invasive pre-natal diagnosis from maternal blood, and for fetal cellular and gene therapy. Using hfMSC in fetal therapy offers the theoretical advantages of avoidance of immune rejection, increased engraftment, and treatment before disease pathology sets in. Aside from allogeneic hfMSC in utero transplantation, the use of autologous hfMSC has been brought a step forward with the development of early blood sampling techniques, efficient viral transduction and clonal expansion. Work is ongoing to determine hfMSC fate post-transplantation in murine models of genetic disease. In this review we will examine what is known about hfMSC biology, as well as discussing areas for future research. The

  19. Two cases of fetal goiter

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    Ashish Saini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anterior fetal neck masses are rarely encountered. Careful routine ultrasound screening can reveal intrauterine fetal goiters (FGs. The incidence of goitrous hypothyroidism is 1 in 30,000-50,000 live births. The consequences of both FG and impaired thyroid function are serious. Aims and Objectives: To emphasize role of ultrasound in both invasive and non-invasive management of FG. Materials and Methods: Two pregnant patients, during second trimester, underwent routine antenatal ultrasound revealing FG, were investigated and managed. Results: Case 1: Revealed FG with fetal hypothyroidism. Intra-amniotic injection l-thyroxine given. Follow-up ultrasound confirmed the reduction of the goiter size. At birth, thyroid dyshormogenesis was suspected and neonate discharged on 50 mcg levothyroxine/day with normal growth and development so far. Case 2: Hypothyroid mother with twin pregnancy revealed FG, in twin 1, confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging (1.5 × 1.63 cm. The other twin had no thyroid swelling. Cordocentesis confirmed hypothyroidism in twin 1. Maternal thyroxine dose increased as per biochemical parameters leading to reduction in FG size. Mother delivered preterm and none of the twins had thyroid swelling. Fetal euthyroidism was confirmed on biochemical screening. Conclusion: FG during pregnancy should be thoroughly evaluated, diagnosed and immediately treated; although in utero options for fetal hypothyroidism management are available, emphasis should be laid on non-invasive procedures. Newer and better resolution techniques in ultrasonography are more specific and at the same time are less harmful.

  20. Fetal Programming and Cardiovascular Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T.; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25880521

  1. Cuantificación del daño tisular en tejidos animales fetales tras el uso del Doppler pulsado

    OpenAIRE

    Táboas Lima, Esther

    2015-01-01

    El uso de los ultrasonidos (US) en la obstetricia es una herramienta esencial, siendo España uno de los países con mayor uso de la ecografía durante el embarazo. La aparición de nuevos marcadores de salud fetal, como son el estudio mediante Doppler pulsado del Ductus venoso fetal, en torno a la semana 14 de gestación, lleva asociada una mayor duración de las exposiciones en edades fetales muy tempranas. La posibilidad de un posible efecto dañino sobre el feto tras el uso del Doppler pulsa...

  2. Controle biológico da podridão radicular e promoção de crescimento em pepino hidropônico com microrganismos de manguezais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élida Barbosa Corrêa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade de microrganismos de manguezais para controlar a podridão radicular causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e para promover o crescimento em pepino hidropônico (Cucumis sativus. Avaliaram-se 19 microrganismos quanto ao controle da doença em mini-hidroponia. Os microrganismos mais promissores para esse fim - Gordonia rubripertincta SO-3B-2 e a mistura dos isolados G. rubripertincta SO-3B-2, MB-P3A-49, MB-P3-C68 e SO-3L-3, de Pseudomonas stutzeri, e Bacillus cereus AVIC-3-6 - foram, posteriormente, testados quanto à promoção de crescimento do pepineiro, em casa de vegetação. Microrganismos de manguezais podem ter importância funcional no controle biológico da podridão radicular causada por P. aphanidermatum e na promoção do crescimento do pepineiro cultivado em hidroponia. Os microrganismos G. rubripertincta SO-3B-2 e P. stutzeri MB-P3A-49 são promissores na promoção do crescimento das plantas não infestadas com o patógeno.

  3. Produção de sementes pré-básicas de batata em sistemas hidropônicos Production of potato pre-basic seeds in hydroponic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto B. Medeiros

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Os métodos convencionais de produção de sementes pré-básicas de batata apresentam como característica comum a reduzida eficiência, em razão dos baixos índices de multiplicação de tubérculos. A introdução de novos métodos de produção que propiciem maiores taxas de multiplicação podem contribuir para o aumento da disponibilidade de sementes de qualidade, e por conseqüência para a elevação da produtividade da cultura. Nesse trabalho são descritos dois sistemas hidropônicos, que pelos resultados obtidos, revelam sua viabilidade para a produção de sementes pré-básicas, com aumentos significativos nos índices de multiplicação, e que podem representar um importante avanço no processo produtivo de sementes de batata.The reduced tuber multiplication rate determines the low efficiency in the conventional methods of potato pre-basic seed production. New methods of seed production, with higher multiplication rates, may contribute to improve yield by increasing the availability of good quality seeds. This study describes two hydroponic systems, suitable for growing potato pre-basic seeds, which may represent an important step in the production process of potato seeds.

  4. Níveis de alumínio e o desenvolvimento de porta-enxertos cítricos em cultivo hidropônico: I. Parâmetros biométricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Carlos Henrique dos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência de diferentes níveis de alumínio nos parâmetros biométricos dos porta-enxertos cítricos limoeiro Cravo e citrumeleiro Swingle em cultivo hidropônico. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação em Botucatu, SP. Os tratamentos seguiram o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado, com 3 repetições, em parcelas subdivididas. Os níveis de alumínio utilizados foram: 0; 7,5; 15; 22,5 e 30 mg L-1, na forma de AlCl3 6.H2O em solução nutritiva. Foram avaliados os parâmetros biométricos altura, número de folhas, diâmetro do caule, área foliar, comprimento e volume de raízes. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que o citrumeleiro Swingle apresentou-se mais sensível ao alumínio, sendo que, a partir de 7,5 mg L-1 houve redução nos valores destes parâmetros, enquanto que o limoeiro Cravo mostrou-se mais tolerante aos níveis de alumínio.

  5. Physiology of the fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiserud, Torvid

    2005-12-01

    Our understanding of fetal circulatory physiology is based on experimental animal data, and this continues to be an important source of new insight into developmental mechanisms. A growing number of human studies have investigated the human physiology, with results that are similar but not identical to those from animal studies. It is time to appreciate these differences and base more of our clinical approach on human physiology. Accordingly, the present review focuses on distributional patterns and adaptational mechanisms that were mainly discovered by human studies. These include cardiac output, pulmonary and placental circulation, fetal brain and liver, venous return to the heart, and the fetal shunts (ductus venosus, foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus). Placental compromise induces a set of adaptational and compensational mechanisms reflecting the plasticity of the developing circulation, with both short- and long-term implications. Some of these aspects have become part of the clinical physiology of today with consequences for surveillance and treatment.

  6. 3D ultrasound in fetal spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, T; Gloning, K-P; Minderer, S; Tutschek, B

    2008-12-01

    3D ultrasound can be used to study the fetal spine, but skeletal mode can be inconclusive for the diagnosis of fetal spina bifida. We illustrate a diagnostic approach using 2D and 3D ultrasound and indicate possible pitfalls.

  7. CORD PROLAPSE, ASSOCIATED FACTORS AND FETAL OUTCOME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted this study to determine profile of pregnancy ... Several factors predispose to cord prolapse, amongst which are breech ... no fetal heart tones and only 31.8% of the babies were alive after ... Fetal death was, more common with.

  8. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  9. Macrosomia - maternal and fetal risk factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    group; 3 cases of second-degree perineal laceration. ,,; 160 cm ... In order to make the diagnosis of fetal macrosomia antenatally ... real-time ultrasonography gives the best estimate of fetal .... Oats IN, Abell OA, Seischer NA, Broomhart GR.

  10. Fetal scalp blood sampling during labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandraharan, Edwin; Wiberg, Nana

    2014-01-01

    and Clinical Excellence guideline considers that fetal scalp blood sampling decreases instrumental delivery without differences in other outcome variables. The fetal scalp is supplied by vessels outside the skull below the level of the cranial vault, which is likely to be compressed during contractions......Fetal cardiotocography is characterized by low specificity; therefore, in an attempt to ensure fetal well-being, fetal scalp blood sampling has been recommended by most obstetric societies in the case of a non-reassuring cardiotocography. The scientific agreement on the evidence for using fetal...... scalp blood sampling to decrease the rate of operative delivery for fetal distress is ambiguous. Based on the same studies, a Cochrane review states that fetal scalp blood sampling increases the rate of instrumental delivery while decreasing neonatal acidosis, whereas the National Institute of Health...

  11. Riñón fetal hiperecogénico Hyperechogenic fetal kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandalio Durán Álvarez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El hallazgo de riñones fetales hiperecogénicos es un problema de gran preocupación médica y de ansiedad familiar, porque casi siempre traduce una enfermedad renal importante. Cuando la hiperecogenicidad se acompaña de oligohidramnios, la mayoría de las veces estamos enfrentando una enfermedad poliquística; cuando no existe oligohidramnios, el diagnóstico probable es difícil. El objetivo de este reporte es la presentación de un niño con enfermedad poliquística autosómico recesiva. En los exámenes realizados a la madre, durante el embarazo, se encontró hiperecogenia renal y oligohidramnios. Se describe la evolución clínica, ultrasonográfica y gammagráfica de su enfermedad. Se revisa brevemente la literatura con relación al tema.The finding of hyperechogenic fetal kidneys is a problem of a great medical concern and of family anxiety, because of almost always it expresses an important renal disease. When hyper-echogenicity is accompanied by oligohydramnios, usually we are facing a polycystic disease; where there are not oligohydramnios the potential diagnosis is difficult. The objective of present paper is the presentation of a child presenting with recessive autosomal polycystic disease. En examinations performed in the mother during pregnancy, it was found a renal hyperechogeny and oligohydramnios. The clinical evolution, ultrasonography and scintigraphy of its disease is described and a brief review of literature in relation to thus subject is reviewed.

  12. Fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Ulrich J

    2013-01-01

    In fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT), antibodies against paternal antigens present on fetal platelets are produced by the mother. These antibodies will cross the placenta and can cause thrombocytopenia of the unborn. One severe consequence of thrombocytopenia is intracranial bleeding which may lead to death or severe sequelae. FNAIT index cases in one family are usually detected at birth only since antenatal screening programmes have not been installed so far. Subsequent pregnancies of immunized mothers may require special diagnostic and prophylactic interventions, and interdisciplinary counselling and treatment involving obstetricians, pediatricians and immunohematologists may prove useful for optimized care. This short review covers pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic, and therapeutic options in FNAIT.

  13. Fetal epigenetic programming of adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Andrée-Anne; Hivert, Marie-France; Bouchard, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetics generates a considerable interest in the field of research on complex traits, including obesity and diabetes. Recently, we reported a number of epipolymorphisms in the placental leptin and adiponectin genes associated with maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy. Our results suggest that DNA methylation could partly explain the link between early exposure to a detrimental fetal environment and an increased risk to develop obesity and diabetes later in life. This brief report discusses the potential importance of adipokine epigenetic changes in fetal metabolic programming. Additionally, preliminary data showing similarities between methylation variations of different tissues and cell types will be presented along with the challenges and future perspectives of this emerging field of research.

  14. Prediction of fetal acidemia in placental abruption

    OpenAIRE

    MATSUDA, Yoshio; OGAWA, Masaki; KONNO, Jun; MITANI, Minoru; MATSUI, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the major predictive factors for fetal acidemia in placental abruption. Methods A retrospective review of pregnancies with placental abruption was performed using a logistic regression model. Fetal acidemia was defined as a pH of less than 7.0 in umbilical artery. The severe abruption score, which was derived from a linear discriminant function, was calculated to determine the probability of fetal acidemia. Results Fetal acidemia was seen in 43 survivors (43/222, 19%)....

  15. Diagnóstico prenatal no invasivo: Ácidos nucleicos de origen fetal en sangre materna Non invasive prenatal diagnosis: Fetal nucleic acid analysis in maternal blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sesarini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Las técnicas actuales de diagnóstico prenatal de enfermedades génicas y cromosómicas incluyen procedimientos invasivos que conllevan un pequeño, pero significativo, riesgo. Por muchos años se ha estudiado la posibilidad de utilizar células fetales en circulación materna; sin embargo, ha fracasado su implementación clínica debido a su escasez y persistencia luego del parto. Desde hace más de una década se detectó ADN fetal libre en sangre de embarazadas. Este sería de origen placentario e indetectable después del parto, y fuente de material fetal para el desarrollo de técnicas diagnósticas utilizando sangre materna. No obstante, la mayoría del ADN libre en circulación materna es de origen materno con una contribución fetal del 3% al 6% aumentando a lo largo de la gestación. Dado que los métodos actuales no permiten separar el ADN libre fetal del materno, las aplicaciones se focalizan en el análisis de genes no presentes en la madre, tales como secuencias del cromosoma Y, o gen RHD en madres Rh negativas, o mutaciones paternas o de novo. Asimismo, la detección de ARN fetal libre en sangre de embarazadas abrió la posibilidad de obtener información acerca de patrones de expresión génica de tejidos embrionarios y, utilizando genes que se expresan sólo en la unidad feto-placentaria, se podría establecer un control de presencia de material fetal, independiente del material genético de la madre. El presente trabajo describe las evidencias acerca del pasaje de ácidos nucleicos fetales a circulación materna, su aplicación actual en el diagnóstico prenatal y posibles usos futuros.Current prenatal diagnosis of monogeneic and chromosomal diseases, includes invasive procedures which carry a small but significant risk. For many years, analysis of fetal cells in maternal circulation has been studied, however it has failed its clinical use due to the scarcity of these cells and their persistance after delivery. For more than a

  16. Prevención de las malformaciones fetales

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez García, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    De acuerdo con los datos publicados por el INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadística) 2, 31 de cada 1000 muertes en España durante el año 2009 fueron debidas a defectos congénitos.1 El propósito de este trabajo es hacer una revisión bibliográfica sobre los tipos de agentes teratógenos y la necesidad de informar a las embarazadas o futuras embarazadas, para poder prevenir las malformaciones fetales, en la medida de lo posible, haciendo una prevención primaria desde las consultas de enfermería. Se...

  17. Practice Bulletin No. 173: Fetal Macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Suspected fetal macrosomia is encountered commonly in obstetric practice. As birth weight increases, the likelihood of labor abnormalities, shoulder dystocia, birth trauma, and permanent injury to the neonate increases. The purpose of this document is to quantify those risks, address the accuracy and limitations of methods for estimating fetal weight, and suggest clinical management for a pregnancy with suspected fetal macrosomia.

  18. Unilateral Huge Hydronephrosis Necessitating Fetal Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşenur Cerrah Celayir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal intervention for obstructive uropathy was first performed at the University of California, San Francisco in 1981. Since then diagnostic criteria for fetal intervention have been laid down to assist in proper patient selection. Unilateral fetal hydronephrosis doesn’t require prenatal intervention; but prenatal intervention might be required in selected cases, especially when hydronephrosis compresses adjacent organs.

  19. Limited capacity for glucose oxidation in fetal sheep with intrauterine growth restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura D.; Rozance, Paul J.; Bruce, Jennifer L.; Friedman, Jacob E.; Hay, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetal sheep, produced by placental insufficiency, have lower oxygen concentrations, higher lactate concentrations, and increased hepatic glucose production that is resistant to suppression by insulin. We hypothesized that increased lactate production in the IUGR fetus results from reduced glucose oxidation, during basal and maximal insulin-stimulated conditions, and is used to support glucose production. To test this, studies were performed in late-gestation control (CON) and IUGR fetal sheep under basal and hyperinsulinemic-clamp conditions. The basal glucose oxidation rate was similar and increased by 30–40% during insulin clamp in CON and IUGR fetuses (P fetal muscle and liver, mRNA expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK4), an inhibitor of glucose oxidation, was increased over fourfold. In IUGR fetal liver, but not skeletal muscle, mRNA expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) was increased nearly fivefold. Hepatic expression of the gluconeogenic genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK)1, and PCK2, was correlated with expression of PDK4 and LDHA. Collectively, these in vivo and tissue data support limited capacity for glucose oxidation in the IUGR fetus via increased PDK4 in skeletal muscle and liver. We speculate that lactate production also is increased, which may supply carbon for glucose production in the IUGR fetal liver. PMID:26224688

  20. Fetal onset of general movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luechinger, Annemarie B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Van Kan, Colette M.; de Vries, JIP

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal qualitative assessment of general movements (GMs) is a tool to evaluate the integrity of the young nervous system. The aim of this investigation was to study the emergence of GMs. Fetal onset of GMs was studied sonographically in 18 fetuses during the first trimester of uncomplicated in vi

  1. A physiological increase in insulin suppresses gluconeogenic gene activation in fetal sheep with sustained hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Stephanie R; Sekar, Satya M; Lavezzi, Jinny R; O'Meara, Meghan C; Brown, Laura D; Hay, William W; Rozance, Paul J

    2012-10-15

    Reduced maternal glucose supply to the fetus and resulting fetal hypoglycemia and hypoinsulinemia activate fetal glucose production as a means to maintain cellular glucose uptake. However, this early activation of fetal glucose production may be accompanied by hepatic insulin resistance. We tested the capacity of a physiological increase in insulin to suppress fetal hepatic gluconeogenic gene activation following sustained hypoglycemia to determine whether hepatic insulin sensitivity is maintained. Control fetuses (CON), hypoglycemic fetuses induced by maternal insulin infusion for 8 wk (HG), and 8 wk HG fetuses that received an isoglycemic insulin infusion for the final 7 days (HG+INS) were studied. Glucose and insulin concentrations were 60% lower in HG compared with CON fetuses. Insulin was 50% higher in HG+INS compared with CON and four-fold higher compared with HG fetuses. Expression of the hepatic gluconeogenic genes, PCK1, G6PC, FBP1, GLUT2, and PGC1A was increased in the HG and reduced in the HG+INS liver. Expression of the insulin-regulated glycolytic and lipogenic genes, PFKL and FAS, was increased in the HG+INS liver. Total FOXO1 protein expression, a gluconeogenic activator, was 60% higher in the HG liver. Despite low glucose, insulin, and IGF1 concentrations, phosphorylation of AKT and ERK was higher in the HG liver. Thus, a physiological increase in fetal insulin is sufficient for suppression of gluconeogenic genes and activation of glycolytic and lipogenic genes in the HG fetal liver. These results demonstrate that fetuses exposed to sustained hypoglycemia have maintained hepatic insulin action in contrast to fetuses exposed to placental insufficiency.

  2. Cien cariotipos fetales acreditados en Costa Rica, años 2009 y 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Castro-Volio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La identificación de cromosomopatía fetal es un factor importante para el mejor manejo perinatal y pediátrico en los embarazos de alto riesgo. El objetivo de esta publicación es mostrar al personal de salud, los resultados de nuestros ensayos de cariotipo en líquido amniótico, obtenidos desde el momento en que han sido acreditados por el Ente Costarricense de Acreditación y compararlos con los estándares internacionales. Métodos: Se realizó cultivo abierto de 100 muestras recibidas desde enero del 2009 hasta diciembre 2010, provenientes de hospitales de la seguridad social y de servicios de salud privados y la cosecha de los “amniocitos” mediante suspensión enzimática. La indicación de amniocentesis en el 65% de los casos fue por ecografía anormal y el 28% de las veces por edad materna avanzada. Resultados: La cromosomopatía fetal encontrada fue de 35%. Para muestras en cantidad y calidad aceptables, el éxito de los cultivos fue 100% y el tiempo de respuesta fue de 13 días promedio. Estos datos concuerdan con las normas internacionales en esta materia. Además, anualmente participamos satisfactoriamente en rondas de evaluación externa de la calidad organizados por la Cytogenetic European Quality Assessment. Conclusión: En Costa Rica contamos con servicios de perinatología con equipos ecográficos muy sofisticados y con personal altamente especializado, de manera que los defectos anatómicos fetales y otras patologías rara vez pasan desapercibidas. El cariotipo fetal es el complemento indispensable para el abordaje clínico óptimo de estos casos, sobre todo, cuando se cuenta con la calidad que garantizan los ensayos acreditados.

  3. Potencial de rizobactérias na promoção de crescimento e controle da podridãoradicular em alface hidropônica Potential of rhizobacteria to promote root rot growth and control in hydroponically cultivated lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Matheus Aparecido Pereira Cipriano; Flávia Rodrigues Alves Patrício; Sueli dos Santos Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Os objetivos do trabalho foram avaliar se isolados de rizobactérias do grupo fluorescente do gênero Pseudomonas: 1) produzem metabólitos envolvidos na promoção do crescimento (AIA e HCN); 2) têm potencial para controle biológico de Pythium aphanidermatum; 3) podem promover o crescimento de plantas de alface cultivadas em sistema hidropônico; 4) e verificar se há correspondência nas interações in vitro e in vivo desses microrganismos. Com esses objetivos, placas de Petri contendo meio de cultu...

  4. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging and human genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengstschlaeger, Markus [Medical Genetics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: markus.hengstschlaeger@meduniwien.ac.at

    2006-02-15

    The use of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in addition to prenatal genetic testing and sonography, has the potential to improve prenatal diagnosis of genetic disorders. MRI plays an important role in the evaluation of fetal abnormalities and malformations. Fetal MRI often enables a differential diagnosis, a determination of the extent of the disorder, the prognosis, and an improvement in therapeutic management. For counseling of parents, as well as to basically understand how genetic aberrations affect fetal development, it is of great importance to correlate different genotypes with fetal MRI data.

  5. Unsupervised fetal cortical surface parcellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdouh, Sonia; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    At the core of many neuro-imaging studies, atlas-based brain parcellations are used for example to study normal brain evolution across the lifespan. These atlases rely on the assumption that the same anatomical features are present on all subjects to be studied and that these features are stable enough to allow meaningful comparisons between different brain surfaces and structures These methods, however, often fail when applied to fetal MRI data, due to the lack of consistent anatomical features present across gestation. This paper presents a novel surface-based fetal cortical parcellation framework which attempts to circumvent the lack of consistent anatomical features by proposing a brain parcellation scheme that is based solely on learned geometrical features. A mesh signature incorporating both extrinsic and intrinsic geometrical features is proposed and used in a clustering scheme to define a parcellation of the fetal brain. This parcellation is then learned using a Random Forest (RF) based learning approach and then further refined in an alpha-expansion graph-cut scheme. Based on the votes obtained by the RF inference procedure, a probability map is computed and used as a data term in the graph-cut procedure. The smoothness term is defined by learning a transition matrix based on the dihedral angles of the faces. Qualitative and quantitative results on a cohort of both healthy and high-risk fetuses are presented. Both visual and quantitative assessments show good results demonstrating a reliable method for fetal brain data and the possibility of obtaining a parcellation of the fetal cortical surfaces using only geometrical features.

  6. PARTO PRETÉRMINO Y SUFRIMIENTO FETAL SECUNDARIOS A PERITONITIS POR APENDICITIS AGUDA PERFORADA

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo M,Juan José; Molina P,Marta; Varo GM,Begoña; Rivas R,Salvador; Bernabeu A,José Ramón; Perales M,Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    La apendicitis aguda es la urgencia quirúrgica no obstétrica más frecuente durante el embarazo. Se ha asociado a parto pretérmino y a morbimortalidad fetal y materna, especialmente cuando se complica con peritonitis. Los cambios anatómicos, fisiológicos y bioquímicos que se producen durante la gestación pueden alterar los síntomas y signos típicos asociados a la apendicitis. Esto puede retrasar el diagnóstico y dar lugar a un aumento de la morbimortalidad materna y fetal. Presentamos el caso ...

  7. Cesárea por monitorización cardiotocográfica fetal no satisfactoria

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Torres, Zoila Katherine; Castro, Boris

    2013-01-01

    El estudio tiene como finalidad establecer la sensibilidad, la especificidad, el valor predictivo positivo, y el valor predictivo negativo de la monitorización cardiotocográfica fetal, para diagnóstico de Sufrimiento Fetal Agudo y que llevan a la terminación de la gestación por cesárea de emergencia, comparado con el test de Apgar del recién nacido tomado como GOLD STANDARD. El universo de estudio consistió en 880 pacientes embarazadas a quienes se les realizó cesár...

  8. Antithyroid drug-induced fetal goitrous hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ase Krogh; Sundberg, Karin; Brocks, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs can induce fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. This condition can have a critical effect on pregnancy outcome, as well as on fetal growth and neurological development. The purpose of this Review is to clarify if and how fetal goitrous hypothyroidism can...... be prevented, and how to react when prevention has failed. Understanding the importance of pregnancy-related changes in maternal thyroid status when treating a pregnant woman is crucial to preventing fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. Maternal levels of free T(4) are the most consistent indication of maternal...... and fetal thyroid status. In patients with fetal goitrous hypothyroidism, intra-amniotic levothyroxine injections improve fetal outcome. The best way to avoid maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs is to monitor closely the maternal thyroid status, especially estimates of free T(4) levels....

  9. THE MATERNAL-FETAL MEDICINE: AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Berghella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Maternal-Fetal Medicine is contributing to an improvement of maternal well-being and of neonatal health, introducing a number of new and useful technologies. Advances in genomics in the field of prenatal screening and diagnosis allowed the discovery of fragments of cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation and the use of chromosomal microarrays, which can test for microdeletions and microduplications in addition to aneuploidies. Color Doppler applications during pregnancy are expanding exponentially and Doppler flow velocity waveforms indices have provided important information from maternal, placental and fetal circulation with clinical implications. Ultrasound monitoring of fetal growth represents a fundamental tool to evaluate fetal wellbeing and several methods have been developed to improve fetal weight estimation accuracy. The combination of new biophysical and biochemical markers is enriching Maternal-Fetal Medicine and more research will allow to improve pregnancy outcome.

  10. Ex vivo culture of human fetal gonads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A; Nielsen, J.E.; Perlman, S

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What are the effects of experimentally manipulating meiosis signalling by addition of retinoic acid (RA) in cultured human fetal gonads? SUMMARY ANSWER: RA-treatment accelerated meiotic entry in cultured fetal ovary samples, while addition of RA resulted in a dysgenetic gonadal...... phenotype in fetal testis cultures. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: One of the first manifestations of sex differentiation is the initiation of meiosis in fetal ovaries. In contrast, meiotic entry is actively prevented in the fetal testis at this developmental time-point. It has previously been shown that RA......-treatment mediates initiation of meiosis in human fetal ovary ex vivo. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This was a controlled ex vivo study of human fetal gonads treated with RA in 'hanging-drop' tissue cultures. The applied experimental set-up preserves germ cell-somatic niche interactions and the investigated...

  11. Arteterapia con personas con discapacidad intelectual

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Pipkau, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Este proyecto pretende hacer una aproximaci??n al mundo del Arte Terapia y los beneficios que esta disciplina puede aportar a las personas con discapacidad intelectual. La idea surge de la experiencia previa de la autora en este ??mbito y con este colectivo. A trav??s de la documentaci??n bibliogr??fica se busca ampliar el conocimiento en cuanto al concepto de arteterapia y sus antecedentes, con la finalidad de elaborar una propuesta pr??ctica que se basar?? en el dise??o de un taller de arte...

  12. Management of fetal pain during invasive fetal procedures. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W; Deprest, J; Missant, C; Van de Velde, M

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fetal stress and analgesia draw more and more attention. Evidence that fetuses show a significant endocrinological and hemodynamical response to invasive stimuli, and that these responses can be blocked by analgesia, suggests that fetuses experience a stress response, even if this does not signify they experience "pain". Moreover, it is becoming increasingly clear that experiences of pain of a fetus will be "remembered" by the developing nervous system, perhaps for the entire life of the individual, which can probably lead to abnormal behavioural patterns or altered nociception. But up to now, the entire mechanism of fetal stress response and the optimal analgesic drug, dose and route of administration is not so clear.

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital fetal heart abnormalities and clinical analysis*

    OpenAIRE

    Li,Hui; Wei, Jun; Ma, Ying; Shang, Tao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of detecting fetal congenital heart disease (CHD) using the five transverse planes technique of fetal echocardiography. Methods: Nine hundred and eighty-two high-risk pregnancies for fetal CHD were included in this study, the fetal heart was scanned with the five transverse planes technique of fetal echocardiography described by Yagel, autopsy was conducted when pregnancy was terminated. Blood from fetal heart was collected for fetal chromosome analysis. A close ...

  14. [Maternal and fetal outcome in Mexican women with rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Miguel A; Sánchez, Antonio; Bustamante, Reyna; Miranda-Hernández, Dafhne; Soliz-Antezana, Jimena; Cruz-Domínguez, Pilar; Morales, Sara; Jara, Luis J

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: reportar la experiencia en el desenlace materno-fetal de mujeres con artritis reumatoide en un centro médico nacional de referencia.Métodos: se realizó un análisis retrospectivo de los expedientes de mujeres embarazadas con artritis reumatoide que fueron atendidas en una clínica de embarazo y enfermedades reumáticas autoinmunes. Se estudió el desenlace materno-fetal considerado como: actividad de la enfermedad, preeclampsia/eclampsia, tasa de nacidos vivos, abortos, óbitos, parto pretérmino, semanas de gestación, peso al nacer, malformaciones congénitas y uso de fármacos antirreumáticos.Resultados: se incluyeron 73 embarazos en 72 pacientes. Se documentó actividad de la enfermedad en el 47.2 % de las pacientes durante el embarazo y/o posparto. El 87.7 % de las pacientes recibió algún fármaco antirreumático. Se desarrolló preeclampsia en el 8.2 % de los casos. La tasa de nacidos vivos fue de 98.6 %, con parto pretérmino en el 15.9 % y bajo peso a término en el 17.6 % de los casos. El 77.1 % de los productos nació vía cesárea. La actividad de la enfermedad no se asoció a un mayor porcentaje de complicaciones materno-fetales.Conclusiones: nuestro estudio mostró que la mayoría de las pacientes no experimenta actividad significativa de la AR durante el embarazo, el desenlace fetal es satisfactorio y la actividad de la enfermedad no influye de manera importante el desenlace obstétrico.

  15. Forragem hidropônica de milheto: produção e qualidade nutricional em diferentes densidades de semeadura e idades de colheita Hydroponic millet forage: production and naurishing quality in different sowing densities and harvest ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziany Müller

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade nutricional da forragem hidropônica de milheto, realizou-se um experimento no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM - RS, identificando a densidade adequada de sementes e a idade ideal de colheita. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado; os tratamentos foram distribuídos em esquema fatorial 4x2, constituídos por quatro densidades de semeadura (0,5, 1,0, 1,5 e 2,0kg m-2 e duas colheitas (10 e 20 dias. Não foi observada significância à interação densidade x idade de colheita para nenhuma das variáveis analisadas. A estatura, a fitomassa seca, a hemicelulose e a lignina não foram influenciadas pela densidade de semeadura. O aumento da densidade de semeadura promoveu incremento na fitomassa fresca e no teor de proteína bruta e redução nos teores de fibra em detergente neutro e ácido e em celulose. A colheita aos 10 dias permitiu maiores valores de fitomassa fresca e seca, de hemicelulose, de celulose e menores valores de fibra em detergente neutro e ácido, e de lignina. Em relação à proteína bruta, não foi observada diferença significativa para as colheitas aos 10 e 20 dias. Pode-se sugerir o cultivo da forragem hidropônica de milheto, com densidade de semeadura de 2kg m-2, e colheita aos 10 dias, para se obter boa produção com qualidade nutricional.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different harvest dates and sowing densities on growth and bromatological composition of hydroponic millet forage. The experiment was carried out in the Crop Production of the Universidade Federal of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. A randomized experimental design was used. Treatments consisted of four sowing densities (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 e 2.0kg seed m-2 and two harvest dates (10 and 20 days after germination distributed in a 4x2 factorial scheme. There was no interaction between sowing densities and harvest date for all analyzed variables

  16. Produção hidropônica de alface em solução nutritiva com e sem silício Hidroponic production of lettuce in hidroponic solution with or without silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Magno Q Luz

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do silício sobre o desempenho de nove cultivares de alface cultivadas em solução nutritiva no sistema hidropônico NFT. O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido, durante os meses de março a maio de 2003. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 9x2, com três repetições, com os fatores: nove cultivares de alface (Vera, Verônica, Elisa, Regina, Aurélia, Tainá, Lucy Brown, Uberlândia-10000 e Mimosa Salad Bowl; e duas soluções nutritivas, uma contendo silício - 1,5 mmol L-1 e outra sem silício. A fonte de silício utilizada foi a sílica gel de origem japonesa, com 20% de SiO2 e 80% de H2O. As características analisadas foram: diâmetro da cabeça, massa seca e fresca de parte aérea e de raiz e, concentração de silício nas folhas e raízes. As plantas de alface que receberam silício apresentaram um menor tamanho quando comparadas às plantas cultivadas em solução sem silício, apesar de, em ambos os casos, terem alcançado tamanho comercial. As plantas tratadas com silício apresentaram menor incidência da anomalia fisiológica queima dos bordos. Dessa forma o silício pode ser uma alternativa viável para produção hidropônica de alface, principalmente quando se leva em consideração as novas tendências de mercado por produtos menores e com boa aparência.The effect of silicon was evaluated on the performance of nine lettuce cvs, cultivated in the nutritive solution in hidroponic system NFT. The experiment was conducted in protected cultivation, from March to May 2003. The randomized complete blocks design 9x2 was used, with three replications. Two factors were studied: nine lettuce cultivar (Vera, Verônica, Elisa, Regina, Aurélia, Tainá, Lucy Brown, Uberlândia-10000 and Mimosa, and presence (1,5 mmol L-1 or absence of silicon (japanese "silica gel" in the nutritive solution with 20% of SiO2 and 80% of H2O. The head diameter, weight of dry and fresh

  17. Growth and nutrient absorption by Raisa tomato cultivar grown in hydroponic system/ Crescimento e marcha de absorção de nutrientes em tomateiro cultivar Raísa cultivado em sistema hidropônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Bernardes Cecílio Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The production and quality of tomatoes has increased with the emergence of new genotypes and cropping systems such as hydroponics, however, there are few studies on the nutrition of plants. The objective was to evaluate the growth and motion of absorption of nutrients by Raisa tomato cultivar, grown in hydroponic system. The experimental design was randomized blocks with eight treatments consisting of the times of sampling: 15, 25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75 and 85 days after transplanting (DAT and five replications. The tomato seedlings were transplanted to pots of 8 dm3 (on 31-03-2008, filled with the base substrate of coconut fiber, constantly irrigated with Hoagland and Arnon nutrient solution. During the experimental period and focuses on the development of plants and dry leaves, stems, fruits and roots. The dry matter accumulation of leaves and roots of tomato cultivar Raisa was relatively faster than the national stem and fruit, over cultivation, with predominance of dry fruits (45% on the leaves (27%, the stem (24% and roots (3% at the end of the cycle. The accumulation of nutrients and micronutrients by the tomato cultivar Raisa was fit with linear increase throughout the cultivation, except for Mn which was quadratic. Most of the tomato nutritional requirement for nutrients was K, N and Ca and micronutrients was Fe, Zn and Mn.A produção e a qualidade do tomate têm aumentado com o surgimento de novos genótipos e sistemas de cultivo como o hidropônico, entretanto, são poucas as pesquisas sobre a nutrição das plantas. Assim, a presente pesquisa teve o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento e a marcha de absorção de nutrientes pelo tomateiro cultivar Raísa, cultivado em sistema hidropônico. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos casualizados com oito tratamentos constituídos pelas épocas de amostragem: 15; 25; 35; 45; 55; 65; 75 e 85 dias após o transplante (DAT e cinco repetições. As mudas de tomateiro foram transplantas

  18. Cien cariotipos fetales acreditados en Costa Rica, años 2009 y 2010 One Hundred Accredited Fetal Karyotypes in Costa Rica During 2009 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Castro-Volio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La identificación de cromosomopatía fetal es un factor importante para el mejor manejo perinatal y pediátrico en los embarazos de alto riesgo. El objetivo de esta publicación es mostrar al personal de salud, los resultados de nuestros ensayos de cariotipo en líquido amniótico, obtenidos desde el momento en que han sido acreditados por el Ente Costarricense de Acreditación y compararlos con los estándares internacionales. Métodos: Se realizó cultivo abierto de 100 muestras recibidas desde enero del 2009 hasta diciembre 2010, provenientes de hospitales de la seguridad social y de servicios de salud privados y la cosecha de los “amniocitos” mediante suspensión enzimática. La indicación de amniocentesis en el 65% de los casos fue por ecografía anormal y el 28% de las veces por edad materna avanzada. Resultados: La cromosomopatía fetal encontrada fue de 35%. Para muestras en cantidad y calidad aceptables, el éxito de los cultivos fue 100% y el tiempo de respuesta fue de 13 días promedio. Estos datos concuerdan con las normas internacionales en esta materia. Además, anualmente participamos satisfactoriamente en rondas de evaluación externa de la calidad organizados por la Cytogenetic European Quality Assessment. Conclusión: En Costa Rica contamos con servicios de perinatología con equipos ecográficos muy sofisticados y con personal altamente especializado, de manera que los defectos anatómicos fetales y otras patologías rara vez pasan desapercibidas. El cariotipo fetal es el complemento indispensable para el abordaje clínico óptimo de estos casos, sobre todo, cuando se cuenta con la calidad que garantizan los ensayos acreditados.Aims: The identification of fetal abnormal chromosomes in high risk pregnancies, allows proper pediatric and obstetric management of the cases as well as genetic counseling. The results of 100 genetic amniocentesis from January 2009 to December 2010, since the accreditation of these

  19. Estrés oxidativo en la hipoxia/re-oxigenación de la transición fetal – neonatal : reanimación del recién nacido prematuro con concentraciones bajas de oxígeno

    OpenAIRE

    Escrig Fernandez, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    La transición de la vida fetal a la neonatal es un momento muy importante en el que se producen grandes cambios fisiológicos rápidos y complejos. Supone un rápido incremento en la presión parcial de O2 (PaO2). Esta “hiperoxia relativa” fisiológica, da lugar a un aumento en la producción de radicales libres. El feto, se prepara para esta transición aumentado la producción de sustancias antioxidantes durante las últimas semanas de gestación. A pesar de esto, existe un ligero disbalance a favor ...

  20. Produção e sobrevivência de miniestacas e minicepas de erva-mate cultivadas em sistema semi-hidropônico Production and survival of Ilex paraguariensis minicuttings and ministumps cultivated in semi-hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivar Wendling

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade técnica do sistema semi-hidropônico para condução de minicepas de erva-mate e a resposta destas a soluções nutritivas de diferentes diluições nas sucessivas coletas, bem como, a sobrevivência das miniestacas produzidas neste sistema, após enraizamento. Depois de onze coletas, obteve-se 95,6% de sobrevivência das minicepas e média de 291 miniestacas m-2 de minijardim. As mudas obtidas por miniestaquia apresentaram média de 85,6% de sobrevivência, sem variação significativa entre as soluções testadas e número da coleta. O sistema adotado é tecnicamente viável, e recomenda-se a utilização de solução nutritiva menos concentrada.The objective of this study was to assess the technical viability of semi-hydroponic system for conduction of Ilex paraguariensis ministumps, and the answer of these to different nutritional solutions in the successive gatherings, as well as, the survival of the minicuttings produced in this system after rooting. After eleven gatherings, there was 95.6% of ministumps survival, and production of 291minicuttings m-2 of miniclonal garden. The minicuttings survival was 85.6%, with no significant difference between the solutions. The adopted system is technically viable, and lower concentrated solution to conduct the ministumps is recommended.

  1. Examiner's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Naohiro; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2014-06-01

    The best way to assess fetal condition is to observe the oxygen status of the fetus (as well as to assess the condition of infants, children, and adults). Previously, several fetal oximeters have been developed; however, no instrument has been utilized in clinical practice because of the low-capturing rate of the fetal oxygen saturation. To overcome the problem, we developed a doctor's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximeter, whose sensor volume is one hundredth of the conventional one. Additionally, we prepared transparent gloves. The calculation algorithm of the hemoglobin concentration was derived from the light propagation analysis based on the transport theory. We measured neonatal and fetal oxygen saturation (StO2) with the new tissue oximeter. Neonatal StO was measured at any position of the head regardless of amount of hair. Neonatal StO was found to be around 77%. Fetal StO was detected in every position of the fetal head during labor regardless of the presence of labor pain. Fetal StO without labor pain was around 70% in the first stage of labor and around 60% in the second stage of labor. We concluded that our new concept of fetal tissue oximetry would be useful for detecting fetal StO in any condition of the fetus.

  2. Fetal evaluation of spine dysraphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulas, Dorothy [George Washington University Medical Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Spinal dysraphism or neural tube defects (NTD) encompass a heterogeneous group of congenital spinal anomalies that result from the defective closure of the neural tube early in gestation with anomalous development of the caudal cell mass. Advances in ultrasound and MRI have dramatically improved the diagnosis and therapy of spinal dysraphism and caudal spinal anomalies both prenatally and postnatally. Advances in prenatal US including high frequency linear transducers and three dimensional imaging can provide detailed information concerning spinal anomalies. MR imaging is a complementary tool that can further elucidate spine abnormalities as well as associated central nervous system and non-CNS anomalies. Recent studies have suggested that 3-D CT can help further assess fetal spine anomalies in the third trimester. With the advent of fetal therapy including surgery, accurate prenatal diagnosis of open and closed spinal dysraphism becomes critical in appropriate counselling and perinatal management. (orig.)

  3. Fetal origin of vascular aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Pitale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is increasingly regarded as an independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension and their complications (e.g. MI and Stroke. It is well known that vascular disease evolve over decades with progressive accumulation of cellular and extracellular materials and many inflammatory processes. Metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are conventionally recognized as risk factors for development of coronary vascular disease (CVD. These conditions are known to accelerate ageing process in general and vascular ageing in particular. Adverse events during intrauterine life may programme organ growth and favour disease later in life, popularly known as, ′Barker′s Hypothesis′. The notion of fetal programming implies that during critical periods of prenatal growth, changes in the hormonal and nutritional milieu of the conceptus may alter the full expression of the fetal genome, leading to permanent effects on a range of physiological.

  4. Fetal growth and developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galjaard, Sander; Devlieger, Roland; Van Assche, Frans A

    2013-01-01

    The environment in utero and in early neonatal life may induce a permanent response in the fetus and the newborn, leading to enhanced susceptibility to later diseases. This review concentrates on the role and mechanisms of events during the antenatal and immediate postnatal period resulting in later life diseases, concentrating on abnormal growth patterns of the fetus. Fetal overgrowth is related to exposure to a diabetic intra uterine environment, increasing the vulnerability to transgenerational obesity and hence an increased sensitivity to more diabetic mothers. This effect has been supported by animal data. Fetal growth restriction is complex due to malnutrition in utero, catch up growth due to a high caloric intake and low physical activity in later life. Metabolic changes and a transgenerational effect of intra uterine malnutrition has been supported by animal data. In recent years the discovery of alterations of the genome due to different influences during embryonic life, called epigenetics, has led to the phenomenon of fetal programming resulting in changing transgenerational metabolic effects.

  5. Glutathione-S-transferase and tyrosine hydroxylase activity in human adrenal medulla. Differences between fetal and adult tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César García

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de caracterizar la glándula adrenal humana en estado fetal (10 a 12 semanas y adulta (post-morten se determinaron las actividades específicas de la enzimas glutatión-S-transferasa (GST y tirosina hidroxilasa (TH, así como las de las catecolaminas (CA: adrenalina (A; noradrenalina (NA y dopamina (DA, utilizando Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Resolución con detecci ón electroquímica (HPLC-DE. La GST fue determinada utilizando 1-cloro-2,4- dinitrobenzeno como substrato electrofílico y la actividad TH fue determinada por medición de la L-DOPA formada a partir de la L-tirosina utilizando un HPLCDE. Los resultados indican que la NA fue la principal CA presente en el período fetal estudiado. Una disminución en la actividad de NA acompañado por un ligero incremento en la de A fue detectada con el aumento de la edad fetal. En el tejido adulto la A fue la principal CA y presentó una cantidad de DA (0,046 % del total de CA 35 veces menor que en el tejido fetal (1,60 %. La actividad específica de la TH presentó diferencias al ser comparada con el tejido fetal y fue significativamente mayor (p < 0,001 en el tejido fetal. La actividad de la GST fue también significativamente superior (p < 0,001 en el tejido adulto cuando se comparó con el fetal. Los resultados indican un relativamente pobre aporte de la células fetales, en cuanto a su actividad TH. Los cambios detectados en la actividad enzimática específica de la GST entre el tejido adulto y fetal pueden revelar una diferencia en la capacidad entre estos tejidos para metabolizar xenobioticos y toxinas endógenas. Estos resultados pudieran contribuir a la explicación de los resultados del implante de células catecolaminérgicas en la enfermedad de Parkinson.

  6. Fetal magnetic resonance: technique applications and normal fetal anatomy; Resonance magnetica fetal: tecnica aplicaciones y anatomia normal del feto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Darnell, A.; Duran, C.; Mellado, F.; Corona, M [Corporacio Sanitaria del Parc Tauli. Sabadell (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Ultrasonography is the preferred diagnostic imaging technique for intrauterine fetal examination. Nevertheless, circumstances sometimes dictate the use of other techniques in order to analyze fetal structures. The advent of ultra rapid magnetic resonance (MR) sequencing has led to the possibility of doing MR fetal studies, since images are obtained in an extradordiarily short time and are not affected by either maternal or fetal movements. It does not employ ionizing radiations, it provides high-contrast images and it can obtain such images in any plane of space without being influenced by either the child bearer's physical characteristics of fetal position. MR provides good quality images of most fetal organs. It is extremely useful in analysing distinct structures, as well as permitting an evaluation of cervical structures, lungs, diaphragms, intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal structures, and fetal extremities. It can also provide useful information regarding the placenta,umbilical cord, amniotic fluid and uterus. The objective of this work is to describe MR technique as applied to intrauterine fetal examination, and to illustrate normal fetal anatomy as manifested by MR and its applications. (Author) 42 refs.

  7. Programación fetal de la hipertensión arterial del adulto: mecanismos celulares y moleculares Fetal programming of adult arterial hypertension: cellular and molecular mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cambios metabólicos in utero establecen patrones fisiológicos y estructurales a largo plazo que pueden "programar" la salud durante la vida adulta, teoría popularmente conocida como "hipótesis de Barker". La programación fetal implica que durante los períodos críticos del crecimiento prenatal, ciertos cambios en el entorno hormonal y nutricional del embrión, pueden alterar la expresión del genoma fetal, en tejidos con funciones fisiológicas y metabólicas en la etapa adulta. La evidencia sugiere que patologías como enfermedad vascular (por ejemplo, hipertensión, síndrome metabólico y diabetes mellitus tipo 2, pueden "programarse" durante las primeras etapas del desarrollo fetal y manifestarse en etapas tardías, al interactuar con el estilo de vida y otros factores de riesgo adquiridos convencionales con el medio ambiente. El objetivo de esta revisión es presentar evidencia adicional que apoye la asociación entre el bajo peso al nacer, con el aumento en la prevalencia de la hipertensión arterial en la edad adulta. Se revisan la función endotelial, el estrés oxidativo, la resistencia a la insulina y la función mitocondrial, como posibles mecanismos celulares y moleculares.Metabolic changes in utero establish long-term physiological and structural patterns which can "program" health in adulthood, theory popularly known as "Barker hypothesis". The fetal programming implies that during critical periods of prenatal growth, some changes in hormonal and nutritional environment of the embryo can alter fetal genome expression in tissues with physiological and metabolic functions in adulthood. Evidence suggests that pathologies like vascular disease (eg, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus, may "be programmed" during the early stages of fetal development and manifest in later stages, when interacting with lifestyle and other conventional acquired risk factors with the environment. The aim of this review is to

  8. Fetal Behavior and Heart Rate in Twin Pregnancy : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendais, Iva; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Figueiredo, Barbara; Montenegro, Nuno; Mulder, Eduard J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal movements and fetal heart rate (FHR) are well-established markers of fetal well-being and maturation of the fetal central nervous system. The purpose of this paper is to review and discuss the available knowledge on fetal movements and heart rate patterns in twin pregnancies. There is some evi

  9. Maternal psychological impact of fetal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklansky, Mark; Tang, Alvin; Levy, Denis; Grossfeld, Paul; Kashani, Iraj; Shaughnessy, Robin; Rothman, Abraham

    2002-02-01

    The maternal psychological impact of fetal echocardiography may be deleterious in the face of newly diagnosed congenital heart disease. This questionnaire-based study prospectively examined the psychological impact of both normal and abnormal fetal echocardiography. Normal fetal echocardiography decreased maternal anxiety, increased happiness, and increased the closeness women felt toward their unborn children. In contrast, when fetal echocardiography detected congenital heart disease, maternal anxiety typically increased, and mothers commonly felt less happy about being pregnant. However, among women who had recently delivered infants with congenital heart disease, those who had had fetal echocardiography during the pregnancy felt less responsible for their infants' defects and tended to have improved their relationships with the infants' fathers after the prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease. Further study of the psychological and medical impact of fetal echocardiography will be necessary to define and optimize the clinical value of this powerful diagnostic tool.

  10. Successful delivery of fetus with fetal inherited thrombophilia after two fetal deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juras, Josip; Ivanisević, Marina; Oresković, Slavko; Mihaljević, Slobodan; Vujić, Goran; Delmis, Josip

    2013-12-01

    A pregnant woman with inherited thrombophilia (factor II mutation--20210A) had two late pregnancy losses. The first pregnancy was not well documented, but the second pregnancy was complicated by fetal thrombophilia and umbilical artery thrombosis, proven after fetal death. During the third pregnancy enoxaparine was introduced in the therapy and early amniocentesis was performed. Fetal thrombophilia was proven again. Early delivery was induced and performed with no complications, resulting in a live healthy infant. A history of miscarriages or recurrent fetal loss should raise suspicion of thrombophilia as a potential cause. It is debatable whether amniocentesis in pursuit of fetal thrombophilia should be performed and whether this will lead to a better perinatal outcome. When fetal thrombophilia is diagnosed, an earlier induction of delivery should be considered, taking into account the fetal extrauterine viability. The aforementioned approach of early delivery in cases of inherited fetal thrombophilia could be a possible solution for better perinatal outcomes.

  11. Fetal macrosomia as an important indicator of fetal malformation syndrome: ultrasonic findings of two cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PA de Jong; MD E.J.M. Wouters; EA Pley

    1989-01-01

    Two extraordinary cases of fetal macrosomia are presented. It is discussed that extreme fetal growth should raise the suspicion of a malformation syndrome and deserves thorough antenatal ultrasonographic examination.

  12. Flutter Atrial Fetal en Madre Portadora de Síndrome de Brugada: Caso Clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Kiekebusch Hurel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de mujer portadora de Síndrome de Brugada que cursa embarazo de 35 semanas, en cuyo control ecográfico prenatal se observa flutter atrial fetal. Se realizó interrupción del embarazo vía cesárea de urgencia, obteniéndose recién nacido de pretérmino sexo masculino, vivo, con taquiarritmia persistente, la cual requirió manejo con Adenosina. Este caso representa un gran desafío en cuanto a la asociación entre la patología materna y la fetal, además de su utilidad como orientación en el manejo de otros casos similares. Palabras Clave: Síndrome de Brugada, flutter atrial fetal, recién nacido de pretérmino, embarazo.

  13. Altered fetal growth, placental abnormalities, and stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek; Hansen, Nellie I; Pinar, Halit; Willinger, Marian; Reddy, Uma M; Parker, Corette B; Silver, Robert M; Dudley, Donald J; Stoll, Barbara J; Saade, George R; Koch, Matthew A; Hogue, Carol; Varner, Michael W; Conway, Deborah L; Coustan, Donald; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, stillbirth is one of the leading causes of death. Altered fetal growth and placental abnormalities are the strongest and most prevalent known risk factors for stillbirth. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of association between placental abnormalities, fetal growth, and stillbirth. Population-based case-control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in 5 geographic areas in the U.S. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small (90th percentile) for gestational age at death (stillbirth) or delivery (live birth) using a published algorithm. Placental examination by perinatal pathologists was performed using a standardized protocol. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design. Among 319 singleton stillbirths and 1119 singleton live births at ≥24 weeks at death or delivery respectively, 25 placental findings were investigated. Fifteen findings were significantly associated with stillbirth. Ten of the 15 were also associated with fetal growth abnormalities (single umbilical artery; velamentous insertion; terminal villous immaturity; retroplacental hematoma; parenchymal infarction; intraparenchymal thrombus; avascular villi; placental edema; placental weight; ratio birth weight/placental weight) while 5 of the 15 associated with stillbirth were not associated with fetal growth abnormalities (acute chorioamnionitis of placental membranes; acute chorioamionitis of chorionic plate; chorionic plate vascular degenerative changes; perivillous, intervillous fibrin, fibrinoid deposition; fetal vascular thrombi in the chorionic plate). Five patterns were observed: placental findings associated with (1) stillbirth but not fetal growth abnormalities; (2) fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths only; (3) fetal growth abnormalities in live births only; (4) fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths and live births in a similar manner; (5) a different pattern of fetal growth abnormalities in

  14. Isolated Fetal Ascite Associated with Cardiac Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vehbi Doğan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fetal ascite is defined as fluid accumulation in peritoneal cavity. It can be seen as isolated disease or an early sign of hydrops fetalis. Once fetal ascite is detected, a careful examination for hydops fetalis and possible underlying disease is necessary, since its prognosis and treatment depends mostly on the cause. Non-immunologic fetal ascite is an uncommon problem occurring for many reasons, such as urinary tract obstruction, congenital infections, genetic and metabolic diseases, gastrointestinal diseases and cardiovascular diseases. Here in this report we present two isolated fetal ascite that occurred secondary to cardiac diseases.

  15. MR imaging of the fetal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, Orit A. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Fetal MRI is clinically performed to evaluate the brain in cases where an abnormality is detected by prenatal sonography. These most commonly include ventriculomegaly, abnormalities of the corpus callosum, and abnormalities of the posterior fossa. Fetal MRI is also increasingly performed to evaluate fetuses who have normal brain findings on prenatal sonogram but who are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental abnormalities, such as complicated monochorionic twin pregnancies. This paper will briefly discuss the common clinical conditions imaged by fetal MRI as well as recent advances in fetal MRI research. (orig.)

  16. Magnetic resonance methods in fetal neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailath-Pokorny, M; Kasprian, G; Mitter, C; Schöpf, V; Nemec, U; Prayer, D

    2012-10-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an established clinical adjunct for the in-vivo evaluation of human brain development. Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied with MRI from the 18th week of gestation to term and relies primarily on T2-weighted sequences. Recently diffusion-weighted sequences have gained importance in the structural assessment of the fetal brain. Diffusion-weighted imaging provides quantitative information about water motion and tissue microstructure and has applications for both developmental and destructive brain processes. Advanced magnetic resonance techniques, such as spectroscopy, might be used to demonstrate metabolites that are involved in brain maturation, though their development is still in the early stages. Using fetal MRI in addition to prenatal ultrasound, morphological, metabolic, and functional assessment of the fetus can be achieved. The latter is not only based on observation of fetal movements as an indirect sign of activity of the fetal brain but also on direct visualization of fetal brain activity, adding a new component to fetal neurology. This article provides an overview of the MRI methods used for fetal neurologic evaluation, focusing on normal and abnormal early brain development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sindrome de respuesta inflamatoria fetal : adaptacion cardiovascular

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arreaza-Graterol, Mortimer; Rojas-Barrera, Juan Diego; Molina-Giraldo, Saulo

    2011-01-01

    Introduccion: el sindrome de respuesta inflamatoria fetal es una condicion caracterizada por reaccion inflamatoria sistemica acompanada de alteraciones bioquimicas como la elevacion de la interleucina 6 (IL-6...

  18. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome a Global Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163096.html Fetal Alcohol Syndrome a Global Problem: Report Countries with highest alcohol use during pregnancy include Belarus, Britain, Denmark, Ireland ...

  19. Maternal caffeine intake from coffee and tea, fetal growth, and the risks of adverse birth outcomes: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bakker (Rachel); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); A. Obradov (Aleksandra); H. Raat (Hein); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Caffeine is a widely used and accepted pharmacologically active substance. The effect of caffeine intake during pregnancy on fetal growth and development is still unclear. Objective: We examined the associations of maternal caffeine intake, on the basis of coffee and tea cons

  20. Glucocorticoid-induced fetal programming alters the functional complement of angiotensin receptor subtypes within the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwathmey, TanYa M; Shaltout, Hossam A; Rose, James C; Diz, Debra I; Chappell, Mark C

    2011-03-01

    We examined the impact of fetal programming on the functional responses of renal angiotensin receptors. Fetal sheep were exposed in utero to betamethasone (BMX; 0.17 mg/kg) or control (CON) at 80 to 81 days gestation with full-term delivery. Renal nuclear and plasma membrane fractions were isolated from sheep age 1.0 to 1.5 years for receptor binding and fluorescence detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or nitric oxide (NO). Mean arterial blood pressure and blood pressure variability were significantly higher in the BMX-exposed adult offspring versus CON sheep. The proportion of nuclear AT(1) receptors sensitive to losartan was 2-fold higher (67 ± 6% vs 27 ± 9%; Pprogramming.

  1. Placental fetal vascular thrombosis lesions and maternal thrombophilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeksma, F. A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Khong, T. Y.

    Aims: Following intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), the placental fetal vessels undergo regressive changes. These changes are virtually indistinguishable from lesions that are the result of fetal vascular thrombosis (FVT). This study investigated the relation between these lesions and maternal

  2. Is there a relationship between fetal brain function and the fetal behavioral state? A fetal MEG-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer-Schmidt, Isabelle; Raufer, Julia; Brändle, Johanna; Münßinger, Jana; Abele, Harald; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Eswaran, Hari; Preissl, Hubert

    2013-09-01

    Fetal magnetography enables the recording of biomagnetic fetal signals, including fetal heart and fetal brain signals. These signals allow the determination of fetal behavioral states and functional brain signals with auditory evoked responses (AER). In the current study, we investigated how the behavioral state influences the AER and how stimulation affects fetal state. One hundred and four fetuses in three age groups (28-31 weeks, 32-35 weeks and 36-41 weeks) were recorded with and without auditory stimulation. Both sessions were scored for fetal states. The AER latency was determined for each state separately. Forty-five additional subjects were recorded with two sessions of 10 min without stimulation to investigate a possible time effect on state changes. The state distribution was significantly different between stimulation and no stimulation conditions. The AER latencies were significantly shorter in active sleep (P=0.013) and active wakefulness (P=0.004) compared to quiet sleep. Auditory stimulation has an effect on fetal states. The state information should be taken into account for the analysis of AER latencies.

  3. Fetal cardiac rhabdomyoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Ghavami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary manifestation of cardiac tumors in embryonic period is a very rare condition. Cardiac rhabdomyomas most frequently arise in the ventricular myocardium, they may also occur in the atria and the epicardial surface. In spite of its benign nature, the critical location of the tumor inside the heart can lead to lethal arrhythmias and chamber obstruction. Multiple rhabdomyomas are strongly associated with tuberous sclerosis which is associated with mental retardation and epilepsy of variable severity. Ultrasonography as a part of routine prenatal screening, is the best method for the diagnosis of cardiac rhabdomyomas. In the review of articles published in Iran, fetal cardiac rhabdomyoma was not reported. Case presentation: We report a case of cardiac rhabdomyoma on a 24-year-old gravid 1, referred to Day Medical Imaging Center for routine evaluation of fetal abnormalities at 31 weeks of her gestational age. Ultrasonographic examination displayed a homogenous echogenic mass (13×9mm, originating from the left ventricle of the fetal heart. It was a normal pregnancy without any specific complications. Other organs of the fetus were found normal and no cardiac abnormalities were appeared. No Pericardial fluid effusion was found. The parents did not have consanguineous marriage. They did not also have any specific disease such as tuberous sclerosis. Conclusion: The clinical features of cardiac rhabdomyomas vary widely, depending on the location, size, and number of tumors in the heart. Although cardiac rhabdomyoma is a benign tumor in many affected fetuses, an early prenatal diagnosis of the tumor is of great significance in making efficient planning and providing adequate follow up visits of the patients and the complications such as, heart failure and outlet obstruction of cardiac chambers.

  4. Dimensión fractal y atractores en el análisis del monitoreo fetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Farbiarz

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    En la actualidad se requiere contar con métodos objetivos para
    evaluar el monitoreo cardíaco fetal (MCF. La teoría de caos se ha
    usado, entre otras, para estudiar el corazón (1 y la respiración (2. En este estudio se evaluó su utilidad para el análisis del MCF.

     

     

  5. Characteristics of children whose siblings have fetal alcohol syndrome or incomplete fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvigne, Valborg L; Leonardson, Gary R; Borzelleca, Joseph; Neff-Smith, Martha; Welty, Thomas K

    2009-03-01

    To describe the clinical features of American Indian children born just before and just after a sibling with fetal alcohol syndrome or incomplete fetal alcohol syndrome. Two retrospective case-control studies were conducted of Northern Plains American Indian children with fetal alcohol syndrome or incomplete fetal alcohol syndrome identified from 1981 to 1993 by using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 760.71. Compared with the controls, the 39 siblings born just before children with fetal alcohol syndrome (study 1) and 30 siblings born just before children with incomplete fetal alcohol syndrome (study 2) had more facial dysmorphology (23.1% and 16.7%, respectively), growth delay (38.5% and 10.0%), and central nervous system impairment (48.7% and 33.3%). The 20 siblings born just after children with fetal alcohol syndrome (study 1) and 22 siblings born just after children with incomplete fetal alcohol syndrome (study 2) had more facial dysmorphology (20.0% and 9.1%, respectively), growth delay (45.0% and 22.7%), and central nervous system impairment (50.0% and 31.8%) than the control siblings. The "before" siblings had characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome that could have predicted that the next child was at risk for fetal alcohol syndrome. The "after" siblings had better outcomes than the previous siblings with fetal alcohol syndrome, a finding that was associated with a decrease in maternal alcohol consumption during the after-sibling pregnancy.

  6. Fetal deaths in Brazil: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeiro, Fernanda Morena dos Santos; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Tauffer, Mariana Girão; Ferreira, Mariana de Souza Santos; da Silva, Fagner Paulo; Ventura, Patrícia Mendonça; Quadros, Jesirée Iglesias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the frequency of and factors associated with fetal death in the Brazilian scientific literature. METHODS A systematic review of Brazilian studies on fetal deaths published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. In total, 27 studies were analyzed; of these, 4 studies addressed the quality of data, 12 were descriptive studies, and 11 studies evaluated the factors associated with fetal death. The databases searched were PubMed and Lilacs, and data extraction and synthesis were independently performed by two or more examiners. RESULTS The level of completeness of fetal death certificates was deficient, both in the completion of variables, particularly sociodemographic variables, and in defining the underlying causes of death. Fetal deaths have decreased in Brazil; however, inequalities persist. Analysis of the causes of death indicated maternal morbidities that could be prevented and treated. The main factors associated with fetal deaths were absent or inadequate prenatal care, low education level, maternal morbidity, and adverse reproductive history. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care should prioritize women that are most vulnerable (considering their social environment or their reproductive history and morbidities) with the aim of decreasing the fetal mortality rate in Brazil. Adequate completion of death certificates and investment in the committees that investigate fetal and infant deaths are necessary. PMID:25902565

  7. Fetal Pain, Abortion, Viability and the Constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, I. Glenn; Sayeed, Sadath Ali

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, the Nebraska state legislature passed a new abortion restricting law asserting a new, compelling state interest in preventing fetal pain. In this article, we review existing constitutional abortion doctrine and note difficulties presented by persistent legal attention to a socially derived viability construct. We then offer a substantive biological, ethical, and legal critique of the new fetal pain rationale.

  8. Fetal pain, abortion, viability, and the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I Glenn; Sayeed, Sadath

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, the Nebraska state legislature passed a new abortion restricting law asserting a new, compelling state interest in preventing fetal pain. In this article, we review existing constitutional abortion doctrine and note difficulties presented by persistent legal attention to a socially derived viability construct. We then offer a substantive biological, ethical, and legal critique of the new fetal pain rationale.

  9. Fetal Pain: Life in Troubled Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Johnnye S.

    2007-01-01

    Maternal well-being is the key to fetal well-being. A fetus is highly vulnerable and sensitive to pain and stress, and exposure has the potential for negative developmental consequences. Childbirth educators can help raise parental awareness about the importance of the maternal environment for best outcomes in fetal development.

  10. Fetal behavior in normal dichorionic twin pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, E. J. H.; Derks, J. B.; de Laat, M. W. M.; Visser, G. H. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A prospective study was performed to compare fetal behavioral development in healthy dichorionic twins and singletons, and identify twin intra-pair associations (synchrony) of fetal movements and rest-activity cycles using different criteria to define synchrony. Subjects and methods: Twe

  11. Fetal deaths in Brazil: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Morena dos Santos Barbeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To review the frequency of and factors associated with fetal death in the Brazilian scientific literature. METHODS A systematic review of Brazilian studies on fetal deaths published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. In total, 27 studies were analyzed; of these, 4 studies addressed the quality of data, 12 were descriptive studies, and 11 studies evaluated the factors associated with fetal death. The databases searched were PubMed and Lilacs, and data extraction and synthesis were independently performed by two or more examiners. RESULTS The level of completeness of fetal death certificates was deficient, both in the completion of variables, particularly sociodemographic variables, and in defining the underlying causes of death. Fetal deaths have decreased in Brazil; however, inequalities persist. Analysis of the causes of death indicated maternal morbidities that could be prevented and treated. The main factors associated with fetal deaths were absent or inadequate prenatal care, low education level, maternal morbidity, and adverse reproductive history. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care should prioritize women that are most vulnerable (considering their social environment or their reproductive history and morbidities with the aim of decreasing the fetal mortality rate in Brazil. Adequate completion of death certificates and investment in the committees that investigate fetal and infant deaths are necessary.

  12. Fetal tissue transplant research: ethical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnam, C R

    1996-01-01

    The transplant of cells from fetal tissue shows promise as a therapy for certain diseases. The use and research of fetal tissue, and methods of obtaining the tissue, have raised ethical dilemmas. Consideration must be given concerning the mother, the fetus, and the tissue recipient.

  13. Expert systems for fetal assessment in labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutomski, J.E.; Meaney, S.; Greene, R.A.; Ryan, A.C.; Devane, D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiotocography (CTG) records the fetal heart rate in relation to maternal uterine contractions and is one of the most common forms of fetal assessment during labour. Despite guidelines for CTG interpretation, substantial inter- and intra-observer variation in interpretation has been re

  14. Fetal stress hormone changes during intrauterine transfusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adama van Scheltema, P.N.; Pasman, S.A.; Wolterbeek, R..; Deprest, J.A.; Oepkes, D.; Buck, F. De; Velde, M van de; Vandenbussche, F.P.H.A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document fetal stress hormone and Doppler changes after intrauterine transfusions (IUTs) in either the intrahepatic portion of the umbilical vein (IHV) or the placental cord insertion (PCI). METHOD: Pregnant women scheduled for IUT for fetal anemia (N = 25) were included prospectively.

  15. Fetal stress hormone changes during intrauterine transfusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adama van Scheltema, P.N.; Pasman, S.A.; Wolterbeek, R..; Deprest, J.A.; Oepkes, D.; Buck, F. De; Velde, M van de; Vandenbussche, F.P.H.A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document fetal stress hormone and Doppler changes after intrauterine transfusions (IUTs) in either the intrahepatic portion of the umbilical vein (IHV) or the placental cord insertion (PCI). METHOD: Pregnant women scheduled for IUT for fetal anemia (N = 25) were included prospectively.

  16. Maternal diabetes and the fetal heart

    OpenAIRE

    Hornberger, L K

    2006-01-01

    Maternal diabetes mellitus significantly affects the fetal heart and fetal–placental circulation in both structure and function. The influence of pre‐conceptional diabetes begins during embryonic development in the first trimester, with altered cardiac morphogenesis and placental development. It continues to have an influence on the fetal circulation through the second and third trimesters and into the perinatal and neonatal period

  17. Fetal trauma from motor vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Greg; Wojciehoski, Randal F

    2005-07-01

    To summarize: The best fetal protection is proper maternal use of seat belt restraints. All pregnant occupants in a motor vehicle crash require physician evaluation. Focus on maternal assessment. Maternal stability is the best indicator of fetal stability. Key treatments are high-flow oxygen, i.v. fluid loading and immobilizing in left lateral position. Evaluate the fetus after maternal stabilization.

  18. Aspects of Fetal Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirix, Chantal E. H.; Nijhuis, Jan G.; Jongsma, Henk W.; Hornstra, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Ninety-three pregnant women were recruited to assess fetal learning and memory, based on habituation to repeated vibroacoustic stimulation of fetuses of 30-38 weeks gestational age (GA). Each habituation test was repeated 10 min later to estimate the fetal short-term memory. For Groups 30-36, both measurements were replicated in a second session…

  19. Digital atlas of fetal brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Teresa; Weinberger, E. [Department of Radiology, Seattle Children' s Hospital, Seattle, WA (United States); Matesan, Manuela [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Bulas, Dorothy I. [Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Fetal MRI can be performed in the second and third trimesters. During this time, the fetal brain undergoes profound structural changes. Interpretation of appropriate development might require comparison with normal age-based models. Consultation of a hard-copy atlas is limited by the inability to compare multiple ages simultaneously. To provide images of normal fetal brains from weeks 18 through 37 in a digital format that can be reviewed interactively. This will facilitate recognition of abnormal brain development. T2-W images for the atlas were obtained from fetal MR studies of normal brains scanned for other indications from 2005 to 2007. Images were oriented in standard axial, coronal and sagittal projections, with laterality established by situs. Gestational age was determined by last menstrual period, earliest US measurements and sonogram performed on the same day as the MR. The software program used for viewing the atlas, written in C, permits linked scrolling and resizing the images. Simultaneous comparison of varying gestational ages is permissible. Fetal brain images across gestational ages 18 to 37 weeks are provided as an interactive digital atlas and are available for free download. Improved interpretation of fetal brain abnormalities can be facilitated by the use of digital atlas cataloging of the normal changes throughout fetal development. Here we provide a description of the atlas and a discussion of normal fetal brain development. (orig.)

  20. Expert systems for fetal assessment in labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutomski, J.E.; Meaney, S.; Greene, R.A.; Ryan, A.C.; Devane, D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiotocography (CTG) records the fetal heart rate in relation to maternal uterine contractions and is one of the most common forms of fetal assessment during labour. Despite guidelines for CTG interpretation, substantial inter- and intra-observer variation in interpretation has been

  1. The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiserud, Torvid; Piaggio, Gilda; Carroli, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal mortality and morbidity continue to be major global health challenges strongly associated with prematurity and reduced fetal growth, an issue of further interest given the mounting evidence that fetal growth in general is linked to degrees of risk of common noncommunicable d...

  2. Fetal goiter and bilateral ovarian cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pernille; Sundberg, Karin; Juul, Anders

    2008-01-01

    A unique case of fetal goiter accompanied by bilateral ovarian cysts in a mother treated with methimazole for Graves'disease is reported. The abnormal findings were detected by ultrasound at 31 weeks of gestation. Umbilical fetal blood sampling revealed elevated serum TSH, normal concentrations o...

  3. Fetal sex and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challis, J; Newnham, J; Petraglia, F; Yeganegi, M; Bocking, A

    2013-02-01

    Rates of preterm birth vary between different populations and ethnic groups. Epidemiologic studies have suggested that the incidence of preterm birth is also higher in pregnancies carrying a male fetus; the male:female difference is greater in earlier preterm pregnancy. Placental or chorion trophoblast cells from pregnancies with a male fetus produced more pro-inflammatory TNFα in response to LPS stimulation and less anti-inflammatory IL-10 and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) than cells from pregnancies with a female fetus, more prostaglandin synthase (PTGS-2) and less prostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH). These results suggest that in the presence of a male fetus the trophoblast has the potential to generate a more pro-inflammatory environment. Maturation of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and expression of placental genes, particularly 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 are also expressed in a sex dependent manner, consistent with the sex-biasing influences on gene networks. Sex differences in these activities may affect clinical outcomes of pre- and post-dates pregnancies and fetal/newborn wellbeing. These factors need consideration in studies of placental function and in the development of personalized strategies for the diagnosis of preterm labor and postnatal health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Propofol Pharmacokinetics and Estimation of Fetal Propofol Exposure during Mid-Gestational Fetal Surgery: A Maternal-Fetal Sheep Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jing; Venkatasubramanian, Raja; Vinks, Alexander A.; Sadhasivam, Senthilkumar

    2016-01-01

    Background Measuring fetal drug concentrations is extremely difficult in humans. We conducted a study in pregnant sheep to simultaneously describe maternal and fetal concentrations of propofol, a common intravenous anesthetic agent used in humans. Compared to inhalational anesthesia, propofol supplemented anesthesia lowered the dose of desflurane required to provide adequate uterine relaxation during open fetal surgery. This resulted in better intraoperative fetal cardiac outcome. This study describes maternal and fetal propofol pharmacokinetics (PK) using a chronically instrumented maternal-fetal sheep model. Methods Fetal and maternal blood samples were simultaneously collected from eight mid-gestational pregnant ewes during general anesthesia with propofol, remifentanil and desflurane. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was performed by using NONMEM software. Total body weight, gestational age and hemodynamic parameters were tested in the covariate analysis. The final model was validated by bootstrapping and visual predictive check. Results A total of 160 propofol samples were collected. A 2-compartment maternal PK model with a third fetal compartment appropriately described the data. Mean population parameter estimates for maternal propofol clearance and central volume of distribution were 4.17 L/min and 37.7 L, respectively, in a typical ewe with a median heart rate of 135 beats/min. Increase in maternal heart rate significantly correlated with increase in propofol clearance. The estimated population maternal-fetal inter-compartment clearance was 0.0138 L/min and the volume of distribution of propofol in the fetus was 0.144 L. Fetal propofol clearance was found to be almost negligible compared to maternal clearance and could not be robustly estimated. Conclusions For the first time, a maternal-fetal PK model of propofol in pregnant ewes was successfully developed. This study narrows the gap in our knowledge in maternal-fetal PK model in human. Our study confirms

  5. Propofol Pharmacokinetics and Estimation of Fetal Propofol Exposure during Mid-Gestational Fetal Surgery: A Maternal-Fetal Sheep Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornswan Ngamprasertwong

    Full Text Available Measuring fetal drug concentrations is extremely difficult in humans. We conducted a study in pregnant sheep to simultaneously describe maternal and fetal concentrations of propofol, a common intravenous anesthetic agent used in humans. Compared to inhalational anesthesia, propofol supplemented anesthesia lowered the dose of desflurane required to provide adequate uterine relaxation during open fetal surgery. This resulted in better intraoperative fetal cardiac outcome. This study describes maternal and fetal propofol pharmacokinetics (PK using a chronically instrumented maternal-fetal sheep model.Fetal and maternal blood samples were simultaneously collected from eight mid-gestational pregnant ewes during general anesthesia with propofol, remifentanil and desflurane. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was performed by using NONMEM software. Total body weight, gestational age and hemodynamic parameters were tested in the covariate analysis. The final model was validated by bootstrapping and visual predictive check.A total of 160 propofol samples were collected. A 2-compartment maternal PK model with a third fetal compartment appropriately described the data. Mean population parameter estimates for maternal propofol clearance and central volume of distribution were 4.17 L/min and 37.7 L, respectively, in a typical ewe with a median heart rate of 135 beats/min. Increase in maternal heart rate significantly correlated with increase in propofol clearance. The estimated population maternal-fetal inter-compartment clearance was 0.0138 L/min and the volume of distribution of propofol in the fetus was 0.144 L. Fetal propofol clearance was found to be almost negligible compared to maternal clearance and could not be robustly estimated.For the first time, a maternal-fetal PK model of propofol in pregnant ewes was successfully developed. This study narrows the gap in our knowledge in maternal-fetal PK model in human. Our study confirms that maternal heart

  6. Cultivo hidropônico de tomate cereja utilizando-se efluente tratado de uma indústria de sorvete Hydroponic production of cherry tomatoes using treated effluent of ice cream industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M. M. Malheiros

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de doses de efluente oriundo de indústria de sorvete, na cultura do tomate cereja em relação ao consumo hídrico e no desenvolvimento vegetativo em sistema hidropônico. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram compostos pelo uso de doses de efluente (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% com complementação de nutrientes e com o uso de 100% de efluente sem complementação nutriente. O aumento das doses de efluente na solução nutritiva proporcionou redução linear no consumo hídrico. O efluente com 25% proporcionou a melhor produtividade. A adição de até 50% de efluente de sorvete à solução nutritiva permitiu o cultivo de tomate cereja sem redução na produtividade, com melhor eficiência do uso da água na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea, produção de frutos e máxima substituição de minerais solúveis na solução nutritiva.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ice cream raw effluent doses on consumption and vegetative development of cherry tomato under hydroponic system. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications. Treatments consisted of 5 different levels of effluent (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% complemented with the amount of nutrient recommended for growing tomatoes and 100% of effluent without nutrient complementation. Increasing doses of effluent provided linear reduction in water consumption.Addition of effluent in proportion of 25% provided best production results. Addition up to 50% ice cream effluent to nutrient solution allowed growth of cherry tomato without yield reduction providing better efficiency of water use in terms of dry weight of shoots and fruit production as well as maximum substitution of soluble mineral fertilizers in nutrient solution.

  7. Níveis de alumínio e acúmulo de macronutrientes em porta-enxertos cítricos em cultivo hidropônico Aluminum levels and macronutrient accumulation in citrus rootstocks in hydroponic solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique dos Santos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência de diferentes níveis de alumínio no acúmulo de macronutrientes pelos porta-enxertos cítricos limoeiro Cravo e citrumeleiro Swingle, sob cultivo hidropônico. Os tratamentos utilizados em condições de casa de vegetação seguiram o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado, com 3 repetições, em parcelas subdivididas. Os níveis de alumínio utilizados foram: 0, 7,5, 15, 22,5 e 30 mg L-1, na forma de AlCl3.6 H2O. Determinaram-se o acúmulo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e do Al da matéria seca vegetal, relacionando-os com os pesos da matéria seca da parte aérea (folhas e caule e raízes durante o período de 84 dias, com coletas de plantas a cada 14 dias. Conclui-se que, com adição a partir de 7,5 mg L-1 de alumínio em solução nutritiva ocorreram alterações fisiológicas e reduções significativas no acúmulo de macronutrientes associado à redução nos pesos da matéria seca das folhas, caule e raízes das plantas de citrumelo Swingle.The aim of this research was to study the influence of different levels of aluminum on macronutrient contents of citrus rootstocks of the `Rangpur' lime and the `Swingle' citrumelo, in hydroponic solution. The treatments, established under greenhouse conditions, followed a completely randomized experimental design, with 3 replications, distributed in split-plots. The levels of aluminum were: 0; 7.5; 15; 22.5 and 30 mg L-1, applied as AlCl3.6 H2O. The evaluated chemical plant parameters were the concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Al and dry weight of leaves, stem and root system. The results showed that with adition of 7.5 mg L-1 of Al to the nutrient solution there was a significant decrese of nutrient contents and a decrese in leave, stem and root system dry weight of `Swingle' citrumelo.

  8. Cobertura do substrato com filme plástico e o cultivo hidropônico da roseira: produtividade, consumo de água, temperatura e salinização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Ernesto José Resende

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Roseiras das cultivares Anna e Sari foram conduzidas em cultivo hidropônico em bancadas com e sem cobertura do substrato. O material usado para a cobertura foi o polietileno (PEBD de coloração preta e com espessura de 0,18 mm. Como substrato de cultivo, foi usada a mistura de areia:turfa = 4:1 v/v. Os transplantes foram feitos em novembro de 1995, dispostos em fila única com 7,5 plantas/m2. Para o controle da fertirrigação, foi usado o método que se baseia no uso de um lisímetro, colocado em cada bancada, o qual permite obter o percentual de drenado prefixado e também controlar o limite máximo de salinidade do percolado, a partir do qual é adicionada água para lavar o excesso de sais do substrato. O percentual teórico de drenagem foi fixado em 10% do volume irrigado, a salinidade máxima em 4000 mmS/cm e as fertirrigações em duas por semana. Como resultado do uso da cobertura do substrato, foi verificada redução do consumo hídrico de 35% e 16%, correspondente as cultivares Anna e Sari e também menor salinização dos substratos. O uso da cobertura do substrato permitiu uma melhoria de qualidade de flores e também ganho em produtividade, com menor consumo hídrico, resultando em maior eficiência de uso da água. A umidade no ambiente das raízes manteve-se mais estável principalmente na superfície do substrato, comprovando o uso da cobertura como uma técnica, a mais, para o controle da umidade e da salinidade do substrato, com redução da quantidade de drenagem, de água e de fertilizantes administrados, com redução dos custos de produção e benefícios para o ambiente.

  9. Produção hidropônica da cultura da alface com soluções nutritivas e vazões distintas = Hidroponic production of lettuce with nutritious solutions and different outflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Helbel Junior

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido, na unidade de pesquisa em agricultura irrigada da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Estado do Paraná. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos de diferentes soluções nutritivas aplicadas em duas vazões na produção hidropônica da alface (Lactuca sativa L., cultivada pelo sistema NFT(Nutrient Film Technique. O delineamento experimental foi o de inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x2 e com três repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de três soluções nutritivas com concentrações diferentes (S1=1,2 dS m-1, S2=2,5 dS m-1 e S3=0,8 dS m-1, combinadas com duas vazões de aplicação (V1=1,2 L min-1 e V2=0,8 L min-1 , nos canais de cultivo. Para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos no desenvolvimento da cultura os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância (Teste F. Os resultados avaliados por meio de teste de média de Tukey (5%. A análise dos resultados permitiu concluir que a interação dos fatores solução e vazão não foi significativa e o tratamento S1 (CE= 1,2 dS m-1 mostrou maior biomassa fresca e diâmetro do caule e menor biomassa seca de raiz.The experiment was conducted in protected environment, within a research unit in irrigated agriculture of the State University of Maringá, state of Paraná. The purpose was to study the effect of different nutrient solutions applied on two outflows in the hidroponic production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa. The experimental design was entirely randomized, in factorial scheme 3x2 and with 3 replications. The treatments consisted of three nutrients solutions combined with two outflows of application in the canals of cultivation. In order to evaluate the effect of the treatments on crop growing, data were submitted to a variance analysis (Test F, and the results were evaluated through Tukey (5% average test. The analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the interaction between the factors solution and the outflows

  10. Resposta de genótipos de milho ao estresse salino em condições hidropônicas Response of maize genotypes to saline stress in hydroponic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Willadino

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Quatro genótipos de milho (Zea mays L., Jatinã C3 anão, BR-201, V-190 e LW-1, foram avaliados quanto à tolerância ao estresse salino (0, 50 e 100 mM NaCl em condições hidropônicas. As plantas submetidas a 100 mM de NaCl durante 29 dias apresentaram uma redução na produção de matéria seca superior a 50%, e uma redução na área foliar superior a 75%, quando comparadas ao tratamento controle (0 mM NaCl. Dentre os quatro genótipos estudados, a linha pura LW-1 apresentou produção de matéria seca e área foliar inferiores aos demais. O aumento dos níveis de sal na solução resultou em uma diminuição da taxa de crescimento da parte aérea e da raiz, de todos os genótipos. O sistema radicular apresentou os maiores teores de sódio e também os maiores decréscimos na taxa de crescimento relativo, evidenciando o efeito negativo da acumulação deste cátion. O número e o tamanho dos estômatos não sofreram alterações em conseqüência do estresse salino.Four maize (Zea mays L. genotypes, Jatinã C3 anão, BR-201, V-190 and LW-1, grown under hidroponic conditions, were evaluated for their tolerance to saline stress imposed by three salt levels (0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl. Plants submitted to 100 mM NaCl for 29 days had 50% lower dry matter production and 75% reduced leaf area, as compared to the control (0 mM NaCl plants. Among the four genotypes studied, LW-1, a pure line, produced the least dry matter and leaf area. The increase salt levels in solution decreased the growth rate of both shoot and root in all genotypes. Roots had the largest sodium concentration and also showed the largest decrease in the relative growth rate, demonstrading the negative effect of sodium accumulation. The number and size of the stomata were not affected by saline stress.

  11. Produção de forragem verde hidropônica de milho, utilizando substratos orgânicos e água residuária de bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Píccolo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade da forragem verde hidropônica de milho em diferentes substratos orgânicos e em água residuária de bovinos com diferentes concentrações de nitrogênio. O delineamento estatístico foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial (4 x 5 + 4, com três repetições. As soluções nutritivas utilizadas foram: testemunha (solução nutritiva padrão para hidroponia de milho e água residuária de bovinos, com 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% de nitrogênio, com volume de aplicação de 4 L m-2. Os substratos utilizados foram bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, casca de café, capim elefante cv napier e sem substrato. A densidade de semeio foi de 2,5 kg m-2 de sementes de milho pré-germinadas. A colheita foi realizada 15 dias após a instalação do experimento. Avaliou-se a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea, matéria seca da base (composta por raízes + sementes não germinadas + substrato orgânico e matéria seca da planta toda. A água residuária de bovinos pode ser utilizada em substituição à solução nutritiva padrão, não havendo necessidade de seu enriquecimento com nitrogênio. Houve efeito significativo dos substratos utilizados na produção de matéria seca da forragem, com destaque para os substratos capim napier e bagaço de cana, que promoveram incrementos na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea.

  12. Determinación de hidroperóxidos totales en aceite de girasol ozonizado mediante el método de oxidación ferrosa en xilenol naranja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Gómez, Maritza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Total hydroperoxides (HPT concentration using the ferrous oxidation in xylenol orange (OFX assay and peroxide value (IP using iodometric assay, were determined in sunflower oil samples ozonated at different ozone dosages. The effect of an increasing amount of ozonazed sunflower oil was evaluated by assembly assay, where a lineal relationship was obtained between oil amounts from 2 to 17 µg in the assay and absorbance units measured at 560 nm. The OFX reagent calibration and the extinction coefficient calculation were carried out for HPT measurement in ozonazed samples. The correlation established between IP and the concentration obtained by OFX assay showed a lineal relationship (r = 99.29; r2 = 98.59 %. These results confirm that this assay is appropriate for HPT measurement in ozonazed sunflower oil.Se analizaron muestras de aceite de girasol ozonizado a diferentes dosis de ozono aplicada y a cada una le fue determinada la concentración de hidroperóxidos totales (HPT empleando el método de oxidación ferrosa en xilenol naranja (OFX y el índice de peróxido (IP empleando el método yodométrico. Para el montaje de la técnica de OFX se evaluó el efecto de cantidades crecientes de aceite de girasol ozonizado, donde se obtuvo una relación lineal entre un contenido de aceite de 2 a 17 µg por ensayo y la absorbancia medida a 560 nm. Se realizó la calibración del reactivo de OFX y el cálculo del coeficiente de extinción para la determinación de HPT de las muestras ozonizadas. La correlación establecida entre la determinación de HPT por la técnica de OFX y el IP mostró una relación lineal (r= 99,29 %; r2 = 98,59 %. Estos resultados demuestran que este método es apropiado para la determinación de HPT en aceite de girasol ozonizado.

  13. Educar con significado o con sentido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Joaquín García García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoy día, tres tendencias influyen directamente en la conformación de la escuela. En primer lugar, el afán de encontrar la esencia de todo encumbró a la razón e hizo de la racionalidad el único valor a defender en las aulas. En segundo lugar, el sistema capitalista hizo lo mismo con aquello que tiene valor de uso y valor de cambio, es decir, con la mercancía, validando solo lo que puede tener una utilidad económica conocida o posible. Esto convirtió a la educación en un proceso para certificar y ganar dinero, desdibujando así su intención de formar personas. Finalmente, la visión masculina y eurocéntrica con su locura por quererlo dominar todo, y de pensar que el hombre era el dueño del planeta e inclusive la vida y el destino de los otros hombres, mutiló culturas y eliminó a la naturaleza de los currículums en los centros educativos.

  14. con turbinas de disco con paletas planas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. García-Cortés

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Las turbinas de disco con paletas planas son los impelentes de flujo radial más ampliamente utilizados en la industria por constituir el impelente que forma parte de la configuración geométrica estándar para obtener este patrón de flujo en los tanques agitados. El estudio detallado de la hidrodinámica en este sistema de agitación es fundamental para continuar obteniendo conocimientos básicos imprescindibles para la síntesis y la modelación matemática de diferentes procesos complejos que se llevan a cabo en los tanques agitados, por ejemplo, la cristalización esférica. El propósito de este artículo es hacer una revisión de la información publicada sobre la hidrodinámica y la modelación matemática de la dinámica de fluidos en los tanques agitados con turbinas de disco con paletas planas y señalar los avances logrados en cada uno de los aspectos abordados y aquellos en los cuales es necesario seguir investigando.

  15. Maternal Obesity Induces Epigenetic Modifications to Facilitate Zfp423 Expression and Enhance Adipogenic Differentiation in Fetal Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi-Yuan; Liang, Jun-Fang; Rogers, Carl J.; Zhao, Jun-Xing; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Du, Min

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity (MO) predisposes offspring to obesity and type 2 diabetes despite poorly defined mechanisms. Zfp423 is the key transcription factor committing cells to the adipogenic lineage, with exceptionally dense CpG sites in its promoter. We hypothesized that MO enhances adipogenic differentiation during fetal development through inducing epigenetic changes in the Zfp423 promoter and elevating its expression. Female mice were subjected to a control (Con) or obesogenic (OB) diet for 2 months, mated, and maintained on their diets during pregnancy. Fetal tissue was harvested at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5), when the early adipogenic commitment is initiated. The Zfp423 expression was 3.6-fold higher and DNA methylation in the Zfp423 promoter was lower in OB compared with Con. Correspondingly, repressive histone methylation (H3K27me3) was lower in the Zfp423 promoter of OB fetal tissue, accompanied by reduced binding of enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2). Gain- and loss-of-function analysis showed that Zfp423 regulates early adipogenic differentiation in fetal progenitor cells. In summary, MO enhanced Zfp423 expression and adipogenic differentiation during fetal development, at least partially through reducing DNA methylation in the Zfp423 promoter, which is expected to durably elevate adipogenic differentiation of progenitor cells in adult tissue, programming adiposity and metabolic dysfunction later in life. PMID:23884886

  16. Características del crecimiento y desarrollo fetal en hiperémesis gravídica

    OpenAIRE

    Larrabure, Gloria; Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal; Farfán, Humberto; Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal; Aragón, Ronal; Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal; Cruz, Víctor; Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La hiperémesis gravídica (HG) cursa con restricción del crecimiento intrauterino (RCIU) y peso bajo al nacer. Objetivos: Determinar en gestante con HG las curvas de crecimiento fetal por ecografía (CCF) y peso al nacer (PAN). Diseño: Descriptivo, prospectivo. Institución: Hospitalización y consultorio de endocrinología, Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal (INMP). Participantes: Gestantes con HG y sus recién nacidos (RN). Intervenciones: En los recién nacidos (RN) de 45 gestante...

  17. Índice de masa corporal pregestacional y ganancia de peso materno y su relación con el peso del recién nacido

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manrique Leal-Mateos; Loretta Giacomin; Luis Diego Pacheco-Vargas

    2008-01-01

    ..., y su relación con el peso del recién nacido. Asimismo, pretende investigar su relación con factores adversos tanto maternos como fetales, al momento de la labor de parto. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó...

  18. Dietary exposure to contaminants during pregnancy and fetal growth

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte Salles, Talita, 1985-

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: La exposición prenatal a los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (HAP) y a la acrilamida ha sido asociada con la reducción del crecimiento fetal. El papel de la dieta, la principal fuente de exposición a estos compuestos en la población general, sigue siendo incierto. Los objetivos de esta tesis son caracterizar la exposición a través de la dieta a la acrilamida y a los HAP, específicamente el compuesto genotóxico benzo(a)pireno [B(a)P], durante el embarazo, y evaluar los efec...

  19. Compostos nitrogenados e açúcares solúveis em tecidos de alface orgânica, hidropônica e convencional Nitrogen compounds and soluble sugars in tissues of organic, hydroponic, and conventional lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nélio Cometti

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado na UFRRJ e teve como objetivo verificar as variações de alguns componentes metabólicos nos tecidos da alface. Plantas de alface do tipo crespa, da cultivar Verônica, provenientes de três sistemas de cultivo, orgânico, hidropônico e convencional, foram separadas em oito partes (limbo das folhas basais, medianas e apicais, nervura central das folhas basais, medianas e apicais, caule e raiz. Foram analisados nitrato, N-amino, açúcares livres e distribuição da massa seca nos vários tecidos. Considerando a parte aérea e raízes, os teores encontrados assemelham-se aos da literatura. Porém, quando as análises são realizadas nos tecidos que compõem a parte aérea, há diferenças significativas em todas as variáveis. Isso permite escolher partes da planta para analisar, dependendo do que se deseja observar. Em estudos fisiológicos, principalmente de metabolismo do nitrogênio, a segmentação das partes pode ser fundamental na interpretação dos resultados. Na análise de nitrato, N-amino e açúcares livres na alface, é recomendada a separação de folhas e caule da parte aérea por terem apresentado grandes diferenças. A alface em cultura hidropônica mostrou teores de nitrato bem superiores aos outros sistemas de cultivo, chegando ao máximo de 1000 mg kg-1 massa fresca do caule, valor esse, entretanto, bem abaixo do máximo permitido pela legislação européia para acúmulo de nitrato em alface. Pode-se sugerir que o caule da alface funcione como o principal órgão de reserva temporário de compostos nitrogenados livres, principalmente nitrato e N-amino, além de açúcares solúveis. Maiores estudos são necessários para confirmar se o caule teria efeito tampão caso as plantas da alface absorvessem grandes quantidades de nitrogênio na forma nítrica e amoniacal.The distribution of some physiologic metabolites was evaluated in lettuce plants. Crest leaf lettuce plants were grown in the

  20. Diagnóstico do cultivo hidropônico de hortaliças na região do Distrito Federal Diagnosis of the horticultural crop production in hydroponical facilities in the Distrito Federal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana S Costa

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available De outubro de 1997 a maio de 1998, foram realizadas entrevistas com produtores de hortaliças em cultivo hidropônico, na região do Distrito Federal, com o objetivo de verificar a situação atual, bem como identificar os pontos de estrangulamento no sistema de produção. Foram identificados 18 produtores em um raio de 50 km de Brasília. As principais culturas são alface e tomate, ocupando uma área de 2,7 ha e de 0,5 ha, respectivamente. Foi verificado que as estruturas são, na sua maioria, de madeira e arcos de ferro, com custo médio de R$ 26,00/m², para produção de alface e de R$ 20,00/m², para tomate. O custo por unidade de alface está em torno de R$ 0,25 e o preço médio de venda ao mercado de R$ 0,45, enquanto que o tomate está sendo vendido a R$ 1,20/kg. Devido à produção recente, os produtores de tomate não conseguiram ainda calcular os custos. As produtividades médias observadas foram de 300 t/ha/ano de alface e de 104 t/ha/ciclo de tomate. Os principais compradores são Ceasa, supermercados, restaurantes, sacolões e mercearias. Um dos produtores exporta alface para Manaus (AM. Metade dos produtores não usa agrotóxicos. Assistência técnica, ocorrência de "tipburn", análise da solução nutritiva, aquecimento interno da estrutura, doenças e pragas são os principais problemas citados pelos produtores de alface e, na produção de tomate, frutos rachados, doenças e pragas. O cultivo hidropônico de hortaliças está sendo visto como uma alternativa para viabilização do agronegócio na região, além de permitir uma sensível redução na utilização de agrotóxicos. Aproximadamente 44% dos produtores estão sem assistência técnica e produzindo por meio de tentativas, demandando uma atuação mais efetiva dos órgãos de ensino, pesquisa e extensão rural da região.From October 1997 to May 1998, several interviews with producers of hydroponic crops took place in Distrito Federal with the objective of not

  1. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  2. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C; Kasprian, Gregor; Witzani, Linde; Helmer, Hanns; Dietrich, Wolfgang; Eppel, Wolfgang; Langer, Martin

    2006-02-01

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  3. Fetal Primary Cardiac Tumors During Perinatal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fetal primary cardiac tumors are rare, but they may cause complications, which are sometimes life threatening, including arrhythmias, hydrops fetalis, ventricular outflow/inflow obstruction, cardiac failure, and even sudden death. Among fetal primary cardiac tumors, rhabdomyomas are most common, followed by teratomas, fibromas, hemangiomas, and myxomas. Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, has been reported to be an effective drug to cause tumor remission in three neonates with multiple cardiac rhabdomyomas. Neonatal cardiac surgery for the resection of primary cardiac tumors found by fetal echocardiography has been reported sporadically. However, open fetal surgery for pericardial teratoma resection, which was performed successfully via a fetal median sternotomy in one case report, could be a promising intervention to rescue these patients with large pericardial effusions. These recent achievements undoubtedly encourage further development in early management of fetal cardiac tumors. Owing to the rarity of fetal primary cardiac tumors, relevant information in terms of prenatal diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis remains to be clarified.

  4. Fetal pain: an infantile debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, S W G

    2001-02-01

    The question of whether a fetus can experience pain is an immense challenge. The issue demands consideration of the physical and psychological basis of being and the relation between the two. At the center of this debate is the question of how it is that we are conscious, a question that has inspired the writing of some of our most brilliant contemporary philosophers and scientists, with one commentary suggesting surrender. In my earlier review I attempted to draw together the various strands of thinking that had attacked the question of fetal pain and relate them back to the bigger question of consciousness. In their vituperative response, Benatar and Benatar bite off my finger before looking to where I am pointing. I will examine each of their criticisms.

  5. Neurodevelopment after fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschat, Ahmet A

    2014-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) can emerge as a complication of placental dysfunction and increases the risk for neurodevelopmental delay. Marked elevations of umbilical artery (UA) Doppler resistance that set the stage for cardiovascular and biophysical deterioration with subsequent preterm birth characterize early-onset FGR. Minimal, or absent UA Doppler abnormalities and isolated cerebral Doppler changes with subtle deterioration and a high risk for unanticipated term stillbirth are characteristic for late-onset FGR. Nutritional deficiency manifested in lagging head growth is the most powerful predictor of developmental delay in all forms of FGR. Extremes of blood flow resistance and cardiovascular deterioration, prematurity and intracranial hemorrhage increase the risks for psychomotor delay and cerebral palsy. In late-onset FGR, regional cerebral vascular redistribution correlates with abnormal behavioral domains. Irrespective of the phenotype of FGR, prenatal tests that provide precise and independent stratification of risks for adverse neurodevelopment have yet to be determined.

  6. Fetal alcohol syndrome: neuropsychiatric phenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Larry; Klug, Marilyn G; Martsolf, John T; Kerbeshian, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a common developmental disorder with impairments in multiple neuropsychiatric spheres of varying severity. Few population-derived studies of the behavioral phenotype are available. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders in three groups: subjects who met criteria for FAS (n=152); subjects who met criteria for partial FAS/ARND (n=150); and referred subjects who did not meet criteria for either FAS or partial FAS/ARND (n=86). Each subject had a standardized evaluation by a medical geneticist. All subjects were from North Dakota. We found increases in the prevalence rates of neuropsychiatric disorders in subjects with FAS compared to subjects with partial FAS/ARND and the lowest rates in the group that did not meet criteria for either FAS or partial FAS/ARND. Comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder occurred in 73% of cases with FAS, in 72% cases with partial FAS/ARND, and in 36% subjects who did not meet criteria for either. For other neuropsychiatric disorders, a similar distribution of comorbidity was found. This study supports the concept of a continuum of impairment resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure. The presence of complex cognitive, behavioral, and physical symptomatology in the affected subjects with prenatal alcohol exposure would seem to fit well under the diagnostic rubric of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Diagnosis and long-term management will require increasing access to multidisciplinary child development teams including mental health professionals who treat children and adolescents. Adults will require care primarily from teams with expertise in mental health and developmental disabilities.

  7. Miocarditis y bloqueo aurículo-ventricular fetal asociado a lupus eritematoso sistémico materno

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez G,Marcelo; Moreno S,José Antonio; Soto A,Alejandro; Bachmann,Maritza; Márquez A,Rolando; Eltit V,Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    El lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES) es una de las patologías autoinmunes más frecuentes durante el embarazo, asociándose con distintas complicaciones fetales y neonatales, sobre todo cardíacas, secundario al traspaso de anticuerpos maternos a través de la placenta. Estos anticuerpos se unen a los cardiomioci-tos fetales, desencadenando una respuesta inflamatoria local que determina la aparición de lesiones que pueden ser permanentes y letales. Presentamos el caso de una paciente embarazada c...

  8. Miocarditis y bloqueo aurículo-ventricular fetal asociado a lupus eritematoso sistémico materno

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez G,Marcelo; Moreno S,José Antonio; Soto A,Alejandro; Bachmann,Maritza; Márquez A,Rolando; Eltit V,Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    El lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES) es una de las patologías autoinmunes más frecuentes durante el embarazo, asociándose con distintas complicaciones fetales y neonatales, sobre todo cardíacas, secundario al traspaso de anticuerpos maternos a través de la placenta. Estos anticuerpos se unen a los cardiomioci-tos fetales, desencadenando una respuesta inflamatoria local que determina la aparición de lesiones que pueden ser permanentes y letales. Presentamos el caso de una paciente embarazada c...

  9. CORIOAMNIONITIS HISTOLÓGICA Y MORBIMORTALIDAD NEONATAL: APROXIMACIÓN AL SÍNDROME DE RESPUESTA INFLAMATORIA FETAL

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón Ricote,M. Inmaculada; Magdaleno Dans, Fernando; Sancha Naranjo,Marta; Omeñaca Teres,Félix; González González,Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Antecedentes: El síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria fetal (SRIF) es una entidad relacionada con la presencia de inflamación intrauterina y suele asociarse a infección intraamniótica. Su consecuencia más grave es la lesión cerebral y posterior desarrollo de parálisis cerebral. Objetivo: Evaluar la relación entre el síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria fetal y el desarrollo de complicaciones neonatales. Método: Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo, realizado en el Hospital Universitario La Paz de ...

  10. Investigando con personas con dificultades de aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja González Luna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo muestra los orígenes de lo que Walmsley (2008 denomina «investigación inclusiva». Para comprender qué se entiende por investigación inclusiva tenemos que remontarnos a los debates epistemológicos sobre las metodologías cuantitativas y cualitativas, acontecidos en la década de los 90, en torno a la revista Disability & Society. A partir de una síntesis de dichos debates, focalizados en el ámbito de la «discapacidad intelectual y del desarrollo», se exponen dos estrategias de colaboración con dicha población: a una aproximación etnográfica (de trabajo grupal, y b una aproximación biográfica (de trabajo individual. A continuación se esboza un posible diseño de trabajo de campo que intenta superar el paradigma cualitativo «clásico» con el objetivo de incluir a dicho colectivo más allá del rol de «sujetos de la investigación». Para finalizar se recoge el debate sobre la accesibilidad de los resultados de la investigación a los participantes en dichas investigaciones, y con ello la necesaria innovación en el ámbito de las «devoluciones» de los resultados, cuando se trata de incluir a personas que presentan limitaciones para la comprensión del lenguaje abstracto oral y/o escrito.

  11. [Advanced MRI techniques of the fetal brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpf, V; Dittrich, E; Berger-Kulemann, V; Kasprian, G; Kollndorfer, K; Prayer, D

    2013-02-01

    Evaluation of the normal and pathological fetal brain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Advanced MRI of the fetal brain. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is used in clinical practice, all other methods are used at a research level. Serving as standard methods in the future. Combined structural and functional data for all gestational ages will allow more specific insight into the developmental processes of the fetal brain. This gain of information will help provide a common understanding of complex spatial and temporal procedures of early morphological features and their impact on cognitive and sensory abilities.

  12. Caracterización de la mortalidad fetal tardía en Villa Clara.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Suárez González

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Eventos como la mortalidad fetal tardía agreden la evolución normal esperada en el embarazo, con una connotación en la mujer, la pareja y la comunidad. Objetivo: Caracterizar la mortalidad fetal tardía según factores asociados. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de las 74 muertes fetales registradas en el Hospital Universitario Ginecoobstétrico Mariana Grajales de Santa Clara, durante los años 2009 y 2010. Se analizaron las variables: edad materna, antecedentes patológicos personales maternos, edad gestacional al momento de la muerte fetal, lugar y momento de ocurrencia y causas de la muerte. Resultados: El 67,6 % de las gestantes tenían entre 20 y 35 años. La hipertensión arterial crónica y el asma bronquial fueron los antecedentes patológicos personales de mayor incidencia entre las gestantes. Ocurrieron los óbitos fetales en una edad gestacional entre 28 y 36,6 semanas fundamentalmente. El 52,7 % de las muertes ocurrieron fuera del hospital y antes del parto en 55 casos (74,3 %. Resultaron las causas más frecuentes las idiopáticas y los trastornos hipertensivos de la gestación. Conclusiones: Es necesario intensificar el control del riesgo reproductivo preconcepcional y la atención prenatal, pues sin dudas, aunque mucho se ha logrado en este sentido, los resultados del estudio muestran que en alguna medida las causas de los óbitos fetales fueron prevenibles.

  13. Decreased fetal movements at home were recorded by a newly developed fetal movement recorder in a case of a non-reassuring fetal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryo, Eiji; Kamata, Hideo; Seto, Michiharu

    2014-10-01

    A fetal movement acceleration measurement (FMAM) recorder was developed for home monitoring of fetal movements. We provided a 32-year-old pregnant woman with the FMAM recorder to home monitor fetal movements, thereby self-recording decreased fetal movements at 30 weeks' gestation. On routine checkup, a non-stress test revealed scant fetal heart rate accelerations. At 31 weeks' gestation, the woman underwent an emergent caesarean delivery because of a non-reassuring fetal heart rate pattern, and delivered a female neonate weighing 1312 g, whose umbilical cord was slightly narrowed at the umbilicus. Our experience with the present case suggests the usefulness of the FMAM recorder.

  14. Normalized spectral power of fetal heart rate variability is associated with fetal scalp blood pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laar, J. O.; Peters, C. H. L.; Houterman, S.; Wijn, P. F. F.; Kwee, A.; Oei, S. G.

    Background: Spectral power of fetal heart rate variability is related to fetal condition. Previous studies found an increased normalized low frequency power in case of severe fetal acidosis. Aims: To analyze whether absolute or normalized low or high frequency power of fetal heart rate variability

  15. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging: methods and techniques; Fetale Magnetresonanztomographie: Methoden und Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, P.C. [Zentrum fuer Anatomie und Zellbiologie, Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Arbeitsgruppe Integrative Morphologie; Stuhr, F.; Lindner, C.; Prayer, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik

    2006-02-15

    Since the introduction of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into prenatal diagnostics, advances in coil technology and development of ultrafast sequences have further enhanced this technique. At present numerous sequences are available to visualize the whole fetus with high resolution and image quality, even in late stages of pregnancy. Taking into consideration the special circumstances of examination and adjusting sequence parameters to gestational age, fetal anatomy can be accurately depicted. The variety of sequences also allows further characterization of fetal tissues and pathologies. Fetal MRI not only supplies additional information to routine ultrasound studies, but also reveals fetal morphology and pathology in a way hitherto not possible. (orig.) [German] Seit Einfuehrung der fetalen Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) in die praenatale Diagnostik wurde das Verfahren durch neue Spulentechniken und die Entwicklung ultraschneller Sequenzen kontinuierlich weiter entwickelt. Gegenwaertig steht eine Vielzahl von Sequenzen zur Verfuegung, die es erlauben, mit hoher Bildqualitaet und raeumlicher Aufloesung selbst in fortgeschrittenen Schwangerschaftsstadien den gesamten Feten darzustellen. Unter Beruecksichtigung der speziellen Untersuchungsbedingungen und des Schwangerschaftsalters kann so die fetale Anatomie genau abgebildet werden. Die Vielfalt an Sequenzen und deren gezielter Einsatz ermoeglichen es weiter, fetale Gewebe und Pathologien naeher zu charakterisierten. Auf diese Weise liefert die fetale MRT nicht nur Zusatzinformationen zur Routineultraschalluntersuchung, sie gibt auch Aufschluss ueber bestimmte fetale Morphologien und Pathologien, die bisher nicht darstellbar waren. (orig.)

  16. Fetal bowel anomalies - US and MR assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubesova, Erika [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The technical quality of prenatal US and fetal MRI has significantly improved during the last decade and allows an accurate diagnosis of bowel pathology prenatally. Accurate diagnosis of bowel pathology in utero is important for parental counseling and postnatal management. It is essential to recognize the US presentation of bowel pathology in the fetus in order to refer the patient for further evaluation or follow-up. Fetal MRI has been shown to offer some advantages over US for specific bowel abnormalities. In this paper, we review the normal appearance of the fetal bowel on US and MRI as well as the typical presentations of bowel pathologies. We discuss more specifically the importance of recognizing on fetal MRI the abnormalities of size and T1-weighted signal of the meconium-filled distal bowel. (orig.)

  17. Changing patterns of fetal lung maturity testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGinnis, K T; Brown, J A; Morrison, J C

    2008-01-01

    In our laboratory, a decrease in fetal lung maturity (FLM) testing on amniotic fluid occurred over a 10-year period, and we desired to determine if this was a national phenomenon and, if present, ascertain possible etiologies...

  18. Practice Bulletin No. 173: Fetal Macrosomia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2016-01-01

    Suspected fetal macrosomia is encountered commonly in obstetric practice. As birth weight increases, the likelihood of labor abnormalities, shoulder dystocia, birth trauma, and permanent injury to the neonate increases...

  19. Practice Bulletin No. 173 Summary: Fetal Macrosomia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2016-01-01

    Suspected fetal macrosomia is encountered commonly in obstetric practice. As birth weight increases, the likelihood of labor abnormalities, shoulder dystocia, birth trauma, and permanent injury to the neonate increases...

  20. Fetal diffusion imaging: pearls and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprian, Gregor; Del Río, Maria; Prayer, Daniela

    2010-12-01

    Recently, diffusion-weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging of the fetus has evolved from a basic research application to an important diagnostic imaging tool in fetal magnetic resonance imaging. Although technically challenging and still plagued with several sources of artifacts, DWI can add clinically important information, which cannot be provided by any other prenatal imaging modality. Its potential to noninvasively probe tissue structures on the basis of Brownian molecular motion enables the detection of early changes associated with acute fetal diseases, as well as structural alterations of functionally diverse compartments of different fetal organs. In this article, the current clinical applications of fetal brain and body DWI are outlined, as well as its current limitations.

  1. Diagnostic pitfalls in fetal brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mukhtar, Ali; Kasprian, Gregor; Schmook, Maria T; Brugger, Peter C; Prayer, Daniela

    2009-08-01

    Recent technological advances in fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and increased reliability of MRI in depicting abnormalities and lesions, especially in the central nervous system, are increasingly bringing up challenging issues with regard to accurate diagnosis. There are also pitfalls not only attributable to image acquisition but also in clinical interpretation. The misinterpretation of findings because of insufficient knowledge about fetal brain development as visualized by MRI may also be regarded as an important limitation of fetal MRI. We provide an overview of the most common pitfalls experienced in fetal MRI in routine practice, demonstrate how to identify some of the factors that lead to imaging misinterpretation, and suggest ways to tackle these problems, with an emphasis on MR techniques and image calibration.

  2. [Effect of music on fetal behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, M; Malinova, M

    2004-01-01

    Antenatal music stimulation shown to elicit fetal heart rate and body movement responses, indicating that prenatal experience with music influences auditory functional development. The slower tempo resulted in less movement variation.

  3. Fetal magnetocardiography: Methods for rapid data reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, John C.; Flynn, Edward R.; Quinn, A.; Weir, A.; Shahani, U.; Bain, R. J. P.; Maas, P.; Donaldson, G. B.

    1997-03-01

    Fetal magnetocardigraphy (fMCG) provides a unique method for noninvasive observations of the fetal heart. Electrical currents generated by excitable tissues within the fetal heart yield measurable external magnetic fields. Measurements are performed with superconducting quantum interference devices inductively coupled to magnetometer or gradiometer coils, and the resulting signals are converted to digital form in the data acquisition system. The measured fields are usually contaminated by fetal and maternal movements (usually respiration), other physiological fields such as skeletal muscle contraction, the maternal cardiac signal, and environmental electromagnetic fields. Sensitivity to relatively distant sources, both physiological and environmental, is substantially reduced by the use of magnetic gradiometers. Other contaminants may be removed by proper signal conditioning which may be automatically applied using "black box" algorithms that are transparent to the user and highly efficient. These procedures can rapidly reduce the complex signal plus noise waveforms to the desired fMCG with minimal operator interference.

  4. Piracetam for fetal distress in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Kulier, Regina

    2012-06-13

    Piracetam is thought to promote the metabolism of brain cells when they are hypoxic. It has been used to prevent adverse effects of fetal distress. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of piracetam for suspected fetal distress in labour on method of delivery and perinatal morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (15 February 2012). Randomised trials of piracetam compared with placebo or no treatment for suspected fetal distress in labour. Both review authors assessed eligibility and trial quality. One study of 96 women was included. Piracetam compared with placebo was associated with a trend to reduced need for caesarean section (risk ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 1.03). There were no statistically significant differences between the piracetam and placebo group for neonatal morbidity (measured by neonatal respiratory distress) or Apgar score. There is not enough evidence to evaluate the use of piracetam for fetal distress in labour.

  5. Erythropoietin elevation in the chronically hyperglycemic fetal lamb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipps, A.F. (Univ. of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington) Widness, J.A.; Garcia, J.F.; Raye, J.R.; Swartz, R.

    1982-05-01

    The effects of chronic fetal glucose infusion upon fetal oxygenation and endogenous erythropoietin (Ep) production were studied using the chronically catheterized fetal lamb. Fetal glucose infusion at rates between 5 and 20 mg/kg/min resulted in sustained fetal hyperglycemia. During glucose infusion (maximal glucose concentration achieved = 55.4 +/- 3.7 mg/dl) fetal arterial oxygen contents fell from 5.8 +/- 0.9 to 4.2 +/- 1.0 ml/dl while no changes were observed in simultaneously sampled, noninfused twins. Although plasma insulin concentration rose in the infused fetuses, the elevations were inconstant and no relationship between fetal plasma insulin concentration and decrement in fetal oxygen content was evident. The changes in plasma Ep concentration were noted prior to any significant fetal metabolic acidosis (as evidence of tissue hypoxia) and no changes in plasma Ep concentration were observed in simultaneously sampled noninfused twins. No relationship was apparent between fetal arterial plasma insulin and Ep concentrations. Since neither fetal anemia nor hemodilution occurred in these preparations, glucose-induced fetal hyposemia is the likely mechanism behind elevated fetal Ep concentrations in these experiments. Similarities between this animal model and human fetuses and infants of diabetic mothers suggest that chronic in utero hypoxemia may be a common feature responsible for such diverse abnomalities as polycythemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and late fetal demise. The mechanism behind the glucose-induced fetal hypoxemia is not known.

  6. Fetal MR imaging of Kniest dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Zeynep [Uludag University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gorukle (Turkey); Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tinkle, Bradley T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2010-03-15

    We present a case of Kniest dysplasia, a rare form of the type II collagenopathies, with prenatal MRI. Sonography revealed only short limbs in the fetus. Fetal MRI findings included enlarged hyaline cartilaginous structures with abnormally high T2 signal intensity, delayed ossification of the pubic and ischial bones, and platyspondyly. By delineating the cartilaginous abnormalities, fetal MRI can contribute to the prenatal diagnosis of chondrodysplasias. (orig.)

  7. Impact of Oxidative Stress in Fetal Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren P. Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine stress induces increased risk of adult disease through fetal programming mechanisms. Oxidative stress can be generated by several conditions, such as, prenatal hypoxia, maternal under- and overnutrition, and excessive glucocorticoid exposure. The role of oxidant molecules as signaling factors in fetal programming via epigenetic mechanisms is discussed. By linking oxidative stress with dysregulation of specific target genes, we may be able to develop therapeutic strategies that protect against organ dysfunction in the programmed offspring.

  8. Caracterización de la mortalidad fetal tardía en Villa Clara. Characterization of Late Fetal Mortality in Villa Clara.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Suárez González

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Fundamento: Eventos como la mortalidad fetal tardía agreden la evolución normal esperada en el embarazo, con una connotación en la mujer, la pareja y la comunidad. Objetivo: Caracterizar la mortalidad fetal tardía según factores asociados. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de las 74 muertes fetales registradas en el Hospital Universitario Ginecoobstétrico Mariana Grajales de Santa Clara, durante los años 2009 y 2010. Se analizaron las variables: edad materna, antecedentes patológicos personales maternos, edad gestacional al momento de la muerte fetal, lugar y momento de ocurrencia y causas de la muerte. Resultados: El 67,6 % de las gestantes tenían entre 20 y 35 años. La hipertensión arterial crónica y el asma bronquial fueron los antecedentes patológicos personales de mayor incidencia entre las gestantes. Ocurrieron los óbitos fetales en una edad gestacional entre 28 y 36,6 semanas fundamentalmente. El 52,7 % de las muertes ocurrieron fuera del hospital y antes del parto en 55 casos (74,3 %. Resultaron las causas más frecuentes las idiopáticas y los trastornos hipertensivos de la gestación. Conclusiones: Es necesario intensificar el control del riesgo reproductivo preconcepcional y la atención prenatal, pues sin dudas, aunque mucho se ha logrado en este sentido, los resultados del estudio muestran que en alguna medida las causas de los óbitos fetales fueron prevenibles.

    Background: Events like late fetal mortality alter the regular, expected course of pregnancy. This carries a negative connotation for the woman, the couple and the community. Objective: To characterize late fetal mortality according to associated factors. Methods: A descriptive study of the 74 fetal deaths registered in the ’Mariana Grajales’ Gynecological and Obstetric University Hospital of Santa

  9. Programación fetal de la hipertensión arterial del adulto: mecanismos celulares y moleculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez, FT., PhD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cambios metabólicos in utero establecen patrones fisiológicos y estructurales a largo plazo que pueden “programar” la salud durante la vida adulta, teoría popularmente conocida como “hipótesis de Barker”. La programación fetal implica que durante los períodos críticos del crecimiento prenatal, ciertos cambios en el entorno hormonal y nutricional del embrión, pueden alterar la expresión del genoma fetal, en tejidos con funciones fisiológicas y metabólicas en la etapa adulta. La evidencia sugiere que patologías como enfermedad vascular (por ejemplo, hipertensión, síndrome metabólico y diabetes mellitus tipo 2, pueden “programarse” durante las primeras etapas del desarrollo fetal y manifestarse en etapas tardías, al interactuar con el estilo de vida y otros factores de riesgo adquiridos convencionales con el medio ambiente. El objetivo de esta revisión es presentar evidencia adicional que apoye la asociación entre el bajo peso al nacer, con el aumento en la prevalencia de la hipertensión arterial en la edad adulta. Se revisan la función endotelial, el estrés oxidativo, la resistencia a la insulina y la función mitocondrial, como posibles mecanismos celulares y moleculares.

  10. Establecimiento de un protocolo de reproducción para la obtención de especímenes murinos embrionarios/fetales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marcela Mendoza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación científica utiliza modelos animales en situaciones experimentales en las que es controversial investigar con especímenes humanos; tal es el caso de la investigación con muestras embrionarias/fetales, donde se requieren estrictos protocolos reproductivos que posibiliten un cálculo preciso de la edad gestacional y con ello la obtención de muestras adecuadas. El ratón es el modelo de experimentación más utilizado, pues es de fácil manipulación y eficiencia reproductiva. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar un protocolo de reproducción que permite determinar con certeza el día de preñez en biomodelo Mus musculus, para la obtención de especímenes embrionarios/fetales.

  11. Biomedical Instruments for Fetal and Neonatal Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolfe, P [Oxford BioHorizons Ltd. (United Kingdom); Scopesi, F [Gaslini Institute, University of Genoa (Italy); Serra, G [Gaslini Institute, University of Genoa (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    Specialised instruments have been developed to aid the care of the fetus and the newborn baby. Miniature sensors using optical, electrical, chemical, mechanical and magnetic principles have been produced for capturing key measurands. These include temperature, pressure, flow and dimension, as well as several specific molecules such as glucose, oxygen and carbon dioxide. During pregnancy ultrasound imaging and blood flow techniques provide valuable information concerning fetal abnormalities, fetal growth, fetal breathing and fetal heart rate. Signal processing and pattern recognition can be useful for deriving indicators of fetal distress and clinical status, based on biopotentials as well as ultrasound signals. Fetal pH measurement is a critical requirement during labour and delivery. The intensive care of ill preterm babies involves provision of an optimal thermal environment and respiratory support. Monitoring of blood gas and acid-base status is essential, and this involves both blood sampling for in vitro analysis as well as the use of invasive or non-invasive sensors. For the future it will be vital that the technologies used are subjected to controlled trials to establish benefit or otherwise.

  12. The Use of Fetal Noninvasive Electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhno, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the severe complications of pregnancy that leads to fetal deterioration. The aim was to survey the validity of fetal distress diagnostics in case of Doppler ultrasonic umbilical vein and arteries blood flow velocity investigation and ECG parameters analysis obtained from maternal abdominal signal before labor in preeclamptic patients. Fetal noninvasive ECG and umbilical arterial and venous Doppler investigation were performed in 120 patients at 34-40 weeks of gestation. And 30 of them had physiological gestation and were involved in Group I. In Group II 52 pregnant women with mild-moderate PE were observed. 38 patients with severe PE were monitored in Group III. The most considerable negative correlation was determined in pair Apgar score 1 versus T/QRS (R = -0.50; p < 0.05). So the increased T/QRS ratio was the most evident marker of fetal distress. Fetal noninvasive ECG showed sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 98.4% and, therefore, was determined as more accurate method for fetal monitoring.

  13. Fetal ventriculomegaly: Diagnosis, treatment, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisapia, Jared M; Sinha, Saurabh; Zarnow, Deborah M; Johnson, Mark P; Heuer, Gregory G

    2017-07-01

    Fetal ventriculomegaly (VM) refers to the enlargement of the cerebral ventricles in utero. It is associated with the postnatal diagnosis of hydrocephalus. VM is clinically diagnosed on ultrasound and is defined as an atrial diameter greater than 10 mm. Because of the anatomic detailed seen with advanced imaging, VM is often further characterized by fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fetal VM is a heterogeneous condition with various etiologies and a wide range of neurodevelopmental outcomes. These outcomes are heavily dependent on the presence or absence of associated anomalies and the direct cause of the ventriculomegaly rather than on the absolute degree of VM. In this review article, we discuss diagnosis, work-up, counseling, and management strategies as they relate to fetal VM. We then describe imaging-based research efforts aimed at using prenatal data to predict postnatal outcome. Finally, we review the early experience with fetal therapy such as in utero shunting, as well as the advances in prenatal diagnosis and fetal surgery that may begin to address the limitations of previous therapeutic efforts.

  14. Fetal growth potential and pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2004-02-01

    Although the association of fetal growth restriction and adverse pregnancy outcomes is well known, lack of sensitivity limits its clinical value. To a large extent, this limitation is a result of traditionally used method to define growth restriction by comparing fetal or birth weight to population norms. The use of population norms, by virtue of their inability to fully consider individual variation, results in high false positive and negative rates. An alternative, calculating fetal individually optimal growth potential, based on physiological determinants of individual growth, is superior in predicting adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Impairment of fetal growth potential identifes some adverse pregnancy outcomes that are not associated with growth restrction defined by population norms. When compared with traditional population-based norms, fetal growth potential is a better predictor of several important adverse outcomes of pregnancy which include: stillbirth, neonatal mortality and morbidity, and long-term adverse neonatal outcomes like neonatal encephalopathy, cerebral palsy and cognitive abilities. Impairment of individual growth potential is also strongly associated with spontaneous preterm delivery. Although definitive interventional trials have not been conducted as yet to validate the clinical value of fetal growth potential, many observational studies, conducted in various populations, indicate its significant promise in this respect.

  15. The Use of Fetal Noninvasive Electrocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Lakhno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is one of the severe complications of pregnancy that leads to fetal deterioration. The aim was to survey the validity of fetal distress diagnostics in case of Doppler ultrasonic umbilical vein and arteries blood flow velocity investigation and ECG parameters analysis obtained from maternal abdominal signal before labor in preeclamptic patients. Fetal noninvasive ECG and umbilical arterial and venous Doppler investigation were performed in 120 patients at 34–40 weeks of gestation. And 30 of them had physiological gestation and were involved in Group I. In Group II 52 pregnant women with mild-moderate PE were observed. 38 patients with severe PE were monitored in Group III. The most considerable negative correlation was determined in pair Apgar score 1 versus T/QRS (R=-0.50; p<0.05. So the increased T/QRS ratio was the most evident marker of fetal distress. Fetal noninvasive ECG showed sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 98.4% and, therefore, was determined as more accurate method for fetal monitoring.

  16. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  17. Caracterización hemodinámica doppler e inflamatoria de las preeclámpticas: análisis del efecto del tratamiento con parches de nitroglicerina

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Villasmil,Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    De esta investigación prospectiva de la caracterización hemodinámica Doppler e inflamatoria de pacientes con preeclampsia y de un grupo control de embarazadas normotensas sanas, así como el análisis del efecto del tratamiento con parches de nitroglicerina en las preeclámpticas, se concluye que: Las preeclámpticas tiene valores significativamente más latos de velocimetría Doppler en las arterias uterinas, umbilical, renal fetal y hepática fetal y más bajos de la arteria cerebral media fetal co...

  18. en pacientes con obesidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcia María Alvarado Sánchez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de una intervención psicológica en pacientes con obesidad. Se utilizó un diseño cuasiexperimental con un grupo de estudio y un grupo control. Después de la intervención, se encontró una diferencia significativa en la reducción de peso entre los grupos. Asimismo, hubo un incremento significativo en la autoestima del grupo estudiado.

  19. Soledad con espectador

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Este proyecto se plantea como una investigación de las posibilidades del dibujo como una herramienta para relatar una historia propia que se empapa de realidad y de ficción con el deseo de confundir al espectador y suscitarle preguntas. Para ello me he servido de mi propia imagen como personaje central. Éste se presenta duplicado, multiplicado, repetido e interactúa consigo mismo en un espacio imaginario con intención de simular aquello que se revela en el interior de la psique. Mi trabajo se...

  20. Funcionando con la computadora

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, Eduardo; Astiz, Mercedes; Medina, Perla; Montero, Y.; Oliver, María; Rocerau, M. Cristina; VALDEZ, Guillermo; Vecino, María; Vilanova, Silvia

    2004-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta la descripción y resultados de la segunda etapa de una experiencia planteada con el objetivo de indagar la manera en que los alumnos determinan e interpretan funciones que explican situaciones problemáticas valiéndose de una nueva forma de trabajo en el aula: la utilización de la computadora como herramienta y un programa asistente matemático. La primera etapa consistió en el desarrollo de un taller optativo con alumnos de entre 14 y 15 años de edad del Colegio Dr....

  1. Giochiamo con i robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bonarini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "Giochiamo con i robot" e' un laboratorio interattivo per grandi e piccini realizzato per l'edizione 2007 del Festival della Scienza di Genova. Lungo un percorso che va dalla telerobotica alla robotica evolutiva, il laboratorio sviluppa il tema di dare intelligenza ai robot. Questo percorso, le cui tappe sono le varie installazioni, si conclude nella "bottega" dove e' possibile costruire e programmare i propri robot o smontare e modificare quelli esposti durante il percorso didattico. I visitatori sono coinvolti in attivita' ludiche grazie alle quali possonoentrare in contatto con alcune delle idee potenti della robotica,

  2. Effect of maternal activity during gestation on maternal behavior, fetal growth, umbilical blood flow, and farrowing characteristics in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, E K; Berg, E P; Berg, E L; Vonnahme, K A

    2013-02-01

    Yorkshire gilts either remained in their individual stall from d 40 to term (CON; n = 7) or were subjected to exercise for 30 min 3 times per week from mid to late gestation (EX; n = 7) to determine the impact of increased maternal activity during gestation on maternal behavior, fetal growth, umbilical blood flow, and parturition. In parity 1, maternal body composition (10th rib back fat and LM area), maternal behavior, and farrowing characteristics were recorded. In parities 1 and 2, fetal growth, fetal heart rate, pulsatility index and resistance index, and umbilical blood flow were monitored beginning at d 39 of gestation continuing to d 81 of gestation. Exercise continued until d 104. Gilts allowed to exercise sat less (P gestation in the pig increased umbilical blood flow and appeared to reduce maternal restlessness, impacts on offspring development in postnatal life are not known.

  3. Neurodevelopmental changes of fetal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Curtis L; Hardman, Mary P; Manning, Nirvana; Hall, R Whit; Anand, K J S; Clancy, Barbara

    2007-10-01

    Pain in the developing fetus is controversial because of the difficulty in measuring and interpreting pain during gestation. It has received increased attention lately because of recently introduced legislation that would require consideration of fetal pain during intentional termination of pregnancy. During development, sensory fibers are abundant by 20 weeks; a functional spinal reflex is present by 19 weeks; connections to the thalamus are present by 20 weeks; and connections to subplate neurons are present by 17 weeks with intensive differentiation by 25 weeks. These cells are important developmentally, but decline as a result of natural apoptosis. Mature thalamocortical projections are not present until 29 to 30 weeks, which has led many to believe the fetus does not experience emotional "pain" until then. Pain requires both nociception and emotional reaction or interpretation. Nociception causes physiologic stress, which in turn causes increases in catecholamines, cortisol, and other stress hormones. Physiological stress is different from the emotional pain felt by the more mature fetus or infant, and this stress is mitigated by pain medication such as opiates. The plasticity of the developing brain makes it vulnerable to the stressors that cause long-term developmental changes, ultimately leading to adverse neurological outcomes. Whereas evidence for conscious pain perception is indirect, evidence for the subconscious incorporation of pain into neurological development and plasticity is incontrovertible. Scientific data, not religious or political conviction, should guide the desperately needed research in this field. In the meantime, it seems prudent to avoid pain during gestation.

  4. Fetal and neonatal endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unüvar, Tolga; Büyükgebiz, Atilla

    2012-06-01

    Endocrine disruptors are substances commonly encountered in every setting and condition in the modern world. It is virtually impossible to avoid the contact with these chemical compounds in our daily life. Molecules defined as endocrine disruptors constitute an extremely heterogeneous group and include synthetic chemicals used as industrial solvents/lubricants and their by-products. Natural chemicals found in human and animal food (phytoestrogens) also act as endocrine disruptors. Different from adults, children are not exposed only to chemical toxins in the environment but may also be exposed during their intrauterine life. Hundreds of toxic substances, which include neuro-immune and endocrine toxic chemical components that may influence the critical steps of hormonal, neurological and immunological development, may affect the fetus via the placental cord and these substances may be excreted in the meconium. Children and especially newborns are more sensitive to environmental toxins compared to adults. Metabolic pathways are immature, especially in the first months of life. The ability of the newborn to metabolize, detoxify and eliminate many toxins is different from that of the adults. Although exposures occur during fetal or neonatal period, their effects may sometimes be observed in later years. Further studies are needed to clarify the effects of these substances on the endocrine system and to provide evidence for preventive measures.

  5. Fetal echocardiography in ectopia cordis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repondek-Liberska, M; Janiak, K; Wloch, A

    2000-01-01

    Ectopia cordis is an extremely rare congenital abnormality occurring in 5.5 to 7.9 per 1 million live births with high lethality. Between January 1995 and October 1997 eight cases of ectopia cordis were diagnosed at our institute before birth. On the basis of echocardiography the fetal heart anatomy was categorized as either normal heart anatomy (NHA; n = 3) or congenital heart defect (CHD; n = 5). In the majority of cases (seven of eight) other abnormalities were present. Some reports have described ectopia cordis being diagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy. In our study group the average gestational age at diagnosis was 26 weeks. The prenatal diagnosis of isolated ectopia cordis is easy; counseling the patient, the perinatal management including term, place, and method of delivery, and optimal care of the newborn are more difficult. Ectopia cordis is a malformation that pediatricians rarely encounter, even at pediatric cardiology centers. Much more frequently it is a problem for sonographers and obstetricians; however, pediatric cardiologists should be aware of diagnostic algorithm for such cases, especially when additional abnormalities are present.

  6. Crescimento e produção de tomate cereja em sistema hidropônico com rejeito de dessalinização Cherry tomato growth and yield in soilless system using wastewater from desalination process

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    Jonath Werissimo da Silva Gomes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A produtividade agrícola sustentável é o maior desafio nas regiões áridas e semiáridas por causa da escassez de água para irrigação, sendo comum o uso de água salobra para irrigação. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a resposta do tomate cereja (Lycopersicon esculentum L., cv. Samambaia sob quatro níveis de salinidade da solução nutritiva com adição de rejeito salino em sistema de produção hidropônico. As plantas de tomate foram cultivadas em vasos com substrato de fibra de coco e irrigadas com soluções nutritivas preparadas com água de abastecimento e com águas salinas preparadas diluindo-se água de rejeito coletado em um dessalinizador a 75%; 50% e 25% e 0%, correspondendo à condutividades elétricas de 2,1; 3,55; 4,88, 6,02 e 6,96 dS m-1, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com 5 tratamentos (níveis de salinidade da solução nutritiva e quatro repetições. A altura e a massa seca das plantas reduziram com o aumento da salinidade da água de irrigação. O consumo hídrico da cultura foi influenciada pela adição de rejeito salino na solução nutritiva e a salinidade limiar, considerando-se a produtividade da cultura, ficou em torno de 3,51 dS m-1. A adição de até 25% de rejeito de dessalinizador (diluição de 75% à solução nutritiva permite o cultivo do tomate cereja, cv. 'Samambaia', sem haver redução na produtividade.Sustainable agricultural production is the most challenge facing many arid and semiarid regions due to the severe shortage of water for irrigation, thus the use of saline water for irrigation is common. The aim of this research was to examine the response of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L., cv. Samambaia under four levels of salinity of the nutritional solution with added water reject from desalting under soilless conditions. Plants were grown in pots filled with coconut fiber and irrigated with nutrient solutions prepared with tap

  7. A questão do nitrato em alface hidropônica e a saúde humana The nitrate issue in hydroponic lettuce and the human health

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    Gean Lopes da Luz

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A alface (Lactuca sativa L. destaca-se como a espécie mais produzida em sistema hidropônico. Nesse tipo de cultivo, a maior parte do nitrogênio é fornecida na forma de nitrato, o que pode acarretar acúmulo deste íon nos vacúolos celulares. O teor de nitrato nas plantas depende de fatores genéticos, da disponibilidade desse nutriente no sistema radicular e de fatores ambientais. Diversos estudos indicam que o consumo de nitrato pode ser nocivo à saúde humana, causando metahemoglobinemia e câncer gástrico. Porém, pesquisas recentes discorrem que não há ligação entre nitrato e as doenças citadas, destacando ainda o papel benéfico do nitrato à saúde humana, como protetor contra gastrenterites. Existem indícios de que a presença de certas vitaminas em vegetais inibe uma possível ação negativa do nitrato. Altas concentrações de nitrato em alface cultivada sob hidroponia em países do norte europeu causaram apreensão da comunidade científica e de consumidores brasileiros. Porém, as pesquisas realizadas no Brasil demonstram que, por haver maior disponibilidade de radiação solar, devido às menores latitudes, os teores de nitrato encontrados em alface produzida em hidroponia são bastante inferiores aos limites máximos preconizados pela união européia, indicando não haver risco à saúde humana.Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. is the main vegetable crop produced hydroponically. In this kind of cropping, the majority of nitrogen is provided as nitrate, which may lead to the accumulation of this ion in cells. Nitrate amount in plants depends upon genetic factors, the availability of this nutrient in roots and environmental factors. Several studies have indicated that the consumption of nitrate may be harmful to human health, causing methaemoglobinaemia and gastric cancer. However, recent studies have proposed that there is no link between nitrate and these diseases, and that nitrate may be even good for human health as a

  8. Concentration of nutrient solution in the hydroponic production of potato minitubers Concentração da solução nutritiva na produção hidropônica de minitubérculos de batata

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    Manuel Benito Novella

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the nutrient solution concentration on potato plant growth and minituber yield were determined in a sand closed hydroponic system. Minitubers and micropropagated plantlets of the cv. 'Macaca' were used. Treatments were five nutrient solution concentrations at electrical conductivities (EC of 1.0 (T1, 2.2 (T2, 3.4 (T3, 4.7 (T4 and 5.8dS m-1 (T5. The split plot randomised experimental design was used with three replications. Plants from minitubers produced higher fresh and mean weight of minitubers, shoot dry mass and leaf area index than the micropropagated ones. However, higher dry mass of minitubers was found with micropropagated plantlets compared to minitubers. The concentration of the nutrient solution did not affect minituber number. Increasing the nutrient solution concentration decreased total and minituber dry mass production of micropropagated plantlets and plant growth and minituber production of minituber-originated plants. Low concentration of nutrient solution at an EC of about 1.0dS m-1 can be used in the hydroponic production of potato minitubers of both micropropagated and minituber-originated plants.Neste trabalho foi determinado o efeito da concentração da solução nutritiva no crescimento e na produtividade de minitubérculos de batata em um sistema hidropônico fechado empregando areia como substrato. Plântulas micropropagadas e minitubérculos foram plantados em 24 de março de 2004. Os tratamentos foram cinco soluções nutritivas com condutividades elétricas (CE de 1,0 (T1, 2,2 (T2, 3,4 (T3, 4,7 (T4 e 5,8dS m-1 (T5. O experimento foi conduzido em parcelas subdivididas no delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições. Plantas originadas de minitubérculos produziram mais massa fresca total e média de minitubérculos, massa seca da parte aérea e maior índice de área foliar que plantas micropropagadas. Entretanto, maior massa seca dos minitubérculos foi obtida em plantas micropropagadas

  9. Cultivo hidropônico de alface com água salobra subterrânea e rejeito da dessalinização em Ibimirim, PE Hydroponic lettuce production with brackish groundwater and desalination waste in Ibimirim, PE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre N. Santos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Ibimirim, em Pernambuco, está localizado no Semiárido e muitos de seus poços fornecem águas salobras, cujo uso tem sido evitado, em virtude de ensejar doenças humanas (como hipertensão e cálculos renais e a redução da produtividade agrícola (com depreciação do solo. Propôs-se, no trabalho, avaliar o aproveitamento da água salobra subterrânea e do rejeito da sua dessalinização no cultivo hidropônico de duas variedades de alface (Vera e AF-1743. Avaliaram-se seis níveis de salinidade da água (CEa: 0.2; 1.2; 2.2; 3.2; 4.2 e 5.2 dS m-1. As águas foram usadas em todo o processo produtivo (preparo da solução nutritiva e reposição do consumo hídrico. O aumento da salinidade levou à redução linear do crescimento das plantas de alface. As plantas apresentaram clorose generalizada no início do ciclo mas este sintoma não foi detectado na colheita. A variedade 'Vera' teve menor crescimento e rendimento absoluto que a 'AF-1743'. Por outro lado, para ambas as variedades a redução percentual em função da salinidade foi equivalente: o acúmulo de massa fresca da parte aérea foi reduzido à razão de 17,06 e 15,74% (dS m-1-1 para 'Vera' e 'AF-1743', respectivamente.Ibimirim in Pernambuco is a municipal district located in the Brazilian semiarid region and most of its wells produce brackish water. The use of this water has been avoided since it may cause human diseases (such as hypertension and kidney stones and crop yield reduction (with soil degradation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the utilization of brackish groundwater and the waste from its desalination for hydroponic production of two lettuce varieties (Vera and AF-1743. Six levels of water salinity (CEa: 0.2, 1.2, 2.2, 3.2, 4.2 and 5.2 dS m-1 were analyzed. The waters were used in overall production process (to prepare the nutrient solution and to restore the water consumed. The salinity increase caused a linear reduction in the growth

  10. Dissimilaridade genética entre genótipos de trigo avaliados em cultivo hidropônico sob estresse por alumínio Genetic dissimilarity among wheat genotypes evaluated in hydroponic culture under aluminum stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivandro Bertan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da distância genética entre genótipos é importante ferramenta utilizada na escolha de genitores que vão dar origem às populações segregantes. Essa informação serve como parâmetro para indicação de cruzamentos que possibilitem recuperar recombinantes superiores para o caráter desejado. O principal objetivo do estudo foi promover informações de dissimilaridade genética para o caráter tolerância ao alumínio tóxico em genótipos de trigo da Região Sul do Brasil, avaliados em cultivo hidropônico sob estresse por alumínio em nível tóxico, utilizando diferentes técnicas de agrupamento e visualização gráfica. Entre os 23 genótipos testados, foi constatada a presença de variabilidade genética para tolerância ao alumínio, verificada pela formação de diferentes classes na média das variáveis consideradas bem como agrupamentos distintos. As técnicas de agrupamento e dispersão gráfica utilizadas juntamente com a comparação de médias permitiram identificar de modo eficiente os genótipos promissores na formação de populações segregantes superiores para o caráter estudado. Os genótipos ICAT 01338, ICAT 011, ICA 2, ICA 5, CD 106, CEP 24, CD 103, CD 105, IPR 85, IPR 110 e ICAT 012 são indicados para cruzamentos na expectativa de incremento de tolerância ao alumínio nas progênies formadas.The quantification of genetic distance among genotypes is an important tool for the choice of parents originating the segregating populations. This information serves as a parameter for directing crosses that increase the probability of recover superior recombinants for the desired character. The main object of this study was to provide information recording the genetic dissimilarity for the character tolerance to toxic aluminum in wheat genotypes from the Southern Region of Brazil, evaluated in hydroponic culture under aluminum stress, using different clustering and graphic techniques. It was observed the

  11. Produtividade biológica de genótipos de tomateiro em sistema hidropônico no outono/inverno Performance of tomato genotypes in hydroponic system and fall/winter crop-season

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    Antonio AR de Albuquerque Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento da planta de tomateiro depende de numerosos fatores, entre os quais se podem mencionar o genótipo, a radiação solar global incidente, a temperatura, a nutrição, o suprimento de água e a concentração de CO2, que atuam conjuntamente em complexa interação. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade biológica de sete genótipos de tomateiro em cultivo hidropônico, no ciclo de outono/inverno caracterizado por baixa disponibilidade de radiação solar global, enfocando aspectos vegetativos e produtivos, a partição dos fotoassimilados e a eficiência no uso da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (PAR, a fim de definir o(s mais promissor(es para o cultivo em casa de vegetação no sul do Rio Grande do Sul. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com 7 tratamentos (genótipos e 3 repetições, com 6 plantas por parcela. Dos genótipos utilizados, cinco pertencem ao grupo dos minitomates: Tomate Cereja Pendente Yubi Feltrin® (hábito determinado, Cereja Vermelho ISLA®, Minitomate Pêra Amarelo TOP SEED®, Grape (não comercial, Flavor Top (não comercial. Além desses, estudaram-se os genótipos Tomate Santa Cruz Kada Gigante TOP SEED® e Tomate Gaúcho TOP SEED®. As avaliações foram produtividade (g m-2 de matéria fresca e seca de hastes, folhas e frutos; área foliar; altura e compacidade de planta; radiação solar global e PAR incidentes. Os genótipos mais promissores para o cultivo em épocas de baixa disponibilidade de radiação solar são Kada Gigante, do tipo Santa Cruz, e Cereja Yubi de crescimento determinado, do grupo dos minitomates, por apresentarem produtividade de frutos superiores e uma alta eficiência no uso da PAR.Genotype, incident global solar radiation, temperature, nutrient, water and CO2 availability are some of the factors that in interaction can influence the growth of tomato plants. This study aimed to evaluate seven genotypes of tomato in relation to

  12. Influence of the harvesting time in the level of nitrate in hydroponic lettuce/ Influência do horário de colheita no teor de nitrato em alface hidropônica

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    José Marcelo Basso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The broadleaves vegetables have high ability to accumulate nitrate in the leaves and petioles, and the ion accumulation that can cause harm to human health by forming carcinogens and cause a disease in the liver, known as methaemoglobinaemia. Thus the study was to evaluate in hydroponic lettuce, the levels of nitrate at different harvesting time and in three different parts of the plant. The harvest was held at 6:00, 9:00, 12:00, 15:00 and 18:00 hours, and the plants have been divided into three parts for consideration, and these leaves external, leaves internal and stalk. The results were submitted to compare Tukey a 5% probability, obtaining an average of the highest levels of nitrate in portions of stalk harvested at 12 hours, with 2702.40 ppm of nitrate in the fresh matter. The average achieved by internal leaves were higher at 9 am, with 1879.28 ppm of nitrate in the fresh matter, as the external leaves had no significant difference between different times, and also the body of minor accumulation of nitrate in the plant. As hortaliças folhosas têm elevada capacidade de acumular nitrato nas folhas e pecíolos, sendo que o acúmulo desse íon pode causar malefícios à saúde humana por formar substâncias cancerígenas e ocasionar uma doença chamada metahemoglobinemia. Dessa forma o trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, em alface hidropônica, os teores de nitrato em diferentes horários de colheita e em três partes diferentes da planta. A colheita foi realizada às 6:00h, 9:00h, 12:00h, 15:00h e 18:00h, e as plantas foram divididas em três partes para serem analisadas, sendo estas folhas externas, folhas internas e talo. Os resultados foram submetidos à Teste Tukey a 5% de probabilidade, obtendo-se em média os maiores teores de nitrato nas porções de talo colhidos às 12 horas, com 2702.40 ppm de nitrato na matéria fresca. As médias alcançadas pelas folhas internas foram maiores às 9 horas, com 1879.28 ppm de nitrato na mat

  13. Armazenamento sob condições ambiente e aceitabilidade do melão 'F1 Jangada' produzido em sistema hidropônico Storage under atmosphere conditions and acceptability of the melon 'F1 Jangada' croped in hydroponic system

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    Maria M. Rinaldi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o período de armazenamento pós-colheita e a aceitabilidade pelo consumidor de melão híbrido 'F1 Jangada' (Cucumis melo L., produzido em sistema hidropônico, mantido em condições ambiente (22 ± 2 ºC e umidade relativa de 40 ± 5%. O experimento compreendeu o período de 21-6-2005 a 2-8-2005. Foi utilizado o esquema fatorial 5 x 2, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco períodos de armazenamento (0; 7; 21; 28 e 42 dias e dois tipos de substrato (areia e fibra de coco, com três repetições, em que cada repetição consistiu em cinco frutos de meloeiro. Foram avaliados o pH, a acidez titulável, os sólidos solúveis, a perda de massa fresca, a análise sensorial e a decisão de compra dos melões. Foram verificados efeitos do tipo de substrato e tempo de armazenamento sobre os valores de pH dos melões. A acidez titulável dos melões diminuiu significativamente nos primeiros sete dias de armazenamento, em ambos os substratos. Não foram verificados efeitos do tipo de substrato e tempo de armazenamento nos sólidos solúveis dos melões durante o armazenamento. Não houve diferença de perda de massa fresca dos frutos produzidos nos dois substratos, sendo de 7,1 ± 0,2%, durante os 42 dias de armazenamento. O tipo de substrato não interferiu na aparência geral, cor, textura e sabor dos melões. Aos 42 dias de armazenamento, os melões produzidos nos dois tipos de substrato apresentaram-se aceitáveis pelo consumidor. No entanto, os produzidos no substrato com areia apresentaram melhor aceitabilidade e decisão de compra ao longo do armazenamento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the storage period postharvest and acceptability by consumer of hybrid melon 'F1 Jangada' (Cucumis melo L., produced in hydroponic system, stored in atmosphere conditions (22 ± 2 ºC and 40 ± 5% relative humidity. The research was carried from June 21st to August 2nd, 2005. It was

  14. Competição de cultivares de alface sob cultivo hidropônico 'NFT' em três diferentes espaçamentos Butterhead lettuce cultivars under 'NFT' hydroponic cultivation in three different spacings

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    Ronan Gualberto

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho de seis cultivares de alface do tipo lisa (Babá de Verão, Brasil 303, Elisa, Karla, Lívia e Monalisa em três espaçamentos (25 x 20, 25 x 25 e 25 x 30 cm, cultivadas em sistema hidropônico 'NFT', realizou-se um experimento na Fazenda Experimental da Universidade de Marília (SP, no período de 23 de setembro a 21 de novembro de 1997. Foram avaliadas as características comprimento de caule, produção de matéria fresca por planta e por área e produção de matéria seca da parte aérea, da raiz e total. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 6 x 3, com três repetições. Não houve efeito significativo da interação entre cultivares e espaçamentos. As cultivares Babá de Verão, Lívia e Elisa se destacaram pela produção de matéria fresca e matéria seca total. As cultivares Monalisa e Karla mostraram-se menos suscetíveis ao pendoamento precoce, enquanto a 'Babá de Verão' foi a mais suscetível. Não foi verificada influência significativa dos espaçamentos sobre as características estudadas, exceto para a produção por área, onde independente das cultivares utilizadas, o espaçamento 25 x 20 propiciou uma produção de 4,465 Kg/m², superior aos demais espaçamentos utilizados. Assim. Produções significativamente inferiores foram obtidas nos tratamentos 25 x 25 cm e 25 x 30 cm: 3,583 e 3,304 Kg/m², respectivamente, devido à redução no número de plantas por m².An experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm, of Marília University, from September 23th 1997 to November 21st 1997 with the objective of evaluating the performance of six butterhead lettuce cultivars (Babá de Verão, Brasil 303, Elisa, Karla, Lívia and Monalisa in three spacings (25 x 20, 25 x 25 and 25 x 30 cm, cultivated under a hydroponic system 'NFT'. Stem length, fresh matter yield per plant and per area, and aerial part and root dry matter weight were

  15. Produção de girassol ornamental com uso de águas salobras em sistema hidropônico NFT Production of ornamental sunflower with use of brackish waters in NFT hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlo P Maciel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de girassol ornamental 'Sol Vermelho' foram cultivadas em hidroponia com o objetivo de avaliar o uso de águas salobras sobre seu rendimento e qualidade da inflorescência. As águas salobras foram usadas para preparar a solução nutritiva e repor as perdas por evapotranspiração. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente aleatorizado com cinco níveis de salinidade da água: 1,51; 2,56; 3,86 e 6,19 dS m-1, obtidos pela adição de NaCl na água doce local (0,47 dS m-1 que também foi usada como testemunha. Cada tratamento foi repetido quatro vezes e cada parcela (com quatro plantas foi construída para simular um sistema independente da técnica do fluxo laminar de nutrientes (NFT. Observou-se uma redução linear causada pelo aumento da salinidade da água sobre a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do caule e a massa da matéria seca da parte aérea. Tanto a altura da planta quanto o diâmetro do caule foram reduzidos em 3,2% e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea foi reduzida em 5,78% (dS m-1-1, para cada acréscimo unitário da salinidade da água (dS m-1. Por outro lado, a salinidade da água não afetou o tamanho do capítulo do girassol e não foram registrados sintomas de toxicidade causados pela salinidade. Esses resultados sustentam a viabilidade técnica do uso de águas salobras para produção hidropônica de girassol ornamental.Plants of ornamental sunflower 'Sol Vermelho' were grown under hydroponic conditions aiming to evaluate the effects of use of brackish water on its yield and inflorescence (capitulum quality. The brackish waters were utilized to prepare nutrient solution and to replace water due to evapotranspiration loss. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized experimental design with five levels of water salinity: 1.51; 2.56; 3.86 and 6.19 dS m-1, obtained by addition of NaCl to local fresh water; this fresh water (0.47 dS m-1 was also studied as control treatment. Each

  16. Efeito da temperatura no crescimento micelial e patogenicidade de Pythium spp. que ocorrem em alface hidropônica Temperature effects on mycelial growth and pathogenicity of Pythium spp. occuring in hydroponic lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane De Diana Teixeira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Doze isolados de Pythium foram obtidos de raízes de alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos comerciais, apresentando ou não sintomas de apodrecimento. Três desses isolados foram identificados como Pythium helicoides Drechsler (H1, H2 e H3, cinco como pertencentes ao grupo F (F1 a F5 e quatro ao grupo T (T1 a T4 de Pythium. A identificação das espécies foi realizada baseando-se nas características morfológicas. O efeito da temperatura (10, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 37 e 40ºC sobre o crescimento micelial foi determinado para todos os isolados. As temperaturas mínima e máxima, estimadas pela função beta generalizada, variaram de 3,5 a 10ºC e de 40 a 40,7ºC, respectivamente. A temperatura ótima foi de 24 a 37ºC para P. helicoides, de 25 a 35ºC para o isolado F4 e de 21 a 30ºC para os demais isolados. A patogenicidade e a agressividade dos isolados foram avaliadas, inoculando-se sementes de alface cv. Verônica, semeadas em ágar-água, a 21 e 30ºC. A 30ºC, os isolados de P. helicoides foram notadamente os mais agressivos, ocasionando 100 % de mortalidade das sementes logo após sua germinação. A 21ºC, todos os isolados induziram subdesenvolvimento de plântulas, acompanhado ou não de necrose dos tecidos radiculares. Trata-se do primeiro relato de P. helicoides para o Brasil e a primeira referência mundial da espécie em hidroponia.Twelve Pythium isolates were obtained from lettuce roots grown hydroponically in commercial systems, showing or not symptoms of rotting. Three of them were identified as P. helicoides (H1, H2 and H3, whereas five were shown to belong to group F (F1-F5 and four to group T (T1-T4 of Pythium. The identification of the species was based on morphological characteristics. The effect of temperature (10, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 37 and 40ºC on the mycelial growth was determined for all isolates. Minimum and maximum temperatures, estimated by the generalized beta function, varied from 3.5 to 10ºC and 40

  17. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade fenotípica de cultivares de alface do grupo crespa em cultivo hidropônico Adaptability and phenotypic stability of crisp lettuce cultivars in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Gualberto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Considerando as diferentes estações climáticas em que a alface é cultivada durante o ano, é de se esperar a ocorrência de uma elevada interação genótipo x ambiente. Em função disto, neste trabalho estudou-se o desempenho produtivo, adaptabilidade e estabilidade fenotípica de seis cultivares de alface do grupo crespa (Deisy, Elba, Sabrina, Summer Green, Vera e Verônica, em sistema hidropônico NFT, instalado em casa-de-vegetação, na Universidade de Marília (SP. Foram conduzidos nove ensaios em três épocas (outono: Out n; inverno: Inv n e; primavera: Pri n, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, avaliando-se quatro plantas por parcela. Ocorreram diferenças significativas entre ambientes (épocas de semeadura. Verificou-se que, de maneira geral, os três plantios realizados no outono apresentaram valores médios de produtividade (Out1 = 3,1; Out2 = 5,3 e; Out3 = 4,6 kg m² superiores aos realizados no inverno (Inv1 = 3,6; Inv2 = 3,5 e; Inv = 3,7 kg m² e primavera (Pri1 = 4,0; Pri2 = 3,6 e; Pri3 = 3,2 kg m². Embora a interação cultivares x ambientes também tenha sido significativa, para produtividade, à exceção dos ambientes Inv3 e Pri1, não ocorreram diferenças significativas entre as cultivares dentro de cada época de plantio e, para número de folhas por planta, ocorreram diferenças significativas entre as cultivares somente no ambiente Out3. As cultivares Deyse e Verônica foram as únicas a mostrarem adaptabilidade a todos ambientes estudados para produtividade; todas as cultivares apresentaram instabilidade para essa mesma característica. Para o número de folhas por planta, somente a cultivar Summer Green apresentou comportamento altamente previsível (estável, no entanto, mostrou-se adaptada somente aos ambientes desfavoráveis.Considering the climatic seasons in which lettuce is cultivated, probably a high interaction genotype x environment could be obtained. The yield

  18. Riñón fetal hiperecogénico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandalio Durán Álvarez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El hallazgo de riñones fetales hiperecogénicos es un problema de gran preocupación médica y de ansiedad familiar, porque casi siempre traduce una enfermedad renal importante. Cuando la hiperecogenicidad se acompaña de oligohidramnios, la mayoría de las veces estamos enfrentando una enfermedad poliquística; cuando no existe oligohidramnios, el diagnóstico probable es difícil. El objetivo de este reporte es la presentación de un niño con enfermedad poliquística autosómico recesiva. En los exámenes realizados a la madre, durante el embarazo, se encontró hiperecogenia renal y oligohidramnios. Se describe la evolución clínica, ultrasonográfica y gammagráfica de su enfermedad. Se revisa brevemente la literatura con relación al tema.

  19. Continuous fetal tissue pH measurement in labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, B K; Noumoff, J; Klein, S A; Katz, M

    1978-11-01

    Fifty-one women in labor had continuous monitoring of fetal scalp tissue pH, fetal heart rate by ECG, and uterine contractions. A miniature pH electrode secured by a double spiral fetal ECG electrode was used for measurement of fetal pH every 15 seconds. The results were correlated with fetal scalp blood pH values obtained simultaneously. Fetal scalp sampling is intermittent, requires repeated scalp incisions, is subject to errors due to air mixing and coagulation of the blood sample, and is uncomfortable for the parturient. Placement of the tissue pH electrode allows continuous data recording with the minimum discomfort to the patient and the least number of fetal scalp incisions. Clinical use of the tissue pH electrode might be a practical alternative to fetal scalp samples, if the data obtained accurately reflect fetal status.

  20. Role of fetal monitoring in high risk pregnancy by fetal electrocardiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somya Girish Goyal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-stress test is an external monitoring of fetal heart rate by electrocardiograph. Although intermittent auscultation of fetal heart rate is equivalent to continuous electronic fetal monitoring in detecting fetal compromise1 but continuous electronic fetal monitoring is indicated in high risk patients women whose foetuses are at high risk for neonatal encephalopathy or cerebral palsy.2 Objective of current study was to study the efficacy and diagnostic value of non-stress Test for surveillance and its usefulness to detect fetal distress at early stage which help to decide further management in mode of delivery. Methods: Design: prospective study. NST was done in 50 high risk patients for minimum of 20 minutes and in patients with non-reactive non stress test it was continued for 40 minutes. Maternal age, parity, complications during labour, and delivery, mode of delivery, indications of caesarean section and perinatal outcome were noted. Results: Out of total 50 cases studied patient delivered vaginally were 24 and Caesarean was done in 26 cases. Most LSCS were performed due to PIH (35% and related complications like IUGR, eclampsia (10%, fetal distress, previous caesarean pregnancy, IUGR, oligohydraminos and meconium stained liquor. 52% patients were delivered by caesarean and 48% by normal delivery. Conclusions: Routine use of electronic fetal heart monitoring helped in reduction of neonatal morbidity and mortality with increased rate of caesarean section. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 893-897

  1. Evaluation of the fetal QT interval using non-invasive fetal ECG technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Joachim; Zhu, Tingting; Oster, Julien; Niksch, Alisa; Mah, Douglas Y; Chun, Terrence; Greenberg, James; Tanner, Cassandre; Harrop, Jessica; Sameni, Reza; Ward, Jay; Wolfberg, Adam J; Clifford, Gari D

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive fetal electrocardiography (NI-FECG) is a promising alternative continuous fetal monitoring method that has the potential to allow morphological analysis of the FECG. However, there are a number of challenges associated with the evaluation of morphological parameters from the NI-FECG, including low signal to noise ratio of the NI-FECG and methodological challenges for getting reference annotations and evaluating the accuracy of segmentation algorithms. This work aims to validate the measurement of the fetal QT interval in term laboring women using a NI-FECG electrocardiogram monitor. Fetal electrocardiogram data were recorded from 22 laboring women at term using the NI-FECG and an invasive fetal scalp electrode simultaneously. A total of 105 one-minute epochs were selected for analysis. Three pediatric electrophysiologists independently annotated individual waveforms and averaged waveforms from each epoch. The intervals measured on the averaged cycles taken from the NI-FECG and the fetal scalp electrode showed a close agreement; the root mean square error between all corresponding averaged NI-FECG and fetal scalp electrode beats was 13.6 ms, which is lower than the lowest adult root mean square error of 16.1 ms observed in related adult QT studies. These results provide evidence that NI-FECG technology enables accurate extraction of the fetal QT interval.

  2. The number of fetal cells in maternal blood is associated to exercise and fetal gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Kirkegaard, Ida; Christensen, Connie Britta;

    were then stained with a cocktail of fetal cell-specific antibodies, identified and counted. Results: Participants carrying male fetuses had higher median number of fcmbs per 30 mL blood than those carrying female fetuses (5 vs. 3, p=0.004). Exercise within 3 hours (1.5 vs. 4, p=0.02) and 24 hours (2......Introduction: We have established a robust method to specifically identify and isolate a placental fetal cell in maternal blood (fcmbs) at a gestational age of 12 weeks. The concentration of these cells, however, varies considerably among pregnant women (median 3 fcmbs/30 mL blood, range 0...... activity was obtained by a questionnaire and a structured interview. The number of fcmbs was assessed in 30 mL blood processed by a proprietary method developed in-house. Fetal cells in the blood, binding to fetal cell specific antibodies, were initially isolated by magnetic cell sorting. The fetal cells...

  3. FETAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY: A STUDY OF CLINICAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajanish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : S tructural abnormalities of the heart and great vessels are fairly common congenital lab normalities with the incidenceof8 in 1000 live births. With the advent of real time scanners fetal cardia can atomy can be analyze d echocardiographically. The earlier diagnosis will make an impact on clinical management of fetus with congenital heart disease. It helps intimely triage and optimal management of specific congenital heart disease either structural , functional orarrhythmia . OBJECTIVES : This study was conducted to note the spectrum of congenital heart diseases detected on fetal echo in pregnant mothers referred with high risk for CHD sand to assess the outcome of prenatally detected congenital heart diseases. MATERIAL S AND METHODS : T he study is aprospective descriptive study conducted in a tertiary care pediatric hospital in Mumbai over period of one year . P regnant mothers were referred for fetal echo , where pregnancy was considered as high risk for CHDs due to maternal , fetalfactorsorabnormallevel 1 scan.Fetal echowas performed by a trained pediatric cardiologistat 18 to 20 week of gestation using HP sonos 2000 echocardiographicmachinewith3/3.5 Hz transducer. Cardiac lesionsandoutcome of pregnancy was noted by postnatal follow - up of patients. RESULTS : A total of 170 patients underwent fetal echo , 13 patients have not delivered and 48 were lost to follow - up. Fetal echo was normal in 130(76.4% and abnormalities were detected in 40(23.5%.Structural anomalies were seen in 24(14.1% , arrhythmia in 5(2.9% and functional abnormalities in 11(6.4%.On outcome analysis84 (77.1% arealive , IUD /terminationof pregnancyoccurred in 18(16.5% , neonatal death in 6 (5.5% , infant death in 1 (0.9%. CONCLUSIONS : All ranges of CHDs can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography . O utcome of prenatally detected complex congenital heart disease is poor ; nonetheless earlier detection provides a n opportunity for early interventions and

  4. fertilizada con diferentes abonos

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    Jorge Alberto Elizondo-Salazar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Producción y calidad de la biomasa de morera (Morus alba fertilizada con diferentes abonos. Se llevó a cabo un experimento en la Estación Experimental “Alfredo Volio Mata” de la Universidad de Costa Rica con el fi n de evaluar la aplicación de 150 kg de N/ha/año proveniente de dos abonos orgánicos: lombriabono y compostaje; y de un fertilizante químico, sobre la producción y calidad de la biomasa de morera. El periodo experimental comprendió un ciclo de 12 meses, iniciando en julio del 2003 y fi nalizando en julio del 2004. Se utilizó una plantación de morera de 12 años de establecida con una densidad de siembra de 27.777 plantas/ ha. Se empleó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro tratamientos: dos abonos orgánicos, nitrato de amonio (33,5% N y un control. Las plantas se podaron a 0,6 m sobre el nivel del suelo al inicio del ensayo. Durante el periodo experimental, las plantas fueron podadas consecutivamente cada 90 días. Las hojas y los tallos fueron separados y analizados para determinar el contenido de materia seca y proteína cruda. La producción de materia seca fue 23% superior y el contenido de proteína cruda fue signifi cativamente mayor con el nitrógeno químico, mientras que el contenido de materia seca fue menor. No se encontraron diferencias signifi cativas entre el tratamiento control y los tratamientos orgánicos.

  5. [Biomechanical characteristics of human fetal membranes. Preterm fetal membranes are stronger than term fetal membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, N; Abdelrahim, A; Moore, R M; Uyen, L; Mercer, B M; Mansour, J M; Kumar, D; Sawady, J; Moore, J J

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical characteristics of human fetal membranes (FM) throughout gestation. Biomechanical properties were determined for 115 FM of 23-41 weeks gestation using our previously described methodology. The areas of membrane immediately adjacent to the strongest and weakest tested spots were sampled for histomorphometric analysis. Clinical data on the patients whose FM were examined were also collected. FM less than 28 weeks gestation were associated with higher incidence of abruption and chorioamnionitis. Topographically FM at all gestations had heterogeneous biomechanical characteristics over their surfaces with distinct weak areas. The most premature membranes were the strongest. FM strength represented by rupture force and work to rupture decreased with increasing gestation in both weak and strong regions of FM. This decrease in FM strength was most dramatic at more than 38 weeks gestation. The FM component amnion-chorion sublayers were thinner in the weak areas compared to strong areas. Compared to term FM, preterm FM are stronger but have similar heterogeneous weak and strong areas. Following a gradual increase in FM weakness with increasing gestation, there is a major drop-off at term 38 weeks gestation. The FM weak areas are thinner than the stronger areas. Whether the difference in thickness is enough to account for the strength differences is unknown.

  6. Boy or Girl? Maternal Psychological Correlates of Knowing Fetal Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotila, Letitia E; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2014-10-01

    Ultrasound provides a reliable, convenient way to determine fetal sex, but not all expectant mothers pursue this knowledge. We used logistic regression to investigate whether maternal personality, parenting perfectionism, and gender role beliefs were associated with knowing fetal sex in a recent sample of first-time expectant mothers. We also tested whether conscientiousness and extraversion moderated the association between gender role beliefs and knowing fetal sex. Mothers who were more open to experience were less likely to know fetal sex, whereas mothers high in parenting perfectionism were more likely to know fetal sex. Conscientious mothers who espoused more egalitarian gender role beliefs were less likely to know fetal sex.

  7. Simulación por elementos finitos de la biomecánica del corazón fetal

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Baquedano, Estefanía; Ohayon, J.; Usson, Y.; Azancot, A.; Doblaré Castellano, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es modelar y simular la contracción del corazón fetal a lo largo del ciclo cardí­aco con el objetivo de entender la biomecánica del mismo, con ello se pretende ayudar a comprender los factores mecánicos que pueden contribuir a la aparición de malformaciones congénitas durante la gestación. Para ello se ha desarrollado un modelo 3D de elementos finitos de un corazón fetal de 23 semanas a partir de imágenes tomadas de fotografías y datos experimentales de orientación...

  8. Adjustable fetal phantom for pulse oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubán, Norbert; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2009-05-01

    As the measuring head of a fetal pulse oximeter must be attached to the head of the fetus inside the mother's uterus during labor, testing, and developing of fetal pulse oximeters in real environment have several difficulties. A fetal phantom could enable evaluation of pulse oximeters in a simulated environment without the restrictions and difficultness of medical experiments in the labor room. Based on anatomic data we developed an adjustable fetal head phantom with three different tissue layers and artificial arteries. The phantom consisted of two arteries with an inner diameter of 0.2 and 0.4 mm. An electronically controlled pump produced pulse waves in the arteries. With the phantom we investigated the sensitivity of a custom-designed wireless pulse oximeter at different pulsation intensity and artery diameters. The results showed that the oximeter was capable of identifying 4% and 2% changes in diameter between the diastolic and systolic point in arteries of over 0.2 and 0.4 mm inner diameter, respectively. As the structure of the phantom is based on reported anatomic values, the results predict that the investigated custom-designed wireless pulse oximeter has sufficient sensitivity to detect the pulse waves and to calculate the R rate on the fetal head.

  9. Occupational lifting, fetal death and preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocevic, Emina; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and risk of fetal death and preterm birth using a job exposure matrix (JEM). METHODS: For 68,086 occupationally active women in the Danish National Birth Cohort, interview information on occupational lifting...... the JEM. We used Cox regression models with gestational age as underlying time variable and adjustment for covariates. RESULTS: We observed 2,717 fetal deaths and 3,128 preterm births within the study cohort. No exposure-response relation was observed for fetal death, but for women with a prior fetal...... death, we found a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.87 (95% CI 1.37, 6.01) for stillbirth (fetal death ≥22 completed gestational weeks) among those who lifted >200 kg/day. For preterm birth, we found an exposure-response relation for primigravid women, reaching a HR of 1.43 (95% CI 1.13, 1.80) for total loads >200...

  10. Recent advances in fetal gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Suzanne M K; Rahim, Ahad A; Chan, Jerry K Y; David, Anna L; Peebles, Donald M; Coutelle, Charles; Waddingtont, Simon N

    2011-04-01

    Over the first decade of this new millennium gene therapy has demonstrated clear clinical benefits in several diseases for which conventional medicine offers no treatment. Clinical trials of gene therapy for single gene disorders have recruited predominantly young patients since older subjects may have suffered irrevocablepathological changes or may not be available because the disease is lethal relatively early in life. The concept of fetal gene therapy is an extension of this principle in that diseases in which irreversible changes occur at or beforebirth can be prevented by gene supplementation or repair in the fetus or associated maternal tissues. This article ccnsiders the enthusiasm and skepticism held for fetal gene therapy and its potential for clinical application. It coversa spectrum of candidate diseases for fetal gene therapy including Pompe disease, Gaucher disease, thalassemia, congenital protein C deficiency and cystic fibrosis. It outlines successful and not-so-successful examples of fetal gene therapy in animal models. Finally the application and potential of fetal gene transfer as a fundamental research tool for developmental biology and generation of somatic transgenic animals is surveyed.

  11. Magnetocardiography in the diagnosis of fetal arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, P; Hailer, B; Bader, W; Geissler, J; Trowitzsch, E; Grönemeyer, D H

    1999-11-01

    To examine the possible use of magnetocardiography in the diagnosis of fetal arrhythmias. Investigation of routinely examined pregnant women, as well as women referred because of arrhythmias or other reasons. Sixty-three women between the 13th and 42nd week of pregnancy. Recording of 189 fetal magnetocardiograms, of which 173 traces (92%) demonstrated sufficient fetal signal strength to permit evaluation. After digital subtraction of the maternal artefact, all fetal complexes were identified and the recording was examined for arrhythmic events. Short bradycardic episodes, not associated with any pathological condition, were found in 26% of all recordings, usually in mid-pregnancy. In 12 cases, isolated extrasystoles of no clinical importance could be identified. There were nine traces which revealed multiple arrhythmias including ventricular and supraventricular ectopic beats, bigeminy and trigeminy, sino-atrial block and atrio-ventricular conduction disturbances. Furthermore, two cases with tachycardia were found. Magnetocardiography offers a simple noninvasive method for examination of the fetal cardiac electrophysiological signal. It may thus be useful in the identification and classification of clinically relevant arrhythmia and aid in decisions concerning treatment.

  12. Influencia del ejercicio físico desarrollado durante el embarazo en la respuesta cardiaca fetal = Influence of a physical activity program performed during pregnancy on fetal heart response

    OpenAIRE

    Roldán Reoyo, Olga

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: El riesgo de padecer enfermedades cardiovasculares y los índices de obesidad infantil han ido en aumento durante los últimos años empobreciendo la salud de la población. La Teoría de Barker relaciona el estado de salud de la madre con el desarrollo fetal, asociando a un deficiente estado físico y hábitos de vida negativos de la mujer embarazada con el aumento del riesgo de padecer cardiopatías en la infancia y adolescencia, así como predisponer al recién nacido a padecer sobrepe...

  13. sistema Web con JSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Viloria Núñez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el desarrollo de un sistema de información que permite la adquisición y la administración de información relacionada con los signos vitales como la presión arterial, la frecuencia cardiaca y respiratoria, y la saturación de oxígeno en la sangre de un paciente. La implementación del sistema se basa en una solución Web, permitiendo así que médicos especialistas puedan monitorear a sus pacientes desde cualquier punto conectado a la red en tiempo real y, al mismo tiempo, dar indicaciones críticas al personal médico que se encuentra en el lugar con el paciente.

  14. Trabajando fractales con Winlogo

    OpenAIRE

    Sabogal, Sonia; Arenas, Gilberto

    2007-01-01

    Después de una breve introducción en la cual se establecerán algunos conceptos teóricos básicos de la geometría fractal, se realizarán talleres en los cuales, con ayuda de las herramientas que trabaja el software WinLogo, se construirán diversos fractales, analizando sus principales características (autosimilitud, dimensión, etc.)

  15. Transporte forestal con cables

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya L. Héctor J.

    2012-01-01

    La explotación forestal es un problema fundamentalmente de transporte. El apeo y la preparación de las trozas, aunque a veces presentan algunas dificultades, son operaciones fáciles de resolver comparadas con la operación de transporte la cual absorbe del 60% al 70% o más del costo total del aprovechamiento del bosque. El 30% o 40% restante es absorbido por las faenas previas de apeo y troceo.

  16. Encuentros con Elena Poniatowska

    OpenAIRE

    Uzquiza González, José Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    El autor analiza, desde su encuentro con Elena Poniatowska, la vertiente de la literatura testimonial como literatura de mujeres. Un análisis interior de la relación entre realidad y ficción, entre Elena, Jesusa o Tinísima. The author analyzes testimonial literature from the perspective of female literature through his meeting with Elena Poniatowska. An analysis of reality vs. Fiction in Elena, Jesusa and Tinisima.

  17. pacientes con falla cardiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marcela Achury Saldaña

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar la adherencia al tratamiento de pacientes con falla cardiaca hospitalizados, al aplicar un plan educativo quefomenta el autocuidado.Método: estudio cuasiexperimental (entrevistas enfermera-paciente realizado entre diciembre de 2004 y mayo de 2006, con unamuestra de 50 pacientes seleccionados por conveniencia. Se diseñó un instrumento para evaluar los comportamientos de los pacientes,con base en algunos resultados de la adherencia y sus respectivos indicadores de la taxonomía NOC (Nursing out comes classification. Laadherencia al tratamiento fue medida en dos momentos: el primero durante la hospitalización, seguido de la aplicación del plan educativoantes del alta, que proporcionaba información en el manejo de su enfermedad desde una dimensión física, psicológica y social quepromueve el autocuidado; y el segundo un mes después del alta en su domicilio.Resultados: diferencias estadísticamente significativas (P=0,0001 que demuestran cómo mediante la capacitación al paciente enel manejo de su tratamiento farmacológico y no farmacológico, el establecimiento de una sana relación entre el profesional de enfermeríay el paciente, y la participación de la familia, se logra una total adherencia al tratamiento.Conclusiones: para lograr una adherencia total del paciente con falla cardiaca al tratamiento es necesario un proceso educativo y unseguimiento continuo y personalizado que motive permanentemente al paciente y se le reconozca el papel protagónico en su cuidado y manejo de la enfermedad.

  18. Lectura con adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Méndez Anchía

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Con base en la premisa de que la lectura de textos literarios tiene una función formadora y que esta se acentúa en la adolescencia, me propongo demostrar que el cuento “Rapunzel” puede utilizarse como estrategia para explorar algunas situaciones que los sujetos adolescentes perciben como particulares en relación con su vida, pero que se inscriben dentro de grandes problemáticas estudiadas por varias disciplinas. Para ello, he identificado, desde dos marcos de referencia (sociológico y psicoanalítico, diversas problemáticas y discursos que se desprenden de la lectura del cuento realizada por dos mujeres adolescentes, quienes respondieron una guía de lectura y participaron en una entrevista a profundidad. Concluyo que la lectura y comentario del cuento hacen posible que una serie de experiencias que los sujetos adolescentes viven como únicas (como el embarazo de una amiga, las críticas de las personas adultas y las exigencias de padres y madres, ingresen en el circuito de los conocimientos generales al relacionarlas con los discursos y problemáticas en que se inscriben (por ejemplo, el discurso de la “crisis” de la adolescencia, el enfoque de derechos humanos, el mundo fantasmático materno. Por ello, recomiendo la lectura y comentario de textos literarios como estrategia didáctica para contribuir a la elaboración de la subjetividad de personas adolescentes.

  19. Automatic real-time tracking of fetal mouth in fetoscopic video sequence for supporting fetal surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Xie, Tianliang; Ohya, Jun; Zhang, Bo; Sato, Yoshinobu; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

    2013-03-01

    Recently, a minimally invasive surgery (MIS) called fetoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) was developed to treat severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) via fetoscopy, by which a detachable balloon is placed into the fetal trachea for preventing pulmonary hypoplasia through increasing the pressure of the chest cavity. This surgery is so dangerous that a supporting system for navigating surgeries is deemed necessary. In this paper, to guide a surgical tool to be inserted into the fetal trachea, an automatic approach is proposed to detect and track the fetal face and mouth via fetoscopic video sequencing. More specifically, the AdaBoost algorithm is utilized as a classifier to detect the fetal face based on Haarlike features, which calculate the difference between the sums of the pixel intensities in each adjacent region at a specific location in a detection window. Then, the CamShift algorithm based on an iterative search in a color histogram is applied to track the fetal face, and the fetal mouth is fitted by an ellipse detected via an improved iterative randomized Hough transform approach. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed automatic approach can accurately detect and track the fetal face and mouth in real-time in a fetoscopic video sequence, as well as provide an effective and timely feedback to the robot control system of the surgical tool for FETO surgeries.

  20. The relationship between maternal and fetal vitamin D, insulin resistance, and fetal growth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2013-05-01

    Evidence for a role of vitamin D in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis is inconclusive. We sought to clarify the relationship between maternal and fetal insulin resistance and vitamin D status. This is a prospective cohort study of 60 caucasian pregnant women. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), glucose, insulin, and leptin were measured in early pregnancy and at 28 weeks. Ultrasound at 34 weeks assessed fetal anthropometry including abdominal wall width, a marker of fetal adiposity. At delivery birth weight was recorded and fetal 25-OHD, glucose, C-peptide, and leptin measured in cord blood. Insulin resistance was calculated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) equation. We found that those with lower 25-OHD in early pregnancy had higher HOMA indices at 28 weeks, (r = -.32, P = .02). No significant relationship existed between maternal or fetal leptin and 25-OHD, or between maternal or fetal 25-OHD and fetal anthropometry or birth weight. The incidence of vitamin D deficiency was high at each time point (15%-45%). These findings lend support to routine antenatal supplementation with vitamin D in at risk populations.

  1. Síndrome alcohólico fetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kattia Montoya Salas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se ha comentado mucho en la opinión pública el nivel de alcohol permitido legalmente, e incluso ha sido motivo de modificaciones en nuestra ley de tránsito, y es que el alcohol se ha convertido en la droga más usada en el mundo, la cual genera problemas de tipo social, psicológico y de salud pública. El consumo de alcohol durante el embarazo puede causar defectos en varios órganos y sistemas del organismo, sobre todo si la madre lo ingiere en grandes cantidades, pero no está demostrado que beber pocas cantidades del mismo sea inocuo. Los efectos que el consumo del mismo le produce a los embriones ha sido demostrado en la literatura desde 1973, sin embargo su uso y abuso siguen tan altos, como alta es la cantidad de niños que nacen con síndrome alcohólico fetal cada día.Recently, people are talking about the “legally permitted” levels of alcohol in blood samples, so long, it was one of the reasons that caused several changes in the Costa Rican traffic law and that’s because the alcohol is the most popular “drug” in the world. The alcohol has created several problems in our social, psychological and public health problems. The liquor intake during the pregnancy can cause several changes in the fetus, especially in some organs or systems and it worsens when the amount of alcohol is higher. It hasn’t been demonstrated what secondary effects can cause to the embryo, when the alcohol intake is in lower doses, but it has been demonstrated since 1973, that it can cause the birth of babies with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

  2. New advances in fetal MR neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garel, Catherine [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Paediatric Imaging, Paris (France)

    2006-07-15

    MR is now routinely and widely used in fetal neuroimaging and has proven to be valuable in the detection of many cerebral lesions, either genetically determined or acquired in utero. However, its efficiency has certain limits in the detection of diffuse white-matter abnormalities, the evaluation of fibre development and the demonstration of metabolic disorders. Moreover, conventional fetal MR imaging provides only a morphological approach to the fetal brain. New techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, proton MR spectroscopy and functional MR imaging are developing. The majority of these are not used routinely. The principles, aims, technical problems and possible applications of these techniques for imaging the fetus are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Mechanisms of Fetal Programming in Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Edward Jones

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Events that occur in the early fetal environment have been linked to long-term health and lifespan consequences in the adult. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, which may occur as a result of nutrient insufficiency, exposure to hormones, or disruptions in placental structure or function, may induce the fetus to alter its developmental program in order to adapt to the new conditions. IUGR may result in a decrease in the expression of genes that are responsible for nephrogenesis as nutrients are rerouted to the development of more essential organs. Fetal survival under these conditions often results in low birth weight and a deficit in nephron endowment, which are associated with hypertension in adults. Interestingly, male IUGR offspring appear to be more severely affected than females, suggesting that sex hormones may be involved. The processes of fetal programming of hypertension are complex, and we are only beginning to understand the underlying mechanisms.

  4. Rapidly Regressive Unilateral Fetal Pleural Effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Yuce

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine pleural effusion of fetal lungs rarely regresses without intervention. In our case we treated a women at 32th weeks of gestation. Her pregnancy was complicated with fetal pleural effusion and polyhydramniosis. A therapeutic thoracocentesis was planned and she received two courses of betamethasone prior to procedure. On the day of planned procedure, a substantial regression of pleural effusion was observed and procedure was postponed. During her antenatal follow-up a complete regression of pleural effusion was observed. After delivery pleural effusion did not relapse. These findings hint there may be a role of antenatal steroids in treatment of fetal pleural effusion, which is known to be resistant to treatment modalities both during antenatal and postnatal period. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 25-28

  5. Physiology of the fetal and transitional circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnemore, Anna; Groves, Alan

    2015-08-01

    The fetal circulation is an entirely transient event, not replicated at any point in later life, and functionally distinct from the pediatric and adult circulations. Understanding of the physiology of the fetal circulation is vital for accurate interpretation of hemodynamic assessments in utero, but also for management of circulatory compromise in premature infants, who begin extrauterine life before the fetal circulation has finished its maturation. This review summarizes the key classical components of circulatory physiology, as well as some of the newer concepts of physiology that have been appreciated in recent years. The immature circulation has significantly altered function in all aspects of circulatory physiology. The mechanisms and significance of these differences are also discussed, as is the impact of these alterations on the circulatory transition of infants born prematurely.

  6. Effect of Placenta Previa on Fetal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARPER, Lorie M.; ODIBO, Anthony O.; MACONES, George A.; CRANE, James P.; CAHILL, Alison G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association between placenta previa and abnormal fetal growth. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of consecutive women undergoing ultrasound between 15–22 weeks. Groups were defined by the presence or absence of complete or partial placenta previa. The primary outcome was intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), defined as a birth weight placenta previa on fetal growth restriction. Results Of 59,149 women, 724 (1.2%) were diagnosed with a complete or partial previa. After adjusting for significant confounding factors (black race, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and single umbilical artery,), the risk of IUGR remained similar (adjusted odds ratio 1.1, 95% CI 0.9–1.5). The presence of bleeding did not impact the risk of growth restriction. Conclusion Placenta previa is not associated with fetal growth restriction. Serial growth ultrasounds are not indicated in patients with placenta previa. PMID:20599185

  7. Hipertiroidismo en gestación. Clínica, morbi-mortalidad materna, fetal y perinatal.

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios Porras, Hermógenes; Solis Villanueva, José

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia y características clínicas del hipertiroidismo en gestantes y definir la influencia de hipertiroidismo sobre la morbimortalidad materna, fetal y perinatal. Material y métodos: Se incluyeron 29 pacientes con diagnóstico de hipertiroidismo y gestación, que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Las pacientes fueron divididas en dos grupos, hipertiroidismo compensado durante toda o la mayor parte de la gestación (Grupo I, n=11) y con hipertiroidismo no compens...

  8. Glutathione-S-transferase and tyrosine hydroxylase activity in human adrenal medulla. Differences between fetal and adult tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Julio César García; Aida Leiva; Salvador Viniegra

    2005-01-01

    Con el objetivo de caracterizar la glándula adrenal humana en estado fetal (10 a 12 semanas) y adulta (post-morten) se determinaron las actividades específicas de la enzimas glutatión-S-transferasa (GST) y tirosina hidroxilasa (TH), así como las de las catecolaminas (CA): adrenalina (A); noradrenalina (NA) y dopamina (DA), utilizando Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Resolución con detecci ón electroquímica (HPLC-DE). La GST fue determinada utilizando 1-cloro-2,4- dinitrobenzeno como substrato el...

  9. TRATAMIENTO POR FETOSCOPIA DEL SÍNDROME DE TRANSFUSIÓN FETO FETAL EN CLÍNICA ALEMANA DE SANTIAGO

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto C.,Masami; Astudillo D,Julio; Pedraza S,Daniel; Muñoz S,Hernán; Insunza F,Álvaro; Fleiderman D,José; Riveros K,Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes: El síndrome de transfusión feto fetal (STFF) afecta el 15% de los gemelares monocoriales y tiene una mortalidad de 90% cuando se diagnostica antes de las 26 semanas. Objetivo: Evaluar el resultado perinatal mediante fotocoagulación con láser porfetoscopia, de las anastomosis vasculares placentarias en pacientes con STFF. Método: Fotocoagulación láser por fetoscopia de 18 casos de SFF tratados en Clínica Alemana de Santiago entre los años 2005-2008. Resultados: 72,8% de los embar...

  10. Role of fetal surgery in spinal dysraphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Martina Messing-Jünger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Open spinal dysraphism is a common and clinically challenging organo-genetic malformation. Due to the well-known multi-organ affection with significant implication on the lives of patients and their families, abortion after prenatal diagnosis became reality in most parts of the world. After publication of the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS results fetal surgery seems to be a new option and a broad discussion arose regarding advantages and risks of in utero treatment of spina bifida. This paper tries to evaluate objectively the actual state of knowledge and experience. This review article gives a historical overview as well as the experimental and pathophysiological background of fetal surgery in open spinal dysraphism. Additionally clinical follow-up experience of foetoscopically treated patients are presented and discussed. After carefully outweighing all available information on fetal surgery for spina bifida, one has to conclude, in accordance with the MOMS investigators, that in utero surgery cannot be considered a standard option at present time. But there is clear evidence of the hypothesis that early closure of the spinal canal has a positive influence on spinal cord function and severity of Chiari malformation type II, has been proven. A persisting problem is the fetal risk of prematurity and the maternal risk of uterus damage. There is also evidence that due to technical restrictions, fetal closure of the spinal canal bears unsolved problems leading to a higher postnatal incidence of complication surgery. Finally, missing long-term results make a definite evaluation impossible so far. At the moment, fetal surgery in open spinal dysraphism is not a standard of care despite promising results regarding central nervous system protection due to early spinal canal closure. Many technical problems need to be solved in the future in order to make this option a safe and standard one.

  11. Fetal control of parturition in marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G; Renfree, M B

    2001-01-01

    Among marsupials, the control of birth is best understood in the tammar wallaby. The young is tiny relative to the mother and is highly altricial. Adult female tammar wallabies weigh 5 kg, whereas the neonate weighs about 400 mg. However, despite this small size, there is clear evidence that the fetus provides the signal that sets the timing of birth through several mechanisms. A fetal signal activates a nitric oxide-guanylate cyclase system in the myometrium that may maintain myometrial inactivity, and this is down-regulated at term. There is also up-regulation of prostaglandin (PG) production in the gravid endometrium during the last two days of gestation that parallels increased placental PG synthesis, and a pregnancy-specific up-regulation of oxytocin receptors in the gravid myometrium that increases the responsiveness of the gravid uterus to mesotocin. These changes facilitate parturition, but an acute fetus-derived signal appears to trigger parturition. The fetal signal is probably related to glucocorticoid production. The fetal adrenal matures and is able to synthesize cortisol by Day 22 of the 26-day gestation. The fetal adrenals double in size between Day 24 and term, and their cortisol content increases over 10-fold. The pituitary of the neonate contains presumptive corticotrophs, and the adrenals increase cortisol production in response to adrenocorticotrophin. Prostaglandin E2, which is produced by the placenta, is also a potent stimulant of fetal adrenal cortisol synthesis. Treatment of tammars in late gestation with the cortisol agonist, dexamethasone, triggers birth around 23 h later. There is thus a strong case that fetal adrenal cortisol plays a key role in the preparation for birth and the timing of it. Further studies are in progress to more clearly define the mechanisms behind these actions of cortisol.

  12. Rheology of fetal and maternal blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, W H; Danoff, S J; King, R G; Chien, S

    1985-01-01

    Rheological parameters were measured in 10 pairs of mothers and newborns. Whole blood viscosity was similar despite a higher fetal hematocrit (47.0 +/- 5.1 versus 35.5 +/- 12.0%, mean +/- SD, p less than 0.05). When the hematocrit of the suspension of red cells in plasma was adjusted to 45%, the viscosity was significantly lower in the fetal blood over a wide range of shear rates (0.52-208 S-1). The main reason for the lower viscosity in the fetal blood was the lower plasma viscosity as compared to the maternal blood (1.08 +/- 0.05 versus 1.37 +/- 0.08 centipoise, p less than 0.05); this in turn was attributable to a lower total plasma protein concentration (4.74 +/- 0.71 versus 6.47 +/- 0.64 g/dl, p less than 0.05). All protein fractions were lower in the fetal plasma. The assessment of red cell deformability by filtration through polycarbonate sieves revealed that the resistance of a fetal red cell was three times higher than that of a maternal red cell in a 2.6-micron pore, but there was no significant difference in resistance for these red cells in 6.9-micron pores. This higher filtration resistance of fetal red cells through the small pores was mainly due to their large volume (115.4 +/- 10.8 versus 93.5 +/- 5.9 fl, p less than 0.001). Measurements on membrane-free hemoglobin solutions indicated that the internal viscosity of these two types of red cells was not different.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. ACMG statement on noninvasive prenatal screening for fetal aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Anthony R; Gross, S J; Best, R G; Monaghan, K G; Bajaj, K; Skotko, B G; Thompson, B H; Watson, M S

    2013-05-01

    Noninvasive assessment of the fetal genome is now possible using next-generation sequencing technologies. The isolation of fetal DNA fragments from maternal circulation in sufficient quantity and sizes, together with proprietary bioinformatics tools, now allows patients the option of noninvasive fetal aneuploidy screening. However, obstetric care providers must become familiar with the advantages and disadvantages of the utilization of this approach as analysis of cell-free fetal DNA moves into clinical practice. Once informed, clinicians can provide efficient pretest and posttest counseling with the goal of avoiding patient harm. It is in the public's best interest that test results contain key elements and that laboratories adhere to established quality control and proficiency testing standards. The analysis of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal circulation for fetal aneuploidy screening is likely the first of major steps toward the eventual application of whole fetal genome/whole fetal exome sequencing.

  14. Scientific and ethical perspectives of perinatal and fetal medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valdés R, Enrique; Soto-Chacón, Emiliano; Castillo T, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    ..., called Perinatal and Fetal Medicine. We discuss the possible role of fetal cells and DNA in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the intrauterine environment The associated bioethical issues associated to these medical actions...

  15. Fetal responses to induced maternal relaxation during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Nelson, Priscilla; Gurewitsch, Edith D.; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2008-01-01

    Fetal responses to induced maternal relaxation during the 32nd week of pregnancy were recorded in 100 maternal-fetal pairs using a digitized data collection system. The 18-minute guided imagery relaxation manipulation generated significant changes in maternal heart rate, skin conductance, respiration period, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Significant alterations in fetal neurobehavior were observed, including decreased fetal heart rate (FHR), increased FHR variability, suppression of fetal motor activity (FM), and increased FM-FHR coupling. Attribution of the two fetal cardiac responses to the guided imagery procedure itself, as opposed to simple rest or recumbency, is tempered by the observed pattern of response. Evaluation of correspondence between changes within individual maternal-fetal pairs revealed significant associations between maternal autonomic measures and fetal cardiac patterns, lower umbilical and uterine artery resistance and increased FHR variability, and declining salivary cortisol and FM activity. Potential mechanisms that may mediate the observed results are discussed. PMID:17919804

  16. In utero MRI diagnosis of fetal malformations in oligohydramnios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hesham Said

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: MRI is valuable in evaluating suspected fetal malformations especially those related to brain and urinary system when ultrasound is inconclusive owing to oligohydramnios. Fetal MRI can add findings that may modify prenatal diagnosis.

  17. A propósito de un caso de síndrome fetal alcohólico With regard a case of alcoholic fetal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Mercedes Jiménez López

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un varón de tres años de edad, que fue remitido a la consulta de genética por la especialista de oftalmología. Acudió a consulta por ptosis palpebral y después de la valoración exhaustiva se detectó un cuadro complejo, con multiplicidad de alteraciones oftalmológicas por lo que se decidió la remisión. Después de la investigación correspondiente, se constataron alteraciones funcionales y anatómicas, tanto durante su desarrollo prenatal como postnatal, que permitieron concluir que se trataba de un síndrome fetal alcohólico, previo diagnóstico diferencial con otras enfermedades.This is the case of a male aged three years referred to genetics consultation by an ophthalmology specialist. He came to consultation due to palpebral ptosis and after an exhaustive assessment it was detected a complicated picture with many ophthalmologic alterations thus authors decide the remission. After corresponding research, functional and anatomical alterations were confirmed during its development and in postnatal status allowed us to conclude that it was an alcoholic fetal syndrome, previous differential diagnosis with other diseases.

  18. Glucocorticoid-Induced Fetal Programming Alters the Functional Complement of Angiotensin Receptors Subtypes within the Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwathmey, TanYa M.; Shaltout, Hossam A.; Rose, James C.; Diz, Debra I.; Chappell, Mark C.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the impact of fetal programming on the functional responses of renal angiotensin receptors. Fetal sheep were exposed in utero to betamethasone (BMX; 0.17 mg/kg) or control (CON) at 80–81 days gestation with full term delivery. Renal nuclear and plasma membrane fractions were isolated from 1.0–1.5 year old sheep for receptor binding and fluorescence detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or nitric oxide (NO). Mean arterial blood pressure and blood pressure variability were significantly higher in the BMX-exposed adult offspring versus control (CON) sheep. The proportion of nuclear AT1 receptors sensitive to losartan (LOS) was 2-fold higher [67 ± 6% vs. 27 ± 9%, p < 0.01] in BMX compared to control. In contrast, the proportion of AT2 sites was only one-third that of controls (BMX: 25 ± 11% vs. CON: 78 ± 4%, p < 0.01) with a similar reduction in sites sensitive to the Ang-(1-7) antagonist D-Ala7-Ang-(1-7) with BMX exposure. Functional studies revealed that Ang II stimulated ROS to a greater extent in BMX than control sheep (16 ± 3% vs. 6 ± 4%; P<0.05); however NO production to Ang II was attenuated in BMX (26 ± 7% vs. 82 ± 14%; P<0.05). BMX-exposure was also associated with a reduction in the Ang-(1-7) NO response [75 ± 8% vs. 131 ± 26%; P<0.05]. We conclude that altered expression of angiotensin receptor subtypes may be one mechanism whereby functional changes in NO- and ROS-dependent signaling pathways may favor the sustained increase in blood pressure evident in fetal programming. PMID:21220702

  19. [Fetal pain: immediate and long term consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houfflin Debarge, Véronique; Dutriez, Isabelle; Pusniak, Benoit; Delarue, Eléonore; Storme, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    Several situations are potentially painful for fetuses, such as malformations and invasive procedures. Nociceptive pathways are known to be functional at 26 weeks. Even if it is not possible to evaluate the fetal experience of pain, it is essential to examine its immediate and long-term consequences. As early as the beginning of the second trimester, hemodynamic and hormonal responses are observed following fetal nociceptive stimulation, In experimental studies, long-term changes have been noted in the corticotrop axis, subsequent responses to pain, and behavior after perinatal nociceptive stimulation.

  20. Tumours of the fetal body: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avni, Fred E.; Massez, Anne; Cassart, Marie [University Clinics of Brussels - Erasme Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-11-15

    Tumours of the fetal body are rare, but lesions have been reported in all spaces, especially in the mediastinum, the pericardial space, the adrenals, the kidney, and the liver. Lymphangioma and teratoma are the commonest histological types encountered, followed by cardiac rhabdomyoma. Adrenal neuroblastoma is the commonest malignant tumour. Imaging plays an essential role in the detection and work-up of these tumours. In addition to assisting clinicians it also helps in counselling parents. Most tumours are detected by antenatal US, but fetal MRI is increasingly used as it brings significant additional information in terms of tumour extent, composition and complications. (orig.)

  1. Pontomedullary disconnection: fetal and neonatal considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, Emma; Sweeney, Elizabeth [Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital, Department of Clinical Genetics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Pilling, David [Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Hesseling, Markus; Subhedar, Nim [Liverpool Women' s Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Roberts, Devender [Liverpool Women' s Hospital, Department of Fetal Medicine, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-01

    The cerebellar and pontocerebellar hypoplasias present a unique challenge when detected in the developing fetus. A diverse aetiology and prognosis make counselling of these families difficult. Advances in fetal imaging allow for more accurate diagnosis and counselling, but postnatal MRI is still required. A case is presented in which cerebellar hypoplasia was detected at 20 weeks gestation. Later fetal imaging provided further information, but a diagnosis of pontomedullary disconnection was not made until the postnatal MRI scan. The clinical findings and possible causes of such pontocerebellar abnormalities are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Sonographic Findings in Fetal Renal Vein Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Rebecca E; Bromley, Bryann; Benson, Carol B; Frates, Mary C

    2015-08-01

    We present the sonographic findings of fetal renal vein thrombosis in a series of 6 patients. The mean gestational age at diagnosis was 31.2 weeks. Four cases were unilateral, and 2 were bilateral. The most common findings were renal enlargement and intrarenal vascular calcifications, followed by increased renal parenchymal echogenicity. Inferior vena cava thrombosis was found in 4 patients and common iliac vein thrombosis in 2. Fetal renal vein thrombosis is an uncommon diagnosis with characteristic sonographic findings. The presence of these findings should prompt Doppler interrogation of the renal vein and inferior vena cava to confirm the diagnosis.

  3. New treatment of early fetal chylothorax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ulrikka; Sundberg, Karin; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate OK-432, a preparation of Streptococcus pyogenes, in the treatment of early fetal chylothorax. METHODS: A prospective study of all fetuses (n=7) with persistent early chylothorax (gestational ages 16-21 weeks) referred to the tertiary center of fetal medicine in Denmark in 2...... effusions, lung hypoplasia, or hydrops. CONCLUSION: Persistent early chylothorax is a condition with a high mortality rate and no established treatment option. Use of OK-432 is a promising therapy for selected fetuses with persistent chylothorax early in the second trimester....

  4. [Diagnosis of fetal malformations with ultrasound--state of development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendel, M; Fendel, H

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonography is of great importance for the prenatal diagnosis of fetal malformations and abnormalities. An early diagnosis in the second trimester is of great interest for an intrauterine or an extrauterine therapy planning (the choice of the time and mode of delivery). Defects of the neural tube including hydrocephalus, malformations of the extremities, the gastrointestinal tract, omphaloceles, the urogenital and cardiac system are described. Four cases of fetal malformations are presented: fetal myelomeningocele, hydrocephalus, bilateral hydronephrosis and lymphangioma with fetal ascites.

  5. Cementos con cenizas volantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossa M., Mauricio

    1984-03-01

    additions of 20 and 30% .

    Casi la generalidad de los estudios realizados sobre cementos con adición de cenizas volantes se refieren a sus características y comportamiento en pastas, morteros y hormigones, siempre en relación con aquéllos del cemento portland. Esta vez, se desarrolló un trabajo experimental orientado a relacionar entre sí los cementos con adiciones de cenizas volantes y de puzolana natural. Para ello se fabricaron a escala de laboratorio cementos de ambos tipos, empleando como materias primas comunes clinker y yeso y, como variables, diferentes porcentajes de las dos adiciones, que cumplieron previamente los requisitos normalizados en cuanto a sus actividades puzolánicas. La calidad de los cementos fabricados resultó adecuada y concordante con la del cemento portland-puzolánico obtenido a escala industrial con los mismos clinker, yeso y puzolana natural de este estudio. Posteriormente, se determinaron las características de los cementos experimentales y se confeccionaron morteros normales para la realización de ensayos físicos y mecánicos. Los resultados de ensayos indicaron que los cementos con adición de cenizas volantes (CCV requieren menos agua para consistencia normal, presentan tiempos de fraguado mayores y expansiones en autoclave menores que los cementos con adición de puzolana (CP. Los calores de hidratación a 7 y 28 días de edad fueron aproximadamente similares para ambos tipos de cemento. En morteros normales, los cementos CCV mostraron menor retracción de secado, mayor retentividad y mayor fluidez (para igual cantidad de agua que los cementos CP. En los ensayos de exudación se observó que ésta depende más de la finura que el tipo de adición. Finalmente, los ensayos mecánicos señalaron que las resistencias a compresión y flexotracción de los morteros con cementos CCV son menores a edades inferiores que 14 días (del orden de 5 a 10% a un día de edad, pero que a partir de entonces pasan a ser mayores que las de

  6. Fetal Ascites and Second Trimester Maternal Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ying Ling

    2006-09-01

    Conclusion: Second trimester perinatal HCV infection with possible CMV coinfection associated with fetal ascites is a rare event. Fetal therapy resulting in a successful outcome has not been reported. Prompt fetal therapy with paracentesis in this case led to the delivery of a healthy term liveborn baby with anti-HCV seropositivity.

  7. Agonist mediated fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exposure of a developing embryo or fetus to teratogenic alkaloids from plants has the potential to cause developmental defects in livestock due to the inhibition of fetal movement by alkaloids. The mechanism behind the inhibition of fetal movement is the desensitization of fetal muscle-type nico...

  8. Longitudinal study of computerized cardiotocography in early fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, H.; Arabin, B.; Lees, C. C.; Oepkes, D.; Prefumo, F.; Thilaganathan, B.; Todros, T.; Visser, G. H. A.; Bilardo, C. M.; Derks, J. B.; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, J. J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Hecher, K.; Marlow, N.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, A. T.; Scheepers, H. C. J.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T. M.; Valcamonico, A.; Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Ganzevoort, W.

    Objectives: To explore whether, in early fetal growth restriction (FGR), the longitudinal pattern of fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) can be used to identify imminent fetal distress and whether abnormalities of FHR recordings are associated with 2-year infant outcome. Methods: The

  9. Oxidative Stress in Fetal Distress: Potential Prospects for Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Raicevic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate the relation between fetal distress and oxidative stress. Fetal distress was associated with increased concentration of superoxide in the fetal blood and with significant increase of the level of H2O2 in both maternal and fetal blood. The activity of superoxide dismutase was increased roughly sixfold (p < 0.01 in the maternal [7330 ± 2240 U/g of hemoglobin in controls (C and 36811 ± 16862 U/g in fetal distress (FD] and fetal blood (C: 5930 ± 2641 U/g; FD: 41912 ± 17133 U/g. In contrast, fetal distress was related to a considerable decrease of catalase activity in both maternal (C: 26011 ± 8811 U/g; FD: 7212 ± 1270 U/g and fetal blood (C: 37194 ± 9191 U/g; FD: 6173 ± 1965 U/g. From this we concluded that in fetal distress, the maternal and fetal bloods are exposed to superoxide- and H2O2-mediated oxidative stress, which could be initiated by hypoxic conditions in the fetal blood and placenta. A tremendous increase/decrease of the activities of superoxide dismutase/catalase in the blood of women bearing a distressed fetus in comparison to healthy subjects implies that the assessment of superoxide dismutase/catalase activity could be of use for establishing a timely and accurate ante- or intrapartum diagnosis of fetal distress.

  10. Perspectives of fetal dystocia in cattle and buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Narayan Purohit

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We review the causes of fetal dystocia in cows and buffalo. Two fetal causes are distinct fetal oversize and fetal abnormalities. Fetal oversize is common in heifers, cows of beef cattle breeds, prolonged gestations, increased calf birth weight, male calves and perinatal fetal death with resultant emphysema. Fetal abnormalities include monsters, fetal diseases and fetal maldispositions, and it is difficult to deliver such fetuses because of their altered shape. Although monsters are rare in cattle, a large number of monstrosities have been reported in river buffalo; yet also here, overall incidence is low. Diseases of the fetus resulting in dystocia include hydrocephalus, ascites, anasarca and hydrothorax. The most common cause of dystocia in cattle seems to be fetal maldispositions, of which limb flexion and head deviation appear to be the most frequent. We provide a brief description of the management of dystocia from different causes in cattle and buffalo. A case analysis of 192 and 112 dystocia in cattle and buffalo, respectively, at our referral center revealed that dystocia is significantly higher (P<0.05 in first and second parity cows and buffalo, and that dystocia of fetal origin is common in cows (65.62% but less frequent (40.17% in buffalo. In buffalo, the single biggest cause of dystocia was uterine torsion (53.57%. Fetal survival was significantly (P<0.05 higher both in cows and buffalo when delivery was completed within 12 h of second stage of labor.

  11. 21 CFR 864.7455 - Fetal hemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hemoglobin present. The assay may be used to detect fetal red cells in the maternal circulation or to detect... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal hemoglobin assay. 864.7455 Section 864.7455...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7455 Fetal...

  12. La influencia del pH y de la salinidad en el crecimiento de Avicennia Germinans (L. L. en cultivo hidropónico La influencia del pH y de la salinidad en el crecimiento de Avicennia Germinans (L. L. en cultivo hidropónico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnetter Marie Luise

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Por sus características llamativas interpretadas como adaptación a las condiciones del medio ambiente bajo las cuales crecen en las costas tropicales, los mangles sirven como objeto de estudios botánicos desde hace mucho tiempo.Con frecuencia es importante cultivar las plantas bajo condiciones controladaspara experimentos de esta índole. Distintos autores investigaron elcrecimiento de plantas jóvenes de Auicennui marina (Forssk Vierh. ensolución nutritiva (CONNOR 1969, CLARKE & HANNON 1970, DOWNTON 1982,CLOUGH 1984. En todos estos casos figura como objetivo principal de lasinvestigaciones determinar la influencia de la salinidad del medio de cultivoen el desarrollo de las plantas.Ensayos de la autora para cultivar plantas de Auicennia qerminans en Ciesserr/ Alemania (SCHNETTER 1985 indicaron que pDr 10 visto tambien el pH del medio nutritivo tiene cierta influencia sobre el crecimiento, Para una mejor aclaración de este asunto se realizó una serie de experimentos cultivando plántulas de Asncennia qerminans en soluciones nutritivas a diferente pH y salinidad. Seedlings of Avicennia qerminans, collected at Turbo and Cartagena on the Caribbean Coast of Colombia were hydroponically grown during 28 weeks. The pH of nutrient solution containing 0.1 M NaCl ranged from 5.7 to 8.7. Additionally, one culture medium without NaCl (pH 7.7 and another containing 0.35 M NaCl (pH 8.2 were used. Biomass production depended both on salinity and pH. Highest values of dry matter were obtained for plants of both collection sites in weak basic nutrient solution containing O. 1 M NaCI. But different answers to pH conditions could be observed. Growth optimum of the plants from Cartagena occurred at pH 8, while those from Turbo remained already small at the same pH. They showed better growth in culture medium containing 0.35 M NaCl at pH 8.2 than at pH 8 and 0.1 M NaCl. Increasing salinity resulted in a higher percentage of root biomass.  General differences

  13. Crescimento e produtividade do tomateiro em cultivo hidropônico NFT em função da concentração iônica da solução nutritiva Growing and yield of tomato in hydroponic cultivation as a result of the ionic concentration of the nutritive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucio da C Genúncio

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo hidropônico do tomateiro é uma técnica com a qual pode-se obter maior produtividade e melhoria no controle de diversos fatores durante o ciclo produtivo. Entretanto, essa técnica ainda requer aprimoramento em vários aspectos, dentre eles, as doses de nutrientes na solução nutritiva. Neste sentido, um experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação equipada com sistema hidropônico tipo fluxo contínuo de nutrientes (nutrient film technique; NFT. Foram utilizadas as cultivares de tomate UC-82, Saladinha e T-93 supridas com solução nutritiva de Hoagland nas concentrações iônicas 50%; 75% e 100%. Na última coleta de frutos, aos 138 dias após a transferência para o sistema NFT, colheram-se as plantas e avaliaram-se o acúmulo de massa na parte aérea, massa fresca de fruto, número de frutos por planta, massa fresca total de frutos por planta, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (ºBrix e produtividade. As características genotípicas das cultivares influenciaram fortemente a produtividade. De modo geral, as diferentes concentrações iônicas das soluções nutritivas, nas condições em que foi desenvolvido o trabalho, não influenciaram a produtividade e o acúmulo de massa dos tomateiros. Portanto é recomendável o uso de soluções de menor concentração iônica para o cultivo de tomateiros UC-82, Saladinha e T-93 em sistema hidropônico NFT, nas condições climáticas de Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro.The tomato hydroponics cultivation is a technique that provides high productivity and a better control of several factors during the production cycle. However, this technique needs improvements such as adequate dosage of nutrients in the nutritive solution. An experiment was carried out in a greenhouse equipped with a nutrient film technique system (NFT. Three commercial cvs. of tomato, UC-82, Saladinha, and T-93, were grown with three Hoagland's solution concentrations, 50%; 75%; and 100%. In the last fruit harvest, 138

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of a placental infarction hematoma associated with fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia and fetal death: clinicopathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurioles-Garibay, Alma; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Romero, Roberto; Qureshi, Faisal; Ahn, Hyunyoung; Jacques, Suzanne M; Garcia, Maynor; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S

    2014-01-01

    The lesion termed 'placental infarction hematoma' is associated with fetal death and adverse perinatal outcome. Such a lesion has been associated with a high risk of fetal death and abruption placentae. The fetal and placental hemodynamic changes associated with placental infarction hematoma have not been reported. This paper describes a case of early and severe growth restriction with preeclampsia, and progressive deterioration of the fetal and placental Doppler parameters in the presence of a placental infarction hematoma.

  15. Estudio transversal de leptospirosis y muerte fetal en Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fidelia Cárdenas-Marrufo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Leptospirosis es una enfermedad zoonótica que afecta principalmente la población humana de bajos recursos. Infección aguda por leptospirosis durante el embarazo se ha asociado con aborto espontáneo y muerte fetal durante el primer trimestre del embarazo.Objetivo: Estimar la frecuencia de infección por Leptospira interrogans en mujeres con aborto espontáneo en el estado de Yucatán, México.Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio trasversal en 81 mujeres con aborto espontáneo. La prueba de referencia para Leptospirosis, prueba de microaglutinación, se utilizó para estimar la frecuencia de la serovar infectante. El ELISA IgM indirecto se utilizó para detectar infección reciente por L. interrogans. Se extrajo ADN a partir de tejido embebido en parafina de placenta para la detección de L. interrogans por PCR.Resultados: La frecuencia global de la infección con L. interrogans en 81 mujeres con aborto, fue del 13.6%. Se encontró cinco de 12 serovares de Leptospira. Dos de las 11 mujeres con aborto espontáneo y positivo a microaglutinación también fueron positivas a la prueba ELISA IgM. Ninguna muestra fue positiva hacia el diagnóstico PCR de Leptospira.Conclusion: Dos mujeres podrían estar asociados con el aborto espontáneo debido a la leptospirosis, porque mostraron anticuerpos contra L. interrogans en la microaglutinación y ensayos de ELISA IgM. Diferencias entre regiones fueron encontradas con respecto a las prevalencias de leptospirosis.

  16. Sistemas de producción de fresa de altas densidades.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Gómez, Humberto

    2011-01-01

    En México se produce fresa con alta tecnología pero existe escasa investigación sobre la productividad de la fresa en sistemas hidropónicos con altas densidades. El presente estudio se realizó con la finalidad de evaluar la fisiología, rendimiento, calidad y rentabilidad de la fresa de altas densidades en cuatro sistemas hidropónicos. Los tratamientos estudiados fueron: bolsas individuales (BI), vertical con tres tubos (V3T), vertical con cuatro tubos (V4T) y vertical con macetas hidropónicas...

  17. Atender con ansiedad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Acosta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Tener una personalidad ansiosa o estar ansioso en una determinada situación hace que atendamos de modo diferente a lo que acontece. Investigaciones recientes están descubriendo las relaciones específicas de la ansiedad-rasgo y de la ansiedad-estado con diferentes procesos atencionales. La intervención terapéutica para aliviar los trastornos de ansiedad, tan frecuentes en nuestra época, se va a beneficiar de este conocimiento.

  18. Arquitectura con discurso

    OpenAIRE

    Schaposnik, Viviana

    2001-01-01

    En particular a la Carrera Arquitectura le compete un doble rol social: uno general, "educar" desde la Universidad y otro, específico, el que le es propio: dar respuesta a las necesidades planteadas por la sociedad haciéndole su lugar: construyéndolo junto con ella. Aparece la figura del "alumno de arquitectura"' nuestro destinatario específico. El alumno de arquitectura, también deberá tomar conciencia, entender, que el "espacio" que él deberá dominar a través d...

  19. Creo con mis dedos

    OpenAIRE

    S??nchez Aniceto, Monta??a

    2015-01-01

    Las artes pl??sticas son muy importantes para los ni??os/as sobre todo para Educaci??n Infantil ya que promueven la creatividad mediante diferentes recursos y t??cnicas lo que favorece su motivaci??n en las competencias desde la edad temprana hasta la adolescencia. Es la primera forma que tiene el ni??o/a de expresarse en el mundo (a trav??s de los garabatos), de comunicarse, compartir sus emociones con los dem??s, creando su propio lenguaje que evolucionar?? hacia el lenguaje oral y escri...

  20. Eugenistas, pero con prudencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogliano, Claudio

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Thinking that one could not describe eugenics like a unique movement, since numerous bound varians took place related to the geographical and cultural context, this article tries to demostrate the peculiarity of the Italian case. If already in 1889 Giuseppe Sergi wanted that the artificial selection take it to end what should make the natural, avoiding the risk of the so called «degeneration», only in the face of the First World War seems to grow the alarm for the decadent quality of the population, finding a more and more wide echo. In 1919 the Siges was born (Società italiana de genetica ed eugenica shocked under the impression of the difusse fear about the butcher the war had caused. From there from now on fastens a «nazional» direction closely related to the traditional thought and also with the new political temper. A «moderate» direction, Fascist, Catholic, that was built in consonance with the pronatalism of the regime and in rough polemic with the presumed Anglo-Saxon eugenics aberration.

    Partiendo de la base de que no se puede describir la eugénica como un movimiento unitario, ya que se produjeron numerosas variantes ligadas al contexto geográfico y cultural, este artículo intenta demostrar la peculiaridad del caso italiano. Si ya en 1889 Giuseppe Sergi deseaba que la selección artificial llevase a cabo lo que debía de hacer la natural, evitando así el riesgo de la «degeneración », sólo ante la Primera Guerra Mundial parece crecer la alarma por la decadente calidad de la población, encontrando un eco cada vez más amplio. En 1919 nació la Sige (Società italiana de genetica ed eugenica bajo la impresión del difuso temor que la carnicería bélica había provocado. De ahí en adelante prende rápidamente una dirección «nazional» que se imbrica tanto con una tradición del pensamiento como con el nuevo temple político. Una dirección «moderada» fascista, católica, que se construyó en consonancia con el

  1. con problemas de aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Jaquelina González Trujillo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Un grupo de niños con diversos problemas de aprendizaje fue atendido bajo un programa de intervención de integración y adaptación social. Mejoras importantes se obtienen en competencias académicas bajo el presente programa de intervención y delimitan áreas de oportunidad para la mejora en aspectos cognitivos como el del proceso de atención e integración social. Las implicaciones de los resultados se discuten bajo un programa de apoyo psicopedagógico para la educación especial.

  2. Mayonesa con quitosano

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffrey, María Celeste

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El quitosano es un polímero natural que se obtiene a partir de la quitina, la cual forma parte de la estructura de soporte de numerosos organismos vivos, tales como artrópodos (crustáceos e insectos), moluscos y hongos. Presenta propiedades aplicables en los alimentos, como estabilizante, emulsificante, y quelante. No puede ser digerido por los seres humanos por lo cual está considerado como una fibra dietética con un contenido calórico cero. Objetivos: Evaluar...

  3. MRI evaluation of fetal vitality and maturity; Avaliacao da vitalidade e maturidade fetal pela ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, Salete J.F. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Secaf, Eduardo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Magalhaes, Alvaro Cebrian A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina, Dept. de Radiologia

    1995-05-01

    Assessment of fetal vitality is an essential part of feto-maternal medicine. In clinical practice, this is carried out by investigation of the fetal growth pattern and biochemical or biophysical tests of fetal heath. MRI has the ability of characterizing different soft tissues and is the only technique that can display in the uterus the process of physiological myelinization and may well present a noninvasive method to determine lung maturity. MRI is more powerful technique allowing more detailed visualization of the fetal brain, better images can be obtained of areas such as posterior fossa. The major advantage of MRI over imaging modalities is the potential for biochemical and metabolic studies and it will make an important contribution to obstetric research. (author)., 10 refs., 7 figs p.

  4. Fetal subjects and maternal objects: reproductive technology and the new fetal/maternal relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squier, S

    1996-10-01

    This essay examines three tendencies nurtured in the practices of reproductive technology - tendencies with profoundly disturbing implications for us as individuals and as social beings. They are: 1) the increasing subjectification of the fetus (that is, the increasing tendency to posit a fetal subject), 2) the increasing objectification of the gestating woman, leading to her representation as interchangeable object rather than unique subject, and 3) the increasing tendency to conceive of the fetus and the mother as social, medical, and legal antagonists. Considering the construction of fetus, mother, and the fetal/maternal relation in earlier (Western) historical periods, a contemporary work of literature, a government report, and the popular press, I argue that as the fetus is increasingly being understood as a subject, the mother is increasingly being reduced to an antagonist, an obstacle to fetal health, and an object. The essay concludes by offering some tentative conclusions about the general process of fetal subjectification in the United States and Europe.

  5. [Prenatal imaging of the fetal brain--indications and developmental implications of fetal MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sira, Liat; Garel, Catherine; Leitner, Yael; Gross-Tsur, Varda

    2008-01-01

    Cerebral anomalies at birth account for approximately 9% of all isolated anomalies and are present in 15.9% of babies with multiple malformations and, thereby, warrant concern in antenatal diagnosis. Ultrasonography is the basic screening examination for the pregnant woman due to its efficiency, availability, low cost and real time capability. Many of the major anomalies can be diagnosed by ultrasound during the first trimester of pregnancy. However subtle abnormalities can be missed by ultrasonography or detected only in later stages of pregnancy. Fetal MRI has proved itself to be an effective adjuvant imaging tool and is indicated whenever there is a diagnostic query on ultrasound or a need to define a suspected brain anomaly. The information obtained from fetal MRI has significant implications for parental counseling regarding both the type of malformation as well as the neurological and developmental prognosis. Current indications for fetal MRI, focusing on various common fetal cerebral pathologies, will be addressed in this review.

  6. Doppler obstétrico posterior al uso de Betametasona para la maduración pulmonar fetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keibis Jiménez Castillejo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar las modificaciones del Doppler obstétrico posterior al uso de betametasona para la maduración pulmonar fetal. Se realizó una investigación de tipo explicativa, prospectiva y longitudinal con un diseño cuasi-experimental y una muestra no probabilística intencional de 106 pacientes que acudieron a la consulta Pre-natal de Alto Riesgo del Hospital Central “Dr. Urquinaona". Una vez seleccionadas las pacientes se les administró inyecciones intramusculares de betametasona (12 mg/día por dos días consecutivos. Se realizaron las mediciones de índice de pulsatilidad e índice de resistencia en las arterias uterinas, umbilical y cerebral media fetal. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las determinaciones del índice de pulsatilidad y de resistencia de las arterias uterinas (p = ns. Se observaron disminuciones significativas en el índice de pulsatilidad y de resistencia de la arteria umbilical en la segunda y tercera medición al compararla con la medición inicial (p < 0,05. Se encontraron disminuciones en el índice de pulsatilidad de la arteria cerebral media fetal en ambos periodos de estudio comparado con los valores iniciales y solo se observó una disminución significativa del índice de resistencia en la segunda medición (p < 0,05. Se concluye que el uso de betametasona para la maduración pulmonar fetal produce modificaciones en la evaluación Doppler de las arterias umbilical y cerebral media fetal. Obstetric doppler after use of Betamethasone for fetal lung maturation Abstract The objective of research was to determine modifications of obstetric Doppler after to fetal lung maturation. An explicative, prospective and longitudinal research was done with a quasi-experimental design and an intentional non probabilistic sample of 106 patients who assisted to High Risk Antenatal Consult at Hospital Central “Dr. Urquinaona". Once patients were selected

  7. Fetal bladder wall regeneration with a collagen biomatrix and histological evaluation of bladder exstrophy in a fetal sheep model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Luc A. J.; Eggink, Alex J.; de Kaa, Christina A. Hulsbergen-van; Wijnen, Rene M. H.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; van Moerkerk, Herman T. B.; Crevels, A. Jane; Hanssen, Alex; Lotgering, Fred K.; van den Berg, Paul P.; Feitz, Wout F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate histological changes in an animal model for bladder exstrophy and fetal repair of the bladder defect with a molecular-defined dual-layer collagen biomatrix to induce fetal bladder wall regeneration. Methods: In 12 fetal lambs the abdominal wall and bladder were opened by a mi

  8. Fetal goiter and bilateral ovarian cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pernille; Sundberg, Karin; Juul, Anders

    2008-01-01

    by each injection and followed by a gradual reduction of fetal goiter as well as the left ovarian cyst. The right cyst ruptured spontaneously. At 36 weeks + 4 days, the patient underwent elective caesarean section and gave birth to a female, weighing 2,880 g with 1- and 5-min Apgar scores of 10...

  9. Reduced fetal telomere length in gestational diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xu

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is an important complication of pregnancy that poses significant threats to women and their offspring. Telomere length shortens as cellular damage increases and is associated with metabolic diseases. Telomere length in fetal leucocytes was determined in 82 infants of women with GDM (N = 82 and 65 normal pregnant women (N = 65. Women with preeclampsia (N = 45 and gestational hypertension (N = 23 were also studied. In the GDM group, telomere length was significantly shorter than normal pregnancy (P = 0.028, but there were no significant differences in fetal telomere length between preeclampsia and normal pregnancy (P = 0.841 and between gestational hypertension and normal pregnancy (P = 0.561. Regression analysis revealed that fetal telomere length was significantly associated with intrauterine exposure to GDM (P = 0.027 after adjustment for maternal age, gestational age at delivery, birth weight and fetal gender. Shortened telomere length may increase the risk of metabolic diseases in adulthood of GDM offspring.

  10. Special Tests for Monitoring Fetal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... growth problems, Rh sensitization , or high blood pressure • Decreased movement of the fetus • Pregnancy that goes past ... on how far along you are in your pregnancy, you may have another BPP within the next ... BPP performed? The fetal heart rate is monitored in the same way it is ...

  11. REFLECTANCE PULSE OXIMETRY IN FETAL LAMBS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DASSEL, AC; GRAAFF, R; AARNOUDSE, JG; ELSTRODT, JM; HEIDA, P; KOELINK, MH; DEMUL, FF; GREVE, J

    1992-01-01

    Transmission pulse oximetry is used for monitoring in many clinical settings. However, for fetal monitoring during labor and in situations with poor peripheral perfusion, transmission pulse oximetry cannot be used. Therefore, we developed a reflectance pulse oximeter, which uses the relative intensi

  12. Ultrasound assessment of fetal cardiac function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispi, Fàtima; Valenzuela‐Alcaraz, Brenda; Cruz‐Lemini, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Fetal heart evaluation with US is feasible and reproducible, although challenging due to the smallness of the heart, the high heart rate and limited access to the fetus. However, some cardiac parameters have already shown a strong correlation with outcomes and may soon be incorporated into clinical practice. Materials and Methods: Cardiac function assessment has proven utility in the differential diagnosis of cardiomyopathies or prediction of perinatal mortality in congenital heart disease. In addition, some cardiac parameters with high sensitivity such as MPI or annular peak velocities have shown promising results in monitoring and predicting outcome in intrauterine growth restriction or congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Conclusion: Cardiac function can be adequately evaluated in most fetuses when appropriate expertise, equipment and time are available. Fetal cardiac function assessment is a promising tool that may soon be incorporated into clinical practice to diagnose, monitor or predict outcome in some fetal conditions. Thus, more research is warranted to further define specific protocols for each fetal condition that may affect cardiac function. PMID:28191192

  13. MATERNO-FETAL IMMUNOTOLERANCE: AN EVOLUTIONARY VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Paulesu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Medawar (1953, much attention has been given to the immunological paradox of the survival and growth of the semi-allogeneic fetus in the maternal uterus. Numerous studies, mainly on the human placenta, have established fundamental mechanisms of this phenomenon; however, many aspects are still unclear and the complex process has yet to be completely defined. One of the accepted principles is that the secretion and action of mediators, i.e. cytokines, at the materno-fetal interface have a central role. Focusing on the cytokine Interleukin-1 (IL-1 the review highlights the importance of a physiological approach based on evolutionary studies in animals using similar or different reproductive strategies. Data on IL-1 in viviparity and oviparity, two reproductive strategies in which female reproductive tissues have to deal with paternal-derived antigens on sperm, fertilized eggs, and embryo, will be presented and discussed in the light of materno-fetal immuntolerance. Ovuliparity, a reproductive modality in which the eggs are released from the female reproductive tract and fertilization and embryonic development take place in the external environment will also be extensively reported as a negative control in the studies on materno-fetal immunotolerance. The evidence shown reveals that non-mammalian vertebrates with different reproductive strategies represent a good model to understand biological mechanisms allowing fetal acceptance and growth in the maternal tissues.

  14. Imaging of the fetal central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction : Ultrasound and MR imaging of the fetal central nervous system (CNS) develop at an ever-increasing rate. Theoretically, the two modalities should be synergistic, but a literature review revealed the difficulties of determining the merit of either technique and revealed gaps in our know

  15. Anestesia para cirugía fetal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vasco Ramírez, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    ...). El objetivo de este articulo es realizar una revision narrativa de la anestesia para la cirugia fetal. Metodologia Se realizo una busqueda no sistematica de publicaciones en bases de datos medicas que incluyeron MEDLINE, SciELO y EMBASE, utilizando los terminos > y restringida a los siguientes tipo...

  16. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Behavioral Teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavale, Kenneth A.; Karge, Belinda D.

    1986-01-01

    The review examines the literature on the behaviorally teratogenic aspects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, including: (1) prevalence of alcohol abuse among women, (2) acute and chronic effects of alcohol on the fetus, (3) genetic susceptibility, (4) neuropathology, (5) correlative conditions, and (6) animal studies. (Author/DB)

  17. Fetal programming of appetite and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breier, B H; Vickers, M H; Ikenasio, B A; Chan, K Y; Wong, W P

    2001-12-20

    Obesity and related metabolic disorders are prevalent health issues in modern society and are commonly attributed to lifestyle and dietary factors. However, the mechanisms by which environmental factors modulate the physiological systems that control weight regulation and the aetiology of metabolic disorders, which manifest in adult life, may have their roots before birth. The 'fetal origins' or 'fetal programming' paradigm is based on the observation that environmental changes can reset the developmental path during intrauterine development leading to obesity and cardiovascular and metabolic disorders later in life. The pathogenesis is not based on genetic defects but on altered genetic expression as a consequence of an adaptation to environmental changes during fetal development. While many endocrine systems can be affected by fetal programming recent experimental studies suggest that leptin and insulin resistance are critical endocrine defects in the pathogenesis of programming-induced obesity and metabolic disorders. However, it remains to be determined whether postnatal obesity is a consequence of programming of appetite regulation and whether hyperphagia is the main underlying cause of the increased adiposity and the development of metabolic disorders.

  18. Neuroimaging and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Andria L.; Crocker, Nicole; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    The detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing brain include structural brain anomalies as well as cognitive and behavioral deficits. Initial neuroimaging studies of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed previous autopsy reports of overall reduction in brain volume and…

  19. Fetal hydantoin syndrome: A case report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, A; Bhatia, HP; Mohan, A; Sharma, N

    2016-01-01

    ... it becomes mandatory to take anticonvulsants on regular basis during pregnancy. Fetal hydantoin syndrome (FHS) is a fetopathy likely to occur when a pregnant women takes hydantoin for epileptic seizures. Hanson and Smith in 1975 coined the term FHS. [4] Its classical features include growth and developmental delay, craniofacial anomalies, varying ...

  20. Jaundice during pregnancy: maternal and fetal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi Krishnamoorthy

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Jaundice in pregnancy has adverse fetomaternal outcome. Improvement in health awareness, education and regular antenatal checkups, early referrals result in early diagnosis and treatment of jaundice during pregnancy thus reducing maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2541-2545

  1. Noninvasive fetal RhD genotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Damkjær, Merete Berthu; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2014-01-01

    Immunization against RhD is the major cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), which causes fetal or neonatal death. The introduction of postnatal immune prophylaxis in the 1960s drastically reduced immunization incidents in pregnant, D-negative women. In several countries...

  2. Possible fetal determinants of male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Almstrup, Kristian; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Although common reproductive problems, such as male infertility and testicular cancer, present in adult life, strong evidence exists that these reproductive disorders might have a fetal origin. The evidence is derived not only from large epidemiological studies that show birth-cohort effects...

  3. Fetal movements and placental lactogen levels for fetal-placental evaluation. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellacy, W N; Cruz, A C; Gelman, S R; Buhi, W C

    1977-01-01

    Fetal movements were measured by 37 pregnant women during a 10-minute period while they were lying on their left side at various times during the day with the highest rates in the evening. Preliminary assessments of fetal movement and serum hPL levels in pregnant women suggest that the two tests might complement each other in providing more information about the status of the placenta and fetus.

  4. Fetal cardiac time intervals in healthy pregnancies - an observational study by fetal ECG (Monica Healthcare System).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker-Gussmann, Annette; Plankl, Cordula; Sewald, Maria; Schneider, Karl-Theo Maria; Oberhoffer, Renate; Lobmaier, Silvia M

    2017-04-28

    Fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) can detect QRS signals in fetuses from as early as 17 weeks' gestation; however, the technique is limited by the minute size of the fetal signal relative to noise ratio. The aim of this study was to evaluate precise fetal cardiac time intervals (fCTIs) with the help of a newly developed fetal ECG device (Monica Healthcare System). In a prospective manner we included 15-18 healthy fetuses per gestational week from 32 weeks onwards. The small and wearable Monica AN24 monitoring system uses standard ECG electrodes placed on the maternal abdomen to monitor fECG, maternal ECG and uterine electromyogram (EMG). Fetal CTIs were estimated on 1000 averaged fetal heart beats. Detection was deemed successful if there was a global signal loss of less than 30% and an analysis loss of the Monica AN24 signal separation analysis of less than 50%. Fetal CTIs were determined visually by three independent measurements. A total of 149 fECGs were performed. After applying the requirements 117 fECGs remained for CTI analysis. While the onset and termination of P-wave and QRS-complex could be easily identified in most ECG patterns (97% for P-wave, PQ and PR interval and 100% for QRS-complex), the T-wave was detectable in only 41% of the datasets. The CTI results were comparable to other available methods such as fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG). Although limited and preclinical in its use, fECG (Monica Healthcare System) could be an additional useful tool to detect precise fCTIs from 32 weeks' gestational age onwards.

  5. Fetal Intracranial Hemorrhage (Fetal Stroke: Report of Four Antenatally Diagnosed Casesand Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Fen Huang

    2006-06-01

    Conclusion: This small series demonstrate that an antenatal diagnosis of fetal stroke with intraventricular hemorrhage Grades III and IV or with brain parenchymal involvement appears to be associated with poor neurologic outcome. Due to the significant neonatal neurologic impairment and potential medicolegal implications of antepartum fetal ICH, it follows that obstetricians and sonographers should be familiar with predisposing factors and typical diagnostic imaging findings of rare in utero ICH events.

  6. Diagnóstico prenatal de ciclopía asociada con trisomía 13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Pachajoa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de ciclopía con diagnóstico prenatal por ecografía bidimensional y tridimensional, a quien se le realizó cordocentesis, el cariotipo en sangre fetal con bandeo G mostró trisomía 13 libre, las características fenotípicas se confirmaron al examen físico del recién nacido. Se hace una revisión de la literatura de ciclopía asociada con la trisomía 13 y se destacan aspectos de importancia en la ecografía prenatal.

  7. con la cosecha mecanizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Martínez Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Las investigaciones dirigidas a incrementar los indicadores de eficiencia y calidad durante la cosecha mecanizada del café, constituyen un tema de gran actualidad a nivel internacional. La determinación de las propiedades físico-mecánicas de los frutos y del sistema frutopedúnculo, es una etapa indispensable durante las investigaciones relacionadas con la cosecha mecanizada de este producto. En este trabajo se brindan los resultados sobre la determinación de un grupo de propiedades dimensionales, inerciales y elásticas del sistema fruto-pedúnculo de coffea arabica variedad Catuai en diferentes estadios de maduración, relacionadas con la cosecha mecanizada de este cultivo.Así mismo se determina el momento flector requerido para la ruptura de la unión fruto pedúnculo. Durante la investigación se emplearon técnicas de procesamiento de imágenes digitales, así como de extensometría eléctrica. Como resultado de la medición de las diferentes propiedades se apreciaron diferencias sustanciales en las características dimensionales, inerciales y elásticas de los frutos maduros y verdes, así como en el momento requerido para el desprendimiento de los frutos y en las formas en que se produce el desprendimiento.

  8. Entrevista con Giovanni Levi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available En esta entrevista, Giovanni Levi - como un conocedor del tema de Familia - realiza una importante evaluación sobre el actual estado de las investigaciones realizadas en el Brasil y em el exterior. Con estilo franco, agudo y lucido critica las visiones tradicionales y sus ilusiones ypropone nuevos conceptos y métodos. La historia de la familia debería ceder espacio para el estudio de las redes relacionales o de los mundos relacionales. De la misma forma, la historia cuantitativa debería abrir espacio para el estudio de las cualidades. Ya con relación a la historia de las elites, tan estudiada y reproducida en una diversidad de trabajos, que deberíase mirar en otra perspectiva. Es decir, no mirar a las reglas sociales predeterminadas, sino a los desvíos y a las variaciones. Levi defiende que los historiadores deben trascender a los documentos que se encuentran fácilmente y que pueden fortalecer perspectivas deformadas y esequilibradas de la sociedad. Para él, los historiadores deben esforzarse por estudiar a aquellos grupos que dejaron pocos rastros documentales. En ese esfuerzo existiría una nueva mirada sobre la historia de la familia.

  9. Entrevista con Patricia Ariza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Londoño La Rotta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pensamiento, Palabra y Obra entrevista a una artista, feminista y activista política, quien como mujer y artista ha permitido pensar el arte más allá de un simple espectáculo. Toda una vida dedicada al teatro y a darle voz, a través de sus obras, a víctimas del conflicto colombiano, defensora de derechos humanos; además de hacer evidente en su vida y a través de la plataforma “Artistas por la paz”, las múltiples relaciones que se pueden establecer entre el arte, la construcción de paz y la resolución de conflictos. Hablamos en su casa, en medio del calor de la bienvenida con Patricia Ariza, directora del festival alternativo de teatro, de Mujeres en Escena y de la Corporación Colombiana de Teatro, entre otras muchas actividades que voluntariamente su espíritu libertario ha asumido. Esta entrevista se realizó antes del 2 de octubre, pero con la revisión de los acuerdos que propició el plebiscito ganado por una ínfima minoría por el no, sigue siendo vigente este planteamiento.

  10. Entrevista con Geoffrey Lloyd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Colina Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Helenista y también sinólogo de relieve internacional, Geoffrey E. R. Lloyd nació en Londres (1933, de padres galeses. Es un gran historiador de la ciencia y del pensamiento griegos. En 1940 fue evacuado de Londres con su madre. Sus estudios significativos comenzaron, tras algún rodeo, en el King’s College donde estudiaba su hermano. Éste sería, como su padre, médico, y él mismo dudó en estudiar esa profesión, que late en sus libros. Pero un profesor de clásicas como John Raven –que redactó, con Geoffrey Kirk, Los filósofos presocráticos–, le indujo a ocuparse de la filosofía antigua; y otro maestro, William Guthrie –a quien debemos la gran Historia de la filosofía griega–, le inició, además, en la medicina griega.

  11. The "Fetal Reserve Index": Re-Engineering the Interpretation and Responses to Fetal Heart Rate Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Robert D; Evans, Mark I; Evans, Shara M; Schifrin, Barry S

    2017-06-08

    Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) correlates poorly with neonatal outcome. We present a new metric: the "Fetal Reserve Index" (FRI), formally incorporating EFM with maternal, obstetrical, fetal risk factors, and excessive uterine activity for assessment of risk for cerebral palsy (CP). We performed a retrospective, case-control series of 50 term CP cases with apparent intrapartum neurological injury and 200 controls. All were deemed neurologically normal on admission. We compared the FRI against ACOG Category (I-III) system and long-term outcome parameters against ACOG monograph (NEACP) requirements for labor-induced fetal neurological injury. Abnormal FRI's identified 100% of CP cases and did so hours before injury. ACOG Category III identified only 44% and much later. Retrospective ACOG monograph criteria were found in at most 30% of intrapartum-acquired CP patients; only 27% had umbilical or neonatal pH <7.0. In this initial, retrospective trial, an abnormal FRI identified all cases of labor-related neurological injury more reliably and earlier than Category III, which may allow fetal therapy by intrauterine resuscitation. The combination of traditional EFM with maternal, obstetrical, and fetal risk factors creating the FRI performed much better as a screening test than EFM alone. Our quantified screening system needs further evaluation in prospective trials. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Detection of fetal QRS-complexes by external methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahopelto, J; Hukkinen, K; Katila, T E; Laine, H; Kariniemi, V

    1975-01-01

    A new method is presented for detection of the QRS complexes and the fetal heart rate from the fetal magnetocardiogram and from the fetal electrocardiogram. In the method, the amplitude, the polarity and the shape of the QRS complex are tested. By using the described equipment it is possible to detect all consecutive heart beat intervals from a fetal electrocardiogram with less than 1% error in timing. When an external fetal electrocardiogram was used for testing, generally slightly over 10% of the QRS complexes were lost since they were simultaneous with the maternal complexes. In addition, complexes were also lost due to noise.

  13. Fetal eye movements on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Woitek

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed. METHODS: Dynamic SSFP sequences were acquired in 72 singleton fetuses (17-40 GW, three age groups [17-23 GW, 24-32 GW, 33-40 GW]. Fetal eye movements were evaluated according to a modified classification originally published by Birnholz (1981: Type 0: no eye movements; Type I: single transient deviations; Type Ia: fast deviation, slower reposition; Type Ib: fast deviation, fast reposition; Type II: single prolonged eye movements; Type III: complex sequences; and Type IV: nystagmoid. RESULTS: In 95.8% of fetuses, the evaluation of eye movements was possible using MRI, with a mean acquisition time of 70 seconds. Due to head motion, 4.2% of the fetuses and 20.1% of all dynamic SSFP sequences were excluded. Eye movements were observed in 45 fetuses (65.2%. Significant differences between the age groups were found for Type I (p = 0.03, Type Ia (p = 0.031, and Type IV eye movements (p = 0.033. Consistently parallel bulbs were found in 27.3-45%. CONCLUSIONS: In human fetuses, different eye movement patterns can be identified and described by MRI in utero. In addition to the originally classified eye movement patterns, a novel subtype has been observed, which apparently characterizes an important step in fetal brainstem development. We evaluated, for the first time, eyeball position in fetuses. Ultimately, the assessment of fetal eye movements by MRI yields the potential to identify early signs of brainstem dysfunction, as encountered in brain malformations such as Chiari II or molar tooth malformations.

  14. Fetal eye movements on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitek, Ramona; Kasprian, Gregor; Lindner, Christian; Stuhr, Fritz; Weber, Michael; Schöpf, Veronika; Brugger, Peter C; Asenbaum, Ulrika; Furtner, Julia; Bettelheim, Dieter; Seidl, Rainer; Prayer, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed. Dynamic SSFP sequences were acquired in 72 singleton fetuses (17-40 GW, three age groups [17-23 GW, 24-32 GW, 33-40 GW]). Fetal eye movements were evaluated according to a modified classification originally published by Birnholz (1981): Type 0: no eye movements; Type I: single transient deviations; Type Ia: fast deviation, slower reposition; Type Ib: fast deviation, fast reposition; Type II: single prolonged eye movements; Type III: complex sequences; and Type IV: nystagmoid. In 95.8% of fetuses, the evaluation of eye movements was possible using MRI, with a mean acquisition time of 70 seconds. Due to head motion, 4.2% of the fetuses and 20.1% of all dynamic SSFP sequences were excluded. Eye movements were observed in 45 fetuses (65.2%). Significant differences between the age groups were found for Type I (p = 0.03), Type Ia (p = 0.031), and Type IV eye movements (p = 0.033). Consistently parallel bulbs were found in 27.3-45%. In human fetuses, different eye movement patterns can be identified and described by MRI in utero. In addition to the originally classified eye movement patterns, a novel subtype has been observed, which apparently characterizes an important step in fetal brainstem development. We evaluated, for the first time, eyeball position in fetuses. Ultimately, the assessment of fetal eye movements by MRI yields the potential to identify early signs of brainstem dysfunction, as encountered in brain malformations such as Chiari II or molar tooth malformations.

  15. MRI of normal fetal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor; Krampl, Elisabeth; Ulm, Barbara; Witzani, Linde; Prayer, Lucas; Brugger, Peter C

    2006-02-01

    Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the 18th gestational week (GW) to term, and relies primarily on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences. These maturational changes must be interpreted with a knowledge of the histological background and the temporal course of the respective developmental steps. In addition, MR presentation of developing and transient structures must be considered. Signal changes associated with maturational processes can mainly be ascribed to the following changes in tissue composition and organization, which occur at the histological level: (1) a decrease in water content and increasing cell-density can be recognized as a shortening of T1- and T2-relaxation times, leading to increased T1-weighted and decreased T2-weighted intensity, respectively; (2) the arrangement of microanatomical structures to create a symmetrical or asymmetrical environment, leading to structural differences that may be demonstrated by DW-anisotropy; (3) changes in non-structural qualities, such as the onset of a membrane potential in premyelinating axons. The latter process also influences the appearance of a structure on DW sequences. Thus, we will review the in vivo MR appearance of different maturational states of the fetal brain and relate these maturational states to anatomical, histological, and in vitro MRI data. Then, the development of the cerebral cortex, white matter, temporal lobe, and cerebellum will be reviewed, and the MR appearance of transient structures of the fetal brain will be shown. Emphasis will be placed on the appearance of the different structures with the various sequences. In addition, the possible utility of dynamic fetal sequences in assessing spontaneous fetal movements is discussed.

  16. MRI of normal fetal brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: Daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Krampl, Elisabeth [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Ulm, Barbara [Department of Prenatal Diagnosis, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Lucas [Diagnosezentrum Urania, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the 18th gestational week (GW) to term, and relies primarily on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences. These maturational changes must be interpreted with a knowledge of the histological background and the temporal course of the respective developmental steps. In addition, MR presentation of developing and transient structures must be considered. Signal changes associated with maturational processes can mainly be ascribed to the following changes in tissue composition and organization, which occur at the histological level: (1) a decrease in water content and increasing cell-density can be recognized as a shortening of T1- and T2-relaxation times, leading to increased T1-weighted and decreased T2-weighted intensity, respectively; (2) the arrangement of microanatomical structures to create a symmetrical or asymmetrical environment, leading to structural differences that may be demonstrated by DW-anisotropy; (3) changes in non-structural qualities, such as the onset of a membrane potential in premyelinating axons. The latter process also influences the appearance of a structure on DW sequences. Thus, we will review the in vivo MR appearance of different maturational states of the fetal brain and relate these maturational states to anatomical, histological, and in vitro MRI data. Then, the development of the cerebral cortex, white matter, temporal lobe, and cerebellum will be reviewed, and the MR appearance of transient structures of the fetal brain will be shown. Emphasis will be placed on the appearance of the different structures with the various sequences. In addition, the possible utility of dynamic fetal sequences in assessing spontaneous fetal movements is discussed.

  17. Fetal Eye Movements on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitek, Ramona; Kasprian, Gregor; Lindner, Christian; Stuhr, Fritz; Weber, Michael; Schöpf, Veronika; Brugger, Peter C.; Asenbaum, Ulrika; Furtner, Julia; Bettelheim, Dieter; Seidl, Rainer; Prayer, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed. Methods Dynamic SSFP sequences were acquired in 72 singleton fetuses (17–40 GW, three age groups [17–23 GW, 24–32 GW, 33–40 GW]). Fetal eye movements were evaluated according to a modified classification originally published by Birnholz (1981): Type 0: no eye movements; Type I: single transient deviations; Type Ia: fast deviation, slower reposition; Type Ib: fast deviation, fast reposition; Type II: single prolonged eye movements; Type III: complex sequences; and Type IV: nystagmoid. Results In 95.8% of fetuses, the evaluation of eye movements was possible using MRI, with a mean acquisition time of 70 seconds. Due to head motion, 4.2% of the fetuses and 20.1% of all dynamic SSFP sequences were excluded. Eye movements were observed in 45 fetuses (65.2%). Significant differences between the age groups were found for Type I (p = 0.03), Type Ia (p = 0.031), and Type IV eye movements (p = 0.033). Consistently parallel bulbs were found in 27.3–45%. Conclusions In human fetuses, different eye movement patterns can be identified and described by MRI in utero. In addition to the originally classified eye movement patterns, a novel subtype has been observed, which apparently characterizes an important step in fetal brainstem development. We evaluated, for the first time, eyeball position in fetuses. Ultimately, the assessment of fetal eye movements by MRI yields the potential to identify early signs of brainstem dysfunction, as encountered in brain malformations such as Chiari II or molar tooth malformations. PMID:24194885

  18. Infección por chikunguña materno-fetal asociada con miocarditis neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Corrales Martínez, Silvia Catalina; Facultad de Salud, Universidad Surcolombiana-Hospital Universitario Hernando Moncaliano, Neiva, Colombia.; Fonseca, Carlos; Unidad de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal-Hospital Universitario Hernando Moncaliano, Neiva, Colombia; Salgado, Doris; Departamento Infectología Pediátrica, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Surcolombiana-Hospital Universitario Hernando Moncaliano, Neiva, Colombia.

    2016-01-01

     El virus de chikunguña es un arbovirus de la familia Togaviridae y fue aislado por primera vez en Tanzania y Uganda, en 1953. Esta infección se ha desarrollado de manera endémica y es transmitida por el mosquito del género Aedes. El mecanismo exacto de la transmisión de madre a hijo aún no se tiene claro, pero se han identificado potenciales complicaciones de la transmisión vertical, como malformaciones congénitas, mortinatos, restricción del crecimiento intrauterino y partos pretérmino. En ...

  19. Fetal Growth and Timing of Parturition in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Sun, Wenyu; Troendle, James

    2008-01-01

    Animal studies indicate that either the fetus or the intrauterine environment, both of which set the pattern for fetal growth, may affect the timing of parturition. The authors examined the association between fetal growth and timing of spontaneous onset of labor in humans among low-risk white US women with singleton pregnancies (1987–1991). They restricted the data to pregnancies which had a reliable date of the last menstrual period, normal fetal growth in the first half of pregnancy, and no history of or current pregnancy complications that might have impaired fetal growth (n = 3,360). Subjects received ultrasound examinations at 15–22 and 31–35 weeks’ gestation. Fetal growth was adjusted for parity, fetal sex, and maternal prepregnancy weight and height. Results showed that slower or faster fetal growth in the second half of pregnancy resulted in substantially lower or higher birth weight, respectively. However, fetal growth in the second half of pregnancy, even at extremes (2 standard deviations below or above the mean), did not have a meaningful impact on the timing of parturition; neither did fetal growth acceleration or deceleration in late pregnancy. Thus, in low-risk pregnancies where fetal growth is normal in early gestation, fetal growth in the second half of pregnancy does not affect the timing of normal parturition. PMID:18775925

  20. Fetal growth and timing of parturition in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Sun, Wenyu; Troendle, James

    2008-10-15

    Animal studies indicate that either the fetus or the intrauterine environment, both of which set the pattern for fetal growth, may affect the timing of parturition. The authors examined the association between fetal growth and timing of spontaneous onset of labor in humans among low-risk white US women with singleton pregnancies (1987-1991). They restricted the data to pregnancies which had a reliable date of the last menstrual period, normal fetal growth in the first half of pregnancy, and no history of or current pregnancy complications that might have impaired fetal growth (n = 3,360). Subjects received ultrasound examinations at 15-22 and 31-35 weeks' gestation. Fetal growth was adjusted for parity, fetal sex, and maternal prepregnancy weight and height. Results showed that slower or faster fetal growth in the second half of pregnancy resulted in substantially lower or higher birth weight, respectively. However, fetal growth in the second half of pregnancy, even at extremes (2 standard deviations below or above the mean), did not have a meaningful impact on the timing of parturition; neither did fetal growth acceleration or deceleration in late pregnancy. Thus, in low-risk pregnancies where fetal growth is normal in early gestation, fetal growth in the second half of pregnancy does not affect the timing of normal parturition.

  1. Cariotipos fetales en embarazos de alto riesgo genético provenientes de hospitales de la seguridad social y de la consulta privada, de 1993 a 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Castro Volio; Kay Sander Mangel; Manuel Vargas Prado; Luis Sánchez Cháves; Gerardo Escalante López

    2000-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar cromosomopatía fetal en voluntarias con embarazos de alto riesgo genético, a fin de brindar adecuada atención obstétrica y pediátrica y asesoramiento genético. Las células fetales se obtuvieron mediante amniocentesis (N=506) y cordocentesis (N=46) desde 1993 hasta 1998 inclusive. Ambas punciones fueron transabdominales, guiadas por ultrasonografía y se realizaron en los hospitales Calderón Guardia (63% de las amniocentesis y 45 cordocentesis), Méxic...

  2. Identification of circulating fetal cell markers by microarray analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Marie; Hatt, Lotte; Singh, Ripudaman

    2012-01-01

    identified by XY fluorescence in situ hybridization and confirmed by reverse-color fluorescence in situ hybridization were shot off microscope slides by laser capture microdissection. The expression pattern of a subset of expressed genes was compared between fetal cells and maternal blood cells using stem......OBJECTIVE: Different fetal cell types have been found in the maternal blood during pregnancy in the past, but fetal cells are scarce, and the proportions of the different cell types are unclear. The objective of the present study was to identify specific fetal cell markers from fetal cells found...... in the maternal blood circulation at the end of the first trimester. METHOD: Twenty-three fetal cells were isolated from maternal blood by removing the red blood cells by lysis or combining this with removal of large proportions of maternal white blood cells by magnetic-activated cell sorting. Fetal cells...

  3. Recent advances in fetal near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antona, Donato; Aldrich, Clive J.; O'Brien, Patrick; Lawrence, Sally; Delpy, David T.; Wyatt, John S.

    1997-01-01

    Fetal brain injury resulting from hypoxia and ischemia during labor remains an important cause of death and long- term disability. However, little is known about fetal brain oxygenation and hemodynamics. There are currently no satisfactory clinical techniques for fetal monitoring and there remains a need for a new method to assess brain oxygenation. Fetal near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a new technique that allows noninvasive observation of changes in the cerebral concentrations of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to be made during labor. A specially designed optical probe is inserted through the dilated cervix and placed against the fetal head. It is then possible to compare changes in NIRS data with other observations of fetal conditions, such as fetal heart rate and acid-base status.

  4. Entrevista con Juan Marichal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Consejo de Redacción

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Juan Marichal nació en Santa Cruz de Tenerife, en 1922, en el seno de una familia ligada al partido republicano insular. Muy joven, en 1935, se trasladó a Madrid, ciudad en la que vive el estallido de la guerra civil. En 1937, pasa a Valencia y luego a Barcelona; tras su exilio en 1938, prosigue sus estudios secundarios en un liceo de París, concluyéndolos en Casablanca. En 1941 emigra a México, formándose en la UNAM: fue alumno de los exiliados José Gaos y Joaquín Xirau así como del mexicano Edmundo O 'Gorman. Luego, becado en Princeton desde 1946, lo fue de América Castro, donde preparó una tesis sobre Feijoo. Apoyado en las vastas perspectivas de sus maestros, fue orientándose hada nuestra historia intelectual, desde el siglo XV hasta hoy. Su carrera profesional se ha desarrollado en los Estados Unidos (coincidiendo con Amado Alonso y con Ferrater Mora: ha sido profesor de estudios hispánicos en la Universidad de Harvard, desde 1948 hasta 1988, año en que se jubiló voluntariamente como numerario (aunque había permanecido en el Bryn Mawr College, entre 1953 y 1957. A este trabajo se suman, con todo, sus conferencias en América Latina y en España. Ha colaborado en las revistas más importantes, en este campo, de México, Nueva York, Puerto Rico, La Habana, Buenos Aires o París así como de las españolas, desde los sesenta. Juan Marichal -hoy, miembro de la Junta Directiva de los Amigos de la Residencia de Estudiantes, director del Boletín de la Institución Libre de Enseñanza y asociado al Instituto Universitario Ortega y Gasset-, reside en España desde otoño de 1989: se considera a sí mismo «voluntario en Madrid», como había dicho Alfonso Reyes en su estancia madrileña (1914-1924.

  5. Mirando con la cabeza

    OpenAIRE

    Corrales, Capi

    2006-01-01

    Las matemáticas y la pintura trabajan con ideas. La palabra idea viene del griego ειδω, que significa ver, mirar u observar, y de ειδοζ, que significa figura, forma, aspecto o visión. Detrás de una montaña concreta está la idea de montaña, un dibujo abstracto, unas líneas que permiten reconocer la montaña detrás de las rocas, los pinos o la nieve. La diferencia entre este árbol y árbol, entre un círculo que dibujamos en la pizarra y círculo: la diferencia entre la cosa y la idea de la cosa. E...

  6. Musicalizarte con las Tics

    OpenAIRE

    Gamarra, Patricia Mabel; Velázquez, Helvecia Mercedes del Rocío; Verón, José María

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo hace referencia a un relato de experiencia didáctica desarrollada en el Instituto Superior de Música “Prof. Carmelo H. de Biasi” de Corrientes- Argentina, donde el área de interés de Tecnología en Educación se dirige hacia “Aplicación de las TIC en Educación/ Experiencias concretas de utilización de TIC en Educación”. En el diagnóstico realizado en la institución, se pudo observar la escasa transversalidad e interrelación con las distintas áreas curriculares como ser: l...

  7. Entrevista con Georges Duby.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Consejo de Redacción

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Duby, heredero de dos grandes historiadores como Marc Bloch y Lucien Febvre, es uno de los más importantes medievalistas europeos. Fue, y sigue siendo, un motor de la importante reforma en la historia producida desde los sesenta. En sus primeros trabajos se acusa la recepción de las ideas económicas y geográficas de la mejor historiografía. Su riguroso estudio sobre la base material de la Edad Media, le permitirá luego irrumpir en la historia de las mentalidades, analizando, como decía Febvre, el utillaje mental (vocabulario, sintaxis, lugares comunes, cuadros lógicos, etc. del Medioevo. Así, el ejemplo de Mauss y LéviStrauss le anima a trabajar sobre el matrimonio, la sexualidad y ciertos sistemas del pensamiento: el primero, con su defensa de los hechos sociales totales, y el segundo, que buscaba las dimensiones simbólicas de lo social, le impulsan a trabajar sobre la ideología entendida no como mero reflejo de la situación material sino como «proyecto de acción sobre lo vivido». A su obra individual, atenta a los impulsos culturales más vivos, se suma su empuje decisivo en la realización de proyectos colectivos como la Historia de la vida privada o la Historia de las mujeres. Prácticamente, han sido traducidos todos sus libros al castellano, y han podido verse en España asimismo varios de sus programas televisivos (ha sido presidente de la SEPT, cadena de televisión cultural fundada en 1985. La amplitud de sus intereses intelectuales, transmitidos en su obra con un lenguaje a la vez muy claro y bellamente elaborado, se hace palpable también en este diálogo.

  8. Evaluation of non-reassuring fetal heart rate patterns with fetal pulse oximetry combined with vibratory acoustic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamalekis, E; Vitoratos, N; Loghis, C; Kassanos, D; Salloum, I; Batalias, L; Creatsas, G

    2003-02-01

    To determine the value of fetal pulse oximetry and vibratory acoustic stimulation in the presence of non-reassuring fetal heart rate patterns during labor. Prospective study in women monitored by cardiotocography and fetal pulse oximetry during labor. During a period of 18 months, 907 consecutive parturients in labor were monitored by cardiotocography. Out of these women, 63 were selected on the basis of a non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracing during the first stage of labor. In these cases, fetal pulse oximetry was applied. Vibratory acoustic stimulation was applied in fetuses without spontaneous reactivity in order to evaluate the fetal status. Our cases were classified into three groups, according to the lower fetal oxygen saturation levels, from the time of oximetry application until delivery. Group A consisted of 29 cases where fetal oxygen saturation levels were > or = 41%, group B (20 cases) with fetal oxygen saturation of 31-40% and group C (14 cases) with levels of fetal oxygen saturation levels. The mean umbilical artery pH levels were 7.29 +/- 0.051 in group A, 7.21 +/- 0.057 in group B and 7.04 +/- 0.05 in group C. Fetal pulse oximetry should be indicated not only in fetuses without any reactivity but also in those with induced reactivity, after the application of vibratory acoustic stimulation.

  9. Online Detection of Fetal Acidemia during Labour by Testing Synchronization of EEG and Heart Rate: A Prospective Study in Fetal Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Severe fetal acidemia during labour can result in life-lasting neurological deficits, but the timely detection of this condition is often not possible. This is because the positive predictive value (PPV) of fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring, the mainstay of fetal health surveillance during labour, to detect concerning fetal acidemia is around 50%. In fetal sheep model of human labour, we reported that severe fetal acidemia (pH

  10. Factors associated with oxidative stress in women with breast cancer Factores asociados con estrés oxidativo en mujeres con cáncer de mama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. K. Vieira

    2011-06-01

    és oxidativo midiendo los hidroperóxidos lipídicos (HL, las sustancias reactivas del ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS, las proteínas carbonilo, el glutatión reducido (GSH de sangre completa y la capacidad antioxidante sérica (CA. Los datos de la dieta se obtuvieron mediante cuestionario de frecuencia de alimentos. Se usó la regresión linear para determinar la asociación entre las variables estudiadas y los biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo. Los datos de las proteínas carbonilo no se incluyeron en los análisis de regresión linear puesto que no mostraron una distribución normal, incluso después de la transformación logarítmica y de otro tipo. Resultados: Después de ajustar para el aporte de energía, el consumo de pollo y de productos lácteos con alto contenido en grasas se asoció con un aumento en los niveles de HL, mientras que el consumo de vitamina E se asoció con una disminución de los niveles de HL (R² = 23,8%. El consumo de aceite se asoció con un aumento de los niveles de TBARS (R² = 6,82%. El estado de los ganglios linfáticos axilares se asoció con un descenso de los niveles de GSH (R² = 9,31%. La mayor edad se asoció directamente con los niveles de CA, mientras que la grasa de origen animal y el consumo de dulces se asoció con niveles bajos de CA (R² = 41,42%. Conclusión: El consumo de pollo, vitamina E, lácteos (especialmente de aquellos con alto contenido en grasa, aceites y grasas de origen animal, así como dulces, junto con el estado de los ganglios axilares y la edad podrían ser determinantes importantes en el estrés oxidativo de mujeres con cáncer de mama.

  11. Cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels in spontaneous abortion with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyae Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA in maternal circulation have been proposed as potential markers for noninvasive monitoring of the placental condition during the pregnancy. However, the correlation of and change in cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA in spontaneous abortion (SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy have not yet been reported. Therefore, we investigated cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels in SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A nested case-control study was conducted with maternal plasma collected from 268 women in their first trimester of pregnancy. Subjects included 41 SA with normal fetal karyotype, 26 SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy, and 201 normal controls. The unmethylated PDE9A gene was used to measure the maternal plasma levels of cell-free fetal DNA. The GAPDH gene was used to measure the maternal plasma levels of cell-free total DNA. The diagnostic accuracy was measured using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves. Levels of cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA were significantly higher in both SA women with normal fetal karyotype and SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy in comparison with the normal controls (P<0.001 in both. The correlation between cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels was stronger in the normal controls (r = 0.843, P<0.001 than in SA women with normal karyotype (r = 0.465, P = 0.002 and SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy (r = 0.412, P = 0.037. The area under the ROC curve for cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA was 0.898 (95% CI, 0.852-0.945 and 0.939 (95% CI, 0.903-0.975, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Significantly high levels of cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA were found in SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy. Our findings suggest that cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA may be useful biomarkers for the prediction of SA

  12. preescolares desnutridos con madres con obesidad y sin obesidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Vanessa Conzuelo-González

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El primer objetivo fue conocer cuántos menores de cinco años con diferentes grados de desnutrición tienen una madre con sobrepeso/obesidad/ en una comunidad indígena que vive en extrema pobreza y bajo condiciones de migración masculina internacional. El segundo fue comparar tres variables socionutricionales (ingreso familiar, educación de la madre y adecuación nutrimental de la dieta diaria entre estos hogares y los hogares con desnutrición infantil y madres sin obesidad. Se realizó un estudio transversal (2006-2007, en la comunidad mazahua de San Francisco Tepeolulco, Municipio de Temascalcingo; que incluyó a 85 hogares integrados por preescolares con desnutrición inscritos al programa Oportunidades. Se determinó el estado nutrición de los preescolares con indicadores antropométricos y se obtuvo el IMC de las madres de estos infantes. Se aplicó una encuesta socionutricional, incluida el recordatorio de 24 horas, y complementado con la observación participante (cualitativa. Se encontró que 83% de las madres mazahuas presentaron sobrepeso u obesidad. El estado de nutrición de los preescolares con madres con obesidad presentó un porcentaje mayor de desnutrición (76%. En la variable género, se encontró que 54% de los niños con madres con obesidad tenía baja talla. Al relacionar el nivel educativo de la madre, esta variable resultó ser estadísticamente significativa (p=0.015, donde el analfabetismo está más relacionado con la desnutrición infantil que tienen madres de bajo y/o peso normal. La elevada prevalencia de hogares conformados con preescolares con desnutrición y madres con obesidad, es un síntoma más de la pobreza en zonas indígenas en México, con bajo índice de desarrollo humano.

  13. Vigas preesforzadas con refuerzo externo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Ferrer Narvaez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Es de gran interés para la ingeniería colombiana el efecto del refuerzo externo de elementos estructurales con elementos metálicos. La Unidad de Estructuras ha venido realizando en el transcurso de esta década estudios en elementos en concreto con refuerzos externos a flexión con resultados satisfactorios. El proyecto ''Vigas preesforzadas con refuerzo externo" sirve de base en el estudio del comportamiento de este tipo de elementos estructurales y la extrapolación de los resultados obtenidos en elementos de concreto reforzado a concreto preesforzado.

  14. Hormonal and metabolic responses of fetal lamb during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏肇伉; 周成斌; 张海波; 祝忠群

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the hormonal and metabolic responses of fetal lamb during cardiopulmonary bypass.Methods Six pregnant ewes underwent fetal cardiopulmonary bypasses with artificial oxygenators and roller pumps for 30 minutes, which maintained the blood gas value at the fetal physiological level. The fetal blood pressure, heart rate, pH value and blood lactate levels were monitored. The levels of catecholamine, cortisol and insulin were measured pre-bypass and then again 30 minutes later. The blood glucose and free fatty acid levels were monitored continuously during the bypass. Fetal hepatic PAS staining was also carried out.Results There were no changes before and during the bypass in fetal blood pressure, heart rate and blood gas. However, pH values decreased and blood lactate levels increased (P<0.05). The fetal catecholamine and cortisol levels increased significantly (P<0.01), while the levels of insulin did not change. The blood glucose and free fatty acid levels increased at the beginning of the bypass (P<0.01), and then gradually slowed down during the bypass. The fetal hepatic PAS staining showed that hepatic glycogen was consumed in large amounts. After 30 minutes of bypass, the fetal lamb would not survive more than 1 hour.Conclusion The fetal lamb has a strong negative reaction to cardiopulmonary bypass.

  15. Impaired fetal adrenal function in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunfang; Chen, Xiaojun; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Li, Xiaotian

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-associated liver disease of unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the change in maternal and fetal adrenal function in clinical and experimental ICP. Material/Methods The maternal and fetal serum levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were determined in 14 women with ICP and in pregnant rats with estrogen-induced intrahepatic cholestasis. Results In women with ICP, the fetal serum cortisol and DHEAS levels were significantly higher than those in women with normal pregnancy, after correcting the impact of gestational age at delivery. The relationship between fetal cortisol and maternal cholic acid levels was bidirectional; the fetal cortisol tended to increase in mild ICP, while it decreased in severe ICP. In pregnant rats with estrogen-induced cholestasis, the fetal cortisol level was significantly lower in the group with oxytocin injection, compared with the group without oxytocin injection (191.92±18.86 vs. 272.71±31.83 ng/ml, P<0.05). In contrast, the fetal cortisol concentration was increased after oxytocin injection in normal control rats. Conclusions The data indicate that fetal stress-responsive system is stimulated in mild ICP, but it is suppressed in severe ICP, which might contribute to the occurrence of unpredictable sudden fetal death. Further studies are warranted to explore the role of impaired fetal adrenal function in the pathogenesis of ICP and the clinical implications. PMID:21525808

  16. Fetal Axillary Cystic Hygroma; a case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecmel Isık

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cystic Hygroma (CH is a lymphatic malformation occurring different parts of fetal body, typically in the region of the fetal neck and axillary, abdominal wall, mediastinal, inguinal and retroperitoneal areas. CH has been associated with fetal aneuploidy, hydrops fetalis, structural malformations and intrauterine fetal death. A 24-years-old gravida 1, para 1 was admitted to our hospital at 28 weeks of gestation. Ultrasonographic examination determined 28 weeks of gestation, singleton, alive fetus who had a mass derived from the right axillary region which was extending to the anterior and posterior thoracic wall with fluid-filled cavities about 12 cm in size. There was no evidence of intrathorasic or intraabdominal extension of mass. Cordocentesis was performed and karyotype examination was normal 46 XY. The fetal demise was found after the first visit. The patient was delivered vaginally after labor induction with oxytocin infusion. The fetal autopsy confirmed the diagnosis of CH. The fetal CH carries high risk of aneuploidy and fetal malformations. Patients that have been diagnosed with CH in antenatal follow-ups should be assessed in terms of other anomalies. Fetal karyotyping should be done and the patient should be monitored for fetal hydrops. The birth should be planned in a multidisciplinary hospital and as neonatal resuscitation could be needed, pediatricians should be consulted.

  17. Metabolomics Application in Maternal-Fetal Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Fanos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics in maternal-fetal medicine is still an “embryonic” science. However, there is already an increasing interest in metabolome of normal and complicated pregnancies, and neonatal outcomes. Tissues used for metabolomics interrogations of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns are amniotic fluid, blood, plasma, cord blood, placenta, urine, and vaginal secretions. All published papers highlight the strong correlation between biomarkers found in these tissues and fetal malformations, preterm delivery, premature rupture of membranes, gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, neonatal asphyxia, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The aim of this review is to summarize and comment on original data available in relevant published works in order to emphasize the clinical potential of metabolomics in obstetrics in the immediate future.

  18. Infertility, infertility treatment, and fetal growth restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Obel, Carsten; Hammer Bech, Bodil

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between infertility, with or without treatment, and fetal growth, as well as perinatal and infant mortality. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 51,041 singletons born of fertile couples (time to pregnancy 12 months or less......), 5,787 born of infertile couples conceiving naturally (time to pregnancy more than 12 months), and 4,317 born after treatment. We defined small for gestational age (SGA) as the lowest 5% of birth weight by sex and gestational age. RESULTS: Crude estimates suggested an increased risk of perinatal...... effect on fetal growth. A small-to-moderate increased risk of perinatal mortality in infertile couples cannot be ruled out due to the small number of cases. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec...

  19. Fetal microchimerism in breast and colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Biggar, R J; Stamper, Casey L

    2011-01-01

    . DNA from repository buffy coat specimens was tested for male FMc with quantitative PCR targeting the DYS14gene on the Y chromosome. For this analysis, 89 women who developed breast cancer and 67 women who developed colon cancer were evaluable for FMc. Results were compared to 272 women who remained......1574 Background: Cells acquired by a woman from her baby that durably persist in her blood and tissues is known as fetal microchimerism (FMc). In women with breast cancer, frequency and quantity of FMc in blood and breast tissue is reduced compared to healthy women. Whether the absence of fetal...... microchimerism predicts risk for developing breast cancer is unknown. FMc was evaluated in buffy coat cells from presumed healthy women who later developed breast cancer or colon cancer, a cancer in which prior pregnancy appears protective but has different associations with endocrine risk factors. METHODS...

  20. Metabolomics application in maternal-fetal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanos, Vassilios; Atzori, Luigi; Makarenko, Karina; Melis, Gian Benedetto; Ferrazzi, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomics in maternal-fetal medicine is still an "embryonic" science. However, there is already an increasing interest in metabolome of normal and complicated pregnancies, and neonatal outcomes. Tissues used for metabolomics interrogations of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns are amniotic fluid, blood, plasma, cord blood, placenta, urine, and vaginal secretions. All published papers highlight the strong correlation between biomarkers found in these tissues and fetal malformations, preterm delivery, premature rupture of membranes, gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, neonatal asphyxia, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The aim of this review is to summarize and comment on original data available in relevant published works in order to emphasize the clinical potential of metabolomics in obstetrics in the immediate future.

  1. Fetal chromosome analysis: screening for chromosome disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philip, J; Tabor, Ann; Bang, J

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the rationale of the current indications for fetal chromosome analysis. 5372 women had 5423 amniocentesis performed, this group constituting a consecutive sample at the chromosome laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from March 1973 to September 1980 (Group...... to women having amniocentesis, although considered not to have any increased risk of fetal chromosome abnormality (1390 pregnancies, group B). They were also compared with 750 consecutive pregnancies in women 25-34 years of age, in whom all heritable diseases were excluded (group C). The risk of unbalanced...... with women without elevated risk. Spontaneous abortion rate and prematurity rate did not differ from rates expected without amniocentesis. It is concluded that current indications may be characterized as a mixture of evident high risk factors and factors with only a minor influence on risk. Indications...

  2. Octreotide therapy and restricted fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geilswijk, Marianne; Andersen, Lise Lotte Torvin; Frost, Morten

    2017-01-01

    growth velocity was normal. We conclude that octreotide treatment during pregnancy may pose a risk of fetal growth restriction and warrants careful consideration. In some cases of familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, blood glucose levels can be successfully managed through diet only, also during......SUMMARY: Hypoglycemia during pregnancy can have serious health implications for both mother and fetus. Although not generally recommended in pregnancy, synthetic somatostatin analogues are used for the management of blood glucose levels in expectant hyperinsulinemic mothers. Recent reports suggest...... that octreotide treatment in pregnancy, as well as hypoglycemia in itself, may pose a risk of fetal growth restriction. During pregnancy, management of blood glucose levels in familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia thus forms a medical dilemma. We report on pregnancy outcomes in a woman with symptomatic familial...

  3. Value of fetal skeletal radiographs in the diagnosis of fetal death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourliere-Najean, B.; Russel, A.S.; Petit, P.; Devred, P. [Department of Pediatric Radiology, CHU Timone, 264 rue St. Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Panuel, M. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Nord, chemin Bourrelys, 13915 Marseille cedex 20 (France); Piercecchi-Marti, M.D.; Fredouille, C. [Department of Pathology, CHU Timone, 264 rue St. Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Sigaudy, S.; Philip, N. [Department of Genetics, CHU Timone, 264 rue St. Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France)

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of fetal skeletal radiographs in determining the etiology of fetal death. A total of 1193 post-mortem fetal skeletal radiographs were analysed. Fetuses were classified into one of three groups (group I: abnormality diagnosed during pregnancy; group II: maternal pathology; group III: spontaneous abortion of pregnancy, IIIa before 26 weeks of gestation (WG), IIIb after 26 weeks of gestation). Face, supine and lateral skeletal views were performed. Skeletal abnormalities were detected in 33.9% of the fetuses, including 22.7% with minor abnormalities (abnormal rib number, no nasal bone ossification, amesophalangia or P2 hypoplasia of the fifth digit) and 14.5% with major abnormalities (other skeletal abnormalities). Among the fetuses with major abnormalities, 98.8% came from group I, 2.9% came from group II, 2.3% came from group IIIa and none came from group IIIb. Fetal skeletal radiographs are not useful in fetuses arising from spontaneous abortion of pregnancy without abnormality on ultrasound screening, abnormality clinical examination or in fetuses with prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormality. This practice is valuable only if there is a multidisciplinary team, with all the participants (pathologists, radiologists, geneticists) knowledgeable about fetal pathology. In the absence of this multidisciplinary approach, it is easier to X-ray all fetuses to avoid misdiagnosis and the important consequences for genetic counselling. (orig.)

  4. Placental adaptations to the maternal-fetal environment: implications for fetal growth and developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandovici, Ionel; Hoelle, Katharina; Angiolini, Emily; Constância, Miguel

    2012-07-01

    The placenta is a transient organ found in eutherian mammals that evolved primarily to provide nutrients for the developing fetus. The placenta exchanges a wide array of nutrients, endocrine signals, cytokines and growth factors with the mother and the fetus, thereby regulating intrauterine development. Recent studies show that the placenta is not just a passive organ mediating maternal-fetal exchange. It can adapt its capacity to supply nutrients in response to intrinsic and extrinsic variations in the maternal-fetal environment. These dynamic adaptations are thought to occur to maximize fetal growth and viability at birth in the prevailing conditions in utero. However, some of these adaptations may also affect the development of individual fetal tissues, with patho-physiological consequences long after birth. Here, this review summarizes current knowledge on the causes, possible mechanisms and consequences of placental adaptive responses, with a focus on the regulation of transporter-mediated processes for nutrients. This review also highlights the emerging roles that imprinted genes and epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation may play in placental adaptations to the maternal-fetal environment. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diseño y aplicación de una unidad didáctica para la enseñanza aprendizaje del concepto de disoluciones, apoyada en un simulador de cultivos hidropónicos

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Neusa; Angie Torres; Sandra Enciso

    2009-01-01

    Esta investigación es importante por el interés que causa la utilización de nuevas tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (NTIC`s) para la enseñanza de la química en las instituciones educativas, esto con el fin de dar a conocer que la tecnología en materia de informática, al trabajar mancomunadamente con la investigación educativa, pueden producir en conjunto material de apoyo para facilitar el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje de los estudiantes en el aula.

  6. Can postmortem fetal MR imaging replace autopsy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin [Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seoung Hyup [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare postmortem fetal MRI findings with autopsy findings and to assess whether postmortem MRI can replace autopsy. The study group consisted of 13 stillborn fetuses, seven that died immediately after birth, and five terminated because of anomalies seen on prenatal sonograms. A total 17 were male, and eight were female, and their gestational ages were from 20 to 41 (average;28.2) weeks. Spin-echo T1-and T2-weighted axial, sagittal, and coronal MR images were obtained, and autopsy findings were divided into major and minor. A major finding was defined as an anomaly or syndrome which caused fetal death or termination of the pregnancy: minor findings were classified, on the basis of gross inspection, as internal or external. MR images were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists unaware of the autopsy findings, and by comparison with these, the postmortem MRI detection rates for major and minor findings was then determined. In seven of 25 fetuses, MR imaging revealed major findings, a dietction rate of 100%. There were two cases of anencephaly, two of trisomy-18, and one each of hydrops fetalis with large cystic hygroma, diaphragmatic hernia, and Dandy-Walker malformation. Twenty-three of 60 minor findings (38.3%) were detected by MRI. The detection rates for external and internal findings were 29.6%(8/27) and 45.5%(15/33), respectively. Although a limitation of our study is the low detection rate for minor findings, postmortem fetal MRI may help diagnose the major cause of fetal death.

  7. Induction of fetal demise before abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Justin; Drey, Eleanor

    2010-06-01

    For decades, the induction of fetal demise has been used before both surgical and medical second-trimester abortion. Intracardiac potassium chloride and intrafetal or intra-amniotic digoxin injections are the pharmacologic agents used most often to induce fetal demise. In the last several years, induction of fetal demise has become more common before second-trimester abortion. The only randomized, placebo-controlled trial of induced fetal demise before surgical abortion used a 1 mg injection of intra-amniotic digoxin before surgical abortion at 20-23 weeks' gestation and found no difference in procedure duration, difficulty, estimated blood loss, pain scores or complications between groups. Inducing demise before induction terminations at near viable gestational ages to avoid signs of life at delivery is practiced widely. The role of inducing demise before dilation and evacuation (D&E) remains unclear, except for legal considerations in the United States when an intact delivery is intended. There is a discrepancy between the one published randomized trial that used 1 mg intra-amniotic digoxin that showed no improvement in D&E outcomes and observational studies using different routes, doses and pre-abortion intervals that have made claims for its use. Additional randomized trials might provide clearer evidence upon which to make further recommendations about any role of inducing demise before surgical abortion. At the current time, the Society of Family Planning recommends that pharmacokinetic studies followed by randomized controlled trials be conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of feticidal agents to improve abortion safety.

  8. Fetal hydantoin syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal hydantoin syndrome (FHS is a spectrum of defects caused to the developing fetus by exposure to the teratogenic effects of antiepileptic drug (AED phenytoin during pregnancy. Its clinical manifestations include limb abnormalities, ocular defects, central nervous system anomalies, intrauterine growth restriction, and hand and phalangeal anomalies. This case report presents an 8-year-old child born to an epileptic mother with a history of AED therapy, with features suggestive of FHS.

  9. Maturation of Fetal Responses to Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisilevsky, B. S.; Hains, S. M. J.; Jacquet, A.-Y.; Granier-Deferre, C.; Lecanuet, J. P.

    2004-01-01

    Maturation of fetal response to music was characterized over the last trimester of pregnancy using a 5-minute piano recording of Brahms' Lullaby, played at an average of 95, 100, 105 or 110 dB (A). Within 30 seconds of the onset of the music, the youngest fetuses (28-32 weeks GA) showed a heart rate increase limited to the two highest dB levels;…

  10. Fetal MR imaging diagnosis of pulmonary agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwashima, Shigeko; Kaji, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    A woman was referred to our institution with an ultrasound (US) suggestive of right-sided heart in fetus at 34 weeks' gestation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed right-sided heart, small right hemithorax, and completely absent right main bronchus and right pulmonary artery. From our experience with this case, we point out 5 important MR imaging findings needed for prenatal diagnosis of pulmonary agenesis. Fetal MR imaging also provided information about anomalies of other organs.

  11. Normal renal development investigated with fetal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: linde.witzani@aon.at; Brugger, Peter Christian [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Hoermann, Marcus [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Csapone-Balassy, Csilla [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Objective: To evaluate age-dependent changes in fetal kidney measurements with MRI. Patients and methods: Fetal MRI examinations were used to study the kidney length (218 fetuses), signal intensities of renal tissue, renal pelvis, and liver tissue on T2-weighted images (223 fetuses), and the whole-kidney apparent diffusion coefficient (107 fetuses). A 1.5 T superconducting unit with a phased array coil was used in patients from 16 to 39 weeks' gestation. The imaging protocol included T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo, T2-weighted balanced angiography and diffusion-weighted sequences. Slice thickness ranged from 3 to 5 mm. Results: Fetal kidney length as a function of gestational age was expressed by the linear regression: kidney length (mm) = 0.190 x gestational age (d) - 8.034 (R {sup 2} 0.883, p < 0.001). Paired t-test analysis showed a highly statistically significant difference between the ratio of renal tissue signal intensity to renal pelvis signal intensity and the ratio of liver signal intensity to renal pelvis signal intensity on T2-weighted images (t = -50.963, d.f. = 162, p < 0.001), with renal tissue hyperintense to liver tissue. The apparent diffusion coefficient in relation to gestational age was described by the equation: ADC ({mu}m{sup 2}/s) = 0.0302 x square (gestational age (d)) - 14.202 x gestational age (d) + 2728.6 (R {sup 2} = 0.225, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The length, signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and apparent diffusion coefficient of the fetal kidney change significantly with gestational age. The presented data may help in the prenatal diagnosis of renal anomalies.

  12. Normal renal development investigated with fetal MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzani, Linde; Brugger, Peter Christian; Hörmann, Marcus; Kasprian, Gregor; Csapone-Balassy, Csilla; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-02-01

    To evaluate age-dependent changes in fetal kidney measurements with MRI. Fetal MRI examinations were used to study the kidney length (218 fetuses), signal intensities of renal tissue, renal pelvis, and liver tissue on T2-weighted images (223 fetuses), and the whole-kidney apparent diffusion coefficient (107 fetuses). A 1.5 T superconducting unit with a phased array coil was used in patients from 16 to 39 weeks' gestation. The imaging protocol included T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo, T2-weighted balanced angiography and diffusion-weighted sequences. Slice thickness ranged from 3 to 5mm. Fetal kidney length as a function of gestational age was expressed by the linear regression: kidney length (mm)=0.190 x gestational age (d) -8.034 (R(2) = 0.883, p < 0.001). Paired t-test analysis showed a highly statistically significant difference between the ratio of renal tissue signal intensity to renal pelvis signal intensity and the ratio of liver signal intensity to renal pelvis signal intensity on T2-weighted images (t = -50.963, d.f. = 162, p < 0.001), with renal tissue hyperintense to liver tissue. The apparent diffusion coefficient in relation to gestational age was described by the equation: ADC (microm(2)/s) = 0.0302 x square (gestational age (d)) -14.202 x gestational age (d) +2,728.6 (R(2) = 0.225, p < 0.001). The length, signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and apparent diffusion coefficient of the fetal kidney change significantly with gestational age. The presented data may help in the prenatal diagnosis of renal anomalies.

  13. Umbilical Cord Segmental Hemorrhage and Fetal Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larciprete, Giovanni; Romanini, Maria Elisabetta; Arduini, Domenico; Cirese, Elio; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Kula, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    We describe an unexplained case of umbilical cord segmental hemorrhage linked with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. A severely asphyxiated infant was delivered at term by Caesarean section. There were poor prognostic signs on fetal cardiotocography with rupture of membranes with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. The pathophysiologic mechanism in this case is still unknown, even if we argued a possible role of the umbilical cord shortness. PMID:23674981

  14. Formate metabolism in fetal and neonatal sheep

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    By virtue of its role in nucleotide synthesis, as well as the provision of methyl groups for vital methylation reactions, one-carbon metabolism plays a crucial role in growth and development. Formate, a critical albeit neglected component of one-carbon metabolism, occurs extracellularly and may provide insights into cellular events. We examined formate metabolism in chronically cannulated fetal sheep (gestation days 119–121, equivalent to mid-third trimester in humans) and in their mothers as...

  15. Jaundice during pregnancy: maternal and fetal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanthi Krishnamoorthy; Anuradha Murugesan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Jaundice affects a small percentage of pregnant women, yet it takes a major toll on health of both mother and fetus especially in developing countries like India. Jaundice in pregnancy carries a grave prognosis for both the fetus and the mother, and is responsible for 10% of maternal deaths. The aim of the study was to find out the effect of jaundice during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcome. Methods: 51 pregnant women with jaundice during pregnancy attending the Institute...

  16. Fetal MRI in experimental tracheal occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedegaertner, Ulrike [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20251 Hamburg (Germany)]. E-mail: wedegaer@uke.uni-hamburg.de; Schroeder, Hobe J. [Experimental Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Prenatal Medicine, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Adam, Gerhard [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is associated with a high mortality, which is mainly due to pulmonary hypoplasia and secondary pulmonary hypertension. In severely affected fetuses, tracheal occlusion (TO) is performed prenatally to reverse pulmonary hypoplasia, because TO leads to accelerated lung growth. Prenatal imaging is important to identify fetuses with pulmonary hypoplasia, to diagnose high-risk fetuses who would benefit from TO, and to monitor the effect of TO after surgery. In fetal imaging, ultrasound (US) is the method of choice, because it is widely available, less expensive, and less time-consuming to perform than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, there are some limitations for US in the evaluation of CDH fetuses. In those cases, MRI is helpful because of a better tissue contrast between liver and lung, which enables evaluation of liver herniation for the diagnosis of a high-risk fetus. MRI provides the ability to determine absolute lung volumes to detect lung hypoplasia. In fetal sheep with normal and hyperplastic lungs after TO, lung growth was assessed on the basis of cross-sectional US measurements, after initial lung volume determination by MRI. To monitor fetal lung growth after prenatal TO, both MRI and US seem to be useful methods.

  17. Role of fetal DNA in preeclampsia (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konečná, Barbora; Vlková, Barbora; Celec, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Preeclampsia is an autoimmune disorder characterized by hypertension. It begins with abnormal cytotrophoblast apoptosis, which leads to inflammation and an increase in the levels of anti-angiogenic factors followed by the disruption of the angiogenic status. Increased levels of fetal DNA and RNA coming from the placenta, one of the most commonly affected organs in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, have been found in pregnant women with the condition. However, it remains unknown as to whether this is a cause or a consequence of preeclampsia. Few studies have been carried out on preeclampsia in which an animal model of preeclampsia was induced by an injection of different types of DNA that are mimic fetal DNA and provoke inflammation through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) or cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP). The specific mechanisms involved in the development of preeclampsia are not yet fully understood. It is hypothesized that the presence of different fragments of fetal DNA in maternal plasma may cause for the development of preeclampsia. The function of DNase during preeclampsia also remains unresolved. Studies have suggested that its activity is decreased or the DNA is protected against its effects. Further research is required to uncover the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and focus more on the condition of patients with the condition.

  18. Effects of Cremation on Fetal Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zana, Michela; Magli, Francesca; Mazzucchi, Alessandra; Castoldi, Elisa; Gibelli, Daniele; Caccia, Giulia; Cornacchia, Francesca; Gaudio, Daniel A; Mattia, Mirko; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    The charring process is a weak point of anthropological analysis as it changes bone morphology and reduces information obtainable, specially in fetuses. This experiment aims at verifying the conservation of fetal bones after cremation. A total of 3138 fetuses of unknown sex and age were used, deriving from legal and therapeutic abortions from different hospitals of Milan. Cremations took place in modern crematoria. Nine cremation events were analyzed, each ranging from 57 to 915 simultaneously cremated fetuses. During the cremations, 4356 skeletal remains were recovered, 3756 of which (86.2%) were morphologically distinguishable. All types of fetal skeletal elements were found, with the exception of some cranial bones. Only 3.4% of individuals could be detected after the cremation process, because of the prevalence of abortions under 12 lunar weeks. All fire alterations were observed and the results were statistically analyzed. This pilot study confirmed the possibility of preservation of fetal skeletal elements after cremation. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. [Fetal pain - neurobiological causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Nuno; Rebelo, Sandra; Tavares, Isaura

    2010-01-01

    The existence of putatively painful situations to the fetus demands a careful evaluation of the issue of fetal pain. Several indirect approaches are used to evaluate the existence of fetal pain. Neurobiological studies showed that from the 30th week on, the anatomical and physiological system for pain transmission is already developed, with the connections from the periphery to the cortex being successively established. Stress responses to a painful stimulation are complex but they can be detected from the 16th week on. There is activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, autonomic nervous system and hemodynamic changes in response to nociceptive stimulation. In prematures exposed to pain there are significant increases of adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol, hemodynamic changes, motor reflexes and facial reactions. The changes induced by strong nociceptive stimulation of newborns have important postnatal consequences since they affect future reactions to noxious stimuli. Central sensitization and immaturity of the pain inhibitory system are the main neurobiological explanations for the increased pain. Detailed studies of the neurobiological mechanisms of the transmission of painful stimuli along with follow-up studies of the consequences of exposure to pain during the development of the fetus are necessary to fully understand fetal pain.

  20. Fetal MRI of clubfoot associated with myelomeningocele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servaes, Sabah; Hernandez, Andrea; Gonzalez, Leonardo; Victoria, Teresa; Jaramillo, Diego; Christopher Edgar, J.; Johnson, Ann [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Johnson, Mark [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Fetal Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The sensitivity and specificity of evaluating clubfoot deformity by MR in high-risk fetuses is currently unknown. To correlate fetal MRI with US in the assessment of clubfoot and to identify the MRI features most characteristic of clubfoot. With IRB approval and informed consent, the presence of fetal clubfoot was prospectively evaluated in mothers referred for MRI for a fetus with myelomeningocele. Two radiologists blind to the US results independently reviewed the MRI for the presence of clubfoot. MRI results were compared with US results obtained the same day and birth outcomes. Of 20 patients enrolled, there were 13 clubfeet. Interobserver agreement for the presence of clubfoot was 100%. The sensitivity of the MRI exam was 100% and the specificity 85.2%. A dedicated sagittal imaging plane through the ankle region allowed the most confident diagnosis; medial deviation of the foot relative to the leg was seen in all 13 fetuses with clubfoot. The correlation of fetal MRI with US in the evaluation of clubfoot yields a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 85.2%. The sagittal plane provided the most useful information. (orig.)

  1. Fetal MRI: incidental findings in the mother

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Selwan B. [University of Maryland Medical Center, Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); University of Minnesota, Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Dietz, Kelly R.; Holm, Tara L. [University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a routinely used tool in prenatal diagnosis; however, there is a lack of studies evaluating incidental findings observed in the mother. This study describes and quantifies incidental findings observed in the mother during fetal MRI. We reviewed all fetal MRI studies at the University of Minnesota Medical Center from February 2008 to September 2014. Two pediatric radiologists retrospectively conducted a consensus evaluation. The maternal findings were categorized into neurologic, gynecologic, urinary, gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal. Hydronephrosis consistent with the stage of pregnancy was recorded but was not included as an abnormal finding. Abnormal findings were classified into three groups, depending on their clinical significance: level I (low), level II (medium) and level III (high). We evaluated 332 pregnant patients with a mean age of 29.3 years and a mean gestational age of 29 weeks. Of these, 55.4% had at least 1 incidental finding, for a total of 262 incidental maternal findings. Of the 262 abnormalities, 113 (43.1%) were neurologic, 69 were gynecologic (26.3%), 36 (13.7%) urinary, 24 (9.2%) gastrointestinal and 20 (7.6%) musculoskeletal. Of the 262 incidental findings, 237 (90.5%) were level I, 24 (9.2%) were level II and 1 (0.4%) was level III. Our results suggest that although the vast majority of incidental maternal findings are benign, more significant findings are still encountered and should be expected. (orig.)

  2. Reproductive decisions after fetal genetic counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergament, Eugene; Pergament, Deborah

    2012-10-01

    A broad range of testing modalities for fetal genetic disease has been established. These include carrier screening for single-gene mutations, first-trimester and second-trimester screening for chromosome abnormalities and open neural-tube defects, prenatal diagnosis by means of chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis, and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Reproductive decisions before and after fetal genetic counselling represent the culmination of a dynamic interaction between prospective parents, obstetrician and genetic counsellor. The decision to undergo genetic testing before and after genetic counselling is influenced by a host of interrelated factors, including patient-partner and family relationships, patient-physician communication, societal mores, religious beliefs, and the media. Because of the complexity of personal and societal factors involved, it is not surprising that genetic counselling concerning reproductive decision-making must be individualised. A limited number of principles, guidelines and standards apply when counselling about testing for fetal genetic disease. These principles are that genetic counselling should be non-directive and unbiased and that parental decisions should be supported regardless of the reproductive choice. A critical responsibility of the obstetrician and genetic counsellor is to provide accurate and objective information about the implications, advantages, disadvantages and consequences of any genetic testing applied to prospective parents and their fetuses. These principles and responsibilities will be tested as newer technologies, such as array comparative genome hybridisation, non-invasive prenatal diagnosis and sequencing of the entire genome are introduced into the field of reproductive genetics and become routine practice.

  3. Revisiting the argument from fetal potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Bertha

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the most famous, and most derided, arguments against the morality of abortion is the argument from potential, which maintains that the fetus' potential to become a person and enjoy the valuable life common to persons, entails that its destruction is prima facie morally impermissible. In this paper, I will revisit and offer a defense of the argument from potential. First, I will criticize the classical arguments proffered against the importance of fetal potential, specifically the arguments put forth by philosophers Peter Singer and David Boonin, by carefully unpacking the claims made in these arguments and illustrating why they are flawed. Secondly, I will maintain that fetal potential is morally relevant when it comes to the morality of abortion, but that it must be accorded a proper place in the argument. This proper place, however, cannot be found until we first answer a very important and complex question: we must first address the issue of personal identity, and when the fetus becomes the type of being who is relevantly identical to a future person. I will illustrate why the question of fetal potential can only be meaningfully addressed after we have first answered the question of personal identity and how it relates to the human fetus.

  4. Fetal autopsy and closing the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Yogavijayan; Kilcullen, Meegan; Watson, David

    2016-06-01

    Over the past 30 years, the perinatal mortality rate (PMR) in Australia has been reduced to almost a quarter of that observed in the 1970s. To a large extent, this decline in the PMR has been driven by a reduction in neonatal mortality. Stillbirth rates have, however, remained relatively unchanged, and stillbirth rates for Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander mothers have remained approximately twice that for non-Indigenous women over the last 10 years. The causes for this difference remain to be fully established. Fetal autopsy is the single most important investigative tool to determine the cause of fetal demise. While facilitators and barriers to gaining consent for autopsy have been identified in a non-Indigenous context, these are yet to be established for Indigenous families. In order to address the gap in stillbirths between Indigenous and non-Indigenous mothers, it is essential to identify culturally appropriate ways when approaching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families for consent after fetal death. Culturally safe and appropriate counselling at this time provides the basis for respectful care to families while offering an opportunity to gain knowledge to reduce the PMR. Identifying the cause of preventable stillbirth is an important step in narrowing the disparity in stillbirth rates between Indigenous and non-Indigenous mothers. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. New perspectives in electronic fetal surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Emily F; Warrick, Philip A

    2013-01-01

    Despite its recognized limitations, fetal heart rate monitoring is a mainstay of intrapartum care. Although the basic technology in standard electronic fetal monitors has changed little in recent decades, clinical behavior in response to heart rate monitoring has changed considerably. In addition to clearly defined nomenclature and clinical guidelines, there is an increased awareness that environmental and human factors can impair clinical judgment, resulting in delayed intervention and, consequently, birth-related injury. This review examines three essential steps that affect clinical outcome: (1) signal acquisition, (2) associations with physiological outcome, and (3) clinical intervention. Only the third step is directly responsible for changing clinical outcome. However, timely initiation of interventions is dependent upon the second step, which is dependent upon the fi rst step. Thus, deficiencies at each step tend to accumulate and contribute to the worsening of overall clinical outcome. This review article summarizes advances occurring at each step. The synergy and convergence of innovations in engineering, mathematics, and behavioral science shows considerable promise in intrapartum fetal surveillance.

  6. Fetal Electrocardiogram (fECG Gated MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn N.J. Paley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI-compatible system to enable gating of a scanner to the heartbeat of a foetus for cardiac, umbilical cord flow and other possible imaging applications. We performed radiofrequency safety testing prior to a fetal electrocardiogram (fECG gated imaging study in pregnant volunteers (n = 3. A compact monitoring device with advanced software capable of reliably detecting both the maternal electrocardiogram (mECG and fECG simultaneously was modified by the manufacturer (Monica Healthcare, Nottingham, UK to provide an external TTL trigger signal from the detected fECG which could be used to trigger a standard 1.5 T MR (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA gating system with suitable attenuation. The MR scanner was tested by triggering rapidly during image acquisition at a typical fetal heart rate (123 beats per minute using a simulated fECG waveform fed into the gating system. Gated MR images were also acquired from volunteers who were attending for a repeat fetal Central Nervous System (CNS examination using an additional rapid cardiac imaging sequence triggered from the measured fECG. No adverse safety effects were encountered. This is the first time fECG gating has been used with MRI and opens up a range of new possibilities to study a developing foetus.

  7. Hypertext atlas of fetal and neonatal pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezová, Marta; Múcková, Katarína; Soucek, Ondrej; Feit, Josef; Vlasín, Pavel

    2008-07-15

    Hypertext atlas of fetal and neonatal pathology is a free resource for pregraduate students of medicine, pathologists and other health professionals dealing with prenatal medicine. The atlas can be found at http://www.muni.cz/atlases. The access is restricted to registered users. Concise texts summarize the gross and microscopic pathology, etiology, and clinical signs of both common and rare fetal and neonatal conditions. The texts are illustrated with over 300 images that are accompanied by short comments. The atlas offers histological pictures of high quality. Virtual microscope interface is used to access the high-resolution histological images. Fetal ultrasound video clips are included. Case studies integrate clinical history, prenatal ultrasonographic examination, gross pathology and histological features. The atlas is available in English (and Czech) and equipped with an active index. The atlas is suitable both for medical students and pathologists as a teaching and reference tool. The atlas is going to be further expanded while keeping the high quality of the images.

  8. Entrevista con Giovanni Levi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Consejo de Redacción

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nacido en Milán en 1939, Giovanni Levi, el importante y original historiador italiano, es heredero de una tradición familiar de grandes defensores de la libertad tanto cultural como política. En su práctica investigadora late siempre, de hecho, la memoria de un momento tan crítico de la historia italiana como el final del fascismo. Por añadidura, sus antepasados son judíos del Piamonte. Esta experiencia vital y las luchas sociales de los sesenta han marcado su quehacer como historiador y como estudioso. Levi, reconocido en Italia y asimismo en Europa y América, fue profesor en la Universidad de Turín y luego en la de Viterbo; actualmente es catedrático de Historia económica en Venecia, ejerciendo como profesor visitante en Francia. Su trabajo, muy creativo, aborda aspectos de la historia de la familia, la demografía y la agricultura en los siglos XVII y XVIII, pero su crítica como intelectual comprometido con el dudoso presente desborda su estricto ámbito de estudio.

  9. Diagnóstico prenatal no invasivo: Ácidos nucleicos de origen fetal en sangre materna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sesarini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Las técnicas actuales de diagnóstico prenatal de enfermedades génicas y cromosómicas incluyen procedimientos invasivos que conllevan un pequeño, pero significativo, riesgo. Por muchos años se ha estudiado la posibilidad de utilizar células fetales en circulación materna; sin embargo, ha fracasado su implementación clínica debido a su escasez y persistencia luego del parto. Desde hace más de una década se detectó ADN fetal libre en sangre de embarazadas. Este sería de origen placentario e indetectable después del parto, y fuente de material fetal para el desarrollo de técnicas diagnósticas utilizando sangre materna. No obstante, la mayoría del ADN libre en circulación materna es de origen materno con una contribución fetal del 3% al 6% aumentando a lo largo de la gestación. Dado que los métodos actuales no permiten separar el ADN libre fetal del materno, las aplicaciones se focalizan en el análisis de genes no presentes en la madre, tales como secuencias del cromosoma Y, o gen RHD en madres Rh negativas, o mutaciones paternas o de novo. Asimismo, la detección de ARN fetal libre en sangre de embarazadas abrió la posibilidad de obtener información acerca de patrones de expresión génica de tejidos embrionarios y, utilizando genes que se expresan sólo en la unidad feto-placentaria, se podría establecer un control de presencia de material fetal, independiente del material genético de la madre. El presente trabajo describe las evidencias acerca del pasaje de ácidos nucleicos fetales a circulación materna, su aplicación actual en el diagnóstico prenatal y posibles usos futuros.

  10. Fetal Goiter was Resolved with Decreasing Maternal Propylthiouracil Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    And Yavuz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of fetal goiter diagnosed by detailed ultrasonography. A 33-year-old woman at twenty weeks of gestation was referred to our hospital for detailed ultrasonography. A fetal goiter was identified. She was receiving propylthiouracil (PTU 100 mg daily for Graves’ disease. Amniocentesis was performed and fetal thyroid function was evaluated as normal. Her recent thyroid function tests were normal, but anti-thyroid antibodies were positive. The dose of PTU was reduced to 50 mg. However, at twenty six weeks of gestation, maternal thyroid-related autoantibodies became undetectable. A fetal magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a slight shrinkage of the fetal goiter at 30 weeks. The fetus was delivered vaginally. Thyroid function tests of the neonate were normal, and neonatal goiter was nonpalpable. Fetal goiter is a rare disease. It can be spontaneously resolved by decreasing the maternal dose of PTU.

  11. Fetal stem cell transplantation: Past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tetsuya; Eto, Koji

    2014-09-26

    Since 1928, human fetal tissues and stem cells have been used worldwide to treat various conditions. Although the transplantation of the fetal midbrain substantia nigra and dopaminergic neurons in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease is particularly noteworthy, the history of other types of grafts, such as those of the fetal liver, thymus, and pancreas, should be addressed as there are many lessons to be learnt for future stem cell transplantation. This report describes previous practices and complications that led to current clinical trials of isolated fetal stem cells and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Moreover, strategies for transplantation are considered, with a particular focus on donor cells, cell processing, and the therapeutic cell niche, in addition to ethical issues associated with fetal origin. With the advent of autologous induced pluripotent stem cells and ES cells, clinical dependence on fetal transplantation is expected to gradually decline due to lasting ethical controversies, despite landmark achievements.

  12. Fetal stem cell transplantation: Past, present, and future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsuya; Ishii; Koji; Eto

    2014-01-01

    Since 1928, human fetal tissues and stem cells have been used worldwide to treat various conditions. Although the transplantation of the fetal midbrain substantia nigra and dopaminergic neurons in patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease is particularly noteworthy, the history of other types of grafts, such as those of the fetal liver, thymus, and pancreas, should be addressed as there are many lessons to be learnt for future stem cell transplantation. This report describes previous practices and complications that led to current clinical trials of isolated fetal stem cells and embryonic stem(ES) cells. Moreover, strategies for transplantation are considered, with a particular focus on donor cells, cell processing, and the therapeutic cell niche, in addition to ethical issues associated with fetal origin. With the advent of autologous induced pluripotent stem cells and ES cells, clinical dependence on fetal transplantation is expected to gradually decline due to lasting ethical controversies, despite landmark achievements.

  13. MRI of normal and pathological fetal lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprian, Gregor; Balassy, Csilla; Brugger, Peter C; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-02-01

    Normal fetal lung development is a complex process influenced by mechanical and many biochemical factors. In addition to ultrasound, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) constitutes a new method to investigate this process in vivo during the second and third trimester. The techniques of MRI volumetry, assessment of signal intensities, and MRI spectroscopy of the fetal lung have been used to analyze this process and have already been applied clinically to identify abnormal fetal lung growth. Particularly in conditions such as oligohydramnios and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), pulmonary hypoplasia may be the cause of neonatal death. A precise diagnosis and quantification of compromised fetal lung development may improve post- and perinatal management. The main events in fetal lung development are reviewed and MR volumetric data from 106 normal fetuses, as well as different examples of pathological lung growth, are provided.

  14. Clinical relevance of fetal hemodynamic monitoring: Perinatal implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruetz, Jay D; Votava-Smith, Jodie; Miller, David A

    2015-08-01

    Comprehensive assessment of fetal wellbeing involves monitoring of fetal growth, placental function, central venous pressure, and cardiac function. Ultrasound evaluation of the fetus using 2D, color Doppler, and pulse-wave Doppler techniques form the foundation of antenatal diagnosis of structural anomalies, rhythm abnormalities and altered fetal circulation. Accurate and timely prenatal identification of the fetus at risk is critical for appropriate parental counseling, antenatal diagnostic testing, consideration for fetal intervention, perinatal planning, and coordination of postnatal care delivery. Fetal hemodynamic monitoring and serial assessment are vital to ensuring fetal wellbeing, particularly in the setting of complex congenital anomalies. A complete hemodynamic evaluation of the fetus gives important information on the likelihood of a smooth postnatal transition and contributes to ensuring the best possible outcome for the neonate.

  15. Recommendations for fetal echocardiography in twin pregnancy in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszczyńska Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the fields of fetal cardiology and fetal surgery have been seen not only in singleton pregnancies but also in multiple pregnancies. Proper interpretation of prenatal echocardiography is critical to clinical decision making, family counseling and perinatal management for obstetricians, maternal fetal medicine specialists, neonatologists and pediatric cardiologists. Fetal echocardiography is one of the most challenging and time-consuming prenatal examinations to perform, especially in multiple gestations. Performing just the basic fetal exam in twin gestations may take an hour or more. Thus, it is not practical to perform this exam in all cases of multiple gestations. Therefore our review and recommendations are related to fetal echocardiography in twin gestation.

  16. MRI of normal and pathological fetal lung development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasprian, Gregor [University Clinic of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: gregor.kasprian@meduniwien.ac.at; Balassy, Csilla [University Clinic of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [University Clinic of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Normal fetal lung development is a complex process influenced by mechanical and many biochemical factors. In addition to ultrasound, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) constitutes a new method to investigate this process in vivo during the second and third trimester. The techniques of MRI volumetry, assessment of signal intensities, and MRI spectroscopy of the fetal lung have been used to analyze this process and have already been applied clinically to identify abnormal fetal lung growth. Particularly in conditions such as oligohydramnios and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), pulmonary hypoplasia may be the cause of neonatal death. A precise diagnosis and quantification of compromised fetal lung development may improve post- and perinatal management. The main events in fetal lung development are reviewed and MR volumetric data from 106 normal fetuses, as well as different examples of pathological lung growth, are provided.

  17. Fatores de risco maternos associados à acidose fetal Maternal risk factors associated with fetal acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mauro Madi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar os fatores de risco maternos associados à acidose fetal. MÉTODOS: estudo tipo caso-controle composto por 188 recém-nascidos, sendo que 47 compuseram o grupo casos (pH de artéria umbilical OBJECTIVES: to assess maternal risk factors associated with fetal acidosis. METHODS: a case-control type study was conducted of 188 neonates, of whom 47 comprised the case group (umbilical arterial pH <7.0 and 141 the control (umbilical arterial pH E7.1 <7.3. The study included only single-gestation neonates without congenital malformations. Both maternal and fetal variables were taken into consideration. Statistical analysis involved the calculation of the raw and adjusted Odds Ratio, Student's t-test, the chi-squared test and multivariate analysis using Enter-method non-conditional logistic regression. The level of statistical significance was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: in the case group higher percentages of caesarian sections and pre-term births were observed, involving almost five times as much intensive care and twenty-five times more likelihood of Apgar in the 5th minute <7. No association was observed between the groups and fetal presentation, mother's age, history of miscarriage, years of schooling of mother or attendance at prenatal sessions. After multivariate analysis, the only risk factors that remained significant were complications relating to the placenta or the umbilical cord. Deliveries involving complications relating to the placenta or the umbilical cord were three times more likely to involve fetal acidemia. CONCLUSIONS: acidemia among neonates was associated with a higher percentage of caesarians, premature births, a need for intensive care and treatment and an Apgar index of <7 in the 5th minute. After multivariate analysis, complications relating to premature displacement of the placenta and the umbilical cord were the only remaining risk factors associated with fetal acidemia.

  18. Simultaneous monitoring of maternal and fetal heart rate variability during labor in relation with fetal gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Hernâni; Fernandes, Diana; Pinto, Paula; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Bernardes, João

    2017-08-21

    Male gender is considered a risk factor for several adverse perinatal outcomes. Fetal gender effect on fetal heart rate (FHR) has been subject of several studies with contradictory results. The importance of maternal heart rate (MHR) monitoring during labor has also been investigated, but less is known about the effect of fetal gender on MHR. The aim of this study is to simultaneously assess maternal and FHR variability during labor in relation with fetal gender. Simultaneous MHR and FHR recordings were obtained from 44 singleton term pregnancies during the last 2 hr of labor (H1, H2 ). Heart rate tracings were analyzed using linear (time- and frequency-domain) and nonlinear indices. Both linear and nonlinear components were considered in assessing FHR and MHR interaction, including cross-sample entropy (cross-SampEn). Mothers carrying male fetuses (n = 22) had significantly higher values for linear indices related with MHR average and variability and sympatho-vagal balance, while the opposite occurred in the high-frequency component and most nonlinear indices. Significant differences in FHR were only observed in H1 with higher entropy values in female fetuses. Assessing the differences between FHR and MHR, statistically significant differences were obtained in most nonlinear indices between genders. A significantly higher cross-SampEn was observed in mothers carrying female fetuses (n = 22), denoting lower synchrony or similarity between MHR and FHR. The variability of MHR and the synchrony/similarity between MHR and FHR vary with respect to fetal gender during labor. These findings suggest that fetal gender needs to be taken into account when simultaneously monitoring MHR and FHR. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Simultaneous measurements of umbilical uptake, fetal utilization rate, and fetal turnover rate of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, W W; Sparks, J W; Quissell, B J; Battaglia, F C; Meschia, G

    1981-06-01

    Fetal umbilical glucose uptake was compared with simultaneous measurements of glucose turnover and utilization rates in 12 pregnant sheep, at a mean of 137 days gestational age (range, 118-146 days). Umbilical glucose uptake was calculated by application of the Fick principle. Fetal glucose turnover rate was measured by a primed-constant infusion of [14C]- and [3H]glucose (glucose turnover rate = tracer infusion rate divided by fetal glucose sp act). The calculation of fetal glucose utilization rate required substraction of the loss of tracer to the placenta from the tracer infusion rate, thus defining the net tracer entry into the fetus for direct comparison with the net umbilical glucose uptake. In fed, normoglycemic sheep, these measurements demonstrated statistical equivalence of umbilical glucose uptake rate (4.77 mg.min-1.kg-1 +/- 0.34 SE) and glucose utilization rate ([14C]glucose, 5.58 mg.min-1.kg-1 +/- 0.54 SE; and [3H]glucose, 7.19 mg.min-1.kg-1 +/- 1.24 SE) when tested by two-way analysis of variance (P greater than 0.1). In three fasted, hypoglycemic sheep, the umbilical glucose uptake rate fell to 1.43 mg.min-1.kg-1 +/- 0.56 SE, which was considerably lower than the simultaneous glucose utilization rate ([14C]glucose, 4.78 mg.min-1.kg-1 +/- 0.48 SE; and [3H]glucose, 6.81 mg.min-1.kg-1 +/- 2.19 SE). Thus, in the normoglycemic, late-gestation fetal lamb, there appears to be little glucogenesis, whereas glucogenesis may become significant during fasting-induced fetal hypoglycemia.

  20. Entrevista con Alberto Tenenti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Consejo de Redacción

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Gran especialista en historia moderna, Alberto Tenenti nació en Viareggio, en 1924. Tras realizar estudios superiores en Italia, trabajó en el Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique varios años, asesorado por Lucien Febvre. Ha dirigido el Archivo del Estado de Brescia; y, más tarde, ha enseñado en París, desde una cátedra en la École Pratique des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (VI Sección, alIado de Braudel. Su Il senso della morte e l'amore della vita nel Rinascimento, de 1957, es una obra maestra sobre los orígenes de la sensibilidad moderna: sin olvidar el naciente vitalismo, estudia el desarrollo de dos motivos, el del ars moriendi, que tiene su evolución propia desde 1350 hasta su difusión impresa, y el de lo macabro, que refleja la crisis de conciencia del siglo XV y adquiere «unas dimensiones desconocidas y verdaderamente anormales». En este libro sobre un problema clave como la muerte, apela de modo notable a la iconografía: Tenenti ha recordado que la cultura tradicional, eclesiástica sobre todo, percibió un mayor peligro en la capacidad de reflexión autónoma y de crítica de los hombres de letras, que en las renovaciones radicales de los artistas. Numerosos trabajos de conjunto realizados por él han perseguido una historia global: Los fundamentos del mundo moderno; Florencia en la época de los Medicis; La formación del mundo moderno; El Renacimiento; el primero de ellos estaba firmado con un historiador de su misma generación, R. Romano, estudioso de las relaciones comerciales en la época moderna en Europa y en la América española. Tenenti ha publicado monografías (Venezia e i corsari, 1961, colecciones de artículos (Credence, ideologie, libertinismi tra medioevo ed eta moderna, 1978; Stato: un'idea, una logica. Dal comune italiano all'assolutismo francese, 1987 y editado a clásicos como Il libri della famiglia de L. B. Alberti, 1969. Es también especialista en temas económicos, como el del

  1. Puentes con vigas pretensadas

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    Editorial, Equipo

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one of the three bridges which Hidrocivil, S. A., has built in Catalonia (northern Spain, over the river Ripoll. The other two bridges are very similar to this one, both in construction and design, and show only minor adjustments to the local topography. The contracting firm proposed several alterations in the prefabrication and constructional procedure, in relation to the initial project, and these changes were accepted. The main feature of these projects is the use of prestressed beams, built at the workshop in sections, and joined together by means of sixty 7 mm cables in each beam. As the shear forces are more acute at the joints, the end of each section has a kind of diaphragm, to provide a large contact area, and hence greater surface to transmit the shear forces. The methods of construction are also of interest. Briefly, they involve building the bridge piles, and use these to support a provisional structure with transversal movement. This provisional structure, in turn, served as platform for two bridge cranes, which lifted the girders to their final location. After the first span was completed, the deck was concreted and the auxiliary structure pushed forward to the next span, to repeat the same operations. This arrangement saved the use of provisional framework.En este trabajo se describe uno de los tres puentes que Hidrocivil, S. A., ha construido.—previo concurso— en la región catalana; concretamente, el que salva el río Ripoll. Los otros dos no han sido objeto de descripción general por ser muy similares, en lo que a ejecución y concepción se refiere, con la única variante que presentan las características topográficas locales. La empresa propuso ciertas variantes— que fueron aceptadas— en la prefabricación y métodos de construcción. El interés de estas obras se centra en el empleo de vigas pretensadas, prefabricadas en taller por trozos, y solidarizados en el mismo mediante las operaciones

  2. Delivery assistance in fetal macrosomia Assistência ao parto na macrossomia fetal

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    Renato Augusto Moreira de Sá

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate delivery assistance in fetal macrosomia. METHODS: this was a hospital-based cohort study of consecutive births at a tertiary perinatal center from January 1, 1996 to October 31, 1999. A total of 5261 pregnancies met the inclusion criteria which were singleton pregnancies with minimal birth weight of 1000 g. Fetal macrosomia was defined as birth weight of 4000 g or more. We studied the mode of delivery, the newborn condition at birth, considered low when the Apgar scored below seven in the first or fifth minute, and the presence of abnormalities that could indicate a Caesarian section (disproportion, uterine dysfunction, prolonged second period of birth and fetal distress. RESULTS: 296 (5,6% of the babies were macrosomic. Macrosomia was a risk factor for Caesarian section (RR = 1,59, p OBJETIVOS: avaliar a assistência ao parto na macrossomia fetal. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo coorte realizado em centro perinatal terciário no período de 1 de janeiro de 1996 a 31 de outubro de 1999. Foram selecionadas 5261 gestações de acordo com os critérios de inclusão, que foram: gestação única e peso mínimo ao nascimento de 1000 g. A macrossomia fetal foi definida como peso ao nascimento acima de 4000 g. Estudamos a via de parto, as condições ao nascimento, Apgar baixo quando inferior a sete no primeiro e quinto minutos e as anormalidades que serviram de indicação para cesariana (desproporção, distocia uterina, segundo período prolongado e sofrimento fetal. RESULTADOS: 296 (5,6% dos conceptos eram macrossômicos. Macrossomia foi fator de risco para cesariana (RR = 1,59, p <0,001 e para parto operatório vaginal (RR = 1,12 p <0,001. As condições do recém-nascido não foram piores nos fetos macrossômicos. Houve correlação positiva entre macrossomia fetal e desproporção mas não para distocia uterina, prolongamento do segundo período ou sofrimento fetal. CONCLUSÕES: Houve maior número de indicações de cesariana

  3. Avaliação da vitalidade fetal anteparto Antenatal fetal surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Mieko Yamamoto Nomura

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O contexto atual da atividade médica exige do obstetra e ginecologista ampla compreensão dos avanços científicos e tecnológicos de sua área. O objetivo primordial da avaliação fetal antenatal é identificar fetos de risco para eventos adversos ou para o óbito e, assim, atuar preventivamente para evitar o insucesso. O perfil biofísico fetal atinge sua máxima eficiência quando aplicado dentro do contexto clínico de cada caso. Em gestações de alto risco, a doplervelocimetria da artéria umbilical mostrou-se útil para melhorar os resultados perinatais. Na restrição de crescimento fetal por insuficiência placentária grave, antes da 34ª semana de gestação, a doplervelocimetria do ducto venoso tem sido importante instrumento na condução dos casos. Nenhum teste isoladamente é considerado o melhor na avaliação da vitalidade fetal anteparto, entretanto, a análise conjunta de todos os métodos irá propiciar melhor compreensão da resposta fetal à hipóxia.The present context of medical practice demands from the obstetrician and gynecologist broad understanding of the scientific and technological advances of the area. The main purpose of prenatal evaluation is to identify fetuses at risk for adverse events or death, for preventive action to avoid mishappenings. The determination of fetal biophysical profile reaches its maximum efficiency when applied within the clinical context of each case. In high risk gestations, the Doppler velocimetry of the umbilical artery has shown to be useful to improve perinatal outcome. In the fetal growth deficit, due to severe placentary insufficiency, Doppler velocimetry of the venous duct has been showing to be an important tool in handling of the cases before the 34th week of gestation. Although no test itself is considered the best to evaluate the fetus's prenatal vitality, the joint analysis of all methods may lead to a better understanding of the fetal response to hypoxia.

  4. Violencia con el anciano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Campillo Motilva

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available La violencia doméstica es tan antigua como la humanidad misma y se reconocen la violencia infantil, contra la mujer y al anciano, fundamentalmente; siendo este último grupo una población en ascenso por las mayores expectativas de vida de los últimos años. Como resultado de ello, el número de casos de abuso en el anciano se incrementará y el impacto de este abuso sobre la salud debe ser considerado de forma adecuada. La gama de maltratos es variadísima e incluye el abuso físico, emocional, financiero, sexual, por negligencia, negación a brindarle ayuda y otras formas más. Los ancianos con deterioro cognitivo son los más vulnerables. El médico en la atención primaria de salud es un pilar importante en la prevención y educación de este problema.Domestic violence is as old as humanity itself. Child, women and elderly abuse are mainly recognized. The elderly group is increasing due to the higher life expectancy experimented during the last years. As a result, the number of battered elderly will grow and the impact of this abuse on health should be adequately considered. The range of abuse is very wide and it includes physical, emotional, financial and sexual abuse, negligence, rejection to give assistance and others. The elderly with cognitive deterioration are the most vulnerable. The physician at the primary health care level is an important milestone in the prevention and education of this problem.

  5. Entrevista con Bernard Vincent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Colina Pérez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nacido en París (1941, Bernard Vincent es un historiador de renombre en Europa y América del Sur. Consiguió su agregación universitaria en 1966, y desde sus inicios se centró en la Historia Moderna, particularmente en grupos marginales de la España de los siglos XVI-XVII. Ha residido en nuestro país muchos años. Vincent fue miembro de la sección científica de la Casa de Velázquez inicialmente (1968-1971, algo más tarde director de estudios (1977-1978, y a continuación secretario general (1978-1982 de dicha institución. Asimismo ha encabezado el programa de cooperación francoespañol en ciencias sociales (1993-1996. Por otra parte, ha enseñado en la Universidad de París VII, en varias etapas de su vida; pero, sobre todo, ha pertenecido siempre a centros superiores de investigación: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (1976-1978, y a la École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, en donde ha sido director de estudios desde 1988 –era doctor de Estado ya en 1986–, y luego responsable de la Sección de Historia, desde 1996 hasta hoy. Sus colaboraciones con las universidades y centros investigadores españoles han sido constantes hasta el presente. Por añadidura, ha sido miembro del Consejo Nacional de las Universidades en Francia, en lo relativo a la historia moderna y contemporánea (1987-1988, 1992-1995, y es desde hace años miembro de la madrileña Academia de la Historia.

  6. Prenatal Diagnosis of Fetal Peters’ Plus Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peters’ plus syndrome is a rare but clinically recognizable autosomal recessive ocular genetic syndrome. Diagnosis during the fetal life is challenging due to the presence of nonspecific findings such as ventriculomegaly in the growth-retarded fetuses. We report the first case of fetal Peters’ plus syndrome from India, where fetal ultrasound and the family history were helpful in providing a clue to the diagnosis that was confirmed later on by the DNA analysis.

  7. Fetal-Maternal Hemorrhage: A Case and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Nearly all pregnancies include an insignificant hemorrhage of fetal blood into the maternal circulation. In some cases, the hemorrhage is large enough to compromise the fetus, resulting in fetal demise, stillbirth, or delivery of a severely anemic infant. Unfortunately, the symptoms of a significant fetal-maternal hemorrhage can be subtle, nonspecific, and difficult to identify at the time of the event. We present the case of a severely anemic newborn who was delivered in our facility with an...

  8. [Fetal circulation in normal pregnancy and in placental insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, B; Malinova, M

    2010-01-01

    The fetal circulation is different from the adult circulation. One of the quite common conditions that are challenging to the developing fetus is placental hypoxia. Regardless of its cause, placental vascular insufficiency is commonly assumed to be an important factor in the development of intrauterine growth retardation. Several mechanisms are involved in the fetal adaptation to the decompensation during hypoxemia. Doppler Ultrasound technologies can help to evaluate of the fetal wellbeing.

  9. Dichorionic twin pregnancy discordant for fetal anencephaly: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşcı, Yasemin; Karasu, Yetkin; Erten, Ozlem; Karadağ, Burak; Göktolga, Umit

    2012-01-01

    Dichorionic twin pregnancy discordant for fetal anencephaly is a serious condition that threatens the normal co-twin's life by causing polyhydramniosis, preterm labor and sudden death of one or both of the fetuses. We report a case of dichorionic twin pregnancy discordant for fetal anencephaly delivered at the 32(nd) week of gestation because of preterm labor and nonreassuring fetal monitoring. The aim of this case report is to summarize management options in this situation.

  10. The Effects of Fetal Surgery on Retinopathy of Prematurity Development

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    Sudha Nallasamy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal surgery is selectively offered for severe or life-threatening fetal malformations. These infants are often born prematurely and are thus at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. It is not known whether fetal surgery confers an increased risk of developing severe ROP relative to published rates in standard premature populations ≤37 weeks of age grouped by birth weight (

  11. Diagnosis of Fetal Central Nervous System Anomalies by Ultrasonography

    OpenAIRE

    F. Tuncay Ozgunen

    2003-01-01

    During the last 30 years, one of the most important instruments in diagnosis is ultrasonograph. It has an indispensible place in obstetrics. Its it possible to evaluate normal fetal anatomy, to follow-up fetal growth and to diagnose fetal congenital anomalies by ultrasonography. Central nervous system anomalies is the one of the most commonly seen and the best time for screening is between 18- and 22-week of pregnancy. In this paper, it is presented the sonographic features of some outstandin...

  12. Matrices con entradas enteras e inversa con entradas enteras

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Algunos artículos publicados en The American Mathematical Monthly discuten acerca de la construcción de matrices con entradas enteras, valores propios enteros y vectores propios con componentes enteras, en particular en [1] se hace una construcción que además permite construir, de manera sencilla, matrices con entradas enteras cuya inversa también tiene entradas enteras. Este artículo trata de estas últimas construcciones e incluye software en Java para generar y modificar ejemplos y para hac...

  13. Matrices con entradas enteras e inversa con entradas enteras

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Algunos artículos publicados en The American Mathematical Monthly discuten acerca de la construcción de matrices con entradas enteras, valores propios enteros y vectores propios con componentes enteras, en particular en [1] se hace una construcción que además permite construir, de manera sencilla, matrices con entradas enteras cuya inversa también tiene entradas enteras. Este artículo trata de estas últimas construcciones e incluye software en Java para generar y modificar ejemplos y para hac...

  14. Fetal weight estimation by ultrasonic measurement of abdominal circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, K; Vigneron, N; Frischman, P; Johnson, J W

    1978-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare ultrasonic measurements of fetal abdominal circumference to ultrasonic measurements of fetal biparietal diameter, as a means of estimating fetal body weight. Of 58 fetuses who had abdominal circumferences measured, 48 (82%) of the predicted weights were within 15% of the actual birth weights. Forty-four of the same 58 fetuses had satisfactory biparietal diameter measurements, but only 21 (48%) of the predicted weights were within 15% of the actual birthweights. Ultrasonic measurement of abdominal circumference appears to be a more reliable index of fetal body weight than other currently available techniques.

  15. Maternal obesity and fetal metabolic programming: a fertile epigenetic soil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heerwagen, Margaret J R; Miller, Melissa R; Barbour, Linda A; Friedman, Jacob E

    2010-01-01

    .... In addition to maternal glucose, hyperlipidemia and inflammation may contribute to the childhood obesity epidemic through fetal metabolic programming, the mechanisms of which are not well understood...

  16. Distribution of melatonin receptor in human fetal brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-quan; SHAO Fu-yuan; ZHAO Ying; LIU Zhi-min

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the distribution of 2 kinds of melatonin receptor subtypes (mtl and MT2) in human fetal brain. Methods: The fetal brain tissues were sliced and the distribution ofmelatonin receptors in human fetal brain were detected using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results: Melatonin receptor mtl existed in the cerebellun and hypothalamus, melatonin receptor MT2 exists in hypothalamus, occipital and medulla. Conclusion: Two kinds of melatonin receptors, mtl and MT2 exist in the membrane and cytosol of brain cells, indicating that human fetal brain is a target organ of melatonin.

  17. Differential Diagnosis of Cardiac Malposition by Fetal Echocardiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying WU; Feng TAO; Tao LIU; Ling ZANG; Shi-long LIU

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To explore the method and operating skill of fetal echocardiography in diagnosing cardiac malposition. Methods 91 consecutive fetuses were studied (control: 50 cases, cardiac malposition : 41 cases) between 2003 and 2008. The position of fetal heart was evaluated according to the fetal posture and the visceral situs by fetal routine scan-ning. The detailed echocardiography should be performed in the differential diagnosis of cardiac lesions when the heart was found to be abnormal position. Results In the control group, all fetuses were levocardia. 39 cases of cardiac mal-positions were detected by fetal echocardiography, included 25 fetuses with dextrocardia, 6 mesocard, 5 with levover-sion of heart, 3 common heart of conjoined twins and 2 extrathorax heart. Two of dextroversion were missed by fetal routine scanning, but found by autopsy or operation after birth. Conclusions When the abnormal visceral situs was found by fetal routine scanning, there is exceedingly high incidence of cardiac malpositions. Proficiently operating skill of fetal echocardiography is helpful to detect abnormal fetal cardiac position.

  18. Differentiation and functional regulation of human fetal NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Martin A; Loh, Liyen; Marquardt, Nicole; Kekäläinen, Eliisa; Berglin, Lena; Björkström, Niklas K; Westgren, Magnus; Nixon, Douglas F; Michaëlsson, Jakob

    2013-09-01

    The human fetal immune system is naturally exposed to maternal allogeneic cells, maternal antibodies, and pathogens. As such, it is faced with a considerable challenge with respect to the balance between immune reactivity and tolerance. Here, we show that fetal natural killer (NK) cells differentiate early in utero and are highly responsive to cytokines and antibody-mediated stimulation but respond poorly to HLA class I-negative target cells. Strikingly, expression of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) did not educate fetal NK cells but rendered them hyporesponsive to target cells lacking HLA class I. In addition, fetal NK cells were highly susceptible to TGF-β-mediated suppression, and blocking of TGF-β signaling enhanced fetal NK cell responses to target cells. Our data demonstrate that KIR-mediated hyporesponsiveness and TGF-β-mediated suppression are major factors determining human fetal NK cell hyporesponsiveness to HLA class I-negative target cells and provide a potential mechanism for fetal-maternal tolerance in utero. Finally, our results provide a basis for understanding the role of fetal NK cells in pregnancy complications in which NK cells could be involved, for example, during in utero infections and anti-RhD-induced fetal anemia.

  19. Methods of fetal MR: beyond T2-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: peter.brugger@meduniwien.ac.at; Stuhr, Fritz [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Lindner, Christian [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    The present work reviews the basic methods of performing fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Since fetal MRI differs in many respects from a postnatal study, several factors have to be taken into account to achieve satisfying image quality. Image quality depends on adequate positioning of the pregnant woman in the magnet, use of appropriate coils and the selection of sequences. Ultrafast T2-weighted sequences are regarded as the mainstay of fetal MR-imaging. However, additional sequences, such as T1-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images, echoplanar imaging may provide further information, especially in extra- central-nervous system regions of the fetal body.

  20. Molecular mechanisms underlying the fetal programming of adult disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Thin; Hardy, Daniel B

    2012-08-01

    Adverse events in utero can be critical in determining quality of life and overall health. It is estimated that up to 50 % of metabolic syndrome diseases can be linked to an adverse fetal environment. However, the mechanisms linking impaired fetal development to these adult diseases remain elusive. This review uncovers some of the molecular mechanisms underlying how normal physiology may be impaired in fetal and postnatal life due to maternal insults in pregnancy. By understanding the mechanisms, which include epigenetic, transcriptional, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), we also highlight how intervention in fetal and neonatal life may be able to prevent these diseases long-term.