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Sample records for fetal alcohol exposure

  1. Fetal alcohol exposure leads to abnormal olfactory bulb development and impaired odor discrimination in adult mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G. Akers (Katherine); S.A. Kushner (Steven); A.T. Leslie (Ana); L. Clarke (Laura); D. van der Kooy (Derek); J.P. Lerch (Jason); P.W. Frankland (Paul)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy exhibit widespread brain abnormalities and a complex array of behavioral disturbances. Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investigate relationships between brain abnormalities and specific

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Thiamin deficiency on fetal brain development with and without prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, Olena; Eskin, N A Michael; Suh, Miyoung

    2018-04-01

    Adequate thiamin levels are crucial for optimal health through maintenance of homeostasis and viability of metabolic enzymes, which require thiamine as a co-factor. Thiamin deficiency occurs during pregnancy when the dietary intake is inadequate or excessive alcohol is consumed. Thiamin deficiency leads to brain dysfunction because thiamin is involved in the synthesis of myelin and neurotransmitters (e.g., acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate), and its deficiency increases oxidative stress by decreasing the production of reducing agents. Thiamin deficiency also leads to neural membrane dysfunction, because thiamin is a structural component of mitochondrial and synaptosomal membranes. Similarly, in-utero exposure to alcohol leads to fetal brain dysfunction, resulting in negative effects such as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Thiamin deficiency and prenatal exposure to alcohol could act synergistically to produce negative effects on fetal development; however, this area of research is currently under-studied. This minireview summarizes the evidence for the potential role of thiamin deficiency in fetal brain development, with or without prenatal exposure to alcohol. Such evidence may influence the development of new nutritional strategies for preventing or mitigating the symptoms of FASD.

  4. Hippocampal neuron populations are reduced in vervet monkeys with fetal alcohol exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Mark W; Ptito, Maurice; Ervin, Frank R

    2015-01-01

    of pregnancy. Here, we report significant numerical reductions in the principal hippocampal neurons of fetal alcohol-exposed (FAE) offspring, as compared to age-matched, similarly housed conspecifics with isocaloric sucrose exposure. These deficits, particularly marked in CA1 and CA3, are present neonatally...... late pregnancy results in a stable loss of hippocampal neurons and a progressive reduction of hippocampal volume....

  5. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

  6. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with ...

  7. National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fetal Alcohol Syndrome - (800) 66-NOFAS Twitter Facebook Instagram LinkedIn YouTube RSS Prenatal Alcohol Exposure. No safe ... adults. DONATE Powered by RJD Solutions Twitter Facebook Instagram LinkedIn YouTube RSS Back to Top

  8. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are pregnant or trying to get pregnant. Prevention Avoiding alcohol during pregnancy prevents FAS. Counseling can help women ... the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Read more ... HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A. ...

  9. Deficits in response inhibition correlate with oculomotor control in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolozza, Angelina; Rasmussen, Carmen; Pei, Jacqueline; Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Nikkel, Sarah M; Andrew, Gail; McFarlane, Audrey; Samdup, Dawa; Reynolds, James N

    2014-02-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) or prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) frequently exhibit impairment on tasks measuring inhibition. The objective of this study was to determine if a performance-based relationship exists between psychometric tests and eye movement tasks in children with FASD. Participants for this dataset were aged 5-17 years and included those diagnosed with an FASD (n=72), those with PAE but no clinical FASD diagnosis (n=21), and typically developing controls (n=139). Participants completed a neurobehavioral test battery, which included the NEPSY-II subtests of auditory attention, response set, and inhibition. Each participant completed a series of saccadic eye movement tasks, which included the antisaccade and memory-guided tasks. Both the FASD and the PAE groups performed worse than controls on the subtest measures of attention and inhibition. Compared with controls, the FASD group made more errors on the antisaccade and memory-guided tasks. Among the combined FASD/PAE group, inhibition and switching errors were negatively correlated with direction errors on the antisaccade task but not on the memory-guided task. There were no significant correlations in the control group. These data suggests that response inhibition deficits in children with FASD/PAE are associated with difficulty controlling saccadic eye movements which may point to overlapping brain regions damaged by prenatal alcohol exposure. The results of this study demonstrate that eye movement control tasks directly relate to outcome measures obtained with psychometric tests that are used during FASD diagnosis, and may therefore help with early identification of children who would benefit from a multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fetal alcohol effects in alcoholic veteran patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishler, P V; Henschel, C E; Ngo, T A; Walters, E E; Worobec, T G

    1998-11-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is often associated with severe physical and neuropsychiatric maldevelopment. On the other hand, some offspring of women who drank during pregnancy appear to be affected in minimal ways and function relatively well within society. We questioned whether this effect of prenatal alcohol in the adult is generally minimal. To bear on this, we determined whether we could distinguish alcohol-exposed from nonexposed individuals in a population of male veterans, selected because of both their accepted level of function within society (e.g., honorable discharge from the military) and their admission to an alcohol treatment unit (thus, a greater likelihood of parental alcoholism, because of its familial aggregation). Consecutively admitted alcoholics (cases; n = 77) with likely maternal alcohol ingestion during their pregnancy or the first 10 years of life were matched with alcoholics with no maternal alcohol exposure during these periods (controls; n = 161). Each subject completed questionnaires regarding personal birthweight, alcohol, drug, educational and work histories, and family (including parental) alcohol and drug histories. We measured height, weight, and head circumference; checked for facial and hand anomalies; and took a frontal facial photograph, from which measurements of features were made. Data were analyzed by univariate statistics and stepwise logistic regression. No case had bona fide fetal alcohol syndrome. With univariate statistical analyses, the cases differed from the controls in 10 variables, including duration of drinking, width of alae nasae, being hyperactive or having a short attention span, and being small at birth. By stepwise logistic regression, the variables marital status, small size at birth, duration of drinking, and the presence of a smooth philtrum were marginally (the first two) or definitely (the last two) significant predictors of case status. Analysis of only the 37 cases in whom maternal prenatal drinking was

  11. Fine motor skills in a population of children in remote Australia with high levels of prenatal alcohol exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Doney, Robyn; Lucas, Barbara R.; Watkins, Rochelle E.; Tsang, Tracey W.; Sauer, Kay; Howat, Peter; Latimer, Jane; Fitzpatrick, James P.; Oscar, June; Carter, Maureen; Elliott, Elizabeth J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Many children in the remote Fitzroy Valley region of Western Australia have prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Individuals with PAE can have neurodevelopmental impairments and be diagnosed with one of several types of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Fine motor skills can be impaired by PAE, but no studies have developed a comprehensive profile of fine motor skills in a population-based cohort of children with FASD. We aimed to develop a comprehensive profile of fine motor ski...

  12. Fetal alcohol exposure reduces responsiveness of taste nerves and trigeminal chemosensory neurons to ethanol and its flavor components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, John I; Tang, Joyce; Morales Allende, Ana Paula; Bryant, Bruce P; Youngentob, Lisa; Youngentob, Steven L

    2017-08-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) leads to increased intake of ethanol in adolescent rats and humans. We asked whether these behavioral changes may be mediated in part by changes in responsiveness of the peripheral taste and oral trigeminal systems. We exposed the experimental rats to ethanol in utero by administering ethanol to dams through a liquid diet; we exposed the control rats to an isocaloric and isonutritive liquid diet. To assess taste responsiveness, we recorded responses of the chorda tympani (CT) and glossopharyngeal (GL) nerves to lingual stimulation with ethanol, quinine, sucrose, and NaCl. To assess trigeminal responsiveness, we measured changes in calcium levels of isolated trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons during stimulation with ethanol, capsaicin, mustard oil, and KCl. Compared with adolescent control rats, the adolescent experimental rats exhibited diminished CT nerve responses to ethanol, quinine, and sucrose and GL nerve responses to quinine and sucrose. The reductions in taste responsiveness persisted into adulthood for quinine but not for any of the other stimuli. Adolescent experimental rats also exhibited reduced TG neuron responses to ethanol, capsaicin, and mustard oil. The lack of change in responsiveness of the taste nerves to NaCl and the TG neurons to KCl indicates that FAE altered only a subset of the response pathways within each chemosensory system. We propose that FAE reprograms development of the peripheral taste and trigeminal systems in ways that reduce their responsiveness to ethanol and surrogates for its pleasant (i.e., sweet) and unpleasant (i.e., bitterness, oral burning) flavor attributes. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Pregnant mothers are advised to avoid alcohol. This is because even small amounts of alcohol can alter fetal brain development and increase the risk of adolescent alcohol abuse. We asked how fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) produces the latter effect in adolescent rats by measuring responsiveness of taste nerves and trigeminal

  13. Environmental Enrichment Alters Neurotrophin Levels After Fetal Alcohol Exposure in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Elizabeth A.; McMechan, Andrew P.; Hannigan, John H.; Berman, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure causes abnormal brain development, leading to behavioral deficits, some of which can be ameliorated by environmental enrichment. As both environmental enrichment and prenatal alcohol exposure can individually alter neurotrophin expression, we studied the interaction of prenatal alcohol and postweaning environmental enrichment on brain neurotrophin levels in rats. Methods Pregnant rats received alcohol by gavage, 0, 4, or 6 g / kg / d (Zero, Low, or High groups), or no treatment (Naïve group), on gestational days 8 to 20. After weaning on postnatal day 21, offspring were housed for 6 weeks in Isolated, Social, or Enriched conditions. Levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) were then measured in frontal cortex, occipital cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellar vermis. Results Prenatal alcohol exposure increased NGF levels in frontal cortex (High-dose group) and cerebellar vermis (High- and Low-dose groups); increased BDNF in frontal cortex, occipital cortex and hippocampus (Low-dose groups), and increased NT-3 in hippocampus and cerebellar vermis (High-dose). Environmental enrichment resulted in lower NGF, BDNF, and NT-3 levels in occipital cortex and lower NGF in frontal cortex. The only significant interaction between prenatal alcohol treatment and environment was in cerebellar vermis where NT-3 levels were higher for enriched animals after prenatal alcohol exposure, but not for animals housed under Isolated or Social conditions. Conclusions Both prenatal alcohol exposure and postweaning housing conditions alter brain neurotrophin levels, but the effects appear to be largely independent. Although environmental enrichment can improve functional outcomes, these results do not provide strong support for the hypothesis that rearing in a complex environment ameliorates prenatal alcohol effects on brain neurotrophin levels in rats. PMID:18652597

  14. Neuroimaging and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Andria L.; Crocker, Nicole; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    The detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing brain include structural brain anomalies as well as cognitive and behavioral deficits. Initial neuroimaging studies of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed previous autopsy reports of overall reduction in brain volume and…

  15. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also been reported. Growth and developmental delays, behavioral problems, learning disabilities and neurocognitive disorders affecting IQ (mild to severe) occur in association with FAS and FASD. The effects of FAS extend beyond childhood. The changes caused by prenatal alcohol exposure can ...

  16. Heterogeneity of p53 dependent genomic responses following ethanol exposure in a developmental mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Sandra M.; Middleton, Frank A.

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure can produce structural and functional deficits in the brain and result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). In rodent models acute exposure to a high concentration of alcohol causes increased apoptosis in the developing brain. A single causal molecular switch that signals for this increase in apoptosis has yet to be identified. The protein p53 has been suggested to play a pivotal role in enabling cells to engage in pro-apoptotic processes, and thus figures prominently as a hub molecule in the intracellular cascade of responses elicited by alcohol exposure. In the present study we examined the effect of ethanol-induced cellular and molecular responses in primary somatosensory cortex (SI) and hippocampus of 7-day-old wild-type (WT) and p53-knockout (KO) mice. We quantified apoptosis by active caspase-3 immunohistochemistry and ApopTag™ labeling, then determined total RNA expression levels in laminae of SI and hippocampal subregions. Immunohistochemical results confirmed increased incidence of apoptotic cells in both regions in WT and KO mice following ethanol exposure. The lack of p53 was not protective in these brain regions. Molecular analyses revealed a heterogeneous response to ethanol exposure that varied depending on the subregion, and which may go undetected using a global approach. Gene network analyses suggest that the presence or absence of p53 alters neuronal function and synaptic modifications following ethanol exposure, in addition to playing a classic role in cell cycle signaling. Thus, p53 may function in a way that underlies the intellectual and behavioral deficits observed in FASD. PMID:28723918

  17. Fetal Alcohol Exposure and IQ at Age 8: Evidence from a Population-Based Birth-Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sarah J.; Zuccolo, Luisa; Davey Smith, George; Macleod, John; Rodriguez, Santiago; Draper, Elizabeth S.; Barrow, Margaret; Alati, Rosa; Sayal, Kapil; Ring, Susan; Golding, Jean; Gray, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Background Observational studies have generated conflicting evidence on the effects of moderate maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on offspring cognition mainly reflecting problems of confounding. Among mothers who drink during pregnancy fetal alcohol exposure is influenced not only by mother’s intake but also by genetic variants carried by both the mother and the fetus. Associations between children’s cognitive function and both maternal and child genotype at these loci can shed light on the effects of maternal alcohol consumption on offspring cognitive development. Methods We used a large population based study of women recruited during pregnancy to determine whether genetic variants in alcohol metabolising genes in this cohort of women and their children were related to the child’s cognitive score (measured by the Weschler Intelligence Scale) at age 8. Findings We found that four genetic variants in alcohol metabolising genes in 4167 children were strongly related to lower IQ at age 8, as was a risk allele score based on these 4 variants. This effect was only seen amongst the offspring of mothers who were moderate drinkers (1–6 units alcohol per week during pregnancy (per allele effect estimates were −1.80 (95% CI = −2.63 to −0.97) p = 0.00002, with no effect among children whose mothers abstained during pregnancy (0.16 (95%CI = −1.05 to 1.36) p = 0.80), p-value for interaction  = 0.009). A further genetic variant associated with alcohol metabolism in mothers was associated with their child’s IQ, but again only among mothers who drank during pregnancy. PMID:23166662

  18. Long-term genomic and epigenomic dysregulation as a consequence of prenatal alcohol exposure: a model for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan L Kleiber

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is abundant evidence that prenatal alcohol exposure leads to a range of behavioural and cognitive impairments, categorized under the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs. These disorders are pervasive in Western cultures and represent the most common preventable source of neurodevelopmental disabilities. The genetic and epigenetic etiology of these phenotypes, including those factors that may maintain these phenotypes throughout the lifetime of an affected individual, has become a recent topic of investigation. This review integrates recent data that has progressed our understanding FASD as a continuum of molecular events, beginning with cellular stress response and ending with a long-term ‘footprint’ of epigenetic dysregulation across the genome. It reports on data from multiple ethanol-treatment paradigms in mouse models that identify changes in gene expression that occur with respect to neurodevelopmental timing of exposure and ethanol dose. These studies have identified patterns of genomic alteration that are dependent on the biological processes occurring at the time of ethanol exposure. This review also adds to evidence that epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNA regulation may underlie long-term changes to gene expression patterns. These may be initiated by ethanol-induced alterations to DNA and histone methylation, particularly in imprinted regions of the genome, affecting transcription which is further fine-tuned by altered microRNA expression. These processes are likely complex, genome-wide, and interrelated. The proposed model suggests a potential for intervention, given that epigenetic changes are malleable and may be altered by postnatal environment. This review accentuates the value of mouse models in deciphering the molecular etiology of FASD, including those processes that may provide a target for the ammelioration of this common yet entirely preventable disorder.

  19. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before and during pregnancy. Maternal and Child Health Journal . 13(2), 274–285, 2009. 13 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH ...

  20. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD): an Approach to Effective Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Roozen, Sylvia; Black, Diane; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn; Kok, Gerjo; Townend, David; Nijhuis, Jan; Koek, Ger; Curfs, Leopold

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review The objective of the current contribution is to propose an evidence-based, six-step approach to develop effective programs for prevention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Recent Findings Despite widespread campaigns aimed to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure, the number of affected children continues to be high. Current strategies to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure may be ineffective or counterproductive. However, proven principles of health promotion could be applied to...

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD): an Approach to Effective Prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, Sylvia; Black, Diane; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn; Kok, Gerjo; Townend, David; Nijhuis, Jan; Koek, Ger; Curfs, Leopold

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review The objective of the current contribution is to propose an evidence-based, six-step approach to develop effective programs for prevention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Recent Findings Despite widespread campaigns aimed to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure, the number of

  2. Fetal alcohol exposure alters proopiomelanocortin gene expression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function via increasing MeCP2 expression in the hypothalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omkaram Gangisetty

    Full Text Available Proopiomelanocortin (POMC is a precursor gene of the neuropeptide β-endorphin in the hypothalamus and is known to regulate various physiological functions including stress response. Several recent reports showed that fetal alcohol exposure programs the hypothalamus to produce lower levels of POMC gene transcripts and to elevate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis response to stressful stimuli. We investigated the role of methyl CpG binding protein (MeCP2 in the effects of prenatal ethanol on POMC gene expression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed between GD 7 and 21 with a liquid diet containing 6.7% alcohol, pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diet, or fed ad libitum with rat chow, and their male offsprings were used at 60 days after birth in this study. Fetal alcohol exposure reduced the level of POMC mRNA, but increased the level of DNA methylation of this gene in the arcuate nucleus (ARC of the hypothalamus where the POMC neuronal cell bodies are located. Fetal alcohol exposed rats showed a significant increase in MeCP2 protein levels in POMC cells, MeCP2 gene transcript levels as well as increased MeCP2 protein binding on the POMC promoter in the arcuate nucleus. Lentiviral delivery of MeCP2 shRNA into the third ventricle efficiently reduced MeCP2 expression and prevented the effect of prenatal ethanol on POMC gene expression in the arcuate nucleus. MeCP2-shRNA treatment also normalized the prenatal ethanol-induced increase in corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH gene expression in the hypothalamus and elevated plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone hormone responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenge. These results suggest that fetal alcohol programming of POMC gene may involve recruitment of MeCP2 on to the methylated promoter of the POMC gene to suppress POMC transcript levels and contribute to HPA axis dysregulation.

  3. Fine motor skills in a population of children in remote Australia with high levels of prenatal alcohol exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Robyn; Lucas, Barbara R; Watkins, Rochelle E; Tsang, Tracey W; Sauer, Kay; Howat, Peter; Latimer, Jane; Fitzpatrick, James P; Oscar, June; Carter, Maureen; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2017-11-21

    Many children in the remote Fitzroy Valley region of Western Australia have prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Individuals with PAE can have neurodevelopmental impairments and be diagnosed with one of several types of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Fine motor skills can be impaired by PAE, but no studies have developed a comprehensive profile of fine motor skills in a population-based cohort of children with FASD. We aimed to develop a comprehensive profile of fine motor skills in a cohort of Western Australian children; determine whether these differed in children with PAE or FASD; and establish the prevalence of impairment. Children (n = 108, 7 to 9 years) were participants in a population-prevalence study of FASD in Western Australia. Fine motor skills were assessed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, which provided a Fine Motor Composite score, and evaluated Fine Manual Control (Fine Motor Precision; Fine Motor Integration) and Manual Coordination (Manual Dexterity; Upper-Limb Coordination). Descriptive statistics were reported for the overall cohort; and comparisons made between children with and without PAE and/or FASD. The prevalence of severe (≤ 2nd percentile) and moderate (≤16th percentile) impairments was determined. Overall, Fine Motor Composite scores were 'average' (M = 48.6 ± 7.4), as were Manual Coordination (M = 55.7 ± 7.9) and Fine Manual Control scores (M = 42.5 ± 6.2). Children with FASD had significantly lower Fine Motor Composite (M = 45.2 ± 7.7 p = 0.046) and Manual Coordination scores (M = 51.8 ± 7.3, p = 0.027) than children without PAE (Fine Motor Composite M = 49.8 ± 7.2; Manual Coordination M = 57.0 ± 7.7). Few children had severe impairment, but rates of moderate impairment were very high. Different types of fine motor skills should be evaluated in children with PAE or FASD. The high prevalence of fine motor impairment in our

  4. Fetal exposure in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.L.; Vandergrift, J.F.; Dalrymple, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of possible radiation damage to the fetus or embryo as a result of diagnostic radiography during pregnancy, particularly in the early stages, is discussed. Recommendations of therapeutic abortion after fetal exposure require an adequate knowledge of the doses involved. In the absence of actual dose measurements or estimates, approximate exposure levels may be determined from the literature. A summary of published values for radiography involving the lower abdomen is given. Data is also presented from a series of fetal exposures resulting mostly from routine diagnostic radiography when pregnancy was not known at the time but was established later. Results of actual dose measurements using a phantom and of dose calculations based on published values are in reasonable agreement indicating that literature values of dose provide a satisfactory alternative to measurement. These data suggest that diagnostic radiography rarely, if ever, results in fetal exposures high enough to justify therapeutic abortion. (author)

  5. Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Alcoholism and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic T. Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is a debilitating disorder that can take a significant toll on health and professional and personal relationships. Excessive alcohol consumption can have a serious impact on both drinkers and developing fetuses, leading to long-term learning impairments. Decades of research in laboratory animals and humans have demonstrated the value of eyeblink classical conditioning (EBC as a well-characterized model system to study the neural mechanisms underlying associative learning. Behavioral EBC studies in adults with alcohol use disorders (AUD and in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD report a clear learning deficit in these two patient populations, suggesting alcohol-related damage to the cerebellum and associated structures. Insight into the neural mechanisms underlying these learning impairments has largely stemmed from laboratory animal studies. In this mini-review, we present and discuss exemplary animal findings and data from patient and neuroimaging studies. An improved understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying learning deficits in EBC related to alcoholism and prenatal alcohol exposure have the potential to advance the diagnoses, treatment, and prevention of these and other pediatric and adult disorders.

  6. Fetal exposure to pimozide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, Nina H; Rode, Line; Dalhoff, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Pimozide is an antidopaminergic, antipsychotic drug. Exposure during human pregnancy has not been reported previously, and recommendations on its use are based on extrapolation from other antipsychotics with antidopaminergic activity.......Pimozide is an antidopaminergic, antipsychotic drug. Exposure during human pregnancy has not been reported previously, and recommendations on its use are based on extrapolation from other antipsychotics with antidopaminergic activity....

  7. Fetal programming and environmental exposures ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal programming is an enormously complex process that relies on numerous environmental inputs from uterine tissue, the placenta, the maternal blood supply, and other sources. Recent evidence has made clear that the process is not based entirely on genetics, but rather on a delicate series of interactions between genes and the environment. It is likely that epigenctic (“above the genome”) changes are responsible for modifying gene expression in the developing fetus, and these modifications can have long-lasting health impacts. Determining which epigenetic regulators are most vital in embryonic development will improve pregnancy outcomes and our ability to treat and prevent disorders that emerge later in life. “Fetal Programming and Environmental Exposures: Implications for Prenatal Care and Preterm Birth’ began with a keynote address by Frederick vom Saal, who explained that low-level exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) perturbs hormone systems in utero and can have negative effects on fetal development. vom Saal presented data on the LOC bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-mimicking compound found in many plastics. He suggested that low-dose exposure to LOCs can alter the development process and enhance chances of acquiring adult diseases, such as breastcancer, diabetes, and even developmental disorders such as attention deficit disorder (ADHD).’ Fetal programming is an enormously complex process that relies on numerous environmental inputs

  8. Paternal genetic contribution influences fetal vulnerability to maternal alcohol consumption in a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Sittig

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol exposure causes in the offspring a collection of permanent physiological and neuropsychological deficits collectively termed Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD. The timing and amount of exposure cannot fully explain the substantial variability among affected individuals, pointing to genetic influences that mediate fetal vulnerability. However, the aspects of vulnerability that depend on the mother, the father, or both, are not known.Using the outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD and inbred Brown Norway (BN rat strains as well as their reciprocal crosses, we administered ethanol (E, pair-fed (PF, or control (C diets to the pregnant dams. The dams' plasma levels of free thyroxine (fT4, triiodothyronine (T3, free T3 (fT3, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were measured to elucidate potential differences in maternal thyroid hormonal environment, which affects specific aspects of FASD. We then compared alcohol-exposed, pair fed, and control offspring of each fetal strain on gestational day 21 (G21 to identify maternal and paternal genetic effects on bodyweight and placental weight of male and female fetuses.SD and BN dams exhibited different baseline hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid function. Moreover, the thyroid function of SD dams was more severely affected by alcohol consumption while that of BN dams was relatively resistant. This novel finding suggests that genetic differences in maternal thyroid function are one source of maternal genetic effects on fetal vulnerability to FASD. The fetal vulnerability to decreased bodyweight after alcohol exposure depended on the genetic contribution of both parents, not only maternal contribution as previously thought. In contrast, the effect of maternal alcohol consumption on placental weight was consistent and not strain-dependent. Interestingly, placental weight in fetuses with different paternal genetic contributions exhibited opposite responses to caloric restriction (pair feeding. In summary

  9. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: experimental treatments and strategies for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2011-01-01

    Despite the known damaging effects of prenatal alcohol exposure, women continue to drink during pregnancy, creating a need for effective interventions and treatments for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Experimental models can be useful in identifying potential treatments, and this article describes the spectrum of experimental therapeutics that currently are being investigated, including pharmacological, nutritional, and environmental/behavioral interventions. Some treatments target the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol-induced damage, protecting against alcohol's teratogenic effects, whereas other treatments may enhance central nervous system plasticity either during alcohol exposure or long after alcohol exposure has ceased. The insights gained to date from experimental models offer several candidates for attenuating the deficits associated with FASD.

  10. Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on maternal and fetal hemodynamics in gestating ewes exposed to alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, Onkar B.; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Hankins, Gary D.; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E.

    2014-01-01

    Not much is known about effects of gestational alcohol exposure on maternal and fetal cardiovascular adaptations. This study determined whether maternal binge alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation could affect maternal-fetal hemodynamics and fetal regional brain blood flow during the brain growth spurt period. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to one of four groups: saline control, alcohol (1.75–2.5 g/kg body weight), glutamine (100 mg/kg body weight) or alcohol + glutamine. A ...

  11. Pediatricians' Knowledge, Training, and Experience in the Care of Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahagan, Sheila; Sharpe, Tanya Telfair; Brimacombe, Michael; Fry-Johnson, Yvonne; Levine, Robert; Mengel, Mark; O'Connor, Mary; Paley, Blair; Adubato, Susan; Brenneman, George

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Prenatal exposure to alcohol interferes with fetal development and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities. The purpose of this study was to identify current knowledge, diagnosis, prevention, and intervention practices related to fetal alcohol syndrome and related conditions by members of the…

  12. A School Curriculum for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Advice from a Young Adult with FASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, Beverley; Burles, Meridith; Holtslander, Lorraine; Bocking, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    While a significant number of individuals in Canada and globally are affected by prenatal fetal alcohol exposure, scant research exists that focuses specifically on the subjective experiences of this population. Based on a single case study exploring through Photovoice methodology the life experiences of a young adult with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum…

  13. Fetal alcohol syndrome – causes, diagnostic criteria and prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Horecka-Lewitowicz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS is the outcome of alcohol exposition in the prenatal period. It is irreversible. In Poland, FAS is becoming more and more common, the diagnostic tools are limited though. It is recommended to use the 4-Digit Diagnostic Code, which evaluates the 4 basic FAS symptoms: growth retardation, dysmorphic appearance, damage to the central nervous system and prenatal alcohol exposure. It has been confirmed that there is no safe amount of alcohol for a mother to drink while carrying a baby. To put it another way, only a complete lack of alcohol consumption is a guarantee that the baby will not suffer from FAS. It is necessary for society to know that even the smallest amount of alcohol is bad for the foetus. A number of people still believe that, for example, red wine is good and healthy for both the mother and child.

  14. Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on maternal and fetal hemodynamics in gestating ewes exposed to alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Hankins, Gary D; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2014-08-01

    Not much is known about effects of gestational alcohol exposure on maternal and fetal cardiovascular adaptations. This study determined whether maternal binge alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation could affect maternal-fetal hemodynamics and fetal regional brain blood flow during the brain growth spurt period. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to one of four groups: saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg body weight), glutamine (100 mg/kg body weight) or alcohol + glutamine. A chronic weekend binge drinking paradigm between gestational days (GD) 99 and 115 was utilized. Fetuses were surgically instrumented on GD 117 ± 1 and studied on GD 120 ± 1. Binge alcohol exposure caused maternal acidemia, hypercapnea, and hypoxemia. Fetuses were acidemic and hypercapnic, but not hypoxemic. Alcohol exposure increased fetal mean arterial pressure, whereas fetal heart rate was unaltered. Alcohol exposure resulted in ~40 % reduction in maternal uterine artery blood flow. Labeled microsphere analyses showed that alcohol induced >2-fold increases in fetal whole brain blood flow. The elevation in fetal brain blood flow was region-specific, particularly affecting the developing cerebellum, brain stem, and olfactory bulb. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation attenuated alcohol-induced maternal hypercapnea, fetal acidemia and increases in fetal brain blood flow. L-Glutamine supplementation did not affect uterine blood flow. Collectively, alcohol exposure alters maternal and fetal acid-base balance, decreases uterine blood flow, and alters fetal regional brain blood flow. Importantly, L-glutamine supplementation mitigates alcohol-induced acid-base imbalances and alterations in fetal regional brain blood flow. Further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms responsible for alcohol-induced programming of maternal uterine artery and fetal circulation adaptations in pregnancy.

  15. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders har fået danske kriterier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broccia, Marcella; Vikre-Jørgensen, Jennifer; Rausgaard, Nete Lundager Klokker

    2017-01-01

    The Danish Paediatric Society presents the first Danish definition of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in a new guideline. FASD is an umbrella term for conditions caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. To varying degrees, fetal alcohol damages manifest as physical defects, characteristic...... facial features and poor growth, as well as behavioural and cognitive disorders. It requires both somatic and psychological evaluation to identify these damages. Early diagnosis and identification of problems are important for prognosis as professional care has a positive preventive effect...

  16. Nutrition Implications for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jennifer K.; Giesbrecht, Heather E.; Eskin, Michael N.; Aliani, Michel; Suh, Miyoung

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure produces a multitude of detrimental alcohol-induced defects in children collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Children with FASD often exhibit delayed or abnormal mental, neural, and physical growth. Socioeconomic status, race, genetics, parity, gravidity, age, smoking, and alcohol consumption patterns are all factors that may influence FASD. Optimal maternal nutritional status is of utmost importance for proper fetal development, yet is often altered with alcohol consumption. It is critical to determine a means to resolve and reduce the physical and neurological malformations that develop in the fetus as a result of prenatal alcohol exposure. Because there is a lack of information on the role of nutrients and prenatal nutrition interventions for FASD, the focus of this review is to provide an overview of nutrients (vitamin A, docosahexaenoic acid, folic acid, zinc, choline, vitamin E, and selenium) that may prevent or alleviate the development of FASD. Results from various nutrient supplementation studies in animal models and FASD-related research conducted in humans provide insight into the plausibility of prenatal nutrition interventions for FASD. Further research is necessary to confirm positive results, to determine optimal amounts of nutrients needed in supplementation, and to investigate the collective effects of multiple-nutrient supplementation. PMID:25398731

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: an overview from the glia perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare J. Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can produce a variety of central nervous system abnormalities in the offspring resulting in a broad spectrum of cognitive and behavioral impairments that constitute the most severe and long-lasting effects observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Alcohol-induced abnormalities in glial cells have been suspected of contributing to the adverse effects of alcohol on the developing brain for several years, although much research still needs to be done to causally link the effects of alcohol on specific brain structures and behavior to alterations in glial cell development and function. Damage to radial glia due to prenatal alcohol exposure may underlie observations of abnormal neuronal and glial migration in humans with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS, as well as primate and rodent models of FAS. A reduction in cell number and altered development has been reported for several glial cell types in animal models of FAS. In utero alcohol exposure can cause microencephaly when alcohol exposure occurs during the brain growth spurt a period characterized by rapid astrocyte proliferation and maturation; since astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the brain, microenchephaly may be caused by reduced astrocyte proliferation or survival, as observed in in vitro and in vivo studies. Delayed oligodendrocyte development and increased oligodendrocyte precursor apoptosis has also been reported in experimental models of FASD, which may be linked to altered myelination/white matter integrity found in FASD children. Children with FAS exhibit hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and anterior commissure, two areas requiring guidance from glial cells and proper maturation of oligodendrocytes. Finally, developmental alcohol exposure disrupts microglial function and induces microglial apoptosis; given the role of microglia in synaptic pruning during brain development, the effects of alcohol on microglia may be involved in the

  18. Parietal dysfunction during number processing in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Woods

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Number processing deficits are frequently seen in children prenatally exposed to alcohol. Although the parietal lobe, which is known to mediate several key aspects of number processing, has been shown to be structurally impaired in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD, effects on functional activity in this region during number processing have not previously been investigated. This fMRI study of 49 children examined differences in activation associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in five key parietal regions involved in number processing, using tasks involving simple addition and magnitude comparison. Despite generally similar behavioral performance, in both tasks greater prenatal alcohol exposure was related to less activation in an anterior section of the right horizontal intraparietal sulcus known to mediate mental representation and manipulation of quantity. Children with fetal alcohol syndrome and partial fetal alcohol syndrome appeared to compensate for this deficit by increased activation of the angular gyrus during the magnitude comparison task.

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder: diminished responsibility and mitigation of sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Russ

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to consider the implications of a recent Western Australia Court of Appeal decision in which an indigenous youth who had been sentenced for the manslaughter of his neonate child was later diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder. The increased use of the 2016 Australian guide to the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder should be encouraged to enable clinicians to not only diagnose and manage Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder, but also counsel families to prevent it.

  20. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  1. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Damages Brain Signal Transduction Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldwell, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    This report details our progress during the first year of a three-year proposal. The proposal's overall goal is to uncover biochemical mechanisms that underlie learning and memory deficits resulting from fetal alcohol exposure (FAE...

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Potential Role of Endocannabinoids Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balapal S. Basavarajappa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the unique features of prenatal alcohol exposure in humans is impaired cognitive and behavioral function resulting from damage to the central nervous system (CNS, which leads to a spectrum of impairments referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Human FASD phenotypes can be reproduced in the rodent CNS following prenatal ethanol exposure. Several mechanisms are expected to contribute to the detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing fetus, particularly in the developing CNS. These mechanisms may act simultaneously or consecutively and differ among a variety of cell types at specific developmental stages in particular brain regions. Studies have identified numerous potential mechanisms through which alcohol can act on the fetus. Among these mechanisms are increased oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, interference with the activity of growth factors, glia cells, cell adhesion molecules, gene expression during CNS development and impaired function of signaling molecules involved in neuronal communication and circuit formation. These alcohol-induced deficits result in long-lasting abnormalities in neuronal plasticity and learning and memory and can explain many of the neurobehavioral abnormalities found in FASD. In this review, the author discusses the mechanisms that are associated with FASD and provides a current status on the endocannabinoid system in the development of FASD.

  3. Implications of genomic signatures in the differential vulnerability to fetal alcohol exposure in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy C. Lossie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal alcohol consumption inflicts a multitude of phenotypic consequences that range from undetectable changes to severe dysmorphology. Using tightly controlled murine studies that deliver precise amounts of alcohol at discrete developmental stages, our group and other labs demonstrated in prior studies that the C57BL/6 and DBA/2 inbred mouse strains display differential susceptibility to the teratogenic effects of alcohol. Since the phenotypic diversity extends beyond the amount, dosage and timing of alcohol exposure, it is likely that an individual’s genetic background contributes to the phenotypic spectrum. To identify the genomic signatures associated with these observed differences in alcohol-induced dysmorphology, we conducted a microarray-based transcriptome study that also interrogated the genomic signatures between these two lines based on genetic background and alcohol exposure. This approach is called a gene x environment (GxE analysis; one example of a GxE interaction would be a gene whose expression level increases in C57BL/6 animals, but decreases in DBA/2 embryos, following alcohol exposure. We identified 35 candidate genes exhibiting GxE interactions. To identify cis-acting factors that mediated these interactions, we interrogated the proximal promoters of these 35 candidates and found 241 single nucleotide variants (SNVs in 16 promoters. Further investigation indicated that 186 SNVs (15 promoters are predicted to alter transcription factor binding. In addition, 62 SNVs created, removed or altered the placement of a CpG dinucleotide in 13 of the proximal promoters; 53 of which overlapped putative transcription factor binding sites. These 53 SNVs are our top candidates for future studies aimed at examining the effects of alcohol on epigenetic gene regulation.

  4. Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Literacy and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitten, H. Rae

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and Literacy and Learning are derived from an inductive analysis of qualitative data collected in field research. FASD is the umbrella term for a spectrum of neurocognitive and physical disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. Data from a sample of N =150 was…

  5. Epigenetic medicine and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendiz, Marisol; Chen, Yuanyuan; Öztürk, Nail C; Zhou, Feng C

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic medicine is still in its infancy. To date, only a handful of diseases have documented epigenetic correlates upstream of gene regulation including cancer, developmental syndromes and late-onset diseases. The finding that epigenetic markers are dynamic and heterogeneous at tissue and cellular levels, combined with recent identification of a new form of functionally distinct DNA methylation has opened a wider window for investigators to pry into the epigenetic world. It is anticipated that many diseases will be elucidated through this epigenetic inquiry. In this review, we discuss the normal course of DNA methylation during development, taking alcohol as a demonstrator of the epigenetic impact of environmental factors in disease etiology, particularly the growth retardation and neurodevelopmental deficits of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:23414322

  6. Prenatal smoking exposure and asymmetric fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delpisheh, Ali; Brabin, Loretta; Drummond, Sandra; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Prenatal smoking exposure causes intrauterine fetal growth restriction ( IUGR), although its effects on fetal proportionality are less clearly defined. Aim: The present study assessed fetal proportionality in babies with IUGR using maternal salivary cotinine to indicate maternal smoking

  7. Behavioral Aspects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Mountain Plains Information Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen Stuut

    This paper discusses the symptoms, causes, and diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects (FAE). It then presents information from biological and adopted parents of 14 individuals (ages 4-23 years) diagnosed with FAS or FAE, based on a parent survey concerning behavioral and educational histories of their children.…

  8. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders har fået danske kriterier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broccia, Marcella; Vikre-Jørgensen, Jennifer; Rausgaard, Nete Lundager Klokker

    2017-01-01

    facial features and poor growth, as well as behavioural and cognitive disorders. It requires both somatic and psychological evaluation to identify these damages. Early diagnosis and identification of problems are important for prognosis as professional care has a positive preventive effect......The Danish Paediatric Society presents the first Danish definition of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in a new guideline. FASD is an umbrella term for conditions caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. To varying degrees, fetal alcohol damages manifest as physical defects, characteristic...

  9. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Rita de Cassia Ferreira; Vasconcelos, Marcio Moacyr; Faleiros, Leticia Oliveira; Brito, Adriana Rocha; Werner Junior, Jairo; Herdy, Gesmar Volga Haddad [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina], e-mail: rcgonc@hotmail.com; Cruz Junior, Luiz Celso Hygino da; Domingues, Romeu Cortes [Multi-Imagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    To analyze the metabolic constitution of brain areas through proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in children affected with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder compared with normal children. Method: The sample of this case-control study included eight boys with epidemiologic history of in utero exposure to alcohol (median age 13.6{+-}3.8 years) who were diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, and eight controls (median age 12.1{+-}3,4 years). An 8 cm{sup 3} single voxel approach was used, with echo time 30 ms, repetition time 1500 ms, and 128 acquisitions in a 1.5T scanner, and four brain areas were analyzed: anterior cingulate, left frontal lobe, left striatum, and left cerebellar hemisphere. Peaks and ratios of metabolites N-acetylaspartate, choline, creatine, and myo-inositol were measured. Results: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder showed a decrease in choline/creatine ratio (p=0.020) in left striatum and an increase in myo-inositol/creatine ratio (p=0.048) in left cerebellum compared with controls. There was no statistically significant difference in all peaks and ratios from the anterior cingulate and frontal lobe between the two groups. Conclusion: This study found evidence that the left striatum and left cerebellum are affected by intrauterine exposure to alcohol. Additional studies with larger samples are necessary to expand our knowledge of the effects of fetal exposure to alcohol. (author)

  10. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Rita de Cassia Ferreira; Vasconcelos, Marcio Moacyr; Faleiros, Leticia Oliveira; Brito, Adriana Rocha; Werner Junior, Jairo; Herdy, Gesmar Volga Haddad

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the metabolic constitution of brain areas through proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in children affected with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder compared with normal children. Method: The sample of this case-control study included eight boys with epidemiologic history of in utero exposure to alcohol (median age 13.6±3.8 years) who were diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, and eight controls (median age 12.1±3,4 years). An 8 cm 3 single voxel approach was used, with echo time 30 ms, repetition time 1500 ms, and 128 acquisitions in a 1.5T scanner, and four brain areas were analyzed: anterior cingulate, left frontal lobe, left striatum, and left cerebellar hemisphere. Peaks and ratios of metabolites N-acetylaspartate, choline, creatine, and myo-inositol were measured. Results: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder showed a decrease in choline/creatine ratio (p=0.020) in left striatum and an increase in myo-inositol/creatine ratio (p=0.048) in left cerebellum compared with controls. There was no statistically significant difference in all peaks and ratios from the anterior cingulate and frontal lobe between the two groups. Conclusion: This study found evidence that the left striatum and left cerebellum are affected by intrauterine exposure to alcohol. Additional studies with larger samples are necessary to expand our knowledge of the effects of fetal exposure to alcohol. (author)

  11. Regulatory Behaviors and Stress Reactivity among Infants at High Risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Chen, Maida; Nash, Jennifer; Gendler, Beth; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This article examines regulatory behaviors and physiological stress reactivity among 6-15 month-old infants with moderate to heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), a group at very high risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and self-regulation impairments, compared to low risk infants with no/low exposure. Participants: Eighteen…

  12. Maternal hurricane exposure and fetal distress risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Sammy; Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Peek, Lori; Weiler, Stephan

    2010-10-01

    Logistic regression and spatial analytic techniques are used to model fetal distress risk as a function of maternal exposure to Hurricane Andrew. First, monthly time series compare the proportion of infants born distressed in hurricane affected and unaffected areas. Second, resident births are analyzed in Miami-Dade and Broward counties, before, during, and after Hurricane Andrew. Third, resident births are analyzed in all Florida locales with 100,000 or more persons, comparing exposed and unexposed gravid females. Fourth, resident births are analyzed along Hurricane Andrew's path from southern Florida to northeast Mississippi. Results show that fetal distress risk increases significantly with maternal exposure to Hurricane Andrew in second and third trimesters, adjusting for known risk factors. Distress risk also correlates with the destructive path of Hurricane Andrew, with higher incidences of fetal distress found in areas of highest exposure intensity. Hurricane exposed African-American mothers were more likely to birth distressed infants. The policy implications of in utero costs of natural disaster exposure are discussed. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Liquid-Diet with Alcohol Alters Maternal, Fetal and Placental Weights and the Expression of Molecules Involved in Integrin Signaling in the Fetal Cerebral Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjwal K. Rout

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes wide range of behavioral and structural deficits in children, commonly known as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS. Children with FAS may suffer behavioral deficits in the absence of obvious malformations. In rodents, the exposure to alcohol during gestation changes brain structures and weights of offspring. The mechanism of FAS is not completely understood. In the present study, an established rat (Long-Evans model of FAS was used. The litter size and the weights of mothers, fetuses and placentas were examined on gestation days 18 or 20. On gestation day 18, the effects of chronic alcohol on the expression levels of integrin receptor subunits, phospholipase-Cγ and N-cadherin were examined in the fetal cerebral cortices. Presence of alcohol in the liquid-diet reduced the consumption and decreased weights of mothers and fetuses but increased the placental weights. Expression levels of β1 and α3 integrin subunits and phospholipase-Cγ2 were significantly altered in the fetal cerebral cortices of mothers on alcohol containing diet. Results show that alcohol consumption during pregnancy even with protein, mineral and vitamin enriched diet may affect maternal and fetal health, and alter integrin receptor signaling pathways in the fetal cerebral cortex disturbing the development of fetal brains.

  14. American Indians' Knowledge about Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shostak, Myra; Brown, Lester B.

    1995-01-01

    A survey examined knowledge about fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and about the effects of prenatal maternal drinking on the fetus among 76 American Indians in Los Angeles, including undergraduate and graduate students and participants in a residential alcohol treatment program. Also reviews the literature on FAS symptoms, outcomes, and incidence,…

  15. Moderate alcohol intake during pregnancy and risk of fetal death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Andersen, Per Kragh; Olsen, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Controversies still exist regarding the existence of a 'safe' level of alcohol intake during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of fetal death (spontaneous abortion and stillbirth) according to maternal alcohol consumption in a large Danish pregnancy cohort....

  16. Psychiatry Trainees' Training and Experience in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyal, Roy; O'Connor, Mary J.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective: Alcohol is a teratogen. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) affect about 1% of live births, causing severe impairment. Individuals affected by FASDs are overrepresented in psychiatric settings. This study reports on the education and experience of psychiatry trainees in approaching FASDs. Method: Data were collected from…

  17. Neuroprotective peptide ADNF-9 in fetal brain of C57BL/6 mice exposed prenatally to alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Youssef; Segu, Zaneer M; YoussefAgha, Ahmed; Karty, Jonathan A; Isailovic, Dragan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background A derived peptide from activity-dependent neurotrophic factor (ADNF-9) has been shown to be neuroprotective in the fetal alcohol exposure model. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of ADNF-9 against alcohol-induced apoptosis using TUNEL staining. We further characterize in this study the proteomic architecture underlying the role of ADNF-9 against ethanol teratogenesis during early fetal brain development using liquid chromatography in conjunction with tandem mass ...

  18. Assessment and control of fetal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.; Swinth, K.L.; Traub, R.J.

    1991-10-01

    The assessment and control of fetal exposure to radiation in the workplace is an issue that is complicated by both biological and political/social ramifications. As a result of the dramatic increase in the number of women employed as radiation workers during the past 10 years, many facilities using radioactive materials have instituted fetal protection programs with special requirements for female radiation workers. It is necessary, however, to ensure that any fetal protection program be developed in such a way as to be nondiscriminatory. A study has been initiated whose purpose is to balance the political/social and the biological ramifications associated with occupational protection of the developing embryo/fetus. Several considerations are involved in properly balancing these factors. These considerations include appropriate methods of declaring the pregnancy, training workers, controlling the dose to the embryo/fetus, measuring and calculating the dose to the embryo/fetus, and recording the pertinent information. Alternative strategies for handling these factors while ensuring maximum protection of the embryo/fetus and the rights and responsibilities of employees and employers are discussed

  19. Fetal cocaine exposure: analysis of vernix caseosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C; Dempsey, D; Deitermann, D; Lewis, D; Leikin, J

    1996-10-01

    Preliminary data regarding the use of vernix caseosa (VC) as an alternative to other biological specimens for the determination of fetal cocaine exposure are presented. Advantages of VC analysis include its presence on all newborn babies, historical record of drug exposure, and ease of collection and storage. Fifteen samples of vernix caseosa-five from babies known to be cocaine-exposed because of a positive benzoylecgonine result from the urine and umbilical cord blood and ten from nonexposed neonates-were analyzed for the presence of cocaine and metabolites. VC samples from three of the five neonates known to be cocaine-exposed were positive for cocaine or its metabolites, the other two had little or no remaining specimen. The remaining ten were negative.

  20. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use Binge Drinking Drinking & Driving Underage Drinking Alcohol & Pregnancy Learn more about the FASD Competency-Based Curriculum Development Guide for Medical and Allied Health Education and Practice CDC Vital Signs – Alcohol and Pregnancy ...

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use Binge Drinking Drinking & Driving Underage Drinking Alcohol & Pregnancy Learn more about the FASD Competency-Based Curriculum Development Guide for Medical and Allied Health Education and Practice CDC Vital Signs – Alcohol and Pregnancy ...

  2. Facts About Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use Binge Drinking Drinking & Driving Underage Drinking Alcohol & Pregnancy Learn more about the FASD Competency-Based Curriculum Development Guide for Medical and Allied Health Education and Practice CDC Vital Signs – Alcohol and Pregnancy ...

  3. Prenatal alcohol exposure increases postnatal acceptability of nicotine odor and taste in adolescent rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Mantella

    Full Text Available Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1 or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2 were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are

  4. Special Education of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Burd, Larry; Nam, Seungree; Rehm, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to estimate the cost associated with special education among children (5 to 14 years) with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in elementary and middle school by sex, age group, and province and territory in Canada. It was estimated that there were 6,520 students with FASD receiving special education in Canada in…

  5. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use Binge Drinking Drinking & Driving Underage Drinking Alcohol & Pregnancy Learn more about the FASD Competency-Based Curriculum Development Guide for Medical and Allied Health Education and Practice CDC Vital Signs – Alcohol and Pregnancy ...

  6. Fetal alcohol programming of hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin system by epigenetic mechanisms and later life vulnerability to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekdash, Rola; Zhang, Changqing; Sarkar, Dipak

    2014-09-01

    Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, one of the major regulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, immune functions, and energy homeostasis, are vulnerable to the adverse effects of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE). These effects are manifested in POMC neurons by a decrease in Pomc gene expression, a decrement in the levels of its derived peptide β-endorphin and a dysregulation of the stress response in the adult offspring. The HPA axis is a major neuroendocrine system with pivotal physiological functions and mode of regulation. This system has been shown to be perturbed by prenatal alcohol exposure. It has been demonstrated that the perturbation of the HPA axis by FAE is long-lasting and is linked to molecular, neurophysiological, and behavioral changes in exposed individuals. Recently, we showed that the dysregulation of the POMC system function by FAE is induced by epigenetic mechanisms such as hypermethylation of Pomc gene promoter and an alteration in histone marks in POMC neurons. This developmental programming of the POMC system by FAE altered the transcriptome in POMC neurons and induced a hyperresponse to stress in adulthood. These long-lasting epigenetic changes influenced subsequent generations via the male germline. We also demonstrated that the epigenetic programming of the POMC system by FAE was reversed in adulthood with the application of the inhibitors of DNA methylation or histone modifications. Thus, prenatal environmental influences, such as alcohol exposure, could epigenetically modulate POMC neuronal circuits and function to shape adult behavioral patterns. Identifying specific epigenetic factors in hypothalamic POMC neurons that are modulated by fetal alcohol and target Pomc gene could be potentially useful for the development of new therapeutic approaches to treat stress-related diseases in patients with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Fetal contamination with cadmium following chronic exposure of rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fetal contamination with cadmium following chronic exposure of rat dams during gestation. ... African Journal of Applied Zoology and Environmental Biology ... It was concluded that cadmium, contrary to previous reports, can pass through the placenta in appreciable quantity to contaminate the fetus to possibly cause fetal ...

  8. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakana Momino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS. These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well as tested for other environmental risk factors for antisocial behavior. A sample of 262 institutionalized male adolescents due to criminal behavior and 154 male students aged between 13 and 21 years comprised the study population. Maternal use of alcohol was admitted by 48.8% of the mothers of institutionalized adolescents and by 39.9% of the school students. In this sample of adolescents we could not identify -individual cases with a clear diagnosis of FAS, but signs suggestive of FASD were more common in the institutionalized adolescents. Social factors like domestic and family violence were frequent in the risk group, this also being associated to maternal drinking during pregnancy. The inference is that in our sample, criminal behavior is more related to complex interactions between environmental and social issues including prenatal alcohol exposure.

  9. GLIA AND NEURODEVELOPMENT: FOCUS ON FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Marina eGuizzetti; Marina eGuizzetti; Marina eGuizzetti; Xiaolu eZhang; Xiaolu eZhang; Calla eGoeke; Calla eGoeke; David P. Gavin; David P. Gavin

    2014-01-01

    During the last 20 years new and exciting roles for glial cells in brain development have been described. Moreover, several recent studies implicated glial cells in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders including Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Rett Syndrome, Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD).Abnormalities in glial cell development and proliferation and increased glial cell apoptosis contribute to the adverse effects of ethanol on the develop...

  10. Glia and Neurodevelopment: Focus on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Guizzetti, Marina; Zhang, Xiaolu; Goeke, Calla; Gavin, David P.

    2014-01-01

    During the last 20 years, new and exciting roles for glial cells in brain development have been described. Moreover, several recent studies implicated glial cells in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders including Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Rett Syndrome, Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Abnormalities in glial cell development and proliferation and increased glial cell apoptosis contribute to the adverse effects of ethanol on the devel...

  11. Inhibition of Mammary Cancer Progression in Fetal Alcohol Exposed Rats by β-Endorphin Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changqing; Franklin, Tina; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) increases the susceptibility to carcinogen-induced mammary cancer progression in rodent models. FAE also decreases β-endorphin (β-EP) level and causes hyperstress response, which leads to inhibition of immune function against cancer. Previous studies have shown that injection of nanosphere-attached dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (dbcAMP) into the third ventricle increases the number of β-EP neurons in the hypothalamus. In this study, we assessed the therapeutic potential of stress regulation using methods to increase hypothalamic levels of β-EP, a neuropeptide that inhibits stress axis activity, in treatment of carcinogen-induced mammary cancer in fetal alcohol exposed rats. Fetal alcohol exposed and control Sprague Dawley rats were given a dose of N-Nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU) at postnatal day 50 to induce mammary cancer growth. Upon detection of mammary tumors, the animals were either transplanted with β-EP neurons or injected with dbcAMP-delivering nanospheres into the hypothalamus to increase β-EP peptide production. Spleen cytokines were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. Metastasis study was done by injecting mammary cancer cells MADB106 into jugular vein of β-EP-activated or control fetal alcohol exposed animals. Both transplantation of β-EP neurons and injection of dbcAMP-delivering nanospheres inhibited MNU-induced mammary cancer growth in control rats, and reversed the effect of FAE on the susceptibility to mammary cancer. Similar to the previously reported immune-enhancing and stress-suppressive effects of β-EP transplantation, injection of dbcAMP-delivering nanospheres increased the levels of interferon-γ and granzyme B and decreased the levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine in fetal alcohol exposed rats. Mammary cancer cell metastasis study also showed that FAE increased incidence of lung tumor retention, while β-EP transplantation inhibited lung tumor growth in

  12. Biomarkers for the Detection of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bager, Heidi; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer; Husby, Steffen; Bjerregaard, Lene

    2017-02-01

    Alcohol exposure during pregnancy can cause adverse effects to the fetus, because it interferes with fetal development, leading to later physical and mental impairment. The most common clinical tool to determine fetal alcohol exposure is maternal self-reporting. However, a more objective and useful method is based on the use of biomarkers in biological specimens alone or in combination with maternal self-reporting. This review reports on clinically relevant biomarkers for detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). A systematic search was performed to ensure a proper overview in existing literature. Studies were selected to give an overview on clinically relevant neonatal and maternal biomarkers. The direct biomarkers fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulfate, and phosphatidylethanol (PEth) were found to be the most appropriate biomarkers in relation to detection of PAE. To review each biomarker in a clinical context, we have compared the advantages and disadvantages of each biomarker, in relation to its window of detectability, ease of collection, and the ease and cost of analysis of each biomarker. The biomarkers PEth, FAEEs, and EtG were found to be applicable for detection of even low levels of alcohol exposure. Meconium is an accessible matrix for determination of FAEEs and EtG, and blood an accessible matrix for determination of PEth. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. Postnatal nutritional treatment of neurocognitive deficits in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastons-Compta, A; Astals, M; Andreu-Fernandez, V; Navarro-Tapia, E; Garcia-Algar, O

    2018-04-01

    Ethanol is the most important teratogen agent in humans. Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to a wide range of adverse effects, which are broadly termed as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The most severe consequence of maternal alcohol abuse is the development of fetal alcohol syndrome, defined by growth retardation, facial malformations, and central nervous system impairment expressed as microcephaly and neurodevelopment abnormalities. These alterations generate a broad range of cognitive abnormalities such as learning disabilities and hyperactivity and behavioural problems. Socioeconomic status, ethnicity, differences in genetic susceptibility related to ethanol metabolism, alcohol consumption patterns, obstetric problems, and environmental influences like maternal nutrition, stress, and other co-administered drugs are all factors that may influence FASD manifestations. Recently, much attention has been paid to the role of nutrition as a protective factor against alcohol teratogenicity. There are a great number of papers related to nutritional treatment of nutritional deficits due to several factors associated with maternal consumption of alcohol and with eating and social disorders in FASD children. Although research showed the clinical benefits of nutritional interventions, most of work was in animal models, in a preclinical phase, or in the prenatal period. However, a minimum number of studies refer to postnatal nutrition treatment of neurodevelopmental deficits. Nutritional supplementation in children with FASD has a dual objective: to overcome nutritional deficiencies and to reverse or improve the cognitive deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. Further research is necessary to confirm positive results, to determine optimal amounts of nutrients needed in supplementation, and to investigate the collective effects of simultaneous multiple-nutrient supplementation.

  14. Diving into the world of alcohol teratogenesis: a review of zebrafish models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Yohaan; Buckley, Desire M; Eberhart, Johann K

    2017-08-17

    The term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) refers to the entire suite of deleterious outcomes resulting from embryonic exposure to alcohol. Along with other reviews in this special issue, we provide insight into how animal models, specifically the zebrafish, have informed our understanding of FASD. We first provide a brief introduction to FASD. We discuss the zebrafish as a model organism and its strengths for alcohol research. We detail how zebrafish has been used to model some of the major defects present in FASD. These include behavioral defects, such as social behavior as well as learning and memory, and structural defects, disrupting organs such as the brain, sensory organs, heart, and craniofacial skeleton. We provide insights into how zebrafish research has aided in our understanding of the mechanisms of ethanol teratogenesis. We end by providing some relatively recent advances that zebrafish has provided in characterizing gene-ethanol interactions that may underlie FASD.

  15. Prospective Memory Impairment in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine E; Thomas, Kevin G F; Molteno, Christopher D; Kliegel, Matthias; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2016-05-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is linked to impaired performance on tests of retrospective memory, but prospective memory (PM; the ability to remember and act on delayed intentions) has not been examined in alcohol-exposed children. We investigated event-based PM in children with heavy PAE and the degree to which associations between PAE and PM are influenced by IQ, executive functioning (EF), retrospective memory, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We administered a computerized PM task to 89 children (Mage = 11.1 years) whose mothers were recruited prenatally: 29 with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS (PFAS), 32 nonsyndromal heavily exposed (HE), and 28 Controls. We examined effects of diagnostic group, cue focality, and task difficulty on PM performance. The association between a continuous measure of alcohol exposure and PM performance was also examined after controlling for sociodemographic confounders. Mediation of alcohol effects on PM by IQ, EF, and retrospective memory scores was assessed as was the effect of ADHD on PM performance. Children with FAS/PFAS made more PM errors than either HE or Control children. PAE was negatively related to PM performance even after adjusting for sociodemographic confounders, EF, and retrospective memory. This relation was only partially mediated by IQ. PAE was related to ADHD, but ADHD was not related to PM performance. Fetal alcohol-related impairment in event-based PM was seen in children with FAS/PFAS. The effect of PAE on PM was not attributable to impaired EF and retrospective memory and was not solely attributable to lower IQ. Consistent with previous studies, we found no effect of ADHD on event-based PM performance at this age. This is the first study documenting PM impairment in children with heavy PAE and identifies a new domain of impairment warranting attention in diagnosis and management of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Exposure to alcohol advertising and teen drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2011-02-01

    Assessing the association between alcohol ad exposure and alcohol use in German adolescents, controlling for general ad exposure. Cross-sectional survey of 3415 sixth to eighth graders (mean 12.5 years) from 29 schools in three German states (June 2008). Exposure to 9 alcohol and 8 non-alcohol advertisements was measured with masked ad images; students indicated contact frequency and brand recall. Main outcomes were ever drinking, current drinking, binge drinking, alcohol use intentions and outcome expectancies. There was a bivariate association between both exposures (alcohol and non-alcohol ads) and all alcohol use measures. After adjustment for confounding, only alcohol ad exposure retained a significant association with outcomes. Multi-level logistic regressions revealed that compared with quartile one alcohol ad exposure, the adjusted odds ratios for quartile four were 2.4 (95% confidence interval 1.7-3.4) for trying drinking, 2.7 (1.8-3.9) for current drinking and 2.3 (1.6-3.5) for ever binge drinking. There was also an independent association between alcohol ad exposure and alcohol-related attitudes among never drinkers. This study demonstrates a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising and multiple youth drinking outcomes, showing that the association is content-specific, not just a function of general ad exposure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fetal and neonatal responses following maternal exposure to mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezk, Ahmed Y.; Abdulqawi, K.; Mustafa, Randa M.; El-Azm, Tark M. Abo; Al-Inany, H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to study fetal and neonatal heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (COP), following acute maternal exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by mobile phones. The present study was carried out at Benha University Hospital and El-Shorouq Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, from October 2003 to March 2004, Ninety women with uncomplicated pregnancies aged 18-33 years and 30 full term healthy newborn infants were included. The pregnant mothers were exposed to EMF emitted by mobile telephones while on telephone dialing mode for 10 minutes during pregnancy and after birth. The main outcome was measurements of fetal and neonatal HR and COP. A statistical significant increase in fetal and neonatal HR and statistical significant decrease in stroke volume and COP before and after use of mobile phone were noted. All these changes are attenuated with increase in gestational age. Exposures of pregnant women to mobile phones significantly increase fetal and neonatal HR and significantly decreased the COP. (author)

  18. Exposure to alcohol advertisements and teenage alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenard, Jerry L; Dent, Clyde W; Stacy, Alan W

    2013-02-01

    This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents' jobs, and parents' education. Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence.

  19. Epigenetic mechanisms: A possible link between autism spectrum disorders and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadinova, Miroslava; Boyadjieva, Nadka

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) still remains unclear and seems to involve a considerable overlap between polygenic, epigenetic and environmental factors. We have summarized the current understanding of the interplay between gene expression dysregulation via epigenetic modifications and the potential epigenetic impact of environmental factors in neurodevelopmental deficits. Furthermore, we discuss the scientific controversies of the relationship between prenatal exposure to alcohol and alcohol-induced epigenetic dysregulations, and gene expression alterations which are associated with disrupted neural plasticity and causal pathways for ASDs. The review of the literature suggests that a better understanding of developmental epigenetics should contribute to furthering our comprehension of the etiology and pathogenesis of ASDs and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A comprehensive local program for the prevention of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Masis, K B; May, P A

    1991-01-01

    A hospital based, comprehensive approach to the prevention of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects that combines clinical assessment, community outreach, and epidemiologic knowledge to attack alcohol-related birth defects is described. The program includes training of clinicians and members of the community, baseline screening of suspected children, and alcohol consumption screening of pregnant women in prenatal clinics. The major, although not exclusive, focus of the program is o...

  1. Preventing Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Evidence-Based Prevention Program for Adolescent and Adult Hispanic Females in the South Texas Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Todd T.; Craddock, Christopher S.; Kodatt, Stephanie A.; Ramirez, Dora Maria

    2017-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) present serious problems for the twenty-first century. These disorders describe a variety of neurological and behavioral deficits that result from exposure of an unborn child to alcohol during pregnancy. While thousands of children are diagnosed with FASD annually, FASD is completely preventable if women…

  2. Exposure to alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption among Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Magee, Christopher A

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking is a major problem in Australia and may be influenced by exposure to alcohol advertising. The objective of the present study was to collect data on 12-17 year old Australian adolescents' exposure to different types of alcohol advertising and examine the association between exposure to advertising and alcohol consumption. A cross-sectional survey of 1113 adolescents aged 12-17 years recruited with a variety of methods to gain a cross-section of participants across metropolitan, regional and rural New South Wales (including independent schools, mall intercepts and online). Participants answered a series of questions assessing adolescents' exposure to alcohol advertising across eight media (including television, Internet and point-of-sale). Alcohol consumption was assessed using three questions (initiation, recent consumption and frequency of consumption in the previous 12 months). The majority indicated that they had been exposed to alcohol advertisements on television, in newspapers and magazines, on the Internet, on billboards/posters and promotional materials and in bottleshops, bars and pubs; exposure to some of these types of alcohol advertisements was associated with increased alcohol consumption, with differences by age and gender. The results are consistent with studies from other countries and suggest that exposure to alcohol advertisements among Australian adolescents is strongly associated with drinking patterns. Given current high levels of drinking among Australian youth, these findings suggest the need to address the high levels of young people's exposure to alcohol advertising.

  3. Non-occupational exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth in a general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie N; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Occupational exposure to organic solvents during pregnancy has been associated with reduced fetal growth. Though organic solvents in the form of paint fumes are also found in the home environment, no studies have investigated the effect of such exposure in a general population. We studied...... associations between residential exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth within the Danish National Birth Cohort which consecutively recruited pregnant women from 1996 to 2002 from all over Denmark. Around the 30th pregnancy week, 19,000 mothers were interviewed about use of paint...... in their residence during pregnancy. The mothers were also asked about smoking habits and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy weight, height, parity and occupation. Information on birth weight and gestational age was obtained from national registers. We found that 45% of the mothers had been exposed...

  4. An Auditory Go/No-Go Study of Event-Related Potentials in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmann, Tobias P.; Andrew, Colin M.; Thomsen, Carsten E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract—In this study event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on response inhibition identified during task performance. ERPs were recorded during a auditory Go/No Go task in two groups of children with mean age of 12:8years (11years to 14......:7years): one diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS (FAS/PFAS; n = 12) and a control group of children of same age whose mothers abstained from alcohol or drank minimally during pregnancy (n = 11). The children were instructed to push a button in response to the Go stimulus...

  5. Non-occupational exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie N; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2010-05-01

    Occupational exposure to organic solvents during pregnancy has been associated with reduced fetal growth. Though organic solvents in the form of paint fumes are also found in the home environment, no studies have investigated the effect of such exposure in a general population. We studied associations between residential exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth within the Danish National Birth Cohort which consecutively recruited pregnant women from 1996 to 2002 from all over Denmark. Around the 30th pregnancy week, 19,000 mothers were interviewed about use of paint in their residence during pregnancy. The mothers were also asked about smoking habits and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy weight, height, parity and occupation. Information on birth weight and gestational age was obtained from national registers. We found that 45% of the mothers had been exposed to paint fumes in their residence during pregnancy. We found a statistically significant inverse relationship between exposure to paint fumes and the risk of being small for gestational age. There were no statistically significant associations between exposure to paint fumes and birth weight and risk of preterm birth after adjustment for potential confounders. Our results suggest that there are no causal relationship between non-occupational exposure to paint fumes in the residence during pregnancy and fetal growth. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Overweight and obesity among children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglestad, Anita J; Boys, Christopher J; Chang, Pi-Nian; Miller, Bradley S; Eckerle, Judith K; Deling, Lindsay; Fink, Birgit A; Hoecker, Heather L; Hickey, Marie K; Jimenez-Vega, Jose M; Wozniak, Jeffrey R

    2014-09-01

    Because prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with growth deficiency, little attention has been paid to the potential for overweight and obesity in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This study examined the prevalence of overweight/obesity (body mass index [BMI]) in a large clinical sample of children with FASD. Children, aged 2 to 19 years, who were evaluated for FASD at University Clinics, included 445 with an FASD diagnosis and 171 with No-FASD diagnosis. Prevalence of overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 85 percentile) was compared to national and state prevalence. BMI was examined in relation to FASD diagnosis, gender, and age. Dietary intake data were examined for a young subsample (n = 42). Thirty-four percent with any FASD diagnosis were overweight or obese, which did not differ from the No-FASD group or U.S. prevalence. Underweight was prevalent in those with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) (17%). However, increased rates of overweight/obesity were seen in those with partial FAS (40%). Among adolescents, those with any FASD diagnosis had increased overweight/obesity (42%), particularly among females (50%). The rate in adolescent females with FASD (50%) was nearly 3 times higher than state prevalence for adolescent females (17 to 18%), p overweight/obese consumed more calories, protein, and total fat per day than those who were not overweight or obese. Rates of overweight/obesity are increased in children with partial FAS. In adolescents, rates are increased for any FASD diagnosis (particularly in females). Results are suggestive of possible metabolic/endocrine disruption in FASD-a hypothesis for which there is evidence from animal models. These data suggest that clinicians may consider prenatal alcohol exposure as a risk factor for metabolic/endocrine disruption, should evaluate diet as a risk in this population, and may need to target interventions to females prior to puberty to effect changes in overweight-related outcomes. Copyright © 2014 by

  7. A Drosophila model for fetal alcohol syndrome disorders: role for the insulin pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly D. McClure

    2011-05-01

    Prenatal exposure to ethanol in humans results in a wide range of developmental abnormalities, including growth deficiency, developmental delay, reduced brain size, permanent neurobehavioral abnormalities and fetal death. Here we describe the use of Drosophila melanogaster as a model for exploring the effects of ethanol exposure on development and behavior. We show that developmental ethanol exposure causes reduced viability, developmental delay and reduced adult body size. We find that flies reared on ethanol-containing food have smaller brains and imaginal discs, which is due to reduced cell division rather than increased apoptosis. Additionally, we show that, as in mammals, flies reared on ethanol have altered responses to ethanol vapor exposure as adults, including increased locomotor activation, resistance to the sedating effects of the drug and reduced tolerance development upon repeated ethanol exposure. We have found that the developmental and behavioral defects are largely due to the effects of ethanol on insulin signaling; specifically, a reduction in Drosophila insulin-like peptide (Dilp and insulin receptor expression. Transgenic expression of Dilp proteins in the larval brain suppressed both the developmental and behavioral abnormalities displayed by ethanol-reared adult flies. Our results thus establish Drosophila as a useful model system to uncover the complex etiology of fetal alcohol syndrome.

  8. [Small intestine atresia and abnormal insertion of the umbilicus in a child with fetal alcohol syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourtet, S; Michaud, L; Gottrand, F; Boute, O; Bonnevalle, M; Meyer, N; Turck, D

    1997-07-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is quite common in our region (incidence: 1/700 live births). It usually associates facial dysmorphism, intra-uterine growth retardation and mental delay. Jonathan, born to an alcoholic mother, presented a typical dysmorphy of fetal alcohol syndrome and a low inserted umbilicus. A small bowel atresia was discovered at the third day of life and operated on. Although never been previously described, this association suggests a common embryological origin between fetal alcohol syndrome, small bowel atresia, and umbilical abnormality.

  9. Mechanisms of influence: Alcohol industry submissions to the inquiry into fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Michelle Rose; Droste, Nicolas; Giorgi, Caterina; Ferguson, Amy; Martino, Florentine; Coomber, Kerri; Miller, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Industry groups with vested interests in policy regularly work to protect their profits via the endorsement of ineffective voluntary regulation and interventions, extensive lobbying activity and minimising the health impact of consumption behaviours. This study aims to examine all alcohol industry submissions to the Australian House of Representatives Standing Committee on Social Policy and Legal Affairs into Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), to assist in understanding how those with vested interests contribute to policy development. The analysis aims to document the strategies and arguments used by alcohol industry bodies in their submissions and to compare these with known strategies of vested-interest groups. All 92 submissions to the Inquiry were screened to include only those submitted by alcohol industry bodies (five submissions). Content domains were derived based on the major themes emerging from the industry submissions and on common vested-interest behaviours identified in previous literature. The following content categories were identified: Concerns about FASD; Current industry activities and FASD prevention; Value of mandatory warning labels; and Credibility of independent public health researchers and organisations. Alcohol industry submissions sought to undermine community concern, debate the evidence, promote ineffective measure which are no threat to the profit margins and attack independent health professionals and researchers. In doing so, their behaviour is entirely consistent with their responses to other issues, such as violence and chronic health, and copies the tactics employed by the tobacco industry. [Avery MR, Droste N, Giorgi C, Ferguson A, Martino F, Coomber K, Miller P. Mechanisms of influence: Alcohol industry submissions to the inquiry into fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:665-672]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. Maternal bisphenol a exposure impacts the fetal heart transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan C Chapalamadugu

    Full Text Available Conditions during fetal development influence health and disease in adulthood, especially during critical windows of organogenesis. Fetal exposure to the endocrine disrupting chemical, bisphenol A (BPA affects the development of multiple organ systems in rodents and monkeys. However, effects of BPA exposure on cardiac development have not been assessed. With evidence that maternal BPA is transplacentally delivered to the developing fetus, it becomes imperative to examine the physiological consequences of gestational exposure during primate development. Herein, we evaluate the effects of daily, oral BPA exposure of pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta on the fetal heart transcriptome. Pregnant monkeys were given daily oral doses (400 µg/kg body weight of BPA during early (50-100 ± 2 days post conception, dpc or late (100 ± 2 dpc--term, gestation. At the end of treatment, fetal heart tissues were collected and chamber specific transcriptome expression was assessed using genome-wide microarray. Quantitative real-time PCR was conducted on select genes and ventricular tissue glycogen content was quantified. Our results show that BPA exposure alters transcription of genes that are recognized for their role in cardiac pathophysiologies. Importantly, myosin heavy chain, cardiac isoform alpha (Myh6 was down-regulated in the left ventricle, and 'A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 12', long isoform (Adam12-l was up-regulated in both ventricles, and the right atrium of the heart in BPA exposed fetuses. BPA induced alteration of these genes supports the hypothesis that exposure to BPA during fetal development may impact cardiovascular fitness. Our results intensify concerns about the role of BPA in the genesis of human metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  11. College students' knowledge about fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brems, Christiane; Johnson, Mark E; Metzger, Jesse S; Dewane, Sarah L

    2014-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) are the leading known preventable birth defects in North America. Knowledge surveys about FASD have been conducted with various health and allied healthcare providers and have proven useful in identifying gaps in knowledge and differences among provider groups to support prevention efforts. To date, no research has been conducted exploring FASD knowledge among college students. This study explored FASD knowledge in a sample of college students, a group at particularly high risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancies. Findings are compared to professionals in several healthcare and affiliated professional groups who were previously surveyed with the same FASD-related items. Surveys from 1,035 college students at a northwestern university were analyzed. Included with the ACHA-National College Health Assessment II were questions regarding FASD. College students' knowledge was compared with that of professionals in key healthcare and affiliated positions to define their relative awareness of FASD risk. Overall, findings revealed adequate FASD knowledge among college students. Although minor differences emerged when comparing students and professionals' responses, most respondent groups answered with an 85% accuracy rate or higher. College students demonstrated adequate knowledgeable about FASD. Future research must explore whether such knowledge translates into lower risk behavior and consequent reduction in alcohol-exposed pregnancies.

  12. Dietary Intake, Nutrition, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A.; Hamrick, Kari J.; Corbin, Karen D.; Hasken, Julie; Marais, Anna-Susan; Brooke, Lesley E.; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Gossage, J. Phillip

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-hours recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50 percent of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population. PMID:24568797

  13. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in children residing in Russian orphanages: a phenotypic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurie C; Chan, Wilma; Litvinova, Aina; Rubin, Arkady; Comfort, Kathleen; Tirella, Linda; Cermak, Sharon; Morse, Barbara; Kovalev, Igor

    2006-03-01

    Alcohol use in Russia is among the highest in the world. Over 600,000 children reside in institutional care in Russia, most of them in baby homes and orphanages. The actual prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) among these children is unknown. Therefore, we performed a systematic survey of phenotypic features associated with prenatal alcohol exposure among institutionalized Russian children and related these findings to their growth, development, medical, and social histories. Phenotypic screening was conducted of all 234 baby home residents in the Murmansk region of Russia (mean age 21+12.6 months). Phenotypic expression scores were devised based on facial dysmorphology and other readily observable physical findings. Growth measurements from birth, time of placement in the baby home, and at present were analyzed. In addition, the charts of 64% of the children were randomly selected for retrospective review. Information collected included maternal, medical, developmental, and social histories. Thirteen percent of children had facial phenotype scores highly compatible with prenatal alcohol exposure and 45% had intermediate facial phenotype scores. These scores correlated with maternal gravidity and age. At least 40% of mothers in whom history was available ingested alcohol during pregnancy; some also used illicit drugs and tobacco. Z scores for growth measurements corresponded to phenotypic score, as did the degree of developmental delay. Children with no or mild delay had significantly lower phenotypic scores than those with moderate or severe delay (p = 0.04); more than 70% of children with high phenotypic scores were moderately or severely delayed. More than half of residents of the baby homes in Murmansk, Russia, have intermediate (45%) or high (13%) phenotypic expression scores suggesting prenatal exposure to alcohol. Despite good physical care, stable daily routine, availability of well-trained specialists, and access to medical care, these

  14. The Knowledge of Rehabilitation Professionals Concerning Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Stephanie M; Carpenter, Heidi A; Marsh, Anna M; McClung, Kimberly A; Doll, Joy D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore rehabilitation professionals' knowledge regarding signs and symptoms, prevention, and intervention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Participants were 111 rehabilitation practitioners (e.g., occupational therapy, physical therapy, and speech-language pathology practitioners) recruited through email using a quantitative online survey design with purposive, snowball sampling. Results showed the majority of participants' demonstrated accurate knowledge of the signs and symptoms of FASD. Since professionals who received formal education on FASD reported significantly higher feelings of preparedness to identify children with FASD and manage/coordinate intervention plans, this study suggests rehabilitation professionals may be better prepared to treat individuals with FASD if they participate in formal training.

  15. Exploring the complexity of intellectual disability in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddho eChokroborty-Hoque

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain development in mammals is long lasting. It begins early during embryonic growth and is finalized in early adulthood. This progression represents a delicate choreography of molecular, cellular and physiological processes initiated and directed by the fetal genotype in close interaction with environment. Not surprisingly, most aberrations in brain functioning including mental retardation are attributed to either gene(s, or environment or the interaction of the two. The ensuing complexity has made the assessment of this choreography, ever challenging. A model to assess this complexity has used a mouse model (C57BL/6J or B6 that is subjected to prenatal alcohol exposure. The resulting pups show learning and memory deficits similar to patients with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD, which is associated with life-long changes in gene expression. Interestingly, this change in gene expression underlies epigenetic processes including DNA methylation and miRNAs. This paradigm is applicable to ethanol exposure at different developmental times (binge at trimesters 1, 2 and 3 as well as continuous preference drinking (70% of 10% alcohol by B6 females during pregnancy. The exposure leads to life-long changes in neural epigenetic marks, gene expression, and a variety of defects in neurodevelopment and CNS function. We argue that this cascade may be reversed postnatally via drugs, chemicals and environment including maternal care. Such conclusions are supported by two sets of results. First, antipsychotic drugs that are used to treat mental disability including psychosis function via changes in DNA methylation, a major epigenetic mark. Second, post-natal environment may improve (with enriched environments or worsen (with negative and maternal separation stress the cognitive ability of pups that were prenatally exposed to ethanol as well as their matched controls. In this review, we will discuss operational epigenetic mechanisms involved in the

  16. Dealing of embryo/fetal exposures in a medical setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    The medical environment presents two uniquely different situations involving potential radiation exposure to the embryo or fetus. On the one hand we have the potential for radiation exposure to the embryo of fetus of the occupationally exposed employee where the recommendations are well defined. On the other hand we have the pregnant or potentially pregnant patient requiring diagnostic radiological examinations or therapeutic procedures where the recommendations are not as well defined. This paper provides an overview of both situations, a discussion of potential exposures and a review of methods for estimating fetal doses when the exposed individual is the patient

  17. Mapping White Matter Integrity and Neurobehavioral Correlates in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Johnson, Arianne; Kan, Eric; Lu, Lisa H.; Van Horn, John Darrell; Toga, Arthur W.; O’Connor, Mary J.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Brain structural abnormalities and neurocognitive dysfunction have been observed in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Little is known about how white matter integrity is related to these functional and morphological deficits. We used a combination of diffusion tensor and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate white matter integrity in individuals with FASDs and related these findings to neurocognitive deficits. Seventeen children and adolescents with FASDs were compared with 19 typically developing age-and gender-matched controls. Lower fractional anisotropy (FA) was observed in individuals with FASDs relative to controls in the right lateral temporal lobe and bilaterally in the lateral aspects of the splenium of the corpus callosum. White matter density was also lower in some, but not all regions in which FA was lower. FA abnormalities were confirmed to be in areas of white matter in post hoc region of interest analyses, further supporting that less myelin or disorganized fiber tracts are associated with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Significant correlations between performance on a test of visuomotor integration and FA in bilateral splenium, but not temporal regions were observed within the FASD group. Correlations between the visuomotor task and FA within the splenium were not significant with in the control group, and were not significant for measures of reading ability. This suggests that this region of white matter is particularly susceptible to damage from prenatal alcohol exposure and that disruption of splenial fibers in this group is associated with poorer visuomotor integration. PMID:18256251

  18. Sensory processing and ADHD in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele-Webster, Lynne A; Magill-Evans, Joyce E; Pei, Jacqueline R

    2012-02-01

    Sensory processing problems are prevalent in children who have fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. It is unclear to what degree these problems are distinct from attention deficits as measured during the diagnostic process in these children. To understand sensory processing in these children, which may assist with early identification and intervention. The relationship between attention and sensory processing was studied in a retrospective sample of 26 Canadian children diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. A very low correlation (r = .02) between Short Sensory Profile scores and the attention deficit hyperactivity index of the Conners' Parent Rating Scales was found for the five- to ten-year-old children. Sensory processing problems were found in 81% of the children, similar to other studies of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. These findings can guide modifications of the environments, tasks, and approaches to children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

  19. Fetal Exposure to Montelukast and Congenital Anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavero-Carbonell, Clara; Vinkel-Hansen, Anne; Rabanque-Hernández, M. José

    2017-01-01

    Background: The objective was to study pregnancy outcomes between groups of Danish women, with pregnancy ending between 1998 and 2009, according to their exposure to montelukast. Methods: Cross-sectional observational study in Danish women, selecting live births and stillbirths (Birth Registry......: 401 pregnancies in group 1, 426 pregnancies in group 2, 24878 in group 3 and 728,595 in group 4. Risk of preterm birth, maternal preeclampsia and gestational diabetes was increased for pregnancies exposed to montelukast. No significant differences were found for the risk of major congenital anomalies...... (CA). Adjusted odds ratio for CA was 1.4 (95% CI 0.9–2.3) for the group 1 and 1.0 (95% CI 0.6–1.8) for group 2. Conclusion: Pregnant women with prescriptions for montelukast had a higher risk of preterm birth and maternal complications. These risks are known to be associated with maternal asthma...

  20. Prenatal choline supplementation mitigates behavioral alterations associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer D; Idrus, Nirelia M; Monk, Bradley R; Dominguez, Hector D

    2010-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can alter physical and behavioral development, leading to a range of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Despite warning labels, pregnant women continue to drink alcohol, creating a need to identify effective interventions to reduce the severity of alcohol's teratogenic effects. Choline is an essential nutrient that influences brain and behavioral development. Recent studies indicate that choline supplementation can reduce the teratogenic effects of developmental alcohol exposure. The present study examined whether choline supplementation during prenatal ethanol treatment could mitigate the adverse effects of ethanol on behavioral development. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intubated with 6 g/kg/day ethanol in a binge-like manner from gestational days 5-20; pair-fed and ad libitum chow controls were included. During treatment, subjects from each group were intubated with either 250 mg/kg/day choline chloride or vehicle. Spontaneous alternation, parallel bar motor coordination, Morris water maze, and spatial working memory were assessed in male and female offspring. Subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol exhibited delayed development of spontaneous alternation behavior and deficits on the working memory version of the Morris water maze during adulthood, effects that were mitigated with prenatal choline supplementation. Neither alcohol nor choline influenced performance on the motor coordination task. These data indicate that choline supplementation during prenatal alcohol exposure may reduce the severity of fetal alcohol effects, particularly on alterations in tasks that require behavioral flexibility. These findings have important implications for children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Field trial of alcohol-server training for prevention of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, Jack; Starling, Randall; Woodall, W Gill; Stanghetta, Paula; May, Philip A

    2011-05-01

    An alcohol-server training program to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome was developed, implemented, and evaluated in a comparison study of public drinking establishments in New Mexico and Oregon. The management and serving staffs of 148 establishments licensed for on-premise alcohol sales in the two states studied were trained to discourage alcohol consumption by pregnant customers. Pre- and post-tests of server responses to pregnant-appearing "pseudo-patron" actors ordering alcohol in experimental (n = 148) and comparison (n = 183) establishments were a key method of evaluating the efficacy of this intervention. Within-group chi-square analyses compared rates of service refusal at baseline with 1-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up points for both the trained (experimental) and the comparison establishments. No differences were found between experimental and comparison establishments at baseline at either site, but significant differences were found for New Mexico at each posttraining measurement point. In Oregon, the refusal rate at baseline increased from 1.5% at baseline to 8.3% at 1 month, which only approached significance. In New Mexico, at baseline the refusal rate was 8.6%, and it rose to 39.2% at 6 months (p Mexico establishments.

  2. Societal costs of fetal alcohol syndrome in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Lisa; Magnusson, Lennart; Hovstadius, Bo

    2017-06-01

    To estimate the annual societal cost of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in Sweden, focusing on the secondary disabilities thought feasible to limit via early interventions. Prevalence-based cost-of-illness analysis of FAS in Sweden for 2014. Direct costs (societal support, special education, psychiatric disorders and alcohol/drug abuse) and indirect costs (reduced working capacity and informal caring), were included. The calculations were based on published Swedish studies, including a register-based follow-up study of adults with FAS, reports and databases, and experts. The annual total societal cost of FAS was estimated at €76,000 per child (0-17 years) and €110,000 per adult (18-74 years), corresponding to €1.6 billion per year in the Swedish population using a prevalence of FAS of 0.2 %. The annual additional cost of FAS (difference between the FAS group and a comparison group) was estimated at €1.4 billion using a prevalence of 0.2 %. The major cost driver was the cost of societal support. The cost burden of FAS on the society is extensive, but likely to be underestimated. A reduction in the societal costs of FAS, both preventive and targeted interventions to children with FAS, should be prioritized. That is, the cost of early interventions such as placement in family homes or other forms of housing, and special education, represent unavoidable costs. However, these types of interventions are highly relevant to improve the individual's quality of life and future prospects, and also, within a long-term perspective, to limit the societal costs and personal suffering.

  3. Glycosylation defects underlying fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: a novel pathogenetic model. "When the wine goes in, strange things come out" - S.T. Coleridge, The Piccolomini.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binkhorst, M.; Wortmann, S.B.; Funke, S.; Kozicz, L.T.; Wevers, R.A.; Morava, E.

    2012-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is an umbrella term used to describe the craniofacial dysmorphic features, malformations, and disturbances in growth, neurodevelopment and behavior occurring in individuals prenatally exposed to alcohol. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) represents the severe end of

  4. Pregnancy outcomes after fetal exposure to antithyroid medications or levothyroxine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schurmann, Lene; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Garne, Ester

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether fetal exposure to antithyroid drugs (ATD) and levothyroxine affects gestational age (GA), birth weight, birth length, head circumference and prevalence of congenital anomalies. Methods: Cohort of all pregnancies from GA 12 weeks recorded in Danish registries from 1995......–2010. Exposure was having a prescription for ATD or levothyroxine from 91 days before to 91 days after pregnancy start (n = 8318). The reference group was pregnant women without exposure of ATD or levothyroxine (n = 969 303). A subpopulation was linked to the Danish EUROCAT congenital anomaly register. Results......: Overall 0.66% of the pregnant women had a prescription for levothyroxine and 0.19% had a prescription for ATD during the exposure period. There was no difference in proportion of live births compared to non-exposed pregnancies, but infants exposed to ATD were more often born very preterm (1.99% versus 0...

  5. Theory of Mind in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindinger, Nadine M; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Dodge, Neil C; Molteno, Christopher D; Thomas, Kevin G F; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2016-02-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) refers to the ability to understand and make inferences about other people's intentions, feelings, and beliefs. Although children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are known to have deficits in social-cognitive function, little is known about ToM in FASD. ToM ability was assessed using a developmentally sensitive ToM battery, including the reading the mind in the eyes (RME) test, a measure of mental inferential ability that has been found to be impaired in other clinical populations. IQ and executive function (EF) were assessed as potential mediating variables. The battery was administered to 63 children (aged 9 to 11 years) from Cape Town, South Africa, whose mothers had been prospectively recruited during pregnancy. Children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS; n = 8) and partial FAS (PFAS; n = 19), as well as nonsyndromal heavily exposed children (n = 17), were compared to children born to abstaining or light drinkers (n = 19) from the same community. No FASD group differences were found on the less challenging ToM tasks. By contrast, children with FAS and PFAS performed more poorly than controls on a more challenging ToM task, the RME test. A continuous measure of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) was more sensitive than FASD diagnosis in that it was related to 4 higher-order ToM measures, particularly the ability to attribute mental states assessed on RME. IQ only partially mediated the effect of exposure on RME performance, and these effects were not mediated by EF. Hence, the data suggest that these ToM measures tap into a specific alcohol-related social-cognitive deficit that does not merely reflect poorer EF. FASD diagnosis and PAE were each also related to RME after control for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. These findings suggest that deficits in higher-order ToM function may play a significant role in the social-cognitive behavioral impairment in FASD. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Teaching Students with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Building Strengths, Creating Hope. Programming for Students with Special Needs. Book 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarren, Sandra G. Bernstein

    2004-01-01

    "Teaching Students with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Building Strengths, Creating Hope" is Book 10 in the Programming for Students with Special Needs series; a revision and expansion of the 1997 Alberta Learning teacher resource, "Teaching Students with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Possible Prenatal Alcohol-Related Effects."…

  7. The International society for developmental psychobiology 39th annual meeting symposium: Alcohol and development: beyond fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Juan Carlos; Spear, Norman E; Spear, Linda P; Mennella, Julie A; Lewis, Michael J

    2007-04-01

    As has been repeatedly demonstrated, alcohol can exert deleterious morphological and physiological effects during early stages in development. The present review examines nonteratological links existing between alcohol and ontogeny. Human and animal studies are taken into consideration for the analysis of fetal, neonatal, infantile, adolescent, and adult responsiveness to the drug. Sensitivity to alcohol's chemosensory and postabsorptive properties, as well as learning and memory processes mediated by such properties, are examined from this developmental perspective. The studies under discussion indicate that, within each stage in development, we can trace alcohol-related experiences capable of determining or modulating alcohol seeking and intake patterns. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Competition between ethanol clearance and retinoic acid biosynthesis in the induction of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtai, Yehuda; Fainsod, Abraham

    2018-04-01

    Several models have been proposed to explain the neurodevelopmental syndrome induced by exposure of human embryos to alcohol, which is known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). One of the proposed models suggests a competition for the enzymes required for the biosynthesis of retinoic acid. The outcome of such competition is development under conditions of reduced retinoic acid signaling. Retinoic acid is one of the biologically active metabolites of vitamin A (retinol), and regulates numerous embryonic and differentiation processes. The developmental malformations characteristic of FASD resemble those observed in vitamin A deficiency syndrome as well as from inhibition of retinoic acid biosynthesis or signaling in experimental models. There is extensive biochemical and enzymatic overlap between ethanol clearance and retinoic acid biosynthesis. Several lines of evidence suggest that in the embryo, the competition takes place between acetaldehyde and retinaldehyde for the aldehyde dehydrogenase activity available. In adults, this competition also extends to the alcohol dehydrogenase activity. Ethanol-induced developmental defects can be ameliorated by increasing the levels of retinol, retinaldehyde, or retinaldehyde dehydrogenase. Acetaldehyde inhibits the production of retinoic acid by retinaldehyde dehydrogenase, further supporting the competition model. All of the evidence supports the reduction of retinoic acid signaling as the etiological trigger in the induction of FASD.

  9. Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Maternal Characteristics in a Sample of Schoolchildren from a Rural Province of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Barišić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS is a congenital syndrome caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and is entirely preventable by abstinence from alcohol drinking during this time. Little is known about the prevalence of FAS and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Western countries. We present the results of FAS/partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS prevalence study and maternal characteristics in a sample of schoolchildren from a rural province of Croatia. This study involved seven elementary schools with 1,110 enrolled children attending 1st to 4th grade and their mothers. We used an active case ascertainment method with passive parental consent and Clarified IOM criteria. The investigation protocol involved maternal data collection and clinical examination of children. Out of 1,110 mothers, 917 (82.6% answered the questionnaire. Alcohol exposure during pregnancy was admitted by 11.5%, regular drinking by 4.0% and binge drinking by 1.4% of questioned mothers. Clinical examination involved 824 (74.2% schoolchildren and disclosed 14 (1.7% with clinical signs of FAS and 41 (5.0% of PFAS. The observed FAS prevalence, based on 74.2% participation rate, was 16.9, PFAS 49.7 and combined prevalence was 66.7/1,000 examined schoolchildren. This is the first FAS prevalence study based on active ascertainment among schoolchildren and pregnancy alcohol drinking analysis performed in a rural community of Croatia and Europe. High prevalence of FAS/PFAS and pregnancy alcohol consumption observed in this study revealed that FAS is serious health problem in rural regions as well as a need to develop future studies and preventive measures for pregnancy alcohol drinking and FASD.

  10. Pregnancy outcomes after fetal exposure to antithyroid medications or levothyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurmann, Lene; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Garne, Ester

    2016-10-01

    To investigate whether fetal exposure to antithyroid drugs (ATD) and levothyroxine affects gestational age (GA), birth weight, birth length, head circumference and prevalence of congenital anomalies. Cohort of all pregnancies from GA 12 weeks recorded in Danish registries from 1995-2010. Exposure was having a prescription for ATD or levothyroxine from 91 days before to 91 days after pregnancy start (n=8318). The reference group was pregnant women without exposure of ATD or levothyroxine (n=969303). A subpopulation was linked to the Danish EUROCAT congenital anomaly register. Overall 0.66% of the pregnant women had a prescription for levothyroxine and 0.19% had a prescription for ATD during the exposure period. There was no difference in proportion of live births compared to non-exposed pregnancies, but infants exposed to ATD were more often born very preterm (1.99% versus 0.94% Odds Ratio 2.04, 95% CI 1.46 - 2.86) and had higher infant mortality (Odds ratio 2.37, 95% CI 1.42 - 3.94). Infants exposed to ATD were more likely to have low birth weight and length for GA (Odds ratios 1.29 (1.12 - 1.50) and 1.40 (1.17 - 1.66). There was no difference in head circumference for the 3 exposure groups. Prevalence of congenital anomalies was the same for exposed and non-exposed pregnancies. Fetal exposure to ATD resulted in lower GA, birth weight, length and higher infant mortality. Treatment for hypothyroidism had no significant impact on these variables. There was no difference in prevalence of congenital anomalies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurodevelopmental profile of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Shannon; Rovet, Joanne; Rehm, Jürgen; Popova, Svetlana

    2017-06-23

    In an effort to improve the screening and diagnosis of individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), research has focused on the identification of a unique neurodevelopmental profile characteristic of this population. The objective of this review was to identify any existing neurodevelopmental profiles of FASD and review their classification function in order to identify gaps and limitations of the current literature. A systematic search for studies published up to the end of December 2016 reporting an identified neurodevelopmental profile of FASD was conducted using multiple electronic bibliographic databases. The search was not limited geographically or by language of publication. Original research published in a peer-reviewed journal that involved the evaluation of the classification function of an identified neurodevelopmental profile of FASD was included. Two approaches have been taken to determine the pathognomonic neurodevelopmental features of FASD, namely the utilization of i) behavioral observations/ratings by parents/caregivers and ii) subtest scores from standardized test batteries assessing a variety of neurodevelopmental domains. Both approaches show some promise, with the former approach (which is dominated by research on the Neurobehavioral Screening Tool) having good sensitivity (63% to 98%), but varying specificity (42% to 100%), and the latter approach having good specificity (72% to 96%), but varying sensitivity (60% to 88%). The current review revealed that research in this area remains limited and a definitive neurodevelopmental profile of FASD has not been established. However, the identification of a neurodevelopmental profile will aid in the accurate identification of individuals with FASD, by adding to the armamentarium of clinicians. The full review protocol is available in PROSPERO ( http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ ); registration number CRD42016039326; registered 20 May 2016.

  12. Fetal Cocaine Exposure: Neurologic Effects and Sensory-Motor Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Robert E.; Minnes, Sonnia; Singer, Lynn T.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Research on animal models demonstrates that fetal cocaine exposure results in neurologic deficits in memory and learning. Although drug effects on human infants are difficult to separate from other environmental influences of a drug-using lifestyle, studies suggest that infants exposed to cocaine in utero have reduced growth, delays in sensory-motor development, attentional deficits, and depressed responsivity to social stimulation. Standard interventions to promote behavioral state regulation in affected infants may be helpful when parents are capable of participating. PMID:25688173

  13. Neurotrophic peptides, ADNF-9 and NAP, prevent alcohol-induced apoptosis at midgestation in fetal brains of C57BL/6 mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Youssef; Weedman, Jason M; Nkrumah-Abrokwah, Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to induce fetal brain growth deficits at different embryonic stages. We focused this study on investigating the neuroprotective effects against alcohol-induced apoptosis at midgestation using activity-dependent neurotrophic factor (ADNF)-9, a peptide (SALLRSIPA) derived from activity-dependent neurotrophic factor, and NAP, a peptide (NAPVSIPQ) derived from activity-dependent neuroprotective protein. We used an established fetal alcohol exposure mouse model. On embryonic day 7 (E7), weight-matched pregnant females were assigned to the following groups: (1) ethanol liquid diet (ALC) group with 25 % (4.49 %, v/v) ethanol-derived calories, (2) pair-fed (PF) control group, (3) ALC combined with i.p. injections (1.5 mg/kg) of ADNF-9 (ALC/ADNF-9) group, (4) ALC combined with i.p. injections (1.5 mg/kg) of NAP (ALC/NAP) group, (5) PF liquid diet combined with i.p. injections of ADNF-9 (PF/ADNF-9) group, and (6) PF liquid diet combined with i.p. injections of NAP (PF/NAP) group. On day 15 (E15), fetal brains were collected, weighed, and assayed for TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. ADNF-9 or NAP was administered daily from E7 to E15 alongside PF or ALC liquid diet exposure. Our results show that NAP and ADNF-9 significantly prevented alcohol-induced weight reduction of fetal brains. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL staining; NAP or ADNF-9 administration alongside alcohol exposure significantly prevented alcohol-induced increase in TUNEL-positive cells in primordium of the cingulate cortex and ganglionic eminence. These findings may pave the path toward potential therapeutics against alcohol intoxication during pregnancy stages.

  14. Sensory processing and adaptive behavior deficits of children across the fetal alcohol spectrum disorder continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Joshua L; Agnihotri, Sabrina; Keightley, Michelle

    2010-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can have detrimental effects on a child's development of adaptive behaviors necessary for success in the areas of academic achievement, socialization, and self-care. Sensory processing abilities have been found to affect a child's ability to successfully perform adaptive behaviors. The current study explored whether significant differences in sensory processing abilities, adaptive behavior, and neurocognitive functioning are observed between children diagnosed with partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (pFAS), Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND), or children who were prenatally exposed to alcohol (PEA), but did not meet criteria for an FASD diagnosis. The influence of IQ on adaptive behavior as well as further exploration of the relationship between sensory processing and adaptive behavior deficits among these children was also examined. A secondary analysis was conducted on some of the Short Sensory Profile (SSP) scores, Adaptive Behavior Assessment System--Second Edition (ABAS-II) scores, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition/Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence--Third Edition (WISC- IV/WPPSI-III) scores of 46 children between 3 and 14 years of age with pFAS, ARND, or who were PEA. Greater sensory processing deficits were found in children with a diagnosis of pFAS and ARND compared to those in the PEA group. Children with an ARND diagnosis scored significantly worse on measures of adaptive behavior than the PEA group. Children with pFAS scored significantly lower than children with ARND or PEA on perceptual/performance IQ. No correlation was found between IQ scores and adaptive behaviors across the FASD diagnostic categories. A significant positive correlation was found between SSP and ABAS-II scores. Regardless of the diagnosis received under the FASD umbrella, functional difficulties that could not be observed using traditional measures of intelligence were found, supporting guidelines that a broad

  15. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  16. Complexities in Understanding Attentional Functioning among Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly eLane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parental reports of attention problems and clinical symptomatology of ADHD among children with fetal alcohol syndrome disorder (FASD were assessed in relation to performance on standardized subtests of attantional control/shifting and selective attention from the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch; Manly et al., 1998. The participants included 14 children with FASD with a mean CA of 11.7 years and a mean MA of 9.7 years, and 14 typically developing (TD children with no reported history of prenatal exposure to alcohol or attention problems with a mean CA of 8.4 years and a mean MA of 9.6 years. The children with FASD were rated by their caregivers as having clinically significant attention difficulties for their developmental age. The reported symptomatology for the majority of the children with FASD were consistent with a diagnosis of ADHD, combined type, and only one child had a score within the average range. These reports are consistent with the finding here that the children with FASD demonstrated difficulties on the Creature Counting subtest of attentional control/shifting, but inconsistent with the finding that they outperformed the TD children on the Map Mission subtest of selective attention. These findings are considered within the context of the complexity in understanding attentional functioning among children with FASD and discrepancies across sources of information and components of attention.

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use Binge Drinking Drinking & Driving Underage Drinking Alcohol & Pregnancy Learn more about the FASD Competency-Based Curriculum Development Guide for Medical and Allied Health Education and Practice CDC Vital Signs – Alcohol and Pregnancy ...

  18. 77 FR 42768 - Leadership Meeting on Maternal, Fetal, and Infant Opioid Exposure and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY Leadership Meeting on Maternal, Fetal, and Infant Opioid Exposure and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome AGENCY: Office of National Drug Control Policy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: An ONDCP Leadership Meeting on Maternal, Fetal and Infant Opioid Exposure and Neonatal Abstinence...

  19. Fetal exposure markers of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampa, Erik; Eguchi, Akifumi; Todaka, Emiko; Mori, Chisato

    2018-02-15

    Fetal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated-p-dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been associated with a number of adverse health outcomes. Although the placenta acts as a barrier between the mother and the fetus, these contaminants transfer through the placenta exposing the fetus. Several studies have investigated placental transfer, but few have assessed the co-variation among these contaminants. Maternal blood, cord blood, and cord tissue were collected from 41 Japanese mother-infant pairs and analyzed for dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs. Hierarchical cluster analysis followed by principal component analysis were used to assess the co-variation. Two stable clusters of dioxin-like PCBs were found in maternal and cord blood. One cluster of low/medium chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs was present in all three matrices with 2,3',4,4',5-PeCB(#118) and 3,3',4,4',5-PeCB(#126) explaining the majority of the clusters' variances. Medium/high chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs clustered in maternal blood and cord blood but not in cord tissue. 2,3,4,4',5-PeCB(#114) and 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-HpCB(#189) explained the majority of the clusters' variances. There was a substantial correlation between the sum of dioxin-like PCBs and total PCDD/F in all three matrices. The sum of the four suggested PCBs plus 3,3',4,4'-TeCB(#77) correlated well with total PCDD/F in all three matrices. Apart from the dioxin-like PCBs, little co-variation existed among the studied contaminants. The five PCBs can be used as fetal exposure markers for dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs in maternal and cord blood respectively. In cord tissue, more higher chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs need to be measured as well.

  20. Out of sight, out of mind? A national survey of paediatricians in Ireland regarding Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gill, I

    2017-03-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) are one of the major causes of preventable developmental delay. There is no register of children with FASDs in Ireland. Up to 81% of Irish women report drinking alcohol during the periconceptual period or pregnancy. We aimed to evaluate self-reported knowledge and practice of doctors working in paediatrics in Ireland with regards to FASDs and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. We circulated a survey to all paediatric doctors in Ireland, either enrolled in specialist training or registered as trainers. Fifty-six respondents (31.3%) were unaware of the existence of FASDs. Sixty-two (34.6%) believed most patients with FASDs have dysmorphic features. Seventy-three respondents (40.8%) routinely ask about maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in the context of developmental delay. Thirty-one respondents (17.3%) stated that mild alcohol intake in the third trimester of pregnancy is safe. Our survey suggests prenatal alcohol exposure may not be routinely considered in the evaluation of children with developmental delay by paediatric doctors in Ireland.

  1. Proceedings of the 2009 annual meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng C; Kane, Cynthia J M; Smith, Susan M

    2012-02-01

    The annual meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group (FASDSG) was held on June 20, 2009 in San Diego, CA, as a satellite of the Research Society on Alcoholism Meeting. The FASDSG membership includes clinical, basic, and social scientists who meet to discuss recent advances and issues in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders research. The main theme of the meeting was "Epigenetics and Development." Two keynote speakers, Dr. Randy Jirtle and Dr. Michael Skinner, addressed the role of epigenetics and environmental inputs, including alcohol, during critical stages of development and their potential critical and long-lasting effects. Members of the FASDSG provided new findings through brief "FASt" data reports, and national agency representatives provided updates on activities and funding priorities. Scientific presentations were made by recipients of the Student Research Merit Award and Rosett Award. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) in C57BL/6 Mice Detected through Proteomics Screening of the Amniotic Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Susmita; Turner, Delano; Singh, Reetu; Ruest, L. Bruno; Pierce, William M.; Knudsen, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a severe consequence of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, is associated with craniofacial defects, mental retardation, and stunted growth. Previous studies in C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mice provide evidence that alcohol-induced pathogenesis follows early changes in gene expression within specific molecular pathways in the embryonic headfold. Whereas the former (B6J) pregnancies carry a high-risk for dysmorphogenesis following maternal exposure to 2.9 g/kg alcohol (two injections spaced 4.0 h apart on gestation day 8), the latter (B6N) pregnancies carry a low-risk for malformations. The present study used this murine model to screen amniotic fluid for biomarkers that could potentially discriminate between FAS-positive and FAS-negative pregnancies. METHODS B6J and B6N litters were treated with alcohol (exposed) or saline (control) on day 8 of gestation. Amniotic fluid aspirated on day 17 (n = 6 replicate litters per group) was subjected to trypsin digestion for analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption–time of flight mass spectrometry with the aid of denoising algorithms, statistical testing, and classification methods. RESULTS We identified several peaks in the proteomics screen that were reduced consistently and specifically in exposed B6J litters. Preliminary characterization by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and multidimensional protein identification mapped the reduced peaks to alpha fetoprotein (AFP). The predictive strength of AFP deficiency as a biomarker for FAS-positive litters was confirmed by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. CONCLUSIONS These findings in genetically susceptible mice support clinical observations in maternal serum that implicate a decrease in AFP levels following prenatal alcohol damage. PMID:18240165

  3. Assessment of the cerebellar neurotoxic effects of nicotine in prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dwipayan; Majrashi, Mohammed; Ramesh, Sindhu; Govindarajulu, Manoj; Bloemer, Jenna; Fujihashi, Ayaka; Crump, Bailee-Ryan; Hightower, Harrison; Bhattacharya, Subhrajit; Moore, Timothy; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan

    2018-02-01

    The adverse effects of prenatal nicotine and alcohol exposure on human reproductive outcomes are a major scientific and public health concern. In the United States, substantial percentage of women (20-25%) of childbearing age currently smoke cigarettes and consume alcohol, and only a small percentage of these individuals quit after learning of their pregnancy. However, there are very few scientific reports on the effect of nicotine in prenatal alcohol exposure on the cerebellum of the offspring. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the cerebellar neurotoxic effects of nicotine in a rodent model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). In this study, we evaluated the behavioral changes, biochemical markers of oxidative stress and apoptosis, mitochondrial functions and the molecular mechanisms associated with nicotine in prenatal alcohol exposure on the cerebellum. Prenatal nicotine and alcohol exposure induced oxidative stress, did not affect the mitochondrial functions, increased the monoamine oxidase activity, increased caspase expression and decreased ILK, PSD-95 and GLUR1 expression without affecting the GSK-3β. Thus, our current study of prenatal alcohol and nicotine exposure on cerebellar neurotoxicity may lead to new scientific perceptions and novel and suitable therapeutic actions in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Resilience in the Face of Adversity: Stories from Adults with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Lyndsay; McIntyre, Laureen J.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the school and life experiences of four adults diagnosed with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) from an urban area in western Canada. Semi-structured interviews provided insight into the lives of these adults, including their experiences with this disorder as it related to their social interactions and peer relationships…

  5. Supporting Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders:a Summary of Effective Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggie, Jennifer; Xu, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a lifelong condition that significantly affects the individual's learning, development, behavior, family, and quality of life. Diagnosing children with this condition and providing effective supports is challenging for professionals because little intervention research has been performed with the…

  6. Fetal alcohol syndrome among grade-one children in the Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To describe the prevalence, characteristics and risk factors for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS among schoolgoing children in Grade 1 in Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Design. A cross-sectional study using a two-tiered method for ascertainment of FAS/partial FAS cases, comprising: ...

  7. Enzyme induction in neonates after fetal exposure to antiepileptic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rating, D.; Jaeger-Roman, E.; Nau, H.; Kuhnz, W.; Helge, H.

    1983-01-01

    The 13 C-AP breath test is shown to be a convenient, noninvasive method to monitor velocity and capacity of P450-dependent AP N-demethylation in infancy and childhood. According to 13 C-AP breath tests, neonates have a very low capacity to eliminate 13 CO 2 , which is only 15 to 21% of the activity in adults. During the first year of life AP N-demethylation increases to reach its maximum at about 2 years; afterwards a slight decrease occurs. In 25 neonates exposed prenatally to different antiepileptic drugs 13 C-AP breath test was efficiently used to prove that cytochrome AP N-demethylation was considerably stimulated. After primidone/phenobarbitone, especially in combination with phenytoin, 13 C elimination reaches and even surpasses the range for older children. Valproate exposure during fetal life is not consistently followed by a significant increase in AP N-demethylation. The enzyme induction demonstrated by 13 C-AP breath test was often accompanied by accelerated metabolic clearance and shortened half-life times of transplacentally acquired antiepileptic drugs. There was good agreement between 13 C-AP breath tests and pharmacokinetic data for primidone/phenobarbitone but not for phenytoin. In contrast, in the case of phenytoin exposure during pregnancy the pharmacokinetic parameters and the 13 C breath test data will transport very different informations about enzyme induction in these neonates

  8. Enzyme induction in neonates after fetal exposure to antiepileptic drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rating, D.; Jaeger-Roman, E.; Nau, H.; Kuhnz, W.; Helge, H.

    1983-01-01

    The /sup 13/C-AP breath test is shown to be a convenient, noninvasive method to monitor velocity and capacity of P450-dependent AP N-demethylation in infancy and childhood. According to /sup 13/C-AP breath tests, neonates have a very low capacity to eliminate /sup 13/CO/sub 2/, which is only 15 to 21% of the activity in adults. During the first year of life AP N-demethylation increases to reach its maximum at about 2 years; afterwards a slight decrease occurs. In 25 neonates exposed prenatally to different antiepileptic drugs /sup 13/C-AP breath test was efficiently used to prove that cytochrome AP N-demethylation was considerably stimulated. After primidone/phenobarbitone, especially in combination with phenytoin, /sup 13/C elimination reaches and even surpasses the range for older children. Valproate exposure during fetal life is not consistently followed by a significant increase in AP N-demethylation. The enzyme induction demonstrated by /sup 13/C-AP breath test was often accompanied by accelerated metabolic clearance and shortened half-life times of transplacentally acquired antiepileptic drugs. There was good agreement between /sup 13/C-AP breath tests and pharmacokinetic data for primidone/phenobarbitone but not for phenytoin. In contrast, in the case of phenytoin exposure during pregnancy the pharmacokinetic parameters and the /sup 13/C breath test data will transport very different informations about enzyme induction in these neonates.

  9. Maternal nutritional status as a contributing factor for the risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Hamrick, Kari J; Corbin, Karen D; Hasken, Julie M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H Eugene; Gossage, J Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Compare nutritional status of 57 South African mothers of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) with 148 mothers of controls. Dietary data were analyzed for macronutrients, micronutrients, and fats via estimated average requirements (EAR) and adequate intakes (AI) for pregnant women. Virtually all mothers were likely deficient on most micronutrients by either EAR (Maternal BMI is more significant for positive child outcomes than any individual nutrient. Most mothers have inadequate dietary intake. Minor advantages in nutrient intake are overpowered by teratogenic effects of alcohol. Further study is needed of the interaction of alcohol, maternal nutrition, and metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of developmental alcohol and valproic acid exposure on play behavior of ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahe, Thomas E; Filgueiras, Claudio C; Medina, Alexandre E

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to alcohol and valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and fetal valproate syndrome, respectively. Altered social behavior is a hallmark of both these conditions and there is ample evidence showing that developmental exposure to alcohol and VPA affect social behavior in rodents. However, results from rodent models are somewhat difficult to translate to humans owing to the substantial differences in brain development, morphology, and connectivity. Since the cortex folding pattern is closely related to its specialization and that social behavior is strongly influenced by cortical structures, here we studied the effects of developmental alcohol and VPA exposure on the play behavior of the ferret, a gyrencephalic animal known for its playful nature. Animals were injected with alcohol (3.5g/kg, i.p.), VPA (200mg/kg, i.p.) or saline (i.p) every other day during the brain growth spurt period, between postnatal days 10 and 30. The play behavior of pairs of the same experimental group was evaluated 3 weeks later. Both treatments induced significant behavioral differences compared to controls. Alcohol and VPA exposed ferrets played less than saline treated ones, but while animals from the alcohol group displayed a delay in start playing with each other, VPA treated ones spent most of the time close to one another without playing. These findings not only extend previous results on the effects of developmental exposure to alcohol and VPA on social behavior, but make the ferret a great model to study the underlying mechanisms of social interaction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Ceccanti; Sara De Nicolò; Rosanna Mancinelli; George Chaldakov; Valentina Carito; Marco Ceccanti; Giovanni Laviola; Paola Tirassa; Marco Fiore

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA an...

  12. Association of prenatal alcohol exposure with behavioral and learning problems in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, H C; Streissguth, A P; Sampson, P D; Barr, H M; Bookstein, F L; Thiede, K

    1997-09-01

    To examine the association of moderate levels of prenatal alcohol exposure with learning and behavior in early adolescence. A population-based cohort of 464 children were followed longitudinally from birth to age 14 years. Alcohol exposure was assessed via in-depth maternal self-report in the fifth month of pregnancy. At age 14, learning and behavior were assessed with multiple measures, tapping parent, teenager, and psychologist viewpoints, drawn from adolescent laboratory examination and parent phone interview. The underlying pattern of association between prenatal alcohol and adolescent outcome was detected using partial least-squares statistical techniques; confounding factors were dealt with by regression methods. Analyses revealed a statistically significant, subtle relationship between greater prenatal alcohol use and increased behavior/learning difficulties during adolescence, even after accounting for other developmental influences. "Binge" maternal drinking and exposure early in pregnancy were associated with a profile of adolescent antisocial behavior, school problems, and self-perceived learning difficulties. Fetal alcohol exposure (even at "social drinking" levels) is associated with developmental difficulties in adolescence that are consistent with problems seen earlier in life. Clinicians should understand the potential role prenatal alcohol exposure plays in behavioral and cognitive problems.

  13. Sleep and melatonin secretion abnormalities in children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goril, Shery; Zalai, Dora; Scott, Louise; Shapiro, Colin M

    2016-07-01

    Caregivers describe significant sleep disturbances in the vast majority of children and adolescents, which is diagnosed as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), but objective data on sleep disorders in this population are almost completely lacking. Animal models suggest that intrauterine alcohol exposure may disrupt sleep wake patterns, cause sleep fragmentation, and specifically affect the suprachiasmatic nucleus, thus disrupting melatonin secretion. The objective of this pioneering study was to evaluate sleep and melatonin abnormalities in children with FASD using objective, gold-standard measures. Children and adolescents (N = 36, 6-18 years) with FASD participated in clinical assessments by sleep specialists, overnight polysomnography (PSG), and a dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) test in a pediatric sleep laboratory. PSG was analyzed according to standardized scoring guidelines and sleep architecture was compared with normative data. DLMOs were determined and melatonin secretion curves were evaluated qualitatively to classify melatonin profiles. Sleep disorders were evaluated according to international diagnostic criteria. There was a high prevalence (58%) of sleep disorders. The most common sleep problems were parasomnias (27.9%) and insomnia (16.8%). The sleep studies showed lower than normal sleep efficiency and high rates of sleep fragmentation. Most participants (79%) had an abnormal melatonin profile. This study led to the recognition that both sleep and melatonin secretion abnormalities are present in children with FASD. Therefore, to be effective in managing the sleep problems in children with FASD, one needs to consider both the sleep per se and a possible malfunction of the circadian regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Altered Parietal Activation during Non-symbolic Number Comparison in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri J. Woods

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Number processing is a cognitive domain particularly sensitive to prenatal alcohol exposure, which relies on intact parietal functioning. Alcohol-related alterations in brain activation have been found in the parietal lobe during symbolic number processing. However, the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the neural correlates of non-symbolic number comparison and the numerical distance effect have not been investigated. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we examined differences in brain activation associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in five parietal regions involved in number processing during a non-symbolic number comparison task with varying degrees of difficulty. fMRI results are presented for 27 Cape Colored children (6 fetal alcohol syndome (FAS/partial FAS, 5 heavily exposed (HE non-sydromal, 16 controls; mean age ± SD = 11.7 ± 1.1 years. Fetal alcohol exposure was assessed by interviewing mothers using a timeline follow-back approach. Separate subject analyses were performed in each of five regions of interest, bilateral horizontal intraparietal sulci (IPS, bilateral posterior superior parietal lobules (PSPL, and left angular gyrus (left AG, using the general linear model with predictors for number comparison and difficulty level. Mean percent signal change for each predictor was extracted for each subject for each region to examine group differences and associations with continuous measures of alcohol exposure. Although groups did not differ in performance, controls activated the right PSPL more during non-symbolic number comparison than exposed children, but this was not significant after controlling for maternal smoking, and the right IPS more than children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS or partial FAS. More heavily exposed children recruited the left AG to a greater extent as task difficulty increased, possibly to compensate, in part, for impairments in function in the PSPL and IPS. Notably, in non

  15. Increased fetal cell trafficking in murine lung following complete pregnancy loss from exposure to lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kirby L; Tao, Kai; Stroh, Helene; Kallenbach, Lisa; Peter, Inga; Richey, Lauren; Rust, Daniel; Bianchi, Diana W

    2010-03-15

    To determine whether chemically induced miscarriage affects fetomaternal trafficking in a mouse model, we measured the amount of fetal DNA present in various maternal organs by polymerase chain reaction amplification following exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). As the frequency of fetal cells and the number of animals with detectable microchimerism following LPS injection were significantly increased, particularly in lung tissue compared to controls, with no signs of an inflammatory response, we conclude that LPS-induced miscarriage results in increased murine fetomaternal cell trafficking, supporting a relationship between fetal loss and the establishment of fetal cell microchimerism. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. The influence of fetal ethanol exposure on subsequent development of the cerebral cortex as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigland, Lindsey A; Ford, Matthew M; Lerch, Jason P; Kroenke, Christopher D

    2013-06-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome and related disorders (commonly referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, or FASD) cause significant hardships to the individuals affected. Previously, histological studies in animals have characterized developmental cerebral cortical abnormalities that result from prenatal ethanol (EtOH) exposure. Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have identified abnormalities associated with fetal EtOH exposure in the cerebral cortices of human children and adolescents. However, there is still a need to bridge the gap between human MRI studies and animal histological studies. The goal of the research presented here was to perform postmortem MRI experiments on rodents, during time periods relative to late human gestation through adulthood, to characterize anomalies associated with FASD throughout development. Additionally, by determining how histologically identified abnormalities are manifest in MRI measurements specifically during the critical early time points, neuroimaging-based biomarkers of FASD can potentially be identified at much earlier ages in humans, thus reducing the impact of these disorders. Cerebral cortical volume, thickness, and surface area were characterized by ex vivo MRI in Long-Evans rat pups born from dams that were EtOH-treated, maltose/dextrin-treated, or untreated throughout gestation at 6 developmental time points (postnatal day [P] 0, P3, P6, P11, P19, and P60). Brain volume, isocortical volume, isocortical thickness, and isocortical surface area were all demonstrated to be reduced following prenatal exposure to EtOH. Significant differences among the treatment groups were observed throughout the range of time points studied, allowing for a comprehensive view of FASD influenced MRI outcomes throughout development. Isocortical surface area and isocortical thickness results contributed independent information important to interpreting effects of prenatal EtOH exposure on cerebral cortical development

  17. Reduced fetal androgen exposure compromises Leydig cell function in adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerds, K.J.; Keijer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of normal fetal development can influence functioning of organs and cells in adulthood. Circumstantial evidence suggests that subtle reductions in fetal androgen production may be the cause of adult male reproductive disorders due to reduced testosterone production. The mechanisms through

  18. Comparison of hurricane exposure methods and associations with county fetal death rates, adjusting for environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse effects of hurricanes are increasing as coastal populations grow and events become more severe. Hurricane exposure during pregnancy can influence fetal death rates through mechanisms related to healthcare, infrastructure disruption, nutrition, and injury. Estimation of hu...

  19. Socioeconomic Determinants of Exposure to Alcohol Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christopher; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Ponicki, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol outlets tend to be located in lower income areas, exposing lower income populations to excess risks associated with alcohol sales through these establishments. The objective of this study was to test two hypotheses about the etiology of these differential exposures based on theories of the economic geography of retail markets: (a) outlets will locate within or near areas of high alcohol demand, and (b) outlets will be excluded from areas with high land and structure rents. Method: Data from the 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey were used to develop a surrogate for alcohol demand (i.e., market potential) at two census geographies for the city of Melbourne, Australia. Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models estimated multilevel spatial relationships between counts of bars, restaurants, and off-premise outlets and market potential, income, and zoning ordinances (Level 1: n = 8,914). Results: Market potentials were greatest in areas with larger older age, male, English-speaking, high-income populations. Independent of zoning characteristics, greater numbers of outlets appeared in areas with greater market potentials and the immediately surrounding areas. Greater income excluded outlets in local and surrounding areas. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that alcohol outlets are located in areas with high demand and are excluded from high-income areas. These processes appear to take place at relatively small geographic scales, encourage the concentration of outlets in specific low-income areas, and represent a very general economic process likely to take place in communities throughout the world. PMID:25978830

  20. Deficits in Affective Prosody Comprehension: Family History of Alcoholism versus Alcohol Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Sorocco, Kristen H.; Monnot, Marilee; Vincent, Andrea S.; Ross, Elliott D.; Lovallo, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Abstinent alcoholics have deficits in comprehending the affective intonation in speech. Prior work suggests that these deficits are due to alcohol exposure rather than preexisting risk factors for alcoholism. The present paper examines whether family history of alcoholism is a contributor to affective prosody deficits in alcoholics. Methods: Fifty-eight healthy, nonabusing young adults with and without a family history of alcoholism or other substance abuse (29 FH+ and 29 FH−) wer...

  1. Novel oxytocin gene expression in the hindbrain is induced by alcohol exposure: transgenic zebrafish enable visualization of sensitive neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitrín M Coffey

    Full Text Available Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD are a collection of disorders resulting from fetal ethanol exposure, which causes a wide range of physical, neurological and behavioral deficits including heightened susceptibility for alcoholism and addictive disorders. While a number of mechanisms have been proposed for how ethanol exposure disrupts brain development, with selective groups of neurons undergoing reduced proliferation, dysfunction and death, the induction of a new neurotransmitter phenotype by ethanol exposure has not yet been reported.The effects of embryonic and larval ethanol exposure on brain development were visually monitored using transgenic zebrafish expressing cell-specific green fluorescent protein (GFP marker genes. Specific subsets of GFP-expressing neurons were highly sensitive to ethanol exposure, but only during defined developmental windows. In the med12 mutant, which affects the Mediator co-activator complex component Med12, exposure to lower concentrations of ethanol was sufficient to reduce GFP expression in transgenic embryos. In transgenic embryos and larva containing GFP driven by an oxytocin-like (oxtl promoter, ethanol exposure dramatically up-regulated GFP expression in a small group of hindbrain neurons, while having no effect on expression in the neuroendocrine preoptic area.Alcohol exposure during limited embryonic periods impedes the development of specific, identifiable groups of neurons, and the med12 mutation sensitizes these neurons to the deleterious effects of ethanol. In contrast, ethanol exposure induces oxtl expression in the hindbrain, a finding with profound implications for understanding alcoholism and other addictive disorders.

  2. A modified Delphi study of screening for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watkins Rochelle E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little reliable information on the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD in Australia and no coordinated national approach to facilitate case detection. The aim of this study was to identify health professionals’ perceptions about screening for FASD in Australia. Method A modified Delphi process was used to assess perceptions of the need for, and the process of, screening for FASD in Australia. We recruited a panel of 130 Australian health professionals with experience or expertise in FASD screening or diagnosis. A systematic review of the literature was used to develop Likert statements on screening coverage, components and assessment methods which were administered using an online survey over two survey rounds. Results Of the panel members surveyed, 95 (73% responded to the questions on screening in the first survey round and, of these, 81 (85% responded to the second round. Following two rounds there was consensus agreement on the need for targeted screening at birth (76% and in childhood (84%. Participants did not reach consensus agreement on the need for universal screening at birth (55% or in childhood (40%. Support for targeted screening was linked to perceived constraints on service provision and the need to examine the performance, costs and benefits of screening. For targeted screening of high risk groups, we found highest agreement for siblings of known cases of FASD (96% and children of mothers attending alcohol treatment services (93%. Participants agreed that screening for FASD primarily requires assessment of prenatal alcohol exposure at birth (86% and in childhood (88%, and that a checklist is needed to identify the components of screening and criteria for referral at birth (84% and in childhood (90%. Conclusions There is an agreed need for targeted but not universal screening for FASD in Australia, and sufficient consensus among health professionals to warrant development and

  3. Periconceptional alcohol consumption causes fetal growth restriction and increases glycogen accumulation in the late gestation rat placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gårdebjer, E M; Cuffe, J S M; Pantaleon, M; Wlodek, M E; Moritz, K M

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a common social practice among women of childbearing age. With 50% of pregnancies being unplanned, many embryos are exposed to alcohol prior to pregnancy recognition and formation of the placenta. The effects of periconceptional (PC) alcohol exposure on the placenta are unknown. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to alcohol (12.5% v/v ad libitum) from 4 days prior to 4 days after conception and effects on placental growth, morphology and gene/protein expression examined at embryonic day (E) 20. PC ethanol (EtOH)-exposed fetuses were growth restricted and their placental/body weight ratio and placental cross-sectional area were increased. This was associated with an increase in cross-sectional area of the junctional zone and glycogen cells, especially in PC EtOH-exposed placentas from female fetuses. Junctional Glut1 and Igf2 mRNA levels were increased. Labyrinth Igf1 mRNA levels were decreased in placentas from both sexes, but protein IGF1R levels were decreased in placentas from male fetuses only. Labyrinth mRNA levels of Slc38a2 were decreased and Vegfa were increased in placentas following PC EtOH-exposure but only placentas from female fetuses exhibited increased Kdr expression. Augmented expression of the protective enzyme 11βHsd2 was found in PC EtOH-exposed labyrinth. These observations are consistent with a stress response, apparent well beyond the period of EtOH-exposure and demonstrate that PC EtOH alters placental development in a sex specific manner. Public awareness should be increased to educate women about how excessive drinking even before falling pregnant may impact on placental development and fetal health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prolonged exposure to acetaminophen reduces testosterone production by the human fetal testis in a xenograft model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Driesche, Sander; Macdonald, Joni; Anderson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Most common male reproductive disorders are linked to lower testosterone exposure in fetal life, although the factors responsible for suppressing fetal testosterone remain largely unknown. Protracted use of acetaminophen during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of cryptorchidism in sons......, but effects on fetal testosterone production have not been demonstrated. We used a validated xenograft model to expose human fetal testes to clinically relevant doses and regimens of acetaminophen. Exposure to a therapeutic dose of acetaminophen for 7 days significantly reduced plasma testosterone (45...... the final dose) in exposed host mice were substantially below those reported in humans after a therapeutic oral dose. Subsequent in utero exposure studies in rats indicated that the acetaminophen-induced reduction in testosterone likely results from reduced expression of key steroidogenic enzymes (Cyp11a1...

  5. Dialkyl phosphates in amniotic fluid as a biomarker of fetal exposure to organophosphates in Crete, Greece; association with fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroulakis, D; Sifakis, S; Tzatzarakis, M N; Alegakis, A K; Theodoropoulou, E; Kavvalakis, M P; Kappou, D; Tsatsakis, A M

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fetal exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) by measuring their non-specific dialkyl-phosphate metabolites (DAPs) in amniotic fluid (AF), and to examine the potential association between prenatal exposure and fetal growth. AF samples were collected from 415 women during the second gestational trimester. The determined OPs metabolites were DMP, DMTP, DEP, DETP, and DEDTP. DAPs were extracted by liquid-solid extraction, derivatized and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 97.8% of AF samples were positive for at least one DAP. DAPs levels did not differ between urban and rural areas. Macrosomic neonates have significantly higher sum levels of DMPs (p=0.043), which exerted a linear positive association with birth-weight centile (b=4.43, p=0.016). Conclusively, as DAPs are detectable in AF they may be used as a potential biomarker of fetal exposure to OPs. Sum levels of DMPs appear to be associated with birth weight independently of other covariates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. European longitudinal study on the relationship between adolescents' alcohol marketing exposure and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Avalon; Tanghe, Jacqueline; de Leeuw, Rebecca; Engels, Rutger; Anderson, Peter; Beccaria, Franca; Bujalski, Michał; Celata, Corrado; Gosselt, Jordy; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Słodownik, Luiza; Wothge, Jördis; van Dalen, Wim

    2016-10-01

    This is the first study to examine the effect of alcohol marketing exposure on adolescents' drinking in a cross-national context. The aim was to examine reciprocal processes between exposure to a wide range of alcohol marketing types and adolescent drinking, controlled for non-alcohol branded media exposure. Prospective observational study (11-12- and 14-17-month intervals), using a three-wave autoregressive cross-lagged model. School-based sample in 181 state-funded schools in Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Poland. A total of 9075 eligible respondents participated in the survey (mean age 14 years, 49.5% male. Adolescents reported their frequency of past-month drinking and binge drinking. Alcohol marketing exposure was measured by a latent variable with 13 items measuring exposure to online alcohol marketing, televised alcohol advertising, alcohol sport sponsorship, music event/festival sponsorship, ownership alcohol-branded promotional items, reception of free samples and exposure to price offers. Confounders were age, gender, education, country, internet use, exposure to non-alcohol sponsored football championships and television programmes without alcohol commercials. The analyses showed one-directional long-term effects of alcohol marketing exposure on drinking (exposure T1 on drinking T2: β = 0.420 (0.058), P  0.05). Similar results were found in the binge drinking model (exposure T1 on binge T2: β = 0.409 (0.054), P  0.05). There appears to be a one-way effect of alcohol marketing exposure on adolescents' alcohol use over time, which cannot be explained by either previous drinking or exposure to non-alcohol-branded marketing. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Alcohol Exposure In Utero and Child Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie von Hinke Kessler Scholder; George L. Wehby; Sarah Lewis; Luisa Zuccolo

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of alcohol exposure in utero on child academic achievement. As well as studying the effect of any alcohol exposure, we investigate the effect of the dose, pattern, and duration of exposure. We use a genetic variant in the maternal alcohol-metabolism gene ADH1B as an instrument for alcohol exposure, whilst controlling for the child's genotype on the same variant. We show that the instrument is unrelated to an extensive range of maternal and paternal characteristics and be...

  8. Facial Curvature Detects and Explicates Ethnic Differences in Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttie, Michael; Wetherill, Leah; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Hoyme, H Eugene; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Coles, Claire; Wozniak, Jeffrey R; Riley, Edward P; Jones, Kenneth L; Foroud, Tatiana; Hammond, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Our objective is to help clinicians detect the facial effects of prenatal alcohol exposure by developing computer-based tools for screening facial form. All 415 individuals considered were evaluated by expert dysmorphologists and categorized as (i) healthy control (HC), (ii) fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), or (iii) heavily prenatally alcohol exposed (HE) but not clinically diagnosable as FAS; 3D facial photographs were used to build models of facial form to support discrimination studies. Surface curvature-based delineations of facial form were introduced. (i) Facial growth in FAS, HE, and control subgroups is similar in both cohorts. (ii) Cohort consistency of agreement between clinical diagnosis and HC-FAS facial form classification is lower for midline facial regions and higher for nonmidline regions. (iii) Specific HC-FAS differences within and between the cohorts include: for HC, a smoother philtrum in Cape Coloured individuals; for FAS, a smoother philtrum in Caucasians; for control-FAS philtrum difference, greater homogeneity in Caucasians; for control-FAS face difference, greater homogeneity in Cape Coloured individuals. (iv) Curvature changes in facial profile induced by prenatal alcohol exposure are more homogeneous and greater in Cape Coloureds than in Caucasians. (v) The Caucasian HE subset divides into clusters with control-like and FAS-like facial dysmorphism. The Cape Coloured HE subset is similarly divided for nonmidline facial regions but not clearly for midline structures. (vi) The Cape Coloured HE subset with control-like facial dysmorphism shows orbital hypertelorism. Facial curvature assists the recognition of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and helps explain why different facial regions result in inconsistent control-FAS discrimination rates in disparate ethnic groups. Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can give rise to orbital hypertelorism, supporting a long-standing suggestion that prenatal alcohol exposure at a particular time causes

  9. Gene-specific of endocannabinoid receptor 1 (cnr1a) by ethanol probably leads to the development of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) phenotypes in Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental ethanol exposure is able to induce Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) phenotypes in Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes). This study investigated possible differential expression of cannabinoid receptor (cnr) mRNAs during Japanese rice fish embryogenesis and variability to ethanol-...

  10. Estrogens in the wrong place at the wrong time: Fetal BPA exposure and mammary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulose, Tessie; Speroni, Lucia; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2015-07-01

    Iatrogenic gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced alterations of the genital tract and predisposed individuals to develop clear cell carcinoma of the vagina as well as breast cancer later in life. Gestational exposure of rodents to a related compound, the xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) increases the propensity to develop mammary cancer during adulthood, long after cessation of exposure. Exposure to BPA during gestation induces morphological alterations in both the stroma and the epithelium of the fetal mammary gland at 18 days of age. We postulate that the primary target of BPA is the fetal stroma, the only mammary tissue expressing estrogen receptors during fetal life. BPA would then alter the reciprocal stroma-epithelial interactions that mediate mammogenesis. In addition to this direct effect on the mammary gland, BPA is postulated to affect the hypothalamus and thus in turn affect the regulation of mammotropic hormones at puberty and beyond. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Goldenhar syndrome, anterior encephalocele, and aqueductal stenosis following fetal primidone exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavson, E E; Chen, H

    1985-08-01

    Fetal exposure to primidone was associated with Goldenhar syndrome, hemifacial microsomia, tetralogy of Fallot, aqueductal stenosis, and anterior encephalocele in this male infant. No similar cases in anticonvulsant-exposed pregnancies were found on literature review, despite the increased incidence of other anomalies following such exposure. Goldenhar syndrome, especially related to rare central nervous system anomalies, is reviewed. Experimental production of hemifacial microsomia by a folic acid antagonist, triaxene, is mediated via hemorrhage in the fetus. Intraventricular hemorrhage was noted in this infant as were dilated lateral and third ventricles. The hemorrhagic diathesis and/or the folic acid depletion of newborns following fetal anticonvulsant exposure may have been the underlying mechanism.

  12. Fetal alcohol syndrome, chemo-biology and OMICS: ethanol effects on vitamin metabolism during neurodevelopment as measured by systems biology analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltes, Bruno César; de Faria Poloni, Joice; Nunes, Itamar José Guimarães; Bonatto, Diego

    2014-06-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a prenatal disease characterized by fetal morphological and neurological abnormalities originating from exposure to alcohol. Although FAS is a well-described pathology, the molecular mechanisms underlying its progression are virtually unknown. Moreover, alcohol abuse can affect vitamin metabolism and absorption, although how alcohol impairs such biochemical pathways remains to be elucidated. We employed a variety of systems chemo-biology tools to understand the interplay between ethanol metabolism and vitamins during mouse neurodevelopment. For this purpose, we designed interactomes and employed transcriptomic data analysis approaches to study the neural tissue of Mus musculus exposed to ethanol prenatally and postnatally, simulating conditions that could lead to FAS development at different life stages. Our results showed that FAS can promote early changes in neurotransmitter release and glutamate equilibrium, as well as an abnormal calcium influx that can lead to neuroinflammation and impaired neurodifferentiation, both extensively connected with vitamin action and metabolism. Genes related to retinoic acid, niacin, vitamin D, and folate metabolism were underexpressed during neurodevelopment and appear to contribute to neuroinflammation progression and impaired synapsis. Our results also indicate that genes coding for tubulin, tubulin-associated proteins, synapse plasticity proteins, and proteins related to neurodifferentiation are extensively affected by ethanol exposure. Finally, we developed a molecular model of how ethanol can affect vitamin metabolism and impair neurodevelopment.

  13. A prospective study on intrauterine cannabis exposure and fetal blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marroun, H. el; Tiemeier, H.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Brink, W. van den; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Cannabis is commonly used among pregnant women. It is unclear whether cannabis exposure causes hemodynamic modifications in the fetus, like tobacco does. Aims: This study aims to ascertain fetal blood redistribution due to intrauterine cannabis exposure. Methods: This study was embedded in the

  14. A prospective study on intrauterine cannabis exposure and fetal blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Marroun, H.; Tiemeier, H.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; van den Brink, W.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cannabis is commonly used among pregnant women. It is unclear whether cannabis exposure causes hemodynamic modifications in the fetus, like tobacco does. Aims: This study aims to ascertain fetal blood redistribution due to intrauterine cannabis exposure. Methods: This study was embedded

  15. A prospective study on intrauterine cannabis exposure and fetal blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2010-01-01

    Cannabis is commonly used among pregnant women. It is unclear whether cannabis exposure causes hemodynamic modifications in the fetus, like tobacco does. This study aims to ascertain fetal blood redistribution due to intrauterine cannabis exposure. This study was embedded in the Generation R Focus

  16. Impact of in utero Exposure to Malaria on Fetal T cell Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Odorizzi, Pamela M.; Feeney, Margaret E.

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated malaria, including placental malaria, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, it has been suggested that in utero exposure of the fetus to malaria antigens may negatively impact the developing immune system and result in tolerance to malaria. Here, we review our current knowledge of fetal immunity to malaria, focusing on the dynamic interactions between maternal malaria infection, placental development and the fetal immune system. A better understa...

  17. Placental and fetal effects of antenatal exposure to antidepressants or untreated maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Salvatore; Fusco, Maria Luigia

    2017-05-01

    To assess systematically the effects of antidepressants and untreated maternal depression on human placenta and the developing fetus. Pertinent medical literature information was identified using MEDLINE/PubMed, SCOPUS and EMBASE. Electronic searches, limited to human studies published in English, provided 21 studies reporting primary data on placental and fetal effects of antidepressant exposure or untreated gestational depression. The impact of antidepressants and non-medicated maternal depression on placental functioning and fetal biochemical architecture seems to be demonstrated, although its clinical significance remains unclear. More robust data seem to indicate that exposure to either antidepressants or untreated maternal depression may induce epigenetic changes and interfere with the physiological fetal behavior. Two cases of iatrogenic fetal tachyarrhythmia have also been reported. Future research should clarify the clinical relevance of the impact of antidepressant and untreated maternal depression exposure on placental functioning. Moreover, ultrasound studies investigating fetal responses to antidepressants or maternal depressive symptoms are mandatory. This assessment should be performed during the whole duration of gestational period, when different fetal behavioral patterns become progressively detectable. Analyses of biochemical and epigenetic modifications associated with maternal mood symptoms and antidepressant treatment should also be implemented.

  18. Effects of alcohol use, smoking, and illicit drug use on fetal growth in black infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, J L; Jacobson, S W; Sokol, R J; Martier, S S; Ager, J W; Shankaran, S

    1994-05-01

    To compare the effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol, smoking, and illicit drugs on birth size. Prospective, longitudinal correlational study, with statistical control for confounding. Four hundred seventeen black infants. Mothers recruited at first prenatal clinic visit on the basis of moderate-to-heavy use of alcohol or cocaine or both, plus a 5% random sample of lower-level drinkers and abstainers. Alcohol, smoking, opiates, and cocaine were each correlated with smaller birth weight, length, and head circumference (median r = -0.21; p illicit drug use may be a consequence of simultaneous exposure of the fetus to alcohol and smoking. Opiate exposure is specifically related to reduced head circumference, and the effect of cocaine on birth size is primarily an indirect consequence of shorter gestation and poorer maternal nutrition.

  19. Is it time for Newborn Screening for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Commentary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A PASS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD is one of the most common causes of acquired mental retardation in the United States and worldwide. The fetal brain is highly susceptible to the teratogenic effects of alcohol from maternal consumption during pregnancy resulting in newborns with mental deficits and congenital malformations. FAS diagnosis is difficult to diagnose in newborns where distinct anatomical defects are not apparent from mothers of moderate to light alcohol use. Hence, medical diagnoses are often not ascertained until mid-childhood after irreparable brain damage has already occurred. Such infants will have been deprived of available socioclinical interventions, trainings, measures, and future treatments that may someday be implemented soon after birth. Presently, there are no FASD newborn biomarker screening programs in place despite cost benefit analyses revealing an annual societal cost of $1.3 million per FASD incident case. Since newborn biomarkers have been reported in the biomedical literature, can we afford not to implement newborn screening for FASD?

  20. A computer-assisted procedure for estimating patient exposure and fetal dose in radiographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, S.; Schneiders, N.; Bushong, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    A computer program for calculating patient entrance exposure and fetal dose for 11 common radiographic examinations was developed. The output intensity measured at 70 kVp and a 30-inch (76-cm) source-to-skin distance was entered into the program. The change in output intensity with changing kVp was examined for 17 single-phase and 12 three-phase x-ray units. The relationships obtained from a least squares regression analysis of the data, along with the technique factors for each examination, were used to calculate patient exposure. Fetal dose was estimated using published fetal dose in mrad (10 -5 Gy) per 1,000 mR (258 μC/kg) entrance exposure values. The computations are fully automated and individualized to each radiographic unit. The information provides a ready reference in large institutions and is particularly useful at smaller facilities that do not have available physicists who can make the calculations immediately

  1. A computer-assisted procedure for estimating patient exposure and fetal dose in radiographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, S.; Schneiders, N.; Bushong, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    A computer program for calculating patient entrance exposure and fetal dose for 11 common radiographic examinations was developed. The output intensity measured at 70 kVp and a 30-inch (76-cm) source-to-skin distance was entered into the program. The change in output intensity with changing kVp was examined for 17 single-phase and 12 three-phase x-ray units. The relationships obtained from a least squares regression analysis of the data, along with the technique factors for each examination, were used to calculate patient exposure. Fetal dose was estimated using published fetal dose in mrad (10(-5) Gy) per 1,000 mR (258 microC/kg) entrance exposure values. The computations are fully automated and individualized to each radiographic unit. The information provides a ready reference in large institutions and is particularly useful at smaller facilities that do not have available physicians who can make the calculations immediately

  2. Factors associated with younger adolescents' exposure to online alcohol advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Martino, Steven C; Collins, Rebecca L; Shadel, William G; Tolpadi, Anagha; Kovalchik, Stephanie; Becker, Kirsten M

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the extent and nature of youth exposure to online alcohol advertising, or factors that may be associated with exposure. The current study recruited middle school students who completed a paper survey and then logged each alcohol advertisement that they encountered over a 2-week period using cell phones as part of an ecological momentary assessment design. We examined the percentage of youth who reported exposure to online alcohol advertising in the past 2 weeks, average weekly rate of exposure, types of online alcohol advertisements youth reported seeing, and factors that increased youths' risk of exposure to online alcohol advertising. Analyses are based on 485 participants (47% female; 25% Hispanic, 25% White, 27% Black; 6% Asian, 16% other). Youth logged exposures to a total of 3,966 (16,018 weighted for underreporting) alcohol advertisements across the monitoring period; 154 (568 weighted) or 3.6% were online ads. Seventeen percent of youth reported seeing any online alcohol ad; the majority of online ads seen were video commercials (44.8%) and banner/side ads (26.6%). Factors associated with greater ad exposure were being older, rebellious, and Black race; greater parental monitoring and more hours spent on social media were associated with less exposure. Findings provide important information about adolescents' exposure to online alcohol advertising and what might contribute to a greater likelihood of exposure. Given that online ad exposure is linked to drinking behavior, prevention programming for younger adolescents should continue to address this issue to help youth make healthy choices regarding alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Factors Associated with Younger Adolescents’ Exposure to Online Alcohol Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Martino, Steven C.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Shadel, William G.; Tolpadi, Anagha; Kovalchik, Stephanie; Becker, Kirsten M.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the extent and nature of youth exposure to online alcohol advertising, or factors that may be associated with exposure. The current study recruited middle school students who completed a paper survey and then logged each alcohol advertisement that they encountered over a two-week period using cell phones as part of an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design. We examined the percentage of youth who reported exposure to online alcohol advertising in the past two weeks, average weekly rate of exposure, types of online alcohol advertisements youth reported seeing, and factors that increased youths’ risk of exposure to online alcohol advertising. Analyses are based on 485 participants (47% female; 25% Hispanic, 25% white, 27% black; 6% Asian, 16% other). Youth logged exposures to a total of 3,966 (16,018 weighted for under-reporting) alcohol advertisements across the monitoring period; 154 (568 weighted) or 3.6% were online ads. Seventeen percent of youth reported seeing any online alcohol ad; the majority of online ads seen were video commercials (44.8%) and banner/side ads (26.6%). Factors associated with greater ad exposure were being older, rebellious, and Black race; greater parental monitoring and more hours spent on social media were associated with less exposure. Findings provide important information about adolescents’ exposure to online alcohol advertising and what might contribute to a greater likelihood of exposure. Given that online ad exposure is linked to drinking behavior, prevention programming for younger adolescents should continue to address this issue to help youth make healthy choices regarding alcohol use. PMID:27819430

  4. Dietary choline levels modify the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; Breit, Kristen R; Thomas, Jennifer D

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a range of physical and behavioral alterations; however, the outcome among children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy varies widely. Some of this variation may be due to nutritional factors. Indeed, higher rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are observed in countries where malnutrition is prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown that many pregnant women throughout the world may not be consuming adequate levels of choline, an essential nutrient critical for brain development, and a methyl donor. In this study, we examined the influence of dietary choline deficiency on the severity of fetal alcohol effects. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive diets containing 40, 70, or 100% recommended choline levels. A group from each diet condition was exposed to ethanol (6.0g/kg/day) from gestational day 5 to 20 via intubation. Pair-fed and ad lib lab chow control groups were also included. Physical and behavioral development was measured in the offspring. Prenatal alcohol exposure delayed motor development, and 40% choline altered performance on the cliff avoidance task, independent of one another. However, the combination of low choline and prenatal alcohol produced the most severe impairments in development. Subjects exposed to ethanol and fed the 40% choline diet exhibited delayed eye openings, significantly fewer successes in hindlimb coordination, and were significantly overactive compared to all other groups. These data suggest that suboptimal intake of a single nutrient can exacerbate some of ethanol's teratogenic effects, a finding with important implications for the prevention of FASD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Intra-uterine exposure to dual fetal programming sequences among surviving co-twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Hamisu M; Ibrahimou, Boubakari; Dagne, Getachew A

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of fetal programming following in utero demise of a co-twin are poorly understood. The authors examined fetal programming using a unique application of the change-point analysis method, and identified two types of fetal programming that occurred when a viable twin sibling died in utero, while the co-twin survived. In one type, the initial twin fetal programming trajectory was maintained while in a subset of surviving co-twins a "switch" from a twin to a singleton fetal program (dual fetal programming exposure) was observed. The results suggest that the timing in utero of conversion from a twin to a singleton programming pattern occurred slightly earlier among opposite-sex than in same-sex surviving co-twins. For the conversion from a twin to a singleton program to happen, the surviving co-twin must have attained a "critical mass" when the twin sibling died. Whereas, for same-sex surviving co-twins the critical mass for conversion was the 80th percentile of gestational-age specific birth weight, opposite-sex surviving co-twins converted at a lower critical mass (70th percentile). These novel findings warrant further study to confirm the new hithertofore unknown phenomenon of dual fetal programming sequence, and to determine the implications in terms of subsequent morbidity or mortality during infancy, childhood and adult life.

  6. The prenatal detection of significant alcohol exposure with maternal blood markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, J M; Huntington, K S; Peterson, C M; Peterson, K P; Daniel, P; Aboagye, K K; Lieberman, E; Ryan, L; Holmes, L B

    1998-09-01

    To examine the efficacy of a combination of 4 blood markers of alcohol use in detecting alcohol-abusing pregnant women. Two new markers of alcohol use, whole blood-associated acetaldehyde and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, and 2 traditional markers of alcohol use, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and mean red blood cell volume, were measured in the blood of pregnant women. Each woman was interviewed about alcohol and drug use, medical and obstetric histories, and nutrition. Each infant was examined by a clinician who was blinded to exposure status. All of the women who reported drinking an average of 1 or more ounces of absolute alcohol per day had at least 1 positive blood marker. The infants of mothers with 2 or more positive markers had significantly smaller birth weights, lengths, and head circumferences than the infants with negative maternal screens. The presence of 2 or more positive markers was more predictive of infant outcome than any self-reporting measure. These markers, which detect more at-risk pregnant women than self-reporting methods, could lead to better efforts at detection and prevention of alcohol-induced fetal damage.

  7. The party effect: Prediction of future alcohol use based on exposure to specific alcohol advertising content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To test whether exposure to party-related alcohol advertising is associated with drinking behavior in a national US sample of adolescents and young adults, independently of exposure to other alcohol advertising. Design Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013. Setting All regions of the United States, participants selected via mixed-mode random-digit-dial landline and cellphone frames. Participants A sample of 2541 respondents with a mean age of 18.1 years (51.6% female) of which 1053 (41%) never had a whole drink of alcohol and 1727 (67%) never had six or more drinks during one drinking occasion. Measurements Outcome measures were onset of alcohol use and binge drinking during the study interval. Primary predictor was exposure to television alcohol advertising, operationalized as contact frequency and brand recall for 20 randomly selected alcohol advertisements. Independent post-hoc analyses classified all ads as “party” or “non-party” ads. Sociodemographics, sensation seeking, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use of friends and family were assessed as covariates. Findings Onset rates for having the first whole drink of alcohol and for first binge drinking were 49.2% and 29.5%, respectively. On average, about half (M = 10.2) of the 20 alcohol advertisements in each individual survey were “party” ads. If both types of exposures (“party” and “non-party”) were included in the regression model, only “party” exposure remained a significant predictor of alcohol use onset (AOR=19.17; 95%CI 3.72–98.79) and binge drinking onset (AOR=3.87; 95%CI 1.07–13.99) after covariate control. Conclusions Adolescents and young adults with higher exposure to alcohol advertisements using a partying theme had higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking onset, even after control of exposure to other types of alcohol advertisements. PMID:27343140

  8. Alcohol exposure leads to unrecoverable cardiovascular defects along with edema and motor function changes in developing zebrafish larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause a series of developmental disorders in the fetus called FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome. In the present study we exposed zebrafish embryos to 1% and 2% alcohol and observed the morphology of heart and blood vessels during and after exposure to investigate motor function alterations, and damage and recovery to the cardiovascular system. The results showed that alcohol exposure could induce heart deformation, slower heart rate, and incomplete blood vessels and pericardium. After stopping exposure, larvae exposed to 1% alcohol could recover only in heart morphology, but larvae in 2% alcohol could not recover either morphology or function of cardiovascular system. The edema-like characteristics in the 2% alcohol group became more conspicuous afterwards, with destruction in the dorsal aorta, coarctation in segmental arteries and a decrease in motor function, implying more serious unrecoverable cardiovascular defects in the 2% group. The damaged blood vessels in the 2% alcohol group resulted in an alteration in permeability and a decrease of blood volume, which were the causes of edema in pathology. These findings contribute towards a better understanding of ethanol-induced cardiovascular abnormalities and co-syndrome in patients with FAS, and warns against excessive maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy.

  9. European longitudinal study on the relationship between adolescents' alcohol marketing exposure and alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, A. de; Tanghe, J.; Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Anderson, P.D.; Beccaria, F.; Bujalski, M.; Celata, C.; Gosselt, J.; Schreckenberg, D.; Slodownik, L.; Wothge, J.; Dalen, W. van

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: This is the first study to examine the effect of alcohol marketing exposure on adolescents' drinking in a cross-national context. The aim was to examine reciprocal processes between exposure to a wide range of alcohol marketing types and adolescent drinking, controlled for

  10. European longitudinal study on the relationship between adolescents’ alcohol marketing exposure and alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Avalon; Tanghe, Jacqueline; de Leeuw, Rebecca; Engels, Rutger; Anderson, Peter; Beccaria, Franca; Bujalski, Michał; Celata, Corrado; Gosselt, Jordi F.; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Słodownik, Luiza; Wothge, Jördis; Dalen, Wim E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: This is the first study to examine the effect of alcohol marketing exposure on adolescents’ drinking in a cross-national context. The aim was to examine reciprocal processes between exposure to a wide range of alcohol marketing types and adolescent drinking, controlled for

  11. Understanding Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs: Toward Identification of a Behavioral Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Nash

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs currently represent the leading cause of mental retardation in North America, ahead of Down syndrome and cerebral palsy. The damaging effects of alcohol on the developing brain have a cascading impact on the social and neurocognitive profiles of affected individuals. Researchers investigating the profiles of children with FASDs have found impairments in learning and memory, executive functioning, and language, as well as hyperactivity, impulsivity, poor communication skills, difficulties with social and moral reasoning, and psychopathology. The primary goal of this review paper is to examine current issues pertaining to the identification of a behavioral phenotype in FASDs, as well as to address related screening and diagnostic concerns. We conclude that future research initiatives comparing children with FASDs to nonalcohol-exposed children with similar cognitive and socioemotional profiles should aid in uncovering the unique behavioral phenotype for FASDs.

  12. Prenatal exposure to nicotine with associated in utero hypoxia decreased fetal brain muscarinic mRNA in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Caiping; Yuan, Xin; Cui, Yugui; Li, Hong; Lv, Juanxiu; Feng, Xing; Liu, Yujuan; Chen, Linqi; Xu, Zhice

    2008-01-16

    Prenatal exposure to nicotine can be associated with fetal abnormal development and brain damage. This study determined the effect of administration of nicotine with associated in utero hypoxia in maternal rats from early, middle, and late gestation on fetal blood hemoglobin, and expression of cholinergic receptor subtypes in the fetal brain. Our results demonstrated that maternal subcutaneous nicotine from the early gestation increased fetal hemoglobin and hematocrit, associated with reduction of PO(2). Although exposure to nicotine during late gestation had no effects on fetal brain weight, nicotine administration from the early gestation significantly decreased fetal brain muscarinic receptor (M1, M2, M3, and M4) mRNA expression, associated with restricted brain growth. Nicotine-altered muscarinic receptor subtype expression in the fetal forebrain and hindbrain showed regional differences. In addition, there were gestational differences for fetal brain muscarinic suppression by prenatal nicotine. Together, the results demonstrate that nicotine-induced in utero hypoxia is associated with poor development of muscarinic receptors in the fetal brain and restricted brain growth, and that either prolonged prenatal exposure to nicotine or critical "window" period for the brain development during pregnancy may play a role in prenatal nicotine-induced fetal muscarinic-receptor deficiency in the fetal brain.

  13. Air pollution exposure during pregnancy, ultrasound measures of fetal growth, and adverse birth outcomes: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooven, E.H. van den; Pierik, F.H.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Willemsen, S.P.; Hofman, A.; Ratingen, S.W. van; Zandveld, P.Y.J.; Mackenbach, J.P.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Miedema, H.M.E.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Air pollution exposure during pregnancy might have trimester-specific effects on fetal growth. Objective: We prospectively evaluated the associations of maternal air pollution exposure with fetal growth characteristics and adverse birth outcomes in 7,772 subjects in the Netherlands.

  14. Biphasic changes in fetal heart rate variability in preterm fetal sheep developing hypotension after acute on chronic lipopolysaccharide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Christopher A; Davidson, Joanne O; Booth, Lindsea C; Wassink, Guido; Galinsky, Robert; Drury, Paul P; Fraser, Mhoyra; Bennet, Laura; Gunn, Alistair J

    2014-08-15

    Perinatal exposure to infection is highly associated with adverse outcomes. Experimentally, acute, severe exposure to gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with increased fetal heart rate variability (FHRV). It is unknown whether FHRV is affected by subclinical infection with or without acute exacerbations. We therefore tested the hypothesis that FHRV would be associated with hypotension after acute on chronic exposure to LPS. Chronically instrumented fetal sheep at 0.7 gestation were exposed to a continuous low-dose LPS infusion (n = 12, 100 ng/kg over 24 h, followed by 250 ng·kg(-1)·24 h(-1) for a further 96 h) or the same volume of saline (n = 10). Boluses of either 1 μg LPS or saline were given at 48, 72, and 96 h. Low-dose infusion was not associated with hemodynamic or FHRV changes. The first LPS bolus was associated with tachycardia and suppression of nuchal electromyographic activity in all fetuses. Seven of twelve fetuses developed hypotension (a fall in mean arterial blood pressure ≥5 mmHg). FHRV was transiently increased only at the onset of hypotension, in association with increased cytokine induction and electroencephalogram suppression. FHRV then fell before the nadir of hypotension, with transient suppression of short-term FHRV. After the second LPS bolus, the hypotension group showed a biphasic pattern of a transient increase in FHRV followed by more prolonged suppression. These findings suggest that infection-related hypotension in the preterm fetus mediates the transient increase in FHRV and that repeated exposure to LPS leads to progressive loss of FHRV. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Recognition of clinical characteristics for population-based surveillance of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jennifer G; Galindo, Maureen K; Meaney, F John; Benavides, Argelia; Mayate, Linnette; Fox, Deborah; Pettygrove, Sydney; O'Leary, Leslie; Cunniff, Christopher

    2018-01-25

    The diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) rests on identification of characteristic facial, growth, and central nervous system (CNS) features. Public health surveillance of FAS depends on documentation of these characteristics. We evaluated if reporting of FAS characteristics is associated with the type of provider examining the child. We analyzed cases aged 7-9 years from the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network II (FASSNetII). We included cases whose surveillance records included the type of provider (qualifying provider: developmental pediatrician, geneticist, neonatologist; other physician; or other provider) who evaluated the child as well as the FAS diagnostic characteristics (facial dysmorphology, CNS impairment, and/or growth deficiency) reported by the provider. A total of 345 cases were eligible for this analysis. Of these, 188 (54.5%) had adequate information on type of provider. Qualifying physicians averaged more than six reported FAS characteristics while other providers averaged less than five. Qualifying physicians reported on facial characteristics and developmental delay more frequently than other providers. Also, qualifying physicians reported on all three domains of characteristics (facial, CNS, and growth) in 97% of cases while others reported all three characteristics on two thirds of cases. Documentation in medical records during clinical evaluations for FAS is lower than optimal for cross-provider communication and surveillance purposes. Lack of documentation limits the quality and quantity of information in records that serve as a major source of data for public health surveillance systems. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effects of maternal acrolein exposure during pregnancy on testicular testosterone production in fetal rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuzhuo; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Hongliang; Hong, Kai; Tang, Wenhao; Zhao, Lianming; Lin, Haocheng; Liu, Defeng; Mao, Jiaming; Wu, Han; Jiang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Acrolein has been reported to have diverse toxic effects on various organs, including the reproductive system. However, little is known regarding the effects of maternal acrolein exposure on testicular steroidogenesis in male offspring. The present study investigated the effects of acrolein on fetal testosterone production and associated genes. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle (normal saline) or 1, 2 or 5 mg/kg acrolein from gestational day (GD) 14–20, and fetal testes were examined on GD 21. Fetal body and testicular weights were markedly reduced in pups following exposure to high doses of acrolein (5 mg/kg) in late pregnancy. Notably, in utero exposure of 5 mg/kg acrolein significantly decreased the testicular testosterone level and downregulated the expression levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), whereas the levels of other steroidogenic enzymes, including scavenger receptor class B, cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme and steroid 17 alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase, were unaffected. Furthermore, the 3β-HSD immunoreactive area in the interstitial region of the fetal testes was reduced at a 5 mg/kg dose, whereas the protein expression levels of 4-hydroxynonenalwere dose-dependently increased following maternal exposure to acrolein. mRNA expression levels of insulin-like factor 3, a critical gene involved in testicular descent, were unaltered following maternal acrolein exposure. Taken together, the results of the present study suggested that maternal exposure to high doses of acrolein inhibited fetal testosterone synthesis, and abnormal expression of StAR and 3β-HSD may be associated with impairment of the steroidogenic capacity. PMID:28560422

  17. Effects of maternal acrolein exposure during pregnancy on testicular testosterone production in fetal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuzhuo; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Hongliang; Hong, Kai; Tang, Wenhao; Zhao, Lianming; Lin, Haocheng; Liu, Defeng; Mao, Jiaming; Wu, Han; Jiang, Hui

    2017-07-01

    Acrolein has been reported to have diverse toxic effects on various organs, including the reproductive system. However, little is known regarding the effects of maternal acrolein exposure on testicular steroidogenesis in male offspring. The present study investigated the effects of acrolein on fetal testosterone production and associated genes. Pregnant Sprague‑Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle (normal saline) or 1, 2 or 5 mg/kg acrolein from gestational day (GD) 14‑20, and fetal testes were examined on GD 21. Fetal body and testicular weights were markedly reduced in pups following exposure to high doses of acrolein (5 mg/kg) in late pregnancy. Notably, in utero exposure of 5 mg/kg acrolein significantly decreased the testicular testosterone level and downregulated the expression levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3β‑hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β‑HSD), whereas the levels of other steroidogenic enzymes, including scavenger receptor class B, cholesterol side‑chain cleavage enzyme and steroid 17 alpha‑hydroxylase/17,20 lyase, were unaffected. Furthermore, the 3β‑HSD immunoreactive area in the interstitial region of the fetal testes was reduced at a 5 mg/kg dose, whereas the protein expression levels of 4‑hydroxynonenalwere dose‑dependently increased following maternal exposure to acrolein. mRNA expression levels of insulin‑like factor 3, a critical gene involved in testicular descent, were unaltered following maternal acrolein exposure. Taken together, the results of the present study suggested that maternal exposure to high doses of acrolein inhibited fetal testosterone synthesis, and abnormal expression of StAR and 3β‑HSD may be associated with impairment of the steroidogenic capacity.

  18. In utero exposure to chloroquine alters sexual development in the male fetal rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clewell, Rebecca A.; Pluta, Linda; Thomas, Russell S.; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2009-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ), a drug that has been used extensively for the prevention and treatment of malaria, is currently considered safe for use during pregnancy. However, CQ has been shown to disrupt steroid homeostasis in adult rats and similar compounds, such as quinacrine, inhibit steroid production in the Leydig cell in vitro. To explore the effect of in utero CQ exposure on fetal male sexual development, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given a daily dose of either water or chloroquine diphosphate from GD 16-18 by oral gavage. Chloroquine was administered as 200 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16, followed by two maintenance doses of 100 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16 and 18. Three days of CQ treatment resulted in reduced maternal and fetal weight on GD 19 and increased necrosis and steatosis in the maternal liver. Fetal livers also displayed mild lipid accumulation. Maternal serum progesterone was increased after CQ administration. Fetal testes testosterone, however, was significantly decreased. Examination of the fetal testes revealed significant alterations in vascularization and seminiferous tubule development after short-term CQ treatment. Anogenital distance was not altered. Microarray and RT-PCR showed down-regulation of several genes associated with cholesterol transport and steroid synthesis in the fetal testes. This study indicates that CQ inhibits testosterone synthesis and normal testis development in the rat fetus at human relevant doses.

  19. Movie Exposure to Alcohol Cues and Adolescent Alcohol Problems: A Longitudinal Analysis in a National Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother’s responsiveness and for adolescent’s school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:19290687

  20. Cholecalciferol attenuates perseverative behavior associated with developmental alcohol exposure in rats in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, N M; Happer, J P; Thomas, J D

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol is a known teratogen that is estimated to affect 2-5% of the births in the U.S. Prenatal alcohol exposure can produce physical features such as facial dysmorphology, physiological alterations such as cell loss in the central nervous system (CNS), and behavioral changes that include hyperactivity, cognitive deficits, and motor dysfunction. The range of effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure is referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Despite preventative measures, some women continue to drink while pregnant. Therefore, identifying interventions that reduce the severity of FASD is critical. This study investigated one such potential intervention, vitamin D3, a nutrient that exerts neuroprotective properties. The present study determined whether cholecalciferol, a common vitamin D3 nutritional supplement, could serve as a means of mitigating alcohol-related learning deficits. Using a rat model of FASD, cholecalciferol was given before, during, and after 3rd trimester equivalent alcohol exposure. Three weeks after cholecalciferol treatment, subjects were tested on a serial spatial discrimination reversal learning task. Animals exposed to ethanol committed significantly more errors compared to controls. Cholecalciferol treatment reduced perseverative behavior that is associated with developmental alcohol exposure in a dose-dependent manner. These data have important implications for the treatment of FASD and suggest that cholecalciferol may reduce some aspects of FASD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In utero exposure to alcohol and puberty in boys: a pregnancy cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkonsen, Linn Berger; Brath-Lund, Mette Louise; Hounsgaard, Marie Louise; Olsen, Jørn; Ernst, Andreas; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2014-06-10

    Epidemiological studies have raised concerns about the reproductive consequences of in utero exposure to alcohol. Maternal lifestyle factors have been associated with altered pubertal development, but the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on male puberty is unknown. Thus, the objective was to explore whether prenatal alcohol exposure alters pubertal development in boys. Follow-up of a Danish pregnancy cohort. Sons (N=2522) of women who were enrolled in a Danish pregnancy cohort between 1984 and 1987. Indicators of pubertal development, assessed by age at first nocturnal emission, voice break, acne and regular shaving. We found a tendency towards a later age at first nocturnal emission and voice break following in utero exposure to binge drinking. Boys exposed to ≥5 binge drinking episodes during pregnancy experienced their first nocturnal emission 7.3 months (95% CI -2.8 to 17.4) later and voice break 4.9 months (95% CI -0.6 to 10.4) later than the unexposed boys. Results for average weekly alcohol consumption were in the same direction, but differences were smaller and not statistically significant. We found no strong support for the hypothesis that in utero exposure to weekly alcohol consumption is a risk factor for altered pubertal development, but a tendency towards delayed pubertal development among boys exposed to binge drinking during fetal life was observed. Longitudinal studies, with data collected as children go through puberty, are needed to explore this further. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in Australia--the future is prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2015-03-30

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are increasingly recognised throughout Australia as important, but preventable, disorders that result in lifelong problems with health and learning, mental health, behaviour and substance misuse. The role of this article is to highlight current efforts, which are in their infancy, to recognise and prevent FASD in Australia. A federal parliamentary inquiry into FASD (2011), development of an Australian Government 'action plan' to prevent FASD (2013) and the announcement in June 2014 of government funding to progress the plan and appoint a National FASD Technical Network have focused attention on the need for FASD prevention in Australia. Other welcome developments include the formation of Parliamentarians for the Prevention of FASD (2011), revision of guidelines regarding alcohol use in pregnancy by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC; 2009) and provision of targeted funding for FASD research by the NHMRC (2013). Initiatives by Indigenous communities to restrict access to alcohol and diagnose and prevent FASD have had a significant impact in high-risk communities. The National Organisation for FASD has an important ongoing advocacy and educational remit. Nongovernment organisations such as the Foundation for Alcohol Research and Education have contributed to prevention by developing resources to assist health professionals to advise women about the harms of alcohol use in pregnancy; encouraging men to abstain from alcohol during the pregnancy; drafting a national plan; and advocating for pregnancy warning labels on alcohol. Internationally, in 2014, a charter on prevention of FASD was published in The Lancet Global Health, and the World Health Organization released guidelines for identification and management of substance use in pregnancy. Early recognition and support for individuals with FASD is crucial to prevent adverse secondary outcomes; however, primary prevention of alcohol use in pregnancy, and

  3. Air Pollution Exposure During Pregnancy and Fetal Markers of Metabolic function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Eric; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Hystad, Perry; Johnson, Markey; Crouse, Dan L.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Shapiro, Gabriel D.; Fisher, Mandy; Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Taback, Shayne; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Sun, Liu; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renée; Fraser, William D.

    2016-01-01

    Previous evidence suggests that exposure to outdoor air pollution during pregnancy could alter fetal metabolic function, which could increase the risk of obesity in childhood. However, to our knowledge, no epidemiologic study has investigated the association between prenatal exposure to air pollution and indicators of fetal metabolic function. We investigated the association between maternal exposure to nitrogen dioxide and fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) and umbilical cord blood leptin and adiponectin levels with mixed-effects linear regression models among 1,257 mother-infant pairs from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, conducted in Canada (2008–2011). We observed that an interquartile-range increase in average exposure to fine particulate matter (3.2 µg/m3) during pregnancy was associated with an 11% (95% confidence interval: 4, 17) increase in adiponectin levels. We also observed 13% (95% confidence interval: 6, 20) higher adiponectin levels per interquartile-range increase in average exposure to nitrogen dioxide (13.6 parts per billion) during pregnancy. Significant associations were seen between air pollution markers and cord blood leptin levels in models that adjusted for birth weight z score but not in models that did not adjust for birth weight z score. The roles of prenatal exposure to air pollution and fetal metabolic function in the potential development of childhood obesity should be further explored. PMID:27026336

  4. Cognitive and executive functions, social cognition and sense of coherence in adults with fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangmar, Jenny; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Aronson, Marita; Fahlke, Claudia

    2015-08-01

    Primary disabilities in children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) are the results of alcohol's teratogen effect on the fetal brain. Reduced cognitive and executive functions and social cognition are examples of such disabilities. Little is known about primary disabilities in adults with FAS as well as their sense of coherence (SoC). There is thus a need for knowledge about FAS in adulthood. To investigate cognitive and executive functions, social cognition and SoC in adults with FAS. Twenty adults with FAS (mean age: 30 years) were compared with 20 individuals matched on gender and age. Berg's Card-sorting Test-64, the Tower of Hanoi, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, Digit Span, Faux Pas and the Swedish version of Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale (SoC-29) were used. The FAS group had a weak SoC and displayed deficits in the neuropsychological tests sensitive to cognitive and executive functions and social cognition. The FAS group's median SoC score was 112, lower than the comparison group's median of 133 (P executive functions and impaired social cognition are assumed to have a major impact on life for adults with FAS. We suggest that the findings showing that adults with FAS had a weak SoC, with particularly low scores on the manageability scale, reflect their experiences of living with those primary disabilities. This study may enhance healthcare for individuals prenatally exposed to alcohol. In general, it contributes with knowledge about this group of individuals who need to be more visible in healthcare, and particularly, it demonstrates some of the neuropsychological disabilities they might have.

  5. Findings from the Families on Track Intervention Pilot Trial for Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Christie L M; Pandolfino, Mary E; Robinson, Luther K

    2017-07-01

    Individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are at high risk for costly, debilitating mental health problems and secondary conditions, such as school disruption, trouble with the law, and substance use. The study objective was to pilot a multicomponent intervention designed to prevent secondary conditions in children with FASD and improve family adaptation. Thirty children with FASD or prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) (ages 4 to 8) and their primary caregivers were enrolled. Families were randomized to either the Families on Track Integrated Preventive Intervention or an active control of neuropsychological assessment and personalized community referrals. The 30-week intervention integrates scientifically validated bimonthly, in-home parent behavioral consultation, and weekly child skills groups. Outcomes measured at baseline and follow-up postintervention included intervention satisfaction, child emotional and behavioral functioning, child self-esteem, caregiver knowledge of FASD and advocacy, caregiver attitudes, use of targeted parenting practices, perceived family needs met, social support, and self-care. Data analysis emphasized calculation of effect sizes and was supplemented with analysis of variance techniques. Analyses indicated that families participating in the intervention reported high program satisfaction. Relative to comparison group outcomes, the intervention was associated with medium-to-large effects for child emotion regulation, self-esteem, and anxiety. Medium-sized improvements in disruptive behavior were observed for both groups. Medium and large effects were seen for important caregiver outcomes: knowledge of FASD and advocacy, attributions of behavior, use of antecedent strategies, parenting efficacy, family needs met, social support, and self-care. This pilot study yielded promising findings from the multicomponent Families on Track Integrated Preventive Intervention for child and caregiver outcomes. An important next step is to

  6. Alcohol Exposure In Utero and Child Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hinke Kessler Scholder, Stephanie; Wehby, George L; Lewis, Sarah; Zuccolo, Luisa

    2014-05-01

    We examine the effect of alcohol exposure in utero on child academic achievement. As well as studying the effect of any alcohol exposure, we investigate the effect of the dose, pattern , and duration of exposure. We use a genetic variant in the maternal alcohol-metabolism gene ADH1B as an instrument for alcohol exposure, whilst controlling for the child's genotype on the same variant. We show that the instrument is unrelated to an extensive range of maternal and paternal characteristics and behaviours. OLS regressions suggest an ambiguous association between alcohol exposure in utero and children's academic attainment, but there is a strong social gradient in maternal drinking, with mothers in higher socio-economic groups more likely to drink. In stark contrast to the OLS, the IV estimates show negative effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on child educational attainment. These results are very robust to an extensive set of model specifications. In addition, we show that that the effects are solely driven by the maternal genotype, with no impact of the child's genotype.

  7. Maternal Sevoflurane Exposure Causes Abnormal Development of Fetal Prefrontal Cortex and Induces Cognitive Dysfunction in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixue Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal sevoflurane exposure during pregnancy is associated with increased risk for behavioral deficits in offspring. Several studies indicated that neurogenesis abnormality may be responsible for the sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity, but the concrete impact of sevoflurane on fetal brain development remains poorly understood. We aimed to investigate whether maternal sevoflurane exposure caused learning and memory impairment in offspring through inducing abnormal development of the fetal prefrontal cortex (PFC. Pregnant mice at gestational day 15.5 received 2.5% sevoflurane for 6 h. Learning function of the offspring was evaluated with the Morris water maze test at postnatal day 30. Brain tissues of fetal mice were subjected to immunofluorescence staining to assess differentiation, proliferation, and cell cycle dynamics of the fetal PFC. We found that maternal sevoflurane anesthesia impaired learning ability in offspring through inhibiting deep-layer immature neuron output and neuronal progenitor replication. With the assessment of cell cycle dynamics, we established that these effects were mediated through cell cycle arrest in neural progenitors. Our research has provided insights into the cell cycle-related mechanisms by which maternal sevoflurane exposure can induce neurodevelopmental abnormalities and learning dysfunction and appeals people to consider the neurotoxicity of anesthetics when considering the benefits and risks of nonobstetric surgical procedures.

  8. Sympathy, shame, and few solutions: News media portrayals of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguiagaray, Ines; Scholz, Brett; Giorgi, Caterina

    2016-09-01

    there is a lack of public understanding about fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), and many countries lack policies to deal with FASD concerns. Given the role of news media in disseminating a range of health information, the aim of the current study was to explore the media coverage on alcohol use during pregnancy and FASD, and to identify ways to improve associated health messages. the current study uses a framing analysis of news media reports about FASD over a 1-year period. Framing analysis seeks to better understand how media messages serve to shape the thoughts, feelings, and decisions of readers. two frames dominated the media coverage of FASD: a frame of sympathy, and a frame of shame. Some news media encouraged feelings of sympathy for children with FASD, while others encouraged sympathy towards mothers of these children. At the same time, mothers were also portrayed as deserving of shame. the interrelated frames of sympathy and shame may confuse readers, as they inconsistently hold different parties responsible for the impact of FASD. Media portrayals that encourage women to refrain from alcohol consumption during pregnancy might be more useful than stigmatising and isolating those who do. practitioners should be aware that conflicting messages about alcohol consumption during pregnancy might lead to shame and confusion, and should encourage openness with mothers to challenge stigma. Guidelines for media reporting should discourage stigmatising frames, and media articles should also consider the role that government, non-government organisations, and the alcohol industry could play for improving FASD shame. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of the placenta in fetal exposure to heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundacker, Claudia; Hengstschläger, Markus

    2012-05-01

    The heavy metals mercury, lead, and cadmium are toxicants, which are well-known to cross the placenta and to accumulate in fetal tissues. Prenatal exposure to mercury and lead poses a health threat particularly to the developing brain. Fetal exposures to lead and cadmium correlate with reduced birth weight and birth size. The placental passage of cadmium is limited suggesting a partial barrier for this metal. It is very likely that metallothionein is responsible for placental storage of the metals especially of cadmium. It is unclear, however, which proteins are involved in placental uptake and efflux of the metals and where the transporters are located at the placental barrier. Hence, only certain aspects of placental metal toxicokinetics are known so far. The metals have also been shown to adversely affect placental functions. Both metal-specific placental transfer and impairment of placental function can explain the relationships between prenatal metal exposures and adverse effects on intrauterine growth and (neuro)development.

  10. Education, safe drinking practices and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in the Kimberley region of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Phillip S; Payne, Jennifer S

    2014-09-01

    There are alarming rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in the Kimberley region of Western Australia despite numerous international studies demonstrating the links between alcohol consumption during pregnancy and FASD. The aim of this research was to help determine factors that may be associated with correct knowledge about safe drinking practices during pregnancy, with these factors used to help inform future interventions. Ninety-nine residents (40 males, 59 females, 39% of which self-identified as Indigenous) from the Kimberley region (Broome and smaller remote communities) completed a survey examining knowledge of currently recommended safe drinking practices during pregnancy and knowledge of the outcomes for children with FASD over a period of approximately 2 months. The results revealed that education level (i.e. not completing high school through to completing university) is the biggest predictor (β = 0.44, P knowledge of safe drinking practices during pregnancy, and having heard of FASD (β = 0.67, P knowledge of outcomes for children with FASD. Other variables such as age, sex, Indigenous status and income level were not as important. These findings suggest that early education regarding the consequences of alcohol consumption for women of childbearing age should be paramount in this or similar communities. Suggestions for targeted interventions are discussed in light of these findings. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. Indicated Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in South Africa: Effectiveness of Case Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene M. de Vries

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Western Cape Province of South Africa (ZA a subculture of binge drinking produces the highest global documented prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. FASD prevention research activities in ZA use the Comprehensive Prevention approach from the United States Institute of Medicine. Case management (CM was delivered as a method of indicated prevention to empower heavy drinking pregnant women to achieve cessation or a reduction in drinking. CM activities incorporated life management, Motivational Interviewing (MI techniques and the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA. Data were collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Mean drinking decreases 6 months into CM; but overall alcohol consumption rose significantly over time to levels higher than baseline at 12 and 18 months. Alcohol consumption drops significantly from before pregnancy to the second and third trimesters. AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking decreases significantly even after the vulnerable fetus/baby was born. CM significantly increases client happiness, which correlates with reduced weekend drinking. CM was successful for women with high-risk drinking behaviour, and was effective in helping women stop drinking, or drink less, while pregnant, reducing the risk of FASD.

  12. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Current Canadian Efforts and Analysis of Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Poole

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective prevention of risky alcohol use in pregnancy involves much more than providing information about the risk of potential birth defects and developmental disabilities in children. To categorize the breadth of possible initiatives, Canadian experts have identified a four-part framework for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD prevention: Level 1, public awareness and broad health promotion; Level 2, conversations about alcohol with women of childbearing age and their partners; Level 3, specialized support for pregnant women; and Level 4, postpartum support for new mothers. In order to describe the level of services across Canada, 50 Canadian service providers, civil servants, and researchers working in the area of FASD prevention were involved in an online Delphi survey process to create a snapshot of current FASD prevention efforts, identify gaps, and provide ideas on how to close these gaps to improve FASD prevention. Promising Canadian practices and key areas for future action are described. Overall, Canadian FASD prevention programming reflects evidence-based practices; however, there are many opportunities to improve scope and availability of these initiatives.

  13. Cohesive Referencing Errors During Narrative Production as Clinical Evidence of Central Nervous System Abnormality in School-Aged Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, John C; Coggins, Truman E

    2016-11-01

    Previous evidence suggests that cohesive referencing errors made during narratives may be a behavior that is revealing of underlying central nervous system abnormality in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The current research extends this evidence. Retrospective analysis of narrative and clinical data from 152 children (ages 6 to 14), 72 of whom had confirmed FASD, was used. Narrative analysis was conducted blind to diagnostic status, age, or gender. Group performance was compared. The associations between measures of cohesive referencing and clinically gathered indices of the degree of central nervous system abnormality were examined. Results show clear associations between elevated rates of cohesive referencing errors and central nervous system abnormality. Elevated error rates were more common in children with FASD than those without, and prevalence increased predictably across groups with more severe central nervous system abnormality. Risk is particularly elevated for those with microcephaly or a diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome. Cohesive referencing errors during narrative are a viable behavioral marker of the kinds of central nervous system abnormality associated with prenatal alcohol exposure, having significant potential to become a valuable diagnostic and research tool.

  14. Variability in Classroom Social Communication: Performance of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellmer, Liselotte; Olswang, Lesley B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined how variability in classroom social communication performance differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and pair-matched, typically developing peers. Method: Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms, 40 min per day (20 min per child) for 4 days over a…

  15. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meintjes, E M; Narr, K L; van der Kouwe, A J W; Molteno, C D; Pirnia, T; Gutman, B; Woods, R P; Thompson, P M; Jacobson, J L; Jacobson, S W

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM) methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6-11.0 years) and controls (n = 16, 9.5-11.0 years). Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1) the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2) the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3) the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4) the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA) regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent.

  16. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Meintjes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6–11.0 years and controls (n = 16, 9.5–11.0 years. Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1 the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2 the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3 the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4 the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent.

  17. Associations of light and moderate maternal alcohol consumption with fetal growth characteristics in different periods of pregnancy: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Rachel; Pluimgraaff, Liane E; Steegers, Eric A P; Raat, Hein; Tiemeier, Henning; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2010-06-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption during pregnancy has adverse effects on fetal growth and development. Less consistent associations have been shown for the associations of light-to-moderate maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy with health outcomes in the offspring. Therefore, we examined the associations of light-to-moderate maternal alcohol consumption with various fetal growth characteristics measured in different periods of pregnancy. This study was based on 7333 pregnant women participating in a population-based cohort study. Alcohol consumption habits and fetal growth were assessed in early (gestational age or =25 weeks). We assessed the effects of different categories of alcohol consumption (no; less than one drink per week; one to three drinks per week; four to six drinks per week; one drink per day and two to three drinks per day) on repeatedly measured fetal head circumference, abdominal circumference and femur length. In total, 37% of all mothers continued alcohol consumption during pregnancy, of whom the majority used less than three drinks per week. We observed no differences in growth rates of fetal head circumference, abdominal circumference or femur length between mothers with and without continued alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Compared with mothers without alcohol consumption, mothers with continued alcohol consumption during pregnancy had an increased fetal weight gain [difference 0.61 g (95% confidence interval: 0.18, 1.04) per week]. Cross-sectional analyses in mid- and late pregnancy showed no consistent associations between the number of alcoholic consumptions and fetal growth characteristics. All analyses were adjusted for potential confounders. Light-to-moderate maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy does not adversely affect fetal growth characteristics. Further studies are needed to assess whether moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy influences organ growth and function in postnatal life.

  18. Fetal exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cech, R; Leitgeb, N; Pediaditis, M

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the interaction of low frequency electric and magnetic fields with pregnant women and in particular with the fetus, an anatomical voxel model of an 89 kg woman at week 30 of pregnancy was developed. Intracorporal electric current density distributions due to exposure to homogeneous 50 Hz electric and magnetic fields were calculated and results were compared with basic restrictions recommended by ICNIRP guidelines. It could be shown that the basic restriction is met within the central nervous system (CNS) of the mother at exposure to reference level of either electric or magnetic fields. However, within the fetus the basic restriction is considerably exceeded. Revision of reference levels might be necessary

  19. TLR4 response mediates ethanol-induced neurodevelopment alterations in a model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, María; Montesinos, Jorge; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Forteza, Jerónimo; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Guerri, Consuelo

    2017-07-24

    Inflammation during brain development participates in the pathogenesis of early brain injury and cognitive dysfunctions. Prenatal ethanol exposure affects the developing brain and causes neural impairment, cognitive and behavioral effects, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Our previous studies demonstrate that ethanol activates the innate immune response and TLR4 receptor and causes neuroinflammation, brain damage, and cognitive defects in the developmental brain stage of adolescents. We hypothesize that by activating the TLR4 response, maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy triggers the release of cytokines and chemokines in both the maternal sera and brains of fetuses/offspring, which impairs brain ontogeny and causes cognitive dysfunction. WT and TLR4-KO female mice treated with or without 10% ethanol in the drinking water during gestation and lactation were used. Cytokine/chemokine levels were determined by ELISA in the amniotic fluid, maternal serum, and cerebral cortex, as well as in the offspring cerebral cortex. Microglial and neuronal markers (evaluated by western blotting), myelin proteins (immunohistochemical and western blotting) and synaptic parameters (western blotting and electron microscopy) were assessed in the cortices of the WT and TLR4-KO pups on PND 0, 20, and 66. Behavioral tests (elevated plus maze and passive avoidance) were performed in the WT and TLR4-KO mice on PND 66 exposed or not to ethanol. We show that alcohol intake during gestation and lactation increases the levels of several cytokines/chemokines (IL-1β, IL-17, MIP-1α, and fractalkine) in the maternal sera, amniotic fluid, and brains of fetuses and offspring. The upregulation of cytokines/chemokines is associated with an increase in activated microglia markers (CD11b and MHC-II), and with a reduction in some synaptic (synaptotagmin, synapsin IIa) and myelin (MBP, PLP) proteins in the brains of offspring on days 0, 20, and 66 (long-term effects

  20. Pierre Robin sequence associated with first trimester fetal tamoxifen exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel C; Clericuzio, Carol L

    2008-08-15

    Tamoxifen is a nonsteroidal antiestrogen used as the current adjuvant endocrine treatment of choice for premenopausal women treated for breast cancer and its potential for causing fetal harm during pregnancy remains inconclusive. While the evidence of tamoxifen's effects on humans in utero is minimal, animal studies have shown evidence of teratogenicity, hence the FDA's class D categorization of the drug. In 1994 Cullins et al. published a case report entitled "Goldenhar's Syndrome Associated with Tamoxifen Given to the Mother During Gestation." At the time of publication, the authors noted that the manufacturer of tamoxifen knew of two cases associated with tamoxifen administration which resulted in congenital craniofacial defects. Cullins' case of Goldenhar syndrome is also a craniofacial disorder and thus represented the third such case. We report on the fourth case of a tamoxifen-associated craniofacial anomaly. The mother became pregnant while undergoing tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer. A child with severe micrognathia and cleft palate was born. It is noteworthy that the two patterns of craniofacial malformations in tamoxifen exposed infants--Goldenhar syndrome in Cullins' et al. case and Pierre Robin sequence reported here--have also both been observed in isotretinoin exposed infants. While a larger spectrum of anomalies is characteristic of retinoic acid embryopathy, the specific craniofacial anomalies include facial asymmetry, microtia, micrognatha and U-shaped cleft of the secondary palate, that is, malformations seen in the two tamoxifen exposed infants. Therefore, it is conceivable that these two agents could produce comparable embryotoxic effects if they function in a like way during embryogenesis. While the majority of tamoxifen exposed infants are normal, the ascertainment of teratogenic effects from tamoxifen will best be determined by data from teratogen registries. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Acute Effects of Viral Exposure on P-Glycoprotein Function in the Mouse Fetal Blood-Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrrico Bloise

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Viral infection during pregnancy is known to affect the fetal brain. The toll-like receptor (TLR-3 is a pattern recognition receptor activated by viruses known to elicit adverse fetal neurological outcomes. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp efflux transporter protects the developing fetus by limiting the transfer of substrates across both the placenta and the fetal blood-brain barrier (BBB. As such, inhibition of P-gp at these blood-barrier sites may result in increased exposure of the developing fetus to environmental toxins and xenobiotics present in the maternal circulation. We hypothesized that viral exposure during pregnancy would impair P-gp function in the placenta and in the developing BBB. Here we investigated whether the TLR-3 ligand, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C, increased accumulation of one P-gp substrate in the fetus and in the developing fetal brain. Methods: Pregnant C57BL/6 mice (GD15.5 were injected (i.p. with PolyI:C (5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg or vehicle (saline. [3H]digoxin (P-gp substrate was injected (i.v. 3 or 23h post-treatment and animals were euthanized 1h later. Maternal plasma, ‘fetal-units’ (fetal membranes, amniotic fluid and whole fetus, and fetal brains were collected. Results: PolyI:C exposure (4h significantly elevated maternal plasma IL-6 (P<0.001 and increased [3H]digoxin accumulation in the fetal brain (P<0.05. In contrast, 24h after PolyI:C exposure, no effect on IL-6 or fetal brain accumulation of P-gp substrate was observed. Conclusion: Viral infection modeled by PolyI:C causes acute increases in fetal brain accumulation of P-gp substrates and by doing so, may increase fetal brain exposure to xenobiotics and environmental toxins present in the maternal circulation.

  2. Knowledge and attitudes of criminal justice professionals in relation to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Lori Vitale; Clairmont, Donald; Cox, Seamus

    2008-01-01

    Results of a provincial survey of Judges and Crown Prosecutors to determine specifically, their attitudes, knowledge, behaviors and training needs related to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. In general, the survey results suggest that while aware of some aspects of FASD, Judges and Prosecutors both desire and need more education and training to support them in their work with individuals with FASD who come into conflict with the law. The findings also suggest that access to accurate and timely assessment and diagnoses of FASD would be beneficial. Survey findings point to the need for specific action to improve the ability of Judges and Prosecutors to recognize and to work with people affected by FASD in the Criminal Justice System. The results further indicate the need for changes and improvements in several areas regarding legal policy issues, research, and professional education and practice.

  3. Virtual Sensorimotor Training for Balance: Pilot Study Results for Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Westcott McCoy, Sarah; Price, Robert; Ciol, Marcia A; Hsu, Lin-Ya; Kartin, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of Sensorimotor Training to Affect Balance, Engagement, and Learning (STABEL), a virtual reality system to train sensory adaptation for balance control, for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Twenty-three children with FASDs received STABEL training in a university laboratory, or home, or were controls. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd edition (MABC-2) and Pediatric Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction for Balance-2 (P-CTSIB-2) were analyzed by group (lab, home, and control), session (pre-STABEL, 1 week post-STABEL, and 1 month post-STABEL), and group-by-session interaction. Significant effects were group and session for MABC-2 Balance and interaction for MABC-2 Total Motor and P-CTSIB-2. Preliminary results support improved sensory adaptation, balance, and motor performance post-STABEL, which warrant further study with a larger, randomized sample.

  4. Adopted children from the former Soviet Union: are they at risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Gideon

    2013-10-01

    One of the families in my practice is considering adoption of a 2-year-old child from the former Soviet Union. The family has been reassured by the agency that a doctor will examine the child to rule out developmental delays. However, my understanding from your previous articles is that one cannot rule out fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) at that age. Are these children at increased risk of developing FASD? You are correct: FASD cannot be ruled out at 2 years of age. The risk of FASD, neglect, and abuse among children in orphanages in the former Soviet Union is high. While adoption of children with known developmental delays should be encouraged and supported, most families seek to adopt with the assumption that these children will be healthy.

  5. Influence of stress associated with chronic alcohol exposure on drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Howard C

    2017-08-01

    Stress is commonly regarded as an important trigger for relapse and a significant factor that promotes increased motivation to drink in some individuals. However, the relationship between stress and alcohol is complex, likely changing in form during the transition from early moderated alcohol use to more heavy uncontrolled alcohol intake. A growing body of evidence indicates that prolonged excessive alcohol consumption serves as a potent stressor, producing persistent dysregulation of brain reward and stress systems beyond normal homeostatic limits. This progressive dysfunctional (allostatic) state is characterized by changes in neuroendocrine and brain stress pathways that underlie expression of withdrawal symptoms that reflect a negative affective state (dysphoria, anxiety), as well as increased motivation to self-administer alcohol. This review highlights literature supportive of this theoretical framework for alcohol addiction. In particular, evidence for stress-related neural, physiological, and behavioral changes associated with chronic alcohol exposure and withdrawal experience is presented. Additionally, this review focuses on the effects of chronic alcohol-induced changes in several pro-stress neuropeptides (corticotropin-releasing factor, dynorphin) and anti-stress neuropeptide systems (nocicepton, neuropeptide Y, oxytocin) in contributing to the stress, negative emotional, and motivational consequences of chronic alcohol exposure. Studies involving use of animal models have significantly increased our understanding of the dynamic stress-related physiological mechanisms and psychological underpinnings of alcohol addiction. This, in turn, is crucial for developing new and more effective therapeutics for treating excessive, harmful drinking, particularly stress-enhanced alcohol consumption. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled "Alcoholism". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The party effect: prediction of future alcohol use based on exposure to specific alcohol advertising content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D

    2017-01-01

    To test whether exposure to party-related alcohol advertising is associated with drinking behavior in a national US sample of adolescents and young adults, independently of exposure to other alcohol advertising. Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013. All regions of the United States, participants selected via mixed-mode random-digit-dial landline and cellphone frames. A sample of 705 respondents who never had a whole drink of alcohol at baseline (mean age 16.9 years, 53.3% female) and a sample of 1036 who never had six or more drinks during one drinking occasion (mean age 17.4 years, 55.8% female). Outcome measures were onset of alcohol use and binge drinking during the study interval. Primary predictor was exposure to television alcohol advertising, operationalized as contact frequency and brand recall for 20 randomly selected alcohol advertisements. Independent post-hoc analyses classified all advertisements as 'party' or 'non-party' advertisements. Socio-demographics, sensation-seeking, alcohol expectancies and alcohol use of friends and family were assessed as covariates. Onset rates for having the first whole drink of alcohol and for first binge drinking were 49.2% and 29.5%, respectively. On average, approximately half (median = 10.2) of the 20 alcohol advertisements in each individual survey were 'party' advertisements. If both types of exposures ('party' and 'non-party') were included in the regression model, only 'party' exposure remained a significant predictor of alcohol use onset [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 19.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.72-98.79] and binge drinking onset (AOR = 3.87; 95% CI = 1.07-13.99) after covariate control. Adolescents and young adults in the United States appear to have higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking onset if they have higher exposure to alcohol advertisements using a partying theme, independently of the amount of exposure to alcohol advertisements with non

  7. Effect of Maternal ±Citalopram Exposure on P11 Expression and Neurogenesis in the Mouse Fetal Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jennifer R; Velasquez, Juan C; Torii, Masaaki; Bonnin, Alexandre

    2017-05-17

    Fetal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) has been associated with increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. In the adult brain, SSRI therapy regulates p11 (s100a10) expression and alters neurogenesis. The protein p11 indirectly regulates 5-HT signaling through 5-HT1B/D receptors. In the fetal brain, signaling through these receptors modulates axonal circuit formation. We determined whether p11 is expressed in the fetal mouse brain, and whether maternal SSRI exposure affects fetal p11 expression and neurogenesis. The SSRI ± citalopram was administered to pregnant mice from gestational day 8 to 17. Results show that p11 is expressed in fetal thalamic neurons and thalamocortical axons. Furthermore, p11 protein expression is significantly decreased in the fetal thalamus after in utero ±citalopram exposure compared to untreated controls, and neurogenesis is significantly decreased in specific fetal brain regions. These findings reveal differential regulation of p11 expression and altered neurogenesis in the fetal brain as a result of maternal SSRI exposure.

  8. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  9. Prenatal nicotinic exposure suppresses fetal adrenal steroidogenesis via steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) deacetylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, You-e; Liu, Lian; Wang, Jian-fei; Liu, Fang; Li, Xiao-hai; Qin, Hai-quan; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the suppressive effect of nicotine on fetal adrenal steroidogenesis and to explore the potential role of epigenetic modification of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) transcriptional activity in this process. Nicotine was intragastrically administered to pregnant rats and NCI-H295A cells were treated with nicotine or trichostatin A (TSA). The pathomorphology of fetal adrenals, steroid hormone levels, the expression of SF-1 and its target genes, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) mRNA were analyzed. Histone modification and DNA methylation of the SF-1 promoter region were assessed using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and bisulfite sequencing PCR. The interaction between SF1 and its target genes was observed. Prenatal nicotinic exposure decreased fetal body weight, increased the IUGR rate and caused detrimental changes in fetal adrenal. In addition, the levels of corticosterone, the expression of SF-1 and its target genes were decreased while HDAC2 expression was enhanced. Nicotine treatment decreased histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation levels while there was no effect on the methylation frequency on the SF-1 promoter region. Furthermore, in nicotine-treated NCI-H295A cells, lower levels of steroidogenic synthesis, lower expression of SF-1 and its target genes were observed while the expression of HDACs was enhanced. The interaction between SF1 and StAR decreased with nicotine treatment. Nicotine treatment decreased histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation levels, and addition of TSA reversed the inhibition of nicotine-mediated SF-1 and its partial target genes. Thus, nicotine-mediated reduction of SF-1 expression resulted in an inhibitory effect on the expression of its target genes and steroid production via histone deacetylation. - Highlights: • Prenatal nicotine-exposed suppresses fetal adrenal steroidogenesis. • Nicotine-supressed fetal adrenal steroidogenesis is related to SF-1 deacetylation. • Prenatal nicotinic exposure decreased

  10. Prenatal nicotinic exposure suppresses fetal adrenal steroidogenesis via steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) deacetylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, You-e [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Liu, Lian [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Department of Pharmacology, Medical School of Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434000 (China); Wang, Jian-fei; Liu, Fang; Li, Xiao-hai; Qin, Hai-quan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-06-15

    This study aimed to investigate the suppressive effect of nicotine on fetal adrenal steroidogenesis and to explore the potential role of epigenetic modification of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) transcriptional activity in this process. Nicotine was intragastrically administered to pregnant rats and NCI-H295A cells were treated with nicotine or trichostatin A (TSA). The pathomorphology of fetal adrenals, steroid hormone levels, the expression of SF-1 and its target genes, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) mRNA were analyzed. Histone modification and DNA methylation of the SF-1 promoter region were assessed using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and bisulfite sequencing PCR. The interaction between SF1 and its target genes was observed. Prenatal nicotinic exposure decreased fetal body weight, increased the IUGR rate and caused detrimental changes in fetal adrenal. In addition, the levels of corticosterone, the expression of SF-1 and its target genes were decreased while HDAC2 expression was enhanced. Nicotine treatment decreased histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation levels while there was no effect on the methylation frequency on the SF-1 promoter region. Furthermore, in nicotine-treated NCI-H295A cells, lower levels of steroidogenic synthesis, lower expression of SF-1 and its target genes were observed while the expression of HDACs was enhanced. The interaction between SF1 and StAR decreased with nicotine treatment. Nicotine treatment decreased histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation levels, and addition of TSA reversed the inhibition of nicotine-mediated SF-1 and its partial target genes. Thus, nicotine-mediated reduction of SF-1 expression resulted in an inhibitory effect on the expression of its target genes and steroid production via histone deacetylation. - Highlights: • Prenatal nicotine-exposed suppresses fetal adrenal steroidogenesis. • Nicotine-supressed fetal adrenal steroidogenesis is related to SF-1 deacetylation. • Prenatal nicotinic exposure decreased

  11. Turmeric Extract Rescues Ethanol-Induced Developmental Defect in the Zebrafish Model for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Connors, Craig T; Mohammed, Arooj S; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, Kathleen; Marrs, James A; Chism, Grady W

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure causes the most frequent preventable birth disorder, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The effect of turmeric extracts in rescuing an ethanol-induced developmental defect using zebrafish as a model was determined. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms underlying FASD. We hypothesize that antioxidant inducing properties of turmeric may alleviate ethanol-induced defects. Curcuminoid content of the turmeric powder extract (5 mg/mL turmeric in ethanol) was determined by UPLC and found to contain Curcumin (124.1 ± 0.2 μg/mL), Desmethoxycurcumin (43.4 ± 0.1 μg/mL), and Bisdemethoxycurcumin (36.6 ± 0.1 μg/mL). Zebrafish embryos were treated with 100 mM (0.6% v/v) ethanol during gastrulation through organogenesis (2 to 48 h postfertilization (hpf)) and supplemented with turmeric extract to obtain total curcuminoid concentrations of 0, 1.16, 1.72, or 2.32 μM. Turmeric supplementation showed significant rescue of the body length at 72 hpf compared to ethanol-treated embryos. The mechanism underlying the rescue remains to be determined. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Effects of maternal acrolein exposure during pregnancy on testicular testosterone production in fetal rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yuzhuo; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Hongliang; Hong, Kai; Tang, Wenhao; Zhao, Lianming; Lin, Haocheng; Liu, Defeng; Mao, Jiaming; Wu, Han; Jiang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Acrolein has been reported to have diverse toxic effects on various organs, including the reproductive system. However, little is known regarding the effects of maternal acrolein exposure on testicular steroidogenesis in male offspring. The present study investigated the effects of acrolein on fetal testosterone production and associated genes. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle (normal saline) or 1, 2 or 5 mg/kg acrolein from gestational day (GD) 14?20,...

  13. Disclosure and Exposure of Alcohol on Social Media and Later Alcohol Use: A Large-Scale Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilin K. Erevik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate whether alcohol-related disclosure and exposure on social media can predict later alcohol use, and to identify covariates in these relationships. Data were collected by online surveys (two waves among students in Bergen, Norway. The first survey was administered in fall 2015. The follow-up took place during fall 2016. A total of 5,217 students participated in both waves. The surveys included questions about demographics, personality, alcohol use, alcohol-related cognitions (e.g., attitudes and norms, social media use, and disclosure and exposure of alcohol on social media. Bivariate comparisons were conducted to assess differences in alcohol use between the frequent (i.e., monthly or more often disclosure and exposure groups and low-frequent disclosure and exposure groups. Crude and adjusted linear regressions were employed to investigate if disclosure and exposure of alcohol could predict later alcohol use, when controlling for a range of covariates. Compared to the low-frequent disclosure and exposure groups, participants which frequently disclosed or were frequently exposed to alcohol-related content had higher alcohol use at baseline and 1 year later (p < 0.001, when no covariates were controlled for. Frequent disclosure of content reflecting positive aspects of alcohol predicted stable or slightly increased alcohol use at Time 2 (p < 0.01, even when all covariates (i.e., demographics, personality, alcohol use, alcohol-related cognitions, and social media use were controlled for. In conclusion, frequent disclosure and/or exposure to alcohol-related content predicted alcohol use over time. Alcohol disclosure/exposure on social media could for the most part not predict later alcohol use when baseline alcohol use was controlled for. High alcohol use and alcohol disclosure/exposure on social media appear to be strongly intertwined, which hampers identification of directionality between alcohol use and disclosure/exposure

  14. Global Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Among Children and Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Shannon; Probst, Charlotte; Gmel, Gerrit; Rehm, Jürgen; Burd, Larry; Popova, Svetlana

    2017-10-01

    Prevalence estimates are essential to effectively prioritize, plan, and deliver health care to high-needs populations such as children and youth with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). However, most countries do not have population-level prevalence data for FASD. To obtain prevalence estimates of FASD among children and youth in the general population by country, by World Health Organization (WHO) region, and globally. MEDLINE, MEDLINE in process, EMBASE, Education Resource Information Center, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, PsychINFO, and Scopus were systematically searched for studies published from November 1, 1973, through June 30, 2015, without geographic or language restrictions. Original quantitative studies that reported the prevalence of FASD among children and youth in the general population, used active case ascertainment or clinic-based methods, and specified the diagnostic guideline or case definition used were included. Individual study characteristics and prevalence of FASD were extracted. Country-specific random-effects meta-analyses were conducted. For countries with 1 or no empirical study on the prevalence of FASD, this indicator was estimated based on the proportion of women who consumed alcohol during pregnancy per 1 case of FASD. Finally, WHO regional and global mean prevalence of FASD weighted by the number of live births in each country was estimated. Prevalence of FASD. A total of 24 unique studies including 1416 unique children and youth diagnosed with FASD (age range, 0-16.4 years) were retained for data extraction. The global prevalence of FASD among children and youth in the general population was estimated to be 7.7 per 1000 population (95% CI, 4.9-11.7 per 1000 population). The WHO European Region had the highest prevalence (19.8 per 1000 population; 95% CI, 14.1-28.0 per 1000 population), and the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region had the lowest (0.1 per 1000 population; 95% CI, 0

  15. The Marulu Strategy 2008-2012: overcoming Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in the Fitzroy Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, James P; Oscar, June; Carter, Maureen; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Latimer, Jane; Wright, Edie; Boulton, John

    2017-10-01

    Aboriginal leaders concerned about high rates of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in the Fitzroy Valley, remote north-western Australia, introduced restrictions on access to take-away full-strength alcohol. Following this, Aboriginal leaders engaged strategic partners in a broader strategy to address FASD in the region. The aim of this study was to develop and implement a community-led, researcher-supported, FASD strategy. A review of literature focusing on community-led FASD strategies identified key components that informed the Marulu FASD strategy. These included strategy ownership, leadership, and governance by participating communities, and a research framework. Community meetings and workshops led to the development of The Marulu FASD Strategy (2008). Feasibility and community consent to conduct a FASD prevalence study (the Lililwan Project) was confirmed, and implementation was progressed (2010-2013). Concurrent FASD prevention activities were conducted. In 2012, the Marulu FASD Unit was established within a local Aboriginal organisation to sustain and coordinate ongoing strategy activities. Community control of public health initiatives can be achieved when Aboriginal communities prioritise issues of significant concern, and engage strategic partners to overcome them. Implications for public health: The Marulu Strategy forms a template for action to address FASD and other public health issues in Aboriginal communities in Australia and internationally. © 2017 The Authors.

  16. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Population Based Study of Premature Mortality Rates in the Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Fisher, Wayne W.; Peng, Chun-Zi; Williams, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with an increase in risk for mortality for people with an FASD and their siblings. In this study we examine mortality rates of birth mothers of children with FASD, using a retrospective case control methodology. We utilized the North Dakota FASD Registry to locate birth certificates for children with FASD which we used to identify birth mothers. We then searched for mothers’ death certificates. We then compared the mortality rates of the birth mothers with an age matched control group comprised of all North Dakota women who were born and died in the same year as the birth mother. The birth mothers of children with FASD had a mortality rate of 15/304 = 4.93%; (95% CI 2.44–7.43%). The mortality rate for control mothers born in same years as the FASD mothers was 126/114,714 = 0.11% (95% CI 0.09–0.13%). Mothers of children with an FASD had a 44.82 fold increase in mortality risk and 87% of the deaths occurred in women under the age of 50. Three causes of death (cancer, injuries, and alcohol related disease) accounted for 67% of the deaths in the mothers of children with FASD. A diagnosis of FASD is an important risk marker for premature death in the mothers of children diagnosed with an FASD. These women should be encouraged to enter substance abuse treatment. PMID:21710184

  17. Maternal Exposure to Bisphenol-A and Fetal Growth Restriction: A Case-Referent Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Burstyn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a case-referent study of the effect of exposure to bisphenol-A on fetal growth in utero in full-term, live-born singletons in Alberta, Canada. Newborns <10 percentile of expected weight for gestational age and sex were individually matched on sex, maternal smoking and maternal age to referents with weight appropriate to gestational age. Exposure of the fetus to bisphenol-A was estimated from maternal serum collected at 15–16 weeks of gestation. We pooled sera across subjects for exposure assessment, stratified on case-referent status and sex. Individual 1:1 matching was maintained in assembling 69 case and 69 referent pools created from 550 case-referent pairs. Matched pools had an equal number of aliquots from individual women. We used an analytical strategy conditioning on matched set and total pool-level values of covariates to estimate individual-level effects. Pools of cases and referents had identical geometric mean bisphenol-A concentrations (0.5 ng/mL and similar geometric standard deviations (2.3–2.5. Mean difference in concentration between matched pools was 0 ng/mL, standard deviation: 1 ng/mL. Stratification by sex and control for confounding did not suggest bisphenol-A increased fetal growth restriction. Our analysis does not provide evidence to support the hypothesis that bisphenol-A contributes to fetal growth restriction in full-term singletons.

  18. The margin of exposure to formaldehyde in alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Jendral, Julien A; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2012-06-01

    Formaldehyde has been classified as carcinogenic to humans (WHO IARC group 1). It causes leukaemia and nasopharyngeal cancer, and was described to regularly occur in alcoholic beverages. However, its risk associated with consumption of alcohol has not been systematically studied, so this study will provide the first risk assessment of formaldehyde for consumers of alcoholic beverages.Human dietary intake of formaldehyde via alcoholic beverages in the European Union was estimated based on WHO alcohol consumption data and literature on formaldehyde contents of different beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits, and unrecorded alcohol). The risk assessment was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach with benchmark doses (BMD) for 10 % effect obtained from dose-response modelling of animal experiments.For tumours in male rats, a BMD of 30 mg kg(-1) body weight per day and a "BMD lower confidence limit" (BMDL) of 23 mg kg(-1) d(-1) were calculated from available long-term animal experiments. The average human exposure to formaldehyde from alcoholic beverages was estimated at 8·10(-5) mg kg(-1) d(-1). Comparing the human exposure with BMDL, the resulting MOE was above 200,000 for average scenarios. Even in the worst-case scenarios, the MOE was never below 10,000, which is considered to be the threshold for public health concerns.The risk assessment shows that the cancer risk from formaldehyde to the alcohol-consuming population is negligible and the priority for risk management (e.g. to reduce the contamination) is very low. The major risk in alcoholic beverages derives from ethanol and acetaldehyde.

  19. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure, ADHD, and Sluggish Cognitive Tempo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Diana M.; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Roesch, Scott C.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure often meet criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD research has examined subtype differences in symptomology, including sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT). This construct is defined by behavioral symptoms including, hypoactivity and daydreaming, and has been linked to increased internalizing behaviors. The current study examined if similar findings are displayed in children with prenatal alcohol exposure. Methods As part of a multisite study, caregivers of 272 children (8–16y) completed the SCT scale and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Four groups were included: alcohol-exposed children with ADHD (ALC+; n=75), alcohol-exposed children without ADHD (ALC−; n=35), non-exposed children with ADHD (ADHD; n=60), and non-exposed children without ADHD (CON; n=102). SCT and CBCL scores were analyzed using 2 (exposure) × 2 (ADHD) ANOVAs. Pearson correlations measured the relations between SCT, CBCL, and FSIQ. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) examined if SCT items could accurately classify groups. Results Analyses revealed significant main effects of Exposure and ADHD on SCT, internalizing, and externalizing scores, and significant interaction effects on SCT and internalizing scores. SCT significantly correlated with internalizing, externalizing, and attention ratings in all groups and with FSIQ in ALC+. DFA indicated that specific SCT items could distinguish ALC− from CON. Conclusions Alcohol-exposed children exhibited elevated SCT scores. Elevations were related to increased parent ratings of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and attention. These findings occurred in alcohol-exposed children regardless of ADHD symptoms and specific SCT items proved useful in distinguishing exposed children suggesting clinical utility for this measure in further defining the neurobehavioral profile related to prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:22817778

  20. Alcohol-Derived Acetaldehyde Exposure in the Oral Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidolin, Valeria; Balbo, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    Alcohol is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a human carcinogen and its consumption has been associated to an increased risk of liver, breast, colorectum, and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers. Its mechanisms of carcinogenicity remain unclear and various hypotheses have been formulated depending on the target organ considered. In the case of UADT cancers, alcohol’s major metabolite acetaldehyde seems to play a crucial role. Acetaldehyde reacts with DNA inducing modifications, which, if not repaired, can result in mutations and lead to cancer development. Despite alcohol being mainly metabolized in the liver, several studies performed in humans found higher levels of acetaldehyde in saliva compared to those found in blood immediately after alcohol consumption. These results suggest that alcohol-derived acetaldehyde exposure may occur in the oral cavity independently from liver metabolism. This hypothesis is supported by our recent results showing the presence of acetaldehyde-related DNA modifications in oral cells of monkeys and humans exposed to alcohol, overall suggesting that the alcohol metabolism in the oral cavity is an independent cancer risk factor. This review article will focus on illustrating the factors modulating alcohol-derived acetaldehyde exposure and effects in the oral cavity. PMID:29342885

  1. Psychological distress among Plains Indian mothers with children referred to screening for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Tassy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological distress (PD includes symptoms of depression and anxiety and is associated with considerable emotional suffering, social dysfunction and, often, with problematic alcohol use. The rate of current PD among American Indian women is approximately 2.5 times higher than that of U.S. women in general. Our study aims to fill the current knowledge gap about the prevalence and characteristics of PD and its association with self-reported current drinking problems among American Indian mothers whose children were referred to screening for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Methods Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was conducted from maternal interviews of referred American Indian mothers (n = 152 and a comparison group of mothers (n = 33 from the same Plains culture tribes who participated in an NIAAA-funded epidemiology study of FASD. Referred women were from one of six Plains Indian reservation communities and one urban area who bore children suspected of having an FASD. A 6-item PD scale (PD-6, Cronbach's alpha = .86 was constructed with a summed score range of 0-12 and a cut-point of 7 indicating serious PD. Multiple statistical tests were used to examine the characteristics of PD and its association with self-reported current drinking problems. Results Referred and comparison mothers had an average age of 31.3 years but differed (respectively on: education ( Conclusions Psychological distress among referred mothers is significantly associated with having a self-reported drinking problem. FASD prevention requires multi-level prevention efforts that provide real opportunities for educational attainment and screening and monitoring of PD and alcohol use during the childbearing years. Mixed methods studies are needed to illuminate the social and cultural determinants at the base of the experience of PD and to identify the strengths and protective factors of unaffected peers who reside within the same

  2. Prenatal caffeine exposure induced a lower level of fetal blood leptin mainly via placental mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yi-meng; Luo, Han-wen; Kou, Hao; Wen, Yin-xian; Shen, Lang; Pei, Ling-guo; Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Yuan-zhen; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    It's known that blood leptin level is reduced in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) fetus, and placental leptin is the major source of fetal blood leptin. This study aimed to investigate the decreased fetal blood leptin level by prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) and its underlying placental mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered caffeine (30–120 mg/kg day) from gestational day 9 to 20. The level of fetal serum leptin and the expression of placental leptin-related genes were analyzed. Furthermore, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the reduced placental leptin's expression by treatment with caffeine (0.8–20 μM) in the BeWo cells. In vivo, PCE significantly decreased fetal serum leptin level in caffeine dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, placental mRNA expression of adenosine A2a receptor (Adora2a), cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), a short-type leptin receptor (Ob-Ra) and leptin was reduced in the PCE groups. In vitro, caffeine significantly decreased the mRNA expression of leptin, CREB and ADORA2A in concentration and time-dependent manners. The addition of ADORA2A agonist or adenylyl cyclase (AC) agonist reversed the inhibition of leptin expression induced by caffeine. PCE induced a lower level of fetal blood leptin, which the primary mechanism is that caffeine inhibited antagonized Adora2a and AC activities to decreased cAMP synthesis, thus inhibited the expression of the transcription factor CREB and target gene leptin in the placenta. Meantime, the reduced transportation of maternal leptin by placental Ob-Ra also contributed to the reduced fetal blood leptin. Together, PCE decreased fetal blood leptin mainly via reducing the expression and transportation of leptin in the placenta. - Highlights: • Caffeine reduced fetal blood leptin level. • Caffeine inhibited placental leptin production and transport. • Caffeine down-regulated placental leptin expression via antagonizing ADORA2. • Caffeine

  3. Effects of exposure to radiation during the fetal period on behavior and growth in baby mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Ichiro; Kameyama, Yoshiro

    1979-01-01

    In order to study the effects of exposure to a small dose of radiation during the fetal period upon behavior and growth, 2 groups of 13-day-old fetal mice were irradiated. One group consisted of 18 fetal mice given 25 R and the other of 15 given 100 R. The control group consisted of 18 fetal mice 13 days old. After birth they were all placed in the center of an open area (50 x 50 x 25 cm) for 3 minutes so as to determine the number of squares traversed ad lib. (the number which their extremities traversed for 3 minutes) and the time day when they began walking and grooming. After they were observed for 3 minutes, the time at which reflex actions such as speedy righting and auditory startle were observed was confirmed. There were no differnces between the 25 R-irradiated group and the control group. In the 100 R-irradiated group, walking was observed earlier than in the control group, and the number of squares traversed increased. (Ichikawa, K.)

  4. Motor response programming and movement time in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Roger W; Thomas, Jennifer D; Levy, Susan S; Riley, Edward P

    2010-06-01

    The present experiment assessed motor response programming and movement time in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PEA). Alcohol-exposed children between the ages of 7 and 17 years were classified into two groups: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS: n=9) and children with PEA (PEA: n=19) but who did not have the defining characteristics of FAS. The FAS and PEA children were compared with non-alcohol-exposed children (NC: n=23) when completing two tasks: a simple reaction time task (RT alone condition) and a reaction plus movement task (RT+Move condition). The movement involved responding to an imperative stimulus signal and depressing three target buttons in a set sequence. Participants completed 24 trials each for the RT alone and RT+Move response conditions. Results indicated no significant differences in performance among FAS, PEA, and NC groups during the RT alone condition. However, during the RT+Move condition, the FAS group produced significantly longer and more variable RTs than the PEA and NC groups, which produced comparable RTs. The FAS group also produced significantly slower movement times when moving to all three targets, whereas movement time variability did not significantly differ as a function of group. The observed results indicate children with FAS experience deficits in response programming and movement time production. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prediction of Fetal Darunavir Exposure by Integrating Human Ex-Vivo Placental Transfer and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalkwijk, Stein; Buaben, Aaron O; Freriksen, Jolien J M; Colbers, Angela P; Burger, David M; Greupink, Rick; Russel, Frans G M

    2017-07-25

    Fetal antiretroviral exposure is usually derived from the cord-to-maternal concentration ratio. This static parameter does not provide information on the pharmacokinetics in utero, limiting the assessment of a fetal exposure-effect relationship. The aim of this study was to incorporate placental transfer into a pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to simulate and evaluate fetal darunavir exposure at term. An existing and validated pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of maternal darunavir/ritonavir exposure was extended with a feto-placental unit. To parameterize the model, we determined maternal-to-fetal and fetal-to-maternal darunavir/ritonavir placental clearance with an ex-vivo human cotyledon perfusion model. Simulated maternal and fetal pharmacokinetic profiles were compared with observed clinical data to qualify the model for simulation. Next, population fetal pharmacokinetic profiles were simulated for different maternal darunavir/ritonavir dosing regimens. An average (±standard deviation) maternal-to-fetal cotyledon clearance of 0.91 ± 0.11 mL/min and fetal-to-maternal clearance of 1.6 ± 0.3 mL/min was determined (n = 6 perfusions). Scaled placental transfer was integrated into the pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. For darunavir 600/100 mg twice a day, the predicted fetal maximum plasma concentration, trough concentration, time to maximum plasma concentration, and half-life were 1.1, 0.57 mg/L, 3, and 21 h, respectively. This indicates that the fetal population trough concentration is higher or around the half-maximal effective darunavir concentration for a resistant virus (0.55 mg/L). The results indicate that the population fetal exposure after oral maternal darunavir dosing is therapeutic and this may provide benefits to the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Moreover, this integrated approach provides a tool to prevent fetal toxicity or

  6. High Fat Diet Exposure during Fetal Life Enhances Plasma and Hepatic Omega-6 Fatty Acid Profiles in Fetal Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cerf, Marlon E.; Louw, Johan; Herrera, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Pregnant rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for the first (HF1), second (HF2), third (HF3) or all three weeks (HFG) of gestation. Maintenance on a HFD during specific periods of gestation was hypothesized to alter fetal glycemia, insulinemia, induce insulin resistance; and alter fetal plasma and hepatic fatty acid (FA) profiles. At day 20 of gestation, fetal plasma and hepatic FA profiles were determined by gas chromatography; body weight, fasting glycemia, insulinemia and the Homeostasis Mo...

  7. Disclosure and Exposure of Alcohol on Social Media and Later Alcohol Use: A Large-Scale Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erevik, Eilin K; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Andreassen, Cecilie S; Vedaa, Øystein; Pallesen, Ståle

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to investigate whether alcohol-related disclosure and exposure on social media can predict later alcohol use, and to identify covariates in these relationships. Data were collected by online surveys (two waves) among students in Bergen, Norway. The first survey was administered in fall 2015. The follow-up took place during fall 2016. A total of 5,217 students participated in both waves. The surveys included questions about demographics, personality, alcohol use, alcohol-related cognitions (e.g., attitudes and norms), social media use, and disclosure and exposure of alcohol on social media. Bivariate comparisons were conducted to assess differences in alcohol use between the frequent (i.e., monthly or more often) disclosure and exposure groups and low-frequent disclosure and exposure groups. Crude and adjusted linear regressions were employed to investigate if disclosure and exposure of alcohol could predict later alcohol use, when controlling for a range of covariates. Compared to the low-frequent disclosure and exposure groups, participants which frequently disclosed or were frequently exposed to alcohol-related content had higher alcohol use at baseline and 1 year later ( p disclosure of content reflecting positive aspects of alcohol predicted stable or slightly increased alcohol use at Time 2 ( p social media use) were controlled for. In conclusion, frequent disclosure and/or exposure to alcohol-related content predicted alcohol use over time. Alcohol disclosure/exposure on social media could for the most part not predict later alcohol use when baseline alcohol use was controlled for. High alcohol use and alcohol disclosure/exposure on social media appear to be strongly intertwined, which hampers identification of directionality between alcohol use and disclosure/exposure. Disclosing content reflecting positive aspects of alcohol was the only independent variable that could predict further alcohol use when other factors, like baseline alcohol

  8. Examining the Impact of Alcohol and Other Drug Education Exposure on Student Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merianos, Ashley L; Barry, Adam E

    2017-01-01

    This investigation examined the association between alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention/education programs and drinking behaviors among students aged 12 to 17 years. We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health ( N = 17,736). AOD prevention/education was assessed in three school settings: special class, regular class, and outside regular class. Outcome variables included past year alcohol use and current heavy episodic drinking. Associations were assessed via one-way analyses of variance and multiple regression models. There was a significant effect of program exposure on alcohol use ( p<.001) and heavy episodic drinking ( p = .002). Regression results found AOD prevention/education exposure ( p = .004) was significant, indicating that exposure decreased past year use. No difference was found based on heavy episodic drinking. Increasing exposure to AOD prevention/education programs is warranted and encouraged.

  9. Oxytocin-Motivated Ally Selection is Moderated by Fetal Testosterone Exposure and Empathic Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska Esther Kret

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In humans, the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin shifts the individual’s focus on self-interest towards group-serving cognitions and decision making. Here we examine this general tendency in the context of group formation, where individuals included into their group (or not 18 targets morphed as having low or high-threat potential (with high-threat targets being beneficial to group-interests but potentially hurting the recruiter’s self-interest. Ninety healthy males self-administered oxytocin or placebo in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study design, had their hands scanned to derive fetal testosterone vs. estradiol exposure from their 2D:4D ratio, and self-reported on their chronic empathic concern. Multilevel regression models revealed that when given oxytocin rather than placebo, individuals with low fetal testosterone priming included low-threat targets more and high-threat targets (somewhat less. Individuals with high fetal testosterone (i.e., low estradiol exposure, however, included high-threat targets more, and low-threat targets less when given oxytocin rather than placebo. Second, when given oxytocin rather than placebo, individuals with low empathic concern included low-threat targets more and high-threat targets less. Individuals with high empathic concern, however, included high-threat targets more, and low-threat targets less when given oxytocin rather than placebo. We conclude that oxytocin shifts the individual’s focus from self to group-serving cognition and decision making, and that these tendencies are stronger for males with high rather than low fetal testosterone exposure, and high rather than low empathic concern. Implications and avenues for future research are discussed.

  10. Effects of Exposure to Acetaminophen and Ibuprofen on Fetal Germ Cell Development in Both Sexes in Rodent and Human Using Multiple Experimental Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurtado-Gonzalez, Pablo; Anderson, Richard A; Macdonald, Joni

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Analgesic exposure during pregnancy may affect aspects of fetal gonadal development that are targeted by endocrine disruptors. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether therapeutically relevant doses of acetaminophen and ibuprofen affect germ cell (GC) development in human fetal testes/ovar...

  11. Maternal Exposure to Childhood Trauma Is Associated During Pregnancy With Placental-Fetal Stress Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, Nora K; Buss, Claudia; Entringer, Sonja; Shahbaba, Babak; Gillen, Daniel L; Hobel, Calvin J; Wadhwa, Pathik D

    2016-05-15

    The effects of exposure to childhood trauma (CT) may be transmitted across generations; however, the time period(s) and mechanism(s) have yet to be clarified. We address the hypothesis that intergenerational transmission may begin during intrauterine life via the effect of maternal CT exposure on placental-fetal stress physiology, specifically placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (pCRH). The study was conducted in a sociodemographically diverse cohort of 295 pregnant women. CT exposure was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Placental CRH concentrations were quantified in maternal blood collected serially over the course of gestation. Linear mixed effects and Bayesian piece-wise linear models were employed to test hypothesized relationships. Maternal CT exposure (CT+) was significantly associated with pCRH production. Compared with nonexposed women, CT+ was associated with an almost 25% increase in pCRH toward the end of gestation, and the pCRH trajectory of CT+ women exhibited an approximately twofold steeper increase after the pCRH inflection point at 19 weeks gestation. To the best of our knowledge, this finding represents the first report linking maternal CT exposure with placental-fetal stress physiology, thus identifying a potential novel biological pathway of intergenerational transmission that may operate as early as during intrauterine life. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preconception care: caffeine, smoking, alcohol, drugs and other environmental chemical/radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Imam, Ayesha M; Dean, Sohni V; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-09-26

    As providing health education, optimizing nutrition, and managing risk factors can be effective for ensuring a healthy outcome for women and her yet un-conceived baby, external influences play a significant role as well. Alcohol, smoking, caffeine use and other similar lifestyle factors, have now become an integral part of the daily life of most men and women, who use/misuse one or more of these harmful substances regularly despite knowledge of their detrimental effects. The adverse health outcomes of these voluntary and involuntary exposures are of even greater concern in women of child bearing age where the exposure has the potential of inflicting harm to two generations. This paper is examining the available literature for the possible effects of caffeine consumption, smoking, alcohol or exposure to chemicals may have on the maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception usage of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol and other illicit drugs; and exposure to environmental chemicals and radiant on MNCH outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Heavy maternal preconception caffeine intake of >300 mg/d significantly increase the risk of a subsequent fetal loss by 31% (95% CI: 8-58%). On the other hand, preconception alcohol consumption leads to non-significant 30% increase in spontaneous abortion (RR 1.30; 95% CI: 0.85-1.97). Preconception counselling can lead to a significant decrease in the consumption of alcohol during the first trimester (OR 1.79; 95% CI: 1.08-2.97). Periconception smoking, on the other hand, was found to be associated with an almost 3 times increased risk of congenital heart defects (OR 2.80; 95% CI 1

  13. Fetal cyclophosphamide exposure induces testicular cancer and reduced spermatogenesis and ovarian follicle numbers in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B Comish

    Full Text Available Exposure to radiation during fetal development induces testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT and reduces spermatogenesis in mice. However, whether DNA damaging chemotherapeutic agents elicit these effects in mice remains unclear. Among such agents, cyclophosphamide (CP is currently used to treat breast cancer in pregnant women, and the effects of fetal exposure to this drug manifested in the offspring must be better understood to offer such patients suitable counseling. The present study was designed to determine whether fetal exposure to CP induces testicular cancer and/or gonadal toxicity in 129 and in 129.MOLF congenic (L1 mice. Exposure to CP on embryonic days 10.5 and 11.5 dramatically increased TGCT incidence to 28% in offspring of 129 mice (control value, 2% and to 80% in the male offspring of L1 (control value 33%. These increases are similar to those observed in both lines of mice by radiation. In utero exposure to CP also significantly reduced testis weights at 4 weeks of age to ∼ 70% of control and induced atrophic seminiferous tubules in ∼ 30% of the testes. When the in utero CP-exposed 129 mice reached adulthood, there were significant reductions in testicular and epididymal sperm counts to 62% and 70%, respectively, of controls. In female offspring, CP caused the loss of 77% of primordial follicles and increased follicle growth activation. The results indicate that i DNA damage is a common mechanism leading to induction of testicular cancer, ii increased induction of testis cancer by external agents is proportional to the spontaneous incidence due to inherent genetic susceptibility, and iii children exposed to radiation or DNA damaging chemotherapeutic agents in utero may have increased risks of developing testis cancer and having reduced spermatogenic potential or diminished reproductive lifespan.

  14. Effects of prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors and toxic metals on the fetal epigenome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommarito, Paige A; Martin, Elizabeth; Fry, Rebecca C

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants during pregnancy has been linked to adverse outcomes at birth and later in life. The link between prenatal exposures and latent health outcomes suggests that these exposures may result in long-term epigenetic reprogramming. Toxic metals and endocrine disruptors are two major classes of contaminants that are ubiquitously present in the environment and represent threats to human health. In this review, we present evidence that prenatal exposures to these contaminants result in fetal epigenomic changes, including altered global DNA methylation, gene-specific CpG methylation and microRNA expression. Importantly, these changes may have functional cellular consequences, impacting health outcomes later in life. Therefore, these epigenetic changes represent a critical mechanism that warrants further study. PMID:28234024

  15. Ecological Momentary Assessment of the Association Between Exposure to Alcohol Advertising and Early Adolescents' Beliefs About Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Steven C; Kovalchik, Stephanie A; Collins, Rebecca L; Becker, Kirsten M; Shadel, William G; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the momentary association between exposure to alcohol advertising and middle-school students' beliefs about alcohol in real-world settings and to explore racial/ethnic differences in this association. Middle-school students (N = 588) carried handheld data collection devices for 14 days, recording their exposures to all forms of alcohol advertising during the assessment period. Students also responded to three investigator-initiated control prompts (programmed to occur randomly) on each day of the assessment period. After each exposure to advertising and at each control prompt, students reported their beliefs about alcohol. Mixed-effects regression models compared students' beliefs about alcohol between moments of exposure to alcohol advertising and control prompts. Students perceived the typical person their age who drinks alcohol (prototype perceptions) more favorably and perceived alcohol use as more normative at times of exposure to alcohol advertising than at times of nonexposure (i.e., at control prompts). Exposure to alcohol advertising was not associated with shifts in the perceived norms of black and Hispanic students, however, and the association between exposure and prototype perceptions was stronger among non-Hispanic students than among Hispanic students. Exposure to alcohol advertising is associated with acute shifts in adolescents' perceptions of the typical person that drinks alcohol and the normativeness of drinking. These associations are both statistically and substantively meaningful. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Affects Progenitor Cell Numbers in Olfactory Bulbs and Dentate Gyrus of Vervet Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Burke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE alters hippocampal cell numbers in rodents and primates, and this may be due, in part, to a reduction in the number or migration of neuronal progenitor cells. The olfactory bulb exhibits substantial postnatal cellular proliferation and a rapid turnover of newly formed cells in the rostral migratory pathway, while production and migration of postnatal neurons into the dentate gyrus may be more complex. The relatively small size of the olfactory bulb, compared to the hippocampus, potentially makes this structure ideal for a rapid analysis. This study used the St. Kitts vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabeus to (1 investigate the normal developmental sequence of post-natal proliferation in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus and (2 determine the effects of naturalistic prenatal ethanol exposure on proliferation at three different ages (neonate, five months and two years. Using design-based stereology, we found an age-related decrease of actively proliferating cells in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus for both control and FAE groups. Furthermore, at the neonatal time point, the FAE group had fewer actively proliferating cells as compared to the control group. These data are unique with respect to fetal ethanol effects on progenitor proliferation in the primate brain and suggest that the olfactory bulb may be a useful structure for studies of cellular proliferation.

  17. Administration of memantine during withdrawal mitigates overactivity and spatial learning impairments associated with neonatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; McGough, Nancy N H; Riley, Edward P; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2014-02-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can disrupt central nervous system development, manifesting as behavioral deficits that include motor, emotional, and cognitive dysfunction. Both clinical and animal studies have reported binge drinking during development to be highly correlated with an increased risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We hypothesized that binge drinking may be especially damaging because it is associated with episodes of alcohol withdrawal. Specifically, we have been investigating the possibility that NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity occurs during alcohol withdrawal and contributes to developmental alcohol-related neuropathology. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of the NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 or eliprodil during withdrawal attenuates behavioral alterations associated with early alcohol exposure. In this study, we investigated the effects of memantine, a clinically used NMDA receptor antagonist, on minimizing ethanol-induced overactivity and spatial learning deficits. Sprague-Dawley pups were exposed to 6.0 g/kg ethanol via intubation on postnatal day (PD) 6, a period of brain development that models late gestation in humans. Controls were intubated with a calorically matched maltose solution. During withdrawal, 24 and 36 hours after ethanol exposure, subjects were injected with a total of either 0, 20, or 30 mg/kg memantine. The subjects' locomotor levels were recorded in open field activity monitors on PDs 18 to 21 and on a serial spatial discrimination reversal learning task on PDs 40 to 43. Alcohol exposure induced overactivity and impaired performance in spatial learning. Memantine administration significantly attenuated the ethanol-associated behavioral alterations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, memantine may be neuroprotective when administered during ethanol withdrawal. These data have important implications for the treatment of EtOH's neurotoxic effects and provide further support that ethanol withdrawal

  18. THE PREVENTION OF FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDER: THE NEED FOR A COORDINATED SERVICE BY ROLE PLAYERS IN THE WINE PRODUCING AREAS IN THE BREEDE RIVER VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries, Marlene

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS is seen as the leading preventable birth defect in the western world (May, Miller, Goodhart, Maestas, Buckley, Trujillo & Gossage, 2007. FAS is the severe end of a spectrum of effects caused by alcohol intake during pregnancy and is characterised by unique facial features, growth retardation and developmental delays (May, Gossage, Marais, Adnams, Hoyme, Jones, Robinson, Khaole, Snell, Kalberg, Hendricks, Brooke, Stellavato & Viljoen, 2007; Urban, Chersich, Fourie, Chetty, Olivier & Viljoen, 2008. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy has physical, behavioural and mental consequences for the developing fetus. These effects last throughout the lifespan of the individual with a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD

  19. Analgesic exposure in pregnant rats affects fetal germ cell development with inter-generational reproductive consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Afshan; van den Driesche, Sander; Wang, Yili

    2016-01-01

    and reproductive function in resulting offspring (F1) or in the F2 generation. Exposure to either analgesic reduced F1 fetal GC number in both sexes and altered the tempo of fetal GC development sex-dependently, with delayed meiotic entry in oogonia but accelerated GC differentiation in males. These effects...... persisted in adult F1 females as reduced ovarian and litter size, whereas F1 males recovered normal GC numbers and fertility by adulthood. F2 offspring deriving from an analgesic-exposed F1 parent also exhibited sex-specific changes. F2 males exhibited normal reproductive development whereas F2 females had...... smaller ovaries and reduced follicle numbers during puberty/adulthood; as similar changes were found for F2 offspring of analgesic-exposed F1 fathers or mothers, we interpret this as potentially indicating an analgesic-induced change to GC in F1. Assuming our results are translatable to humans, they raise...

  20. Maternal age, alcohol abuse history, and quality of parenting as moderators of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on 7.5-year intellectual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Sokol, Robert J; Chiodo, Lisa M; Corobana, Raluca

    2004-11-01

    In contrast to the extensive literature documenting IQ deficits in patients with fetal alcohol syndrome, effects on IQ have not generally been reported for children with alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND). This study examined the role of maternal age, MAST, and quality of parenting in moderating the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the WISC-III IQ test in moderate-to-heavily exposed children. A total of 337 inner-city African American children whose mothers were recruited prenatally were administered the WISC-III at 7.5 years. Alcohol exposure was assesed with a timeline follow-back interview administered at every prenatal clinic visit. Moderating effects of the three risk factors were examined by adding interaction terms to regression analyses and dichotomizing the moderators and performing separate regressions on the two groups. Prenatal alcohol exposure was related to WISC-III Freedom from Distractibility but not to Full Scale IQ for the sample as a whole. However, among children born to older mothers, an alcohol effect emerged on Full Scale IQ and five of seven composite IQ scores. Similarly, adverse effects were seen among children of MAST-positive mothers and children whose parents provided less optimal cognitive stimulation. Each additional ounce of absolute alcohol consumed per day during pregnancy was associated with a 2.9-point decrease in Full Scale IQ and a 5.6-point decrement on Freedom from Distractibility. This study is the first to demonstrate IQ effects among children with ARND born to older and MAST-positive mothers, particularly in relation to first-trimester drinking. These findings suggest that there are subgroups of more vulnerable and severely affected children whose intellectual performance is compromised. A moderate- to heavy-drinking mother who has given birth to an unaffected child when she was younger needs to be warned that her risk of having an adversely affected child increases as she grows older.

  1. Maternal and fetal exposure to parabens in a multiethnic urban U.S. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pycke, Benny F G; Geer, Laura A; Dalloul, Mudar; Abulafia, Ovadia; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-11-01

    Fetal exposure to five parabens was investigated due to their endocrine-disrupting potential and possible impact on fetal development. Body burdens occurring from real-world exposures were determined typically as total concentrations after conjugate hydrolysis in 181 maternal urine and 38 umbilical cord blood plasma samples from a multiethnic cohort of 185 predominantly-black, pregnant women recruited in Brooklyn, New York between 2007/9. For 33 participants, both sample types (maternal urine and cord blood) were available. Methyl- (MePB), ethyl- (EtPB), propyl- (PrPB), butyl- (BuPB), and benzylparaben (BePB) were detected in 100, 73.5, 100, 66.3 and 0.0% of the urine samples at median concentrations of 279, 1.44, 75.3, 0.39, and parabens were detected in 97.4, 94.7, 47.4, 47.4, and 44.7% of cord blood plasma samples at median total concentrations of 25.0, 0.36, parabens in human umbilical cord blood. Maternal exposure to parabens is widespread, and substantial differences were found to exist between communities and countries both in the spectrum and degree of paraben exposures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prenatal exposure to alcohol does not affect radial maze learning and hippocampal mossy fiber sizes in three inbred strains of mouse

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    Bertholet Jean-Yves

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on radial-maze learning and hippocampal neuroanatomy, particularly the sizes of the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF terminal fields, in three inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and DBA/2J. Results Although we anticipated a modification of both learning and IIPMF sizes, no such effects were detected. Prenatal alcohol exposure did, however, interfere with reproduction in C57BL/6J animals and decrease body and brain weight (in interaction with the genotype at adult age. Conclusion Prenatal alcohol exposure influenced neither radial maze performance nor the sizes of the IIPMF terminal fields. We believe that future research should be pointed either at different targets when using mouse models for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (e.g. more complicated behavioral paradigms, different hippocampal substructures, or other brain structures or involve different animal models.

  3. The Use of Trace Eyeblink Classical Conditioning to Assess Hippocampal Dysfunction in a Rat Model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tuan D; Amin, Aenia; Jones, Keith G; Sheffer, Ellen M; Ortega, Lidia; Dolman, Keith

    2017-08-05

    Neonatal rats were administered a relatively high concentration of ethyl alcohol (11.9% v/v) during postnatal days 4-9, a time when the fetal brain undergoes rapid organizational change and is similar to accelerated brain changes that occur during the third trimester in humans. This model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) produces severe brain damage, mimicking the amount and pattern of binge-drinking that occurs in some pregnant alcoholic mothers. We describe the use of trace eyeblink classical conditioning (ECC), a higher-order variant of associative learning, to assess long-term hippocampal dysfunction that is typically seen in alcohol-exposed adult offspring. At 90 days of age, rodents were surgically prepared with recording and stimulating electrodes, which measured electromyographic (EMG) blink activity from the left eyelid muscle and delivered mild shock posterior to the left eye, respectively. After a 5 day recovery period, they underwent 6 sessions of trace ECC to determine associative learning differences between alcohol-exposed and control rats. Trace ECC is one of many possible ECC procedures that can be easily modified using the same equipment and software, so that different neural systems can be assessed. ECC procedures in general, can be used as diagnostic tools for detecting neural pathology in different brain systems and different conditions that insult the brain.

  4. Bisphenol A exposure alters developmental gene expression in the fetal rhesus macaque uterus.

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    Kathryn C Calhoun

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA exposure results in numerous developmental and functional abnormalities in reproductive organs in rodent models, but limited data are available regarding BPA effects in the primate uterus. To determine if maternal oral BPA exposure affects fetal uterine development in a non-human primate model, pregnant rhesus macaques carrying female fetuses were exposed orally to 400 µg/kg BPA or vehicle control daily from gestation day (GD 50-100 or GD100-165. Fetal uteri were collected at the completion of treatment (GD100 or GD165; tissue histology, cell proliferation, and expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα and progesterone receptor (PR were compared to that of controls. Gene expression analysis was conducted using rhesus macaque microarrays. There were no significant differences in histology or in the percentage of cells expressing the proliferation marker Ki-67, ERα, or PR in BPA-exposed uteri compared to controls at GD100 or GD165. Minimal differences in gene expression were observed between BPA-exposed and control GD100 uteri. However, at GD165, BPA-exposed uteri had significant differences in gene expression compared to controls. Several of the altered genes, including HOXA13, WNT4, and WNT5A, are critical for reproductive organ development and/or adult function. We conclude that second or third trimester BPA exposure does not significantly affect fetal uterus development based on morphological, proliferation, and steroid hormone receptor assessments. However, differences in expression of key developmental genes after third trimester exposure suggest that BPA could alter transcriptional signals influencing uterine function later in life.

  5. Biomarkers for the detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov; Bager, Heidi; Husby, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    method is based on the use of biomarkers in biological specimens alone or in combination with maternal self-reporting. This review reports on clinically relevant biomarkers for detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). A systematic search was performed to ensure a proper overview in existing...

  6. Cue exposure therapy for the treatment of alcohol use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellentin, Angelina Isabella; Skøt, Lotte; Nielsen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    Cue Exposure Therapy (CET) is a behavioristic psychological approach to treating substance use disorders (SUD). Prior systematic reviews have found CET to be ineffective when targeting SUDs. The effect of this approach on alcohol use disorders (AUD) seems more promising at trial level but has yet...

  7. A DTI-based tractography study of effects on brain structure associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Paul A.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; van der Kouwe, André; Molteno, Christopher D.; Chen, Gang; Wintermark, Pia; Alhamud, Alkathafi; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to have severe, long-term consequences for brain and behavioral development already detectable in infancy and childhood. Resulting features of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) include cognitive and behavioral effects, as well as facial anomalies and growth deficits. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography were used to analyze white matter development in 11 newborns (age since conception <45 weeks) whose mothers were recruited during pregnancy. Comparisons were made with 9 age-matched controls born to abstainers or light drinkers from the same Cape Coloured (mixed ancestry) community near Cape Town, South Africa. DTI parameters, T1 relaxation time, proton density and volumes were used to quantify and investigate group differences in white matter (WM) in the newborn brains. Probabilistic tractography was used to estimate and to delineate similar tract locations among the subjects for transcallosal pathways, cortico-spinal projection fibers and cortico-cortical association fibers. In each of these WM networks, the axial diffusivity AD was the parameter that showed the strongest association with maternal drinking. The strongest relations were observed in medial and inferior WM, regions in which the myelination process typically begins. In contrast to studies of older individuals with prenatal alcohol exposure, FA did not exhibit a consistent and significant relation with alcohol exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first DTI-tractography study of prenatally alcohol exposed newborns. PMID:25182535

  8. Impacts of prenatal triclosan exposure on fetal reproductive hormones and its potential mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caifeng; Chen, Limei; Zhao, Shasha; Hu, Yi; Zhou, Yijun; Gao, Yu; Wang, Weiye; Zhang, Jun; Tian, Ying

    2018-02-01

    Triclosan (TCS) has been widely detected in pregnant women. The reproductive endocrine-disrupting effects of TCS have been observed in humans and animals. Little is known about the potential impact of prenatal TCS exposure on fetal reproductive development as well as its potential mechanism. We investigated the potential effect of prenatal TCS exposure on fetal reproductive hormones in cord blood and its potential mechanism in relation to placental steroidogenic enzymes. Urinary TCS was detected among 537 healthy pregnant women from a prospective cohort in China. Four reproductive hormones in cord blood, namely E 2 (n=430), T (n=424), LH (n=428) and FSH (n=373), and three steroidogenic enzymes in placenta, namely P450arom (n=233), 3β-HSD (n=227) and 17β-HSD (n=222), were measured. Prenatal TCS exposure was associated with increased testosterone concentrations in cord blood in a dose-dependent manner. Infants with prenatal TCS levels >0.6μg/L had, on average, a 0.23ng/mL (95% CI: 0.05, 0.45, p=0.02) higher testosterone concentrations in cord blood compared to those with prenatal TCS levels prenatal TCS exposure was associated with increased testosterone and decreased E 2 concentrations in cord blood among male infants. Adverse associations were found between the prenatal TCS exposure and concentrations of three placental steroidogenic enzymes. 3β-HSD and P450arom demonstrated mediating effects in the association between prenatal TCS exposure and testosterone concentrations in cord blood. Our findings suggested potential impacts of prenatal TCS exposure on reproductive hormones in cord blood mediated by steroidogenic enzymes, and male infants were more vulnerable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The relation between theory of mind and executive functions in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Carmen; Wyper, Katy; Talwar, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are faced with a range of physical, cognitive, behavioral, and/or learning deficits, as well as poor executive functioning and social skills. Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to understand that one's own perspective may differ from the perspective of another individual. ToM develops around age 4 and is correlated with performance on executive functioning tasks. The goals of this study were to examine ToM performance in young children with FASD, how age was related to ToM performance, and whether ToM abilities were related to underlying executive function difficulties. Fifty-three children (aged 4 to 8 years) participated: 25 children with FASD and 28 control children. All children were tested on measures of ToM, executive functioning, and receptive vocabulary. More children in the FASD group (44%) failed one or both ToM measures than in the control group (25%). Older children with FASD performed worse on ToM than younger children, but this was not the case for the control group. For the FASD group, ToM performance was correlated with a measure of inhibition, but for the control group, ToM was correlated with visual-spatial working memory. Children with FASD have difficulty on ToM tasks, and this difficulty may be related to underlying deficits in inhibition.

  10. Amount of Televised Alcohol Advertising Exposure and the Quantity of Alcohol Consumed by Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Timothy S; Ross, Craig S; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Jernigan, David H

    2016-09-01

    Although studies demonstrate that exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising is associated with an increased likelihood of youth consuming particular brands, the relationship between quantity of brand-specific advertising exposure and quantity of brand-specific consumption has not been firmly established. Using the Alcohol Brand Research Among Underage Drinkers (ABRAND) national sample of 1,031 young drinkers (ages 13-20), this study examined the relationship between their aggregated past-year exposure to advertising (in adstock units, a measure based on gross rating points) for 61 alcohol brands that advertised on the 20 most popular nonsports television programs viewed by underage youth and their aggregated total consumption of those same brands during the past 30 days. Predictive models adjusted for other media exposure, predictors of youth's alcohol consumption, and the consumption of brands not advertised on the 20 shows. For the fully adjusted models, each 100 adstock unit increase in exposure (about 1 SD) was associated with an increase of 5.9 drinks (95% CI [0.9, 11.0 drinks]) consumed during the past 30 days among those with less than 300 units of advertising exposure, and an increase of 55.7 drinks (95% CI [13.9, 97.4 drinks]) among those with 300 or more adstock units of exposure. Among underage youth, the quantity of brand-specific advertising exposure is positively associated with the total quantity of consumption of those advertised brands, even after controlling for the consumption of non-advertised brands. Future research should examine exposure-consumption relationships longitudinally and in other media.

  11. International studies of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyunok; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Spengler, John; Camann, David E; Whyatt, Robin M; Rauh, Virginia; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Perera, Frederica P

    2006-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitously distributed human mutagens and carcinogens. However, lack of adequate air monitoring data has limited understanding of the effects of airborne PAHs on fetal growth. To address this gap in knowledge, we examined the association between prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs and birth weight, birth length, and birth head circumference, respectively, in Krakow, Poland, and New York City (NYC). The parallel prospective cohort studies enrolled nonsmoking, healthy, and nonoccupationally exposed women and their newborns. Personal air monitoring of pregnant women was conducted over 48 hr. To control for maternal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, we excluded those with umbilical cord plasma cotinine concentrations > 25 ng/mL. Mean cord plasma cotinine concentrations in both ethnic groups were exposure was 10-fold higher in Krakow than in NYC. Prenatal PAH exposure was associated with significantly reduced birth weight in both Krakow Caucasians (p < 0.01) and in NYC African Americans (p < 0.01), controlling for known and potential confounders, but not in NYC Dominicans. Within the lower exposure range common to the two cities (1.80-36.47 ng/m3), the effect per unit PAH exposure on birth weight was 6-fold greater for NYC African Americans than for Krakow Caucasians (p = 0.01). These results confirm the adverse reproductive effect of relatively low PAH concentrations in two populations and suggest increased susceptibility of NYC African Americans. Fetal growth impairment has been linked to child developmental and health problems. Thus, substantial health benefits would result from global reduction of PAH emissions.

  12. Timing of in utero malaria exposure influences fetal CD4 T cell regulatory versus effector differentiation

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    Mary Prahl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In malaria-endemic areas, the first exposure to malaria antigens often occurs in utero when the fetal immune system is poised towards the development of tolerance. Children exposed to placental malaria have an increased risk of clinical malaria in the first few years of life compared to unexposed children. Recent work has suggested the potential of pregnancy-associated malaria to induce immune tolerance in children living in malaria-endemic areas. A study was completed to evaluate the effect of malaria exposure during pregnancy on fetal immune tolerance and effector responses. Methods Using cord blood samples from a cohort of mother-infant pairs followed from early in pregnancy until delivery, flow cytometry analysis was completed to assess the relationship between pregnancy-associated malaria and fetal cord blood CD4 and dendritic cell phenotypes. Results Cord blood FoxP3+ Treg counts were higher in infants born to mothers with Plasmodium parasitaemia early in pregnancy (12–20 weeks of gestation; p = 0.048, but there was no association between Treg counts and the presence of parasites in the placenta at the time of delivery (by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP; p = 0.810. In contrast, higher frequencies of activated CD4 T cells (CD25+FoxP3−CD127+ were observed in the cord blood of neonates with active placental Plasmodium infection at the time of delivery (p = 0.035. This population exhibited evidence of effector memory differentiation, suggesting priming of effector T cells in utero. Lastly, myeloid dendritic cells were higher in the cord blood of infants with histopathologic evidence of placental malaria (p < 0.0001. Conclusion Together, these data indicate that in utero exposure to malaria drives expansion of both regulatory and effector T cells in the fetus, and that the timing of this exposure has a pivotal role in determining the polarization of the fetal immune response.

  13. Reductions in Corpus Callosum Volume Partially Mediate Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on IQ

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    Stevie C. Biffen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Disproportionate volume reductions in the basal ganglia, corpus callosum (CC and hippocampus have been reported in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE. However, few studies have investigated these reductions in high prevalence communities, such as the Western Cape Province of South Africa, and only one study made use of manual tracing, the gold standard of volumetric analysis. The present study examined the effects of PAE on subcortical neuroanatomy using manual tracing and the relation of volumetric reductions in these regions to IQ and performance on the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C, a list learning task sensitive to PAE. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired, using a sequence optimized for morphometric neuroanatomical analysis, on a Siemens 3T Allegra MRI scanner from 71 right-handed, 9- to 11-year-old children [9 fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS, 19 partial FAS (PFAS, 24 non-syndromal heavily exposed (HE and 19 non-exposed controls]. Frequency of maternal drinking was ascertained prospectively during pregnancy using timeline follow-back interviews. PAE was examined in relation to volumes of the CC and left and right caudate nuclei, nucleus accumbens and hippocampi. All structures were manually traced using Multitracer. Higher levels of PAE were associated with reductions in CC volume after adjustment for TIV. Although the effect of PAE on CC was confounded with smoking and lead exposure, additional analyses showed that it was not accounted for by these exposures. Amongst dysmorphic children, smaller CC was associated with poorer IQ and CVLT-C scores and statistically mediated the effect of PAE on IQ. In addition, higher levels of PAE were associated with bilateral volume reductions in caudate nuclei and hippocampi, effects that remained significant after control for TIV, child sex and age, socioeconomic status, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and childhood lead exposure. These data confirm

  14. Acute Effects of Viral Exposure on P-Glycoprotein Function in the Mouse Fetal Blood-Brain Barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Enrrico Bloise; Sophie Petropoulos; Majid Iqbal; Alisa Kostaki; Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho; William Gibb; Stephen G. Matthews

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims: Viral infection during pregnancy is known to affect the fetal brain. The toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 is a pattern recognition receptor activated by viruses known to elicit adverse fetal neurological outcomes. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter protects the developing fetus by limiting the transfer of substrates across both the placenta and the fetal blood-brain barrier (BBB). As such, inhibition of P-gp at these blood-barrier sites may result in increased exposure of...

  15. The Roles of Formaldehyde Exposure and Oxidative Stress in Fetal Growth in the Second Trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Azita; Turner-Henson, Anne

    To examine the relationship between formaldehyde exposure and fetal growth in the second trimester and the potential mediating role of oxidative stress in this relationship. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The participants were recruited from one university-related clinic and two private obstetrics and gynecology offices in the Southeastern United States. A convenience sample of 140 healthy pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy was enrolled from November 2013 through June 2014. Formaldehyde exposure was measured via vapor monitors worn by the participants for 24 hours. One-time urine samples were collected during a routine prenatal visit to measure the level of 15-isoprostane F 2t and cotinine as biomarkers of oxidative stress and tobacco smoking, respectively. Urine creatinine was measured to standardize the cotinine and 15-isoprostane F 2t levels. Eighty-eight participants (63%) returned their formaldehyde monitors. The linear regression model showed that the dichotomized level of formaldehyde exposure (0.03 ppm) was a significant predictor of biparietal diameter percentile after controlling for maternal race (p formaldehyde exposure and biparietal diameter was not confirmed. A relationship was found between formaldehyde exposure and biparietal diameter in the second trimester. Although further research is necessary to confirm the results of this study, nurses may consider advising pregnant women to limit their exposure to formaldehyde during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neurocognitive habilitation therapy for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: an adaptation of the Alert Program®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Anne M; Chasnoff, Ira J; Schmidt, Christine A; Telford, Erin; Schwartz, Linda D

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of neurocognitive habilitation, a group therapy intervention for foster and adoptive caregivers and their children who were prenatally exposed to alcohol. Participants were recruited from clients seeking evaluation for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) and were randomly assigned to treatment and no-treatment control groups. Forty children participated in the treatment program and were compared with 38 control participants using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Roberts Apperception Test for Children (RATC). Significant differences between the treatment and control groups were demonstrated on the BRIEF and on the RATC, suggesting that the intervention improved executive functioning and emotional problem-solving skills. These findings yield promising evidence of the effectiveness of the neurocognitive habilitation intervention in improving executive functioning and emotional problem solving in children with FAS or ARND. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  17. Gene Expression Changes in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J Mice Following Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Chris; Flink, Stephen; Florez-McClure, Maria L.; Johnson, Thomas E.; Tabakoff, Boris; Kechris, Katerina J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Not all women who consume alcohol during pregnancy have children with FASD and studies have shown that genetic factors can play a role in ethanol teratogenesis. We examined gene expression in embryos and placentae from C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) mice following prenatal alcohol exposure. B6 fetuses are susceptible to morphological malformations following prenatal alcohol exposure while D2 are relatively resistant. Methods Male and female B6 and D2 mice were mated for two hours in the morning, producing four embryonic genotypes: true-bred B6B6 and D2D2, and reciprocal B6D2 and D2B6. On gestational day 9dams were intubated with either 5.8 g/kg ethanol, an is caloric amount of maltose-dextrin, or nothing Four hours later dams were sacrificed and embryos and placentae were harvested. RNA was extracted, labeled and hybridized to Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 v2 microarray chips. Data were normalized, subjected to analysis of variance and tested for enrichment of gene ontology (GO) molecular function and biological process using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). Results Several gene classes were differentially expressed in B6 and D2 regardless of treatment, including genes involved in polysaccharide binding and mitosis. Prenatal alcohol exposure altered expression of a subset of genes, including genes involved in methylation, chromatin remodeling, protein synthesis and mRNA splicing. Very few genes were differentially expressed between maltose-exposed tissues and tissues that received nothing, so we combined these groups for comparisons with ethanol. While we observed many expression changes specific to B6 following prenatal alcohol exposure, none were specific for D2. Gene classes up-or down regulated in B6 following prenatal alcohol exposure included genes involved in mRNA splicing, transcription and translation. Conclusions Our study

  18. Postnatal choline supplementation selectively attenuates hippocampal microRNA alterations associated with developmental alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaraman, Sridevi; Idrus, Nirelia M; Miranda, Rajesh C; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2017-05-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in a range of physical, neuropathological, and behavioral alterations, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We have shown that supplementation with the nutrient choline reduces the severity of developmental alcohol-associated deficits in hippocampal-dependent behaviors and normalizes some aspects of hippocampal cholinergic development and DNA methylation patterns. Alcohol's developmental effects may also be mediated, in part, by altering microRNAs (miRNAs) that serve as negative regulators of gene translation. To determine whether choline supplementation alters ethanol's long-lasting effects on miRNAs, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 5.25 g/kg/day ethanol from postnatal days (PD) 4-9 via intubation; controls received sham intubations. Subjects were treated with choline chloride (100 mg/kg/day) or saline vehicle subcutaneously (s.c.) from PD 4-21. On PD 22, subjects were sacrificed, and RNA was isolated from the hippocampus. MiRNA expression was assessed with TaqMan Human MicroRNA Panel Low-Density Arrays. Ethanol significantly increased miRNA expression variance, an effect that was attenuated with choline supplementation. Cluster analysis of stably expressed miRNAs that exceeded an ANOVA p < 0.05 criterion indicated that for both male and female offspring, control and ethanol-exposed groups were most dissimilar from each other, with choline-supplemented groups in between. MiRNAs that expressed an average 2-fold change due to ethanol exposure were further analyzed to identify which ethanol-sensitive miRNAs were protected by choline supplementation. We found that at a false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted criterion of p < 0.05, miR-200c was induced by ethanol exposure and that choline prevented this effect. Collectively, our data show that choline supplementation can normalize disturbances in miRNA expression following developmental alcohol exposure and can protect specific miRNAs from induction by

  19. Seasonal variation in fetal growth: accounting for sociodemographic, biological, and environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gavin; Cook, Angus; Haggar, Fatima; Bower, Carol; Nassar, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    We sought to investigate seasonal variation in fetal growth, accounting for important sociodemographic, biological, and environmental exposures. Records of births 1998 through 2006 in Perth, Western Australia were obtained (N = 147,357). We investigated small for gestational age and sex and the proportion of optimal birthweight (POBW) in relation to seasonal exposures (season, temperature, sunlight) by trimester of pregnancy. Adjustment was made for a wide range of risk factors. The POBW for neonates with third trimesters predominantly in summer was 0.18% (0.00-0.36%) lower than for those in winter. POBW decreased by 0.14% (0.01-0.27%) per interquartile range increase in third-trimester temperature (9.15°C). An interquartile range increase in temperature over pregnancy (0.73°C) was associated with an odds ratio of 1.02 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.05) for small for gestational age and sex. Reduced fetal growth was associated with elevated ambient temperatures throughout and late in pregnancy, independently of air pollution and other risk factors. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate in utero reduces testosterone production in rat fetal Leydig cells.

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    Binghai Zhao

    Full Text Available Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS is a synthetic material that has been widely used in industrial applications for decades. Exposure to PFOS has been associated with decreased adult testosterone level, and Leydig cell impairment during the time of adulthood. However, little is known about PFOS effects in utero on fetal Leydig cells (FLC.The present study investigated effects of PFOS on FLC function. Pregnant Sprague Dawley female rats received vehicle (0.05% Tween20 or PFOS (5, 20 mg/kg by oral gavage from gestational day (GD 11-19. At GD20, testosterone (T production, FLC numbers and ultrastructure, testicular gene and protein expression levels were examined. The results indicate that exposures to PFOS have affected FLC function as evidenced by decreased T production, impaired FLC, reduced FLC number, and decreased steroidogenic capacity and cholesterol level in utero.The present study shows that PFOS is an endocrine disruptor of male reproductive system as it causes reduction of T production and impairment of rat fetal Leydig cells.

  1. Fetal nicotine exposure produces postnatal up-regulation of adenylate cyclase activity in peripheral tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slotkin, T.A.; Navarro, H.A.; McCook, E.C.; Seidler, F.J. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Gestational exposure to nicotine has been shown to affect development of noradrenergic activity in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the current study, pregnant rats received nicotine infusions of 6 mg/kg/day throughout gestation, administered by osmotic minipump implants. After birth, offspring of the nicotine-infused dams exhibited marked increases in basal adenylate cyclase activity in membranes prepared from kidney and heart, as well as supersensitivity to stimulation by either a {beta}-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, or by forskolin. The altered responses were not accompanied by up-regulation of {beta}-adrenergic receptors: in fact, ({sup 125}I)pindolol binding was significantly decreased in the nicotine group. These results indicate that fetal nicotine exposure affects enzymes involved in membrane receptor signal transduction, leading to altered responsiveness independently of changes at the receptor level.

  2. Fetal nicotine exposure produces postnatal up-regulation of adenylate cyclase activity in peripheral tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slotkin, T.A.; Navarro, H.A.; McCook, E.C.; Seidler, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    Gestational exposure to nicotine has been shown to affect development of noradrenergic activity in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the current study, pregnant rats received nicotine infusions of 6 mg/kg/day throughout gestation, administered by osmotic minipump implants. After birth, offspring of the nicotine-infused dams exhibited marked increases in basal adenylate cyclase activity in membranes prepared from kidney and heart, as well as supersensitivity to stimulation by either a β-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, or by forskolin. The altered responses were not accompanied by up-regulation of β-adrenergic receptors: in fact, [ 125 I]pindolol binding was significantly decreased in the nicotine group. These results indicate that fetal nicotine exposure affects enzymes involved in membrane receptor signal transduction, leading to altered responsiveness independently of changes at the receptor level

  3. Virtual Sensorimotor Balance Training for Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Jirikowic, Tracy; Price, Robert; Ciol, Marcia A; Hsu, Lin-Ya; Dellon, Brian; Kartin, Deborah

    2015-11-01

    Diminished sensory adaptation has been associated with poor balance control for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). A virtual reality system, Sensorimotor Training to Affect Balance, Engagement and Learning (STABEL), was developed to train sensory control for balance. The purpose of this study was to examine the STABEL system in children with FASD and children with typical development (TD) to (1) determine the feasibility of the STABEL system and (2) explore the immediate effects of the STABEL system on sensory attention and postural control. This is a technical report with observational study data. Eleven children with FASD and 11 children with TD, aged 8 to 16 years, completed 30 minutes of STABEL training. The children answered questions about their experience using STABEL. Sensory attention and postural control were measured pre- and post-STABEL training with the Multimodal Balance Entrainment Response system and compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance. All children engaged in game play and tolerated controlled sensory input during the STABEL protocol. Immediate effects post-STABEL training in both groups were increased postural sway velocity and some changes in entrainment gain. Children with FASD showed higher entrainment gain to vestibular stimuli. There were no significant changes in sensory attention fractions. The small sample size, dose of STABEL training, and exploratory statistical analyses are study limitations, but findings warrant larger systematic study to examine therapeutic effects. Children completed the training protocol, demonstrating the feasibility of the STABEL system. Differences in postural sway velocity post-STABEL training may have been affected by fatigue, warranting further investigation. Limited immediate effects suggest more practice is needed to affect sensory attention; however, entrainment gain changes suggest the STABEL system provoked vestibular responses during balance practice. © 2015

  4. Systematic review of interventions for children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

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    Bower Carol

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD may have significant neurobehavioural problems persisting into adulthood. Early diagnosis may decrease the risk of adverse life outcomes. However, little is known about effective interventions for children with FASD. Our aim is to conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify and evaluate the evidence for pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for children with FASD. Methods We did an electronic search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL and ERIC for clinical studies (Randomized controlled trials (RCT, quasi RCT, controlled trials and pre- and post-intervention studies which evaluated pharmacological, behavioural, speech therapy, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychosocial and educational interventions and early intervention programs. Participants were aged under 18 years with a diagnosis of a FASD. Selection of studies for inclusion and assessment of study quality was undertaken independently by two reviewers. Meta-analysis was not possible due to diversity in the interventions and outcome measures. Results Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological weaknesses were common, including small sample sizes; inadequate study design and short term follow up. Pharmacological interventions, evaluated in two studies (both RCT showed some benefit from stimulant medications. Educational and learning strategies (three RCT were evaluated in seven studies. There was some evidence to suggest that virtual reality training, cognitive control therapy, language and literacy therapy, mathematics intervention and rehearsal training for memory may be beneficial strategies. Three studies evaluating social communication and behavioural strategies (two RCT suggested that social skills training may improve social skills and behaviour at home and Attention Process Training may improve attention. Conclusion There is limited good

  5. A propósito de un caso de síndrome fetal alcohólico With regard a case of alcoholic fetal syndrome

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    Rita Mercedes Jiménez López

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un varón de tres años de edad, que fue remitido a la consulta de genética por la especialista de oftalmología. Acudió a consulta por ptosis palpebral y después de la valoración exhaustiva se detectó un cuadro complejo, con multiplicidad de alteraciones oftalmológicas por lo que se decidió la remisión. Después de la investigación correspondiente, se constataron alteraciones funcionales y anatómicas, tanto durante su desarrollo prenatal como postnatal, que permitieron concluir que se trataba de un síndrome fetal alcohólico, previo diagnóstico diferencial con otras enfermedades.This is the case of a male aged three years referred to genetics consultation by an ophthalmology specialist. He came to consultation due to palpebral ptosis and after an exhaustive assessment it was detected a complicated picture with many ophthalmologic alterations thus authors decide the remission. After corresponding research, functional and anatomical alterations were confirmed during its development and in postnatal status allowed us to conclude that it was an alcoholic fetal syndrome, previous differential diagnosis with other diseases.

  6. Adolescent alcohol exposure: Are there separable vulnerable periods within adolescence?

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    Spear, Linda Patia

    2015-09-01

    There are two key alcohol use patterns among human adolescents that confer increased vulnerability for later alcohol abuse/dependence, along with neurocognitive alterations: (a) early initiation of use during adolescence, and (b) high rates of binge drinking that are particularly prevalent late in adolescence. The central thesis of this review is that lasting neurobehavioral outcomes of these two adolescent exposure patterns may differ. Although it is difficult to disentangle consequences of early use from later binge drinking in human studies given the substantial overlap between groups, these two types of problematic adolescent use are differentially heritable and hence separable to some extent. Although few studies using animal models have manipulated alcohol exposure age, those studies that have have typically observed timing-specific exposure effects, with more marked (or at least different patterns of) lasting consequences evident after exposures during early-mid adolescence than late-adolescence/emerging adulthood, and effects often restricted to male rats in those few instances where sex differences have been explored. As one example, adult male rats exposed to ethanol during early-mid adolescence (postnatal days [P] 25-45) were found to be socially anxious and to retain adolescent-typical ethanol-induced social facilitation into adulthood, effects that were not evident after exposure during late-adolescence/emerging adulthood (P45-65); exposure at the later interval, however, induced lasting tolerance to ethanol's social inhibitory effects that was not evident after exposure early in adolescence. Females, in contrast, were little influenced by ethanol exposure at either interval. Exposure timing effects have likewise been reported following social isolation as well as after repeated exposure to other drugs such as nicotine (and cannabinoids), with effects often, although not always, more pronounced in males where studied. Consistent with these timing

  7. Ethanol-induced impairment of polyamine homeostasis – A potential cause of neural tube defect and intrauterine growth restriction in fetal alcohol syndrome

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    Haghighi Poodeh, Saeid, E-mail: saeid.haghighi@oulu.fi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Alhonen, Leena [Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, Kuopio (Finland); School of Pharmacy, Biocenter Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland); Salonurmi, Tuire; Savolainen, Markku J. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. • Alcohol administration perturbs polyamine levels in the tissues with various patterns. • Total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc is critical for development. • The deficiency is associated with reduction in endothelial cell sprouting in the head. • Retarded migration of neural crest cells may cause development of neural tube defect. - Abstract: Introduction: Polyamines play a fundamental role during embryogenesis by regulating cell growth and proliferation and by interacting with RNA, DNA and protein. The polyamine pools are regulated by metabolism and uptake from exogenous sources. The use of certain inhibitors of polyamine synthesis causes similar defects to those seen in alcohol exposure e.g. retarded embryo growth and endothelial cell sprouting. Methods: CD-1 mice received two intraperitoneal injections of 3 g/kg ethanol at 4 h intervals 8.75 days post coitum (dpc). The fetal head, trunk, yolk sac and placenta were collected at 9.5 and 12.5 dpc and polyamine concentrations were determined. Results: No measurable quantity of polyamines could be detected in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc, 12 h after ethanol exposure. Putrescine was not detectable in the trunk of the embryo at that time, whereas polyamines in yolk sac and placenta were at control level. Polyamine deficiency was associated with slow cell growth, reduction in endothelial cell sprouting, an altered pattern of blood vessel network formation and consequently retarded migration of neural crest cells and growth restriction. Discussion: Our results indicate that the polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. Alcohol administration, at the critical stage, perturbs polyamine levels with various patterns, depending on the tissue and its developmental stage. The total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc may explain why this

  8. The consequence of fetal ethanol exposure and adolescent odor re-exposure on the response to ethanol odor in adolescent and adult rats

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    Molina Juan C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An epidemiologic predictive relationship exists between fetal ethanol exposure and the likelihood for adolescent use. Further, an inverse relationship exists between the age of first experience and the probability of adult abuse. Whether and how the combined effects of prenatal and adolescent ethanol experiences contribute to this progressive pattern remains unknown. Fetal ethanol exposure directly changes the odor attributes of ethanol important for both ethanol odor preference behavior and ethanol flavor perception. These effects persist only to adolescence. Here we tested whether adolescent ethanol odor re-exposure: (Experiment 1 augments the fetal effect on the adolescent behavioral response to ethanol odor; and/or (Experiment 2 perpetuates previously observed adolescent behavioral and neurophysiological responses into adulthood. Methods Pregnant rats received either an ethanol or control liquid diet. Progeny (observers experienced ethanol odor in adolescence via social interaction with a peer (demonstrators that received an intragastric infusion of either 1.5 g/kg ethanol or water. Social interactions were scored for the frequency that observers followed their demonstrator. Whole-body plethysmography evaluated the unconditioned behavioral response of observers to ethanol odor in adolescence (P37 or adulthood (P90. The olfactory epithelium of adults was also examined for its neural response to five odorants, including ethanol. Results Experiment 1: Relative to fetal or adolescent exposure alone, adolescent re-exposure enhanced the behavioral response to ethanol odor in P37 animals. Compared to animals with no ethanol experience, rats receiving a single experience (fetal or adolescent show an enhanced, yet equivalent, ethanol odor response. Fetal ethanol experience also increased olfactory-guided following of an intoxicated peer. Experiment 2: Combined exposure yielded persistence of the behavioral effects only in adult

  9. High Fat Diet Exposure during Fetal Life Enhances Plasma and Hepatic Omega-6 Fatty Acid Profiles in Fetal Wistar Rats

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    Marlon E. Cerf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD for the first (HF1, second (HF2, third (HF3 or all three weeks (HFG of gestation. Maintenance on a HFD during specific periods of gestation was hypothesized to alter fetal glycemia, insulinemia, induce insulin resistance; and alter fetal plasma and hepatic fatty acid (FA profiles. At day 20 of gestation, fetal plasma and hepatic FA profiles were determined by gas chromatography; body weight, fasting glycemia, insulinemia and the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-insulin resistance were also determined. HF3 fetuses were heaviest concomitant with elevated glycemia and insulin resistance (p < 0.05. HFG fetuses had elevated plasma linoleic (18:2 n-6 and arachidonic (20:4 n-6 acid proportions (p < 0.05. In the liver, HF3 fetuses displayed elevated linoleic, eicosatrienoic (20:3 n-6 and arachidonic acid proportions (p < 0.05. HFG fetuses had reduced hepatic docosatrienoic acid (22:5 n-3 proportions (p < 0.05. High fat maintenance during the final week of fetal life enhances hepatic omega-6 FA profiles in fetuses concomitant with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance thereby presenting a metabolically compromised phenotype.

  10. Sex-specific effects of developmental alcohol exposure on cocaine-induced place preference in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Victoria A; Kelly, Sandra J; Gass, Justin T

    2017-08-14

    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is associated with high rates of drug addiction in adulthood. One possible basis for increased drug use in this population is altered sensitivity to drug-associated contexts. This experiment utilized a rat model of FASD to examine behavioral and neural changes in the processing of drug cues in adulthood. Alcohol was given by intragastric intubation to pregnant rats throughout gestation and to rat pups during the early postnatal period (ET group). Controls consisted of a non-treated group (NC) and a pair-fed group given the intubation procedure without alcohol (IC). On postnatal day (PD) 90, rats from all treatment groups were given saline, 0.3mg/kg, 3.0mg/kg, or 10.0mg/kg cocaine pairings with a specific context in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. While control animals of both sexes showed cocaine CPP at the 3.0 and 10.0mg/kg doses, ET females also showed cocaine CPP at 0.3mg/kg. This was accompanied by a decrease in c-Fos/GAD 67 cells in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and GAD 67 -only cells in the NAc shell and PFC at this 0.3mg/kg dose. ET males failed to show cocaine CPP at the 3.0mg/kg dose. This was associated with an increase in c-Fos only-labeled cells in the NAc core and PFC at this 3.0mg/kg dose. These results suggest that developmental alcohol exposure has a sexually-dimorphic effect on cocaine's conditioning effects in adulthood and the NAc. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fetal exposure to perfluorinated compounds and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood.

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    Amanda Ode

    Full Text Available The association between exposure to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD diagnosis has been sparsely investigated in humans and the findings are inconsistent.A matched case-control study was conducted to investigate the association between fetal exposure to PFCs and ADHD diagnosis in childhood.The study base comprised children born in Malmö, Sweden, between 1978 and 2000 that were followed up until 2005. Children with ADHD (n = 206 were identified at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Controls (n = 206 were selected from the study base and were matched for year of birth and maternal country of birth. PFC concentrations were measured in umbilical cord serum samples. The differences of the PFC concentrations between cases and controls were investigated using Wilcoxon's paired test. Possible threshold effects (above the upper quartile for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA and above limit of detection [LOD] for perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA were evaluated by conditional logistic regression.The median umbilical cord serum concentrations of PFOS were 6.92 ng/ml in the cases and 6.77 ng/ml in the controls. The corresponding concentrations of PFOA were 1.80 and 1.83 ng/ml. No associations between PFCs and ADHD were observed. Odds ratios adjusted for smoking status, parity, and gestational age were 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50 to 1.32 for PFOS, 1.07 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.7 for PFOA, and 1.1 (95% CI 0.75 to 1.7 for PFNA.The current study revealed no support for an association between fetal exposure to PFOS, PFOA, or PFNA and ADHD.

  12. Child and adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising in Australia's major televised sports.

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    Carr, Sherilene; O'Brien, Kerry S; Ferris, Jason; Room, Robin; Livingston, Michael; Vandenberg, Brian; Donovan, Robert J; Lynott, Dermot

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to alcohol advertising is associated with greater alcohol consumption in children and adolescents, and alcohol advertising is common in Australian sport. We examine child, adolescent and young adult exposure to alcohol advertising during three televised sports in Australia: Australian Football League (AFL), cricket and the National Rugby League (NRL). Alcohol advertising and audience viewing data were purchased for all AFL, cricket and NRL TV programs in Australia for 2012. We estimated children and adolescents (0-17 years) and young adults (18-29 years) exposure to alcohol advertising during AFL, cricket and NRL programs in the daytime (06:00-20:29 h), and night-time (20:30-23:59 h). There were 3544 alcohol advertisements in AFL (1942), cricket (941) and NRL programs (661), representing 60% of all alcohol advertising in sport TV, and 15% of all alcohol advertisements on Australian TV. These programs had a cumulative audience of 26.9 million children and adolescents, and 32 million young adults. Children and adolescents received 51 million exposures to alcohol advertising, with 47% of this exposure occurring during the daytime. Children and adolescents exposure to alcohol advertising was similar to young adults and peaked after 8.30pm. Child and adolescent and young adult's exposure to alcohol advertising is high when viewing sport TV in Australia in the daytime and night-time. Current alcohol advertising regulations are not protecting children and adolescents from exposure, particularly in prominent televised sports. The regulations should be changed to reduce children and adolescent excessive exposure to alcohol advertising when watching sport. [Carr S, O'Brien KS, Ferris J, Room R, Livingston M, Vandenberg B, Donovan RJ, Lynott D. Child and adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising in Australia's major televised sports. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:406-411]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  13. Disclosure and Exposure of Alcohol on Social Media and Later Alcohol Use: A Large-Scale Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Erevik, Eilin K.; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Andreassen, Cecilie S.; Vedaa, Øystein; Pallesen, Ståle

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to investigate whether alcohol-related disclosure and exposure on social media can predict later alcohol use, and to identify covariates in these relationships. Data were collected by online surveys (two waves) among students in Bergen, Norway. The first survey was administered in fall 2015. The follow-up took place during fall 2016. A total of 5,217 students participated in both waves. The surveys included questions about demographics, personality, alcohol use, alcohol-rela...

  14. Fetal exposure to lead during pregnancy and the risk of preterm and early-term deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lu; Zhang, Bin; Huo, Wenqian; Cao, Zhongqiang; Liu, Wenyu; Liao, Jiaqiang; Xia, Wei; Xu, Shunqing; Li, Yuanyuan

    2017-08-01

    Studies have reported the association between lead exposure during pregnancy and preterm birth. However, findings are still inconsistent. This prospective birth cohort study evaluated the risks of preterm and early-term births and its association with prenatal lead exposure in Hubei, China. A total of 7299 pregnant women were selected from the Healthy Baby Cohort. Maternal urinary lead levels were measured by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The associations between tertiles of urinary lead levels and the risks of preterm and early-term deliveries were assessed using multiple logistic regression models. The geometric mean of creatinine-adjusted urinary lead concentrations among all participating mothers, preterm birth, and early-term birth were 3.19, 3.68, and 3.17μg/g creatinine, respectively. A significant increase in the risk of preterm births was associated with the highest urinary lead tertile after adjusting for confounders with odds ratio (OR) of 1.96. The association was more pronounced among 25-36 years old mothers with OR of 2.03. Though significant p trends were observed between lead exposure (medium and high tertiles) and the risk of early-term births, their ORs were not significant. Our findings indicate that the risk of preterm birth might increase with higher fetal lead exposure, particularly among women between the age of 25 and 36 years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparing Attentional Networks in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and the inattentive and combined subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, Libbe; Crawford, Susan; Gibbard, Ben; Kaplan, Bonnie J; Fan, Jin

    2011-01-01

    The Attention Network Test (ANT) was used to examine alerting, orienting, and executive control in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) versus attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were 113 children aged 7 to 10 years (31 ADHD-Combined, 16 ADHD-Primarily Inattentive, 28 FASD, 38 controls). Incongruent flanker trials triggered slower responses in both the ADHD-Combined and the FASD groups. Abnormal conflict scores in these same two groups provided additional evidence for the presence of executive function deficits. The ADHD-Primarily Inattentive group was indistinguishable from the controls on all three ANT indices, which highlights the possibility that this group constitutes a pathologically distinct entity.

  16. A single exposure to alcohol during brain development induces microencephaly and neuronal losses in genetically susceptible mice, but not in wild type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Licona, Hannah Klein; Karacay, Bahri; Mahoney, Jo; McDonald, Elizabeth; Luang, Thirath; Bonthius, Daniel J

    2009-05-01

    Maternal alcohol abuse during pregnancy can damage the fetal brain and lead to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Despite public warnings discouraging alcohol use during pregnancy, many pregnant women continue to drink intermittently because they do not believe that occasional exposures to alcohol can be harmful to a fetus. However, because of genetic differences, some fetuses are much more susceptible than others to alcohol-induced brain injury. Thus, a relatively low quantity of alcohol that may be innocuous to most fetuses could damage a genetically susceptible fetus. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) can protect developing mouse neurons against alcohol toxicity by synthesizing neuroprotective nitric oxide. This study examined whether a single exposure to alcohol, which causes no evident injury in wild type mice, can damage the brains of mice genetically deficient for nNOS (nNOS-/- mice). Wild type and nNOS-/- mice received intraperitoneal injections of alcohol (0.0, 2.2, or 4.4mg/g body weight) either as a single dose on postnatal day (PD) 4 or as repeated daily doses over PD4-9. Brain volumes and neuronal numbers within the hippocampus and cerebral cortex were determined on PD10. Alcohol exposure on PD4-9 restricted brain growth and caused neuronal death in both strains of mice, but the severity of microencephaly and neuronal loss were more severe in the nNOS-/- mice than in wild type. The 4.4 mg/g alcohol dose administered on PD4 alone caused significant neuronal loss and microencephaly in the nNOS-/- mice, while this same dose caused no evident injury in the wild type mice. Thus, during development, a single exposure to alcohol can injure a genetically vulnerable brain, while it leaves a wild type brain unaffected. Since the genes that confer alcohol resistance and vulnerability in developing humans are unknown, any particular human fetus is potentially vulnerable. Thus, women should be counseled to consume no alcohol during pregnancy.

  17. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging: exposure times and functional outcomes at preschool age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouyssi-Kobar, Marine; Du Plessis, Adre J.; Robertson, Richard L.; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been routinely used as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for more than a decade; however, there is a paucity of follow-up studies examining the effects of prenatal exposure to 1.5-T MRI on developmental outcome. The objective of this study was to assess the safety of 1.5-T fetal MRI by evaluating functional outcomes of preschool children who were exposed in utero. In the context of a prospective observational study, healthy pregnant women underwent a 1.5-T MRI study using single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) sequences during the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The study was approved by the institutional review board at our institution, and written informed consent was obtained from all study participants. MRI scanning times were recorded, and prenatal/postnatal clinical data were collected prospectively. Functional outcomes were assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS), a widely used, norm-referenced and psychometrically sound functional assessment. We studied 72 healthy pregnant women, who underwent fetal MRI at a mean gestational age of 30.5 ± 3.1 weeks. The cohort of fetuses was composed of 43% females, and 18 fetuses were scanned during the second trimester. All fetuses were born at term with appropriate birth weights (3.54 ± 0.5 kg) for gestational age. Mean age at follow-up testing was 24.5 ± 6.7 months. All children had age-appropriate scores in the communication, daily living, socialization and motor skills subdomains of the VABS (z-scores, P > 0.05). Furthermore, all children passed their newborn otoacoustic emission test and had normal hearing at preschool age. MRI study duration and exposure time to radio frequency waves and SSFSE sequences were not associated with adverse functional outcomes or hearing impairment. Prenatal exposure to 1.5-T MRI during the second or third trimester of pregnancy in a cohort of healthy fetuses is not associated with disturbances in functional outcomes or

  18. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging: exposure times and functional outcomes at preschool age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouyssi-Kobar, Marine [George Washington University, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Washington, DC (United States); Children' s National Health System, Advanced Pediatric Brain Imaging Research Laboratory, Departments of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Du Plessis, Adre J. [Children' s National Health System, Fetal and Transitional Medicine, Washington, DC (United States); Robertson, Richard L. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Limperopoulos, Catherine [Children' s National Health System, Advanced Pediatric Brain Imaging Research Laboratory, Departments of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Children' s National Health System, Fetal and Transitional Medicine, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been routinely used as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for more than a decade; however, there is a paucity of follow-up studies examining the effects of prenatal exposure to 1.5-T MRI on developmental outcome. The objective of this study was to assess the safety of 1.5-T fetal MRI by evaluating functional outcomes of preschool children who were exposed in utero. In the context of a prospective observational study, healthy pregnant women underwent a 1.5-T MRI study using single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) sequences during the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The study was approved by the institutional review board at our institution, and written informed consent was obtained from all study participants. MRI scanning times were recorded, and prenatal/postnatal clinical data were collected prospectively. Functional outcomes were assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS), a widely used, norm-referenced and psychometrically sound functional assessment. We studied 72 healthy pregnant women, who underwent fetal MRI at a mean gestational age of 30.5 ± 3.1 weeks. The cohort of fetuses was composed of 43% females, and 18 fetuses were scanned during the second trimester. All fetuses were born at term with appropriate birth weights (3.54 ± 0.5 kg) for gestational age. Mean age at follow-up testing was 24.5 ± 6.7 months. All children had age-appropriate scores in the communication, daily living, socialization and motor skills subdomains of the VABS (z-scores, P > 0.05). Furthermore, all children passed their newborn otoacoustic emission test and had normal hearing at preschool age. MRI study duration and exposure time to radio frequency waves and SSFSE sequences were not associated with adverse functional outcomes or hearing impairment. Prenatal exposure to 1.5-T MRI during the second or third trimester of pregnancy in a cohort of healthy fetuses is not associated with disturbances in functional outcomes or

  19. Climate Change and Fetal Health: The Impacts of Exposure to Extreme Temperatures in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Nicole S.; Horton, Radley M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Climate change is projected to increase the frequency, intensity, and duration of heat waves while reducing cold extremes, yet few studies have examined the relationship between temperature and fetal health. Objectives: We estimate the impacts of extreme temperatures on birth weight and gestational age in Manhattan, a borough in New York City, and explore differences by socioeconomic status (SES). Methods: We combine average daily temperature from 1985 to 2010 with birth certificate data in Manhattan for the same time period. We then generate 33 downscaled climate model time series to project impacts on fetal health. Results: We find exposure to an extra day where average temperature 25 F and 85 F during pregnancy is associated with a 1.8 and 1.7 g (respectively) reduction in birth weight, but the impact varies by SES, particularly for extreme heat, where teen mothers seem most vulnerable. We find no meaningful, significant effect on gestational age. Using projections of temperature from these climate models, we project average net reductions in birth weight in the 2070- 2099 period of 4.6 g in the business-as-usual scenario. Conclusions: Results suggest that increasing heat events from climate change could adversely impact birth weight and vary by SES.

  20. Using Swiss Webster mice to model Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD): An analysis of multilevel time-to-event data through mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Peter; Aras, Radha; Martin, Katie; Favero, Carlita

    2016-05-15

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) collectively describes the constellation of effects resulting from human alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Even with public awareness, the incidence of FASD is estimated to be upwards of 5% in the general population and is becoming a global health problem. The physical, cognitive, and behavioral impairments of FASD are recapitulated in animal models. Recently rodent models utilizing voluntary drinking paradigms have been developed that accurately reflect moderate consumption, which makes up the majority of FASD cases. The range in severity of FASD characteristics reflects the frequency, dose, developmental timing, and individual susceptibility to alcohol exposure. As most rodent models of FASD use C57BL/6 mice, there is a need to expand the stocks of mice studied in order to more fully understand the complex neurobiology of this disorder. To that end, we allowed pregnant Swiss Webster mice to voluntarily drink ethanol via the drinking in the dark (DID) paradigm throughout their gestation period. Ethanol exposure did not alter gestational outcomes as determined by no significant differences in maternal weight gain, maternal liquid consumption, litter size, or pup weight at birth or weaning. Despite seemingly normal gestation, ethanol-exposed offspring exhibit significantly altered timing to achieve developmental milestones (surface righting, cliff aversion, and open field traversal), as analyzed through mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards models. These results confirm Swiss Webster mice as a viable option to study the incidence and causes of ethanol-induced neurobehavioral alterations during development. Future studies in our laboratory will investigate the brain regions and molecules responsible for these behavioral changes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Higher functioning children with prenatal alcohol exposure: is there a specific neurocognitive profile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattlebaum, Justin L; O'Connor, Mary J

    2013-01-01

    Recent attempts to identify a neurocognitive profile of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) have led to an emerging "generalized deficit" conceptualization marked by diffuse information processing and integration difficulties as opposed to a specific profile. This study examines whether this conceptualization can be extended to higher functioning children with PAE who are without intellectual disability and addresses several limitations of previous research. One hundred twenty-five children aged 6-12 years with social skills deficits, 97 of whom met diagnostic criteria for a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), underwent a comprehensive, multi-informant assessment of neurocognitive, emotional, social, behavioral, and adaptive functioning. Multivariate analyses of variance examined differences in functioning between the PAE group and a nonexposed comparison group with and without controlling for child IQ. Results indicated that the PAE group returned significantly poorer scores than the nonexposed group on every construct assessed, including executive functioning, attention, working/visuospatial memory, linguistic abstraction, adaptive behavior, emotional/behavioral functioning, and social cognition. These differences largely maintained after controlling for IQ and were similar regardless of informant, although teachers reported somewhat fewer group differences. Within the PAE group, no differences were found across FASD subtypes. These results provide evidence extending the emerging generalized deficit conceptualization of children with PAE to those higher functioning individuals without global intellectual disability.

  2. Investigating the effects of in utero benzene exposure on epigenetic modifications in maternal and fetal CD-1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philbrook, Nicola A.; Winn, Louise M.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to the ubiquitous environmental pollutant benzene is positively correlated with leukemia in adults and may be associated with childhood leukemia following in utero exposure. While numerous studies implicate oxidative stress and DNA damage as playing a role in benzene-mediated carcinogenicity, emerging evidence suggests that alterations in epigenetic regulations may be involved. The present study aimed to determine whether DNA methylation and/or various histone modifications were altered following in utero benzene exposure in CD-1 mice. Global DNA methylation and promoter-specific methylation of the tumor suppressor gene, p15, were assessed. Additionally, levels of acetylated histones H3, H4, and H3K56, as well as methylated histones H3K9 and H3K27 were assessed by Western blotting. A significant decrease in global DNA methylation of maternal bone marrow was observed following benzene exposure; however no effect on global DNA methylation was detected in fetal livers. Additionally, no effect of benzene exposure was observed on p15 promoter methylation or any measured histone modifications in both maternal bone marrow and fetal livers. These results suggest that the methodology used in the present study did not reveal alterations in DNA methylation and histone modifications following in utero exposure to benzene; however further experimentation investigating these modifications at the whole genome/epigenome level, as well as at later stages of benzene-induced carcinogenesis, are warranted. - Highlights: • Benzene exposure in pregnant mice decreased global DNA methylation in maternal bone marrow. • Benzene exposure in pregnant mice had no effect on global DNA methylation in fetal livers. • No effect of benzene exposure was observed on p15 promoter methylation. • No effect of benzene on measured histone modifications in both maternal bone marrow and fetal livers was observed.

  3. [Air pollutant exposure during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development. Research protocol of the INMA (Childhood and Environment Project)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía; Aguilera, Inma; Iñíguez, Carmen; García Dos Santos, Saúl; Aguirre Alfaro, Amelia; Lacasaña, Marina; Estarlich, Marisa; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández, Marieta; Rebagliato, Marisa; Sala, María; Tardón, Adonina; Torrent, Maties; Martínez, María Dolores; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2007-01-01

    The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [Spanish for Environment and Childhood]) project is a cooperative research network. This project aims to study the effects of environment and diet on fetal and early childhood development. This article aims to present the air pollutant exposure protocol during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development of the INMA project. The information to assess air pollutant exposure during pregnancy is based on outdoor measurement of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide [NO2], volatile organic compounds [VOC], ozone, particulate matter [PM10, PM2,5 ] and of their composition [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons]); measurement of indoor and personal exposure (VOC and NO2); urinary measurement of a biological marker of hydrocarbon exposure (1-hydroxypyrene); and data gathered by questionnaires and geographic information systems. These data allow individual air pollutant exposure indexes to be developed, which can then be used to analyze the possible effects of exposure on fetal development and child health. This protocol and the type of study allow an approximation to individual air pollutant exposure to be obtained. Finally, the large number of participants (N = 4,000), as well as their geographic and social diversity, increases the study's potential.

  4. In utero glucocorticoid exposure reduced fetal skeletal muscle mass in rats independent of effects on maternal nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal stress and undernutrition can occur together and expose the fetus to high glucocorticoid (GLC) levels during this vulnerable period. To determine the consequences of GLC exposure on fetal skeletal muscle independently of maternal food intake, groups of timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n ...

  5. Exposure to Alcohol Content in Movies and Initiation of Early Drinking Milestones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kristina M; Janssen, Tim; Barnett, Nancy P; Rogers, Michelle L; Hayes, Kerri L; Sargent, James

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol content in movies has been shown to be associated with adolescent use of alcohol, including earlier onset. This study examined the influence of movie alcohol exposure on subsequent alcohol onset, considering the social context (whether the movie was viewed with a friend or parent). We examined whether media's influence holds across a spectrum of early drinking milestones: sipping (but not consuming a full drink of) alcohol, consuming a full drink of alcohol, and engaging in heavy episodic drinking (HED). Data were taken from a sample of 882 middle school youth (52% female; 24% non-White) enrolled in an ongoing study on alcohol initiation and progression. Exposure to alcohol content in films was measured using a method that combines content analysis and random assignment of movie titles to youth surveys. The hazard of initiating alcohol use (sip, full drink, HED) as a function of exposure was estimated using survival analysis. Associations were adjusted for demographic, personality, and social influence factors known to be associated with both movie exposure and alcohol use. Exposure to alcohol content was common. Hours of exposure prospectively predicted earlier onset of alcohol involvement across all outcomes. Viewing movies with friends appeared to augment the media exposure effect, in contrast to viewing movies with parents, which was not a significant predictor of initiation. Exposure to alcohol in films is involved in the entry into early stages of alcohol involvement. Findings support further investigation into the role of the media in underage drinking, especially in the context of consuming media with friends and peers. Limiting media exposure and/or stronger Federal Trade Commission oversight of movie ratings should be a priority for preventing underage drinking. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Establishment of the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority Resource Center for Children with Prenatal Alcohol/Drug Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro C. C. Løhaugen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new initiative in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway to establish a regional resource center focusing on services for children and adolescents aged 2–18 years with prenatal exposure to alcohol or other drugs. In Norway, the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum (FAS is not known but has been estimated to be between 1 and 2 children per 1000 births, while the prevalence of prenatal exposure to illicit drugs is unknown. The resource center is the first of its kind in Scandinavia and will have three main objectives: (1 provide hospital staff, community health and child welfare personnel, and special educators with information, educational courses, and seminars focused on the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of children with a history of prenatal alcohol/drug exposure; (2 provide specialized health services, such as diagnostic services and intervention planning, for children referred from hospitals in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway; and (3 initiate multicenter studies focusing on the diagnostic process and evaluation of interventions.

  7. Cocaine exposure modulates dopamine and adenosine signaling in the fetal brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrusly, Regina C. C.; Bhide, Pradeep G.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to cocaine during the fetal period can produce significant lasting changes in the structure and function of the brain. Cocaine exerts its effects on the developing brain by blocking monoamine transporters and impairing monoamine receptor signaling. Dopamine is a major central target of cocaine. In a mouse model, we show that cocaine exposure from embryonic day 8 (E8) to E14 produces significant reduction in dopamine transporter activity, attenuation of dopamine D1-receptor function and upregulation of dopamine D2-receptor function. Cocaine’s effects on the D1-receptor are at the level of protein expression as well as activity. The cocaine exposure also produces significant increases in basal cAMP levels in the striatum and cerebral cortex. The increase in the basal cAMP levels was independent of dopamine receptor activity. In contrast, blocking the adenosine A2a receptor downregulated of the basal cAMP levels in the cocaine-exposed brain to physiological levels, suggesting the involvement of adenosine receptors in mediating cocaine’s effects on the embryonic brain. In support of this suggestion, we found that the cocaine exposure downregulated adenosine transporter function. We also found that dopamine D2- and adenosine A2a-receptors antagonize each other’s function in the embryonic brain in a manner consistent with their interactions in the mature brain. Thus, our data show that prenatal cocaine exposure produces direct effects on both the dopamine and adenosine systems. Furthermore, the dopamine D2 and adenosine A2a receptor interactions in the embryonic brain discovered in this study unveil a novel substrate for cocaine’s effects on the developing brain. PMID:19765599

  8. Prenatal fine particulate exposure and early childhood asthma: Effect of maternal stress and fetal sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alison; Leon Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Mathilda Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Bose, Sonali; Rosa, Maria José; Kloog, Itai; Wilson, Ander; Schwartz, Joel; Cohen, Sheldon; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-08-08

    The impact of prenatal ambient air pollution on child asthma may be modified by maternal stress, child sex, and exposure dose and timing. We prospectively examined associations between coexposure to prenatal particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 microns (PM 2.5 ) and maternal stress and childhood asthma (n = 736). Daily PM 2.5 exposure during pregnancy was estimated using a validated satellite-based spatiotemporally resolved prediction model. Prenatal maternal negative life events (NLEs) were dichotomized around the median (high: NLE ≥ 3; low: NLE effect modification by maternal stress and child sex. Bayesian distributed lag interaction models identified a critical window of exposure (19-23 weeks' gestation, cumulative odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.26; per interquartile range [1.7 μg/m 3 ] increase in prenatal PM 2.5 level) during which children concomitantly exposed to prenatal PM 2.5 and maternal stress had increased risk of asthma. No significant association was seen in children born to women reporting low prenatal stress. When examining modifying effects of prenatal stress and fetal sex, we found that boys born to mothers with higher prenatal stress were most vulnerable (19-21 weeks' gestation; cumulative odds ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.15-1.41; per interquartile range increase in PM 2.5 ). Prenatal PM 2.5 exposure during sensitive windows is associated with increased risk of child asthma, especially in boys concurrently exposed to elevated maternal stress. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. In utero exposure to alcohol and puberty in boys: a pregnancy cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Håkonsen, Linn Berger; Brath-Lund, Mette Louise; Hounsgaard, Marie Louise; Olsen, Jørn; Ernst, Andreas; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiological studies have raised concerns about the reproductive consequences of in utero exposure to alcohol. Maternal lifestyle factors have been associated with altered pubertal development, but the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on male puberty is unknown. Thus, the objective was to explore whether prenatal alcohol exposure alters pubertal development in boys. Setting Follow-up of a Danish pregnancy cohort. Participants Sons (N=2522) of women who were enrolled in a Dani...

  10. Prenatal exposure to mercury and longitudinally assessed fetal growth: Relation and effect modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Ferran; Iñiguez, Carmen; Murcia, Mario; Guxens, Mònica; Basterretxea, Mikel; Rebagliato, Marisa; Vioque, Jesús; Lertxundi, Aitana; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina; Sunyer, Jordi; Llop, Sabrina

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal mercury exposure has been related to reductions in anthropometry at birth. Levels of mercury have been reported as being relatively elevated in the Spanish population. To investigate the relation between prenatal exposure to mercury and fetal growth. Study subjects were pregnant women and their newborns (n:1867) participating in a population-based birth cohort study set up in four Spanish regions from the INMA Project. Biparietal diameter (BPD), femur length (FL), abdominal circumference (AC), and estimated fetal weight (EFW) were measured by ultrasounds at 12, 20, and 34 weeks of gestation. Size at and growth between these points were assessed by standard deviation (SD) scores adjusted for constitutional characteristics. Total mercury (T-Hg) was determined in cord blood. Associations were investigated by linear regression models, adjusted by sociodemographic, environmental, nutritional - including four seafood groups - and lifestyle-related variables in each sub-cohort. Final estimates were obtained using meta-analysis. Effect modification by sex, seafood intake and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 153 concentration was assessed. Geometric mean of cord blood T-Hg was 8.2μg/L. All the estimates of the association between prenatal Hg and growth from 0 to 12 weeks showed reductions in SD-scores, which were only statistically significant for BPD. A doubling of cord blood T-Hg was associated with a 0.58% reduction in size of BPD at week 12 (95% confidence interval -CI-: - 1.10, - 0.07). Size at week 34 showed estimates suggestive of a small reduction in EFW, i.e., a doubling of T-Hg levels was associated with a reduction of 0.38% (95% CI: - 0.91, 0.15). An interaction between PCB153 and T-Hg was found, with statistically significant negative associations of T-Hg with AC and EFW in late pregnancy among participants with PCB153 below the median. Exposure to mercury during pregnancy was associated with early reductions in BPD. Moreover, an antagonism with

  11. Research-based interventions for children and youth with a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: revealing the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premji, S; Benzies, K; Serrett, K; Hayden, K A

    2007-07-01

    Alcohol use during pregnancy can result in a continuum of effects including growth deficits, dysmorphology and/or complex patterns of behavioural and cognitive difficulties that influence an individual's functioning throughout their lifespan. We conducted a systematic review to identify research-based interventions for children and youth with a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and areas for future study. We identified the substantive literature by searching 40 peer-reviewed and 23 grey literature databases, as well as reference lists. We hand-searched eight relevant journals, and undertook a systematic search of Internet sites and review of reports and documents received from key stakeholders. Two reviewers independently assessed eligibility and quality, and extracted data. Given the small number of studies that met all inclusion criteria, both experimental and quasi-experimental studies were included. Ten intervention studies were identified, of which three were experimental or quasi-experimental, and four were non-experimental. Despite multiple attempts, three studies (two in foreign languages and one unpublished) could not be acquired. A meta-analysis could not be undertaken because the included studies examined different interventions or outcomes. Interventions targeted in the included studies were as follows: (i) psychostimulant medications (methyphenidate, pemoline and dextroamphetamine); and (ii) Cognitive Control Therapy. The identified studies were limited by very small sample sizes and weak designs. There is limited scientific evidence upon which to draw recommendations regarding efficacious interventions for children and youth with a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Clinicians, researchers, service providers, educators, policy makers, affected children and youth and their families, and others need to urgently collaborate to develop a comprehensive research agenda for this population.

  12. Toxicogenomic profiling in maternal and fetal rodent brains following gestational exposure to chlorpyrifos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Estefania G.; Yu Xiaozhong; Robinson, Joshua F.; Griffith, Willian; Hong, Sung Woo; Beyer, Richard P.; Bammler, Theo K.; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2010-01-01

    Considering the wide variety of effects that have been reported to occur in the developmental neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos (CP) and the lack of consensus on their dependence of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity inhibition, we applied microarray technology to explore dose-dependent alterations in transcriptional response in the fetal and maternal C57BL/6 mouse brain after daily gestational exposure (days 6 to 17) to CP (2, 4, 10, 12 or 15 mg/kg, sc). We identified significantly altered genes across doses and assessed for overrepresentation of Gene Ontology (GO) biological processes and KEGG pathways. We further clustered genes based on their expression profiles across doses and repeated the GO/pathways analysis for each cluster. The dose-effect relationship of CP on gene expression, both at the gene and pathway levels was non-monotonic and not necessarily related to brain AChE inhibition. The largest impact was observed in the 10 mg/kg dose group which was also the LOAEL for brain AChE inhibition. In the maternal brain, lower doses (4 mg/kg) influenced GO categories and pathways such as cell adhesion, behavior, lipid metabolism, long-term potentiation, nervous system development, neurogenesis, synaptic transmission. In the fetal brain, lower doses (2 and/or 4 mg/kg) significantly altered cell division, translation, transmission of nerve impulse, chromatin modification, long-term potentiation. In addition, some genes involved in nervous system development and signaling were shown to be specifically influenced by these lower CP doses. Our approach was sensitive and reflected the diversity of responses known to be disrupted by CP and highlighted possible additional consequences of CP neurotoxicity, such as disturbance of the ubiquitin proteasome system.

  13. Differential proteomic expression of human placenta and fetal development following e-waste lead and cadmium exposure in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Long; Ge, Jingjing; Huo, Xia; Zhang, Yuling; Lau, Andy T.Y.; Xu, Xijin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) has been associated with a series of physiological problems resulting in fetal growth restriction. We aimed to investigate the effects of Pb and Cd exposure on placental function and the potential mechanisms involved in fetal development. Placental specimens and questionnaires were collected from an e-waste area and a reference area in China. Two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and molecular network relationship were performed to analyze differentially expressed proteins using a compositing sample pool. Compared with the reference group, the exposed group exhibited significantly higher levels of placental Pb and Cd (p < 0.01), shorter body length and higher gestational age (p < 0.01). After bivariate adjustment in a linear regression model, decreases of 205.05 g in weight and 0.44 cm in body length were associated with a 10 ng/g wt increase in placental Cd. Pb showed a negative trend but lacked statistical significance. Proteomic analysis showed 32 differentially-expressed proteins and were predominantly involved in protein translocation, cytoskeletal structure, and energy metabolism. Fumarate hydratase was down-regulated in the exposed placenta tissues and validated by ELISA. Alterations in placental proteome suggest that imbalances in placental mitochondria respiration might be a vital pathway targeting fetal growth restriction induced by exposure to Cd. - Highlights: • The placental Pb and Cd levels were higher in the e-waste polluted area. • Proteome in placenta tissues was performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. • Cd exposure in the placenta was associated with the reduced fetal development. • 32 proteins covered in translocation, energy metabolism and cytoskeletal structure. • Dysregulated mitochondrial respiration may act in the Cd-reduced fetal development.

  14. Differential proteomic expression of human placenta and fetal development following e-waste lead and cadmium exposure in utero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Long; Ge, Jingjing; Huo, Xia; Zhang, Yuling [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Lau, Andy T.Y. [Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Epigenetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Xu, Xijin, E-mail: xuxj@stu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China)

    2016-04-15

    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) has been associated with a series of physiological problems resulting in fetal growth restriction. We aimed to investigate the effects of Pb and Cd exposure on placental function and the potential mechanisms involved in fetal development. Placental specimens and questionnaires were collected from an e-waste area and a reference area in China. Two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and molecular network relationship were performed to analyze differentially expressed proteins using a compositing sample pool. Compared with the reference group, the exposed group exhibited significantly higher levels of placental Pb and Cd (p < 0.01), shorter body length and higher gestational age (p < 0.01). After bivariate adjustment in a linear regression model, decreases of 205.05 g in weight and 0.44 cm in body length were associated with a 10 ng/g wt increase in placental Cd. Pb showed a negative trend but lacked statistical significance. Proteomic analysis showed 32 differentially-expressed proteins and were predominantly involved in protein translocation, cytoskeletal structure, and energy metabolism. Fumarate hydratase was down-regulated in the exposed placenta tissues and validated by ELISA. Alterations in placental proteome suggest that imbalances in placental mitochondria respiration might be a vital pathway targeting fetal growth restriction induced by exposure to Cd. - Highlights: • The placental Pb and Cd levels were higher in the e-waste polluted area. • Proteome in placenta tissues was performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. • Cd exposure in the placenta was associated with the reduced fetal development. • 32 proteins covered in translocation, energy metabolism and cytoskeletal structure. • Dysregulated mitochondrial respiration may act in the Cd-reduced fetal development.

  15. Development of children adopted from Poland : The role of early life risk factors, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, S.

    2015-01-01

    Annually, 300 to 400 Polish children are adopted internationally. Prior to adoption, most of these children were exposed to circumstances that could harm their development, for example, neglect or prenatal exposure to alcohol. Our study was initiated because the Dutch adoption agency that placed

  16. Use of health, education, and social services by individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Marni D; de B Hanlon Dearman, Ana C; Macwilliam, Leonard R; Chudley, Albert E; Roos, Noralou P; Yallop, Lauren P; A Longstaffe, Sally E

    2013-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is the leading cause of intellectual disability in western society, presenting a significant burden on health, education and social services. Quantifying the burden of FASD is important for service planning and policy and program development. To describe the health, education and social service use of individuals with FASD to provide an indication of the burden of service use of the disorder. Using a matched-cohort design health, education and social service data were linked with clinical records on individuals 6+ years diagnosed with FASD between 1999/2000-2009/10 (N=717). Matching was 2:1 with a general population (gPop) and asthma group by age, sex and area-level income. Adjusted rates and relative risks were calculated using Generalized Linear Models. Hospitalizations were higher in the FASD compared to gPop (adjusted relative risk=3.44 (95% confidence interval=2.29, 5.17)) and asthma (2.87 (1.94, 4.25)) groups, whereas for physician visits and overall prescriptions, the FASD group differed from only the gPop group (1.58 (1.34, 1.84); 1.44 (1.22, 1.72), respectively). Antibiotics, pain killers and anti-psychotics were similar across groups whereas antidepressants and psychostimulants were higher in the FASD group (antidepressants: FASD vs. gPop 8.76 (2.82, 27.21); FASD vs. asthma 2.10 (1.15, 3.83); psychostimulants: FASD vs. gPop 5.78 (2.89, 11.57); FASD vs. asthma 2.47 (1.37, 4.47)). Attention-deficit\\hyperactivity disorder was higher in the FASD than the gPop and asthma groups (6.41 (3.29, 12.49); 3.12 (1.97, 4.93), respectively). Education and social service use was higher for the FASD than either of the other groups for all measures (FASD vs. gPop and FASD vs. asthma, respectively for: grade repetition 3.06 (1.58, 5.94); 3.48 (1.79, 6.78); receipt of any special education funding 9.22 (6.23, 13.64); 6.10 (4.14, 8.99); family receipt of income assistance 1.74 (1.33, 2.27); 1.89 (1.45, 2.47); child in care 13.19 (5

  17. Implicit strategy affects learning in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa M; Mattson, Sarah N

    2004-09-01

    Learning and memory deficits are commonly reported in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Our recent work suggested that children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure retained information as well as controls on a verbal learning test but not on a test of nonverbal learning and memory. To better understand the cause of this differential pattern of performance, the current study re-analyzed data from our previous study to determine if the presence of an implicit learning strategy may account, at least in part, for the finding of spared retention. The current study examined verbal learning and memory abilities in 35 children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and 34 nonexposed controls (CON) matched for age (9-16 years), sex, ethnicity, handedness, and socioeconomic status. Groups were compared on two measures of verbal learning, one with an implicit strategy (California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version; CVLT-C) and one without (Verbal Learning subtest of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning; VL-WRAML). Children with FASD learned less information overall than children in the CON group. Both groups learned a greater percentage of information and reached a learning plateau earlier on the CVLT-C compared with the VL-WRAML. Groups also showed comparable rates of retention after a delay on the CVLT-C. In contrast, on the VL-WRAML, children with FASD showed poorer retention rates than children in the CON group. Interestingly, children with FASD did not differ from children in the CON group on CVLT-C semantic clustering scores for learning trials 1 through 3, and greater utilization of semantic clustering was correlated with better learning and memory performance in both groups. This overall pattern of results was not related to overall intellectual level. The finding of spared retention of verbal information on the CVLT-C in our earlier studies may be related to test characteristics of the CVLT-C rather than a finding of spared verbal

  18. Children's exposure to alcohol marketing within supermarkets: An objective analysis using GPS technology and wearable cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, T; Pearson, A L; Stanley, J; Smith, M; Barr, M; Ni Mhurchu, C; Signal, L

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to alcohol marketing within alcohol retailers has been associated with higher rates of childhood drinking, brand recognition, and marketing recall. This study aimed to objectively measure children's everyday exposure to alcohol marketing within supermarkets. Children aged 11-13 (n = 167) each wore a wearable camera and GPS device for four consecutive days. Micro-spatial analyses were used to examine exposures within supermarkets. In alcohol retailing supermarkets (n = 30), children encountered alcohol marketing on 85% of their visits (n = 78). Alcohol marketing was frequently near everyday goods (bread and milk) or entrance/exit. Alcohol sales in supermarkets should be banned in order to protect children from alcohol marketing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Lililwan Project: study protocol for a population-based active case ascertainment study of the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, James P; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Latimer, Jane; Carter, Maureen; Oscar, June; Ferreira, Manuela; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Lucas, Barbara; Doney, Robyn; Salter, Claire; Peadon, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Genevieve; Hand, Marmingee

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that high-risk drinking in pregnancy is common in some remote Australian communities. Alcohol is teratogenic and may cause a range of lifelong conditions termed 'fetal alcohol spectrum disorders' (FASD). Australia has few diagnostic services for FASD, and prevalence of these neurodevelopmental disorders remains unknown. In 2009, Aboriginal leaders in the remote Fitzroy Valley in North Western Australia identified FASD as a community priority and initiated the Lililwani Project in partnership with leading research organisations. This project will establish the prevalence of FASD and other health and developmental problems in school-aged children residing in the Fitzroy Valley, providing data to inform FASD prevention and management. This is a population-based active case ascertainment study of all children born in 2002 and 2003 and residing in the Fitzroy Valley. Participants will be identified from the Fitzroy Valley Population Project and Communicare databases. Parents/carers will be interviewed using a standardised diagnostic questionnaire modified for local language and cultural requirements to determine the demographics, antenatal exposures, birth outcomes, education and psychosocial status of each child. A comprehensive interdisciplinary health and neurodevelopmental assessment will be performed using tests and operational definitions adapted for the local context. Internationally recognised diagnostic criteria will be applied to determine FASD prevalence. Relationships between pregnancy exposures and early life trauma, neurodevelopmental, health and education outcomes will be evaluated using regression analysis. Results will be reported according to STROBE guidelines for observational studies. Ethics approval has been granted by the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee, the Western Australian Aboriginal Health Information and Ethics Committee, the Western Australian Country Health Service Board Research Ethics

  20. Dynamic Exposure to Alcohol Advertising in a Sports Context Influences Implicit Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerhouni, Oulmann; Bègue, Laurent; Duke, Aaron A; Flaudias, Valentin

    2016-02-01

    Experimental studies investigating the impact of advertising with ecological stimuli on alcohol-related cognition are scarce. This research investigated the cognitive processes involved in learning implicit attitudes toward alcohol after incidental exposure to alcohol advertisements presented in a dynamic context. We hypothesized that incidental exposure to a specific alcohol brand would lead to heightened positive implicit attitudes toward alcohol due to a mere exposure effect. In total, 108 participants were randomly exposed to dynamic sporting events excerpts with and without advertising for a specific brand of alcohol, after completing self-reported measures of alcohol-related expectancies, alcohol consumption, and attitudes toward sport. Participants then completed a lexical decision task and an affective priming task. We showed that participants were faster to detect brand name after being exposed to advertising during a sports game, and that implicit attitudes of participants toward the brand were more positive after they were exposed to advertising, even when alcohol usage patterns were controlled for. Incidental exposure to alcohol sponsorship in sport events impacts implicit attitudes toward the advertised brand and alcohol in general. The effect of incidental advertising on implicit attitudes is also likely to be due to a mere exposure effect. However, further studies should address this point specifically. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Developmental alcohol exposure impairs synaptic plasticity without overtly altering microglial function in mouse visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elissa L; Lutz, Nina M; Hogan, Victoria A; Lamantia, Cassandra E; McMurray, Helene R; Myers, Jason R; Ashton, John M; Majewska, Ania K

    2018-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), caused by gestational ethanol (EtOH) exposure, is one of the most common causes of non-heritable and life-long mental disability worldwide, with no standard treatment or therapy available. While EtOH exposure can alter the function of both neurons and glia, it is still unclear how EtOH influences brain development to cause deficits in sensory and cognitive processing later in life. Microglia play an important role in shaping synaptic function and plasticity during neural circuit development and have been shown to mount an acute immunological response to EtOH exposure in certain brain regions. Therefore, we hypothesized that microglial roles in the healthy brain could be permanently altered by early EtOH exposure leading to deficits in experience-dependent plasticity. We used a mouse model of human third trimester high binge EtOH exposure, administering EtOH twice daily by subcutaneous injections from postnatal day 4 through postnatal day 9 (P4-:P9). Using a monocular deprivation model to assess ocular dominance plasticity, we found an EtOH-induced deficit in this type of visually driven experience-dependent plasticity. However, using a combination of immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, and in vivo two-photon microscopy to assay microglial morphology and dynamics, as well as fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and RNA-seq to examine the microglial transcriptome, we found no evidence of microglial dysfunction in early adolescence. We also found no evidence of microglial activation in visual cortex acutely after early ethanol exposure, possibly because we also did not observe EtOH-induced neuronal cell death in this brain region. We conclude that early EtOH exposure caused a deficit in experience-dependent synaptic plasticity in the visual cortex that was independent of changes in microglial phenotype or function. This demonstrates that neural plasticity can remain impaired by developmental ethanol exposure even in

  2. Noise exposure during pregnancy, birth outcomes and fetal development: meta-analyses using quality effects model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D; Dimitrakova, Elena D

    2014-01-01

    Many women are exposed daily to high levels of occupational and residential noise, so the effect of noise exposure on pregnancy should be considered because noise affects both the fetus and the mother herself. However, there is a controversy in the literature regarding the adverse effects of occupational and residential noise on pregnant women and their fetuses. The aim of this study was to conduct systematic review of previously analyzed studies, to add additional information omitted in previous reviews and to perform meta-analyses on the effects of noise exposure on pregnancy, birth outcomes and fetal development. Previous reviews and meta-analyses on the topic were consulted. Additionally, a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Internet was carried out. Twenty nine studies were included in the meta-analyses. Quality effects meta-analytical model was applied. Women exposed to high noise levels (in most of the studies ≥ 80 dB) during pregnancy are at a significantly higher risk for having small-for-gestational-age newborn (RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.38), gestational hypertension (RR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.58) and infant with congenital malformations (RR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.79). The effect was not significant for preeclampsia, perinatal death, spontaneous abortion and preterm birth. The results are consistent with previous findings regarding a higher risk for small-for-gestational-age. They also highlight the significance of residential and occupational noise exposure for developing gestational hypertension and especially congenital malformations.

  3. Diagnostic outcomes of 27 children referred by pediatricians to a genetics clinic in the Netherlands with suspicion of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdelmalik, Nadia; van Haelst, Mieke; Mancini, Grazia; Schrander-Stumpel, Connie; Marcus-Soekarman, Dominique; Hennekam, Raoul; Cobben, Jan Maarten

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) constitute a specific facial phenotype, growth failure and neurodevelopmental defects. Reported FASD prevalences vary widely from 0.08 per 1,000 up to 68.0-89.2 per 1,000. We aimed to evaluate to which extent children referred with a

  4. Accentuate the Negative: Grammatical Errors during Narrative Production as a Clinical Marker of Central Nervous System Abnormality in School-Aged Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine (a) whether increased grammatical error rates during a standardized narrative task are a more clinically useful marker of central nervous system abnormality in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) than common measures of productivity or grammatical complexity and (b) whether combining the rate…

  5. Reversible loss of reproductive fitness in zebrafish on chronic alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewari, Pooran Singh; Ajani, Funmilola; Kushawah, Gopal; Kumar, Damera Santhosh; Mishra, Rakesh K

    2016-02-01

    Alcoholism is one of the most prevalent diseases in society and causes significant health and social problems. Alcohol consumption by pregnant women is reported to cause adverse effects on the physical and psychological growth of the fetus. However, the direct effect of chronic alcohol consumption on reproductive fitness has not been tested. In recent years, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a versatile model system to study the effects of alcohol on behavior and embryonic development. We utilized the zebrafish model system to address the effect of chronic alcohol exposure (0.5% alcohol in the holding tank for 9 weeks) on reproductive capacity. We found a dramatic decrease in fecundity, measured by counting the number of eggs laid, when at least one of the parents is subject to chronic alcohol exposure. Interestingly, a 9-week alcohol withdrawal program completely restored the reproductive capacity of the treated subjects. In agreement with observations on fecundity, the chronic alcohol exposure leads to increased anxiety, as measured by the novel-tank diving assay. Conversely, the withdrawal program diminished heightened anxiety in alcohol-exposed subjects. Our results highlight the adverse effects of chronic alcohol exposure on the reproductive capacity of both males and females, and underscore the utility of the zebrafish model system to understand the biology of chronic alcoholism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Case study: using a virtual reality computer game to teach fire safety skills to children diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Lynne S; Strickland, Dorothy; Coles, Claire D

    2006-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a computer-based virtual reality (VR) game in teaching five children diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) fire safety skills and to generalize these skills to a real world simulation. Children participated in a study by using a multiple baseline, multiple probe design. Before the game, no child could correctly describe what actions to take during a home fire. A computerized game allowed them to learn the recommended safety steps in a virtual world. Skill learning and real-world generalization were tested immediately after the intervention and at 1-week post-test. All children reached 100% accuracy on the computer intervention, defined as successfully completing each of the safety steps. At the 1-week follow-up, all the children were able to perform the steps correctly in a real world simulation. The results suggest that this method of intervention warrants further study as an educational delivery system for children with FAS.

  7. Occupational Exposure to Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers: The Diagnostic Role of Alcohol Biomarkers in Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, A; Bozzo, A; Di Corcia, D; Gerace, E; Vincenti, M

    2018-04-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in hair are effective direct biomarkers of ethanol ingestion, whose analytical determination can be used to discriminate between chronic and occasional ethanol intake. Ethanol is a compound widely used in some workplaces (e.g., clinics, hospitals) and is present in considerable amounts in mouthwash for oral cleaning, medications, cosmetic products, hydro-alcoholic disinfectants and antiseptics for hands. This study examined the ethyl alcohol exposure derived from hand disinfectants (in gel form) by simulating the typical occupational situation of medical-health workers (healthcare workers, nurses, surgeons, etc.) who frequently wash their hands with antiseptic sanitizer. Two types of hand disinfectants with 62% w/w of ethanol content were daily applied to the hands of a teetotaler for 20 times a day, for 4 consecutive weeks, thus simulating a typical workplace situation and a cumulative dermal exposure to ethanol of ~1,100 g. Different matrices (head, chest and beard hair, urine) were regularly sampled and analyzed using a ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem massspectrometry validated method for EtG and a (HS)SPME-GC-MS validated technique for FAEEs. The data obtained showed that a significant dermal absorption and/or inhalation of ethanol occurred, and that the use of detergents produce urinary EtG concentrations both higher than the cut-offs normally used for clinical and forensic analyses (either 100 and 500 ng/mL, depending on the context). The concentrations of the ethanol metabolites in the keratin matrices were, respectively, below the cut-off of 7 pg/mg for EtG and below 0.5 ng/mg for FAAEs (0.35 ng/mg for ethyl palmitate). In conclusion, the regular use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers can affect the concentration of urinary EtG and lead to positive analytical results, particularly when specimens are obtained shortly after sustained use of ethanol-containing hand sanitizer. On the

  8. Relationship of child IQ to parental IQ and education in children with fetal antiepileptic drug exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Kimford J; Baker, Gus A; Browning, Nancy; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Cohen, Morris J; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W

    2011-06-01

    Clinical trial designs need to control for genetic and environmental influences when examining cognitive outcomes in children for whom clinical considerations preclude randomization. However, the contributions of maternal and paternal IQ and education to pediatric cognitive outcomes are uncertain in disease populations. The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) Study is an ongoing prospective observational multicenter study in the United States and United Kingdom, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used antiepileptic drugs. Here, we examined the relationship of IQ and education in both parents to child IQ at age 3 years. IQ and education for both parents were statistically correlated to child IQ. However, paternal IQ and education were not significant after accounting for maternal IQ effects. Because maternal IQ and education are independently related to child cognitive outcome, both should be assessed in studies investigating the effects of fetal drug exposures or other environmental factors that could affect the child's cognitive outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Human Fetal Exposure to Triclosan and Triclocarban in an Urban Population from Brooklyn, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    from exposures occurring during pregnancy and provides additional data on composite exposure to TCS (i.e., from both consumer-product use and environmental sources) in the maternal–fetal unit for an urban population in the United States. PMID:24971846

  10. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure and cognitive outcomes at age 6 years (NEAD study): a prospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Meador, Kimford J; Baker, Gus A; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J; Bromley, Rebecca L; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many women of childbearing potential take antiepileptic drugs, but the cognitive effects of fetal exposure are uncertain. We aimed to assess effects of commonly used antiepileptic drugs on cognitive outcomes in children up to 6 years of age. Methods: In this prospective, observational, assessor-masked, multicentre study, we enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug monotherapy (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, or valproate) between October, 1999, and Februa...

  11. Social Information Processing Skills in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Christie L.; Bjorkquist, Olivia A.; Price, Joseph M.; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Based on caregiver report, children with prenatal alcohol exposure have difficulty with social functioning, but little is known about their social cognition. The current study assessed the social information processing patterns of school-age children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure using a paradigm based on Crick and Dodge's reformulated…

  12. Impulse Noise Exposures: Characterization and Effects on Fetal Sheep in Utero

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerhardt, Kenneth

    1997-01-01

    ...). In the uterus, the pSPL varied as a function of fetal head location. When the fetal head was against the abdominal wall, peak levels were within 2 dB of airborne levels and the morphology of the waveform resembled a Freidlander wave...

  13. Subjective aggression during alcohol and cannabis intoxication before and after aggression exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, K P C; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol and cannabis use have been implicated in aggression. Alcohol consumption is known to facilitate aggression, whereas a causal link between cannabis and aggression has not been clearly demonstrated. This study investigated the acute effects of alcohol and cannabis on subjective aggression in alcohol and cannabis users, respectively, following aggression exposure. Drug-free controls served as a reference. It was hypothesized that aggression exposure would increase subjective aggression in alcohol users during alcohol intoxication, whereas it was expected to decrease subjective aggression in cannabis users during cannabis intoxication. Heavy alcohol (n = 20) and regular cannabis users (n = 21), and controls (n = 20) were included in a mixed factorial study. Alcohol and cannabis users received single doses of alcohol and placebo or cannabis and placebo, respectively. Subjective aggression was assessed before and after aggression exposure consisting of administrations of the point-subtraction aggression paradigm (PSAP) and the single category implicit association test (SC-IAT). Testosterone and cortisol levels in response to alcohol/cannabis treatment and aggression exposure were recorded as secondary outcome measures. Subjective aggression significantly increased following aggression exposure in all groups while being sober. Alcohol intoxication increased subjective aggression whereas cannabis decreased the subjective aggression following aggression exposure. Aggressive responses during the PSAP increased following alcohol and decreased following cannabis relative to placebo. Changes in aggressive feeling or response were not correlated to the neuroendocrine response to treatments. It is concluded that alcohol facilitates feelings of aggression whereas cannabis diminishes aggressive feelings in heavy alcohol and regular cannabis users, respectively.

  14. Gestational 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) exposure disrupts fetoplacental unit: Fetal thyroid-cytokines dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G; El-Gareib, A W; Shaker, H M

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is related to several endocrine disorders. This study examined the effect of maternal exposure of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) on the fetoplacental unit and fetal thyroid-cytokine axis during the pregnancy. Pregnant albino rats received PCB 126 (20 or 40μg/kgb.wt.) by oral gavage from gestation day (GD) 1 to 20. Potential effects of PCB 126 were evaluated by following the histopathological changes in the placenta by Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain and measuring the maternofetal thyroid axis (ELIZA), maternofetal body weight, and fetal growth markers (ELIZA), and cytokines (ELIZA) at embryonic day (ED) 20. Placental tissues of both treated groups showed hyperemia, hemorrhage, degeneration and apoptosis in labyrinth layer and spiral artery at GD 20. Both administrations of PCB 126 elevated serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration, and decreased free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations, resulting in a maternofetal hypothyroidism. The presence of hypothyroidism increased fetal serum concentration of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), leptin (LEP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and decreased the fetal serum insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF-II, insulin, adiponectin (ADP), and growth hormone (GH) in both treated groups at ED 20. However, the increase in resistin (RETN) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was non-significant in low-dose group and highly significant in high-dose group. Simultaneously, the reduction in body weight of the dams and fetuses was observed in both PCB 126 groups of examined day with respect to the control group. The maternal PCB 126 distorted the fetoplacental unit might disrupt the fetal thyroid-cytokines axis and prenatal development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Ceccanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA and TrkB, including their phosphorylated patterns. METHODS: We used aged male CD-1 mice early exposed to ethanol solution or red wine at same ethanol concentration (11% vol. RESULTS We found elevations in NGF and BDNF in the thyroid of aged mice exposed to ethanol solution only but not in the red wine group. In the testis NGF resulted to be increased only in the ethanol solution group. In the adrenal glands data showed an elevation in NGF in both the ethanol solution group and red wine. No changes in TrkA, TrkB, phospho-TrkA and phospho-TrkB were revealed in all tissues examined. CONCLUSIONS Early administration of ethanol may induce long-lasting changes in the mouse thyroid, testis and adrenal glands at NGF and BDNF levels.

  16. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccanti, Mauro; De Nicolò, Sara; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Chaldakov, George; Carito, Valentina; Ceccanti, Marco; Laviola, Giovanni; Tirassa, Paola; Fiore, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA and TrkB, including their phosphorylated patterns. We used aged male CD-1 mice early exposed to ethanol solution or red wine at same ethanol concentration (11% vol). We found elevations in NGF and BDNF in the thyroid of aged mice exposed to ethanol solution only but not in the red wine group. In the testis NGF resulted to be increased only in the ethanol solution group. In the adrenal glands data showed an elevation in NGF in both the ethanol solution group and red wine. No changes in TrkA, TrkB, phospho-TrkA and phospho-TrkB were revealed in all tissues examined. Early administration of ethanol may induce long-lasting changes in the mouse thyroid, testis and adrenal glands at NGF and BDNF levels.

  17. Alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias in underage college-student drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jason J; Monti, Peter M; Colwill, Ruth M

    2015-06-01

    The effect of alcohol-cue exposure on eliciting craving has been well documented, and numerous theoretical models assert that craving is a clinically significant construct central to the motivation and maintenance of alcohol-seeking behavior. Furthermore, some theories propose a relationship between craving and attention, such that cue-induced increases in craving bias attention toward alcohol cues, which, in turn, perpetuates craving. This study examined the extent to which alcohol cues induce craving and bias attention toward alcohol cues among underage college-student drinkers. We designed within-subject cue-reactivity and visual-probe tasks to assess in vivo alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias on 39 undergraduate college drinkers (ages 18-20). Participants expressed greater subjective craving to drink alcohol following in vivo cue exposure to a commonly consumed beer compared with water exposure. Furthermore, following alcohol-cue exposure, participants exhibited greater attentional biases toward alcohol cues as measured by a visual-probe task. In addition to the cue-exposure effects on craving and attentional bias, within-subject differences in craving across sessions marginally predicted within-subject differences in attentional bias. Implications for both theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Tracing fetal and childhood exposure to lead using isotope analysis of deciduous teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, Thomas J.; Dirks, Wendy; Roberts, Nick M.W.; Patel, Jaiminkumar G.; Hodgson, Susan; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja; Walton, Pamela; Parrish, Randall R.

    2016-01-01

    We report progress in using the isotopic composition and concentration of Pb in the dentine and enamel of deciduous teeth to provide a high resolution time frame of exposure to Pb during fetal development and early childhood. Isotope measurements (total Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios) were acquired by laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry at contiguous 100 micron intervals across thin sections of the teeth; from the outer enamel surface to the pulp cavity. Teeth samples (n=10) were selected from two cohorts of children, aged 5–8 years, living in NE England. By integrating the isotope data with histological analysis of the teeth, using the daily incremental lines in dentine, we were able to assign true estimated ages to each ablation point (first 2–3 years for molars, first 1–2 years for incisors+pre-natal growth). Significant differences were observed in the isotope composition and concentration of Pb between children, reflecting differences in the timing and sources of exposure during early childhood. Those born in 2000, after the withdrawal of leaded petrol in 1999, have the lowest dentine Pb levels (<0.2 µg Pb/g) with 208 Pb/ 206 Pb (mean ±2σ: 2.126–2.079) 208 Pb/ 206 Pb (mean ±2σ: 0.879–0.856) ratios that correlate very closely with modern day Western European industrial aerosols (PM 10 , PM 2.5 ) suggesting that diffuse airborne pollution was probably the primary source and exposure pathway. Legacy lead, if present, is insignificant. For those born in 1997, dentine lead levels are typically higher (>0.4 µgPb/g) with 208 Pb/ 206 Pb (mean ±2σ: 2.145–2.117) 208 Pb/ 206 Pb (mean ±2σ: 0.898–0.882) ratios that can be modelled as a binary mix between industrial aerosols and leaded petrol emissions. Short duration, high intensity exposure events (1–2 months) were readily identified, together with evidence that dentine provides a good proxy for childhood changes in the isotope composition of blood Pb. Our pilot

  19. Pregnancy and fetal outcomes after exposure to mefloquine in the pre- and periconception period and during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagenhauf, Patricia; Blumentals, William A; Suter, Pia; Regep, Loredana; Vital-Durand, Gabriel; Schaerer, Martin T; Boutros, Margarita Suarez; Rhein, Hans-Georg; Adamcova, Miriam

    2012-06-01

    Pregnant women who travel to malarious areas and their clinicians need data on the safety of malaria chemoprophylaxis. The effect of exposure to mefloquine on pregnancy and offspring outcomes was evaluated using the F. Hoffmann-La Roche global drug safety database for the time frame 31 January 1986 through 26 October 2010. We investigated pregnancy and fetal outcomes in maternal, paternal, and both-parent exposure cases with a focus on congenital malformations and fetal loss. The main outcome measures were birth defect prevalence and types of malformations. A total of 2506 cases of mefloquine exposure during pregnancy or in the pre- and periconception period were evaluated. Most cases were maternal prospective (outcome of the pregnancy unknown at the time of reporting; n = 2246 [89.6%]) followed by maternal retrospective cases (outcome of the pregnancy known at the time of reporting; n = 227 [9.0%]), with small numbers of paternal and both-parent exposure cases. Of the total 2246 mefloquine maternal prospective exposures (95.2%), 2139 occurred before conception and/or during the first trimester. Of 1383 maternal prospective cases with known outcome, 978 (70.7%) resulted in delivery, 405 (29.3%) resulted in abortion (112 spontaneous, 293 therapeutic), and 43 resulted in birth defects, corresponding to a birth defect prevalence of 4.39% (43 of 978). Prospective cases overall showed no specific pattern of birth malformations. The drug safety database analysis of mefloquine exposure in pregnancy showed that the birth defect prevalence and fetal loss in maternal, prospectively monitored cases were comparable to background rates.

  20. Human anogenital distance: an update on fetal smoke-exposure and integration of the perinatal literature on sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Paul A; Filis, Panagiotis; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; le Bizec, Bruno; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Morvan, Marie-Line; Drake, Amanda J; Soffientini, Ugo; O'Shaughnessy, Peter J

    2016-02-01

    Do sex and maternal smoking effects on human fetal anogenital distance (AGD) persist in a larger study and how do these data integrate with the wider literature on perinatal human AGD, especially with respect to sex differences? Second trimester sex differences in AGD are broadly consistent with neonatal and infant measures of AGD and maternal cigarette smoking is associated with a temporary increase in male AGD in the absence of changes in circulating testosterone. AGD is a biomarker of fetal androgen exposure, a reduced AGD in males being associated with cryptorchidism, hypospadias and reduced penile length. Normative fetal AGD data remain partial and windows of sensitivity of human fetal AGD to disruption are not known. The effects of fetal sex and maternal cigarette smoking on the second trimester (11-21 weeks of gestation) human fetal AGD were studied, along with measurement of testosterone and testicular transcripts associated with apoptosis and proliferation. AGD, measured from the centre of the anus to the posterior/caudal root of penis/clitoris (AGD(app)) was determined in 56 female and 70 male morphologically normal fetuses. These data were integrated with current literature on perinatal AGD in humans. At 11-13 weeks of gestation male fetal AGD(app) was 61% (PTestosterone levels were not affected by smoking. To develop normative data, our findings have been integrated with available data from in vivo ultrasound scans and neonatal studies. Inter-study variations in male/female AGD differences lead to the conclusion that normalization and standardization approaches should be developed to enable confidence in comparing data from different perinatal AGD studies. Sex differences, and a smoking-dependent increase in male fetal AGD at 14-16 weeks, identified in a preliminary study, were confirmed with a larger number of fetuses. However, human fetal AGD should, be re-assessed once much larger numbers of fetuses have been studied and this should be integrated

  1. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  2. Visual-motor integration, visual perception, and fine motor coordination in a population of children with high levels of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Robyn; Lucas, Barbara R; Watkins, Rochelle E; Tsang, Tracey W; Sauer, Kay; Howat, Peter; Latimer, Jane; Fitzpatrick, James P; Oscar, June; Carter, Maureen; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2016-08-01

    Visual-motor integration (VMI) skills are essential for successful academic performance, but to date no studies have assessed these skills in a population-based cohort of Australian Aboriginal children who, like many children in other remote, disadvantaged communities, consistently underperform academically. Furthermore, many children in remote areas of Australia have prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), which are often associated with VMI deficits. VMI, visual perception, and fine motor coordination were assessed using The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, including its associated subtests of Visual Perception and Fine Motor Coordination, in a cohort of predominantly Australian Aboriginal children (7.5-9.6 years, n=108) in remote Western Australia to explore whether PAE adversely affected test performance. Cohort results were reported, and comparisons made between children i) without PAE; ii) with PAE (no FASD); and iii) FASD. The prevalence of moderate (≤16th percentile) and severe (≤2nd percentile) impairment was established. Mean VMI scores were 'below average' (M=87.8±9.6), and visual perception scores were 'average' (M=97.6±12.5), with no differences between groups. Few children had severe VMI impairment (1.9%), but moderate impairment rates were high (47.2%). Children with FASD had significantly lower fine motor coordination scores and higher moderate impairment rates (M=87.9±12.5; 66.7%) than children without PAE (M=95.1±10.7; 23.3%) and PAE (no FASD) (M=96.1±10.9; 15.4%). Aboriginal children living in remote Western Australia have poor VMI skills regardless of PAE or FASD. Children with FASD additionally had fine motor coordination problems. VMI and fine motor coordination should be assessed in children with PAE, and included in FASD diagnostic assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Binge Alcohol Exposure Transiently Changes the Endocannabinoid System: A Potential Target to Prevent Alcohol-Induced Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liput, Daniel J; Pauly, James R; Stinchcomb, Audra L; Nixon, Kimberly

    2017-11-29

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to neurodegeneration, which contributes to cognitive decline that is associated with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the development of AUDs, but little is known about how the neurotoxic effects of alcohol impact the endocannabinoid system. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of neurotoxic, binge-like alcohol exposure on components of the endocannabinoid system and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), and then evaluated the efficacy of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition on attenuating alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. Male rats were administered alcohol according to a binge model, which resulted in a transient decrease in [³H]-CP-55,940 binding in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus following two days, but not four days, of treatment. Furthermore, binge alcohol treatment did not change the tissue content of the three NAEs quantified, including the endocannabinoid and anandamide. In a separate study, the FAAH inhibitor, URB597 was administered to rats during alcohol treatment and neuroprotection was assessed by FluoroJade B (FJB) staining. The administration of URB597 during binge treatment did not significantly reduce FJB+ cells in the entorhinal cortex or hippocampus, however, a follow up "target engagement" study found that NAE augmentation by URB597 was impaired in alcohol intoxicated rats. Thus, potential alcohol induced alterations in URB597 pharmacodynamics may have contributed to the lack of neuroprotection by FAAH inhibition.

  4. Binge Alcohol Exposure Transiently Changes the Endocannabinoid System: A Potential Target to Prevent Alcohol-Induced Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Liput

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive alcohol consumption leads to neurodegeneration, which contributes to cognitive decline that is associated with alcohol use disorders (AUDs. The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the development of AUDs, but little is known about how the neurotoxic effects of alcohol impact the endocannabinoid system. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of neurotoxic, binge-like alcohol exposure on components of the endocannabinoid system and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs, and then evaluated the efficacy of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH inhibition on attenuating alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. Male rats were administered alcohol according to a binge model, which resulted in a transient decrease in [3H]-CP-55,940 binding in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus following two days, but not four days, of treatment. Furthermore, binge alcohol treatment did not change the tissue content of the three NAEs quantified, including the endocannabinoid and anandamide. In a separate study, the FAAH inhibitor, URB597 was administered to rats during alcohol treatment and neuroprotection was assessed by FluoroJade B (FJB staining. The administration of URB597 during binge treatment did not significantly reduce FJB+ cells in the entorhinal cortex or hippocampus, however, a follow up “target engagement” study found that NAE augmentation by URB597 was impaired in alcohol intoxicated rats. Thus, potential alcohol induced alterations in URB597 pharmacodynamics may have contributed to the lack of neuroprotection by FAAH inhibition.

  5. Exposure to alcohol use in motion pictures and teen drinking in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Tanski, Susanne E; Sargent, James D

    2007-10-01

    To assess whether movie alcohol exposure is associated with alcohol use during early adolescence. We conducted a survey of adolescents (N = 5,581) from 27 schools in Germany. Each was asked if he/she had seen a list of 50 movie titles, randomly selected from a sample of 398 US box office hits released there. Screen alcohol use was timed for each movie, summed for movies each adolescent had seen, and adjusted to reflect exposure to all 398 movies. We assessed the association between this exposure and any alcohol use without parental knowledge (WPK) and binge drinking (>or= 5 drinks). Alcohol use was depicted in 88% of the 398 movies. Median exposure to movie alcohol use was 3.44 h (interquartile range = 1.51-6.23 h). Overall 36.6% of subjects used alcohol WPK and 18.1% reported binge drinking. Movie alcohol exposure was directly associated with alcohol use WPK and binge drinking, after controlling for multiple covariates including sociodemographics, personality characteristics and social influences. Compared with quartile one, the adjusted odds of alcohol use WPK were 1.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.82], 2.12 (1.75-2.57) and 2.95 (2.35-3.70) for quartiles 2, 3 and 4, respectively; similarly, adjusted odds of binge drinking were 1.42 (0.93-2.28), 1.84 (1.27-2.67) and 2.59 (1.70-3.95). This study demonstrates an association between exposure to alcohol use in US movies and alcohol use without parental knowledge in Germany, and is the first study to link movie exposure with binge drinking. Given international distribution of US movies, depicted behaviours may influence adolescents outside the country of origin.

  6. Adolescents' exposure to paid alcohol advertising on television and their alcohol use: exploring associations during a 13-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Victoria; Azar, Denise; Faulkner, Agatha; Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah; Livingston, Michael; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Room, Robin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-10-01

    To determine (i) whether Australian adolescents' exposure to television alcohol advertisements changed between 1999 and 2011 and (ii) examine the association between television alcohol advertising and adolescent drinking behaviours. Cross-sectional surveys conducted every 3 years between 1999 and 2011. Analyses examined associations between advertising exposures and reported drinking. Five Australian major cities. Students aged 12-17 years participating in a triennial nationally representative school-based survey residing in the television advertising markets associated with the major cities (sample size range per survey: 12 644-16 004). Outcome measures were: drinking in the past month, past week and past-week risky drinking (5+ drinks on a day). The key predictor variable was past-month adolescent-directed alcohol advertising Targeted Rating Points (TRPs, a measure of television advertising exposure). Control measures included student-level characteristics, government alcohol-control advertising TRPs, road safety (drink-driving) TRPs and time of survey. Average monthly adolescent alcohol TRPs increased between 1999 (mean = 2371) to 2005 (mean = 2679) (P television reduced between 1999 and 2011, higher levels of past-month television alcohol advertising were associated with an increased likelihood of adolescents' drinking. The reduction in television alcohol advertising in Australia in the late 2000s may have played a part in reducing adolescents' drinking prevalence. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Prenatal alcohol exposure modifies glucocorticoid receptor subcellular distribution in the medial prefrontal cortex and impairs frontal cortex-dependent learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Allan

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE has been shown to impair learning, memory and executive functioning in children. Perseveration, or the failure to respond adaptively to changing contingencies, is a hallmark on neurobehavioral assessment tasks for human fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Adaptive responding is predominantly a product of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and is regulated by corticosteroids. In our mouse model of PAE we recently reported deficits in hippocampal formation-dependent learning and memory and a dysregulation of hippocampal formation glucocorticoid receptor (GR subcellular distribution. Here, we examined the effect of PAE on frontal cortical-dependent behavior, as well as mPFC GR subcellular distribution and the levels of regulators of intracellular GR transport. PAE mice displayed significantly reduced response flexibility in a Y-maze reversal learning task. While the levels of total nuclear GR were reduced in PAE mPFC, levels of GR phosphorylated at serines 203, 211 and 226 were not significantly changed. Cytosolic, but not nuclear, MR levels were elevated in the PAE mPFC. The levels of critical GR trafficking proteins, FKBP51, Hsp90, cyclophilin 40, dynamitin and dynein intermediate chain, were altered in PAE mice, in favor of the exclusion of GR from the nucleus, indicating dysregulation of GR trafficking. Our findings suggest that there may be a link between a deficit in GR nuclear localization and frontal cortical learning deficits in prenatal alcohol-exposed mice.

  8. Sex-related differences in auditory processing in adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A magnetoencephalographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia D. Tesche

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children exposed to substantial amounts of alcohol in utero display a broad range of morphological and behavioral outcomes, which are collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs. Common to all children on the spectrum are cognitive and behavioral problems that reflect central nervous system dysfunction. Little is known, however, about the potential effects of variables such as sex on alcohol-induced brain damage. The goal of the current research was to utilize magnetoencephalography (MEG to examine the effect of sex on brain dynamics in adolescents and young adults with FASD during the performance of an auditory oddball task. The stimuli were short trains of 1 kHz “standard” tone bursts (80% randomly interleaved with 1.5 kHz “target” tone bursts (10% and “novel” digital sounds (10%. Participants made motor responses to the target tones. Results are reported for 44 individuals (18 males and 26 females ages 12 through 22 years. Nine males and 13 females had a diagnosis of FASD and the remainder were typically-developing age- and sex-matched controls. The main finding was widespread sex-specific differential activation of the frontal, medial and temporal cortex in adolescents with FASD compared to typically developing controls. Significant differences in evoked-response and time–frequency measures of brain dynamics were observed for all stimulus types in the auditory cortex, inferior frontal sulcus and hippocampus. These results underscore the importance of considering the influence of sex when analyzing neurophysiological data in children with FASD.

  9. Sex-related differences in auditory processing in adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A magnetoencephalographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesche, Claudia D; Kodituwakku, Piyadasa W; Garcia, Christopher M; Houck, Jon M

    2015-01-01

    Children exposed to substantial amounts of alcohol in utero display a broad range of morphological and behavioral outcomes, which are collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Common to all children on the spectrum are cognitive and behavioral problems that reflect central nervous system dysfunction. Little is known, however, about the potential effects of variables such as sex on alcohol-induced brain damage. The goal of the current research was to utilize magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine the effect of sex on brain dynamics in adolescents and young adults with FASD during the performance of an auditory oddball task. The stimuli were short trains of 1 kHz "standard" tone bursts (80%) randomly interleaved with 1.5 kHz "target" tone bursts (10%) and "novel" digital sounds (10%). Participants made motor responses to the target tones. Results are reported for 44 individuals (18 males and 26 females) ages 12 through 22 years. Nine males and 13 females had a diagnosis of FASD and the remainder were typically-developing age- and sex-matched controls. The main finding was widespread sex-specific differential activation of the frontal, medial and temporal cortex in adolescents with FASD compared to typically developing controls. Significant differences in evoked-response and time-frequency measures of brain dynamics were observed for all stimulus types in the auditory cortex, inferior frontal sulcus and hippocampus. These results underscore the importance of considering the influence of sex when analyzing neurophysiological data in children with FASD.

  10. Watching and drinking: expectancies, prototypes, and friends' alcohol use mediate the effect of exposure to alcohol use in movies on adolescent drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah A; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike; Sargent, James D; Wills, Thomas A; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the psychological processes that underlie the relation between exposure to alcohol use in media and adolescent alcohol use. The design consisted of a structural equation modeling analysis of data from four waves of a longitudinal, nationally representative, random-digit dial telephone survey of adolescents in the United States. The main outcome measures were adolescent alcohol consumption and willingness to use alcohol. Tested mediators were alcohol-related norms, prototypes, expectancies, and friends' use. Alcohol prototypes, expectancies, willingness, and friends' use of alcohol (but not perceived prevalence of alcohol use among peers) were significant mediators of the relation between movie alcohol exposure and alcohol consumption, even after controlling for demographic, child, and family factors associated with both movie exposure and alcohol consumption. Established psychological and interpersonal predictors of alcohol use mediate the effects of exposure to alcohol use in movies on adolescent alcohol consumption. The findings suggest that exposure to movie portrayals may operate through similar processes as other social influences, highlighting the importance of considering these exposures in research on adolescent risk behavior.

  11. Evaluation and characterization of fetal exposures to low frequency magnetic fields generated by laptop computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppetti, Nicola; Andreuccetti, Daniele; Bellieni, Carlo; Bogi, Andrea; Pinto, Iole

    2011-12-01

    Portable - or "laptop" - computers (LCs) are widely and increasingly used all over the world. Since LCs are often used in tight contact with the body even by pregnant women, fetal exposures to low frequency magnetic fields generated by these units can occur. LC emissions are usually characterized by complex waveforms and are often generated by the main AC power supply (when connected) and by the display power supply sub-system. In the present study, low frequency magnetic field emissions were measured for a set of five models of portable computers. For each of them, the magnetic flux density was characterized in terms not just of field amplitude, but also of the so called "weighted peak" (WP) index, introduced in the 2003 ICNIRP Statement on complex waveforms and confirmed in the 2010 ICNIRP Guidelines for low frequency fields. For the model of LC presenting the higher emission, a deeper analysis was also carried out, using numerical dosimetry techniques to calculate internal quantities (current density and in-situ electric field) with reference to a digital body model of a pregnant woman. Since internal quantities have complex waveforms too, the concept of WP index was extended to them, considering the ICNIRP basic restrictions defined in the 1998 Guidelines for the current density and in the 2010 Guidelines for the in-situ electric field. Induced quantities and WP indexes were computed using an appropriate original formulation of the well known Scalar Potential Finite Difference (SPFD) numerical method for electromagnetic dosimetry in quasi-static conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exposure to alcohol advertising and adolescents' drinking beliefs: Role of message interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca L; Martino, Steven C; Kovalchik, Stephanie A; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Shadel, William G; Becker, Kirsten M; Tolpadi, Anagha

    2017-09-01

    Recent research revealed momentary associations between exposure to alcohol advertising and positive beliefs about alcohol among adolescents (Martino et al., 2016). We reanalyzed those data to determine whether associations depend on adolescents' appraisal of ads. Over a 10-month period in 2013, 589 youth, ages 11-14, in the Los Angeles, CA, area, participated in a 14-day ecological momentary assessment, logging all exposures to alcohol advertisements as they occurred and completing brief assessments of their skepticism toward, liking of, and identification with any people in each ad, as well as their alcohol-related beliefs at the moment. Participants also completed measures of their alcohol- related beliefs at random moments of nonexposure throughout each day. Mixed-effects regression models compared beliefs about alcohol at moments of exposure to alcohol advertising that was appraised in a particular way (e.g., with liking, without liking) to beliefs at random moments. When youth encountered ads they appraised positively, their beliefs about alcohol were significantly more positive than when they were queried at random moments. Beliefs in the presence of ads that were not positively appraised were generally similar to beliefs at random moments. Youth are active participants in the advertising process. How they respond to and process alcohol advertising strongly moderates the association between exposure and alcohol-related beliefs. More effort is needed to identify attributes of alcohol advertisements, and of youth, that determine how youth process alcohol ads. This information can be used to either limit exposure to problematic ads or make youth more resilient to such exposure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Experimental Methods for Testing the Effects of Neurotrophic Peptide, ADNF-9, Against Alcohol-induced Apoptosis during Pregnancy in C57BL/6 Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Youssef

    2013-01-01

    Experimental designs for investigating the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure during early embryonic stages in fetal brain growth are challenging. This is mostly due to the difficulty of microdissection of fetal brains and their sectioning for determination of apoptotic cells caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. The experiments described here provide visualized techniques from mice breeding to the identification of cell death in fetal brain tissue. This study used C57BL/6 mice as the ani...

  14. The association of media exposure and media literacy with adolescent alcohol and tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fong-ching; Miao, Nae-fang; Lee, Ching-mei; Chen, Ping-hung; Chiu, Chiung-hui; Lee, Shu-ching

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the relationship of media exposure and media literacy to alcohol and tobacco use among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 2992 10th-grade students recruited from 26 high schools in Taipei, Taiwan, completed a questionnaire in 2010. The multivariable analysis results indicated that the students with higher alcohol and tobacco media exposure were more likely to use alcohol and tobacco and have intentions to drink and smoke, while students with higher media literacy were less likely to use alcohol and have intentions to drink and smoke. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in Wistar rats causes progressive pancreatic mitochondrial damage and beta cell dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E Bruin

    Full Text Available Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT is currently recommended as a safe smoking cessation aid for pregnant women. However, fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in rats causes mitochondrial-mediated beta cell apoptosis at weaning, and adult-onset dysglycemia, which we hypothesize is related to progressive mitochondrial dysfunction in the pancreas. Therefore in this study we examined the effect of fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine on pancreatic mitochondrial structure and function during postnatal development. Female Wistar rats were given saline (vehicle control or nicotine bitartrate (1 mg/kg/d via subcutaneous injection for 2 weeks prior to mating until weaning. At 3-4, 15 and 26 weeks of age, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed, and pancreas tissue was collected for electron microscopy, enzyme activity assays and islet isolation. Following nicotine exposure mitochondrial structural abnormalities were observed beginning at 3 weeks and worsened with advancing age. Importantly the appearance of these structural defects in nicotine-exposed animals preceded the onset of glucose intolerance. Nicotine exposure also resulted in significantly reduced pancreatic respiratory chain enzyme activity, degranulation of beta cells, elevated islet oxidative stress and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion compared to saline controls at 26 weeks of age. Taken together, these data suggest that maternal nicotine use during pregnancy results in postnatal mitochondrial dysfunction that may explain, in part, the dysglycemia observed in the offspring from this animal model. These results clearly indicate that further investigation into the safety of NRT use during pregnancy is warranted.

  16. Industry self-regulation of alcohol marketing: a systematic review of content and exposure research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jonathan K; Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    With governments relying increasingly upon the alcohol industry's self-regulated marketing codes to restrict alcohol marketing activity, there is a need to summarize the findings of research relevant to alcohol marketing controls. This paper provides a systematic review of studies investigating the content of, and exposure to, alcohol marketing in relation to self-regulated guidelines. Peer-reviewed papers were identified through four literature search engines: SCOPUS, Web of Science, PubMed and PsychINFO. Non-peer-reviewed reports produced by public health agencies, alcohol research centers, non-governmental organizations and government research centers were also identified. Ninety-six publications met the inclusion criteria. Of the 19 studies evaluating a specific marketing code and 25 content analysis studies reviewed, all detected content that could be considered potentially harmful to children and adolescents, including themes that appeal strongly to young men. Of the 57 studies of alcohol advertising exposure, high levels of youth exposure and high awareness of alcohol advertising were found for television, radio, print, digital and outdoor advertisements. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising has increased over time, even as greater compliance with exposure thresholds has been documented. Violations of the content guidelines within self-regulated alcohol marketing codes are highly prevalent in certain media. Exposure to alcohol marketing, particularly among youth, is also prevalent. Taken together, the findings suggest that the current self-regulatory systems that govern alcohol marketing practices are not meeting their intended goal of protecting vulnerable populations. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Youth exposure to alcohol use and brand appearances in popular contemporary movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah A; Dalton, Madeline A; Sargent, James D

    2008-12-01

    To describe alcohol use and alcohol brand appearances in popular movies and estimate adolescents' exposure to this alcohol-related content. Nationally representative, random-digit dialed survey in the United States and content analysis of alcohol depictions in the top 100 US box office hits each year from 1998 to 2002 and 34 top movies from early 2003. A total of 6522 US adolescents aged 10-14 years. Frequency of alcohol use and brand appearances in movies by Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating. Estimated exposure to minutes of movie alcohol use and brand appearances among US adolescents in this age group. Most movies (83%, including 56.6% of G/PG-rated movies) depicted alcohol use and 52% (including 19.2% of G/PG movies) contained at least one alcohol brand appearance, which consisted of branded use by an actor 30.3% of the time. These movies exposed the average US adolescent 10-14 years of age to 5.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.4, 5.7] hours of movie alcohol use and 243.8 (95% CI 238, 250) alcohol brand appearances (5 billion in total), mainly from youth-rated movies. Exposure to movie alcohol content was significantly higher among African American youth than youth of other races. Alcohol use and brand appearances are portrayed frequently in popular US movies (which are distributed world-wide). Children and adolescents in the United States are exposed to hours of alcohol use depictions and numerous brand appearances in movies and most of this exposure is from movies rated for this segment of the population.

  18. Effects of environmental Bisphenol A exposures on germ cell development and Leydig cell function in the human fetal testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerquin, Marie-Justine; Matilionyte, Gabriele; Kilcoyne, Karen; N’Tumba-Byn, Thierry; Messiaen, Sébastien; Deceuninck, Yoann; Pozzi-Gaudin, Stéphanie; Benachi, Alexandra; Livera, Gabriel; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Mitchell, Rod; Rouiller-Fabre, Virginie

    2018-01-01

    Background Using an organotypic culture system termed human Fetal Testis Assay (hFeTA) we previously showed that 0.01 μM BPA decreases basal, but not LH-stimulated, testosterone secreted by the first trimester human fetal testis. The present study was conducted to determine the potential for a long-term antiandrogenic effect of BPA using a xenograft model, and also to study the effect of BPA on germ cell development using both the hFETA and xenograft models. Methods Using the hFeTA system, first trimester testes were cultured for 3 days with 0.01 to 10 μM BPA. For xenografts, adult castrate male nude mice were injected with hCG and grafted with first trimester testes. Host mice received 10 μM BPA (~ 500 μg/kg/day) in their drinking water for 5 weeks. Plasma levels of total and unconjugated BPA were 0.10 μM and 0.038 μM respectively. Mice grafted with second trimester testes received 0.5 and 50 μg/kg/day BPA by oral gavage for 5 weeks. Results With first trimester human testes, using the hFeTA model, 10 μM BPA increased germ cell apoptosis. In xenografts, germ cell density was also reduced by BPA exposure. Importantly, BPA exposure significantly decreased the percentage of germ cells expressing the pluripotency marker AP-2γ, whilst the percentage of those expressing the pre-spermatogonial marker MAGE-A4 significantly increased. BPA exposure did not affect hCG-stimulated androgen production in first and second trimester xenografts as evaluated by both plasma testosterone level and seminal vesicle weight in host mice. Conclusions Exposure to BPA at environmentally relevant concentrations impairs germ cell development in first trimester human fetal testis, whilst gonadotrophin-stimulated testosterone production was unaffected in both first and second trimester testis. Studies using first trimester human fetal testis demonstrate the complementarity of the FeTA and xenograft models for determining the respective short-term and long term effects of environmental

  19. Immediate Neural Plasticity Involving Reaction Time in a Saccadic Eye Movement Task is Intact in Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolozza, Angelina; Munoz, Douglas P; Brien, Donald; Reynolds, James N

    2016-11-01

    Saccades are rapid eye movements that bring an image of interest onto the retina. Previous research has found that in healthy individuals performing eye movement tasks, the location of a previous visual target can influence performance of the saccade on the next trial. This rapid behavioral adaptation represents a form of immediate neural plasticity within the saccadic circuitry. Our studies have shown that children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) are impaired on multiple saccade measures. We therefore investigated these previous trial effects in typically developing children and children with FASD to measure sensory neural plasticity and how these effects vary with age and pathology. Both typically developing control children (n = 102; mean age = 10.54 ± 3.25; 48 males) and children with FASD (n = 66; mean age = 11.85 ± 3.42; 35 males) were recruited from 5 sites across Canada. Each child performed a visually guided saccade task. Reaction time and saccade amplitude were analyzed and then assessed based on the previous trial. There was a robust previous trial effect for both reaction time and amplitude, with both the control and FASD groups displaying faster reaction times and smaller saccades during alternation trials (visual target presented on the opposite side to the previous trial). Children with FASD exhibited smaller overall mean amplitude and smaller amplitude selectively on alternation trials compared with controls. The effect of the previous trial on reaction time and amplitude did not differ across childhood and adolescent development. Children with FASD did not display any significant reaction time differences, despite exhibiting numerous deficits in motor and higher level cognitive control over saccades in other studies. These results suggest that this form of immediate neural plasticity in response to sensory information before saccade initiation remains intact in children with FASD. In contrast, the previous trial effect on

  20. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on adaptive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Ashley L; Glass, Leila; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N; Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; May, Philip A; Kalberg, Wendy O; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Jones, Kenneth L; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2014-05-01

    Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with adaptive behavior deficits. This study examined the interaction between these 2 factors on parent ratings of adaptive behavior. As part of a multisite study, primary caregivers of 317 children (8 to 16 years, M = 12.38) completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition (VABS-II). Four groups of subjects were included: children with prenatal alcohol exposure with ADHD (AE+, n = 82), children with prenatal alcohol exposure without ADHD (AE-, n = 34), children with ADHD (ADHD, n = 71), and control children (CON, n = 130). VABS-II domain scores (Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization) were examined using separate 2 (Alcohol Exposure [AE]) × 2 (ADHD diagnosis) between-subjects analyses of covariance. There were significant main effects of AE (p 0.27). Follow-up analyses in the Communication domain indicated the effects of ADHD were stronger in comparison subjects (ADHD vs. CON) than exposed subjects (AE+ vs. AE-), and the effects of alcohol exposure were stronger in subjects without ADHD (AE- vs. CON) than in subjects with ADHD (AE+ vs. As found previously, both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD increase adaptive behavior deficits in all domains. However, these 2 factors interact to cause the greatest impairment in children with both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD for communication abilities. These results further demonstrate the deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and broaden our understanding of how ADHD exacerbates behavioral outcomes in this population. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing on social networking sites: challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David H; Rushman, Anne E

    2014-02-01

    Youth exposure to alcohol marketing has been linked to increased alcohol consumption and problems. On relatively new and highly interactive social networking sites (SNS) that are popular with youth, tools for measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing in traditional media are inadequate. We critically review the existing policies of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube designed to keep branded alcohol content away from underage youth. Looking at brand and user activity on Facebook for the 15 alcohol brands most popular among US youth, we found activity has grown dramatically in the past 3 years, and underage users may be accounting for some of this activity. Surveys of youth and adult participation in alcohol marketing on SNS will be needed to inform debate over these marketing practices.

  2. Ethical aspects of diagnosis and interventions for children with fetal alcohol Spectrum disorder (FASD) and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesson, Gert; Bertilsson, Göran; Domeij, Helena; Fahlström, Gunilla; Heintz, Emelie; Hjern, Anders; Nehlin Gordh, Christina; Nordin, Viviann; Rangmar, Jenny; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Wahlsten, Viveka Sundelin; Hultcrantz, Monica

    2018-01-05

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term covering several conditions for which alcohol consumption during pregnancy is taken to play a causal role. The benefit of individuals being identified with a condition within FASD remains controversial. The objective of the present study was to identify ethical aspects and consequences of diagnostics, interventions, and family support in relation to FASD. Ethical aspects relating to diagnostics, interventions, and family support regarding FASD were compiled and discussed, drawing on a series of discussions with experts in the field, published literature, and medical ethicists. Several advantages and disadvantages in regards of obtaining a diagnosis or description of the condition were identified. For instance, it provides an explanation and potential preparedness for not yet encountered difficulties, which may play an essential role in acquiring much needed help and support from health care, school, and the social services. There are no interventions specifically evaluated for FASD conditions, but training programs and family support for conditions with symptoms overlapping with FASD, e.g. ADHD, autism, and intellectual disability, are likely to be relevant. Stigmatization, blame, and guilt are potential downsides. There might also be unfortunate prioritization if individuals with equal needs are treated differently depending on whether or not they meet the criteria for a specific condition. The value for the concerned individuals of obtaining a FASD-related description of their condition - for instance, in terms of wellbeing - is not established. Nor is it established that allocating resources based on whether individuals fulfil FASD-related criteria is justified, compared to allocations directed to the most prominent specific needs.

  3. Sensory-motor deficits in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder assessed using a robotic virtual reality platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Loriann; Jackson, Carl P T; Choe, Noreen; Pelland, Lucie; Scott, Stephen H; Reynolds, James N

    2014-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is associated with a large number of cognitive and sensory-motor deficits. In particular, the accurate assessment of sensory-motor deficits in children with FASD is not always simple and relies on clinical assessment tools that may be coarse and subjective. Here we present a new approach: using robotic technology to accurately and objectively assess motor deficits of children with FASD in a center-out reaching task. A total of 152 typically developing children and 31 children with FASD, all aged between 5 and 18 were assessed using a robotic exoskeleton device coupled with a virtual reality projection system. Children made reaching movements to 8 peripheral targets in a random order. Reach trajectories were subsequently analyzed to extract 12 parameters that had been previously determined to be good descriptors of a reaching movement, and these parameters were compared for each child with FASD to a normative model derived from the performance of the typically developing population. Compared with typically developing children, the children with FASD were found to be significantly impaired on most of the parameters measured, with the greatest deficits found in initial movement direction error. Also, children with FASD tended to fail more parameters than typically developing children: 95% of typically developing children failed fewer than 3 parameters compared with 69% of children with FASD. These results were particularly pronounced for younger children. The current study has shown that robotic technology is a sensitive and powerful tool that provides increased specificity regarding the type of motor problems exhibited by children with FASD. The high frequency of motor deficits in children with FASD suggests that interventions aimed at stimulating and/or improving motor development should routinely be considered for this population. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. A metacognitive strategy for reducing disruptive behavior in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: GoFAR pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; Taddeo, Elles; Strickland, Dorothy C

    2015-11-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are often characterized by disruptive behavior problems and there are few effective interventions available. GoFAR is a novel, 3-part intervention designed to improve self-regulation and adaptive living skills of children with FASD by improving metacognitive control of emotions and arousal. The intervention has 3 components: (i) GoFAR: a "serious game" designed to teach a metacognitive control strategy in a computer game environment; (ii) parent training on child behavioral regulation; and (iii) Behavior Analog Therapy (BAT) sessions, a practical application of the metacognitive learning methodology by parent and child in the context of learning adaptive skills. The learning strategy (FAR) teaches the child to Focus and make a plan, Act out the plan, and Reflect back on the plan. Thirty families were randomized to 3 groups: (i) GoFAR (n = 10); (ii) FACELAND (n = 10); or (iii) CONTROL (n = 10). The 2 intervention groups, GoFAR and FACELAND, used computer games to instruct children. Both groups also received 5 sessions of parent training followed by 5 sessions of joint parent/child therapy (BAT). Assessment of disruptive behavior, including frequency of temper tantrums, frustration tolerance, impulsivity, destructiveness, aggression, and maintaining attention were carried out before enrollment at Mid-Treatment, when game play and parent training were completed, and finally, after completing the BAT sessions. Parental report of disruptive behavior overall was significantly reduced in the GoFAR group after the first components, game play and parent training, and after the BAT sessions in the FACELAND group with no changes in the CONTROL group over time. The GoFAR(®) game was well received by children and effective in teaching the required skills. Mastering the FAR metacognitive strategy was associated with a reduction in disruptive behaviors in children with FASD suggesting that effective interventions can improve outcomes for

  5. Indoor Exposure and Adverse Birth Outcomes Related to Fetal Growth, Miscarriage and Prematurity—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evridiki Patelarou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review was to summarize existing epidemiological evidence of the association between quantitative estimates of indoor air pollution and all-day personal exposure with adverse birth outcomes including fetal growth, prematurity and miscarriage. We carried out a systematic literature search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases with the aim of summarizing and evaluating the results of peer-reviewed epidemiological studies undertaken in “westernized” countries that have assessed indoor air pollution and all-day personal exposure with specific quantitative methods. This comprehensive literature search identified 16 independent studies which were deemed relevant for further review and two additional studies were added through searching the reference lists of all included studies. Two reviewers independently and critically appraised all eligible articles using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP tool. Of the 18 selected studies, 14 adopted a prospective cohort design, three were case-controls and one was a retrospective cohort study. In terms of pollutants of interest, seven studies assessed exposure to electro-magnetic fields, four studies assessed exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, four studies assessed PM2.5 exposure and three studies assessed benzene, phthalates and noise exposure respectively. Furthermore, 12 studies examined infant growth as the main birth outcome of interest, six examined spontaneous abortion and three studies assessed gestational age at birth and preterm delivery. This survey demonstrates that there is insufficient research on the possible association of indoor exposure and early life effects and that further research is needed.

  6. A qualitative assessment of program characteristics for preventing secondary conditions in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrenko, Christie L M; Tahir, Naira; Mahoney, Erin C; Chin, Nancy P

    2014-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a major public health problem that affects 2 to 5 percent of the population. Individuals with FASD are at high risk for secondary conditions, such as mental health problems, school disruptions, and trouble with the law. Evidence-based intervention programs are needed to prevent and treat secondary conditions in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify intervention program characteristics for preventing secondary conditions in individuals with FASD from the perspectives of parents and service providers. This qualitative study utilized a phenomenological approach to identify program characteristics for preventing secondary conditions. Twenty-five parents of children (ages 3 to 33) with FASD and 18 service providers participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Data was systematically analyzed using a framework approach. Themes did not differ by participant type. Participants emphasized five primary characteristics of intervention programs for individuals with FASD. Programs need to 1) be available to individuals across the lifespan, 2) have a prevention focus, 3) be individualized, 4) be comprehensive, and 5) be coordinated across systems and developmental stages. Participants discussed a variety of specific intervention strategies for each developmental stage and setting. Program characteristics identified in this study are consistent with a positive behavior support framework. This framework is discussed in the context of research on existing interventions for individuals with FASD, and recommendations for future intervention development and evaluation are highlighted.

  7. Potential impacts of the Alberta fetal alcohol spectrum disorder service networks on secondary disabilities: a cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Moffatt, Jessica; Jacobs, Philip; Chuck, Anderson W; Jonsson, Egon

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the break-even effectiveness of the Alberta Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) Service Networks in reducing occurrences of secondary disabilities associated with FASD. The secondary disabilities addressed within this study include crime, homelessness, mental health problems, and school disruption (for children) or unemployment (for adults). We used a cost-benefit analysis approach where benefits of the service networks were the cost difference between the two approaches: having the 12 service networks and having no service network in place, across Alberta. We used a threshold analysis to estimate the break-even effectiveness (i.e. the effectiveness level at which the service networks became cost-saving). If no network was in place throughout the province, the secondary disabilities would cost $22.85 million (including $8.62 million for adults and $14.24 million for children) per year. Given the cost of network was $6.12 million per year, the break-even effectiveness was estimated at 28% (range: 25% to 32%). Although not all benefits associated with the service networks are included, such as the exclusion of the primary benefit to those experiencing FASD, the benefits to FASD caregivers, and the preventative benefits, the economic and social burden associated with secondary disabilities will "pay-off" if the effectiveness of the program in reducing secondary disabilities is 28%.

  8. Preliminary Findings that a Targeted Intervention Leads to Altered Brain Function in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Nash

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD exhibit behavioral dysregulation, executive dysfunction, and atypical function in associated brain regions. Previous research shows early intervention mitigates these outcomes but corresponding brain changes were not studied. Given the Alert® Program for Self-Regulation improves behavioral regulation and executive function in children with FASD, we asked if this therapy also improves their neural functioning in associated regions. Twenty-one children with FASD aged 8–12 years were randomized to the Alert®-treatment (TXT; n = 10 or waitlist-control (WL; n = 11 conditions. They were assessed with a Go-NoGo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI paradigm before and after training or the wait-out period. Groups initially performed equivalently and showed no fMRI differences. At post-test, TXT outperformed WL on NoGo trials while fMRI in uncorrected results with a small-volume correction showed less activation in prefrontal, temporal, and cingulate regions. Groups also demonstrated different patterns of change over time reflecting reduced signal at post-test in selective prefrontal and parietal regions in TXT and increased in WL. In light of previous evidence indicating TXT at post-test perform similar to non-exposed children on the Go-NoGo fMRI paradigm, our findings suggest Alert® does improve functional integrity in the neural circuitry for behavioral regulation in children with FASD.

  9. Variability in classroom social communication: performance of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and typically developing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellmer, Liselotte; Olswang, Lesley B

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the authors examined how variability in classroom social communication performance differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and pair-matched, typically developing peers. Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms, 40 min per day (20 min per child) for 4 days over a 2-week period. Coders documented classroom social communication during situations of Cooperation and following School Rules by recording performance on handheld computers using the Social Communication Coding System (SCCS). The SCCS consists of 6 behavioral dimensions (prosocial/engaged, passive/disengaged, irrelevant, hostile/coercive, assertive, and adult seeking). The frequency of occurrence and duration of each dimension were recorded. These measures were then used to examine variability in performance within and across days (changeability and stability, respectively). Independent of classroom situation, children with FASD were more variable than their typically developing peers in terms of changing behavioral dimensions more often (changeability) and varying their behavior more from day to day (stability). Documenting performance variability may provide a clearer understanding of the classroom social communication difficulties of the child with mild FASD.

  10. Frequent behavioural challenges in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: a needs-based assessment reported by caregivers and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Courtney R; Roane, Jessica; Hewitt, Amy; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Mushquash, Christopher; Sourander, Andre; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; McGrath, Patrick; Reynolds, James N

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial research characterizing the brain injury, a significant gap still exists in providing timely and effective care for children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). The objective of this study was to conduct a needs assessment that could help inform intervention programs and appropriate strategies to manage challenging behaviours targeted to families impacted by FASD. Sixty caregivers and 26 clinicians from across Canada completed a semi-structured telephone interview. Caregivers reported that the most challenging behaviour categories were "Externalizing Behaviours", "Cognitive Difficulties", and "Social Difficulties/Maladjustment", whereas the most successful parenting strategies were "Parental Reflection", "Routine/Structure/Consistency", and "Environmental Modification". Clinicians reported that "Insufficient Support/Knowledge from Health and Social Professionals and Agencies" and "Behavioural Difficulties/Challenges" were the most common concerns from caregivers of children with FASD. The number and extent of challenges reported make it evident that there are many unmet needs that compromise the quality of life for these caregivers, their children, and their families. These data will be used to inform the development of an intervention program that will provide a family-centered approach to training, education, and support for children with FASD and their families.

  11. Media Exposure and Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Alcohol Use among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…

  12. Low-dose BPA exposure alters the mesenchymal and epithelial transcriptomes of the mouse fetal mammary gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perinaaz R Wadia

    Full Text Available Exposure of rodent fetuses to low doses of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA causes subtle morphological changes in the prenatal mammary gland and results in pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions during adulthood. To examine whether the BPA-induced morphological alterations of the fetal mouse mammary glands are a associated with changes in mRNA expression reflecting estrogenic actions and/or b dependent on the estrogen receptor α (ERα, we compared the transcriptomal effects of BPA and the steroidal estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE2 on fetal mammary tissues of wild type and ERα knock-out mice. Mammary glands from fetuses of dams exposed to vehicle, 250 ng BPA/kg BW/d or 10 ng EE2/kg BW/d from embryonic day (E 8 were harvested at E19. Transcriptomal analyses on the ductal epithelium and periductal stroma revealed altered expression of genes involved in the focal adhesion and adipogenesis pathways in the BPA-exposed stroma while genes regulating the apoptosis pathway changed their expression in the BPA-exposed epithelium. These changes in gene expression correlated with previously reported histological changes in matrix organization, adipogenesis, and lumen formation resulting in enhanced maturation of the fat-pad and delayed lumen formation in the epithelium of BPA-exposed fetal mammary glands. Overall similarities in the transcriptomal effects of BPA and EE2 were more pronounced in the epithelium, than in the stroma. In addition, the effects of BPA and EE2 on the expression of various genes involved in mammary stromal-epithelial interactions were suppressed in the absence of ERα. These observations support a model whereby BPA and EE2 act directly on the stroma, which expresses ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in fetal mammary glands, and that the stroma, in turn, affects gene expression in the epithelium, where ERα and ERβ are below the level of detection at this stage of development.

  13. Low-dose BPA exposure alters the mesenchymal and epithelial transcriptomes of the mouse fetal mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, Perinaaz R; Cabaton, Nicolas J; Borrero, Michael D; Rubin, Beverly S; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Shioda, Toshi; Soto, Ana M

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of rodent fetuses to low doses of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) causes subtle morphological changes in the prenatal mammary gland and results in pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions during adulthood. To examine whether the BPA-induced morphological alterations of the fetal mouse mammary glands are a) associated with changes in mRNA expression reflecting estrogenic actions and/or b) dependent on the estrogen receptor α (ERα), we compared the transcriptomal effects of BPA and the steroidal estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE2) on fetal mammary tissues of wild type and ERα knock-out mice. Mammary glands from fetuses of dams exposed to vehicle, 250 ng BPA/kg BW/d or 10 ng EE2/kg BW/d from embryonic day (E) 8 were harvested at E19. Transcriptomal analyses on the ductal epithelium and periductal stroma revealed altered expression of genes involved in the focal adhesion and adipogenesis pathways in the BPA-exposed stroma while genes regulating the apoptosis pathway changed their expression in the BPA-exposed epithelium. These changes in gene expression correlated with previously reported histological changes in matrix organization, adipogenesis, and lumen formation resulting in enhanced maturation of the fat-pad and delayed lumen formation in the epithelium of BPA-exposed fetal mammary glands. Overall similarities in the transcriptomal effects of BPA and EE2 were more pronounced in the epithelium, than in the stroma. In addition, the effects of BPA and EE2 on the expression of various genes involved in mammary stromal-epithelial interactions were suppressed in the absence of ERα. These observations support a model whereby BPA and EE2 act directly on the stroma, which expresses ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in fetal mammary glands, and that the stroma, in turn, affects gene expression in the epithelium, where ERα and ERβ are below the level of detection at this stage of development.

  14. Alcohol Exposure Alters Mouse Lung Inflammation in Response to Inhaled Dust

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    Jill A. Poole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exposure is associated with increased lung infections and decreased mucociliary clearance. Occupational workers exposed to dusts from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs are at risk for developing chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Agricultural worker co-exposure to alcohol and organic dust has been established, although little research has been conducted on the combination effects of alcohol and organic dusts on the lung. Previously, we have shown in a mouse model that exposure to hog dust extract (HDE collected from a CAFO results in the activation of protein kinase C (PKC, elevated lavage fluid cytokines/chemokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6, and the development of significant lung pathology. Because alcohol blocks airway epithelial cell release of IL-6 in vitro, we hypothesized that alcohol exposure would alter mouse lung inflammatory responses to HDE. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were fed 20% alcohol or water ad libitum for 6 weeks and treated with 12.5% HDE by intranasal inhalation method daily during the final three weeks. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, tracheas and lungs were collected. HDE stimulated a 2–4 fold increase in lung and tracheal PKCε (epsilon activity in mice, but no such increase in PKCε activity was observed in dust-exposed mice fed alcohol. Similarly, alcohol-fed mice demonstrated significantly less IL-6 in lung lavage in response to dust than that observed in control mice instilled with HDE. TNFα levels were also inhibited in the alcohol and HDE-exposed mouse lung tissue as compared to the HDE only exposed group. HDE-induced lung inflammatory aggregates clearly present in the tissue from HDE only exposed animals were not visually detectable in the HDE/alcohol co-exposure group. Statistically significant weight reductions and 20% mortality were also observed in the mice co-exposed to HDE and alcohol. These data suggest that alcohol exposure depresses the ability

  15. Sex Moderates Associations between Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure and Human Fetal Neurological Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Laura M.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal cortisol levels (at 15, 19, 25, 31 and 37 weeks' gestation) and fetal movement response to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS; at 25, 31 and 37 weeks) were assessed in 190 mother-fetus pairs. Fetuses showed a response to the VAS at 25 weeks and there was evidence of increasing maturation in the response at 31 and 37 weeks. Early elevations in…

  16. 77 FR 44695 - Revised Meeting Notice: Leadership Meeting on Maternal, Fetal, and Infant Opioid Exposure and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY Revised Meeting Notice: Leadership Meeting on Maternal... Control Policy. ACTION: Revised notice. SUMMARY: An ONDCP Leadership Meeting on Maternal, Fetal and Infant... adversely affect the health of millions of Americans and their families. The specific conference objectives...

  17. Fetal programming and environmental exposures: Implications for prenatal care and preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal programming is an enormously complex process that relies on numerous environmental inputs from uterine tissue, the placenta, the maternal blood supply, and other sources. Recent evidence has made clear that the process is not based entirely on genetics, but rather on a deli...

  18. Fetal betamethasone exposure attenuates angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas receptor expression in the dorsal medulla of adult sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Allyson C; Shaltout, Hossam A; Nautiyal, Manisha; Rose, James C; Chappell, Mark C; Diz, Debra I

    2013-06-01

    Glucocorticoids including betamethasone (BM) are routinely administered to women entering into early preterm labor to facilitate fetal lung development and decrease infant mortality; however, fetal steroid exposure may lead to deleterious long term consequences. In a sheep model of fetal programming, BM-exposed (BMX) offspring exhibit elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP) and decreased baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) for control of heart rate by 0.5-years of age associated with changes in the circulating and renal renin-angiotensin systems (RAS). In the brain solitary tract nucleus, angiotensin (Ang) II actions through the AT1 receptor oppose the beneficial actions of Ang-(1-7) at the Mas receptor for BRS regulation. Therefore, we examined Ang peptides, angiotensinogen (Aogen), and receptor expression in this brain region of exposed and control offspring of 0.5- and 1.8-years of age. Mas protein expression was significantly lower (>40%) in the dorsal medulla of BMX animals at both ages; however, AT1 receptor expression was not changed. BMX offspring exhibited a higher ratio of Ang II to Ang-(1-7) (2.30±0.36 versus 0.99±0.28; p<0.01) and Ang II to Ang I at 0.5-years. Although total Aogen was unchanged, Ang I-intact Aogen was lower in 0.5-year BMX animals (0.78±0.06 vs. 1.94±0.41; p<0.05) suggesting a greater degree of enzymatic processing of the precursor protein in exposed animals. We conclude that in utero BM exposure promotes an imbalance in the central RAS pathways of Ang II and Ang-(1-7) that may contribute to the elevated MAP and lower BRS in this model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Associations of alcohol use with mental health and alcohol exposure among school-going students in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Tepirou, Chher

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of alcohol use with sociodemographic factors, mental health and alcohol exposure among school-going adolescents in Cambodia. The analysis included 3,806 school children, mean age 15.7 years (SD=1.8), from Cambodia who participated in the "Global School-based Student Health Survey" (GSHS) in 2013. The results indicate that overall, 10.0% of the students reported current alcohol use, 10.8% lifetime drunkenness, and 2.8% problem drinking. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors (older age and being male), mental health and other variables (bullying victimization, OR (odds ratio) = 1.99; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [1.50, 2.65] and OR = 2.15; 95% CI [1.58, 3.21], respectively; having attempted suicide, OR = 2.04; 95% CI [1.35, 3.08] and OR = 2.06; 95% CI [1.29, 3.28], respectively and illicit drug use, OR = 4.97; 95% CI [2.41, 10.24] OR = 5.05; 95% CI [2.14, 11.98], respectively) and alcohol exposure variables (peer influence on drinking alcohol, OR = 6.68; 95% CI [4.75, 9.39] and OR = 7.83; 95% CI [5.73, 10.66], respectively and daily or almost daily to alcohol advertising in the past 30 days OR = 1.61; 95% CI [1.03, 2.51] and OR = 2.30; 95% CI [1.40, 3.77], respectively) were significantly positively associated with current alcohol use and drunkenness. Moreover, older age, being male, bullying victimization, having close friends, suicide attempt, drug use, father or male guardian drinks alcohol and peer influence were associated with problem drinking. There is a need to implement public health interventions with a special focus on the determinants of alcohol consumption, including exposure to alcohol advertising, in this age group.

  20. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the development of white matter volume and change in executive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a wide range of deficits in executive function that persist throughout life, but little is known about how changes in brain structure relate to cognition in affected individuals. In the current study, we predicted that the rate of white matter volumetric development would be atypical in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD when compared to typically developing children, and that the rate of change in cognitive function would relate to differential white matter development between groups. Data were available for 103 subjects [49 with FASD, 54 controls, age range 6–17, mean age = 11.83] with 153 total observations. Groups were age-matched. Participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and an executive function (EF battery. Using white matter volumes measured bilaterally for frontal and parietal regions and the corpus callosum, change was predicted by modeling the effects of age, intracranial volume, sex, and interactions with exposure status and EF measures. While both groups showed regional increases in white matter volumes and improvement in cognitive performance over time, there were significant effects of exposure status on age-related relationships between white matter increases and EF measures. Specifically, individuals with FASD consistently showed a positive relationship between improved cognitive function and increased white matter volume over time, while no such relationships were seen in controls. These novel results relating improved cognitive function with increased white matter volume in FASD suggest that better cognitive outcomes could be possible for FASD subjects through interventions that enhance white matter plasticity.

  1. Rehabilitation training using complex motor learning rescues deficits in eyeblink classical conditioning in female rats induced by binge-like neonatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jennifer L; Klintsova, Anna Y; Greenough, William T; Goodlett, Charles R

    2013-09-01

    Effective treatments for the behavioral and cognitive deficits in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are lacking, and translational approaches using animal models can help develop rational interventions. One such model, binge-like alcohol exposure in neonatal rats during the period of brain development comparable with that of the human third trimester, causes structural and functional damage to the cerebellum and disrupts cerebellar-dependent eyeblink classical conditioning. The eyeblink conditioning deficits first demonstrated in this rat model predicted the similar deficits subsequently demonstrated in children with FASD. The current study extends this translational approach by testing the hypothesis that rehabilitation training involving 20 days of training on traversal of an obstacle course (complex motor learning) would ameliorate the deficits on classical conditioning of eyeblink responses produced by the neonatal alcohol exposure. We have previously shown that this training stimulates cerebellar synaptic plasticity and improves alcohol-induced deficits on motor coordination tasks. The current studies found that rehabilitation training significantly attenuated alcohol-induced deficits in acquisition of eyeblink conditioning in females but not in males. These results are consistent with normalization of cerebellar-dependent learning, at least in alcohol-exposed females. These findings extend previous studies in this model suggesting that rehabilitation of adolescents with FASD using training with complex motor learning tasks could be effective in ameliorating functional impairments associated with cerebellar damage. Eyeblink classical conditioning deficits are now well documented in children with FASD and could serve as an evaluation measure to continue to develop therapeutic interventions such as complex motor learning. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE OF FETAL OVARIES AND FETAL GERM CELLS TO ENDOMETRIOSIS CAUSES DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION IN PRE-IMPLANTATION EMBRYOS OF FIRST AND SECOND GENERATION EMBRYOS OFFSPRING IN AN ENDOMETRIOSIS MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, Julie A.; Taylor, Kristen H.; Davis, J. Wade; Sharpe-Timms, Kathy L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Characterize multigenerational gene expression anomalies in 8-cell stage embryos associated with developmental exposure to endometriosis. Design Using an endometriosis model in rats (F0 founder generation), evaluate gene expression in F1 (fetal exposure) and F2 (fetal germ cell exposure) generation 8-cell stage embryos. Setting Laboratory Animals Endometriosis model in rats (Endo) and controls (Sham) Interventions F0 Endo and Sham rats were bred. Half of the pregnant rats were euthanatized on gestational day 3 (F1 8-cell stage embryos); the others gestated to term (F1 females). Adult F1 females were bred and F2 8-cell embryos collected. Main outcome measures Maintenance of differential gene expression in F1 and F2 generation 8-cell embryos in endometriosis. Results Developmental exposure to endometriosis altered gene signaling pathways including apoptosis, cell cycle process, response to oxidative stress, negative regulation of molecular function and RNA processing. Apoptotic genes Diablo, Casp3, Parp1, Cad and Dnaja3 were increased, Nfkbia transcripts decreased in F1 Endo versus F1 Sham embryos. In F2 Endo versus Sham embryos, Casp3 and Cad were significantly increased plus Parp1 and Nfkbia tended to be elevated. Conclusions Fetal and germ cell exposure to endometriosis alters apoptotic gene expression in first and second generation 8-cell stage embryos, supporting the hypothesis of multigenerational inheritance from exposure to endometriosis in utero. PMID:23954358

  3. Release of LHRH-activity from human fetal membranes upon exposure to PGE/sub 2/, oxytocin and isoproterenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poisner, A.M.; Poisner, R.; Becca, C.R.; Conn, P.M.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously reported that superfused chorion laeve (fetal membranes) release LHRH-like immunoreactivity upon exposure to angiotensin II. They have now studied the effects of other agonists on the release of LHRH-activity and something of its chemical nature. Fetal membranes were obtained from placentas delivered by cesarean section, the amnion stripped from the chorion, and the chorion superfused in an Amicon thin-channel device with the maternal surface facing up. The whole device was submerged in a 37 C water bath and perfused with a modified Locke's solution at 0.4 - 1.0 ml/min. LHRH-activity was measured by radioimmunoassay using three different antisera against LHRH. The release of LHRH-activity was stimulated by 6-10 min exposure to PGE/sub 2/, oxytocin, and isoproterenol. Extracts of chorion were studied using gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200 and ultrafiltration with Amicon PM-10 filters. The bulk of the LHRH-activity appeared as a higher molecular weight form (about 70,000 daltons). Since oxytocin has been reported to release PGE/sub 2/ from chorion, it may release LHRH-activity by virtue of liberating endogenous PGE/sub 2/. The chemical nature of the LHRH-activity is presently under investigation.

  4. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television in the UK, the Netherlands and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sunil; Winpenny, Eleanor M; Elliott, Marc N; Rohr, Charlene; Nolte, Ellen

    2014-08-01

    Exposure of young people to alcohol advertising is a risk factor for underage drinking. This study assessed youth exposure to television alcohol advertising in the UK, the Netherlands and Germany, from December 2010 to May 2011. A negative binomial regression model predicted number of alcohol advertisements from the proportion of the television viewership in each age group. This allowed comparison of alcohol advertisement incidence for each youth age category relative to an adult reference category. In the UK, those aged 10-15 years were significantly more exposed to alcohol advertisements per viewing hour than adults aged ≥ 25 years [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.11; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.06, 1.18; P advertisements than adults aged ≥ 25 years (IRR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.85; P children (aged 4-9 years in the UK and Germany, 6-12 years in the Netherlands) were less exposed than adults. Adolescents in the UK and the Netherlands, but not Germany, had higher exposure to television alcohol advertising relative to adults than would be expected from their television viewing. Further work across a wider range of countries is needed to understand the relationship between national policies and youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  5. Voluntary alcohol intake after noise exposure in adolescent rats: Hippocampal-related behavioral alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, M; Molina, S J; Forcada, A; Acosta, G B; Guelman, L R

    2018-01-15

    Different physical or chemical agents, such as noise or alcohol, can induce diverse behavioral and biochemical alterations. Considering the high probability of young people to undergo consecutive or simultaneous exposures, the aim of the present work was to investigate in an animal model if noise exposure at early adolescence could induce hippocampal-related behavioral changes that might be modified after alcohol intake. Male Wistar rats (28-days-old) were exposed to noise (95-97 dB, 2 h). Afterwards, animals were allowed to voluntarily drink alcohol (10% ethanol in tap water) for three consecutive days, using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. After that, hippocampal-related memory and anxiety-like behavior tests were performed. Results show that whereas noise-exposed rats presented deficits in habituation memory, those who drank alcohol exhibited impairments in associative memory and anxiety-like behaviors. In contrast, exposure to noise followed by alcohol intake showed increases in exploratory and locomotor activities as well as in anxiety-like behaviors, unlike what was observed using each agent separately. Finally, lower levels of alcohol intake were measured in these animals when compared with those that drank alcohol and were not exposed to noise. Present findings demonstrate that exposure to physical and chemical challenges during early adolescence might induce behavioral alterations that could differ depending on the schedule used, suggesting a high vulnerability of rat developing brain to these socially relevant agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. EDC IMPACT: Molecular effects of developmental FM 550 exposure in Wistar rat placenta and fetal forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie D Rock

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Firemaster 550 (FM 550 is a flame retardant (FR mixture that has become one of the most commonly used FRs in foam-based furniture and baby products. Human exposure to this commercial mixture, composed of brominated and organophosphate components, is widespread. We have repeatedly shown that developmental exposure can lead to sex-specific behavioral effects in rats. Accruing evidence of endocrine disruption and potential neurotoxicity has raised concerns regarding the neurodevelopmental effects of FM 550 exposure, but the specific mechanisms of action remains unclear. Additionally, we observed significant, and in some cases sex-specific, accumulation of FM 550 in placental tissue following gestational exposure. Because the placenta is an important source of hormones and neurotransmitters for the developing brain, it may be a critical target of toxicity to consider in the context of developmental neurotoxicity. Using a mixture of targeted and exploratory approaches, the goal of the present study was to identify possible mechanisms of action in the developing forebrain and placenta. Wistar rat dams were orally exposed to FM 550 (0, 300 or 1000 μg/day for 10 days during gestation and placenta and fetal forebrain tissue collected for analysis. In placenta, evidence of endocrine, inflammatory and neurotransmitter signaling pathway disruption was identified. Notably, 5-HT turnover was reduced in placental tissue and fetal forebrains indicating that 5-HT signaling between the placenta and the embryonic brain may be disrupted. These findings demonstrate that environmental contaminants, like FM 550, have the potential to impact the developing brain by disrupting normal placental functions.

  7. Comparative quantification of alcohol exposure as risk factor for global burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Klotsche, Jens; Patra, Jayadeep

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol has been identified as one of the most important risk factors in the burden experienced as a result of disease. The objective of the present contribution is to establish a framework to comparatively quantify alcohol exposure as it is relevant for burden of disease. Different key indicators are combined to derive this quantification. First, adult per capita consumption, composed of recorded and unrecorded consumption, yields the best overall estimate of alcohol exposure for a country or region. Second, survey information is used to allocate the per capita consumption into sex and age groups. Third, an index for detrimental patterns of drinking is used to determine the additional impact on injury and cardiovascular burden. The methodology is applied to estimate global alcohol exposure for the year 2002. Finally, assumptions and potential problems of the approach are discussed. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A randomized controlled study of exposure therapy as aftercare for alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellentin, Angelina Isabella; Nielsen, Bent; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard

    2016-01-01

    as an investigator-blinded randomized controlled trial. A total of 300 consecutively enrolled alcohol use disorder individuals recruited from an alcohol outpatient clinic will be randomized into one of the three following aftercare groups after concluding primary treatment: (1) CET as a smartphone application; (2......Background It is well documented that individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) respond well during evidence-based psychological treatment, but also that a large proportion relapses when discharged from treatment and confronted with alcohol in real life. Cue Exposure Treatment (CET) focuses...... on exposing individuals to alcohol cues in order to reduce cravings as well as the likelihood of relapse. The aims of the study are: 1) to investigate whether CET aftercare delivered via a smartphone or in group sessions increases the effect of Cognitive Behavioural Treatment in groups of alcohol dependent...

  9. The effects of a single memantine treatment on behavioral alterations associated with binge alcohol exposure in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; McGough, Nancy N H; Spinetta, Michael J; Thomas, Jennifer D; Riley, Edward P

    2011-01-01

    The third trimester in human fetal development represents a critical time of brain maturation referred to as the "brain growth spurt". This period occurs in rats postnatally, and exposure to ethanol during this time can increase the risk of impairments on a variety of cognitive and motor tasks. It has been proposed that one potential mechanism for the teratogenic effects of ethanol is NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity during periods of ethanol withdrawal. In neonatal rats, antagonism of NMDA receptors during ethanol withdrawal, with drugs such as MK-801 and eliprodil, has been shown to mitigate some of the behavioral deficits induced by developmental ethanol exposure. The current study examined whether memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist and a drug used clinically in Alzheimer's patients, would attenuate impairments associated with binge ethanol exposure in neonatal rats. On postnatal day 6, rats were exposed to 6 g/kg ethanol via intubation with controls receiving an isocaloric maltose dextrin solution. Twenty-one hours following the ethanol binge, rats received intraperitoneal injections of memantine at 0, 10, 15, or 20 mg/kg. Ethanol's teratogenic effects were assessed using multiple behavioral tasks: open field activity, parallel bars and spatial discrimination reversal learning. Ethanol-treated rats were overactive in the open field and were impaired on both reversal learning and motor performance. Administration of 15 or 20 mg/kg memantine during withdrawal significantly attenuated ethanol's adverse effects on motor coordination, but did not significantly alter activity levels or improve the spatial learning deficits associated with neonatal alcohol exposure. These results indicate that a single memantine administration during ethanol withdrawal can mitigate motor impairments but not spatial learning impairments or overactivity observed following a binge ethanol exposure during development in the rat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Is Associated with Conduct Disorder in Adolescence: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkby, Cynthia A.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Day, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and the rate of conduct disorder in exposed compared with unexposed adolescents. Method: Data for these analyses are from a longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposures. Women were interviewed at their fourth and seventh prenatal months, and with their children, at…

  11. Fetal exposure to maternal inflammation does not affect postnatal development of genetically-driven ileitis and colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hemmerling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammatory disorders have been increasing in incidence over the past decades following geographical patterns of industrialization. Fetal exposure to maternal inflammation may alter organ functions and the offspring's disease risk. We studied the development of genetically-driven ileitis and colitis in response to maternal inflammation using mouse models. METHODS: Disease susceptible (TnfΔARE/+ and IL10-/- and disease-free (Tnf+/+ and IL10-/+ offspring were raised in inflamed and non-inflamed dams. Ileal, caecal and colonic pathology was evaluated in the offspring at 8 or 12 weeks of age. Ly6G-positive cells in inflamed sections from the distal ileum and distal colon were analysed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was measured in whole tissue specimens by quantitative PCR. Microarray analyses were performed on laser microdissected intestinal epithelium. Caecal bacterial communities were assessed by Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. RESULTS: Disease severity, the number of infiltrated neutrophils as well as Tnf and Il12p40 mRNA expression were independent of maternal inflammation in the offspring of mouse models for ileitis (TnfΔARE/+ and colitis (IL10-/-. Although TNF-driven maternal inflammation regulated 2,174 (wild type and 3,345 (TnfΔARE/+ genes in the fetal epithelium, prenatal gene expression patterns were completely overwritten after birth. In addition, co-housing experiments revealed no change in phylogenetic diversity of the offspring's caecal microbiota in response to maternal inflammation. This is independent of the offspring's genotype before and after the onset of tissue pathology. CONCLUSIONS: Disease risk and activity in mouse models of chronic ileitis and colitis was independent of the fetal exposure to maternal inflammation. Likewise, maternal inflammation did not alter the diversity and composition of offspring's caecal microbiota, clearly

  12. Alcohol Advertising Exposure Among Middle School–Age Youth: An Assessment Across All Media and Venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca L.; Martino, Steven C.; Kovalchik, Stephanie A.; Becker, Kirsten M.; Shadel, William G.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to quantify middle school youth’s exposure to alcohol advertisements across media and venues, determine venues of greatest exposure, and identify characteristics of youth who are most exposed. Method: Over a 10-month period in 2013, 589 Los Angeles–area youth ages 11–14 from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds completed a short paper-and-pencil survey assessing background characteristics and then participated in a 14-day ecological momentary assessment, logging all exposures to alcohol advertisements on handheld computers as they occurred. Results: African American and Hispanic youth were exposed to an average of 4.1 and 3.4 advertisements per day, respectively, nearly two times as many as non-Hispanic White youth, who were exposed to 2.0 advertisements per day. Girls were exposed to 30% more advertisements than boys. Most exposures were to outdoor advertisements, with television advertisements a close second. Conclusions: Exposure to alcohol advertising is frequent among middle school–age youth and may put them at risk for earlier or more frequent underage drinking. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising outdoors and on television should be considered by regulators and by the alcohol industry and should focus particularly on reducing exposure among minority youth. PMID:27172570

  13. Effectiveness of evidence-based treatments of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in children and adolescents: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Deepa; Menard, Chantalle; Neilson, Christine J; Brownell, Marni; Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Chudley, Albert; Zarychanski, Ryan; Abou-Setta, Ahmed

    2018-03-09

    The aim of this paper is to provide a protocol for a systematic review assessing the effectiveness of evidence from randomised controlled trials comparing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions with placebo/dummy interventions or usual standards of care in children and adolescents (EBSCO), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library-Wiley), PsycINFO (ProQuest) and Proquest DissertationsandTheses will be searched from inception to March 2017 for relevant citations of published trials using individualised search strategies prepared for database. We will also search the reference lists of relevant articles and conference proceedings. Two reviewers will independently assess each study against predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria and extract data including population characteristics, types and duration of interventions and outcomes from included trials. Internal validity will be assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Primary outcome measures will be improvements in symptoms, including: hyperactivity, impulsivity and attention as measured by standard rating scales. Secondary outcome measures will include improvements in physical and mental health domains, as well as cognitive, behavioural, social and educational skills as measured by rating scales, standardised psychometric tests of IQ and memory, grade repetition, literacy tests and diagnosis of mental health disorder. Ethical approval will not be obtained since it is not required for systematic reviews as there are no concerns regarding patient privacy. The results of this review will be disseminated through publication in a peer-review journal and presented at relevant conferences. CRD42013005996. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative–motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity

  15. Maternal exposure to bisphenol A may increase the risks of Parkinson's disease through down-regulation of fetal IGF-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Boxian; Jiang, Chunyan; Luo, Jian; Cui, Yugui; Qin, Lianju; Liu, Jiayin

    2014-03-01

    So far, the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unclear. Current studies implicate environmental toxins may be potential causes of fetal origin of PD. BPA is a member of the family of estrogenic chemicals existing widely in environment. Significant evidences from animal experimentation have demonstrated that BPA interfere with fetal neurodevelopment. Based on previous reports and our research on EB derived from hESCs, we speculate that maternal exposure to low-dose BPA during gestational period may decrease IGF-1 expression, thus hinder the development of fetal DA neurons, and finally increase the risks of fetal origin of PD. Our hypothesis may shed new light on the pathogenesis of PD and lead to potential preventive treatments. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Margin of Exposure of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in Alcoholic Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2012-01-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) regularly occurs in foods and in alcoholic beverages. However, the risk of HMF associated with alcohol consumption has not been systematically studied, so that this study will provide the first quantitative risk assessment of HMF for consumers of alcoholic beverages. Human dietary intake of HMF via alcoholic beverages in the European Union was estimated based on WHO alcohol consumption data combined with our own survey data (n=944) and literature data (n=147) about the HMF contents of different beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The risk assessment was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach. For olfactory epithelium metaplasia in female mice, a benchmark dose (BMD) of 127 mg/kg bodyweight (bw)/d and a BMD lower confidence limit (BMDL) of 79 mg/kg bw/d were calculated from National Toxicology Program oral long-term animal experiments. The average human exposure to HMF from alcoholic beverages was estimated at 6.0E-3 mg/kg bw/d, which is approximately 8.5% of the total dietary exposure. In comparison of the human exposure with BMDL, the MOE was 13,167 for average alcohol consumption scenarios, which is a value that would be generally assumed as safe for threshold based compounds. The results show that the risk from HMF to the alcohol-consuming population is rather low and the priority for risk management (e.g. to reduce the contamination) is also low. Further toxicological research about HMF is required to further elucidate its mechanism.

  17. Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on the Visual System of Monkeys Measured at Different Stages of Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrar, Vanessa; Elkrief, Laurent; Bouskila, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a developmental disease characterized by behavioral problems and physical defects including malformations of the eye and associated optical defects. How these malformations affect retinal functioning is not well known, although animal models have...... interplay between age and alcohol when assessing the integrity of the retina. We suggest that ERGs might be an important adjunct to diagnosing human FASD....

  18. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  19. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Linlong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLES The role of prenatal alcohol exposure in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy and the development of placental abruption. ... pregnancy. The same questionnaire was administered to a control group of high-risk women who had no antepartum haemorrhage. Outcome. Women who drank alcohol 12 months before ..... resistance to penicillin G (70.6%), tetracycline (63.8%), cefotaxime.

  1. Response of Differentiated Human Airway Epithelia to Alcohol Exposure and Klebsiella pneumoniae Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammeta V. Raju

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse has been associated with increased susceptibility to pulmonary infection. It is not fully defined how alcohol contributes to the host defense compromise. Here primary human airway epithelial cells were cultured at an air-liquid interface to form a differentiated and polarized epithelium. This unique culture model allowed us to closely mimic lung infection in the context of alcohol abuse by basolateral alcohol exposure and apical live bacterial challenge. Application of clinically relevant concentrations of alcohol for 24 h did not significantly alter epithelial integrity or barrier function. When apically challenged with viable Klebsiella pneumoniae, the cultured epithelia had an enhanced tightness which was unaffected by alcohol. Further, alcohol enhanced apical bacterial growth, but not bacterial binding to the cells. The cultured epithelium in the absence of any treatment or stimulation had a base-level IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. Apical bacterial challenge significantly elevated the basolateral secretion of inflammatory cytokines including IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and TNF-α. However, alcohol suppressed the observed cytokine burst in response to infection. Addition of adenosine receptor agonists negated the suppression of IL-6 and TNF-α. Thus, acute alcohol alters the epithelial cytokine response to infection, which can be partially mitigated by adenosine receptor agonists.

  2. Initiation of alcohol use in early adolescence: Links with exposure to community violence across time

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvie, Mrug; Windle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Early alcohol use initiation has been linked with exposure to community violence, but the direction of these associations and the roles of witnessing violence vs. victimization are not clear. This study used a cross-lagged structural equation model to examine the prospective relationships between alcohol use initiation and witnessing community violence and victimization in early adolescence. A sample of 603 boys and girls provided two waves of data 16 months apart. After controlling for conti...

  3. Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution and fetal growth in North-East Scotland: A population-based study using routine ultrasound scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Tom; Turner, Steve; Dibben, Chris

    2017-10-01

    Maternal ambient air pollution exposure is associated with reduced birthweight. Few studies have examined the effect on growth in utero and none have examined the effect of exposure to particulates less than 2.5µm (PM 2.5 ) and possible effect modification by smoking status. Examine the effect of maternal exposure to ambient concentrations of PM 10 , PM 2.5 and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) for in utero fetal growth, size at birth and effect modification by smoking status. Administratively acquired second and third trimester fetal measurements (bi-parietal diameter, femur length and abdominal circumference), birth outcomes (weight, crown heel length and occipito-frontal circumference) and maternal details were obtained from routine fetal ultrasound scans and maternity records (period 1994-2009). These were modelled against residential annual pollution concentrations (calendar year mean) adjusting for covariates and stratifying by smoking status. In the whole sample (n=13,775 pregnancies), exposure to PM 10 , PM 2.5 and NO 2 was associated with reductions in measurements at birth and biparietal diameter from late second trimester onwards. Among mothers who did not smoke at all during pregnancy (n=11,075), associations between biparietal diameter and pollution exposure remained significant but were insignificant among those who did smoke (n=2700). Femur length and abdominal circumference were not significantly associated with pollution exposure. Fetal growth is strongly associated with particulates exposure from later in second trimester onwards but the effect appears to be subsumed by smoking. Typical ambient exposures in this study were relatively low compared to other studies and given these results, it may be necessary to consider reducing recommended "safe" ambient air exposures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Exposure to Alcohol Use in Motion Pictures and Teen Drinking in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Raul; Pérez, Adriana; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Inti; Thrasher, James F; Sargent, James D

    2016-03-01

    Our objective was to assess whether exposure to alcohol use in films (AUF) is associated with alcohol use susceptibility, current alcohol use, and binge drinking in adolescents from 2 Latin American countries. We performed a cross-sectional study with 13,295 middle school students from public and private schools in Mexico and Argentina. Exposure to alcohol use in over 400 contemporary top box office films in each country was estimated using previously validated methods. Outcome measures included current drinking (i.e., any drink in the last 30 days), ever binge drinking (i.e., more than 4 or 5 drinks in a row for females and males, respectively) and, among never drinkers, alcohol susceptibility (i.e., might drink in the next year or accept a drink from a friend). Multivariate models were adjusted for age, sex, parental education, peer drinking, sensation seeking, parenting style, and media access. Mean age was 12.5 years (SD = 0.7), and the prevalence of alcohol consumption and binge drinking was 19.8 and 10.9%, respectively. Mean exposure to alcohol from the film sample was about 7 hours in both countries. Adjusted models indicated independent dose-response associations between higher levels of exposure to AUF and all outcomes; the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) comparing quartiles 4 and 1, 1.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.73 to 2.30) for current drinking, aOR 1.68 (CI 1.39 to 2.02) for binge drinking, and aOR 1.80 (1.52 to 2.12) for alcohol susceptibility. Compared to Mexican adolescents, Argentine adolescents were significantly more likely to have engaged in binge drinking (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.76) and, among never drinkers, were more susceptible to try drinking (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.64). Higher levels of exposure to AUF were associated with higher likelihood of alcohol use, binge drinking, and alcohol susceptibility in Latin American adolescents. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Prostaglandins, Masculinization and Its Disorders: Effects of Fetal Exposure of the Rat to the Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor- Indomethacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Afshan; Mungall, William; McKinnell, Chris; Sharpe, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have established that masculinization of the male reproductive tract is programmed by androgens in a critical fetal ‘masculinization programming window’ (MPW). What is peculiar to androgen action during this period is, however, unknown. Studies from 20 years ago in mice implicated prostaglandin (PG)-mediation of androgen-induced masculinization, but this has never been followed up. We therefore investigated if PGs might mediate androgen effects in the MPW by exposing pregnant rats to indomethacin (which blocks PG production by inhibiting cyclooxygenase activity) during this period and then examining if androgen production or action (masculinization) was affected. Pregnant rats were treated with indomethacin (0.8 mg/kg/day; e15.5–e18.5) to encompass the MPW. Indomethacin exposure decreased fetal bodyweight (e21.5), testis weight (e21.5) and testicular PGE2 (e17.5, e21.5), but had no effect on intratesticular testosterone (ITT; e17.5) or anogenital index (AGI; e21.5). Postnatally, AGI, testis weight and blood testosterone were unaffected by indomethacin exposure and no cryptorchidism or hypospadias occurred. Penis length was normal in indomethacin-exposed animals at Pnd25 but was reduced by 26% (p<0.001) in adulthood, an effect that is unexplained. Our results demonstrate that indomethacin can effectively decrease intra-testicular PGE2 level. However, the resulting male phenotype does not support a role for PGs in mediating androgen-induced masculinization during the MPW in rats. The contrast with previous mouse studies is unexplained but may reflect a species difference. PMID:23671609

  6. Prostaglandins, masculinization and its disorders: effects of fetal exposure of the rat to the cyclooxygenase inhibitor- indomethacin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshan Dean

    Full Text Available Recent studies have established that masculinization of the male reproductive tract is programmed by androgens in a critical fetal 'masculinization programming window' (MPW. What is peculiar to androgen action during this period is, however, unknown. Studies from 20 years ago in mice implicated prostaglandin (PG-mediation of androgen-induced masculinization, but this has never been followed up. We therefore investigated if PGs might mediate androgen effects in the MPW by exposing pregnant rats to indomethacin (which blocks PG production by inhibiting cyclooxygenase activity during this period and then examining if androgen production or action (masculinization was affected. Pregnant rats were treated with indomethacin (0.8 mg/kg/day; e15.5-e18.5 to encompass the MPW. Indomethacin exposure decreased fetal bodyweight (e21.5, testis weight (e21.5 and testicular PGE2 (e17.5, e21.5, but had no effect on intratesticular testosterone (ITT; e17.5 or anogenital index (AGI; e21.5. Postnatally, AGI, testis weight and blood testosterone were unaffected by indomethacin exposure and no cryptorchidism or hypospadias occurred. Penis length was normal in indomethacin-exposed animals at Pnd25 but was reduced by 26% (p<0.001 in adulthood, an effect that is unexplained. Our results demonstrate that indomethacin can effectively decrease intra-testicular PGE2 level. However, the resulting male phenotype does not support a role for PGs in mediating androgen-induced masculinization during the MPW in rats. The contrast with previous mouse studies is unexplained but may reflect a species difference.

  7. Head circumference at birth and exposure to tobacco, alcohol and illegal drugs during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-García, Juan A; Gutierrez-Churango, Jorge E; Sánchez-Sauco, Miguel F; Martínez-Aroca, Miguel; Delgado-Marín, Juan L; Sánchez-Solis, M; Parrilla-Paricio, J J; Claudio, Luz; Martínez-Lage, Juan F

    2012-03-01

    We aimed to assess the effects of exposure to tobacco smoke, alcohol and illegal drugs during early pregnancy on the head circumference (HC) at birth of otherwise healthy neonates. A follow-up study from the first trimester of pregnancy to birth was carried out in 419 neonates. An environmental reproductive health form was used to record data of substance exposure obtained during the first obstetric visit at the end of the first trimester. A multiple linear regression model was created for this purpose. Alcohol intake during pregnancy and medical ionizing radiation exposure were the most significant predictors of HC. The mothers' alcohol consumption increased with the mothers' and fathers' education level, net family income and fathers' alcohol consumption. In contrast, maternal smoking decreased with increasing mothers' and fathers' education level and net family income. About 13% of the surveyed embryos were exposed to illegal drugs. Mild to moderate alcohol consumption diminishes the at-birth HC of theoretically healthy newborns in a linear form. There was no threshold dose. We perceived a need for increasing the awareness, and for training, of health care professionals and parents, in regard to risks of alcohol consumption and for recommending abstinence of these substances in both parents during pregnancy. It should also be remembered that medical ionizing radiation should be performed only during the first half of the cycle in fertile women. We think that our study has an important social impact as it affords data for implementing policies for promoting "healthy pregnancies".

  8. Fetal programming of neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faa, Gavino; Manchia, Mirko; Pintus, Roberta; Gerosa, Clara; Marcialis, Maria Antonietta; Fanos, Vassilios

    2016-09-01

    Starting from the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypotheses proposed by David Barker, namely fetal programming, in the past years, there is a growing evidence of the major role played by epigenetic factors during the intrauterine life and the perinatal period. Furthermore, it has been assessed that these factors can affect the health status in infancy and even in adulthood. In this review, we focus our attention on the fetal programming of the brain, analyzing the most recent literature concerning the epigenetic factors that can influence the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorders, major depressive disorders, and schizophrenia. The perinatal epigenetic factors have been divided in two main groups: maternal factors and fetal factors. The maternal factors include diet, smoking, alcoholism, hypertension, malnutrition, trace elements, stress, diabetes, substance abuse, and exposure to environmental toxicants, while the fetal factors include hypoxia/asphyxia, placental insufficiency, prematurity, low birth weight, drugs administered to the mother or to the baby, and all factors causing intrauterine growth restriction. A better comprehension of the possible mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these diseases may help researchers and clinicians develop new diagnostic tools and treatments to offer these patients a tailored medical treatment strategy to improve their quality of life. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 108:207-223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Brazilian teenagers and beer advertising: relationship between exposure, positive response, and alcohol consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrame, Alan; Pinsky, Ilana; Faria, Roberta; Silva, Rebeca

    2009-02-01

    Brazilian teenagers report problematic patterns of alcohol consumption. Alcohol advertising strategies are one of the main factors influencing adolescents' alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between positive responses to TV beer commercials, exposure, and alcohol consumption. Thirty-two recent TV commercials were shown to 133 high school students from public schools in São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo State, Brazil. The subjects recorded how well they liked the ads and how often they had already watched each commercial. The teenagers also reported their alcohol consumption rates. The ten commercials analyzed in this article were the five most popular and the five least popular. The analysis showed that subjects had already seen the five most popular ads, but not the five least popular. In addition, the five most popular ads received higher scores from teenagers that reported having consumed beer during the previous month. The study found a positive relationship between enjoying beer advertising and exposure to beer ads, as well as between alcohol consumption and positive responses to alcohol commercials.

  10. In utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure: Effects on fetal and adult cardiac gene expression and adult cardiac and renal morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mouse heart is a target of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during fetal development, and microarray analysis demonstrates significant changes in expression of cardiac genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. We tested the hypothesis that developmental TCDD exposure wo...

  11. Health professionals’ perceptions about the adoption of existing guidelines for the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watkins Rochelle E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the availability of five guidelines for the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD, there is no national endorsement for their use in diagnosis in Australia. In this study we aimed to describe health professionals’ perceptions about the adoption of existing guidelines for the diagnosis of FASD in Australia and identify implications for the development of national guidelines. Methods We surveyed 130 Australian and 9 international health professionals with expertise or involvement in the screening or diagnosis of FASD. An online questionnaire was used to evaluate participants’ familiarity with and use of five existing diagnostic guidelines for FASD, and to assess their perceptions about the adoption of these guidelines in Australia. Results Of the 139 participants surveyed, 84 Australian and 8 international health professionals (66.2% responded to the questions on existing diagnostic guidelines. Participants most frequently reported using the University of Washington 4-Digit Diagnostic Code (27.2% and the Canadian guidelines (18.5% for diagnosis. These two guidelines were also most frequently recommended for adoption in Australia: 32.5% of the 40 participants who were familiar with the University of Washington 4-Digit Diagnostic Code recommended adoption of this guideline in Australia, and 30.8% of the 26 participants who were familiar with the Canadian guidelines recommended adoption of this guideline in Australia. However, for the majority of guidelines examined, most participants were unsure whether they should be adopted in Australia. The adoption of existing guidelines in Australia was perceived to be limited by: their lack of evidence base, including the appropriateness of established reference standards for the Australian population; their complexity; the need for training and support to use the guidelines; and the lack of an interdisciplinary and interagency model to support service delivery in

  12. Exploring associations between prenatal solvent exposures and teenage drug and alcohol use: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Lisa G; Webster, Thomas F; Aschengrau, Ann

    2017-03-11

    Investigating the effects of prenatal and childhood exposures on behavioral health outcomes in adolescence is challenging given the lengthy period between the exposure and outcomes. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in Cape Cod, Massachusetts to evaluate the impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on the occurrence of risk-taking behaviors as a teenager. An increased occurrence of risk-taking behaviors, particularly illicit drug use, was observed in those highly exposed to PCE. We hypothesized that there may be other sources of prenatal solvent exposure such as maternal consumption of alcoholic beverages during pregnancy which might modify the previously observed associations between PCE and risk-taking behaviors and so we conducted an exploratory analysis using available cohort data. The current report presents the results of these analyses and describes the difficulties in conducting research on long-term behavioral effects of early life exposures. The exploratory analysis compared a referent group of subjects with no early life exposure to PCE or alcohol (n = 242) to subjects with only alcohol exposure (n = 201), subjects with only PCE exposure (n = 361), and subjects with exposure to both PCE and alcohol (n = 302). Surveys completed by the subject's mother included questions on prenatal alcoholic beverage consumption and available confounding variables such as cigarette smoking and marijuana use. Surveys completed by the subjects included questions on risk-taking behaviors such as alcoholic beverage consumption and illicit drug use as a teenager and available confounding variables. PCE exposure was modeled using a leaching and transport algorithm embedded in water distribution system modeling software that estimated the amount of PCE delivered to a subject's residence during gestation and early childhood. Subjects with early life exposure to both PCE and alcohol had an

  13. Fetal growth and prenatal exposure to bisphenol A: The generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Snijder (Claudia); D. Heederik (Dick); F.H. Pierik (Frank); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.M. Koch (Holger M); M.P. Longnecker (Matthew); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, but findings of previous studies have been inconsistent. Objective: We investigated the relation of prenatal BPA exposure with intrauterine growth and evaluated the effect of the number of

  14. Fetal growth and prenatal exposure to bisphenol A: The generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, C.A.; Heederik, D.; Pierik, F.H.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Koch, H.M.; Longnecker, M.P.; Burdorf, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, but findings of previous studies have been inconsistent. Objective: We investigated the relation of prenatal BPA exposure with intrauterine growth and evaluated the effect of the number of

  15. A exposição pré-natal ao álcool como fator de risco para comportamentos disfuncionais: o papel do pediatra Prenatal alcohol exposure as a risk factor for dysfunctional behaviors: the role of the pediatrician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakana Momino

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Ainda que as características clássicas da síndrome fetal alcoólica tenham sido descritas desde 1968, a pesquisa sobre a teratogênese do álcool apenas recentemente demonstrou que o cérebro é o órgão do corpo mais vulnerável aos efeitos da exposição pré-natal ao álcool. No presente artigo, fazemos uma revisão da literatura focalizando principalmente os distúrbios comportamentais relacionados à exposição pré-natal ao álcool. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foi realizada uma pesquisa com base no PubMed sobre a literatura publicada entre 1968 e 2006, com as palavras-chave etanol, gestação e comportamento. Foram estabelecidos limites a estudos em humanos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Os dados apresentados nesta revisão sugerem que jovens com efeitos do espectro do álcool fetal estão sob risco maior de terem comportamento social disruptivo, entre outros problemas neurocomportamentais. CONCLUSÕES: Ainda que seja impossível separar completamente a teratogênese sobre o cérebro decorrente da exposição ao álcool de influências ambientais pós-natais como a causa definitiva desses resultados, o pediatra deve ser estimulado ao diagnóstico precoce de crianças afetadas pela síndrome fetal alcoólica e efeitos do espectro do álcool fetal. Isso permite iniciar o manejo e cuidados apropriados para evitar as conseqüências em longo prazo no comportamento e assegurar uma adaptação social e escolar melhor e mais produtiva.OBJECTIVE: Although the classic features of fetal alcohol syndrome have been recognized since 1968, research on alcohol teratogenesis has only recently demonstrated that the brain is the organ in the body most vulnerable to the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. In this present article, we reviewed the literature focusing mainly on behavioral disturbances related to prenatal ethanol exposure. SOURCES: We performed a PubMed search on the literature published between 1968 and 2006 using the terms ethanol, pregnancy and

  16. Television and music video exposure and risk of adolescent alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T N; Chen, H L; Killen, J D

    1998-11-01

    Alcohol use is frequently portrayed in television programming and advertising. Exposure to media portrayals of alcohol use may lead to increased drinking. To address this issue, we examined prospectively the associations between media exposure and alcohol use in adolescents. Prospective cohort study. Setting. Six public high schools in San Jose, California. Participants. Ninth-grade students (N = 1533; mean age = 14.6 years). Students reported hours of television, music video, and videotape viewing; computer and video game use; and lifetime and past 30 days' alcohol use at baseline and 18 months later. Associations between baseline media exposure and subsequent alcohol use were examined with multiple logistic regression. During the 18-month follow-up, 36.2% of baseline nondrinkers began drinking and 50.7% of baseline drinkers continued to drink. Onset of drinking was significantly associated with baseline hours of television viewing (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.01-1.18), music video viewing (OR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1. 17-1.47), and videotape viewing (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.79-0.99), controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, and other media use. Computer and video game use was not significantly associated with the subsequent onset of drinking. Among baseline drinkers, there were no significant associations between baseline media use and maintenance of drinking. Increased television and music video viewing are risk factors for the onset of alcohol use in adolescents. Attempts to prevent adolescent alcohol use should address the adverse influences of alcohol use in the media.

  17. Effects of fetal microwave radiation exposure on offspring behavior in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanchun; Li Zhihui; Gao Yan; Zhang Chenggang

    2015-01-01

    The recent rapid development of electronic communication techniques is resulting in a marked increase in exposure of humans to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This has raised public concerns about the health hazards of long-term environmental EMF exposure for fetuses and children. Some studies have suggested EMF exposure in children could induce nervous system disorders. However, gender-dependent effects of microwave radiation exposure on cognitive dysfunction have not previously been reported. Here we investigated whether in utero exposure to 9.417-GHz microwave throughout gestation (Days 3.5–18) affected behavior, using the open field test (OFT), elevated-plus maze (EPM), tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and Morris water maze (MWM). We found that mice showed less movement in the center of an open field (using the OFT) and in an open arm (using the EPM) after in utero exposure to 9.417-GHz radiation, which suggested that the mice had increased anxiety-related behavior. Mice demonstrated reduced immobility in TST and FST after in utero exposure to 9.417-GHz radiation, which suggested that the mice had decreased depression-related behavior. From the MWM test, we observed that male offspring demonstrated decreased learning and memory, while females were not affected in learning and memory, which suggested that microwaves had gender-dependent effects. In summary, we have provided the first experimental evidence of microwaves inducing gender-dependent effects. (author)

  18. Effects of fetal microwave radiation exposure on offspring behavior in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanchun; Li, Zhihui; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Chenggang

    2015-01-01

    The recent rapid development of electronic communication techniques is resulting in a marked increase in exposure of humans to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This has raised public concerns about the health hazards of long-term environmental EMF exposure for fetuses and children. Some studies have suggested EMF exposure in children could induce nervous system disorders. However, gender-dependent effects of microwave radiation exposure on cognitive dysfunction have not previously been reported. Here we investigated whether in utero exposure to 9.417-GHz microwave throughout gestation (Days 3.5–18) affected behavior, using the open field test (OFT), elevated-plus maze (EPM), tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and Morris water maze (MWM). We found that mice showed less movement in the center of an open field (using the OFT) and in an open arm (using the EPM) after in utero exposure to 9.417-GHz radiation, which suggested that the mice had increased anxiety-related behavior. Mice demonstrated reduced immobility in TST and FST after in utero exposure to 9.417-GHz radiation, which suggested that the mice had decreased depression-related behavior. From the MWM test, we observed that male offspring demonstrated decreased learning and memory, while females were not affected in learning and memory, which suggested that microwaves had gender-dependent effects. In summary, we have provided the first experimental evidence of microwaves inducing gender-dependent effects. PMID:25359903

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a hole in the heart. Delayed development. Vision or hearing problems. As they grow older, these children may have behavior problems. They may experience learning disabilities, trouble with memory and attention, and hyperactivity. Symptoms tend to get ...

  20. Exposure to Online Alcohol Marketing and Adolescents' Drinking: A Cross-sectional Study in Four European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Avalon; Engels, Rutger; Anderson, Peter; Bujalski, Michal; Gosselt, Jordy; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Wohtge, Jördis; de Leeuw, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    The Internet is the leading medium among European adolescents in contemporary times; even more time is spent on the Internet than watching television. This study investigates associations between online alcohol marketing exposure and onset of drinking and binge drinking among adolescents in four European countries. A total of 9038 students with a mean age of 14.05 (SD 0.82) participated in a school-based survey in Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Poland. Logistic regression analyses of cross-sectional cross-country survey data were undertaken. Exposure to online alcohol marketing, televised alcohol advertising and ownership of alcohol-branded items was estimated to be controlled for relevant confounders. Onset of drinking and binge drinking in the past 30 days were included in the study as outcome variables. Adjusted for relevant confounders, higher exposure to (online) alcohol marketing exposure was found to be related to the odds of starting to drink (p online alcohol marketing was found to interact more strongly with drinking outcomes than passive exposure to online alcohol marketing. Youngsters in the four European countries report frequent exposure to online alcohol marketing. The association between this exposure and adolescents' drinking was robust and seems consistent across national contexts. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of embryonic and fetal exposure to x-ray, microwaves, and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brent, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Many professionals are unfamiliar with radiation biology or the quantitative nature of the risks. Frequently, microwave, ultrasound, and ionizing radiation risks are confused. Although it is impossible to prove no risk for any environmental hazard, it appears that exposure to microwave radiation below the maximal permissible levels present no measurable risk to the embryo. Ultrasound exposure from diagnostic ultrasonographic imaging equipment also is quite innocuous. It is true that continued surveillance and research into potential risks of these low-level exposures should continue, but at present ultrasound not only improves obstetric care but also reduces the necessity of diagnostic x-ray procedures. In the field of ionizing radiation, we have as good a comprehension of the biologic effects and the quantitative maximum risks as of any other environmental hazard. Although the animal and human data support the conclusion that no increases in the incidence of gross congenital malformations, intrauterine growth retardation, or abortion will occur with exposures less than 5 rad, that does not mean that there are definitely no risks to the embryo exposed to lower doses of radiation. Whether there exists a linear or exponential dose-response relationship or a threshold exposure for genetic, carcinogenic, cell-depleting, and life-shortening effects has not been determined. In establishing maximum permissible levels for the embryo at low exposures, refer to Tables 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9. It is obvious that the risks of 1-rad or 5-rad acute exposure are far below the spontaneous risks of the developing embryo because 15 per cent of human embryos abort, 2.7 to 3.0 per cent of human embryos have major malformations, 4 per cent have intrauterine growth retardation, and 8 to 10 per cent have early- or late-onset genetic disease. 98 references

  2. Effects of fetal microwave radiation exposure on offspring behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanchun; Li, Zhihui; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Chenggang

    2015-03-01

    The recent rapid development of electronic communication techniques is resulting in a marked increase in exposure of humans to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This has raised public concerns about the health hazards of long-term environmental EMF exposure for fetuses and children. Some studies have suggested EMF exposure in children could induce nervous system disorders. However, gender-dependent effects of microwave radiation exposure on cognitive dysfunction have not previously been reported. Here we investigated whether in utero exposure to 9.417-GHz microwave throughout gestation (Days 3.5-18) affected behavior, using the open field test (OFT), elevated-plus maze (EPM), tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and Morris water maze (MWM). We found that mice showed less movement in the center of an open field (using the OFT) and in an open arm (using the EPM) after in utero exposure to 9.417-GHz radiation, which suggested that the mice had increased anxiety-related behavior. Mice demonstrated reduced immobility in TST and FST after in utero exposure to 9.417-GHz radiation, which suggested that the mice had decreased depression-related behavior. From the MWM test, we observed that male offspring demonstrated decreased learning and memory, while females were not affected in learning and memory, which suggested that microwaves had gender-dependent effects. In summary, we have provided the first experimental evidence of microwaves inducing gender-dependent effects. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  3. Prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M; Wisborg, K; Henriksen, TB

    2005-01-01

    of extensive brain growth and differentiation in this period. We evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures in 2 population-based birth cohorts. METHODS: The Aarhus Birth Cohort consisted of 25,196 children of mothers who were...... Birth Cohort, but the corresponding association was weak in the Aalborg-Odense cohort. We found no association between maternal alcohol and coffee consumption and the risk for febrile seizures. The results were similar for simple and complex febrile seizures. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that prenatal...... exposure to low to moderate levels of alcohol and coffee has no impact on the risk for febrile seizures, whereas a modest smoking effect cannot be ruled out....

  4. Prenatal alcohol exposure results in long-term serotonin neuron deficits in female rats: modulatory role of ovarian steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwowska, Joanna H; Song, Hyun Jung; Bodnar, Tamara; Weinberg, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on male rodents found that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) decreases the number of serotonin immunoreactive (5-HT-ir) neurons in the brainstem. However, data on the effects of PAE in females are lacking. In light of known sex differences in responsiveness of the 5-HT system and known effects of estrogen (E2 ) and progesterone (P4 ) in the brain, we hypothesized that sex steroids will modulate the adverse effects of PAE on 5-HT neurons in adult females. Adult females from 3 prenatal groups (Prenatal alcohol-exposed [PAE], Pair-fed [PF], and ad libitum-fed Controls [C]) were ovariectomized (OVX), with or without hormone replacement, or underwent Sham OVX. 5-HT-ir cells were examined in key brainstem areas. Our data support the hypothesis that PAE has long-term effects on the 5-HT system of females and that ovarian steroids have a modulatory role in these effects. Intact (Sham OVX) PAE females had marginally lower numbers of 5-HT-ir neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus of the brainstem compared with PF and C females. This marginal difference became significant following removal of hormones by OVX. Replacement with E2 restored the number of 5-HT-ir neurons in PAE females to control levels, while P4 reversed the effects of E2 . Importantly, despite these differential responses of the 5-HT system to ovarian steroids, there were no differences in E2 and P4 levels among prenatal treatment groups. These data demonstrate long-term, adverse effects of PAE on the 5-HT system of females, as well as differential sensitivity of PAE compared with control females to the modulatory effects of ovarian steroids on 5-HT neurons. Our findings have important implications for understanding sex differences in 5-HT dysfunction in depression/anxiety disorders and the higher rates of these mental health problems in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Association between residential exposure to outdoor alcohol advertising and problem drinking among African American women in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H

    2009-02-01

    We evaluated the association between residential exposure to outdoor alcohol advertising and current problem drinking among 139 African American women aged 21 to 49 years in Central Harlem, New York City. We found that exposure to advertisements was positively related to problem drinking (13% greater odds), even after we controlled for a family history of alcohol problems and socioeconomic status. The results suggest that the density of alcohol advertisements in predominantly African American neighborhoods may add to problem drinking behavior of their residents.

  6. Young Adults' Exposure to Alcohol- and Marijuana-Related Content on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Nguyen, E Peter; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Krauss, Melissa; Bierut, Laura J; Moreno, Megan A

    2016-03-01

    Twitter is among the most popular social media platforms used by young adults, yet it has been underutilized in substance use research compared with older platforms (e.g., MySpace and Facebook). We took a first step toward studying the associations between exposure to pro-alcohol- and marijuana-related content among young adults via Twitter and current heavy episodic drinking and current marijuana use, respectively. We conducted an online survey of 587 (254 men, 333 women) Twitter users between ages 18 and 25 years in February 2014 using an online survey system that has been previously used in research on health behaviors and attitudes. Current heavy episodic drinking was significantly associated with higher levels of exposure to pro-alcohol content. Similarly, current marijuana use was significantly associated with higher levels of exposure to pro-marijuana content. Our findings suggest that in-depth research regarding young adults' exposure to pro-alcohol- and marijuana-related content via Twitter may provide a foundation for developing effective prevention messages on this social media platform to counter the pro-alcohol and marijuana messages.

  7. Youth alcohol brand consumption and exposure to brand advertising in magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S; Ostroff, Joshua; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; Jernigan, David H

    2014-07-01

    Recently published research has identified the alcohol brands most frequently consumed by underage youth. The present study examines alcohol magazine advertising in 2011 to report age- and sex-specific exposure to advertisements for these brands in contrast with other magazine advertising brands less popular with youth. We licensed magazine advertising occurrence data from Nielsen and magazine audience data from the research company GfK MRI (Growth from Knowledge, Mediamark Research & Intelligence) for national full-run editions for 2011. We contrasted per capita advertising exposure, considering different age- and sex-specific groups, for popular youth brands versus all other magazine brands. For each brand, we reported the age group receiving the highest level of per capita advertising exposure, as well as other age groups within 10% of that peak level. Underage males ages 18-20 were the most heavily exposed age group for 11 of the top 25 brands they consumed and were within 10% of the most heavily exposed group for another 6 brands. Underage females ages 18-20 were most heavily exposed for 16 of the top 25 brands they consumed and were within 10% of the most heavily exposed group for another 2 brands. In contrast, those ages 18-20 were the most heavily exposed group for fewer than 10% of the remaining 308 magazine advertising brands for either sex. These findings suggest a relationship between advertising exposure and youth alcohol brand consumption. Current alcohol industry self-regulatory codes may not be sufficiently protective of youth.

  8. Statistical modeling of volume of alcohol exposure for epidemiological studies of population health: the US example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gmel Gerrit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor in the global burden of disease, with overall volume of exposure as the principal underlying dimension. Two main sources of data on volume of alcohol exposure are available: surveys and per capita consumption derived from routine statistics such as taxation. As both sources have significant problems, this paper presents an approach that triangulates information from both sources into disaggregated estimates in line with the overall level of per capita consumption. Methods A modeling approach was applied to the US using data from a large and representative survey, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Different distributions (log-normal, gamma, Weibull were used to model consumption among drinkers in subgroups defined by sex, age, and ethnicity. The gamma distribution was used to shift the fitted distributions in line with the overall volume as derived from per capita estimates. Implications for alcohol-attributable fractions were presented, using liver cirrhosis as an example. Results The triangulation of survey data with aggregated per capita consumption data proved feasible and allowed for modeling of alcohol exposure disaggregated by sex, age, and ethnicity. These models can be used in combination with risk relations for burden of disease calculations. Sensitivity analyses showed that the gamma distribution chosen yielded very similar results in terms of fit and alcohol-attributable mortality as the other tested distributions. Conclusions Modeling alcohol consumption via the gamma distribution was feasible. To further refine this approach, research should focus on the main assumptions underlying the approach to explore differences between volume estimates derived from surveys and per capita consumption figures.

  9. Chronic alcohol exposure inhibits biotin uptake by pancreatic acinar cells: possible involvement of epigenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Padmanabhan; Kapadia, Rubina; Biswas, Arundhati; Said, Hamid M

    2014-11-01

    Chronic exposure to alcohol affects different physiological aspects of pancreatic acinar cells (PAC), but its effect on the uptake process of biotin is not known. We addressed this issue using mouse-derived pancreatic acinar 266-6 cells chronically exposed to alcohol and wild-type and transgenic mice (carrying the human SLC5A6 5'-promoter) fed alcohol chronically. First we established that biotin uptake by PAC is Na(+) dependent and carrier mediated and involves sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT). Chronic exposure of 266-6 cells to alcohol led to a significant inhibition in biotin uptake, expression of SMVT protein, and mRNA as well as in the activity of the SLC5A6 promoter. Similarly, chronic alcohol feeding of wild-type and transgenic mice carrying the SLC5A6 promoter led to a significant inhibition in biotin uptake by PAC, as well as in the expression of SMVT protein and mRNA and the activity of the SLC5A6 promoters expressed in the transgenic mice. We also found that chronic alcohol feeding of mice is associated with a significant increase in the methylation status of CpG islands predicted to be in the mouse Slc5a6 promoters and a decrease in the level of expression of transcription factor KLF-4, which plays an important role in regulating SLC5A6 promoter activity. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that chronic alcohol exposure negatively impacts biotin uptake in PAC and that this effect is exerted (at least in part) at the level of transcription of the SLC5A6 gene and may involve epigenetic/molecular mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use…

  11. Rat fertility and embryo fetal development: influence of exposure to the Wi-Fi signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulletier de Gannes, Florence; Billaudel, Bernard; Haro, Emmanuelle; Taxile, Murielle; Le Montagner, Laureline; Hurtier, Annabelle; Ait Aissa, Saliha; Masuda, Hiroshi; Percherancier, Yann; Ruffié, Gilles; Dufour, Philippe; Veyret, Bernard; Lagroye, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    In recent decades, concern has been growing about decreasing fecundity and fertility in the human population. Exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF), especially radiofrequency (RF) fields used in wireless communications has been suggested as a potential risk factor. For the first time, we evaluated the effects of exposure to the 2450MHz Wi-Fi signal (1h/day, 6days/week) on the reproductive system of male and female Wistar rats, pre-exposed to Wi-Fi during sexual maturation. Exposure lasted 3 weeks (males) or 2 weeks (females), then animals were mated and couples exposed for 3 more weeks. On the day before delivery, the fetuses were observed for lethality, abnormalities, and clinical signs. In our experiment, no deleterious effects of Wi-Fi exposure on rat male and female reproductive organs and fertility were observed for 1h per days. No macroscopic abnormalities in fetuses were noted, even at the critical level of 4W/kg. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marroun, H. el; Tiemeier, H.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Brink, W. van den; Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study

  13. Intrauterine cannabis exposure affects fetal growth trajectories: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the

  14. Intrauterine cannabis exposure affects fetal growth trajectories: the generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Marroun, H.; Tiemeier, H.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; van den Brink, W.; Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study

  15. Self-Reported Youth and Adult Exposure to Alcohol Marketing in Traditional and Digital Media: Results of a Pilot Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David H; Padon, Alisa; Ross, Craig; Borzekowski, Dina

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol marketing is known to be a significant risk factor for underage drinking. However, little is known about youth and adult exposure to alcohol advertising in digital and social media. This study piloted a comparative assessment of youth and adult recall of exposure to online marketing of alcohol. From September to October 2013, a pilot survey of past 30-day exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content in traditional and digital media was administered to a national sample of 1,192 youth (ages 13 to 20) and 1,124 adults (ages ≥21) using a prerecruited Internet panel maintained by GfK Custom Research. The weighted proportions of youth and adults who reported this exposure were compared by media type and by advertising and promotional content. Youth were more likely than adults to recall exposure to alcohol advertising on television (69.2% vs. 61.9%), radio (24.8% vs. 16.7%), billboards (54.8% vs. 35.4%), and the Internet (29.7% vs. 16.8%), but less likely to recall seeing advertising in magazines (35.7% vs. 36.4%). Youth were also more likely to recall seeing advertisements and pictures on the Internet of celebrities using alcohol (36.1% vs. 20.8%) or wearing clothing promoting alcohol (27.7% vs. 15.9%), and actively respond (i.e., like, share, or post) to alcohol-related content online. Youth report greater exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content than adults in most media, including on the Internet. These findings emphasize the need to assure compliance with voluntary industry standards on the placement of alcohol advertising and the importance of developing better tools for monitoring youth exposure to alcohol marketing, particularly on the Internet. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Repeated gestational exposure of mice to chlorpyrifos oxon is associated with paraoxonase 1 (PON1) modulated effects in maternal and fetal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Toby B; Li, Wan-Fen; Co, Aila L; Hay, Ariel M; MacDonald, James W; Bammler, Theo K; Farin, Federico M; Costa, Lucio G; Furlong, Clement E

    2014-10-01

    Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO), the toxic metabolite of the organophosphorus (OP) insecticide chlorpyrifos, causes developmental neurotoxicity in humans and rodents. CPO is hydrolyzed by paraoxonase-1 (PON1), with protection determined by PON1 levels and the human Q192R polymorphism. To examine how the Q192R polymorphism influences fetal toxicity associated with gestational CPO exposure, we measured enzyme inhibition and fetal-brain gene expression in wild-type (PON1(+/+)), PON1-knockout (PON1(-/-)), and tgHuPON1R192 and tgHuPON1Q192 transgenic mice. Pregnant mice exposed dermally to 0, 0.50, 0.75, or 0.85 mg/kg/d CPO from gestational day (GD) 6 through 17 were sacrificed on GD18. Biomarkers of CPO exposure inhibited in maternal tissues included brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE), red blood cell acylpeptide hydrolase (APH), and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and carboxylesterase (CES). Fetal plasma BChE was inhibited in PON1(-/-) and tgHuPON1Q192, but not PON1(+/+) or tgHuPON1R192 mice. Fetal brain AChE and plasma CES were inhibited in PON1(-/-) mice, but not in other genotypes. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis identified five gene modules based on clustering of the correlations among their fetal-brain expression values, allowing for correlation of module membership with the phenotypic data on enzyme inhibition. One module that correlated highly with maternal brain AChE activity had a large representation of homeobox genes. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed multiple gene sets affected by gestational CPO exposure in tgHuPON1Q192 but not tgHuPON1R192 mice, including gene sets involved in protein export, lipid metabolism, and neurotransmission. These data indicate that maternal PON1 status modulates the effects of repeated gestational CPO exposure on fetal-brain gene expression and on inhibition of both maternal and fetal biomarker enzymes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved

  17. Is it important to prevent early exposure to drugs and alcohol among adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers, Candice L; Caspi, Avshalom; Nagin, Daniel S; Piquero, Alex R; Slutske, Wendy S; Milne, Barry J; Dickson, Nigel; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2008-10-01

    Exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs during early adolescence has been associated with poor outcomes in adulthood. However, many adolescents with exposure to these substances also have a history of conduct problems, which raises the question of whether early exposure to alcohol and drugs leads to poor outcomes only for those adolescents who are already at risk. In a 30-year prospective study, we tested whether there was evidence that early substance exposure can be a causal factor for adolescents' future lives. After propensity-score matching, early-exposed adolescents remained at an increased risk for a number of poor outcomes. Approximately 50% of adolescents exposed to alcohol and illicit drugs prior to age 15 had no conduct-problem history, yet were still at an increased risk for adult substance dependence, herpes infection, early pregnancy, and crime. Efforts to reduce or delay early substance exposure may prevent a wide range of adult health problems and should not be restricted to adolescents who are already at risk.

  18. Prenatal Nitrate Exposure and Childhood Asthma. Influence of Maternal Prenatal Stress and Fetal Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sonali; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Di, Qian; Rosa, Maria José; Lee, Alison; Kloog, Itai; Wilson, Ander; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O; Cohen, Sheldon; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-12-01

    Impact of ambient pollution upon children's asthma may differ by sex, and exposure dose and timing. Psychosocial stress can also modify pollutant effects. These associations have not been examined for in utero ambient nitrate exposure. We implemented Bayesian-distributed lag interaction models to identify sensitive prenatal windows for the influence of nitrate (NO 3 - ) on child asthma, accounting for effect modification by sex and stress. Analyses included 752 mother-child dyads. Daily ambient NO 3 - exposure during pregnancy was derived using a hybrid chemical transport (Geos-Chem)/land-use regression model and natural log transformed. Prenatal maternal stress was indexed by a negative life events score (high [>2] vs. low [≤2]). The outcome was clinician-diagnosed asthma by age 6 years. Most mothers were Hispanic (54%) or black (29%), had a high school education or less (66%), never smoked (80%), and reported low prenatal stress (58%); 15% of children developed asthma. BDILMs adjusted for maternal age, race, education, prepregnancy obesity, atopy, and smoking status identified two sensitive windows (7-19 and 33-40 wk gestation), during which increased NO 3 - was associated with greater odds of asthma, specifically among boys born to mothers reporting high prenatal stress. Cumulative effects of NO 3 - across pregnancy were also significant in this subgroup (odds ratio = 2.64, 95% confidence interval = 1.27-5.39; per interquartile range increase in ln NO 3 - ). Prenatal NO 3 - exposure during distinct sensitive windows was associated with incident asthma in boys concurrently exposed to high prenatal stress.

  19. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters p35, CDK5 and GSK3β in the medial frontal cortex and hippocampus of adolescent mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L. Goggin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs are the number one cause of preventable mental retardation. An estimated 2–5% of children are diagnosed as having a FASD. While it is known that children prenatally exposed to alcohol experience cognitive deficits and a higher incidence of psychiatric illness later in life, the pathways underlying these abnormalities remain uncertain. GSK3β and CDK5 are protein kinases that are converging points for a vast number of signaling cascades, including those controlling cellular processes critical to learning and memory. We investigated whether levels of GSK3β and CDK5 are affected by moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE, specifically in the hippocampus and medial frontal cortex of the adolescent mouse. In the present work we utilized immunoblotting techniques to demonstrate that moderate PAE increased hippocampal p35 and β-catenin, and decreased total levels of GSK3β, while increasing GSK3β Ser9 and Tyr216 phosphorylation. Interestingly, different alterations were seen in the medial frontal cortex where p35 and CDK5 were decreased and increased total GSK3β was accompanied by reduced Tyr216 of the enzyme. These results suggest that kinase dysregulation during adolescence might be an important contributing factor to the effects of PAE on hippocampal and medial frontal cortical functioning; and by extension, that global modulation of these kinases may produce differing effects depending on brain region.

  20. Moderate alcohol exposure during early brain development increases stimulus-response habits in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Matthew O; Evans, Alexandra M-D; Brock, Alistair J; Combe, Fraser J; Teh, Muy-Teck; Brennan, Caroline H

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol during early central nervous system development has been shown variously to affect aspects of physiological and behavioural development. In extreme cases, this can extend to craniofacial defects, severe developmental delay and mental retardation. At more moderate levels, subtle differences in brain morphology and behaviour have been observed. One clear effect of developmental alcohol exposure is an increase in the propensity to develop alcoholism and other addictions. The mechanisms by which this occurs, however, are not currently understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult zebrafish chronically exposed to moderate levels of ethanol during early brain ontogenesis would show an increase in conditioned place preference for alcohol and an increased propensity towards habit formation, a key component of drug addiction in humans. We found support for both of these hypotheses and found that the exposed fish had changes in mRNA expression patterns for dopamine receptor, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and μ-opioid receptor encoding genes. Collectively, these data show an explicit link between the increased proclivity for addiction and addiction-related behaviour following exposure to ethanol during early brain development and alterations in the neural circuits underlying habit learning. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Chronic Ethanol Exposure Effects on Vitamin D Levels among Subjects with Alcohol Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan Ogunsakin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D has been previously recognized to play important roles in human immune system and function. In the pulmonary system, vitamin D regulates the function of antimicrobial peptides, especially cathelicidin/LL-37. Human cathelicidin/LL-37 is a bactericidal, bacteriostatic, and antiviral endogenous peptide with protective immune functions. Chronic exposure to excessive alcohol has the potential to reduce levels of vitamin D (inactive vitamin D [25(OHD 3 ] and active vitamin D [1, 25(OH 2 D 3 ] and leads to downregulation of cathelicidin/LL-37. Alcohol-mediated reduction of LL-37 may be partly responsible for increased incidence of more frequent and severe respiratory infections among subjects with alcohol use disorder (AUD. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which alcohol exerts its influence on vitamin D metabolism. In addition, the aim was to establish associations between chronic alcohol exposures, levels of pulmonary vitamin D, and cathelicidin/LL-37 using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid samples of subjects with AUD and healthy controls. Findings from the experiment showed that levels of inactive vitamin D (25(OHD 3 , active vitamin D (1, 25(OH 2 D 3 , cathelicidin/LL-37, and CYP27B1 proteins were significantly reduced ( P < 0.05 when compared with the matched healthy control group. However, CYP2E1 was elevated in all the samples examined. Chronic exposure to alcohol has the potential to reduce the levels of pulmonary vitamin D and results in subsequent downregulation of the antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, in the human pulmonary system.

  2. Exposure of children and adolescents to alcohol advertising on television in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Matthew V; Donovan, Robert J; Fielder, Lynda J

    2008-09-01

    This article reports the extent to which children (0-12 years) and teenagers below the legal drinking age in Australia (13-17 years) were exposed to alcohol advertising on free-to-air television in Sydney, Australia, during the period from March 2005 to February 2006. Exposure levels were obtained from weekly Target Audience Rating Points (TARPs) data generated by OzTAM, the official Australian television audience monitoring system. (The TARPs figure for an advertisement is calculated based on the number of individuals from a target audience [e.g., 13- to 17-year-olds] exposed to the ad as a proportion of the total number of individuals within the target audience, multiplied by 100). Exposure levels were obtained for four age groups-up to 12 years, 13-17 years, 18-24 years, and 25 years and older-for 156 different ads for 50 brands. Adults 25 years and older were most exposed to alcohol advertising: approximately 660 TARPs per week. The level to which underage teenagers (13-17 years) were exposed to alcohol advertising was virtually identical to that of young adults (18-24 years): 426 TARPs per week vs 429 TARPs per week. Children (0-12 years) were exposed to approximately one in every three alcohol ads seen on average by mature adults (ages 25 years and older). This study found that Australian children and teenagers below the legal drinking age currently are exposed to unacceptably high levels of alcohol advertising on television. These findings suggest that alcohol marketers may be deliberately targeting underage adolescents. At the very least the findings highlight the need for action to be taken to reduce levels to which underage Australians are exposed to alcohol advertising on television.

  3. The Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Its Impact on a Child’s Classroom Performance: A Case Study of a Rural South African School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Lubbe

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is high among farm labourers in the Western and Northern Cape of South Africa. Excessive alcohol consumption during pregnancy is common, resulting in a high prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS among children. FAS causes intellectual and behavioural problems, which create considerable obstacles to a child’s education. The aim of this study is to provide a prevalence estimate of FAS in a rural school and to examine the effects of FAS on learners’ educational outcomes. The study was conducted at a farm school near Clanwilliam in the Western Cape of South Africa. The sample comprises 166 learners from Grades 1 to 4. Educational outcomes include class scores (Afrikaans Home Language and Mathematics, reading ability, and classroom behaviour. A physician diagnosed FAS using a three-stage process. We find FAS prevalence of 127 per 1000 (12.7%. Children with FAS score significantly lower (at the 10% level for home language and behaviour than children who do not have FAS. Large-scale interventions in rural areas of the Western and Northern Cape that specifically target females of child-bearing age, as well aschildren with FAS, are necessary.

  4. Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure alters behavior and neuroglial parameters in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolese, Giovana; Lunardi, Paula; Broetto, Núbia; Engelke, Douglas S; Lírio, Franciane; Batassini, Cristiane; Tramontina, Ana Carolina; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol consumption by women during gestation has become increasingly common. Although it is widely accepted that exposure to high doses of ethanol has long-lasting detrimental effects on brain development, the case for moderate doses is underappreciated, and benchmark studies have demonstrated structural and behavioral defects associated with moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in humans and animal models. This study aimed to investigate the influence of in utero exposure to moderate levels of ethanol throughout pregnancy on learning/memory, anxiety parameters and neuroglial parameters in adolescent offspring. Female rats were exposed to an experimental protocol throughout gestation up to weaning. After mating, the dams were divided into three groups and treated with only water (control), non-alcoholic beer (vehicle) or 10% (vv) beer solution (moderate prenatal alcohol exposure - MPAE). Adolescent male offspring were subjected to the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task to evaluate learning/memory and anxiety-like behavior. Hippocampi were dissected and slices were obtained for immunoquantification of GFAP, NeuN, S100B and the NMDA receptor. The MPAE group clearly presented anxiolytic-like behavior, even though they had learned how to avoid the aversive arm. S100B protein was increased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the group treated with alcohol, and alterations in GFAP expression were also shown. This study indicates that moderate ethanol doses administered during pregnancy could induce anxiolytic-like effects, suggesting an increase in risk-taking behavior in adolescent male offspring. Furthermore, the data show the possibility that glial cells are involved in the altered behavior present after prenatal ethanol treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fetal Exposure to Moderate Ethanol Doses: Heightened Operant Responsiveness elicited by Ethanol-Related Reinforcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Samanta M.; Abate, Paula; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to moderate ethanol doses during late gestation modifies postnatal ethanol palatability and ingestion. The use of Pavlovian associative procedures, has indicated that these prenatal experiences broaden the range of ethanol doses capable of supporting appetitive conditioning. Recently, a novel operant technique aimed at analyzing neonatal predisposition to gain access to ethanol has been developed. Experiment 1 tested the operant conditioning technique for developing rats described by Arias et al. (2007) and Bordner et al. (2008). In Experiment 2 we analyzed changes in the disposition to gain access to ethanol as a result of moderate prenatal exposure to the drug. Methods In Experiment 1 newborn pups were intraorally cannulated and placed in a supine position that allowed access to a touch-sensitive sensor. Paired pups received an intraoral administration of a given reinforcer (milk or quinine) contingent upon physical contact with the sensor. Yoked controls received similar reinforcers only when Paired pups activated the circuit. In Experiment 2, natural reinforcers (water or milk) as well as ethanol (3% or 6 % v/v) or an ethanol-related reinforcer (sucrose compounded with quinine) were tested. In this Experiment pups had been exposed to water or ethanol (1 or 2 g/kg) during gestational days 17–20. Results Experiment 1 confirmed previous results showing that 1-day-old pups rapidly learn an operant task to gain access to milk, but not to gain access to a bitter tastant. Experiment 2 showed that water and milk were highly reinforcing across prenatal treatments. Furthermore, general activity during training was not affected by prenatal exposure to ethanol. Most importantly, prenatal ethanol exposure facilitated conditioning when the reinforcer was 3% v/v ethanol or a psychophysical equivalent of ethanol’s gustatory properties (sucrose-quinine). Conclusions The present results suggest that late prenatal experience with ethanol changes

  6. Adolescent alcohol exposure and persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes into adulthood: a mini-review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Linda Patia; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is typically initiated during adolescence, which, along with young adulthood, is a vulnerable period for the onset of high-risk drinking and alcohol abuse. Given across-species commonalities in certain fundamental neurobehavioral characteristics of adolescence, studies in laboratory animals such as the rat have proved useful to assess persisting consequences of repeated alcohol exposure. Despite limited research to date, reports of long-lasting effects of adolescent ethanol exposure are emerging, along with certain common themes. One repeated finding is that adolescent exposure to ethanol sometimes results in the persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes into adulthood. Instances of adolescent -like persistence have been seen in terms of baseline behavioral, cognitive, electrophysiological and neuroanatomical characteristics, along with the retention of adolescent-typical sensitivities to acute ethanol challenge. These effects are generally not observed after comparable ethanol exposure in adulthood. Persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes is not always evident, and may be related to regionally-specific ethanol influences on the interplay between CNS excitation and inhibition critical for the timing of neuroplasticity. PMID:24813805

  7. Rates of fetal polydrug exposures in methadone-maintained pregnancies from a high-risk population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn Delano

    Full Text Available Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT is the standard of care during pregnancy for opioid-dependency, showing efficacy in improving prenatal care and reducing risk of relapse. By design, however, MMT is only intended to prevent withdrawal thus facilitating cognitive behavioural interventions. In order to maximize the benefits of MMT, it is essential that methadone is both properly prescribed and that additional addiction treatment is concurrently administered. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of MMT engagement in high-risk pregnant women in reducing polydrug use by objective laboratory examination of neonatal meconium.Over a 29-month period, the Motherisk Laboratory at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto analyzed meconium samples as per request by social services and hospitals for drugs of abuse.Of the 904 meconium samples received, 273 were tested for methadone with 164 positive and 109 negative for methadone. Almost half of the methadone positive samples (46.34% were also positive for at least one other opioid compound, which did not differ statistically from the methadone-negative control samples (46.79%; Chi square test, p=0.94. No differences were found between the methadone positive and negative groups in rates of concurrent amphetamines, cocaine, cannabis, and alcohol use indicating a similar risk of polydrug use between pregnant women taking or not taking methadone in this population.The high rates of additional opioid and other drug use in the MMT group, suggest that MMT is failing this population of patients. It is possible that methadone doses during pregnancy are not appropriately adjusted for changes in pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g. blood volume, renal function during the second and third trimesters. This may result in sub-therapeutic dosing creating withdrawal symptoms leading to additional substance use. Alternatively, these results may be demonstrating a substantial lack in delivery of addiction support

  8. Cognitive and Adaptive Skill Profile Differences in Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder With and Without Comorbid Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boseck, Justin J; Davis, Andrew S; Cassady, Jerrell C; Finch, W Holmes; Gelder, Barbara C

    2015-01-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) often present with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which can complicate diagnosis and treatment planning. This study investigated the cognitive and adaptive profiles of 81 children with ADHD/FASD and 147 children with ADHD. Multivariate analysis of variance and follow-up discriminant analysis indicated that the two groups had similar profiles on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, although the children with comorbid ADHD/FASD demonstrated significantly more impairment in verbal ability, perceptual reasoning, working memory, processing speed, and overall adaptive skills. The results suggested that when compared with children with ADHD alone, children with ADHD/FASD exhibit significantly more impaired cognitive processing and adaptive skill deficits that are essential for school success and healthy social, behavioral, and emotional functioning. Research evaluating the profiles of these groups is likely to facilitate earlier and more accurate diagnosis and intervention.

  9. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  10. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  11. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  12. Biomarkers in assessing residential insecticide exposures during pregnancy and effects on fetal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyatt, R.M.; Camann, D.; Perera, F.P.; Rauh, V.A.; Tang, D; Kinney, P.L.; Garfinkel, R; Andrews, H.; Hoepner, L.; Barr, D.B.

    2005-01-01

    The Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health is using a combination of environmental and biologic measures to evaluate the effects of prenatal insecticide exposures among urban minorities in New York City. Of the 571 women enrolled, 85% report using some form of pest control during pregnancy and 46% report using exterminators, can sprays, and/or pest bombs. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and propoxur were detected in 99.7-100% of 48-h personal air samples collected from the mothers during pregnancy (n = 394) and in 39-70% of blood samples collected from the mothers (n = 326) and/or newborns (n = 341) at delivery. Maternal and newborn blood levels are similar and highly correlated (r = 0.4-08, P 0.8). Results support recent regulatory action to phase out residential uses of these insecticides

  13. Fetal and infant exposure to severe Chinese famine increases the risk of adult dyslipidemia: Results from the China health and retirement longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenghe; Li, Changwei; Yang, Zhongping; Ma, Jun; Zou, Zhiyong

    2017-06-14

    To explore the associations between the Chinese famine exposure in early life and the dyslipidemia in adulthood. We selected 2752 participants from the baseline survey of China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) 2011-2012 to evaluate the associations of early life the Chinese famine exposure with risk of dyslipidemia in adulthood. Dyslipidemia was defined as TC (Total Cholesterol): HDL-C (High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol) ratio ≥ 5.0 or use cholesterol lowering drugs. Famine exposure cohorts were categorized by birthdates of participants. Binary logistics regression model was used to examine the associations of early-life famine exposure with the risk of dyslipidemia. The dyslipidemia prevalence of the non-exposed cohort, fetal stage-, infant stage-, and preschool stage-exposed cohorts in adulthood was 15.7%, 23.1%, 22.0%, and 18.6%, respectively. Early-life exposure to the Chinese famine significantly increased LDL cholesterol concentrations in adulthood after adjusted for age. The risks of dyslipidemia in fetal (OR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.23-2.03; P dyslipidemia in female adults. However, the similar association was not observed for male adults. Early-life exposure to severe Chinese famine could link with the higher dyslipidemia risk in female adulthood, but not in male adulthood. This gender-specific effect might be associated with the hypothesis that parents in China prefer boys to girls traditionally or survivors' bias.

  14. Self-reported exposure to pesticides and radiation related to pregnancy outcome--results from National Natality and Fetal Mortality Surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitz, D.A.; Whelan, E.A.; Kleckner, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Although fetal development is known to be sensitive to environmental agents, relatively little epidemiologic research has addressed this concern. Effects on pregnancy outcome of self-reported parental exposure to pesticides and to radiation were examined using data from the National Natality and Fetal Mortality Surveys, large national probability samples of live births and stillbirths occurring in 1980. In case-control analyses, maternal exposure to pesticides at home or work was associated with increased risk of stillbirth (odds ratios (ORs) = 1.5-1.6). Paternal pesticide exposure was associated with stillbirth (ORs = 1.2-1.4) and delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants (ORs = 1.4-2.0). A small increased risk of stillbirth (OR = 1.3) was found in relation to either parent's reported exposure to radiation. In spite of limitations in the quality of exposure data and the possibility of biased recall related to pregnancy outcome, associations of reported pesticide exposure to either parent with risk of stillbirth and small-for-gestational-age infants warrant further evaluation

  15. Quantification of fetal organ volume and fat deposition following in utero exposure to maternal Western Diet using MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Sinclair

    Full Text Available To examine the feasibility of using MRI to identify differences in liver size and fat deposition in fetal guinea pigs exposed to an in utero environment influenced by maternal consumption of a Western diet.Female guinea pigs fed either an energy-dense Western Diet (WD, comprised of increased saturated fats and simple sugars, or a Control Diet (CD from weaning through pregnancy, underwent MR scanning near term (~ 60 days; term ~ 69 days. Maternal weights were collected at mating and at MR scanning. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and IDEAL water-fat images were acquired at 3 Tesla. The images were used to segment maternal adipose tissue, fetal liver, fetal brain, fetal adipose tissue, and total fetal volumes and to measure maternal and fetal hepatic fat fractions.Weights of WD sows were lower prior to pregnancy (P = .04, however their weight gain over pregnancy did not differ from the CD group (P = .98. The WD sows had less total adipose tissue (TAT at MR scanning (P = .04, while hepatic fat content was significantly elevated (P = .04. When controlling for litter size, WD fetuses had larger livers (P = .02, smaller brains (P = .01, and increased total adipose tissue volume (P = .01 when normalized by fetal volume. The WD fetuses also had increased hepatic fat fractions compared to CD fetal livers (P < .001.Maternal Western Diet consumption prior to and during pregnancy induces differences in maternal liver fat content, fetal liver volume and liver fat storage, as well as changes in fetal adipose tissue deposition that can be measured in utero using MRI.

  16. Differentiating prenatal exposure to methamphetamine and alcohol versus alcohol and not methamphetamine using tensor-based brain morphometry and discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Elizabeth R; Leow, Alex D; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Smith, Lynne M; O'Connor, Mary J; Kan, Eric; Rosso, Carly; Houston, Suzanne; Dinov, Ivo D; Thompson, Paul M

    2010-03-17

    Here we investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to methamphetamine (MA) on local brain volume using magnetic resonance imaging. Because many who use MA during pregnancy also use alcohol, a known teratogen, we examined whether local brain volumes differed among 61 children (ages 5-15 years), 21 with prenatal MA exposure, 18 with concomitant prenatal alcohol exposure (the MAA group), 13 with heavy prenatal alcohol but not MA exposure (ALC group), and 27 unexposed controls. Volume reductions were observed in both exposure groups relative to controls in striatal and thalamic regions bilaterally and in right prefrontal and left occipitoparietal cortices. Striatal volume reductions were more severe in the MAA group than in the ALC group, and, within the MAA group, a negative correlation between full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) scores and caudate volume was observed. Limbic structures, including the anterior and posterior cingulate, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and ventral and lateral temporal lobes bilaterally, were increased in volume in both exposure groups. Furthermore, cingulate and right IFG volume increases were more pronounced in the MAA than ALC group. Discriminant function analyses using local volume measurements and FSIQ were used to predict group membership, yielding factor scores that correctly classified 72% of participants in jackknife analyses. These findings suggest that striatal and limbic structures, known to be sites of neurotoxicity in adult MA abusers, may be more vulnerable to prenatal MA exposure than alcohol exposure and that more severe striatal damage is associated with more severe cognitive deficit.

  17. Exposure to Alcohol Commercials in Movie Theaters Affects Actual Alcohol Consumption in Young Adult High Weekly Drinkers: An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption)

  18. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theatres affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption)

  19. Repeated exposure to alcoholic beer does not induce long-lasting changes in alcohol self-administration and intake in Sardinian alcohol-preferring and Sardinian non-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrù, Alessandro; Lobina, Carla; Maccioni, Paola; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Carai, Mauro A M; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2007-01-01

    Rats avidly consume non-alcoholic beer, and addition of alcohol to non-alcoholic beer may function as a medium to induce intake of large amounts of alcohol in rats. The present study investigated whether Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) and Sardinian non-preferring (sNP) rats, initially exposed to non-alcoholic beer, and subsequently to non-alcoholic beer containing increasing concentrations of alcohol, would develop unusually high alcohol self-administration and drinking behaviours: (i) when alcohol was added to non-alcoholic beer, and (2) once beer was withdrawn and a plain alcohol solution was made available. In Experiment 1, rats were exposed to operant, 30-min/day self-administration sessions of non-alcoholic beer with increasing concentrations of alcohol [0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% (v/v)] for a total of 45 days. After a brief 'beer-fading' phase, the rats were exposed to self-administration sessions of a plain 10% (v/v) alcohol solution. In Experiment 2, the rats were exposed to non-alcoholic beer with increasing concentrations of alcohol [0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% (v/v)] and water under the 2-bottle choice regimen with unlimited access (24 h/day) for a total of 35 days. After a brief 'beer-fading' phase, the rats were exposed to the choice between a plain 10% (v/v) alcohol solution and water. sP and sNP rats did not differ in self-administration (Experiment 1) and intake (Experiment 2) of non-alcoholic beer. In Experiment 1, as alcohol content increased, the amount of self-administered alcohol increased progressively in sP rats (up to 1-1.2 g/kg) and remained stable in sNP rats (approximately 0.65 g/kg). When the plain 10% alcohol solution was available, the amount of self-administered alcohol in sP rats initially dropped, and tended to increase-up to approximately 0.6 g/kg-on continuing exposure. In sNP rats, their lever-pressing behaviour was rapidly extinguished after beer withdrawal. In Experiment 2, as alcohol content was increased, daily alcohol intake

  20. Exposure to traumatic events, prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol abuse in Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadew, Gelaye T

    2012-10-01

    Generations of Aboriginal people have been exposed to strings of traumatic events with devastating psychosocial health consequences, including psychiatric morbidities and mortalities, and medical complications. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric morbidity directly linked to traumatic events. Despite research findings indicating traumatic exposure and resultant PTSD in Indigenous communities, little attention has been given to this condition in mental healthcare delivery. Consequently, clinical and psychosocial interventions are misguided and failed to deliver positive outcomes. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between exposure to traumatic events, prevalence of PTSD and alcohol abuse in remote Aboriginal communities in Western Australia. A combination of structured clinical interview and multiple survey questionnaires - Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), and Impact of Events Scale (IES), Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and Indigenous Trauma Profile (ITP) - were administered to 221 Indigenous participants aged 18 to 65 years. The overwhelming majority, 97.3% (n=215) of participants were exposed to traumatic events. Analysis of CIDI results using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria shows a life time prevalence of 55.2% (n=122) for PTSD, 20% (n=44) for major depression (recurrent) and 2.3% (n=5) for a single episode. A total of 96% (n=212) participants reported consuming a drink containing alcohol and 73.8% (n=163) met diagnostic criteria for alcohol use related disorders, abuse and dependence. Of participants who met the PTSD diagnostic criteria, 91% (n=111) met diagnostic criteria for alcohol use related disorders. Other impacts of trauma such as other anxiety disorders, dysthymic disorder and substances abuses were also identified. The rate of exposure to traumatic events and prevalence of PTSD are disproportionately higher in the communities studied than the national average and one of the

  1. Persistent dose-dependent changes in brain structure in young adults with low-to-moderate alcohol exposure in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstrand, Kristen L; Ding, Zhaohua; Dodge, Neil C; Cowan, Ronald L; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W; Avison, Malcolm J

    2012-11-01

    Many children with heavy exposure to alcohol in utero display characteristic alterations in brain size and structure. However, the long-term effects of low-to-moderate alcohol exposure on these outcomes are unknown. Using voxel-based morphometry and region-of-interest analyses, we examined the influence of lower doses of alcohol on gray and white matter composition in a prospectively recruited, homogeneous, well-characterized cohort of alcohol-exposed (n = 11, age 19.5 ± 0.3 years) and control (n = 9, age 19.6 ± 0.5 years) young adults. A large proportion of the exposed individuals were born to mothers whose alcohol consumption during pregnancy was in the low-to-moderate range. There were no differences in total brain volume or total gray or white matter volume between the exposed and control groups. However, gray matter volume was reduced in alcohol-exposed individuals in several areas previously reported to be affected by high levels of exposure, including the left cingulate gyrus, bilateral middle frontal gyri, right middle temporal gyrus, and right caudate nucleus. Notably, this gray matter loss was dose dependent, with higher exposure producing more substantial losses. These results indicate that even at low doses, alcohol exposure during pregnancy impacts brain development and that these effects persist into young adulthood. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. Comparative risk assessment of carcinogens in alcoholic beverages using the margin of exposure approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Przybylski, Maria C; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-09-15

    Alcoholic beverages have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. As alcoholic beverages are multicomponent mixtures containing several carcinogenic compounds, a quantitative approach is necessary to compare the risks. Fifteen known and suspected human carcinogens (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, lead, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, ochratoxin A and safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages were identified based on monograph reviews by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach was used for comparative risk assessment. MOE compares a toxicological threshold with the exposure. MOEs above 10,000 are judged as low priority for risk management action. MOEs were calculated for different drinking scenarios (low risk and heavy drinking) and different levels of contamination for four beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The lowest MOEs were found for ethanol (3.1 for low risk and 0.8 for heavy drinking). Inorganic lead and arsenic have average MOEs between 10 and 300, followed by acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate between 1,000 and 10,000. All other compounds had average MOEs above 10,000 independent of beverage type. Ethanol was identified as the most important carcinogen in alcoholic beverages, with clear dose response. Some other compounds (lead, arsenic, ethyl carbamate, acetaldehyde) may pose risks below thresholds normally tolerated for food contaminants, but from a cost-effectiveness point of view, the focus should be on reducing alcohol consumption in general rather than on mitigative measures for some contaminants that contribute only to a limited extent (if at all) to the total health risk. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  3. Fetal exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke assessed by maternal self-reports and cord blood cotinine: prospective cohort study in Krakow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica; Mroz, Elzbieta; Edwards, Susan; Flak, Elzbieta; Bernert, John T; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Sowa, Agata; Musiał, Agnieszka

    2009-05-01

    While the validity of self-reported smoking habits is generally judged as satisfactory, objective markers of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure may be more useful in validating the causal links between prenatal SHS and health effects. The cohort study in Krakow provided an opportunity for comparative assessment of fetal exposure to SHS based upon questionnaires and cord blood cotinine measurements. The study sample included 467 newborns born to women recruited in the first and second trimester of pregnancy. To compare the validity of self-reported SHS and cord blood cotinine levels in assessing the association between fetal passive smoking and health effects of newborns, we separately examined the regression coefficients of birthweight on self-reported number of cigarettes smoked by other household members during the entire pregnancy and cord blood cotinine levels. In the non-exposed newborns the geometric mean of cord blood cotinine was 0.077 ng/ml and was significantly lower than in newborns with a maternal report of SHS. Cord cotinine levels were more highly correlated with a self-reported number of cigarettes smoked daily at home in the third trimester of pregnancy. The two measures of SHS (number of cigarettes and number of hours of daily exposure) were equally well correlated with cord blood cotinine levels. Using cotinine as the exposure variable, overall the association was not significant; but among the subgroup with cord cotinine levels above the median (> or =0.083 ng/ml), the association with birthweight was significant (beta coefficient = -113.65, P = 0.041). The study provides evidence that the assessment of fetal SHS exposure based on cord blood cotinine produced better estimates of the association between exposure and birth outcomes.

  4. Enhanced Negative Emotion and Alcohol Craving, and Altered Physiological Responses Following Stress and Cue Exposure in Alcohol Dependent Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Rajita; Fox, Helen C; Hong, Kwangik A; Bergquist, Keri; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Siedlarz, Kristen M

    2008-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with changes in stress and reward pathways that could alter vulnerability to emotional stress and alcohol craving. This study examines whether chronic alcohol abuse is associated with altered stress and alcohol craving responses. Treatment-engaged, 28-day abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals (ADs; 6F/22M), and social drinkers (SDs; 10F/18M) were exposed to a brief guided imagery of a personalized stressful, alcohol-related and neutral-relaxing situation,...

  5. Sensitization and Tolerance Following Repeated Exposure to Caffeine and Alcohol in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Christina E.; Haun, Harold L.; Griffin, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Energy drinks are popular mixers with alcohol. While energy drinks contain many ingredients, caffeine is an important pharmacologically active component and is generally present in larger amounts than in other caffeinated beverages. In these studies, we investigated the hypothesis that caffeine would influence the effects of alcohol (ethanol) on conditioned taste aversion, ataxia and locomotor activity after repeated exposure. Methods Four groups of mice were exposed by oral gavage twice daily to vehicle, ethanol (4 g/kg), caffeine (15 mg/kg), or the ethanol/caffeine combination. Conditioned taste aversion to saccharin and ataxia in the parallel rod task were evaluated after 8 or 16 gavages, respectively, using ethanol (1–3 g/kg) or ethanol/caffeine (3mg/kg + 2 g/kg) challenges. In addition, locomotor activity was evaluated initially and after repeated exposure to oral gavage of these drugs and doses. Results Repeated oral gavage of ethanol produced significant locomotor sensitization, with those mice increasing total distance traveled by 2-fold. The locomotor response to caffeine, while significantly greater than vehicle gavage, did not change with repeated exposure. On the other hand, repeated gavage of caffeine/ethanol combination produced a substantial increase in total distance traveled after repeated exposure (~4-fold increase). After repeated ethanol exposure, there was significant tolerance to ethanol in the conditioned taste aversion and parallel rod tests. However, neither a history of caffeine exposure nor including caffeine influenced ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. Interestingly, a history of caffeine exposure increased the ataxic response to the caffeine/ethanol combination and appeared to reduce the ataxic response to high doses of ethanol. Conclusion The data support the general hypothesis that repeated exposure to caffeine influences the response to ethanol. Together with previously published work, these data indicate

  6. Adolescent alcohol exposure alters the rat adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness in a sex-specific manner

    OpenAIRE

    Logrip, Marian L.; Rivier, Catherine; Lau, Calvin; Im, Sarah; Vaughan, Joan; Lee, Soon

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol during adolescence exerts long-term effects on the adult brain stress circuits, causing many changes that persist into adulthood. Here we examined the consequences of adolescent intermittent ethanol [AIE, administered from postnatal day (PND) 28–42] on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-related brain circuitry of rats challenged with an intragastric administration of alcohol in adulthood (PND 70–71). Both male and female adolescent rats were exposed to alcohol v...

  7. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between-participant design was used, in which 184 young adults (age: 16-28 years) were exposed to a movie that was preceded by either alcohol commercials or nonalcohol commercials. Participants' actual alcohol consumption while watching the movie ("Watchmen") was examined. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of the commercial condition on alcohol consumption. An interaction effect was found between commercial condition and weekly alcohol consumption (p movie in a movie theater can directly influence alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol consumers. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  8. Academic Difficulties in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: Presence, Profile, and Neural Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Moore, Eileen M; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2017-05-01

    Academic achievement was evaluated in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure to determine potential strengths and weaknesses, evaluate the utility of different definitions for identifying low academic performance, and explore the neural correlates that may underlie academic performance. Children (8 to 16 years) were assessed using the WIAT-II. Patterns of performance were examined in 2 subject groups: children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 67) and controls (n = 61). A repeated-measures MANCOVA examining group differences on academic domain (reading, spelling, math) scores was conducted. Post hoc comparisons examined within-group profiles. Numbers and percentage of children with low achievement were calculated using several criteria. In a subsample (n = 42), neural correlates were analyzed using FreeSurfer v5.3 to examine relations between cortical structure (thickness and surface area) and performance. The alcohol-exposed group performed worse than controls on all domains and had a unique academic profile, supported by a significant group × academic domain interaction (p reading. Over half of the alcohol-exposed group (58.2%) demonstrated low achievement on 1 or more academic domains. The number and percentage of children meeting criteria for low achievement varied based on the domain and definition used. The imaging analysis identified several surface area clusters that were differentially related to math (L superior parietal and R lateral/middle occipital) and spelling (bilateral inferior and medial temporal) performance by group, with no relations for the other academic domains. Generally, scores improved as surface area decreased in controls, whereas no relation or a positive relation was observed in the alcohol-exposed group. Alcohol-exposed children demonstrated deficits in academic performance across domains and definitions, with a relative weakness in math functioning. Atypical brain development may contribute to these

  9. Cross-lagged associations between substance use-related media exposure and alcohol use during middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Miles, Jeremy N V; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the reciprocal longitudinal associations between alcohol or other drug (AOD)-related media exposure and alcohol use among middle school students, and explores whether these associations differ by ethnicity or gender. The analytic sample is 7th grade students who were recruited from 16 California middle schools and surveyed in the spring semester of two academic years. Students reported on their background characteristics, exposure to seven types of AOD-related media content (Internet videos, social networking sites, movies, television, magazine advertisements, songs, and video games) in the past 3 months, and alcohol use in the past 30 days. Structural equation modeling was used to examine cross-lagged associations between media exposure and alcohol use. Greater AOD-related media exposure in 7th grade was significantly associated with a higher probability of alcohol use in 8th grade (p = .02), and alcohol use in 7th grade was marginally associated with greater AOD-related media exposure in 8th grade (p = .07). These cross-lagged associations did not statistically differ by ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic white) or gender. Further, there was no evidence that certain types of media exposure were more strongly associated with alcohol use than others. Results from this study suggest that AOD-related media effects and media selectively form a reciprocal, mutually influencing process that may escalate adolescent alcohol use over time. Addressing adolescents' exposure to AOD-related media content and its effects on behavior, such as through media literacy education, may hold promise for improving the efficacy of alcohol prevention efforts for middle school students. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rape-Myth Congruent Beliefs in Women Resulting from Exposure to Violent Pornography: Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research findings indicate that women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study used an experimental paradigm to examine the effects of a moderate alcohol dose and alcohol expectancies on women's acute reactions to a violent pornographic stimulus. A community sample of female social drinkers…

  11. Drunk bugs: Chronic vapour alcohol exposure induces marked changes in the gut microbiome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Veronica L; Jury, Nicholas J; Cabrera-Rubio, Raúl; Draper, Lorraine A; Crispie, Fiona; Cotter, Paul D; Dinan, Timothy G; Holmes, Andrew; Cryan, John F

    2017-04-14

    The gut microbiota includes a community of bacteria that play an integral part in host health and biological processes. Pronounced and repeated findings have linked gut microbiome to stress, anxiety, and depression. Currently, however, there remains only a limited set of studies focusing on microbiota change in substance abuse, including alcohol use disorder. To date, no studies have investigated the impact of vapour alcohol administration on the gut microbiome. For research on gut microbiota and addiction to proceed, an understanding of how route of drug administration affects gut microbiota must first be established. Animal models of alcohol abuse have proven valuable for elucidating the biological processes involved in addiction and alcohol-related diseases. This is the first study to investigate the effect of vapour route of ethanol administration on gut microbiota in mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 4 weeks of chronic intermittent vapourized ethanol (CIE, N=10) or air (Control, N=9). Faecal samples were collected at the end of exposure followed by 16S sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Robust separation between CIE and Control was seen in the microbiome, as assessed by alpha (p<0.05) and beta (p<0.001) diversity, with a notable decrease in alpha diversity in CIE. These results demonstrate that CIE exposure markedly alters the gut microbiota in mice. Significant increases in genus Alistipes (p<0.001) and significant reductions in genra Clostridium IV and XIVb (p<0.001), Dorea (p<0.01), and Coprococcus (p<0.01) were seen between CIE mice and Control. These findings support the viability of the CIE method for studies investigating the microbiota-gut-brain axis and align with previous research showing similar microbiota alterations in inflammatory states during alcoholic hepatitis and psychological stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-Term Effects of Intermittent Adolescent Alcohol Exposure in Male and Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M. Marco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is a serious public health concern that has a differential impact on individuals depending upon age and sex. Patterns of alcohol consumption have recently changed: heavy episodic drinking—known as binge-drinking—has become most popular among the youth. Herein, we aimed to investigate the consequences of intermittent adolescent alcohol consumption in male and female animals. Thus, Wistar rats were given free access to ethanol (20% in drinking water or tap water for 2-h sessions during 3 days, and for an additional 4-h session on the 4th day; every week during adolescence, from postnatal day (pnd 28–52. During this period, animals consumed a moderate amount of alcohol despite blood ethanol concentration (BEC did not achieve binge-drinking levels. No withdrawal signs were observed: no changes were observed regarding anxiety-like responses in the elevated plus-maze or plasma corticosterone levels (pnd 53–54. In the novel object recognition (NOR test (pnd 63, a significant deficit in recognition memory was observed in both male and female rats. Western Blot analyses resulted in an increase in the expression of synaptophysin in the frontal cortex (FC of male and female animals, together with a decrease in the expression of the CB2R in the same brain region. In addition, adolescent alcohol induced, exclusively among females, a decrease in several markers of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission, in which epigenetic mechanisms, i.e., histone acetylation, might be involved. Taken together, further research is still needed to specifically correlate sex-specific brain and behavioral consequences of adolescent alcohol exposure.

  13. Long-Term Effects of Intermittent Adolescent Alcohol Exposure in Male and Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Eva M.; Peñasco, Sara; Hernández, María-Donina; Gil, Anabel; Borcel, Erika; Moya, Marta; Giné, Elena; López-Moreno, José Antonio; Guerri, Consuelo; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol is a serious public health concern that has a differential impact on individuals depending upon age and sex. Patterns of alcohol consumption have recently changed: heavy episodic drinking—known as binge-drinking—has become most popular among the youth. Herein, we aimed to investigate the consequences of intermittent adolescent alcohol consumption in male and female animals. Thus, Wistar rats were given free access to ethanol (20% in drinking water) or tap water for 2-h sessions during 3 days, and for an additional 4-h session on the 4th day; every week during adolescence, from postnatal day (pnd) 28–52. During this period, animals consumed a moderate amount of alcohol despite blood ethanol concentration (BEC) did not achieve binge-drinking levels. No withdrawal signs were observed: no changes were observed regarding anxiety-like responses in the elevated plus-maze or plasma corticosterone levels (pnd 53–54). I