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Sample records for fetal blood sampling

  1. Fetal scalp blood sampling during labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandraharan, Edwin; Wiberg, Nana

    2014-01-01

    Fetal cardiotocography is characterized by low specificity; therefore, in an attempt to ensure fetal well-being, fetal scalp blood sampling has been recommended by most obstetric societies in the case of a non-reassuring cardiotocography. The scientific agreement on the evidence for using fetal...... scalp blood sampling to decrease the rate of operative delivery for fetal distress is ambiguous. Based on the same studies, a Cochrane review states that fetal scalp blood sampling increases the rate of instrumental delivery while decreasing neonatal acidosis, whereas the National Institute of Health...... and Clinical Excellence guideline considers that fetal scalp blood sampling decreases instrumental delivery without differences in other outcome variables. The fetal scalp is supplied by vessels outside the skull below the level of the cranial vault, which is likely to be compressed during contractions...

  2. Fetal scalp blood sampling in labor - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Weber, Tom

    2014-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, electronic fetal monitoring and fetal scalp blood sampling (FBS) were introduced without robust evidence. With a methodical review of the published literature, and using one randomized controlled trial, seven controlled studies, nine randomized studies of various...... surveillance methods and data from the Danish National Birth Registry, we have assessed the usefulness of FBS as a complementary tool to improve the specificity and sensitivity of electronic cardiotocography (CTG). Based on heterogeneous studies of modest quality with somewhat inconsistent results, we conclude...

  3. Clinical evaluation of Statstrip(R) Lactate for use in fetal scalp blood sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinis, A.M.F.; Dillen, J. van; Oosting, J.D.; Rhose, S.; Vandenbussche, F.P.; Drongelen, J. van

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Point-of-care testing of fetal scalp blood lactate is used as an alternative to pH analysis in fetal scalp blood sampling (FBS) during labor. Lactate measurements are not standardized and values vary with each device used. The aim of this study was to evaluate StatStrip(R) Lactate

  4. Fetal blood drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbins, J C; Mahoney, M J

    1975-07-19

    A small sample of fetal blood suitable for studies of haemoglobin synthesis was obtained from a placental vessel under endoscopic visualisation in 23 of 26 patients in whom the procedure was attempted prior to second-trimester abortion. Fetal blood loss, calculated in 23 cases, was between 0-2 ml. and 2-5 ml., and fetal blood-volume depletion varied from 0-5% to 15%. No short-term ill-effects were demonstrated in mother or fetus in any of 16 patients in whom the injection of aborti-facient was postponed for between 16 and 24 hours after the procedure.

  5. Aspects of fetal physiology from 18 to 37 weeks' gestation as assessed by blood sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, S; Bocconi, L; Zuliani, G; Kustermann, A; Nicolini, U

    1996-06-01

    To construct reference ranges for fetal pH, oxygen pressure (PO2), and hematologic and biochemical blood constituents, which can be used to analyze changes with gestation and differences with maternal values, thus elucidating some aspects of fetal biology and the effects of the maternal and placental environments. We assayed venous pH, PO2, hematocrit, glucose, uric acid, urea, creatinine, total protein, total and direct bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase, amylase, pseudocholinesterase, creatine kinase, triglycerides, and cholesterol concentrations in 157 fetuses and 134 mothers who underwent fetal blood sampling from 18 to 37 weeks' gestation. None of the fetuses was infected or had chromosomal, hematologic, or hormonal abnormalities. All the variables analyzed were similar in fetuses sampled at the placental cord insertion (n = 125) or at the intrahepatic vein (n = 32). Maternal and fetal concentrations of glucose (r = 0.79, P PO2 decreased with gestational age, whereas hematocrit increased, similar to what has been described previously. All of the other variables, with the exception of amylase and cholesterol, changed significantly during the investigated period of pregnancy. Gestational age explained at least 40% of the variance in values of fetal total protein, pseudocholinesterase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and triglycerides, but only 3-25% of the variation in the remainder. Most enzymes were higher in the fetus than in the maternal circulation, and all except alkaline phosphatase increased with gestational age. The maternal-fetal glucose difference correlated significantly with hematocrit, pH, and PO2, independent of gestational age and independent of each other. With the exception of aspartate aminotransferase, all of the analyzed fetal variables were different from the maternal values, and most changed with gestational age. The mechanisms

  6. A randomised clinical trial on cardiotocography plus fetal blood sampling versus cardiotocography plus ST-analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram (STAN® for intrapartum monitoring

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    Rijnders Robbert JP

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiotocography (CTG is worldwide the method for fetal surveillance during labour. However, CTG alone shows many false positive test results and without fetal blood sampling (FBS, it results in an increase in operative deliveries without improvement of fetal outcome. FBS requires additional expertise, is invasive and has often to be repeated during labour. Two clinical trials have shown that a combination of CTG and ST-analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG reduces the rates of metabolic acidosis and instrumental delivery. However, in both trials FBS was still performed in the ST-analysis arm, and it is therefore still unknown if the observed results were indeed due to the ST-analysis or to the use of FBS in combination with ST-analysis. Methods/Design We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of non-invasive monitoring (CTG + ST-analysis as compared to normal care (CTG + FBS, in a multicentre randomised clinical trial setting. Secondary aims are: 1 to judge whether ST-analysis of fetal electrocardiogram can significantly decrease frequency of performance of FBS or even replace it; 2 perform a cost analysis to establish the economic impact of the two treatment options. Women in labour with a gestational age ≥ 36 weeks and an indication for CTG-monitoring can be included in the trial. Eligible women will be randomised for fetal surveillance with CTG and, if necessary, FBS or CTG combined with ST-analysis of the fetal ECG. The primary outcome of the study is the incidence of serious metabolic acidosis (defined as pH ecf > 12 mmol/L in the umbilical cord artery. Secondary outcome measures are: instrumental delivery, neonatal outcome (Apgar score, admission to a neonatal ward, incidence of performance of FBS in both arms and cost-effectiveness of both monitoring strategies across hospitals. The analysis will follow the intention to treat principle. The incidence of metabolic acidosis will be compared across both groups

  7. Fetal cell detection in maternal blood : A study in 236 samples using erythroblast morphology, DAB and HbF staining, and FISH analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, JC; Mesker, WE; Ouwerkerk-van Velzen, MCM; Knepfle, CFHM; Wiesmeijer, KC; Beverstock, GC; van Ommen, GJB; Kanhai, HHH; Tanke, HJ

    1998-01-01

    A protocol to detect fetal nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) was tested in 217 pregnant women and in 19 nonpregnant controls. All the pregnant women were sampled after chorionic villus sampling (CVS); 20 were also sampled pre-CVS. NRBC recognition was based upon morphology by using staining of

  8. Maternal blood metal levels and fetal markers of metabolic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian [Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Dodds, Linda, E-mail: l.dodds@dal.ca [Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Arbuckle, Tye E. [Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Ettinger, Adrienne S. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Shapiro, Gabriel D. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Fisher, Mandy [Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Taback, Shayne [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Bouchard, Maryse F. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Monnier, Patricia [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Dallaire, Renee [Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Fraser, William D. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Exposure to metals commonly found in the environment has been hypothesized to be associated with measures of fetal growth but the epidemiological literature is limited. The Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study recruited 2001 women during the first trimester of pregnancy from 10 Canadian sites. Our objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to metals (lead, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury) and fetal metabolic function. Average maternal metal concentrations in 1st and 3rd trimester blood samples were used to represent prenatal metals exposure. Leptin and adiponectin were measured in 1363 cord blood samples and served as markers of fetal metabolic function. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between metals and both high (≥90%) and low (≤10%) fetal adiponectin and leptin levels. Leptin levels were significantly higher in female infants compared to males. A significant relationship between maternal blood cadmium and odds of high leptin was observed among males but not females in adjusted models. When adjusting for birth weight z-score, lead was associated with an increased odd of high leptin. No other significant associations were found at the top or bottom 10th percentile in either leptin or adiponectin models. This study supports the proposition that maternal levels of cadmium influence cord blood adipokine levels in a sex-dependent manner. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and to determine how such findings at birth will translate into childhood anthropometric measures. - Highlights: • We determined relationships between maternal metal levels and cord blood adipokines. • Cord blood leptin levels were higher among female than male infants. • Maternal cadmium was associated with elevated leptin in male, not female infants. • No significant associations were observed between metals and

  9. Maternal blood metal levels and fetal markers of metabolic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Shapiro, Gabriel D.; Fisher, Mandy; Taback, Shayne; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renee; Fraser, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to metals commonly found in the environment has been hypothesized to be associated with measures of fetal growth but the epidemiological literature is limited. The Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study recruited 2001 women during the first trimester of pregnancy from 10 Canadian sites. Our objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to metals (lead, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury) and fetal metabolic function. Average maternal metal concentrations in 1st and 3rd trimester blood samples were used to represent prenatal metals exposure. Leptin and adiponectin were measured in 1363 cord blood samples and served as markers of fetal metabolic function. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between metals and both high (≥90%) and low (≤10%) fetal adiponectin and leptin levels. Leptin levels were significantly higher in female infants compared to males. A significant relationship between maternal blood cadmium and odds of high leptin was observed among males but not females in adjusted models. When adjusting for birth weight z-score, lead was associated with an increased odd of high leptin. No other significant associations were found at the top or bottom 10th percentile in either leptin or adiponectin models. This study supports the proposition that maternal levels of cadmium influence cord blood adipokine levels in a sex-dependent manner. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and to determine how such findings at birth will translate into childhood anthropometric measures. - Highlights: • We determined relationships between maternal metal levels and cord blood adipokines. • Cord blood leptin levels were higher among female than male infants. • Maternal cadmium was associated with elevated leptin in male, not female infants. • No significant associations were observed between metals and

  10. Evaluation of single-nucleotide polymorphisms as internal controls in prenatal diagnosis of fetal blood groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doescher, Andrea; Petershofen, Eduard K; Wagner, Franz F; Schunter, Markus; Müller, Thomas H

    2013-02-01

    Determination of fetal blood groups in maternal plasma samples critically depends on adequate amplification of fetal DNA. We evaluated the routine inclusion of 52 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as internal reference in our polymerase chain reaction (PCR) settings to obtain a positive internal control for fetal DNA. DNA from 223 plasma samples of pregnant women was screened for RHD Exons 3, 4, 5, and 7 in a multiplex PCR including 52 SNPs divided into four primer pools. Amplicons were analyzed by single-base extension and the GeneScan method in a genetic analyzer. Results of D screening were compared to standard RHD genotyping of amniotic fluid or real-time PCR of fetal DNA from maternal plasma. The vast majority of all samples (97.8%) demonstrated differences in maternal and fetal SNP patterns when tested with four primer pools. These differences were not observed in less than 2.2% of the samples most probably due to an extraction failure for adequate amounts of fetal DNA. Comparison of the fetal genotypes with independent results did not reveal a single false-negative case among samples (n = 42) with positive internal control and negative fetal RHD typing. Coamplification of 52 SNPs with RHD-specific sequences for fetal blood group determination introduces a valid positive control for the amplification of fetal DNA to avoid false-negative results. This new approach does not require a paternal blood sample. It may also be applicable to other assays for fetal genotyping in maternal blood samples. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  11. Relationship between glutamate, GOT and GPT levels in maternal and fetal blood: a potential mechanism for fetal neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, Alexander; Tsesis, Svetlana; Gruenbaum, Benjamin Fredrick; Ohayon, Sharon; Gruenbaum, Shaun Evan; Boyko, Matthew; Sheiner, Eyal; Brotfain, Evgeny; Shapira, Yoram; Teichberg, Vivian Itzhak

    2012-09-01

    Excess glutamate in the brain is thought to be implicated in the pathophysiology of fetal anoxic brain injury, yet little is known about the mechanisms by which glutamate is regulated in the fetal brain. This study examines whether there are differences between maternal and fetal glutamate concentrations, and whether a correlation between them exists. 10 ml of venous blood was extracted from 87 full-term (>37 weeks gestation) pregnant women in active labor. Immediately after delivery of the neonate, 10 ml of blood from the umbilical artery and vein was extracted. Samples were analyzed for levels of glutamate, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT). Fetal blood glutamate concentrations in both the umbilical artery and vein were found to be significantly higher than maternal blood (pGOT levels in the umbilical artery and vein were found to be significantly higher than maternal GOT levels (pGOT or GPT between the umbilical artery and vein. There was an association observed between glutamate levels in maternal blood and glutamate levels in both venous (R=0.32, pGOT, but not GPT levels. An association was observed between maternal and fetal blood glutamate levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The number of fetal cells in maternal blood is associated to exercise and fetal gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Kirkegaard, Ida; Christensen, Connie Britta

    Introduction: We have established a robust method to specifically identify and isolate a placental fetal cell in maternal blood (fcmbs) at a gestational age of 12 weeks. The concentration of these cells, however, varies considerably among pregnant women (median 3 fcmbs/30 mL blood, range 0...... activity was obtained by a questionnaire and a structured interview. The number of fcmbs was assessed in 30 mL blood processed by a proprietary method developed in-house. Fetal cells in the blood, binding to fetal cell specific antibodies, were initially isolated by magnetic cell sorting. The fetal cells...... vs. 4, p=0.06) decreased the number of fcmbs, whereas coitus the evening before increased the number (4 vs. 3, p=0.11). Conclusion: The number of fcmbs is affected by normal activities. This should be taken into account when planning collection of fetal cells in connection for prenatal diagnosis...

  13. The relationship between fetal biophysical profile and cord blood PH

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    Valadan M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The Biophysical Profile (BPP is a noninvasive test that predicts the presence or absence of fetal asphyxia and, ultimately, the risk of fetal death in the antenatal period. Intervention on the basis of an abnormal biophysical profile result has been reported to yield a significant reduction in prenatal mortality, and an association exists between biophysical profile scoring and a decreased cerebral palsy rate in a given population. The BPP evaluates five characteristics: fetal movement, tone, breathing, heart reactivity, and amniotic fluid (AF volume estimation. The purpose of study was to determine whether there are different degree of acidosis at which the biophysical activity (acute marker are affected. "nMethods: In a prospective study of 140 patients undergoing cesarean section before onset of labor, the fetal biophysical profile was performed 24h before the time of cesarean and was matched with cord arterial PH that was obtained from a cord segment (10-20cm that was double clamped after delivery of newborn. (using cord arterial PH less than 7.20 for the diagnosis of acidosis. "nResults: The fetal biophysical profile was found to have a significant relationship with umbilical blood PH. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of fetal biophysical profile score were: 88.9%, 88.6%, 50%, 98.1%. "nConclusion: The first manifestations of fetal acidosis are nonreactive nonstress testing and fetal breathing loss; in advanced acidemia fetal movements and fetal tone are compromised. A protocol of antepartum fetal evaluation is suggested based upon the individual biophysical components rather than the score alone.

  14. Studies of an alpha-fetoprotein assay using dry blood-spot samples to be used for the detection of fetal neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, P Y; Mee, A V; Doran, T A

    1982-06-01

    We modified the Pharmacia serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) kit to enable its use with dry blood-spots on filter paper. Reference values were established for blood from 253 women in the 16th to 18th weeks of gestation. The result by the present technique in a woman with a confirmed anencephalic fetus was elevated, and in agreement with the results of AFP assays in serum and amniotic fluid. Blood AFP was stable on dried filter paper sent by mail.

  15. Fetal Gender and Several Cytokines Are Associated with the Number of Fetal Cells in Maternal Blood - An Observational Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Kirkegaard, Ida; Petersen, Olav Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify factors influencing the number of fetal cells in maternal blood. METHODS: A total of 57 pregnant women at a gestational age of weeks 11-14 were included. The number of fetal cells in maternal blood was assessed in 30 ml of blood using specific markers for both enrichment...

  16. Manual versus automated blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, A C; Kalliokoski, Otto; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2014-01-01

    Facial vein (cheek blood) and caudal vein (tail blood) phlebotomy are two commonly used techniques for obtaining blood samples from laboratory mice, while automated blood sampling through a permanent catheter is a relatively new technique in mice. The present study compared physiological parameters......, glucocorticoid dynamics as well as the behavior of mice sampled repeatedly for 24 h by cheek blood, tail blood or automated blood sampling from the carotid artery. Mice subjected to cheek blood sampling lost significantly more body weight, had elevated levels of plasma corticosterone, excreted more fecal...... corticosterone metabolites, and expressed more anxious behavior than did the mice of the other groups. Plasma corticosterone levels of mice subjected to tail blood sampling were also elevated, although less significantly. Mice subjected to automated blood sampling were less affected with regard to the parameters...

  17. C-14-activity incorporation into the protein of fetal organs of guinea pigs with different maternal placental blood flow and fetal arterial O2-saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenzl, B.

    1981-01-01

    In anaesthesised gravid guinea-pigs the dilate, end section of a placental radial artery was connected to the A.carotis via a flow meter and a throttle in order to measure and widely alter the maternal placental blood flow. Blood samples are taken from the fetal A.carotis, the fetal arterial O 2 -saturation and the Hb-content were determined. By altering the maternal placental blood circulation the fetal arterial O 2 -concentration can stabilised at various levels. In order to study the protein synthesis, under these conditions one infused 185 kBq C-14-leucine over a period of 3 hours into the jugular vein of the fetus. During infusion the radioactive concentrations in whole plasma and plasma water were measured. After the infusion the radioactive concentrations in the tissue fluid, the intracellular fluid and the acid-insoluble tissue fraction (protein) of the heart, kidenys, liver, the muscles of the upper end lower part of the body, the brain and the placenta were measured. The following deductions were drawn from the findings: The maternal placental blood flow vitally influences the activity incorporation per activity concentration in the plasma water. These findings agree with the hypotheses that the maternal blood circulation has an essential influence on the fetal proteins synthesis and that this influence can be attributed to the connection between placenta connection blood flow and oxygen saturation of fetal arterial blood. (orig.) [de

  18. Fetal blood vessel count increases in compensation of hypoxia in premature placentas

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    K. Kartini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Prematurity refers to live births before 37 weeks of gestation, wherein the baby is born before the body and its organ systems achieve perfect maturity, and this disorder is still a global problem. The high incidence of prematurity is a problem in developing and also in developed countries. Certain conditions accompanying pregnancies like preeclampsia, infection, and placental insufficiency, may trigger uterine hypoxia, causing premature birth. The placental condition is related to the intra-uterine fetal condition. In prolonged placental hypoxia, there occurs a compensatory mechanism, i.e. an increase in placental angiogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hypoxia on fetal blood vessel count as compensatory mechanism for tissue hypoxia. Methods An observational-analytical cross-sectional design using paraffin blocks of conserved premature placentas, comprising 31 samples of hypoxic premature placentas and 28 samples of non-hypoxic premature placentas, selected using non-random consecutive sampling. The samples were made into slides and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for assessment of histological structure, including fetal blood vessel count and integrity, villus conditions, syncytiotrophoblastic nuclear changes, and syncytiotrophoblastic nuclear aggregation. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the difference of blood vessel count between groups. Results Assessment of histological structure showed a significant increase in fetal blood vessel count in the hypoxic group [8.00 (5-15] as compared with the non-hypoxic group [7.50 (3-15]. Conclusion The hypoxia in premature placentas caused an increase in the number of fetal blood vessels as a form of compensation for disturbed oxygen homeostasis.

  19. Fetal blood vessel count increases in compensation of hypoxia in premature placentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kartini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Prematurity refers to live births before 37 weeks of gestation, wherein the baby is born before the body and its organ systems achieve perfect maturity, and this disorder is still a global problem. The high incidence of prematurity is a problem in developing and also in developed countries. Certain conditions accompanying pregnancies like preeclampsia, infection, and placental insufficiency, may trigger uterine hypoxia, causing premature birth. The placental condition is related to the intra-uterine fetal condition. In prolonged placental hypoxia, there occurs a compensatory mechanism, i.e. an increase in placental angiogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hypoxia on fetal blood vessel count as compensatory mechanism for tissue hypoxia. METHODS An observational-analytical cross-sectional design using paraffin blocks of conserved premature placentas, comprising 31 samples of hypoxic premature placentas and 28 samples of non-hypoxic premature placentas, selected using non-random consecutive sampling. The samples were made into slides and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for assessment of histological structure, including fetal blood vessel count and integrity, villus conditions, syncytiotrophoblastic nuclear changes, and syncytiotrophoblastic nuclear aggregation. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the difference of blood vessel count between groups. RESULTS Assessment of histological structure showed a significant increase in fetal blood vessel count in the hypoxic group [8.00 (5-15] as compared with the non-hypoxic group [7.50 (3-15]. CONCLUSION The hypoxia in premature placentas caused an increase in the number of fetal blood vessels as a form of compensation for disturbed oxygen homeostasis.

  20. Impaired fetal blood gas status in polyhydramnios and its relation to raised amniotic pressure.

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    Fisk, N M; Vaughan, J; Talbert, D

    1994-01-01

    A substantial proportion of perinatal losses in polyhydramnios occur as unexplained normally formed stillbirths. In order to investigate the relationship between fetal condition and raised amniotic pressure (AP), fetal blood gas and acid-base status were determined together with AP in 22 pregnancies with polyhydramnios. At fetal blood sampling, 8 (36%) had a venous pH value and 16 (73%) a pO2 value below the reference range. Both fetal pH and pO2 were significantly negatively correlated with the degree of elevation in AP (y = 7.43 - 0.036x, r = 0.56, p = 0.006, where y = pH and x = AP z score, and y = -1.6 - 0.48x, r = 0.54, p = 0.01, where y = pO2 z score, respectively). Although some of these fetuses were hydropic, had congenital anomalies, or were from multiple pregnancies, univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that the above associations could not be accounted for by these potentially confounding variables. This work suggests that abnormal fetal blood gas status in human pregnancies with poly-hydramnios is associated with elevated AP.

  1. Patient identification in blood sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Anne; Bolton-Maggs, Paula

    The majority of adverse reports relating to blood transfusions result from human error, including misidentification of patients and incorrect labelling of samples. This article outlines best practice in blood sampling for transfusion (but is recommended for all pathology samples) and the role of patient empowerment in improving safety.

  2. Fetal red blood cell parameters in thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnpean, Rossarin; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan; Ratanasiri, Thawalwong

    2013-01-01

    With the lack of fetal blood specimens in routine practice, little is known about red blood cell (RBC) parameters of fetuses with various thalassemia syndromes. This study aimed to describe these in various forms of thalassemia. The study was performed on 93 fetal blood specimens obtained from pregnant women by cordocentesis during 18-24 weeks of gestation. RBC parameters were recorded on automated analyzer. Hemoglobin (Hb) and DNA analyses were performed for definite genotyping. No significant difference in RBC parameters was observed between non-thalassemic fetuses and those with β-thalassemia trait, Hb E trait, homozygous Hb E and β-thalassemia/Hb E disease. However, in those with α(0)-thalassemia trait and double heterozygous α(0)-thalassemia/Hb E, slight reduction in mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was noted. Fetuses with the Hb H disease showed significant reductions in Hb, MCV and mean corpuscular Hb (MCH). Marked reductions in Hb, hematocrit, MCH and mean cell Hb concentration and increased RBC distribution width with numerous nucleated RBC were clearly observed in Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis. Simple analysis of fetal RBC parameters is useful for making presumptive prenatal diagnosis of α-thalassemia syndromes including Hb H disease and Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis which can then be confirmed by Hb and DNA analyses. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Evaluation of Sample Stability and Automated DNA Extraction for Fetal Sex Determination Using Cell-Free Fetal DNA in Maternal Plasma

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    Elena Ordoñez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The detection of paternally inherited sequences in maternal plasma, such as the SRY gene for fetal sexing or RHD for fetal blood group genotyping, is becoming part of daily routine in diagnostic laboratories. Due to the low percentage of fetal DNA, it is crucial to ensure sample stability and the efficiency of DNA extraction. We evaluated blood stability at 4°C for at least 24 hours and automated DNA extraction, for fetal sex determination in maternal plasma. Methods. A total of 158 blood samples were collected, using EDTA-K tubes, from women in their 1st trimester of pregnancy. Samples were kept at 4°C for at least 24 hours before processing. An automated DNA extraction was evaluated, and its efficiency was compared with a standard manual procedure. The SRY marker was used to quantify cfDNA by real-time PCR. Results. Although lower cfDNA amounts were obtained by automated DNA extraction (mean 107,35 GE/mL versus 259,43 GE/mL, the SRY sequence was successfully detected in all 108 samples from pregnancies with male fetuses. Conclusion. We successfully evaluated the suitability of standard blood tubes for the collection of maternal blood and assessed samples to be suitable for analysis at least 24 hours later. This would allow shipping to a central reference laboratory almost from anywhere in Europe.

  4. Umbilical cord blood lactate: a valuable tool in the assessment of fetal metabolic acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, A.C.; Staer-Jensen, J.; Jorgensen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    asphyxia using ROC-curves, where an ABE value less than -12 was used as "gold standard" for significant intrapartum asphyxia. STUDY DESIGN: This is a descriptive study of umbilical cord arterial blood samples from 2554 singleton deliveries. The deliveries took place at the Department of Obstetrics......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was (1) to evaluate the relationship between umbilical cord arterial blood lactate and pH, standard base excess (SBE), and actual base excess (ABE) at delivery and (2) to suggest a cut-off level of umbilical cord arterial blood lactate in predicting fetal...

  5. Characterization of the fetal blood transcriptome and proteome in maternal anti-fetal rejection: evidence of a distinct and novel type of human fetal systemic inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonho; Romero, Roberto; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Dong, Zhong; Tarca, Adi L; Xu, Yi; Chiang, Po Jen; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Hassan, Sonia S; Yeo, Lami; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Than, Nandor Gabor; Kim, Chong Jai

    2013-10-01

    The human fetus is able to mount a systemic inflammatory response when exposed to microorganisms. This stereotypic response has been termed the 'fetal inflammatory response syndrome' (FIRS), defined as an elevation of fetal plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6). FIRS is frequently observed in patients whose preterm deliveries are associated with intra-amniotic infection, acute inflammatory lesions of the placenta, and a high rate of neonatal morbidity. Recently, a novel form of fetal systemic inflammation, characterized by an elevation of fetal plasma CXCL10, has been identified in patients with placental lesions consistent with 'maternal anti-fetal rejection'. These lesions include chronic chorioamnionitis, plasma cell deciduitis, and villitis of unknown etiology. In addition, positivity for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) panel-reactive antibodies (PRA) in maternal sera can also be used to increase the index of suspicion for maternal anti-fetal rejection. The purpose of this study was to determine (i) the frequency of pathologic lesions consistent with maternal anti-fetal rejection in term and spontaneous preterm births; (ii) the fetal serum concentration of CXCL10 in patients with and without evidence of maternal anti-fetal rejection; and (iii) the fetal blood transcriptome and proteome in cases with a fetal inflammatory response associated with maternal anti-fetal rejection. Maternal and fetal sera were obtained from normal term (n = 150) and spontaneous preterm births (n = 150). A fetal inflammatory response associated with maternal anti-fetal rejection was diagnosed when the patients met two or more of the following criteria: (i) presence of chronic placental inflammation; (ii) ≥80% of maternal HLA class I PRA positivity; and (iii) fetal serum CXCL10 concentration >75th percentile. Maternal HLA PRA was analyzed by flow cytometry. The concentrations of fetal CXCL10 and IL-6 were determined by ELISA. Transcriptome analysis was undertaken after the extraction of total RNA

  6. Noninvasive Antenatal Determination of Fetal Blood Group Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieneck, Klaus; Clausen, Frederik Banch; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2016-01-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is a condition characterized by a decreased lifespan of fetal red blood cells caused by maternally produced allospecific antibodies transferred to the fetus during pregnancy. The antibodies bind to the corresponding blood group antigens on fetal r......NGS analysis holds advantages over polymerase chain reaction (PCR) determination based on allele specific amplification....

  7. [Prognostic Doppler ultrasound examination of fetal arteries blood flow].

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    Sieroszewski, Piotr; Sabatowska, Małgorzata; Karowicz-Bilińska, Agata; Suzin, Jacek

    2002-08-01

    Early detection of fetal risk is one of the main issues in today obstetrics. Ultrasound diagnostics plays a significant role, as the introduction of Doppler imaging method in the evaluation of blood flow has enabled non-invasive assessment of uteroplacental circulation. Therefore, we have analysed foetal three arteries: umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery and renal artery after determining the normal range for the analysed parameters. 1. Comparison of the obtained blood flow indices (S/D, RI, PI) in the umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery and renal artery of foetuses from normal and complicated full-term pregnancies. 2. Determination of indices: umbilical-cerebral and renal-cerebral in normal and pathological pregnancy. 3. Evaluation of feasibility of the analysed flow parameters for the detection of intrauterine foetal hypoxia. We have examined 151 women, who were divided into control group--101 pregnant women with normal pregnancy and study group--50 pregnant women with complicated pregnancy. All pregnant women underwent ultrasound examination using the Hitachi EUB 515 C (Japan) scanner with 3.5 MHz convex probe, connected to the colour pulsed Doppler. The study consisted of the biometric measurements and evaluation of the spectrum of blood flow in the umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery and renal artery. We have determined following indices: a) systolic-diastolic ratio S/D, resistance index RI, pulsatility index PI, b) umbilical-cerebral ratio P/M. (PI ua/PI mca), renal--cerebral ratio N/M (PI ra/PI mca). Statistically significant difference was found between the study and control groups for all the flow indices assessed (S/D, RI, PI) for the middle cerebral artery, for the indices P/M and N/M. (p < 0.001) and pulsatility index in the renal artery (p < 0.01). Similar, although slightly smaller difference (p < 0.05) was seen for the values of flow parameters in the umbilical artery. 1) Evaluation of blood flow in the middle cerebral artery, and in

  8. Dynamic Changes in Fetal Microchimerism in Maternal Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, CD4+ and CD8+ Cells in Normal Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.; Gammill, Hilary S.; Lucas, Joëlle; Aydelotte, Tessa M.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Lambert, Nathalie C.; Nelson, J. Lee

    2010-01-01

    Objective Cell trafficking during pregnancy results in persistence of small populations of fetal cells in the mother, known as fetal microchimerism (FMc). Changes in cell-free fetal DNA during gestation have been well-described, however, less is known about dynamic changes in fetal immune cells in maternal blood. We investigated FMc in maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) longitudinally across gestation. Study Design Thirty-five women with normal pregnancies were studied. FMc was identified in PBMC, CD4+ and CD8+ subsets employing quantitative PCR assays targeting fetal-specific genetic polymorphisms. FMc quantities were reported as fetal genome equivalents (gEq) per 1,000,000 gEq mother’s cells. Poisson regression modeled the rate of FMc detection. Main Outcome Measure FMc in PBMC Results The probability of detecting one fetal cell equivalent increased 6.2-fold each trimester [Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) 95% CI: 1.73, 21.91; p=0.005]. Although FMC in PBMC was not detected for the majority of time points, 7 of 35 women had detectable FMc during pregnancy at one or more time points, with the majority of positive samples being from the third trimester. There was a suggestion of greater HLA-sharing in families where women had FMc in PBMC. FMc was detected in 9% of CD4+ (2/23) and 18% of CD8+ (3/25) subsets. Conclusions FMc in PBMC increased as gestation progressed and was found within CD4+ and CD8+ subsets in some women in the latter half of gestation. A number of factors could influence cellular FMc levels including subclinical fetal-maternal interface changes and events related to parturition. Whether FMc during pregnancy predicts persistent FMc and/or correlates with fetal-maternal HLA-relationships also merits further study. PMID:20569981

  9. Co-ordinate expression of Th1/Th2 phenotypes in maternal and fetal blood: evidence for a transplacental nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Doris B; Young, Bruce K

    2012-01-06

    If maternal atopy and environmental exposure affect prenatal Th cell development, the maternal and fetal immune systems should display common Th1/Th2 phenotypes. To test this hypothesis, we studied maternal and neonatal blood samples from mothers with total serum IgE ordinate IFN-γ production from paired maternal and fetal mononuclear cells, accompanied by co-ordinate increases in activated CD4+CD69+ cells that display the CCR4+Th2 and CXCR3+ Th1 phenotypes. Maternal and fetal CD4+CXCR3+ T cells were subsequently identified as the major producers of IFN-γ. The data established that a transplacental nexus exists during normal pregnancy and that fetal Th cell responses may be biased by the maternal immune system.

  10. zeta-, epsilon-, and gamma-Globin mRNA in blood samples and CD71(+) cell fractions from fetuses and from pregnant and nonpregnant women, with special attention to identification of fetal erythroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, A M; Hviid, T V; Christensen, B

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information about the appearance of gamma-, epsilon-, and zeta-globin mRNAs in fetal erythroblasts during gestation and about the presence and amounts of these mRNAs in pregnant and nonpregnant women is important from the perspective of using these molecules as a marker of fetal eryth...

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in South China maternal and fetal blood and breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi Xinhui [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Qu Weiyue [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Sheng Guoying [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhang Wenbing [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Mai Bixian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen Dunjin [Obstetrical and Gynecological Institute, Guangzhou Second People' s Hospital, Guangzhou 510150 (China); Yu Lin [Obstetrical and Gynecological Institute, Guangzhou Second People' s Hospital, Guangzhou 510150 (China); Fu Jiamo [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China) and School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)]. E-mail: fujm@gig.ac.cn

    2006-12-15

    Twenty-one-paired human fetal and maternal serum and 27 breast milk samples at South China were analyzed for concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Seven PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, and -183) were quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This is the first report to present the residue levels of PBDEs in human samples of China. The concentrations of total PBDEs ranged from 1.5 to 17 ng/g in the samples and were within the range reported in European samples for a similar population, but lower than human tissue levels in North America. BDE-47 and -153 were the dominant PBDE congeners in all samples and accounted for 60% of the total PBDEs. Further research is needed to determine the exposure route of PBDEs and their health effects. - A survey of PBDE concentrations in human blood and milk helps identify background concentrations in South China population.

  12. Detection of fetal-specific DNA after enrichment for trophoblasts using the monoclonal antibody LK26 in model systems but failure to demonstrate fetal DNA in maternal peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, T V; Sørensen, S; Morling, N

    1999-01-01

    Trophoblast cells can be detected in maternal blood during normal human pregnancy and DNA from these cells may be used for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of inherited diseases. The possibility of enriching trophoblast cells from maternal blood samples using a monoclonal antibody (LK26) against...... a folate-binding protein, which recognizes trophoblast in normal tissues, in conjunction with immunomagnetic cell sorting was investigated. Verification of the presence of fetal DNA in the sorted samples was done by detection of fetal/paternal-specific short tandem repeat (STR) alleles using polymerase...... on peripheral maternal blood samples. However, it was not possible to detect fetal DNA sequences in these samples, most probably due to the extremely low number of trophoblast cells. Positive identification and retrieval of trophoblast cells in suspension or trophoblast nuclear material prepared on microscope...

  13. Umbilical blood flow ultrasound characteristics of perioperative fetal intrauterine hypoxia and their relationship with maternal and fetal oxidative stress injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei He

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship between umbilical blood flow ultrasound characteristics of perioperative fetal intrauterine hypoxia and maternal as well as fetal oxidative stress injury. Methods: 108 puerperae giving birth in our hospital between May 2014 and October 2016 were selected and divided into normal pregnancy group with neonatal Apgar score >7 points and intrauterine hypoxia group with neonatal Apgar score ≤7 points, color Doppler diasonograph was used to determine umbilical blood flow ultrasound parameters, umbilical cord blood was collected to determine the levels of oxidative stress products, and the placenta was collected to determine the levels of oxidative stress products and related apoptosis molecules. Results: During 24–30 weeks, 31–36 weeks and 37–41 weeks of pregnancy, umbilical blood flow resistance index (RI, pulsatility index (PI and diastolic velocity/systolic velocity (S/D of intrauterine hypoxia group were significantly higher than those of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05; malondialdehyde (MDA, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox- LDL, 8-isoprostanes (8-iso, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP-70 levels in umbilical cord blood of intrauterine hypoxia group were significantly higher than those of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05, MDA, oxLDL, 8-ios, HSP-70, Fas, FasL and Bax levels in placenta tissue were significantly higher than those of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05, and Bcl-2 and XIAP levels were significantly lower than those of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05; RI, PI and S/ D were positively correlated with MDA, oxLDL, 8-ios and HSP-70 levels in umbilical cord blood and placenta tissue, positively correlated with Fas, FasL and Bax levels in placenta tissue, and negatively correlated with Bcl-2 and XIAP levels in placental tissue. Conclusions: The increased umbilical blood flow resistance and decreased flow volume of fetal intrauterine hypoxia are closely related to maternal, fetal and placental oxidative

  14. Y-chromosome DNA is present in the blood of female dogs suggesting the presence of fetal microchimerism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M Axiak-Bechtel

    Full Text Available Fetal microchimerism has been suggested to play contradictory roles in women's health, with factors including age of the recipient, time elapsed since microchimerism occurred, and microchimeric cell type modulating disease. Both beneficial and harmful effects have been identified in wound healing and tissue regeneration, immune mediated disease, and cancer. This area of research is relatively new, and hindered by the time course from occurrence of fetal microchimerism to the multi-factorial development of disease. Dogs represent an excellent model for study of fetal microchimerism, as they share our environment, have a naturally condensed lifespan, and spontaneously develop immune-mediated diseases and cancers similar to their human counterparts. However, fetal microchimerism has not been described in dogs. These experiments sought preliminary evidence that dogs develop fetal microchimerism following pregnancy. We hypothesized that Y chromosomal DNA would be detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of female dogs collected within two months of parturition. We further hypothesized that Y chromosomal DNA would be detected in banked whole blood DNA samples from parous female Golden Retrievers with at least one male puppy in a prior litter. Amplification of DNA extracted from five female Golden Retrievers that had whelped within the two months prior to collection revealed strong positive bands for the Y chromosome. Of banked, parous samples, 36% yielded positive bands for the Y chromosome. This is the first report of persistent Y chromosomal DNA in post-partum female dogs and these results suggest that fetal microchimerism occurs in the canine species. Evaluation of the contributions of fetal microchimeric cells to disease processes in dogs as a model for human disease is warranted.

  15. Y-chromosome DNA is present in the blood of female dogs suggesting the presence of fetal microchimerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axiak-Bechtel, Sandra M; Kumar, Senthil R; Hansen, Sarah A; Bryan, Jeffrey N

    2013-01-01

    Fetal microchimerism has been suggested to play contradictory roles in women's health, with factors including age of the recipient, time elapsed since microchimerism occurred, and microchimeric cell type modulating disease. Both beneficial and harmful effects have been identified in wound healing and tissue regeneration, immune mediated disease, and cancer. This area of research is relatively new, and hindered by the time course from occurrence of fetal microchimerism to the multi-factorial development of disease. Dogs represent an excellent model for study of fetal microchimerism, as they share our environment, have a naturally condensed lifespan, and spontaneously develop immune-mediated diseases and cancers similar to their human counterparts. However, fetal microchimerism has not been described in dogs. These experiments sought preliminary evidence that dogs develop fetal microchimerism following pregnancy. We hypothesized that Y chromosomal DNA would be detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of female dogs collected within two months of parturition. We further hypothesized that Y chromosomal DNA would be detected in banked whole blood DNA samples from parous female Golden Retrievers with at least one male puppy in a prior litter. Amplification of DNA extracted from five female Golden Retrievers that had whelped within the two months prior to collection revealed strong positive bands for the Y chromosome. Of banked, parous samples, 36% yielded positive bands for the Y chromosome. This is the first report of persistent Y chromosomal DNA in post-partum female dogs and these results suggest that fetal microchimerism occurs in the canine species. Evaluation of the contributions of fetal microchimeric cells to disease processes in dogs as a model for human disease is warranted.

  16. Fetal blood gas values during fetoscopic myelomeningocele repair performed under carbon dioxide insufflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschat, Ahmet A; Ahn, Edward S; Murphy, Jamie; Miller, Jena L

    2018-05-10

    Fetoscopic myelomeningocele (MMC) repair is performed with intrauterine carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) insufflation. While lamb experiments have shown significant fetal acidemia following CO 2 insufflation corresponding information for human pregnancies is not available. We performed umbilical venous cord blood sampling in three patients during fetoscopic MMC repair at 25+1, 25+3 and 24+1 weeks gestation. Fetal venous pH at the beginning of CO 2 insufflation were 7.36, 7.46 and 7.37; repeat values were 7.28, 7.35, 7.36 after 181, 159 and 149 minutes respectively. The partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide was maintained in the normal range at these times and pH decrease was less in patient 3 receiving humidified CO2 insufflation. Our observations suggest that in contrast to sheep experiments, CO2 insufflation during fetoscopic myelomeningocele repair does not cause fetal acidemia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Integration of noninvasive prenatal prediction of fetal blood group into clinical prenatal care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch

    2014-01-01

    Incompatibility of red blood cell blood group antigens between a pregnant woman and her fetus can cause maternal immunization and, consequently, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Noninvasive prenatal testing of cell-free fetal DNA can be used to assess the risk of hemolytic disease...

  18. Nonreassuring fetal heart rate patterns and nucleated red blood cells in term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalak, E Ebru; Dede, F Suat; Gelisen, Orhan; Dede, Hulya; Haberal, Ali

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between nonreassuring fetal heart rate patterns during labor and umbilical cord nucleated red blood cell counts. Nucleated red blood cell data was collected prospectively from 41 singleton term neonates presented with nonreassuring fetal heart rate patterns and/or meconium stained amniotic fluid during labor (study group) and from 45 term neonates without any evidence of nonreassuring fetal status (controls). Umbilical artery pH, blood gases and base excess were also determined to investigate the correlation between independent variables. The median nucleated red blood cells per 100 white blood cells were 13 (range 0-37) in the study group and 8 (range 0-21) in the control group. Stepwise regression analysis have identified meconium stained amniotic fluid (R(2) = 0.15, p patterns. Nucleated red blood cells in the cord blood of newborns were found to be elevated in patients with nonreassuring FHR patterns during labor. However, the wide range and the poor correlation of NRBC count with umbilical artery pH and blood gas values limit its clinical utility as a marker for fetal hypoxia.

  19. Alteration in peripheral blood concentration of certain pro-inflammatory cytokines in cows developing retention of fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boro, Prasanta; Kumaresan, A; Pathak, Rupal; Patbandha, T K; Kumari, Susavi; Yadav, Asha; Manimaran, A; Baithalu, R K; Attupuram, Nitin M; Mohanty, T K

    2015-06-01

    Retention of fetal membranes (RFM) adversely affects the production and reproduction potential of the affected cows leading to huge economic loss. Physiological separation of fetal membranes is reported to be an inflammatory process. The present study compared the concentrations of certain pro inflammatory cytokines [Interleukin 1β (IL-1), Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Interleukin 8 (IL-8) and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) between the cows that developed RFM (n=10) and the cows that expelled fetal membranes normally (n=10) to find out if they could serve as a predictive tool for RFM. Blood samples were collected from the cows from 30 days before expected parturition through day -21, day -14, day -7, day -5, day -3, day -1, on the day of parturition (day 0), day 1 postpartum and the pro-inflammatory cytokines were estimated in blood plasma by ELISA method. The IL-1β concentration was significantly lower (Pmembranes normally from 3 days before calving till the day of calving. The plasma concentrations of IL-6 and IL-8 were also lower (Pmembranes normally. It may be inferred that the concentrations of IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α around parturition were altered in cows developing RFM compared to those expelled fetal membranes normally. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Umbilical nucleated red blood cell as a sign of fetal distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torkestani F

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of increased numbers of nucleated red blood cell (NRBC in the umbilical cord blood has been associated with states of relative hypoxia. Nucleated red blood cell counts are a potentially useful tool in estimating the degree and timing of intrauterine hypoxia. This may have important implication in determining causality in case of compromised infant. Cord blood NRBC counts may be obtained noninvasively from an otherwise discarded specimen and analyzed by personnel on equipment readily available in most hospital laboratories. Since the aim of monitoring of fetal heart is early diagnosis of hypoxia, we studied the relationship between abnormal fetal heart rate with the number of nucleated red blood cells (NRBC in the umbilical cord blood.Methods: We performed this research at Hazrat Zeynab Hospital on 130 full-term newborns (65 cases of fetal distress and 65 normal cases between July 2005 and July 2006. The NRBC counts of newborns with abnormal fetal heart rate were compared with those of normal newborns and correlations with other parameters including Apgar score, hemoglobin level, condition of newborns in the first 24 hours of the birth and birth weight.Results: The mean NRBC count in the fetal distress group was 9.45 ± 8.75 and that of the normal group was 9.17 ± 8.76 per 100 white cells (p=0.89. The mean duration between diagnosis of fetal distress to birth was equal to 1.2± 0.77 hours. Furthermore, there was no meaningful correlation between number of NRBC and Apgar score, hemoglobin, birth weight and condition of newborns in the first 24 hours.Conclusion: If the fetus is born a short time after the diagnosis of distress with no risk factors for hypoxia, the NRBC count for cord blood is not elevated.

  1. The role of abnormal fetal heart rate in scheduling chorionic villus sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagel, S; Anteby, E; Ron, M; Hochner-Celnikier, D; Achiron, R

    1992-09-01

    To assess the value of fetal heart rate (FHR) measurements in predicting spontaneous fetal loss in pregnancies scheduled for chorionic villus sampling (CVS). A prospective descriptive study. Two hospital departments of obstetrics and gynaecology in Israel. 114 women between 9 and 11 weeks gestation scheduled for chorionic villus sampling (CVS). Fetal heart rate was measured by transvaginal Doppler ultrasound and compared with a monogram established from 75 fetuses. Whenever a normal FHR was recorded, CVS was performed immediately. 106 women had a normal FHR and underwent CVS; two of these pregnancies ended in miscarriage. In five pregnancies no fetal heart beats could be identified and fetal death was diagnosed. In three pregnancies an abnormal FHR was recorded and CVS was postponed; all three pregnancies ended in miscarriage within 2 weeks. Determination of FHR correlated with crown-rump length could be useful in predicting spontaneous miscarriage before performing any invasive procedure late in the first trimester.

  2. Neonatal blood gas sampling methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    You work in a regional neonatal intensive care unit. An 8-day-old ... The baby was born at 28 weeks' gestation with a birth weight of 1. 100 g. ... and arterial blood taken from indwelling arterial lines.2-4 However, even ... tal age of 48 - 72 hours.

  3. Prenatal caffeine exposure induced a lower level of fetal blood leptin mainly via placental mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yi-meng; Luo, Han-wen; Kou, Hao; Wen, Yin-xian; Shen, Lang; Pei, Ling-guo; Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Yuan-zhen; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    It's known that blood leptin level is reduced in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) fetus, and placental leptin is the major source of fetal blood leptin. This study aimed to investigate the decreased fetal blood leptin level by prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) and its underlying placental mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered caffeine (30–120 mg/kg day) from gestational day 9 to 20. The level of fetal serum leptin and the expression of placental leptin-related genes were analyzed. Furthermore, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the reduced placental leptin's expression by treatment with caffeine (0.8–20 μM) in the BeWo cells. In vivo, PCE significantly decreased fetal serum leptin level in caffeine dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, placental mRNA expression of adenosine A2a receptor (Adora2a), cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), a short-type leptin receptor (Ob-Ra) and leptin was reduced in the PCE groups. In vitro, caffeine significantly decreased the mRNA expression of leptin, CREB and ADORA2A in concentration and time-dependent manners. The addition of ADORA2A agonist or adenylyl cyclase (AC) agonist reversed the inhibition of leptin expression induced by caffeine. PCE induced a lower level of fetal blood leptin, which the primary mechanism is that caffeine inhibited antagonized Adora2a and AC activities to decreased cAMP synthesis, thus inhibited the expression of the transcription factor CREB and target gene leptin in the placenta. Meantime, the reduced transportation of maternal leptin by placental Ob-Ra also contributed to the reduced fetal blood leptin. Together, PCE decreased fetal blood leptin mainly via reducing the expression and transportation of leptin in the placenta. - Highlights: • Caffeine reduced fetal blood leptin level. • Caffeine inhibited placental leptin production and transport. • Caffeine down-regulated placental leptin expression via antagonizing ADORA2.

  4. Prenatal caffeine exposure induced a lower level of fetal blood leptin mainly via placental mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yi-meng [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Luo, Han-wen [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Kou, Hao [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wen, Yin-xian [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Shen, Lang; Pei, Ling-guo; Zhou, Jin [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Yuan-zhen [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-11-15

    It's known that blood leptin level is reduced in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) fetus, and placental leptin is the major source of fetal blood leptin. This study aimed to investigate the decreased fetal blood leptin level by prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) and its underlying placental mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered caffeine (30–120 mg/kg day) from gestational day 9 to 20. The level of fetal serum leptin and the expression of placental leptin-related genes were analyzed. Furthermore, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the reduced placental leptin's expression by treatment with caffeine (0.8–20 μM) in the BeWo cells. In vivo, PCE significantly decreased fetal serum leptin level in caffeine dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, placental mRNA expression of adenosine A2a receptor (Adora2a), cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), a short-type leptin receptor (Ob-Ra) and leptin was reduced in the PCE groups. In vitro, caffeine significantly decreased the mRNA expression of leptin, CREB and ADORA2A in concentration and time-dependent manners. The addition of ADORA2A agonist or adenylyl cyclase (AC) agonist reversed the inhibition of leptin expression induced by caffeine. PCE induced a lower level of fetal blood leptin, which the primary mechanism is that caffeine inhibited antagonized Adora2a and AC activities to decreased cAMP synthesis, thus inhibited the expression of the transcription factor CREB and target gene leptin in the placenta. Meantime, the reduced transportation of maternal leptin by placental Ob-Ra also contributed to the reduced fetal blood leptin. Together, PCE decreased fetal blood leptin mainly via reducing the expression and transportation of leptin in the placenta. - Highlights: • Caffeine reduced fetal blood leptin level. • Caffeine inhibited placental leptin production and transport. • Caffeine down-regulated placental leptin expression via antagonizing ADORA2.

  5. Predictors of Cord Blood Leptin Level in Pregnancies Complicated With Preeclampsia, Fetal Growth Restriction and in Normal Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgün Öztürk Doğan

    2007-04-01

    CONCLUSION: Regulation of cord blood leptin level is a complex process involving fetal gender and fetal anthropometric variables as well as cord blood cortisol, intrauterine growth and hypoxia. Leptin level is decreased in cases of placental insufficiency like IUGR but not in uncomplicated preeclampsia alone.

  6. Hyperkalemia after irradiation of packed red blood cells: Possible effects with intravascular fetal transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorp, J.A.; Plapp, F.V.; Cohen, G.R.; Yeast, J.D.; O'Kell, R.T.; Stephenson, S.

    1990-01-01

    Plasma potassium, calcium, and albumin concentrations in irradiated blood, and in fetal blood before and after transfusion, were measured. Dangerously high plasma potassium levels were observed in some units of irradiated packed red blood cells (range, 13.9 to 66.5 mEq/L; mean, 44.7 mEq/L) and could be one possible explanation for the high incidence of fetal arrhythmia associated with fetal intravascular transfusion. There are many factors operative in the preparation of irradiated packed red blood cells that may predispose to high potassium levels: the age of the red blood cells, the number of procedures used to concentrate the blood, the duration of time elapsed from concentration, the duration of time elapsed from irradiation, and the hematocrit. Use of fresh blood, avoidance of multiple packing procedures, limiting the hematocrit in the donor unit to less than or equal to 80%, and minimizing the time between concentration, irradiation and transfusion may minimize the potassium levels, and therefore making an additional washing procedure unnecessary

  7. Effects of cord compression on fetal blood flow distribution and O2 delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itskovitz, J.; LaGamma, E.F.; Rudolph, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors used the radionuclide microsphere technique in nine fetal lambs to examine the effect of partial cord compression on distribution of cardiac output and O 2 delivery to fetal organs and venous flow patterns. With a 50% reduction in umbilical blood flow the fraction of fetal cardiac output distributed to the brain, heart, carcass, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract increased. Pulmonary blood flow fell. O 2 delivery to the brain and myocardium was maintained but was reduced to peripheral, renal, and gastrointestinal circulations. Hepatic blood flow decreased and O 2 delivery fell by 75%. The proportion of umbilical venous blood passing through the ductus venosus increased from 43.9 to 71.8%. The preferential distribution of ductus venosus blood flow through the foramen ovale was enhanced and the proportion of O 2 delivery to upper body organs derived from the ductus venosus increased. Abdominal inferior vena caval blood flow increased, and it was also preferentially distributed through the foramen ovale and constituted the major fraction of the arterial blood supply to the upper body organs. Thus cord compression modified the distribution of cardiac output and the patterns of venous returns in the fetus. This pattern of circulatory response differs from that observed with other causes of reduced O 2 delivery

  8. Blood sampling from adrenal gland vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yong; Ni Caifang

    2009-01-01

    Adrenal gland vein sampling is an interventional method to get the blood samples from the adrenal gland vein. The blood is obtained via a catheter which is selectively inserted in the adrenal gland vein. This technique is mainly used to be diagnostic for primary hyperaldosteronism. A full knowledge of the anatomy and variations of the adrenal gland vein, serious preoperative preparation and skilled catheterization manipulation are necessary for obtaining sufficient blood sample and for reducing the occurrence of complications. Providing the physicians with definite diagnostic evidence and being technically feasible, adrenal gland vein sampling should become one of the routine examinations for clarifying the cause of primary hyperaldosteronism. (authors)

  9. Histo-blood group antigens in human fetal thymus and in thymomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, P; Dabelsteen, Erik; Francis, D

    1996-01-01

    -y, Le-x and sialyl-Le-x) of the ABO-histo-blood group system was investigated in 19 normal fetal thymuses (gestational age 16 to 39 weeks) and in 19 thymomas in order to study possible tumor-associated changes in the glycosylation pattern. The material was investigated by immunochemical stainings...

  10. Reference values of fetal peak systolic blood flow Velocity in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objectives of this prospective cross sectional study are (i) to establish new reference values of peak systolic blood flow velocity measurement in the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA-PSV) following validated methodological guidelines (ii) to correlate peak systolic velocity with gestational age and (iii) to ...

  11. A prospective study on intrauterine cannabis exposure and fetal blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Marroun, H.; Tiemeier, H.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; van den Brink, W.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cannabis is commonly used among pregnant women. It is unclear whether cannabis exposure causes hemodynamic modifications in the fetus, like tobacco does. Aims: This study aims to ascertain fetal blood redistribution due to intrauterine cannabis exposure. Methods: This study was embedded

  12. A prospective study on intrauterine cannabis exposure and fetal blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2010-01-01

    Cannabis is commonly used among pregnant women. It is unclear whether cannabis exposure causes hemodynamic modifications in the fetus, like tobacco does. This study aims to ascertain fetal blood redistribution due to intrauterine cannabis exposure. This study was embedded in the Generation R Focus

  13. Umbilical cord blood lactate: a valuable tool in the assessment of fetal metabolic acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Anne Cathrine Roslev; Staer-Jensen, Jette; Jørgensen, Jan Stener

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was (1) to evaluate the relationship between umbilical cord arterial blood lactate and pH, standard base excess (SBE), and actual base excess (ABE) at delivery and (2) to suggest a cut-off level of umbilical cord arterial blood lactate in predicting fetal asphyxia usi...... ROC-curves, where an ABE value less than -12 was used as "gold standard" for significant intrapartum asphyxia.......The aim of the present study was (1) to evaluate the relationship between umbilical cord arterial blood lactate and pH, standard base excess (SBE), and actual base excess (ABE) at delivery and (2) to suggest a cut-off level of umbilical cord arterial blood lactate in predicting fetal asphyxia using...

  14. Preanalytical Blood Sampling Errors in Clinical Settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehra, N.; Malik, A. H.; Arshad, Q.; Sarwar, S.; Aslam, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Blood sampling is one of the common procedures done in every ward for disease diagnosis and prognosis. Daily hundreds of samples are collected from different wards but lack of appropriate knowledge of blood sampling by paramedical staff and accidental errors make the samples inappropriate for testing. Thus the need to avoid these errors for better results still remains. We carried out this research with an aim to determine the common errors during blood sampling; find factors responsible and propose ways to reduce these errors. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out at the Military and Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi during February and March 2014. A Venous Blood Sampling questionnaire (VBSQ) was filled by the staff on voluntary basis in front of the researchers. The staff was briefed on the purpose of the survey before filling the questionnaire. Sample size was 228. Results were analysed using SPSS-21. Results: When asked in the questionnaire, around 61.6 percent of the paramedical staff stated that they cleaned the vein by moving the alcohol swab from inward to outwards while 20.8 percent of the staff reported that they felt the vein after disinfection. On contrary to WHO guidelines, 89.6 percent identified that they had a habit of placing blood in the test tube by holding it in the other hand, which should actually be done after inserting it into the stand. Although 86 percent thought that they had ample knowledge regarding the blood sampling process but they did not practice it properly. Conclusion: Pre analytical blood sampling errors are common in our setup. Eighty six percent participants though thought that they had adequate knowledge regarding blood sampling, but most of them were not adhering to standard protocols. There is a need of continued education and refresher courses. (author)

  15. Systematic instrumental errors between oxygen saturation analysers in fetal blood during deep hypoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porath, M; Sinha, P; Dudenhausen, J W; Luttkus, A K

    2001-05-01

    During a study of artificially produced deep hypoxemia in fetal cord blood, systematic errors of three different oxygen saturation analysers were evaluated against a reference CO oximeter. The oxygen tensions (PO2) of 83 pre-heparinized fetal blood samples from umbilical veins were reduced by tonometry to 1.3 kPa (10 mm Hg) and 2.7 kPa (20 mm Hg). The oxygen saturation (SO2) was determined (n=1328) on a reference CO oximeter (ABL625, Radiometer Copenhagen) and on three tested instruments (two CO oximeters: Chiron865, Bayer Diagnostics; ABL700, Radiometer Copenhagen, and a portable blood gas analyser, i-STAT, Abbott). The CO oximeters measure the oxyhemoglobin and the reduced hemoglobin fractions by absorption spectrophotometry. The i-STAT system calculates the oxygen saturation from the measured pH, PO2, and PCO2. The measurements were performed in duplicate. Statistical evaluation focused on the differences between duplicate measurements and on systematic instrumental errors in oxygen saturation analysis compared to the reference CO oximeter. After tonometry, the median saturation dropped to 32.9% at a PO2=2.7 kPa (20 mm Hg), defined as saturation range 1, and to 10% SO2 at a PO2=1.3 kPa (10 mm Hg), defined as range 2. With decreasing SO2, all devices showed an increased difference between duplicate measurements. ABL625 and ABL700 showed the closest agreement between instruments (0.25% SO2 bias at saturation range 1 and -0.33% SO2 bias at saturation range 2). Chiron865 indicated higher saturation values than ABL 625 (3.07% SO2 bias at saturation range 1 and 2.28% SO2 bias at saturation range 2). Calculated saturation values (i-STAT) were more than 30% lower than the measured values of ABL625. The disagreement among CO oximeters was small but increasing under deep hypoxemia. Calculation found unacceptably low saturation.

  16. Ultrasonic character istics and clinical significance of umbilical cord blood flow in acute fetal distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Dai, Yin Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study ultrasonic characteristics of umbilical cord blood flow in acute fetal distress and its correlation with umbilical artery blood gas parameters, oxidative stress parameters, neonatal brain injury and myocardial injury. Methods: The pregnant women delivered in Department of Obstetrics of our hospital were chosen during the period from May 2012 to August 2015. The pregnant women with acute fetal distress were included in the distress group, and the healthy pregnant women with no acute fetal distress were included in the control group. The resistance index (RI, pulsatility index (PI and systolic/diastolic (S/D ratio of umbilical artery were measured at 24–30 weeks, 31–36 weeks and 37–41 weeks of pregnancy. After delivery, umbilical artery blood was taken for analysis of blood gas and determination of oxidative stress parameters. The venous blood of newborns was taken to measure the myocardial injury and brain injury parameters. Results: At 24–30 weeks, 31–36 weeks and 37–41 weeks of pregnancy, RI, S/D and PI in pregnant women of distress group were significantly higher than those in control group. The pH, contents of arterial partial pressure of oxygen, vitamin C, vitamin E, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in umbilical artery blood in pregnant women of distress group was significantly lower than those in control group and negatively correlated with the umbilical artery RI, PI and S/D. The contents of partial pressure of carbon dioxide in artery, lactic acid and malondialdehyde in pregnant women of distress group were significantly higher than those in control group and positively correlated with the umbilical artery RI, PI and S/D. The contents of lactate dehydrogenase, hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, S100B, neuron-specific enolase, creatine kinase-BB and Tau in newborns' venous blood in distress group were significantly higher than those in control group and

  17. Did antepartum hypoxic insult caused by fetal vessel thrombosis influence the procalcitonin level in umbilical blood? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Masatoki; Yamauchi, Aya; Yamashita, Rie; Sato, Yuichiro; Kodama, Yuki; Sameshima, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of marked elevation of the procalcitonin level in umbilical blood and neonatal blood at birth. The mother did not perceive fetal motion. Antepartum fetal heart rate monitoring showed a loss of variability and absence of acceleration. No fetal breathing movement, fetal movement, or fetal tone were observed by ultrasonography. The female neonate was delivered by cesarean section at 25 weeks of gestation, with birthweight 774 g. The umbilical arterial pH value at birth was 7.29. Mild elevation in interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in umbilical blood were observed. Cytochrome c showed a high level in umbilical and neonatal blood at birth. Placental histopathology revealed multiple fetal vessel thrombosis in the large stem villi and chorionic vessels. The neonate showed no infectious signs throughout the neonatal period. Computed tomography at 3 months of age revealed atrophy in the cerebrum and cerebellum. At 1 year after birth, the infant showed spastic quadriplegia. In this case, antepartum asphyxia due to fetal vessel thrombosis may have influenced the elevation of procalcitonin level in umbilical blood and neonatal blood at birth. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Diagnóstico prenatal no invasivo: Ácidos nucleicos de origen fetal en sangre materna Non invasive prenatal diagnosis: Fetal nucleic acid analysis in maternal blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sesarini

    2010-12-01

    decade, the presence of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal blood has been identified. These fetal DNA fragments would derive from the placenta and are not detected after delivery, making them a source of fetal material for carrying out diagnosis techniques using maternal blood. However, the vast majority of cell free DNA in maternal circulation is of maternal origin, with the fetal component contributing from 3% to 6% and rising towards term. Available methodologies do not allow separation of fetal from maternal cell free DNA, so current applications have been focused on the analysis of genes not present in the mother, such as Y chromosome sequences, or RHD gene in RhD-negative women, or paternal or de novo mutations. Also, the detection of cell-free fetal RNA in maternal blood offers the possibility of obtaining information regarding genetic expression profiles of embrionic tissues, and using genes expressed only at the feto-placental unit, controls for the presence of fetal material could be established, regardless of maternal genetic tissue. The present article describes the evidences regarding the passage of fetal nucleic acids to maternal circulation, its current prenatal diagnosis application and possible future perspectives.

  19. The relationship between umbilical and maternal blood leptin and it's effect in fetal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Linqi; Guo Sheng; Yu Xin; Feng Xing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation of leptin between maternal serum and cord blood and to know relationship between leptin and fetal growth, and the origin of leptin. Methods: The concentration of leptin in 55 cases of maternal serum and cord arterial and venous blood were measured by ELISA assay. According to the neonatal weight and gestational age, three groups were divided into small gestational age (SGA), appropriate gestational age (AGA) and large gestational age (LGA). The nutrition status of neonatal was evaluated by index of Pondernal. The comparision was made in these groups. Results: The concentration of leptin in the cord artery, venous and maternal serum among 55 cases was 16.58 ± 8.13 ng/ml, 12.05 ± 9.87 ng/ml, 13.24 ± 10.58 ng/ml respectively; The concentration of maternal serum leptin was higher than that of cord artery. The concentration of maternal serum leptin was higher than that of venous serum leptin slightly. There was significant difference between cord artery and venous in different gestational age groups. Serum leptin levels of cord artery and venous were well correlated with the one of the weight and gestational age of neonatal. Maternal serum leptin level was not correlated with birth weight, placental weight and gestational age. Conclusions: The leptin from placenta is concerned with the adjustment of fetal growth. Cord leptin can reflect the status of fetal growth. Cord venous leptin indicate that the leptin be from placenta. Cord artery leptin demonstrates a part of placenta leptin, which acts on the fetus and then induces the fetal fat tissue to produce leptin. The maternal leptin does not adjust fetal weight directly. It only adjusts fat content itself and energy metabolism. (authors)

  20. Blood Sample Transportation by Pneumatic Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Lund, Merete E; Titlestad, Kjell

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pneumatic transportation systems (PTSs) are increasingly used for transportation of blood samples to the core laboratory. Many studies have investigated the impact of these systems on different types of analyses, but to elucidate whether PTSs in general are safe for transportation...... analysis, and the hemolysis index). CONCLUSIONS: Owing to their high degree of heterogeneity, the retrieved studies were unable to supply evidence for the safety of using PTSs for blood sample transportation. In consequence, laboratories need to measure and document the actual acceleration forces...

  1. Research results: preserving newborn blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michelle Huckaby; Scheurer, Michael E; Green, Robert C; McGuire, Amy L

    2012-11-07

    Retention and use, without explicit parental permission, of residual dried blood samples from newborn screening has generated public controversy over concerns about violations of family privacy rights and loss of parental autonomy. The public debate about this issue has included little discussion about the destruction of a potentially valuable public resource that can be used for research that may yield improvements in public health. The research community must advocate for policies and infrastructure that promote retention of residual dried blood samples and their use in biomedical research.

  2. A computational model of the fetal circulation to quantify blood redistribution in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Garcia-Canadilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding of its determinant factors and its quantitative relation with other aspects of haemodynamic remodeling has been limited. Computational models of the cardiovascular circulation have been proposed for exactly this purpose since they allow both for studying the contributions from isolated parameters as well as estimating properties that cannot be directly assessed from clinical measurements. Therefore, a computational model of the fetal circulation was developed, including the key elements related to fetal blood redistribution and using measured cardiac outflow profiles to allow personalization. The model was first calibrated using patient-specific Doppler data from a healthy fetus. Next, in order to understand the contributions of the main parameters determining blood redistribution, AoI and middle cerebral artery (MCA flow changes were studied by variation of cerebral and peripheral-placental resistances. Finally, to study how this affects an individual fetus, the model was fitted to three IUGR cases with different degrees of severity. In conclusion, the proposed computational model provides a good approximation to assess blood flow changes in the fetal circulation. The results support that while MCA flow is mainly determined by a fall in brain resistance, the AoI is influenced by a balance between increased peripheral-placental and decreased cerebral resistances. Personalizing the model allows for quantifying the balance between cerebral and peripheral

  3. DNA-methylation profiling of fetal tissues reveals marked epigenetic differences between chorionic and amniotic samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Eckmann-Scholz

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation are supposed to play a key role in fetal development. Here we have investigated fetal DNA-methylation levels of 27,578 CpG loci in 47 chorionic villi (CVS and 16 amniotic cell (AC samples. Methylation levels differed significantly between karyotypically normal AC and CVS for 2,014 genes. AC showed more extreme DNA-methylation levels of these genes than CVS and the differentially methylated genes are significantly enriched for processes characteristic for the different cell types sampled. Furthermore, we identified 404 genes differentially methylated in CVS with trisomy 21. These genes were significantly enriched for high CG dinucleotid (CpG content and developmental processes associated with Down syndrome. Our study points to major tissue-specific differences of fetal DNA-methylation and gives rise to the hypothesis that part of the Down syndrome phenotype is epigenetically programmed in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  4. Specific features of a neonatal period in infants following intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion for fetal hemolytic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives data on the characteristics of a neonatal period in infants following intrauterine blood transfusion for Rh-induced fetal hemolytic disease. It is shown that the early diagnosis and detection of the signs of fetal hemolytic disease, and intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion may prolong pregnancy, ensure the birth of a baby with normal anthropometric indicators, optimize his/her neonatal period and prognosis of severe hemolytic disease in the fetus and newborn.

  5. Non-gated fetal MRI of umbilical blood flow in an acardiac twin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, Nobuhiko [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Wada, Toru [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Kashima, Kyoko; Okada, Yoshiyuki [National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Unno, Nobuya [Nagano Children' s Hospital, Center for Perinatal Medicine, Nagano (Japan); Kitagawa, Michihiro [National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of Prenatal Medicine and Maternal Care, Tokyo (Japan); Chiba, Toshio [National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of Strategic Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2005-08-01

    Currently, the standard method of diagnosis of twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence is ultrasound imaging. The use of MRI for flow visualization may be a useful adjunct to US imaging for assessing the presence of retrograde blood flow in the acardiac fetus and/or umbilical artery. The technical challenge in fetal MRI flow imaging, however, is that fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring required for flow imaging is currently unavailable in the MRI scanner. A non-gated MRI flow imaging technique that requires no ECG monitoring was developed using the t-test to detect blood flow in 20 slices of phase-contrast MRI images randomly scanned at the same location over multiple cardiac cycles. A feasibility study was performed in a 24-week acardiac twin that showed no umbilical flow sonographically. Non-gated MRI flow images clearly indicated the presence of blood flow in the umbilical artery to the acardiac twin; however, there was no blood flow beyond the abdomen. This study leads us to conjecture that non-gated MRI flow imaging is sensitive in detecting low-range blood flow velocity and can be an adjunct to Doppler US imaging. (orig.)

  6. Non-gated fetal MRI of umbilical blood flow in an acardiac twin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Nobuhiko; Wada, Toru; Kashima, Kyoko; Okada, Yoshiyuki; Unno, Nobuya; Kitagawa, Michihiro; Chiba, Toshio

    2005-01-01

    Currently, the standard method of diagnosis of twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence is ultrasound imaging. The use of MRI for flow visualization may be a useful adjunct to US imaging for assessing the presence of retrograde blood flow in the acardiac fetus and/or umbilical artery. The technical challenge in fetal MRI flow imaging, however, is that fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring required for flow imaging is currently unavailable in the MRI scanner. A non-gated MRI flow imaging technique that requires no ECG monitoring was developed using the t-test to detect blood flow in 20 slices of phase-contrast MRI images randomly scanned at the same location over multiple cardiac cycles. A feasibility study was performed in a 24-week acardiac twin that showed no umbilical flow sonographically. Non-gated MRI flow images clearly indicated the presence of blood flow in the umbilical artery to the acardiac twin; however, there was no blood flow beyond the abdomen. This study leads us to conjecture that non-gated MRI flow imaging is sensitive in detecting low-range blood flow velocity and can be an adjunct to Doppler US imaging. (orig.)

  7. Improving blood sample logistics using simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pelle Morten Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Using simulation as an approach to display and improve internal logistics and handling at hospitals has great potential. This research will show how a simulation model can be used to evaluate changes made to two different cases of transportation of blood samples at a hospital, by evaluating...

  8. Fetal scalp pH testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal scalp blood; Scalp pH testing; Fetal blood testing - scalp; Fetal distress - fetal scalp testing; Labor - fetal scalp testing ... a baby. In these cases, testing the scalp pH can help the doctor decide whether the fetus ...

  9. RELATION OF FETAL BLOOD-GASES AND DATA FROM COMPUTER-ASSISTED ANALYSIS OF FETAL HEART-RATE PATTERNS IN SMALL FOR GESTATION FETUSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIBBERT, LSM; SNIJDERS, RJM; NICOLAIDES, KH; VISSER, GHA

    Fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring and computer-assisted analysis were performed immediately before cordocentesis in 25 severely small-for-gestational age fetuses. There were significant associations between FHR variation and both umbilical vein blood Po2 (r = 0.66) and pH (r = 0.69). However, the

  10. Acute Effects of Viral Exposure on P-Glycoprotein Function in the Mouse Fetal Blood-Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrrico Bloise

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Viral infection during pregnancy is known to affect the fetal brain. The toll-like receptor (TLR-3 is a pattern recognition receptor activated by viruses known to elicit adverse fetal neurological outcomes. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp efflux transporter protects the developing fetus by limiting the transfer of substrates across both the placenta and the fetal blood-brain barrier (BBB. As such, inhibition of P-gp at these blood-barrier sites may result in increased exposure of the developing fetus to environmental toxins and xenobiotics present in the maternal circulation. We hypothesized that viral exposure during pregnancy would impair P-gp function in the placenta and in the developing BBB. Here we investigated whether the TLR-3 ligand, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C, increased accumulation of one P-gp substrate in the fetus and in the developing fetal brain. Methods: Pregnant C57BL/6 mice (GD15.5 were injected (i.p. with PolyI:C (5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg or vehicle (saline. [3H]digoxin (P-gp substrate was injected (i.v. 3 or 23h post-treatment and animals were euthanized 1h later. Maternal plasma, ‘fetal-units’ (fetal membranes, amniotic fluid and whole fetus, and fetal brains were collected. Results: PolyI:C exposure (4h significantly elevated maternal plasma IL-6 (P<0.001 and increased [3H]digoxin accumulation in the fetal brain (P<0.05. In contrast, 24h after PolyI:C exposure, no effect on IL-6 or fetal brain accumulation of P-gp substrate was observed. Conclusion: Viral infection modeled by PolyI:C causes acute increases in fetal brain accumulation of P-gp substrates and by doing so, may increase fetal brain exposure to xenobiotics and environmental toxins present in the maternal circulation.

  11. Evaluation of the impact of density gradient centrifugation on fetal cell loss during enrichment from maternal peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emad, Ahmed; Drouin, Régen

    2014-09-01

    Physical separation by density gradient centrifugation (DGC) is usually used as an initial step of multistep enrichment protocols for purification of fetal cells (FCs) from maternal blood. Many protocols were designed but no single approach was efficient enough to provide noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. Procedures and methods were difficult to compare because of the nonuniformity of protocols among different groups. Recovery of FCs is jeopardized by their loss during the process of enrichment. Any loss of FCs must be minimized because of the multiplicative effect of each step of the enrichment process. The main objective of this study was to evaluate FC loss caused by DGC. Fetal cells were quantified in peripheral blood samples obtained from both euploid and aneuploid pregnancies before and after enrichment by buoyant DGC using Histopaque 1.119 g/mL. Density gradient centrifugation results in major loss of 60% to 80% of rare FCs, which may further complicate subsequent enrichment procedures. Eliminating aggressive manipulations can significantly minimize FC loss. Data obtained raise questions about the appropriateness of the DGC step for the enrichment of rare FCs and argues for the use of the alternative nonaggressive version of the procedure presented here or prioritizing other methods of enrichments. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Prenatal diagnosis and management of fetal goiter caused by maternal Grave's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, H A; Strickland, D

    1995-07-01

    We present a case of maternal Grave's disease associated with fetal goitrous hyperthyroidism. Fetal goiter was diagnosed by ultrasound and diagnosis of fetal hyperthyroidism was established by umbilical blood sampling. Fetus was successfully treated by increasing maternal propylthiouracil dosage. Fetal thyroid status was normal at birth. Role of sonography and umbilical blood sampling in management of fetal goiter complicated with maternal Grave's disease is discussed.

  13. Non-invasive fetal RHD genotyping for RhD negative women stratified into RHD gene deletion or variant groups: comparative accuracy using two blood collection tube types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Catherine A; Millard, Glenda M; O'Brien, Helen; Schoeman, Elizna M; Lopez, Genghis H; McGowan, Eunike C; Tremellen, Anne; Puddephatt, Rachel; Gaerty, Kirsten; Flower, Robert L; Hyett, Jonathan A; Gardener, Glenn J

    2017-12-01

    Non-invasive fetal RHD genotyping in Australia to reduce anti-D usage will need to accommodate both prolonged sample transport times and a diverse population demographic harbouring a range of RHD blood group gene variants. We compared RHD genotyping accuracy using two blood sample collection tube types for RhD negative women stratified into deleted RHD gene haplotype and RHD gene variant cohorts. Maternal blood samples were collected into EDTA and cell-free (cf)DNA stabilising (BCT) tubes from two sites, one interstate. Automated DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to amplify RHD exons 5 and 10 and CCR5. Automated analysis flagged maternal RHD variants, which were classified by genotyping. Time between sample collection and processing ranged from 2.9 to 187.5 hours. cfDNA levels increased with time for EDTA (range 0.03-138 ng/μL) but not BCT samples (0.01-3.24 ng/μL). For the 'deleted' cohort (n=647) all fetal RHD genotyping outcomes were concordant, excepting for one unexplained false negative EDTA sample. Matched against cord RhD serology, negative predictive values using BCT and EDTA tubes were 100% and 99.6%, respectively. Positive predictive values were 99.7% for both types. Overall 37.2% of subjects carried an RhD negative baby. The 'variant' cohort (n=15) included one novel RHD and eight hybrid or African pseudogene variants. Review for fetal RHD specific signals, based on one exon, showed three EDTA samples discordant to BCT, attributed to high maternal cfDNA levels arising from prolonged transport times. For the deleted haplotype cohort, fetal RHD genotyping accuracy was comparable for samples collected in EDTA and BCT tubes despite higher cfDNA levels in the EDTA tubes. Capacity to predict fetal RHD genotype for maternal carriers of hybrid or pseudogene RHD variants requires stringent control of cfDNA levels. We conclude that fetal RHD genotyping is feasible in the Australian environment to avoid unnecessary anti

  14. Development of a preparation and staining method for fetal erythroblasts in maternal blood : Simultaneous immunocytochemical staining and FISH analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, JC; Mesker, WE; Ouwerkerk-van Velzen, MCM; Knepfle, CFHM; Wiesmeijer, KC; van den Burg, MJM; Beverstock, GC; Bernini, LF; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Kanhai, HHH; Tanke, HJ

    1998-01-01

    In order to detect fetal nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in maternal blood, a protocol was developed which aimed at producing a reliable staining method for combined immunocytochemical and FISH analysis. The technique had to be suitable for eventual automated screening of slides. Chorionic villi

  15. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood samples... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...

  16. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of fetal scalp blood lactate measurement to reduce caesarean sections during labour: the Flamingo trial [ACTRN12611000172909].

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Christine E; Kane, Stefan C; Davey, Mary-Ann; Kamlin, C Omar; Brennecke, Shaun P

    2015-11-03

    The rate of caesarean sections around the world is rising each year, reaching epidemic proportions. Although many caesarean sections are performed for concerns about fetal welfare on the basis of abnormal cardiotocography, the majority of babies are shown to be well at birth, meaning that the operation, with its inherent short and long term risks, could have been avoided without compromising the baby's health. Previously, fetal scalp blood sampling for pH estimation was performed in the context of an abnormal cardiotocograph, to improve the identification of babies in need of expedited delivery. This test has largely been replaced by lactate measurement, although its validity is yet to be established through a randomised controlled trial. This study aims to test the hypothesis that the performance of fetal scalp blood lactate measurement for women in labour with an abnormal cardiotocograph will reduce the rate of birth by caesarean section from 38 % to 25 % (a 35 % relative reduction). Prospective unblinded randomised controlled trial conducted at a single tertiary perinatal centre. Women labouring with a singleton fetus in cephalic presentation at 37 or more weeks' gestation with ruptured membranes and with an abnormal cardiotocograph will be eligible. Participants will be randomised to one of two groups: fetal monitoring by cardiotocography alone, or cardiotocography augmented by fetal scalp blood lactate analysis. Decisions regarding the timing and mode of delivery will be made by the treating team, in accordance with hospital protocols. The primary study endpoint is caesarean section with secondary outcomes collected from maternal, fetal and neonatal clinical course and morbidities. A cost effectiveness analysis will also be performed. A sample size of 600 will provide 90 % power to detect the hypothesised difference in the proportion of women who give birth by caesarean section. This world-first trial is adequately powered to determine the impact of fetal

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis: comparative value of fetal blood and amniotic fluid using serological techniques and cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Pelloux, H; Muet, F; Racinet, C; Bost, M; Goullier-Fleuret, A; Ambroise-Thomas, P

    1997-09-01

    The prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is mainly based on biological tests performed on fetal blood and amniotic fluid. We studied the performance of neonatal diagnosis procedures and the results of fetal blood and amniotic fluid analysis. Of 127 women who contracted toxoplasmosis and underwent prenatal diagnosis, the postnatal serological follow-up was long enough to definitively diagnose congenital toxoplasmosis in 19 cases and to exclude it in 27 cases. Prenatal diagnosis allowed the detection of 94.7 per cent (18/19) of the infected fetuses. The sensitivities of tests in amniotic fluid and fetal blood were equivalent, 88.2 per cent (15/17) and 87.5 per cent (14/16), respectively. In fetal blood, biological techniques were positive in 12/16 cases and in 2/16 cases, serological tests were the only positive sign. The specificities of tests in amniotic fluid and fetal blood were respectively 100 per cent (23/23) and 86.3 per cent (19/22) (three false-positive serological results). These results, added to the lower morbidity of amniocentesis compared with cordocentesis, might lead to cordocentesis being abandoned in the prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  18. Fetal MSCs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Derived from extra embryonic tissues (amniotic fluid, placenta, cord blood, Wharton's Jelly) and fetal tissues (aborted fetuses). Derived from extra embryonic tissues (amniotic fluid, placenta, cord blood, Wharton's Jelly) and fetal tissues (aborted fetuses). In comparison ...

  19. Noninvasive determination of fetal rh blood group, D antigen status by cell-free DNA analysis in maternal plasma: experience in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Paulo Alexandre; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Martinhago, Ciro Dresch; Camano, Luiz; Daher, Silvia; Pares, David Baptista da Silva; Minett, Thais; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

    2010-11-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of Rh blood group, D antigen (RHD) fetal genotyping, using real-time polymerase chain reaction in maternal blood samples, in a racially mixed population. We performed a prospective study conducted between January 2006 and December 2007, analyzing fetal RHD genotype in the plasma of 102 D- pregnant women by real-time polymerase chain reaction, targeting exons 7 and 10 of the RHD gene. Genotype results were compared with cord blood phenotype obtained after delivery or before the first intrauterine transfusion when necessary. Most of the participants (75.5%) were under 28 weeks of pregnancy, and 87.5% had at least one relative of black ancestry. By combining amplification of two exons, the accuracy of genotyping was 98%, sensitivity was 100%, and specificity was 92%. The positive likelihood ratio was 12.5, and the negative likelihood ratio was 0. The two false-positive cases were confirmed to be pseudogene RHD by real-time polymerase chain reaction. There were no differences between the patients with positive or negative Coombs test ( P = 0.479). Determination of fetal RHD status in maternal peripheral blood was highly sensitive in this racially mixed population and was not influenced by the presence of antierythrocyte antibodies. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  20. Benzophenone-type UV filters in urine and blood from children, adults, and pregnant women in China: Partitioning between blood and urine as well as maternal and fetal cord blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tao; Sun, Hongwen; Qin, Xiaolei; Wu, Qian; Zhang, Yanfeng; Ma, Jing; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-01-01

    Limited information exists on the exposure of benzophenone (BP)-type UV filters (i.e., sunscreen compounds) in children, adults, and pregnant women in China. In this study, we determined the concentrations of five BP derivatives, BP-1, BP-2, BP-3, BP-8, and 4OH-BP in urine (n = 101) as well as paired specimens of blood and urine (n = 24 pairs) collected from adults; in matched maternal and fetal cord blood (n = 20 pairs) collected from pregnant women; and in blood collected from children (n = 10). 4OH-BP, BP-1, and BP-3 were found in 61%, 57%, and 25%, respectively, of the urine samples analyzed. 4OH-BP was found in all blood samples; BP-3 was found more frequently in the blood of adults (83%), followed, in decreasing order, by pregnant women (35%) and children (30%). Among all adults, urinary BP-3 concentrations were significantly (p < 0.001) positively correlated with urinary BP-1 concentrations. Nevertheless, no significant correlations were found between urinary concentrations of BP-3 (or BP-1) and 4OH-BP. Our results suggest that human exposure to BP-3 and BP-1 is related, whereas 4OH-BP originates from a discrete source. Females had higher urinary concentrations of BP-3, BP-1 and 4OH-BP than males. The distribution profiles of BP-1 and its parent compound (i.e., BP-3) in urine decreased with increasing age of donors (p < 0.05). The ratio of concentrations of BP-3 between blood and urine was 0.21 in adults, which was significantly lower than that for 4OH-BP (0.36). The concentration ratio of BPs between cord blood and maternal blood was higher for 4OH-BP (0.61) than that for BP-3 (0.48), which suggested greater trans-placental transfer potential of 4OH-BP. This is the first study to document the occurrence of BPs in paired urine and blood, and in matched maternal and fetal cord blood. Highlights: • Benzophenone (BP) concentrations are determined in paired blood and urine for the first time. • BP-3 and 4OH-BP partition preferentially into urine. • Cord to

  1. Benzophenone-type UV filters in urine and blood from children, adults, and pregnant women in China: Partitioning between blood and urine as well as maternal and fetal cord blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tao; Sun, Hongwen; Qin, Xiaolei [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wu, Qian [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Zhang, Yanfeng [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ma, Jing [Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, P.O. Box 144, Shanghai 200444 (China); Kannan, Kurunthachalam, E-mail: kkannan@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Limited information exists on the exposure of benzophenone (BP)-type UV filters (i.e., sunscreen compounds) in children, adults, and pregnant women in China. In this study, we determined the concentrations of five BP derivatives, BP-1, BP-2, BP-3, BP-8, and 4OH-BP in urine (n = 101) as well as paired specimens of blood and urine (n = 24 pairs) collected from adults; in matched maternal and fetal cord blood (n = 20 pairs) collected from pregnant women; and in blood collected from children (n = 10). 4OH-BP, BP-1, and BP-3 were found in 61%, 57%, and 25%, respectively, of the urine samples analyzed. 4OH-BP was found in all blood samples; BP-3 was found more frequently in the blood of adults (83%), followed, in decreasing order, by pregnant women (35%) and children (30%). Among all adults, urinary BP-3 concentrations were significantly (p < 0.001) positively correlated with urinary BP-1 concentrations. Nevertheless, no significant correlations were found between urinary concentrations of BP-3 (or BP-1) and 4OH-BP. Our results suggest that human exposure to BP-3 and BP-1 is related, whereas 4OH-BP originates from a discrete source. Females had higher urinary concentrations of BP-3, BP-1 and 4OH-BP than males. The distribution profiles of BP-1 and its parent compound (i.e., BP-3) in urine decreased with increasing age of donors (p < 0.05). The ratio of concentrations of BP-3 between blood and urine was 0.21 in adults, which was significantly lower than that for 4OH-BP (0.36). The concentration ratio of BPs between cord blood and maternal blood was higher for 4OH-BP (0.61) than that for BP-3 (0.48), which suggested greater trans-placental transfer potential of 4OH-BP. This is the first study to document the occurrence of BPs in paired urine and blood, and in matched maternal and fetal cord blood. Highlights: • Benzophenone (BP) concentrations are determined in paired blood and urine for the first time. • BP-3 and 4OH-BP partition preferentially into urine. • Cord to

  2. Blood donors and factors impacting the blood donation decision: motives for donating blood in Turkish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, Eda; Cengiz Seval, Guldane; Aktan, Zeynep; Ayli, Meltem; Palabiyikoglu, Refia

    2013-12-01

    Donations in Turkey are insufficient to cover the high transfusion needs arising from large numbers of thalassemia and sickle cell anemia patients and increasing demands for blood due to advanced surgery and cancer treatment. The most acceptable means to get blood is voluntary blood donation and the blood donor system in Turkey mostly depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The main aim of this study is to explore the motivations of Turkish voluntary blood donors toward blood donation and to determine predictors of blood donation motivation. A cross-sectional sample survey of active blood donors in Ankara, Turkey was conducted. The sample consisted of 189 male volunteer blood donor adults. Donors filled in a self-administered questionnaire including the measures of demographic information, empathetic concern, altruism, social responsibility and blood donation motivation questionnaire during donation. Factor analysis of Blood Donation Motivation Measure with varimax rotation revealed a three-factor solution named as "values and moral duty", "positive feelings and esteem" and "self-benefit and external reasons". The results with regression analyses showed that only social responsibility had an significant effect independent of age, income, and education on blood donation motivation. These result reflects that blood donation motivation not only linked to a high degree of altruistic reasons, but also to a combination of some self-regarding motives. Additionally, feelings of empathy or altruism may be less strong at the time the decision to help, other factors may have a larger influence on helping decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of hemoglobin adducts from acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide in paired mother/cord blood samples from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Stedingk, Hans; Vikström, Anna C; Rydberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge about fetal exposure to acrylamide/glycidamide from the maternal exposure through food is limited. Acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide are electrophiles and form adducts with hemoglobin (Hb), which could be used for in vivo dose measurement. In this study, a method.......20-0.73) for glycidamide, and 0.43 (range 0.17-1.34) for ethylene oxide. In vitro studies with acrylamide and glycidamide showed a lower (0.38-0.48) rate of adduct formation with Hb in cord blood than with Hb in maternal blood, which is compatible with the structural differences in fetal and adult Hb. Together...... for analysis of Hb adducts by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the adduct FIRE procedure, was applied to measurements of adducts from these compounds in maternal blood samples (n = 87) and umbilical cord blood samples (n = 219). The adduct levels from the three compounds, acrylamide, glycidamide...

  4. Association between maternal and fetal factors and quality of cord blood as a source of stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Dias Nunes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To comparatively analyze maternal and fetal factors and quality markers of blood samples in a public umbilical cord blood bank. Method: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study that revisited 458 records of donations from September 2009 to March 2013 at the Hemocentro de Santa Catarina. The means of markers were used to define cutoff points for the quality of cord blood. Results: Most donations came from women with ages between 18 and 29 years (62.8%, gestational age ≥ 40 weeks (55.2%, vaginal delivery (51.3%, primiparous (41.4%, and with male newborns (54.4% weighing between 3000 and 3499 g (41.8%. The volume of the dona- tions ranged from 71.6 to 275.2 mL, the total nucleated cell count ranged from 4.77 × 108 to 31.0 × 108 cells and CD34+ cells ranged from 0.05 to 1.23%. There were statistically significant differences in the volume with respect to gestation age > 38 weeks (p-value = 0.001, cesarean section (p-value 3500 g (p-value 3500 g (p-value < 0.001. There was no statistically significant difference between the variables and the percentage of CD34+ cells. Conclusions: Delivery route and birth weight influence the volume of cord blood and the total nucleated cell count. Gestational age influences only the volume of cord blood.

  5. Lifetime racism and blood pressure changes during pregnancy: implications for fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmert, Clayton J; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Srinivas, Sindhu K; Glynn, Laura M; Hobel, Calvin J; Sandman, Curt A

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that exposure to racism partially explains why African American women are 2 to 3 times more likely to deliver low birth weight and preterm infants. However, the physiological pathways by which racism exerts these effects are unclear. This study examined how lifetime exposure to racism, in combination with maternal blood pressure changes during pregnancy, was associated with fetal growth. African American pregnant women (n = 39) reported exposure to childhood and adulthood racism in several life domains (e.g., at school, at work), which were experienced directly or indirectly, meaning vicariously experienced when someone close to them was treated unfairly. A research nurse measured maternal blood pressure at 18 to 20 and 30 to 32 weeks gestation. Standardized questionnaires and trained interviewers assessed maternal demographics. Neonatal length of gestation and birth weight data were collected from medical charts. Childhood racism interacted with diastolic blood pressure to predict birth weight. Specifically, women with two or more domains of indirect exposure to racism in childhood and increases in diastolic blood pressure between 18 and 32 weeks had lower gestational age adjusted birth weight than the other women. A similar pattern was found for direct exposure to racism in childhood. Increases in diastolic blood pressure between the second and third trimesters predicted lower birth weight, but only when racism exposure in childhood (direct or indirect) was relatively high. Understanding pregnant African American women's lifetime direct and indirect experiences with racism in combination with prenatal blood pressure may improve identification of highest risk subgroups within this population. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Mean blood velocities and flow impedance in the fetal descending thoracic aortic and common carotid artery in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilardo, C M; Campbell, S; Nicolaides, K H

    1988-12-01

    A linear array pulsed Doppler duplex scanner was used to establish reference ranges for mean blood velocities and flow impedance (Pulsatility Index = PI) in the descending thoracic aorta and in the common carotid artery from 70 fetuses in normal pregnancies at 17-42 weeks' gestation. The aortic velocity increased with gestation up to 32 weeks, then remained constant until term, when it decreased. In contrast, the velocity in the common carotid artery increased throughout pregnancy. The PI in the aorta remained constant throughout pregnancy, while in the common carotid artery it fell steeply after 32 weeks. These results suggest that with advancing gestation there is a redistribution of the fetal circulation with decreased impedance to flow to the fetal brain, presumably to compensate for the progressive decrease in fetal blood PO2.

  7. Congener Production in Blood Samples During Preparation and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Søren; Nielsen, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone......Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone...

  8. Ten-minute umbilical cord occlusion markedly reduces cerebral blood flow and heat production in fetal sheep.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotgering, F.K.; Bishai, J.M.; Struijk, P.C.; Blood, A.B.; Hunter, C.J.; Power, G.G.; Longo, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study was undertaken to determine to what extent a 10-minute total umbilical cord occlusion affects autoregulation of cerebral blood flow and cerebral heat production in the fetus. STUDY DESIGN: In seven chronically catheterized late-gestation fetal sheep (127-131 days' gestation), we

  9. Non-invasive evaluation of blood oxygen saturation and hematocrit from T1 and T2 relaxation times: In-vitro validation in fetal blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Sharon; Seed, Mike; Sled, John G; Macgowan, Christopher K

    2017-12-01

    We propose an analytical method for calculating blood hematocrit (Hct) and oxygen saturation (sO 2 ) from measurements of its T 1 and T 2 relaxation times. Through algebraic substitution, established two-compartment relationships describing R1=T1-1 and R2=T2-1 as a function of hematocrit and oxygen saturation were rearranged to solve for Hct and sO 2 in terms of R 1 and R 2 . Resulting solutions for Hct and sO 2 are the roots of cubic polynomials. Feasibility of the method was established by comparison of Hct and sO 2 estimates obtained from relaxometry measurements (at 1.5 Tesla) in cord blood specimens to ground-truth values obtained by blood gas analysis. Monte Carlo simulations were also conducted to assess the effect of T 1 , T 2 measurement uncertainty on precision of Hct and sO 2 estimates. Good agreement was observed between estimated and ground-truth blood properties (bias = 0.01; 95% limits of agreement = ±0.13 for Hct and sO 2 ). Considering the combined effects of biological variability and random measurement noise, we estimate a typical uncertainty of ±0.1 for Hct, sO 2 estimates. Results demonstrate accurate quantification of Hct and sO 2 from T 1 and T 2 . This method is applicable to noninvasive fetal vessel oximetry-an application where existing oximetry devices are unusable or require risky blood-sampling procedures. Magn Reson Med 78:2352-2359, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Impact of blood sampling in very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, L P; Rasmussen, M K; Bjerregaard, L L

    2000-01-01

    ; the groups were then subdivided into critically ill or not. Diagnostic blood sampling and blood transfusion events were recorded. In total, 1905 blood samples (5,253 analysis) were performed, corresponding to 0.7 samples (1.9 analysis) per day per infant. The highest frequencies were found during the first....../kg. For the extremely preterm infants a significant correlation between sampled and transfused blood volume was found (mean 37.1 and 33.3 ml/kg, respectively, r = + 0.71, p = 0.0003). The most frequently requested analyses were glucose, sodium and potassium. Few blood gas analyses were requested (1.9/ infant). No blood...... losses attributable to excessive generous sampling were detected. The results show an acceptable low frequency of sampling and transfusion events for infants of GA 28-32 weeks. The study emphasizes the necessity of thorough reflection and monitoring of blood losses when ordering blood sampling...

  11. Fetal programming of blood pressure in a transgenic mouse model of altered intrauterine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiossi, Giuseppe; Costantine, Maged M; Tamayo, Esther; Hankins, Gary D V; Saade, George R; Longo, Monica

    2016-12-01

    Nitric oxide is essential in the vascular adaptation to pregnancy, as knockout mice lacking nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) have abnormal utero-placental perfusion, hypertension and growth restriction. We previously showed with ex vivo studies on transgenic animals lacking NOS3 that adverse intrauterine environment alters fetal programming of vascular reactivity in adult offspring. The current research shows that altered vascular reactivity correlates with higher blood pressure in vivo. Our data suggest that higher blood pressure depends on both genetic background (NOS3 deficiency) and uterine environment, becomes more evident with age (> 7 postnatal weeks), activity and stress, is gender specific (preponderant among males), and can be affected by the sleep-awake cycle. In utero or early postnatal life (programming is associated with abnormal blood pressure (BP) profiles in vivo. Mice lacking a functional endothelial nitric oxide synthase (KO, NOS3 -/- ) and wild-type mice (WT, NOS3 +/+ ) were crossbred to generate homozygous NOS3 -/- (KO), maternally derived heterozygous NOS3 +/- (KOM: mother with adverse intrauterine environment from NOS3 deficiency), paternally derived heterozygous NOS3 +/- (KOP: mother with normal in utero milieu) and NOS3 +/+ (WT) litters. BP was measured in vivo at 7, 14 and 21 weeks of age. After univariate analysis, multivariate population-averaged linear regression models were used to identify factors affecting BP. When compared to WT offspring, systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean (MAP) BP progressively increased from KOP, to KOM, and peaked among KO (P 7 postnatal weeks), higher locomotor activity, daytime recordings, and recent blood pressure transducer insertion (P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed that KOM had higher SBP than KOP (P < 0.05). Our study indicates that adverse intrauterine environment contributes, along with multiple other factors, to account for hypertension; moreover, in utero or early postnatal life may represent

  12. Repetitive reduction of uterine blood flow and its influence on fetal transcutaneous PO2 and cardiovascular variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, A; Künzel, W; Kastendieck, E

    1985-04-01

    The influence of repeated asphyxia on fetal transcutaneous PO2, relative local skin perfusion, heart rate, blood gases and pH was investigated in 15 experiments on 8 acutely instrumented sheep fetuses in utero between 125 and 145 days gestation (term is 147 days). Uterine blood flow was intermittently arrested (11 times within 33 min) by intra-vascular maternal aortic occlusion, exposing the fetuses to repeated episodes of asphyxia of 30 (n = 3), 60 (n = 9) and 90 (n = 3) s duration. The fetal transcutaneous PO2 fell as the duration of asphyxia (2 alpha less than 0.01), heart rate deceleration area (2 alpha less than 0.01) and acidaemia (2 alpha less than 0.01) increased. With decreasing skin perfusion, which was dependent on the duration of asphyxia (2 alpha less than 0.001) and acidaemia (2 alpha less than 0.001), a discrepancy developed between transcutaneous and arterial PO2. The increase (delta) in transcutaneous-arterial PO2 difference was related linearly to the duration of asphyxia (2 alpha less than 0.01), the mean haemoglobin oxygen saturation (2 alpha less than 0.001), acidaemia (2 alpha less than 0.001) and relative local skin flow (2 alpha less than 0.05). It was highest after severe episodes of asphyxia (90 s), when O2 saturation, skin blood flow and arterial blood pH values were low. Fetal heart rate deceleration area was only correlated with the cutaneous-arterial PO2 difference when the mean fetal haemoglobin oxygen saturation was below 35%. Thus, a discrimination of heart rate decelerations that are significant for the fetus seems to be possible, when associated with low transcutaneous PO2 values. We conclude that in the sheep fetus transcutaneous PO2 measurements during repeated asphyxial episodes yield information on fetal oxygenation and on the skin vasomotor response.

  13. Center for Fetal Monkey Gene Transfer for Heart, Lung, and Blood Diseases: An NHLBI Resource for the Gene Therapy Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarlatos, Sonia I.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The goals of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Center for Fetal Monkey Gene Transfer for Heart, Lung, and Blood Diseases are to conduct gene transfer studies in monkeys to evaluate safety and efficiency; and to provide NHLBI-supported investigators with expertise, resources, and services to actively pursue gene transfer approaches in monkeys in their research programs. NHLBI-supported projects span investigators throughout the United States and have addressed novel approaches to gene delivery; “proof-of-principle”; assessed whether findings in small-animal models could be demonstrated in a primate species; or were conducted to enable new grant or IND submissions. The Center for Fetal Monkey Gene Transfer for Heart, Lung, and Blood Diseases successfully aids the gene therapy community in addressing regulatory barriers, and serves as an effective vehicle for advancing the field. PMID:22974119

  14. Multidrug resistant Salmonellae isolated from blood culture samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the prevalence of R-plasmids in Salmonella sp. isolated from blood samples of suspected typhoid patients in Warri, Nigeria. A total of 136 blood samples were collected between May and December,2009 and screened for the presence of Salmonellae using standard blood culture techniques of which ...

  15. Combination syringe provides air-free blood samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Standard syringe and spinal needle are combined in unique manner to secure air-free blood samples. Combination syringe obtains air free samples because air bubbles become insignificant when samples greater than 1 cc are drawn.

  16. Cardiac function in offspring of women with diabetes using fetal ECG, umbilical cord blood pro-BNP, and neonatal interventricular septal thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halse, Karen; Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Amer-Wahlin, Isis

    2013-01-01

    were included prospectively. Umbilical cord blood pro-BNP concentrations were measured immediately after delivery (n=68) and echocardiography was performed in the newborns (n=75). Fetal ECG in combination with cardiotocography, that is STAN technology was also performed during labor. Results......Objective: Increased pro-brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations in newborns of diabetic women are associated with fetal stress, and fetal ECG changes often occur in labor in diabetic women. These findings could reflect a degree of fetal cardiomyopathy. We aimed to explore possible relations......: The concentration of umbilical cord blood pro-BNP was associated positively with the neonatal cardiac interventricular septal thickness (P=0.025) and associated negatively with umbilical cord blood pH levels (P=0.036). Fetal ECG changes (STAN events) were recorded in 22 of 53 labors where STAN was used (42...

  17. Fluid mechanics of blood flow in human fetal left ventricles based on patient-specific 4D ultrasound scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chang Quan; Lim, Guat Ling; Jamil, Muhammad; Mattar, Citra Nurfarah Zaini; Biswas, Arijit; Yap, Choon Hwai

    2016-10-01

    The mechanics of intracardiac blood flow and the epigenetic influence it exerts over the heart function have been the subjects of intense research lately. Fetal intracardiac flows are especially useful for gaining insights into the development of congenital heart diseases, but have not received due attention thus far, most likely because of technical difficulties in collecting sufficient intracardiac flow data in a safe manner. Here, we circumvent such obstacles by employing 4D STIC ultrasound scans to quantify the fetal heart motion in three normal 20-week fetuses, subsequently performing 3D computational fluid dynamics simulations on the left ventricles based on these patient-specific heart movements. Analysis of the simulation results shows that there are significant differences between fetal and adult ventricular blood flows which arise because of dissimilar heart morphology, E/A ratio, diastolic-systolic duration ratio, and heart rate. The formations of ventricular vortex rings were observed for both E- and A-wave in the flow simulations. These vortices had sufficient momentum to last until the end of diastole and were responsible for generating significant wall shear stresses on the myocardial endothelium, as well as helicity in systolic outflow. Based on findings from previous studies, we hypothesized that these vortex-induced flow properties play an important role in sustaining the efficiency of diastolic filling, systolic pumping, and cardiovascular flow in normal fetal hearts.

  18. High Levels of Sample-to-Sample Variation Confound Data Analysis for Non-Invasive Prenatal Screening of Fetal Microdeletions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjiao Chu

    Full Text Available Our goal was to test the hypothesis that inter-individual genomic copy number variation in control samples is a confounding factor in the non-invasive prenatal detection of fetal microdeletions via the sequence-based analysis of maternal plasma DNA. The database of genomic variants (DGV was used to determine the "Genomic Variants Frequency" (GVF for each 50kb region in the human genome. Whole genome sequencing of fifteen karyotypically normal maternal plasma and six CVS DNA controls samples was performed. The coefficient of variation of relative read counts (cv.RTC for these samples was determined for each 50kb region. Maternal plasma from two pregnancies affected with a chromosome 5p microdeletion was also sequenced, and analyzed using the GCREM algorithm. We found strong correlation between high variance in read counts and GVF amongst controls. Consequently we were unable to confirm the presence of the microdeletion via sequencing of maternal plasma samples obtained from two sequential affected pregnancies. Caution should be exercised when performing NIPT for microdeletions. It is vital to develop our understanding of the factors that impact the sensitivity and specificity of these approaches. In particular, benign copy number variation amongst controls is a major confounder, and their effects should be corrected bioinformatically.

  19. Studies of U in the blood of two population samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Olguin, M.E.; Romero, M.

    1986-01-01

    The present work, attempts to establish the statistical distribution of blood uranium in a population of the same community, similar in age and in living patterns. U traces were evaluated by a fission track technique both in whole blood and plasma samples. Dried samples were compressed into pellets and irradiated in a nuclear reactor using the external detector method. For U quantification, standard U samples were used. A comparative sampling of U content in blood samples from a group of radiation exposed workers and another of leukemia patients was also carried out. Results from the sampling groups are reported and discussed. (author)

  20. Droplet digital PCR combined with minisequencing, a new approach to analyze fetal DNA from maternal blood: application to the non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhant, Lucie; Anselem, Olivia; Fradin, Mélanie; Becker, Pierre Hadrien; Beugnet, Caroline; Deburgrave, Nathalie; Tafuri, Gilles; Letourneur, Franck; Goffinet, François; Allach El Khattabi, Laïla; Leturcq, France; Bienvenu, Thierry; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Nectoux, Juliette

    2016-05-01

    Achondroplasia is generally detected by abnormal prenatal ultrasound findings in the third trimester of pregnancy and then confirmed by molecular genetic testing of fetal genomic DNA obtained by aspiration of amniotic fluid. This invasive procedure presents a small but significant risk for both the fetus and mother. Therefore, non-invasive procedures using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma have been developed for the detection of the fetal achondroplasia mutations. To determine whether the fetus carries the de novo mis-sense genetic mutation at nucleotide 1138 in FGFR3 gene involved in >99% of achondroplasia cases, we developed two independent methods: digital-droplet PCR combined with minisequencing, which are very sensitive methods allowing detection of rare alleles. We collected 26 plasmatic samples from women carrying fetus at risk of achondroplasia and diagnosed to date a total of five affected fetuses in maternal blood. The sensitivity and specificity of our test are respectively 100% [95% confidence interval, 56.6-100%] and 100% [95% confidence interval, 84.5-100%]. This novel, original strategy for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of achondroplasia is suitable for implementation in routine clinical testing and allows considering extending the applications of these technologies in non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of many other monogenic diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Effects of blood sample handling procedures on measurable inflammatory markers in plasma, serum and dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, K.; Thorsen, P.; Vogel, I.

    2008-01-01

    of whole blood samples at low temperatures and rapid isolation of plasma and serum. Effects of different handling procedures for all markers studied are given. DBSS proved to be a robust and convenient way to handle samples for immunoassay analysis of inflammatory markers in whole blood Udgivelsesdato......The interests in monitoring inflammation by immunoassay determination of blood inflammatory markers call for information on the stability of these markers in relation to the handling of blood samples. The increasing use of stored biobank samples for such ventures that may have been collected...... and stored for other purposes, justifies the study hereof. Blood samples were stored for 0, 4, 24, and 48 h at 4 degrees C, room temperature (RT), and at 35 degrees C, respectively, before they were separated into serum or plasma and frozen. Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) were stored for 0, 1, 2, 3, 7...

  2. Bacterial Isolates from Blood Samples of Patients in University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial Isolates from Blood Samples of Patients in University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. ... The thioglychollate broth was sub cultured onto blood agar plate for anaerobic incubation, while the brain heart infusion broth was sub cultured onto chocolate, blood agar and McConkey agar for ...

  3. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  4. Neonatal blood gas sampling methods | Goenka | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is little published guidance that systematically evaluates the different methods of neonatal blood gas sampling, where each method has its individual benefits and risks. This review critically surveys the available evidence to generate a comparison between arterial and capillary blood gas sampling, focusing on their ...

  5. Fetal liver blood flow distribution: role in human developmental strategy to prioritize fat deposition versus brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith M Godfrey

    Full Text Available Among primates, human neonates have the largest brains but also the highest proportion of body fat. If placental nutrient supply is limited, the fetus faces a dilemma: should resources be allocated to brain growth, or to fat deposition for use as a potential postnatal energy reserve? We hypothesised that resolving this dilemma operates at the level of umbilical blood distribution entering the fetal liver. In 381 uncomplicated pregnancies in third trimester, we measured blood flow perfusing the fetal liver, or bypassing it via the ductus venosus to supply the brain and heart using ultrasound techniques. Across the range of fetal growth and independent of the mother's adiposity and parity, greater liver blood flow was associated with greater offspring fat mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, both in the infant at birth (r = 0.43, P<0.001 and at age 4 years (r = 0.16, P = 0.02. In contrast, smaller placentas less able to meet fetal demand for essential nutrients were associated with a brain-sparing flow pattern (r = 0.17, p = 0.02. This flow pattern was also associated with a higher degree of shunting through ductus venosus (P = 0.04. We propose that humans evolved a developmental strategy to prioritize nutrient allocation for prenatal fat deposition when the supply of conditionally essential nutrients requiring hepatic inter-conversion is limited, switching resource allocation to favour the brain if the supply of essential nutrients is limited. Facilitated placental transfer mechanisms for glucose and other nutrients evolved in environments less affluent than those now prevalent in developed populations, and we propose that in circumstances of maternal adiposity and nutrient excess these mechanisms now also lead to prenatal fat deposition. Prenatal developmental influences play important roles in the human propensity to deposit fat.

  6. Morphological evaluation of the cerebral blood vessels in the late gestation fetal sheep following hypoxia in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburamani, Ana A; Lo, Camden; Castillo-Melendez, Margie; Walker, David W

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia can significantly contribute to the development of permanent brain injury in the term neonate; however the response of cerebral blood vessels is not well understood. This study aimed to quantitatively measure vascular density and morphology using laminin immunohistochemistry as a marker of blood vessels, and determine the effects of a single, severe bout of hypoxia (umbilical cord occlusion, UCO) late in gestation on the developing cerebrovasculature in fetal sheep. At 124-126 days gestation singleton fetal sheep underwent surgery for implantation of catheters and placement of an inflatable cuff around the umbilical cord. A 10 min UCO or sham UCO (n=5) occurred at 132 days gestation. Fetal brains were collected at 24 h (n=5) or 48 h (n=4) after UCO for vascular density and morphology analysis of laminin immunohistochemistry. 48 h following a single, brief bout of severe hypoxia late in gestation decreased vascular density was seen in the caudate nucleus and no changes in vascular morphology occurred. However closer analysis revealed a significant shift in the frequency of smaller (≤10 μm) to larger (≤100 μm) perimeter blood vessels in periventricular and subcortical white matter. Close examination of the frequency distribution of vascular perimeter highlights that alterations in vascular morphology persist in the near term fetal brain for up to 48 h following a brief (10 min) hypoxia in white but not gray matter. These findings suggest that the near term brain may still be vulnerable to white matter injury following in utero hypoxia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Blood oxygen saturation determined by transmission spectrophotometry of hemolyzed blood samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Use of the Lambert-Beer Transmission Law determines blood oxygen saturation of hemolyzed blood samples. This simplified method is based on the difference in optical absorption properties of hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin.

  8. Fetal pancreatic beta-cell function in pregnancies complicated by maternal diabetes mellitus: relationship to fetal acidemia and macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvesen, D R; Brudenell, J M; Proudler, A J; Crook, D; Nicolaides, K H

    1993-05-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the relationship between fetal pancreatic beta-cell function and fetal acidemia and macrosomia in pregnancies complicated by maternal diabetes mellitus. A cross-sectional study at the Harris Birthright Research Centre for Fetal Medicine, London, was performed. In 32 pregnancies complicated by maternal diabetes mellitus cordocentesis was performed at 36 to 39 weeks' gestation for the measurement of umbilical venous blood pH, PO2, PCO2, lactate, and glucose concentration; plasma insulin immunoreactivity; and insulin/glucose ratio. A reference range for plasma insulin and insulin/glucose ratio was constructed by studying fetal blood samples from 80 women who did not have diabetes mellitus. Mean umbilical venous blood pH was significantly lower and plasma insulin immunoreactivity and insulin/glucose ratio were significantly higher than the appropriate normal mean for gestation. There were significant associations between (1) maternal and fetal blood glucose concentrations (r = 0.95, p < 0.0001), (2) fetal blood glucose and plasma insulin immunoreactivity (r = 0.57, p < 0.01), (3) fetal plasma insulin immunoreactivity and blood pH (r = -0.39, p < 0.05), and (4) fetal insulin/glucose ratio and degree of macrosomia (r = 0.76, p < 0.0001). Fetal pancreatic beta-cell hyperplasia is implicated in the pathogenesis of both fetal acidemia and macrosomia.

  9. The Impact of Umbilical Blood Flow Regulation on Fetal Development Differs in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetes is well-known to influence endothelial function. Endothelial function and blood flow regulation might be different in diabetic and non-diabetic pregnancy. However, the impact of umbilical blood flow regulation in gestational diabetes on fetal development is unknown so far. Methods: In a prospective birth cohort study, we analyzed the association of the umbilical artery Doppler indices (pulsatility index, resistance index and systolic/diastolic ratio and fetal size measures (biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur length and birth weight in 519 non-gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancies (controls and 226 gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancies in middle (day 160.32 ±16.29 of gestation and late (day 268.12 ±13.04 of gestation pregnancy. Results: Multiple regression analysis considering confounding factors (gestational day of ultrasound examination, offspring sex, maternal body mess index before pregnancy, maternal age at delivery, maternal body weight at delivery and maternal hypertension showed that umbilical artery Doppler indices (pulsatility index, resistance index and systolic/diastolic ratio were associated with fetal head circumference and femur length in middle gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancy but not in non-gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancy. Head circumference, biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference and femur length in mid gestation were smaller in fetus of gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancy versus non-gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancy. In contrast to non-gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancy in late gestation, umbilical artery Doppler indices in gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancy were not associated with ultrasound measures of fetal growth. Birth weight was slightly increased in gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancy as compared to non-gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancy. Conclusions: The impact of umbilical blood flow on fetal

  10. Extensive monitoring through multiple blood samples in professional soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Mette F; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    of the season. Leucocytes decreased with increased physical training. Lymphocytes decreased at the end of the season. VO2max decreased towards the end of the season whereas no significant changes were observed in the IE2 test.The regular blood samples from elite soccer players reveal significant changes......ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to make a comprehensive gathering of consecutive detailed blood samples from professional soccer players, and to analyze different blood parameters in relation to seasonal changes in training and match exposure.Blood samples were collected five times during a six...... months period and analyzed for 37 variables in 27 professional soccer players from the best Danish league. Additionally, players were tested for body composition, VO2max and physical performance by the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance sub-max test (IE2).Multiple variations in blood parameters occurred during...

  11. Mercury concentration in maternal serum, cord blood, and placenta in patients with amalgam dental fillings: effects on fetal biometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedir Findik, Rahime; Celik, Huseyin Tugrul; Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Tasci, Yasemin; Moraloglu, Ozlem; Karakaya, Jale

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to determine the extent to which mercury is transmitted from the mother to fetus via the umbilical cord in patients with amalgam dental fillings, and its effect on fetal biometric measurements. Twenty-eight patients as the study group with amalgam fillings, and 32 of them as the control group were included in this prospective case-control study. The mercury levels were measured in the maternal and cord venous sera, and the placental samples. Two groups were compared in terms of these and the fetal/neonatal biometric measurements. In the study group, the maternal and umbilical cord mercury levels were found to be significantly higher than those from the control group (p = 0.006 and p = 0.010, respectively). These high levels did not affect the fetal biometric measurements. The presence of high serum mercury levels in pregnant women with amalgam fillings is important, and warrants further long-term studies in order to investigate the fetal neurological effects as well.

  12. Are They Bloody Guilty? Blood Doping with Simulated Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Parker E.; Lees, Kelsey D.; Milanick, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    In this practice-based lab, students are provided with four Olympic athlete profiles and simulated blood and urine samples to test for illegal substances and blood-doping practices. Throughout the course of the lab, students design and conduct a testing procedure and use their results to determine which athletes won their medals fairly. All of the…

  13. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birck, Malene M; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken M; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-10-11

    Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical features of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e.g., the saphenous and jugular veins, each technique containing both advantages and disadvantages(4,5). Here, we present four different blood sampling techniques for either conscious or anaesthetized guinea pigs. The procedures are all non-terminal procedures provided that sample volumes and number of samples do not exceed guidelines for blood collection in laboratory animals(6). All the described methods have been thoroughly tested and applied for repeated in vivo blood sampling in studies within our research facility.

  14. Stability of carboxyhemoglobin in stored and mailed blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2008-02-01

    Elevated blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels are used to confirm a clinical diagnosis of exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and, in some instances, assess severity of poisoning. However, many hospital laboratories cannot measure COHb because they do not have CO-oximeters. In such instances, blood samples are often sent to outside laboratories or with a transported patient for measurement at the receiving hospital. This study was conducted to assess the stability of COHb in stored and mailed blood samples anticoagulated with heparin. Adult human blood was drawn into standard sample tubes anticoagulated with sodium heparin. Carbon monoxide gas was infused to raise the COHb level to 25% to 35%. Samples were then refrigerated or stored at room temperature, and serial COHb determinations were performed for 28 days. Additional samples were measured after being mailed locally or across the United States and back. No significant changes in COHb levels were seen in samples stored either in refrigeration or at room temperature over a period of 28 days or in samples shipped without refrigeration locally or across the United States. Carboxyhemoglobin levels in whole blood samples anticoagulated with heparin are stable with or without refrigeration for up to 4 weeks. If COHb measurement capability is not available, such samples may be shipped or transported with patients with confidence that the COHb level will be stable when measured at a later time.

  15. The pathology of facial vein blood sampling in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ket; Harslund, Jakob le Fèvre; Bollen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    vein blood sampling. Therefore, we investigated if this technique was associated with pathological changes of the jaw region. Methods: 43 NMRI mice were subjected to facial vein blood sampling by using the lancet method during 12 months, starting at the age of 8 weeks. The mice were restrained manually......, and the tissue of the jaw was evaluated. Results: In the 23 mice, from which blood samples had been taken 2 days previously, 5 mice had no signs of gross pathological changes, whereas 12 mice had signs of minimal local subcutaneous bleeding and 6 mice had moderate local subcutaneous bleeding. No additional gross...... pathological changes were observed. In the 23 mice, from which blood samples had been taken 4 weeks earlier, no hemorrhage or signs of scar tissue formation could be observed. Histological slides are currently being processed (HE staining) and will be evaluated and discussed....

  16. Presence of benzophenones commonly used as UV filters and absorbers in paired maternal and fetal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, M; Frederiksen, H; Sundberg, K

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated widespread exposure of humans to certain benzophenones commonly used as UV filters or UV absorbers; some of which have been demonstrated to have endocrine disrupting abilities. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether benzophenones present in pregnant women pass...... cordocentesis: and cord blood (n=23) obtained at delivery, both with paired maternal samples of serum and urine collected simultaneously, were used. All biological samples were analyzed by TurboFlow-liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry for seven different benzophenones. RESULTS: Benzophenone-1 (BP-1...

  17. Astronaut Joseph Kerwin takes blood sample from Astronaut Charles Conrad

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin (right), Skylab 2 science pilot and a doctor of medicine, takes a blood sample from Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Sylab 2 commander, as seen in this reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster in Earth orbit. The blood sampling was part of the Skylab Hematology and Immunology Experiment M110 series.

  18. DNA methylome profiling of maternal peripheral blood and placentas reveal potential fetal DNA markers for non-invasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yuqian; Zhang, Junyu; Li, Qiaoli; Zhou, Xinyao; Wang, Teng; Xu, Mingqing; Xia, Shihui; Xing, Qinghe; Wang, Lei; He, Lin; Zhao, Xinzhi

    2014-09-01

    Utilizing epigenetic (DNA methylation) differences to differentiate between maternal peripheral blood (PBL) and fetal (placental) DNA has been a promising strategy for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). However, the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) have yet to be fully ascertained. In the present study, we performed genome-wide comparative methylome analysis between maternal PBL and placental DNA from pregnancies of first trimester by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-Seq) and Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip assays. A total of 36 931 DMRs and 45 804 differentially methylated sites (DMSs) covering the whole genome, exclusive of the Y chromosome, were identified via MeDIP-Seq and Infinium 450k array, respectively, of which 3759 sites in 2188 regions were confirmed by both methods. Not only did we find the previously reported potential fetal DNA markers in our identified DMRs/DMSs but also we verified fully the identified DMRs/DMSs in the validation round by MassARRAY EpiTYPER. The screened potential fetal DNA markers may be used for NIPT on aneuploidies and other chromosomal diseases, such as cri du chat syndrome and velo-cardio-facial syndrome. In addition, these potential markers may have application in the early diagnosis of placental dysfunction, such as pre-eclampsia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Hemopoietic progenitor cell identification in fetal and adult blood Célula progenitora hamatopoética - identificação em sangue fetal e de adulto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aixa Müller

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemopoietic progenitor cells give rise to all cellular elements of the blood and are of importance as a potential source of cells used for correction of various pathological conditions. The main objective of this study was to identify and quantitative hemopoietic progenitor cell in antenatal fetal blood, in cord blood at the time of delivery and in adult blood, using monoclonal antibodies to surface markers and flow cytometry. CD34+ cells, most of them probably representing progenitor cells, were detected in prenatal fetal blood as early as the 17th week of gestation. The proportion of these cells showed a tendency to decrease as the pregnancy progressed. Within the population of CD34+ cells, a relatively low proportion (less than 1% were negative for the surface marker CD33 or HLA-Dr, indicating a population of primitive stem cells, i.e., progenitor cells no committed to a specific lineage. On the contrary, another group coexpressed CD33 or HLA-Dr, being more mature progenitor cells already committed to differentiate along a specific lineage. The percentage of CD34+ obtained in blood of adult patients after mobilization with chemotherapeutic agents and growth factors showed an average value of 2.7± 3.1%. The percentage of CD34+ in the apheresis products of various patients varied from 0.58 to 1.48. In some cases the cells were reinfused in the patient with good results. Our findings are in agreement with previous studies suggesting that CD34+ stem cells is a heterogeneous population, with each subset having variable degree o commitment to differentiate toward a specific cell lineage.As células progenitoras hematopoéticas são as responsáveis pela produção de todos os elementos do sangue e são as potenciais fontes de células usadas para o tratamento de várias condições patológicas. O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e quantificar as células progenitoras hematopoiéticas no sangue fetal do período pré-natal, no

  20. An automated blood sampling system used in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, L.; Bohm, C.; Kesselberg, M.

    1988-01-01

    Fast dynamic function studies with positron emission tomography (PET), has the potential to give accurate information of physiological functions of the brain. This capability can be realised if the positron camera system accurately quantitates the tracer uptake in the brain with sufficiently high efficiency and in sufficiently short time intervals. However, in addition, the tracer concentration in blood, as a function of time, must be accurately determined. This paper describes and evaluates an automated blood sampling system. Two different detector units are compared. The use of the automated blood sampling system is demonstrated in studies of cerebral blood flow, in studies of the blood-brain barrier transfer of amino acids and of the cerebral oxygen consumption. 5 refs.; 7 figs

  1. Fetal cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijboom, E.J.; Rijsterborgh, N.; Bom, N.

    1986-01-01

    Doppler echocardiography makes it possible to diagnose congenital heart disease in early pregnancy. It allows us to study the anatomical configuration of the fetal heart, and additionally, to evaluate the physiological conditions of the fetus. Evaluation of the direction, velocity, wave form pattern, and quantification of blood flow at the various sites in the fetal heart helps us to assess the characteristics of the fetal circulation and condition of the fetal heart. In order to use this technique in pathological situations, an initial study of the developing normal human fetal circulation was necessary. The authors studied 34 uncomplicated pregnancies by serial Doppler echocardiography. The studies were performed every 4 weeks from 16-weeks gestation to term. The pulsed Doppler sector scanner provided cardiac cross-sectional images, mitral and tricuspid blood velocities were obtained from apical four-chamber views. Angle corrected maximal and mean temporal velocities were calculated by digitizing the Doppler frequency shift recording on a graphic tablet computed with a minicomputer. The angle between the Doppler interrogation beam and the direction of blood flow was kept as small as possible in order to minimize the error

  2. Dried blood spots of pooled samples for RHD gene screening in blood donors of mixed ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Malta, M C F; Araujo, N C Fidélis; Vieira, O V Neves; Schmidt, L Cayres; Gonçalves, P de Cassia; Martins, M Lobato

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we present a strategy for RHD gene screening based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using dried blood spots of pooled samples. Molecular analysis of blood donors may be used to detect RHD variants among the presumed D-negative individuals. RHD genotyping using pooled samples is a strategy to test a large number of samples at a more reasonable cost. RHD gene detection based on real-time PCR using dried blood spots of pooled samples was standardised and used to evaluate 1550 Brazilian blood donors phenotyped as RhD-negative. Positive results were re-evaluated by retesting single samples using real-time PCR and conventional multiplex PCR to amplify five RHD-specific exons. PCR-sequence-specific primers was used to amplify RHDψ allele. We devised a strategy for RHD gene screening using dried blood spots of five pooled samples. Among 1550 serologically D-negative blood donors, 58 (3.74%) had the RHD gene. The non-functional RHDψ allele was detected in 47 samples (3.02%). The present method is a promising strategy to detect the RHD gene among presumed RhD-negative blood donors, particularly for populations with African ancestry. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  3. Blood sampling and hemolysis affect concentration of plasma metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    design and blood was collected after restraint via vein puncture 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding. Plasma samples were categorized as without or with minor or major hemolysis [clear (n = 218), yellow (n = 97), or red (n = 37)] upon centrifugation. Plasma NEFA (P ...Two experiments were carried out to reveal and quantify plasma metabolites that are sensitive to hemolysis and animal stress due to the blood sampling procedure (vein puncture vs. catheter). In Exp. 1, 48 sows were fed 4 diets either once (0800 h) or twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) in a crossover......, a subset of samples from 24 sows fed twice daily in Exp. 1 was combined with data obtained from 30 sows sampled using jugular vein catheters. All sows in Exp. 2 were fed twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) and blood samples collected repeatedly 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding (other conditions were...

  4. Suitability of small diagnostic peripheral-blood samples for cell-therapy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanou, Coralea; Papasavva, Panayiota; Zachariou, Myria; Patsali, Petros; Epitropou, Marilena; Ladas, Petros; Al-Abdulla, Ruba; Christou, Soteroulla; Antoniou, Michael N; Lederer, Carsten W; Kleanthous, Marina

    2017-02-01

    Primary hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are key components of cell-based therapies for blood disorders and are thus the authentic substrate for related research. We propose that ubiquitous small-volume diagnostic samples represent a readily available and as yet untapped resource of primary patient-derived cells for cell- and gene-therapy studies. In the present study we compare isolation and storage methods for HSPCs from normal and thalassemic small-volume blood samples, considering genotype, density-gradient versus lysis-based cell isolation and cryostorage media with different serum contents. Downstream analyses include viability, recovery, differentiation in semi-solid media and performance in liquid cultures and viral transductions. We demonstrate that HSPCs isolated either by ammonium-chloride potassium (ACK)-based lysis or by gradient isolation are suitable for functional analyses in clonogenic assays, high-level HSPC expansion and efficient lentiviral transduction. For cryostorage of cells, gradient isolation is superior to ACK lysis, and cryostorage in freezing media containing 50% fetal bovine serum demonstrated good results across all tested criteria. For assays on freshly isolated cells, ACK lysis performed similar to, and for thalassemic samples better than, gradient isolation, at a fraction of the cost and hands-on time. All isolation and storage methods show considerable variation within sample groups, but this is particularly acute for density gradient isolation of thalassemic samples. This study demonstrates the suitability of small-volume blood samples for storage and preclinical studies, opening up the research field of HSPC and gene therapy to any blood diagnostic laboratory with corresponding bioethics approval for experimental use of surplus material. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Preanalytic Factors Associated With Hemolysis in Emergency Department Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Michael P; Reineks, Edmunds Z; Schold, Jesse D; Hustey, Frederic M; Chamberlin, Janelle; Procop, Gary W

    2018-02-01

    - Hemolysis of emergency department blood samples is a common occurrence and has a negative impact on health care delivery. - To determine the effect of preanalytic factors (straight stick, intravenous [IV] line, needle gauge, location of blood draw, syringe versus vacuum tube use, tourniquet time) on hemolysis in emergency department blood samples. - A single 65 000-visit emergency department's electronic health record was queried for emergency department potassium results and blood draw technique for all samples obtained in calendar year 2014, resulting in 54 531 potassium results. Hemolyzed potassium was measured by hemolysis index. Comparisons of hemolysis by sampling technique were conducted by χ 2 tests. - Overall hemolysis was 10.0% (5439 of 54 531). Hemolysis among samples obtained from straight stick was significantly less than among those obtained with IV line (5.4% [33 of 615] versus 10.2% [4821 of 47 266], P < .001). For IV-placed blood draws, antecubital location had a statistically significant lower overall hemolysis compared with other locations: 7.4% (2117 of 28 786) versus 14.6% (2622 of 17 960) ( P < .001). For blood drawn with a syringe compared with vacuum, hemolysis was 13.0% (92 of 705) and 11.0% (1820 of 16 590), respectively ( P = .09, not significant). For large-gauge IV blood draws versus smaller-gauge IV lines, a lower hemolysis was also observed (9.3% [3882 of 41 571] versus 16.7% [939 of 5633]) ( P < .001). For IV-drawn blood with tourniquet time less than 60 seconds, hemolysis was 10.3% (1362 of 13 162) versus 13.9% for more than 60 seconds (532 of 3832), P < .001. - This study confirmed previous findings that straight stick and antecubital location are significantly associated with reduced hemolysis and indicated that shorter tourniquet time and larger gauge for IV draws were significantly associated with lower hemolysis.

  6. Lacking deoxygenation-linked interaction between cytoplasmic domain of band 3 and HbF from fetal red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Several of the red blood cell's metabolic and membrane functions display dependence on haemoglobin oxygenation. In adult human red cells, the increased glycolytic rate at low O2 tension results from binding of deoxygenated HbA at negatively charged, N-terminal, cytoplasmic domain of the memb......Aim: Several of the red blood cell's metabolic and membrane functions display dependence on haemoglobin oxygenation. In adult human red cells, the increased glycolytic rate at low O2 tension results from binding of deoxygenated HbA at negatively charged, N-terminal, cytoplasmic domain...... of the membrane protein band 3, which liberates glycolytic enzymes from this site. This study aims to investigate the role of fetal HbF (that has lower anion-binding capacity than HbA) in fetal red cells (that are subjected to low O2 tensions), and to elucidate possible linkage (e.g. via the major red cell...... membrane organising centre, band 3) between the individual oxygenation-linked reactions encountered in red cells. Methods: The interaction between band 3 and Hb is analysed in terms of the effects, measured under different conditions, of a 10-mer peptide that corresponds to the N-terminus of human band 3...

  7. Standardization and application of indirect ELISA for diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis in bovine blood serum samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Moraes Cunha de Mesquita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Mesquita S.M.C., Mansur F.J., Nascimento E.R., Barreto M.L. & Kimura L.M.S. [Standardization and application of indirect ELISA for diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis in bovine blood serum samples.] Padroniza- ção e aplicação de ELISA indireto para diagnóstico de Mycoplasma bovis em amostras de soro sanguíneo bovino. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:101-107, 2015. Universidade Federal Fluminense, Faculdade de Veteriná- ria, Rua Vital Brazil Filho, 64, Vital Brazil, Niterói, RJ 24230-340, Brasil. E-mail: samira.veterinaria@gmail.com International researchers presented results indicating frequent involvement of Mycoplasma spp. as a causative agent of mastitis in cattle, associating its presence with significant economic losses to farmers. Mycoplasma bovis is the species most reported and relevant, because it causes more severe disease. The level of antibodies against M. bovis remains high for several months and can be detected by ELISA. The aim of this work was to develop an indirect ELISA with whole cell antigen of M. bovis (strain Donetta PG 45 with subsequent application in bovine blood serum samples for detection of antibodies against M. bovis. The immunization of cows A and B by inoculating an immunogen against M. bovis to obtain hyperimmune blood serum was the first stage of this work, then the stage of standardization of ELISA was proceeded. The concentration of 2 mg of antigen/mL for coating the microtiter plates was decided by statistical analyses. The optical density value 0,2 was determined as the limit of reactivity discrimination of samples (the cut-off point. The hyperimmune blood serum sample of the cow A (collected 30 days after immunization was chosen as the positive control and, the fetal calf serum was chosen as negative control of the assay. In addition, the ideal optimal dilutions found for blood serum samples was 1:400 and for conjugate was 1:10.000 and the substrate used was the ortho

  8. Quantification of multiple elements in dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lise; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Hollergaard, Mads

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dried blood spots (DBS) is a unique matrix that offers advantages compared to conventional blood collection making it increasingly popular in large population studies. We here describe development and validation of a method to determine multiple elements in DBS. METHODS: Elements were...... in venous blood. Samples with different hematocrit were spotted onto filter paper to assess hematocrit effect. RESULTS: The established method was precise and accurate for measurement of most elements in DBS. There was a significant but relatively weak correlation between measurement of the elements Mg, K...

  9. The cell-free fetal DNA fraction in maternal blood decreases after physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Hatt, Lotte; Bach, Cathrine

    2014-01-01

    of cycling with a pulse-rate of 150 beats per minute. The concentrations of cffDNA (DYS14) and cfDNA (RASSF1A) were assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The fetal fraction decreased significantly in all participants after physical activity (p decrease varying......OBJECTIVE: If noninvasive prenatal testing using next generation sequencing is to be effective for pregnant women, a cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) fraction above 4% is essential unless the depth of sequencing is increased. This study's objective is to determine whether physical activity has...... from 1-17 percentage points. This was due to a significant increase in the concentration of cfDNA (p physical activity. CONCLUSION: When planning the timing of noninvasive...

  10. Determination of blood cell subtype concentrations from frozen whole blood samples using TruCount beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenskiöld, Cecilia; Mellgren, Karin; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Bemark, Mats

    2016-06-24

    In many studies it would be advantageous if blood samples could be collected and analyzed using flow cytometry at a later stage. Ideally, sample collection should involve little hands-on time, allow for long-term storage, and minimally influence the samples. Here we establish a flow cytometry antibody panel that can be used to determine granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocyte subset concentrations in fresh and frozen whole blood using TruCount technology. The panel can be used on fresh whole-blood samples as well as whole-blood samples that have been frozen after mixing with 10% DMSO. Concentrations in frozen and fresh sample is highly correlated both when frozen within 4 h and the day after collection (r ≥ 0.98), and the estimated concentration in frozen samples was between 91 and 94% of that in fresh samples for all cell types. Using this method whole-blood samples can be frozen using a simple preparation method, and stored long-term before accurate determination of cell concentration. This allows for standardized analysis of the samples at a reference laboratory in multi-center studies. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  11. Extensive monitoring through multiple blood samples in professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterberg, Mette F; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Krustrup, Peter; Storskov, Anders; Kjær, Michael; Andersen, Jesper L

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to make a comprehensive gathering of consecutive detailed blood samples from professional soccer players and to analyze different blood parameters in relation to seasonal changes in training and match exposure. Blood samples were collected 5 times during a 6-month period and analyzed for 37 variables in 27 professional soccer players from the best Danish league. Additionally, the players were tested for body composition, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and physical performance by the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance submax test (IE2). Multiple variations in blood parameters occurred during the observation period, including a decrease in hemoglobin and an increase in hematocrit as the competitive season progressed. Iron and transferrin were stable, whereas ferritin showed a decrease at the end of the season. The immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM increased in the period with basal physical training and at the end of the season. Leucocytes decreased with increased physical training. Lymphocytes decreased at the end of the season. The V[Combining Dot Above]O2max decreased toward the end of the season, whereas no significant changes were observed in the IE2 test. The regular blood samples from elite soccer players reveal significant changes that may be related to changes in training pattern, match exposure, or length of the match season. Especially the end of the preparation season and at the end of the competitive season seem to be time points were the blood-derived values indicate that the players are under excessive physical strain and might be more subjected to a possible overreaching-overtraining conditions. We suggest that regular analyses of blood samples could be an important initiative to optimize training adaptation, training load, and game participation, but sampling has to be regular, and a database has to be built for each individual player.

  12. Automated blood-sample handling in the clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godolphin, W; Bodtker, K; Uyeno, D; Goh, L O

    1990-09-01

    The only significant advances in blood-taking in 25 years have been the disposable needle and evacuated blood-drawing tube. With the exception of a few isolated barcode experiments, most sample-tracking is performed through handwritten or computer-printed labels. Attempts to reduce the hazards of centrifugation have resulted in air-tight lids or chambers, the use of which is time-consuming and cumbersome. Most commonly used clinical analyzers require serum or plasma, distributed into specialized containers, unique to that analyzer. Aliquots for different tests are prepared by handpouring or pipetting. Moderate to large clinical laboratories perform so many different tests that even multi-analyzers performing multiple analyses on a single sample may account for only a portion of all tests ordered for a patient. Thus several aliquots of each specimen are usually required. We have developed a proprietary serial centrifuge and blood-collection tube suitable for incorporation into an automated or robotic sample-handling system. The system we propose is (a) safe--avoids or prevents biological danger to the many "handlers" of blood; (b) small--minimizes the amount of sample taken and space required to adapt to the needs of satellite and mobile testing, and direct interfacing with analyzers; (c) serial--permits each sample to be treated according to its own "merits," optimizes throughput, and facilitates flexible automation; and (d) smart--ensures quality results through monitoring and intelligent control of patient identification, sample characteristics, and separation process.

  13. Adaptive control of theophylline therapy: importance of blood sampling times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Argenio, D Z; Khakmahd, K

    1983-10-01

    A two-observation protocol for estimating theophylline clearance during a constant-rate intravenous infusion is used to examine the importance of blood sampling schedules with regard to the information content of resulting concentration data. Guided by a theory for calculating maximally informative sample times, population simulations are used to assess the effect of specific sampling times on the precision of resulting clearance estimates and subsequent predictions of theophylline plasma concentrations. The simulations incorporated noise terms for intersubject variability, dosing errors, sample collection errors, and assay error. Clearance was estimated using Chiou's method, least squares, and a Bayesian estimation procedure. The results of these simulations suggest that clinically significant estimation and prediction errors may result when using the above two-point protocol for estimating theophylline clearance if the time separating the two blood samples is less than one population mean elimination half-life.

  14. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in Guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken Marie

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical features...... of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require...... repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e...

  15. Fetal Environment Is a Major Determinant of the Neonatal Blood Thyroxine Level: Results of a Large Dutch Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaveling-Soonawala, Nitash; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Mesfum, Ertirea T; Wiedijk, Brenda; Oomen, Petra; Finken, Martijn J J; Boomsma, Dorret I; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul

    2015-06-01

    The interindividual variability in thyroid hormone function parameters is much larger than the intraindividual variability, suggesting an individual set point for these parameters. There is evidence to suggest that environmental factors are more important than genetic factors in the determination of this individual set point. This study aimed to quantify the effect of genetic factors and (fetal) environment on the early postnatal blood T4 concentration. This was a classical twin study comparing the resemblance of neonatal screening blood T4 concentrations in 1264 mono- and 2566 dizygotic twin pairs retrieved from the population-based Netherlands Twin Register. Maximum-likelihood estimates of variance explained by genetic and environmental influences were obtained by structural equation modeling in data from full-term and preterm twin pairs. In full-term infants, genetic factors explained 40%/31% of the variance in standardized T4 scores in boys/girls, and shared environment, 27%/22%. The remaining variance of 33%/47% was due to environmental factors not shared by twins. For preterm infants, genetic factors explained 34%/0% of the variance in boys/girls, shared environment 31%/57%, and unique environment 35%/43%. In very preterm twins, no significant contribution of genetic factors was observed. Environment explains a large proportion of the resemblance of the postnatal blood T4 concentration in twin pairs. Because we analyzed neonatal screening results, the fetal environment is the most likely candidate for these environmental influences. Genetic influences on the T4 set point diminished with declining gestational age, especially in girls. This may be due to major environmental influences such as immaturity and nonthyroidal illness in very preterm infants.

  16. Effect of intrauterine resuscitation on umbilical cord blood parameters of full-term fetal distress and evaluation of neonatal nerve function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hao Luo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of intrauterine resuscitation on umbilical cord blood parameters of fullterm fetal distress and neonatal nerve function. Methods: A total of 74 cases of women who gave birth in Gynecology and Obstetrics Department of our hospital and had fetal distress during labor from February 2008 to October 2010 were selected for study and randomly divided into two groups, observation group received intrauterine resuscitation, control group received conventional treatment, and then contents of umbilical arterial blood gas parameters and cytokines of two groups of patients, contents of serum nerve injury molecules of neonates as well as neonatal asphyxia condition and nerve function were compared. Results: pH value, PO2 and HCO3- in umbilical cord blood of observation group were higher than those of control group, and PCO2 and BE absolute value were lower than those of control group; IL-6, IL-8 and IFN-γ contents in umbilical arterial blood and umbilical venous blood of observation group of patients were significantly lower than those of control group; 1 d, 3 d, 5 d and 7 d after birth, serum NSE and S-100 protein contents of observation group of neonates were significantly lower than those of control group; neonatal asphyxia condition and nerve function were better than those of control group. Conclusion: Intrauterine resuscitation can improve intrauterine fetal anoxia and reduce acidosis while reduce neonatal nerve function injury and prevent neonatal asphyxia, and it is an ideal method to treat full-term fetal distress.

  17. Improved sample capsule for determination of oxygen in hemolyzed blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Sample capsule for determination of oxygen in hemolyzed blood consists of a measured section of polytetrafluoroethylene tubing equipped at each end with a connector and a stopcock valve. This method eliminates errors from air entrainment or from the use of mercury or syringe lubricant.

  18. Whole blood solubilization and discoloration before LSC of yttrium samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Marina F.; Leonardo, Lucio

    2009-01-01

    Liquid scintillation counting of whole blood and animal tissues samples could be severely impaired owing to quenching by their compounds. The objective of this previous study is preparing one protocol of 90 Y measurement to apply in biodistribution and dosimetry studies of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with this isotope and other beta emitters in in vivo and ex vivo samples. The first parameters considered to choose a method were: the largest blood sample per collection (80μl-90μl), attending the collection limit of less than 7.5% of total circulating blood volume for in vivo samples. Other parameters were the use of EDTA and cyclohexydine as solubilization and lytic agents, HNO 3 and H 2 O 2 as mineralizing agents and NH 4 OH as neutralization agent. One samples batch was tested in a water bath under the lower temperature to prevent the volume lose of the ionic phase. Other samples batch was mineralized over a hot-plate at 120 deg C following the currently largest sample amounts processing procedure in our laboratory by using HNO 3 and H 2 O 2 . Results show the contribution of the blood fragments as quenching in the region A ( 3 and/or NH 4 OH in the hot-plate digestion. As expected, the measurements in the three spectral regions show the proteins and colored fragments were completely removed by the hot-plate digestion. The rate between efficiency and 90 Sr- 90 Y concentration had not significant differences in the range between 120 Bq and 1200 Bq. (author)

  19. Malaria PCR Detection in Cambodian Low-Transmission Settings: Dried Blood Spots versus Venous Blood Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canier, Lydie; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Eam, Rotha; Khean, Chanra; Loch, Kaknika; Ken, Malen; Pannus, Pieter; Bosman, Philippe; Stassijns, Jorgen; Nackers, Fabienne; Alipon, SweetC; Char, Meng Chuor; Chea, Nguon; Etienne, William; De Smet, Martin; Kindermans, Jean-Marie; Ménard, Didier

    2015-01-01

    In the context of malaria elimination, novel strategies for detecting very low malaria parasite densities in asymptomatic individuals are needed. One of the major limitations of the malaria parasite detection methods is the volume of blood samples being analyzed. The objective of the study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of a malaria polymerase chain reaction assay, from dried blood spots (DBS, 5 μL) and different volumes of venous blood (50 μL, 200 μL, and 1 mL). The limit of detection of the polymerase chain reaction assay, using calibrated Plasmodium falciparum blood dilutions, showed that venous blood samples (50 μL, 200 μL, 1 mL) combined with Qiagen extraction methods gave a similar threshold of 100 parasites/mL, ∼100-fold lower than 5 μL DBS/Instagene method. On a set of 521 field samples, collected in two different transmission areas in northern Cambodia, no significant difference in the proportion of parasite carriers, regardless of the methods used was found. The 5 μL DBS method missed 27% of the samples detected by the 1 mL venous blood method, but most of the missed parasites carriers were infected by Plasmodium vivax (84%). The remaining missed P. falciparum parasite carriers (N = 3) were only detected in high-transmission areas. PMID:25561570

  20. A new marker set that identifies fetal cells in maternal circulation with high specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatt, Lotte; Brinch, Marie; Singh, Ripudaman

    2014-01-01

    were used for testing the marker-set CD105 and CD141 for fetal cell enrichment. Fetal cell candidates were subsequently stained by a cocktail of cytokeratin antibodies, and the gender of the fetal cells was explored by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of the X and Y chromosomes. RESULTS: Fetal...... cell candidates could be detected in 91% of the samples, and in 85% of the samples, it was possible to obtain X and Y chromosomal FISH results for gender determination. The concordance between gender determined by FISH on fetal cells in maternal blood and gender found at birth reached 100% if three...

  1. Pressure passive cerebral blood flow and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier in experimental fetal asphyxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Lassen, N A; Tweed, W A

    1979-01-01

    reaching CBF values up to 6 times normal at normal MABP of about 60 to 70 mmHg, and severe ischemia reaching CBF values close to zero in large cortical areas at MABP of 30 mmHg. CVP remained essentially unchanged at 10--15 mmHg. The severe and prolonged asphyxia rendered the blood-brain barrier leaky......Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied in non-exteriorized near-term sheep fetuses using the radioactive microsphere technique. By partially occluding the umbilical vessels for a period of 1--1 1/2 hours a progressive and severe asphyxia with a final arterial pH of 6.90 was achieved. Varying...... the mean arterial blood pressure in the fetuses by blood withdrawal or infusion in this state, CBF was measured at different perfusion pressures (mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) minus central venous pressure (CVP)). A passive flow/pressure relationship--loss of autoregulation--was found, with hyperemia...

  2. The concentration of glucose, insuline, thyroxine (T4), triiodthyronine (T3) and gastrine in the maternal blood, in the umbilical cord blood of their outcomes in the neonatal blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osuch-Jaczewska, R.; Tomala, J.; Adamska, S.; Bielecka, W.; Mikulska, M.; Kalacinska, M.; Sieron, G.

    1978-01-01

    In the blood samples collected from the mothers, from the umbilical cord of their outcomes and from these neonates after 24 hours of life following estimations were performed collaterally: The concentration of insulin in 50 mothers and their fetuses and in 34 neonates, concentration of thyroxine (T 4 ) in 70 mothers and their fetuses and in 32 neonates, triiodothyronine binding coefficient (WWT 3 ) in 60 mothers and their fetuses and neonates, concentration of gastrine in 23 mothers and their fetuses and in 5 neonates. Besides that the concentration of glucose in total blood was established in 300 mothers - their fetuses and neonates. The insuline, WWT 3 and gastrine were estimated by radioimmune techniques and T 4 by radiocompetitive technique. The glucose concentration - with the aid of o-toluidine method. Basing on the results, the paper suggests that the fetus and the newborn represent independent unit in the aspect of regulation of the glucose concentration, secretion of insuline, T 3 , T 4 and gastrine, notwithstanding the possibility of transplacental passage of these hormones exists the correlation coefficients between the maternal and fetal blood concentrations of insuline, T 4 and WWT 3 were significant. The cord-blood glucose concentration exhibits a marked correlation with the maternal glicemia. Physiologic, asymptomatic hyperinsulinemia and hyperthyreosis and an increase of gastrine concentration demonstrate the presence, in the fetal and neonatal organisms, of certain compensatory-regulating mechanisms stimulating and inhibiting with feed-back properties, which guarantee the environmental homeostasis. (author)

  3. Prenatal diagnosis and treatment perspective of fetal hypothyroidism with goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulraze, A.; Kurdi, W.; Tulbah, M.; Niaz, F.A.

    2013-01-01

    We describe two cases of fetal goiter in women with no history of thyroid disease. Diagnosis of fetal goiter during antenatal care was made by ultrasound and MRI. Congenital hypothyroidism was confirmed by fetal blood sampling that was treated with weekly intra-amniotic injections of L-thyroxin. One fetus was initially treated with four weekly intra-amniotic injections of 200 mu gms of L-thyroxin, later increased to 400 mu gms. The other fetus was treated with only three weekly intraamniotic injections of 400 mu gms of L-thyroxin. Therapeutic response was monitored by repeated ultrasound and MRI along with fetal blood sampling. At birth, none of the babies had goiter and were put on oral thyroxin. Post-natal studies were suggestive of congenital hypothyroidism due to dyshormogenesis. No abnormality was detected at follow-up. These cases highlight the role of intra-amniotic thyroxine in management of fetal hypothyroidism with goiter. (author)

  4. Comparison of Proteins in Whole Blood and Dried Blood Spot Samples by LC/MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Andrew G.; Percy, Andrew J.; Hardie, Darryl B.; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2013-09-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling methods are desirable for population-wide biomarker screening programs because of their ease of collection, transportation, and storage. Immunoassays are traditionally used to quantify endogenous proteins in these samples but require a separate assay for each protein. Recently, targeted mass spectrometry (MS) has been proposed for generating highly-multiplexed assays for biomarker proteins in DBS samples. In this work, we report the first comparison of proteins in whole blood and DBS samples using an untargeted MS approach. The average number of proteins identified in undepleted whole blood and DBS samples by liquid chromatography (LC)/MS/MS was 223 and 253, respectively. Protein identification repeatability was between 77 %-92 % within replicates and the majority of these repeated proteins (70 %) were observed in both sample formats. Proteins exclusively identified in the liquid or dried fluid spot format were unbiased based on their molecular weight, isoelectric point, aliphatic index, and grand average hydrophobicity. In addition, we extended this comparison to include proteins in matching plasma and serum samples with their dried fluid spot equivalents, dried plasma spot (DPS), and dried serum spot (DSS). This work begins to define the accessibility of endogenous proteins in dried fluid spot samples for analysis by MS and is useful in evaluating the scope of this new approach.

  5. PP096. The effect of preterm placental calcification on uteroplacental blood flow, fetal growth and perinatal outcome in hypertension complicating pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K-H; Chen, L-R

    2012-07-01

    Placental calcification is often found in pregnancy at term and regarded as a physiological aging process. However, its earlier presence, before 36weeks' gestation (preterm placental calcification) may have an unusual pathological implication [1-3]. This prospective cohort study aims to examine the effect of preterm placental calcification on uteroplacental blood flow, fetal growth and perinatal death (including intrauterine fetal death and neonatal death) in hypertension complicating pregnancy. Monthly ultrasound was performed starting at 28weeks' gestation to establish the diagnosis of Grade III placental calcification, with measurement of fetal growth and uteroplacental blood flow by Doppler velocimetry on the umbilical vessels at 34weeks' gestation. Participants (n=105) were classified into Group A (n=44), a hypertensive study group with notable preterm placental calcification at 28-36weeks' gestation, and Group B (n=61), a hypertensive control group without notable preterm placental calcification prior to 36weeks' gestation. Women who smoked or drank alcohol during their pregnancies, had multifetal gestations, or major fetal congenital anomalies were all excluded. In addition to the measurement of S/D ratio, poor uteroplacental blood flow was confirmed by absent or reversed end-diastolic velocity (AREDV). Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the risks of AREDV, poor fetal growth (IUGR) and perinatal death by calculating odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted by maternal age, body mass index, economic status, co-morbidities (e.g. diabetes, marked anemia and placenta previa), type of delivery, and parity. In Group A, there is significant higher mean S/D ratio (3.80 Vs 3.28), as well as higher incidences of AREDV (28.2% Vs 10.5%), IUGR (45.5% Vs 26.2%), and perinatal deaths (20.5% Vs 6.6%) than those in Group B (pgrowth and perinatal death. Being an ominous sign, it may precede poor uteroplacental blood flow, fetal growth and

  6. Development of blood extraction system designed by female mosquito's blood sampling mechanism for bio-MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Naoyuki; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2005-02-01

    A compact and wearable wristwatch type Bio-MEMS such as a health monitoring system (HMS) to detect blood sugar level for diabetic patient, was newly developed. The HMS consists of (1) a indentation unit with a microneedle to generate the skin penetration force using a shape memory alloy(SMA) actuator, (2) a pumping unit using a bimorph PZT piezoelectric actuator to extract the blood and (3) a gold (Au) electrode as a biosensor immobilized GOx and attached to the gate electrode of MOSFET to detect the amount of Glucose in extracted blood. GOx was immobilized on a self assembled spacer combined with an Au electrode by the cross-link method using BSA as an additional bonding material. The device can extract blood in a few microliter through a painless microneedle with the negative pressure by deflection of the bimorph PZT piezoelectric actuator produced in the blood chamber, by the similar way the female mosquito extracts human blood with muscle motion to flex or relax. The performances of the liquid sampling ability of the pumping unit through a microneedle (3.8mm length, 100μm internal diameter) using the bimorph PZT piezoelectric microactuator were measured. The blood extraction micro device could extract human blood at the speed of 2μl/min, and it is enough volume to measure a glucose level, compared to the amount of commercial based glucose level monitor. The electrode embedded in the blood extraction device chamber could detect electrons generated by the hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide produced by the reaction between GOx and glucose in a few microliter extracted blood, using the constant electric current measurement system of the MOSFET type hybrid biosensor. The output voltage for the glucose diluted in the chamber was increased lineally with increase of the glucose concentration.

  7. On-chip sample preparation for complete blood count from raw blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, John; Wei, Yuan; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2015-03-21

    This paper describes a monolithic microfluidic device capable of on-chip sample preparation for both RBC and WBC measurements from whole blood. For the first time, on-chip sample processing (e.g. dilution, lysis, and filtration) and downstream single cell measurement were fully integrated to enable sample preparation and single cell analysis from whole blood on a single device. The device consists of two parallel sub-systems that perform sample processing and electrical measurements for measuring RBC and WBC parameters. The system provides a modular environment capable of handling solutions of various viscosities by adjusting the length of channels and precisely controlling mixing ratios, and features a new 'offset' filter configuration for increased duration of device operation. RBC concentration, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), cell distribution width, WBC concentration and differential are determined by electrical impedance measurement. Experimental characterization of over 100,000 cells from 10 patient blood samples validated the system's capability for performing on-chip raw blood processing and measurement.

  8. [DNA quantification of blood samples pre-treated with pyramidon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chuan-Hong; Zheng, Dao-Li; Ni, Rao-Zhi; Wang, Hai-Sheng; Ning, Ping; Fang, Hui; Liu, Yan

    2014-06-01

    To study DNA quantification and STR typing of samples pre-treated with pyramidon. The blood samples of ten unrelated individuals were anticoagulated in EDTA. The blood stains were made on the filter paper. The experimental groups were divided into six groups in accordance with the storage time, 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24h after pre-treated with pyramidon. DNA was extracted by three methods: magnetic bead-based extraction, QIAcube DNA purification method and Chelex-100 method. The quantification of DNA was made by fluorescent quantitative PCR. STR typing was detected by PCR-STR fluorescent technology. In the same DNA extraction method, the sample DNA decreased gradually with times after pre-treatment with pyramidon. In the same storage time, the DNA quantification in different extraction methods had significant differences. Sixteen loci DNA typing were detected in 90.56% of samples. Pyramidon pre-treatment could cause DNA degradation, but effective STR typing can be achieved within 24 h. The magnetic bead-based extraction is the best method for STR profiling and DNA extraction.

  9. Towards Early Biochemical screening for Fetal Aneupliody in the First Trimester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Objectives At Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, the first trimester screening has been performed with the blood sample taken as early as gestational week 7 since 2003. We hereby present the status for the screening program. Methods: The study includes singleton pregnancies with complete first......: Screening for fetal aneuploidy can be performed with good results with the blood sample taken as early as the 7th week of gestation. Taking the blood sample before the 10th gestational week showed a high detection rate of fetal trisomy 21, with no difference in the detection of fetal trisomy 18, 13...

  10. Association between whole-blood polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnant women and early fetal weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Katrine; Pedersen, L.; Bønnelykke, K.

    2013-01-01

    by multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses. Results:There was a wide range in maternal blood DHA, which varied from 1.8 to 6.9% depending on socioeconomic status, smoking and body mass index. After adjusting for these variables, no association was observed between any of the assessed PUFA components...

  11. Predictive value of cord blood bilirubins for hyperbilirubinemia in neonates at risk for maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility and hemolytic disease of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Kara L.; Roy, Devika; Molchan, Lauren; Bradley, Lyndsey; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Walker, Valencia P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the predictive ability of cord blood bilirubin (CBB) for hyperbilirubinemia in a population at risk for maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility and hemolytic disease of the newborn. Study Design This is a single center retrospective case-control study. Cases received phototherapy; controls did not. Cases were matched 1:3 to controls by gender and treating physician. Inclusion criteria included: ≥ 35 weeks gestation, CBB, and one or more total serum bilirubin (TSB) concentrations. The primary outcome was CBB. Secondary outcomes were a TSB > 75th percentile, length of stay, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. The prognostic ability of CBB for phototherapy and TSB > 75th percentile was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine predictors for phototherapy and TSB > 75th percentile. Result When compared to controls (n=142), cases (n=54) were more likely to have a positive Coombs’ test (82% vs. 41%, p 75th percentile (85% vs. 21%, p75th percentile was 0.87±0.03 (phemolytic disease of the newborn. PMID:26518407

  12. Predictive value of cord blood bilirubin for hyperbilirubinemia in neonates at risk for maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility and hemolytic disease of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, K; Roy, D; Molchan, L; Bradley, L; Grogan, T; Elashoff, D; Walker, V

    2015-01-01

    To determine the predictive ability of cord blood bilirubin (CBB) for hyperbilirubinemia in a population at risk for maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility and hemolytic disease of the newborn. This is a single center retrospective case-control study. Cases received phototherapy; controls did not. Cases were matched 1:3 to controls by gender and treating physician. Inclusion criteria included: ≥35 weeks gestation, CBB, and one or more total serum bilirubin (TSB) concentrations. The primary outcome was CBB. Secondary outcomes were a TSB >75th percentile, length of stay, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. The prognostic ability of CBB for phototherapy and TSB >75th percentile was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine predictors for phototherapy and TSB >75th percentile. When compared to controls (n = 142), cases (n = 54) were more likely to have a positive Coombs' test (82% vs. 41% , p 75th percentile (85% vs. 21% , p 75th percentile was 0.87 ± 0.03 (p hemolytic disease of the newborn.

  13. Fetal thrombocytopenia in pregnancies with fetal human parvovirus-B19 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Nir; Whittle, Wendy; Kelly, Edmond N; Windrim, Rory; Seaward, P Gareth R; Keunen, Johannes; Keating, Sarah; Ryan, Greg

    2015-06-01

    Fetal infection with human parvovirus B19 (hParvo-B19) has been associated mainly with fetal anemia, although data regarding other fetal hematologic effects are limited. Our aim was to assess the rate and consequences of severe fetal thrombocytopenia after fetal hParvo-B19 infection. We conducted a retrospective study of pregnancies that were complicated by fetal hParvo-B19 infection that underwent fetal blood sampling (FBS). The characteristics and outcomes of fetuses with severe thrombocytopenia (B19 infection. A total of 37 pregnancies that were affected by fetal hParvo-B19 infection were identified. Of the 29 cases that underwent FBS and had information regarding fetal platelets, 11 cases (38%) were complicated by severe fetal thrombocytopenia. Severely thrombocytopenic fetuses were characterized by a lower hemoglobin concentration (2.6 ± 0.9 g/dL vs 5.5 ± 3.6 g/dL; P = .01), lower reticulocyte count (9.1% ± 2.8% vs 17.3% ± 10.6%; P = .02), and lower gestational age at the time of diagnosis (21.4 ± 3.1 wk vs 23.6 ± 2.2 wk; P = .03). Both the fetal death rate within 48 hours of FBS (27.3% vs 0%; P = .02) and the risk of prematurity (100.0% vs 13.3%; P B19 infection, can be further worsened by IUT, and may be associated with an increased risk of procedure-related fetal loss after either FBS or IUT. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Biomedical Instruments for Fetal and Neonatal Surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfe, P; Scopesi, F; Serra, G

    2006-01-01

    Specialised instruments have been developed to aid the care of the fetus and the newborn baby. Miniature sensors using optical, electrical, chemical, mechanical and magnetic principles have been produced for capturing key measurands. These include temperature, pressure, flow and dimension, as well as several specific molecules such as glucose, oxygen and carbon dioxide. During pregnancy ultrasound imaging and blood flow techniques provide valuable information concerning fetal abnormalities, fetal growth, fetal breathing and fetal heart rate. Signal processing and pattern recognition can be useful for deriving indicators of fetal distress and clinical status, based on biopotentials as well as ultrasound signals. Fetal pH measurement is a critical requirement during labour and delivery. The intensive care of ill preterm babies involves provision of an optimal thermal environment and respiratory support. Monitoring of blood gas and acid-base status is essential, and this involves both blood sampling for in vitro analysis as well as the use of invasive or non-invasive sensors. For the future it will be vital that the technologies used are subjected to controlled trials to establish benefit or otherwise

  15. Blood transfusion sampling and a greater role for error recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Jane

    Patient identification errors in pre-transfusion blood sampling ('wrong blood in tube') are a persistent area of risk. These errors can potentially result in life-threatening complications. Current measures to address root causes of incidents and near misses have not resolved this problem and there is a need to look afresh at this issue. PROJECT PURPOSE: This narrative review of the literature is part of a wider system-improvement project designed to explore and seek a better understanding of the factors that contribute to transfusion sampling error as a prerequisite to examining current and potential approaches to error reduction. A broad search of the literature was undertaken to identify themes relating to this phenomenon. KEY DISCOVERIES: Two key themes emerged from the literature. Firstly, despite multi-faceted causes of error, the consistent element is the ever-present potential for human error. Secondly, current focus on error prevention could potentially be augmented with greater attention to error recovery. Exploring ways in which clinical staff taking samples might learn how to better identify their own errors is proposed to add to current safety initiatives.

  16. Sex identification of polar bears from blood and tissue samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Garner, G.W.; Cronin, M.A.; Patton, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) can be adversely affected by hunting and other human perturbations because of low population densities and low reproduction rates. The sustainable take of adult females may be as low as 1.5% of the population. Females and accompanying young are most vulnerable to hunting, and hunters have not consistently reported the sex composition of the harvest, therefore a method to confirm the sexes of polar bears harvested in Alaska is needed. Evidence of the sex of harvested animals is often not available, but blood or other tissue samples often are. We extracted DNA from tissue and blood samples, and amplified segments of zinc finger (ZFX and ZFY) genes from both X and Y chromosomes with the polymerase chain reaction. Digestion of amplified portions of the X chromosome with the restriction enzyme HaeIII resulted in subdivision of the original amplified segment into four smaller fragments. Digestion with HaeIII did not subdivide the original segment amplified from the Y chromosome. The differing fragment sizes produced patterns in gel electrophoresis that distinguished samples from male and female bears 100% of the time. This technique is applicable to the investigation of many wildlife management and research questions.

  17. High plasma corticosterone levels persist during frequent automatic blood sampling in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Adem, Bashir; Royo, Felix

    2005-01-01

    Corticosterone levels in blood may be used as a marker of stress in rodents, provided that the blood sampling procedure itself is non-stressful. Automated blood sampling equipment (Accusampler) allows blood sampling without any interference with the animal and might be useful as a tool for an on......-line measurement of stress markers in blood. However, the impact of the blood sampling itself on the corticosterone levels in blood is unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate whether the frequency of blood sampling influences the plasma corticosterone levels in male and female rats. During anaesthesia...... the importance of considering the frequency of blood withdrawal during automated blood sampling. This parameter may have an impact on the experimental results when using blood corticosterone levels as a stress marker, but also during any in vivo study where blood is collected, since high corticosterone levels...

  18. Fetal Serum Metabolites Are Independently Associated with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ping Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Gestational diabetes (GDM might be associated with alterations in the metabolomic profile of affected mothers and their offspring. Until now, there is a paucity of studies that investigated both, the maternal and the fetal serum metabolome in the setting of GDM. Mounting evidence suggests that the fetus is not just passively affected by gestational disease but might play an active role in it. Metabolomic studies performed in maternal blood and fetal cord blood could help to better discern distinct fetal from maternal disease interactions. Methods: At the time of birth, serum samples from mothers and newborns (cord blood samples were collected and screened for 163 metabolites utilizing tandem mass spectrometry. The cohort consisted of 412 mother/child pairs, including 31 cases of maternal GDM. Results: An initial non-adjusted analysis showed that eight metabolites in the maternal blood and 54 metabolites in the cord blood were associated with GDM. After Benjamini-Hochberg (BH procedure and adjustment for confounding factors for GDM, fetal phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C 32: 1 and proline still showed an independent association with GDM. Conclusions: This study found metabolites in cord blood which were associated with GDM, even after adjustment for established risk factors of GDM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating an independent association between fetal serum metabolites and maternal GDM. Our findings might suggest a potential effect of the fetal metabolome on maternal GDM.

  19. Middle cerebral artery flow velocity waveforms in fetal hypoxaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, S; Nicolaides, K H; Bower, S; Campbell, S

    1990-09-01

    In 81 small-for-gestational age fetuses (SGA) colour flow imaging was used to identify the fetal middle cerebral artery for subsequent pulsed Doppler studies. Impedence to flow (pulsatility index; PI) was significantly lower, and mean blood velocity was significantly higher, than the respective reference ranges with gestation. Fetal blood sampling by cordocentesis was performed in all SGA fetuses and a significant quadratic relation was found between fetal hypoxaemia and the degree of reduction in the PI of FVWs from the fetal middle cerebral artery. Thus, maximum reduction in PI is reached when the fetal PO2 is 2-4 SD below the normal mean for gestation. When the oxygen deficit is greater there is a tendency for the PI to rise, and this presumably reflects the development of brain oedema.

  20. Thyroxine (T4) radioimmunoassay using filter paper dried blood sample: an attempt for screening of neonates for hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afroz, S.; Hussain, R.; Ahmed, K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a sensitive but simple and less expensive method suitable for estimation of thyroxine (T 4 ) level. Deficiency of iodine during fetal life results in neonatal hypothyroidism and critinism. Frequency of neonatal hypothyroidism is 1 in 5000 to 7000 in countries having iodine deficiency. It is therefore important to diagnose the neonatal hypothyroidism as soon as possible after birth. The estimation of thyroxine has been found to the a reliable index for diagnosis of hypothyroidism and has long been used for screening of neonatal hypothyroidism. In the present study, instead of serum sample, a 6 mm disc of filter paper containing dried blood sample was used. The test was carried out in the laboratory with 40 samples. As compared to the sensitivity of serum sample technique which is 15.19 n mol/L, the filter paper technique has the sensitivity of 17.23 n mol/L. The work revealed that the T 4 concentration do not depend upon the amount of blood on the filter paper. Effect of temperature on filter paper disc was evaluated at 4 o c, at 25 o c and at 37 o c. Results obtained showed significant variation and the best result was obtained for the sample kept at 4 o c. The method is simple, rapid, less expensive and needs a small amount of blood and is, therefore, a useful technique for mass screening of neonatal hypothyroidism. 6 refs., 4 tables (author)

  1. Trace-element measurement in human blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamidian, M.R.; Ebrahimi-Fakhar, F.

    1992-01-01

    It is conceivable that some essential elements such as zinc, iron, calcium, copper, phosphorus, selenium, etc., have a major impact on biological and metabolical functions in the human body. The concentration of these elements is normally very minute and changes within a naturally set tolerance. The accurate measurement of these elements in biological samples, such as in blood, is one of the objectives of medical physics in diagnosis. There are many sophisticated methods to measure the accurate amount of each element in biological samples. The methods used in this project are a combination of proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). The PIXE and NAA are fast and reliable techniques for multielement analysis at the level of parts per million and less

  2. Ambulatory blood pressure and blood lipids in a multiethnic sample of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Gary D; Van Berge-Landry, Helene M; Morrison, Lynn A; Reza, Angela M; Nicolaisen, Nicola M; Bindon, James R; Brown, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP), elevated serum cholesterol, and aberrant lipoprotein fractions (low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and high levels of low-density lipoprotein fractions and triglycerides) have all been used as measures that assess the "metabolic syndrome" and more recently in indexes of allostatic load, which are designed to assess the degree of integrated metabolic pathology. While there are ample data regarding the interrelationships of these measures in various pathophysiological settings, there are limited data regarding the interrelationship of ambulatory BP (ABP) and blood lipids in healthy subjects. The present study evaluates ABP-blood lipid relationships in a multiethnic sample of healthy adults. The subjects were 37 men (age = 40.9 ± 10.7 years) and 42 women (age = 35.8 ± 10.4 years) who were employed as hotel workers in Hawaii. Each wore an ABP monitor for one midweek workday and had pressures averaged in three daily microenvironments (work, home, and during sleep). They also had fasting blood samples taken for lipid profiling. Multivariate analysis of covariance shows that there was a strong inverse relationship between HDL and both systolic (P act as a group in healthy adults but that higher HDL is associated with lower BP. This latter finding is consistent with research that shows that HDL promotes vasodilation via its effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparative Analysis of the Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells from Placenta, Cord Blood, and Fetal Liver, Based on Their Immunophenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Kuchma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the characteristics of human hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs with the CD34+CD45lowSSClow phenotype from full-term placental tissue (FTPT as compared to cord blood (CB and fetal liver (FL cells. We demonstrated the presence of cell subpopulations at various stages of the differentiation with such immunophenotypes as CD34+/lowCD45low/-, CD34++CD45low/-, CD34+++CD45low/-, CD34+/lowCD45hi, and CD34++CD45hi in both first trimester placental tissue (FiTPT and FTPT which implies their higher phenotypic heterogeneity compared to CB. HPCs of the FTPT origin expressed the CD90 antigen at a higher level compared to its expression by the CB HPCs and the CD133 antigen expression being at the same level in both cases. The HPCs compartment of FTPT versus CB contained higher number of myeloid and erythroid committed cells but lower number of myeloid and lymphoid ones compared to FL HPCs. HPCs of the FTPT and CB origin possess similar potentials for the multilineage differentiation in vitro and similar ratios of myeloid and erythroid progenitors among the committed cells. This observation suggests that the active hematopoiesis occurs in the FTPT. We obtained viable HPCs from cryopreserved placental tissue fragments allowing us to develop procedures for banking and testing of placenta-derived HPCs for clinical use.

  4. On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasas, Alex; Ramalhinho, Helena; Pessoa, Luciana S; Resende, Mauricio G C; Caballé, Imma; Barba, Nuria

    2014-01-09

    Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem.

  5. Venepuncture versus heel lance for blood sampling in term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vibhuti S; Ohlsson, Arne

    2011-10-05

    Heel lance has been the conventional method of blood sampling in neonates for screening tests. Neonates undergoing heel lance experience pain which cannot be completely alleviated. To determine whether venepuncture or heel lance is less painful and more effective for blood sampling in term neonates. Randomized or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing pain response to venepuncture versus heel lance were identified by searching the Cochrane Central Regsiter of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and clinical trials registries in May 2011. Trials comparing pain response to venepuncture versus heel lance with or with out the use of a sweet tasting solution as a co-intervention in term neonates. Outcomes included pain response to venepuncture versus heel lance with or without the use of a sweet tasting solution using validated pain measures, the need of repeat sampling and cry characteristics. Analyses included typical relative risk (RR), risk difference (RD), number needed to treat (NNT), weighted mean difference (WMD) and standardized mean difference (SMD) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Between study heterogeneity was reported including the I squared (I(2)) test. Six studies (n = 478) of variable quality were included. A composite outcome of Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), Neonatal Facial Action Coding System (NFCS) and/or Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score was reported in 288 infants, who did not receive a sweet tasting solution. Meta-analysis showed a significant reduction in the venepuncture versus the heel lance group (SMD -0.76, 95% CI -1.00 to -0.52; I(2) = 0%). When a sweet tasting solution was provided the SMD remained significant favouring the venepuncture group (SMD - 0.38, 95% CI -0.69 to -0.07). The typical RD for requiring more than one skin puncture for venepuncture versus heel lance (reported in 4 studies; n = 254) was -0.34 (95% CI -0.43 to -0.25; I(2) = 97%). The NNT to avoid one repeat skin

  6. Maternal allopurinol during fetal hypoxia lowers cord blood levels of the brain injury marker S-100B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrance, Helen L.; Benders, Manon J.; Derks, Jan B.; Rademaker, Carin M. A.; Bos, Arie F.; Van Den Berg, Paul; Longini, Mariangela; Buonocore, Giuseppe; Venegas, MariaElena; Baquero, Hernando; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Van Bel, Frank

    BACKGROUND: Fetal hypoxia is an important determinant of neonatal encephalopathy caused by birth asphyxia, in which hypoxia-induced free radical formation plays an important role. HYPOTHESIS: Maternal treatment with allopurinol, will cross the placenta during fetal hypoxia (rimary outcome) and

  7. The relationship between human placental morphometry and ultrasonic measurements of utero-placental blood flow and fetal growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, Nastaran; Sovio, U.; Mayo, R. Plitman; Charnock-Jones, D. S.; Smith, G. C. S.

    Introduction: Ultrasonic fetal biometry and arterial Doppler flow velocimetry are widely used to assess the risk of pregnancy complications. There is an extensive literature on the relationship between pregnancy outcomes and the size and shape of the placenta. However, ultrasonic fetal biometry and

  8. Heart-rate mediated blood pressure control in preterm fetal sheep under normal and hypoxic-ischemic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwanenburg, A.A.; Jellema, R.K.; Jennekens, W.; Ophelders, D.; Vullings, R.; Hunnik, van A.; Pul, van C.; Bennet, L.; Delhaas, T.; Kramer, B.W.; Andriessen, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The understanding of hypoxemia-induced changes in baroreflex function is limited and may be studied in a fetal sheep experiment before, during, and after standardized hypoxic conditions. Methods: Preterm fetal lambs were instrumented at 102 d gestation (term: 146 d). At 106 d,

  9. Characteristics of a new fully programmable blood sampling device for monitoring blood radioactivity during PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boellaard, R.; Lingen, A. van; Balen, S.C.M. van; Hoving, B.G.; Lammertsma, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    The first performance tests of a new fully programmable blood sampling device for monitoring blood radioactivity during positron emission tomography (PET) are described. Blood is withdrawn through 1-mm internal diameter tubing using an infusion pump which can be operated at rates varying from 0 to 600 ml/h. Activity in blood is measured by a 6-cm-thick bismuth germanate crystal connected to a photomultiplier tube and multichannel analyser (MCA) which are positioned within 6 cm lead shielding. Positioning of the tubing is an exact and simple procedure. The minimal readout time of the MCA is 1 s. Two independent energy windows can be set. Operation of the pump and MCA is fully controlled by a PC, i.e. sampling time, interval time and pump rate can be varied at any time during the PET scan by user-defined scripts. A number of characteristics of the new system were studied, such as sensitivity, dead time, linearity, effect of background radiation and pump rate as a function of input pressure. In addition, dispersion was measured as a function of pump rate. Finally, first clinical results were compared with manual samples. The sensitivity equalled 0.7 and 0.2 cps/Bq for 511- and 1022-keV 30% energy windows, respectively, and the system dead time was 500 ns. The system remained linear within 2% with activity concentrations up to 2.5 MBq/cc. Short-term reproducibility was better than 3% for a 1-h period. Long-term reproducibility was about 5% (1SD), which was mainly caused by variation in the diameter of the tubing. If the device was positioned in such a way that maximum shielding was directed towards the patient, the effects of background radiation from the patient on the measured activity concentration for clinically relevant conditions was minimal ( -1 were observed for pump rates higher than 300 ml/h, indicating that the system dispersion is small. Clinical data showed an excellent agreement to within 3% (1SD) between the results obtained with the new system and

  10. Feasibility of quantification of the distribution of blood flow in the normal human fetal circulation using CMR: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seed Mike

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present the first phase contrast (PC cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR measurements of the distribution of blood flow in twelve late gestation human fetuses. These were obtained using a retrospective gating technique known as metric optimised gating (MOG. Methods A validation experiment was performed in five adult volunteers where conventional cardiac gating was compared with MOG. Linear regression and Bland Altman plots were used to compare MOG with the gold standard of conventional gating. Measurements using MOG were then made in twelve normal fetuses at a median gestational age of 37 weeks (range 30–39 weeks. Flow was measured in the major fetal vessels and indexed to the fetal weight. Results There was good correlation between the conventional gated and MOG measurements in the adult validation experiment (R=0.96. Mean flows in ml/min/kg with standard deviations in the major fetal vessels were as follows: combined ventricular output (CVO 540±101, main pulmonary artery (MPA 327±68, ascending aorta (AAo 198±38, superior vena cava (SVC 147±46, ductus arteriosus (DA 220±39,pulmonary blood flow (PBF 106±59,descending aorta (DAo 273±85, umbilical vein (UV 160±62, foramen ovale (FO107±54. Results expressed as mean percentages of the CVO with standard deviations were as follows: MPA 60±4, AAo37±4, SVC 28±7, DA 41±8, PBF 19±10, DAo50±12, UV 30±9, FO 21±12. Conclusion This study demonstrates how PC CMR with MOG is a feasible technique for measuring the distribution of the normal human fetal circulation in late pregnancy. Our preliminary results are in keeping with findings from previous experimental work in fetal lambs.

  11. Feasibility of quantification of the distribution of blood flow in the normal human fetal circulation using CMR: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed, Mike; van Amerom, Joshua F P; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Al Nafisi, Bahiyah; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Jaeggi, Edgar; Jansz, Michael S; Macgowan, Christopher K

    2012-11-26

    We present the first phase contrast (PC) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) measurements of the distribution of blood flow in twelve late gestation human fetuses. These were obtained using a retrospective gating technique known as metric optimised gating (MOG). A validation experiment was performed in five adult volunteers where conventional cardiac gating was compared with MOG. Linear regression and Bland Altman plots were used to compare MOG with the gold standard of conventional gating. Measurements using MOG were then made in twelve normal fetuses at a median gestational age of 37 weeks (range 30-39 weeks). Flow was measured in the major fetal vessels and indexed to the fetal weight. There was good correlation between the conventional gated and MOG measurements in the adult validation experiment (R=0.96). Mean flows in ml/min/kg with standard deviations in the major fetal vessels were as follows: combined ventricular output (CVO) 540 ± 101, main pulmonary artery (MPA) 327 ± 68, ascending aorta (AAo) 198 ± 38, superior vena cava (SVC) 147 ± 46, ductus arteriosus (DA) 220 ± 39,pulmonary blood flow (PBF) 106 ± 59,descending aorta (DAo) 273 ± 85, umbilical vein (UV) 160 ± 62, foramen ovale (FO)107 ± 54. Results expressed as mean percentages of the CVO with standard deviations were as follows: MPA 60 ± 4, AAo37 ± 4, SVC 28 ± 7, DA 41 ± 8, PBF 19 ± 10, DAo50 ± 12, UV 30 ± 9, FO 21 ± 12. This study demonstrates how PC CMR with MOG is a feasible technique for measuring the distribution of the normal human fetal circulation in late pregnancy. Our preliminary results are in keeping with findings from previous experimental work in fetal lambs.

  12. Trace of heavy metals in maternal and umbilical cord blood samples in association with birth outcomes in Baghdad, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan Rhaif Al-Sahlanee, Mayyadah; Maizan Ramli, Ramzun; Abdul Hassan Ali, Miami; Fadhil Tawfiq, Nada; Zahirah Noor Azman, Nurul; Abdul Rahman, Azhar; Shahrim Mustafa, Iskandar; Noor Ashikin Nik Abdul Razak, Nik; Zakiah Yahaya, Nor; Mohammed Al-Marri, Hana; Syuhada Ayob, Nur; Zakaria, Nabela

    2017-10-01

    Trace elements are essential nutritional components in humans and inconvenient tissue content that have a significant influence on infant size. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of concentration of elements (uranium (U), lead (Pb) and iron (Fe)) and absorption of Pb and Fe on maternal and umbilical cord blood samples. The concentration and absorption of Pb and Fe in blood samples were determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry device, while the uranium concentration was determined by using CR-39 detector. Fifty women of age 16-44 years are involved in this study. Results show that the maximum and minimum values of both concentration and absorption in the maternal samples were for Pb and Fe, respectively. In addition, for umbilical cord, the maximum values of concentration and absorption were for Fe and the minimum concentration and absorption were for U and Pb, respectively. A significant correlation between maternal and umbilical cord blood samples was found. This indicates that the Pb, U and Fe elements can easily transfer from maternal to the fetal body which impacts the growth of fetus.

  13. Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Maternal Characteristics in a Sample of Schoolchildren from a Rural Province of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Barišić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS is a congenital syndrome caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and is entirely preventable by abstinence from alcohol drinking during this time. Little is known about the prevalence of FAS and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Western countries. We present the results of FAS/partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS prevalence study and maternal characteristics in a sample of schoolchildren from a rural province of Croatia. This study involved seven elementary schools with 1,110 enrolled children attending 1st to 4th grade and their mothers. We used an active case ascertainment method with passive parental consent and Clarified IOM criteria. The investigation protocol involved maternal data collection and clinical examination of children. Out of 1,110 mothers, 917 (82.6% answered the questionnaire. Alcohol exposure during pregnancy was admitted by 11.5%, regular drinking by 4.0% and binge drinking by 1.4% of questioned mothers. Clinical examination involved 824 (74.2% schoolchildren and disclosed 14 (1.7% with clinical signs of FAS and 41 (5.0% of PFAS. The observed FAS prevalence, based on 74.2% participation rate, was 16.9, PFAS 49.7 and combined prevalence was 66.7/1,000 examined schoolchildren. This is the first FAS prevalence study based on active ascertainment among schoolchildren and pregnancy alcohol drinking analysis performed in a rural community of Croatia and Europe. High prevalence of FAS/PFAS and pregnancy alcohol consumption observed in this study revealed that FAS is serious health problem in rural regions as well as a need to develop future studies and preventive measures for pregnancy alcohol drinking and FASD.

  14. Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Maternal Characteristics in a Sample of Schoolchildren from a Rural Province of Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petković, Giorgie; Barišić, Ingeborg

    2013-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a congenital syndrome caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and is entirely preventable by abstinence from alcohol drinking during this time. Little is known about the prevalence of FAS and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Western countries. We present the results of FAS/partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS) prevalence study and maternal characteristics in a sample of schoolchildren from a rural province of Croatia. This study involved seven elementary schools with 1,110 enrolled children attending 1st to 4th grade and their mothers. We used an active case ascertainment method with passive parental consent and Clarified IOM criteria. The investigation protocol involved maternal data collection and clinical examination of children. Out of 1,110 mothers, 917 (82.6%) answered the questionnaire. Alcohol exposure during pregnancy was admitted by 11.5%, regular drinking by 4.0% and binge drinking by 1.4% of questioned mothers. Clinical examination involved 824 (74.2%) schoolchildren and disclosed 14 (1.7%) with clinical signs of FAS and 41 (5.0%) of PFAS. The observed FAS prevalence, based on 74.2% participation rate, was 16.9, PFAS 49.7 and combined prevalence was 66.7/1,000 examined schoolchildren. This is the first FAS prevalence study based on active ascertainment among schoolchildren and pregnancy alcohol drinking analysis performed in a rural community of Croatia and Europe. High prevalence of FAS/PFAS and pregnancy alcohol consumption observed in this study revealed that FAS is serious health problem in rural regions as well as a need to develop future studies and preventive measures for pregnancy alcohol drinking and FASD. PMID:23591786

  15. Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow using one-point venous blood sampling and causality model. Evaluation by comparing with conventional continuous arterial blood sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimura, Hiroaki; Sone, Teruki; Takahashi, Yoshitake

    2008-01-01

    Optimal setting of the input function is essential for the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) based on the microsphere model using N-isopropyl-4-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP), and usually the arterial 123 I-IMP concentration (integral value) in the initial 5 min is used for this purpose. We have developed a new convenient method in which 123 I-IMP concentration in arterial blood sample is estimated from that in venous blood sample. Brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 123 I-IMP was performed in 110 cases of central nervous system disorders. The causality was analyzed between the various parameters of SPECT data and the ratio of octanol-extracted arterial radioactivity concentration during the first 5 min (Caoct) to octanol-extracted venous radioactivity concentration at 27 min after intravenous injection of 123 I-IMP (Cvoct). A high correlation was observed between the measured and estimated values of Caoct/Cvoct (r=0.856) when the following five parameters were included in the regression formula: radioactivity concentration in venous blood sampled at 27 min (Cv), Cvoct, Cvoct/Cv, and total brain radioactivity counts that were measured by a four-head gamma camera 5 min and 28 min after 123 I-IMP injection. Furthermore, the rCBF values obtained using the input parameters estimated by this method were also highly correlated with the rCBF values measured using the continuous arterial blood sampling method (r=0.912). These results suggest that this method would serve as the new, convenient and less invasive method of rCBF measurement in clinical setting. (author)

  16. In-cell PCR method for specific genotyping of genomic DNA from one individual in a mixture of cells from two individuals: a model study with specific relevance to prenatal diagnosis based on fetal cells in maternal blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, T Vauvert

    2002-01-01

    only in the male cells, leading to the correct HLA-DPB1 genotyping of the male by DNA sequencing of a nested, linked TSPY-HLA-DPB1 PCR product. CONCLUSION: This approach might be usable on mixed cell populations of fetal and maternal cells obtained after conventional cell-sorting techniques on maternal...... maternal blood samples, the use of such an approach for genotyping by molecular biology techniques in a more routine setting has been hampered by the large contamination of maternal nucleated blood cells in the cell isolates. Therefore, a new method based on in-cell PCR is described, which may overcome...... this problem. Methods and Results: Mixtures of cells from two different individuals were fixed and permeabilized in suspension. After coamplification of a DNA sequence specific for one of the individuals and the DNA sequence to be genotyped, the two PCR products were linked together in the fixed cells positive...

  17. Higher Fetal Insulin Resistance in Chinese Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Correlation with Maternal Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qiuwei; Huang, Ruiping; Yu, Bin; Cao, Fang; Wang, Huiyan; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Xinhong; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Hong; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on fetal insulin resistance or β-cell function in Chinese pregnant women with GDM. MEASUREMENTS: Maternal fasting blood and venous cord blood samples (reflecting fetal condition) were collected in 65 well-controlled Chinese GDM mothers (only given dietary intervention) and 83 control subjects. The insulin, glucose and proinsulin concentrations of both maternal and cord blood samples were measur...

  18. Presence of Cytomegalovirus in urine and blood of pregnant women with primary infection might be associated with fetal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delforge, Marie-Luce; Costa, Elena; Brancart, Françoise; Goldman, Deborah; Montesinos, Isabel; Zaytouni, Siham; Marchant, Arnaud; Donner, Catherine

    2017-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) congenital infection can result from primary infection, reinfection or reactivation among pregnant women. The risk of vertical transmission is much higher in case of primary infection, and the transmission rate increases with gestational age. However there are still many questions about maternal markers that can predict whether the virus will be transmitted to the fetus. To investigate the relationship between the presence and the quantity of CMV in urine and blood of women presenting a primary CMV infection during pregnancy and the presence of congenital infection in their offspring. Detection and quantification of CMV DNA was performed on 150 urine samples and 114 blood samples from 150 pregnant women with proven CMV primary infection. Transmission rate was 36.7% (55/150). A statistically significant association was found between the presence of CMV in maternal urine and newborn infection (OR 2.03 95%CI 1.03-3.99). A clearly significant association was found between the presence of CMV in maternal blood and newborn infection (OR 3.14 95% CI 1.38-7.16). Taking into consideration those samples that are positive for CMV in maternal urine, the median value of viral load was significantly higher in those patients who transmitted to offspring (P=0.015). No significant association between viral load in maternal blood and newborn infection was observed. The presence of CMV in maternal urine and maternal blood correlated to the transmission of CMV to offspring in our cohort. The median viral load in urine is higher in women who transmitted. These markers may help to identify pregnant women at risk to transmit to the fetus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Automatic collection of bovine blood samples | Hale | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A technique is described which allows automatic collection of jugular venous blood from tethered cows. In this system, blood is pumped continuously from an intravenous cannula which has a double lumen while an anticoagulant is pumped through the second opening. Diluted blood is collected in a fraction collector which ...

  20. Effect of order of draw of blood samples during phlebotomy on routine biochemistry results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Raashda A; Cornes, Michael P; Whitehead, Simon J; Othonos, Nadia; Ford, Clare; Gama, Rousseau

    2011-11-01

    To investigate whether incorrect order of draw of blood samples during phlebotomy causes in vitro potassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid EDTA (kEDTA) contamination of blood samples. Serum kEDTA, potassium, calcium, magnesium, alkaline phosphatase, zinc and iron concentrations were measured in blood samples drawn before and after collecting blood into kEDTA containing sample tubes by an experienced phlebotomist using the Sarstedt Safety Monovette system. EDTA was undetectable in all samples. The concentrations of other analytes were similar in blood samples drawn before and after collection of the EDTA blood sample. Order of draw of blood samples using the Sarstedt Safety Monovette system has no effect on serum biochemistry results, when samples are taken by an experienced phlebotomist.

  1. Concentration of glucose, insuline, thyroxine (T/sub 4/), triiodthyronine (T/sub 3/) and gastrine in the maternal blood, in the umbilical cord blood of their outcomes in the neonatal blood samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osuch-Jaczewska, R; Tomala, J; Adamska, S; Bielecka, W; Mikulska, M; Kalacinska, M; Sieron, G [Slaska Akademia Medyczna, Katowice (Poland)

    1978-01-01

    In the blood samples collected from the mothers, from the umbilical cord of their outcomes and from these neonates after 24 hours of life the following estimations were performed collaterally: The concentration of insulin in 50 mothers and their fetuses and in 34 neonates, concentration of thyroxine (T/sub 4/) in 70 mothers and their fetuses and in 32 neonates, triiodothyronine binding coefficient (WWT/sub 3/) in 60 mothers and their fetuses and neonates, concentration of gastrine in 23 mothers and their fetuses and in 5 neonates. Besides that the concentration of glucose in total blood was established in 300 mothers - their fetuses and neonates. The insuline, WWT/sub 3/ and gastrine were estimated by radioimmune techniques and T/sub 4/ by radiocompetitive technique. The glucose concentration - with the aid of o-toluidine method. Basing on the results, the paper suggests that the fetus and the newborn represent independent unit in the aspect of regulation of the glucose concentration, secretion of insuline, T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and gastrine, notwithstanding the possibility of transplacental passage of these hormones exists the correlation coefficients between the maternal and fetal blood concentrations of insuline, T/sub 4/ and WWT/sub 3/ were significant. The cord-blood glucose concentration exhibits a marked correlation with the maternal glicemia. Physiologic, asymptomatic hyperinsulinemia and hyperthyreosis and an increase of gastrine concentration demonstrate the presence, in the fetal and neonatal organisms, of certain compensatory-regulating mechanisms stimulating and inhibiting with feed-back properties, which guarantee the environmental homeostasis.

  2. A Case of Ruptured Blood Blister-like Aneurysm Treated with Pipeline Embolization Device: Clinical Significance of Fetal-type Posterior Communicating Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Su; Kang, Dong-Hun; Son, Won-Soo; Park, Jaechan; Kim, Young-Sun; Kim, Byung Moon

    2017-03-01

    Blood-blister like aneurysms (BBAs) are challenging lesions because of their wide fragile neck. Flow-diverting stents (FDSs), such as the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED), have been applied to treat BBAs less amenable to more established techniques of treatment. However, the use of FDSs, including the PED, in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) still remains controversial. We report a case of aneurysm regrowth following PED application for a ruptured BBA that overlapped the origin of the dominant posterior communicating artery (PCoA), which was successfully treated after coil trapping of the origin of the fetal-type PCoA. And, we discuss the clinical significance of the fetal-type PCoA communicating with a BBA in terms of PED failure.

  3. EFFECT OF ADDING THE INTERNAL STANDARD TO BLOOD SAMPLES, PRIOR TO THE PREPARATION OF BLOOD SPOTS FOR ACYLCARNITINE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio, José Henry; Pourfarzam, Morteza

    2010-01-01

    Background: some general factors can influence when determining acylcarnitines through tandem mass spectrometry. Objective: to study the effect of adding the internal standard to blood samples before the preparation of filter paper cards compared with the addition of internal standard after having the filter paper cards prepared for determining acylcarnitines in blood for tandem mass spectrometry. Methodology: two groups of blood samples were prepared: group one without adding internal standa...

  4. Radioimmunologic determination of alphafetoproteins concentration in blood serum samples and in the amniotic fluid in healthy pregnant women in the 2 trimester of pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalba, P; Krupa, B; Rozmus, M; Brudnik, K; Kokocinska, D; Rajs, M [Slaska Akademia Medyczna, Katowice (Poland)

    1980-01-01

    Radioimmunologic technique of double antibodies was used for the determination of alphafetoprotein (AFP) concentrations in blood serum samples from 223 healthy, pregnant women with single pregnancies and in amniotic fluid samples from 43 donors. The gestational age during samples collection was 10 to 25 weeks. The AFP preparation for the test was supplied by the International Agency of Cancer Research, anti-AFP antibodies produced by Behringwerke and personally produced rabbit antiglobulin antibodies. The results of the AFP determinations in the blood and amniotic fluid samples were presented in tables in form of medians. The serum AFP concentrations overranging the double medians value were met in 8.5%, overranging the triple medians - in 2.6%. Repeat determinations decreased the number of false positive results for about 50%. The results permit to issue a conclusion that the used technique is fully applicable for scan examinations in prenatal diagnosis of fetal nervous system malformations.

  5. The subtyping of primary aldosteronism by adrenal vein sampling: sequential blood sampling causes factitious lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossitto, Giacomo; Battistel, Michele; Barbiero, Giulio; Bisogni, Valeria; Maiolino, Giuseppe; Diego, Miotto; Seccia, Teresa M; Rossi, Gian Paolo

    2018-02-01

    The pulsatile secretion of adrenocortical hormones and a stress reaction occurring when starting adrenal vein sampling (AVS) can affect the selectivity and also the assessment of lateralization when sequential blood sampling is used. We therefore tested the hypothesis that a simulated sequential blood sampling could decrease the diagnostic accuracy of lateralization index for identification of aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), as compared with bilaterally simultaneous AVS. In 138 consecutive patients who underwent subtyping of primary aldosteronism, we compared the results obtained simultaneously bilaterally when starting AVS (t-15) and 15 min after (t0), with those gained with a simulated sequential right-to-left AVS technique (R ⇒ L) created by combining hormonal values obtained at t-15 and at t0. The concordance between simultaneously obtained values at t-15 and t0, and between simultaneously obtained values and values gained with a sequential R ⇒ L technique, was also assessed. We found a marked interindividual variability of lateralization index values in the patients with bilaterally selective AVS at both time point. However, overall the lateralization index simultaneously determined at t0 provided a more accurate identification of APA than the simulated sequential lateralization indexR ⇒ L (P = 0.001). Moreover, regardless of which side was sampled first, the sequential AVS technique induced a sequence-dependent overestimation of lateralization index. While in APA patients the concordance between simultaneous AVS at t0 and t-15 and between simultaneous t0 and sequential technique was moderate-to-good (K = 0.55 and 0.66, respectively), in non-APA patients, it was poor (K = 0.12 and 0.13, respectively). Sequential AVS generates factitious between-sides gradients, which lower its diagnostic accuracy, likely because of the stress reaction arising upon starting AVS.

  6. Maternal protein-energy malnutrition during early pregnancy in sheep impacts the fetal ornithine cycle to reduce fetal kidney microvascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Louise J; Sinclair, Kevin D; Kwong, Wing Y; Sturrock, Craig; Clifford, Bethan L; Giles, Tom C; Gardner, David S

    2014-11-01

    This paper identifies a common nutritional pathway relating maternal through to fetal protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and compromised fetal kidney development. Thirty-one twin-bearing sheep were fed either a control (n=15) or low-protein diet (n=16, 17 vs. 8.7 g crude protein/MJ metabolizable energy) from d 0 to 65 gestation (term, ∼ 145 d). Effects on the maternal and fetal nutritional environment were characterized by sampling blood and amniotic fluid. Kidney development was characterized by histology, immunohistochemistry, vascular corrosion casts, and molecular biology. PEM had little measureable effect on maternal and fetal macronutrient balance (glucose, total protein, total amino acids, and lactate were unaffected) or on fetal growth. PEM decreased maternal and fetal urea concentration, which blunted fetal ornithine availability and affected fetal hepatic polyamine production. For the first time in a large animal model, we associated these nutritional effects with reduced micro- but not macrovascular development in the fetal kidney. Maternal PEM specifically impacts the fetal ornithine cycle, affecting cellular polyamine metabolism and microvascular development of the fetal kidney, effects that likely underpin programming of kidney development and function by a maternal low protein diet. © FASEB.

  7. Human Umbilical Cord Blood Serum Has Higher Potential in Inducing Proliferation of Fibroblast than Fetal Bovine Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Sandra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cytokines and growth factors were reported to play an important role in stimulating fibroblast proliferation. In vitro culture, fibroblast is mostly culture in medium containing fetal bovine serum (FBS.  Human umbilical cord blood (hUCB has been reported to have low immunogenic property and potential in wound healing, so therefore hUCB serum (hUCBS could be potential and were investigated in current study. Materials and Methods: Five hUCBs were collected from healthy volunteers with normal delivering procedure. hUCB was ex utero immediately collected from umbilical vein in vacutainers and processed. NIH3T3 cells were cultured in DMEM with 10% FBS or 5-20% hUCBS for 48 hours. Cells were then quantified using MTT assay. Protein concentration of FBS and hUCBS were quantified using Bradford assay. Results: NIH3T3 cells density grown in DMEM with 10% FBS was the lowest. NIH3T3 cells densities were increased along with the increment of hUCBS concentrations. MTT results showed that average number of NIH3T3 cells grown in DMEM with 10% FBS was 6,185±1,243. Meanwhile average numbers of NIH3T3 cells grown in DMEM with 5%, 10% and 20% hUCBS were 8,126±628, 9,685±313 and 12,200±304, respectively. Average numbers of NIH3T3 cells grown in DMEM with 5% hUCBS were significantly higher than the ones with 10% FBS (p=0.000. Bradford results showed that concentration of hUCBS was significantly higher than the one of FBS (p=0.000. Conclusion: hUCBS could induce higher proliferation rate of NIH3T3 cells than FBS. Hence hUCBS could be suggested as an alternate of FBS in inducing fibroblast. Keywords: NIH3T3, fibroblast, UCB, serum, FBS, proliferation

  8. Performance of an app measuring spot quality in dried blood spot sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Dried Blood Spot sampling (DBS) method gives patients and health care workers the opportunity for remote sampling using a drop of blood from a fingerprick on a sampling card which can be send to the laboratory by mail. Laboratory analysts frequently reject DBS samples because of

  9. The frequency of ABO blood group maternal-fetal incompatibility, maternal iso-agglutinins, and immune agglutinins quantitation in Osogbo, Osun State, South-West of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oseni Bashiru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : ABO incompatibility in maternal-fetal relationship has been shown to cause hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDNB; a survey which is not yet done in this locality. Aim: Frequency of ABO blood group maternal-fetal incompatibility, maternal iso-agglutinins, and immune agglutinins quantitation was carried out in Osogbo, Osun State, South-West of Nigeria. Settings and Designs : A total of 260 subjects comprising 130 postpartum mothers within the age range of 22-35 years having good obstetrics history and normal delivery, with their 130 neonate babies were used for the study. Materials and Methods : ABO cell and serum groupings were carried out on the subjects using standard antisera and cells with appropriate controls. Direct Coomb′s Test was carried out on neonate red cells. Antibody quantitation by double dilution on the maternal serum using red cells containing corresponding antigen to the antibody was determined. A titer, which is the reciprocal of the highest dilution showing agglutination by Indirect Coombs Test, was determined. Another batch of sera was pretreated with 2-mecarptoethanol before determining the titer. Statistical Analysis: The distribution study results obtained were compared in percentages, whereas the antibodies quantitation was expressed as titers using the mode of the titers for compariso-agglutininsn. Results and Conclusions : Thirty-eight percent (50 mothers were ABO incompatible with their babies, whereas 62% (80 mothers were compatible. The distribution of blood groups in the compatible population showed blood group O (45%; A (30%; B (20%; and AB (5%. Mothers O, A, and B carrying incompatible babies had a frequency of 24% each, whereas mothers AB had 28%. Serologist differences occur in maternal ABO antibodies of corresponding incompatible baby ABO antigens. A high incidence of ABO maternal-fetal incompatibility observed without detection of immune agglutinins is indicative of a rare incidence of HDNB due

  10. Involvement of placental/umbilical cord blood acid-base status and gas values on the radiosensitivity of human fetal/neonatal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Masaru; Ebina, Satoko; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Arterial cord blood (CB) acid-base status and gas values, such as pH, PCO 2 , PO 2 , HCO 3 - and base excess, provide useful information on the fetal and neonatal condition. However, it remains unknown whether these values affect the radiosensitivity of fetal/neonatal hematopoiesis. The present study evaluated the relationship between arterial CB acid-base status, gas values, and the radiosensitivity of CB hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). A total of 25 CB units were collected. The arterial CB acid-base status and gas values were measured within 30 min of delivery. The CD34 + HSPCs obtained from CB were exposed to 2 Gy X-irradiation, and then assayed for colony-forming unit-granulocyte-macrophage, burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E), and colony-forming unit-granulocyte erythroid, macrophage and megakaryocyte cells. Acid-base status and gas values for PCO 2 and HCO 3 - showed a statistically significant negative correlation with the surviving fraction of BFU-E. In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between gestational age and PCO 2 . Moreover, the surviving fraction of BFU-E showed a significant negative correlation with gestational age. Thus, HSPCs obtained from CB with high PCO 2 /HCO 3 - levels were sensitive to X-irradiation, which suggests that the status of arterial PCO 2 /HCO 3 - influences the radiosensitivity of fetal/neonatal hematopoiesis, especially erythropoiesis. (author)

  11. Fetal plasma erythropoietin concentration in severe growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, R J; Abbas, A; Melby, O; Ireland, R M; Nicolaides, K H

    1993-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether hypoxemia induces an increase in plasma erythropoietin concentration in human fetal life and, if so, whether this response stimulates fetal erythropoiesis. The plasma erythropoietin concentration in blood samples from 33 small-for-gestational-age fetuses at 26 to 38 weeks' gestation was measured. Measurements were compared with the reference range for gestation, and associations with PO2, pH, and erythroblast and erythrocyte counts were examined. The mean plasma erythropoietin concentration in the small-for-gestational-age fetuses was significantly increased, and the degree of increase was significantly associated both with fetal acidemia and, more strongly, with fetal erythroblastosis. Erythropoietin production in response to tissue hypoxia occurs from at least 26 weeks' gestation with measurable physiologic effects on erythropoiesis. Furthermore, more accurate assessment of tissue oxygenation may be obtained by measuring the erythroblast count rather than the blood pH.

  12. The quantitative regional cerebral blood flow measurement with autoradiography method using 123I-IMP SPECT. Evaluation of arterialized venous blood sampling as a substitute for arterial blood sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Takashi; Yano, Takao; Nakano, Shinichi; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Nagamachi, Shigeki; Flores, L. II; Nakahara, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Katsushi.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is validation of calibrating a standard input function in autoradiography (ARG) method by one point venous blood sampling as a substitute for that by one point arterial blood sampling. Ten and 20 minutes after intravenous constant infusion of 123 I-IMP, arterialized venous blood sampling from a dorsal vein were performed on 15 patients having ischemic cerebrovascular disease. And arterial blood sampling from radial artery was performed 10 min after 123 I-IMP infusion. The mean difference rates of integrated input function between calibrated standard input function by arterial blood sampling at 10 min and that by venous blood sampling were 4.1±3% and 9.3±5.4% at 10 and 20 min after 123 I-IMP infusion, respectively. The ratio of venous blood radioactivity to arterial blood radioactivity at 10 min after 123 I-IMP infusion was 0.96±0.02. There was an excellent correlation between ARG method CBF values obtained by arterial blood sampling at 10 min and those obtained by arterialized venous blood sampling at 10 min. In conclusion, a substitution by arterialized venous blood sampling from dorsal hand vein for artery can be possible. The optimized time for arterialized venous blood sampling was 10 min after 123 I-IMP infusion. (author)

  13. Fetal MRI; Fetales MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondin, D. [Inst. fuer Diagn. Radiologie, Uniklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany); Turowski, B. [Inst. fuer Diagn. Radiologie, Neuroradiologie, Uniklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany); Schaper, J. [Inst. fuer Diagn. Radiologie, Kinderradiologie, Uniklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    Ultrasonography is the method of choice for prenatal malformation screening, but it does not always provide sufficient information for correct diagnosis or adequate abnormality evaluation. Fetal MRI is increasingly being used to complete sonographic findings. It was initially used for evaluation of cerebral abnormalities but is increasingly being applied to other fetal areas. In vivo investigation of fetal brain maturation has been enhanced by MRI. An adequate analysis of fetal chest and abdomen can be achieved with fast T2-, T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The advantages include the great field of view and the excellent soft tissue contrast. This allows correct diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia and evaluation of the consequences on pulmonary growth. Other pulmonary malformations, such as cystic adenomatoid malformation, sequestration and brochogenic cysts, can also be easily identified. Renal position can be quickly determined using DWI sequences and renal agenesia can be easily diagnosed with only one sequence. Prenatal MRI is virtually as effective as postnatal examination, dispenses with transport of a potentially very ill newborn, and provides logistic advantages. Therefore, prenatal MRI is useful for adequate postnatal treatment of newborns with malformations. (orig.)

  14. Effect of Sample Storage Temperature and Time Delay on Blood Gases, Bicarbonate and pH in Human Arterial Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadhoseini, Elham; Safavi, Enayat; Seifi, Sepideh; Seifirad, Soroush; Firoozbakhsh, Shahram; Peiman, Soheil

    2015-03-01

    Results of arterial blood gas analysis can be biased by pre-analytical factors, such as time interval before analysis, temperature during storage and syringe type. To investigate the effects of samples storage temperature and time delay on blood gases, bicarbonate and PH results in human arterial blood samples. 2.5 mL arterial blood samples were drawn from 45 patients via an indwelling Intraarterial catheter. Each sample was divided into five equal samples and stored in multipurpose tuberculin plastic syringes. Blood gas analysis was performed on one of five samples as soon as possible. Four other samples were divided into two groups stored at 22°C and 0°C. Blood gas analyses were repeated at 30 and 60 minutes after sampling. PaO2 of the samples stored at 0°C was increased significantly after 60 minutes (P = 0.007). The PaCO2 of the samples kept for 30 and 60 minutes at 22°C was significantly higher than primary result (P = 0.04, P samples stored at 22°C, pH decreased significantly after 30 and 60 minutes (P = 0.017, P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in other results of samples stored at 0°C or 22°C after 30 or 60 minutes. In samples stored in plastic syringes, overestimation of PaO2 levels should be noted if samples cooled before analysis. In samples stored in plastic syringes, it is not necessary to store samples in iced water when analysis delayed up to one hour.

  15. Hematocrit, Anemia, and Arm Preference for Blood Sample ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lower cut-off of 33% or hemoglobin (Hb) concentration of. 11 gram% was ... venous blood of 200 antenatal women at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH). Enugu ..... and emphasis was placed on the importance of good nutrition.

  16. Hypoglycemia and the origin of hypoxia-induced reduction in human fetal growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Zamudio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The most well known reproductive consequence of residence at high altitude (HA >2700 m is reduction in fetal growth. Reduced fetoplacental oxygenation is an underlying cause of pregnancy pathologies, including intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia, which are more common at HA. Therefore, altitude is a natural experimental model to study the etiology of pregnancy pathophysiologies. We have shown that the proximate cause of decreased fetal growth is not reduced oxygen availability, delivery, or consumption. We therefore asked whether glucose, the primary substrate for fetal growth, might be decreased and/or whether altered fetoplacental glucose metabolism might account for reduced fetal growth at HA.Doppler and ultrasound were used to measure maternal uterine and fetal umbilical blood flows in 69 and 58 residents of 400 vs 3600 m. Arterial and venous blood samples from mother and fetus were collected at elective cesarean delivery and analyzed for glucose, lactate and insulin. Maternal delivery and fetal uptakes for oxygen and glucose were calculated.The maternal arterial - venous glucose concentration difference was greater at HA. However, umbilical venous and arterial glucose concentrations were markedly decreased, resulting in lower glucose delivery at 3600 m. Fetal glucose consumption was reduced by >28%, but strongly correlated with glucose delivery, highlighting the relevance of glucose concentration to fetal uptake. At altitude, fetal lactate levels were increased, insulin concentrations decreased, and the expression of GLUT1 glucose transporter protein in the placental basal membrane was reduced.Our results support that preferential anaerobic consumption of glucose by the placenta at high altitude spares oxygen for fetal use, but limits glucose availability for fetal growth. Thus reduced fetal growth at high altitude is associated with fetal hypoglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and a trend towards lactacidemia. Our data support that

  17. Blood samples in the neutron beam; Blutproben im Neutronenstrahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    Whether crocodile, platypus, man, or chicken: Always the hemoglobin in the red blood cells has the same task. It carries oxygen from the lungs throughout the body. In investigative manner and international team around Dr. Andreas Stadler from the Julic Research Center has deciphered in detail, how and why the hemoglobines of these creatures nevertheless differ. Their findings are among others interesting for the research on artificial blood.

  18. Air bubbles and hemolysis of blood samples during transport by pneumatic tube systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Garrett R; Bruns, David E

    2017-10-01

    Transport of blood samples through pneumatic tube systems (PTSs) generates air bubbles in transported blood samples and, with increasing duration of transport, the appearance of hemolysis. We investigated the role of air-bubble formation in PTS-induced hemolysis. Air was introduced into blood samples for 0, 1, 3 or 5min to form air bubbles. Hemolysis in the blood was assessed by (H)-index, lactate dehydrogenase (LD) and potassium in plasma. In an effort to prevent PTS-induced hemolysis, blood sample tubes were completely filled, to prevent air bubble formation, and compared with partially filled samples after PTS transport. We also compared hemolysis in anticoagulated vs clotted blood subjected to PTS transport. As with transport through PTSs, the duration of air bubble formation in blood by a gentle stream of air predicted the extent of hemolysis as measured by H-index (pair space in a blood sample prevented bubble formation and fully protected the blood from PTS-induced hemolysis (ptransport and was partially protected from hemolysis vs anticoagulated blood as indicated by lower LD (ptransport. Prevention of air bubble formation in blood samples during PTS transport protects samples from hemolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The relationship between blood viscosity and blood pressure in a random sample of the population aged 55 to 74 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowkes, F G; Lowe, G D; Rumley, A; Lennie, S E; Smith, F B; Donnan, P T

    1993-05-01

    Blood viscosity is elevated in hypertensive subjects, but the association of viscosity with arterial blood pressure in the general population, and the influence of social, lifestyle and disease characteristics on this association, are not established. In the Edinburgh Artery Study, 1592 men and women aged 55-74 years selected randomly from the general population attended a university clinic. A fasting blood sample was taken for the measurement of blood viscosity and its major determinants (haematocrit, plasma viscosity and fibrinogen). Systolic pressure was related univariately to blood viscosity (P viscosity (P index. Diastolic pressure was related univariately to blood viscosity (P viscosity (P viscosity and systolic pressure was confined to males. Blood viscosity was associated equally with systolic and diastolic pressures in males, and remained independently related on multivariate analysis adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, social class, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, angina, HDL and non-HDL cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, and haematocrit.

  20. The relationship between human placental morphometry and ultrasonic measurements of utero-placental blood flow and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati, N; Sovio, U; Mayo, R Plitman; Charnock-Jones, D S; Smith, G C S

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic fetal biometry and arterial Doppler flow velocimetry are widely used to assess the risk of pregnancy complications. There is an extensive literature on the relationship between pregnancy outcomes and the size and shape of the placenta. However, ultrasonic fetal biometry and arterial Doppler flow velocimetry have not previously been studied in relation to postnatal placental morphometry in detail. We conducted a prospective cohort study of nulliparous women in The Rosie Hospital, Cambridge (UK). We studied a group of 2120 women who had complete data on uterine and umbilical Doppler velocimetry and fetal biometry at 20, 28 and 36 weeks' gestational age, digital images of the placenta available, and delivered a liveborn infant at term. Associations were expressed as the difference in the standard deviation (SD) score of the gestational age adjusted ultrasound measurement (z-score) comparing the lowest and highest decile of the given placental morphometric measurement. The lowest decile of placental surface area was associated with 0.87 SD higher uterine artery Doppler mean pulsatility index (PI) at 20 weeks (95% CI: 0.68 to 1.07, P flow, respectively, and both are associated with fetal growth rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The continuum of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in a community in South Africa: Prevalence and characteristics in a fifth sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Marais, Anna-Susan; de Vries, Marlene M; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Hasken, Julie M; Adnams, Colleen M; Barnard, Ronel; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Tabachnick, Barbara; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie A; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Bezuidenhout, Heidre; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence and characteristics of the continuum of diagnoses within fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were researched in a fifth sample in a South African community. An active case ascertainment approach was employed among all first grade learners in this community (n=862). Following individual examination by clinical geneticists/dysmorphologists, cognitive/behavioral testing, and maternal interviews, final diagnoses were made in multidisciplinary case conferences. Physical measurements, cardinal facial features of FAS, and total dysmorphology scores clearly differentiated diagnostic categories in a consistent, linear fashion, from severe to mild. Neurodevelopmental delays and behavioral problems were significantly worse for each of the FASD diagnostic categories, although not as consistently linear across diagnostic groups. Alcohol use was documented by direct report from the mother in 71% to 100% of cases in specific diagnostic groups. Significant distal maternal risk factors in this population are: advanced maternal age at pregnancy; low height, weight, and body mass index (BMI); small head circumference; low education; low income; and rural residence. Even when controlling for socioeconomic status, prenatal drinking correlates significantly with total dysmorphology score, head circumference, and five cognitive and behavioral measures. In this community, FAS occurs in 59-79 per 1,000 children, and total FASD in 170-233 per 1,000 children, or 17% to 23%. Very high rates of FASD continue in this community where entrenched practices of regular binge drinking co-exist with challenging conditions for childbearing and child development in a significant portion of the population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fetal echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaubal, Nitin G.; Chaubal, Jyoti

    2009-01-01

    USG performed with a high-end machine, using a good cine-loop facility is extremely helpful in the diagnosis of fetal cardiac anomalies. In fetal echocardiography, the four-chamber view and the outflow-tract view are used to diagnose cardiac anomalies. The most important objective during a targeted anomaly scan is to identify those cases that need a dedicated fetal echocardiogram. Associated truncal and chromosomal anomalies need to be identified. This review shows how fetal echocardiography, apart from identifying structural defects in the fetal heart, can be used to look at rhythm abnormalities and other functional aspects of the fetal heart

  3. SLC9B1 methylation predicts fetal intolerance of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Anna K; Conneely, Karen N; Kilaru, Varun; Cobb, Dawayland; Payne, Jennifer L; Meilman, Samantha; Corwin, Elizabeth J; Kaminsky, Zachary A; Dunlop, Anne L; Smith, Alicia K

    2018-01-01

    Fetal intolerance of labor is a common indication for delivery by Caesarean section. Diagnosis is based on the presence of category III fetal heart rate tracing, which is an abnormal heart tracing associated with increased likelihood of fetal hypoxia and metabolic acidemia. This study analyzed data from 177 unique women who, during their prenatal visits (7-15 weeks and/or 24-32 weeks) to Atlanta area prenatal care clinics, consented to provide blood samples for DNA methylation (HumanMethylation450 BeadChip) and gene expression (Human HT-12 v4 Expression BeadChip) analyses. We focused on 57 women aged 18-36 (mean 25.4), who had DNA methylation data available from their second prenatal visit. DNA methylation patterns at CpG sites across the genome were interrogated for associations with fetal intolerance of labor. Four CpG sites (P value intolerance of labor. DNA methylation and gene expression were negatively associated when examined longitudinally during pregnancy using a linear mixed-effects model. Positive predictive values of methylation of these four sites ranged from 0.80 to 0.89, while negative predictive values ranged from 0.91 to 0.92. The four CpG sites were also associated with fetal intolerance of labor in an independent cohort (the Johns Hopkins Prospective PPD cohort). Therefore, fetal intolerance of labor could be accurately predicted from maternal blood samples obtained between 24-32 weeks gestation. Fetal intolerance of labor may be accurately predicted from maternal blood samples obtained between 24-32 weeks gestation by assessing DNA methylation patterns of SLC9B1. The identification of pregnant women at elevated risk for fetal intolerance of labor may allow for the development of targeted treatments or management plans.

  4. A technique for extracting blood samples from mice in fire toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, T. J.; Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction of adequate blood samples from moribund and dead mice has been a problem because of the small quantity of blood in each animal and the short time available between the animals' death and coagulation of the blood. These difficulties are particularly critical in fire toxicity tests because removal of the test animals while observing proper safety precautions for personnel is time-consuming. Techniques for extracting blood samples from mice were evaluated, and a technique was developed to obtain up to 0.8 ml of blood from a single mouse after death. The technique involves rapid exposure and cutting of the posterior vena cava and accumulation of blood in the peritoneal space. Blood samples of 0.5 ml or more from individual mice have been consistently obtained as much as 16 minutes after apparent death. Results of carboxyhemoglobin analyses of blood appeared reproducible and consistent with carbon monoxide concentrations in the exposure chamber.

  5. ABO and D typing and alloantibody screening in marrow samples: relevance to intraosseous blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckman, Sari; Ångerman-Haasmaa, Susanne; Jousi, Milla; Siitonen, Sanna; Salmela, Katja

    2018-03-01

    Blood transfusion through the intraosseous route is gaining popularity in emergency medicine. Pretransfusion peripheral blood (PB) samples are usually not available in these patients, leading to discrepancies in blood group typing and a possible delay in transferring to group-specific blood products. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of ABO and D typing and red blood cell alloantibody screening in marrow (BM) samples. Direct and reverse ABO typing, D typing, and a two-cell alloantibody screen were performed in EDTA-anticoagulated BM samples with standard manual column agglutination techniques. EDTA-anticoagulated PB samples were used as controls. The mean age of the study subjects (n = 71) was 47 years (range, 1-82 years). All ABO groups and both D+ and D- types were represented. In all subjects, concordant results were observed for all analyses in BM and PB samples. In 15 (21%) of the samples, a discrepancy of one reaction strength step (1+) was observed in at least one of the analyses (Cohen's weighted κ = 0.993); this did not affect interpretation of the results. Blood group typing and alloantibody screening are feasible in BM samples, providing proof-of-concept that intraosseous samples for blood group serologic analyses can be collected from emergency patients before intraosseous blood transfusion. This will enable a timely transfer to group-specific blood products and enable conservation of the valuable universal-donor blood products. © 2018 AABB.

  6. A comparison of three vasopressors for tight control of maternal blood pressure during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia: Effect on maternal and fetal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Results: The umbilical pH was comparable in all the three groups (P > 0.05. The mean SBP from spinal block until delivery was similar over time for all the three groups. The incidence of reactive hypertension was more in group M (P < 0.05 than in group E and group P. Total drug consumption to meet target blood pressure till delivery was 39.3 ± 14.6 mg in group E, 1.7 ± 0.9 mg in group M, and 283.6 ± 99.8 mcg in group P. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was comparable in the three groups. Conclusion: All the three vasopressors were equally effective in maintaining maternal blood pressure as well as umbilical pH during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section without any detrimental effects on fetal and maternal outcome.

  7. Validation of curve-fitting method for blood retention of 99mTc-GSA. Comparison with blood sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha-Kawa, Sang Kil; Suga, Yutaka; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Ikeda, Koshi; Tanaka, Yoshimasa

    1997-01-01

    We investigated a curve-fitting method for the rate of blood retention of 99m Tc-galactosyl serum albumin (GSA) as a substitute for the blood sampling method. Seven healthy volunteers and 27 patients with liver disease underwent 99m Tc-GSA scanning. After normalization of the y-intercept as 100 percent, a biexponential regression curve for the precordial time-activity curve provided the percent injected dose (%ID) of 99m Tc-GSA in the blood without blood sampling. The discrepancy between %ID obtained by the curve-fitting method and that by the multiple blood samples was minimal in normal volunteers 3.1±2.1% (mean±standard deviation, n=77 sampling). Slightly greater discrepancy was observed in patients with liver disease (7.5±6.1%, n=135 sampling). The %ID at 15 min after injection obtained from the fitted curve was significantly greater in patients with liver cirrhosis than in the controls (53.2±11.6%, n=13; vs. 31.9±2.8%, n=7, p 99m Tc-GSA and the plasma retention rate for indocyanine green (r=-0.869, p 99m Tc-GSA and could be a substitute for the blood sampling method. (author)

  8. Identifying the potential of changes to blood sample logistics using simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pelle Morten Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter; Poulsen, Jørgen Hjelm

    2013-01-01

    of the simulation was to evaluate changes made to the transportation of blood samples between wards and the laboratory. The average- (AWT) and maximum waiting time (MWT) from a blood sample was drawn at the ward until it was received at the laboratory, and the distribution of arrivals of blood samples......, each of the scenarios was tested in terms of what amount of resources would give the optimal result. The simulations showed a big improvement potential in implementing a new technology/mean for transporting the blood samples. The pneumatic tube system showed the biggest potential lowering the AWT...

  9. Determination of pesticide residues in blood samples of villagers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The spray-workers, during the activity of spraying crops, are ... cholinesterase inhibitor, it was recorded as a potent neurotoxic agent ... organic pesticide poisoning, of which around 73% were males and 27% ... analysis of blood will provide evidence of exposure of the body to ...... Occupational illness from cholinesterase ...

  10. A simple method for repetitive blood sampling of cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thereby minimizing disturbance to the animal. As a pre- cautionary measure, animals received I 000 000 IV long-acting penicillin intramuscularly. Using this system, one assistant/researcher has successfully drawn blood from six cows concurrently at half hourly intervals for 48 h. To compare the degree of stress experienced.

  11. Fetal echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007340.htm Fetal echocardiography To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fetal echocardiography is a test that uses sound waves ( ultrasound ) ...

  12. Effects of Blood Sample Collection Pre- and Post- Slaughter, Edta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were immediately subjected to Wet mount (WM), Haemotocrit centrifugation test (HCT) and Thin smear (TS) tests. The results revealed that, of the 100 samples examined, 19 (19%) were positive for the presence of Microfilaria spp while 6(6%) yielded Trypanosome spp. Of the 19 samples detected having ...

  13. Calculation of Blood Dose in Patients Treated With 131I Using MIRD, Imaging, and Blood Sampling Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piruzan, Elham; Haghighatafshar, Mahdi; Faghihi, Reza; Entezarmahdi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Radioiodine therapy is known as the most effective treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) to ablate remnant thyroid tissue after surgery. In patients with DTC treated with radioiodine, internal radiation dosimetry of radioiodine is useful for radiation risk assessment. The aim of this study is to describe a method to estimate the absorbed dose to the blood using medical internal radiation dosimetry methods. In this study, 23 patients with DTC with different administrated activities, 3.7, 4.62, and 5.55 GBq after thyroidectomy, were randomly selected. Blood dosimetry of treated patients was performed with external whole body counting using a dual-head gamma camera imaging device and also with blood sample activity measurements using a dose calibrator. Absorbed dose to the blood was measured at 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 hours after the administration of radioiodine with the 2 methods. Based on the results of whole body counting and blood sample activity dose rate measurements, 96 hours after administration of 3.7, 4.62, and 5.55 GBq of radioiodine, absorbed doses to patients' blood were 0.65 ± 0.20, 0.67 ± 0.18, 0.79 ± 0.51 Gy, respectively. Increasing radioiodine activity from 3.7 to 5.55 GBq increased blood dose significantly, while there was no significant difference in blood dose between radioiodine dosages of 3.7 and 4.62 GBq. Our results revealed a significant correlation between the blood absorbed dose and blood sample activity and between the blood absorbed dose and whole body counts 24 to 48 hours after the administration of radioiodine.

  14. Continuous quality control of the blood sampling procedure using a structured observation scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seemann, T. L.; Nybo, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: An important preanalytical factor is the blood sampling procedure and its adherence to the guidelines, i.e. CLSI and ISO 15189, in order to ensure a consistent quality of the blood collection. Therefore, it is critically important to introduce quality control on this part of the process....... As suggested by the EFLM working group on the preanalytical phase we introduced continuous quality control of the blood sampling procedure using a structured observation scheme to monitor the quality of blood sampling performed on an everyday basis. Materials and methods: Based on our own routines the EFLM....... Conclusion: It is possible to establish a continuous quality control on blood sampling. It has been well accepted by the staff and we have already been able to identify critical areas in the sampling process. We find that continuous auditing increase focus on the quality of blood collection which ensures...

  15. A study report of 174 units of placental umbilical cord whole blood transfusion in 62 patients as a rich source of fetal hemoglobin supply in different indications of blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, N; Mukherijee, K; Chettri, M K; Banerjee, T; Mani, U; Bhattacharya, S

    2001-01-01

    In the animal kingdom, even herbivorous animals swallow the placenta after the birth of the baby (for example, the cow). In the human system, we do not know about the proper utilization of the placenta and membranes although there are suggestions regarding this on the basis of research on placental umbilical cord blood stem cells as an alternative to bone marrow transplantation. In this present series of placental umbilical cord whole blood transfusions, we wanted to examine the safety aspect of other components of cord blood transfusion, e.g., fetal RBC, growth factors and cytokine filled plasma, etc., in different indications of blood transfusion, from the pediatric to the geriatric age group, in malignant and non-malignant disorders affecting our patients. One hundred and seventy-four units of umbilical cord whole blood were collected aseptically from the umbilical vein after caesarean section in standard pediatric blood transfusion bags, after the removal of the baby from the operative field and after confirming the stable condition of the mother. The volume of cord blood varied from 50 ml to 140 ml with a mean of 86 ml+/-16 ml. The cord blood was transfused immediately (within three days of collection) to 62 patients from nine years to 78 years of age, of whom 32 were suffering from varying stages and grades of malignancy from 1 April 1999 till date i.e., 11 Aug 2000, after obtaining adequate consent and following the precautions of standard blood transfusion protocol. The remaining 30 patients included patients suffering from thalassemia major, aplastic anemia, systemic lupus erythematosus, chronic renal failure, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and a geriatric group of patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy. All have tolerated the procedure without any immunological or non-immunological reactions. On the basis of our experience with 174 units of placental umbilical cord whole blood transfusion in malignant and non-malignant conditions (within

  16. The impact of different blood sampling methods on laboratory rats under different types of anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Martin Fitzner; Petersen, Mikke Haxø; Dragsted, Nils

    2006-01-01

    for rats sampled from the tail vein, which showed fluctuations in body temperature in excess of 30 h after sampling. Increases in heart rate and blood pressure within the first hours after sampling indicated that periorbital puncture was the method that had the largest acute impact on the rats......Rats with implanted telemetry transponders were blood sampled by jugular puncture, periorbital puncture or tail vein puncture, or sampled by jugular puncture in carbon dioxide (CO?), isoflurane or without anaesthesia in a crossover design. Heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature were...... registered for three days after sampling. Initially blood pressure increased, but shortly after sampling it decreased, which led to increased heart rate. Sampling induced rapid fluctuations in body temperature, and an increase in body temperature. Generally, rats recovered from sampling within 2-3 h, except...

  17. Long-term facial artery catheter implantation for serial arterial blood sampling and invasive arterial blood pressure measurement in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Deborah Penteado Martins; Teixeira, Luisa Gouvêa; Canola, Paulo Aléscio; Albernaz, Raquel Mincarelli; Marques, José Antônio; Neto, José Corrêa de Lacerda

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate surgical catheter implantation in the facial artery of horses and the long-term maintenance of such arteries using heparin and ascorbic acid as filling solution. Nine horses were implanted with a polyurethane catheter. The catheters were flushed with a heparin/ascorbic acid solution every 8h and remained patent for 25 days. Arterial blood samples were collected twice a day, and one exercise test that included serial blood samples and arterial pressure recordings was performed on a treadmill. Polyurethane catheters surgically implanted in the facial artery can be kept patent by filling with a heparin/ascorbic acid solution and provide convenient invasive arterial access in horses which is suitable for use for serial blood sampling and blood pressure recordings, even during exercise on treadmill. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of Salmonella typhi by nested polymerase chain reaction in blood, urine, and stool samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatta, Mochammad; Smits, Henk L.

    2007-01-01

    A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was used for the detection of the pathogen in blood, urine, and stool samples from 131 patients with clinical suspicion of typhoid fever. The sensitivity of blood culture, the PCRs with blood, urine, and feces,

  19. Dried blood spot measurement: application in tacrolimus monitoring using limited sampling strategy and abbreviated AUC estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chi Yuen; van der Heijden, Jaques; Hoogtanders, Karin; Christiaans, Maarten; Liu, Yan Lun; Chan, Yiu Han; Choi, Koon Shing; van de Plas, Afke; Shek, Chi Chung; Chau, Ka Foon; Li, Chun Sang; van Hooff, Johannes; Stolk, Leo

    2008-02-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling and high-performance liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry have been developed in monitoring tacrolimus levels. Our center favors the use of limited sampling strategy and abbreviated formula to estimate the area under concentration-time curve (AUC(0-12)). However, it is inconvenient for patients because they have to wait in the center for blood sampling. We investigated the application of DBS method in tacrolimus level monitoring using limited sampling strategy and abbreviated AUC estimation approach. Duplicate venous samples were obtained at each time point (C(0), C(2), and C(4)). To determine the stability of blood samples, one venous sample was sent to our laboratory immediately. The other duplicate venous samples, together with simultaneous fingerprick blood samples, were sent to the University of Maastricht in the Netherlands. Thirty six patients were recruited and 108 sets of blood samples were collected. There was a highly significant relationship between AUC(0-12), estimated from venous blood samples, and fingerprick blood samples (r(2) = 0.96, P AUC(0-12) strategy as drug monitoring.

  20. A femoral arteriovenous shunt facilitates arterial whole blood sampling in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Bruno; Burger, Cyrill; Buck, Alfred; Biro, Peter

    2002-01-01

    In this study we evaluated on-line continuous blood sampling in a femoral arteriovenous (a-v) shunt for use in quantitative tracer studies using gamma-emitting radionuclides in animals. The shunt consisted of 40 cm polyethylene tubing (PE-50) guided through a coincidence probe. Two three-way valves allowed blood pressure measurements and tracer injection. Blood flow in the shunt and the impulse response function (IRF) were assessed using heparinized human blood mixed with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). In vivo experiments were performed in eight male rats (300-350 g) anaesthetized with halothane. In three rats, manual blood sampling was performed in parallel with on-line sampling. In another five animals, the arterial whole blood activity was recorded on-line for 40 min. For the experiments 150-180 MBq FDG was injected over 35 s. Blood flow in the shunt was 23.6, 29.2 and 42.8 ml/h at 100, 120 and 160 mmHg, respectively. The IRF was characterized by minimal dispersion (1-2 s FWHM). Deconvolution of the measured arterial input curves with the IRF changed the measured curve only minimally. Whole blood radioactivity concentration derived from manual and on-line sampling were in excellent agreement. The curves derived from on-line sampling were of high statistical quality. In conclusion, a femoral a-v shunt allows multiple manipulations such as measurement of the arterial whole blood activity, continuous blood pressure monitoring, injection of the tracer and collection of blood samples if necessary. It is not associated with blood loss if the collection of blood samples is not required. It is more convenient to use than manual sampling, the peak of the input curve is never missed and the input curves are of high statistical quality. (orig.)

  1. Sonographic measurement of fetal aortic size: Normative values in a sample of normal fetuses in a Lagos suburb, Southwest Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, C.U.; Ilounoh, C.E.; Irurhe, N.K.; Akpochafor, M.O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common congenital anomalies while prenatal ultrasound screening is a necessity even in low risk populations. Aim: To measure fetal ascending aortic diameter (AAD) between 18 and 38 weeks of gestation in order to provide a normal reference data for the population studied. Method: In the prospective cross sectional study, a sample of 300 healthy pregnant women was selected to undergo trans-abdominal echocardiography. Data Collection: Logiq 3 ultrasound machine fitted with a 3.5 MHz–5 MHz variable curvilinear transducer was used for data collection. Results: Mean AAD was 4.59 ± 1.56 mm. There was a linear relationship between AAD and gestational age (GA) while there was a strong positive correlation between AAD and GA (r = 0.9915). Mean AAD for male and female fetuses was 4.60 ± 0.57 mm and 4.58 ± 0.55 mm respectively and the difference in mean AAD was not significant (p = 0.8420) between both sexes. Mean AAD in the study was significantly different from the mean AAD in a European and Asian studies (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Trans-abdominal echocardiography carried out between the 18th and 38th week of gestation appears useful in screening for CHD especially if screening is performed by an experienced sonographer using a high resolution ultrasound machine. - Highlights: • The mean ascending aortic diameter (AAD) in the population is 4.59 ± 1.56 mm. • The mean AAD for male and female fetuses is 4.60 ± 0.57 mm and 4.58 ± 0.55 mm respectively. • No significant difference in mean AAD in the population with respect to sex (p = 0.8420). • Mean AAD in the population is significantly different from European and Asian data (p = 0.001). • Trans-abdominal echocardiography performed for CHD screening appears useful.

  2. Fetal body weight and the development of the control of the cardiovascular system in fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasch, M G; Müller, T; Wicher, C; Weiss, C; Löhle, M; Schwab, K; Schubert, H; Nathanielsz, P W; Witte, O W; Schwab, M

    2007-03-15

    Reduced birth weight predisposes to cardiovascular diseases in later life. We examined in fetal sheep at 0.76 (n = 18) and 0.87 (n = 17) gestation whether spontaneously occurring variations in fetal weight affect maturation of autonomic control of cardiovascular function. Fetal weights at both gestational ages were grouped statistically in low (LW) and normal weights (NW) (P fetal sheep not constituting a major malnutritive condition. Mean fetal blood pressure (FBP) of all fetuses was negatively correlated to fetal weight at 0.76 but not 0.87 gestation (P fetal heart rate depended on fetal weight (P fetal weight within the normal weight span is accompanied by a different trajectory of development of sympathetic blood pressure and vagal heart rate control. This may contribute to the development of elevated blood pressure in later life. Examination of the underlying mechanisms and consequences may contribute to the understanding of programming of cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Total reflection x-ray analysis of metals in blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takuya; Matsui, Hiroshi; Kawamata, Masaya

    2009-01-01

    The sample preparation for TXRF (total reflection X-ray fluorescence) quantitative analysis of trace elements in human blood samples was investigated. In the TXRF analysis, a solution sample is dropped and dried on a flat substrate, and then the dried residue is measured. In this case, the dried residue should be flat not to disturb X-ray total reflection on the substrate. In addition, it is required to simply measure the whole blood sample by TXRF method, although a serum is analyzed in many cases. Thus, we studied the optimum conditions of the sample preparation of the whole blood by adding the pure water to apply Hemolysis phenomenon, where blood cells are destroyed due to different of the osmotic pressure, leading to flat residue. It was found that the best S/B ratio was obtained when the whole blood was diluted 8 times with pure water. Moreover, it was investigated the influence of the surface chemical condition of the glass substrate on the shape of the dried reside of the blood sample. When the surface of the glass substrate was hydrophilic, the shape of the dried residues was not uniform, as a result, the quantitative data of TXRF analysis gave a large deviation. On the other hand, when the surface of the glass was hydrophobic, the shape of the residue was almost uniform, as a result, a good reproducibility was obtained. Another problem was an outer ring of the dried residue of the blood. This uneven ring absorbs the primary X-rays, caused to low determined quantitative data. Thus, we tried the heating way of the dropped blood sample at a high temperature of 200 degrees. In this case, the blood sample was dried immediately, and a flat homogeneous dried residue was obtained without the outer ring. Using the optimized conditions for sample preparation, human blood sample was quantitatively measured by TXRF and ICP-AES. A good agreement was obtained in TXRF and ICP-AES determinations; however, the measurement of Cl and Br will be an advantage of TXRF, because

  4. Thermal activation of catalytic microjets in blood samples using microfluidic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Lluís; Martínez-Cisneros, Cynthia; Swiersy, Anka; Sánchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2013-11-21

    We demonstrate that catalytic microjet engines can out-swim high complex media composed of red blood cells and serum. Despite the challenge presented by the high viscosity of the solution at room temperature, the catalytic microjets can be activated at physiological temperature and, consequently, self-propel in diluted solutions of blood samples. We prove that these microjets self-propel in 10× diluted blood samples using microfluidic chips.

  5. Thermal activation of catalytic microjets in blood samples using microfluidic chips†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Lluís; Martínez-Cisneros, Cynthia; Swiersy, Anka; Sánchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that catalytic microjet engines can out-swim high complex media composed of red blood cells and serum. Despite the challenge presented by the high viscosity of the solution at room temperature, the catalytic microjets can be activated at physiological temperature and, consequently, self-propel in diluted solutions of blood samples. We prove that these microjets self-propel in 10× diluted blood samples using microfluidic chips. PMID:24089195

  6. In Vitro Large Scale Production of Human Mature Red Blood Cells from Hematopoietic Stem Cells by Coculturing with Human Fetal Liver Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiafei Xi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro models of human erythropoiesis are useful in studying the mechanisms of erythroid differentiation in normal and pathological conditions. Here we describe an erythroid liquid culture system starting from cord blood derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. HSCs were cultured for more than 50 days in erythroid differentiation conditions and resulted in a more than 109-fold expansion within 50 days under optimal conditions. Homogeneous erythroid cells were characterized by cell morphology, flow cytometry, and hematopoietic colony assays. Furthermore, terminal erythroid maturation was improved by cosculturing with human fetal liver stromal cells. Cocultured erythroid cells underwent multiple maturation events, including decrease in size, increase in glycophorin A expression, and nuclear condensation. This process resulted in extrusion of the pycnotic nuclei in up to 80% of the cells. Importantly, they possessed the capacity to express the adult definitive β-globin chain upon further maturation. We also show that the oxygen equilibrium curves of the cord blood-differentiated red blood cells (RBCs are comparable to normal RBCs. The large number and purity of erythroid cells and RBCs produced from cord blood make this method useful for fundamental research in erythroid development, and they also provide a basis for future production of available RBCs for transfusion.

  7. Prevalence of xenobiotic substances in first-trimester blood samples from Danish pregnant women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Sissel Kramer; Larsen, Agnete; Andreasen, Mette Findal; Lesnikova, Iana; Telving, Rasmus; Vestergaard, Anna Louise; Tørring, Niels; Uldbjerg, Niels; Bor, Pinar

    2018-03-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of xenobiotic substances, such as caffeine, nicotine and illicit drugs (eg, cannabis and cocaine), in blood samples from first-trimester Danish pregnant women unaware of the screening. A cross - sectional study examined 436 anonymised residual blood samples obtained during 2014 as part of the nationwide prenatal first-trimester screening programme. The samples were analysed by ultra performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. An antenatal clinic in a Danish city with 62 000 inhabitants, where >95% of pregnant women joined the screening programme. The prevalence and patterns of caffeine, nicotine, medication and illicit drug intake during the first trimester of pregnancy. The prevalence of prescription and over-the-counter drug detection was 17.9%, including acetaminophen (8.9%) and antidepressants (3.0%), of which citalopram (0.9%) was the most frequent. The prevalence of illegal drugs, indicators of smoking (nicotine/cotinine) and caffeine was 0.9%, 9.9%, and 76.4%, respectively. Only 17.4% of women had no substance identified in their sample. This study emphasises the need for further translational studies investigating lifestyle habits during pregnancy, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms through which xenobiotic substances may affect placental function and fetal development. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2014-01-01

    Capillary sampling is increasingly used to obtain blood for laboratory tests in volumes as small as necessary and as non-invasively as possible. Whether capillary blood sampling is also frequent in Croatia, and whether it is performed according to international laboratory standards is unclear. All medical laboratories that participate in the Croatian National External Quality Assessment Program (N = 204) were surveyed on-line to collect information about the laboratory's parent institution, patient population, types and frequencies of laboratory tests based on capillary blood samples, choice of reference intervals, and policies and procedures specifically related to capillary sampling. Sampling practices were compared with guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Of the 204 laboratories surveyed, 174 (85%) responded with complete questionnaires. Among the 174 respondents, 155 (89%) reported that they routinely perform capillary sampling, which is carried out by laboratory staff in 118 laboratories (76%). Nearly half of respondent laboratories (48%) do not have a written protocol including order of draw for multiple sampling. A single puncture site is used to provide capillary blood for up to two samples at 43% of laboratories that occasionally or regularly perform such sampling. Most respondents (88%) never perform arterialisation prior to capillary blood sampling. Capillary blood sampling is highly prevalent in Croatia across different types of clinical facilities and patient populations. Capillary sampling procedures are not standardised in the country, and the rate of laboratory compliance with CLSI and WHO guidelines is low.

  9. Single injection 51Cr EDTA plasma clearance determination in children using capillary blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broechner-Mortensen, J.; Christoffersen, J.

    1977-01-01

    The reliability of a determination of the total 51 Cr EDTA plasma clearance (e) (and with it the glomerular filtration rate), by a simplified single injection method (injected dose: 4.5 μCi per kg b.w.) using capillary blood samples (0.2 ml), was investigated in twenty children. Clearance values determined from capillary blood samples did not differ significantly from those measured simultaneously from venous blood samples, the mean ratio+-SD being 1.02+-0.06(n = 10). The reproducibility (total day-to-day variation) of E determined from capillary blood samples was 6.7% in children with decreased renal function (n = 3) and 6.9% in children with normal renal function (n = 7). The present data indicate that the use of capillary blood samples is an accurate and very precise approach for determination of E in children. (Auth.)

  10. Relative Abundance of Proteins in Blood Plasma Samples from Patients with Chronic Cerebral Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysheva, Anna L; Kopylov, Artur T; Ponomarenko, Elena A; Kiseleva, Olga I; Teryaeva, Nadezhda B; Potapov, Alexander A; Izotov, Alexander А; Morozov, Sergei G; Kudryavtseva, Valeria Yu; Archakov, Alexander I

    2018-03-01

    A comparative protein profile analysis of 17 blood plasma samples from patients with ischemia and 20 samples from healthy volunteers was carried out using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. The analysis of measurements was performed using the proteomics search engine OMSSA. Normalized spectrum abundance factor (NSAF) in the biological samples was assessed using SearchGUI. The findings of mass spectrometry analysis of the protein composition of blood plasma samples demonstrate that the depleted samples are quite similar in protein composition and relative abundance of proteins. By comparing them with the control samples, we have found a small group of 44 proteins characteristic of the blood plasma samples from patients with chronic cerebral ischemia. These proteins contribute to the processes of homeostasis maintenance, including innate immune response unfolding, the response of a body to stress, and contribution to the blood clotting cascade.

  11. Effect of red blood cell aggregation and sedimentation on optical coherence tomography signals from blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillin, M Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Tuchin, V V; Wang, R K; Myllylae, R

    2005-01-01

    In this work, Monte Carlo simulation is used to obtain model optical coherence tomography (OCT) signals from a horizontally orientated blood layer at different stages of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and sedimentation processes. The parameters for aggregating and sedimenting blood cells were chosen based on the data available from the literature and our earlier experimental studies. We consider two different cases: a suspension of washed RBCs in physiological solution (where aggregation does not take place) and RBCs in blood plasma (which provides necessary conditions for aggregation). Good agreement of the simulation results with the available experimental data shows that the chosen optical parameters are reasonable. The dependence of the numbers of photons contributing to the OCT signal on the number of experienced scattering events was analysed for each simulated signal. It was shown that the maxima of these dependences correspond to the peaks in the OCT signals related to the interfaces between the layers of blood plasma and blood cells. Their positions can be calculated from the optical thicknesses of the layers, and the absorption and scattering coefficients of the media

  12. Synergistic Effect of Sodium Butyrate and Thalidomide in the Induction of Fetal Hemoglobin Expression in Erythroid Progenitors Derived from Cord Blood CD133 + Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dehghanifard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of drugs with the ability to induce production of fetal hemoglobin as a novel therapeutic approach in treating β-Hemoglobinopathies is considered. γ-globin gene expression inducer drugs including sodium butyrate and thalidomide can reduce additional α-globin chains accumulation in erythroid precursors. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, MACS kit was used to isolate CD133+ cells of umbilical cord blood. Further, the effect of two drugs of thalidomide and sodium butyrate were separately and combined studied on the induction of quantitative expression of β-globin and γ-globin genes in erythroid precursor cells derived from CD133+ stem cells in-vitro. For this purpose, the technique SYBR green Real-time PCR was used.Results: Flow cytometry results showed that approximately 95% of purified cells were CD133+. Real-time PCR results also showed the increased levels of γ-globin mRNA in the cell groups treated with thalidomide, sodium butyrate and combination of drugs as 2.6 and 1.2 and 3.5 times respectively, and for β-globin gene, it is respectively 1.4 and 1.3 and 1.6 times compared with the control group (p<0.05.Conclusion: The study results showed that the mentioned drug combination can act as a pharmaceutical composition affecting the induction of fetal hemoglobin expression in erythroid precursor cells derived from CD133 + cells.

  13. Microcapillary blood sampling for serological examinations by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme immunoassay (ELISA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodak, L; Smid, B; Valicek, L; Jurak, E [Vyzkumny Ustav Veterinarniho Lekarstvi, Brno-Medlanky (Czechoslovakia)

    1984-01-01

    Methods were tested of sampling blood and blood serum for serological examinations on filtration paper and into heparinized glass capillaries with transfer into the dilution solution of the given composition. Samples were also examined for ACH virus antibodies. The suitability of the sampling was verified by an examination of samples using ELISA and RIA methods. The results showed the suitability of sampling using microcapillaries. The titres of virus antibodies found using the ELISA and RIA methods were identical and the sensitivity of antibody detection was not reduced even after the sample had been stored for 60 days at a temperature of 20 degC.

  14. Microcapillary blood sampling for serological examinations by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme immunoassay (ELISA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodak, L.; Smid, B.; Valicek, L.; Jurak, E.

    1984-01-01

    Methods were tested of sampling blood and blood serum for serological examinations on filtration paper and into heparinized glass capillaries with transfer into the dilution solution of the given composition. Samples were also examined for ACH virus antibodies. The suitability of the sampling was verified by an examination of samples usiOg ELISA and RIA methods. The results showed the suitability of sampling using microcapillaries. The titres of virus antibodies found using the ELISA and RIA methods were identical and the sensitivity of antibody detection was not reduced even after the sample had been stored for 60 days at a temperature of 20 degC. (B.S.)

  15. Cell free expression of hif1α and p21 in maternal peripheral blood as a marker for preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osnat Ashur-Fabian

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia, a severe unpredictable complication of pregnancy, occurs in 6% of pregnancies, usually in the second or third trimester. The specific etiology of preeclampsia remains unclear, although the pathophysiological hallmark of this condition appears to be an inadequate blood supply to the placenta. As a result of the impaired placental blood flow, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and consequential fetal oxidative stress may occur. Consistent with this view, pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and IUGR are characterized by up-regulation of key transcriptional regulators of the hypoxic response including, hif1α and as well as p53 and its target genes. Recently, the presence of circulating cell-free fetal RNA has been documented in maternal plasma. We speculated that pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and IUGR, will be associated with an abnormal expression of p53 and/or hif1α related genes in the maternal plasma. Maternal plasma from 113 singleton pregnancies (72 normal and 41 complicated pregnancies and 19 twins (9 normal and 10 complicated pregnancies were collected and cell free RNA was extracted. The expression of 18 genes was measured by one step real-time RT-PCR and was analyzed for prevalence of positive/negative expression levels. Results indicate that, among the genes examined, cell free plasma expressions of p21 and hif1α were more prevalent in pregnancies complicated by hypoxia and/or IUGR (p<0.001. To conclude, we present in this manuscript data to support the association between two possible surrogate markers of hypoxia and common complications of pregnancy. More work is needed in order to implement these findings in clinical practice.

  16. Towards a non-invasive method for early detection of testicular neoplasia in semen samples by identification of fetal germ cell-specific markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, C E; Carlsen, E; Jorgensen, N

    2007-01-01

    /gonocyte markers is presented. METHODS: Immunocytological staining for AP-2gamma [and in some cases, OCT-3/4, NANOG or placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP)] was performed in semen samples from 294 infertile patients and 209 patients with TGCTs or other diseases. RESULTS: Presence of AP-2gamma-stained cells...... but reduced in participants with overt TGCTs, perhaps because of obstruction. Assay specificity was 93.6%, positive predictive value (PPV) 83.3% and negative predictive value (NPV) 60.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Immunocytological semen analysis based on expression of fetal germ cell markers in exfoliated cells has...

  17. Use of filter paper blood samples for rabies antibody detection in foxes and raccoon dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasniewski, Marine; Barrat, Jacques; Combes, Benoit; Guiot, Anne Laure; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-08-01

    The effectiveness of oral rabies vaccination in wildlife is usually evaluated by the detection of rabies antibodies. However, the assessment of rabies antibodies has several technical difficulties in the field, such as the collection, storage, transport and titration of blood samples, often of poor quality. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of collecting blood on a filter paper (FP) coupled with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titration of rabies antibodies in raccoon dogs and red foxes. The FP blood sampling method was found highly specific and repeatable in both species. Overall, results obtained with the FP sampling method were highly concordant with the conventional (venipuncture) sampling methods. Blood eluates from FP samples from foxes and raccoon dogs tested using ELISA showed concordance values of 92% and 95%, respectively, with serum samples tested using the seroneutralisation test and values of 95% and 91%, respectively, when the ELISA was used on both types of sample. The use of FP blood sampling coupled with the titration of rabies antibodies by ELISA provides a reliable alternative to conventional blood sampling and serum testing by seroneutralisation. This simple procedure is particularly attractive and cost-effective for assessing the effectiveness of oral rabies vaccination in field conditions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A method to quantitate cerebral blood flow using a rotating gamma camera and iodine-123 iodoamphetamine with one blood sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Hidehiro; Itoh, Hiroshi; Bloomfield, P.M.; Munaka, Masahiro; Higano, Shuichi; Murakami, Matsutaro; Inugami, Atsushi; Eberl, S.; Aizawa, Yasuo; Kanno, Iwao; Uemura, Kazuo

    1994-01-01

    A method has been developed to quantitate regional cerebral blood blow (rCBF) using iodine-123-labelled N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP). This technique requires only two single-photon emission tomography (SPET) scans and one blood sample. Based on a two-compartment model, radioactivity concentrations in the brain for each scan time are calculated. A standard input function has been generated by combining the input functions from 12 independent studies prior to this work to avoid frequent arterial blood sampling, and one blood sample is taken at 10 min following IMP administration for calibration of the standard arterial input function. This calibration time was determined such that the integration of the first 40 min of the calibrated, combined input function agreed best with those from 12 individual input functions (the difference was 5.3% on average). This method was applied to eight subjects (two normals and six patients with cerebral infarction), and yielded rCBF values which agreed well with those obtained by a positron emission tomography H 2 15 O autoradiography method. This method was also found to provide rCBF values that were consistent with those obtained by the non-linear least squares fitting technique and those obtained by conventional microsphere model analysis. The optimum SPET scan times were found to be 40 and 180 min for the early and delayed scans, respectively. These scan times allow the use of a conventional rotating gamma camera for clinical purposes. V d values ranged between 10 and 40 ml/g depending on the pathological condition, thereby suggesting the importance of measuring V d for each ROI. In conclusion, optimization of the blood sampling time and the scanning time enabled quantitative measurement of rCBF with two SPET scans and one blood sample. (orig.)

  19. Use of Capillary Blood Samples Leads to Higher Parasitemia Estimates and Higher Diagnostic Sensitivity of Microscopic and Molecular Diagnostics of Malaria than Venous Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischlinger, Johannes; Pitzinger, Paul; Veletzky, Luzia; Groger, Mirjam; Zoleko-Manego, Rella; Adegnika, Ayola A; Agnandji, Selidji T; Lell, Bertrand; Kremsner, Peter G; Tannich, Egbert; Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Ramharter, Michael

    2018-05-25

    Diagnosis of malaria is usually based on samples of peripheral blood. However, it is unclear whether capillary (CAP) or venous (VEN) blood samples provide better diagnostic performance. Quantitative differences of parasitemia between CAP and VEN blood and diagnostic performance characteristics were investigated. Patients were recruited between September 2015 and February 2016 in Gabon. Light microscopy and qPCR quantified parasitemia of paired CAP and VEN samples, whose preparation followed the exact same methodology. CAP and VEN performance characteristics using microscopy were evaluated against a qPCR gold-standard. Microscopy revealed a median (IQR) parasites/L of 495 (853,243) in CAP and 429 (524,074) in VEN samples manifesting in a +16.6% (p=0.04) higher CAPparasitemia compared with VENparasitemia. Concordantly, qPCR demonstrated that -0.278 (p=0.006) cycles were required for signal detection in CAP samples. CAPsensitivity of microscopy relative to the gold-standard was 81.5% (77.485.6%) versus VENsensitivity of 73.4% (68.878.1%), while CAPspecificity and VENspecificity were 91%. CAPsensitivity and VENsensitivity dropped to 63.3% and 45.9%, respectively for a sub-population of low-level parasitemias while specificities were 92%. CAP sampling leads to higher parasitemias compared to VEN sampling and improves diagnostic sensitivity. These findings may have important implications for routine diagnostics, research and elimination campaigns of malaria.

  20. Detection of drugs in 275 alcohol-positive blood samples of Korean drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunmi; Choe, Sanggil; Lee, Juseon; Jang, Moonhee; Choi, Hyeyoung; Chung, Heesun

    2016-08-01

    Since driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) is as dangerous as drink-driving, many countries regulate DUID by law. However, laws against the use of drugs while driving are not yet established in Korea. In order to investigate the type and frequency of drugs used by drivers in Korea, we analyzed controlled and non-controlled drugs in alcohol-positive blood samples. Total 275 blood samples were taken from Korean drivers, which were positive in roadside alcohol testing. The following analyses were performed: blood alcohol concentrations by GC; screening for controlled drugs by immunoassay and confirmation for positive samples by GC-MS. For the detection of DUID related drugs in blood samples, a total of 49 drugs were selected and were examined by GC-MS. For a rapid detection of these drugs, an automated identification software called "DrugMan" was used. Concentrations of alcohol in 275 blood samples ranged from 0.011 to 0.249% (average 0.119%). Six specimens showed positive results by immunoassay: one methamphetamine and five benzodiazepines I. By GC-MS confirmation, only benzodiazepines in four cases were identified, while methamphetamine and benzodiazepine in two cases were not detected from the presumptive positive blood samples. Using DrugMan, four drugs were detected; chlorpheniramine (5)*, diazepam (4), dextromethorphan (1) and doxylamine (1). In addition, ibuprofen (1), lidocaine (1) and topiramate (1) were also detected as general drugs in blood samples ('*' indicates frequency). The frequency of drug abuse by Korean drivers was relatively low and a total 14 cases were positive in 275 blood samples with a ratio of 5%. However it is necessary to analyze more samples including alcohol negative blood, and to expand the range of drug lists to get the detailed information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Human blood RNA stabilization in samples collected and transported for a large biobank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is a nation-wide population-based pregnancy cohort initiated in 1999, comprising more than 108.000 pregnancies recruited between 1999 and 2008. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of integrating RNA analyses into existing MoBa protocols. We compared two different blood RNA collection tube systems – the PAXgene™ Blood RNA system and the Tempus™ Blood RNA system - and assessed the effects of suboptimal blood volumes in collection tubes and of transportation of blood samples by standard mail. Endpoints to characterize the samples were RNA quality and yield, and the RNA transcript stability of selected genes. Findings High-quality RNA could be extracted from blood samples stabilized with both PAXgene and Tempus tubes. The RNA yields obtained from the blood samples collected in Tempus tubes were consistently higher than from PAXgene tubes. Higher RNA yields were obtained from cord blood (3 – 4 times) compared to adult blood with both types of tubes. Transportation of samples by standard mail had moderate effects on RNA quality and RNA transcript stability; the overall RNA quality of the transported samples was high. Some unexplained changes in gene expression were noted, which seemed to correlate with suboptimal blood volumes collected in the tubes. Temperature variations during transportation may also be of some importance. Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that special collection tubes are necessary for RNA stabilization and they should be used for establishing new biobanks. We also show that the 50,000 samples collected in the MoBa biobank provide RNA of high quality and in sufficient amounts to allow gene expression analyses for studying the association of disease with altered patterns of gene expression. PMID:22988904

  2. Ehrlichia canis morulae and DNA detection in whole blood and spleen aspiration samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Joice Lara Maia; Dagnone, Ana Sílvia; Munhoz, Thiago Demarchi; João, Carolina Franchi; Pereira, Wanderson Adriano Biscola; Machado, Rosângela Zacarias; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the detection of Ehrlichia canis morulae and DNA by nPCR in whole blood and spleen aspiration. The sample included 40 dogs showing thrombocytopenia associated to clinical signs suggestive of canine ehrlichiosis. Morulae detection showed that in 35 of the dogs studied, 17 had morulae in spleen tissue, and two in buffy coat smears. E. canis DNA was detected in 29/40 blood samples. We verified that morulae detection is more efficient in cytological preparations from spleen aspiration. On the other hand, nPCR on spleen and blood samples were equally efficient for disease diagnosis.

  3. Pediatric blood sample collection from a pre-existing peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniff, Heather; DeCarlo, Ann; Haskamp, Amy Corey; Broome, Marion E

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to minimize pain in a hospitalized child, the purpose of this observational study was to describe characteristics of blood samples collected from pre-existing peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheters in pediatric patients. One hundred and fifty blood samples were reviewed for number of unusable samples requiring a specimen to be re-drawn. Success of the blood draw and prevalence of the loss of the PIV following blood collection was also measured. Findings included one clotted specimen, success rate of 91.3%, and 1.3% of PIVs becoming non-functional after collection. Obtaining blood specimens from a pre-existing PIV should be considered in a pediatric patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Proposing an Empirically Justified Reference Threshold for Blood Culture Sampling Rates in Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Stefanie; Schwab, Frank; Geffers, Christine; Bongartz, Hannah; Brunkhorst, Frank M.; Gastmeier, Petra; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.

    2014-01-01

    Early and appropriate blood culture sampling is recommended as a standard of care for patients with suspected bloodstream infections (BSI) but is rarely taken into account when quality indicators for BSI are evaluated. To date, sampling of about 100 to 200 blood culture sets per 1,000 patient-days is recommended as the target range for blood culture rates. However, the empirical basis of this recommendation is not clear. The aim of the current study was to analyze the association between blood culture rates and observed BSI rates and to derive a reference threshold for blood culture rates in intensive care units (ICUs). This study is based on data from 223 ICUs taking part in the German hospital infection surveillance system. We applied locally weighted regression and segmented Poisson regression to assess the association between blood culture rates and BSI rates. Below 80 to 90 blood culture sets per 1,000 patient-days, observed BSI rates increased with increasing blood culture rates, while there was no further increase above this threshold. Segmented Poisson regression located the threshold at 87 (95% confidence interval, 54 to 120) blood culture sets per 1,000 patient-days. Only one-third of the investigated ICUs displayed blood culture rates above this threshold. We provided empirical justification for a blood culture target threshold in ICUs. In the majority of the studied ICUs, blood culture sampling rates were below this threshold. This suggests that a substantial fraction of BSI cases might remain undetected; reporting observed BSI rates as a quality indicator without sufficiently high blood culture rates might be misleading. PMID:25520442

  5. Maternal protein-energy malnutrition during early pregnancy in sheep impacts the fetal ornithine cycle to reduce fetal kidney microvascular development.

    OpenAIRE

    Dunford, L. J.; Sinclair, K. D.; Kwong, W. Y.; Sturrock, C.; Clifford, B. L.; Giles, T. C.; Gardner, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies a common nutritional pathway relating maternal through to fetal protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and compromised fetal kidney development. Thirty-one twin-bearing sheep were fed either a control (n=15) or low-protein diet (n=16, 17 vs. 8.7 g crude protein/MJ metabolizable energy) from d 0 to 65 gestation (term, ?145 d). Effects on the maternal and fetal nutritional environment were characterized by sampling blood and amniotic fluid. Kidney development was characterized ...

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis antibody detection in home-collected blood samples for use in epidemiological studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenderboom, B M; van Ess, E F; van den Broek, I V F; van Loo, I H M; Hoebe, C J P A; Ouburg, S; Morré, S A

    Capillary blood collected in serum tubes was subjected to centrifugation delay while stored at room temperature. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) IgG concentrations in aliquoted serum of these blood samples remained stable for seven days after collection. CT IgG concentrations can reliably be measured in

  7. The applying of multisensory system to assessment of blood samples by composition of equilibrium gaseous phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kuchmenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article discussed the possibility of blood sample’s assessment with the following diagnostic characteristics: "endometriosis", "fibroids", "uterine body cancer" by the signals of multisensor system. It has been found that blood samples can be reliably ranking into groups according to their diagnostic characteristics using the geometry, square of "visual prints" and the sorption effectiveness parameters max ij А.

  8. Evaluation of some toxic metals in blood samples of smokers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine some toxic elements in the blood of cigarette and tobacco pipe smokers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study setting was Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh City. Male volunteers, aged 20 - 58 year, whose blood samples were collected, were classified into three groups of ...

  9. Hemoglobin in samples with leukocytosis can be measured on ABL 700 series blood gas analyzers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharnhorst, V.; Laar, van der P.D.; Vader, H.

    2003-01-01

    To compare lactate, bilirubin and Hemoglobin F concentrations obtained on ABL 700 series blood gas analyzers with those from laboratory methods. Pooled neonatal plasma, cord blood and adult plasma samples were used for comparison of bilirubin, hemoglobin F and lactate concentrations respectively.

  10. The Effect of Pneumatic Tube Systems on the Hemolysis of Biochemistry Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakirca, Gokhan; Erdal, Huseyin

    2017-05-01

    Pneumatic tube systems (PTSs) are widely used in many hospitals because they lead to reduced turnaround times and cost efficiency. However, PTSs may affect the quality of the blood samples transported to the laboratory. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the PTS used in our hospital on the hemolysis of the biochemical blood samples transported to the laboratory. A total of 148 samples were manually transported to the laboratory by hospital staff, 148 samples were transported with the PTS, and 113 were transported with the PTS without use of sponge-rubber inserts (PTSws). Hemolysis rates and the levels of biochemical analytes for the different transportation methods were compared. No significant difference was found between the samples transported manually and with the PTS with regard to hemolysis rate and the levels of biochemical analytes. However, the samples transported with the PTSws showed a significant difference compared with the samples transported manually and with the PTS with regard to hemolysis rate and potassium and lactate dehydrogenase levels. The percentages of the samples that exceeded the permissible threshold for the hemolysis among the samples transported manually, with the PTS, and with the PTSws were 10%, 8%, and 47%, respectively. A PTS can be used safely for transporting biochemistry blood samples to the laboratory. However, a sponge-rubber insert that holds sample tubes must be used with the PTS to prevent the hemolysis of blood samples. Copyright © 2016 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Non invasive prenatal diagnosis: analysis of circulating fetal DNA and cells in maternal blood El diagnóstico prenatal no invasor: análisis de células y ADN fetal circulantes en la sangre materna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cecilia Jaramillo Posada

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Prenatal non invasive diagnosis by means of analyses of foetal DNA or cells circulating in maternal blood is one of the most promising areas of obstetrics. Among maternal diseases that could be diagnosed by these methods, or whose behaviour could be predicted, are preeclampsia, growth restriction and preterm labour. Some foetal conditions that could be detected are sex, chromosomal anomalies and single-gene defects. However, these are complex and expensive techniques that are not regularly performed in health care institutions. With this review we intend to provide the readers with up to date information on the main techniques available for the study of circulating foetal cells and DNA, and on their possible clinical applications. The review was based on a search for journals indexed up to 2008 in Pubmed, Scielo and Latindex. Especially relevant articles were chosen by the authors.

    El diagnóstico prenatal temprano y no invasor por medio del análisis de células o ADN fetales circulantes en la sangre materna es un área prometedora de la obstetricia moderna. Entre las enfermedades que se pueden diagnosticar o cuyo comportamiento es posible predecir por estos métodos se encuentran la preeclampsia, la restricción del crecimiento intrauterino y el parto pretérmino. Algunas condiciones fetales que podrían detectarse son el sexo, ciertas anomalías cromosómicas y los defectos de un solo gen. Sin

  12. Automated Blood Sample Preparation Unit (ABSPU) for Portable Microfluidic Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Akhil; Gorthi, Sai Siva

    2017-02-01

    Portable microfluidic diagnostic devices, including flow cytometers, are being developed for point-of-care settings, especially in conjunction with inexpensive imaging devices such as mobile phone cameras. However, two pervasive drawbacks of these have been the lack of automated sample preparation processes and cells settling out of sample suspensions, leading to inaccurate results. We report an automated blood sample preparation unit (ABSPU) to prevent blood samples from settling in a reservoir during loading of samples in flow cytometers. This apparatus automates the preanalytical steps of dilution and staining of blood cells prior to microfluidic loading. It employs an assembly with a miniature vibration motor to drive turbulence in a sample reservoir. To validate performance of this system, we present experimental evidence demonstrating prevention of blood cell settling, cell integrity, and staining of cells prior to flow cytometric analysis. This setup is further integrated with a microfluidic imaging flow cytometer to investigate cell count variability. With no need for prior sample preparation, a drop of whole blood can be directly introduced to the setup without premixing with buffers manually. Our results show that integration of this assembly with microfluidic analysis provides a competent automation tool for low-cost point-of-care blood-based diagnostics.

  13. The effects of storage temperature and duration of blood samples on DNA and RNA qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lien-Hung; Lin, Pei-Hsien; Tsai, Kuo-Wang; Wang, Liang-Jen; Huang, Ying-Hsien; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Li, Sung-Chou

    2017-01-01

    DNA and RNA samples from blood are the common examination target for non-invasive physical tests and/or biomedical studies. Since high-quality DNA and RNA samples guarantee the correctness of these tests and/or studies, we investigated the effects of storage temperature and storage duration of whole blood on DNA and RNA qualities. Subjects were enrolled to donate blood samples which were stored for different durations and at different temperatures, followed by the examinations on RNA quality, qPCR, DNA quality and DNA methylation. For RNA, we observed obvious quality decline with storage duration longer than 24 hours. Storage at low temperature does not keep RNA samples from degradation. And, storing whole blood samples in freezer dramatically damage RNA. For DNA, quality decline was not observed even with storage duration for 15 days. However, DNA methylation significantly altered with storage duration longer than three days. Storage duration within 24 hours is critical for collecting high-quality RNA samples for next-generation sequencing (NGS) assays (RIN≧8). If microarray assays are expected (RIN≧7), storage duration within 32 hours is acceptable. Although DNA is resistant within 15 days when kept in whole blood, DNA quantity dramatically decreases owing to WBC lysis. In addition, duration for more than three days significantly alter DNA methylation status, globally and locally. Our result provides a reference for dealing with blood samples.

  14. Effects of Transport and Storage Conditions on Gene Expression in Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malentacchi, Francesca; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Wyrich, Ralf; Verderio, Paolo; Ciniselli, Chiara; Pazzagli, Mario; Gelmini, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Inappropriate handling of blood samples might induce or repress gene expression and/or lead to RNA degradation affecting downstream analysis. In particular, sample transport is a critical step for biobanking or multicenter studies because of uncontrolled variables (i.e., unstable temperature). We report the results of a pilot study implemented within the EC funded SPIDIA project, aimed to investigate the role of transport and storage of blood samples containing and not containing an RNA stabilizer. Blood was collected from a single donor both in EDTA and in PAXgene Blood RNA tubes. Half of the samples were sent to a second laboratory both at room temperature and at 4°C, whereas the remaining samples were stored at room temperature and at 4°C. Gene expression of selected genes (c-FOS, IL-1β, IL-8, and GAPDH) known to be induced or repressed by ex vivo blood handling and of blood-mRNA quality biomarkers identified and validated within the SPIDIA project, which allow for monitoring changes in unstabilized blood samples after collection and during transport and storage, were analyzed by RT-qPCR. If the shipment of blood in tubes not containing RNA stabilizer is not performed under a stable condition, gene profile studies can be affected by the effects of transport. Moreover, also controlled temperature shipment (4°C) can influence the expression of specific genes if blood is collected in tubes not containing a stabilizer. The use of dedicated biomarkers or time course experiments should be performed in order to verify potential bias on gene expression analysis due to sample shipment and storage conditions. Alternatively, the use of RNA stabilizer containing tubes can represent a reliable option to avoid ex vivo RNA changes.

  15. Automated dried blood spots standard and QC sample preparation using a robotic liquid handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Long; Zhang, Duxi; Aubry, Anne-Francoise; Arnold, Mark E

    2012-12-01

    A dried blood spot (DBS) bioanalysis assay involves many steps, such as the preparation of standard (STD) and QC samples in blood, the spotting onto DBS cards, and the cutting-out of the spots. These steps are labor intensive and time consuming if done manually, which, therefore, makes automation very desirable in DBS bioanalysis. A robotic liquid handler was successfully applied to the preparation of STD and QC samples in blood and to spot the blood samples onto DBS cards using buspirone as the model compound. This automated preparation was demonstrated to be accurate and consistent. However the accuracy and precision of automated preparation were similar to those from manual preparation. The effect of spotting volume on accuracy was evaluated and a trend of increasing concentrations of buspirone with increasing spotting volumes was observed. The automated STD and QC sample preparation process significantly improved the efficiency, robustness and safety of DBS bioanalysis.

  16. Standardised Resting Time Prior to Blood Sampling and Diurnal Variation Associated with Risk of Patient Misclassification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh Andersen, Ida; Brasen, Claus L.; Christensen, Henry

    2015-01-01

    .9×10-7) and sodium (p = 8.7×10-16). Only TSH and albumin were clinically significantly influenced by diurnal variation. Resting time had no clinically significant effect. CONCLUSIONS: We found no need for resting 15 minutes prior to blood sampling. However, diurnal variation was found to have a significant......BACKGROUND: According to current recommendations, blood samples should be taken in the morning after 15 minutes' resting time. Some components exhibit diurnal variation and in response to pressures to expand opening hours and reduce waiting time, the aims of this study were to investigate...... the impact of resting time prior to blood sampling and diurnal variation on biochemical components, including albumin, thyrotropin (TSH), total calcium and sodium in plasma. METHODS: All patients referred to an outpatient clinic for blood sampling were included in the period Nov 2011 until June 2014 (opening...

  17. Na2EDTA anticoagulant impaired blood samples from the teleost Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Heloisa Vaz Farias

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Na heparin and Na2EDTA on blood of Piaractus mesopotamicus (360.7±42.4g, 26.4±1.0cm. Twenty fishes were sampled in two experiment trials, ten for erythrocyte fragility analysis and ten for hematologic and plasma biochemical study. The blood collected by venous-caudal puncture was fractioned and stored in anticoagulants solution: Na2EDTA 10%, Na2EDTA 3%, Na heparin 5000 IU and Na heparin 100 IU. Plasmatic levels of calcium presented in the Na2EDTA stored samples were about 80% lower than both heparin groups. Blood samples of P. mesopotamicus stored with Na2EDTA demonstrated increase in the hematocrit and MCV, and decrease in MCHC. The dose-response effect was observed in this study. The results are reinforced by the higher levels of plasmatic protein and hemolysis presented in the Na2EDTA 10% stored blood, confirming the deleterious effect of this anticoagulant treatment on the quality of blood samples. Na2EDTA is not indicated to store P. mesopotamicus blood samples, but sodium heparin at 100 IU is the most recommended anticoagulant, since this treatment presented the lower rate of alterations in the stored blood.

  18. A method for estimating radioactive cesium concentrations in cattle blood using urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Itaru; Yamagishi, Ryoma; Sasaki, Jun; Satoh, Hiroshi; Miura, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Kaoru; Otani, Kumiko; Okada, Keiji

    2017-12-01

    In the region contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident, radioactive contamination of live cattle should be checked before slaughter. In this study, we establish a precise method for estimating radioactive cesium concentrations in cattle blood using urine samples. Blood and urine samples were collected from a total of 71 cattle on two farms in the 'difficult-to-return zone'. Urine 137 Cs, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, pH, sodium, potassium, calcium, and creatinine were measured and various estimation methods for blood 137 Cs were tested. The average error rate of the estimation was 54.2% without correction. Correcting for urine creatinine, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, or potassium improved the precision of the estimation. Correcting for specific gravity using the following formula gave the most precise estimate (average error rate = 16.9%): [blood 137 Cs] = [urinary 137 Cs]/([specific gravity] - 1)/329. Urine samples are faster to measure than blood samples because urine can be obtained in larger quantities and has a higher 137 Cs concentration than blood. These advantages of urine and the estimation precision demonstrated in our study, indicate that estimation of blood 137 Cs using urine samples is a practical means of monitoring radioactive contamination in live cattle. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Evaluation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase stability in stored blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Norunaluwar; Azma, Raja Zahratul; Mohamed, Emida; Ithnin, Azlin; Alauddin, Hafiza; Baya, Siti Noor; Othman, Ainoon

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest cause of neonatal jaundice in Malaysia. Recently, OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit has been introduced to quantitate the level of G6PD activity in newborns delivered in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). As duration of sample storage prior to analysis is one of the matters of concern, this study was conducted to identify the stability of G6PD enzyme during storage. A total of 188 cord blood samples from normal term newborns delivered at UKMMC were selected for this study. The cord bloods samples were collected in ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) tubes and refrigerated at 2-8 °C. In addition, 32 out of 188 cord blood samples were spotted on chromatography paper, air-dried and stored at room temperature. G6PD enzyme activities were measured daily for 7 days using the OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit on both the EDTA blood and dried blood samples. The mean value for G6PD activity was compared between days of analysis using Student Paired T-Test. In this study, 172 out of 188 cord blood samples showed normal enzyme levels while 16 had levels corresponding to severe enzyme deficiency. The daily mean G6PD activity for EDTA blood samples of newborns with normal G6PD activity showed a significant drop on the fourth day of storage (p samples with severely deficient G6PD activity, significant drop was seen on third day of storage (p = 0.002). Analysis of dried cord blood showed a significant reduction in enzyme activity as early as the second day of storage (p = 0.001). It was also noted that mean G6PD activity for spotted blood samples were lower compared to those in EDTA tubes for all days (p = 0.001). Thus, EDTA blood samples stored at 2-8 °C appeared to have better stability in terms of their G6PD enzyme level as compared to dried blood samples on filter paper, giving a storage time of up to 3 days.

  20. Nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Lenicek Krleza, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Capillary sampling is increasingly used to obtain blood for laboratory tests in volumes as small as necessary and as non-invasively as possible. Whether capillary blood sampling is also frequent in Croatia, and whether it is performed according to international laboratory standards is unclear. Materials and methods: All medical laboratories that participate in the Croatian National External Quality Assessment Program (N = 204) were surveyed on-line to collect information about t...

  1. Platelet-rich fibrin prepared from stored whole-blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Kazushige; Suzuki, Masashi; Watanabe, Taisuke; Kitamura, Yutaka; Suzuki, Taiji; Kawabata, Hideo; Nakamura, Masayuki; Okudera, Toshimitsu; Okudera, Hajime; Uematsu, Kohya; Nakata, Koh; Tanaka, Takaaki; Kawase, Tomoyuki

    2017-12-01

    In regenerative therapy, self-clotted platelet concentrates, such as platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), are generally prepared on-site and are immediately used for treatment. If blood samples or prepared clots can be preserved for several days, their clinical applicability will expand. Here, we prepared PRF from stored whole-blood samples and examined their characteristics. Blood samples were collected from non-smoking, healthy male donors (aged 27-67 years, N = 6), and PRF clots were prepared immediately or after storage for 1-2 days. Fibrin fiber was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Bioactivity was evaluated by means of a bioassay system involving human periosteal cells, whereas PDGF-BB concentrations were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Addition of optimal amounts of a 10% CaCl 2 solution restored the coagulative ability of whole-blood samples that contained an anticoagulant (acid citrate dextrose) and were stored for up to 2 days at ambient temperature. In PRF clots prepared from the stored whole-blood samples, the thickness and cross-links of fibrin fibers were almost identical to those of freshly prepared PRF clots. PDGF-BB concentrations in the PRF extract were significantly lower in stored whole-blood samples than in fresh samples; however, both extracts had similar stimulatory effects on periosteal-cell proliferation. Quality of PRF clots prepared from stored whole-blood samples is not reduced significantly and can be ensured for use in regenerative therapy. Therefore, the proposed method enables a more flexible treatment schedule and choice of a more suitable platelet concentrate immediately before treatment, not after blood collection.

  2. Nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Capillary sampling is increasingly used to obtain blood for laboratory tests in volumes as small as necessary and as non-invasively as possible. Whether capillary blood sampling is also frequent in Croatia, and whether it is performed according to international laboratory standards is unclear. Materials and methods: All medical laboratories that participate in the Croatian National External Quality Assessment Program (N = 204) were surveyed on-line to collect information about the laboratory’s parent institution, patient population, types and frequencies of laboratory tests based on capillary blood samples, choice of reference intervals, and policies and procedures specifically related to capillary sampling. Sampling practices were compared with guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Results: Of the 204 laboratories surveyed, 174 (85%) responded with complete questionnaires. Among the 174 respondents, 155 (89%) reported that they routinely perform capillary sampling, which is carried out by laboratory staff in 118 laboratories (76%). Nearly half of respondent laboratories (48%) do not have a written protocol including order of draw for multiple sampling. A single puncture site is used to provide capillary blood for up to two samples at 43% of laboratories that occasionally or regularly perform such sampling. Most respondents (88%) never perform arterialisation prior to capillary blood sampling. Conclusions: Capillary blood sampling is highly prevalent in Croatia across different types of clinical facilities and patient populations. Capillary sampling procedures are not standardised in the country, and the rate of laboratory compliance with CLSI and WHO guidelines is low. PMID:25351353

  3. Positive cell-free fetal DNA testing for trisomy 13 reveals confined placental mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, April L; Drendel, Holli M; Verbrugge, Jennifer L; Reese, Angela M; Schumacher, Katherine L; Griffith, Christopher B; Weaver, David D; Abernathy, Mary P; Litton, Christian G; Vance, Gail H

    2013-09-01

    We report on a case in which cell-free fetal DNA was positive for trisomy 13 most likely due to confined placental mosaicism. Cell-free fetal DNA testing analyzes DNA derived from placental trophoblast cells and can lead to incorrect results that are not representative of the fetus. We sought to confirm commercial cell-free fetal DNA testing results by chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis. These results were followed up by postnatal chromosome analysis of cord blood and placental tissue. First-trimester cell-free fetal DNA test results were positive for trisomy 13. Cytogenetic analysis of chorionic villus sampling yielded a mosaic karyotype of 47,XY,+13[10]/46,XY[12]. G-banded analysis of amniotic fluid was normal, 46,XY. Postnatal cytogenetic analysis of cord blood was normal. Karyotyping of tissues from four quadrants of the placenta demonstrated mosaicism for trisomy 13 in two of the quadrants and a normal karyotype in the other two. Our case illustrates several important aspects of this new testing methodology: that cell-free fetal DNA may not be representative of the fetal karyotype; that follow-up with diagnostic testing of chorionic villus sampling and/or amniotic fluid for abnormal test results should be performed; and that pretest counseling regarding the full benefits, limitations, and possible testing outcomes of cell-free fetal DNA screening is important.

  4. High-throughput miRNA profiling of human melanoma blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rass Knuth

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA (miRNA signatures are not only found in cancer tissue but also in blood of cancer patients. Specifically, miRNA detection in blood offers the prospect of a non-invasive analysis tool. Methods Using a microarray based approach we screened almost 900 human miRNAs to detect miRNAs that are deregulated in their expression in blood cells of melanoma patients. We analyzed 55 blood samples, including 20 samples of healthy individuals, 24 samples of melanoma patients as test set, and 11 samples of melanoma patients as independent validation set. Results A hypothesis test based approch detected 51 differentially regulated miRNAs, including 21 miRNAs that were downregulated in blood cells of melanoma patients and 30 miRNAs that were upregulated in blood cells of melanoma patients as compared to blood cells of healthy controls. The tets set and the independent validation set of the melanoma samples showed a high correlation of fold changes (0.81. Applying hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis we found that blood samples of melanoma patients and healthy individuals can be well differentiated from each other based on miRNA expression analysis. Using a subset of 16 significant deregulated miRNAs, we were able to reach a classification accuracy of 97.4%, a specificity of 95% and a sensitivity of 98.9% by supervised analysis. MiRNA microarray data were validated by qRT-PCR. Conclusions Our study provides strong evidence for miRNA expression signatures of blood cells as useful biomarkers for melanoma.

  5. Correlation of VCAM-1 expression in serum, cord blood, and placental tissue with gestational hypertension associated with fetal growth restriction in women from Xingtai Hebei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H G; Guo, W; Gu, H F; Chen, S B; Wang, J Q; Qiao, Z X; Ma, H S; Geng, S X

    2016-08-26

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in the maternal serum, cord blood, and placental tissue of pregnant women from Xingtai, Hebei, with gestational hypertension (GH) combined with fetal growth restriction (FGR). A total of 108 patients with GH combined with FGR (GH-FGR), 60 patients with GH alone (GH), and 50 healthy pregnant women (control) were recruited to this study. VCAM- 1 expression was detected in the maternal serum and cord blood by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and in the placental tissue by immunohistochemistry. VCAM-1 expression was significantly higher in the maternal serum of patients with GH-FGR (164.38 ± 60.35) and GH alone (103.85 ± 54.47) than in the serum of the control population (46.70 ± 21.79; P 0.05). Moreover, the VCAM-1 expression rates were significantly higher and lower in the vascular endothelial and trophoblastic cells of the placenta of patients with GH-FGR (74.71 and 56.1%) and GH (72.98 and 55.36%), respectively, compared to those in the control subjects (46.48 and 95.11%). Therefore, we concluded that VCAM- 1 plays an important role in the development and generation of GH. Additionally, the low VCAM-1 expression in the trophoblastic cell could be correlated to the pathogenesis and progression of GH.

  6. Survivability of Existing Peripheral Intravenous Access Following Blood Sampling in a Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Sheree W; Friesen, Mary Ann; Stanger, Debra; Trickey, Amber Williams

    2018-03-07

    Although pediatric patients report venipuncture as their most feared experience during hospitalization, blood sampling from peripheral intravenous accesses (PIVs) is not standard of care. Blood sampling from PIVs has long been considered by healthcare personnel to harm the access. In an effort to minimize painful procedures, pediatric nursing staff conducted a prospective, observational study to determine if blood sampling using existing PIVs resulted in the loss of the access. The ability to obtain the sample from the PIV was measured along with patient and PIV characteristics. Specimen collection using 100 existing PIVs was attempted on pediatric inpatients. Each PIV was observed for functionality, infiltration, occlusion, and dislodgement following collection and again in 4h. Frequencies of PIV loss and successful blood sampling were calculated. Patient age, PIV gauge, access site, and PIV age were evaluated for associations with successful sampling using chi-square tests, Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. PIV survivability was reported at 99%. The ability to obtain a complete specimen was reported at 76% and found to be significantly related to PIV age and site. Size of PIV and patient's age were not significantly related to successful sampling. Encouraging rates of PIV survivability and collectability suggest blood sampling from PIVs to be a valuable technique to minimize painful and distressful procedures. Nursing practice was changed in this pediatric department. Patients and families are saved the pain and distress of venipuncture. Nurses reported saving time and personal distress by avoiding the venipuncture procedure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome in a population-based sample of children living in remote Australia: the Lililwan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, James P; Latimer, Jane; Carter, Maureen; Oscar, June; Ferreira, Manuela L; Carmichael Olson, Heather; Lucas, Barbara R; Doney, Robyn; Salter, Claire; Try, Julianne; Hawkes, Genevieve; Fitzpatrick, Emily; Hand, Marmingee; Watkins, Rochelle E; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; Bower, Carol; Boulton, John; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2015-04-01

    Aboriginal leaders concerned about high rates of alcohol use in pregnancy invited researchers to determine the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial fetal alcohol syndrome (pFAS) in their communities. Population-based prevalence study using active case ascertainment in children born in 2002/2003 and living in the Fitzroy Valley, in Western Australia (April 2010-November 2011) (n = 134). Socio-demographic and antenatal data, including alcohol use in pregnancy, were collected by interview with 127/134 (95%) consenting parents/care givers. Maternal/child medical records were reviewed. Interdisciplinary assessments were conducted for 108/134 (81%) children. FAS/pFAS prevalence was determined using modified Canadian diagnostic guidelines. In 127 pregnancies, alcohol was used in 55%. FAS or pFAS was diagnosed in 13/108 children, a prevalence of 120 per 1000 (95% confidence interval 70-196). Prenatal alcohol exposure was confirmed for all children with FAS/pFAS, 80% in the first trimester and 50% throughout pregnancy. Ten of 13 mothers had Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores and all drank at a high-risk level. Of children with FAS/pFAS, 69% had microcephaly, 85% had weight deficiency and all had facial dysmorphology and central nervous system abnormality/impairment in three to eight domains. The population prevalence of FAS/pFAS in remote Aboriginal communities of the Fitzroy Valley is the highest reported in Australia and similar to that reported in high-risk populations internationally. Results are likely to be generalisable to other age groups in the Fitzroy Valley and other remote Australian communities with high-risk alcohol use during pregnancy. Prevention of FAS/pFAS is an urgent public health challenge. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. Dried blood spots on carboxymethyl cellulose sheets: Rapid sample preparation based on dissolution and precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoglund Ask, Kristine; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    This short communication describes the use of carboxymethyl cellulose sheets as sampling material for dried blood spots. Whole blood, spiked with quetiapine, a hydrophobic and basic small molecule drug substance, was spotted on the sheet and subsequently dried. The dried spot was then almost...... completely dissolved in acidified aqueous solution. It was shown that the dissolved polymer, together with major blood components can easily be precipitated and removed with acetonitrile. The presented sampling on a water-soluble biopolymer derivative followed by precipitation resulted in a simple protocol...

  9. Improved removal of blood contamination from ThinPrep cervical cytology samples for Raman spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Damien; Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Martin, Cara M; O'Leary, John J; Lyng, Fiona M

    2018-05-01

    There is an unmet need for methods to help in the early detection of cervical precancer. Optical spectroscopy-based techniques, such as Raman spectroscopy, have shown great potential for diagnosis of different cancers, including cervical cancer. However, relatively few studies have been carried out on liquid-based cytology (LBC) pap test specimens and confounding factors, such as blood contamination, have been identified. Previous work reported a method to remove blood contamination before Raman spectroscopy by pretreatment of the slides with hydrogen peroxide. The aim of the present study was to extend this work to excessively bloody samples to see if these could be rendered suitable for Raman spectroscopy. LBC ThinPrep specimens were treated by adding hydrogen peroxide directly to the vial before slide preparation. Good quality Raman spectra were recorded from negative and high grade (HG) cytology samples with no blood contamination and with heavy blood contamination. Good classification between negative and HG cytology could be achieved for samples with no blood contamination (sensitivity 92%, specificity 93%) and heavy blood contamination (sensitivity 89%, specificity 88%) with poorer classification when samples were combined (sensitivity 82%, specificity 87%). This study demonstrates for the first time the improved potential of Raman spectroscopy for analysis of ThinPrep specimens regardless of blood contamination. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  10. Elimination of heparin interference during microarray processing of fresh and biobank-archived blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebels, Dennie G A J; van Herwijnen, Marcel H M; Brauers, Karen J J; de Kok, Theo M C M; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Kleinjans, Jos C S

    2014-07-01

    In the context of environmental health research, biobank blood samples have recently been identified as suitable for high-throughput omics analyses enabling the identification of new biomarkers of exposure and disease. However, blood samples containing the anti-coagulant heparin could complicate transcriptomic analysis because heparin may inhibit RNA polymerase causing inefficient cRNA synthesis and fluorophore labelling. We investigated the inhibitory effect of heparin and the influence of storage conditions (0 or 3 hr bench times, storage at room temperature or -80°C) on fluorophore labelling in heparinized fresh human buffy coat and whole blood biobank samples during the mRNA work-up protocol for microarray analysis. Subsequently, we removed heparin by lithium chloride (LiCl) treatment and performed a quality control analysis of LiCl-treated biobank sample microarrays to prove their suitability for downstream data analysis. Both fresh and biobank samples experienced varying degrees of heparin-induced inhibition of fluorophore labelling, making most samples unusable for microarray analysis. RNA derived from EDTA and citrate blood was not inhibited. No effect of bench time was observed but room temperature storage gave slightly better results. Strong correlations were observed between original blood sample RNA yield and the amount of synthesized cRNA. LiCl treatment restored sample quality to normal standards in both fresh and biobank samples and the previously identified correlations disappeared. Microarrays hybridized with LiCl-treated biobank samples were of excellent quality with no identifiable influence of heparin. We conclude that, to obtain high quality results, in most cases heparin removal is essential in blood-derived RNA samples intended for microarray analysis. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Use of Dried Capillary Blood Sampling for Islet Autoantibody Screening in Relatives: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingley, Polly J; Rafkin, Lisa E; Matheson, Della; Steck, Andrea K; Yu, Liping; Henderson, Courtney; Beam, Craig A; Boulware, David C

    2015-12-01

    Islet autoantibody testing provides the basis for assessment of risk of progression to type 1 diabetes. We set out to determine the feasibility and acceptability of dried capillary blood spot-based screening to identify islet autoantibody-positive relatives potentially eligible for inclusion in prevention trials. Dried blood spot (DBS) and venous samples were collected from 229 relatives participating in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study. Both samples were tested for glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet antigen 2, and zinc transporter 8 autoantibodies, and venous samples were additionally tested for insulin autoantibodies and islet cell antibodies. We defined multiple autoantibody positive as two or more autoantibodies in venous serum and DBS screen positive if one or more autoantibodies were detected. Participant questionnaires compared the sample collection methods. Of 44 relatives who were multiple autoantibody positive in venous samples, 42 (95.5%) were DBS screen positive, and DBS accurately detected 145 of 147 autoantibody-negative relatives (98.6%). Capillary blood sampling was perceived as more painful than venous blood draw, but 60% of participants would prefer initial screening using home fingerstick with clinic visits only required if autoantibodies were found. Capillary blood sampling could facilitate screening for type 1 diabetes prevention studies.

  12. Liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry analysis of cocaine and its metabolites from blood, amniotic fluid, placental and fetal tissues: study of the metabolism and distribution of cocaine in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, K; Wang, P P; Eley, A T; White, C A; Bartlett, M G

    2000-08-18

    The ability to simultaneously quantitate cocaine and its 12 metabolites from pregnant rat blood, amniotic fluid, placental and fetal tissue homogenates aids in elucidating the metabolism and distribution of cocaine. An efficient extraction method was developed to simultaneously recover these 13 components using underivatized silica solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. The overall recoveries for cocaine and its metabolites were studied from pregnant rat blood (47-100%), amniotic fluid (61-100%), placental homogenate (31-83%), and fetal homogenate (39-87%). Extraction of the samples using silica is not classical SPE, but rather allows for the concentration of the sample into a small volume prior to injection and the removal of the proteins due to their strong interaction with the active silica surface. A positive ion mode electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method was used and validated to simultaneously quantitate cocaine and 12 metabolites from these four biological matrices. A gradient elution method with a Zorbax XDB C8 reversed-phase column was used to separate the components. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of a product ion arising from the corresponding precursor ion was used in order to enhance the selectivity and sensitivity of the method. Low background noise was observed from the complex biological matrices due to efficient SPE and the selectivity of the MRM mode. Linear calibration curves were generated from 0.01 to 2.50 ppm. The method also showed high intra-day (n =3) and inter-day (n=9) precision (% RSD) and accuracy (% error) for all components. The limits of detection (LODs) for the method ranged from 0.15 to 10 ppb. The LODs of cocaine and its major metabolites were less than 1 ppb from all four biological matrices. This method was applied to the study of the metabolism and distribution of cocaine in pregnant rats following intravenous infusion to a steady state plasma drug concentration. The

  13. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Imam Reza Hospital blood bank samples, Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaddel, M; Mirzaii Dizgah, I; Sharif, F

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of toxoplasma gondii (T.g) infection in blood donors has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis in blood products. A total of 223 blood products (101 fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and 122 packed cells (PC)) in Imam Reza hospital blood bank, Tehran, Iran were tested for specific T.g antibodies (IgG and IgM) by ELISA method. Positive IgG anti-T.g samples were further tested for IgM anti-T.g. A positive IgG test with the negative and positive IgM test was interpreted as a chronic and acute toxoplasmosis respectively. Of 223 samples 38.6% and 0.45% were positive for IgG anti-T.g and IgM anti-T.g levels respectively. Therefore, one and 85 samples were involved acute and chronic toxoplasmosis respectively. Twenty-six of fresh frozen plasma samples were positive for IgG anti-T.g and one of them was positive for IgM anti-T.g. Sixty packed cell samples were positive for IgG anti-T.g. Our study showed that there were chronic and acute toxoplasmosis in blood products and the prevalence of toxoplasmosis especially chronic form was high. Therefore screening of blood for T.g antibodies may be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Simplifying sample pretreatment: application of dried blood spot (DBS) method to blood samples, including postmortem, for UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoardi, Sara; Anzillotti, Luca; Strano-Rossi, Sabina

    2014-10-01

    The complexity of biological matrices, such as blood, requires the development of suitably selective and reliable sample pretreatment procedures prior to their instrumental analysis. A method has been developed for the analysis of drugs of abuse and their metabolites from different chemical classes (opiates, methadone, fentanyl and analogues, cocaine, amphetamines and amphetamine-like substances, ketamine, LSD) in human blood using dried blood spot (DBS) and subsequent UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. DBS extraction required only 100μL of sample, added with the internal standards and then three droplets (30μL each) of this solution were spotted on the card, let dry for 1h, punched and extracted with methanol with 0.1% of formic acid. The supernatant was evaporated and the residue was then reconstituted in 100μL of water with 0.1% of formic acid and injected in the UHPLC-MS/MS system. The method was validated considering the following parameters: LOD and LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity. LODs were 0.05-1ng/mL and LOQs were 0.2-2ng/mL. The method showed satisfactory linearity for all substances, with determination coefficients always higher than 0.99. Intra and inter day precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity were acceptable for all the studied substances. The addition of internal standards before DBS extraction and the deposition of a fixed volume of blood on the filter cards ensured the accurate quantification of the analytes. The validated method was then applied to authentic postmortem blood samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A simple method for measurement of cerebral blood flow using 123I-IMP SPECT with calibrated standard input function by one point blood sampling. Validation of calibration by one point venous blood sampling as a substitute for arterial blood sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Akaizawa, Takashi; Goto, Ryoui

    1994-01-01

    In a simplified method for measurement of cerebral blood flow using one 123 I-IMP SPECT scan and one point arterial blood sampling (Autoradiography method), input function is obtained by calibrating a standard input function by one point arterial blood sampling. A purpose of this study is validation of calibration by one point venous blood sampling as a substitute for one point arterial blood sampling. After intravenous infusion of 123 I-IMP, frequent arterial and venous blood sampling were simultaneously performed on 12 patients of CNS disease without any heart and lung disease and 5 normal volunteers. The radioactivity ratio of venous whole blood which obtained from cutaneous cubital vein to arterial whole blood were 0.76±0.08, 0.80±0.05, 0.81±0.06, 0.83±0.11 at 10, 20, 30, 50 min after 123 I-IMP infusion, respectively. The venous blood radioactivities were always 20% lower than those of arterial blood radioactivity during 50 min. However, the ratio which obtained from cutaneous dorsal hand vein to artery were 0.93±0.02, 0.94±0.05, 0.98±0.04, 0.98±0.03, at 10, 20, 30, 50 min after 123 I-IMP infusion, respectively. The venous blood radioactivity was consistent with artery. These indicate that arterio-venous difference of radioactivity in a peripheral cutaneous vein like a dorsal hand vein is minimal due to arteriovenous shunt in palm. Therefore, a substitution by blood sampling from cutaneous dorsal hand vein for artery will be possible. Optimized time for venous blood sampling evaluated by error analysis was 20 min after 123 I-IMP infusion, which is 10 min later than that of arterial blood sampling. (author)

  16. Lactate versus pH levels in fetal scalp blood during labor--using the Lactate Scout System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Ingeborg Christina Rørbye; Perslev, Anette; Nickelsen, Carsten Nahne Amtoft

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess if lactate measured with the Scout Lactate System is a reliable alternative to pH in intrapartum monitoring of the fetus. METHODS: A prospective study analyzing (1) the correlation between scalp lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the Automatic Blood Laboratory (...

  17. Determination of degree of RBC agglutination for blood typing using a small quantity of blood sample in a microfluidic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaw-Jen; Ho, Ching-Yuan; Zhou, Xin-Miao; Yen, Hsiu-Rong

    2018-04-15

    Blood typing assay is a critical test to ensure the serological compatibility of a donor and an intended recipient prior to a blood transfusion. This paper presents a microfluidic blood typing system using a small quantity of blood sample to determine the degree of agglutination of red blood cell (RBC). Two measuring methods were proposed: impedimetric measurement and electroanalytical measurement. The charge transfer resistance in the impedimetric measurement and the power parameter in the electroanalytical measurement were used for the analysis of agglutination level. From the experimental results, both measuring methods provide quantitative results, and the parameters are linearly and monotonically related to the degree of RBC agglutination. However, the electroanalytical measurement is more reliable than the impedimetric technique because the impedimetric measurement may suffer from many influencing factors, such as chip conditions. Five levels from non-agglutination (level 0) to strong agglutination (level 4+) can be discriminated in this study, conforming to the clinical requirement to prevent any risks in transfusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Blood Samples Subjected to Transportation and Processing Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bossi, Rossana; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Fuglsang, Jens; Olsen, Jørn; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    In studies of perfluoroalkyl acids, the validity and comparability of measured concentrations may be affected by differences in the handling of biospecimens. We aimed to investigate whether measured plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl acids differed between blood samples subjected to delay and transportation prior to processing and samples with immediate processing and freezing. Pregnant women recruited at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, (n = 88) provided paired blood samples. For each pair of samples, one was immediately processed and plasma was frozen, and the other was delayed and transported as whole blood before processing and freezing of plasma (similar to the Danish National Birth Cohort). We measured 12 perfluoroalkyl acids and present results for compounds with more than 50% of samples above the lower limit of quantification. For samples taken in the winter, relative differences between the paired samples ranged between -77 and +38% for individual perfluoroalkyl acids. In most cases concentrations were lower in the delayed and transported samples, e.g. the relative difference was -29% (95% confidence interval -30; -27) for perfluorooctane sulfonate. For perfluorooctanoate there was no difference between the two setups [corresponding estimate 1% (0, 3)]. Differences were negligible in the summer for all compounds. Transport of blood samples and processing delay, similar to conditions applied in some large, population-based studies, may affect measured perfluoroalkyl acid concentrations, mainly when outdoor temperatures are low. Attention to processing conditions is needed in studies of perfluoroalkyl acid exposure in humans.

  19. Maternal red blood cell alloantibodies identified in blood samples obtained from Iranian pregnant women: the first population study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahverdi, Ehsan; Moghaddam, Mostafa; Gorzin, Fateme

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to determine the frequency of occurrence of alloantibodies among pregnant women in Iran. This was a prospective cross-sectional study, which was carried out in the immunohematology reference laboratory of the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization in Tehran, Iran, in 2008 to 2015. Screening and identification of red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies was done on the sera of 7340 pregnant females using the standard tube method and gel column agglutination technique. Alloantibodies were identified in the serum of 332 of the 7340 (4.5%) pregnant women. A total of 410 antibodies were detected in 332 positive maternal serum samples with no previous history of blood transfusion. Anti-D was the most common antibody accounting for 70.5% of all the antibodies formed in D- women. The incidence of specific alloimmunization other than Rh group was 14.4%. We concluded that the alloimmunization rate was high in comparison with wide pattern in previous studies. In Iran, like other developing countries, alloimmunization screening tests are performed only to detect anti-D in pregnant D- women. This high rate of alloimmunization, quite possibly, is due to the fact that the majority of blood samples came from pregnant women known to have previous obstetric problems. However, we suggest that RBC antibody screening tests should be extended to all D+ women. © 2016 AABB.

  20. Fetal brain damage following maternal carbon monoxide intoxication: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsberg, M D; Myers, R E

    1974-01-01

    Techniques of fetal monitoring, including fetal blood sampling in utero, were employed to study the physiological effects of acute maternal carbon monoxide intoxication on nine term-pregnant female rhesus monkeys exposed to 0.1 to 0.3% inspired carbon monoxide over 1 to 3 hr. The mothers tolerated carboxyhemoglobin levels exceeding 60% without clinical sequelae, whereas the fetuses promptly developed profound hypoxia upon exposure of the mothers to CO. The fetal COHb levels rose only gradually over 1 to 3 hr, and thus contributed only slightly to the development of early fetal hypoxia. The fetal hypoxia was associated with bradycardia, hypotension, and metabolic and respiratory acidosis. Severity of intrauterine hypoxia was closely correlated with the appearance of brain damage. Brain swelling associated with hemorrhagic necrosis of the cerebral hemispheres (severe brain damage) appeared only in fetuses whose arterial oxygen content was reduced below 1.0 ml/100 ml for at least 45 min during the maternal CO intoxication.

  1. Replication of High Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Prevalence Rates, Child Characteristics, and Maternal Risk Factors in a Second Sample of Rural Communities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; De Vries, Marlene M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Adnams, Colleen M; Hasken, Julie M; Tabachnick, Barbara; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie A; Bezuidenhout, Heidre; Adam, Margaret P; Jones, Kenneth L; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2017-05-12

    Background : Prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and total fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were studied in a second sample of three South African rural communities to assess change. Methods : Active case ascertainment focused on children with height, weight and/or head circumference ≤25th centile and randomly-selected children. Final diagnoses were based on dysmorphology, neurobehavioral scores, and maternal risk interviews. Results : Cardinal facial features, head circumference, and total dysmorphology scores differentiated specific FASD diagnostic categories in a somewhat linear fashion but all FASD traits were significantly worse than those of randomly-selected controls. Neurodevelopmental delays were significantly worse for children with FASD than controls. Binge alcohol use was clearly documented as the proximal maternal risk factor for FASD, and significant distal risk factors were: low body mass, education, and income; high gravidity, parity, and age at birth of the index child. FAS rates continue to extremely high in these communities at 9-129 per 1000 children. Total FASD affect 196-276 per 1000 or 20-28% of the children in these communities. Conclusions : Very high rates of FASD persist in these general populations where regular, heavy drinking, often in a binge fashion, co-occurs with low socioeconomic conditions.

  2. Fetal microchimerism in breast and colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Biggar, R J; Stamper, Casey L

    2011-01-01

    1574 Background: Cells acquired by a woman from her baby that durably persist in her blood and tissues is known as fetal microchimerism (FMc). In women with breast cancer, frequency and quantity of FMc in blood and breast tissue is reduced compared to healthy women. Whether the absence of fetal...

  3. Effect of postmortem sampling technique on the clinical significance of autopsy blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, M; Pencil, S D

    1998-02-01

    Our objective was to investigate the value of postmortem autopsy blood cultures performed with an iodine-subclavian technique relative to the classical method of atrial heat searing and antemortem blood cultures. The study consisted of a prospective autopsy series with each case serving as its own control relative to subsequent testing, and a retrospective survey of patients coming to autopsy who had both autopsy blood cultures and premortem blood cultures. A busy academic autopsy service (600 cases per year) at University of Texas Medical Branch Hospitals, Galveston, Texas, served as the setting for this work. The incidence of non-clinically relevant (false-positive) culture results were compared using different methods for collecting blood samples in a prospective series of 38 adult autopsy specimens. One hundred eleven adult autopsy specimens in which both postmortem and antemortem blood cultures were obtained were studied retrospectively. For both studies, positive culture results were scored as either clinically relevant or false positives based on analysis of the autopsy findings and the clinical summary. The rate of false-positive culture results obtained by an iodine-subclavian technique from blood drawn soon after death were statistically significantly lower (13%) than using the classical method of obtaining blood through the atrium after heat searing at the time of the autopsy (34%) in the same set of autopsy subjects. When autopsy results were compared with subjects' antemortem blood culture results, there was no significant difference in the rate of non-clinically relevant culture results in a paired retrospective series of antemortem blood cultures and postmortem blood cultures using the iodine-subclavian postmortem method (11.7% v 13.5%). The results indicate that autopsy blood cultures obtained using the iodine-subclavian technique have reliability equivalent to that of antemortem blood cultures.

  4. Fetal exposure to a diabetic intrauterine environment resulted in a failure of cord blood endothelial progenitor cell adaptation against chronic hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dincer UD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available U Deniz Dincer Department of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Bezmialem Vakif University (BAVU, Fatih/Istanbul, Turkey Abstract: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM has long-term health consequences, and fetal exposure to a diabetic intrauterine environment increases cardiovascular risk for her adult offspring. Some part of this could be related to their endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. Understanding the vessel-forming ability of human umbilical cord blood (HUCB-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs against pathological stress such as GDM response to hypoxia could generate new therapeutic strategies. This study aims to investigate the role of chronic hypoxia in EPCs functional and vessel-forming ability in GDM subjects. Each ECFC was expressed in endothelial and pro-angiogenic specific markers, namely endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, platelet (PECAM-1 endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1, vascular endothelial-cadherin CdH5 (Ca-dependent cell adhesion molecule, vascular endothelial growth factor A, (VEGFA and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1. Chronic hypoxia did not affect CdH5, but PECAM1 MRNA expressions were increased in control and GDM subjects. Control hypoxic and GDM normoxic VEGFA MRNA expressions and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1α protein expressions were significantly increased in HUCB ECFCs. GDM resulted in most failure of HUCB ECFC adaptation and eNOS protein expressions against chronic hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia resulted in an overall decline in HUCB ECFCs' proliferative ability due to reduction of clonogenic capacity and diminished vessel formation. Furthermore, GDM also resulted in most failure of cord blood ECFC adaptation against chronic hypoxic environment. Keywords: endothelial progenitor cells, gestational diabetes mellitus, chronic hypoxia, human cord blood

  5. Intraosseous blood samples for point-of-care analysis: agreement between intraosseous and arterial analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousi, Milla; Saikko, Simo; Nurmi, Jouni

    2017-09-11

    Point-of-care (POC) testing is highly useful when treating critically ill patients. In case of difficult vascular access, the intraosseous (IO) route is commonly used, and blood is aspirated to confirm the correct position of the IO-needle. Thus, IO blood samples could be easily accessed for POC analyses in emergency situations. The aim of this study was to determine whether IO values agree sufficiently with arterial values to be used for clinical decision making. Two samples of IO blood were drawn from 31 healthy volunteers and compared with arterial samples. The samples were analysed for sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, glucose, haemoglobin, haematocrit, pH, blood gases, base excess, bicarbonate, and lactate using the i-STAT® POC device. Agreement and reliability were estimated by using the Bland-Altman method and intraclass correlation coefficient calculations. Good agreement was evident between the IO and arterial samples for pH, glucose, and lactate. Potassium levels were clearly higher in the IO samples than those from arterial blood. Base excess and bicarbonate were slightly higher, and sodium and ionised calcium values were slightly lower, in the IO samples compared with the arterial values. The blood gases in the IO samples were between arterial and venous values. Haemoglobin and haematocrit showed remarkable variation in agreement. POC diagnostics of IO blood can be a useful tool to guide treatment in critical emergency care. Seeking out the reversible causes of cardiac arrest or assessing the severity of shock are examples of situations in which obtaining vascular access and blood samples can be difficult, though information about the electrolytes, acid-base balance, and lactate could guide clinical decision making. The analysis of IO samples should though be limited to situations in which no other option is available, and the results should be interpreted with caution, because there is not yet enough scientific evidence regarding the agreement of IO

  6. Feasibility of self-sampled dried blood spot and saliva samples sent by mail in a population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhi, Amrit Kaur; Bastani, Nasser Ezzatkhah; Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; Gundersen, Thomas Erik; Blomhoff, Rune; Ursin, Giske

    2015-01-01

    In large epidemiological studies it is often challenging to obtain biological samples. Self-sampling by study participants using dried blood spots (DBS) technique has been suggested to overcome this challenge. DBS is a type of biosampling where blood samples are obtained by a finger-prick lancet, blotted and dried on filter paper. However, the feasibility and efficacy of collecting DBS samples from study participants in large-scale epidemiological studies is not known. The aim of the present study was to test the feasibility and response rate of collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples in a population–based study of women above 50 years of age. We determined response proportions, number of phone calls to the study center with questions about sampling, and quality of the DBS. We recruited women through a study conducted within the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Invitations, instructions and materials were sent to 4,597 women. The data collection took place over a 3 month period in the spring of 2009. Response proportions for the collection of DBS and saliva samples were 71.0% (3,263) and 70.9% (3,258), respectively. We received 312 phone calls (7% of the 4,597 women) with questions regarding sampling. Of the 3,263 individuals that returned DBS cards, 3,038 (93.1%) had been packaged and shipped according to instructions. A total of 3,032 DBS samples were sufficient for at least one biomarker analysis (i.e. 92.9% of DBS samples received by the laboratory). 2,418 (74.1%) of the DBS cards received by the laboratory were filled with blood according to the instructions (i.e. 10 completely filled spots with up to 7 punches per spot for up to 70 separate analyses). To assess the quality of the samples, we selected and measured two biomarkers (carotenoids and vitamin D). The biomarker levels were consistent with previous reports. Collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples through the postal services provides a low cost, effective and feasible

  7. Feasibility of self-sampled dried blood spot and saliva samples sent by mail in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhi, Amrit Kaur; Bastani, Nasser Ezzatkhah; Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; Gundersen, Thomas Erik; Blomhoff, Rune; Ursin, Giske

    2015-04-11

    In large epidemiological studies it is often challenging to obtain biological samples. Self-sampling by study participants using dried blood spots (DBS) technique has been suggested to overcome this challenge. DBS is a type of biosampling where blood samples are obtained by a finger-prick lancet, blotted and dried on filter paper. However, the feasibility and efficacy of collecting DBS samples from study participants in large-scale epidemiological studies is not known. The aim of the present study was to test the feasibility and response rate of collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples in a population-based study of women above 50 years of age. We determined response proportions, number of phone calls to the study center with questions about sampling, and quality of the DBS. We recruited women through a study conducted within the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Invitations, instructions and materials were sent to 4,597 women. The data collection took place over a 3 month period in the spring of 2009. Response proportions for the collection of DBS and saliva samples were 71.0% (3,263) and 70.9% (3,258), respectively. We received 312 phone calls (7% of the 4,597 women) with questions regarding sampling. Of the 3,263 individuals that returned DBS cards, 3,038 (93.1%) had been packaged and shipped according to instructions. A total of 3,032 DBS samples were sufficient for at least one biomarker analysis (i.e. 92.9% of DBS samples received by the laboratory). 2,418 (74.1%) of the DBS cards received by the laboratory were filled with blood according to the instructions (i.e. 10 completely filled spots with up to 7 punches per spot for up to 70 separate analyses). To assess the quality of the samples, we selected and measured two biomarkers (carotenoids and vitamin D). The biomarker levels were consistent with previous reports. Collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples through the postal services provides a low cost, effective and feasible

  8. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Blood Samples Subjected to Transportation and Processing Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bossi, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    and transportation prior to processing and samples with immediate processing and freezing. METHODS: Pregnant women recruited at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, (n = 88) provided paired blood samples. For each pair of samples, one was immediately processed and plasma was frozen, and the other was delayed...... and transported as whole blood before processing and freezing of plasma (similar to the Danish National Birth Cohort). We measured 12 perfluoroalkyl acids and present results for compounds with more than 50% of samples above the lower limit of quantification. RESULTS: For samples taken in the winter, relative...... differences between the paired samples ranged between -77 and +38% for individual perfluoroalkyl acids. In most cases concentrations were lower in the delayed and transported samples, e.g. the relative difference was -29% (95% confidence interval -30; -27) for perfluorooctane sulfonate. For perfluorooctanoate...

  9. A content validated questionnaire for assessment of self reported venous blood sampling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölenius, Karin; Brulin, Christine; Grankvist, Kjell; Lindkvist, Marie; Söderberg, Johan

    2012-01-19

    Venous blood sampling is a common procedure in health care. It is strictly regulated by national and international guidelines. Deviations from guidelines due to human mistakes can cause patient harm. Validated questionnaires for health care personnel can be used to assess preventable "near misses"--i.e. potential errors and nonconformities during venous blood sampling practices that could transform into adverse events. However, no validated questionnaire that assesses nonconformities in venous blood sampling has previously been presented. The aim was to test a recently developed questionnaire in self reported venous blood sampling practices for validity and reliability. We developed a questionnaire to assess deviations from best practices during venous blood sampling. The questionnaire contained questions about patient identification, test request management, test tube labeling, test tube handling, information search procedures and frequencies of error reporting. For content validity, the questionnaire was confirmed by experts on questionnaires and venous blood sampling. For reliability, test-retest statistics were used on the questionnaire answered twice. The final venous blood sampling questionnaire included 19 questions out of which 9 had in total 34 underlying items. It was found to have content validity. The test-retest analysis demonstrated that the items were generally stable. In total, 82% of the items fulfilled the reliability acceptance criteria. The questionnaire could be used for assessment of "near miss" practices that could jeopardize patient safety and gives several benefits instead of assessing rare adverse events only. The higher frequencies of "near miss" practices allows for quantitative analysis of the effect of corrective interventions and to benchmark preanalytical quality not only at the laboratory/hospital level but also at the health care unit/hospital ward.

  10. A content validated questionnaire for assessment of self reported venous blood sampling practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bölenius Karin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous blood sampling is a common procedure in health care. It is strictly regulated by national and international guidelines. Deviations from guidelines due to human mistakes can cause patient harm. Validated questionnaires for health care personnel can be used to assess preventable "near misses"--i.e. potential errors and nonconformities during venous blood sampling practices that could transform into adverse events. However, no validated questionnaire that assesses nonconformities in venous blood sampling has previously been presented. The aim was to test a recently developed questionnaire in self reported venous blood sampling practices for validity and reliability. Findings We developed a questionnaire to assess deviations from best practices during venous blood sampling. The questionnaire contained questions about patient identification, test request management, test tube labeling, test tube handling, information search procedures and frequencies of error reporting. For content validity, the questionnaire was confirmed by experts on questionnaires and venous blood sampling. For reliability, test-retest statistics were used on the questionnaire answered twice. The final venous blood sampling questionnaire included 19 questions out of which 9 had in total 34 underlying items. It was found to have content validity. The test-retest analysis demonstrated that the items were generally stable. In total, 82% of the items fulfilled the reliability acceptance criteria. Conclusions The questionnaire could be used for assessment of "near miss" practices that could jeopardize patient safety and gives several benefits instead of assessing rare adverse events only. The higher frequencies of "near miss" practices allows for quantitative analysis of the effect of corrective interventions and to benchmark preanalytical quality not only at the laboratory/hospital level but also at the health care unit/hospital ward.

  11. Plasmodium falciparum HRP2 ELISA for analysis of dried blood spot samples in rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lauren E; Markwalter, Christine F; Kimmel, Danielle W; Mudenda, Lwiindi; Mbambara, Saidon; Thuma, Philip E; Wright, David W

    2017-08-23

    Dried blood spots are commonly used for sample collection in clinical and non-clinical settings. This method is simple, and biomolecules in the samples remain stable for months at room temperature. In the field, blood samples for the study and diagnosis of malaria are often collected on dried blood spot cards, so development of a biomarker extraction and analysis method is needed. A simple extraction procedure for the malarial biomarker Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) from dried blood spots was optimized to achieve maximum extraction efficiency. This method was used to assess the stability of HRP2 in dried blood spots. Furthermore, 328 patient samples made available from rural Zambia were analysed for HRP2 using the developed method. These samples were collected at the initial administration of artemisinin-based combination therapy and at several points following treatment. An average extraction efficiency of 70% HRP2 with a low picomolar detection limit was achieved. In specific storage conditions HRP2 was found to be stable in dried blood spots for at least 6 months. Analysis of patient samples showed the method to have a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 89% when compared with microscopy, and trends in HRP2 clearance after treatment were observed. The dried blood spot ELISA for HRP2 was found to be sensitive, specific and accurate. The method was effectively used to assess biomarker clearance characteristics in patient samples, which prove it to be ideal for gaining further insight into the disease and epidemiological applications.

  12. Identification of clinical biomarkers for pre-analytical quality control of blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun Ju; Jeon, Soon Young; Park, Jae-Sun; Yun, Ji Young; Kil, Han Na; Hong, Won Kyung; Lee, Mee-Hee; Kim, Jun-Woo; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Han, Bok Ghee

    2013-04-01

    Pre-analytical conditions are key factors in maintaining the high quality of biospecimens. They are necessary for accurate reproducibility of experiments in the field of biomarker discovery as well as achieving optimal specificity of laboratory tests for clinical diagnosis. In research at the National Biobank of Korea, we evaluated the impact of pre-analytical conditions on the stability of biobanked blood samples by measuring biochemical analytes commonly used in clinical laboratory tests. We measured 10 routine laboratory analytes in serum and plasma samples from healthy donors (n = 50) with a chemistry autoanalyzer (Hitachi 7600-110). The analyte measurements were made at different time courses based on delay of blood fractionation, freezing delay of fractionated serum and plasma samples, and at different cycles (0, 1, 3, 6, 9) of freeze-thawing. Statistically significant changes from the reference sample mean were determined using the repeated-measures ANOVA and the significant change limit (SCL). The serum levels of GGT and LDH were changed significantly depending on both the time interval between blood collection and fractionation and the time interval between fractionation and freezing of serum and plasma samples. The glucose level was most sensitive only to the elapsed time between blood collection and centrifugation for blood fractionation. Based on these findings, a simple formula (glucose decrease by 1.387 mg/dL per hour) was derived to estimate the length of time delay after blood collection. In addition, AST, BUN, GGT, and LDH showed sensitive responses to repeated freeze-thaw cycles of serum and plasma samples. These results suggest that GGT and LDH measurements can be used as quality control markers for certain pre-analytical conditions (eg, delayed processing or repeated freeze-thawing) of blood samples which are either directly used in the laboratory tests or stored for future research in the biobank.

  13. Measurement of cerebral blood flow the blood sampling method using 99mTc-ECD. Simultaneous scintigram scanning of arterial blood samples and the brain with a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachiya, Takenori; Inugami, Atsushi; Iida, Hidehiro; Mizuta, Yoshihiko; Kawakami, Takeshi; Inoue, Minoru

    1999-01-01

    To measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by blood sampling using 99m Tc-ECD we devised a method of measuring the radioactive concentration in arterial blood sample with a gamma camera. In this method the head and a blood sample are placed within the same visual field to record the SPECT data of both specimens simultaneously. The results of an evaluation of the counting rate performance, applying the 30 hours decaying method using 99m Tc solution showed that this method is not comparable to the well-type scintillation counter and in clinical cases the active concentration in arterial blood sample remained well within the dynamic range. In addition, examination of the influence of scattered radiation from the brain by the dilution method showed that it was negligible at a distance of more than 7.5 cm between the brain and the arterial blood sample. In the present study we placed a head-shaped phantom next to the sample. The results of the examinations suggested that this method is suitable for clinical application, and because it does not require a well-type scintillation counter, it is expected to find wide application. (author)

  14. Analysis of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on DNA traces from plasma and dried blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catsburg, Arnold; van der Zwet, Wil C.; Morre, Servaas A.; Ouburg, Sander; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2007-01-01

    Reliable analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA derived from samples containing low numbers of cells or from suboptimal sources can be difficult. A new procedure to characterize multiple SNPs in traces of DNA from plasma and old dried blood samples was developed. Six SNPs in the

  15. Sampling methods to the statistical control of the production of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Seghatchian, Jerard; Caldeira, Beatriz; Santos, Paula; Castro, Rosa; Fernandes, Teresa; Xavier, Sandra; de Sousa, Gracinda; de Almeida E Sousa, João Paulo

    2017-12-01

    The control of blood components specifications is a requirement generalized in Europe by the European Commission Directives and in the US by the AABB standards. The use of a statistical process control methodology is recommended in the related literature, including the EDQM guideline. The control reliability is dependent of the sampling. However, a correct sampling methodology seems not to be systematically applied. Commonly, the sampling is intended to comply uniquely with the 1% specification to the produced blood components. Nevertheless, on a purely statistical viewpoint, this model could be argued not to be related to a consistent sampling technique. This could be a severe limitation to detect abnormal patterns and to assure that the production has a non-significant probability of producing nonconforming components. This article discusses what is happening in blood establishments. Three statistical methodologies are proposed: simple random sampling, sampling based on the proportion of a finite population, and sampling based on the inspection level. The empirical results demonstrate that these models are practicable in blood establishments contributing to the robustness of sampling and related statistical process control decisions for the purpose they are suggested for. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Trace element analysis of whole blood and urine samples of diabetic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodhi, A S; Rashiduzzaman Khan, M [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Teheran. Nuclear Research Centre

    1979-01-01

    A number of samples of whole blood, and urine from diabetic and non-diabetic persons have been analyzed for their trace elemental contents using the proton-induced X-ray emission. The elemental contents of the diabetic and non-diabetic samples are compared.

  17. Wuchereria bancrofti in Tanzania: microfilarial periodicity and effect of blood sampling time on microfilarial intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Poul Erik; Niemann, L.; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    1997-01-01

    The circadian periodicity of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial (mf) intensities in peripheral blood was analysed in a group of infected individuals from an endemic community in north-eastern Tanzania. The mf density was quantified at two-hourly intervals for 24 hours. A clear nocturnal periodic...... of blood sampling before peak time is discussed, and the importance of taking sampling time into consideration when analysing data from epidemiological studies is emphasized. A simple method is devised which can be used to adjust for the influence of time on mf intensities, in studies where accurate...... information on mf intensities is necessary, and where it is impossible to obtain all samples at peak time....

  18. Paper membrane-based SERS platform for the determination of glucose in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torul, Hilal; Çiftçi, Hakan; Çetin, Demet; Suludere, Zekiye; Boyacı, Ismail Hakkı; Tamer, Uğur

    2015-11-01

    In this report, we present a paper membrane-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform for the determination of blood glucose level using a nitrocellulose membrane as substrate paper, and the microfluidic channel was simply constructed by wax-printing method. The rod-shaped gold nanorod particles were modified with 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MBA) and 1-decanethiol (1-DT) molecules and used as embedded SERS probe for paper-based microfluidics. The SERS measurement area was simply constructed by dropping gold nanoparticles on nitrocellulose membrane, and the blood sample was dropped on the membrane hydrophilic channel. While the blood cells and proteins were held on nitrocellulose membrane, glucose molecules were moved through the channel toward the SERS measurement area. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to confirm the effective separation of blood matrix, and total analysis is completed in 5 min. In SERS measurements, the intensity of the band at 1070 cm(-1) which is attributed to B-OH vibration decreased depending on the rise in glucose concentration in the blood sample. The glucose concentration was found to be 5.43 ± 0.51 mM in the reference blood sample by using a calibration equation, and the certified value for glucose was 6.17 ± 0.11 mM. The recovery of the glucose in the reference blood sample was about 88 %. According to these results, the developed paper-based microfluidic SERS platform has been found to be suitable for use for the detection of glucose in blood samples without any pretreatment procedure. We believe that paper-based microfluidic systems may provide a wide field of usage for paper-based applications.

  19. Multispectral Imaging Analysis of Circulating Tumor Cells in Negatively Enriched Peripheral Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brandon; Lustberg, Maryam; Summers, Thomas A; Chalmers, Jeffrey J

    2017-01-01

    A variety of biomarkers are present on cells in peripheral blood of patients with a variety of disorders, including solid tumor malignancies. While rare, characterization of these cells for specific protein levels with the advanced technology proposed, will lead to future validation studies of blood samples as "liquid biopsies" for the evaluation of disease status and therapeutic response. While circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been isolated in the blood samples of patients with solid tumors, the exact role of CTCs as clinically useful predictive markers is still debated. Current commercial technology has significant bias in that a positive selection technology is used that preassumes specific cell surface markers (such as EpCAM) are present on CTCs. However, CTCs with low EpCAM expression have been experimentally demonstrated to be more likely to be missed by this method. In contrast, this application uses a previously developed, technology that performs a purely negative enrichment methodology on peripheral blood, yielding highly enriched blood samples that contain CTCs as well as other, undefined cell types. The focus of this contribution is the use of multispectral imaging of epifluorescent, microscopic images of these enriched cells in order to help develop clinically relevant liquid biopsies from peripheral blood samples.

  20. Heel blood sampling in European neonatal intensive care units: compliance with pain management guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Losacco, Valentina; Cuttini, Marina; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the use of heel blood sampling and non-pharmacological analgesia in a large representative sample of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in eight European countries, and compare their self-reported practices with evidence-based recommendations. Methods Information on use...... of heel blood sampling and associated procedures (oral sweet solutions, non-nutritive sucking, swaddling or positioning, topical anaesthetics and heel warming) were collected through a structured mail questionnaire. 284 NICUs (78% response rate) participated, but only 175 with >/=50 very low birth weight...... admissions per year were included in this analysis. Results Use of heel blood sampling appeared widespread. Most units in the Netherlands, UK, Denmark, Sweden and France predominantly adopted mechanical devices, while manual lance was still in use in the other countries. The two Scandinavian countries...

  1. Delay in blood sampling for routine newborn screening is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2015-01-01

    for this association. Therefore, we investigated whether the increased risk can be explained by other risk factors for schizophrenia. METHODS: A case-control design was applied. A total of 846 cases with schizophrenia were selected from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register. One control was selected for each case......BACKGROUND: The Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank, containing dried blood spot samples from all newborn in Denmark, is a unique source of data that can be utilized for analyses of genetic and environmental exposures related to schizophrenia and other mental disorders. In previous analyses, we have...... found that early and late blood sampling, compared to sampling at day 5, was associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. As delay in sampling of blood for neonatal screening cannot in itself influence the risk of schizophrenia, it must be seen as a proxy for unknown underlying causes responsible...

  2. Response of blood capillaries in albino rat ovaries to gamma-radiation in fetal period of ontogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablekovskaya, O.N.; Amvros'ev, A.P.

    1999-01-01

    The character and direction of structural transformations of blood capillaries of micro circulatory channel of 20-days white rat foetus in normal conditions and after single external 1 Gy dose irradiation by 10 and 14 days of embryogenesis were examined. Electron-microscopical, stereo logical and statistical analyses were used. The peculiarities of reactions of hemo capillaries and their cell structure to gamma-rays action in embryogenesis were revealed. It was shown the reduction of diameters of capillaries, changes in section area of cytoplasm of endotheliocytes, diminution the size of nuclei of these cells. The injury effect was more pronounced in the case of irradiation on 14 days of embryogenesis. Polyploid endotheliocytes were found in the experimental conditions. Prenatal acute irradiation in low doses leaded to reduction of the number of microvessels and mitochondria in cytoplasm of cells of blood capillaries of rat foetus ovary

  3. Placenta expresses anti-Müllerian hormone and its receptor: Sex-related difference in fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novembri, R; Funghi, L; Voltolini, C; Belmonte, G; Vannuccini, S; Torricelli, M; Petraglia, F

    2015-07-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, playing a role in sexual differentiation and recruitment. Since a correlation exists between AMH serum levels in cord blood and fetal sex, the present study aimed to identify mRNA and protein expression of AMH and AMHRII in placenta and fetal membranes according to fetal sex. Placenta and fetal membranes samples (n = 40) were collected from women with singleton uncomplicated pregnancies at term. Identification of AMH protein in placenta and fetal membranes was carried out by immunohistochemistry and AMH and AMHRII protein localization by immunofluorescence, while mRNA expression was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. AMH and AMHRII mRNAs were expressed by placenta and fetal membranes at term, without any significant difference between males and females. Placental immunostaining showed a syncytial localization of AMH without sex-related differences; while fetal membranes immunostaining was significantly more intense in male than in female fetuses (p membranes. The present study for the first time demonstrated that human placenta and fetal membranes expresses and co-localizes AMH and AMHRII. Although no sex-related difference was found for the mRNA expression both in placenta and fetal membranes, a most intense staining for AMH in male fetal membranes supports AMH as a gender specific hormone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fetal Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... isn't recommended simply to determine a baby's sex. Similarly, fetal ultrasound isn't recommended solely for the purpose of producing keepsake videos or pictures. If your health care provider doesn' ...

  5. Fetal Macrosomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re more likely to have a large baby. Maternal obesity. Fetal macrosomia is more likely if you're ... is more likely to be a result of maternal diabetes, obesity or weight gain during pregnancy than other causes. ...

  6. The effectiveness of cooling conditions on temperature of canine EDTA whole blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Karen M; Serrano, Leslie; Sun, Xiaocun; Flatland, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Preanalytic factors such as time and temperature can have significant effects on laboratory test results. For example, ammonium concentration will increase 31% in blood samples stored at room temperature for 30 min before centrifugation. To reduce preanalytic error, blood samples may be placed in precooled tubes and chilled on ice or in ice water baths; however, the effectiveness of these modalities in cooling blood samples has not been formally evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various cooling modalities on reducing temperature of EDTA whole blood samples. Pooled samples of canine EDTA whole blood were divided into two aliquots. Saline was added to one aliquot to produce a packed cell volume (PCV) of 40% and to the second aliquot to produce a PCV of 20% (simulated anemia). Thirty samples from each aliquot were warmed to 37.7 °C and cooled in 2 ml allotments under one of three conditions: in ice, in ice after transfer to a precooled tube, or in an ice water bath. Temperature of each sample was recorded at one minute intervals for 15 min. Within treatment conditions, sample PCV had no significant effect on cooling. Cooling in ice water was significantly faster than cooling in ice only or transferring the sample to a precooled tube and cooling it on ice. Mean temperature of samples cooled in ice water was significantly lower at 15 min than mean temperatures of those cooled in ice, whether or not the tube was precooled. By 4 min, samples cooled in an ice water bath had reached mean temperatures less than 4 °C (refrigeration temperature), while samples cooled in other conditions remained above 4.0 °C for at least 11 min. For samples with a PCV of 40%, precooling the tube had no significant effect on rate of cooling on ice. For samples with a PCV of 20%, transfer to a precooled tube resulted in a significantly faster rate of cooling than direct placement of the warmed tube onto ice. Canine EDTA whole blood samples cool most

  7. Delay in blood sampling for routine newborn screening is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Hollegaard, Mads Villiam; Hougaard, David Michael; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Petersen, Liselotte

    2015-03-01

    The Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank, containing dried blood spot samples from all newborn in Denmark, is a unique source of data that can be utilized for analyses of genetic and environmental exposures related to schizophrenia and other mental disorders. In previous analyses, we have found that early and late blood sampling, compared to sampling at day 5, was associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. As delay in sampling of blood for neonatal screening cannot in itself influence the risk of schizophrenia, it must be seen as a proxy for unknown underlying causes responsible for this association. Therefore, we investigated whether the increased risk can be explained by other risk factors for schizophrenia. A case-control design was applied. A total of 846 cases with schizophrenia were selected from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register. One control was selected for each case, matched on sex and exact date of birth. Both early and late blood sampling was associated with increased risk for schizophrenia. Compared to blood sampling at day 5, sampling at days 0 to 4 after birth was associated with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.46 (95% CI 1.15-1.87) for development of schizophrenia, and sampling at days 6 to 9 and at days 10 to 53 was associated with an IRR of 1.5 (95% CI 1.13-1.98) and 3.00 (95% CI 1.59-5.67), respectively. After adjusting the estimates for place of birth, both parents' psychiatric illness, maternal and paternal age, parents' country of origin, child admission, and parental education and income, the estimates were slightly different. Thus, blood collection at 0-4days was associated with an IRR of 1.27 (95% CI 0.94-1.71), 6-9days 1.31 (95% CI 0.94-1.84) and 10+days 3.52 (95% CI 1.50 to 8.24). After adjusting risk estimates for well-known risk factors, delay in sampling of blood for neonatal screening was associated with unexplained increased risk of schizophrenia. Thus, a key finding is that age at test is a proxy for unobserved risk factors

  8. Are there fetal stem cells in the maternal brain?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osman Demirhan; Necmi (C)ekin; Deniz Ta(s)temir; Erdal Tun(c); Ali irfan Güzel; Demet Meral; Bülent Demirbek

    2013-01-01

    Fetal cells can enter maternal blood during pregnancy but whether they can also cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the maternal brain remains poorly understood. Previous results suggest that fetal cells are summoned to repair damage to the mother's brain. If this is confirmed, it would open up new and safer avenues of treatment for brain damage caused by strokes and neural diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether a baby's stem cells can enter the maternal brain during pregnancy. Deceased patients who had at least one male offspring and no history of abortion and blood transfusion were included in this study. DNA was extracted from brain tissue samples of deceased women using standard phenol-chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation methods. Genomic DNA was screened by quantitative fluorescent-polymerase chain reaction amplification together with short tandem repeat markers specific to the Y chromosome, and 13, 18, 21 and X. Any foreign DNA residues that could be used to interpret the presence of fetal stem cells in the maternal brain were monitored. Results indicated that fetal stem cells can not cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the maternal brain.

  9. A simplified method for determination of radioactive iron in whole-blood samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukhave, Klaus; Sørensen, Anne Dorthe; Hansen, M.

    2001-01-01

    in humans. The overall recovery of radioiron from blood is more than 90%, and the coefficient of variation, as judged by the variation in the ratio Fe-55/Fe-59 is in the order of 4%. Combined with whole-body counting of 59Fe and direct gamma -counting of Fe-59 on blood samples, this method represents......For studies on iron absorption in man radioisotopes represent an easy and simple tool. However, measurement of the orbital electron emitting radioiron, Fe-55, in blood is difficult and insufficiently described in the literature. The present study describes a relatively simple method...... for simultaneous determination of Fe-55 and Fe-59 in blood, using a dry-ashing procedure and recrystallization of the remaining iron. The detection Limit of the method permits measurements of 0.1 Bq/ml blood thus allowing detection of Less than 1% absorption from a 40 kBq dose, which is ethically acceptable...

  10. Stability and reliability of glycated haemoglobin measurements in blood samples stored at -20°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Vijayachandrika; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Deepa, Mohan; Jayashri, Ramamoorthy; Anbalagan, Viknesh Prabu; Akila, Bridgitte; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    To validate the stability of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) measurements in blood samples stored at -20°C for up to one month. The study group comprised 142 type 2 diabetic subjects visiting a tertiary centre for diabetes at Chennai city in south India. The HbA1c assay was done on a fasting blood sample using the Bio-Rad Variant machine on Day 0 (day of blood sample collection). Several aliquots were stored at -20°C and the assay was repeated on the 3rd, 7th, 15th, and 30th day after the sample collection. Bland-Altman plots were constructed and variation in the HbA1c levels on the different days was compared with the day 0 level. The median differences between HbA1c levels measured on Day 0 and the 3rd, 7th, 15th, and 30th day after blood collection were 0.0%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.5% respectively. Bland-Altman plot analysis showed that the differences between the day '0' and the different time points tend to get larger with time, but these were not clinically significant. HbA1c levels are relatively stable up to 2weeks, if blood samples are stored at -20°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sample preparation prior to the LC-MS-based metabolomics/metabonomics of blood-derived samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gika, Helen; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2011-07-01

    Blood represents a very important biological fluid and has been the target of continuous and extensive research for diagnostic, or health and drug monitoring reasons. Recently, metabonomics/metabolomics have emerged as a new and promising 'omics' platform that shows potential in biomarker discovery, especially in areas such as disease diagnosis, assessment of drug efficacy or toxicity. Blood is collected in various establishments in conditions that are not standardized. Next, the samples are prepared and analyzed using different methodologies or tools. When targeted analysis of key molecules (e.g., a drug or its metabolite[s]) is the aim, enforcement of certain measures or additional analyses may correct and harmonize these discrepancies. In omics fields such as those performed by holistic analytical approaches, no such rules or tools are available. As a result, comparison or correlation of results or data fusion becomes impractical. However, it becomes evident that such obstacles should be overcome in the near future to allow for large-scale studies that involve the assaying of samples from hundreds of individuals. In this case the effect of sample handling and preparation becomes very serious, in order to avoid wasting months of work from experts and expensive instrument time. The present review aims to cover the different methodologies applied to the pretreatment of blood prior to LC-MS metabolomic/metabonomic studies. The article tries to critically compare the methods and highlight issues that need to be addressed.

  12. The value of umbilical blood 2,3 diphosphoglycerate levels in the diagnosis of chronic fetal hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapadlo, M; Böswart, J; Petová, J; Hosková, K

    1990-01-01

    The authors assessed the levels of lactate and 2,3 diphosphoglycerate in the umbilical blood of 105 full-term neonates. A significant increase was found in the levels of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate in newborns of mothers with a history of imminent chronic intrauterine hypoxia. The lactate levels of these newborns were the same as in children of mothers without a history showing a risk of intrauterine hypoxia. The psychomotor development of newborns with increased levels of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate was significantly more altered than in those with normal levels in their first year of life.

  13. Radioimmunoassay screening and GC/MS confirmation of whole blood samples for drugs of abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiehler, V.R.; Sedgwick, P.

    From 1981 to 1984, an average of 300 radioimmunoassay screens on whole blood were performed each week in the authors laboratory. Most samples were screened for opiates phencyclidine and its analogs, barbiturates, and cocaine or its metabolite benzoylecgonine. A commercially available radioimmunoassay was used with modifications to facilitate screening of whole blood. Increasing sample size increased the sensitivity of the assay. Changing reagent concentration (1:1 dilution), incubation time, sample matrix (water, urine, or blood), or fraction counted (precipitate or supernatant) did not affect the utility of the standard curve or the sensitivity of the assay. All positive results for phencyclidine, opiates, cocaine, and related compounds were confirmed by GC/MA. Barbiturate positives were confirmed by UV spectrophotometry.

  14. EVALUATION OF ZEBU NELLORE CATTLE BLOOD SAMPLES USING THE CELL-DYN 3500 HEMATOLOGY ANALYZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Secorun Borges

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cell-dyn 3500 is a multiparameter flow cytometer, which may analyze samples from several species performing several simultaneous analyses. It is able to perform white blood cells, red blood cells and platelet counts, besides differential leukocyte counts, packed cell volume and hemoglobin determination. Cell-Dyn 3500 performs total leukocyte count both optically and by impedance. The equipment may choose one or other method, based on the reliability of the results. Erythrocyte and platelet counts are determined by impedance. Leukocyte differentiation is based on an optical principle, using separation in multiangular polarized light. The objective of this study was to compare the results of complete blood count of Zebu Nellore heifers from Celldyn 3500, with those obtained from a semi-automated cell counter (Celm CC 510 and the manual technique. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein in 5 mL EDTA vacuum tubes from 58 Nellore heifers, at 24 months of age. Samples were processed in parallel in the three different techniques. Results were analyzed using paired t test, Pearson’s correlation and the Bland-Altmann method. There was a strong correlation for all parameters analyzed by Cell-Dyn 3500, manual method and semiautomated cell counter, except for basophils and monocytes counts. These results confirm that this analyzer is reliable for blood samples analysis of zebu cattle.

  15. Identifying the potential of changes to blood sample logistics using simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Pelle; Jacobsen, Peter; Poulsen, Jørgen Hjelm

    2013-01-01

    Using simulation as an approach to display and improve internal logistics at hospitals has great potential. This study shows how a simulation model displaying the morning blood-taking round at a Danish public hospital can be developed and utilized with the aim of improving the logistics. The focus of the simulation was to evaluate changes made to the transportation of blood samples between wards and the laboratory. The average- (AWT) and maximum waiting time (MWT) from a blood sample was drawn at the ward until it was received at the laboratory, and the distribution of arrivals of blood samples in the laboratory were used as the evaluation criteria. Four different scenarios were tested and compared with the current approach: (1) Using AGVs (mobile robots), (2) using a pneumatic tube system, (3) using porters that are called upon, or (4) using porters that come to the wards every 45 minutes. Furthermore, each of the scenarios was tested in terms of what amount of resources would give the optimal result. The simulations showed a big improvement potential in implementing a new technology/mean for transporting the blood samples. The pneumatic tube system showed the biggest potential lowering the AWT and MWT with approx. 36% and 18%, respectively. Additionally, all of the scenarios had a more even distribution of arrivals except for porters coming to the wards every 45 min. As a consequence of the results obtained in the study, the hospital decided to implement a pneumatic tube system.

  16. Hybrid image and blood sampling input function for quantification of small animal dynamic PET data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoghi, Kooresh I.; Welch, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe and validate a hybrid image and blood sampling (HIBS) method to derive the input function for quantification of microPET mice data. The HIBS algorithm derives the peak of the input function from the image, which is corrected for recovery, while the tail is derived from 5 to 6 optimally placed blood sampling points. A Bezier interpolation algorithm is used to link the rightmost image peak data point to the leftmost blood sampling point. To assess the performance of HIBS, 4 mice underwent 60-min microPET imaging sessions following a 0.40-0.50-mCi bolus administration of 18 FDG. In total, 21 blood samples (blood-sampled plasma time-activity curve, bsPTAC) were obtained throughout the imaging session to compare against the proposed HIBS method. MicroPET images were reconstructed using filtered back projection with a zoom of 2.75 on the heart. Volumetric regions of interest (ROIs) were composed by drawing circular ROIs 3 pixels in diameter on 3-4 transverse planes of the left ventricle. Performance was characterized by kinetic simulations in terms of bias in parameter estimates when bsPTAC and HIBS are used as input functions. The peak of the bsPTAC curve was distorted in comparison to the HIBS-derived curve due to temporal limitations and delay in blood sampling, which affected the rates of bidirectional exchange between plasma and tissue. The results highlight limitations in using bsPTAC. The HIBS method, however, yields consistent results, and thus, is a substitute for bsPTAC

  17. Stability of heparin blood samples during transport based on defined pre-analytical quality goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Esther A; Stahl, Marta; Brandslund, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In many countries and especially in Scandinavia, blood samples drawn in primary healthcare are sent to a hospital laboratory for analysis. The samples are exposed to various conditions regarding storage time, storage temperature and transport form. As these factors can have a severe...... impact on the quality of results, we wanted to study which combination of transport conditions could fulfil our pre-defined goals for maximum allowable error. METHODS: Samples from 406 patients from nine general practitioners (GPs) in two Danish counties were sent to two hospitals for analyses, during......, centrifuged and separated at the doctor's office within 45-60 min. This sample was considered as the best estimate of a comparison value. RESULTS: The pre-set quality goals were fulfilled for all the investigated components for samples transported to hospital by courier either as whole blood or as "on gel...

  18. Pneumatic tube-transported blood samples in lithium heparinate gel separator tubes may be more susceptible to haemolysis than blood samples in serum tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckel-Frohnhöfer, Nicole; Hübner, Ulrich; Hummel, Björn; Geisel, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    Pneumatic tube systems are widely used in hospitals. Advantages are high speed and rapid availability of the samples. However, the transportation by pneumatic tube promotes haemolysis. Haemolysis interferes with many spectrophotometric assays and is a common problem in clinical laboratories. The haemolysis index (HI) as a semi-quantitative representation of the level of haemolysis was compared in unpaired tube-transported and hand-delivered routine lithium heparinate plasma samples (n = 1368 and n = 837, respectively). Additionally, the HI distribution was measured in lithium heparinate plasma samples with a HI above the threshold value of 20 and in paired serum samples after transportation by pneumatic tube system. HI values above 20 can interfere with the selected assays: Creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities. These parameters were determined to demonstrate how haemolysis affects the results. 17.5% of the tube-transported plasma samples and 2.6% of the hand-delivered plasma samples had a HI above 20. The median HI in pneumatic tube-transported lithium heparinate plasma was 85 and 33 in the paired serum samples. The median HI difference between paired plasma and serum was 46. Blood samples in lithium heparinate tubes may be substantially more susceptible to haemolysis by pneumatic tube transportation than serum tube samples. Although our results cannot be universally applied to laboratories with different pneumatic tube systems, it is recommended that each laboratory evaluate carefully the degree of haemolysis after the transportation by the own pneumatic tube system and in terms of the sample type.

  19. Application of gelatin zymography for evaluating low levels of contaminating neutrophils in red blood cell samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilli, Cesare; Ciana, Annarita; Balduini, Cesare; Risso, Angela; Minetti, Giampaolo

    2011-02-15

    Supposedly "homogeneous" red blood cell (RBC) samples are commonly obtained by "washing" whole blood free of plasma, platelets, and white cells with physiological solutions, a procedure that does not result, however, in sufficient removal of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), leading to possible artifactual results. Pure RBC samples can be obtained only by leukodepletion procedures. Proposed here is a version of gelatin zymography adapted to detect matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), selectively expressed by PMNs, in heterogeneous mixtures of RBCs and PMNs that can reveal contamination at levels as low as 1 PMN/10⁶ RBCs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Blood venous sample collection: Recommendations overview and a checklist to improve quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giavarina, Davide; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    The extra-analytical phases of the total testing process have substantial impact on managed care, as well as an inherent high risk of vulnerability to errors which is often greater than that of the analytical phase. The collection of biological samples is a crucial preanalytical activity. Problems or errors occurring shortly before, or soon after, this preanalytical step may impair sample quality and characteristics, or else modify the final results of testing. The standardization of fasting requirements, rest, patient position and psychological state of the patient are therefore crucial for mitigating the impact of preanalytical variability. Moreover, the quality of materials used for collecting specimens, along with their compatibility, can guarantee sample quality and persistence of chemical and physical characteristics of the analytes over time, so safeguarding the reliability of testing. Appropriate techniques and sampling procedures are effective to prevent problems such as hemolysis, undue clotting in the blood tube, draw of insufficient sample volume and modification of analyte concentration. An accurate identification of both patient and blood samples is a key priority as for other healthcare activities. Good laboratory practice and appropriate training of operators, by specifically targeting collection of biological samples, blood in particular, may greatly improve this issue, thus lowering the risk of errors and their adverse clinical consequences. The implementation of a simple and rapid check-list, including verification of blood collection devices, patient preparation and sampling techniques, was found to be effective for enhancing sample quality and reducing some preanalytical errors associated with these procedures. The use of this tool, along with implementation of objective and standardized systems for detecting non-conformities related to unsuitable samples, can be helpful for standardizing preanalytical activities and improving the quality of

  1. Use of standard laboratory methods to obviate routine dithiothreitol treatment of blood samples with daratumumab interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintel, Nicholas J; Brown, Debra K; Schafer, Diane T; Tsimba-Chitsva, Farai M; Koepsell, Scott A; Shunkwiler, Sara M

    2017-01-01

    Daratumumab is an antibody currently used in the treatment of patients with refractory multiple myeloma. Blood samples from patients being treated with daratumumab may show panreactivity during pre-transfusion testing. To facilitate the provision of blood components for such patients, it is recommended that a baseline phenotype or genotype be established prior to starting treatment with daratumumab. If patient red blood cells (RBCs) require phenotyping after the start of daratumumab treatment, dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment of the patient's RBCs should be performed. The medical charts of four patients treated with daratumumab were reviewed. The individual number of doses ranged from 1 to 14; patient age ranged from 55 to 78 years; two men and two women were included in the review. Type and screen data were obtained from samples collected over 33 encounters with a range of 1 to 13 encounters per patient. All samples were tested initially by automated solid-phase testing. Any reactivity with solid phase led to tube testing with either low-ionic-strength saline, polyethylene glycol, or both. If incubation failed to eliminate the reactivity, the sample was sent to a reference laboratory for DTT treatment and phenotyping. Of the 33 samples tested, 23 (69.7%) samples had reactivity in solid-phase testing. In 8 of the 10 samples that did not react in solid-phase, testing was conducted more than four half-lives after the last dose of daratumumab. Of the 23 that had reactivity in solid-phase, 16 (69.6%) samples demonstrated loss of reactivity using common laboratory methods. For the seven patients whose sample reactivity was not initially eliminated, six were provided with phenotypically matched blood based on prior molecular testing. Only one sample was sent out for DTT treatment. These results suggest that daratumumab interference with pre-transfusion testing can be addressed using common laboratory methods. This finding could save time and money for laboratories that do

  2. A cell transportation solution that preserves live circulating tumor cells in patient blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Steingrimur; Adams, Daniel L; Ershler, William B; Le, Huyen; Ho, David H

    2016-05-06

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are typically collected into CellSave fixative tubes, which kills the cells, but preserves their morphology. Currently, the clinical utility of CTCs is mostly limited to their enumeration. More detailed investigation of CTC biology can be performed on live cells, but obtaining live CTCs is technically challenging, requiring blood collection into biocompatible solutions and rapid isolation which limits transportation options. To overcome the instability of CTCs, we formulated a sugar based cell transportation solution (SBTS) that stabilizes cell viability at ambient temperature. In this study we examined the long term viability of human cancer cell lines, primary cells and CTCs in human blood samples in the SBTS for transportation purposes. Four cell lines, 5 primary human cells and purified human PBMCs were tested to determine the viability of cells stored in the transportation solution at ambient temperature for up to 7 days. We then demonstrated viability of MCF-7 cells spiked into normal blood with SBTS and stored for up to 7 days. A pilot study was then run on blood samples from 3 patients with metastatic malignancies stored with or without SBTS for 6 days. CTCs were then purified by Ficoll separation/microfilter isolation and identified using CTC markers. Cell viability was assessed using trypan blue or CellTracker™ live cell stain. Our results suggest that primary/immortalized cell lines stored in SBTS remain ~90% viable for > 72 h. Further, MCF-7 cells spiked into whole blood remain viable when stored with SBTS for up to 7 days. Finally, live CTCs were isolated from cancer patient blood samples kept in SBTS at ambient temperature for 6 days. No CTCs were isolated from blood samples stored without SBTS. In this proof of principle pilot study we show that viability of cell lines is preserved for days using SBTS. Further, this solution can be used to store patient derived blood samples for eventual isolation of viable CTCs after

  3. A cell transportation solution that preserves live circulating tumor cells in patient blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefansson, Steingrimur; Adams, Daniel L.; Ershler, William B.; Le, Huyen; Ho, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are typically collected into CellSave fixative tubes, which kills the cells, but preserves their morphology. Currently, the clinical utility of CTCs is mostly limited to their enumeration. More detailed investigation of CTC biology can be performed on live cells, but obtaining live CTCs is technically challenging, requiring blood collection into biocompatible solutions and rapid isolation which limits transportation options. To overcome the instability of CTCs, we formulated a sugar based cell transportation solution (SBTS) that stabilizes cell viability at ambient temperature. In this study we examined the long term viability of human cancer cell lines, primary cells and CTCs in human blood samples in the SBTS for transportation purposes. Four cell lines, 5 primary human cells and purified human PBMCs were tested to determine the viability of cells stored in the transportation solution at ambient temperature for up to 7 days. We then demonstrated viability of MCF-7 cells spiked into normal blood with SBTS and stored for up to 7 days. A pilot study was then run on blood samples from 3 patients with metastatic malignancies stored with or without SBTS for 6 days. CTCs were then purified by Ficoll separation/microfilter isolation and identified using CTC markers. Cell viability was assessed using trypan blue or CellTracker™ live cell stain. Our results suggest that primary/immortalized cell lines stored in SBTS remain ~90 % viable for > 72 h. Further, MCF-7 cells spiked into whole blood remain viable when stored with SBTS for up to 7 days. Finally, live CTCs were isolated from cancer patient blood samples kept in SBTS at ambient temperature for 6 days. No CTCs were isolated from blood samples stored without SBTS. In this proof of principle pilot study we show that viability of cell lines is preserved for days using SBTS. Further, this solution can be used to store patient derived blood samples for eventual isolation of viable CTCs

  4. Comparative evaluation of blood and serum samples in rapid immunochromatographic tests for visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Khanal, Basudha; Tiwary, Puja; Mudavath, Shyam Lal; Tiwary, Narendra K; Singh, Rupa; Koirala, Kanika; Boelaert, Marleen; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam

    2013-12-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) based on the detection of specific antibodies in serum are commonly used for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Several commercial kits are available, and some of them allow the use of whole-blood samples instead of serum. An RDT is much more user-friendly for blood samples than for serum samples. In this study, we examined the sensitivities and specificities of six different commercially available immunochromatographic tests for their accuracy in detecting Leishmania infection in whole blood and serum of parasitologically confirmed VL cases. This study was performed in areas of India and Nepal where VL is endemic. A total of 177 confirmed VL cases, 208 healthy controls from areas of endemicity (EHCs), 26 malaria patients (MP), and 37 tuberculosis (TB) patients were enrolled. The reproducibilities of the blood and serum results and between-reader and between-laboratory results were tested. In India, the sensitivities of all the RDTs ranged between 94.7 and 100.0%, with no significant differences between whole blood and serum. The specificities ranged between 92.4 and 100.0%, except for the specificity of the Onsite Leishmania Ab RevB kit, which was lower (33.6 to 42.0%). No differences in specificities were observed for blood and serum. In Nepal, the sensitivities of all the test kits, for whole-blood as well as serum samples, ranged between 96.3 and 100.0%, and the specificities ranged between 90.1 and 96.1%, again with the exception of that of the Onsite Leishmania Ab RevB test, which was markedly lower (48.7 to 49.3%). The diagnostic accuracies of all the tests, except for one brand, were excellent for the whole-blood and serum samples. We conclude that whole blood is an adequate alternative for serum in RDTs for VL, with sensitivities and specificities comparable to those obtained in serum samples, provided that the test kit is of overall good quality.

  5. Method and apparatus for automated processing and aliquoting of whole blood samples for analysis in a centrifugal fast analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1985-08-05

    A rotor and disc assembly for use in a centrifugal fast analyzer. The assembly is designed to process multiple samples of whole blood followed by aliquoting of the resultant serum into precisely measured samples for subsequent chemical analysis. The assembly requires minimal operator involvement with no mechanical pipetting. The system comprises: (1) a whole blood sample disc; (2) a serum sample disc; (3) a sample preparation rotor; and (4) an analytical rotor. The blood sample disc and serum sample disc are designed with a plurality of precision bore capillary tubes arranged in a spoked array. Samples of blood are loaded into the blood sample disc by capillary action and centrifugally discharged into cavities of the sample preparation rotor where separation of serum and solids is accomplished. The serum is loaded into the capillaries of the serum sample disc by capillary action and subsequently centrifugally expelled into cuvettes of the analyticaly rotor for conventional methods. 5 figs.

  6. Method and apparatus for automated processing and aliquoting of whole blood samples for analysis in a centrifugal fast analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.; Walker, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A rotor and disc assembly for use in a centrifugal fast analyzer. The assembly is designed to process multiple samples of whole blood followed by aliquoting of the resultant serum into precisely measured samples for subsequent chemical analysis. The assembly requires minimal operator involvement with no mechanical pipetting. The system comprises (1) a whole blood sample disc, (2) a serum sample disc, (3) a sample preparation rotor, and (4) an analytical rotor. The blood sample disc and serum sample disc are designed with a plurality of precision bore capillary tubes arranged in a spoked array. Samples of blood are loaded into the blood sample disc in capillary tubes filled by capillary action and centrifugally discharged into cavities of the sample preparation rotor where separation of serum and solids is accomplished. The serum is loaded into the capillaries of the serum sample disc by capillary action and subsequently centrifugally expelled into cuvettes of the analytical rotor for analysis by conventional methods.

  7. Association of maternal and umbilical cord blood leptin concentrations and abnormal color Doppler indices of umbilical artery with fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Zareaan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal growth restriction (FGR is a condition with heterogeneous pathophysiology which characterized by fetal weight less than the tenth percentile for gestational age. Several factors have impact on maternal, placental and fetal due to growth restriction. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between levels of leptin in the cord, and serum leptin of mothers also abnormal color Doppler indices of umbilical artery with fetal growth restriction. Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in Isfahan, Iran, 2015-2016. We recruited 40 women with singleton pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (Group I and 40 pregnant women with normal fetal growth (Group II with matched age. Maternal serum and umbilical artery leptin levels were determined with Enzyme-Linked immunosorben method. Also, color Doppler ultrasound of umbilical artery was performed. Results: Mean maternal and fetal leptin levels were lower in the FGR group compared to the normal group (36.58±(20.99 and 7.42 ±(4.08vs. 47.32±(22.50 and 30.49±(14.50 respectively. Also, mean fetal leptin level was lower in the group with abnormal color Doppler sonographic indices compared to the normal group (7. 40 ±(4.10vs 27.06±(15.80, respectively. Conclusion: This study indicated that maternal and fetal leptin levels are correlated with FGR originating from damaged placental function; also fetal leptin level can indicate changes in color Doppler sonographic indices.

  8. The effect of local heat on term neonates pain intensity during heel-blood sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. GHobadi Mohebi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Newborns are more sensitive to pain than adults and are more susceptible to the long-term complications of pain. So, it is necessary to use procedures for reducing pain in newborns. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of local heat on the pain intensity of heel-blood sampling in the term newborns. Material & Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial study, in 2012, 63 healthy 3 to 5-day newborns who were referred to Shahid Delkhah Health Center in Ferdows were selected by random sampling method and randomly divided into 3 groups (21 people in each group: test (heat, placebo (sound and control. The pain intensity of newborns before, during and after heel-blood sampling was evaluated. The data collection tools were demographic questionnaire and Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS. Data were analyzed by SPSS 14.5 software and chi-square test, one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc test, and ANOVA with repeated observations. Finding: The mean pain intensity in the three groups was not significantly different before intervention (p=0.86, but the mean pain intensity was lower in the test group than in the other two groups (p=0.006. After heel-blood sampling, the mean pain intensity was the least in the test group and was the most in the control group (p<0.001. Conclusion: Local heat during and after heel blood sampling decreases pain intensity in the term newborns.

  9. Direct and long-term detection of gene doping in conventional blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiter, T; Zimmermann, M; Fragasso, A; Hudemann, J; Niess, A M; Bitzer, M; Lauer, U M; Simon, P

    2011-03-01

    The misuse of somatic gene therapy for the purpose of enhancing athletic performance is perceived as a coming threat to the world of sports and categorized as 'gene doping'. This article describes a direct detection approach for gene doping that gives a clear yes-or-no answer based on the presence or absence of transgenic DNA in peripheral blood samples. By exploiting a priming strategy to specifically amplify intronless DNA sequences, we developed PCR protocols allowing the detection of very small amounts of transgenic DNA in genomic DNA samples to screen for six prime candidate genes. Our detection strategy was verified in a mouse model, giving positive signals from minute amounts (20 μl) of blood samples for up to 56 days following intramuscular adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer, one of the most likely candidate vector systems to be misused for gene doping. To make our detection strategy amenable for routine testing, we implemented a robust sample preparation and processing protocol that allows cost-efficient analysis of small human blood volumes (200 μl) with high specificity and reproducibility. The practicability and reliability of our detection strategy was validated by a screening approach including 327 blood samples taken from professional and recreational athletes under field conditions.

  10. 1-Hydroxypyrene Levels in Blood Samples of Rats After Exposure to Generator Fumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifegwu, Clinton; Igwo-Ezikpe, Miriam N.; Anyakora, Chimezie; Osuntoki, Akinniyi; Oseni, Kafayat A.; Alao, Eragbae O.

    2013-01-01

    Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major component of fuel generator fumes. Carcinogenicity of these compounds has long been established. In this study, 37 Swiss albino rats were exposed to generator fumes at varied distances for 8 hours per day for a period of 42 days and the level of 1-hydroxypyrene in their blood was evaluated. This study also tried to correlate the level of blood 1-hyroxypyrene with the distance from the source of pollution. Plasma was collected by centrifuging the whole blood sample followed by complete hydrolysis of the conjugated 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide to yield the analyte of interest, 1-hydroxypyrene, which was achieved using beta glucuronidase. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detector was used to determine the 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in the blood samples. The mobile phase was water:methanol (12:88 v/v) isocratic run at the flow rate of 1.2 mL/min with CI8 stationary phase at 250 nm. After 42 days of exposure, blood concentration level of 1-hydroxypyrene ranged from 34 μg/mL to 26.29 μg/mL depending on the distance from source of exposure. The control group had no 1-hydroxypyrene in their blood. After the period of exposure, percentage of death correlated with the distance from the source of exposure. Percentage of death ranged from 56% to zero depending on the proximity to source of pollution. PMID:24179393

  11. Association between Macronutrients Intake, Visceral Obesity and Blood Pressure in a Sample of Obese Egyptian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nayera E; El Shebini, Salwa M; Ahmed, Nihad H; Selim Mostafa, Mohamed

    2015-03-15

    Study the association between the total caloric intake, protein, lipid, and some classes of fatty acids of the diet, and their effects on blood pressure in a sample of Egyptian obese women with and without visceral obesity. Five hundred forty-nine obese women were included in the study with mean age of 38.1 ± 11.56 years and mean Body mass index [BMI] of 36.17 ± 7.23. They enrolled in a program for losing weight. Visceral fat was determined using ultrasound. Blood pressure was measured 3 times and the mean was recorded. Twenty four hours dietary recall was reported. Thirty point four percentages of samples has visceral obesity ≥ 7cm; they were the older, showed higher values of BMI, visceral obesity and blood pressure. Significant difference was found between groups regarding mean value of BMI, visceral obesity, both systolic blood pressure SBP and diastolic blood pressure DBP and most of the daily macronutrients intake. In groups (2&3) positive significant correlation was recorded between (SBP) & (DBP) and total daily intake of total calories, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, and negative significant correlation with total daily intake of total protein, animal and vegetable protein, linolenic and linoleic fatty acids, while oleic fatty acid showed negative correlation with SBP&DBP in all groups. This study emphasizes the hypothesis that the macronutrients composition of diet influences blood pressure in different ways, in obese patients with visceral obesity.

  12. Blood Sampling in Newborns: A Systematic Review of YouTube Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Mariana; Nishi, Érika Tihemi; Costa, Taine; Freire, Laís Machado; Harrison, Denise

    Objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of YouTube videos showing neonatal blood sampling, and to evaluate pain management and comforting interventions used. Selected videos were consumer- or professional-produced videos showing human newborns undergoing heel lancing or venipuncture for blood sampling, videos showing the entire blood sampling procedure (from the first attempt or puncture to the time of application of a cotton ball or bandage), publication date prior to October 2014, Portuguese titles, available audio. Search terms included "neonate," "newborn," "neonatal screening," and "blood collection." Two reviewers independently screened the videos and extracted the following data. A total of 13 140 videos were retrieved, of which 1354 were further evaluated, and 68 were included. Videos were mostly consumer produced (97%). Heel lancing was performed in 62 (91%). Forty-nine infants (72%) were held by an adult during the procedure. Median pain score immediately after puncture was 4 (interquartile range [IQR] = 0-5), and median length of cry throughout the procedure was 61 seconds (IQR = 88). Breastfeeding (3%) and swaddling (1.5%) were rarely implemented. Posted YouTube videos in Portuguese of newborns undergoing blood collection demonstrate minimal use of pain treatment, and maximal distress during procedures. Knowledge translation strategies are needed to implement effective measures for neonatal pain relief and comfort.

  13. Detection of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus DNA in Serum Samples of Healthy Blood Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Elisa; Rotondo, John C.; Marracino, Luisa; Selvatici, Rita; Bononi, Ilaria; Torreggiani, Elena; Touzé, Antoine; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro G.

    2017-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has been detected in 80% of Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC). In the host, the MCPyV reservoir remains elusive. MCPyV DNA sequences were revealed in blood donor buffy coats. In this study, MCPyV DNA sequences were investigated in the sera (n = 190) of healthy blood donors. Two MCPyV DNA sequences, coding for the viral oncoprotein large T antigen (LT), were investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods and DNA sequencing. Circulating MCPyV sequences were detected in sera with a prevalence of 2.6% (5/190), at low-DNA viral load, which is in the range of 1–4 and 1–5 copies/μl by real-time PCR and droplet digital PCR, respectively. DNA sequencing carried out in the five MCPyV-positive samples indicated that the two MCPyV LT sequences which were analyzed belong to the MKL-1 strain. Circulating MCPyV LT sequences are present in blood donor sera. MCPyV-positive samples from blood donors could represent a potential vehicle for MCPyV infection in receivers, whereas an increase in viral load may occur with multiple blood transfusions. In certain patient conditions, such as immune-depression/suppression, additional disease or old age, transfusion of MCPyV-positive samples could be an additional risk factor for MCC onset. PMID:29238698

  14. Non-invasive management of fetal goiter during maternal treatment of hyperthyroidism in Grave's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembet, Arda; Eroglu, Derya; Kinik, Sibel Tulgar; Gurakan, Berkan; Kuscu, Esra

    2005-01-01

    There is an increased risk of fetal goiter in patients who have a history of Grave's disease and undergo propylthiouracil (PTU) treatment during pregnancy. In this report, we describe a case of a fetal goiter detected by antenatal ultrasound at the 26th week of gestation in a mother treated with PTU for Grave's disease. A 32 x 38 x 20 mm fetal goiter was detected, each lobe measured 30 x 18 x 18 mm and estimated volume was 10 cm3. Subsequently, fetal thyroid function was assessed by umbilical fetal blood sampling. Cord blood showed elevated serum TSH (40.2 mU/l) and normal concentrations of free T4 (9.5 pmol/l) and free T3 (2.6 pmol/l). There were no other ultrasonographic signs of fetal hypothyroidism. Based on the above findings, the mother's PTU dosage was reduced to 50 mg daily from a total of 150 mg and weekly ultrasonographic examinations were performed. Six weeks after the initial ultrasound, a complete regression of the fetal goiter was noted. At the 34th week of gestation, the patient was delivered due to intrauterine growth restriction and oligohydramnios and gave birth to a male, weighing 1,920 g. The newborn thyroid was not palpable and thyroid ultrasonography was normal. Cord blood TSH was normal (8.4 mU/l) and free T4 was within lower normal limit (9.03 pmol/l). Ten days later, newborn thyroid function was normal and the baby did well afterwards. In conclusion, after the evaluation of fetal thyroid status, selected cases with fetal goiter can be initially managed without intrauterine treatment. (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Large-scale prospective T cell function assays in shipped, unfrozen blood samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadley, David; Cheung, Roy K; Becker, Dorothy J

    2014-01-01

    , for measuring core T cell functions. The Trial to Reduce Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) type 1 diabetes prevention trial used consecutive measurements of T cell proliferative responses in prospectively collected fresh heparinized blood samples shipped by courier within...... cell immunocompetence. We have found that the vast majority of the samples were viable up to 3 days from the blood draw, yet meaningful responses were found in a proportion of those with longer travel times. Furthermore, the shipping time of uncooled samples significantly decreased both the viabilities...... North America. In this article, we report on the quality control implications of this simple and pragmatic shipping practice and the interpretation of positive- and negative-control analytes in our assay. We used polyclonal and postvaccination responses in 4,919 samples to analyze the development of T...

  16. Detection of the BLV provirus from nasal secretion and saliva samples using BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2: Comparison with blood samples from the same cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Kitamura-Muramatsu, Yuri; Saito, Susumu; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Nakano, Miwa; Haga, Satoshi; Matoba, Kazuhiro; Ohno, Ayumu; Murakami, Hironobu; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Aida, Yoko

    2015-12-02

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) induces enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease in cattle. Sero-epidemiological studies show that BLV infection occurs worldwide. Direct contact between infected and uninfected cattle is thought to be one of the risk factors for BLV transmission. Contact transmission occurs via a mixture of natural sources, blood, and exudates. To confirm that BLV provirus is detectable in these samples, matched blood, nasal secretion, and saliva samples were collected from 50 cattle, and genomic DNA was extracted. BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2, an assay developed for the highly sensitive detection of BLV, was then used to measure the proviral load in blood (n=50), nasal secretions (n=48), and saliva (n=47) samples. The results showed that 35 blood samples, 14 nasal secretion samples, and 6 saliva samples were positive for the BLV provirus. Matched blood samples from cattle that were positive for the BLV provirus (either in nasal secretion or saliva samples) were also positive in their blood. The proviral load in the positive blood samples was >14,000 (copies/1×10(5) cells). Thus, even though the proviral load in the nasal secretion and saliva samples was much lower (blood, prolonged direct contact between infected and healthy cattle may be considered as a risk factor for BLV transmission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Creatinine measurement on dry blood spot sample for chronic kidney disease screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alan Castro Azevedo E; Gómez, Juan Fidel Bencomo; Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo; Graciano, Miguel Luis

    2016-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) screening is advisable due to its high morbidity and mortality and is usually performed by sampling blood and urine. Here we present an innovative and simpler method, by measuring creatinine on a dry blood spot on filter paper. One-hundred and six individuals at high risk for CKD were enrolled. The creatinine values obtained using both tests and the demographic data of each participant allowed us to determinate the eGFR. The adopted cutoff for CKD was an eGFR creatinine values differences (+ 0.68mg/dl to -0.55mg/dl) inside the ± 1.96 SD, without systematic differences. Measurement of creatinine on dry blood sample is an easily feasible non-invasive diagnostic test with good accuracy that may be useful to screen chronic kidney disease.

  18. Levels of PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood and cord tissue and the risk of fetal neural tube defects in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Deqing; Yuan, Yue; Jin, Lei; Zhou, Guodong; Zhu, Huiping; Finnell, Richard H; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Maternal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been shown to be associated with an elevated risk for neural tube defects (NTDs). In the human body, PAHs are bioactivated and the resultant reactive epoxides can covalently bind to DNA to form PAH-DNA adducts, which may, in turn, cause transcription errors, changes in gene expression or altered patterns of apoptosis. During critical developmental phases, these changes can result in abnormal morphogenesis. We aimed to examine the relationship between the levels of PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood and cord tissue and the risk of NTDs. From 2010 to 2012, 60 NTD cases and 60 healthy controls were recruited from a population-based birth defects surveillance system in five counties of Shanxi Province in Northern China, where the emission of PAHs remains one of the highest in the country and PAHs exposure is highly prevalent. PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood of 15 NTD cases and 15 control infants, and in cord tissue of 60 NTD cases and 60 control infants were measured using the (32)P-postlabeling method. PAH-DNA adduct levels in cord blood tend to be higher in the NTD group (28.5 per 10(8) nucleotides) compared with controls (19.7 per 10(8) nucleotides), although the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.377). PAH-DNA adducts in cord tissue were significantly higher in the NTD group (24.6 per 10(6) nucleotides) than in the control group (15.3 per 10(6) nucleotides), P=0.010. A positive dose-response relationship was found between levels of PAH-DNA adducts in cord tissue and the risk of NTDs (P=0.009). When the lowest tertile was used as the referent and potential confounding factors were adjusted for, a 1.03-fold (95% CI, 0.37-2.89) and 2.96-fold (95% CI, 1.16-7.58) increase in the risk of NTDs was observed for fetuses whose cord tissue PAH-DNA adduct levels were in the second and highest tertile, respectively. High levels of PAH-DNA adducts in fetal tissues were associated with increased risks of

  19. PIXE elemental analysis of erythrocyte and blood plasma samples from human pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbely-Kiss, I.; Koltay, E.; Laszlo, S.; Szabo, Gy.

    1984-01-01

    Elemental concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb have been determined in erythrocyte and blood plasma samples from normal and diabetic human pregnancies. Average values, the dependence of the concentrations on the time during gestation period, the correlation coefficients for pairs of elements as well as for the same elements in plasma and erythrocyte samples are given. A marked difference appeared in a number of cases between normal and diabetic pregnancies. (author)

  20. Gram-negative and -positive bacteria differentiation in blood culture samples by headspace volatile compound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolch, Michael E; Janitza, Silke; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure; Graßmann-Lichtenauer, Carola; Praun, Siegfried; Denzer, Wolfgang; Schelling, Gustav; Schubert, Sören

    2016-12-01

    Identification of microorganisms in positive blood cultures still relies on standard techniques such as Gram staining followed by culturing with definite microorganism identification. Alternatively, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or the analysis of headspace volatile compound (VC) composition produced by cultures can help to differentiate between microorganisms under experimental conditions. This study assessed the efficacy of volatile compound based microorganism differentiation into Gram-negatives and -positives in unselected positive blood culture samples from patients. Headspace gas samples of positive blood culture samples were transferred to sterilized, sealed, and evacuated 20 ml glass vials and stored at -30 °C until batch analysis. Headspace gas VC content analysis was carried out via an auto sampler connected to an ion-molecule reaction mass spectrometer (IMR-MS). Measurements covered a mass range from 16 to 135 u including CO2, H2, N2, and O2. Prediction rules for microorganism identification based on VC composition were derived using a training data set and evaluated using a validation data set within a random split validation procedure. One-hundred-fifty-two aerobic samples growing 27 Gram-negatives, 106 Gram-positives, and 19 fungi and 130 anaerobic samples growing 37 Gram-negatives, 91 Gram-positives, and two fungi were analysed. In anaerobic samples, ten discriminators were identified by the random forest method allowing for bacteria differentiation into Gram-negative and -positive (error rate: 16.7 % in validation data set). For aerobic samples the error rate was not better than random. In anaerobic blood culture samples of patients IMR-MS based headspace VC composition analysis facilitates bacteria differentiation into Gram-negative and -positive.

  1. PIXE elemental analysis of erythrocyte and blood plasma samples from human pregnancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borbely-Kiss, I; Koltay, E; Laszlo, S; Szabo, Gy [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Debrecen. Atommag Kutato Intezete; Goedeny, S [Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Szeged (Hungary). Szueleszeti es Noegyogyaszati Klinika; Seif El-Nasr, S [Teachers' Coll. for Women, Samia (Kuwait)

    1984-07-01

    Elemental concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb have been determined in erythrocyte and blood plasma samples from normal and diabetic human pregnancies. Average values, the dependence of the concentrations on the time during gestation period, the correlation coefficients for pairs of elements as well as for the same elements in plasma and erythrocyte samples are given. A marked difference appeared in a number of cases between normal and diabetic pregnancies. 11 refs.

  2. Comparison of three methods for recovery of Brucella canis DNA from canine blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batinga, Maria Cryskely A; Dos Santos, Jaíne C; Lima, Julia T R; Bigotto, Maria Fernanda D; Muner, Kerstin; Faita, Thalita; Soares, Rodrigo M; da Silva, David A V; Oliveira, Trícia M F S; Ferreira, Helena L; Diniz, Jaqueline A; Keid, Lara B

    2017-12-01

    Brucella canis, a gram-negative, facultative intracellular and zoonotic bacterium causes canine brucellosis. Direct methods are the most appropriate for the detection of canine brucellosis and bacterial isolation from blood samples has been employed as gold-standard method. However, due to the delay in obtaining results and the biological risk of the bacterial culturing, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been successfully used as an alternative method for the diagnosis of the infection. Sample preparation is a key step for successful PCR and protocols that provide high DNA yield and purity are recommended to ensure high diagnostic sensitivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR for the diagnosis of B. canis infection in 36 dogs by testing DNA of whole blood obtained through different extraction and purification protocols. Methods 1 and 2 were based on a commercial kit, using protocols recommended for DNA purification of whole blood and tissue samples, respectively. Method 3 was an in-house method based on enzymatic lysis and purification using organic solvents. The results of the PCR on samples obtained through three different DNA extraction protocols were compared to the blood culture. Of the 36 dogs, 13 (36.1%) were positive by blood culturing, while nine (25.0%), 14 (38.8%), and 15 (41.6%) were positive by PCR after DNA extraction using methods 1, 2 and 3, respectively. PCR performed on DNA purified by Method 2 was as efficient as blood culturing and PCR performed on DNA purified with in-house method, but had the advantage of being less laborious and, therefore, a suitable alternative for the direct B. canis detection in dogs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Uranium concentration in blood samples of Southern Iraqi leukemia patients using CR-39 track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamzawi, A.A.; Al-Qadisiyah University, Qadisiyah; Jaafar, M.S.; Tawfiq, N.F.

    2014-01-01

    The simple and effective technique of fission track etch has been applied to determine trace concentration of uranium in human blood samples taken from two groups of male and female participants: leukemia patients and healthy subjects group. The blood samples of leukemia patients and healthy subjects were collected from three key southern governorates namely, Basrah, Muthanna and Dhi-Qar. These governorates were the centers of intensive military activities during the 1991 and 2003 Gulf wars, and the discarded weapons are still lying around in these regions. CR-39 track detector was used for registration of induced fission tracks. The results show that the highest recorded uranium concentration in the blood samples of leukemia patients was 4.71 ppb (female, 45 years old, from Basrah) and the minimum concentration was 1.91 ppb (male, 3 years old, from Muthanna). For healthy group, the maximum uranium concentration was 2.15 ppb (female, 55 years old, from Basrah) and the minimum concentration was 0.86 ppb (male, 5 years old, from Dhi-Qar). It has been found that the uranium concentrations in human blood samples of leukemia patients are higher than those of the healthy group. These uranium concentrations in the leukemia patients group were significantly different (P < 0.001) from those in the healthy group. (author)

  4. Workup of Human Blood Samples for Deep Sequencing of HIV-1 Genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Marion; Gall, Astrid; van der Kuyl, Antoinette; Wymant, Chris; Blanquart, François; Fraser, Christophe; Berkhout, Ben

    2018-01-01

    We describe a detailed protocol for the manual workup of blood (plasma/serum) samples from individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) for deep sequence analysis of the viral genome. The study optimizing the assay was performed in the context of the BEEHIVE (Bridging

  5. Transcutaneous bilirubinometry reduces the need for blood sampling in neonates with visible jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S; Chawla, D; Agarwal, R; Deorari, A K; Paul, V K; Bhutani, V K

    2009-12-01

    We determined usefulness of transcutaneous bilirubinometry to decrease the need for blood sampling to assay serum total bilirubin (STB) in the management of jaundiced healthy Indian neonates. Newborns, > or =35 weeks' gestation, with clinical evidence of jaundice were enrolled in an institutional approved randomized clinical trial. The severity of hyperbilirubinaemia was determined by two non-invasive methods: i) protocol-based visual assessment of bilirubin (VaB) and ii) transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) determination (BiliCheck). By a random allocation, either method was used to decide the need for blood sampling, which was defined to be present if assessed STB by allocated method exceeded 80% of hour-specific threshold values for phototherapy (2004 AAP Guidelines). A total of 617 neonates were randomized to either TcB (n = 314) or VaB (n = 303) groups with comparable gestation, birth weight and postnatal age. Need for blood sampling to assay STB was 34% lower (95% CI: 10% to 51%) in the TcB group compared with VaB group (17.5% vs 26.4% assessments; risk difference: -8.9%, 95% CI: -2.4% to -15.4%; p = 0.008). Routine use of transcutaneous bilirubinometry compared with systematic visual assessment of bilirubin significantly reduced the need for blood sampling to assay STB in jaundiced term and late-preterm neonates. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00653874).

  6. [Automated serial diagnosis of donor blood samples. Ergonomic and economic organization structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, T; Fischer-Fröhlich, C L; Mayer, G; Hanfland, P

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive computer-aided administration-system for blood-donors is presented. Ciphered informations of barcode-labels allow the automatic and nevertheless selective pipetting of samples by pipetting-robots. Self-acting analysis-results are transferred to a host-computer in order to actualize a donor data-base.

  7. Levels of metals in blood samples from Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) from urban areas in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkowski, Łukasz J.; Meissner, Włodzimierz

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present the studies conducted on blood samples taken from Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Birds were captured for ringing purposes (n = 43) in two small and two big towns (including highly urbanized areas). For comparison samples of blood from birds shot on fish ponds were used (n = 26). Based on the body mass all sampled individuals can be assessed as being in good condition. Levels of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in blood samples were measured with AAS. Concentrations of metals did not differ statistically between sexes and made up a following order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr ≈ Ni > Pb > Cd. Mallards from towns revealed lower concentrations of Zn and Cu but higher concentration of Fe. There was no difference in exposition to Pb between birds from towns and fish ponds. -- Highlights: •Concentrations of seven metals were measured in blood of Mallards. •Birds represent different kind of areas: urban (towns) and non-urban ones (fish ponds). •Concentrations of studied metals made up a following order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr ≈ Ni > Pb > Cd. •Birds from towns revealed higher amount of Fe and lower concentrations of Zn and Cu. •There was no difference in exposition to Pb between birds from towns and fish ponds. -- Exposition to iron is higher on industrialized areas in towns, but exposition to zinc and copper on such areas is lower in comparison to country fish ponds

  8. Theorical and practical bases for blood sample collection from the heel of newborns for neonatal screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vela-Amieva

    2014-07-01

    collected in a special filter paper (Guthrie’s card. Despite its apparent simplicity, NBS laboratories commonly receive a large number of samples collected incorrectly and technically unsuitable for perfor4ming biochemical determinations. The aim of the present paper is to offer recommendations based on scientific evidence, for the properly blood collection on filter paper for NBS programs.

  9. Novel genotype of Ehrlichia canis detected in samples of human blood bank donors in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza-Mora, Laura; Dolz, Gaby; Solórzano-Morales, Antony; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Salazar-Sánchez, Lizbeth; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the detection and identification of DNA and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in samples of blood bank donors in Costa Rica using molecular and serological techniques. Presence of Ehrlichia canis was determined in 10 (3.6%) out of 280 blood samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the ehrlichial dsb conserved gene. Analysis of the ehrlichial trp36 polymorphic gene in these 10 samples revealed substantial polymorphism among the E. canis genotypes, including divergent tandem repeat sequences. Nucleotide sequences of dsb and trp36 amplicons revealed a novel genotype of E. canis in blood bank donors from Costa Rica. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) detected antibodies in 35 (35%) of 100 serum samples evaluated. Thirty samples showed low endpoint titers (64-256) to E. canis, whereas five sera yielded high endpoint titers (1024-8192); these five samples were also E. canis-PCR positive. These findings represent the first report of the presence of E. canis in humans in Central America. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Fetal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, D.; Brugger, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    New, ultrafast sequences have made it possible to obtain MR images of the fetus without maternal sedation or immobilization of the fetus itself. While fetal MRI began as an adjunct to ultrasound, it has now been shown that MRI can provide additional information that may change prognosis, the management of pregnancy, or the treatment of the newborn child. It is of particular value in the assessment of malformations of the central nervous system. The steady development and adaptation of MR-sequences to the needs of fetal imaging has led to new indications that can support prognostic and therapeutic decisions. (orig.)

  11. Fetal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, D.; Brugger, P.C. [University Hospital of Vienna (Austria). Division of Neuroradiology

    2004-07-01

    New, ultrafast sequences have made it possible to obtain MR images of the fetus without maternal sedation or immobilization of the fetus itself. While fetal MRI began as an adjunct to ultrasound, it has now been shown that MRI can provide additional information that may change prognosis, the management of pregnancy, or the treatment of the newborn child. It is of particular value in the assessment of malformations of the central nervous system. The steady development and adaptation of MR-sequences to the needs of fetal imaging has led to new indications that can support prognostic and therapeutic decisions. (orig.)

  12. Comparative Analysis of Clinical Samples Showing Weak Serum Reaction on AutoVue System Causing ABO Blood Typing Discrepancies

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Su Yeon; Lee, Ju Mi; Kim, Hye Lim; Sin, Kyeong Hwa; Lee, Hyeon Ji; Chang, Chulhun Ludgerus; Kim, Hyung-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    Background ABO blood typing in pre-transfusion testing is a major component of the high workload in blood banks that therefore requires automation. We often experienced discrepant results from an automated system, especially weak serum reactions. We evaluated the discrepant results by the reference manual method to confirm ABO blood typing. Methods In total, 13,113 blood samples were tested with the AutoVue system; all samples were run in parallel with the reference manual method according to...

  13. Direct RNA-based detection of CTX-M β-lactamases in human blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Claudia; Makarewicz, Oliwia; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Brandt, Christian; Pletz, Mathias W

    2015-05-01

    Bloodstream infections with ESBL-producers are associated with increased mortality, which is due to delayed appropriate treatment resulting in clinical failure. Current routine diagnostics for detection of bloodstream infections consists of blood culture followed by species identification and susceptibility testing. In attempts to improve and accelerate diagnostic procedures, PCR-based methods have been developed. These methods focus on species identification covering only a limited number of ESBL coding genes. Therefore, they fail to cover the steadily further evolving genetic diversity of clinically relevant β-lactamases. We have recently designed a fast and novel RNA targeting method to detect and specify CTX-M alleles from bacterial cultures, based on an amplification-pyrosequencing approach. We further developed this assay towards a diagnostic tool for clinical use and evaluated its sensitivity and specificity when applied directly to human blood samples. An optimized protocol for mRNA isolation allows detection of specific CTX-M groups from as little as 100 CFU/mL blood via reverse transcription, amplification, and pyrosequencing directly from human EDTA blood samples as well as from pre-incubated human blood cultures with a turnaround time for test results of <7 h. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. A simple method for regional cerebral blood flow measurement by one-point arterial blood sampling and 123I-IMP microsphere model (part 2). A study of time correction of one-point blood sample count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Yasuhiko; Makino, Kenichi; Gotoh, Satoshi

    1999-01-01

    In our previous paper regarding determination of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using the 123 I-IMP microsphere model, we reported that the accuracy of determination of the integrated value of the input function from one-point arterial blood sampling can be increased by performing correction using the 5 min: 29 min ratio for the whole-brain count. However, failure to carry out the arterial blood collection at exactly 5 minutes after 123 I-IMP injection causes errors with this method, and there is thus a time limitation. We have now revised out method so that the one-point arterial blood sampling can be performed at any time during the interval between 5 minutes and 20 minutes after 123 I-IMP injection, with addition of a correction step for the sampling time. This revised method permits more accurate estimation of the integral of the input functions. This method was then applied to 174 experimental subjects: one-point blood samples collected at random times between 5 and 20 minutes, and the estimated values for the continuous arterial octanol extraction count (COC) were determined. The mean error rate between the COC and the actual measured continuous arterial octanol extraction count (OC) was 3.6%, and the standard deviation was 12.7%. Accordingly, in 70% of the cases, the rCBF was able to be estimated within an error rate of 13%, while estimation was possible in 95% of the cases within an error rate of 25%. This improved method is a simple technique for determination of the rCBF by 123 I-IMP microsphere model and one-point arterial blood sampling which no longer shows a time limitation and does not require any octanol extraction step. (author)

  15. Higher fetal insulin resistance in Chinese pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus and correlation with maternal insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuwei; Huang, Ruiping; Yu, Bin; Cao, Fang; Wang, Huiyan; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Xinhong; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Hong; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on fetal insulin resistance or β-cell function in Chinese pregnant women with GDM. Maternal fasting blood and venous cord blood samples (reflecting fetal condition) were collected in 65 well-controlled Chinese GDM mothers (only given dietary intervention) and 83 control subjects. The insulin, glucose and proinsulin concentrations of both maternal and cord blood samples were measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the proinsulin-to-insulin ratios (an indicator of fetal β-cell function) were calculated in maternal and cord blood respectively. Both maternal and fetal levels of insulin, proinsulin and HOMA-IR but not proinsulin-to-insulin ratios were significantly higher in the GDM group than in the control group (maternal insulin, 24.8 vs. 15.4 µU/mL, P = 0.004, proinsulin, 23.3 vs. 16.2 pmol/L, P = 0.005, and HOMA-IR, 5.5 vs. 3.5, P = 0.041, respectively; fetal: insulin, 15.1 vs. 7.9 µU/mL, Pinsulin ratios was significantly correlated to maternal HOMA-IR (r = 0.307, P = 0.019), in the pregnant women with GDM. Fetal insulin resistance was higher in Chinese pregnant women with GDM than control subjects, and correlated with maternal insulin resistance.

  16. Whole genome transcript profiling from fingerstick blood samples: a comparison and feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Adam R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole genome gene expression profiling has revolutionized research in the past decade especially with the advent of microarrays. Recently, there have been significant improvements in whole blood RNA isolation techniques which, through stabilization of RNA at the time of sample collection, avoid bias and artifacts introduced during sample handling. Despite these improvements, current human whole blood RNA stabilization/isolation kits are limited by the requirement of a venous blood sample of at least 2.5 mL. While fingerstick blood collection has been used for many different assays, there has yet to be a kit developed to isolate high quality RNA for use in gene expression studies from such small human samples. The clinical and field testing advantages of obtaining reliable and reproducible gene expression data from a fingerstick are many; it is less invasive, time saving, more mobile, and eliminates the need of a trained phlebotomist. Furthermore, this method could also be employed in small animal studies, i.e. mice, where larger sample collections often require sacrificing the animal. In this study, we offer a rapid and simple method to extract sufficient amounts of high quality total RNA from approximately 70 μl of whole blood collected via a fingerstick using a modified protocol of the commercially available Qiagen PAXgene RNA Blood Kit. Results From two sets of fingerstick collections, about 70 uL whole blood collected via finger lancet and capillary tube, we recovered an average of 252.6 ng total RNA with an average RIN of 9.3. The post-amplification yields for 50 ng of total RNA averaged at 7.0 ug cDNA. The cDNA hybridized to Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChips had an average % Present call of 52.5%. Both fingerstick collections were highly correlated with r2 values ranging from 0.94 to 0.97. Similarly both fingerstick collections were highly correlated to the venous collection with r2 values ranging from 0.88 to 0

  17. Allogenic blood transfusion following total hip arthroplasty: results from the nationwide inpatient sample, 2000 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Anas; Small, Travis; Chandran Pillai, Aiswarya Lekshmi Pillai; Schiltz, Nicholas K; Klika, Alison K; Barsoum, Wael K

    2014-09-17

    The large-scale utilization of allogenic blood transfusion and its associated outcomes have been described in critically ill patients and those undergoing high-risk cardiac surgery but not in patients undergoing elective total hip arthroplasty. The objective of this study was to determine the trends in utilization and outcomes of allogenic blood transfusion in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty in the United States from 2000 to 2009. An observational cohort of 2,087,423 patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty from 2000 to 2009 was identified in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes 99.03 and 99.04 were used to identify patients who received allogenic blood products during their hospital stay. Risk factors for allogenic transfusions were identified with use of multivariable logistic regression models. We used propensity score matching to estimate the adjusted association between transfusion and surgical outcomes. The rate of allogenic blood transfusion increased from 11.8% in 2000 to 19.0% in 2009. Patient-related risk factors for receiving an allogenic blood transfusion include an older age, female sex, black race, and Medicaid insurance. Hospital-related risk factors include rural location, smaller size, and non-academic status. After adjusting for confounders, allogenic blood transfusion was associated with a longer hospital stay (0.58 ± 0.02 day; p conservation methods. Copyright © 2014 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  18. Fabrication and Characterization of a Microfluidic Device to Ultrapurify Blood Samples

    KAUST Repository

    Tallerico, Marco

    2015-05-04

    The improvement of blood cell sorting techniques in recent years have attracted the attention of many researchers due to the possible benefits that these methods can lead in biology, regenerative medicine, materials science and therapeutic area. In this work a cell sorting technique based on filtration is described. The separation occurs by means of a microfluidic device, suitably designed, manufactured and tested, that is connected to an external experimental set-up. The fabrication process can be divided in two parts: at first it is described the manufacturing process of a filtering membrane, with holes of specific size that allow the passage of only certain cell types. Following the microfluidic device is fabricated through the mechanical micromilling. The membrane and the microdevice are suitably bonded and tested by means of an external connection with syringe pumps that inject blood samples at specific flow rates. The device is designed to separate blood cells and tumor cells only by using differences in size and shape. In particular during the first experiments red blood cells and platelets are sorted from white blood cells; in the other experiments red blood cells and platelets are separated from white blood cells and tumor cells. The microdevice has proven to be very efficient, in fact a capture efficiency of 99% is achieved. For this reason it could be used in identification and isolation of circulating tumor cells, a very rare cancer cell type whose presence in the bloodstream could be symptom of future solid tumor formation. The various experiments have also demonstrated that tumor cells survive even after the separation treatment, and then the suffered stress during the sorting process does not harm the biological sample.

  19. Sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels during pregnancy as predictors for pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Valdés R, Enrique; Lattes A, Karina; Muñoz S, Hernán; Ángel Cumsille, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sex-Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) may be associated to Pre-eclampsia (PE) and Fetal Growth Restriction (RCIU). Aim: To determine if maternal serum SHBG concentrations during the first and second trimesters are predictive biomarkers of Pre-eclampsia and RCIU. Patients and Methods: Prospective cohort study carried out in the Fetal Medicine Unit, Universidad de Chile Clinical Hospital between January, 2005 and December, 2006. Blood samples were obtained from unselectedpregnant wome...

  20. Human platelet lysate is a feasible candidate to replace fetal calf serum as medium supplement for blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofbauer, Pablo; Riedl, Sabrina; Witzeneder, Karin; Hildner, Florian; Wolbank, Susanne; Groeger, Marion; Gabriel, Christian; Redl, Heinz; Holnthoner, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    As angiogenic and lymphangiogenic key players, endothelial cells (ECs) are promising candidates for vascular regenerative therapies. To culture ECs in vitro, fetal calf serum (FCS) is most often used. However, some critical aspects of FCS usage, such as possible internalization of xenogeneic proteins and prions, must be considered. Therefore, the aim of this project was to determine if human platelet lysate (hPL) is a suitable alternative to FCS as medium supplement for the culture of blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells. The usability of hPL was tested by analysis of endothelial surface marker expression, metabolic activity and vasculogenic potential of outgrowth ECs (OECs), human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), and lymphatic ECs (LECs). Expression of EC markers CD31, VEGFR2, VE-cadherin and CD146 did not differ significantly between the EC types cultured in FCS or hPL. In addition, OECs, HUVECs and LECs formed tube-like structures on Matrigel when cultured in hPL and FCS. With the use of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromid assays, we found that the metabolic activity of OECs and LECs was slightly decreased when hPL was used. However, HUVECs and LECs did not show a significant decrease in metabolic activity, and HUVECs showed a slightly higher activity at low seeding densities. The use of hPL on different EC types did not reveal any substantial negative effects on EC behavior. Thus, hPL appears to be a favorable candidate to replace FCS as a medium supplement in the culture of ECs. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of a nested-PCR for mycobacterium tuberculosis detection in blood and urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Heidi Lacerda Alves; de Albuquerque Montenegro, Rosana; de Araújo Lima, Juliana Falcão; da Rocha Poroca, Diogo; da Costa Lima, Juliana Figueirêdo; Maria Lapa Montenegro, Lílian; Crovella, Sergio; Charifker Schindler, Haiana

    2011-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its variations, such as the nested-PCR, have been described as promising techniques for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). With the aim of evaluating the usefulness of a nested-PCR method on samples of blood and urine of patients suspected of tuberculosis we analyzed 192 clinical samples, using as a molecular target the insertion element IS6110 specific of M. tuberculosis genome. Nested-PCR method showed higher sensitivity in patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis (47.8% and 52% in blood and urine) when compared to patients with the pulmonary form of the disease (sensitivity of 29% and 26.9% in blood and urine), regardless of the type of biological sample used. The nested-PCR is a rapid technique that, even if not showing a good sensitivity, should be considered as a helpful tool especially in the extrapulmonary cases or in cases where confirmatory diagnosis is quite difficult to be achieved by routine methods. The performance of PCR-based techniques should be considered and tested in future works on other types of biological specimens besides sputum, like blood and urine, readily obtainable in most cases. The improving of M. tuberculosis nested-PCR detection in TB affected patients will give the possibility of an earlier detection of bacilli thus interrupting the transmission chain of the disease.

  2. MR evaluation of fetal demise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victoria, Teresa; Chauvin, Nancy Anne; Johnson, Ann M.; Kramer, Sandra Sue; Epelman, Monica; Capilla, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Fetal demise is an uncommon event encountered at MR imaging. When it occurs, recognition by the interpreting radiologist is important to initiate appropriate patient management. To identify MR findings of fetal demise. Following IRB approval, a retrospective search of the radiology fetal MR database was conducted searching the words ''fetal demise'' and ''fetal death.'' Fetuses with obvious maceration or no sonographic confirmation of death were excluded. Eleven cases formed the study group. These were matched randomly to live fetuses of similar gestational age. Images were reviewed independently by three pediatric radiologists. The deceased fetus demonstrates decreased MR soft-tissue contrast and definition of tissue planes, including loss of gray-white matter differentiation in the brain. The signal within the cardiac chambers, when visible, is bright on HASTE sequences from the stagnant blood; the heart is small. Pleural effusions and decreased lung volumes may be seen. Interestingly, the fetal orbits lose their anatomical round shape and become smaller and more elliptical; a dark, irregular rim resembling a mask may be seen. Although fetal demise is uncommonly encountered at MR imaging, radiologists should be aware of such imaging findings so prompt management can be instituted. (orig.)

  3. Fetal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adama van Scheltema, Phebe

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the fetus is capable of exhibiting a stress response to intrauterine needling, resulting in alterations in fetal stress hormone levels. Intrauterine transfusions are performed by inserting a needle either in the umbilical cord root at the placental surface (PCI),

  4. Evaluation of the effects of insufficient blood volume samples on the performance of blood glucose self-test meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Schipper, Christina; Ramljak, Sanja; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Forst, Thomas; Musholt, Petra B

    2013-11-01

    Accuracy of blood glucose readings is (among other things) dependent on the test strip being completely filled with sufficient sample volume. The devices are supposed to display an error message in case of incomplete filling. This laboratory study was performed to test the performance of 31 commercially available devices in case of incomplete strip filling. Samples with two different glucose levels (60-90 and 300-350 mg/dl) were used to generate three different sample volumes: 0.20 µl (too low volume for any device), 0.32 µl (borderline volume), and 1.20 µl (low but supposedly sufficient volume for all devices). After a point-of-care capillary reference measurement (StatStrip, NovaBiomedical), the meter strip was filled (6x) with the respective volume, and the response of the meters (two devices) was documented (72 determinations/meter type). Correct response was defined as either an error message indicating incomplete filling or a correct reading (±20% compared with reference reading). Only five meters showed 100% correct responses [BGStar and iBGStar (both Sanofi), ACCU-CHEK Compact+ and ACCU-CHEK Mobile (both Roche Diagnostics), OneTouch Verio (LifeScan)]. The majority of the meters (17) had up to 10% incorrect reactions [predominantly incorrect readings with sufficient volume; Precision Xceed and Xtra, FreeStyle Lite, and Freedom Lite (all Abbott); GlucoCard+ and GlucoMen GM (both Menarini); Contour, Contour USB, and Breeze2 (all Bayer); OneTouch Ultra Easy, Ultra 2, and Ultra Smart (all LifeScan); Wellion Dialog and Premium (both MedTrust); FineTouch (Terumo); ACCU-CHEK Aviva (Roche); and GlucoTalk (Axis-Shield)]. Ten percent to 20% incorrect reactions were seen with OneTouch Vita (LifeScan), ACCU-CHEK Aviva Nano (Roche), OmniTest+ (BBraun), and AlphaChek+ (Berger Med). More than 20% incorrect reactions were obtained with Pura (Ypsomed), GlucoCard Meter and GlucoMen LX (both Menarini), Elite (Bayer), and MediTouch (Medisana). In summary, partial and

  5. Staphylococcus aureus detection in blood samples by silica nanoparticle-oligonucleotides conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, Baris A; Tuna, Bilge G; Hernandez, Frank J; Hernandez, Luiza I; Bayramoglu, Gulay; Arica, M Yakup; Ozalp, V Cengiz

    2016-12-15

    A fast, specific and sensitive homogeneous assay for Staphylococcus aureus detection was developed by measuring the activity of secreted nuclease from the bacteria via a modified DNA oligonucleotide. As biosensor format, an effective system, Nanokeepers as previously reported, were used for triggered release of confined fluorophores, and hence specific detection of S. aureus on nuclease activity was obtained. The interference from blood components for fluorescent quantification was eliminated by a pre-purification by aptamer-functionalized silica magnetic nanoparticles. The reported assay system was exclusively formed by nucleic acid oligos and magnetic or mesoporous silica nanoparticles, that can be used on blood samples in a stepwise manner. The assay was successfully used as a sensing platform for the specific detection of S. aureus cells as low as 682 CFU in whole blood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gene methylation parallelisms between peripheral blood cells and oral mucosa samples in relation to overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Milagro, Fermín I; Riezu-Boj, J Ignacio; Guruceaga, Elizabeth; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Livingstone, Katherine M; Brennan, Lorraine; Lovegrove, Julie A; Daniel, Hannelore; Saris, Wim H; Traczyk, Iwonna; Manios, Yannis; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Michael J; Mathers, John C; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2016-08-01

    Epigenetics has an important role in the regulation of metabolic adaptation to environmental modifications. In this sense, the determination of epigenetic changes in non-invasive samples during the development of metabolic diseases could play an important role in the procedures in primary healthcare practice. To help translate the knowledge of epigenetics to public health practice, the present study aims to explore the parallelism of methylation levels between white blood cells and buccal samples in relation to obesity and associated disorders. Blood and buccal swap samples were collected from a subsample of the Spanish cohort of the Food4Me study. Infinium HumanMethylation450 DNA Analysis was carried out for the determination of methylation levels. Standard deviation for β values method and concordance correlation analysis were used to select those CpG which showed best parallelism between samples. A total of 277 CpGs met the criteria and were selected for an enrichment analysis and a correlation analysis with anthropometrical and clinical parameters. From those selected CpGs, four presented high associations with BMI (cg01055691 in GAP43; r = -0.92 and rho = -0.84 for blood; r = -0.89 and rho = -0.83 for buccal sample), HOMA-IR (cg00095677 in ATP2A3; r = 0.82 and rho = -0.84 for blood; r = -0.8 and rho = -0.83 for buccal sample) and leptin (cg14464133 in ADARB2; r = -0.9182 and rho = -0.94 for blood; r = -0.893 and rho = -0.79 for buccal sample). These findings demonstrate the potential application of non-invasive buccal samples in the identification of surrogate epigenetic biomarkers and identify methylation sites in GAP43, ATP2A3 and ADARB2 genes as potential targets in relation to overweight management and insulin sensibility.

  7. Effects of Storage and Type of Blood Collection Tubes on Hepatitis C Virus Level in Whole Blood Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Harald H.; Stelzl, Evelyn; Raggam, Reinhard B.; Haas, Josef; Kirchmeir, Franz; Hegenbarth, Karin; Daghofer, Elisabeth; Santner, Brigitte I.; Marth, Egon; Stauber, Rudolf E.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we compared serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA concentrations with HCV RNA concentrations in whole blood collection tubes, including two different types of EDTA tubes and nucleic acid stabilization tubes (NASTs). We also investigated the impact of a processing delay on HCV RNA concentration in these tubes. In NASTs, the mean HCV RNA concentration was comparable to the mean serum HCV RNA concentration at “date zero.” In EDTA tubes, mean baseline HCV RNA concentrations were higher. Storage at room temperature up to 96 h did not result in a decline of HCV RNA concentration in any of the whole blood collection tubes. In NASTs, HCV RNA concentrations remained stable during the whole study period, whereas a significant increase of HCV RNA was observed in both types of EDTA tubes at 96 h compared to date zero. We concluded that HCV RNA remains stable in NASTs at room temperature for at least 96 h, allowing greater flexibility in sample collection and transport. PMID:11325991

  8. Distribution of blood types in a sample of 245 New Zealand non-purebred cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattin, R P

    2016-05-01

    To determine the distribution of feline blood types in a sample of non-pedigree, domestic cats in New Zealand, whether a difference exists in this distribution between domestic short haired and domestic long haired cats, and between the North and South Islands of New Zealand; and to calculate the risk of a random blood transfusion causing a severe transfusion reaction, and the risk of a random mating producing kittens susceptible to neonatal isoerythrolysis. The results of 245 blood typing tests in non-pedigree cats performed at the New Zealand Veterinary Pathology (NZVP) and Gribbles Veterinary Pathology laboratories between the beginning of 2009 and the end of 2014 were retrospectively collated and analysed. Cats that were identified as domestic short or long haired were included. For the cats tested at Gribbles Veterinary Pathology 62 were from the North Island, and 27 from the South Island. The blood type distribution differed between samples from the two laboratories (p=0.029), but not between domestic short and long haired cats (p=0.50), or between the North and South Islands (p=0.76). Of the 89 cats tested at Gribbles Veterinary Pathology, 70 (79%) were type A, 18 (20%) type B, and 1 (1%) type AB; for NZVP 139/156 (89.1%) cats were type A, 16 (10.3%) type B, and 1 (0.6%) type AB. It was estimated that 18.3-31.9% of random blood transfusions would be at risk of a transfusion reaction, and neonatal isoerythrolysis would be a risk in 9.2-16.1% of random matings between non-pedigree cats. The results from this study suggest that there is a high risk of complications for a random blood transfusion between non-purebred cats in New Zealand. Neonatal isoerythrolysis should be considered an important differential diagnosis in illness or mortality in kittens during the first days of life.

  9. Detection of tumor-associated cells in cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples for retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Peixuan; Stanton, Melissa L; Castle, Erik P; Joseph, Richard W; Adams, Daniel L; Li, Shuhong; Amstutz, Platte; Tang, Cha-Mei; Ho, Thai H

    2016-07-02

    Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are commonly collected in biobanks. However, little data exist regarding the preservation of tumor-associated cells in cryopreserved collections. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using the CellSieve™ microfiltration assay for the isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating cancer-associated macrophage-like cells (CAMLs) from cryopreserved PBMC samples. Blood samples spiked with breast (MCF-7), prostate (PC-3), and renal (786-O) cancer cell lines were used to establish analytical accuracy, efficiency, and reproducibility after cryopreservation. The spiked samples were processed through Ficoll separation, and cryopreservation was followed by thawing and microfiltration. MCF-7 cells were successfully retrieved with recovery efficiencies of 90.5 % without cryopreservation and 87.8 and 89.0 %, respectively, on day 7 and day 66 following cryopreservation. The corresponding recovery efficiencies of PC-3 cells were 83.3 % without cryopreservation and 85.3 and 84.7 %, respectively, after cryopreservation. Recovery efficiencies of 786-O cells were 92.7 % without cryopreservation, and 82.7 and 81.3 %, respectively, after cryopreservation. The recovered cells retained the morphologic characteristics and immunohistochemical markers that had been observed before freezing. The protocols were further validated by quantitation of CAMLs in blood samples from two patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The recovery rates of CTCs and CAMLs from cryopreserved samples were not statistically significant different (P > 0.05) from matched fresh samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report that CAMLs could be cryopreserved and analyzed after thawing with microfiltration technology. The application of microfiltration technology to cryopreserved samples will enable much greater retrospective study of cancer patients in relation to long-term outcomes.

  10. Potentiating day-old blood samples for detection of interferon-gamma responses following infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers

    time interval from blood sampling to culture. The objective of the study was to assess options for use of day-old blood samples for early-stage diagnosis of MAP infections. Bovine interleukin 12 (IL-12) can induce, and IL-10 reduce, IFN-γ production. Therefore, addition of IL-12 and anti-IL-10 could...... result in production of IFN-γ in samples previously exposed to MAP antigens. Whole blood samples were collected from heifers in a Danish dairy herd known to be infected with MAP. The samples were collected on three sample dates, and on each date the blood samples were stimulated with PPDj and recombinant......The interferon gamma (IFN-γ) test measuring specific cell-mediated immune responses in whole blood can be used for diagnosis at an early stage of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection. A major obstacle for the practical use of IFN-γ testing is the recommended maximum 8 hour...

  11. Sample to answer visualization pipeline for low-cost point-of-care blood cell counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Suzanne; Naidoo, Thegaran; Davies, Emlyn; Fourie, Louis; Nxumalo, Zandile; Swart, Hein; Marais, Philip; Land, Kevin; Roux, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    We present a visualization pipeline from sample to answer for point-of-care blood cell counting applications. Effective and low-cost point-of-care medical diagnostic tests provide developing countries and rural communities with accessible healthcare solutions [1], and can be particularly beneficial for blood cell count tests, which are often the starting point in the process of diagnosing a patient [2]. The initial focus of this work is on total white and red blood cell counts, using a microfluidic cartridge [3] for sample processing. Analysis of the processed samples has been implemented by means of two main optical visualization systems developed in-house: 1) a fluidic operation analysis system using high speed video data to determine volumes, mixing efficiency and flow rates, and 2) a microscopy analysis system to investigate homogeneity and concentration of blood cells. Fluidic parameters were derived from the optical flow [4] as well as color-based segmentation of the different fluids using a hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space. Cell count estimates were obtained using automated microscopy analysis and were compared to a widely accepted manual method for cell counting using a hemocytometer [5]. The results using the first iteration microfluidic device [3] showed that the most simple - and thus low-cost - approach for microfluidic component implementation was not adequate as compared to techniques based on manual cell counting principles. An improved microfluidic design has been developed to incorporate enhanced mixing and metering components, which together with this work provides the foundation on which to successfully implement automated, rapid and low-cost blood cell counting tests.

  12. Fetal Programming and Cardiovascular Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T.; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25880521

  13. Fetal programming and cardiovascular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2015-04-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption, or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes, and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology, and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress, and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. © 2015 American Physiological Society.

  14. Performance evaluation of continuous blood sampling system for PET study. Comparison of three detector-systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, K; Sakamoto, S; Senda, M; Yamamoto, S; Tarutani, K; Minato, K

    2002-01-01

    To measure cerebral blood flow with sup 1 sup 5 O PET, it is necessary to measure the time course of arterial blood radioactivity. We examined the performance of three different types of continuous blood sampling system. Three kinds of continuous blood sampling system were used: a plastic scintillator-based beta detector (conventional beta detector (BETA)), a bismuth germinate (BGO)-based coincidence gamma detector (Pico-count flow-through detector (COINC)) and a Phoswich detector (PD) composed by a combination of plastic scintillator and BGO scintillator. Performance of these systems was evaluated for absolute sensitivity, count rate characteristic, sensitivity to background gamnra photons, and reproducibility for nylon tube geometry. The absolute sensitivity of the PD was 0.21 cps/Bq for sup 6 sup 8 Ga positrons at the center of the detector. This was approximately three times higher than BETA, two times higher than COINC. The value measured with BETA was stable, even when background radioactivity was incre...

  15. Assessment of lead in blood samples of children residing in the vicinity of industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, F.; Kazi, T.G.; Afridi, H.I.; Brahaman, K.D.; Arain, S.S.; Panhwar, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of present study was to determine the lead (Pb) distributions in blood and prevalence of elevated Pb exposure among children, age ranged (5-10 years), residing near industrialized region of Hyderabad city, Pakistan. For comparison, biological samples of children of same age group from non-industrial area were also analyzed. The Pb concentration in blood samples was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. The results showed that significantly higher proportion of children living in the vicinity of industrial area, had blood Pb levels (BLL) in the range of 15.4-35.6 micro g/dL, and 8.51-16.7 micro g/dL for those of non-industrial area. The blood Pb level was higher in boys of both groups as compared to girls of same age group, but the difference was not significant (p=0.178). Negative correlation was observed between BLL and hemoglobin levels (p<0.001), while positive correlation was observed between BLL and age. (author)

  16. Evaluation of maternal serum alpha-foetoprotein assay using dry blood spot samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C; Guerrero, J M; Elorza, F L; Molinero, P; Goberna, R

    1988-02-01

    The quantification of alpha-foetoprotein in dry blood spots from pregnant women was evaluated, using a conventional radioimmunoassay (RIA) with a monospecific antibody. The stability of alpha-foetoprotein in dry blood spots on filter paper was evaluated with respect to mailing, distances travelled, and the existence of high summer temperatures in our region. The results obtained show that the blood alpha-foetoprotein is stable on dry filter spots sent by mail and is stable for up to four weeks at 4, 25 and 37 degrees C. The analytical method used has a minimal detectable concentration of 10 +/- 1.9 international kilo-units/l. Both inter- and intra-assay variabilities are smaller than 10% and this method can provide results comparable with those of conventional serum assays. Results from dry blood spots and serum samples (the latter analysed by both RIA and two-site enzyme immunoassay) exhibited a good correlation (r = 0.98 and r = 0.97, p less than 0.001). The design of the assay and the nature of the samples make this method suitable for a screening programmes for the antenatal detection of open neural tube defects.

  17. 1ST-TRIMESTER SCREENING FOR FETAL CHROMOSOMAL-ABNORMALITIES - PRELIMINARY-RESULTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLITH, JMM

    We have started a multicentre trial to study the possibilities of first-trimester maternal serum screening for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Maternal blood samples were obtained before 13 weeks of gestation. We present the preliminary results of the first 950 patients on alpha-fetoprotein (AFP).

  18. Aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct in dried blood spot samples of animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kathy S; Cai, Wenjie; Tang, Lili; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) were proposed as potentially viable method for exposure assessment of environmental toxicants in infant and young children. For this study, we validated an experimental protocol to quantify AFB 1 -lysine adduct in DBS samples of AFB 1 -treated F344 rats, as well as samples from human field study. Significant dose-response relationships in AFB 1 -lysine adduct formation were found in DBS samples of rats treated with single- and repeated-dose AFB 1 . AFB 1 -lysine levels in DBS samples were highly correlated with corresponding serum sample levels. The Person coefficients were 0.997 for the single-dose exposure, and 0.996 for the repeated-dose exposure. Levels of AFB 1 -lysine adduct had also good agreement between DBS and serum samples as shown by Bland-Altman plot analysis. For human field study samples (n = 36), a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.784 was found between AFB 1 -lysine adduct levels of DBS and corresponding serum samples. Bland-Altman plots showed the distribution of the log differences between DBS and serum AFB 1 -lysine levels are within 95% confidence intervals. These results showed AFB 1 -lysine adduct levels in DBS cards and serum samples from animals and human samples are comparable, and the DBS technique and analytical protocol is a good means to assess AFB 1 exposure in infant and children populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Eosinophilia in routine blood samples as a biomarker for solid tumor development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christen Bertel L; Siersma, V.D.; Hasselbalch, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    eosinophilia in routine blood samples as a potential biomarker of solid tumor development in a prospective design. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) Database, we identified 356 196 individuals with at least one differential cell count (DIFF) encompassing...... was increased with mild eosinophilia [OR 1.93 (CI 1.29-2.89), p = 0.0013]. No associations with eosinophilia were observed for the remaining solid cancers. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that eosinophilia in routine blood samples associates with an increased risk of bladder cancer. Our data emphasize...... that additional preclinical studies are needed in order to shed further light on the role of eosinophils in carcinogenesis, where it is still unknown whether the cells contribute to tumor immune surveillance or neoplastic evolution....

  20. Detection of Theileria annulata in blood samples of carrier cattle by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Oliveira, C; van der Weide, M; Habela, M A; Jacquiet, P; Jongejan, F

    1995-01-01

    We report the detection of Theileria annulata, the causative agent of tropical theileriosis, by PCR in blood samples obtained from carrier cattle. The assay employs primers specific for the gene encoding the 30-kDa major merozoite surface antigen of T. annulata. A 721-bp fragment was amplified from blood samples taken monthly from calves experimentally infected with one of four different stocks of T. annulata originating in either Mauritania, Portugal, Spain, or Turkey. At the end of the experiment, five animals carried the infection for 12 months and two animals remained infected for 15 months. DNAs from six other Theileria species, T. parva, T. mutans, T. sergenti, T. buffeli, T. velifera, and T. taurotragi, were not amplified. Moreover, DNAs from four other hemoparasites (Anaplasma centrale, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis, and Babesia bigemina) were also not amplified. As a control, primers derived from the small subunit rRNA gene of Theileria spp. amplified a 1.1-kb DNA fragment from all Theileria species examined but not from the other four hemoparasites. As few as two to three parasites per microliter of infected blood in a 50-microliters sample volume were detected by Southern or microplate hybridization with a T. annulata-specific cDNA probe. In addition, 92 field samples obtained from cattle in Spain were tested; 22% were positive in blood smears, 40% were positive by immunofluorescent antibody test, and 75% were positive for T. annulata by PCR. The method provides a useful diagnostic tool for detecting T. annulata carrier cattle. PMID:8567902

  1. Elaboração e validação de intervalos de referência longitudinais de peso fetal com uma amostra da população brasileira Elaboration and validation of longitudinal reference intervals of fetal weight with a sample of the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Luciana de Paula Furlan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Elaborar modelos de predição de peso fetal e de percentis longitudinais de peso fetal estimado (PFE com uma amostra da população brasileira. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional prospectivo. Dois grupos de gestantes foram recrutados: Grupo EPF (estimativa de peso fetal: pacientes para elaboração (EPF-El e validação (EPF-Val de um modelo de predição de peso fetal; Grupo IRL (intervalos de referência longitudinais: gestantes para elaboração (IRL-El e validação (IRL-Val de intervalos de referência longitudinais de PFE. Regressão polinomial foi utilizada com os dados do subgrupo EPF-El para gerar o modelo de predição de peso fetal. O desempenho deste modelo foi comparado com os de outros disponíveis na literatura. Modelos lineares mistos foram usados para elaboração de intervalos longitudinais de PFE com os dados do subgrupo IRL-El. Os dados do subgrupo IRL-Val foram usados para validação destes intervalos. RESULTADOS: Quatrocentos e cinqüenta e oito pacientes compuseram o Grupo EPF (EPF-El: 367; EPF-Val: 91 e 315 o Grupo IRL (IRL-El: 265; IRL-Val: 50. A fórmula para cálculo do PFE foi: PFE=-8,277+2,146xDBPxCAxCF-2,449xCFxDBP². Os desempenhos de outras fórmulas para estimativa de peso fetal em nossa amostra foram significativamente piores do que os do modelo gerado neste estudo. Equações para predição de percentis condicionais de PFE foram derivadas das avaliações longitudinais do subgrupo IRL-El e validadas com os dados do subgrupo IRL-Val. CONCLUSÕES: descrevemos um método para adaptação de intervalos de referência longitudinais de PFE, sendo este obtido por meio de fórmulas geradas em uma amostra da população brasileira.PURPOSES: To elaborate models for the estimation of fetal weight and longitudinal reference intervals of estimated fetal weight (EFW using a sample of the Brazilian population. METHODS: Prospective observational study. Two groups of patients were evaluated: Group EFW (estimation of

  2. Measuring Blood Glucose Concentrations in Photometric Glucometers Requiring Very Small Sample Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Nevine; Zoubir, Abdelhak M

    2017-01-01

    Glucometers present an important self-monitoring tool for diabetes patients and, therefore, must exhibit high accuracy as well as good usability features. Based on an invasive photometric measurement principle that drastically reduces the volume of the blood sample needed from the patient, we present a framework that is capable of dealing with small blood samples, while maintaining the required accuracy. The framework consists of two major parts: 1) image segmentation; and 2) convergence detection. Step 1 is based on iterative mode-seeking methods to estimate the intensity value of the region of interest. We present several variations of these methods and give theoretical proofs of their convergence. Our approach is able to deal with changes in the number and position of clusters without any prior knowledge. Furthermore, we propose a method based on sparse approximation to decrease the computational load, while maintaining accuracy. Step 2 is achieved by employing temporal tracking and prediction, herewith decreasing the measurement time, and, thus, improving usability. Our framework is tested on several real datasets with different characteristics. We show that we are able to estimate the underlying glucose concentration from much smaller blood samples than is currently state of the art with sufficient accuracy according to the most recent ISO standards and reduce measurement time significantly compared to state-of-the-art methods.

  3. A rapid and efficient DNA extraction protocol from fresh and frozen human blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Pokhraj; Das, Avishek; Dutta, Somit; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Different methods available for extraction of human genomic DNA suffer from one or more drawbacks including low yield, compromised quality, cost, time consumption, use of toxic organic solvents, and many more. Herein, we aimed to develop a method to extract DNA from 500 μL of fresh or frozen human blood. Five hundred microliters of fresh and frozen human blood samples were used for standardization of the extraction procedure. Absorbance at 260 and 280 nm, respectively, (A 260 /A 280 ) were estimated to check the quality and quantity of the extracted DNA sample. Qualitative assessment of the extracted DNA was checked by Polymerase Chain reaction and double digestion of the DNA sample. Our protocol resulted in average yield of 22±2.97 μg and 20.5±3.97 μg from 500 μL of fresh and frozen blood, respectively, which were comparable to many reference protocols and kits. Besides yielding bulk amount of DNA, our protocol is rapid, economical, and avoids toxic organic solvents such as Phenol. Due to unaffected quality, the DNA is suitable for downstream applications. The protocol may also be useful for pursuing basic molecular researches in laboratories having limited funds. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Muerte fetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Andrés Pons, DR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La muerte fetal es un evento poco frecuente pero de gran repercusión afectiva para los padres involucrados y su entorno. En el presente artículo revisaremos la epidemiología, las causas, orientaremos a los médicos en los pasos a seguir para realizar adecuadamente el estudio, la resolución del embarazo y el manejo del embarazo siguiente junto con las estrategias para prevenirlo.

  5. Muerte fetal

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Pons, G.; Eduardo Sepúlveda, S.; Juan Luis Leiva, B.; Gustavo Rencoret, P.; Alfredo Germain, A.

    2014-01-01

    La muerte fetal es un evento poco frecuente pero de gran repercusión afectiva para los padres involucrados y su entorno. En el presente artículo revisaremos la epidemiología, las causas, orientaremos a los médicos en los pasos a seguir para realizar adecuadamente el estudio, la resolución del embarazo y el manejo del embarazo siguiente junto con las estrategias para prevenirlo.

  6. Stability of HE4 and CA125 in blood samples from patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Noreen; Karlsen, Mona A; Høgdall, Claus

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of handling and storage on HE4 and CA125 serum and EDTA plasma levels to clarify any important consequences for a clinical setting. METHODS: Blood samples from 13 ovarian cancer (OC) patients were collected and allowed to clot or sediment for up to 72 hours.......024). No significant difference between CA125 serum and plasma levels were found (p = 0.46). Serum and EDTA plasma samples were stable during the eight cycles of freezing and thawing (CA125: all p > 0.2; HE4: all p > 0.5). CONCLUSION: No systematic difference could be demonstrated for HE4. CA125 is not dependent...

  7. Blood gas sample spiking with total parenteral nutrition, lipid emulsion, and concentrated dextrose solutions as a model for predicting sample contamination based on glucose result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Aguirre, Jose C; Smeets, Steven W; Wockenfus, Amy M; Karon, Brad S

    2018-05-01

    Evaluate the effects of blood gas sample contamination with total parenteral nutrition (TPN)/lipid emulsion and dextrose 50% (D50) solutions on blood gas and electrolyte measurement; and determine whether glucose concentration can predict blood gas sample contamination with TPN/lipid emulsion or D50. Residual lithium heparin arterial blood gas samples were spiked with TPN/lipid emulsion (0 to 15%) and D50 solutions (0 to 2.5%). Blood gas (pH, pCO2, pO2), electrolytes (Na+, K+ ionized calcium) and hemoglobin were measured with a Radiometer ABL90. Glucose concentration was measured in separated plasma by Roche Cobas c501. Chart review of neonatal blood gas results with glucose >300 mg/dL (>16.65 mmol/L) over a seven month period was performed to determine whether repeat (within 4 h) blood gas results suggested pre-analytical errors in blood gas results. Results were used to determine whether a glucose threshold could predict contamination resulting in blood gas and electrolyte results with greater than laboratory-defined allowable error. Samples spiked with 5% or more TPN/lipid emulsion solution or 1% D50 showed glucose concentration >500 mg/dL (>27.75 mmol/L) and produced blood gas (pH, pO 2 , pCO 2 ) results with greater than laboratory-defined allowable error. TPN/lipid emulsion, but not D50, produced greater than allowable error in electrolyte (Na + ,K + ,Ca ++ ,Hb) results at these concentrations. Based on chart review of 144 neonatal blood gas results with glucose >250 mg/dL received over seven months, four of ten neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients with glucose results >500 mg/dL and repeat blood gas results within 4 h had results highly suggestive of pre-analytical error. Only 3 of 36 NICU patients with glucose results 300-500 mg/dL and repeat blood gas results within 4 h had clear pre-analytical errors in blood gas results. Glucose concentration can be used as an indicator of significant blood sample contamination with either TPN

  8. Increasing fetal ovine number per gestation alters fetal plasma clinical chemistry values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywicki, Micaela; Blohowiak, Sharon E; Magness, Ronald R; Segar, Jeffrey L; Kling, Pamela J

    2016-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is interconnected with developmental programming of lifelong pathophysiology. IUGR is seen in human multifetal pregnancies, with stepwise rises in fetal numbers interfering with placental nutrient delivery. It remains unknown whether fetal blood analyses would reflect fetal nutrition, liver, and excretory function in the last trimester of human or ovine IUGR In an ovine model, we hypothesized that fetal plasma biochemical values would reflect progressive placental, fetal liver, and fetal kidney dysfunction as the number of fetuses per gestation rose. To determine fetal plasma biochemical values in singleton, twin, triplet, and quadruplet/quintuplet ovine gestation, we investigated morphometric measures and comprehensive metabolic panels with nutritional measures, liver enzymes, and placental and fetal kidney excretory measures at gestational day (GD) 130 (90% gestation). As anticipated, placental dysfunction was supported by a stepwise fall in fetal weight, fetal plasma glucose, and triglyceride levels as fetal number per ewe rose. Fetal glucose and triglycerides were directly related to fetal weight. Plasma creatinine, reflecting fetal renal excretory function, and plasma cholesterol, reflecting placental excretory function, were inversely correlated with fetal weight. Progressive biochemical disturbances and growth restriction accompanied the rise in fetal number. Understanding the compensatory and adaptive responses of growth-restricted fetuses at the biochemical level may help explain how metabolic pathways in growth restriction can be predetermined at birth. This physiological understanding is important for clinical care and generating interventional strategies to prevent altered developmental programming in multifetal gestation. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  9. Protein expression profiling by antibody array analysis with use of dried blood spot samples on filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weidong; Mao, Ying Qing; Huang, Ruochun; Duan, Chaohui; Xi, Yun; Yang, Kai; Huang, Ruo-Pan

    2014-01-31

    Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper offer several advantages compared to conventional serum/plasma samples: they do not require any phlebotomy or separation of blood by centrifugation; they are less invasive; they allow sample stability and shipment at room temperature; and they pose a negligible risk of infection with blood-borne viruses, such as HIV, HBV and HCV, to those who handle them. Therefore dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper can be a quick, convenient and inexpensive means of obtaining blood samples for biomarker discovery, disease screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-hospitalized, public health settings. In this study, we investigated for the first time the potential application of dried blood spot samples (DBSS) in protein expression profiling using antibody array technology. First, optimal conditions for array assay performance using dried blood spot samples (DBSS) was established, including sample elution buffer, elution time, elution temperature and assay blocking buffer. Second, we analyzed dried blood spot samples (DBSS) using three distinct antibody array platforms, including sandwich-based antibody arrays, quantitative antibody arrays and biotin-label-based antibody arrays. In comparison with paired serum samples, detection of circulating proteins in dried blood spot samples (DBSS) correlated well for both low- and high-abundance proteins on all three antibody array platforms. In conclusion, our study strongly indicates the novel application of multiplex antibody array platforms to analyze dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper represents a viable, cost-effective method for protein profiling, biomarker discovery and disease screening in a large, population-based survey. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Classical and additional antiphospholipid antibodies in blood samples of ischemic stroke patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel-Neiderman, Narin-Nard; Tanne, David; Goren, Idan; Rotman-Pikielny, Pnina; Levy, Yair

    2017-04-01

    Classical antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLa) are found in 6-25% of blood samples from stroke patients. The frequency of novel aPLa antibodies in blood samples of CVA patients is not known. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were performed on blood samples from 209 CVA patients (170 samples were obtained during the acute phase and 39 samples were from patients with complete carotid stenosis) and compared to 54 healthy controls. Subjects were tested for the presence of the classical aPL antibodies anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-beta2-glycoprotein (aβ2gI), in addition to antiphosphatidylethanolamine (aPE), anti-phosphatidylserine (aPS), and Annexin V. All antibodies were tested for both IgM and IgG subclasses. Numeric analysis of the antibody titer levels (μ/ml) revealed a significantly higher subclinical titer by two standard deviations of many aPL autoantibodies among CVA patients (Pv < 0.05). However, according to the kit manufacturer's cutoff value, no positive antibodies were found except a trend toward higher percentage of positive aPS IgG titer in the CVA group compared to controls (6.2 vs. %0; P = 0.077). According to the manufacturer's cutoff, significantly higher levels of positive antibodies were not found among stroke patients. However, the absolute ELISA values of stroke patients were significantly higher. These results suggest that lower cutoff values than those used for APS diagnosis should be used for risk stratification of CVA among healthy individuals.

  11. Quantitative analysis of normal fetal brain volume and flow by three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chun Hsu

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: 3D ultrasound can be used to assess the fetal brain volume and blood flow development quantitatively. Our study indicates that the fetal brain vascularization and blood flow correlates significantly with the advancement of GA. This information may serve as a reference point for further studies of the fetal brain volume and blood flow in abnormal conditions.

  12. Fetal microchimeric cells in autoimmune thyroid diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepez, Trees; Vandewoestyne, Mado; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) show a female predominance, with an increased incidence in the years following parturition. Fetal microchimerism has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of AITD. However, only the presence of fetal microchimeric cells in blood and in the thyroid gland of these patients has been proven, but not an actual active role in AITD. Is fetal microchimerism harmful for the thyroid gland by initiating a Graft versus Host reaction (GvHR) or being the target of a Host versus Graft reaction (HvGR)? Is fetal microchimerism beneficial for the thyroid gland by being a part of tissue repair or are fetal cells just innocent bystanders in the process of autoimmunity? This review explores every hypothesis concerning the role of fetal microchimerism in AITD. PMID:23723083

  13. Sensitivity of PCR assays for murine gammaretroviruses and mouse contamination in human blood samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ling Lee

    Full Text Available Gammaretroviruses related to murine leukemia virus (MLV have variously been reported to be present or absent in blood from chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME patients and healthy controls. Using subjects from New York State, we have investigated by PCR methods whether MLV-related sequences can be identified in nucleic acids isolated from whole blood or from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs or following PBMC culture. We have also passaged the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP following incubation with plasma from patients and controls and assayed nucleic acids for viral sequences. We have used 15 sets of primers that can effectively amplify conserved regions of murine endogenous and exogenous retrovirus sequences. We demonstrate that our PCR assays for MLV-related gag sequences and for mouse DNA contamination are extremely sensitive. While we have identified MLV-like gag sequences following PCR on human DNA preparations, we are unable to conclude that these sequences originated in the blood samples.

  14. Evaluation of factor for one-point venous blood sampling method based on the causality model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsutomo, Norikazu; Onishi, Hideo; Kobara, Kouichi; Sasaki, Fumie; Watanabe, Haruo; Nagaki, Akio; Mimura, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    One-point venous blood sampling method (Mimura, et al.) can evaluate the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) value with a high degree of accuracy. However, the method is accompanied by complexity of technique because it requires a venous blood Octanol value, and its accuracy is affected by factors of input function. Therefore, we evaluated the factors that are used for input function to determine the accuracy input function and simplify the technique. The input function which uses the time-dependent brain count of 5 minutes, 15 minutes, and 25 minutes from administration, and the input function in which an objective variable is used as the artery octanol value to exclude the venous blood octanol value are created. Therefore, a correlation between these functions and rCBF value by the microsphere (MS) method is evaluated. Creation of a high-accuracy input function and simplification of technique are possible. The rCBF value obtained by the input function, the factor of which is a time-dependent brain count of 5 minutes from administration, and the objective variable is artery octanol value, had a high correlation with the MS method (y=0.899x+4.653, r=0.842). (author)

  15. Evaluation of a novel dried blood spot collection device (HemaSpot™) to test blood samples collected from dogs for antibodies to Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Pick, Leanne D; Hernandez, Jaime O Esquivel; Lindsay, David S

    2014-09-15

    Collection of blood samples from veterinary and wildlife patients is often challenging because the samples have to be collected on farm or in the wild under various environmental conditions. This poses many technical problems associated with venipuncture materials, their safe use and disposal, transportation and processing of collected samples. Dried blood spot (DBS) sample collection techniques offer a simple and practical alternative to traditional blood collection methods to obtain blood samples from animals for parasite antibody evaluation. The DBS collection devices are compact, simple to use, and are particularly useful for large number of samples. Additionally, DBS samples take up less space and they are easier to transport than traditional venipuncture-collected blood samples. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a potentially fatal parasitic disease of dogs and humans and it is frequently diagnosed by antibody tests. Immunochromatographic tests (ICT) for antibodies to Leishmania infantum are commercially available for dogs and they produce qualitative results in minutes. Measurement of canine antibodies to L. infantum with the ICT using traditional venipuncture has been validated previously, but the use of DBS samples has not been evaluated using this method. The purpose of the present study was to determine the ability of DBS samples to detect antibodies to L. infantum in dogs using a commercial ICT assay. One hundred plasma samples from dogs experimentally infected with the LIVT-1 strain of L. infantum were collected by venipuncture and frozen. Individual samples were thawed, and then 80 μl plasma (2 drops) was aliquotted onto the 8-spoked disk pad on individual DBS sample collection devices (HemaSpot™, Spot-On Sciences, Austin, TX), dried, and stored in the dark at room temperature. After one month and six months, respectively, 2 spokes of the 8 spokes of the disk pad of each DBS sample were removed and eluted in 200 μl PBS. The eluate was used to test

  16. Do the venous blood samples replicate malaria parasite densities found in capillary blood? A field study performed in naturally-infected asymptomatic children in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeu, Maurice M; Bayibéki, Albert N; Tchioffo, Majoline T; Abate, Luc; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Awono-Ambéné, Parfait H; Nsango, Sandrine E; Diallo, Diadier; Berry, Antoine; Texier, Gaétan; Morlais, Isabelle

    2017-08-17

    The measure of new drug- or vaccine-based approaches for malaria control is based on direct membrane feeding assays (DMFAs) where gametocyte-infected blood samples are offered to mosquitoes through an artificial feeder system. Gametocyte donors are identified by the microscopic detection and quantification of malaria blood stages on blood films prepared using either capillary or venous blood. However, parasites are known to sequester in the microvasculature and this phenomenon may alter accurate detection of parasites in blood films. The blood source may then impact the success of mosquito feeding experiments and investigations are needed for the implementation of DMFAs under natural conditions. Thick blood smears were prepared from blood obtained from asymptomatic children attending primary schools in the vicinity of Mfou (Cameroon) over four transmission seasons. Parasite densities were determined microscopically from capillary and venous blood for 137 naturally-infected gametocyte carriers. The effect of the blood source on gametocyte and asexual stage densities was then assessed by fitting cumulative link mixed models (CLMM). DMFAs were performed to compare the infectiousness of gametocytes from the different blood sources to mosquitoes. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asexual stages among asymptomatic children aged from 4 to 15 years was 51.8% (2116/4087). The overall prevalence of P. falciparum gametocyte carriage was 8.9% and varied from one school to another. No difference in the density of gametocyte and asexual stages was found between capillary and venous blood. Attempts to perform DMFAs with capillary blood failed. Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite densities do not differ between capillary and venous blood in asymptomatic subjects for both gametocyte and trophozoite stages. This finding suggests that the blood source should not interfere with transmission efficiency in DMFAs.

  17. Application of Atomic Dielectric Resonance Spectroscopy for the screening of blood samples from patients with clinical variant and sporadic CJD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ironside James W

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-clinical variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD infection and reports of vCJD transmission through blood transfusion emphasise the need for blood screening assays to ensure the safety of blood and transplanted tissues. Most assays aim to detect abnormal prion protein (PrPSc, although achieving required sensitivity is a challenge. Methods We have used innovative Atomic Dielectric Resonance Spectroscopy (ADRS, which determines dielectric properties of materials which are established by reflectivity and penetration of radio/micro waves, to analyse blood samples from patients and controls to identify characteristic ADR signatures unique to blood from vCJD and to sCJD patients. Initial sets of blood samples from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases and normal healthy adults (blood donors were screened as training samples to determine group-specific ADR characteristics, and provided a basis for classification of blinded sets of samples. Results Blood sample groups from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases and normal healthy adults (blood donors screened by ADRS were classified with 100% specificity and sensitivity, discriminating these by a co-variance expert analysis system. Conclusion ADRS appears capable of recognising and discriminating serum samples from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases, and normal healthy adults, and might be developed to provide a system for primary screening or confirmatory assay complementary to other screening systems.

  18. Application of Atomic Dielectric Resonance Spectroscopy for the screening of blood samples from patients with clinical variant and sporadic CJD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagge, Timothy J; Barclay, G Robin; Stove, G Colin; Stove, Gordon; Robinson, Michael J; Head, Mark W; Ironside, James W; Turner, Marc L

    2007-01-01

    Background Sub-clinical variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) infection and reports of vCJD transmission through blood transfusion emphasise the need for blood screening assays to ensure the safety of blood and transplanted tissues. Most assays aim to detect abnormal prion protein (PrPSc), although achieving required sensitivity is a challenge. Methods We have used innovative Atomic Dielectric Resonance Spectroscopy (ADRS), which determines dielectric properties of materials which are established by reflectivity and penetration of radio/micro waves, to analyse blood samples from patients and controls to identify characteristic ADR signatures unique to blood from vCJD and to sCJD patients. Initial sets of blood samples from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases and normal healthy adults (blood donors) were screened as training samples to determine group-specific ADR characteristics, and provided a basis for classification of blinded sets of samples. Results Blood sample groups from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases and normal healthy adults (blood donors) screened by ADRS were classified with 100% specificity and sensitivity, discriminating these by a co-variance expert analysis system. Conclusion ADRS appears capable of recognising and discriminating serum samples from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases, and normal healthy adults, and might be developed to provide a system for primary screening or confirmatory assay complementary to other screening systems. PMID:17760958

  19. Discrimination of lymphoma using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy conducted on whole blood samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Sibo; Yu, Xin; Liu, Aichun

    2018-01-01

    Lymphoma is a significant cancer that affects the human lymphatic and hematopoietic systems. In this work, discrimination of lymphoma using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) conducted on whole blood samples is presented. The whole blood samples collected from lymphoma patients and healthy controls are deposited onto standard quantitative filter papers and ablated with a 1064 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. 16 atomic and ionic emission lines of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and sodium (Na) are selected to discriminate the cancer disease. Chemometric methods, including principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classification, and k nearest neighbor (kNN) classification are used to build the discrimination models. Both LDA and kNN models have achieved very good discrimination performances for lymphoma, with an accuracy of over 99.7%, a sensitivity of over 0.996, and a specificity of over 0.997. These results demonstrate that the whole-blood-based LIBS technique in combination with chemometric methods can serve as a fast, less invasive, and accurate method for detection and discrimination of human malignancies. PMID:29541503

  20. Frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility of acinetobacter species isolated from blood samples of paediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, A.; Zafar, A.; Ejaz, H.; Zubair, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Acinetobacter species is a major nosocomial pathogen causing serious infections in immuno-compromised and hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species in blood samples of paediatric patients. Methodology: This cross sectional observational study was conducted during January to October, 2011 at The Children's Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore. A total number of 12,032 blood samples were analysed during the study period. Acinetobacter species were Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: The blood cultures showed growth in 1,141 cultures out of which 46 (4.0%) were Acinetobacter species. The gender distribution of Acinetobacter species was 29 (63.0%) in males and 17 (37.0%) in females. A good antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species was seen with sulbactam-cefoperazone (93.0%), imepenem and meropenem (82.6% (30.4%) was poor. Conclusion: The results of the present study shows high rate of resistance of Acinetobacter species with cephalosporins in nosocomial infections. The sulbactam-cefoperazone, carbapenems and piperacillin-tazobactam showed effective antimicrobial susceptibility against Acinetobacter species. (author)

  1. Metabolomics Application in Maternal-Fetal Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Fanos, Vassilios; Atzori, Luigi; Makarenko, Karina; Melis, Gian Benedetto; Ferrazzi, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomics in maternal-fetal medicine is still an “embryonic” science. However, there is already an increasing interest in metabolome of normal and complicated pregnancies, and neonatal outcomes. Tissues used for metabolomics interrogations of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns are amniotic fluid, blood, plasma, cord blood, placenta, urine, and vaginal secretions. All published papers highlight the strong correlation between biomarkers found in these tissues and fetal malformations, prete...

  2. Fetal Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... allows the reddest blood to go from the right atrium to left atrium and then to the left ventricle and out the aorta. As a result the blood with the most oxygen gets to the brain. Blood coming back from the fetus’s body also ...

  3. Dosagem de folatos maternos e fetais, séricos e eritrocitários em malformações por defeito de fechamento do tubo neural no feto Maternal and fetal serum and red blood cell folate levels in pregnancies complicated by neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bunduki

    1998-07-01

    concentrations and also average corpuscular volume, hematocrit and hemoglobin levels were determined. Fetal and maternal samples were obtained immediately before termination of pregnancy. Results in both groups were compared using a gestational age paired t-test. Results: there were no statistically significant differences in fetal folate levels and fetal hematologic parameters between both groups However, both total (239.9 ng/mL in NTD against 399.1 ng/mL in control group, p=0.01 and methylated (201.9 ng/mL in NTD against 314.0 ng/mL in control group, p=0.02 maternal red blood cells folate levels were significantly lower in the neural tube defect group. Maternal serum folate levels were similar in study and control groups. Conclusion: this study showed that maternal red blood cell folate but not serum folate was significantly reduced in mothers of fetuses with neural tube defects.

  4. Evaluation of Chromosomal Disorders in Tissue and Blood Samples in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parvaneroo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Many studies have indicated that genetic disturbances are common findings in patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC. Identification of these changes can be helpful in diagnostic procedures of these tumors.Purpose: The aim of this study was to appraise the chromosomal disorders in blood and tissue patients with OSCC.Methods and Materials: In this descriptive study, the study group consisted of all OSCC patients who were referred to the Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic of Shariati Hospital, and Amir Aalam Hospital fromSeptember 2000 to November 2002. In order to study chromosomal disorders in the peripheral blood lymphocytes, 5 mL of blood was obtained from each patient In patients with the large lesion, a piece of involved tissue were obtained and cultured for 24 hours.This led to 29 blood samples and 16 tissue specimens and any relation between OSCC and age, sex, smoking and alcohol use were evaluated.Results: In this study, OSCC was more common in males than in females (3 to 5. 31% of our patients were smokers, and one had a history of alcoholic consumption. There was an increase in incidence of OSCC with age. In this study, all patients had numerical(aneuploidy, polyploidy and structural chromosomal disorders (double minute, fragment,breakage and dicentric. There was significant difference between blood and tissue chromosomal disorders (aneuploidy, polyploidy,breakage in OSCC patients.Conclusion: It can be concluded that chromosomes in patients with OSCC might show some genetic aberration and evaluation of involved tissue might be better way for determining this disorders.

  5. Blood pressure interacts with APOE ε4 to predict memory performance in a midlife sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Lauren E; Manuck, Stephen B; Gianaros, Peter J; Ferrell, Robert E; Muldoon, Matthew F; Jennings, J Richard; Flory, Janine D; Erickson, Kirk I

    2015-09-01

    Elevated blood pressure and the Apolipoprotein ε4 allele (APOE ε4) are independent risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. We sought to determine whether the combined presence of the APOE ε4 allele and elevated blood pressure is associated with lower cognitive performance in cognitively healthy middle-aged adults. A total of 975 participants aged 30-54 (mean age = 44.47) were genotyped for APOE. Cardiometabolic risk factors including blood pressure, lipids, and glucose were assessed and cognitive function was measured using the Trail Making Test and the Visual Reproduction and Logical Memory subtests from the Wechsler Memory Scale. Multivariable regression analysis showed that the association between APOE ε4 and episodic memory performance varied as a function of systolic blood pressure (SBP), such that elevated SBP was predictive of poorer episodic memory performance only in APOE ε4 carriers (β = -.092; t = -2.614; p = .009). Notably, this association was apparent at prehypertensive levels (≥130 mmHg), even after adjusting for physical activity, depression, smoking, and other cardiometabolic risk factors. The joint presence of APOE ε4 and elevated SBP, even at prehypertensive levels, is associated with lower cognitive performance in healthy, middle-aged adults. Results of this study suggest that the combination of APOE ε4 and elevated SBP may synergistically compromise memory function well before the appearance of clinically significant impairments. Interventions targeting blood pressure control in APOE ε4 carriers during midlife should be studied as a possible means to reduce the risk of cognitive decline in genetically susceptible samples. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Influence of partial pressure of oxygen in blood samples on measurement performance in glucose-oxidase-based systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumstark, Annette; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2013-11-01

    Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in blood samples can affect blood glucose (BG) measurements, particularly in systems that employ the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme reaction on test strips. In this study, we assessed the impact of different pO2 values on the performance of five GOx systems and one glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) system. Two of the GOx systems are labeled by the manufacturers to be sensitive to increased blood oxygen content, while the other three GOx systems are not. Aliquots of 20 venous samples were adjusted to the following pO2 values: oxygen sensitive. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  7. Simplifying sampling for African swine fever surveillance: Assessment of antibody and pathogen detection from blood swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, J; Zani, L; Schwaiger, T; Nurmoja, I; Viltrop, A; Vilem, A; Beer, M; Blome, S

    2018-02-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable disease with serious socio-economic consequences that has been present in wild boar in the Baltic States and Poland since 2014. An introduction of ASF is usually accompanied by increased mortality, making fallen wild boar and hunted animals with signs of disease the main target for early warning and passive surveillance. It is difficult, however, to encourage hunters and foresters to report and take samples from these cases. A pragmatic and easy sampling approach with quick-drying swabs could facilitate this. In this study, we further evaluated the use of dry blood swabs for the detection of ASFV antibody and genome with samples from animal trials and diagnostic submissions (blood, bone and organs) from Estonia. Compared to serum samples, dried blood swabs yielded 93.1% (95% confidence interval: [83.3, 98.1]) sensitivity and 100% [95.9, 100.0] specificity in a commercial ASFV antibody ELISA. Similarly, the swabs gave a sensitivity of 98.9% [93.4, 100.0] and a specificity of 98.1% [90.1, 100.0] for genome detection by a standard ASFV p72 qPCR when compared to EDTA blood. The same swabs were tested in a VP72-antibody lateral flow device, with a sensitivity of 94.7% [85.4, 98.9] and specificity of 96.1% [89.0, 99.2] compared to the serum ELISA. When GenoTube samples tested in ELISA and LFD were compared, the sensitivity was 96.3% [87.3, 99.5] and the specificity was 93.8% [86.0, 97.9]. This study demonstrates reliable detection of ASFV antibody and genome from swabs. A field test of the swabs with decomposed wild boar carcasses in an endemic area in Estonia also gave promising results. Thus, this technique is a practical approach for surveillance of ASF in both free and endemic areas. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Can the management of blood sugar levels in gestational diabetes mellitus cases be an indicator of maternal and fetal outcomes? The results of a prospective cohort study from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajesh; Davey, Sanjeev; Davey, Anuradha; Raghav, Santosh K.; Singh, Jai V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is emerging as an important public health problem in India owing to its increasing prevalence since the last decade. The issue addressed in the study was whether the management of blood sugar levels in GDM cases can predict maternal and fetal outcomes. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was done for 1 year from October 1, 2013, to September 31, 2014, at 652 diabetic screening units as a part of the Gestational Diabetes Prevention and Control Project approved by the Indian Government in the district of Kanpur, state of Uttar Pradesh. A total of 57,108 pregnant women were screened during their 24–28th weeks of pregnancy by impaired oral glucose test. All types of maternal and perinatal outcomes were followed up in both GDM and non-GDM categories in the 2nd year (2013–2014) after blood sugar levels were controlled. Results: It was seen that for all kinds of maternal and fetal outcomes, the differences between GDM cases and non-GDM cases were highly significant (P 1 in every case). Moreover, perinatal mortality also increased significantly from 5.7% to 8.9% when blood sugar levels increased from 199 mg/dl and above. Perinatal and maternal outcomes in GDM cases were also significantly related to the control of blood sugar levels (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Blood sugar levels can be an indicator of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in GDM cases, provided unified diagnostic criteria are used by Indian laboratories. However, to get an accurate picture on this issue, all factors need further study. PMID:27186155

  9. Can the management of blood sugar levels in gestational diabetes mellitus cases be an indicator of maternal and fetal outcomes? The results of a prospective cohort study from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is emerging as an important public health problem in India owing to its increasing prevalence since the last decade. The issue addressed in the study was whether the management of blood sugar levels in GDM cases can predict maternal and fetal outcomes. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was done for 1 year from October 1, 2013, to September 31, 2014, at 652 diabetic screening units as a part of the Gestational Diabetes Prevention and Control Project approved by the Indian Government in the district of Kanpur, state of Uttar Pradesh. A total of 57,108 pregnant women were screened during their 24–28th weeks of pregnancy by impaired oral glucose test. All types of maternal and perinatal outcomes were followed up in both GDM and non-GDM categories in the 2nd year (2013–2014 after blood sugar levels were controlled. Results: It was seen that for all kinds of maternal and fetal outcomes, the differences between GDM cases and non-GDM cases were highly significant (P 1 in every case. Moreover, perinatal mortality also increased significantly from 5.7% to 8.9% when blood sugar levels increased from 199 mg/dl and above. Perinatal and maternal outcomes in GDM cases were also significantly related to the control of blood sugar levels (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Blood sugar levels can be an indicator of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in GDM cases, provided unified diagnostic criteria are used by Indian laboratories. However, to get an accurate picture on this issue, all factors need further study.

  10. Validation of a fully automated robotic setup for preparation of whole blood samples for LC-MS toxicology analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, David Wederkinck; Rasmussen, Brian; Linnet, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    A fully automated setup was developed for preparing whole blood samples using a Tecan Evo workstation. By integrating several add-ons to the robotic platform, the flexible setup was able to prepare samples from sample tubes to a 96-well sample plate ready for injection on liquid chromatography...

  11. Capillary blood sampling: national recommendations on behalf of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek; Dorotic, Adrijana; Grzunov, Ana; Maradin, Miljenka

    2015-01-01

    Capillary blood sampling is a medical procedure aimed at assisting in patient diagnosis, management and treatment, and is increasingly used worldwide, in part because of the increasing availability of point-of-care testing. It is also frequently used to obtain small blood volumes for laboratory testing because it minimizes pain. The capillary blood sampling procedure can influence the quality of the sample as well as the accuracy of test results, highlighting the need for immediate, widespread standardization. A recent nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia has shown that capillary sampling procedures are not standardized and that only a small proportion of Croatian laboratories comply with guidelines from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) or the World Health Organization (WHO). The aim of this document is to provide recommendations for capillary blood sampling. This document has been produced by the Working Group for Capillary Blood Sampling within the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Our recommendations are based on existing available standards and recommendations (WHO Best Practices in Phlebotomy, CLSI GP42-A6 and CLSI C46-A2), which have been modified based on local logistical, cultural, legal and regulatory requirements. We hope that these recommendations will be a useful contribution to the standardization of capillary blood sampling in Croatia.

  12. Detection of Babesia DNA in blood and spleen samples from Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Paul M; Wilson, Cari; Innes, Elisabeth A; Katzer, Frank

    2017-08-01

    Babesia are intraerythrocytic parasites of importance worldwide within the fields of human and veterinary medicine, as some Babesia sp., including Babesia microti are potentially zoonotic and can cause fatal disease in both humans and animals. The aims of this study were to use a nested PCR (amplifying the 18S rRNA gene) to determine the presence and species of Babesia parasite DNA found in blood (n = 47) and spleen (n = 47) samples collected from Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) in Scotland. The results showed 28/47 (59·6%) blood and 14/47 (29·8%) spleen samples tested positive for the presence of Babesia DNA. Initial sequence analysis of the Babesia DNA identified three distinct sequence types (submitted to GenBank KX528553, KX528554 and KX528555), which demonstrated ⩾99% identity to Babesia sp. parasites previously identified in badgers in Spain (KT223484 and KT223485). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three isolates are closely related to Babesia annae, B. microti and other Piroplasmida species found in wildlife. Further sequence analysis of the samples demonstrated that the badgers were routinely infected with more than one parasite isolate and there was also evidence of genetic recombination between the Babesia parasite isolates (submitted to GenBank KY250472 - KY250477).

  13. Trace elements in blood samples of workers in Atbara railways foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, W. M.

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine trace elements and toxic substances in biological samples (blood samples) of humans. The aim of the current study was to determine the concentration of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), (Pb), lead, and zinc (Zn) in biological samples of workers employed in the industrial workshops in the River Nile state to assess the potential impact of exposure to the work environmental factors. For the purpose of comparison biological samples were collected from the same group of workers exposed to the elements of the work environment and workers not exposed to the elements of the work environment. The analysis of all elements in biological samples was done by x-ray fluorescence technique (X RF). There were no statistically significant differences between the analytical results for the exposed group and non-exposed group, using the same technique. The results showed that the concentrations of the four elements copper, lead, iron, and zinc in all biological samples from workers exposed were not much higher than those not exposed, it could be argued that there was a possible link between these elements with different causes of physiological disorder. The results also showed that need for an attention for improvements in hygiene practice in the workplace and industrial ventilation.(Author)

  14. Does volumetric absorptive microsampling eliminate the hematocrit bias for caffeine and paraxanthine in dried blood samples? A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kesel, Pieter M M; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2015-06-30

    Volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) is a novel sampling technique that allows the straightforward collection of an accurate volume of blood (approximately 10μL) from a drop or pool of blood by dipping an absorbent polymeric tip into it. The resulting blood microsample is dried and analyzed as a whole. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of VAMS to overcome the hematocrit bias, an important issue in the analysis of dried blood microsamples. An LC-MS/MS method for analysis of the model compounds caffeine and paraxanthine in VAMS samples was fully validated and fulfilled all pre-established criteria. In conjunction with previously validated procedures for dried blood spots (DBS) and blood, this allowed us to set up a meticulous comparative study in which both compounds were determined in over 80 corresponding VAMS, DBS and liquid whole blood samples. These originated from authentic human patient samples, covering a wide hematocrit range (0.21-0.50). By calculating the differences with reference whole blood concentrations, we found that analyte concentrations in VAMS samples were not affected by a bias that changed over the evaluated hematocrit range, in contrast to DBS results. However, VAMS concentrations tend to overestimate whole blood concentrations, as a consistent positive bias was observed. A different behavior of VAMS samples prepared from incurred and spiked blood, combined with a somewhat reduced recovery of caffeine and paraxanthine from VAMS tips at high hematocrit values, an effect that was not observed for DBS using a very similar extraction procedure, was found to be at the basis of the observed VAMS-whole blood deviations. Based on this study, being the first in which the validity and robustness of VAMS is evaluated by analyzing incurred human samples, it can be concluded that VAMS effectively assists in eliminating the effect of hematocrit. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Weekday variation in triglyceride concentrations in 1.8 million blood samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaskolowski, Jörn; Ritz, Christian; Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Triglyceride (TG) concentration is used as a marker of cardio-metabolic risk. However, diurnal and possibly weekday variation exists in TG concentrations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate weekday variation in TG concentrations among 1.8 million blood samples drawn between 2008 and 2015 from...... variations in TG concentrations were recorded for out-patients between the age of 9 to 26 years, with up to 20% higher values on Mondays compared to Fridays (all PTriglyceride concentrations were highest after the weekend and gradually declined during the week. We suggest that unhealthy...

  16. Does Pneumatic Tube System Transport Contribute to Hemolysis in ED Blood Samples?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredric M. Hustey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our goal was to determine if the hemolysis among blood samples obtained in an emergency department and then sent to the laboratory in a pneumatic tube system was different from those in samples that were hand-carried. Methods: The hemolysis index is measured on all samples submitted for potassium analysis. We queried our hospital laboratory database system (SunQuest® for potassium results for specimens obtained between January 2014 and July 2014. From facility maintenance records, we identified periods of system downtime, during which specimens were hand-carried to the laboratory. Results: During the study period, 15,851 blood specimens were transported via our pneumatic tube system and 92 samples were hand delivered. The proportions of hemolyzed specimens in the two groups were not significantly different (13.6% vs. 13.1% [p=0.90]. Results were consistent when the criterion was limited to gross (3.3% vs 3.3% [p=0.99] or mild (10.3% vs 9.8% [p=0.88] hemolysis. The hemolysis rate showed minimal variation during the study period (12.6%–14.6%. Conclusion: We found no statistical difference in the percentages of hemolyzed specimens transported by a pneumatic tube system or hand delivered to the laboratory. Certain features of pneumatic tube systems might contribute to hemolysis (e.g., speed, distance, packing material. Since each system is unique in design, we encourage medical facilities to consider whether their method of transport might contribute to hemolysis in samples obtained in the emergency department.

  17. Does Pneumatic Tube System Transport Contribute to Hemolysis in ED Blood Samples?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Michael P; Reineks, Edmunds Z; Hustey, Fredric M; Berriochoa, Jacob P; Podolsky, Seth R; Meldon, Stephen; Schold, Jesse D; Chamberlin, Janelle; Procop, Gary W

    2016-09-01

    Our goal was to determine if the hemolysis among blood samples obtained in an emergency department and then sent to the laboratory in a pneumatic tube system was different from those in samples that were hand-carried. The hemolysis index is measured on all samples submitted for potassium analysis. We queried our hospital laboratory database system (SunQuest(®)) for potassium results for specimens obtained between January 2014 and July 2014. From facility maintenance records, we identified periods of system downtime, during which specimens were hand-carried to the laboratory. During the study period, 15,851 blood specimens were transported via our pneumatic tube system and 92 samples were hand delivered. The proportions of hemolyzed specimens in the two groups were not significantly different (13.6% vs. 13.1% [p=0.90]). Results were consistent when the criterion was limited to gross (3.3% vs 3.3% [p=0.99]) or mild (10.3% vs 9.8% [p=0.88]) hemolysis. The hemolysis rate showed minimal variation during the study period (12.6%-14.6%). We found no statistical difference in the percentages of hemolyzed specimens transported by a pneumatic tube system or hand delivered to the laboratory. Certain features of pneumatic tube systems might contribute to hemolysis (e.g., speed, distance, packing material). Since each system is unique in design, we encourage medical facilities to consider whether their method of transport might contribute to hemolysis in samples obtained in the emergency department.

  18. [Fetal urology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobovits, Akos; Jakobovits, Antal

    2009-06-14

    Although it becomes vitally important only after birth, renal function already plays significant role in maintaining fetal metabolic equilibrium. The kidneys significantly contribute to production of amniotic fluid. Adequate amount of amniotic fluid is needed to stimulate the intrauterine fetal respiratory activity. Intrauterine breathing is essential for lung development. As a result, oligohydramnion is conducive to pulmonary hypoplasia. The latter may lead to neonatal demise soon after birth. In extrauterine life kidneys eliminate nitrogen containing metabolic byproducts. Inadequate renal function results therefore lethal uremia. Integrity of ureters and the urethra is essential for the maintenance of renal function. Retention of urine causes degeneration of the functional units of the kidneys and ensuing deterioration of renal function. Intrauterine kidney puncture or shunt procedure may delay this process in some cases. On the other hand, once renal function has been damaged, no therapy can restart it. Certain anomalies of renal excretory pathways may also be associated with other congenital abnormalities, making the therapeutic efforts pointless. Presence of these associated intrauterine defects makes early pregnancy termination a management alternative, as well as it affects favorably perinatal mortality rates.

  19. A randomised clinical trial of intrapartum fetal monitoring with computer analysis and alerts versus previously available monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Cristina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intrapartum fetal hypoxia remains an important cause of death and permanent handicap and in a significant proportion of cases there is evidence of suboptimal care related to fetal surveillance. Cardiotocographic (CTG monitoring remains the basis of intrapartum surveillance, but its interpretation by healthcare professionals lacks reproducibility and the technology has not been shown to improve clinically important outcomes. The addition of fetal electrocardiogram analysis has increased the potential to avoid adverse outcomes, but CTG interpretation remains its main weakness. A program for computerised analysis of intrapartum fetal signals, incorporating real-time alerts for healthcare professionals, has recently been developed. There is a need to determine whether this technology can result in better perinatal outcomes. Methods/design This is a multicentre randomised clinical trial. Inclusion criteria are: women aged ≥ 16 years, able to provide written informed consent, singleton pregnancies ≥ 36 weeks, cephalic presentation, no known major fetal malformations, in labour but excluding active second stage, planned for continuous CTG monitoring, and no known contra-indication for vaginal delivery. Eligible women will be randomised using a computer-generated randomisation sequence to one of the two arms: continuous computer analysis of fetal monitoring signals with real-time alerts (intervention arm or continuous CTG monitoring as previously performed (control arm. Electrocardiographic monitoring and fetal scalp blood sampling will be available in both arms. The primary outcome measure is the incidence of fetal metabolic acidosis (umbilical artery pH ecf > 12 mmol/L. Secondary outcome measures are: caesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery rates, use of fetal blood sampling, 5-minute Apgar score Discussion This study will provide evidence of the impact of intrapartum monitoring with computer analysis and real

  20. Fetal chromosome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philip, J; Tabor, A; Bang, J

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the rationale of the current indications for fetal chromosome analysis. 5372 women had 5423 amniocentesis performed, this group constituting a consecutive sample at the chromosome laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from March 1973 to September 1980 (Group...... A + B). Pregnant women 35 years of age, women who previously had a chromosomally abnormal child, families with translocation carriers or other heritable chromosomal disease, families where the father was 50 years or more and women in families with a history of Down's syndrome (group A), were compared...... to women having amniocentesis, although considered not to have any increased risk of fetal chromosome abnormality (1390 pregnancies, group B). They were also compared with 750 consecutive pregnancies in women 25-34 years of age, in whom all heritable diseases were excluded (group C). The risk of unbalanced...

  1. A review of blood sample handling and pre-processing for metabolomics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Vinicius Veri; Barbas, Coral; Dudzik, Danuta

    2017-09-01

    Metabolomics has been found to be applicable to a wide range of clinical studies, bringing a new era for improving clinical diagnostics, early disease detection, therapy prediction and treatment efficiency monitoring. A major challenge in metabolomics, particularly untargeted studies, is the extremely diverse and complex nature of biological specimens. Despite great advances in the field there still exist fundamental needs for considering pre-analytical variability that can introduce bias to the subsequent analytical process and decrease the reliability of the results and moreover confound final research outcomes. Many researchers are mainly focused on the instrumental aspects of the biomarker discovery process, and sample related variables sometimes seem to be overlooked. To bridge the gap, critical information and standardized protocols regarding experimental design and sample handling and pre-processing are highly desired. Characterization of a range variation among sample collection methods is necessary to prevent results misinterpretation and to ensure that observed differences are not due to an experimental bias caused by inconsistencies in sample processing. Herein, a systematic discussion of pre-analytical variables affecting metabolomics studies based on blood derived samples is performed. Furthermore, we provide a set of recommendations concerning experimental design, collection, pre-processing procedures and storage conditions as a practical review that can guide and serve for the standardization of protocols and reduction of undesirable variation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Simple Sample Preparation Method for Direct Microbial Identification and Susceptibility Testing From Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong-Wei; Li, Wei; Li, Rong-Guo; Li, Yong; Zhang, Yi; Sun, En-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Rapid identification and determination of the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the infectious agents in patients with bloodstream infections are critical steps in choosing an effective targeted antibiotic for treatment. However, there has been minimal effort focused on developing combined methods for the simultaneous direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of bacteria in positive blood cultures. In this study, we constructed a lysis-centrifugation-wash procedure to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures, which can be used directly for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the Vitek 2 system. The method was evaluated using a total of 129 clinical bacteria-positive blood cultures. The whole sample preparation process could be completed in identification was 96.49% for gram-negative bacteria and 97.22% for gram-positive bacteria. Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria showed an agreement rate of antimicrobial categories of 96.89% with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 2.63, 0.24, and 0.24%, respectively. Category agreement of antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria was 92.81%, with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 4.51, 1.22, and 1.46%, respectively. These results indicated that our direct antibiotic susceptibility analysis method worked well compared to the conventional culture-dependent laboratory method. Overall, this fast, easy, and accurate method can facilitate the direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria in positive blood cultures.

  3. Decreased mitochondrial DNA content in blood samples of patients with stage I breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Peng; An, Han-Xiang; Dang, Cheng-Xue; Radpour, Ramin; Kohler, Corina; Fokas, Emmanouil; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Zhong, Xiao Yan

    2009-01-01

    Alterations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been implicated in carcinogenesis. We developed an accurate multiplex quantitative real-time PCR for synchronized determination of mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA). We sought to investigate whether mtDNA content in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients is associated with clinical and pathological parameters. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 60 patients with breast cancer and 51 age-matched healthy individuals as control. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood for the quantification of mtDNA and nDNA, using a one-step multiplex real-time PCR. A FAM labeled MGB probe and primers were used to amplify the mtDNA sequence of the ATP 8 gene, and a VIC labeled MGB probe and primers were employed to amplify the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase gene. mtDNA content was correlated with tumor stage, menstruation status, and age of patients as well as lymph node status and the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and Her-2/neu protein. The content of mtDNA in stage I breast cancer patients was significantly lower than in other stages (overall P = 0.023). Reduced mtDNA was found often in post menopausal cancer group (P = 0.024). No difference in mtDNA content, in regards to age (p = 0.564), lymph node involvement (p = 0.673), ER (p = 0.877), PR (p = 0.763), and Her-2/neu expression (p = 0.335), was observed. Early detection of breast cancer has proved difficult and current detection methods are inadequate. In the present study, decreased mtDNA content in the peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer was strongly associated with stage I. The use of mtDNA may have diagnostic value and further studies are required to validate it as a potential biomarker for early detection of breast cancer

  4. Simple Sample Preparation Method for Direct Microbial Identification and Susceptibility Testing From Positive Blood Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-wei Pan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid identification and determination of the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the infectious agents in patients with bloodstream infections are critical steps in choosing an effective targeted antibiotic for treatment. However, there has been minimal effort focused on developing combined methods for the simultaneous direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of bacteria in positive blood cultures. In this study, we constructed a lysis-centrifugation-wash procedure to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures, which can be used directly for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the Vitek 2 system. The method was evaluated using a total of 129 clinical bacteria-positive blood cultures. The whole sample preparation process could be completed in <15 min. The correct rate of direct MALDI-TOF MS identification was 96.49% for gram-negative bacteria and 97.22% for gram-positive bacteria. Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria showed an agreement rate of antimicrobial categories of 96.89% with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 2.63, 0.24, and 0.24%, respectively. Category agreement of antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria was 92.81%, with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 4.51, 1.22, and 1.46%, respectively. These results indicated that our direct antibiotic susceptibility analysis method worked well compared to the conventional culture-dependent laboratory method. Overall, this fast, easy, and accurate method can facilitate the direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria in positive blood cultures.

  5. Thyroxine and thyrotropin radioimmunoassays using dried blood samples on filter paper for screening of neonatal hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckers, C.; Cornette, C.; Francois, B.; Bouckaert, A.; Lechat, M.

    1977-01-01

    A routine and automatized methodology for thyroxine (T4) and thyrotropin (TSH) radioimmunoassay (RIA) using dried blood samples on filter paper is described. Five mm diameter dots were prepared. One eluted dot, corresponding to 4 μl of plasma, was used for T4-RIA while two were necessary for TSH-RIA. Reference filter papers were introduced in each assay for quality control. In a preliminary study on 1903 newborns, samples were obtained, generally between the 5th-7th day. Mean dot T4 was 7.38 +- 2.5 μg/dl. Mean dot TSH was 11.83 +- 9.1 μU/ml, the equation of the regression line between dot TSH (y) and serum TSH (x) being Y = 10.29 + 0.623x. (orig.) [de

  6. Slurry sampling in serum blood for mercury determination by CV-AFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda, Pedro R.; Gil, Raul A.; Moyano, Susana; De Vito, Irma; Martinez, Luis D.

    2009-01-01

    The heavy metal mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxin known to have a serious health impact even at relatively low concentrations. A slurry method was developed for the sensitive and precise determination of mercury in human serum blood samples by cold vapor generation coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS). All variables related to the slurry formation were studied. The optimal hydrochloric concentration and tin(II) chloride concentration for CV generation were evaluated. Calibration within the range 0.1-10 μg L -1 Hg was performed with the standard addition method, and compared with an external calibration. Additionally, the reliability of the results obtained was evaluated by analyzing mercury in the same samples, but submitted to microwave-assisted digestion method. The limit of detection was calculated as 25 ng L -1 and the relative standard deviation was 3.9% at levels around of 0.4 μg L -1 Hg

  7. Parameters Associated with Adverse Fetal Outcomes in Parvovirus B19 Congenital Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agra, Isabela Karine Rodrigues; Amorim Filho, Antonio Gomes; Lin, Lawrence Hsu; Biancolin, Sckarlet Ernandes; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira; Brizot, Maria de Lourdes

    2017-11-01

    Objective  To investigate the clinical and sonographic parameters associated with adverse fetal outcomes in patients with congenital parvovirus B19 infection managed by intrauterine transfusion. Methods  This was a single-center retrospective study conducted from January 2005 to December 2016 that assessed patients with singleton pregnancies with fetal parvovirus infection confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction of the amniotic fluid or fetal blood samples who underwent at least one intrauterine transfusion. The maternal characteristics, sonographic findings and parameters related to intrauterine transfusion were compared between the two groups (recovery/non-recovery), who were categorized based on fetal response after in-utero transfusions. Progression to fetal death or delivery without fetal recovery after the transfusions was considered non-recovery and categorized as an adverse outcome. Results  The final analysis included ten singleton pregnancies: seven of which were categorized into the recovery group and three of which into the non-recovery group. The baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. All fetuses were hydropic at the time of diagnosis. No significant differences related to sonographic or intrauterine transfusion parameters were identified between the groups; however, the non-recovery group tended to have an increased number of sonographic markers and lower fetal hemoglobin and platelet levels before the transfusion. Conclusion  We were unable to firmly establish the clinical or sonographic parameters associated with adverse fetal outcomes in patients with parvovirus infection managed with intrauterine transfusions; however, edema, placental thickening and oligohydramnios may indicate greater fetal compromise and, subsequently, adverse outcomes. However, further studies are necessary, mainly due to the small number of cases analyzed in the present study. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  8. Selection of blood sampling times for determination of 51Cr-EDTA clearance in a screeening procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullquist, R.; Askergren, A.; Brandt, R.; Silk, B.; Strandell, T.; Huddinge University Hospital

    1983-01-01

    In a group of 44 construction workers various blood sampling protocols were compared with regard to variability of the 51 Cr-EDTA clearance on repeated determinations. A comparison was also made among the different blood sampling protocols with a reference method using Simpson's formula in the area calculation. A double slope method lasting for two and a half hours was finally choosen and suggested as a screening procedure in industrial environment with blood sampling at 5, 15, 90, 120, 135 and 150 minutes after injection and with the patient resting in a semirecumbent position. (orig.) [de

  9. Environmental contaminants in Texas, USA, wetland reptiles: Evaluation using blood samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Bickham, J.W.; Baker, D.L.; Cowman, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    Four species of reptiles (diamondback water snake [Nerodia rhombifer], blotched water snake [N. erythrogaster], cottonmouth [Agkistrodon piscivorus], and red-eared slider [Trachemys scripta]) were collected at two contaminated and three reference sites in Texas, USA. Old River Slough has received intensive applications of agricultural chemicals since the 1950s. Municipal Lake received industrial arsenic wastes continuously from 1940 to 1993. Blood samples were analyzed for organochlorines, potentially toxic elements, genetic damage, and plasma cholinesterase (ChE). Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) concentrations reached as high as 3.0 ppm (wet weight) in whole blood of a diamondback water snake at Old River Slough, a level probably roughly equivalent to the maximum concentration found in plasma of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) in 1978 to 1979 when DDE peaked in this sensitive species. Possible impacts on diamondback water snakes are unknown, but at least one diamondback water snake was gravid when captured, indicating active reproduction. Arsenic was not found in red-eared sliders (only species sampled) from Municipal Lake. Red-eared sliders of both sexes at Old River Slough showed declining levels of ChE with increasing mass, suggesting a life-long decrease of ChE levels. Possible negative population consequences are unknown, but no evidence was found in body condition (mass relative to carapace length) that red-eared sliders at either contaminated site were harmed.

  10. Comparison of simultaneous splenic sample PCR with blood sample PCR for diagnosis and treatment of experimental Ehrlichia canis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrus, Shimon; Kenny, Martin; Miara, Limor; Aizenberg, Itzhak; Waner, Trevor; Shaw, Susan

    2004-11-01

    This report presents evidence that dogs recover from acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) after 16 days of doxycycline treatment (10 mg/kg of body weight every 24 h). Blood PCR was as valuable as splenic aspirate PCR for early diagnosis of acute CME. Splenic aspirate PCR was, however, superior to blood PCR for the evaluation of ehrlichial elimination.

  11. Clinical and anatomic pathology effects of serial blood sampling in rat toxicology studies, using conventional or microsampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Alexis; Lelong, Christine; Bartels, T; Dorchies, O; Gury, T; Chalier, Catherine; Benning, Véronique

    2015-08-01

    As a general practice in rodent toxicology studies, satellite animals are used for toxicokinetic determinations, because of the potential impact of serial blood sampling on toxicological endpoints. Besides toxicological and toxicokinetic determinations, blood samples obtained longitudinally from a same animal may be used for the assessment of additional parameters (e.g., metabolism, pharmacodynamics, safety biomarkers) to maximize information that can be deduced from rodents. We investigated whether removal of up to 6 × 200 μL of blood over 24h can be applied in GLP rat toxicology studies without affecting the scientific outcome. 8 week-old female rats (200-300 g) were dosed for up to 1 month with a standard vehicle and subjected or not (controls) to serial blood sampling for sham toxicokinetic/ancillary determinations, using miniaturized methods allowing collection of 6 × 50, 100 or 200 μL over 24h. In-life endpoints, clinical pathology parameters and histopathology of organs sensitive to blood volume reduction were evaluated at several time points after completion of sampling. In sampled rats, minimal and reversible changes in red blood cell mass (maximally 15%) and subtle variations in liver enzymes, fibrinogen and neutrophils were not associated with any organ/tissue macroscopic or microscopic correlate. Serial blood sampling (up to 6 × 200 μL over 24h) is compatible with the assessment of standard toxicity endpoints in adult rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of parasite loads in serum and blood samples from patients in acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Carolina; Teherán, Aníbal; Flórez, Carolina; Ramírez, Juan David

    2018-04-17

    Molecular methods have been developed for the detection and quantification of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in blood samples from patients with Chagas disease. However, aspects of sample processing necessary for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), such as the addition of guanidine hydrochloride to whole blood samples, may limit timely access to molecular diagnosis. We analysed 169 samples from serum and guanidine-EDTA blood (GEB) obtained from patients in acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease. We applied qPCR targeted to the satellite DNA region. Finally, we compared the parasite loads and cycle of threshold values of the qPCR. The results confirmed the usefulness of serum samples for the detection and quantification of parasite DNA in patients with Chagas disease, especially in the acute phase. However, the parasite loads detected in serum samples from patients in the chronic phase were lower than those detected in GEB samples. The epidemiological implications of the findings are herein discussed.

  13. Direct Trace Element Analysis of Liquid Blood Samples by In-Air Ion Beam Analytical Techniques (PIXE-PIGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszank, Robert; Csedreki, László; Török, Zsófia

    2017-02-07

    There are various liquid materials whose elemental composition is of interest in various fields of science and technology. In many cases, sample preparation or the extraction can be complicated, or it would destroy the original environment before the analysis (for example, in the case of biological samples). However, multielement direct analysis of liquid samples can be realized by an external PIXE-PIGE measurement system. Particle-induced X-ray and gamma-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE, PIGE) techniques were applied in external (in-air) microbeam configuration for the trace and main element determination of liquid samples. The direct analysis of standard solutions of several metal salts and human blood samples (whole blood, blood serum, blood plasma, and formed elements) was realized. From the blood samples, Na, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Br elemental concentrations were determined. The focused and scanned ion beam creates an opportunity to analyze very small volume samples (∼10 μL). As the sample matrix consists of light elements, the analysis is possible at ppm level. Using this external beam setup, it was found that it is possible to determine elemental composition of small-volume liquid samples routinely, while the liquid samples do not require any preparation processes, and thus, they can be analyzed directly. In the case of lower concentrations, the method is also suitable for the analysis (down to even ∼1 ppm level) but with less accuracy and longer measurement times.

  14. Medio ambiente fetal Fetal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Bernardo Ospina Arcila

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Con base en el artículo clásico "Monte Everest in utero" se hace un análisis de la situación que afronta el feto con respecto a la disponibilidad de oxígeno; para una mejor comprensión del sufrimiento fetal se revisan los siguientes conceptos: presión barométrica, presión parcial del oxígeno atmosférico, presión parcial del oxígeno inspirado, presión barométrica intranasal, ecuación del gas alveolar y difusión de gases a través de la membrana alvéolo capilar. Based on the classical paper by Eastman "Mount Everest in utero" an analysis is made of the situation faced by the fetus with respect to the availability of oxygen; for a better under. standing of fetal distress the following concepts are reviewed: barometric pressure, partial pressure of atmosferic oxygen, partial pressure of inspired oxygen, barometric intranasal pressure, alveolar gas equation and gas diffusion through alveolo-capilar membrane.

  15. Preanalytical blood sample workup for cell-free DNA analysis using Droplet Digital PCR for future molecular cancer diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginkel, Joost H.; van den Broek, Daan A.; van Kuik, Joyce; Linders, Dorothé; de Weger, Roel; Willems, Stefan M.; Huibers, Manon M.H.

    2017-01-01

    In current molecular cancer diagnostics, using blood samples of cancer patients for the detection of genetic alterations in plasma (cell-free) circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is an emerging practice. Since ctDNA levels in blood are low, highly sensitive Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) can be used for

  16. Potential cost savings by minimisation of blood sample delays on care decision making in urgent care services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M.S. Bodansky

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Sample rejection rate is high and is associated with increased in-hospital stay and cost. Blood sampling technique impacts on rejection rates. Reduction in sample rejection rates in emergency care areas in acute hospitals has the potential to impact on patient flow and reduce cost.

  17. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  18. Comparison of diagnostic methods to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in serum and blood samples from AIDS patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcos Vinicius; Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Vicentini, Adriana Pardini

    2018-01-01

    Background Although early and rapid detection of histoplasmosis is essential to prevent morbidity and mortality, few diagnostic tools are available in resource-limited areas, especially where it is endemic and HIV/AIDS is also epidemic. Thus, we compared conventional and molecular methods to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in sera and blood from HIV/AIDS patients. Methodology We collected a total of 40 samples from control volunteers and patients suspected of histoplasmosis, some of whom were also infected with other pathogens. Samples were then analyzed by mycological, serological, and molecular methods, and stratified as histoplasmostic with (group I) or without AIDS (group II), uninfected (group III), and infected with HIV and other pathogens only (group IV). All patients were receiving treatment for histoplasmosis and other infections at the time of sample collection. Results Comparison of conventional methods with nested PCR using primers against H. capsulatum 18S rRNA (HC18S), 5.8S rRNA ITS (HC5.8S-ITS), and a 100 kDa protein (HC100) revealed that sensitivity against sera was highest for PCR with HC5.8S-ITS, followed by immunoblotting, double immunodiffusion, PCR with HC18S, and PCR with HC100. Specificity was equally high for double immunodiffusion, immunoblotting and PCR with HC100, followed for PCR with HC18S and HC5.8-ITS. Against blood, sensitivity was highest for PCR with HC5.8S-ITS, followed by PCR with HC18S, Giemsa staining, and PCR with HC100. Specificity was highest for Giemsa staining and PCR with HC100, followed by PCR with HC18S and HC5.8S-ITS. PCR was less efficient in patients with immunodeficiency due to HIV/AIDS and/or related diseases. Conclusion Molecular techniques may detect histoplasmosis even in cases with negative serology and mycology, potentially enabling early diagnosis. PMID:29342162

  19. Comparison of diagnostic methods to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in serum and blood samples from AIDS patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cristina Dantas

    Full Text Available Although early and rapid detection of histoplasmosis is essential to prevent morbidity and mortality, few diagnostic tools are available in resource-limited areas, especially where it is endemic and HIV/AIDS is also epidemic. Thus, we compared conventional and molecular methods to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in sera and blood from HIV/AIDS patients.We collected a total of 40 samples from control volunteers and patients suspected of histoplasmosis, some of whom were also infected with other pathogens. Samples were then analyzed by mycological, serological, and molecular methods, and stratified as histoplasmostic with (group I or without AIDS (group II, uninfected (group III, and infected with HIV and other pathogens only (group IV. All patients were receiving treatment for histoplasmosis and other infections at the time of sample collection.Comparison of conventional methods with nested PCR using primers against H. capsulatum 18S rRNA (HC18S, 5.8S rRNA ITS (HC5.8S-ITS, and a 100 kDa protein (HC100 revealed that sensitivity against sera was highest for PCR with HC5.8S-ITS, followed by immunoblotting, double immunodiffusion, PCR with HC18S, and PCR with HC100. Specificity was equally high for double immunodiffusion, immunoblotting and PCR with HC100, followed for PCR with HC18S and HC5.8-ITS. Against blood, sensitivity was highest for PCR with HC5.8S-ITS, followed by PCR with HC18S, Giemsa staining, and PCR with HC100. Specificity was highest for Giemsa staining and PCR with HC100, followed by PCR with HC18S and HC5.8S-ITS. PCR was less efficient in patients with immunodeficiency due to HIV/AIDS and/or related diseases.Molecular techniques may detect histoplasmosis even in cases with negative serology and mycology, potentially enabling early diagnosis.

  20. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of Wuchereria bancrofti from human blood samples in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Shafi, Iman R; Shoieb, Eman Y; Attia, Samar S; Rubio, José M; Ta-Tang, Thuy-Huong; El-Badry, Ayman A

    2017-03-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a serious vector-borne health problem, and Wuchereria bancrofti (W.b) is the major cause of LF worldwide and is focally endemic in Egypt. Identification of filarial infection using traditional morphologic and immunological criteria can be difficult and lead to misdiagnosis. The aim of the present study was molecular detection of W.b in residents in endemic areas in Egypt, sequence variance analysis, and phylogenetic analysis of W.b DNA. Collected blood samples from residents in filariasis endemic areas in five governorates were subjected to semi-nested PCR targeting repeated DNA sequence, for detection of W.b DNA. PCR products were sequenced; subsequently, a phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences was performed. Out of 300 blood samples, W.b DNA was identified in 48 (16%). Sequencing analysis confirmed PCR results identifying only W.b species. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated genetically distinct clusters of W.b among the study population. Study results demonstrated that the semi-nested PCR proved to be an effective diagnostic tool for accurate and rapid detection of W.b infections in nano-epidemics and is applicable for samples collected in the daytime as well as the night time. PCR products sequencing and phylogenitic analysis revealed three different nucleotide sequences variants. Further genetic studies of W.b in Egypt and other endemic areas are needed to distinguish related strains and the various ecological as well as drug effects exerted on them to support W.b elimination.

  1. Fetal cocaine exposure: analysis of vernix caseosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C; Dempsey, D; Deitermann, D; Lewis, D; Leikin, J

    1996-10-01

    Preliminary data regarding the use of vernix caseosa (VC) as an alternative to other biological specimens for the determination of fetal cocaine exposure are presented. Advantages of VC analysis include its presence on all newborn babies, historical record of drug exposure, and ease of collection and storage. Fifteen samples of vernix caseosa-five from babies known to be cocaine-exposed because of a positive benzoylecgonine result from the urine and umbilical cord blood and ten from nonexposed neonates-were analyzed for the presence of cocaine and metabolites. VC samples from three of the five neonates known to be cocaine-exposed were positive for cocaine or its metabolites, the other two had little or no remaining specimen. The remaining ten were negative.

  2. Evaluation of dried blood spot samples for hepatitis C virus detection and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Brunna Lemos Crespo; do Espírito-Santo, Márcia Paschoal; Marques, Vanessa Alves; Miguel, Juliana Custódio; da Silva, Elisangela Ferreira; Villela-Nogueira, Cristiane Alves; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Lampe, Elisabeth; Villar, Livia Melo

    2016-09-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) could be an excellent alternative for HCV diagnosis, since it is less invasive and can be stored and transported without refrigeration. The aim of this study was to optimize quantitative and qualitative methods for HCV detection in DBS. DBS and serum samples were collected from 99 subjects (59 anti-HCV/HCV RNA positive and 40 seronegative samples). Seven extraction methods and different PCR parameters were evaluated in DBS samples in the quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) developed to amplify the 5' noncoding region of HCV. A qualitative PCR for amplification of NS5B region of HCV was also valued and the nested-PCR sequenced. The qRT-PCR showed good correlation to commercial assay for HCV viral measurement in serum. To quantify HCV RNA in DBS, it was necessary to increase reverse transcriptase and cDNA concentration. HCV RNA quantification in DBS demonstrated sensitivity of 65.9%, 100% of specificity and kappa statistic of 0.65. The median viral load of DBS samples was 5.38 log10 copies/ml (minimum value=1.76 and maximum value=10.48 log10 copies/ml). HCV RNA was detected in NS5B regions and nucleotide sequences obtained in 43 serum and 11 DBS samples. The presence of the same subtype was observed in paired serum and DBS samples. In this study, it was possible to demonstrate that, despite the low sensitivity, the optimized protocol was able to determine the viral load, as well as, the infecting HCV genotype, validating the usefulness of DBS for viral load determination and molecular epidemiology studies of HCV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Value of amniocentesis versus fetal tissue for cytogenetic analysis in cases of fetal demise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant Borders, Ann E; Greenberg, Jessica; Plaga, Stacey; Shepard-Hinton, Megan; Yates, Carin; Elias, Sherman; Shulman, Lee P

    2009-01-01

    Use of fetal tissue for cytogenetic analysis in cases of second- and third-trimester fetal demise frequently results in unacceptably high failure rates. We reviewed our ongoing use of amniocentesis prior to uterine evacuation to determine if this provided a better source of cells for cytogenetic analysis. We compared cytogenetic results using fetal tissues obtained following uterine evacuation to our ongoing use of amniotic fluid cell obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis prior to uterine evacuation from 2003 to 2008. In 49 of the 63 cases evaluated by fetal tissue biopsies performed after uterine evacuation, a karyotypic analysis was obtained (77.8%). Among the 38 cases evaluated by amniocentesis, an amniotic fluid sample and fetal cytogenetic results were obtained in all 38 (100%) cases. Our findings indicate that amniocentesis is a more reliable source of cytogenetic information than fetal tissue in cases of second- and third-trimester fetal demise.

  4. Higher fetal insulin resistance in Chinese pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus and correlation with maternal insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuwei Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM on fetal insulin resistance or β-cell function in Chinese pregnant women with GDM. MEASUREMENTS: Maternal fasting blood and venous cord blood samples (reflecting fetal condition were collected in 65 well-controlled Chinese GDM mothers (only given dietary intervention and 83 control subjects. The insulin, glucose and proinsulin concentrations of both maternal and cord blood samples were measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and the proinsulin-to-insulin ratios (an indicator of fetal β-cell function were calculated in maternal and cord blood respectively. RESULTS: Both maternal and fetal levels of insulin, proinsulin and HOMA-IR but not proinsulin-to-insulin ratios were significantly higher in the GDM group than in the control group (maternal insulin, 24.8 vs. 15.4 µU/mL, P = 0.004, proinsulin, 23.3 vs. 16.2 pmol/L, P = 0.005, and HOMA-IR, 5.5 vs. 3.5, P = 0.041, respectively; fetal: insulin, 15.1 vs. 7.9 µU/mL, P<0.001, proinsulin, 25.8 vs. 15.1 pmol/L, P = 0.015, and HOMA-IR, 2.8 vs. 1.4, P = 0.017, respectively. Fetal HOMA-IR but not proinsulin-to-insulin ratios was significantly correlated to maternal HOMA-IR (r = 0.307, P = 0.019, in the pregnant women with GDM. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal insulin resistance was higher in Chinese pregnant women with GDM than control subjects, and correlated with maternal insulin resistance.

  5. DNA damage focus analysis in blood samples of minipigs reveals acute partial body irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lamkowski

    Full Text Available Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs. The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated γH2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Göttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI with 49 Gy (± 6% Co-60 γ-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1-8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly γ-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-γH2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using γH2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-γH2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available

  6. Evaluation of three sample preparation methods for the direct identification of bacteria in positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF

    OpenAIRE

    Tanner, Hannah; Evans, Jason T.; Gossain, Savita; Hussain, Abid

    2017-01-01

    Background Patient mortality is significantly reduced by rapid identification of bacteria from sterile sites. MALDI-TOF can identify bacteria directly from positive blood cultures and multiple sample preparation methods are available. We evaluated three sample preparation methods and two MALDI-TOF score cut-off values. Positive blood culture bottles with organisms present in Gram stains were prospectively analysed by MALDI-TOF. Three lysis reagents (Saponin, SDS, and SepsiTyper lysis bufer) w...

  7. Continuous quality control of the blood sampling procedure using a structured observation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Tine Lindberg; Nybo, Mads

    2016-10-15

    An observational study was conducted using a structured observation scheme to assess compliance with the local phlebotomy guideline, to identify necessary focus items, and to investigate whether adherence to the phlebotomy guideline improved. The questionnaire from the EFLM Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase was adapted to local procedures. A pilot study of three months duration was conducted. Based on this, corrective actions were implemented and a follow-up study was conducted. All phlebotomists at the Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology were observed. Three blood collections by each phlebotomist were observed at each session conducted at the phlebotomy ward and the hospital wards, respectively. Error frequencies were calculated for the phlebotomy ward and the hospital wards and for the two study phases. A total of 126 blood drawings by 39 phlebotomists were observed in the pilot study, while 84 blood drawings by 34 phlebotomists were observed in the follow-up study. In the pilot study, the three major error items were hand hygiene (42% error), mixing of samples (22%), and order of draw (21%). Minor significant differences were found between the two settings. After focus on the major aspects, the follow-up study showed significant improvement for all three items at both settings (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, and P = 0.01, respectively). Continuous quality control of the phlebotomy procedure revealed a number of items not conducted in compliance with the local phlebotomy guideline. It supported significant improvements in the adherence to the recommended phlebotomy procedures and facilitated documentation of the phlebotomy quality.

  8. MalHaploFreq: A computer programme for estimating malaria haplotype frequencies from blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Thomas A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular markers, particularly those associated with drug resistance, are important surveillance tools that can inform policy choice. People infected with falciparum malaria often contain several genetically-distinct clones of the parasite; genotyping the patients' blood reveals whether or not the marker is present (i.e. its prevalence, but does not reveal its frequency. For example a person with four malaria clones may contain both mutant and wildtype forms of a marker but it is not possible to distinguish the relative frequencies of the mutant and wildtypes i.e. 1:3, 2:2 or 3:1. Methods An appropriate method for obtaining frequencies from prevalence data is by Maximum Likelihood analysis. A computer programme has been developed that allows the frequency of markers, and haplotypes defined by up to three codons, to be estimated from blood phenotype data. Results The programme has been fully documented [see Additional File 1] and provided with a user-friendly interface suitable for large scale analyses. It returns accurate frequencies and 95% confidence intervals from simulated dataset sets and has been extensively tested on field data sets. Additional File 1 User manual for MalHaploFreq. Click here for file Conclusion The programme is included [see Additional File 2] and/or may be freely downloaded from 1. It can then be used to extract molecular marker and haplotype frequencies from their prevalence in human blood samples. This should enhance the use of frequency data to inform antimalarial drug policy choice. Additional File 2 executable programme compiled for use on DOS or windows Click here for file

  9. Nested PCR detection of malaria directly using blood filter paper samples from epidemiological surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peipei; Zhao, Zhenjun; Wang, Ying; Xing, Hua; Parker, Daniel M; Yang, Zhaoqing; Baum, Elizabeth; Li, Wenli; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Li, Shuying; Yan, Guiyun; Cui, Liwang; Fan, Qi

    2014-05-08

    Nested PCR is considered a sensitive and specific method for detecting malaria parasites and is especially useful in epidemiological surveys. However, the preparation of DNA templates for PCR is often time-consuming and costly. A simplified PCR method was developed to directly use a small blood filter paper square (2 × 2 mm) as the DNA template after treatment with saponin. This filter paper-based nested PCR method (FP-PCR) was compared to microscopy and standard nested PCR with DNA extracted by using a Qiagen DNA mini kit from filter paper blood spots of 204 febrile cases. The FP-PCR technique was further applied to evaluate malaria infections in 1,708 participants from cross-sectional epidemiological surveys conducted in Myanmar and Thailand. The FP-PCR method had a detection limit of ~0.2 parasites/μL blood, estimated using cultured Plasmodium falciparum parasites. With 204 field samples, the sensitivity of the FP-PCR method was comparable to that of the standard nested PCR method, which was significantly higher than that of microscopy. Application of the FP-PCR method in large cross-sectional studies conducted in Myanmar and Thailand detected 1.9% (12/638) and 6.2% (66/1,070) asymptomatic Plasmodium infections, respectively, as compared to the detection rates of 1.3% (8/638) and 0.04% (4/1,070) by microscopy. This FP-PCR method was much more sensitive than microscopy in detecting Plasmodium infections. It drastically increased the detection sensitivity of asymptomatic infections in cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand and Myanmar, suggesting that this FP-PCR method has a potential for future applications in malaria epidemiology studies.

  10. [Risk assessment for fetal trisomy 21 based on nuchal translucency measurement and biochemical screening at 11-13 weeks.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harðardóttir, H

    2001-05-01

    Screening for fetal aneuploidy during the first trimester using fetal nuchal translucency measurement and maternal serum free ss-hCG (ss-human chorionic gonadotropin) and PAPP-A (pregnancy associated plasma protein A) is commonly practised. An approach with a one stop clinic for assessment of risk for fetal anomalies, where pre-test counseling, blood test, ultrasound and post-test counseling is offered in one hour visit is described. Based on maternal age, biochemistry and fetal nuchal translucency measurement an estimated risk for fetal trisomies 13,18 and 21 is calculated. The main benefit of this approach in screening for fetal aneuploidy is the short turnaround time, with immediate results and a low screen positive rate. This approach leads to diagnosis of the majority (95%) of fetal aneuploidy cases. If screening is positive a diagnostic test is available with chorionic villous sampling or amniocentesis. In Iceland, fetal karyotyping is offered to women 35 years and older and performed during the second trimester, but by using this approach prenatal diagnosis can be moved to the first trimester and also offered to women of all ages. A screening approach with a series of steps from 10-15 weeks, including maternal blood test at 10 and again at 15 weeks, as well as an ultrasound and nuchal translucency measurement at 11-13 weeks, with integrated results at 15+ weeks has been proposed. This method offers even lower screen positive rate (1%) while detection rates of fetal aneuploides are high (>90%) but it requires four visits instead of one and the prolonged approach is likely to cause excess anxiety for the parents to be. If all women are to be offered prenatal sreening in the first trimester the structure of prenatal care in Iceland needs some modifications including scheduling the first prenatal visit at 8-10 weeks and teaching healthcare providers counseling regarding prenatal testing.

  11. Clean Sampling of an Englacial Conduit at Blood Falls, Antarctica - Some Experimental and Numerical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Julia; Francke, Gero; Feldmann, Marco; Espe, Clemens; Heinen, Dirk; Digel, Ilya; Clemens, Joachim; Schüller, Kai; Mikucki, Jill; Tulaczyk, Slawek M.; Pettit, Erin; Berry Lyons, W.; Dachwald, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    There is significant interest in sampling subglacial environments for geochemical and microbiological studies, yet those environments are typically difficult to access. Existing ice-drilling technologies make it cumbersome to maintain microbiologically clean access for sample acquisition and environmental stewardship of potentially fragile subglacial aquatic ecosystems. With the "IceMole", a minimally invasive, maneuverable subsurface ice probe, we have developed a clean glacial exploration technology for in-situ analysis and sampling of glacial ice and sub- and englacial materials. Its design is based on combining melting and mechanical stabilization, using an ice screw at the tip of the melting head to maintain firm contact between the melting head and the ice. The IceMole can change its melting direction by differential heating of the melting head and optional side wall heaters. Downward, horizontal and upward melting, as well as curve driving and penetration of particulate-ladden layers has already been demonstrated in several field tests. This maneuverability of the IceMole also necessitates a sophisticated on-board navigation system, capable of autonomous operations. Therefore, between 2012 and 2014, a more advanced probe was developed as part of the "Enceladus Explorer" (EnEx) project. The EnEx-IceMole offers systems for accurate positioning, based on in-ice attitude determination, acoustic positioning, ultrasonic obstacle and target detection, which is all integrated through a high-level sensor fusion algorithm. In December 2014, the EnEx-IceMole was used for clean access into a unique subglacial aquatic environment at Blood Falls, Antarctica, where an englacial brine sample was successfully obtained after about 17 meters of oblique melting. Particular attention was paid to clean protocols for sampling for geochemical and microbiological analysis. In this contribution, we will describe the general technological approach of the IceMole and report on the

  12. Brief Communication: Maternal Plasma Autoantibodies Screening in Fetal Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Charkiewicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Imbalance in the metabolites levels which can potentially be related to certain fetal chromosomal abnormalities can stimulate mother’s immune response to produce autoantibodies directed against proteins. The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of 9000 autoantibodies in maternal plasma to detect fetal Down syndrome. Method. We performed 190 amniocenteses and found 10 patients with confirmed fetal Down syndrome (15th–18th weeks of gestation. For the purpose of our control we chose 11 women without confirmed chromosomal aberration. To assess the expression of autoantibodies in the blood plasma, we used a protein microarray, which allows for simultaneous determination of 9000 proteins per sample. Results. We revealed 213 statistically significant autoantibodies, whose expression decreased or increased in the study group with fetal Down syndrome. The second step was to create a classifier of Down syndrome pregnancy, which includes 14 antibodies. The predictive value of the classifier (specificity and sensitivity is 100%, classification errors, 0%, cross-validation errors, 0%. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that the autoantibodies may play a role in the pathophysiology of Down syndrome pregnancy. Defining their potential as biochemical markers of Down syndrome pregnancy requires further investigation on larger group of patients.

  13. Evaluation of a lateral flow-based technology card for blood typing using a simplified protocol in a model of extreme blood sampling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavier, Benoît; Pouget, Thomas; Sailliol, Anne

    2018-02-01

    Life-threatening situations requiring blood transfusion under extreme conditions or in remote and austere locations, such as the battlefield or in traffic accidents, would benefit from reliable blood typing practices that are easily understood by a nonscientist or nonlaboratory technician and provide quick results. A simplified protocol was developed for the lateral flow-based device MDmulticard ABO-D-Rh subgroups-K. Its performance was compared to a reference method (PK7300, Beckman Coulter) in native blood samples from donors. The method was tested on blood samples stressed in vitro as a model of hemorrhage cases (through hemodilution using physiologic serum) and dehydration (through hemoconcentration by removing an aliquot of plasma after centrifugation), respectively. A total of 146 tests were performed on 52 samples; 126 in the hemodilution group (42 for each native, diluted 1/2, and diluted 1/4 samples) and 20 in the hemoconcentration group (10 for each native and 10% concentrated samples). Hematocrit in the tested samples ranged from 9.8% to 57.6% while hemoglobin levels ranged from 3.2 to 20.1 g/dL. The phenotype profile detected with the MDmulticard using the simplified protocol resulted in 22 A, seven B, 20 O, and three AB, of which nine were D- and five were Kell positive. No discrepancies were found with respect to the results obtained with the reference method. The simplified protocol for MDmulticard use could be considered a reliable method for blood typing in extreme environment or emergency situations, worsened by red blood cell dilution or concentration. © 2017 AABB.

  14. The gingival vein as a minimally traumatic site for multiple blood sampling in guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Mariana Valotta; de Castro, Simone Oliveira; de Albuquerque, Cynthia Zaccanini; Mattaraia, Vânia Gomes de Moura; Santoro, Marcelo Larami

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory animals are still necessary in scientific investigation and vaccine testing, but while novel methodological approaches are not available for their replacement, the search for new, humane, easy, and painless methods is necessary to diminish their stress and pain. When multiple blood samples are to be collected from hamsters and guinea pigs, the number of available venipuncture sites-which are greatly diminished in these species in comparison with other rodents due to the absence of a long tail-, harasses animal caregivers and researchers. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate if gingival vein puncture could be used as an additional route to obtain multiple blood samples from anesthetized hamsters and guinea pigs in such a way that animal behavior, well-being or hematological parameters would not be altered. Thus, twelve anesthetized Syrian golden hamsters and English guinea pigs were randomly allocated in two groups: a control group, whose blood samples were not collected, and an experimental group in which blood samples (200 microliters) were collected by gingival vein puncture at weekly intervals over six weeks. Clinical assessment, body weight gain and complete blood cell count were evaluated weekly, and control and experimental animals were euthanized at week seven, when the mentolabial region was processed to histological analyses. Multiple blood sampling from the gingival vein evoked no clinical manifestations or alteration in the behavioral repertoire, nor a statistically significant difference in weight gain in both species. Guinea pigs showed no alteration in red blood cell, leukocyte or platelet parameters over time. Hamsters developed a characteristic pattern of age-related physiological changes, which were considered normal. Histological analyses showed no difference in morphological structures in the interdental gingiva, confirming that multiple blood sampling is barely traumatic. Thus, these results evidence that blood collection from multiple

  15. Determination of Ethanol in Blood Samples Using Partial Least Square Regression Applied to Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açikgöz, Güneş; Hamamci, Berna; Yildiz, Abdulkadir

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol consumption triggers toxic effect to organs and tissues in the human body. The risks are essentially thought to be related to ethanol content in alcoholic beverages. The identification of ethanol in blood samples requires rapid, minimal sample handling, and non-destructive analysis, such as Raman Spectroscopy. This study aims to apply Raman Spectroscopy for identification of ethanol in blood samples. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized to obtain Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) spectra of blood samples. The SERS spectra were used for Partial Least Square (PLS) for determining ethanol quantitatively. To apply PLS method, 920~820 cm -1 band interval was chosen and the spectral changes of the observed concentrations statistically associated with each other. The blood samples were examined according to this model and the quantity of ethanol was determined as that: first a calibration method was established. A strong relationship was observed between known concentration values and the values obtained by PLS method (R 2 = 1). Second instead of then, quantities of ethanol in 40 blood samples were predicted according to the calibration method. Quantitative analysis of the ethanol in the blood was done by analyzing the data obtained by Raman spectroscopy and the PLS method.

  16. Maternal obesity alters immune cell frequencies and responses in umbilical cord blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Randall M; Marshall, Nicole E; Jeske, Daniel R; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Thornburg, Kent; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2015-06-01

    Maternal obesity is one of the several key factors thought to modulate neonatal immune system development. Data from murine studies demonstrate worse outcomes in models of infection, autoimmunity, and allergic sensitization in offspring of obese dams. In humans, children born to obese mothers are at increased risk for asthma. These findings suggest a dysregulation of immune function in the children of obese mothers; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal body weight and the human neonatal immune system. Umbilical cord blood samples were collected from infants born to lean, overweight, and obese mothers. Frequency and function of major innate and adaptive immune cell populations were quantified using flow cytometry and multiplex analysis of circulating factors. Compared to babies born to lean mothers, babies of obese mothers had fewer eosinophils and CD4 T helper cells, reduced monocyte and dendritic cell responses to Toll-like receptor ligands, and increased plasma levels of IFN-α2 and IL-6 in cord blood. These results support the hypothesis that maternal obesity influences programming of the neonatal immune system, providing a potential link to increased incidence of chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and cardiovascular disease in the offspring. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Automated processing of whole blood samples into microliter aliquots of plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtis, C A; Johnson, W W; Walker, W A

    1988-01-01

    A rotor that accepts and automatically processes a bulk aliquot of a single blood sample into multiple aliquots of plasma has been designed and built. The rotor consists of a central processing unit, which includes a disk containing eight precision-bore capillaries. By varying the internal diameters of the capillaries, aliquot volumes ranging 1 to 10 mul can be prepared. In practice, an unmeasured volume of blood is placed in a centre well, and, as the rotor begins to spin, is moved radially into a central annular ring where it is distributed into a series of processing chambers. The rotor is then spun at 3000 rpm for 10 min. When the centrifugal field is removed by slowly decreasing the rotor speed, an aliquot of plasma is withdrawn by capillary action into each of the capillary tubes. The disk containing the eight measured aliquots of plasma is subsequently removed and placed in a modifed rotor for conventional centrifugal analysis. Initial evaluation of the new rotor indicates that it is capable of producing discrete, microliter volumes of plasma with a degree of accuracy and precision approaching that of mechanical pipettes.

  18. Preliminary Blood Pressure Screening in a Representative Sample of Extremely Obese Kuwaiti Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Abdul Razzak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between blood pressure (BP and obesity has been found in young adults, but no data are available for adolescents in Kuwait. 257 adolescent (11–19 years participants were categorized into two groups according to their BMI; 48 nonobese (21 males: 43.7% and 27 females: 56.3% with mean age of years and 209 obese (128 males: 61.25% and 81 females: 38.75% with mean age of years. The mean BMI was  kg/m2 for the nonobese group and  kg/m3 for the obese group. Most BP measures based on a single screening were significantly higher in the obese group. The prevalence of elevated BP was significantly higher in the obese subjects (nonobese: 13%; obese: 63%; . In the obese group, there was a significant positive correlation between total sample BMI and all BP measures except the pulse pressure. There was a similar rate of elevated blood pressure between males and females (64% versus 60%; . For both isolated systolic elevated BP and isolated diastolic elevated BP, the prevalences were comparable between the males (systolic: 42%; diastolic: 5% and females (systolic: 34%; diastolic: 14%. Only systolic BP was positively correlated with BMI in obese adolescent males (Spearman ; , with a significant correlation between BMI with diastolic (Spearman ; and mean BP (Spearman ; in females.

  19. Levels of PCBs, DDT, DDE and DDD in Italian human blood samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocca, C. La; Abate, V.; Alivernini, S.; Iacovella, N.; Mantovani, A.; Turrio-Baldassarri, L. [Ist. Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Silvestroni, L.; Spera, G. [Dept. of Medical Pathophysiology, Univ. (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    The environmental contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is effecting the exposure of the general population in a direct way through air inhalation, ingestion of particulate matter and dermal absorption and, most of all, in an indirect way through diet. Diet represents, in fact, the main way of human exposure to PCBs. PCBs have potential teratogenic, carcinogenic, hormonal and immunological effects. An association between endometriosis and high levels of PCB in plasma has also been reported3. Moreover, some congeners (PCB 105, PCB 118, PCB 153) have effects on thyroid hormones in animal models, although the PCB dose used in these experiments was an order of magnitude higher than the estimated human exposure. Humans are, however, exposed to a complex mixtures of PCB congeners. In this study identification and quantification of 60 PCB congeners and 3 chlorinated pesticides in human whole blood samples are presented. The subjects examined in this pilot study were a small group of patients with possible endocrine-related problems and unknown specific exposure. The aim of this study was to increase the present understanding about the distribution of the PCBs in human whole blood. The levels of DDT and metabolites were measured as well, since these compounds are consistently reported to contribute to the whole body burden of persistent chlorinated compounds, together with PCBs.

  20. New method for simultaneous determination of 55Fe and 59Fe in blood serum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saukkonen, H.; Uhlenius, R.

    1978-01-01

    Routine methods for the measurement of 55 Fe and 59 Fe activities in biological samples are frequently required in metabolic studies of iron. A new simple method for the simultaneous determination of 59 Fe and 55 Fe concentration in 5 cm 3 samples of blood is described and carefully evaluated. Before the measurement of the activity, organic matter was eliminated by HNO 3 -HClO 4 wet ashing and iron was electroplated onto a copper plate. The accuracy of results was studied by assessing samples, which contained known amounts of radioactivity and determining the counts per nanocurie in each case. The accuracy of the results of 59 Fe and 55 Fe determinations was found to be about 5%. The method has been routinely used to determine iron resorption in patients using the double isotope method. The determination proved to be satisfactory and not too laborious. When performing the yield determination there is a way of detecting and correcting mistakes or incompleteness in different stages of the measurement, thus leading to a high degree of reliability. (T.G.)

  1. PERT: A Method for Expression Deconvolution of Human Blood Samples from Varied Microenvironmental and Developmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaszar, Elizabeth; Yu, Mei; Morris, Quaid; Zandstra, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    The cellular composition of heterogeneous samples can be predicted using an expression deconvolution algorithm to decompose their gene expression profiles based on pre-defined, reference gene expression profiles of the constituent populations in these samples. However, the expression profiles of the actual constituent populations are often perturbed from those of the reference profiles due to gene expression changes in cells associated with microenvironmental or developmental effects. Existing deconvolution algorithms do not account for these changes and give incorrect results when benchmarked against those measured by well-established flow cytometry, even after batch correction was applied. We introduce PERT, a new probabilistic expression deconvolution method that detects and accounts for a shared, multiplicative perturbation in the reference profiles when performing expression deconvolution. We applied PERT and three other state-of-the-art expression deconvolution methods to predict cell frequencies within heterogeneous human blood samples that were collected under several conditions (uncultured mono-nucleated and lineage-depleted cells, and culture-derived lineage-depleted cells). Only PERT's predicted proportions of the constituent populations matched those assigned by flow cytometry. Genes associated with cell cycle processes were highly enriched among those with the largest predicted expression changes between the cultured and uncultured conditions. We anticipate that PERT will be widely applicable to expression deconvolution strategies that use profiles from reference populations that vary from the corresponding constituent populations in cellular state but not cellular phenotypic identity. PMID:23284283

  2. [Comparison of the determination of cyclosporin-A in