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Sample records for fetal adrenal glands

  1. [Ultrasound evaluation of fetal adrenal gland volume. The role of fetal adrenal glands in the pathogenesis of preterm labor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowski, Arkadiusz; Karwasik-Kajszczarek, Katarzyna; Dymanowska-Dyjak, Izabela; Kondracka, Adrianna; Kwaśniewska, Anna

    2014-02-01

    Preterm labor remains to be one of the most important challenges of contemporary perinatology and constitutes the main reason of perinatal mortality and prematurity of neonates. Studies on preterm labor have confirmed the mutual interactions of several different hormonal systems while the activation of hypothalamic- pituitary- adrenal axis seems to have the greatest influence. It has been also suggested that size and mass of fetal adrenal glands may be associated with the risk of preterm labor. Several authors have shown that the evaluation of fetal adrenal gland volume may be a useful marker of fetal growth during pregnancy. Technological advancements enabled the development of three-dimensional ultrasound evaluation (3D) of the fetal adrenal glands, facilitating a more precise evaluation of their volume. Also, it seems to have higher sensitivity and specificity than two-dimensional ultrasonography (2D). Studies have confirmed a direct relationship between fetal adrenal gland size and the onset of preterm labor within at least 1 week since the ultrasound exam. They have also suggested that in a physiological pregnancy the relation between fetal zone and the whole organ remains constant throughout the pregnancy. Disruption of these proportions and fetal zone enlargement are considered to be a marker of labor cascade and preterm labor with significantly higher sensitivity and specificity than ultrasound evaluation of the cervical length and assessment of the fetal fibronectin concentration.

  2. Adrenal glands are essential for activation of glucogenesis during undernutrition in fetal sheep near term

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    Fowden, A. L.; Forhead, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    In adults, the adrenal glands are essential for the metabolic response to stress, but little is known about their role in fetal metabolism. This study examined the effects of adrenalectomizing fetal sheep on glucose and oxygen metabolism in utero in fed conditions and after maternal fasting for 48 h near term. Fetal adrenalectomy (AX) had little effect on the rates of glucose and oxygen metabolism by the fetus or uteroplacental tissues in fed conditions. Endogenous glucose production was negl...

  3. Role of the adrenal glands in the maturation of lung liquid secretory mechanisms in fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M J; Hooper, S B; Harding, R

    1996-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the role of the fetal adrenal glands in the gestational age-related increase in the ability of epinephrine to induce the reabsorption of lung liquid. Fetal lung liquid volumes and secretion rates were measured in five chronically catheterized control and six bilaterally adrenalectomized (ADX) fetal sheep at approximately 5-day intervals from 120 to 144 days of gestation (term approximately 146 days). The ability of epinephrine to induce the reabsorption of fetal lung liquid was then determined on day 144. Fetal adrenalectomy prevented the preparturient increase in fetal plasma cortisol and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) concentration and significantly reduced the gestational age-related increase in fetal lung liquid volumes and secretion rates. Close to term (144 days), epinephrine infusions caused a significantly greater rate of lung liquid reabsorption in control (32.2 +/- 4.8 ml/h) compared with ADX (3.7 +/- 0.7 ml/h) fetuses. We conclude that the presence of the fetal adrenal glands is necessary for the age-related increase in 1) the lung liquid secretion rate and 2) the ability of the fetal lung to reabsorb liquid late in gestation. It is likely that cortisol is the active adrenal hormone involved, supporting the theory that cortisol plays a crucial role in the clearance of lung liquid at birth.

  4. Delivery prediction in pregnant women with spontaneous preterm birth using fetal adrenal gland biometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Aline Pinto; Feitosa, Francisco Edson de Lucena; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Feitosa, Helvécio Neves; Pereira, João Gabriel Damasceno; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani; Carvalho, Francisco Herlânio Costa

    2016-12-01

    To assess the prediction of delivery within 7 days in pregnant women who showed symptoms of spontaneous preterm birth (PB) by means of fetal adrenal gland biometry and to compare these predictions with the cervical length (CL) measurement. We performed a prospective cross-sectional study with 53 pregnant women between 24 and 36 weeks of gestation. An ultrasound exam was performed for each participant to obtain the CL measurement (transvaginal route) and fetal adrenal gland biometry on day 1 of their hospital admission because of symptoms of spontaneous PB. The main outcome measure was the time between the ultrasound exam and delivery, which was classified into two groups: delivery  ≤7 days and delivery  >7 days. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was performed to define the cutoffs for sensitivity and specificity. The prevalence of delivery within 7 days was 35.8%, which showed a statistically significant difference from the depth of the central zone of the fetal adrenal gland (p  =  0.036). The cutoff for the depth of the central zone of the fetal adrenal gland was 7.2 mm (sensitivity 66.7%, specificity 61.8% and accuracy 63.5%). These values were not significantly different than the cutoffs for cervical length measurement: 20 mm (p  =  0.267) and 9 mm (p  =  0.118). The biometry for the central zone of the fetal adrenal gland predicted delivery within 7 days in pregnant women with spontaneous PB and had a predictive accuracy similar to that of CL measurement.

  5. Adrenal glands are essential for activation of glucogenesis during undernutrition in fetal sheep near term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, A L; Forhead, A J

    2011-01-01

    In adults, the adrenal glands are essential for the metabolic response to stress, but little is known about their role in fetal metabolism. This study examined the effects of adrenalectomizing fetal sheep on glucose and oxygen metabolism in utero in fed conditions and after maternal fasting for 48 h near term. Fetal adrenalectomy (AX) had little effect on the rates of glucose and oxygen metabolism by the fetus or uteroplacental tissues in fed conditions. Endogenous glucose production was negligible in both AX and intact, sham-operated fetuses in fed conditions. Maternal fasting reduced fetal glucose levels and umbilical glucose uptake in both groups of fetuses to a similar extent but activated glucose production only in the intact fetuses. The lack of fasting-induced glucogenesis in AX fetuses was accompanied by falls in fetal glucose utilization and oxygen consumption not seen in intact controls. The circulating concentrations of cortisol and total catecholamines, and the hepatic glycogen content and activities of key gluconeogenic enzymes, were also less in AX than intact fetuses in fasted animals. Insulin concentrations were also lower in AX than intact fetuses in both nutritional states. Maternal glucose utilization and its distribution between the fetal, uteroplacental, and nonuterine maternal tissues were unaffected by fetal AX in both nutritional states. Ovine fetal adrenal glands, therefore, have little effect on basal rates of fetal glucose and oxygen metabolism but are essential for activating fetal glucogenesis in response to maternal fasting. They may also be involved in regulating insulin sensitivity in utero.

  6. Evidence of a role for melatonin in fetal sheep physiology: direct actions of melatonin on fetal cerebral artery, brown adipose tissue and adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Farfan, Claudia; Valenzuela, Francisco J; Mondaca, Mauricio; Valenzuela, Guillermo J; Krause, Bernardo; Herrera, Emilio A; Riquelme, Raquel; Llanos, Anibal J; Seron-Ferre, Maria

    2008-08-15

    Although the fetal pineal gland does not secrete melatonin, the fetus is exposed to melatonin of maternal origin. In the non-human primate fetus, melatonin acts as a trophic hormone for the adrenal gland, stimulating growth while restraining cortisol production. This latter physiological activity led us to hypothesize that melatonin may influence some fetal functions critical for neonatal adaptation to extrauterine life. To test this hypothesis we explored (i) the presence of G-protein-coupled melatonin binding sites and (ii) the direct modulatory effects of melatonin on noradrenaline (norepinephrine)-induced middle cerebral artery (MCA) contraction, brown adipose tissue (BAT) lypolysis and ACTH-induced adrenal cortisol production in fetal sheep. We found that melatonin directly inhibits the response to noradrenaline in the MCA and BAT, and also inhibits the response to ACTH in the adrenal gland. Melatonin inhibition was reversed by the melatonin antagonist luzindole only in the fetal adrenal. MCA, BAT and adrenal tissue displayed specific high-affinity melatonin binding sites coupled to G-protein (K(d) values: MCA 64 +/- 1 pm, BAT 98.44 +/- 2.12 pm and adrenal 4.123 +/- 3.22 pm). Melatonin binding was displaced by luzindole only in the adrenal gland, supporting the idea that action in the MCA and BAT is mediated by different melatonin receptors. These direct inhibitory responses to melatonin support a role for melatonin in fetal physiology, which we propose prevents major contraction of cerebral vessels, restrains cortisol release and restricts BAT lypolysis during fetal life.

  7. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  8. Effects of hyperthyroidism on expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and apoptosis in fetal adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, T; Hulya Uz, Y; Karabacak, R; Karaboga, I; Demirtas, S; Cagatay Cicek, A

    2015-11-26

    This study investigated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular density, and apoptosis in fetal rat adrenal glands with hyperthyroidism in late gestation. Twelve mature female Wistar albino rats with the same biological and physiological features were used for this study. Rats were divided into two groups: control and hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism was induced by daily subcutaneous injections of L-thyroxine (250 μg/kg) before pregnancy for 21 days and during pregnancy. Rats in the control and hyperthyroidism groups were caged according to the number of male rats. Zero day of pregnancy (Day 0) was indicated when the animals were observed to have microscopic sperm in vaginal smears. Pregnant rats were sacrificed on the 20th day of pregnancy; blood from each animal was collected to determine the concentrations of maternal adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroxine. Rat fetuses were then quickly removed from the uterus, and the adrenal glands of the fetuses were dissected. VEGF expression, vascular density, and apoptosis were analyzed in fetal rat adrenal glands. Maternal serum levels of the adrenocorticotropic hormone and free thyroxine were significantly higher in the hyperthyroidism group than in the control group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of VEGF positive cells and vessel density significantly increased in the hyperthyroidism rat fetal adrenal group compared with the control group. Hyperthyroidism did not change the fetal and placental weights and the number of fetuses. This study demonstrates that hyperthyroidism may have an effect on the development of rat adrenal glands mediated by VEGF expression, angiogenesis, and apoptosis.

  9. VIP innervation: sharp contrast in fetal sheep and baboon adrenal glands suggests differences in developmental regulation.

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    Berghorn, K A; Li, C; Nathanielsz, P W; McDonald, T J

    2000-09-22

    Immunocytochemical technique and light microscopy were used to ascertain the relationship between vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and tyrosine hydroxylase in fetal sheep and fetal baboon adrenal cortices and medullae at 85% of gestation. VIP immunostaining was extremely robust in fetal sheep adrenal cortical neurofibers and cells while weak in fibers and nonexistent in cells of fetal baboon. Also, tyrosine hydroxylase-immunopositive cells, present throughout the adrenal cortices of both fetal sheep and baboons, were heavily innervated by VIP-immunoreactive neurofibers in fetal sheep, but not in fetal baboons. Adrenal cortical VIP-immunopositive fibers occurred in greater (Psection (127.85+/-5.16 vs. 74.53+/-4.93 microm). VIP immunogenicity in cells (ganglion and chromaffin) and fibers was robust in fetal adrenal medulla of sheep while nonexistent in baboons. VIP fibers in fetal sheep medulla were smaller in diameter compared to fetal sheep cortex (1.22+/-0.13 vs. 2.93+/-0.34 microm, Pmedullary neurofibers derive primarily from extrinsic sources while cortical fibers arise from cortical ganglion cells. We conclude that at 85% of gestation the potential for VIP neural control of paracrine (e.g., glucocorticoid/catecholamine) interactions in both adrenal cortex and medulla is much greater in fetal sheep compared to fetal baboons.

  10. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  11. Effects of hyperthyroidism on expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and apoptosis in fetal adrenal glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karaca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, vascular density, and apoptosis in fetal rat adrenal glands with hyperthyroidism in late gestation. Twelve mature female Wistar albino rats with the same biological and physiological features were used for this study. Rats were divided into two groups: control and hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism was induced by daily subcutaneous injections of L-thyroxine (250 μg/kg before pregnancy for 21 days and during pregnancy. Rats in the control and hyperthyroidism groups were caged according to the number of male rats. Zero day of pregnancy (Day 0 was indicated when the animals were observed to have microscopic sperm in vaginal smears. Pregnant rats were sacrificed on the 20th day of pregnancy; blood from each animal was collected to determine the concentrations of maternal adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroxine. Rat fetuses were then quickly removed from the uterus, and the adrenal glands of the fetuses were dissected. VEGF expression, vascular density, and apoptosis were analyzed in fetal rat adrenal glands. Maternal serum levels of the adrenocorticotropic hormone and free thyroxine were significantly higher in the hyperthyroidism group than in the control group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of VEGF positive cells and vessel density significantly increased in the hyperthyroidism rat fetal adrenal group compared with the control group. Hyperthyroidism did not change the fetal and placental weights and the number of fetuses. This study demonstrates that hyperthyroidism may have an effect on the development of rat adrenal glands mediated by VEGF expression, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. 

  12. Methodology for Using 3-Dimensional Sonography to Measure Fetal Adrenal Gland Volumes in Pregnant Women With and Without Early Life Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deborah; Epperson, C Neill; Ewing, Grace; Appleby, Dina; Sammel, Mary D; Wang, Eileen

    2016-09-01

    Fetal adrenal gland volumes on 3-dimensional sonography have been studied as potential predictors of preterm birth. However, no consistent methodology has been published. This article describes the methodology used in a study that is evaluating the effects of maternal early life stress on fetal adrenal growth to allow other researchers to compare methodologies across studies. Fetal volumetric data were obtained in 36 women at 20 to 22 and 28 to 30 weeks' gestation. Two independent examiners measured multiple images of a single fetal adrenal gland from each sonogram. Intra- and inter-rater consistency was examined. In addition, fetal adrenal volumes between male and female fetuses were reported. The intra- and inter-rater reliability was satisfactory when the mean of 3 measurements from each rater was used. At 20 weeks' gestation, male fetuses had larger average adjusted adrenal volumes than female fetuses (mean, 0.897 versus 0.638; P = .004). At 28 weeks' gestation, the fetal weight was more influential in determining values for adjusted fetal adrenal volume (0.672 for male fetuses versus 0.526 for female fetuses; P = .034). This article presents a methodology for assessing fetal adrenal volume using 3-dimensional sonography that can be used by other researchers to provide more consistency across studies.

  13. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t live without, including sex hormones and cortisol. Cortisol helps you respond to stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not enough hormones. In Cushing's ... too much cortisol, while with Addison's disease, there is too little. ...

  14. [Development of the human adrenal glands].

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    Folligan, K; Bouvier, R; Targe, F; Morel, Y; Trouillas, J

    2005-09-01

    The human adrenal is an endocrine gland located at the superior part of the kidney. Composed of the adrenal cortex of mesoblastic origin and the adrenal medulla of neuroectoblastic origin, the human fetal adrenal grows considerably during the first three months of development. From 12 to 18 weeks of development (WD), the weight of the adrenals increases seven-fold. The gland's weight doubles from 18 to 28 WD and from 28 to 36 WD. At birth, the two adrenals weigh on average 10 g. At the 8th week, two zones are individualized in the adrenal cortex: the definitive zone and the fetal inner zone. At the second trimester, according to ultrastructural and biochemical studies, a third zone, called the transition zone, is individualized between the definitive zone and the fetal inner zone. The definitive zone persists, but the origin of the three zones (glomerular, fascicular and reticular) of adult adrenal cortex is not known. The fetal inner zone regresses from the 5th month of gestation and disappears totally one year after birth. At the 8th week, the immature neuroblasts migrate to the definitive zone, then to the fetal inner zone to compose the adrenal medulla, which develops essentially after birth and during the first year. Before the 10th week, the human fetal adrenal is able to produce steroid hormones, in particular dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S); the secretion of cortisol remains discussed. The development of the human fetal adrenal is complex and is under the control of hormones (ACTH, LH and betaHCG), growth factors (ACTH essentially) and transcription factors (essentially SF1 and DAX-1). Knowledge of morphological and molecular phenomena of this development permits to understand the pathophisiology of congenital adrenal deficiencies.

  15. Adrenal gland and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Rowan; Cooper, Mark S

    2010-11-01

    The adrenal gland synthesizes steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex and catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. Both cortisol and adrenal androgens can have powerful effects on bone. The overproduction of cortisol in Cushing's disease leads to a dramatic reduction in bone density and an increase risk of fracture. Overproduction of adrenal androgens in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) leads to marked changes in bone growth and development with early growth acceleration but ultimately a significant reduction in final adult height. The role of more physiological levels of glucocorticoids and androgens on bone metabolism is less clear. Cortisol levels measured in elderly individuals show a weak correlation with measures of bone density and change in bone density over time with a high cortisol level associated with lower bone density and more rapid bone loss. Cortisol levels and the dynamics of cortisol secretion change with age which could also explain some age related changes in bone physiology. It is also now clear that adrenal steroids can be metabolized within bone tissue itself. Local synthesis of cortisol within bone from its inactive precursor cortisone has been demonstrated and the amount of cortisol produced within osteoblasts appears to increase with age. With regard to adrenal androgens there is a dramatic reduction in levels with aging and several studies have examined the impact that restoration of these levels back to those seen in younger individuals has on bone health. Most of these studies show small positive effects in women, not men, but the skeletal sites where benefits are seen varies from study to study.

  16. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

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    Mauro Ceccanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA and TrkB, including their phosphorylated patterns. METHODS: We used aged male CD-1 mice early exposed to ethanol solution or red wine at same ethanol concentration (11% vol. RESULTS We found elevations in NGF and BDNF in the thyroid of aged mice exposed to ethanol solution only but not in the red wine group. In the testis NGF resulted to be increased only in the ethanol solution group. In the adrenal glands data showed an elevation in NGF in both the ethanol solution group and red wine. No changes in TrkA, TrkB, phospho-TrkA and phospho-TrkB were revealed in all tissues examined. CONCLUSIONS Early administration of ethanol may induce long-lasting changes in the mouse thyroid, testis and adrenal glands at NGF and BDNF levels.

  17. Adrenal gland removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause very high blood pressure Other disorders include Cushing syndrome , Conn syndrome , and an adrenal mass of unknown ... blood pressure medicines. If you had surgery for Cushing syndrome, you are at risk for complications that will ...

  18. [Pheochromocytomas as adrenal gland incidentalomas].

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    Cerović, Snezana; Cizmić, Milica; Milović, Novak; Ajdinović, Boris; Brajusković, Goran

    2002-07-01

    Adrenal incidentalomas are a heterogeneous group of pathological entities, including benign or malignant adrenocortical or medullary tumors, hormonally active or inactive lesions, which are identified incidentally during the examination of nonadrenal-related abdominal complaints. About 1.5% to 23% of adrenal incidentalomas are pheochromocytomas. Composite pheochromocytoma is a rare tumour of adrenal medulla with divergente clinical course. This type of pheochromocytoma is designated "composite" or "mixed," depending on whether pheochromocytoma and nonpheochromocytoma components show the same embryologic origin. Nonpheochromocytoma components found in the composite pheochromocytoma include ganglioneuroma, ganglioneuroblastoma, neuroblastoma, and malignant schwannoma. The biologic behavior of composite pheochromocytomas may be as difficult to predict as more traditional pheochromocytomas; based on the number of cases reported to date the presence of areas resembling ganglioneuroblastoma or neuroblastoma does not necessary indicate a poor prognosis. Some may behave in a malignant fashion with metastasis by a component of the tumour which has neural features. Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are well-defined entities. Some of their nonsporadic associations and unusual morphological appearances are not universally appreciated. We report on a rare association of left adrenal CP, with typical right adrenal phochromocytoma and retroperitoneal paraganglioma, and a review of literature. We analyzed the clinical and immunohistochemical features in a 24-year-old woman with composite pheochromocytoma localized in the left adrenal gland and associated with blood pressure of 200/140 mmHg. Abdominal computed tomography and 131-J MIBG revealed a 65 x 60 mm mass in the right adrenal gland, but no revealed 45 x 40 mm retroperitoneal mass and 20 x 20 mm mass in the left adrenal region. Serum and urinary adrenaline levels were high, and catecholamine levels in the blood sample of

  19. Schwannoma of the adrenal gland

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    Anunayi Jeshtadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral schwannomas are extremely rare and are usually discov-ered incidentally on USG/CT-Scan. Primary schwannomas of the adrenal gland are extremely uncommon. It has been theorized that they originate from Schwann cells that insulate the nerve fi-bers innervating the adrenal medulla. Histopathological examina-tion coupled with immunohistochemistry provides the definitive diagnosis. A 55 year old normotensive female presented with pain in the right loin since 5 months. Her renal parameters were normal. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of abdomen showed a well delineated 6.5 x 5cms mass at upper pole of her right kidney. 24-hour urinary metanephrine was slightly elevated (3.07mg/24hrs. A decline in Serum cortisol levels was observed following a dexamethasone suppression test (18.89nmol/l. Histopathological examination revealed a spindle cell tumor. Immunohistochemistry showed strong and diffuse positive staining for S-100 with negative expression for CD-117, desmin, CD-34, HMB-45, synaptophysin, chromogranin, cytokeratin, and SMA. Ki-67 index was 2%.A diagnosis of cellular schwannoma of adrenal gland was confirmed.

  20. What Are Some Types of Adrenal Gland Disorders?

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    ... Adrenal Gland Tumors Most adrenal gland tumors—abnormal growths on the adrenal glands—are not cancerous. They often do not cause symptoms or require treatment. However, adrenal gland tumors can produce a variety of different hormones, leading hormone levels to get too high. Adrenal ...

  1. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Keith [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Muglia, Valdair F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Koff, Walter Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: antonio.westphalen@ucsf.edu [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

  2. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Herr

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  3. Apparent diffusion coefficient of normal adrenal glands*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias, Paula Condé Lamparelli; Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; de Oliveira, Tatiane Mendes Gonçalves; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Elias Junior, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility and reliability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of normal adrenal glands. Materials and methods This was a retrospective study involving 32 healthy subjects, divided into two groups: prepubertal (PreP, n = 12), aged from 2 months to 12.5 years (4 males; 8 females); and postpubertal (PostP, n = 20), aged from 11.9 to 61 years (5 males; 15 females). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) sequences were acquired at a 1.5 T scanner using b values of 0, 20, 500, and 1000 s/mm2. Two radiologists evaluated the images. ADC values were measured pixel-by-pixel on DW-MRI scans, and automatic co-registration with the ADC map was obtained. Results Mean ADC values for the right adrenal glands were 1.44 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PreP group and 1.23 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PostP group, whereas they were 1.58 × 10-3 mm2/s and 1.32 × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively, for the left glands. ADC values were higher in the PreP group than in the PostP group (p < 0.05). Agreement between readers was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.84-0.94; p < 0.05). Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of performing DW-MRI measurements of normal adrenal glands. They could also support the feasibility of ADC measurements of small structures. PMID:28057963

  4. Apparent diffusion coefficient of normal adrenal glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Reis Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To assess the feasibility and reliability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC measurements of normal adrenal glands. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study involving 32 healthy subjects, divided into two groups: prepubertal (PreP, n = 12, aged from 2 months to 12.5 years (4 males; 8 females; and postpubertal (PostP, n = 20, aged from 11.9 to 61 years (5 males; 15 females. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI sequences were acquired at a 1.5 T scanner using b values of 0, 20, 500, and 1000 s/mm2. Two radiologists evaluated the images. ADC values were measured pixel-by-pixel on DW-MRI scans, and automatic co-registration with the ADC map was obtained. Results: Mean ADC values for the right adrenal glands were 1.44 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PreP group and 1.23 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PostP group, whereas they were 1.58 × 10-3 mm2/s and 1.32 × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively, for the left glands. ADC values were higher in the PreP group than in the PostP group (p < 0.05. Agreement between readers was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.84-0.94; p < 0.05. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of performing DW-MRI measurements of normal adrenal glands. They could also support the feasibility of ADC measurements of small structures.

  5. Giant cavernous hemangioma of the adrenal gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quildrian, Sergio Damián; Silberman, Ezequiel Aníbal; Vigovich, Felix Alberto; Porto, Eduardo Agustín

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cavernous hemangioma of the adrenal gland is a rare non-functioning benign neoplasm. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 62-year-old woman with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was diagnosed as having an incidental non-functioning adrenal tumor. Because of the impossibility of ruling out the presence of malignancy, conventional surgical resection was carried out. The histopathology revealed a 12.5 cm × 11.5 cm × 8 cm adrenal mass with large and lacunae vascular spaces lined with mature endothelial cells. These findings were compatible with cavernous hemangioma. DISCUSSION The majority of patients in the literature underwent surgical resection due to the impossibility of excluding malignancy, because of related symptoms in patients with large masses, or because of the risk of spontaneous tumoral rupture. CONCLUSION These tumors are quite infrequent. Due to the low frequency and the lack of specific symptoms, most adrenal hemangiomas are diagnosed postoperatively. PMID:23287064

  6. Histoplasmosis of the adrenal glands studied by CT

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    Wilson, D.A.; Muchmore, H.G.; Tisdal, R.G.; Fahmy, A.; Pitha, J.V.

    1984-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the adrenal glands was performed on seven patients who had histologically proved disseminated histoplasmosis. All seven patients showed some degree of adrenal gland abnormality. The range of CT findings included minimal enlargement with faint flecks of calcium, moderate enlargement with focal low attenuation nodules, and massive enlargement with large areas of necrosis or dense calcification. The changes in each patient were bilateral and symmetrical. Adrenal gland shape was usually preserved. Finding of percutaneous adrenal biopsy, which was performed under CT guidance, made the diagnosis in one patient. Five of seven patients had adrenal insufficiency. It is concluded that the diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis should be considered in any patient who has bilateral adrenal gland enlargement and who resides in an endemic area, especially if there is evidence of adrenal insufficiency.

  7. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies ...

  8. Ultrasound diagnosis of adrenal gland hemorrhage in newborn; Diagnostyka ultrasonograficzna krwawien do nadnerczy u noworodkow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieganowska-Klamut, Z.; Dybiec, E.; Wieczorek, P.; Charanicz-Bartler, H. [Zaklad Radiologii Pediatrycznej, Akademia Medyczna, Lublin (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    4 cases of adrenal gland hemorrhage in the newborns diagnosed by ultrasound examination were described. In 3 cases the hemorrhage was in one adrenal gland and in one the hemorrhage was in both. In 1 newborn control ultrasound and CT examination performed after 7 weeks demonstrated pseudocyst of right adrenal gland. In 2 other cases control ultrasound examination showed normalization of adrenal glands. The authors suggest differential diagnosis between the adrenal hemorrhage and neuroblastoma of adrenal gland. (author) 7 refs, 2 figs

  9. Adrenal gland infection by serotype 5 adenovirus requires coagulation factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Tran

    Full Text Available Recombinant, replication-deficient serotype 5 adenovirus infects the liver upon in vivo, systemic injection in rodents. This infection requires the binding of factor X to the capsid of this adenovirus. Another organ, the adrenal gland is also infected upon systemic administration of Ad, however, whether this infection is dependent on the cocksackie adenovirus receptor (CAR or depends on the binding of factor X to the viral capsid remained to be determined. In the present work, we have used a pharmacological agent (warfarin as well as recombinant adenoviruses lacking the binding site of Factor X to elucidate this mechanism in mice. We demonstrate that, as observed in the liver, adenovirus infection of the adrenal glands in vivo requires Factor X. Considering that the level of transduction of the adrenal glands is well-below that of the liver and that capsid-modified adenoviruses are unlikely to selectively infect the adrenal glands, we have used single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging of gene expression to determine whether local virus administration (direct injection in the kidney could increase gene transfer to the adrenal glands. We demonstrate that direct injection of the virus in the kidney increases gene transfer in the adrenal gland but liver transduction remains important. These observations strongly suggest that serotype 5 adenovirus uses a similar mechanism to infect liver and adrenal gland and that selective transgene expression in the latter is more likely to be achieved through transcriptional targeting.

  10. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies...... on the adrenal or pituitary glands or hypothalamus volume in unipolar depressive disorder published in PubMed 1966 to December 2009. We identified three studies that investigated the volume of the adrenal glands and eight studies that examined the volume of the pituitary gland, but no studies on hypothalamus...... identified such as small population samples, different subtypes of depression and insufficient matching of patients and controls. Due to large heterogeneity of study designs and data, it was futile to make a meta-analysis. It is concluded that it remains unclear whether hyperactivity of the HPA axis results...

  11. A case of human intramuscular adrenal gland transplantation as a cure for chronic adrenal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodstein, E; Hardy, M A; Goldstein, M J

    2010-02-01

    Intramuscular endocrine gland transplantation has been well described as it pertains to parathyroid autotransplantation; however, transplantation of the adrenal gland is less well characterized. While adrenal autotransplantation in the setting of Cushing's disease has been described, intramuscular adrenal allotransplantation as a cure for adrenal insufficiency to our knowledge has not been previously carried out. Current treatment for adrenal insufficiency leaves patients without diurnal variation in cortisol release and susceptible to the detrimental effects of chronic hypercortisolism. We describe here the case of a 5-year-old girl with renal failure who had adrenal insufficiency following fulminant meningococcemia that led to requirements for both stress-dose steroid and mineralocorticoid replacement. Ten months after the onset of her disease, she received a simultaneous renal and adrenal gland transplant from her mother. The adrenal gland allograft was morselized into 1 mm(3) segments and implanted into three 2 cm pockets created in her rectus abdominis muscle. Three years after surgery, her allograft remains fully functional, responding well to adrenocorticotropin hormone stimulation and the patient does not require any steroid or mineral-corticoid supplementation. We believe this case represents the first description of successful functional intramuscular adrenal allograft transplantation with long-term follow up as a cure for adrenal insufficiency.

  12. Temporal and spatial distribution of mast cells and steroidogenic enzymes in the human fetal adrenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccache, Alexandre; Louiset, Estelle; Duparc, Céline; Laquerrière, Annie; Patrier, Sophie; Renouf, Sylvie; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E; Mukai, Kuniaki; Lefebvre, Hervé; Castanet, Mireille

    2016-10-15

    Mast cells are present in the human adult adrenal with a potential role in the regulation of aldosterone secretion in both normal cortex and adrenocortical adenomas. We have investigated the human developing adrenal gland for the presence of mast cells in parallel with steroidogenic enzymes profile and serotonin signaling pathway. RT-QPCR and immunohistochemical studies were performed on adrenals at 16-41 weeks of gestation (WG). Tryptase-immunopositive mast cells were found from 18 WG in the adrenal subcapsular layer, close to 3βHSD- and CYP11B2-immunoreactive cells, firstly detected at 18 and 24 WG, respectively. Tryptophan hydroxylase and serotonin receptor type 4 expression increased at 30 WG before the CYP11B2 expression surge. In addition, HDL and LDL cholesterol receptors were expressed in the subcapsular zone from 24 WG. Altogether, our findings suggest the implication of mast cells and serotonin in the establishment of the mineralocorticoid synthesizing pathway during fetal adrenal development.

  13. FDOPA Patterns in Adrenal Glands: A Pictorial Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Aurélie; Giraudet, Anne Laure; Kryza, David; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Bournaud-Salinas, Claire; Mognetti, Thomas; Lifante, Jean-Christophe; Combemale, Patrick; Giammarile, Francesco; Houzard, Claire

    2017-05-01

    F-FDOPA is a well-established tool to explore pheochromocytomas. It tends to replace I-MIBG scan in metastatic pheochromocytomas, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2-related tumors, succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur subunit-negative tumors, and succinate dehydrogenase[ZERO WIDTH SPACE]-positive lesions. To our knowledge, no study has characterized physiological and pathological adrenal glands with F-FDOPA from a quantitative point of view. We report the features of different normal and pathological adrenal glands with F-FDOPA. Within our series, only pheochromocytomas present a significantly increased uptake reflecting the high specificity of this tracer. Tumors such as adenomas or myelolipomas present no F-FDOPA significant accumulation. Interestingly, adrenal gland hyperplasia and solitary glands do not demonstrate compensatory uptake.

  14. Ação da Betametasona em Ratas Prenhes: Impacto sobre os Níveis de Corticosterona e Glândulas Adrenais Maternas e Fetais Effect of Betamethasone on Pregnant Rats: Impact on Corticosterone Level and Maternal and Fetal Adrenal Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: a utilização repetitiva do corticóide antenatal objetivando acelerar a maturidade pulmonar fetal tem sido muito empregada no risco de parto prematuro, o que nos motivou a estudar a dosagem de corticosterona no termo e aspectos morfológicos das glândulas adrenais maternas e fetais de ratas albinas submetidas à ação da betametasona na segunda metade da prenhez, para verificar conseqüências dessa terapêutica. Métodos: utilizamos 30 ratas prenhes, distribuídas em 3 grupos numericamente iguais. As do Grupo I receberam betametasona nos dias 11, 12, 18 e 19 da prenhez. As do Grupo II receberam água destilada nesses dias (grupo controle, e as do Grupo III não receberam qualquer medicamento, constituindo grupo controle de estresse. Foram todas sacrificadas no 20º dia de prenhez, quando dosamos a corticosterona no sangue das matrizes e extirpamos as glândulas adrenais maternas e fetais para exame de microscopia óptica. Resultados: a dosagem de corticosterona plasmática foi significantemente menor no grupo tratado com betametasona (4,8 mg/dL, quando comparada aos grupos controles (17,7 e 26,8 mg/dL. À microscopia óptica observou-se intensa vacuolização citoplasmática na zona fasciculada das adrenais maternas e fetais no grupo que utilizou a betametasona, indicando intensa supressão adrenal secundária ao uso do medicamento. Conclusões: o uso repetitivo e prolongado de corticóides, em ratas prenhes, para acelerar a maturidade pulmonar fetal determina supressão adrenal materna e fetal.Purpose: the repetitive use of antenatal corticosteroid therapy for acceleration of fetal lung maturation has been common in cases at risk of preterm delivery. We studied the corticosterone levels at term and the morphologic aspects in the maternal and fetal adrenal glands submitted to the effect of betamethasone in the second half of rat pregnancy in order to verify its consequences. Methods: thirty female pregnant rats were divided into

  15. Developmental and functional biology of the primate fetal adrenal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesiano, S; Jaffe, R B

    1997-06-01

    The unique characteristics of the primate (particularly human) fetal adrenal were first realized in the early 1900s when its morphology was examined in detail and compared with that of other species. The unusual architecture of the human fetal adrenal cortex, with its unique and disproportionately enlarged fetal zone, its compact definitive zone, and its dramatic remodeling soon after birth captured the interest of developmental anatomists. Many detailed anatomical studies describing the morphology of the developing human fetal adrenal were reported between 1920 and 1960, and these morphological descriptions have not changed significantly. More recently, it has become clear that fetal adrenal cortical growth involves cellular hypertrophy, hyperplasia, apoptosis, and migration and is best described by the migration theory, i.e. cells proliferate in the periphery, migrate centripetally, differentiate during their migration to form the functional cortical zones, and then likely undergo apoptosis in the center of the cortex. Consistent with this model, cells of intermediate phenotype, arranged in columnar cords typical of migration, have been identified between the definitive and fetal zones. This cortical area has been referred to as the transitional zone and, based on the expression of steroidogenic enzymes, we consider it to be a functionally distinct cortical zone. Elegant experiments during the 1950s and 1960s demonstrated the central role of the primate fetal adrenal cortex in establishing the estrogenic milieu of pregnancy. Those findings were among the first indications of the function and physiological role of the human fetal adrenal cortex and led Diczfalusy and co-workers to propose the concept of the feto-placental unit, in which DHEA-S produced by the fetal adrenal cortex is used by the placenta for estrogen synthesis. Tissue and cell culture techniques, together with improved steroid assays, revealed that the fetal zone is the primary source of DHEA

  16. Primary Bilateral Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma of the Adrenal Gland Presenting as Incidental Adrenal Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Rizzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although lymphoma may occasionally involve the adrenal glands as part of a generalized disease process, primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL is a rare disease. We present a case of a 62-year-old woman with a history of mild/moderate hereditary spherocytosis with a well-compensated baseline haemoglobin, who presented with rapidly progressive symptomatic anaemia. During the diagnostic workup, imaging revealed bilateral large adrenal masses and she was later diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (DLBCL, with the adrenal glands being the dominant site of the disease. The patient was started on systemic chemotherapy, but her disease progressed with neurological involvement which responded to second-line therapy. Her adrenal disease however was refractory to further therapy.

  17. A martial arts injury: karate induced unilateral haematoma of the adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortu, M; Vaccarezza, M; Trovati, S; Galli, M; Gervasoni, C; Vella, A

    2006-08-01

    Adrenal gland haematoma is often a complication of traumatic events. The case is reported of a 45 year old man with unilateral non-symptomatic adrenal gland haematoma caused by a trauma during martial arts practice.

  18. Standards of ultrasound imaging of the adrenal glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Z. Słapa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal glands are paired endocrine glands located over the upper renal poles. Adrenal pathologies have various clinical presentations. They can coexist with the hyperfunction of individual cortical zones or the medulla, insuffi ciency of the adrenal cortex or retained normal hormonal function. The most common adrenal masses are tumors incidentally detected in imaging examinations (ultrasound, tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, referred to as incidentalomas. They include a range of histopathological entities but cortical adenomas without hormonal hyperfunction are the most common. Each abdominal ultrasound scan of a child or adult should include the assessment of the suprarenal areas. If a previously non-reported, incidental solid focal lesion exceeding 1 cm (incidentaloma is detected in the suprarenal area, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging should be conducted to confi rm its presence and for differentiation and the tumor functional status should be determined. Ultrasound imaging is also used to monitor adrenal incidentaloma that is not eligible for a surgery. The paper presents recommendations concerning the performance and assessment of ultrasound examinations of the adrenal glands and their pathological lesions. The article includes new ultrasound techniques, such as tissue harmonic imaging, spatial compound imaging, three-dimensional ultrasound, elastography, contrast-enhanced ultrasound and parametric imaging. The guidelines presented above are consistent with the recommendations of the Polish Ultrasound Society.

  19. Histologic and Immunohistochemical classification of 41 bovine adrenal gland neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Anette Blak; Leifsson, Páll S.; Jensen, Henrik Elvang;

    2013-01-01

    Tumors of the adrenal glands are among the most frequent tumors in cattle; however, few studies have been conducted to describe their characteristics. The aim of this study was to classify 41 bovine adrenal neoplasms from 40 animals based on macroscopic and histologic examination, including....... An immunohistochemistry panel consisting of antibodies against melan A, synaptophysin, and CNPase was considered most useful to classify bovine adrenal tumors. However, the distinction between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors was based on histologic features as in human medicine....

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  11. Failure to visualize adrenal glands in a patient with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. [/sup 131/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, L.; Mayfield, R.K.; Levine, J.H.; Lopes-Virella, M.F.; Sagel, J.; Buse, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A patient with clinical and biochemical evidence of Cushing's disease and severe hyperlipidemia underwent an adrenal imaging procedure with NP-59 (6..beta..-(/sup 131/I)iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol), without visualization of either gland. Correction of the hyperlipidemia followed by repeated adrenal imaging resulted in bilateral visualization. A pituitary tumor was removed at surgery, confirming the diagnosis of Cushing's disease.

  12. Ultrasound diagnosis of adrenal gland hemorrhage in newborn. [comparison with CT]. Diagnostyka ultrasonograficzna krwawien do nadnerczy u noworodkow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieganowska-Klamut, Z.; Dybiec, E.; Wieczorek, P.; Charanicz-Bartler, H. (Zaklad Radiologii Pediatrycznej, Akademia Medyczna, Lublin (Poland))

    1995-01-01

    4 cases of adrenal gland hemorrhage in the newborns diagnosed by ultrasound examination were described. In 3 cases the hemorrhage was in one adrenal gland and in one the hemorrhage was in both. In 1 newborn control ultrasound and CT examination performed after 7 weeks demonstrated pseudocyst of right adrenal gland. In 2 other cases control ultrasound examination showed normalization of adrenal glands. The authors suggest differential diagnosis between the adrenal hemorrhage and neuroblastoma of adrenal gland. (author) 7 refs, 2 figs

  13. Timed maternal melatonin treatment reverses circadian disruption of the fetal adrenal clock imposed by exposure to constant light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mendez

    Full Text Available Surprisingly, in our modern 24/7 society, there is scant information on the impact of developmental chronodisruption like the one experienced by shift worker pregnant women on fetal and postnatal physiology. There are important differences between the maternal and fetal circadian systems; for instance, the suprachiasmatic nucleus is the master clock in the mother but not in the fetus. Despite this, several tissues/organs display circadian oscillations in the fetus. Our hypothesis is that the maternal plasma melatonin rhythm drives the fetal circadian system, which in turn relies this information to other fetal tissues through corticosterone rhythmic signaling. The present data show that suppression of the maternal plasma melatonin circadian rhythm, secondary to exposure of pregnant rats to constant light along the second half of gestation, had several effects on fetal development. First, it induced intrauterine growth retardation. Second, in the fetal adrenal in vivo it markedly affected the mRNA expression level of clock genes and clock-controlled genes as well as it lowered the content and precluded the rhythm of corticosterone. Third, an altered in vitro fetal adrenal response to ACTH of both, corticosterone production and relative expression of clock genes and steroidogenic genes was observed. All these changes were reversed when the mother received a daily dose of melatonin during the subjective night; supporting a role of melatonin on overall fetal development and pointing to it as a 'time giver' for the fetal adrenal gland. Thus, the present results collectively support that the maternal circadian rhythm of melatonin is a key signal for the generation and/or synchronization of the circadian rhythms in the fetal adrenal gland. In turn, low levels and lack of a circadian rhythm of fetal corticosterone may be responsible of fetal growth restriction; potentially inducing long term effects in the offspring, possibility that warrants further

  14. COMPARATIVE MORPHOFUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTIC OF ADRENAL GLANDS IN ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Alyabyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of morphological changes of the adrenal glands in arterial hyperten-sion. Adrenals investigated persons who do not suffer in life and suffering from hypertension during the life of hypertension and died from various causes – is incompatible with the life of a mechanical trauma, cerebral hemorrhage, and acute left ventricular failure. In each case, each of the adrenal glands were assessed: the presence and severity of focal and diffuse mononuclear infiltration, the number of lympho-cytes, monocytes, plasma cells and fibroblasts arranged in the respective zones of the cortex and medulla, the severity of hyperemia and edema of various structural parts, the number of zones cortex and medulla endocrinocytes with pycnotic nuclei in the reticular zone evaluated the distribution of secretory cells with lipofuscin and the degree of saturation of the cytoplasm of the secretory cells, in secretory cells of medul-la evaluated nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, the severity of vacuolization and basophils cytoplasm revealed a number of regularities of morphological changes depending from the various clinical manifestations of hypertension, defining the ultimate option of dying. At the heart tanatogenesis version are more pro-nounced morphological features hyperfunctions glomerular zone – namely delipidization left and right glands. The beam and netted areas contralateral glands embodiment of dying of a heart compared to the brain, is more pronounced hyperemia. When cardiac variant tanatogenesis more pronounced focal lym-phoid infiltration and vacuolization in secretory cells of left adrenal medulla.

  15. Arecoline inhibits catecholamine release from perfused rat adrenal gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-yoon LIM; Il-sik KIM

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of arecoline, an alkaloid isolated from Areca catechu, on the secretion of catecholamines (CA) evoked by cholinergic agonists and the membrane depolarizer from isolated perfused rat adrenal gland. Methods: Adrenal glands were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The adrenal glands were perfused with Krebs bicarbonate solution by means of a peristaltic pump. The CA content of the perfusate was measured directly using the fluorometric method.Results: Arecoline (0.1-1.0 mmol/L) perfused into an adrenal vein for 60 min produced dose- and time-dependent inhibition in CA secretory responses evoked by acetylcholine (ACh) (5.32 mmol/L), 1.1-dimethyl-4-phenyl piperazinium iodide (DMPP) (100 μmol/L for 2 min) and 3-(m-choloro-phenyl-carbamoyl-oxy)-2-butynyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (McN-A-343) (100 μmol/L for 2 min). However, lower doses of arecoline did not affect CA secretion of high K+ (56 mmol/L); higher doses greatly reduced CA secretion of high K+. Arecoline also failed to affect basal catecholamine output. Furthermore, in adrenal glands loaded with arecoline (0.3 mmol/L), CA secretory response evoked by Bay-K-8644 (10 μmol/L), an activator of L-type Ca2+ channels, was markedly inhibited, whereas CA secretion by cyclopiazonic acid (10 μmol/L), an inhibitor of cytoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase, was not affected. Nicotine (30 μmol/L), which was peffused into the adrenal gland for 60min, however, initially enhanced ACh-evoked CA secretory responses. As time elapsed, these responses became more inhibited, whereas the initially enhanced high K+-evoked CA release diminished. CA secretion evoked by DMPP and McNA-343 was significantly depressed in the presence of nicotine. Conclusion:Arecoline dose-dependently inhibits CA secretion from isolated perfused rat adrenal gland evoked by activation of cholinergic receptors. At lower doses arecoline does not inhibit CA secretion through membrane depolarization, but at larger doses it does. This inhibitory

  16. Impaired fetal adrenal function in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunfang; Chen, Xiaojun; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Li, Xiaotian

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-associated liver disease of unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the change in maternal and fetal adrenal function in clinical and experimental ICP. Material/Methods The maternal and fetal serum levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were determined in 14 women with ICP and in pregnant rats with estrogen-induced intrahepatic cholestasis. Results In women with ICP, the fetal serum cortisol and DHEAS levels were significantly higher than those in women with normal pregnancy, after correcting the impact of gestational age at delivery. The relationship between fetal cortisol and maternal cholic acid levels was bidirectional; the fetal cortisol tended to increase in mild ICP, while it decreased in severe ICP. In pregnant rats with estrogen-induced cholestasis, the fetal cortisol level was significantly lower in the group with oxytocin injection, compared with the group without oxytocin injection (191.92±18.86 vs. 272.71±31.83 ng/ml, P<0.05). In contrast, the fetal cortisol concentration was increased after oxytocin injection in normal control rats. Conclusions The data indicate that fetal stress-responsive system is stimulated in mild ICP, but it is suppressed in severe ICP, which might contribute to the occurrence of unpredictable sudden fetal death. Further studies are warranted to explore the role of impaired fetal adrenal function in the pathogenesis of ICP and the clinical implications. PMID:21525808

  17. Ultrasonographic visualization of the adrenal glands of healthy ferrets and ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijten, Andrea Maria; Schoemaker, Nico J; Voorhout, George

    2007-01-01

    A protocol was developed to compare the ultrasonographic characteristics of the adrenal glands of 21 healthy ferrets and 37 ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism. By using specific landmarks, the adrenal glands were imaged in 97% of the cases. The adrenal glands of ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism had a significantly increased thickness, with changes in shape, structure, and echogenicity compared to the adrenal glands of healthy ferrets. Based on the findings of the study, adrenal glands may be classified as abnormal when they have a rounded appearance, increased size of the cranial/caudal pole (thickness >3.9 mm), a heterogeneous structure, increased echogenicity, and/or signs of mineralization.

  18. [Adenomatoid tumour of the adrenal gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandier, Philippe Claus; Hansen, Alastair; Thorelius, Lars

    2009-01-26

    An adenomatoid tumour in the right suprarenal gland was discovered during clinical cancer staging of a 73-year-old woman. Adenomatoid tumours in the suprarenal glands are rare and are most often found incidentally. A definitive diagnosis is made on the basis of histology since imaging methods are non-specific. Differential diagnoses comprise malignant vascular neoplasm or adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry or electron microscopy allows uncomplicated distinction between these tumours. In general, it is recommended to obtain biopsies from suprarenal processes.

  19. Genitourinary MR: Kidneys and adrenal glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krestin, G.P. [Erasmus Univ. Medical Center Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. Radiology

    1999-07-01

    Due to its high tissue contrast and multiplanar imaging capabilites, MRI provides a detailed display of renal and adrenal anatomy. Recent technical developments overcoming the problem of respiration induced motion artifacts and the use of paramagnetic contrast agents have further improved the performance of MRI which has now evolved as an alternative or complementary imaging modality to ultrasound, excretory urography and computed tomography. Dynamic contrast-enhanced studies will usually allow to detect even small enhancing solid areas within the cyst wall. Use of a fast (turbo) spoiled gradient echo sequence allows for assessment of contrast enhancement dynamics in renal and adrenal masses. For tumor staging, the multiplanar imaging capabilities of MRI are advantageous. Perinephric extent is best detected using opposed-phase GRE images resulting in an artifical accentuation of renal contours. Extension into venous structures is best diagnosed by using a GRE sequence allowing for distinction between flowing blood and tumor thrombus. Noninvasive differentiation of adrenal lesions can be performed with an unprecedented accuracy using chemical-shift imaging. (orig.)

  20. Ontogeny of innervation of rat and ovine fetal adrenals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, W C; Wotus, C; Rose, J C

    1998-01-01

    The formation of adrenocortical zonation occurs in rats during late gestation. Since adult cortical function is modulated by neural mediators, it is possible that the development of differentiated function is dependent on cortical innervation. The goal of this study was to compare the pattern and timing of rodent and ovine adrenal innervation during late organogenesis by staining with antibodies directed against the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and the catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TOH). Rat adrenals were collected from fetal days 17-21 (term=21 days) and ovine adrenals from fetal days 101-136 (term=145 days). Adrenals were fixed, cryosectioned at 100 microns and immunostained using Cy3-conjugated secondary antibodies. In both species, staining of VIP, CGRP, NPY and TOH fibers was observed in the capsule and subcapsular layers of the cortex during gestation. In late gestation, VIP- and NPY-positive ganglions cells were observed near the medulla extending processes toward the outer cortex; in ovine adrenals, fibers from ganglion cells appeared to surround nests of outer cortical (presumably, zona glomerulosa) cells. These data show that phenotypically distinct neural elements appear at different stages of adrenocortical development. The presence of neural elements in contact with adrenal cortical cells supports the possibility for neural control of adrenocortical development.

  1. Arteries of the adrenal glands in ostriches (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita das Graças de Oliveira Honorato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth of rational ostrich breeding and their byproducts has attracted interest from researchers to increase the studies in this animal. Thus, basic research areas, such as morphology, become necessary to provide the applied areas with knowledge. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge on the vascular arrangements of the adrenal glands, 30 ostriches (Struthio camelus were used, four days old, who had their arterial components marked with a 50% stained aqueous solution of Neoprene Latex ¨ 450 ¨ and fixed in a 10% diluted solution of formaldehyde. The coelomic cavity was exposed for identifying these glands, which are paired organs that are covered by loose connective tissue, symmetrically arranged in the two antimeres, laterally to the descending aorta, caudally to the lungs, and cranio-medially to the cranial lobes of the kidneys. The arterial blood supply, in both antimeres, is derived from the right and left adrenal arteries, the right and left cranial renal artery branches, and the right branches of the descending aorta. Regardless of the origin, the number of branches going to the adrenal glands ranged from one to two and one to three respectively, in the left and right antimeres.

  2. Effect of placental factors on growth and function of the human fetal adrenal in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riopel, L.; Branchaud, C.L.; Goodyer, C.G.; Zweig, M.; Lipowski, L.; Adkar, V.; Lefebvre, Y. (McGill Univ.-Montreal Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Quebec (Canada))

    1989-11-01

    Conditioned medium from human placental monolayer cultures (PM) had a marked stimulatory effect on proliferation (3H-thymidine uptake) of human fetal zone adrenal cells in primary monolayer culture, even in the absence of serum. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) also significantly stimulated fetal adrenal cell growth. However, the effects of PM differed from those of EGF and FGF in several respects: (1) maximal response to PM was 2-5 times greater; (2) mitogenic effects of EGF and FGF were suppressed by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), whereas that of 50% PM was not; (3) PM inhibited ACTH-stimulated steroidogenesis (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cortisol), but EGF and FGF did not. Preliminary characterization studies have indicated that approximately half of the placental growth-promoting activity is heat resistant and sensitive to bacterial proteases, and that 50-60% of the activity is lost after dialysis with membranes having a molecular weight cutoff of 3500. These findings suggest a role for the placenta in the growth and differentiated function of the human fetal adrenal gland.

  3. Characterization of the LPS-induced inflammation of the adrenal gland in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Chatzigeorgiou, Antonios; Samus, Maryna; Tran, Nguyen; Zacharowski, Kai; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Bornstein, Stefan R

    2013-05-22

    Systemic administration of endotoxin, which closely mimics the bacteria-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) can ultimately lead to organ failure. Adrenal gland insufficiency is frequently diagnosed in critically ill patients; however, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In the present study, we studied comprehensively the characteristics of adrenal gland dysregulation, including inflammation, leukocyte infiltration and cell death in the adrenal glands in the course of LPS-induced systemic inflammation in mice. LPS enhanced expression of many proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules, which resulted in rapid recruitment of leukocytes into the adrenal gland. Furthermore, LPS-mediated inflammation was associated with increased apoptosis of adrenocortical and chromaffin cells. Our results performed in mice, suggest that LPS-induced adrenal gland inflammation and cell death might be mechanisms potentially involved in the adrenal gland dysfunction in patients with sepsis.

  4. Adipose tissue and adrenal glands: novel pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargi, Atil Y; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Hormones produced by the adrenal glands and adipose tissues have important roles in normal physiology and are altered in many disease states. Obesity is associated with changes in adrenal function, including increase in adrenal medullary catecholamine output, alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, elevations in circulating aldosterone together with changes in adipose tissue glucocorticoid metabolism, and enhanced adipocyte mineralocorticoid receptor activity. It is unknown whether these changes in adrenal endocrine function are in part responsible for the pathogenesis of obesity and related comorbidities or represent an adaptive response. In turn, adipose tissue hormones or "adipokines" have direct effects on the adrenal glands and interact with adrenal hormones at several levels. Here we review the emerging evidence supporting the existence of "cross talk" between the adrenal gland and adipose tissue, focusing on the relevance and roles of their respective hormones in health and disease states including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and primary disorders of the adrenals.

  5. Ultrasonographic evaluation of adrenal gland size compared to body weight in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulsby, Stacy N; Holland, Merrilee; Hudson, Judith A; Behrend, Ellen N

    2015-01-01

    The accepted cut-off value for adrenal gland maximum diameter of 0.74 cm to distinguish adrenal gland enlargement in dogs regardless of body weight may not be appropriate for small to medium breed dogs. The purpose of the current retrospective study was to examine adrenal gland dimensions as a function of body weight in healthy dogs in three weight categories ( 30 kg) representing small, medium, and large breeds, respectively, to establish greater confidence in determining if adrenal gland size is abnormal. The measurements of length (sagittal plane), cranial and caudal pole thickness (sagittal and transverse planes), and caudal pole width (transverse plane) of both adrenal glands were obtained ultrasonographically in clinically healthy dogs (n = 45) with 15 dogs in each weight group. Findings support our hypothesis that adrenal gland size correlates with body weight in normal dogs, and more precise reference intervals should be created for adrenal gland size by categorizing dogs as small, medium, or large breed. The caudal pole thickness of either adrenal gland in a sagittal plane was the best dimension for evaluating adrenal gland size based on low variability, ease, and reliability in measurement.

  6. Stress-related gene expression in brain and adrenal gland of porcine fetuses and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerin, Manfred; Kanitz, Ellen; Tuchscherer, Margret; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Nürnberg, Gerd; Otten, Winfried

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted to examine stress-induced effects on gene expression of specific markers for HPA axis and neuronal activity in fetuses and neonatal pigs. Brain, pituitary gland, and adrenal gland were obtained to determine the mRNA levels for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), ACTH receptor (MC2R), c-jun and c-fos. The suitability of these molecular markers was determined in neonatal pigs which were maternally deprived for two hours. It was found that maternal deprivation caused significantly higher transcript levels of c-fos and CRH in brain accompanied by a down-regulation of CRHR1 mRNA and an up-regulation of c-jun in the pituitary gland. To determine the effect of elevated maternal cortisol levels on gene expression of these molecular markers in fetuses, pregnant sows were treated with 100 IU ACTH (Synacthen Depot) s.c. every two days between Day 49 and Day 75 of gestation (normal gestation length 114 days). Animals were killed 48 hours after the last ACTH administration and fetuses of each sow were isolated. The ACTH treatment of sows significantly increased mRNA expression of c-fos but not of CRH in the fetal brain, and significantly decreased MC2R mRNA expression in the adrenal gland. However, HPA axis seems not to be fully developed in Day 77-fetuses because fetal pituitary CRHR1 and POMC mRNA expression was low in most of the fetuses. Although the expression of endocrine regulatory factors was partially incomplete in fetuses at the beginning of the third-trimester, ACTH dependent activation of c-fos mRNA in brain indicates a stress-related increase of neuronal activity. Based on these results it is assumed that prenatal stress in pigs may also have effects on the activity of the HPA axis in the offspring.

  7. Differential expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R1a) in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueberberg, B; Unger, N; Sheu, S Y; Walz, M K; Schmid, K W; Saeger, W; Mann, K; Petersenn, S

    2008-03-01

    Ghrelin is a newly characterized, widely distributed peptide thought to be involved in the regulation of appetite. Significant effects on the release of growth hormone (GH) and ACTH have been demonstrated. This study compares the expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R) in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland. Normal adrenal tissue was obtained after autopsy. Tissue was obtained from 13 pheochromocytomas (PHEOs), 15 cortisol-secreting adenomas (CPAs), 12 aldosterone-secreting adenomas (APAs), and 16 nonfunctional adenomas (NFAs) following laparoscopic surgery. Expression of ghrelin and GHS-R1a was investigated on RNA levels by using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and on protein levels by using immunohistochemistry. In the seven normal adrenal glands analyzed, ghrelin mRNA levels were 12-fold lower than in stomach. Ghrelin protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In all adrenal tumors, relevant levels of ghrelin mRNA were observed, with significantly lower expression in PHEOs and APAs than in normal adrenal gland. Ghrelin protein was detected in 0% of PHEOs, 55% of APAs, 87% of CPAs, and 54% of NFAs. GHS-R1a mRNA expression was detectable in normal adrenal gland, but the receptor protein was absent. In adrenal tumors, detectable levels of receptor mRNA were found in 38% of PHEOs, 13% of CPAs, and 25% of NFAs. GHS-R1a protein was absent in the majority of adrenal tumors. Expression of ghrelin in normal adrenal gland and adrenal tumors may indicate some unknown physiological function. The pathophysiological relevance of ghrelin expression in adrenal tumors remains to be investigated.

  8. A case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma primary arising in both adrenal glands associated with adrenal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiuchi, Takamasa; Imachi, Hitomi; Fujiwara, Mako; Murao, Koji; Onishi, Hiroaki; Kiguchi, Tohru; Takimoto, Hidetaka; Kushida, Yoshio; Haba, Reiji; Ishida, Toshihiko

    2009-02-01

    It is known that adrenal insufficiency is one of the complications in primary adrenal lymphoma, especially those with bilateral adrenal involvement. A 73-year-old man was referred for general fatigue and high fever to the nearest hospital. The patient was transferred to our hospital for evaluation of bilateral adrenal tumors and hyponatremia. He was diagnosed as having non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) with primaries arising in both adrenal glands. Primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) is a rare extra-nodal NHL. Although an appropriate treatment of this disease has not been established, our case has demonstrated that the combination of rituximab and THP-COP chemotherapy could be administered, and that it improved clinical manifestations. This case raises the suggestion that malignant lymphoma should be suspected in patients with bilateral adrenal tumors that present with progressive adrenal insufficiency.

  9. Successful percutaneous CT-guided microwave ablation of adrenal gland for ectopic Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zener, Rebecca; Zaleski, Andrew; Van Uum, Stan H; Gray, Daryl K; Mujoomdar, Amol

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone production by pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) is rare and results in hyperstimulation of the adrenal gland to produce ectopic Cushing syndrome. Our case showcases the safety and effectiveness of percutaneous CT-guided microwave ablation of the adrenal gland in a 49-year-old female with PNET and hepatic metastases who presented with ectopic Cushing syndrome despite surgical resection of the primary pancreatic tumor and left adrenal gland. Prior to ablation, the right adrenal gland measured 4.3×1.6×2.0cm and the patient had malignant hypertension with elevated morning serum cortisol level (1976nmol/L). After microwave ablation of the right adrenal gland, the hypertension resolved and the cortisol level decreased dramatically (74nmol/L). As expected after successful treatment, the patient developed adrenal insufficiency and was placed on glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid supplementation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Anatomy, histology, and ultrasonography of the normal adrenal gland in brown lemur: Eulemur fulvus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharison, Fidiniaina; Bourges Abella, Nathalie; Sautet, Jean; Deviers, Alexandra; Mogicato, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    The medical care currently to brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus) is limited by a lack of knowledge of their anatomy. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomy and histology and obtain ultrasonographic measurements of normal adrenal glands in these animals. The adrenal glands of four lemurs cadavers were used for the anatomical and histological studies, and those of 15 anesthetized lemurs were examined by ultrasonography. Anatomically, the adrenal glands of brown lemurs are comparable to those of other species. The histological findings showed that the cortex is organized into three distinct layers, whereas most domestic mammals have an additional zone. The surface area of the adrenal glands increased with body weight, and the area of the right adrenal was slightly larger than the left. We suggest using ultrasonography to aid the etiological diagnosis of behavioral abnormalities that might be due to dysfunctions of the adrenal gland. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Catecholamine release evoked by lithium from the perfused adrenal gland of the cat.

    OpenAIRE

    de Abajo, F. J.; Castro, M. A.; Garijo, B; Sánchez-García, P.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of Li on catecholamine release by cat isolated retrogradely perfused adrenal gland was investigated. Replacement of Na (119 mM) by Li in the Krebs solution evoked a progressive increase in the spontaneous release of catecholamines that reached a maximum within 45 min and was Ca-dependent. This response was specific for Li, since sucrose or choline used as osmotic substitutes for Na, failed to increase the spontaneous release of catecholamines by the adrenal gland. In glands perfuse...

  12. Stem cells in the development and differentiation of the human adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    There are no studies on stem cells (SCs) and development and differentiation (DD) of the human adrenal glands. The SCs in DD of the adrenal glands were herein investigated histochemically and immunohistochemically in 18 human embryonic adrenal glands at gestational week (GW) 7-40. At 7 GW, the adrenal glands were present, and at 7 GW, numerous embryonic SCs (ESCs) are seen to create the adrenal cortex. The ESCs were composed exclusively of small cells with hyperchromatic nuclei without nucleoli. The ESCs were positive for neural cell adhesion molecule, KIT, neuron-specific enolase, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α, synaptophysin, and MET. They were negative for other SC antigens, including chromogranin, ErbB2, and bcl-2. They were also negative for lineage antigens, including cytokeratin (CK)7, CK8, CK18, and CK19, carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, epithelial membrane antigen, HepPar1, mucin core apoprotein (MUC)1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6, and cluster differentiation (CD)3, CD45, CD20, CD34, and CD31. The Ki-67 labeling index (LI) was high (Ki-67 LI = around 20%). α-Fetoprotein was positive in the ESCs and adrenal cells. The ESC was first seen in the periphery of the adrenal cortex at 7-10 GW. The ESC migrates into the inner part of the adrenal cortex. Huge islands of ESC were present near the adrenal, and they appeared to provide the ESC of the adrenal. At 16 GW, adrenal medulla appeared, and the adrenal ESCs were present in the periphery or the cortex, in the cortical parenchyma, corticomedullary junctions, and in the medulla. The adrenal essential architecture was established around 20 GW; however, there were still ESCs. At term, there are a few ESCs. These data suggest that the adrenal glands were created by ESCs.

  13. Changes of multiple biotransformation phase Ⅰ and phase Ⅱ enzyme activities in human fetal adrenals during fetal development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui WANG; Jie PING; Ren-xiu PENG; Jiang YUE; Xue-yan XIA; Qi-xiong LI; Rui KONG; Jun-yan HONG

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Fetal adrenal, which synthesizes steroid hormones, is critical to fetal growth and development. Our recent research showed that some xenobiotics could inter-fere with steroidogenesis and induce intrauterine growth retardation in rats. The study on the characteristics of biotransformation enzymes in fetal adrenals still seems to be important with respect to possible significance in xenobiotic-induced fetal development toxicity. In this study, the activities of several important xenobiotic-related phase Ⅰ and phase Ⅱ enzymes in human fetal adrenals were examined and compared with those in fetal livers. Methods: The activity and mRNA expression were determined by enzymatic analysis and RT-PCR. Results: The levels of cytochrome (CYP)2A6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A7 isozymes in fetal adrenals were 82%, 92%, and 33% of those in fetal livers, respectively. There was a good positive correlation between adrenal CYP2A6 activity and gestational time. The values of α glutathione S-transferase (GST), πGST, and μGST in adrenals were 0.5, 4.4, and 8.3-fold of those in the livers, respectively, and the activity of adrenal πGST was negatively correlated with gestational time. The uridine diphosphoglucuronyl transferase activities, which were measured using p-hydroxy-biphenyl and 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin as substrates, were 9% and 3%, respectively, of those in the fetal livers. Conclusion: Our investiga-tion suggested that adrenal could be an important xenobiotic-metabolizing or-gan in fetal development and may play a potential role in xenobiotic-induced fetal development toxicity.

  14. Amniotic fluid embolism with involvement of the brain, lungs, adrenal glands, and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazic, J; Rott, T; Jancigaj, T; Popović, M; Zajfert-Slabe, M; Svigelj, V

    2003-06-01

    The case of a healthy 31-year-old woman in the 40th week of second pregnancy is presented. During preparation for an emergency caesarean section, she developed an amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) with unusual and unique features. The acute onset of disease with cardiorespiratory failure with hypotension, tachycardia, cyanosis, respiratory disturbances and loss of consciousness, suggested at first a pulmonary thromboembolism, but the appearance of convulsions led to the diagnosis of AFE. The patient died after 5 days due to an untreatable brain edema. At autopsy, AFE with the usually associated disseminated intravascular coagulation was found in the lungs, brain, left adrenal gland, kidneys, liver and heart. Eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrates were found in the lungs, hepatic portal fields and especially in the heart, suggesting a specific hypersensitivity reaction to fetal antigens. Moreover, intravascular accumulation of macrophages in the lungs also favored a non-specific immune reaction to amniotic fluid constituents.

  15. Adrenal gland volume measurement in septic shock and control patients: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nougaret, Stephanie; Aufort, S.; Gallix, B. [Hopital Saint Eloi, Department of Abdominal Imaging, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France); Jung, B.; Chanques, G.; Jaber, S. [Hopital Saint Eloi, Intensive Care Unit, Department of Critical Care and Anesthesiology: DAR B, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France)

    2010-10-15

    To compare adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients and control patients by using semi-automated volumetry. Adrenal gland volume and its inter-observer variability were measured with tomodensitometry using semi-automated software in 104 septic shock patients and in 40 control patients. The volumes of control and septic shock patients were compared and the relationship between volume and outcome in intensive care was studied. The mean total volume of both adrenal glands was 7.2 {+-} 2.0 cm{sup 3} in control subjects and 13.3 {+-} 4.7 cm{sup 3} for total adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients (p < 0.0001). Measurement reproducibility was excellent with a concordance correlation coefficient value of 0.87. The increasing adrenal gland volume was associated with a higher rate of survival in intensive care. The present study reports that with semi-automated software, adrenal gland volume can be measured easily and reproducibly. Adrenal gland volume was found to be nearly double in sepsis compared with control patients. The absence of increased volume during sepsis would appear to be associated with a higher rate of mortality and may represent a prognosis factor which may help the clinician to guide their strategy. (orig.)

  16. Role of toll-like receptors and inflammation in adrenal gland insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Zacharowski, Kai; Bornstein, Stefan R

    2010-01-01

    Adrenal gland insufficiency - the clinical manifestation of deficient production or action of adrenal steroids - is a life-threatening disorder. Among many factors which can predispose to primary adrenal failure, an autoimmune adrenalitis and infectious agents play a major role. The initial host defense against bacterial infections is executed primarily by the pattern recognition receptors, e.g. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), expressed in cells from the innate immune system. Upon activation, TLRs have been found to regulate various levels of innate and adaptive immunity as well as control tissue inflammation. TLRs are implicated in adrenal cell turnover and steroidogenesis during inflammation. Therefore, TLRs play a crucial role in the activation of adrenal inflammation mediating adrenal gland dysfunction during septicemia.

  17. Horseshoe adrenal gland in association with asplenia: presentation of six new cases and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strouse, Peter J. [Section of Pediatric Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Room F3503, University of Michigan Medical Center, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0252 (United States); Haller, Jack O. [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Berdon, Walter E. [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Rosovsky, Mark A. [Department of Radiology, Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, Newark, New Jersey (United States); Bellah, Richard D. [Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Barr, Mason [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2002-11-01

    Asplenia syndrome is a form of heterotaxy characterized by bilateral right-sidedness. Congenital fusion of the adrenal glands (''horseshoe adrenal gland'') is a less common feature of asplenia syndrome, most instances of which have been found at autopsy.Purpose. To present clinical and imaging features of infants diagnosed with asplenia syndrome and horseshoe adrenal gland.Materials and methods. Six infants with asplenia syndrome were identified as having a horseshoe adrenal gland. Medical records and imaging studies were reviewed to determine clinical presentation, associated anomalies, and outcome. The literature was reviewed for prior reports of horseshoe adrenal gland.Results. Horseshoe adrenal gland was identified in five infants by sonography and one by CT, the latter confirmed by autopsy. In all cases, the horseshoe adrenal gland was pre-aortic. Besides features of asplenia syndrome, one infant also had associated vertebral anomalies and bilateral renal agenesis. Including the current cases, of 65 reported cases of horseshoe adrenal gland 34 (52%) were associated with asplenia, 24 (37%) with neural tube defects, 19 (29%) with renal anomalies, and 2 (3%) with Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Horseshoe adrenal gland has not been reported with polysplenia syndrome.Conclusions. Horseshoe adrenal gland is a less common manifestation of asplenia that may be demonstrated by imaging. Horseshoe adrenal gland may be a differentiating feature between asplenia and polysplenia. (orig.)

  18. Primary Epithelioid Angiosarcoma of the Adrenal Gland: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Mohamed Ayadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary mesenchymal neoplasms of the adrenal gland are extremely rare. The most common primary sarcoma is adrenal angiosarcoma. We report the case of a 51-year-old patient who presented with left flank pain. After ultrasound investigations, the patient underwent surgical removal of an adrenal tumor. The gross adrenal specimen showed extensive cystic changes with old hemorrhage and necrosis. Histologically, irregular branching vascular channels were seen intermixed with solid areas of epithelioid cells. Immunohistochemical staining of tumor cells was positive with antibodies to cytokeratin and CD31. After a 12 months follow-up, the patient is still well with no sign of a relapse. Because of the epithelioid appearance and frequent expression of epithelial immunohistochemical markers, primary epithelioid angiosarcoma of the adrenal gland can be confounded with adrenal carcinomatous metastases. We report our findings with a brief literature review and discussion of differential diagnosis. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2016; 4(3.000: 67-69

  19. Expression and externalization of annexin 1 in the adrenal gland: structure and function of the adrenal gland in annexin 1-null mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Evelyn; Omer, Selma; Buckingham, Julia C; Morris, John F; Christian, Helen C

    2007-03-01

    Annexin 1 (ANXA1) is a member of the annexin family of phospholipid- and calcium-binding proteins with a well demonstrated role in early delayed (30 min to 3 h) inhibitory feedback of glucocorticoids in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. This study used adrenal gland tissue from ANXA1-null transgenic mice, in which a beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) reporter gene was controlled by the ANXA1 promoter, and wild-type control mice to explore the potential role of ANXA1 in adrenal function. RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed strong expression of ANXA1 mRNA and protein in the adrenal gland. Immunofluorescence labeling of ANXA1 in wild-type and beta-Gal expression in ANXA1-null adrenals localized intense staining in the outer perimeter cell layers. Immunogold electron microscopy identified cytoplasmic and nuclear ANXA1 labeling in outer cortical cells and capsular cells. Exposure of adrenal segments in vitro to dexamethasone (0.1 mum, 3 h) caused an increase in the amount of ANXA1 in the intracellular compartment and attached to the surface of the cells. The N-terminal peptide ANXA1(Ac2-26) inhibited corticosterone release. Corticosterone release was significantly greater from ANXA1-null adrenal cells compared with wild type in response to ACTH (10 pm to 5 nm). In contrast, basal and ACTH-stimulated aldosterone release from ANXA1-null adrenal cells was not different from wild type. Morphometry studies demonstrated that ANXA1 null adrenal glands were smaller than wild-type, and the cortical/medullary area ratio was significantly reduced. These results suggest ANXA1 is a regulator of adrenocortical size and corticosterone secretion.

  20. Clinical impact of hyperattenuation of adrenal glands on contrast-enhanced computed tomography of polytraumatised patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schek, J.; Klasen-Sansone, J.; Heusch, P.; Kroepil, P.; Antoch, G.; Lanzman, R.S. [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Macht, S. [Radiologie Koeln-Nord, Koeln (Germany); Witte, I. [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Trauma and Hand Surgery, Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the prognostic value of hyperattenuating adrenal glands on contrast-enhanced CT of polytraumatised patients. Two hundred ninety-two patients (195 men and 97 women, mean age 45.3 ± 23.3 years) were included in this retrospective study. CT examinations were performed 60 s after intravenous injection of contrast material. Image analysis was performed by two radiologists. Patients were assigned to one of two groups according to the attenuation of the adrenal gland [group 1: adrenal glands ≥ inferior vena cava (IVC); group 2: adrenal glands < IVC]. Eighteen patients (42.2 years ± 24.2) were assigned to group 1 and 274 patients (48.4 years ± 22.4) to group 2. The average adrenal density was 150.8 ± 36.1 HU in group 1 and 83.7 ± 23.6 HU in group 2 (P < 0.0001). Eight of the 18 patients in group 1 (44.4 %) and 33 of the 274 patients in group 2 (12.4 %) died during hospitalisation (P < 0.05). Mean adrenal enhancement was significantly higher in patients who died (101.9 ± 40.6 HU) compared with survivors (86.1 ± 27.0 HU; P < 0.001). Hyperattenuation of adrenal glands is associated with a higher mortality rate in polytraumatised patients and may serve as a predictor of poor clinical outcome. (orig.)

  1. Establishment of rat model of combined kidney-adrenal gland allotransplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanjun Shi; Ruipeng Jia; Jiageng Zhu; Guangcheng Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To establish a rat model of combined kidney-adrenal gland and allotransplantation, and to explore the immunoprotecive effect of the transplanted adrenal gland on the transplanted kidney in the combined transplantation.Methods: SD rats 160 served as donors and recipients. The combined kidney-adrenal gland allotransplantation was performed.Infusion was conducted and prepared at prime position ,and the kidney and adrenal gland were at the left side. Direct vascular anastomosis and operation of connecting ureter attached part of bladder with the bladder were conducted. The kidney pedicle of the right side was ligated. Results: A stable and mature rat model of combined transplantation was established. The warm ischemia time was 30 seconds, and the cold ischemia time was 90-120min. The average time was 100 min. The operation time was 150 min.The survival time of the recipients was 21 days. The successful rate of the operation was 75%. Conclusion: The model of the combined kidney-adrenal gland allotransplantation can be established with higher successful rate. The model can be used to explore that transplanted adrenal gland may have immunoprotecive effect on the transplanted kidney in the combined transplantation.

  2. Embryology of the adrenal glands and its relevance to diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barwick, T.D. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: tara.barwick@btinternet.com; Malhotra, A. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Webb, J.A.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Savage, M.O. [Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Reznek, R.H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    An understanding of the embryology of the adrenal glands is necessary to appreciate the location of adrenal ectopic, or rest, tissue which can occur anywhere along the course of gonadal descent. This tissue usually has no clinical significance, but may become hyperplastic in patients with primary or secondary adrenal pathology. In congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hyperplastic rest tissue may present as a soft-tissue mass, particularly in the gonads and retroperitoneum, and may be mistaken for tumour. The adrenal in the neonate is proportionately much larger than in the adult; in renal ectopy or agenesis the ipsilateral adrenal is normally sited and may be mistaken for a kidney because of its size. This review article illustrates the embryology of the adrenal with particular emphasis on the relevance of embryology to pathology.

  3. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the adrenal gland: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Phukan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET is an uncommon tumor and the overall incidence is 1% of all sarcomas. PNET of the adrenal gland is an even rarer entity. A 37-year-old female was evaluated for an episode of loin pain. Ultrasonography showed a large heterogenous left adrenal mass with internal echogenic components. Computed tomography did not show any fat density within to suggest a myelolipoma. Biopsy suggested a poorly differentiated neoplasm with a possibility of PNET of the adrenal gland.

  4. Placental Estrogen Suppresses Cyclin D1 Expression in the Nonhuman Primate Fetal Adrenal Cortex*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Adina; Aberdeen, Graham W.; Pepe, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that estrogen selectively suppresses growth of the fetal zone of the baboon fetal adrenal cortex, which produces the C19-steroid precursors, eg, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, which are aromatized to estrogen within the placenta. In the present study, we determined whether fetal adrenal expression of cell cycle regulators are altered by estrogen and thus provide a mechanism by which estrogen regulates fetal adrenocortical development. Cyclin D1 mRNA levels in the whole fetal adrenal were increased 50% (P < .05), and the number of cells in the fetal adrenal definitive zone expressing cyclin D1 protein was increased 2.5-fold (P < .05), whereas the total number of cells in the fetal zone and fetal serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels were elevated 2-fold (P < .05) near term in baboons in which fetal serum estradiol levels were decreased by 95% (P < .05) after maternal administration of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and restored to normal by concomitant administration of letrozole plus estradiol throughout second half of gestation. However, fetal adrenocortical expression of cyclin D2, the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-2, Cdk4, and Cdk6, and Cdk regulatory proteins p27Kip1 and p57Kip2 were not changed by letrozole or letrozole plus estradiol administration. We suggest that estrogen controls the growth of the fetal zone of the fetal adrenal by down-regulating cyclin D1 expression and thus proliferation of progenitor cells within the definitive zone that migrate to the fetal zone. We propose that estrogen restrains growth and function of the fetal zone via cyclin D1 to maintain estrogen levels in a physiological range during primate pregnancy. PMID:25247468

  5. Placental estrogen suppresses cyclin D1 expression in the nonhuman primate fetal adrenal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Adina; Aberdeen, Graham W; Pepe, Gerald J; Albrecht, Eugene D

    2014-12-01

    We have previously shown that estrogen selectively suppresses growth of the fetal zone of the baboon fetal adrenal cortex, which produces the C19-steroid precursors, eg, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, which are aromatized to estrogen within the placenta. In the present study, we determined whether fetal adrenal expression of cell cycle regulators are altered by estrogen and thus provide a mechanism by which estrogen regulates fetal adrenocortical development. Cyclin D1 mRNA levels in the whole fetal adrenal were increased 50% (P < .05), and the number of cells in the fetal adrenal definitive zone expressing cyclin D1 protein was increased 2.5-fold (P < .05), whereas the total number of cells in the fetal zone and fetal serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels were elevated 2-fold (P < .05) near term in baboons in which fetal serum estradiol levels were decreased by 95% (P < .05) after maternal administration of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and restored to normal by concomitant administration of letrozole plus estradiol throughout second half of gestation. However, fetal adrenocortical expression of cyclin D2, the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-2, Cdk4, and Cdk6, and Cdk regulatory proteins p27(Kip1) and p57(Kip2) were not changed by letrozole or letrozole plus estradiol administration. We suggest that estrogen controls the growth of the fetal zone of the fetal adrenal by down-regulating cyclin D1 expression and thus proliferation of progenitor cells within the definitive zone that migrate to the fetal zone. We propose that estrogen restrains growth and function of the fetal zone via cyclin D1 to maintain estrogen levels in a physiological range during primate pregnancy.

  6. Isolated hydatid cyst of adrenal gland with hypertension mimicking Conn's syndrome: a very rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Chaudhary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland is one of the rare conditions caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. The incidence of adrenal gland involvement is less than 1% of all hydatid disease in humans and isolated adrenal involvement is extremely rare. Hydatid disease is frequent in endemic regions and sheep farming areas with equal sex distribution. Here, a case of 23 year old female with isolated adrenal gland hydatid cyst is presented, that was evaluated clinically, investigated radiographicaly and by blood investigations and finally histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. No complications occurred at peri and postoperative period. The patient was given 6 cycles of albendazole (10 mg/kg in two divided doses, each for a period of four weeks followed by a week's rest. The patient is on regular follow-up without recurrence in last 1 year. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 3071-3073

  7. Ovarian thecal metaplasia of the adrenal gland in association with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eslam; Y; Wassal; Mouhammed; Amir; Habra; Rafael; Vicens; Priya; Rao; Khaled; M; Elsayes

    2014-01-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome(BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome associated with increased risk to develop malignancies including adrenocortical carcinoma. Ovarian thecal metaplasia of the adrenal gland is a rare tumorlike mesenchymal lesion in BWS patients that lacks detailed radiological description. We report a 17-yearold female patient with BWS, associated with bilateral Wilms tumor, hepatic hemangiomatosis, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, and a phyllodes tumor of the right breast. Surveillance abdominal ultrasound identified a right adrenal mass that was further characterized by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Radiologically, this mass displayed features that overlap with adrenocortical carcinoma and pheochromocytoma but after pathological examination this proved to be an ovarian thecal metaplasia of the adrenal gland. Adrenal masses in BWS should raise the suspicion for adrenocortical carcinoma though other adrenal tumors including ovarian thecal metaplasia can be seen in these patients.

  8. Usefulness of standardized uptake values for distinguishing adrenal glands with pheochromocytoma from normal adrenal glands by use of 6-18F-fluorodopamine PET.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Whatley, M.; Eisenhofer, G.; Chen, C.C.; Ling, A.; Linehan, W.M.; Pinto, P.A.; Adams, K.T.; Pacak, K.

    2007-01-01

    6-(18)F-Fluorodopamine ((18)F-FDA) PET is a highly sensitive tool for the localization of pheochromocytoma (PHEO). The aim of this study was to establish cutoff values for pathologic and physiologic adrenal gland tracer uptake. METHODS: (18)F-FDA PET with CT coregistration was performed in 14 patien

  9. Usefulness of standardized uptake values for distinguishing adrenal glands with pheochromocytoma from normal adrenal glands by use of 6-18F-fluorodopamine PET.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Whatley, M.; Eisenhofer, G.; Chen, C.C.; Ling, A.; Linehan, W.M.; Pinto, P.A.; Adams, K.T.; Pacak, K.

    2007-01-01

    6-(18)F-Fluorodopamine ((18)F-FDA) PET is a highly sensitive tool for the localization of pheochromocytoma (PHEO). The aim of this study was to establish cutoff values for pathologic and physiologic adrenal gland tracer uptake. METHODS: (18)F-FDA PET with CT coregistration was performed in 14

  10. Blunt adrenal gland trauma in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roupakias, Stylianos; Papoutsakis, Marinos; Mitsakou, Paraskevi

    2011-07-01

    A retrospective review of the literature was performed to determine the natural history, prevalence, prognosis and management of adrenal injury associated with blunt abdominal trauma in pediatric population. Blunt adrenal injury in children is uncommon, rarely isolated, and typically present as part of a multi organ trauma. Adrenal hemorrhage is being diagnosed more frequently since the emergence of computed tomography in modern emergency rooms. Obstetric birth trauma during vaginal delivery of a macrosomic fetus may result in neonatal adrenal hemorrhage. In children appear to be an incidental finding that resolves on follow-up imaging. Most of these injuries are self-limited and do not require intervention. The differential diagnosis of an adrenal neoplasm, especially in children with an isolated adrenal hemorrhage, must be considered. The presence of adrenal hemorrhage in the absence of a trauma history should alert to the possibility of pediatric inflicted injury.

  11. Combined steroidogenic characters of fetal adrenal and Leydig cells in childhood adrenocortical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Yasuko; Sakaguchi, Kimiyoshi; Ono, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Rie; Kato, Fumiko; Kagami, Masayo; Fukami, Maki; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2016-05-01

    Although childhood adrenocortical carcinomas (c-ACCs) with a TP53 mutation are known to produce androgens, detailed steroidogenic characters have not been clarified. Here, we examined steroid metabolite profiles and expression patterns of steroidogenic genes in a c-ACC removed from the left adrenal position of a 2-year-old Brazilian boy with precocious puberty, using an atrophic left adrenal gland removed at the time of tumorectomy as a control. The c-ACC produced not only abundant dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate but also a large amount of testosterone via the Δ5 pathway with Δ5-androstenediol rather than Δ4-androstenedione as the primary intermediate metabolite. Furthermore, the c-ACC was associated with elevated expressions of CYP11A1, CYP17A1, POR, HSD17B3, and SULT2A1, a low but similar expression of CYB5A, and reduced expressions of AKR1C3 (HSD17B5) and HSD3B2. Notably, a Leydig cell marker INSL3 was expressed at a low but detectable level in the c-ACC. Furthermore, molecular studies revealed a maternally inherited heterozygous germline TP53 mutation, and several post-zygotic genetic aberrations in the c-ACC including loss of paternally derived chromosome 17 with a wildtype TP53 and loss of maternally inherited chromosome 11 and resultant marked hyperexpression of paternally expressed growth promoting gene IGF2 and drastic hypoexpression of maternally expressed growth suppressing gene CDKN1C. These results imply the presence of combined steroidogenic properties of fetal adrenal and Leydig cells in this patient's c-ACC with a germline TP53 mutation and several postzygotic carcinogenic events.

  12. Large cavernous hemangioma of the adrenal gland: Laparoscopic treatment. Report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrusa, A; Romano, G; Salamone, G; Orlando, E; Di Buono, G; Chianetta, D; Sorce, V; Gulotta, L; Galia, M; Gulotta, G

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous hemangioma of the adrenal gland is a rare benign tumor. The diagnosis is often postoperative on histological exam with the presence of blood-filled, dilated vascular spaces. We report the clinical case of a 49 years-old woman who came to our observation with aspecific abdominal pain. A computed tomography (CT) abdominal scan revealed a 11cm right adrenal mass. This lesion was well circumscribed, round, encapsulated. After iodinated-contrast we observed a progressive, inhomogeneous enhancement without evidence of active bleeding and with pre-operative diagnosis of adrenal hemangioma. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed by a transperitoneal flank approach. Pathological examination revealed a 11cm adrenal mass with extensive central necrotic areas mixed to sinusoidal dilation and fibrotic septa. Postoperative diagnosis was adrenal hemangioma. Adrenal hemangiomas occur infrequently. Generally these adrenal masses are non-functioning and there is no specific symptoms. Recent records demonstrate that laparoscopic adrenalectomy is technically safe and feasible for large adrenal tumors, but controversy exists in cases of suspected malignancy. We choose laparoscopic approach to adrenal gland on the basis of preoperative CT abdominal scan that excludes radiological signs of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) such as peri-adrenal infiltration and vascular invasion. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered the standard treatment in case of diagnosis of benign lesions. In this case report we discussed a large adrenal cavernous hemangioma treated with laparoscopic approach. Fundamental is the study of preoperative endocrine disorders and radiologic findings to exclude signs of malignancy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrasonographic adrenal gland findings in healthy semi-captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirberger, Robert M; Tordiffe, Adrian S W

    2016-05-01

    Cheetahs in captivity are believed to suffer from stress predisposing them to poor health. To date fecal glucocorticoids have been used as a non-invasive indicator of chronic stress. This study examines, the feasibility of transabdominal adrenal gland ultrasonography in cheetahs and determined normal adrenal measurements that can potentially be used as a more reliable indicator of chronic stress and/or adrenal function. Thirty-three adult cheetahs, aged between 2 and 13 years, accommodated in large off-display camps were examined over 9 days under general anesthesia. The adrenals were readily identified, with the right adrenal being more difficult to find and measure than the left, and were smaller than those expected in similar sized dogs. The left adrenal was shorter and slightly more oval shaped than the right with a length and cranial pole width at a 95% prediction interval of 16.3-22.4 and 4.1-8.7 mm. The same measurements for the right adrenal were 16.8-26.2 and 3.4-10.8 mm, respectively. Corticomedullary ratios were larger for the left adrenal. When corrected for body size, females had significantly longer and greater left adrenal corticomedullary ratios than males. Adrenal measurements did not correlate with left renal length, body size measurements, or enclosure size. Measurements that increased with age included the cortical and total adrenal widths. Adrenal ultrasonography offers potential benefits in assessment of individual cheetah adrenal pathology or the evaluation of stress induced adrenomegally especially in combination with other evaluations such as non-invasive fecal glucocorticoid analyses. Zoo Biol. 35:260-268, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Innovative approach to laparoscopic adrenalectomy for treatment of unilateral adrenal gland tumors in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naan, Elaine C; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Dupré, Gilles P; Galac, Sara; Radlinsky, MaryAnn G

    2013-08-01

    To report a technique for, and short-term outcome of unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy in dogs positioned in sternal recumbency without abdominal support. Experimental and prospective clinical study. Healthy dogs (n = 5) and dogs with unilateral adrenal gland tumor (n = 9). Anesthetized dogs were positioned in sternal recumbency with 2 cushions placed under the dog to elevate the chest and pelvic area so that the abdomen was not in contact with the surgical table allowing gravitational displacement of the abdominal viscera. Three 5-mm portals were located in the paralumbar fossa. Adrenal glands were carefully dissected and surrounding tissues sealed and cut using a vessel-sealing device. A retrieval bag or part of a surgical glove finger was used to remove the adrenal gland from the abdomen. Surgical time and complications were recorded, and short-term outcome assessed. Adrenal glands in normal dogs and unilateral adrenal tumors (8 left, 1 right) not involving the caudal vena cava in affected dogs were successfully removed laparoscopically. There were no major intraoperative complications. Of the dogs with adrenal tumors, 1 dog died within 24 hours of surgery from unrelated causes. Eight dogs recovered within 1 day and were discharged within 72 hours. Surgical times ranged from 42 to 117 minutes and were significantly shorter than those reported previously. Positioning anesthetized dogs in sternal recumbency with the abdomen suspended to facilitate gravitational displacement of the abdominal viscera improves access to, and visibility of, the adrenal gland for laparoscopic removal. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  15. Adrenal gland volume, intra-abdominal and pericardial adipose tissue in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Kai G; Schweiger, Ulrich; Pars, Kaweh; Kunikowska, Alicja; Deuschle, Michael; Gutberlet, Marcel; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Bleich, Stefan; Hüper, Katja; Hartung, Dagmar

    2015-08-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with an increased risk for the development of cardio-metabolic diseases. Increased intra-abdominal (IAT) and pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) have been found in depression, and are discussed as potential mediating factors. IAT and PAT are thought to be the result of a dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) with subsequent hypercortisolism. Therefore we examined adrenal gland volume as proxy marker for HPAA activation, and IAT and PAT in depressed patients. Twenty-seven depressed patients and 19 comparison subjects were included in this case-control study. Adrenal gland volume, pericardial, intraabdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Further parameters included factors of the metabolic syndrome, fasting cortisol, fasting insulin, and proinflammatory cytokines. Adrenal gland and pericardial adipose tissue volumes, serum concentrations of cortisol and insulin, and serum concentrations tumor-necrosis factor-α were increased in depressed patients. Adrenal gland volume was positively correlated with intra-abdominal and pericardial adipose tissue, but not with subcutaneous adipose tissue. Our findings point to the role of HPAA dysregulation and hypercortisolism as potential mediators of IAT and PAT enlargement. Further studies are warranted to examine whether certain subtypes of depression are more prone to cardio-metabolic diseases.

  16. Incidentally Detected Kaposi Sarcoma of Adrenal Gland with Anaplastic Features in an HIV Negative Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha Esin Celik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi sarcoma (KS, a vascular tumor caused by infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8, is a systemic disease that can present with cutaneous lesions with or without visceral involvement. Very few cases of KS, most of which were associated with AIDS, have been reported in the adrenal gland. Anaplastic transformation of KS is a rare clinical presentation known as an aggressive disease with local recurrence and metastatic potential. We report here a 47-year-old HIV negative male presented with extra-adrenal symptoms and had an incidentally detected anaplastic adrenal KS exhibited aggressive clinical course. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of anaplastic primary adrenal KS without mucocutaneous involvement but subsequently developed other side adrenal metastases in an HIV negative patient.

  17. Incidentally Detected Kaposi Sarcoma of Adrenal Gland with Anaplastic Features in an HIV Negative Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Murat; Sen, Erdem; Cebeci, Hakan; Ata, Ozlem; Yavas, Cagdas

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS), a vascular tumor caused by infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), is a systemic disease that can present with cutaneous lesions with or without visceral involvement. Very few cases of KS, most of which were associated with AIDS, have been reported in the adrenal gland. Anaplastic transformation of KS is a rare clinical presentation known as an aggressive disease with local recurrence and metastatic potential. We report here a 47-year-old HIV negative male presented with extra-adrenal symptoms and had an incidentally detected anaplastic adrenal KS exhibited aggressive clinical course. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of anaplastic primary adrenal KS without mucocutaneous involvement but subsequently developed other side adrenal metastases in an HIV negative patient.

  18. Alveolar echinococcosis of the adrenal gland: brief review of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Bo; Tuergan Aili; SHAO Ying-mei; JIANG Tie-ming; LI Hai-tao; WANG Yu-jie; WEN Hao

    2012-01-01

    Background Alveolar echinococcosis located in the adrenal gland can be considered a rare and aggressive infestation that radiologically and macroscopically mimics a malignant neoplasm.Its pathogenesis is poorly understood.This paper describes its clinical and radiological aspects and discusses its proper management.Methods The records of two patients with adrenal gland alveolar echinococcosis who were diagnosed and treated in our center in 2009 were evaluated.Results Neither patient showed any signs of recurrence following radical surgical treatment and postoperative oral anthelmintic therapy.Conclusion Radical surgery can be a feasible,effective management option that results in a good prospective outcome.

  19. Incidentally detected hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Sami

    2016-09-16

    Hydatid cysts are a zoonotic disease that can involve many organs and tissues in the human body but primarily involve the liver and lungs. Of the main organs, adrenal glands are those seldom affected by hydatid cysts. The purpose of this study was to present a case with an incidentally detected hydatid cyst of the right adrenal gland on computed tomography, and a positive echincoccus IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test on top of a toxic multinodular thyroid goiter for which thyroidectomy was indicated.

  20. Incidentally detected hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Akbulut, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid cysts are a zoonotic disease that can involve many organs and tissues in the human body but primarily involve the liver and lungs. Of the main organs, adrenal glands are those seldom affected by hydatid cysts. The purpose of this study was to present a case with an incidentally detected hydatid cyst of the right adrenal gland on computed tomography, and a positive echincoccus IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test on top of a toxic multinodular thyroid goiter for which thyroidecto...

  1. Pathologic findings in the adrenal glands of autopsied patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Denise; Reis, Marlene; Teixeira, Vicente; Silva-Vergara, Mário; Filho, Dalmo Correia; Adad, Sheila; Lazo, Javier

    2002-01-01

    A morphologic evaluation was carried out on adrenal glands from 128 autopsied patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The adrenal gland was compromised in 99.2% of the cases, with distinct pathological features and infectious agents. Inflammatory infiltrates were observed in 99.2% of the cases with a predominance of mononuclear cells in 97.4%, affecting mainly the medulla. Necrosis, fibrosis, hemorrhages and neoplasias were observed. We also described 3 (2.3%) cases of calcification located in the adrenal gland central vein (AGCV). This is seldom mentioned in the literature. Cytomegalovirus was the most frequent infectious agent, observed in 48.4% of cases. Balamuthia mandrillaris, a free living ameba, was found in one case affecting the entire gland. We also found a nest of Trypanosoma cruzi in the musculature of the AGCV. The presence of the nest of T cruzi in AGCV may play a role in the reactivation of this infection in immunosuppressed individuals. Pathologic processes and opportunistic infections may contribute to the alterations in the adrenal gland that lead to multiple organ failure observed in terminal AIDS patients.

  2. [Occurrence and structure of accessory adrenal glands in Wistar rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabedal, P E; Partenheimer, U

    1983-01-01

    In complete series of histological sections through the entire abdomen of one normal Wistar-rat, one untreated and two bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive Wistar-rats accessory suprarenal glands were found in each case. The detailed findings in the various groups of animals investigated were as follows: (1) In the normal animal 10 accessory suprarenal glands were present. They consisted of tiny aggregates of cortical cells and were surrounded by a thin layer of collageneous fibers. The diameters of the accessory suprarenal complexes were in the order of 0.3 mm. (2) In the untreated, spontaneously hypertensive rat three accessory suprarenal glands were found. However, in contrast to what was seen in the normal rat, these complexes were larger and had diameters of up to 1 mm. Some of these accessory suprarenal glands consisted almost exclusively of small, chromophobe cells, whereas in others a rim of such cells was seen to surround a central core of larger and more acidophile cortical cells. There were few and collapsed capillaries. (3) In the bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive rats three, respectively four, accessory suprarenal glands were found. They were situated in the retroperitoneum and partly within the adipose capsule of the kidney but never in the place of the exstirpated main suprarenal glands. In one case an accessory gland was found within the fibrous capsule of the kidney and seen to compress the renal parenchyma. In the bilaterally adrenalectomized animals the average diameters of the accessory glands were larger than in the other groups reaching values of up to 5 mm. At least in both animals one of the accessory glands had a diameter comparable to that of the normal suprarenal gland of an untreated animal. The capillaries were dilated and their number was increased in comparison to what was seen in the other groups. In certain regions the cortical tissue of the accessory glands had an appearance resembling

  3. Ganglioneuroma of adrenal gland in a patient with Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoun, Mahdi; Mnif, Mouna Feki; Rekik, Nabila; Belguith, Neila; Charfi, Nadia; Mnif, Lilia; Elleuch, Mouna; Mnif, Fatma; Kamoun, Thouraya; Mnif, Zeinab; Kamoun, Hassen; Sellami-Boudawara, Tahia; Hachicha, Mongia; Abid, Mohamed

    2010-04-01

    A 15-year-old girl with Turner syndrome was unexpectedly found to have a left suprarenal mass. Extensive investigations showed a clinically and biochemically inapparent mass. Computed tomography disclosed a well-defined solid lesion in the left adrenal measuring 6.5 x 5 cm with minimal contrast enhancement. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was done. Histologic examination revealed an encapsulated mass originated from the left adrenal medulla. Tumor tissue comprised abundant collagen fibers and spindloid cells admixed with mature ganglion cells. The tumor was diagnosed as left adrenal ganglioneuroma. According to literature, we report the eighth case of ganglioneuroma complicating Turner syndrome. Patients with this syndrome are predisposed to the development of neuroblastoma and related tumors. Reasons for this predisposition might relate to genetic and hormonal factors. Given that these tumors are often limited stage and of good prognosis, we recommend their screening in all patients with Turner syndrome.

  4. Right adrenal gland neuroblastoma infiltrating the liver and mimicking mesenchymal hamartoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abo-Elenain

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: We represent a rare case of neuroblastoma which arose from the right adrenal gland and infiltrated the adjacent liver substance mimicking mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver. Neuroblastoma is rarely presented with pyrexia of unknown origin. Neuroblastoma should be considered in differential diagnosis of abdominal mass in all infants and children.

  5. Effects of intra-abdominal pressure on adrenal gland function and morphology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkapulu, Nezih; Tirnaksiz, Mehmet Bulent; Kulac, Ibrahim; Tezel, Gaye Guler; Hayran, Mutlu; Dogrul, Ahmet Bulent; Cetinkaya, Erdinc; Yorganci, Kaya

    2015-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome (IAH/ACS) are life-threatening conditions and caused by several clinical status. Although there is insufficient data regarding its effects on adrenal glands. This study aimed to identify whether elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) caused any alteration on the morphology and function of adrenal glands in a rat model. Twenty four Sprague-Dawley male rats were included in the study. Animals were allocated into 4 groups. IAP was elevated to 15 mmHg for one hour and four hours in group 2 and 4. Group 1 and 3 were sham groups. Blood samples were taken for the assessment of plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, and corticosterone levels and adrenalectomies were performed to evaluate apoptosis. Blood adrenaline, noradrenaline and corticosterone levels were significantly higher in the study groups compared with the sham groups. However, there were no significant changes in apoptotic index scores in the study groups as compared to sham groups. These results support that increased IAH leads to discharge of catecholamine and corticosterone from the adrenal glands. Failure to demonstrate similar changes in apoptotic index score may be concluded as apoptosis is not a leading pathway for impairment of adrenal glands during IAH period.

  6. Influence of magnetic field onnitric oxide and neuropeptideY in rat adrenal gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of magnetic fields on nitric acid (NO) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) on adrenal glands of the rat using NO nitric acid reductase-spec- trophotometry and histochemistry techniques. We found that all cellular layers of the adrenal cortex, including zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata and zona reticularis were stained by NADPH-d, and some chromaffin cells of the medulla were positive for NPY. Furthermore, magnetic fields increased NO so strongly that high NO levels could be maintained for several hours, as well as some neuroganglion cells in medulla that were double-stained for NPY and NADPH-d. Our data showed that the magnetic field can regulate endocrine and neuroendocrine directly by some action on parenchyma cells, or indirectly by action to NO-ergic, NPY-ergic neurons in the adrenal gland.

  7. MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES AND MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF HUMAN FETAL THYMUS GLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Havila Hasini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thymus is one of the central lymphoid organs. It plays an important role in the differentiation, selection and maturation of T-lymphocytes. In the recent years morphology and morphometry of the thymus gland in the newborn is gaining significance as it demonstrates great variability between individual infants and in the same infant at different times. Materials and methods: In the present study 45 thymus specimens from aborted human fetuses of 16 to 40 weeks gestational age and both sexes were studied by autopsy for morphological and morphometric features. The morphometric parameters were measured using pachymeter. Results: The thymus gland was located in the superior mediastinum. 60% (27/45 specimens showed cervical extensions. Brachiocephalic vein anterior to thymus was observed in 3 cases which is an important anomaly to be observed in thymectomy procedure. Thymuses were greyish pink to greyish brown in colour. Variations were also observed in the number of lobes of glands in which one is single lobed, most of the glands are bilobed and few are trilobed. There is progressive increase in all morphometric dimensions of the thymus in relation to gestational age. Most of the specimens were less than 4cm in length. Half of the specimens were below 2cm in width and other half were 2.0 to 5.0 cm in width. For 90% of the specimens thickness of the organ was less than 0.5cm. The thymus gland was 0.2% of fetal body weight. Conclusion: The morphological observations of thymus gland shows great variations which has to be considered in thymectomy. In addition to anthropometric parameters of fetus, morphometric parameters of thymus glands present significant relation to the gestational age of fetuses. It is possible to determine the thymic morphometric parameters in relation to gestational age.

  8. Prenatal nicotinic exposure suppresses fetal adrenal steroidogenesis via steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) deacetylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, You-e [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Liu, Lian [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Department of Pharmacology, Medical School of Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434000 (China); Wang, Jian-fei; Liu, Fang; Li, Xiao-hai; Qin, Hai-quan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-06-15

    This study aimed to investigate the suppressive effect of nicotine on fetal adrenal steroidogenesis and to explore the potential role of epigenetic modification of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) transcriptional activity in this process. Nicotine was intragastrically administered to pregnant rats and NCI-H295A cells were treated with nicotine or trichostatin A (TSA). The pathomorphology of fetal adrenals, steroid hormone levels, the expression of SF-1 and its target genes, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) mRNA were analyzed. Histone modification and DNA methylation of the SF-1 promoter region were assessed using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and bisulfite sequencing PCR. The interaction between SF1 and its target genes was observed. Prenatal nicotinic exposure decreased fetal body weight, increased the IUGR rate and caused detrimental changes in fetal adrenal. In addition, the levels of corticosterone, the expression of SF-1 and its target genes were decreased while HDAC2 expression was enhanced. Nicotine treatment decreased histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation levels while there was no effect on the methylation frequency on the SF-1 promoter region. Furthermore, in nicotine-treated NCI-H295A cells, lower levels of steroidogenic synthesis, lower expression of SF-1 and its target genes were observed while the expression of HDACs was enhanced. The interaction between SF1 and StAR decreased with nicotine treatment. Nicotine treatment decreased histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation levels, and addition of TSA reversed the inhibition of nicotine-mediated SF-1 and its partial target genes. Thus, nicotine-mediated reduction of SF-1 expression resulted in an inhibitory effect on the expression of its target genes and steroid production via histone deacetylation. - Highlights: • Prenatal nicotine-exposed suppresses fetal adrenal steroidogenesis. • Nicotine-supressed fetal adrenal steroidogenesis is related to SF-1 deacetylation. • Prenatal nicotinic exposure decreased

  9. Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Adrenal Gland Metastases: University of Florence Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casamassima, Franco, E-mail: f.casamassima@dfc.unifi.it [Clinical Radiobiological Institute, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Livi, Lorenzo [Department of Radiation-Oncology, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Masciullo, Stefano; Menichelli, Claudia; Masi, Laura [Clinical Radiobiological Institute, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Meattini, Icro [Department of Radiation-Oncology, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Bonucci, Ivano [Clinical Radiobiological Institute, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Agresti, Benedetta; Simontacchi, Gabriele [Department of Radiation-Oncology, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Doro, Raffaela [Clinical Radiobiological Institute, University of Florence, Florence (Italy)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a retrospective single-institution outcome after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for adrenal metastases. Methods and Materials: Between February 2002 and December 2009, we treated 48 patients with SBRT for adrenal metastases. The median age of the patient population was 62.7 years (range, 43-77 years). In the majority of patients, the prescription dose was 36 Gy in 3 fractions (70% isodose, 17.14 Gy per fraction at the isocenter). Eight patients were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery and forty patients with multi-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy. Results: Overall, the series of patients was followed up for a median of 16.2 months (range, 3-63 months). At the time of analysis, 20 patients were alive and 28 patients were dead. The 1- and 2-year actuarial overall survival rates were 39.7% and 14.5%, respectively. We recorded 48 distant failures and 2 local failures, with a median interval to local failure of 4.9 months. The actuarial 1-year disease control rate was 9%; the actuarial 1- and 2-year local control rate was 90%. Conclusion: Our retrospective study indicated that SBRT for the treatment of adrenal metastases represents a safe and effective option with a control rate of 90% at 2 years.

  10. Effects of Erythropoietin Administration on Adrenal Glands of Landrace/Large White Pigs after Ventricular Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faa, Armando; Faa, Gavino; Papalois, Apostolos; Obinu, Eleonora; Locci, Giorgia; Pais, Maria Elena; Lelovas, Pavlos; Barouxis, Dimitrios; Pantazopoulos, Charalampos; Vasileiou, Panagiotis V; Iacovidou, Nicoletta; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the effects of erythropoietin administration on the adrenal glands in a swine model of ventricular fibrillation and resuscitation. Methods. Ventricular fibrillation was induced via pacing wire forwarded into the right ventricle in 20 female Landrace/Large White pigs, allocated into 2 groups: experimental group treated with bolus dose of erythropoietin (EPO) and control group which received normal saline. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was performed immediately after drug administration as per the 2010 European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines for Advanced Life Support (ALS) until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or death. Animals who achieved ROSC were monitored, mechanically ventilated, extubated, observed, and euthanized. At necroscopy, adrenal glands samples were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and routinely processed. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results. Oedema and apoptosis were the most frequent histological changes and were detected in all animals in the adrenal cortex and in the medulla. Mild and focal endothelial lesions were also detected. A marked interindividual variability in the degree of the intensity of apoptosis and oedema at cortical and medullary level was observed within groups. Comparing the two groups, higher levels of pathological changes were detected in the control group. No significant difference between the two groups was observed regarding the endothelial changes. Conclusions. In animals exposed to ventricular fibrillation, EPO treatment has protective effects on the adrenal gland.

  11. Effects of Erythropoietin Administration on Adrenal Glands of Landrace/Large White Pigs after Ventricular Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Faa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effects of erythropoietin administration on the adrenal glands in a swine model of ventricular fibrillation and resuscitation. Methods. Ventricular fibrillation was induced via pacing wire forwarded into the right ventricle in 20 female Landrace/Large White pigs, allocated into 2 groups: experimental group treated with bolus dose of erythropoietin (EPO and control group which received normal saline. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR was performed immediately after drug administration as per the 2010 European Resuscitation Council (ERC guidelines for Advanced Life Support (ALS until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC or death. Animals who achieved ROSC were monitored, mechanically ventilated, extubated, observed, and euthanized. At necroscopy, adrenal glands samples were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and routinely processed. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results. Oedema and apoptosis were the most frequent histological changes and were detected in all animals in the adrenal cortex and in the medulla. Mild and focal endothelial lesions were also detected. A marked interindividual variability in the degree of the intensity of apoptosis and oedema at cortical and medullary level was observed within groups. Comparing the two groups, higher levels of pathological changes were detected in the control group. No significant difference between the two groups was observed regarding the endothelial changes. Conclusions. In animals exposed to ventricular fibrillation, EPO treatment has protective effects on the adrenal gland.

  12. Expression and localization of pChAT as a novel method to study cholinergic innervation of rat adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnasharty, Mohamed A; Sayed-Ahmed, Ahmed

    2014-10-01

    Cholinergic innervation of the rat adrenal gland has been analyzed previously using cholinergic markers including acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). In the present study, we demonstrate putative cholinergic neurons in the rat adrenal gland using an antibody to pChAT, which is the product of a splice variant of ChAT mRNA that is preferentially localized in peripheral cholinergic nerves. Most of the ganglionic neurons as well as small single sporadic neurons in the adrenal gland were stained intensely for pChAT. The density of pChAT-immunoreactive (IR) fibers was distinct in the adrenal cortex and medulla. AChE-, cChAT- and VAChT-immunoreactivities were also observed in some cells and fibers of the adrenal medulla, while the cortex had few positive nerve fibers. These results indicate that ganglionic neurons of the adrenal medulla and nerve fibers heterogeneously express cholinergic markers, especially pChAT. Furthermore, the innervation of the adrenal gland, cortex and medulla, by some cholinergic fibers provides additional morphological evidence for a significant role of cholinergic mechanisms in adrenal gland functions.

  13. Normal CT morphology of the adrenal gland; Evaluation with thin-slice CT using a small field of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Eriko (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1993-11-01

    This study was performed to determine the normal morphology and dimensions of the adrenal gland by studying 111 normal individuals using thin-slice CT with a small field of view. All the adrenal glands were well demonstrated and the medial and lateral limbs were recognized in 95.4% of the right adrenal glands. The outer border of the gland was generally straight or concave, although the caudal surface was convex in 25% of right and 50% of left adrenal glands. The height, thickness, and width of the gland were measured at multiple levels on both sides, and the results were compared with those for atrophic glands (21 Cushing's syndrome patients) and hypertrophic glands (8 patients). Multivariate analysis showed that the best features distinguishing between normal and atrophy were the height at the midpoint on the left side and the thickness of the ridge on the right side. Normal and hypertrophic glands could be distinguished by the thickness of the median limb at its upper portion and lower portion on the right side. On the left side, the thickness at the upper portion, the thickness of the ridge, and that of the median limb at its midpoint were the distinguishing features. It was concluded that thin-slice CT using a small field of view can accurately assess adrenal morphology and thus is useful for evaluating atrophy and hypertrophy. (author).

  14. Influence of fetal growth velocity and smallness at birth on adrenal function in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jensen, Rikke; vielwerth, Signe; Larsen, Torben;

    2011-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is susceptible to programming during fetal development and may be linked to risk of disease later in life. In a former prospective study the cohort was divided into those born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) or small for gestational age (SGA; birth...

  15. Development of adrenal zonation in fetal rats defined by expression of aldosterone synthase and 11beta-hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotus, C; Levay-Young, B K; Rogers, L M; Gomez-Sanchez, C E; Engeland, W C

    1998-10-01

    The adult rat adrenal cortex is comprised of three concentric steroidogenic zones that are morphologically and functionally distinguishable: the zona glomerulosa, zona intermedia, and the zona fasciculata/reticularis. Expression of the zone-specific steroidogenic enzymes, cytochrome P450 aldosterone synthase (P450aldo), and P450 11beta hydroxylase (P45011beta), produced by the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata/reticularis, respectively, can be used to define the adrenal cortical cell phenotype of these two zones. In this study, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were used to determine the ontogeny of expression of P450aldo and P45011beta to monitor the pattern of development of the rat adrenal cortex. RIA was used to measure adrenal content of aldosterone and corticosterone, the resulting products of the two enzymatic pathways. Double immunofluorescent staining for both enzymes at gestational day 16 (E16) showed P45011beta protein expressed in cells distributed throughout most of the adrenal intermixed with a separate, but smaller, population of cells expressing P450aldo protein. Whereas expression of P45011beta protein retained a similar pattern of distribution from E16 to adulthood (ignoring distribution of SA-1 positive, presumptive medullary cells), P450aldo protein changed its pattern of distribution by E19, becoming localized in a discontinuous ring of cells adjacent to the capsule. By postnatal day 1, P450aldo protein distribution was similar to that observed in adult glands; P450aldo-positive cells formed a continuous zone underlying the capsule. In situ hybridization showed that the pattern of P45011beta messenger RNA expression paralleled protein expression at all times, whereas P450aldo messenger RNA paralleled protein at E19 and after, but was undetectable before E19. However, adrenal aldosterone and corticosterone, as measured by RIA, were detected by E16, supporting the functional capacity of both phenotypes for all ages studied. These

  16. Effects of DDT on bobwhite quail adrenal gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, J.W.; Peterle, T.J.; Mulls, C.M.

    1974-01-01

    A wide range of responses to sublethal levels of DDT exist, many of which are species specific and vary within each species depending upon age, sex, and physiological state. Sublethal levels of DDT do cause an increase in the adrenal cortical tissue of bobwhite quail, which may cause increased secretion of corticosteroids, and in turn affect reproduction. A delicate homeostatic balance exists within the avian endocrine system which may be disturbed by feeding sublethal levels of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides. This adverse effect on the endocrine system may cause subtle reproductive failures which go unnoticed until the population is greatly reduced.

  17. Transcriptional profiling in the adrenal gland reveals circadian regulation of hormone biosynthesis genes and nucleosome assembly genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oster, Henrik; Damerow, Sebastian; Hut, Roelof A.; Eichele, Gregor

    2006-01-01

    The master circadian pacemaker of the suprachiasmatic nuclei coordinates behavioral and physiological rhythms via synchronization of subordinate peripheral oscillators in the central nervous system and organs throughout the body. Among these organs, the adrenal glands hold a prime position because

  18. Amidated joining peptide in the human pituitary, gut, adrenal gland and bronchial carcinoids. Immunocytochemical and immunochemical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjartell, A; Fenger, M; Ekman, R;

    1990-01-01

    .g., ACTH, beta-endorphin, Pro-tau-MSH, in the pituitary gland and adrenal medulla. The JP-N immunoreactive cells in the adrenal medulla were identified as a subpopulation of adrenaline-producing cells by means of an antiserum against phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. In the gut immunoreactive JP...

  19. Pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland selectively secreting dopamine -- a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belowska-Bień, Kinga; Kucharski, Wojciech; Janczak, Dariusz; Urban, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland secreting catecholamines is a relatively rare endocrinological cause of secondary arterial hypertension, usually developing in people aged between 40 and 50, more often in women than in men. Each accidentally diagnosed lesion in adrenal glands is an incidentalom0a. Incidentalomas are most commonly benign tumours: adenomas, adipomas and angiomas; less often they are of a malignant or metastatic character. Establishing the character of the lesion and its hormonal activity is of crucial diagnostic significance. Diagnostics of pheochromocytoma covers marking the urine output of catecholamines and their metabolites, as well as marking serum amine concentration. Possible treatment of hormonally active lesions includes their surgical removal. This thesis presents the case of a young female suffering from arterial hypertension for several years, including organ complications, who was diagnosed with pheochromocytoma selectively secreting dopamine.

  20. Chronic Expanding Hematoma of the Adrenal Gland Mimicking a Hemangioma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Min Jeong; Ha, Hong Il; Lee, In Jae; Lee, Kwan Seop; Seo, Jin Won [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Seung Gu [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    We report a rare case of unilateral chronic expanding hematoma in the left adrenal gland, mimicking a hemangioma on multiphase computed tomography (CT). On CT, the mass showed several enhancing foci of irregular and frond-like shape in the periphery at the hepatic arterial phase and gradual fill-in pattern at the portal venous phase, which was similar with the enhancement pattern of hemangioma.

  1. The influence of long term sound stress on histological structure of broiler’s adrenal glands

    OpenAIRE

    Žikić D.; Ušćebrka G.; Gledić D.; Lazarević M.; Stojanović S.; Kanački Z.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of different sound stress duration on adrenal gland of broiler chickens of different age. The experiments were conducted on 90 HYBRO broiler chickens, divided into nine groups (each group consisting of 10 birds) by different age and lenght of sound stress duration. The chickens were exposed to sound stress in sound attenuated building using a fire alarm bell (95 dB) for stress sessions lasted 120 min every day....

  2. High-intensity exercise training produces morphological and biochemical changes in adrenal gland of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartalucci, A; Ferrucci, M; Fulceri, F; Lazzeri, G; Lenzi, P; Toti, L; Serpiello, F R; La Torre, A; Gesi, M

    2012-06-01

    The effects of training are dependent on complex, adaptive changes which are induced by acute physical exercise at different levels. In particular, evidence shows that the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, as well as the sympatho-adrenomedullary system, is mainly involved in mediating the physiological effects of physical exercise. The aim of the present study was to investigate, through a morphological and biochemical approach, the effects of training on the adrenal gland of mice, following two different protocols consisting of either low- or high-intensity training. Mice were run daily on a motorised treadmill for 8 weeks, at a velocity corresponding to 60% (low-intensity exercise) or 90% (high-intensity exercise) of the maximal running velocity previously determined by an incremental exercise test. We found that physical exercise produced an increase in the adrenal gland size compared with the control (sedentary) mice. The increase was 31.04% for mice that underwent high-intensity exercise and 10.08% for mice that underwent low intensity exercise, and this appeared to be the result of an increase in the area of both the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla. Morphological analysis of the adrenal cortex showed that both types of exercise produced an increase in cytoplasmic vacuoles in steroidogenic cells, appearing more abundant after high-intensity exercise. No change was found in the reticulate zone. In the adrenal medulla, despite the absence of morphological changes, immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine β-hydroxylase and phenyl-ethanolamine-N-methyltransferase demonstrated an increased immunopositivity for these cathecolamine-synthesizing enzymes after intense exercise. These results were confirmed by immunoblot accompanied by densitometric analysis.

  3. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF THE RAT ADRENAL GLAND AFTER SURGICAL LASER EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Kemoklidze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We studied via low vacuum scanning electron microscopy the effects of a surgical laser exposure to adrenal glands and results of regeneration processes after. Materials and methods.Purpose of this work is modeling of effects of the removal with a surgical laser a pathological focus in the adrenal glands. For this Wistar male rat (n = 19 adrenal glands were researched without the laser exposure, immediately after it and 1 month later. Results. Immediately after exposure occurs laser ablation crater with rough edges and melted surface penetrated by equidistant pores, which are footprints of blood vessels. Beneath of the surface are numerous vaporizationbubbles. Around the crater, the surface wrinkles and sags due to decreased ability to retain water. 1 month after the laser damage, the affected area tightened by a scar. Its coarse bundles of collagen fibers braid shapeless lumps of coal and caverns. Tissues with normal appearance are close to the scar, both outside and inside of the organ. The wrinkling and the sagging are absent. The undamaged organ part has retained the previous shape, without hypertrophies. The damaged part has shrunk. The nature of the regeneration processes indicates a low probability of a relapse after the destruction of a pathological focus via the surgical laser exposure.

  4. Primary melanoma of the adrenal gland: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machuca-Santacruz José

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary melanoma of the adrenal gland is exceptionally rare as demonstrated by the few cases reported in the medical literature, and it has a high fatality rate. We present the case of a patient with two relapses and survival to date. Case report We describe the case of a 58-year-old Caucasian woman who consulted her doctor with symptoms of asthenia, anorexia and weight loss. A mass was palpated in her abdomen at the height of the left hypochondrium. A computed tomographic scan revealed a retroperitoneal mass measuring 10 cm × 15 cm originating in the left adrenal gland. A left nephroadrenalectomy and splenectomy were performed. Histopathologically, the retroperitoneal mass corresponded to a melanoma, and no primary melanoma was found in any other location. The patient was treated with interferon-α-2b. Three years after her diagnosis the patient presented with a retroperitoneal relapse of the mass measuring 7.2 cm, which was removed. Five years after the first relapse a new retroperitoneal relapse mass was diagnosed, which was also removed. Since then the patient has been healthy and free from illness. Conclusion Histological and immunohistochemical studies, together with the criteria described by Ainsworth et al. and Carstens et al., allowed us to diagnose primary melanoma of the adrenal gland.

  5. Increased incidence of adrenal gland injury in blunt abdominal trauma: a computed tomography-based study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Muhammad Usman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To determine the frequency of adrenal injuries in patients presenting with blunt abdominal trauma by computed tomography (CT. Methods: During a 6 month period from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2011, 82 emergency CT examinations were performed in the setting of major abdominal trauma and retrospectively reviewed for adrenal gland injuries. Results: A total of 7 patients were identified as having adrenal gland injuries (6 males and 1 female. Two patients had isolated adrenal gland injuries. In the other 5 patients with nonisolated injuries, injuries to the liver (1 case, spleen (1 case, retroperitoneum (2 cases and mesentery (4 cases were identified. Overall 24 cases with liver injuries (29 %, 11 cases with splenic injuries (13%, 54 cases with mesenteric injuries (65%, 14 cases (17% with retroperitoneal injuries and 9 cases with renal injuries were identified. Conclusion: Adrenal gland injury is identified in 7 patients (11.7% out of a total of 82 patients who underwent CT after major abdominal trauma. Most of these cases were nonisolated injuries. Our experience indicates that adrenal injury resulting from trauma is more common than suggested by other reports. The rise in incidence of adrenal injuries could be attributed to the mode of injury.

  6. Estrogen deficiency leads to telomerase inhibition,telomere shortening and reduced cell proliferation in the adrenal gland of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharyn Bayne; Margaret EE Jones; He Li; Alex R Pinto; Evan R Simpson; Jun-Ping Liu

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency mediates aging, but the underlying mechanism remains to be fully determined. We report here that estrogen deficiency caused by targeted disruption of aromatase in mice results in significant inhibition oftelomerase activity in the adrenal gland in vivo. Gene expression analysis showed that, in the absence of estrogen, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene expression is reduced in association with compromised cell proliferation in the adrenal gland cortex and adrenal atrophy. Stem cells positive in c-kit are identified to populate in the parenchyma of adrenal cortex. Analysis of telomeres revealed that estrogen deficiency results in significantly shorter telomeres in the adrenal cortex than that in wild-type (WT) control mice. To further establish the causal effects of estrogen, we conducted an estrogen replacement therapy in these estrogen-deficient animals. Administration of estrogen for 3 weeks restores TERT gene expression, telomerase activity and cell proliferation in estrogen-deficient mice. Thus, our data show for the first time that estrogen deficiency causes inhibitions of TERT gene expression, telomerase activity, telomere maintenance, and cell proliferation in the adrenal gland of mice in vivo, suggesting that telomerase inhibition and telomere shortening may mediate cell proliferation arrest in the adrenal gland, thus contributing to estrogen deficiency-induced aging under physiological conditions.

  7. Aberrant expression of glucagon receptors in adrenal glands of a patient with Cushing's syndrome and ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria de Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH independent bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH is a rare cause of Cushing´s syndrome, characterized by bilateral adrenal lesions and excess cortisol production despite ACTH suppression. Cortisol synthesis is produced in response to abnormal activation of G-protein- coupled receptors, such as gastric inhibitory peptide, vasopressin, beta adrenergic agonists, LH/hCG and serotonin receptors. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of glucagon receptors in adrenal glands from an AIMAH patient. A patient with ACTH-independent Cushing´s syndrome and bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia was screened for altered activation of adrenal receptors by physiological (mixed meal and pharmacological (gonadotrophin releasing hormone, ACTH and glucagon tests. The results showed abnormally high levels of serum cortisol after stimulation with glucagon. Hypercortisolism was successfully managed with ketoconazole treatment. Interestingly, a 4-month treatment with a somatostatin analogue (octreotide was also able to reduce cortisol secretion. Finally, Cushing's syndrome was cured after bilateral adrenalectomy. Abnormal mRNA expression for glucagon receptor in the patient´s adrenal glands was observed by Real-Time PCR procedure. These results strongly suggest that the mechanism of AIMAH causing Cushing´s syndrome in this case involves the illicit activation of adrenal glucagon receptors. This is the first case reported of AIMAH associated with ectopic glucagon receptors.

  8. Amidated joining peptide in the human pituitary, gut, adrenal gland and bronchial carcinoids. Immunocytochemical and immunochemical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjartell, A; Fenger, M; Ekman, R;

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of the proopiomelanocortin-derivated amidated joining peptide (JP-N) was examined in the human pituitary gland, adrenal gland, gut and in three bronchial carcinoids. Double immunostaining showed coexistence of immunoreactive JP-N and other proopiomelanocortin derivatives, e...

  9. Interaction of PGHS-2 and glutamatergic mechanisms controlling the ovine fetal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Nathan; Wood, Charles E

    2010-07-01

    Prostaglandins, generated within the fetal brain, are integral components of the mechanism controlling the fetal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Previous studies in this laboratory demonstrated that prostaglandin G/H synthase isozyme 2 (PGHS-2) inhibition reduces the fetal HPA axis response to cerebral hypoperfusion, blocks the preparturient rise in fetal plasma ACTH concentration, and delays parturition. We also discovered that blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors reduces the fetal ACTH response to cerebral hypoperfusion. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that PGHS-2 action and the downstream effect of HPA axis stimulation are stimulated by NMDA-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission. Chronically catheterized late-gestation fetal sheep (n = 8) were injected with NMDA (1 mg iv). All responded with increases in fetal plasma ACTH and cortisol concentrations. Pretreatment with resveratrol (100 mg iv, n = 5), a specific inhibitor of PGHS-1, did not alter the magnitude of the HPA axis response to NMDA. Pretreatment with nimesulide (10 mg iv, n = 6), a specific inhibitor of PGHS-2, significantly reduced the HPA axis response to NMDA. To further explore this interaction, we injected NMDA in six chronically catheterized fetal sheep that were chronically infused with nimesulide (n = 6) at a rate of 1 mg/day into the lateral cerebral ventricle for 5-7 days. In this group, there was no significant ACTH response to NMDA. Finally, we tested whether the HPA axis response to prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is mediated by NMDA receptors. Seven chronically catheterized late-gestation fetal sheep were injected with 100 ng of PGE(2), which significantly increased fetal plasma ACTH and cortisol concentrations. Pretreatment with ketamine (10 mg iv), an NMDA antagonist, did not alter the ACTH or cortisol response to PGE(2). We conclude that generation of prostanoids via the action of PGHS-2 in the fetal brain augments the fetal HPA axis response

  10. Autologous Adrenal Medullary, Fetal Mesencephalic, and Fetal Adrenal Brain Transplantation in Parkinson's Disease: A Long-Term Postoperative Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrazo, Ignacio; Franco-Bourland, Rebecca; Aguilera, Maricarmen; Ostrosky-Solis, Feggy; Madrazo, Mario; Cuevas, Carlos; Catrejon, Hugo; Guizar-Zahagun, Gabriel; Magallon, Eduardo

    1991-01-01

    We report on the clinical status of 5 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) 3 years after autologous adrenal medullary (AM)-to-caudate nucleus (CN) implanfion, and of 2 PD patients, 2 years after fetal ventral mesencephalon (VM)- and fetal adrenal (A)-to-CN homotransplantation. Current clinical evaluation of 4 of the AM grafted patients revealed sustained bilateral amelioration of their PD signs, most notably of rgidity, postural imbalance and gait disturbances, resulting in a substantial improvement in their quality of life. the disease-related dystonia of one of them disappeared only 2 years after surgery. The levodopa requirements of 2 of these patients and the anticholinergic therapy of another have been reduced. In agreement with the satisfactory clinical evaluation of these 4 patients, their neuropsychological and electrophysiological improvements, initially registered 3 months after surgery, have been maintained for 3 years. After 1 year of significant recovery, the 5th patient of this group has almost returned to her preoperative state. The 2 homotransplanted patients also showed sustained bilateral improvement of their PD signs. Two years after surgery, the most improved signs of the fetal VM case were rigidity, bradykinesia, postural imbalance, gait disturbances and facial expression. The fetal A case has only shown amelioration of rigidity and bradykinesia. Neither of them has shown significant neuropsychological changes. Their current levodopa requirements are less than before surgery. The improvements shown here by PD patients after brain tissue grafts go beyond those obtained using any other therapeutic approach, when levodopa fails. Although more studies and the development of these procedures are obviously required, these initial human trials appear to be resisting the test of time. PMID:1782251

  11. Fetal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis on the road to parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J; McMillen, I C

    2001-01-01

    1. Activity of the fetal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis waxes and wanes as a function of gestational age. 2. In a number of species, including sheep, at the end of gestation there is an increase in HPA activity, as characterized by an increase in fetal plasma glucocorticoids. 3. To a certain degree, the hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal all act autonomously and, therefore, may be thought of as contributing to the initiation of the signal that results in the increase in steroidogenesis before birth. 4. Because it integrates sensory information from beyond as well as within the HPA axis and likely triggers developmental changes within the pituitary, the hypothalamus may be a 'first among equals' in being the ultimate source of triggering information for the HPA axis.

  12. Adrenal glands in beta-thalassemia major: magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features and correlation with iron stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drakonaki, Eleni; Papakonstantinou, Olympia; Maris, Thomas; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas [University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Radiology, Heraklion (Greece); Vasiliadou, Artemis [Aghios Georgios Hospital of Chania, Thalassemia Unit, Chania (Greece); Papadakis, Alex [Venizelion Hospital of Heraklion, Thalassemia Unit, Heraklion (Greece)

    2005-12-01

    This study aimed at describing the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of the adrenal glands in beta-thalassemic patients and at investigating the relation between adrenal and hepatic siderosis. Adrenal signal intensity (SI) was retrospectively assessed on abdominal MR studies of 35 patients with beta-thalassemia major undergoing quantification of hepatic siderosis and 12 healthy controls, using T1- (120/4/90), intermediate - (120/4/20), and T2*- (120/15/20) weighted GRE sequences. Adrenal SI was graded as grade 0 (normal SI on all sequences), grade 1 (hypointensity on T2* alone), or grade 2 (hypointensity on at least T2*). Adrenal size was measured in the thalassemic patients and compared with normative data. Liver-to-muscle (L/M) SI ratios, expressing hepatic siderosis, were estimated on each sequence. Serum ferritin levels were recorded. Adrenal hypointensity (grades 1 and 2) was noted in 24/35 (68.6%) patients. L/M ratios correlated significantly with adrenal SI in all sequences. Patients with grade 1 and grade 2 adrenal SI had significantly decreased L/M ratios compared with grade 0. Serum ferritin correlated significantly with L/M values but not with adrenal SI. Adrenal size was within normal limits. Diffuse hypointensity in normal-sized adrenals is a common MR finding in beta-thalassemic patients and correlates with the degree of hepatic siderosis. (orig.)

  13. Mechanisms Mediating Environmental Chemical-Induced Endocrine Disruption in the Adrenal Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B.; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2015-01-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to hundreds of man-made chemicals that pollute the environment in addition to multiple therapeutic drug treatments administered throughout life. Some of these chemicals, known as endocrine disruptors (EDs), mimic endogenous signals, thereby altering gene expression, influencing development, and promoting disease. Although EDs are eventually removed from the market or replaced with safer alternatives, new evidence suggests that early-life exposure leaves a fingerprint on the epigenome, which may increase the risk of disease later in life. Epigenetic changes occurring in early life in response to environmental toxicants have been shown to affect behavior, increase cancer risk, and modify the physiology of the cardiovascular system. Thus, exposure to an ED or combination of EDs may represent a first hit to the epigenome. Only limited information is available regarding the effect of ED exposure on adrenal function. The adrenal gland controls the stress response, blood pressure, and electrolyte homeostasis. This endocrine organ therefore has an important role in physiology and is a sensitive target of EDs. We review herein the effect of ED exposure on the adrenal gland with particular focus on in utero exposure to the plasticizer di(2-ethylehyl) phthalate. We discuss the challenges associated with identifying the mechanism mediating the epigenetic origins of disease and availability of biomarkers that may identify individual or population risks. PMID:25788893

  14. Mechanisms mediating environmental chemical-induced endocrine disruption in the adrenal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Martinez-Arguelles

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans are continuously exposed to hundreds of man-made chemicals that pollute the environment in addition to multiple therapeutic drug treatments administered throughout life. Some of these chemicals, known as endocrine disruptors (EDs, mimic endogenous signals, thereby altering gene expression, influencing development, and promoting disease. Although EDs are eventually removed from the market or replaced with safer alternatives, new evidence suggests that early life exposure leaves a fingerprint on the epigenome, which may increase the risk of disease later in life. Epigenetic changes occurring in early life in response to environmental toxicants have been shown to affect behavior, increase cancer risk, and modify the physiology of the cardiovascular system. Thus, exposure to an ED or combination of EDs may represent a first hit to the epigenome. Only limited information is available regarding the effect of ED exposure on adrenal function. The adrenal gland controls the stress response, blood pressure, and electrolyte homeostasis. This endocrine organ therefore has an important role in physiology and is a sensitive target of EDs. We review herein the effect of ED exposure on the adrenal gland with particular focus on in utero exposure to the plasticizer di(2-ethylehyl phthalate. We discuss the challenges associated with identifying the mechanism mediating the epigenetic origins of disease and availability of biomarkers that may identify individual or population risks.

  15. Influence of cytisine on catecholamine release in isolated perfused rat adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong-Yoon; Jang, Seok-Jeong; Kim, Kwang-Cheol

    2002-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the characteristics of cytisine on the secretion of catecholamines (CA) in isolated perfused rat adrenal glands, and to clarify its mechanism of action. The release of CA evoked by the continuous infusion of cytisine (1.5 x 10(-5) M) was time-dependently reduced from 15 min following the initiation of cytisine infusion. Furthermore, upon the repeated injection of cytisine (5 x 10(-5) M), at 30 min intervals into an adrenal vein, the secretion of CA was rapidly decreased following the second injection. Tachyphylaxis to the release of CA was observed by the repeated administration of cytisine. The cytisine-induced secretion of CA was markedly inhibited by pretreatment with chlorisondamine, nicardipine, TMB-8, and the perfusion of Ca2+-free Krebs solution, while it was not affected by pirenzepine or diphenhydramine. Moreover, the secretion of CA evoked by ACh was time-dependently inhibited by the prior perfusion of cytisine (5 x 10(-6) M). Taken together, these experimental data suggest that cytisine causes secretion of catecholamines from the perfused rat adrenal glands in a calcium-dependent fashion through the activation of neuronal nicotinic ACh receptors located in adrenomedullary chromaffin cells. It also seems that the cytisine-evoked release of catecholamine is not relevant to the activation of cholinergic M1-muscarinic or histaminergic receptors.

  16. Nicotine Suppressed Fetal Adrenal StAR Expression via YY1 Mediated-Histone Deacetylation Modification Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lian; Wang, Jian-Fei; Fan, Jie; Rao, Yi-Song; Liu, Fang; Yan, You-E; Wang, Hui

    2016-09-03

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein plays a pivotal role in steroidogenesis. Previously, we have demonstrated that prenatal nicotine exposure suppressed fetal adrenal steroidogenesis via steroidogenic factor 1 deacetylation. This study further explored the potential role of the transcriptional repressor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) in nicotine-mediated StAR inhibition. Nicotine was subcutaneously administered (1.0 mg/kg) to pregnant rats twice per day and NCI-H295A cells were treated with nicotine. StAR and YY1 expression were analyzed by real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Histone modifications and the interactions between the YY1 and StAR promoter were assessed using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Prenatal nicotine exposure increased YY1 expression and suppressed StAR expression. ChIP assay showed that there was a decreasing trend for histone acetylation at the StAR promoter in fetal adrenal glands, whereas H3 acetyl-K14 at the YY1 promoter presented an increasing trend following nicotine exposure. Furthermore, in nicotine-treated NCI-H295A cells, nicotine enhanced YY1 expression and inhibited StAR expression. ChIP assay showed that histone acetylation decreased at the StAR promoter in NCI-H295A cells and that the interaction between the YY1 and StAR promoter increased. These data indicated that YY1-medicated histone deacetylation modification in StAR promoters might play an important role in the inhibitory effect of nicotine on StAR expression.

  17. Intrinsic factors, adrenal gland morphology, and disease burden in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis-Germitsch, Nina; Vybiral, Pamela-Rose; Codron, Daryl; Clauss, Marcus; Kotze, Antoinette; Mitchell, Emily P

    2017-01-01

    Adrenal gland weight (AW) and corticomedullary ratio (ACMR) are used as indicators of stress in animals. Captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) have higher ACMRs than free-ranging ones and stress has been linked to gastritis, amyloidosis, glomerulosclerosis, and myocardial fibrosis. We reviewed age, sex, body weight (BW), kidney weight (KW), and left AW and ACMR with necropsy findings in 51 South African captive cheetahs. Eleven common histopathologic lesions were counted for each animal as measure of its disease burden. Adrenal corticomedullary hyperplasia was significantly correlated with left AW and ACMR. Males had significantly higher AWs than females; other parameters showed no difference between the sexes. Disease burden, gastritis, and myocardial fibrosis were moderately correlated with adrenal morphology supporting prior evidence that gastritis and myocardial fibrosis are linked to stress. Glomerulosclerosis was not correlated with adrenal morphology and neither kidney nor liver amyloidosis contributed significantly to variation in AW or ACMR on multivariate analyses. Interstitial nephritis showed much stronger correlations with kidney and liver amyloidosis than gastritis. All three adrenal parameters were correlated with age; age was the only significant variable affecting ACMR on the multivariate analyses; and disease burden as well as systemic amyloidosis and kidney disease (except for fibrosis) showed moderate correlations with age. Age may, therefore, be important in the pathogenesis of disease in captive cheetahs, particularly of amyloidosis and kidney disease. None of the intrinsic measurements or adrenal parameters were sufficiently closely linked to disease to be used as ante-mortem proxies for disease burden or specific diseases. Zoo Biol. 36:40-49, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effect of different types of stress on adrenal gland parameters and adrenal hormones in the blood serum of male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined gross changes in the mass of whole adrenal glands and that of the adrenal cortex and medulla in mature male Wistar rats subjected to three different stress types: acute, chronic, and combined, i.e., chronic followed by acute stress. These parameters were correlated with adrenal activity as judged from serum levels of corticosterone and catecholamine, respectively, as well as with serum levels of ACTH and glucose. Under all three conditions, we observed bilaterally asymmetric and stress-type-independent hypertrophy of whole adrenals, as well as adrenal cortices and medullas. Under acute and combined stress, adrenal hypertrophy was followed by increase of adrenal hormones in the blood serum. However, under chronic stress, both cortical and medullar activities as judged from low or unaltered levels of the respective hormones and glucose were compromised and disconnected from the input signal of ACTH. Since all of the studied adrenal activities could be restored by subsequent acute stress, it is concluded that chronic isolation can be viewed as partly maladaptive stress with characteristics resembling stress resistance rather than the stress exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome.

  19. Fetal microchimeric cells in autoimmune thyroid diseases: harmful, beneficial or innocent for the thyroid gland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepez, Trees; Vandewoestyne, Mado; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) show a female predominance, with an increased incidence in the years following parturition. Fetal microchimerism has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of AITD. However, only the presence of fetal microchimeric cells in blood and in the thyroid gland of these patients has been proven, but not an actual active role in AITD. Is fetal microchimerism harmful for the thyroid gland by initiating a Graft versus Host reaction (GvHR) or being the target of a Host versus Graft reaction (HvGR)? Is fetal microchimerism beneficial for the thyroid gland by being a part of tissue repair or are fetal cells just innocent bystanders in the process of autoimmunity? This review explores every hypothesis concerning the role of fetal microchimerism in AITD.

  20. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of CART-containing cells in adrenal glands of male rats with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasacka, I; Piotrowska, Ż; Knaś, M; Lewandowska, A

    2014-10-01

    Adrenal activity is stimulated and secretion of stress hormones is increased during advanced stages of renovascular hypertension. The literature suggests that the neuropeptide, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), might regulate adrenal secretory function and thus could influence its activity. We assessed potential quantitative and qualitative changes in the cells that contained CART in the adrenal glands of rats with renovascular hypertension. The renal arteries of ten rats were subjected to a clipping procedure, i.e., two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) model of arterial hypertension, and after 6 weeks each rat developed stable hypertension. CART was localized using immunohistochemistry. CART was detected in a large population of cells in the medulla, sparse nerve fibers in the cortex and the capsule of the adrenal gland. The population of CART-positive cells in adrenal glands of two kidney-one clip (2K1C) treated rats was greater and their immunoreactivity was increased compared to controls. Similarly, the length, width, area and diameter of CART-immunoreactive cells were significantly greater in the hypertensive rats than in controls. We demonstrated that renovascular hypertension alters the number and immunoreactivity of CART-containing cells in adrenal glands.

  1. Kaposi Sarcoma of the Adrenal Gland Resembling Epithelioid Angiosarcoma: A Case Report

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    Hassan Huwait

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection are known to have increased risk of various neoplasms, including Kaposi sarcoma, which classically involves the skin and mucosal locations. The anaplastic variant of Kaposi sarcoma is rare and poorly documented in the literature. It is characterised clinically by a more aggressive behaviour and increased metastatic potential, and histologically by increased cellularity, mitotic rate, and rarely by epithelioid angiosarcoma-like morphology. We report herein a 64-year-old man with a long-standing history of human immunodeficiency virus infection who developed a right adrenal tumor with a high-grade anaplastic angiosarcoma-like morphology. Immunohistochemistry for human herpes virus-8 was strongly positive in the tumor cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an anaplastic Kaposi sarcoma in the adrenal gland.

  2. Sex-specific prenatal stress effects on the rat reproductive axis and adrenal gland structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Susan O; Hogg, Charis O; Lai, Yu-Ting; Brunton, Paula J

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Social stress during pregnancy has profound effects on offspring physiology. This study examined whether an ethologically relevant social stress during late pregnancy in rats alters the reproductive axis and adrenal gland structure in post-pubertal male and female offspring. Prenatally stressed (PNS) pregnant rats (n=9) were exposed to an unfamiliar lactating rat for 10 min/day from day 16 to 20 of pregnancy inclusive, whereas control pregnant rats (n=9) remained in their home cages. Gonads, adrenal glands and blood samples were obtained from one female and one male from each litter at 11 to 12-weeks of age. Anogenital distance was measured. There was no treatment effect on body, adrenal or gonad weight at 11–12 weeks. PNS did not affect the number of primordial, secondary or tertiary ovarian follicles, numbers of corpora lutea or ovarian FSH receptor expression. There was an indication that PNS females had more primary follicles and greater ovarian aromatase expression compared with control females (both P=0.09). PNS males had longer anogenital distances (0.01±0.0 cm/g vs 0.008±0.00 cm/g; P=0.007) and higher plasma FSH concentrations (0.05 ng/mL vs 0.006 ng/mL; s.e.d.=0.023; P=0.043) compared with control males. There were no treatment effects on the number of Sertoli cells or seminiferous tubules, seminiferous tubule area, plasma testosterone concentration or testis expression of aromatase, FSH receptor or androgen receptor. PNS did not affect adrenal size. These data suggest that the developing male reproductive axis is more sensitive to maternal stress and that PNS may enhance aspects of male reproductive development. PMID:27026714

  3. Dynamics for the storage control of a endocrine gland: A model for adrenal epinephrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Celia Martins; Neto, Antonio Pires; Motta, Art Adriel E. A.

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we are presenting a simple mathematical model to simulate the control dynamics of synthesis, storage and secretion in an endocrine gland. In this, the hormone normally is synthetized from material selected and removed from the blood. In cell, material is processed and the final product, the hormone, can be stored until being released to the blood. The model associates the classical theory enzymatic kinetics to Lotka-Volterra equations. To test the proposed model, we take as an example the regulation of catecholamine synthesis-storage-release in the adrenal medulla.

  4. Mathematical modeling of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal gland (HPA) axis, including hippocampal mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten; Vinther, Frank; Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2013-01-01

    non-negative and bounded, which can be interpreted as a mathematical formulation of homeostasis. No oscillating solutions are present when using physiologically reasonable parameter values. This indicates that the ultradian rhythm originate from different mechanisms.Using physiologically reasonable......This paper presents a mathematical model of the HPA axis. The HPA axis consists of the hypothalamus, the pituitary and the adrenal glands in which the three hormones CRH, ACTH and cortisol interact through receptor dynamics. Furthermore, it has been suggested that receptors in the hippocampus have...

  5. Computed tomography of the abdomen of calves during the first 105 days of life: III. Urinary tract and adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Schnetzler, C; Augsburger, H; Bettschart, R; Ohlerth, S

    2014-05-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) findings of the urinary tract and adrenal glands of five healthy male calves in the first 105 days of life were compared with corresponding cadaver slices. The structures seen on CT images were identified using the corresponding cadaver slices. CT produced exact images of the kidneys, urinary bladder, urethra and adrenal glands, but reliable images of the ureters were only obtained near the renal hilus. There was excellent agreement between the structures on the CT images and the tissue slices. The structure and vessels of the kidneys, the origin of the ureters, the location, size and content of the urinary bladder and the course of the urethra in the pelvis and penis were evident on images. The size and volume of the kidneys and the length and width of the adrenal glands increased significantly during the study, but the ureteral and urethral diameters changed little.

  6. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone secretion by perifused pituitary and adrenal glands from rodents exposed to 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, J A; Buckalew, A R; House, D E; Abbott, B D

    2000-10-26

    Although in utero maternal stress has been shown to have lasting effects on rodent offspring, fetal effects of chemically-induced alterations of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) have not been well studied. This study examined the effects of in vivo 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure on pituitary-adrenal function in the male rat, pregnant female rat and pregnant female mouse. The secretion of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) in pituitary and adrenal glands, respectively, was assessed in ex vivo perifusion cultures. Male and pregnant female (gestation day 8) Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged once with 10 microgram/kg TCDD, pregnant female mice once with 24 microgram/kg TCDD, and euthanized 10 days later. Hemi-pituitary (rat) or whole anterior pituitaries (mice) and right adrenal glands from the same animal were quartered, perifused under baseline and stimulated conditions. In both males and pregnant females, TCDD did not affect corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)-stimulated ACTH secretion. Neither total pituitary ACTH nor plasma ACTH was altered in either sex or species by TCDD treatment. ACTH-stimulated CORT secretion was not affected by TCDD in either sex or species, and adrenal tissue and plasma CORT levels were unchanged in males and pregnant females by TCDD. However, the plasma ACTH:CORT ratio was decreased about 46% in male rats treated with TCDD. Plasma CORT levels were 23-fold higher and plasma ACTH levels were 1.5-fold higher in pregnant females than in male rats. In male versus female rats, adrenal CORT and anterior pituitary ACTH tissue levels were about 7.5- and 1.75-fold higher and ACTH, respectively. Female mouse adrenal tissue CORT was about 4-fold greater than female rat. The reduced plasma ACTH:CORT ratio in the male rat suggests that TCDD disturbs HPA function. Exposure of male rat to a 5-fold higher dose in earlier studies clearly demonstrated effects of TCDD on male rat HPA. The present

  7. Cushing's syndrome and fetal features resurgence in adrenal cortex-specific Prkar1a knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Sahut-Barnola

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Carney complex (CNC is an inherited neoplasia syndrome with endocrine overactivity. Its most frequent endocrine manifestation is primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD, a bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia causing pituitary-independent Cushing's syndrome. Inactivating mutations in PRKAR1A, a gene encoding the type 1 alpha-regulatory subunit (R1alpha of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA have been found in 80% of CNC patients with Cushing's syndrome. To demonstrate the implication of R1alpha loss in the initiation and development of PPNAD, we generated mice lacking Prkar1a specifically in the adrenal cortex (AdKO. AdKO mice develop pituitary-independent Cushing's syndrome with increased PKA activity. This leads to autonomous steroidogenic genes expression and deregulated adreno-cortical cells differentiation, increased proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. Unexpectedly, R1alpha loss results in improper maintenance and centrifugal expansion of cortisol-producing fetal adrenocortical cells with concomitant regression of adult cortex. Our data provide the first in vivo evidence that loss of R1alpha is sufficient to induce autonomous adrenal hyper-activity and bilateral hyperplasia, both observed in human PPNAD. Furthermore, this model demonstrates that deregulated PKA activity favors the emergence of a new cell population potentially arising from the fetal adrenal, giving new insight into the mechanisms leading to PPNAD.

  8. Evaluation of Iron Deposition in the Adrenal Glands of β Thalassemia Major Patients Using 3-Tesla MRI

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    Guzelbey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Beta-thalassemia major (β-TM patients need blood transfusions, which result in iron deposition. To regulate chelation therapy, iron load has to be measured. With MRI, the amount of signal loss and T2* decay time shortening are used for iron quantification. Objectives The aim was to measure adrenal iron load with T2* relaxometry using MRI, and to compare it with liver and cardiac iron and serum ferritin, and to find out whether adrenal iron could be predicted from those parameters. Patients and Methods Between October 2014 and March 2015, MRI was performed in 21 patients with β-TM, recieving blood transfusions and chelation therapy. The control group (n = 11 included healthy volunteers with no known history of adrenal, hematologic, chronic disease, and blood transfusion. Results Among patients, there was no significant correlation between plasma ferritin and adrenal T2*. Significant difference was detected among T2* values of adrenals between the patient and control groups. There was no significant correlation between adrenal gland and liver T2* in β-TM patients, moderate correlation was detected between adrenal T2* and cardiac T2*. Conclusion Adrenal iron in β-TM can be reliably measured in 3 Tesla MRI. The results highlight the absence of correlation between adrenal iron deposition both with serum ferritin and hepatic iron.

  9. CT screening for lung cancer: Frequency of enlarged adrenal glands identified in baseline and annual repeat rounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Minxia [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Capital Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Beijing (China); Yip, Rowena; Yankelevitz, David Y.; Henschke, Claudia I. [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-12-15

    To determine the frequency of adrenal enlargement of participants in a CT-screening program for lung cancer and demonstrate the progression during follow-up, separately for baseline and annual repeat rounds. HIPAA-compliant informed consent was obtained in 4,776 participants. The adrenal gland was defined as enlarged if it measured ≥6 mm at its largest diameter. Logistic regression analyses were performed. At baseline, 202 (4 %) of 4,776 participants had adrenal enlargement. Significant factors were age (OR = 1.4, 95 % CI: 1.2-1.7) and current smoker (OR = 1.8, 95 % CI: 1.3-2.4). Follow-up 7-18 months after baseline for 133 cases with adrenal enlargement <40 mm showed it decreased or was stable in 85 (64 %), and increased by <10 mm in 48 (36 %). Five (0.04 %) cases of adrenal enlargement were newly identified, none increased beyond 40 mm on follow-up. Adrenal enlargement was a significant predictor of a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer (OR = 2.0, 95 % CI: 1.2-3.4). Participants with adrenal enlargement <40 mm identified at baseline and on repeat screening could be reasonably assessed on subsequent annual screening. Adrenal enlargement increased with increasing pack-years of smoking. Adrenal enlargement was an independent predictor of a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer. (orig.)

  10. Chronic Exposure to Cadmium Disrupts the Adrenal Gland Activity of the Newt Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela

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    Flaminia Gay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We intended to verify the safety of the freshwater values established for cadmium by the European Community and the Italian Ministry of Health in drinking water (5 μg/L and sewage waters (20 μg/L. Therefore, we chronically exposed the newt Triturus carnifex to 5 μg/L and 20 μg/L doses of cadmium, respectively, during 3 and 9 months and verified the effects on the adrenal gland. We evaluated the serum concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, corticosterone, aldosterone, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. During the 3-month exposure, both doses of cadmium decreased ACTH and corticosterone serum levels and increased aldosterone and epinephrine serum levels. During the 9-month exposure, the 5 μg/L dose decreased ACTH and increased aldosterone and epinephrine serum levels; the 20 μg/L dose decreased norepinephrine and epinephrine serum levels, without affecting the other hormones. It was concluded that (1 chronic exposure to the safety values established for cadmium disrupted the adrenal gland activity and (2 the effects of cadmium were related both to the length of exposure and the dose administered. Moreover, our results suggest probable risks to human health, due to the use of water contaminated by cadmium.

  11. Chronic Exposure to Cadmium Disrupts the Adrenal Gland Activity of the Newt Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Flaminia; Laforgia, Vincenza; Caputo, Ivana; Esposito, Carla; Lepretti, Marilena

    2013-01-01

    We intended to verify the safety of the freshwater values established for cadmium by the European Community and the Italian Ministry of Health in drinking water (5 μg/L) and sewage waters (20 μg/L). Therefore, we chronically exposed the newt Triturus carnifex to 5 μg/L and 20 μg/L doses of cadmium, respectively, during 3 and 9 months and verified the effects on the adrenal gland. We evaluated the serum concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone, aldosterone, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. During the 3-month exposure, both doses of cadmium decreased ACTH and corticosterone serum levels and increased aldosterone and epinephrine serum levels. During the 9-month exposure, the 5 μg/L dose decreased ACTH and increased aldosterone and epinephrine serum levels; the 20 μg/L dose decreased norepinephrine and epinephrine serum levels, without affecting the other hormones. It was concluded that (1) chronic exposure to the safety values established for cadmium disrupted the adrenal gland activity and (2) the effects of cadmium were related both to the length of exposure and the dose administered. Moreover, our results suggest probable risks to human health, due to the use of water contaminated by cadmium. PMID:23971036

  12. Ectopic thyroid tissue in the adrenal gland: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadei, Gian Piero; Bertarelli, Claudia; Giorgini, Eleonora; Cremonini, Nadia; de Biase, Dario; Tallini, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Foci of ectopic thyroid tissue are uncommon. Most sites of thyroid ectopia are confined to the neck region. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue outside the migration pathway of the primitive thyroid in other locations is exceptional. Given that any disease of the thyroid gland may also affect ectopic thyroid tissue, pathologists has to recognize benign or malignant conditions that may develop in the ectopic focus. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman with ectopic thyroid parenchyma in the adrenal gland. Clinically, postoperative thyroid ultrasound echography and computed tomography scans did not reveal any thyroid tumor. The ectopic tissue was a cyst bordered by mature follicular thyroid structures and was histologically benign, without the molecular alterations associated with malignant tumors of follicular cell derivation (BRAFV600E, N-RAS, H-RAS, K-RAS). Review of the literature reveals that adrenal ectopic thyroid tissue is nearly always cystic and has distinctive pathologic features. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Analysis of endocrine disruption effect of Roundup® in adrenal gland of male rats

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    Aparamita Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Roundup® on adrenal gland steroidogenesis and signaling pathway associated with steroid production was investigated. Doses of 10, 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg bw/d Roundup® were administered for two weeks to adult male rats. The 10 mg/kg bw/d dose which reduced circulatory corticosterone levels, but did not change food consumption and body weight, was selected for further study. The expression of cholesterol receptor (low density lipoprotein receptor, de novo cholesterol synthesis enzyme (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase, hormone-sensitive lipase, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR mRNA and phosphorylated form was decreased. Adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor (ACTH, melanocortin-2 receptor, expression was not changed but circulatory ACTH levels and adrenal cortex protein kinase A (PKA activity were reduced. Surprisingly, exogenous ACTH treatment rescued steroidogenesis in Roundup®-treated animals. Apoptosis was evident at 250 mg/kg bw/d, but not at 10 mg/kg bw/d dose. These results suggest that Roundup® may be inhibitory to hypothalamic–pituitary axis leading to reduction in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP/PKA pathway, StAR phosphorylation and corticosterone synthesis in the adrenal tissue.

  14. Impact of Acute Deltamethrin Poisoning on Rat Adrenal Glands: Biochemical and Pathomorphological Study

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    Eugene A. Chigrinski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deltamethrin is known all over the world as an effective preparation for the control of insects. In connection with this, its role as a chemical stressor increases. The aim of the study was to determine the features of the functioning and structure of AG after a single administration of synthetic pyrethroid deltamethrin in experimental animals at a dose of 17.4 mg/kg (1/5 LD50. Material and Methods: For the experiment, 88 male Wistar rats with a body weight of 240±10 g were divided into 8 groups of 10–12 animals each. Groups 1, 3, 5, and 7 were control groups, which were administered physiological solution intragastrically. The animals in Groups 2, 4, 6, and 8 received a single dose (17.4mg/kg of deltamethrin, which corresponds to 1/5 LD50. In the serum of rats, the content of ACTH, progesterone, DHEA-sulfate, corticosterone and aldosterone was determined by EIA. Histological preparations of adrenal glands were stained with H&E, picrofuxin according to Van Gieson, and with Bismarck brown according to Shubich. On frozen sections, lipids were detected by Sudan Black B.\tResults: One day after intoxication, we identified an increase in adrenal mass, edema of the parenchyma and blood capillary overflow, and a large number of lipids in corticocytes. In the blood serum, the concentration of ACTH and corticosteroids increased, but their level decreased in the adrenal cortex. After 3 days, the concentration of corticosterone in the blood serum of the experimental animals remained above the control value, but the content of other hormones decreased. At the border of the cortex and the medulla of the adrenal glands, there were mast cells in a state of degranulation; the amount of lipids decreased with time. In the subsequent terms of the study, a decrease in the weight of AG with a decrease in the concentration of hormones in the blood serum and adrenal tissue was detected. Conclusion: The intoxication of rats with deltamethrin causes

  15. Caffeine-induced activated glucocorticoid metabolism in the hippocampus causes hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis inhibition in fetal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Zhang, Benjian; Liang, Gai; Ping, Jie; Kou, Hao; Li, Xiaojun; Xiong, Jie; Hu, Dongcai; Chen, Liaobin; Magdalou, Jacques; Wang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations have shown that fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are susceptible to adult metabolic syndrome. Clinical investigations and experiments have demonstrated that caffeine is a definite inducer of IUGR, as children who ingest caffeine-containing food or drinks are highly susceptible to adult obesity and hypertension. Our goals for this study were to investigate the effect of prenatal caffeine ingestion on the functional development of the fetal hippocampus and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and to clarify an intrauterine HPA axis-associated neuroendocrine alteration induced by caffeine. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered 20, 60, and 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from gestational days 11-20. The results show that prenatal caffeine ingestion significantly decreased the expression of fetal hypothalamus corticotrophin-releasing hormone. The fetal adrenal cortex changed into slight and the expression of fetal adrenal steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), as well as the level of fetal adrenal endogenous corticosterone (CORT), were all significantly decreased after caffeine treatment. Moreover, caffeine ingestion significantly increased the levels of maternal and fetal blood CORT and decreased the expression of placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11β-HSD-2). Additionally, both in vivo and in vitro studies show that caffeine can downregulate the expression of fetal hippocampal 11β-HSD-2, promote the expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and enhance DNA methylation within the hippocampal 11β-HSD-2 promoter. These results suggest that prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits the development of the fetal HPA axis, which may be associated with the fetal overexposure to maternal glucocorticoid and activated glucocorticoid metabolism in the fetal hippocampus. These results will be beneficial in

  16. Adrenal glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glucocorticoid medicines Excessive or unwanted hair in women ( hirsutism ) Hump behind shoulders (dorsocervical fat pad) Hypoglycemia Primary ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  17. The critical importance of the fetal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Wood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fetal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is at the center of mechanisms controlling fetal readiness for birth, survival after birth and, in several species, determination of the timing of birth. Stereotypical increases in fetal HPA axis activity at the end of gestation are critical for preparing the fetus for successful transition to postnatal life. The fundamental importance in fetal development of the endogenous activation of this endocrine axis at the end of gestation has led to the use of glucocorticoids for reducing neonatal morbidity in premature infants. However, the choice of dose and repetition of treatments has been controversial, raising the possibility that excess glucocorticoid might program an increased incidence of adult disease (e.g., coronary artery disease and diabetes. We make the argument that because of the critical importance of the fetal HPA axis and its interaction with the maternal HPA axis, dysregulation of cortisol plasma concentrations or inappropriate manipulation pharmacologically can have negative consequences at the beginning of extrauterine life and for decades thereafter.

  18. Correlated histological and morphometric study of kidney and adrenal gland from Guinea pig exposed to hyperbaric-hyperoxic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hîncu, Mihaela; Petcu, L C; Mehedinţi, Rodica; Mehedinţi, T

    2006-01-01

    Our study revealed morphological changes in the two organs of Guinea pig kidney and suprarenal gland exposed to hyperbaric-hyperoxic environment. Proceeding from these data and knowing that in hyperbaric-hyperoxic environment the production of free oxygen radicals is increased, while the afferent arterioles undergo vasoconstriction, with direct implications on the cellular metabolism, our study puts forth the survey of the influence of hyperoxic environment on kidneys and adrenal gland - complex organs which are exposed to stress.

  19. Activities against hemostatic proteins and adrenal gland ultrastructural changes caused by the brown widow spider Latrodectus geometricus (Araneae: Theridiidae) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Belsy; Finol, Hector J; Reyes-Lugo, Matias; Salazar, Ana M; Sánchez, Elda E; Estrella, Amalid; Roschman-González, Antonio; Ibarra, Carlos; Salvi, Ivan; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    Brown widow spider (BrWS) (Latrodectus geometricus) venom produces intense systemic reactions such as cramps, harsh muscle nociceptive, nauseas, vomiting and hypertension. The proposed pathogenic mechanisms resulting in these accidents have principally been damages occurring at the nervous system. However, it is suspected that there is also damage of the adrenal glands, as a result of the experimental animal's clinical manifestations, which developed symptoms compatible with acute adrenal insufficiency. We have currently found that the adrenal gland is damaged by this venom gland homogenates (VGH) producing severe alterations on cortex cells resulting in death by acute adrenal insufficiency. In general, the ultrastructural study on the glands of mice under transmission electronic microscopy observations showed alterations in the majority of the intracellular membranes within 3 to 24h. BrWSVGH also showed specific actions on extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin, laminin and fibrinogen. In addition, zymogram experiments using gelatin as substrates detected gelatinolytic activity. The molecular exclusion fractionation of crude BrWSVGH resulted in 15 fractions, of which F1 and F2 presented alpha/beta-fibrinogenase and fibronectinolytic activities. Fractions F6, F14 and F15 showed only alpha-fibrinogenase activity; in contrast, the gelatinolytic action was only observed in fraction F11. Only metalloproteinase inhibitors abolished all these proteolytic activities. Our results suggest that adrenal cortex lesions may be relevant in the etiopathogenesis of severe brown widow spider envenoming. To our knowledge, this is the first report on adrenal gland damages, fibrinogenolytic activity and interrelations with cell-matrix adhesion proteins caused by L.geometricus VGH. The venom of this spider could be inducing hemostatic system damages on envenomed patients.

  20. Increased DNA methylation of scavenger receptor class B type I contributes to inhibitory effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol uptake and steroidogenesis in fetal adrenals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dong-Mei; He, Zheng; Ma, Liang-Peng; Wang, Lin-Long [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ping, Jie, E-mail: pingjie@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-06-01

    Steroid hormones synthesized from cholesterol in the fetal adrenal are crucial for fetal development. We have observed the inhibited fetal adrenal corticosterone synthesis and increased intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rate in rats under prenatal caffeine ingestion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol supply in fetal adrenal steroidogenesis in rats and explore the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with 60 mg/kg·d caffeine from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD17. Histological changes of fetal adrenals and increased IUGR rates were observed in the caffeine group. There were significantly decreased steroid hormone contents and cholesterol supply in caffeine-treated fetal adrenals. Data from the gene expression array suggested that prenatal caffeine ingestion caused increased expression of genes related to DNA methylation and decreased expression of genes related to cholesterol uptake. The following conjoint analysis of DNA methylation array with these differentially expressed genes suggested that scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) may play an important role in caffeine-induced cholesterol supply deficiency. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical detection certified the inhibitory effects of caffeine on both mRNA expression and protein expression of SR-BI in the fetal adrenal. And the increased DNA methylation frequency in the proximal promoter of SR-BI was confirmed by bisulfite-sequencing PCR. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine ingestion can induce DNA hypermethylation of the SR-BI promoter in the rat fetal adrenal. These effects may lead to decreased SR-BI expression and cholesterol uptake, which inhibits steroidogenesis in the fetal adrenal. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits steroid hormone production in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits cholesterol uptake in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine

  1. A dopaminergic receptor modulates catecholamine release from the cat adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artalejo, A R; García, A G; Montiel, C; Sánchez-García, P

    1985-01-01

    Nicotine evokes the release of catecholamines from perfused cat adrenal glands in a concentration-dependent manner, the median effective concentration for nicotine being 5 microM. Two 2 min pulses of 5 microM-nicotine, 40 min apart (S1 and S2) gave net catecholamine outputs of 7.64 and 3.55 micrograms/8 min, respectively. The ratio S2/S1 in control glands was 0.5. Increasing concentrations of apomorphine (1-10 microM) markedly inhibited catecholamine release during the second nicotine pulse (S2). At 1 microM-apomorphine, the release during S2 was significantly reduced to 16% of S1; with 10 microM-apomorphine, the secretory response was reduced further to only 3% of S1, the ratio S2/S1 being 0.03. The presence of haloperidol, sulpiride or picobenzide (each 0.5 microM) during S2, completely reversed the inhibition of catecholamine release produced by apomorphine. Haloperidol itself increased the nicotinic secretory response during S2; so, while the ratio S2/S1 was 0.5 in control conditions, this ratio increased significantly to 0.95 if haloperidol (0.5 microM) was present during S2, suggesting that the presence of this dopaminergic antagonist removed a negative feed-back mechanism that inhibits nicotine-evoked catecholamine release. If present during S2, dopamine (1 microM) also markedly inhibited catecholamine release evoked by nicotine; this inhibition was again reversed by 0.5 microM-haloperidol. Neither the opiate antagonist naloxone nor the alpha-adrenoceptor blocking agent phentolamine (at concentrations of 0.5-5 microM) affected the inhibition by apomorphine of the secretory response to nicotine. These data strongly suggest that the cat adrenal medulla chromaffin cell membrane contains a dopaminergic receptor which modulates the catecholamine secretory process triggered by stimulation of the nicotinic cholinoceptor. The fact that dopamine is released in measurable amounts, together with adrenaline and noradrenaline, from perfused cat adrenal glands in response

  2. Morphological and microvascular changes of the adrenal glands in streptozotocin-induced long-term diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sricharoenvej, Sirinush; Boonprasop, Surasak; Lanlua, Passara; Piyawinijwong, Sitha; Niyomchan, Apichaya

    2009-01-01

    It has been known that diabetes mellitus is associated with hyperfunction of the adrenal gland. However, the structural changes of adrenal gland in diabetes have rarely been studied. The aims of this study were to investigate the morphological and microvascular alterations in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced long-term diabetic rats. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into diabetic (n=8) and control (n=4) groups. Each diabetic rat was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg) in citrate buffer (pH 4.5). Control rats were intraperitoneally injected with the same amounts of the buffer. These animals were sacrificed at 20 weeks after the injections. The adrenal glands were processed for the morphological and microvascular studies by using conventional light microscopy (LM) and vascular corrosion cast technique combined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. In the diabetic group, the cells in zona glomeruloza (ZG) became atrophied and the thickness of this zone was found to be less than that of the controls. In the zona fasciculata (ZF) and zona reticularis (ZR), the hypertrophic cells were investigated in both layers. The degenerated chromaffin and hypertrophic sympathetic ganglion cells in the adrenal medulla were observed. Also some degenerated ganglion cells were found. Additionally, lymphocyte infiltration, macrophages and amyloidosis were found in the adrenal medulla of long-term diabetic rats with renal failure. Under the SEM observation, the luminal diameters of capillaries in the diabetic group were dilated in all zones. In addition, these capillaries in the ZF and ZR were arranged in tortuous courses. This study demonstrates morphological and microvascular changes in the adrenal gland of diabetic rats which are in accordance with the hormonal changes reported by previous investigators.

  3. Quantitative selenium-75-cholesterol imaging and computed tomography of the adrenal glands in Conn's syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.L. (Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Medicine); Smith, J.A.; Mervis, B. (Cape Town Univ. (South Africa))

    1982-10-30

    Six consecutive patients with biochemically proven primary aldosteronism (4 with unilateral aldosteronomas and 2 with bilateral hyperplasia) underwent imaging with /sup 75/Se-selenomethyl-nor-cholesterol (Scintadren; Radiochemical Centre, Amersham, UK) and computed tomography (CT) of the adrenal glands to aid in lateralizing unilateral aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) and to differentiate APA from idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia (IAH). Scintadren quantitative imaging alone was successful in lateralizing the lesion in all 4 cases of unilateral APA; mean uptake by the affected adrenal gland was 0,47% of the administered dose as against 0,23% in the normal gland (P smaller than 0,01). The mean uptake ratio for the adenomatous as against the normal gland was 2,03 (range 1,75-2,21), which was significantly greater than the uptake ratio of 0,82 in 4 normal individuals (P smaller than 0,01). CT lateralized all the APAs. In the 2 cases of IAH, Scintadren uptake was bilaterally increased in one case in which CT was normal, whereas in the other case Scintadren uptakes were normal while CT showed two abnormal glands. The overall diagnostic yield for Scintadren was 83%; the figure for CT was also 83%. When the results of Scintadren imaging and CT are pooled, the accuracy in lateralizing APAs and differentiating APA from IAH as a cause of Conn's syndrome is 100%.

  4. Gene expression in the adrenal glands of three spontaneously hypertensive rat substrains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenagar, Mohammad S; Tabuchi, Masaki; Kinoshita, Kosho; Ooshima, Kana; Niwa, Atsuko; Watanabe, Yuko; Yoshida, Momoko; Shimada, Kazunori; Yasunaga, Teruo; Yamanishi, Hiromichi; Higashino, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    We examined gene expression profiles in rat adrenal glands using genome-wide microarray technology. Gene expression levels were determined in four rat strains, including one normotensive strain [Wistar-Kyoto (WKY)] and three substrains derived from WKY rats: spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), stroke-prone SHR (SHRSP) and malignant SHRSP (M-SHRSP). This study represents the first attempt at using microarrays to compare gene expression profiles in SHR, SHRSP and M-SHRSP adrenal glands, employing WKY as controls. Expression measurements were made in these four rat strains at 6 and 9 weeks of age; 6 weeks of age covers the pre-hypertensive period in SHR and SHRSP, and 9 weeks of age is the period of rapidly rising blood pressure (BP). Since the aim of this study was to identify candidate genes involved in the genesis of hypertension in the SHR substrains, we identified genes that were consistently different in their expression, isolating 87 up-regulated genes showing a more than 4-fold increase and 128 down-regulated genes showing a less than 1/4-fold decrease in at least two different experiments. We classified all these up- or down-regulated genes by their expression profiles, and searched for candidate genes. At 6 weeks of age, several BP-regulating genes including sparc/osteonectin (Spock2), kynureninase (Kynu), regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (Rgs2) and gap junction protein α1 (Gja1) were identified as up-regulated, and urotensin 2 (Uts2), cytoplasmic epoxide hydrolase 2 (Ephx2), apelin (Apln), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (Igf1r) and angiotensin II receptor-associated protein (Agtrap) were identified as down-regulated. The Kynu and Ephx2 genes have previously been reported by other groups to be responsible for hypertension in SHR; however, our present approach identified at least seven new candidate genes.

  5. The adrenal gland and the patient with pulmonary tuberculosis infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifedayo Adeola Odeniyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The adrenal gland is not spared from the involvement by tuberculosis. One of the recognized causes of adrenal insufficiency (AI is tuberculosis. AI, mostly at the subclinical level, is common in persons with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB infection, occurring in about 23% of patients. Coinfection with PTB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV may compromise adrenocortical function and produce significant adrenocortical insufficiency. Objective: To determine if coinfection with tuberculosis and HIV have a compound effect on adrenocortical function in persons with HIV and PTB coinfection. Materials and Methods: Persons with sputum-positive PTB, treatment naive, who met our inclusion criteria, were selected. All the recruited patients were screened for HIV and those positive for HIV infection had confirmatory test. A baseline blood samples for cortisol, fasting plasma glucose, full blood count, and electrolytes were collected between 8.00 h and 9.00 h immediately before administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH. The persons received an intravenous bolus injection of 1 μg ACTH (Alliance Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Chippenham, Wiltshire SN15 2BB and blood sample was drawn for cortisol level at 30 min. Results: Forty-four people with PTB infection and forty people with PTB and HIV coinfection met the inclusion criteria of the study. The adrenal response to 1 μg ACTH stimulation in participants with PTB and PTB and HIV coinfection showed that the mean basal cortisol level in the 2 groups was not statistically significant; however, 30-min post-ACTH stimulation cortisol level was 630.84 ± 372.17 and 980.36 ± 344.82 nmol/L (P < 0.001 and increment was 367.79 ± 334.87 and 740.77 ± 317.97 nmol/L (P < 0.001, respectively. Fourteen persons (31.8% with PTB has subnormal adrenal response to ACTH stimulation while only 2 (5% persons with PTB and HIV coinfection has subnormal response. Conclusion: AI, at subclinical level, was less frequent in

  6. Potentiation of K+-evoked catecholamine release in the cat adrenal gland treated with ouabain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A. G.; Garcia-Lopez, E.; Horga, J. F.; Kirpekar, S. M.; Montiel, C.; Sanchez-Garcia, P.

    1981-01-01

    1 A vigorous catecholamine secretory response was evoked by small increments (2-10 mM) of the extracellular concentration of K+ ([K+])o) in cat adrenal glands treated with ouabain (10(-4) M), and perfused with Krebs-bicarbonate solution at room temperature. 2 The secretory response depends on [K+]o; increments of [K+]o as small as 2 mM for 2 min evoked a clear secretory response; at 10-17.7 mM K+, the maximal secretory response was observed. In normal glands, not treated with ouabain, no increase of the rate of catecholamine output was observed by raising [K+]o up to 17.7 mM for 2 min. 3 The K+ secretory response was time-dependent, requiring at least 1 min to be initiated; on continued exposure to 10 mM [K+]o, the enhanced response remained for at least 1 h. 4 In low [Na+]o, the K+-secretory response was unchanged. However, in 0-Ca2+, high-Mg2+ solutions, or in the presence of D600, an organic Ca2+ antagonist, it was abolished. 5 The K+-induced secretory response was not altered in the presence of tetrodoxin or tetraethylammonium. 6 It is concluded that ouabain potentiated the catecholamine secretory response to raised [K+]o by increasing the amount of Ca2+ available to the secretory machinery through (a) mobilization of an enhanced pool of membrane-bound Ca2+, (b) activation of membrane Ca2+ inward current; or (c) decrease of intracellular Ca2+ buffering systems. The activation by ouabain of a membrane Na+-Ca2+ exchange system is not involved in this K+-secretory response. It is suggested that the plasma membrane ATPase enzyme system, by changing the affinity of its Ca2+ binding sites, might control the availability of this cation to the secretory machinery and, therefore, modulate catecholamine secretion in the adrenal gland. PMID:7296168

  7. Expression of Angiotensin Ⅱ Receptors in Aldosterone-producing Adenoma of the Adrenal Gland and Their Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴准; 倪栋; 闫永吉; 李俊; 王保军; 欧阳金枝; 张国玺; 马鑫; 李宏召; 张旭

    2010-01-01

    The expression of angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor (AT1R) and angiotensin Ⅱ type 2 receptor (AT2R) in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) of the adrenal gland was detected, and their relationship with clinical indexes of APA was analyzed. The mRNA expression of AT1R and AT2R in 50 cases of APA and tissues adjacent to tumors and 12 cases of normal adrenal tissues was detected by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression of AT1R and AT2R proteins in paraffin-embedded slices o...

  8. A morphological and histological examination of the pan-tropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) and the spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, L S; Cowan, D F; Pfeiffer, D C

    2008-04-01

    The morphology and histology of the cetacean adrenal gland are poorly understood. Therefore, this study examined 32 pairs of adrenal glands from 18 pan-tropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) and 14 spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris). In both species, the cortex was pseudolobulated and contained a typical mammalian zonation. Medullary protrusions (0-3 per section) and a medullary band were identified in both species. For S. attenuata, no statistical differences were found in the cortex to medulla (CM) ratio or the percent cross-sectional area (PCA) of the adrenal glands compared with sex or sexual maturity. The mean CM ratio for S. attenuata was 2.34 and the PCA was 64.4% cortex, 29.4% medulla and 6.2%'other'. 'Other' indicates blood vessels, connective tissue and the gland capsule itself. For S. longirostris, there was no statistical difference in the CM ratio compared with sexual maturity. However, a statistical difference was found between the CM ratio and sex, suggesting sexual dimorphism (female CM ratio = 2.46 and males = 3.21). No statistical differences were found in the PCA of S. longirostris adrenal glands by sexual maturity. However, a statistical difference was found between the PCA by sex. Female S. longirostris adrenal glands consisted of 65.0% cortex, 27.3% medulla and 7.7% 'other', whereas male adrenal glands consisted of 71.7% cortex, 22.7% medulla and 5.6% 'other'.

  9. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of adrenal gland with heterologus osseous differentiation in a case of Von Recklinghausen′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas R Baisakh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST of the adrenal gland is extremely rare. Most of them occur in association with neurofibromatosis, ganglioneuroma or as part of a composite tumor such as pheochromocytoma. Only seven cases of MPNST of the adrenal gland have been reported in the literature till date. Discriminating this entity from other soft tissue sarcomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the adrenal gland has important diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Moreover, the tumor size and pattern of expression for certain immunohistochemical markers may serve as independent predictors of aggressiveness. Herein we present a 24-years-old male with features of Von Recklinghausen′s disease who presented with large left adrenal gland malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor.

  10. Impact of maternal undernutrition during the periconceptional period, fetal number, and fetal sex on the development of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis in sheep during late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L J; McMillen, I Caroline

    2002-05-01

    Evidence from epidemiologic, clinical, and experimental studies has shown that a suboptimal intrauterine environment during early pregnancy can alter fetal growth and gestation length and is associated with an increased prevalence of adult hypertension and cardiovascular disease. It has been postulated that maternal nutrient restriction may act to reprogram the development of the pituitary-adrenal axis, resulting in excess glucocorticoid exposure and adverse health outcomes in later life. It is unknown, however, whether maternal nutrient restriction during the periconceptional period alters the development of the fetal pituitary-adrenal axis or whether the effects of periconceptional undernutrition can be reversed by the provision of an adequate level of maternal nutrition throughout the remainder of pregnancy. We have investigated the effect of restricted periconceptional nutrition (70% of control feed allowance) from 60 days before until 7 days after mating and the effect of restricted gestational nutrition from Day 8 to 147 of gestation on the development of the fetal hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in the sheep. In these studies, we have also investigated the effects of fetal number and sex on the pituitary-adrenal responses to periconceptional and gestational undernutrition. In ewes maintained on a control diet throughout the periconceptional and gestational periods, fetal plasma ACTH concentrations were higher and the prepartum surge in cortisol occurred earlier in singletons compared with twins. Plasma ACTH concentrations were also significantly higher in male compared with female singletons, and in twin fetuses, the prepartum surge in cortisol concentrations occurred earlier in males than in females. Periconceptional undernutrition resulted in higher fetal plasma concentrations of ACTH between 110 and 145 days of gestation and a significantly greater cortisol response to a bolus dose of corticotropin-releasing hormone in twin, but not singleton

  11. Essential Role for the Lymphostromal Plasma Membrane Ly-6 Superfamily Molecule Thymic Shared Antigen 1 in Development of the Embryonic Adrenal Gland

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Thymic shared antigen 1 (TSA-1) is a plasma membrane protein of the Ly-6 superfamily expressed on thymocytes, thymic stromal cells, and other cells of the hematopoietic system. TSA-1 is also expressed in other nonhematopoietic tissues, in particular, embryonic and adult adrenal glands. To address the function of TSA-1, we generated mutant mice in which TSA-1 expression was inactivated by gene targeting. Here we show that deletion of both TSA-1 alleles results in abnormal adrenal gland develop...

  12. Correlation between catecholamine release and sodium pump inhibition in the perfused adrenal gland of the cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.G.; Garcia-Lopez, E.; Montiel, C.; Nicolas, G.P.; Sanchez-Garcia, P.

    1981-01-01

    1 Ca2+ reintroduction to retrogradely perfused and ouabain (10-4 M)-treated cat adrenal glands caused a catecholamine secretory response which was greater the longer the time of exposure to the cardiac glycoside. Such a response was proportional to the external Na+ concentration [Na+]o. 2 A qualitatively similar, yet smaller response was observed when glands were perfused with Krebs solution lacking K+ ions; thus, K+ deprivation mimicked the secretory effects of ouabain. Catecholamine secretion evoked by Ca2+ reintroduction in K+-free solution (0-K+) was also proportional to [Na+]o and greater the longer the time of exposure of the gland to 0-K+ solution. 3 The ionophore X537A also mimicked the ouabain effects, since Ca2+ reintroduction to glands treated with this agent (25 μM) caused a sharp secretory response. When added together with X537A, ouabain (10-4 M) did not modify the response to the ionophore. 4 N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), another Na+, K+-ATPase inhibitor, did not evoke the release of catecholamines; on the contrary, NEM (10-4 M) inhibited the catecholamine secretory response to high [K+]o, acetylcholine, Ca2+ reintroduction and ouabain. 5 Ouabain (10-4 M) inhibited the uptake of 86Rb into adreno-medullary tissue by 60%. Maximal inhibition had already occurred 2 min after adding the drug, indicating a lack of temporal correlation between ATPase inhibition and the ouabain secretory response, which took longer (about 30-40 min) to reach its peak. NEM (10-4 M) blocked 86Rb uptake in a similar manner. 6 The results are further evidence in favour of the presence of a Na+-Ca2+ exchange system in the chromaffin cell membrane, probably involved in the control of [Ca2+]i and in the modulation of catecholamine secretion. This system is activated by increasing [Na+]i, either directly (ionophore X537A, increased [Na+]o) or indirectly (Na+ pump inhibition). However, the simple inhibition of Na+ pumping does not always lead to a catecholamine secretory response; such is

  13. Alpha-human atrial natriuretic polypeptide (. cap alpha. -hANP) specific binding sites in bovine adrenal gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, K.; Nawata, H.; Kato, K.I.; Ibayashi, H.; Matsuo, H.

    1986-06-13

    The effects of synthetic ..cap alpha..-human atrial natriuretic polypeptide (..cap alpha..-hANP) on steroidogenesis in bovine adrenocortical cells in primary monolayer culture were investigated. ..cap alpha..-hANP did not inhibit basal aldosterone secretion. ..cap alpha..-hANP induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of basal levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion and also of aCTH (10/sup -8/M)-stimulated increases in aldosterone, cortisol and DHEA secretion. Visualization of (/sup 125/I) ..cap alpha..-hANP binding sites in bovine adrenal gland by an in vitro autoradiographic technique demonstrated that these sites were highly localized in the adrenal cortex, especially the zona glomerulosa. These results suggest that the adrenal cortex may be a target organ for direct receptor-mediated actions of ..cap alpha..-hANP.

  14. CORTIZOL LEVEL AND ADRENAL GLAND MORPHOLOGY UNDER INFLUENCE OF LOW-INTENSITY ELECTRO-MAGNETIC WAVES AND UNDER STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Naumova

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-intensify electro-magnetic waves (EMW influence were studied at experiment. Certain EMI frequency regimes (they are transparent for the water and water-binding substances, and they are known as trans-resonance can intensify the metabolic rate. In turn, certain EMW frequency regimes (they are not transparent for the water and the water-containing tissues, and they are called as non-resonance can disturb the native electro-magnetic status of the cells and can lead to morphological changes in organs. Morphological changes in adrenal glands and cortizol level of 60 White Vistar rats (males in serum under transparent EMW frequency regimes and non-transparent ones were examined. Transparent and non-transparent frequency regimes impact the various changes in adrenals. Cortizol level corresponds to morphologic conclusion. Stress modified EMW-effects in both variants - under resonance and non-resonance EMW frequency regimes in adrenal morphology and cortizol level.

  15. Ectopic Thyroid Tissue in the Adrenal Gland: A Report of Two Cases with Pathogenetic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Rojas, Alfredo; Bella-Cueto, María Rosa; Meza-Cabrera, Ivonne A.; Cabezuelo-Hernández, Angeles; García-Rojo, Darío; Vargas-Uricoechea, Hernando

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ectopic thyroid tissue is usually found anywhere along the embryonic descent pathway of the medial thyroid anlage from the tongue to the trachea (Wölfler area). However, ectopic thyroid tissue in the adrenal gland (ETTAG) is not easy to understand on the basis of thyroid embryology; because it is so rare, the possibility of metastasis should first be considered. Here, we describe two cases of ETTAG with pathogenetic implications and review the associated literature. Patient findings: Two cases of ETTAG presented as incidental cystic adrenal masses in adult females, one having a congenital hernia of Morgagni. The ETTAG was histologically indistinguishable from normal orthotopic thyroid tissue, and its follicular nature was confirmed by immunohistochemical positivity for thyroglobulin, thyroperoxidase, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1/Titf-1/Nkx2.1), cytokeratin AE1/AE3, cytokeratin 7, pendrin, human sodium iodide symporter, paired box gene 8, and forkhead box E1 (TTF-2), as well as positivity for the messenger RNA of the thyroglobulin gene by in situ hybridization analysis. No C cells (negativity for calcitonin, chromogranin, and synaptophysin) were present. Neither BRAF nor KRAS mutations were detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Further work-up did not show evidence of thyroid malignancy. Summary: ETTAG is a rare finding, with only seven cases reported; women are much more frequently affected than men (8:1), and it usually presents in the fifth decade (mean age 54, range 38–67) as a cystic adrenal mass incidentally discovered on abdominal ultrasonography and/or in computed tomography images. ETTAG is composed of normal follicular cells without C cells. The expression of some transcription factors (TTF-1, paired box gene 8, and FOXE1) involved in development and/or migration of the medial thyroid anlage is preserved. Coexistence of a congenital hernia of Morgagni in one patient suggests an overdescent of medial thyroid

  16. On the release of catecholamines and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase evoked by ouabain in the perfused cat adrenal gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, A. G.; Hernandez, M.; Horga, J. F.; Sanchez-Garcia, P.

    1980-01-01

    1 Secretion of catecholamines (CA) and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) activity from the retrogradely perfused cat adrenal gland was studied following ouabain infusion. Perfusion with ouabain (10(-4) M) for 10 min caused a gradual release of CA in the effluent which reached its peak 30 min after the ouabain pulse, and was maintained constant for at least 1 h. The effect of ouabain seemed to be irreversible. 2 Mecamylamine, while blocking the CA secretory effects of acetylcholine (ACh) perfusi...

  17. Effect of sodium fluoride on adrenal gland of rabbit. I. Studies on ascorbic acid and delta 5-3beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K.; Susheela, A.K.

    1979-04-01

    Rabbits were given 50 mg sodium fluoride/kg body weight through the intragastric route every 24 hours for a total period of 200 days. The left adrenal gland was removed and its total weight recorded. Adrenal glands from rabbits sacrificed at varying intervals for other investigative purposes were also collected and their weights recorded. The data indicate a significant rise in the total weight of the gland. Both ascorbic acid and steroid dehydrogenase (Delta 5-3Beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) were localized in the adrenal gland by histochemical methods. The results indicate that, in rabbits exposed to NaF, a reduction in ascorbic acid content as well as a depletion of steroid dehydrogenase activity occurs especially at the zona glomerulosa. The significance of the increase in weight of the gland to the reduction of the ascorbic acid content and steroid dehydrogenase activity is discussed. 15 references, 4 figures.

  18. Acute adrenal crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adrenal gland is damaged due to, for example, Addison disease or other adrenal gland disease, and surgery The ... Call your health care provider if you have Addison disease and are unable to take your glucocorticoid medicine ...

  19. Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Using Cell-Free Fetal DNA in Maternal Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yu K.; Yuen, Tony; Jiang, Peiyong; Pina, Christian; Chan, K. C. Allen; Khattab, Ahmed; Liao, Gary J. W.; Yau, Mabel; Kim, Se-Min; Chiu, Rossa W. K.; Sun, Li; Zaidi, Mone

    2014-01-01

    Context: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive condition that arises from mutations in CYP21A2 gene, which encodes for the steroidogenic enzyme 21-hydroxylase. To prevent genital ambiguity in affected female fetuses, prenatal treatment with dexamethasone must begin on or before gestational week 9. Currently used chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis provide genetic results at approximately 14 weeks of gestation at the earliest. This means that mothers who want to undergo prenatal dexamethasone treatment will be unnecessarily treating seven of eight fetuses (males and three of four unaffected females), emphasizing the desirability of earlier genetic diagnosis in utero. Objective: The objective of the study was to develop a noninvasive method for early prenatal diagnosis of fetuses at risk for CAH. Patients: Fourteen families, each with a proband affected by phenotypically classical CAH, were recruited. Design: Cell-free fetal DNA was obtained from 3.6 mL of maternal plasma. Using hybridization probes designed to capture a 6-Mb region flanking CYP21A2, targeted massively parallel sequencing (MPS) was performed to analyze genomic DNA samples from parents and proband to determine parental haplotypes. Plasma DNA from pregnant mothers also underwent targeted MPS to deduce fetal inheritance of parental haplotypes. Results: In all 14 families, the fetal CAH status was correctly deduced by targeted MPS of DNA in maternal plasma, as early as 5 weeks 6 days of gestation. Conclusions: MPS on 3.6 mL plasma from pregnant mothers could potentially provide the diagnosis of CAH, noninvasively, before the ninth week of gestation. Only affected female fetuses will thus be treated. Our strategy represents a generic approach for noninvasive prenatal testing for an array of autosomal recessive disorders. PMID:24606108

  20. Adrenal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Ng, Melissa; Kennedy, Laurence

    2012-10-01

    Adrenocortical insufficiency may arise through primary failure of the adrenal glands or due to lack of ACTH stimulation as a result of pituitary or hypothalamic dysfunction. Prolonged administration of exogenous steroids will suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and hence cortisol secretion. We review briefly the causes, investigation, and treatment of adrenal insufficiency, and highlight aspects of particular relevance to patients with adrenal tumors.

  1. Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Badiu, Corin

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we s...

  2. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation of sheep fetal adrenal cortex can occur without increased expression of ACTH receptor (ACTH-R) mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Petersen, Y M; Towstoless, M

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, it was hypothesized that the adrenocorticotrophin hormone receptor (ACTH-R) would be up-regulated in the adrenal gland of the sheep fetus following infusion of physiological amounts of ACTH, as shown for adrenal cortical cells in culture. In chronically catheterized sheep, a...

  3. Precerebellin-related genes and precerebellin 1 peptide in the adrenal gland of the rat: expression pattern, localization, developmental regulation and effects on corticosteroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2009-03-01

    Precerebellin (Cbln)-related peptides are known to modulate the secretory activity and growth of the adrenal gland. However, precise expression of the Cbln-related genes and Cbln1 peptide in the adrenal remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated, using RT-PCR, QPCR, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and hormonal assays, their expression in the adrenals of adult rats and in the course of postnatal ontogenesis. Of the 4 known Cblns, Cbln(1-3) mRNAs were found in the adrenal gland of the adult male rats. Expression patterns of Cbln1 and 3 were similar to each other and different from that of Cbln2. Highest expression of the Cbln1 and 3 genes was observed in the zona glomerulosa (ZG), lower expression was noted in the fasciculata/reticularis and lowest expression was observed in the adrenal medulla. Expression of these genes was also present in freshly isolated rat adrenocortical cells. On the contrary, by means of classic RT-PCR, we demonstrated the presence of mRNAs of CBLN(1-4) in the human adrenal gland. In the rat, highest expression of the Cbln1 and 3 genes was found at postnatal day 2 and was somewhat lower at day 90. On the contrary, expression of the Cbln2 gene was low in adrenals of 2-day-old rats and notably higher at the remaining time points studied (up to day 360). Cerebellin (CER)-like immunoreactivity was observed in the membranes of the adrenal ZG cells, while in the medulla, immunoreactive substances were localized primarily in the cytoplasm of chromaffin cells. Cbln1-like immunoreactivity was present mainly in the cortex of the gland, and reaction products were noted both in the membranes and cytoplasm of adrenocortical cells. Semiquantitative evaluation of Cbln1 protein expression in compartments of the adrenal gland of the adult rat revealed a higher concentration of Cbln1 protein in the cortex than in the medulla of studied rats. We also found that both CER and desCER stimulated basal aldosterone secretion by freshly isolated ZG cells. Thus

  4. Neuropeptide Y in the Adult and Fetal Human Pineal Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Møller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  5. Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Badiu, Corin

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  6. Effects of phenylbutazone and anabolic steroids on adrenal and thyroid gland function tests in healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, D D; Garcia, M C

    1985-02-01

    Adrenal and/or thyroid gland function tests were evaluated in horses at various times during short-term therapy with phenylbutazone, stanozolol, and boldenone undecylenate. There were no significant treatment or time effects on mean basal plasma cortisol concentrations in horses during treatment with the following: phenylbutazone, given twice daily (4 to 5 mg/kg, IV) for 5 days; stanozolol, given twice weekly (0.55 mg/kg, IM) for 12 days; boldenone undecylenate, given twice weekly (1.1 mg/kg, IM) for 12 days; or nothing. There was no significant effect of phenylbutazone treatment on the changes in plasma cortisol concentration during the combined dexamethasone-suppression adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-stimulation test. Plasma cortisol concentration was significantly decreased from base line at 3 hours after dexamethasone administration and was significantly increased from base line at 2 hours after ACTH in all horses (P less than 0.05). Likewise, the stimulation of basal plasma cortisol concentrations at 2 hours after administration of ACTH (P less than 0.05) was not affected by treatment with stanozolol or boldenone undecylenate. There were no significant treatment effects on mean basal plasma concentrations of thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3) among horses during the following treatments: stanozolol, given twice weekly (0.55 mg/kg, IM) for 12 days; boldenone undecylenate, given twice weekly (1.1 mg/kg, IM) for 12 days; or nothing. There was a significant time effect on overall mean basal plasma T4 and T3 concentrations (P less than 0.05): plasma T4 was lower on day 8 than on days 1, 10, and 12; plasma T3 was higher on day 8 than on days 4 and 12.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Carcinoma da glândula supra-renal Adrenal gland carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de Freitas

    2007-09-01

    varia de 10% a 35%. Após operação curativa varia de 20% a 58%.BACKGROUND: Adrenal gland neoplasm may be originated from diverse histological types. Carcinomas are rare findings, and correspond to only 0,02% of all neoplasms. AIM: To review the latest advances in relation to the treatment of adrenal gland carcinomas. METHODS: A literature review was performed using Medline, text books and authors, as well as references obtained from relevant articles. CONCLUSION: Approximately 79% of adrenal gland carcinomas are functional. The most commonly secreted hormone is cortisol, which causes Cushing´s syndrome. Patients with non-functional lesions may complain about local growth of the lesion. This type of carcinoma is present in a series of other neoplasic syndromes of familiar origen. According to the symptoms, initial diagnostic investigation involves dosage of urinary cortisol, as well as aldosterone and renin serum levels. Abdominal tomography or magnetic ressonance are first class image tests. Fluorodeoxyglucose pet scan is a tool that can be used to differentiate benign and malignant lesions. Fine needle biopsy is not indicated due to the high rate of complications. The choosen treatment is usually surgery with block ressection of adjacent organs if necessary. Aortic and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy should be performed. Local recurrence and metastasis occur in 80% of the cases. Cytoreductive surgical procedures benefit cases of advanced disease. Quimiotherapy using mitotane is indicated to patients who were submitted to cytoreductive surgery, who have had local recurrence and in those with metastasis. Radiotherapy is the treatment of choice in the event of bone metastasis and adjuvant treatment is used in a few cases with elevated recurrence risks. In adults, the overall average life span in 5 years varies between 10% to 35%. After curative surgery it varies between 20% to 58%.

  8. Cell therapy of pain: Characterization of human fetal chromaffin cells at early adrenal medulla development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H; Aziza, J; Sol, J C; Courtade-Saïdi, M; Chatelin, S; Evra, C; Parant, O; Lazorthes, Y; Jozan, S

    2006-04-01

    Adult adrenal chromaffin cells are being utilized for therapeutic transplantation. With the prospect of using fetal chromaffin cells in pain therapy, we studied their phenotype, proliferative power, function, and growth in vitro and in situ in order to determine the optimal time for implantation. Between 7 and 10 gestational weeks (GW), we isolated, in vitro, two types of chromaffin cells with a noradrenergic phenotype akin to that observed, in situ. Among the adherent chromaffin cells first observed in vitro, only a few samples expressed met-enkephalin, whereas almost all the neurosphere-like colonies, which appeared later, expressed it. However, neither of the two types of populations expressed an adrenergic phenotype in line with that observed in situ. At the upper limits of the voluntary abortion period authorized in France, this phenotype (12 GW) and met-enkephalin expression (13 GW) were evidenced in situ. For the first time in man, we demonstrate the secretion of noradrenaline in vitro by the two populations of cells. Consistent with this result, we also noted dopamine beta hydroxylase (DbetaH) mRNA expression in vitro and in situ within this period. These observations on the expression of these biological factors indicate that 9-10 GW would be the best stage for sampling these cells for preclinical transplantation experiments.

  9. Effects of acupuncturing Tsusanli (ST36) on expression of nitric oxide synthase in hypothalamus and adrenal gland in rats with cold stress ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Ping Sun; Hai-Tao Pei; Xiang-Lan Jin; Ling Yin; Qing-Hua Tian; Shu-Jun Tian

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the protective effect of acupuncturing Tsusanli (ST36) on cold stress ulcer, and the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in hypothalamus and adrenal gland.METHODS: Ulcer index in rats and RT-PCR were used to study the protective effect of acupuncture on cold stress ulcer, and the expression of NOS in hypothalamus and adrenal gland. Images were analyzed with semi-quantitative method.RESULTS: The ulcer index significantly decreased in rats with stress ulcer. Plasma cortisol concentration was up regulated during cold stress, which could be depressed by pre-acupuncture. The expression of NOS1 in hypothalamus increased after acupuncture. The increased expression of NO$2 was related with stress ulcer, which could be decreased by acupuncture. The expression of NOS3 in hypothalamus was similar to NOS2, but the effect of acupuncture was limited. The expression of NOS2 and NOS3 in adrenal gland increased after cold stress, only the expression of NOS1 could be repressed with acupuncture. There was no NOS2 expression in adrenal gland in rats with stress ulcer.CONCLUSION: The protective effect of acupuncturing Tsusanli (Sr36) on the expression of NOS in hypothalamus and adrenal gland can be achieved.

  10. Consumption of sucrose from infancy increases the visceral fat accumulation, concentration of triglycerides, insulin and leptin, and generates abnormalities in the adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Aguila, Yadira; Castelán, Francisco; Cuevas, Estela; Zambrano, Elena; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Muñoz, Alvaro; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Nicolás-Toledo, Leticia

    2016-03-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages promotes the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans. One factor related to the appearance of MetS components is the dysfunction of the adrenal gland. In fact, the experimental generation of hyperglycemia has been associated with morphological and microvascular changes in the adrenal glands of rats. We hypothesized that high sucrose consumption from infancy promotes histological disruption of the adrenal glands associated with the appearance of metabolic syndrome indicators. Male Wistar rats were separated at weaning (21 days old) into two groups: free access to tap water (control group, C) or 30 % sucrose diluted in water (sugar-fed group). After 12 weeks, high sucrose consumption promoted an increase in visceral fat accumulation, adipose cell number, and insulin resistance. Also, a rise in the concentration of triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein, insulin and leptin was observed. In control rats, a histomorphometric asymmetry between the right and left adrenal glands was found. In the sugar-fed group, sucrose consumption produced a major change in adrenal gland asymmetry. No changes in corticosterone serum level were observed in either group. Our results suggest that a high sucrose liquid-diet from early life alters the morphology of adrenocortical zones, leading to MetS indicators.

  11. Fetal Parotid Gland Structural Remodeling In Case Of Intrauterine Growth Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy Morozov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The important biological role of saliva in maintaining of the homeostasis of the oral cavity environment, preventing infection and tooth decay is widely accepted. Salivary glands insufficiency may violate the balance between health and disease. Clinical data indicated that the destruction, agenesis and aplasia of salivary gland commonly followed with hypo salivation, low salivary flow, which resulted in severe caries and periodontal disease. Salivary gland dysfunction also frequently found in preterm and low birth weight newborns. But the information about structural background of abnormal salivation in early childhood is still limited. A presence of any correlation between salivary glands’ structural development and intrauterine restrictions of fetal growth (IUGR is unclear. The aim of present study was to determine morphological and morphometric peculiarities of human parotid gland in case of IUGR at late gestation.  Material and methods Parotid glands of twenty human fetuses 20-22 weeks of gestation with diagnosed IUGR from late abortions material were compared with ten fetal glands in cases of induced abortions due to psychological reasons (control group. Tissue samples were immersion-fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution, embedded in paraffin wax.  Histological slides were stained routinely with hematoxylin & eosin, with Van Gieson's Stain.  Microscopical examination was performed on magnification x 40 and x 100. Stereometric study by point count method at magnification x 40 allowed finding out volume fractions (VF of gland’s parenchyma and stroma. VF of lobule’s components (gland’s wall, gland’s lumen, duct’s wall, duct’s lumen, vessels, intralobular connective tissue were registered at magnification x100. Morphometry of the secretory portion of the parotid gland was conducted on the Zeiss microscope with the help of the AxioVision Rel.4.8 program. The mature (differentiated end pieces were measured, including their area

  12. Influence of naloxone on catecholamine release evoked by nicotinic receptor stimulation in the isolated rat adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ok-Min; Lim, Geon-Han; Lim, Dong-Yoon

    2005-06-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of naloxone, a well known opioid antagonist, on the secretion of catecholamines (CA) evoked by cholinergic stimulation and membrane-depolarization in the isolated perfused rat adrenal glands, and to establish its mechanism of action. Naloxone (10(-6) approximately 10(-5) M), perfused into an adrenal vein for 60 min, produced dose- and time-dependent inhibition of CA secretory responses evoked by ACh (5.32 x 10(-3) M), high K+ (5.6 x 10(-2) M), DMPP (10(-4) M) and McN-A-343 (10(-4) M). Naloxone itself also failed to affect the basal CA output. In adrenal glands loaded with naloxone (3 x 10(-6) M), the CA secretory responses evoked by Bay-K-8644, an activator of L-type Ca2+ channels, and cyclopiazonic acid, an inhibitor of cytoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase, were also inhibited. In the presence of met-enkephalin (5 x 10(-6) M), a well known opioid agonist, the CA secretory responses evoked by ACh, high K+, DMPP, McN-A-343, Bay-K-8644 and cyclopiazonic acid were also significantly inhibited. Taken together, these results suggest that naloxone greatly inhibits the CA secretion evoked by stimulation of cholinergic (both nicotinic and muscarinic) receptors as well as that by membrane depolarization. It seems that these inhibitory effects of naloxone does not involve opioid receptors, but might be mediated by blocking both the calcium influx into the rat adrenal medullary chromaffin cells and the uptake of Ca2+ into the cytoplasmic calcium store, which are at least partly relevant to the direct interaction with the nicotinic receptor itself.

  13. Single-Session CT-Guided Percutaneous Microwave Ablation of Bilateral Adrenal Gland Hyperplasia Due to Ectopic ACTH Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Asha; Shyn, Paul B; Vivian, Mark A; Ng, Ju-Mei; Tuncali, Kemal; Lorch, Jorchen H; Zaheer, Sarah N; Gordon, Michael S; Silverman, Stuart G

    2015-10-01

    Bilateral adrenalectomy is currently the only available treatment for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing's syndrome (ectopic ACTH syndrome) that is refractory to pharmacologic therapy. We describe two patients with refractory ectopic ACTH syndrome who were treated with CT-guided percutaneous microwave ablation of both hyperplastic adrenal glands in a single session: O ne was not a surgical candidate, and the other had undergone unsuccessful surgery. Following the procedure, both patients achieved substantial decreases in serum cortisol, symptomatic improvement, and decreased anti-hypertensive medication requirements.

  14. Single-Session CT-Guided Percutaneous Microwave Ablation of Bilateral Adrenal Gland Hyperplasia Due to Ectopic ACTH Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, Asha, E-mail: ashasarma@gmail.com; Shyn, Paul B., E-mail: pshyn@partners.org [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States); Vivian, Mark A. [University of Manitoba, Department of Radiology (Canada); Ng, Ju-Mei [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology (United States); Tuncali, Kemal [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States); Lorch, Jorchen H. [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine (United States); Zaheer, Sarah N.; Gordon, Michael S. [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Department of Endocrinology (United States); Silverman, Stuart G. [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Bilateral adrenalectomy is currently the only available treatment for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing’s syndrome (ectopic ACTH syndrome) that is refractory to pharmacologic therapy. We describe two patients with refractory ectopic ACTH syndrome who were treated with CT-guided percutaneous microwave ablation of both hyperplastic adrenal glands in a single session: One was not a surgical candidate, and the other had undergone unsuccessful surgery. Following the procedure, both patients achieved substantial decreases in serum cortisol, symptomatic improvement, and decreased anti-hypertensive medication requirements.

  15. Essential role for the lymphostromal plasma membrane Ly-6 superfamily molecule thymic shared antigen 1 in development of the embryonic adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammit, David J; Berzins, Stuart P; Gill, Jason W; Randle-Barrett, Elise S; Barnett, Louise; Koentgen, Frank; Lambert, Gavin W; Harvey, Richard P; Boyd, Richard L; Classon, Brendan J

    2002-02-01

    Thymic shared antigen 1 (TSA-1) is a plasma membrane protein of the Ly-6 superfamily expressed on thymocytes, thymic stromal cells, and other cells of the hematopoietic system. TSA-1 is also expressed in other nonhematopoietic tissues, in particular, embryonic and adult adrenal glands. To address the function of TSA-1, we generated mutant mice in which TSA-1 expression was inactivated by gene targeting. Here we show that deletion of both TSA-1 alleles results in abnormal adrenal gland development and midgestational lethality due to cardiac abnormalities. We also report that TSA-1-deficient adrenal glands have significantly reduced levels of the catecholamines noradrenaline and adrenaline. We conclude that TSA-1 is required for normal embryonic development but that deletion of its expression does not obviously impair lymphoid development.

  16. [The sexual peculiarities of aging changes in circannual rhythms of pineal gland, hypophysis, adrenal cortex and thymus functions in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labunets, I F

    2013-01-01

    The interrelations of circannual rhythms of the functional state of pineal gland, hypophysis, adrenal cortex, thymus in healthy women and men from 20 to 79 years were studied. Fluctuations of melatonin, ACTH, cortisol and thymic serum factor, which were exchanged in aging (the season peaks of hormones and its acrophase) were found in blood of healthy 20-29 years old people. The changes of rhythmicity of indices were in male earlier (pineal gland and hypophysis over 30 years, thymus and adrenal cortex over 40 years) and more impressive than in women. The aging changes of pineal gland function's rhythm in healthy subjects have important role for changes of interrelations of circannual rhythms hypophysis, adrenal cortex and thymus.

  17. Diurnal rhythmicity of the canonical clock genes Per1, per2 and Bmal1 in the rat adrenal gland is unaltered after hypophysectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenkrug, J.; Hannibal, J.; Georg, B.

    2008-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are generated by endogenous clocks in the central brain oscillator, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and peripheral tissues. The molecular basis for the circadian clock consists of a number of genes and proteins that form transcriptional/translational feedback loops. Rhythmic...... expression of clock genes in the adrenal glands has previously been reported. Since the central clock in the SCN communicates with the adrenal glands via circadian release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone, we quantified the mRNAs for the canonical clock genes, Per1, Per2 and Bmal1 in the adrenal glands...... by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction during a 24-h-cycle in normal and hypophysectomised rats. The mRNAs for all the three clock genes disclosed rhythmic oscillations with a period of 24 h and the phase did not differ between the hypophysectomised and intact rats. The expression...

  18. Assessment of diagnostic methods in adrenal gland hemorrhage in neonates on the basis of own material from the years 2007–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Postek, Grzegorz; Streich, Hanna; Narębski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Summary We analyzed a group of nine neonates diagnosed with adrenal gland hemorrhage in the years 2007–2011, to evaluate diagnostic methods. We assessed risk factors and factors predisposing to hemorrhage. Severe and moderate perinatal hypoxia was found in 5 cases, while sepsis in 4 cases. Three patients had bilateral adrenal hemorrhage. All patients underwent ultrasound examination and color Doppler US. Their levels of vanillyl-mandelic acid in 24-h urine collection were normal. A complete r...

  19. A substitution in the ligand binding domain of the porcine glucocorticoid receptor affects activity of the adrenal gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Murani

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids produced in the adrenal cortex under the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis play a vital role in the maintenance of basal and stress-related homeostasis and influence health and well-being. To identify loci affecting regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis in the pig we performed a genome-wide association study for two parameters of acute and long-term adrenal activity: plasma cortisol level and adrenal weight. We detected a major quantitative trait locus at the position of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1 - a key regulator of HPA axis activity. To determine the causal variant(s, we resequenced the coding region of NR3C1 and found three missense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. SNP c.1829C>T, leading to a p.Ala610Val substitution in the ligand binding domain, showed large (about 0.6× and 1.2× phenotypic standard deviations for cortisol level and adrenal weight, respectively, and highly significant (2.1E-39≤log10(1/p≤1.7E+0 negative effects on both traits. We were able to replicate the association in three commercial pig populations with different breed origins. We analyzed effects of the p.Ala610Val substitution on glucocorticoid-induced transcriptional activity of porcine glucocorticoid receptor (GR in vitro and determined that the substitution introduced by SNP c.1829C>T increased sensitivity of GR by about two-fold. Finally, we found that non-coding polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium with SNP c.1829C>T have only a minor effect on the expression of NR3C1 in tissues related to the HPA axis. Our findings provide compelling evidence that SNP c.1829C>T in porcine NR3C1 is a gain-of-function mutation with a major effect on the activity of the adrenal gland. Pigs carrying this SNP could provide a new animal model to study neurobiological and physiological consequences of genetically based GR hypersensitivity and adrenal hypofunction.

  20. Study of morphological alterations of the adrenal glands in the neoplastic cachexia Estudo das alterações morfológicas da glândula adrenal na caquexia neoplásica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Longo Mazzuco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced cancer occurs with nutritional and metabolic alterations that characterize neoplastic cachexia. When homeostasis is compromised, the adrenal glands have a fundamental role in the neuroendocrine response. Our purpose in this research was to study morphological alterations of the adrenal glands in the development of cancer associated to cachexia. Cachexia experimental model induced by Walker 256 tumor in Wistar rats, was used. Animals were sacrificed 12 days after tumor cells inoculation and adrenal glands removal for histopathologic analysis by means of hematoxylin and eosin stain. Nutritional parameters, cachexia index and adrenal glands weight, were evaluated. Animals with tumor presented cachexia index of 16,6 ± 4%. Adrenal glands average weight was significantly higher in the tumor group (40 mg ± 10 than in the control group (25 mg ± 3. Adrenal cortex of animals with cachexia showed hypertrophy of the zona fasciculata and reticular layer, with voluminous spongiocytes; vascular congestion and stasis were observed in the medullar region. Results were similar in the pair and ad libitum-fed groups. Animals with cancer cachexia showed compromised morphology of the adrenal glands which showed alterations related to stress response, suggesting increased cathecolamine secretion and activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis.   Advanced cancer occurs with nutritional and metabolic alterations that characterize neoplastic cachexia. When homeostasis is compromised, the adrenal glands have a fundamental role in the neuroendocrine response. Our purpose in this research was to study morphological alterations of the adrenal glands in the development of cancer associated to cachexia. Cachexia experimental model induced by Walker 256 tumor in Wistar rats, was used. Animals were sacrificed 12 days after tumor cells inoculation and adrenal glands removal for histopathologic analysis by means of hematoxylin and eosin stain. Nutritional

  1. Age related changes in the morphometric parameters of the Heart, Kidneys and Adrenal glands of Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

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    R. Hussain

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Forty clinically healthy Nili-Ravi buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis were divided into two age groups of 20 animals each viz., young (12-48 months of age and adult (49-96 months of each sex. These studies revealed that the absolute heart weight, absolute kidney’s weight, the absolute adrenal gland’s weight, mean values of width of heart, circumference, thickness of wall of right and left atria, thickness of wall of right and left ventricles, mean values of length of right and left kidneys, width, circumference, mean values of length of the adrenal glands were significantly (P<0.05 higher in adult buffaloes than young ones. The average relative heart weight, relative kidneys weight and the relative weight of adrenal glands was significantly (P<0.01 higher in young buffaloes as compared to the adult ones. While the relationship of the width of right adrenal glands between young and adult buffaloes were recorded as non-significant. The results of the present study are the first report on the age related morphological changes in the heart, kidneys and adrenal glands of buffalo. These age induced anatomical changes may affect the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS and hence blood pressure of an individual.

  2. Mielolipoma, una lesión quirúrgica poco frecuente de la glándula adrenal Myelolipoma, a rare surgical lesion of the adrenal gland

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    Olga León González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El mielolipoma adrenal es un tumor benigno poco frecuente, compuesto de tejido adiposo maduro y elementos hematopoyéticos diversos. Estos tumores pueden localizarse en las glándulas adrenales aunque también pueden encontrarse en sitios extradrenales. Las manifestaciones clínicas son variadas tales como sangramientos digestivos, dolor abdominal en los flancos, masa abdominal palpable, hematuria, hemorragia retroperitoneal y pérdida de peso. Entre los métodos diagnósticos figuran el ultrasonido, la tomografía axial computarizada y la resonancia magnética. La resección quirúrgica es el tratamiento de elección, sobre todo cuando haya sintomatología o en tumores mayores de 4 cm, por el riesgo de ruptura espontánea con hemorragia retroperitoneal. Presentamos la historia clínica de una paciente de 42 años de edad con antecedentes de dolores en hipocondrio derecho de aproximadamente un año de evolución, la cual sufrió un cólico nefrítico que cedió con tratamiento médico. Posteriormente en la consulta externa, en el examen físico, se constata una masa tumoral en hipocondrio derecho, la cual fue diagnosticada por ultrasonido y tomografía axial computarizada como un tumor adrenal. Se intervino la paciente y se confirma el diagnóstico. La evolución posoperatoria fue buena y la paciente continúa asintomática. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar un nuevo caso de esta enfermedad, poco frecuente, la cual fue diagnosticada en una paciente de 42 años de edad y realizar una breve revisión de la literatura.Mielolipoma is a rare benign tumor of the adrenal gland, which is formed by mature adipose tissue and several hematopoietic elements. They are generally located in the adrenal glands, although they can occur in other sites. The clinical manifestations are varied such as gastrointestinal bleeding, abdominal pain in the flanks, abdominal mass, retroperitoneal hemorrhage, hematuria and loss of weight. Among the diagnosing methods

  3. The place of imaging in exploration of the adrenal glands. Place de l'imagerie dans l'exploration des surrenales

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    Cyteval, C.; Pradel, J.; Pujol, J.; Lamarque, J.L.; Jaffiol, C. (Hopital Lapeyronie, 34 - Montpellier (FR)); Krempf, M.; Charbonnel, B. (Hotel Dieu, 44 - Nantes (FR)); Peltier, P.; Chatal, J.F. (Centre Regional de Lutte contre le Cancer Rene-Gauducheau, 44 - Nantes (FR))

    1990-01-01

    Currently, the major method of adrenal gland imaging is computed tomography. This method allows demonstration of normal adrenals and the diagnosis of adrenal masses (if these are greater than 1 cm in diameter). The examination should be directed by clinical signs and known laboratory investigations. Computed tomography is therefore the first line investigation to perform. Certain lesions may be better demonstrated by other methods: MRI and MIBG scintigraphy offer a greater specificity in the investigation of pheochromocytomas. In addition, scintigraphy can identify possible ectopic tumours or recurrences. - Selective catheterisation of the adrenal veins allows aldosterone and cortisone secretions to be assayed. There remains the problem of the incidental finding of adrenal masses in either an asymptomatic patient or in the context of investigation of spread of a known cancer. These lesions may benefit from diagnostic percutaneous guided biopsy.

  4. Morpho-functional characteristics of rat fetal thyroid gland are affected by prenatal dexamethasone exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlović-Stojanoski, Milica N; Filipović, Branko R; Nestorović, Nataša M; Šošić-Jurjević, Branka T; Ristić, Nataša M; Trifunović, Svetlana L; Milošević, Verica Lj

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) and glucocorticoids strongly contribute to the maturation of fetal tissues in the preparation for extrauterine life. Influence of maternal dexamethasone (Dx) administration on thyroid glands morpho-functional characteristics of near term rat fetuses was investigated applying unbiased stereology. On the 16th day of pregnancy dams received 1.0mg/Dx/kg/b.w., followed by 0.5mg/Dx/kg/b.w. on the 17th and 18th days of gestation. The control females received the same volume of saline. The volume of fetal thyroid was estimated using Cavalieri's principle; the physical/fractionator design was applied for the determination of absolute number of follicular cells in mitosis and immunohistochemically labeled C cells; C cell volume was measured using the planar rotator. The functional activity of thyroid tissue was provided from thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroperoxidase (TPO) immunohistochemical staining. Applying these design-based modern stereological methods it was shown that Dx treatment of gravid females led to a significant decrease of fetal thyroid gland volume in 19- and 21-day-old fetuses, due to decreased proliferation of follicular cells. The Tg and TPO immunohistochemistry demonstrated that intensive TH production starts and continues during the examined period in control and Dx-exposed fetuses. Under the influence of Dx the absolute number of C cells was lower in both groups of near term fetuses, although unchanged relation between the two populations of endocrine cells, follicular and C cells suggesting that structural relationships within the gland are preserved. In conclusion maternal glucocorticoid administration at the thyroid gland level exerts growth-inhibitory and maturational promoting effects in near term rat fetuses.

  5. Biochemical and histopathological changes in the kidney and adrenal gland of rats following repeated exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin

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    Hassina Khaldoun Oularbi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT is a type II pyrethroid insecticide widely used in pest management. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxic effects of LCT on the kidneys and adrenal glands of rats after subacute exposure. Twenty-eight 6-week-old male albino Rattus norvegicus rats were randomly assigned to four groups. Group 1 was the control group, which received distilled water. The experimental groups 2, 3 and 4 received 20.4, 30.6 and 61.2 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of LCT, administered orally over 28 days. The effects of the insecticide on various biochemical parameters were evaluated at 14 and 28 days. Histopathological studies were carried out in the kidneys and adrenal glands at the end of the experiment. Lambda-cyhalothrin, as a pyrethroid insecticide, induced significant increases (P≤0.05 in plasma urea, creatinine, uric acid and glucose concentrations, and alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities after 14 and 28 days. In the rat plasma samples after 28 days, residual concentrations of LCT 1R, cis,

  6. Adrenal Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... two kinds of AI: • Primary AI, also called Addison’s disease. In this rare condition, the adrenal glands do ... org (search for adrenal) • Information about AI and Addison’s disease from the National Institutes of Health: www. endocrine. ...

  7. Comparative effect of ACTH and related peptides on proliferation and growth of rat adrenal gland

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    Claudimara Ferini Pacicco Lotfi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC is a polypeptide precursor known to yield biologically active peptides related to a range of functions. These active peptides include the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, which is essential for maintenance of adrenal growth and steroidogenesis, and the alpha-melanocyte stimulation hormone, which plays a key role in energy homeostasis. However, the role of the highly conserved N-terminal region of POMC peptide fragments has begun to be unraveled only recently. Here we review the cascade of events involved in regulation of proliferation and growth of murine adrenal cortex triggered by ACTH and other POMC-derived peptides. Key findings regarding signaling pathways and modulation of genes and proteins required for the regulation of adrenal growth are summarized. We have outlined the known mechanisms as well as future challenges for research on the regulation of adrenal proliferation and growth triggered by these peptides.

  8. Composite pheochromocytoma-ganglioneuroma of the adrenal gland: A case report with immunohistochemical study

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    Ram Nawal Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite tumors of the adrenal medulla consisting of pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma are rare tumors accounting for less than 3% of all sympathoadrenal tumors. These tumors display more than one line of differentiation in which normal and neoplastic chromaffin cells are capable of differentiating into ganglion cells under the influence of nerve growth factors. To the best of our knowledge, we report the second case with a composite tumor of the adrenal medulla in a normotensive patient from India.

  9. Glycoproteins of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family are expressed in sweat and sebaceous glands of human fetal and adult skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metze, D; Bhardwaj, R; Amann, U; Eades-Perner, A M; Neumaier, M; Wagener, C; Jantscheff, P; Grunert, F; Luger, T A

    1996-01-01

    The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family comprises a group of glycoproteins including the classical CEA, nonspecific cross-reacting antigens (NCA), and biliary glycoprotein (BGP). CEA glycoproteins have been identified in many glandular and mucosal tissues. In view of their putative role in cell adhesion, protein sorting, and signal transduction, CEA glycoproteins are thought to be involved in embryogenesis, architectual integrity, and secretory mechanisms of glandular epithelia. Since there are few data available on the expression of CEA-like proteins in human skin, the aim of this study was to immunohistochemically specify and localize the CEA glycoproteins in cutaneous adult and fetal glands using a panel of well-characterized antibodies. The secretory parts of eccrine sweat glands expressed CEA, NCA-90, and BGP, whereas apocrine glands remained unreactive for CEA glycoproteins. The ductal epithelia of both eccrine and apocrine glands contained CEA and NCA-90. Sebaceous glands were stained for BGP only. Electron microscopy of sweat glands showed CEA glycoprotein expression in cytoplasmic organelles and on microvilli lining the ductal surface. In sebaceous glands, BGP were demonstrated in small vesicles and along the cell membranes of differentiating sebocytes. Fetal development of cutaneous glands was associated with early expression of CEA glycoproteins. Additionally, mice transgenic for human CEA were shown to express CEA in sweat glands. The overall distribution of CEA glycoproteins in cutaneous glands was consistent with that in epithelia of other glandular tissues.

  10. Glutathione-S-transferase and tyrosine hydroxylase activity in human adrenal medulla. Differences between fetal and adult tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Julio César García; Aida Leiva; Salvador Viniegra

    2005-01-01

    Con el objetivo de caracterizar la glándula adrenal humana en estado fetal (10 a 12 semanas) y adulta (post-morten) se determinaron las actividades específicas de la enzimas glutatión-S-transferasa (GST) y tirosina hidroxilasa (TH), así como las de las catecolaminas (CA): adrenalina (A); noradrenalina (NA) y dopamina (DA), utilizando Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Resolución con detecci ón electroquímica (HPLC-DE). La GST fue determinada utilizando 1-cloro-2,4- dinitrobenzeno como substrato el...

  11. Gene array analysis of adrenal glands in broiler chickens following ACTH treatment

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    Guémené Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Difference in adaptability responses to stress has been observed amongst bird species, strains, and individuals. Components of the HPA axis, one of the internal systems involved in homeostasis re-establishment following stress, could play a role in this variability of responses. The aim of the present study was 1 to identify genes involved in the regulation of adrenal activity following ACTH stimulation and 2 to examine adrenal genes differentially expressed in individuals with high and low plasma corticosterone response following ACTH treatment. Results Analysis with 21 K poultry oligo microarrays indicated that ACTH treatment affected the expression of 134 genes. Several transcripts assigned to genes involved in the adrenal ACTH signaling pathway and steroidogenic enzymes were identified as differentially expressed by ACTH treatment. Real-time PCR on 18 selected genes confirmed changes in transcript levels of 11 genes, including MC2R, CREM, Cry, Bmal1, Sqle, Prax1, and StAR. Only 4 genes revealed to be differentially expressed between higher and lower adrenal responders to ACTH treatment. Conclusion The results from the present study reveal putative candidate genes; their role in regulation of adrenal functions and adaptability to stress should be further investigated.

  12. [Contralateral aneurysm-like adrenal gland metastasis of a renal adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joual, A; Patard, J J; Chopin, D; Abbou, C C

    1998-02-01

    The authors report a case of adrenal metastasis contralateral to a renal cell carcinoma in a 74-year-old patient who had undergone right radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. Nine months later, computed tomography revealed a hypervascular mass considered to be an aneurysm of the splenic artery. Arteriography led to the diagnosis of hypervascular adrenal tumour. Left adrenalectomy was performed. Histological examination showed a metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. This is an unusual form of renal cancer metastasis. Its treatment and prognosis are discussed.

  13. Computed tomography versus ultrasound of the adrenal gland: a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrams, H.L. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA); Siegelman, S.S.; Adams, D.F.; Sanders, R.; Finberg, H.J.; Hessel, S.J.; McNeil, B.J.

    1982-04-01

    A prospective study of the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound was undertaken in 112 consecutive patients with suspected adrenal disease. CT had a sensitivity of 84% (47/56), a specificity of 98% (55/56), and an accuracy of 90%. Ultrasound had a sensitivity of 79% (22/28), a specificity of 61% (14/23), and an overall accuracy of 70%. When patients with Cushing disease and adrenal hyperplasia were excluded, and only masses such as pheochromocytoma, adenoma, and carcinoma were considered, the sensitivity of both CT and ultrasound was increased. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves differed for CT and ultrasound, and strongly supported the diagnostic superiority of CT.

  14. [Effect of acute alcohol intoxication on lipid peroxidation in testis and adrenal glands of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokha, A M; Kashko, M F; Antsulevich, S N; Doroshkevich, N A; Voronov, P P

    1993-01-01

    Hormones level and lipid peroxidation processes under influence of acute alcohol intoxication are tested in testes and adrenals of rats. Ethanol marker effects--the rise of corticosterone biosynthesis and depression of testosterone concentration--were reproduced in the experiment. At the moment of maximal changes in steroid levels indices characterising lipid peroxidation didn't differ from the control. At the early stage of the experiment transient shifts in malonic dialdehyde and dienic conjugates levels were noted. The data obtained does not agree with the hypothesis of acute ethanol effects in testes and adrenals being mediated through the changes of lipid peroxidation rate.

  15. NERVE GROWTH-FACTOR RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN PERIPHERAL AND CENTRAL NEUROECTODERMAL TUMORS, OTHER PEDIATRIC BRAIN-TUMORS, AND DURING DEVELOPMENT OF THE ADRENAL-GLAND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BAKER, DL; Molenaar, Ineke; TROJANOWSKI, JQ; EVANS, AE; ROSS, AH; RORKE, LB; PACKER, RJ; LEE, VMY; PLEASURE, D; Molenaar, Ineke

    1991-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is important to the survival, development, and differentiation of neurons. Its action is mediated by a specific cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein, nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR). In this study, NGFR expression by human fetal and adult adrenal medullary tissue, pe

  16. Large cavernous hemangioma of the adrenal gland: Laparoscopic treatment. Report of a case

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    A. Agrusa

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered the standard treatment in case of diagnosis of benign lesions. In this case report we discussed a large adrenal cavernous hemangioma treated with laparoscopic approach. Fundamental is the study of preoperative endocrine disorders and radiologic findings to exclude signs of malignancy.

  17. Glutathione-S-transferase and tyrosine hydroxylase activity in human adrenal medulla. Differences between fetal and adult tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César García

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de caracterizar la glándula adrenal humana en estado fetal (10 a 12 semanas y adulta (post-morten se determinaron las actividades específicas de la enzimas glutatión-S-transferasa (GST y tirosina hidroxilasa (TH, así como las de las catecolaminas (CA: adrenalina (A; noradrenalina (NA y dopamina (DA, utilizando Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Resolución con detecci ón electroquímica (HPLC-DE. La GST fue determinada utilizando 1-cloro-2,4- dinitrobenzeno como substrato electrofílico y la actividad TH fue determinada por medición de la L-DOPA formada a partir de la L-tirosina utilizando un HPLCDE. Los resultados indican que la NA fue la principal CA presente en el período fetal estudiado. Una disminución en la actividad de NA acompañado por un ligero incremento en la de A fue detectada con el aumento de la edad fetal. En el tejido adulto la A fue la principal CA y presentó una cantidad de DA (0,046 % del total de CA 35 veces menor que en el tejido fetal (1,60 %. La actividad específica de la TH presentó diferencias al ser comparada con el tejido fetal y fue significativamente mayor (p < 0,001 en el tejido fetal. La actividad de la GST fue también significativamente superior (p < 0,001 en el tejido adulto cuando se comparó con el fetal. Los resultados indican un relativamente pobre aporte de la células fetales, en cuanto a su actividad TH. Los cambios detectados en la actividad enzimática específica de la GST entre el tejido adulto y fetal pueden revelar una diferencia en la capacidad entre estos tejidos para metabolizar xenobioticos y toxinas endógenas. Estos resultados pudieran contribuir a la explicación de los resultados del implante de células catecolaminérgicas en la enfermedad de Parkinson.

  18. Expression of genes related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in murine fetal lungs in late gestation

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    Côté Mélissa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung maturation is modulated by several factors, including glucocorticoids. Expression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis-related components, with proposed or described local regulatory systems analogous to the HPA axis, was reported in peripheral tissues. Here, HPA axis-related genes were studied in the mouse developing lung during a period overlapping the surge of surfactant production. Methods Expression of genes encoding for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, CRH receptors (CRHR 1 and 2beta, CRH-binding protein, proopiomelanocortin (POMC, melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R, and glucocorticoid receptor was quantified by real-time PCR and localized by in situ hydridization in fetal lungs at gestational days (GD 15.5, 16.5, and 17.5, and was also quantified in primary mesenchymal- and epithelial cell-enriched cultures. In addition, the capability of CRH and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH to stimulate pulmonary expression of enzymes involved in the adrenal pathway of glucocorticoid synthesis was addressed, as well as the glucocorticoid production by fetal lung explants. Results We report that all the studied genes are expressed in fetal lungs according to different patterns. On GD 15.5, Mc2r showed peaks in expression in samples that have previously presented high mRNA levels for glucocorticoid synthesizing enzymes, including 11beta-hydroxylase (Cyp11b1. Crhr1 mRNA co-localized with Pomc mRNA in cells surrounding the proximal epithelium on GD 15.5 and 16.5. A transition in expression sites toward distal epithelial cells was observed between GD 15.5 and 17.5 for all the studied genes. CRH or ACTH stimulation of genes involved in the adrenal pathway of glucocorticoid synthesis was not observed in lung explants on GD 15.5, whereas CRH significantly increased expression of 21-hydroxylase (Cyp21a1 on GD 17.5. A deoxycorticosterone production by fetal lung explants was observed. Conclusions Temporal and spatial

  19. Morphologic and morphometric analysis of adrenal gland cortex of sheep grazing on pastures with the ground of electrofilter ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juntes, P.; Pestevsek, U.; Pogacnik, M. [University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2007-07-01

    Electrofilter ash is a side product of power plants using coal as a fuel. Trials for transforming ash covered areas into cultivated landscape are ongoing e.g., efforts to form grasslands that would be usable for animal breeding and production. However the question of how safe grazing is on such surfaces in relation to animal health and the use of animal products, produced on such surfaces, for human consumption has not been truly resolved yet. The main goal of our work is a systematic search for the possible negative effects on animals grazing on such surfaces. In this work we present the results of morphologic and morphometric analyses that were made to evaluate the potential toxic or some other impact of electrofilter ash constituents on the adrenal gland cortex. No conclusive evidence of such effects was determined in this study.

  20. Gastric bare area and left adrenal gland involvement on abdominal computed tomography and their prognostic value in acute pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zaiyi [Guangdong Provincial People' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Sichuan University, Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China); Yan, Zhihan [Wenzhou Medical College, Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Min, Pengqiu [Sichuan University, Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China); Liang, Changhong [Guangdong Provincial People' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Wang, Ying [Sun Yatsen University, Department of Medical Ultrasonics, First Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China)

    2008-08-15

    To demonstrate the CT manifestations of gastric bare area involvement (GBAI) and left adrenal gland involvement (LAGI) in acute pancreatitis (AP) and evaluate their prognostic value. From January 2003 to December 2006, CT examinations of 116 patients with AP were retrospectively reviewed. There were 34 (29.3%) patients with GBAI showing haziness and streaky density or fluid collection in the gastric bare area, and 18 (15.5%) with LAGI showing deformity and hypoattenuation of left adrenal gland. The mean duration of hospital stay in patients with GBAI and LAGI was longer than that of patients without (P<0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of GBAI for predicting complications were 43.3% (0.31, 0.55) and 89.8% (0.81, 0.98), respectively; and 83.3% (0.36, 1.00) and 73.6% (0.65, 0.82) for predicting mortality. A patient with GBAI was 6.7 (2.4, 19.1) and 14.0 (1.6, 124.6) times more likely to have complications and die than was a patient without. The sensitivity and specificity of LAGI for predicting complications were 23.9% (0.14, 0.34) and 95.9% (0.86, 0.99), respectively, and 66.7% (0.22, 0.96) and 87.3% (0.81, 0.94) for predicting mortality. A patient with LAGI was 7.4 (1.6, 33.8) and 13.7 (2.3, 81.9) times more likely to have complications and die than was a patient without. Our results showed that GBAI and LAGI were characteristic CT findings in AP and could serve as useful prognostic indicators for this disease. (orig.)

  1. Irradiation with X-rays phase-advances the molecular clockwork in liver, adrenal gland and pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Mareike Hildegard; Rödel, Franz; Rüb, Udo; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-02-01

    The circadian clock of man and mammals shows a hierarchic organization. The master clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), controls peripheral oscillators distributed throughout the body. Rhythm generation depends on molecular clockworks based on transcriptional/translational interaction of clock genes. Numerous studies have shown that the clockwork in peripheral oscillators is capable to maintain circadian rhythms for several cycles in vitro, i.e. in the absence of signals from the SCN. The aim of the present study is to analyze the effects of irradiation with X-rays on the clockwork of liver, adrenal and pancreas. To this end organotypic slice cultures of liver (OLSC) and organotypic explant cultures of adrenal glands (OAEC) and pancreas (OPEC) were prepared from transgenic mPer2(luc) mice which express luciferase under the control of the promoter of an important clock gene, Per2, and allow to study the dynamics of the molecular clockwork by bioluminometry. The preparations were cultured in a membrane-based liquid-air interface culturing system and irradiated with X-rays at doses of 10 Gy and 50 Gy or left untreated. Bioluminometric real-time recordings show a stable oscillation of all OLSC, OAEC and OPEC for up to 12 days in vitro. Oscillations persist after irradiation with X-rays. However, a dose of 50 Gy caused a phase advance in the rhythm of the OLSC by 5 h, in the OPEC by 7 h and in the OAEC by 6 h. Our study shows that X-rays affect the molecular clockwork in liver, pancreas and adrenal leading to phase advances. Our results confirm and extend previous studies showing a phase-advancing effect of X-rays at the level of the whole animal and single cells.

  2. Inhibin in the testis and adrenal gland of the male lacertid, Podarcis sicula Raf.: a light immunocytochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Varano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Inhibin is a glycoproteic hormone mostly produced by the gonads. Through a feedback at the pituitary level, it selectively inhibits the release of follicle-stimulating hormone. In mammals, inhibin has been found also in some extragonadal tissues such as placenta, pituitary, adrenal, spleen, kidney, brain and spinal cord. At present, no information is available about the existence of inhibin in reptiles. The aim of the present work is to localise, through immunocytochemical methods, the sites of inhibin production in male lizards during the main phases of the reproductive cycle: the culmination phase (April-June, the early regressive phase (early July, the maximal regressive phase (August and the winter stasis (January. In the testis, immunostaining is mainly localised in the Leydig cells during the early regressive phase, while it is observed in the Sertoli cells during the maximal regressive phase. In the epididymis, the immunostaining is present only during the reproductive period at the level of secreting cells and inside its ducts. In the adrenal gland, after immunostaining, both chromaffin and steroidogenetic tissues are inhibin-positive during the whole spermatogenetic cycle, though with variable intensity throughout the year: cross-reaction appears more evident from January to April (winter stasis and culmination phase and weaker in June. However, in captive animals, the reaction persists in chromaffin cells, but disappears in steroidogenetic cells. The functional meaning of the presence of inhibin as a factor in the local regulation of spermatogenesis is discussed.

  3. [Morphological studies of rat adrenal glands after space flight on "Kosmos-1667"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodan, N G; Bara'nska, V

    1989-01-01

    Histological and histomorphometric examinations of rat adrenals after a 7-day flight revealed the following changes: blood congestion in the cortex and medulla, progressive delipoidization of the cortex, slight enlargement of the nuclear volume of glomerular and fascicular zones, vacuolization of the cytoplasm of medulla cells, reduction of the area of noradrenocyte islets and cell nuclei of the medulla; the adrenal weight remained however unchanged. It is concluded that an early period of adaptation to microgravity was accompanied by a weak stress-reaction. Upon return to Earth the rats developed an acute gravitational stress. From the morphological point of view the stress manifested as: increased volume of nuclei in fascicular cells, decreased content of lipids in them, and greater vacuolization of the cytoplasm of medulla cells. The lack of medulla hypertrophy, reduction of the area of noradrenocyte islets and nuclei of medulla cells suggest that 7-day exposure to microgravity did not exert of stimulating effect on the sympathetic system of rats.

  4. Influences of 3-methylcholanthrene, phenobarbital and dexamethasone on xenobiotic metabolizing-related cytochrome P450 enzymes and steroidogenesis in human fetal adrenal cortical cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui WANG; Min HUANG; Ren-xiu PENG; Jiang LE

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To explore the influence and possible mechanism of xenobiotics on adrenal steroidogenesis during fetal development. Methods: Primary human fetal adrenal cortical cells were prepared, cultured and treated with 3-methylcholanthrene, phenobarbital and dexamethasone. The activities of 7-ethoxyresorufin 0-dealkylase, benzphetamine, aminopyrine and erythromycin N-demethylases were measured by enzyme assays. At the same time, quantitative analysis of steroid hormones cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone and progesterone were carried out in cultural medium by radioimmunoassays. Results: The activities of benzphetamine and aminopyrine Ar-demethylase were increased in the cultural fetal adrenal cells treated with phenobarbital (0.25-1 mmol/L) for 24 h. Dexamethasone (25-100 μmol/L) also increased the activity of erythromycin W-demethylase. The activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin 0-dealkylase was undetected in the cells treated without and with 3-methylcholanthrene (0.5-2 μmol/L). Meanwhile, the contents of medium cortisol, aldosterone and progesterone were decreased after treatment with 3-methylcholanthrene. Cortisol, aldosterone and progesterone concentrations were also slightly decreased with phenobarbital. Dexamethasone enhanced the productions of cortisol and progesterone remarkably. The trend of testosterone concentration was uncertain after 3-methylcholanthrene, phenobarbital or dexamethasone treatment. Conclusion: 3-Methylcholanthrene, phenobarbital or dexamethasone could interfere with the synthesis of cortisol, aldosterone and progesterone in primary human fetal adrenal cortical cells, which likely act through xenobiotic metabolizing-related cytochrome P450 isoform activation.

  5. A case of treatment in a patient with synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous metastatic involvement of both adrenal glands: Clinical observation

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    V. R. Latypov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma occurs in 1.4 % of cases. The probability of bilateral adrenal metastases from renal cell carcinoma is less than 0.5 %. The clinical observation presents a case of synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous metastatic involvement of both adrenal glands. A 55‑year-old male patient was adm tted with the signs of hematuria and anemia to the Unit of Urology, Clinic of General Surgery, Siberian State Medical University. He was found to have synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous bilateral adrenal involvement. Sequential surgical treatment – radical nephrectomy (with adrenal gland removal on the right side and, after 3 months, adrenalectomy and kidney resection on the left side were performed. All the organs removed displayed tumors that proved to be renal cell carcinomas (a clear cell variant. There were lymph node metastases in the right-sided renal portal. Postoperatively, the investigators performed hormone replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency, an immunotherapy cycle, three cycles of targeted therapy withsorafenib and sunitinib (at an interval of 0.5–2 years, and insulin therapy for new-onset diabetes mellitus. The duration of a follow-up was 6.2 years. When describing the case, the patient was alive and showed a generalized tumorous process with extensive tumor involvement of the solitary kidney. Sunitinib therapy was used.

  6. Cerebellin in the rat adrenal gland: gene expression and effects of CER and [des-Ser1]CER on the secretion and growth of cultured adrenocortical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucinski, Marcin; Albertin, Giovanna; Spinazzi, Raffaella; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Malendowicz, Ludwick K

    2005-03-01

    Cerebellin (CER) is a regulatory peptide, originally isolated from rat cerebellum, which derives from the cleavage of precerebellin (Cbln), three types of which (Cbln1-3) have been identified in humans and rats. CER is also expressed in several extra-cerebellar tissues, including adrenal gland, and evidence has been provided that CER exerts a modulatory action on human and rat adrenal gland. Hence, we have investigated the expression of Cbln1-3 mRNAs and CER protein-immunoreactivity (IR) in the various zones of rat adrenal glands, and the effects of CER and its metabolite [des-Ser(1)]CER (des-CER) on the secretion and growth of cultured rat adrenocortical cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed high and low expression of Cbln2 mRNA in zona glomerulosa (ZG) and zona fasciculata-reticularis, respectively. Cbln1 was not expressed, and Cbln3 mRNA was detected only in ZG. No Cbln expression was found in adrenal medulla. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated the presence of CER-IR exclusively in the adrenal cortex, the reaction being more intense in ZG. As expected, ACTH (10(-8) M) markedly enhanced corticosterone secretion and lowered proliferation rate of cultured adrenocortical cells. CER was ineffective, while des-CER exerted an ACTH-like effect, but only at the lowest concentration (10(-10) M). Taken together, these findings allow us to conclude that CER is expressed in rat adrenal cortex, and to suggest that CER conversion to des-CER by endopeptidases is needed for CER to exert its autocrine-paracrine regulatory functions.

  7. Contribution of SK and BK channels in the control of catecholamine release by electrical stimulation of the cat adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, C; López, M G; Sánchez-García, P; Maroto, R; Zapater, P; García, A G

    1995-07-15

    1. Transmural electrical stimulation (10 Hz, 1 ms, 40 V for 10 s) of cat adrenal glands perfused at room temperature with Krebs-Hepes solution produced catecholamine secretory responses which were reproducible when stimulations were applied at 5 min intervals. Such responses were inhibited about 20% by atropine (1 microM) and 80% by hexamethonium (30 microM). Apamin (100 nM) increased the secretory response 2.5-fold in the presence of atropine and 8-fold in the presence of hexamethonium. 2. Potentiation by apamin of secretory responses evoked by 100-pulse trains was similar at 5, 10 and 20 Hz (about 2-fold). When glands were continuously stimulated at 3 Hz, apamin increased 4-fold the initial secretion plateau. Continuous stimulation at a higher frequency (20 Hz) produced a sharp secretory peak followed by a small, sustained plateau; apamin did not alter this plateau. Apamin also enhanced the secretory responses obtained with sustained stimulation with acetylcholine (10 or 200 microM). 3. Secretion peaks induced by brief acetylcholine pulses (10 microM for 10 s) applied to isolated and superfused cat adrenal chromaffin cells were enhanced more than 3-fold by 100 nM apamin. Charybdotoxin (10 nM) did not enhance these secretory peaks. 4. In perfused cat adrenal glands, charybdotoxin (10 nM) affected neither the secretion evoked by trains of electrical stimulation applied at different frequencies nor the secretion evoked by acetylcholine pulses. 5. In 0.5 mM [Ca2+]o, apamin enhanced 3-fold the secretion evoked by electrical stimulation trains of 100 pulses (10 Hz, 10 s) and almost 6-fold the acetylcholine (10 microM for 10 s)-induced secretion. In 5 mM Ca2+, apamin enhanced the secretory responses to electrical stimulation and acetylcholine 2- and 10-fold, respectively. Charybdotoxin enhanced 2.5-fold the secretory response to electrical stimulation in 0.5 mM Ca2+, although this effect was not statistically significant. A synergistic interaction between the two toxins

  8. Contribution of SK and BK channels in the control of catecholamine release by electrical stimulation of the cat adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, C; López, M G; Sánchez-García, P; Maroto, R; Zapater, P; García, A G

    1995-01-01

    1. Transmural electrical stimulation (10 Hz, 1 ms, 40 V for 10 s) of cat adrenal glands perfused at room temperature with Krebs-Hepes solution produced catecholamine secretory responses which were reproducible when stimulations were applied at 5 min intervals. Such responses were inhibited about 20% by atropine (1 microM) and 80% by hexamethonium (30 microM). Apamin (100 nM) increased the secretory response 2.5-fold in the presence of atropine and 8-fold in the presence of hexamethonium. 2. Potentiation by apamin of secretory responses evoked by 100-pulse trains was similar at 5, 10 and 20 Hz (about 2-fold). When glands were continuously stimulated at 3 Hz, apamin increased 4-fold the initial secretion plateau. Continuous stimulation at a higher frequency (20 Hz) produced a sharp secretory peak followed by a small, sustained plateau; apamin did not alter this plateau. Apamin also enhanced the secretory responses obtained with sustained stimulation with acetylcholine (10 or 200 microM). 3. Secretion peaks induced by brief acetylcholine pulses (10 microM for 10 s) applied to isolated and superfused cat adrenal chromaffin cells were enhanced more than 3-fold by 100 nM apamin. Charybdotoxin (10 nM) did not enhance these secretory peaks. 4. In perfused cat adrenal glands, charybdotoxin (10 nM) affected neither the secretion evoked by trains of electrical stimulation applied at different frequencies nor the secretion evoked by acetylcholine pulses. 5. In 0.5 mM [Ca2+]o, apamin enhanced 3-fold the secretion evoked by electrical stimulation trains of 100 pulses (10 Hz, 10 s) and almost 6-fold the acetylcholine (10 microM for 10 s)-induced secretion. In 5 mM Ca2+, apamin enhanced the secretory responses to electrical stimulation and acetylcholine 2- and 10-fold, respectively. Charybdotoxin enhanced 2.5-fold the secretory response to electrical stimulation in 0.5 mM Ca2+, although this effect was not statistically significant. A synergistic interaction between the two toxins

  9. Distribution of intravenously administered acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and acetylcholinesterase activity in the adrenal gland: 11C-donepezil PET study in the normal rat.

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    Tadashi Watabe

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitors have been used for patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, its pharmacokinetics in non-target organs other than the brain has not been clarified yet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the whole-body distribution of intravenously administered (11C-Donepezil (DNP and the AChE activity in the normal rat, with special focus on the adrenal glands. METHODS: The distribution of (11C-DNP was investigated by PET/CT in 6 normal male Wistar rats (8 weeks old, body weight  = 220 ± 8.9 g. A 30-min dynamic scan was started simultaneously with an intravenous bolus injection of (11C-DNP (45.0 ± 10.7 MBq. The whole-body distribution of the (11C-DNP PET was evaluated based on the Vt (total distribution volume by Logan-plot analysis. A fluorometric assay was performed to quantify the AChE activity in homogenized tissue solutions of the major organs. RESULTS: The PET analysis using Vt showed that the adrenal glands had the 2nd highest level of (11C-DNP in the body (following the liver (13.33 ± 1.08 and 19.43 ± 1.29 ml/cm(3, respectively, indicating that the distribution of (11C-DNP was the highest in the adrenal glands, except for that in the excretory organs. The AChE activity was the third highest in the adrenal glands (following the small intestine and the stomach (24.9 ± 1.6, 83.1 ± 3.0, and 38.5 ± 8.1 mU/mg, respectively, indicating high activity of AChE in the adrenal glands. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the whole-body distribution of (11C-DNP by PET and the AChE activity in the major organs by fluorometric assay in the normal rat. High accumulation of (11C-DNP was observed in the adrenal glands, which suggested the risk of enhanced cholinergic synaptic transmission by the use of AChE inhibitors.

  10. Distribution of intravenously administered acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and acetylcholinesterase activity in the adrenal gland: 11C-donepezil PET study in the normal rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Tadashi; Naka, Sadahiro; Ikeda, Hayato; Horitsugi, Genki; Kanai, Yasukazu; Isohashi, Kayako; Ishibashi, Mana; Kato, Hiroki; Shimosegawa, Eku; Watabe, Hiroshi; Hatazawa, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors have been used for patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, its pharmacokinetics in non-target organs other than the brain has not been clarified yet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the whole-body distribution of intravenously administered (11)C-Donepezil (DNP) and the AChE activity in the normal rat, with special focus on the adrenal glands. The distribution of (11)C-DNP was investigated by PET/CT in 6 normal male Wistar rats (8 weeks old, body weight  = 220 ± 8.9 g). A 30-min dynamic scan was started simultaneously with an intravenous bolus injection of (11)C-DNP (45.0 ± 10.7 MBq). The whole-body distribution of the (11)C-DNP PET was evaluated based on the Vt (total distribution volume) by Logan-plot analysis. A fluorometric assay was performed to quantify the AChE activity in homogenized tissue solutions of the major organs. The PET analysis using Vt showed that the adrenal glands had the 2nd highest level of (11)C-DNP in the body (following the liver) (13.33 ± 1.08 and 19.43 ± 1.29 ml/cm(3), respectively), indicating that the distribution of (11)C-DNP was the highest in the adrenal glands, except for that in the excretory organs. The AChE activity was the third highest in the adrenal glands (following the small intestine and the stomach) (24.9 ± 1.6, 83.1 ± 3.0, and 38.5 ± 8.1 mU/mg, respectively), indicating high activity of AChE in the adrenal glands. We demonstrated the whole-body distribution of (11)C-DNP by PET and the AChE activity in the major organs by fluorometric assay in the normal rat. High accumulation of (11)C-DNP was observed in the adrenal glands, which suggested the risk of enhanced cholinergic synaptic transmission by the use of AChE inhibitors.

  11. [Rosai-Dorfman disease presented with involvement of the adrenal gland. A clinical case reported].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Carrillo, Víctor Manuel; Santaella-Torres, Félix; Sánchez-Martínez, Luis Carlos; Gómez-Lara, Miguel Humberto; Arellano-Poblete, Moisés; López Segura-Rueda, Eduardo; Villarroel-Noboa, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la afectación extranodal de la glándula suprarrenal es una forma infrecuente de la histiocitosis sinusal con linfadenopatía masiva o enfermedad de Rosai-Dorfman. Aún se desconoce la etiopatogenia de esta enfermedad. Los síntomas y signos de presentación en la afectación adrenal son inciertos. Aunque es una enfermedad de buen pronóstico y curso clínico favorable, el bajo índice de sospecha y el difícil diagnóstico radiológico diferencial llevan a tratamiento radical en la mayoría de los casos. CASO CLÍNICO: se describe el caso de una paciente con enfermedad de Rosai-Dorfman en quien se identificó tumor adrenal derecho de 97 × 99 × 68 mm y tumor nodal infrahiliar izquierdo de 61 × 58 × 57 mm. El tratamiento incluyó adrenalectomía y vigilancia activa del tumor infrahilial mediante tomografía y gammagrama renal. La evolución de la paciente fue adecuada.

  12. Atrial natriuretic factor: radioimmunoassay and effects on adrenal and pituitary glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutkowska, J.; Horky, K.; Schiffrin, E.L.; Thibault, G.; Garcia, R.; De Lean, A.; Hamet, P.; Tremblay, J.; Anand-Srivastava, M.B.; Januszewicz, P.

    1986-06-01

    A simple and sensitive radioimmunoassay was developed for measurement of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic factor (IR-ANF) in rat and human plasma and in rat atria. The two atria contain about 20 ..mu..g ANF per rat. The right atrium contained 2.5 times more ANF than did the left. Ether anesthesia and morphine markedly increased IR-ANF in rat plasma. The concentration of IR-ANF in plasma of clinically normal human subjects was 65.3 +/- 2.5 pg/ml. Paroxysmal tachycardia and rapid atrial pacing significantly increased IR-ANF in human plasma. Two- to seven-fold higher concentrations were found in coronary sinus blood than in the peripheral circulation. In the plasma of rats and humans, circulating ANF is probably a small-molecular-weight peptide. ANF acts on the adrenal and the pituitary. ANF inhibits aldosterone secretion from rat zona glomerulosa and steroid secretion by bovine adrenal zona glomerulosa and fasciculata. ANF stimulated the basal secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in vitro and inhibited KCl-stimulated release of AVP.

  13. The effect of anabolic steroids on the gastrointestinal system, kidneys, and adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modlinski, Ryan; Fields, Karl B

    2006-04-01

    Over the past several decades we have seen an increase in the prevalence of anabolic steroid use by athletes. Because use of anabolic steroids is illicit, much of our knowledge of their side effects is derived from case reports, retrospective studies, or comparisons with studies in other similar patient groups. It has been shown that high-dose anabolic steroids have an effect on lowering high-density lipoprotein, increasing low-density lipoprotein, and increasing the atherogenic-promoting apolipoprotein A. Steroid abuse can also be hepatotoxic, promoting disturbances such as biliary stasis, peliosis hepatis, and even hepatomas, which are all usually reversible upon discontinuation. Suppression of the hypothalamic adrenal axis can also lead to profound adrenal changes that are also reversible with time. Although rare, renal side effects have also been documented, leading to acute renal failure and even Wilms' tumors in isolated cases. Much of our knowledge of these potentially severe but usually limited side effects is confounded by use of combinations of different steroid preparations and by the concomitant use with other substances. Physicians must target their efforts at counseling adolescents and other athletes about the potential harms of androgenic anabolic steroids and the legal options to improve strength and performance.

  14. The interaction between epidermal growth factor (EGF) and matrix metalloproteinase induces the development of sweat glands in human fetal skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jianfu; Fu Xiaobing; Sheng Zhiyong

    2001-01-01

    Objective:The development of sweat glands is a very complicated biological process involving many factors. In this study, we explore the inter-relationship between epidermal growth factor (EGF),matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2,MMP-7) and development of sweat glands in human embryos. Furthermore, we hope to elucidate the mechanism(s) underlying the induction of epidermal stem cells into sweat gland cells. Methods:Skin biospies of human embryos obtained from spontaneous abortions at different gestational ages from 11 to 31 weeks were used in this study. The dynamical expression of EGF, MMP-2, MMP-7 and keratin-7 (K7) in developing sweat gland cells or extracellular stroma surrounding the sweat gland cells were examined with S-P immunohistochemical methods.The localization of the cellular sources of MMP-2 and MMP 7 was examined with in situ hybridization. Results:At 14-20 wk of gestation, a gradual increase in EGF immunoreactivity was observed not only in developing sweat gland buds but also in extracellular stroma surrounding the buds,and the expression intensity peaked at 20-22 wk of gesta- tional age. All mRNA-positive buds or cells in developing sweat glands contained corresponding immunoreactive proteins. Positive immunostaining for K7 appeared in early sweat gland buds at 14-16wk of gestation, and from then on, K7 was concentrated in developing sweat gland cords or cells. Conclusions: The morphogenesis of sweat gland in human fetal skin begins at 14-16wk of gestational age, and essentially completes by 24wk. There is a close relationship among EGF,extracellular matrix remodeling and morphogenesis of sweat glands, and EGF is one of the inducers in the development and maturity of sweat gland buds or cells.

  15. Ontogenic development of corticotrophs in fetal buffalo (Bubalus bubalis pituitary gland

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    M. A. Sandhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the subpopulation of corticotrophs in developing buffalo (Bubalus bubalis fetus, recovered pituitary glands (n=6 per group from late first, second and third gestational female buffalo dams. The corticotrophs were identified by using specific antibodies against proopiomelanocortin (POMC and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH through immunohistochemistry. There was a significant (P≤0.05 increase of immunoreactive (ir ir-ACTH cells during late 2nd trimester while, ir-POMC cells were more (P≤0.05 at late 3rd trimester of gestation as compared to other age groups. The quantity of co-localized cells for POMC and ACTH was significantly (P≤0.05 greater at the end of 1st gestation rather than 2nd and 3rd gestational fetal adenohypophyseal cells. This study is the first to demonstrate co-localization of POMC+ACTH and the affect of gestational age on the expression of these cells in buffalo fetus adenohypophysis.

  16. Prognostic Value of Gastric Bare Area & Left Adrenal Gland Involvement in Acute Pancreatitis on Abdominal CT SCAN

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    Saeed Naghibi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: The CT severity index (CTSI proposed by Baithazar is a well-defined scoring system and has proved to be an excellent prognostic tool in predicting complications and mortality in patients with acute pancreatitis .But new investigations demonstrate that the other findings on abdominal CT scan in acute pancreatitis impression on prognostic outcome (involvement of abdominal viscera. Therefore the newer scoring system has been proposed. In our study the involvement of gastric bare area & left adrenal gland in CT scan is usually associated with a more severe clinical course. "nMaterials and Methods: This study was a retrospective & prospective evaluation in 22-Bahman Hospital of AZAD University of Mashhad from 2006 to 2008 .78 patients with acute pancreatitis (based on a typical clinical presentation & an elevated serum amylase level and "or pathologic findings had undergone the abdominal spiral CT scan with oral & IV contrast (if necesary. 28 cases were excluded from the study population for the following reasons: CT was not performed (n=10 ; CT images were not available (n=13; inadequate data analysis (n=2; and acute pancreatitis was not the first episode (n=3. "nFollow-up CT was performed within 1 week after the initial CT. Leaving 50 patients in our study there were 32 men and 18 women in the age range of 21-82 years (50.5+_ 18.2 years. All the patients underwent unenhanced CT followed by dual-phase contrast-enhanced CT. The arterial and portal venous phase data acquisition started at 25-30s and 60-65s after injection of contrast. Then two experienced abdominal radiologists recorded the findings of CT scan including the size,contour and density of the pancreas and manifestations of peripancreatic inflammation as well as the GBAI and LAGI involvement (haziness and streaky density with fluid collection in the gastric bare area and deformity with ill-defined margin and hypodensity of the left adrenal gland on unenhanced or contrast

  17. The key role of sodium in the ouabain-mediated potentiation of potassium-evoked catecholamine release in cat adrenal glands.

    OpenAIRE

    de Abajo, F. J.; Castro, M. A.; Sánchez-García, P.

    1989-01-01

    1. The effect of [Na]o on the catecholamine release evoked by K in ouabain pretreated, isolated adrenal glands of the cat, was investigated. 2. Reduction of [Na]o to 70, 50 and 25 mM, with sucrose as a substitute, did not modify the spontaneous catecholamine release but progressively increased the K (17.7 mM)-evoked secretory response. 3. Ouabain pretreatment (100 microM; 10 min) greatly increased the K (17.7 mM)-evoked catecholamine secretory response in glands perfused with normal Krebs. Su...

  18. Fasting and oxidative activity of hypothalamus, amygdala, frontal cortex and adrenal glands in female rats during different sexual situations--oestrus, dioestrus, ovariectomized--and in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez-Lozano, J A; Menéndez-Patterson, A; Marin, B

    1980-01-01

    We have studied the influence of fasting upon the oxidative metabolism of several cerebral structures (hypothalamus, amygdala and frontal cortex) as well as the adrenal glands in female rats, both during their sexual cycle and ovariectomized, and male rats under a 48h fasting period. Results show significant differences in the oxidative metabolism of the amygdala in both male rats and ovariectomized females on comparing the fasting group with controls; moreover, the frontal cortex of male rats also shows significant differences when comparing both groups. The weight of the adrenal glands is significantly lower in ovariectomized female rats under fasting conditions than in controls. Correlation between the above mentioned cerebral and glandular structures during fasting processes, as well as performance of male and female rats before that situation, is discussed.

  19. Gallium-68 DOTA-TATE Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography: Scintigraphic Changes of Adrenal Glands Following Management of Ectopic Cushing's Syndrome by Steroidogenesis Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ting; Aziz, Shaikh Irfan; Ravi Kumar, Aravind S

    2014-09-01

    In the era of emerging functional imaging techniques, an understanding of the effects of hormonal therapies on the scintigraphic appearance of endocrine organs is desirable to minimize the erroneous scan interpretation. The mechanisms by which changes in the scintigraphic appearance of endocrine organs occur however sometimes remain ambiguous. This case demonstrates the gallium-68 (Ga-68) DOTA-TATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT) appearance of adrenal glands following management with steroidogenesis inhibitors. The potential mechanisms underlying this change are discussed. A 17-year-old boy with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dependent Cushing's syndrome secondary to ectopic ACTH secretion underwent pre- and post-metyrapone and dexamethasone treatment Ga-68 DOTA-TATE scans 4 months apart. Pretreatment, both adrenals demonstrated normal symmetrical prominent Ga-68 DOTA-TATE uptake and normal CT appearance. The posttherapy scan revealed marked symmetrical suppression of Ga-68 DOTA-TATE uptake, but with bilateral adrenal hypertrophy on CT.

  20. Voluminous Incidental Oncocytic Neoplasm of the Adrenal Gland With Uncertain Malignant Potential

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    Marouene Chakroun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A 74-year-old man presented with right flank pain and a palpable mass in the left flank. Blood pressure was normal. Contrastenhanced computed tomography (CT showed a 17 × 16 × 12 cm retroperitoneal mass over the left kidney, solid and heterogeneous. There were also 3 retro aortic lymph nodes and bilateral renal lithiasis. Twenty four-hour urinary metanephrines and normetanephrines were normal. The patient underwent a resection of the mass with left adrenalectomy by a lumbar incision. Histological findings revealed an adrenal oncocytic neoplasm (AON with uncertain malignant potential. Six months after surgery, CT control showed neither local nor distant recurrence.

  1. A comparison of adrenal gland function in lactating dairy cows with or without ovarian follicular cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, William J; McGinnis, Angela S; Hatler, T Ben

    2005-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if adrenal secretion of steroids differed between cows that formed ovarian follicular cysts and normal cycling cows. In experiment 1, lactating Jersey and Holstein cows were diagnosed as having ovarian follicular cysts (follicle diameter >or=20 mm) by rectal palpation. Following diagnosis, ovaries were examined by transrectal ultrasonography three times weekly to detect subsequent ovulation (n=8) or new cyst formation (n=9). Venous blood samples were collected daily to quantify circulating concentrations of cortisol and progesterone. The average concentration of cortisol during the 10-day period prior to ovulation was not different from the concentration prior to the formation of a new cyst. In experiment 2, secretion of cortisol and progesterone was examined in cows with ovarian follicular cysts (n=4) and cyclic, control cows in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle (n=4). An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge was administered to cystic cows 4-7 days after new cyst formation and to cyclic cows in the follicular phase of the cycle (36 h after induction of luteolysis). Jugular venous blood samples were collected at -60, -30, 0, +10, +20, +30, +60, +90, +120, +180, +240, +300 and +360 minutes relative to ACTH administration. A rapid increase in both cortisol and progesterone was observed immediately following administration of ACTH in each treatment group. Peak concentrations of both steroids were achieved within 60 minutes after administration of ACTH. Concentrations of cortisol and progesterone did not differ between cystic and cyclic cows. In summary, no differences in adrenal function were detected between normal cycling cows and cows with ovarian follicular cysts.

  2. IMAGe association: report of two cases in siblings with adrenal hypoplasia and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katherine; Arroyo, May R; Duckworth, Lizette Vila

    2014-01-01

    We report the postmortem findings of two siblings with gross and microscopic features consistent with IMAGe association (Intrauterine growth retardation, Metaphyseal dysplasia, Adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and Genital anomalies) with an emphasis on the histopathology of the adrenal gland in this rare syndrome. The first sibling was an 8-week old male diagnosed postnatally with primary adrenal insufficiency. There was no deletion of the DAX1 gene by FISH. Examination at autopsy revealed dysmorphic features including frontal bossing, epicanthal folds, flat philtrum, cryptorchidism, penile chordee, overriding fourth toe, and height and weight below 3rd percentile. Grossly, the adrenal glands were not identified; however, microscopic examination of the suprarenal soft tissue revealed a 3 mm focus of disorganized fetal adrenal cortex with distended "cytomegalic" cells with abundant pink eosinophilic cytoplasm, vesicular nuclei, and cytoplasmic vacuolization. A minute focus of permanent adult cortex was also seen, but no adrenal medulla was identified. An autopsy of the sibling, who died 12 years previously at day 9 of life, revealed dysmorphic facial features with cryptorchidism and a large phallus. The adrenal glands were grossly hypoplastic (11 mm). Histologically, the adrenal glands showed disorganized fetal cortex with cytomegalic cells, a larger amount of permanent adult cortex, and bizarre nuclei with numerous pseudoinclusions. While there is currently limited information regarding the histopathologic adrenal findings in IMAGe association, our small case series suggests overlapping features between X-linked recessive congenital adrenal hypoplasia (cytomegalic cells with lack of permanent adult cortex) and autosomal recessive congenital adrenal hypoplasia (diminished permanent adult cortex without cytomegalic cells).

  3. Long-Term Survival of a Patient with Pulmonary Artery Intimal Sarcoma after Sequential Metastasectomies of the Thyroid and Adrenal Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Mi Choi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastases to the thyroid or adrenal gland are uncommon. Furthermore, cases showing long-term survival after surgical resection of those metastatic tumors are rare. We report a case of pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma with metastases to the thyroid and adrenal glands sequentially that was successfully treated with sequential metastasectomies. A 62-year-old woman presented with a 4-week history of dyspnea on exertion and facial edema in November 1999. Echocardiography and chest computed tomography (CT revealed an embolism-like mass in the pulmonary trunk. Pulmonary artery endarterectomy with pulmonary valve replacement was performed, and histopathology revealed pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma. A thyroid nodule was found by chest CT in November 2001 (2 years after initial surgery. During follow-up, this lesion showed no change, but we decided to obtain fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in August 2004 (4.7 years after initial surgery. FNAC revealed atypical spindle cells suggestive of metastatic intimal sarcoma. She underwent total thyroidectomy. During follow-up, a right adrenal gland mass was detected by chest CT in March 2006 (6.3 years after initial surgery, and adrenalectomy was done, which also revealed metastatic sarcoma. She has been followed up without any evidence of recurrent disease until May 2012 (12.5 years after initial surgery.

  4. Adrenal invovement in histoplasmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Norasyikin, A. Wahab; Nor Azmi, Kamaruddin; Rozita, Mohd; Suehazlyn, Zainudin

    2013-01-01

    Histoplasmosis infection is endemic in Asia and disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) is one form of its presentation (Benevides et al., 2007). DH commonly affects both adrenal glands. We describe a case of disseminated histoplasmosis complicated with hypercalcaemia in a 75-year-old immunosuppressed patient who presented with bilateral adrenal masses. The fine needle aspiration cytology of the adrenal mass was positive for Histoplasma capsulatum.

  5. Low-dose BPA exposure alters the mesenchymal and epithelial transcriptomes of the mouse fetal mammary gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perinaaz R Wadia

    Full Text Available Exposure of rodent fetuses to low doses of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA causes subtle morphological changes in the prenatal mammary gland and results in pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions during adulthood. To examine whether the BPA-induced morphological alterations of the fetal mouse mammary glands are a associated with changes in mRNA expression reflecting estrogenic actions and/or b dependent on the estrogen receptor α (ERα, we compared the transcriptomal effects of BPA and the steroidal estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE2 on fetal mammary tissues of wild type and ERα knock-out mice. Mammary glands from fetuses of dams exposed to vehicle, 250 ng BPA/kg BW/d or 10 ng EE2/kg BW/d from embryonic day (E 8 were harvested at E19. Transcriptomal analyses on the ductal epithelium and periductal stroma revealed altered expression of genes involved in the focal adhesion and adipogenesis pathways in the BPA-exposed stroma while genes regulating the apoptosis pathway changed their expression in the BPA-exposed epithelium. These changes in gene expression correlated with previously reported histological changes in matrix organization, adipogenesis, and lumen formation resulting in enhanced maturation of the fat-pad and delayed lumen formation in the epithelium of BPA-exposed fetal mammary glands. Overall similarities in the transcriptomal effects of BPA and EE2 were more pronounced in the epithelium, than in the stroma. In addition, the effects of BPA and EE2 on the expression of various genes involved in mammary stromal-epithelial interactions were suppressed in the absence of ERα. These observations support a model whereby BPA and EE2 act directly on the stroma, which expresses ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in fetal mammary glands, and that the stroma, in turn, affects gene expression in the epithelium, where ERα and ERβ are below the level of detection at this stage of development.

  6. Aberrant expression of glucagon receptors in adrenal glands of a patient with Cushing's syndrome and ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia Expresion aberrante de receptores de glucagón en tejido adrenal de un paciente con síndrome de Cushing e hiperplasia adrenal macronodular indedependiente de ACTH

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    Valeria de Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH independent bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH is a rare cause of Cushing´s syndrome, characterized by bilateral adrenal lesions and excess cortisol production despite ACTH suppression. Cortisol synthesis is produced in response to abnormal activation of G-protein- coupled receptors, such as gastric inhibitory peptide, vasopressin, beta adrenergic agonists, LH/hCG and serotonin receptors. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of glucagon receptors in adrenal glands from an AIMAH patient. A patient with ACTH-independent Cushing´s syndrome and bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia was screened for altered activation of adrenal receptors by physiological (mixed meal and pharmacological (gonadotrophin releasing hormone, ACTH and glucagon tests. The results showed abnormally high levels of serum cortisol after stimulation with glucagon. Hypercortisolism was successfully managed with ketoconazole treatment. Interestingly, a 4-month treatment with a somatostatin analogue (octreotide was also able to reduce cortisol secretion. Finally, Cushing's syndrome was cured after bilateral adrenalectomy. Abnormal mRNA expression for glucagon receptor in the patient´s adrenal glands was observed by Real-Time PCR procedure. These results strongly suggest that the mechanism of AIMAH causing Cushing´s syndrome in this case involves the illicit activation of adrenal glucagon receptors. This is the first case reported of AIMAH associated with ectopic glucagon receptors.La hiperplasia adrenal macronodular bilateral independiente de ACTH (HAMIA es una causa infrecuente de Síndrome de Cushing, caracterizada por lesiones adrenales bilaterales, hipercortisolismo y ACTH plasmática suprimida. La síntesis de cortisol estaría regulada a través de ligandos de receptores asociados a proteína G que se expresan en forma aberrante en la corteza de las glándulas adrenales. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar

  7. Nutritional plane of twin-bearing ewes alters fetal mammary gland biochemical composition and mTOR/MAPK pathway signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciascia, Q; Sales, F; van der Linden, D; Wards, N; Oliver, M; Blair, H; McCoard, S

    2015-02-01

    Identifying the biochemical changes and molecular pathways that regulate fetal mammary development in response to maternal nutrition is important for understanding the link between fetal programming of mammary development and future lactation performance. Although there are published studies regarding biochemical changes in the developing mammary gland, there are currently no data on molecular pathway involvement in regulating ruminant fetal mammary development. This study investigated changes in fetal mammary biochemical indices and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling at d 100 and 140 of gestation in an ovine model of restricted maternal nutrition. Ewes were randomly allocated to ad libitum (A) or maintenance (M) nutritional regimens, under New Zealand pastoral grazing conditions, from d 21 to 140 of pregnancy. At d 100 and 140 of pregnancy, a subgroup of twin-bearing dams was euthanized, and whole fetal mammary glands (fiber, skin, fat, and ducts) were collected. Mammary glands of fetuses carried by M-fed dams were heavier at d 100 than those of fetuses carried by A-fed dams ( = 0.03), with no difference in the abundance of mTOR/MAPK signaling proteins observed. At d 140, mammary glands of fetuses carried by M-fed dams were lighter ( = 0.07) than fetuses carried by A-fed dams because of decreased hyperplasia ( = 0.04) and hypertrophy ( = 0.09) but had increased protein synthetic capacity ( = 0.02). Increased protein synthetic capacity was associated with increased abundance of MAPK pathway signaling proteins eukaryotic intiation factor 4E (eIF4E)/eIF4E and mTOR pathway signaling proteins eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1)/4E-BP1 and ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6)/RPS6 ( ≤ 0.05). Increased abundance of MAPK/mTOR pathway proteins is proposed to mediate increased protein synthetic capacity via ribosome biogenesis and the availability of factors required to initiate protein translation. The

  8. Study of Microvessel Density and the Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors in Adrenal Gland Pheochromocytomas

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    Magdalena Białas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis (neoangiogenesis, a process of neovascularization, is an essential step for local tumor growth and distant metastasis formation. We have analysed angiogenesis status: vascular architecture, microvessel density, and vascular endothelial growth factors expression in 62 adrenal pheochromocytomas: 57 benign and 5 malignant. Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed that vascular architecture and vessel density are different in the central and subcapsular areas of the tumor. Furthermore, we have observed a strong correlation between number of macrophages and microvessel density in the central and subcapsular areas of the tumor and between the expression of VEGF-A in tumor cells and microvessel density in central and subcapsular areas of the tumor. Secondary changes in these tumors influence the results and both vascular architecture and microvessel density are markedly disturbed by hemorrhagic and cystic changes in pheochromocytomas. These changes are partially caused by laparoscopic operation technique. However, no differences in vascular parameters were found between pheochromocytomas with benign and malignant clinical behavior. Our observation showed that analysis of angiogenesis, as a single feature, does not help in differentiating malignant and benign pheochromocytomas and has no independent prognostic significance. On the other hand, high microvessel density in pheochromocytoma is a promising factor for antiangiogenic therapy in malignant cases.

  9. Adrenal Gland and Lung Lesions in Gulf of Mexico Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Found Dead following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

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    Stephanie Venn-Watson

    Full Text Available A northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM cetacean unusual mortality event (UME involving primarily bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama began in February 2010 and continued into 2014. Overlapping in time and space with this UME was the Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil spill, which was proposed as a contributing cause of adrenal disease, lung disease, and poor health in live dolphins examined during 2011 in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. To assess potential contributing factors and causes of deaths for stranded UME dolphins from June 2010 through December 2012, lung and adrenal gland tissues were histologically evaluated from 46 fresh dead non-perinatal carcasses that stranded in Louisiana (including 22 from Barataria Bay, Mississippi, and Alabama. UME dolphins were tested for evidence of biotoxicosis, morbillivirus infection, and brucellosis. Results were compared to up to 106 fresh dead stranded dolphins from outside the UME area or prior to the DWH spill. UME dolphins were more likely to have primary bacterial pneumonia (22% compared to 2% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003 and thin adrenal cortices (33% compared to 7% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003. In 70% of UME dolphins with primary bacterial pneumonia, the condition either caused or contributed significantly to death. Brucellosis and morbillivirus infections were detected in 7% and 11% of UME dolphins, respectively, and biotoxin levels were low or below the detection limit, indicating that these were not primary causes of the current UME. The rare, life-threatening, and chronic adrenal gland and lung diseases identified in stranded UME dolphins are consistent with exposure to petroleum compounds as seen in other mammals. Exposure of dolphins to elevated petroleum compounds present in coastal GoM waters during and after the DWH oil spill is proposed as a cause of adrenal and lung disease and as a contributor to increased dolphin deaths.

  10. Adrenal Gland and Lung Lesions in Gulf of Mexico Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) Found Dead following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Litz, Jenny; Kinsel, Michael; Terio, Karen; Saliki, Jeremiah; Fire, Spencer; Carmichael, Ruth; Chevis, Connie; Hatchett, Wendy; Pitchford, Jonathan; Tumlin, Mandy; Field, Cara; Smith, Suzanne; Ewing, Ruth; Fauquier, Deborah; Lovewell, Gretchen; Whitehead, Heidi; Rotstein, David; McFee, Wayne; Fougeres, Erin; Rowles, Teri

    2015-01-01

    A northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) cetacean unusual mortality event (UME) involving primarily bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama began in February 2010 and continued into 2014. Overlapping in time and space with this UME was the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, which was proposed as a contributing cause of adrenal disease, lung disease, and poor health in live dolphins examined during 2011 in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. To assess potential contributing factors and causes of deaths for stranded UME dolphins from June 2010 through December 2012, lung and adrenal gland tissues were histologically evaluated from 46 fresh dead non-perinatal carcasses that stranded in Louisiana (including 22 from Barataria Bay), Mississippi, and Alabama. UME dolphins were tested for evidence of biotoxicosis, morbillivirus infection, and brucellosis. Results were compared to up to 106 fresh dead stranded dolphins from outside the UME area or prior to the DWH spill. UME dolphins were more likely to have primary bacterial pneumonia (22% compared to 2% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003) and thin adrenal cortices (33% compared to 7% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003). In 70% of UME dolphins with primary bacterial pneumonia, the condition either caused or contributed significantly to death. Brucellosis and morbillivirus infections were detected in 7% and 11% of UME dolphins, respectively, and biotoxin levels were low or below the detection limit, indicating that these were not primary causes of the current UME. The rare, life-threatening, and chronic adrenal gland and lung diseases identified in stranded UME dolphins are consistent with exposure to petroleum compounds as seen in other mammals. Exposure of dolphins to elevated petroleum compounds present in coastal GoM waters during and after the DWH oil spill is proposed as a cause of adrenal and lung disease and as a contributor to increased dolphin deaths.

  11. Adrenal Gland and Lung Lesions in Gulf of Mexico Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) Found Dead following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Colegrove, Kathleen M.; Litz, Jenny; Kinsel, Michael; Terio, Karen; Saliki, Jeremiah; Fire, Spencer; Carmichael, Ruth; Chevis, Connie; Hatchett, Wendy; Pitchford, Jonathan; Tumlin, Mandy; Field, Cara; Smith, Suzanne; Ewing, Ruth; Fauquier, Deborah; Lovewell, Gretchen; Whitehead, Heidi; Rotstein, David; McFee, Wayne; Fougeres, Erin; Rowles, Teri

    2015-01-01

    A northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) cetacean unusual mortality event (UME) involving primarily bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama began in February 2010 and continued into 2014. Overlapping in time and space with this UME was the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, which was proposed as a contributing cause of adrenal disease, lung disease, and poor health in live dolphins examined during 2011 in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. To assess potential contributing factors and causes of deaths for stranded UME dolphins from June 2010 through December 2012, lung and adrenal gland tissues were histologically evaluated from 46 fresh dead non-perinatal carcasses that stranded in Louisiana (including 22 from Barataria Bay), Mississippi, and Alabama. UME dolphins were tested for evidence of biotoxicosis, morbillivirus infection, and brucellosis. Results were compared to up to 106 fresh dead stranded dolphins from outside the UME area or prior to the DWH spill. UME dolphins were more likely to have primary bacterial pneumonia (22% compared to 2% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003) and thin adrenal cortices (33% compared to 7% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003). In 70% of UME dolphins with primary bacterial pneumonia, the condition either caused or contributed significantly to death. Brucellosis and morbillivirus infections were detected in 7% and 11% of UME dolphins, respectively, and biotoxin levels were low or below the detection limit, indicating that these were not primary causes of the current UME. The rare, life-threatening, and chronic adrenal gland and lung diseases identified in stranded UME dolphins are consistent with exposure to petroleum compounds as seen in other mammals. Exposure of dolphins to elevated petroleum compounds present in coastal GoM waters during and after the DWH oil spill is proposed as a cause of adrenal and lung disease and as a contributor to increased dolphin deaths. PMID:25992681

  12. Tumor necrosis factor-α regulates glucocorticoid synthesis in the adrenal glands of Trypanosoma cruzi acutely-infected mice. the role of TNF-R1.

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    Silvina R Villar

    Full Text Available Adrenal steroidogenesis is under a complex regulation involving extrinsic and intrinsic adrenal factors. TNF-α is an inflammatory cytokine produced in response to tissue injury and several other stimuli. We have previously demonstrated that TNF-R1 knockout (TNF-R1(-/- mice have a dysregulated synthesis of glucocorticoids (GCs during Trypanosoma cruzi acute infection. Since TNF-α may influence GCs production, not only through the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, but also at the adrenal level, we now investigated the role of this cytokine on the adrenal GCs production. Wild type (WT and TNF-R1(-/- mice undergoing acute infection (Tc-WT and Tc-TNF-R1(-/- groups, displayed adrenal hyperplasia together with increased GCs levels. Notably, systemic ACTH remained unchanged in Tc-WT and Tc-TNF-R1(-/- compared with uninfected mice, suggesting some degree of ACTH-independence of GCs synthesis. TNF-α expression was increased within the adrenal gland from both infected mouse groups, with Tc-WT mice showing an augmented TNF-R1 expression. Tc-WT mice showed increased levels of P-p38 and P-ERK compared to uninfected WT animals, whereas Tc-TNF-R1(-/- mice had increased p38 and JNK phosphorylation respect to Tc-WT mice. Strikingly, adrenal NF-κB and AP-1 activation during infection was blunted in Tc-TNF-R1(-/- mice. The accumulation of mRNAs for steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome P450 were significantly increased in both Tc-WT and Tc-TNF-R1(-/- mice; being much more augmented in the latter group, which also had remarkably increased GCs levels. TNF-α emerges as a potent modulator of steroidogenesis in adrenocortical cells during T. cruzi infection in which MAPK pathways, NF-κB and AP-1 seem to play a role in the adrenal synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes regulating GCs synthesis. These results suggest the existence of an intrinsic immune-adrenal interaction involved in the dysregulated synthesis of GCs during murine Chagas

  13. Detection of disease-associated prion protein in the optic nerve and the adrenal gland of cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy by using highly sensitive immunolabeling procedures.

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    Okada, Hiroyuki; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Fukuda, Shigeo; Yokoyama, Takashi; Mohri, Shirou

    2012-04-01

    A sensitive immunohistochemical procedure, the tyramide signal amplification (TSA) system, was applied to detect the localization of immunolabeled disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in cattle affected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). In this procedure, immunolabeling could be visualized in the optic nerve and the adrenal medulla. In the optic nerve, the dual immunofluorescent technique showed that the granular PrP(Sc) was occasionally detected in the astrocytes, microglia, and myelin sheath adjacent to the axon. Clustered PrP(Sc) was also scattered in association with microglial cells and astrocytes of the optic nerve. In the adrenal gland, PrP(Sc) immunolabeling was confined within the sympathetic nerve fibers and endings. The results suggest that (1) PrP(Sc) might centrifugally spread within and between glial cells and/or the non-axonal (also known as ad-axonal) region of nerve fibers, rather than the axonal and/or extracellular space pathway in the optic nerve, and (2) the sympathetic innervations might be important for the trafficking of BSE agent in the adrenal glands of cattle. This study also suggests that tyramide-based immunochemical analysis should be performed to detect immunolabeled PrP(Sc) in the extracerebral tissues of BSE-affected cattle.

  14. Photosensitizer-induced fluorescence of the rat adrenal gland and rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC 12) by meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC)

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    Colombo-Benkmann, Mario; Muhm, Markus; Gahlen, Johannes; Heym, Christine; Senninger, Norbert

    1997-12-01

    Rat adrenal glands exhibit an intense mTHPC-induced fluorescence. The objective of our study was the identification of adrenal cells exhibiting mTHPC-induced fluorescence under normal conditions and under stimulation of adrenal proliferation by reserpine. Furthermore mTHPC-uptake of rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells was investigated. Four male Wistar rats received 0.5 mg mTHPC/kg iv 48 hours before perfusion. Furthermore four rats received reserpine (2 mg/kg im od), bromo-deoxy-uridine (BrdU; 50 mg/kg ip od) each for one week and mTHPC (0.5 mg/kg) 48 hours before perfusion. BrdU was detected immunohistochemically. PC 12-cells were incubated with 0.5 mg mTHPC/l culture medium for 24 or 48 hours. Cells and tissues were examined by fluorescence microscopy. The adrenal cortex exhibited an intense mTHPC-induced fluorescence. The adrenal medulla fluoresced faintly. Reserpine increased fluorescence of intramedullary cells, not coinciding with adrenal proliferation. Cortical fluorescence remained unchanged. PC 12-cells lying singly or in small groups and differentiating cells showed a more intense mTHPC- induced fluorescence than confluent cells. Differences of cortical and medullary uptake of mTHPC are independent of proliferation and may be explained by lipophilia of mTHPC, since adrenocytes have an uptake mechanism for cholesterol. The difference of mTHPC-uptake between PC 12-cells and chromaffin cells implicate the possibility of photodynamic applications for medullary neoplasia.

  15. Up-regulation of the fetal baboon hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in intrauterine growth restriction: coincidence with hypothalamic glucocorticoid receptor insensitivity and leptin receptor down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cun; Ramahi, Emma; Nijland, Mark J; Choi, Jaeyhek; Myers, Dean A; Nathanielsz, Peter W; McDonald, Thomas J

    2013-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is an important fetal developmental problem resulting from 2 broad causes: maternal undernutrition and/or decreased fetal nutrient delivery to the fetus via placental insufficiency. IUGR is often accompanied by up-regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). Sheep studies show fetal HPAA autonomy in late gestation. We hypothesized that IUGR, resulting from poor fetal nutrient delivery, up-regulates the fetal baboon HPAA in late gestation, driven by hypothalamo-pituitary glucocorticoid receptor (GR) insensitivity and decreased fetal leptin in peripheral plasma. Maternal baboons were fed as ad libitum controls or nutrient restricted to produce IUGR (fed 70% of the control diet) from 0.16 to 0.9 gestation. Peripheral ACTH, cortisol, and leptin were measured by immunoassays. CRH, arginine vasopressin (AVP), GR, leptin receptor (ObRb), and pro-opiomelanocortin peptide expression were determined immunohistochemically. IUGR fetal peripheral cortisol and ACTH, but not leptin, were increased (P HPAA activation was aided by GR insensitivity and decreased ObRb expression in the PVN, and (3) the anterior pituitary is not a site for ObRb effects on the HPAA.

  16. Composite pheochromocytoma/ganglioneuroma of the adrenal gland associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A: case report with immunohistochemical analysis.

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    Brady, S; Lechan, R M; Schwaitzberg, S D; Dayal, Y; Ziar, J; Tischler, A S

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of composite pheochromocytoma/ganglioneuroma arising in a background of diffuse and nodular medullary hyperplasia in the adrenal gland of a 34-year-old man with multiple endocrine neoplasia 2a (MEN 2a). Cells were histologically classified as chromaffin or chromaffin-like (small typical-appearing pheochromocytoma cells), neuron-like (possessing ganglion cell morphology), and intermediate. We speculate that these cell types may represent a spectrum of differentiation of a neoplastic clone, with the intermediate cells representing a transitional stage between chromaffin cells and neurons. All three cell types in the composite tumor and all chromaffin cells in both nodular and nonnodular areas of the remaining medulla were strongly immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis. In contrast, neuron-like cells (and to a variable extent intermediate cells) displayed selective loss of expression of phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT), the enzyme that synthesizes epinephrine. Proliferative activity of the composite tumor and both the nodular and nonnodular medulla was studied by staining for the endogenous cell proliferation antigen Ki-67, using monoclonal antibody MIB-1. MIB-1 labeling was highest in Schwann cell areas of the composite tumor, followed by chromaffin-like cells in the composite tumor and in the separate nodules. Labeling was absent in neuron-like cells, consistent with the cells' postulated status as terminally differentiated derivatives of a chromaffin cell precursor, and was highly variable in nonnodular areas of the medulla. The latter observation suggests topographical variation in signals that drive chromaffin cell proliferation in MEN.

  17. Regulation of neutral cholesterol esterase and acyl-CoA : cholesterol acyltransferase in the rat adrenal gland.

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    Beins, D M; Vining, R; Balasubramaniam, S

    1982-03-15

    The activities of neutral cholesterol esterase and acyl-CoA : cholesterol acyltransferase in rat adrenal gland were measured at various time intervals over 24 h. The activity of cholesterol esterase displayed diurnal rhythm, with a major peak at the onset of darkness coinciding with the peak in the diurnal rhythm of plasma corticosterone concentration. The activity of acyl-CoA : cholesterol acyltransferase also exhibited a characteristic diurnal rhythm, with the minimum activity occurring 3 h after the onset of darkness. The profile of the rhythm exhibited by the activity of the esterifying enzyme was similar to the mirror image of the pattern of diurnal rhythm in the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase. Microsomal non-esterified cholesterol showed a gradual decline with a significant decrease in concentration at the onset of darkness, thus suggesting that diurnal removal of cholesterol in the environment of the esterifying enzyme and hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase leads to such diurnal decrease or increase in the activities of these two enzymes. Acute administration of corticotropin led to a 3-fold increase in the activity of cholesterol esterase, a 50% decrease in the activity of acyl-CoA : cholesterol acyltransferase and a 2-fold increase in the activity of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase. Corticotropin administration also resulted in a significant decrease in microsomal non-esterified cholesterol and increase in plasma corticosterone concentration. These observations suggest that corticotropin plays an important part in generating the diurnal rhythm in the activities of the three enzymes.

  18. Early life stress and post-weaning high fat diet alter tyrosine hydroxylase regulation and AT1 receptor expression in the adrenal gland in a sex dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrovskaya, Larisa; Maniam, Jayanthi; Ong, Lin Kooi; Dunkley, Peter R; Morris, Margaret J

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that early life stress induced by maternal separation or non-handling can lead to behavioural deficits in rats and that these deficits can be alleviated by providing palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD). In these studies we investigated the effects of maternal separation or non-handling and HFD on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and TH phosphorylation at Ser40 (pSer40TH) and the expression of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) protein in the adrenal gland as markers of sympatho-adrenomedullary activation. After littering, Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to short maternal separation, S15 (15 min), prolonged maternal separation, S180 (180 min) daily from postnatal days 2-14 or were non-handled (NH) until weaning. Siblings were exposed to HFD or chow from day 21 until 19 weeks when adrenals were harvested. Maternal separation and non-handling had no effects on adrenal TH protein in both sexes. We found an effect of HFD only in the females; HFD significantly increased TH levels in NH rats and pSer40TH in S180 rats (relative to corresponding chow-fed groups), but had no effect on AT1R expression in any group. In contrast, in male rats HFD had no effect on TH protein levels, but significantly increased pSer40TH across all treatment groups. There was no effect of HFD on AT1R expression in male rats; however, maternal separation (for 15 or 180 min) caused significant increases in AT1R expression (relative to NH group regardless of diet). This is the first study to report that early life stress and diet modulate TH protein, pSer40TH and AT1R protein levels in the adrenal gland in a sex dependent manner. These results are interpreted in respect to the potential adverse effects that these changes in the adrenal gland may have in males and females in adult life.

  19. Effects of early- and late-gestational maternal stress and synthetic glucocorticoid on development of the fetal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakers, Florian; Frauendorf, Vilmar; Rupprecht, Sven; Schiffner, Rene; Bischoff, Sabine J; Kiehntopf, Michael; Reinhold, Petra; Witte, Otto W; Schubert, Harald; Schwab, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PMS) programs dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) in postnatal life, though time periods vulnerable to PMS, are still unclear. We evaluated in pregnant sheep the effect of PMS during early gestation [30-100 days of gestation (dGA); term is 150 dGA] or late gestation (100-120 dGA) on development of fetal HPAA function. We compared the effects of endogenous cortisol with synthetic glucocorticoid (GC) exposure, as used clinically to enhance fetal lung maturation. Pregnant sheep were exposed to repeated isolation stress twice per week for 3 h in a separate box with no visual, tactile, or auditory contact with their flock-mates either during early (n = 7) or late (n = 7) gestation. Additional groups received two courses of betamethasone (BM; n = 7; 2 × 110 μg kg(- 1) body weight, 24 h apart) during late gestation (106/107 and 112/113 dGA, n = 7) or acted as controls (n = 7). Fetal cortisol responses to hypotensive challenge, a physiological fetal stressor, were measured at 112 and 129 dGA, i.e. before and during maturation of the HPAA. Hypotension was induced by fetal infusion of sodium nitroprusside, a potent vasodilator. At 112 dGA, neither PMS nor BM altered fetal cortisol responses. PMS, during early or late gestation, and BM treatment increased fetal cortisol responses at 129 dGA with the greatest increase achieved in stressed early pregnant sheep. Thus, development of the HPAA is vulnerable to inappropriate levels of GCs during long periods of fetal life, whereas early gestation is most vulnerable to PMS.

  20. Multigenerational effects of fetal dexamethasone exposure on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of first- and second-generation female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nathan M; Ford, Stephen P; Nathanielsz, Peter W

    2013-03-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoid (sGC) administration to women threatening preterm delivery increases neonatal survival. Evidence shows that fetal exposure to glucocorticoid levels higher than appropriate for current maturation programs offspring development. We examined fetal sGC multigenerational effects on F1 and F2 female offspring hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) function. At 0.7 gestation, pregnant F0 ewes received 4 dexamethasone injections (2 mg, approximately 60 μg/kg(-1) per day(-1), 12 hours apart) or saline (control). F1 female offspring were bred to produce F2 female offspring. Postpubertal HPAA function was tested in F1 and F2 ewes. F1 and F2 ewe lambs showed reduced birthweight and morphometrics. Dexamethasone increased baseline but reduced stimulated HPAA activity in F1 and F2 female offspring. This is the first demonstration that sGC doses in the clinical range have multigenerational effects on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal activity in a precocial species, indicating the need for the study of long-term effects of fetal sGC exposure. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in adrenal glands biopsies of two patients with paracoccidioidomycosis and adrenal insufficiency Identificação do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis nas amostras de glândulas adrenais de dois doentes com paracoccidioidomicose e insuficiência adrenal

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    Carlos Andrés Agudelo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors report two cases of adrenal insufficiency secondary to infiltration of the adrenal glands by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The first patient had been treated for a chronic multifocal form of paracoccidiodomycosis 11 years ago. The diagnosis of the mycosis was done simultaneous with that of the adrenal insufficiency in the second patient. In both patients the diagnosis was done by direct visualization of fungus in adrenal biopsies. They were treated with hormonal supplements and itraconazol by 12 and six months, without relapses during the follow-up period.Os autores apresentam dois casos de insuficiência supra-renal secundária à infiltração das adrenais pelo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. O primeiro paciente tinha sido tratado de paracoccidioidomicose crônica multifocal 11 anos atrás. No segundo paciente, o diagnóstico da micose foi feito de forma simultânea com o da insuficiência adrenal. Em ambos os pacientes, o diagnóstico foi feito pela visualização direta do fungo nas biopsias adrenais. Eles foram tratados com suplementos hormonais com itraconazol por seis a 12 meses, sem recaídas durante o período de acompanhamento.

  2. Silent intravascular lymphoma initially manifesting as a unilateral adrenal incidentaloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshiko; Iida, Keiji; Hino, Yasuhisa; Ohara, Takeshi; Kurahashi, Toshifumi; Tashiro, Takashi; Chihara, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare subtype of malignant lymphoma. Although the involvement of adrenal glands in IVLBCL is often observed, primary adrenal IVLBCL is rare. Most reported cases of adrenal IVLBCL showed bilateral lesions resulting in rapidly progressive adrenal failure and poor prognosis. Here, we report a case of slowly progressive primary adrenal IVLBCL manifesting initially with unilateral adrenal incidentaloma. This case is a silent IVLBCL and shows that the enlargement of both adrenal glands can be followed.

  3. Increased gene expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in adrenal glands contributes to high circulating catecholamines in pigs with tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszek, A; Kiczak, L; Bania, J; Paslawska, U; Zacharski, M; Janiszewski, A; Noszczyk-Nowak, A; Dziegiel, P; Kuropka, P; Ponikowski, P; Jankowska, E A

    2015-04-01

    High levels of circulating catecholamines have been established as fundamental pathophysiological elements of heart failure (HF). However, it is unclear whether the increased gene expression of catecholamine-synthesis enzymes in the adrenal glands contributes to these hormone abnormalities in large animal HF models. We analyzed the mRNA levels of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes: tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) in adrenal glands of 18 pigs with chronic systolic non-ischaemic HF (tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy due to right ventricle pacing) and 6 sham-operated controls. Pigs with severe HF demonstrated an increased expression of TH and DBH (but neither AAAD nor PNMT) as compared to animals with milder HF and controls (Padrenal mRNA expression of TH and DBH was accompanied by a reduced left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) (Padrenal mRNA expression of TH and DBH, and the high levels of circulating adrenaline and noradrenaline (all Padrenals to the circulating pool of catecholamines in subjects with systolic HF.

  4. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laparoscopic Appendectomy Surgery Patient Information from SAGES Laparoscopic Colon Resection Surgery Patient Information from ... and Endoscopic Surgeons 11300 W. OIympic Blvd Suite 600 Los Angeles, CA 90064 USA webmaster@sages.org Tel: (310) 437- ...

  5. Expression, biosynthesis and release of preadipocyte factor-1/ delta-like protein/fetal antigen-1 in pancreatic -cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, B N; Carlsson, C; Møldrup, A

    2003-01-01

    Preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1)/delta-like protein/fetal antigen-1 (FA1) is a member of the epidermal growth factor-like family. It is widely expressed in embryonic tissues, whereas in adults it is confined to the adrenal gland, the anterior pituitary, the endocrine pancreas, the testis and the ov......Preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1)/delta-like protein/fetal antigen-1 (FA1) is a member of the epidermal growth factor-like family. It is widely expressed in embryonic tissues, whereas in adults it is confined to the adrenal gland, the anterior pituitary, the endocrine pancreas, the testis...

  6. Adrenal insufficiency: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munver, Ravi; Volfson, Ilya A

    2006-01-01

    Adrenal insufficiency is a disorder characterized by hypoactive adrenal glands resulting in insufficient production of the hormones cortisol and aldosterone by the adrenal cortex. This disorder may develop as a primary failure of the adrenal cortex or be secondary to an abnormality of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Patients with adrenal insufficiency often are asymptomatic or they may present with fatigue, muscle weakness, weight loss, low blood pressure, and sometimes darkening of the skin. The presentation of adrenal insufficiency varies dramatically and poses a major diagnostic dilemma. This review focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency.

  7. Adiponectin and adiponectin receptor system in the rat adrenal gland: ontogenetic and physiologic regulation, and its involvement in regulating adrenocortical growth and steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Lukasz; Zemleduch, Tomasz; Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2010-09-01

    Adiponectin (ADN) is a regulatory peptide secreted mostly by adipose tissue and acting via two receptors: AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Our aim was to investigate expression of adiponectin system genes in the rat adrenal gland as well as its ontogenetic and physiological control. Furthermore, we examined the effects of acute and prolonged activation of HPA axis on ADN system in adipose tissue. By means of QPCR, ADN and AdipoR1 expression was demonstrated in rat adrenal cortex both at mRNA and protein levels, while AdipoR2 could only be detected at mRNA levels. ADN expression level was significantly upregulated in a developing and regenerating adrenal cortex. Globular domain of adiponectin at 10(-9) M stimulated corticosterone output and BrdU incorporation by cultured rat adrenocortical cells. Moreover, both acute (ACTH and ether stress) and prolonged (ACTH) adrenal stimulation resulted in lowered ADN levels, while expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was upregulated by the acute treatment. Depending on its site of origin, visceral (VAT) or subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue responded differently to alterations in HPA axis. VAT expression of ADN and its receptors remained almost unchanged by experimental manipulations. In SAT, on the other hand, expression of ADN and AdipoR2 was markedly increased by ACTH treatment and stress, while dexamethasone suppressed ADN and AdipoR1 mRNA levels. The results of this study provide new evidence for direct and indirect interactions between adipokines and HPA axis.

  8. Shh/Ptch and EGF/ErbB cooperatively regulate branching morphogenesis of fetal mouse submandibular glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukoshi, Kenji; Koyama, Noriko; Hayashi, Toru; Zheng, Liguang; Matsuura, Sachiko; Kashimata, Masanori

    2016-04-15

    The hedgehog family includes Sonic hedgehog (Shh), Desert hedgehog, and Indian hedgehog, which are well known as a morphogens that play many important roles during development of numerous organs such as the tongue, pancreas, kidney, cartilage, teeth and salivary glands (SMG). In Shh null mice, abnormal development of the salivary gland is seen after embryonic day 14 (E14). Shh also induced lobule formation and lumen formation in acini-like structures in cultured E14 SMG. In this study, we investigated the relationship between Shh and epidermal growth factor (EGF)/ErbB signaling in developing fetal mouse SMG. Administration of Shh to cultured E13 SMG stimulated branching morphogenesis (BrM) and induced synthesis of mRNAs for EGF ligands and receptors of the ErbB family. Shh also stimulated activation of ErbB signaling system such as ERK1/2. AG1478, a specific inhibitor of ErbB receptors, completely suppressed BrM and activation of EGF/ErbB/ERK1/2 cascade in E13 SMGs cultured with Shh. The expressions of mRNA for Egf in mesenchyme and mRNA for Erbb1, Erbb2 and Erbb3 in epithelium of E13 SMG were specifically induced by administration of Shh. These results show that Shh stimulates BrM of fetal mouse SMG, at least in part, through activation of the EGF/ErbB/ERK1/2 signaling system.

  9. ChIP-on-chip analysis reveals angiopoietin 2 (Ang2, ANGPT2) as a novel target of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, NR5A1) in the human adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Lin, Lin; Shah, Sonia; Jina, Nipurna; Hubank, Mike; Dattani, Mehul T; Achermann, John C

    2011-04-01

    The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, NR5A1) is a key regulator of adrenal and gonadal biology. Disruption of SF-1 can lead to disorders of adrenal development, while increased SF-1 dosage has been associated with adrenocortical tumorigenesis. We aimed to identify a novel subset of SF-1 target genes in the adrenal by using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) microarrays (ChIP-on-chip) combined with systems analysis. SF-1 ChIP-on-chip was performed in NCI-H295R human adrenocortical cells using promoter tiling arrays, leading to the identification of 445 gene loci where SF-1-binding regions were located from 10 kb upstream to 3 kb downstream of a transcriptional start. Network analysis of genes identified as putative SF-1 targets revealed enrichment for angiogenic process networks. A 1.1-kb SF-1-binding region was identified in the angiopoietin 2 (Ang2, ANGPT2) promoter in a highly repetitive region, and SF-1-dependent activation was confirmed in luciferase assays. Angiogenesis is paramount in adrenal development and tumorigenesis, but until now a direct link between SF-1 and vascular remodeling has not been established. We have identified Ang2 as a potentially important novel target of SF-1 in the adrenal gland, indicating that regulation of angiogenesis might be an important additional mechanism by which SF-1 exerts its actions in the adrenal gland.

  10. Peri-conceptional changes in maternal exposure to sewage sludge chemicals disturbs fetal thyroid gland development in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombach-Klonisch, Sabine; Danescu, Adrian; Begum, Farhana; Amezaga, Maria R; Rhind, Stewart M; Sharpe, Richard M; Evans, Neil P; Bellingham, Michelle; Cotinot, Corinne; Mandon-Pepin, Beatrice; Fowler, Paul A; Klonisch, Thomas

    2013-03-10

    Ewes were exposed to sewage sludge-fertilized pastures in a study designed investigate pre-conceptual and/or gestational exposure to environmental chemicals. The in utero impact on fetal thyroid morphology and function at day 110 (of 145) of pregnancy was then determined. Pre-conceptual exposure increased the relative thyroid organ weights in male fetuses. The number of thyroid follicles in thyroids of fetuses after pre-conceptual or gestational exposure was reduced. This correlated with an increase in Ki67 positive cells. Pre-conceptual exposure to sewage sludge reduced small blood vessels in fetal thyroids. Thyroid tissues of exposed fetuses contained regions where mature angio-follicular units were reduced exhibiting decreased immunostaining for sodium-iodide symporter (NIS). Fetal plasma levels of fT3 and fT4 in exposed animals, however, were not different from controls suggesting compensatory changes in the thyroid gland to maintain homeostasis in exposed fetuses. The regional aberrations in thyroid morphology may impact on the post-natal life of the exposed offspring.

  11. Neuropeptide-Y and Y-receptors in the autocrine-paracrine regulation of adrenal gland under physiological and pathophysiological conditions (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinazzi, Raffaella; Andreis, Paola G; Nussdorfer, Gastone G

    2005-01-01

    Neuropeptide-Y (NPY) is a 36-amino acid peptide, which belongs, along with peptide YY (PYY), to the pancreatic polypeptide (PP) family. The members of this family of peptides act via G protein-coupled receptors (Rs), six subtypes of which (from Y1- to Y6-R) have been identified. NPY and PYY preferentially bind the Y1-R, Y2-R and Y5-R, while PP mainly acts via the Y4-R. Evidence has been provided that the Y3-R is selective for NPY. NPY and Y-Rs are expressed in the adrenal gland (preferentially adrenal medulla) and pheochromocytomas, where they exert various autocrine-paracrine regulatory functions. Findings indicate that NPY is co-released with catecholamines under a variety of stimuli, including splanchnic nerve and cholinergic- and nicotinic-receptor activation. NPY, mainly acting via the Y1-R, Y2-R and Y3-R, either inhibits catecholamine secretion from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells or stimulates catecholamine secretion from adrenomedullary cells of humans and rats. NPY inhibits aldosterone secretion from dispersed zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells, but this effect has probably to be considered non-specific and toxic in nature, since it is obtained only using micromolar concentrations of the peptide. In contrast, NPY appears to modulate the secretory response of dispersed rat ZG cells to their main agonists (ACTH, angiotensin-II and potassium). However, there is indication that the main effect of NPY on the ZG in rats is indirect and involves the local release of catecholamines, which in turn, acting via beta-adrenoceptors, enhance the secretion of aldosterone. The prolonged treatment with NPY is also able to enhance the growth of the rat ZG. In contrast, the effects of NPY on glucocorticoid secretion from zona fasciculata-reticularis cells are negligible and doutbful. The physiological relevance of the effects of NPY on adrenal medulla and ZG remains to be addressed by future experimental studies employing more selective and potent Y-R antagonists. In contrast

  12. Imaging findings of neonatal adrenal disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Bo Kyung; Lee, Min Hee [Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-01-01

    In newborn infants, normal adrenal glands are characterized by a relatively thin echogenic center surrounded by a thick, hypoechoic cortical rim as seen on ultrasound (US). Various disorders involving the neonatal adrenal gland include adrenal hemorrhage, hyperplasia, cyst, Wolman's disease, and congenital neuroblastoma. Adrenal hemorrhage is the most common cause of an adrenal mass in the neonate, though differentiation between adrenal hemorrhage and neuroblastoma is in many cases difficult. We describe characteristic US, CT and MR imaging findings in neonates with various adrenal disorders.

  13. Disorders of adrenal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Achermann, John C

    2008-01-01

    Human adrenal development is a complex and relatively poorly understood process. However, significant insight into some of the mechanisms regulating adrenal development and function is being obtained through the analysis of individuals and families with adrenal hypoplasia. Adrenal hypoplasia can occur: (1) secondary to defects in pituitary adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) synthesis, processing and release (secondary adrenal hypoplasia; e.g. HESX1, LHX4, SOX3, TPIT, pituitary POMC, PC1); (2) as part of several ACTH resistance syndromes (e.g. MC2R/ACTHR, MRAP, Alacrima, Achalasia, Addison disease), or as (3) a primary defect in the development of the adrenal gland itself (primary adrenal hypoplasia; e.g. DAX1/NR0B1 - dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia congenita critical region on the X chromosome 1). Indeed, the X-linked form of primary adrenal hypoplasia due to deletions or mutations in the orphan nuclear receptor DAX1 occurs in around half of male infants presenting with a salt-losing adrenal crisis, where no obvious steroidogenic defect (e.g. 21-hydroxylase deficiency), metabolic abnormality (e.g. neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy) or physical cause (e.g. adrenal haemorrhage) is found. Establishing the underlying basis of adrenal failure can have important implications for investigating associated features, the likely long-term approach to treatment, and for counselling families about the risk of other children being affected.

  14. [Peloid application to the area of the adrenal glands projection in the rehabilitation therapy of patient with viral hepatitis A and B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belichenko, T A; Panenko, A V

    2000-09-01

    Submitted in the paper are data secured in investigations designed to study efficacies of peloid applications to the area of projection of the adrenal glands in patients with the history of viral hepatits A and B presenting with a high risk of chronization of the illness. The analysis of the therapy effect was performed on the basis of examination of 45 VH reconvalescents with making use of clinical, biochemical and immunological investigational techniques. The findings obtained suggest restoration during the above therapy of the functional state of the liver as well as immunomodulating effect of the method, moderation of autoimmunoaggression, and expediancy of its employment in the rehabilitative period of VH in those patients presenting with signs of disfunction of the immunity system, history of allergoses and presence of concomitant pathology.

  15. Expression, biosynthesis and release of preadipocyte factor-1/ delta-like protein/fetal antigen-1 in pancreatic beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, B N; Carlsson, C; Møldrup, Annette

    2003-01-01

    Preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1)/delta-like protein/fetal antigen-1 (FA1) is a member of the epidermal growth factor-like family. It is widely expressed in embryonic tissues, whereas in adults it is confined to the adrenal gland, the anterior pituitary, the endocrine pancreas, the testis and the ov......Preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1)/delta-like protein/fetal antigen-1 (FA1) is a member of the epidermal growth factor-like family. It is widely expressed in embryonic tissues, whereas in adults it is confined to the adrenal gland, the anterior pituitary, the endocrine pancreas, the testis...

  16. Long-term local control achieved after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy for adrenal gland metastases: A retrospective analysis of 34 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scorsetti, Marta; Alongi, Filippo [Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery Dept., IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Humanitas Cancer Center, Rozzano, Milano (Italy)], Email: filippo.alongi@humanitas.it; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo [Radiation Oncology Unit, Dept. of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Univ. of Turin, Turin (Italy)] [and others

    2012-05-15

    Aims and background. To describe feasibility, tolerability and clinical outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of adrenal metastases in 34 consecutive cancer patients. Material and methods. Between March 2004 and July 2010, a total of 34 consecutive patients, accounting for 36 adrenal metastatic lesions, were treated with SBRT. SBRT treatments were delivered by a Linac Varian 600 with microMLC (3DLine, Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden) and a Linac ELEKTA Precise (Elekta). All 34 patients were clinically and radiologically evaluated during and after completion of SBRT. Following outcomes were taken into account: best clinical response at any time, local control, time to systemic progression, time to local progression, overall survival and toxicity. Survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and factor potentially affecting outcomes were analyzed with Cox regression analysis. Results. Total RT doses ranged from 20 Gy in 4 fractions to 45 Gy in 18 fractions (median dose: 32 Gy; median number of fractions: 4). All doses were prescribed to the 95% isodose line. No cases of Grade {>=} 3 toxicity were recorded. At a median follow-up time of 41 months (range, 12-75) 22 patients were alive. Three of 28 lesions (11%) showed complete response, 13/28 (46%) partial response, 10/28 (36%) stable disease and 2/28 (7%) progressed in the treated area. Local failure was observed in 13 cases. Actuarial local control rates at one and two years were 66% and 32%, respectively. Median time to local progression was 19 months. Median survival was 22 months. Conclusion. SBRT in adrenal gland metastasis is feasible without significant acute and late toxicities, with a good rate of local control. New SBRT fractionation schemes and the possibility to combine new systemic approaches should be investigated in order to further increase local control and reduce systemic disease progression.

  17. Development of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 assays utilizing homogenates of adrenal glands: Utility of monkey as a surrogate for human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, Matthew A; Csengery, Alexander; Schmenk, Jennifer; Frederick, Kosea

    2015-11-01

    Elevated levels of aldosterone are associated with arterial hypertension, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and obesity. Aldosterone is produced predominantly in the zona glomerulosa of the cortex of the adrenal gland by the enzyme aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2). Treatment of the above indications by decreasing production of aldosterone is thought to be of therapeutic benefit by lessening the deleterious effects of aldosterone mediated through both the mineralocorticoid receptor and also through so called non-genomic pathways. However, inhibition of the highly similar enzyme, CYP11B1, which is responsible for the production of cortisol, must be avoided in the development of clinically useful aldosterone synthase inhibitors due to the resulting impairment of the cortisol-induced stress response. In efforts to assess the interactions of compounds with the CYP11B enzymes, a variety of cell-based inhibitor screening assays for both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 have been reported. Herein we report details of assays employing both cynomolgus monkey adrenal homogenate (CAH) and human adrenal homogenate (HAH) as sources of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 enzymes. Utilizing both CAH and HAH, we have characterized the kinetics of the CYP11B1-mediated conversion of 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol and the CYP11B2-mediated oxidation of corticosterone to aldosterone. Inhibition assays for both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 were subsequently developed. Based on a comparison of human and monkey amino acid sequences, kinetics data, and inhibition values derived from the HAH and CAH assays, evidence is provided in support of using cynomolgus monkey tissue-derived cell homogenates as suitable surrogates for the human enzymes.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of the adrenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinig, J.W.; Doppmann, J.L.

    1986-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the adrenals was performed on 50 subjects: 5 normal volunteers, 6 Cushing patients with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, 14 patients with adrenal adenomas, 3 with adrenal carcinomas, 15 with pheochromocytomas and 7 with metastatic disease to the adrenal. The normal and hyperplastic adrenal glands were imaged in all cases. Using the signal intensity of the adrenals on a T2 weighted image, various forms of adrenal pathology could be differentiated. A ratio of signal intensity of the adrenal mass to the liver was utilized and allowed the differentitaion of adrenal adenomas from adrenal carcinomas, pheochromocytomas and metastases. Using the same ratio, metastases could be distinguished from pheochromocytomas as well. MRI appears to be particularly valuable in distinguishing clinically silent adrenal metastases from nonfunctioning adrenal adenomas.

  19. Rare primary retroperitoneal teratoma masquerading as adrenal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.M. Ratkal

    investigation was found to have a right adrenal mass were collected. ... in children, but their prevalence in adults is exceedingly rare. The adrenal gland is ... tumors, the abdominal CT and chest X-ray images taken prior to surgery were.

  20. Perifornical hypothalamic pathway to the adrenal gland: Role for glutamatergic transmission in the glucose counter-regulatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabetghadam, A; Korim, W S; Verberne, A J M

    2017-03-01

    Adrenaline is an important counter-regulatory hormone that helps restore glucose homeostasis during hypoglycaemia. However, the neurocircuitry that connects the brain glucose sensors and the adrenal sympathetic outflow to the chromaffin cells is poorly understood. We used electrical microstimulation of the perifornical hypothalamus (PeH) and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) combined with adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA) recording to examine the relationship between the RVLM, the PeH and ASNA. In urethane-anaesthetised male Sprague-Dawley rats, intermittent single pulse electrical stimulation of the rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM) elicited an evoked ASNA response that consisted of early (60±3ms) and late peaks (135±4ms) of preganglionic and postganglionic activity. In contrast, RVLM stimulation evoked responses in lumbar sympathetic nerve activity that were almost entirely postganglionic. PeH stimulation also produced an evoked excitatory response consisting of both preganglionic and postganglionic excitatory peaks in ASNA. Both peaks in ASNA following RVLM stimulation were reduced by intrathecal kynurenic acid (KYN) injection. In addition, the ASNA response to systemic neuroglucoprivation induced by 2-deoxy-d-glucose was abolished by bilateral microinjection of KYN into the RVLM. This suggests that a glutamatergic pathway from the perifornical hypothalamus (PeH) relays in the RVLM to activate the adrenal SPN and so modulate ASNA. The main findings of this study are that (i) adrenal premotor neurons in the RVLM may be, at least in part, glutamatergic and (ii) that the input to these neurons that is activated during neuroglucoprivation is also glutamatergic.

  1. Inhibin in the testis and adrenal gland of the male lacertid, Podarcis sicula Raf.: a light immunocytochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    L Varano; F. Angelini; R Muoio; V Laforgia; A Capaldo; Manzo, C.

    2009-01-01

    Inhibin is a glycoproteic hormone mostly produced by the gonads. Through a feedback at the pituitary level, it selectively inhibits the release of follicle-stimulating hormone. In mammals, inhibin has been found also in some extragonadal tissues such as placenta, pituitary, adrenal, spleen, kidney, brain and spinal cord. At present, no information is available about the existence of inhibin in reptiles. The aim of the present work is to localise, through immunocytochemical methods, the sites ...

  2. Mismatch repair protein deficient endometrioid adenocarcinomas, metastasizing to adrenal gland and lymph nodes: Unusual cases with diagnostic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Rekhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, certain endometrial carcinomas have been found to be associated with mismatch repair (MMR protein defects/deficiency. A 39-year-old female presented with cough, decreased appetite and significant weight loss since 2 months. Earlier, she had undergone total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH-BSO for endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Imaging disclosed an 8 cm-sized adrenal mass that was surgically excised. Histopathology of the adrenal tumor, endocervical tumor, and endometrial biopsy revealed Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO Grade II to III endometrioid adenocarcinoma. By immunohistochemistry, tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin 7, epithelial membrane antigen, PAX8, MLH1 and PMS2 while negative for estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, MSH2 and MSH6. She underwent adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A 34-year-old lady presented with vaginal bleeding since 9 months. She underwent TAH-BSO, reported as FIGO Grade III endometrioid adenocarcinoma. By immunohistochemistry, tumor cells were negative for ER, PR, MLH1, and PMS2 while positive for MSH2 and MSH6. She underwent adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, she developed multiple nodal and pericardial metastases and succumbed to the disease within a year post-diagnosis. Certain high-grade endometrioid adenocarcinomas occurring in younger women are MMR protein deficient and display an aggressive clinical course. Adrenal metastasis in endometrial carcinomas is rare.

  3. Application of a protocol for magnetic resonance spectroscopy of adrenal glands: an experiment with over 100 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Homero José de Farias E; Goldman, Suzan M; Szejnfeld, Jacob; Faria, Juliano F; Huayllas, Martha K P; Andreoni, Cássio; Kater, Cláudio E

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate a protocol for two-dimensional (2D) hydrogen proton (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) (Siemens Medical Systems; Erlangen, Germany) in the detection of adrenal nodules and differentiation between benign and malignant masses (adenomas, pheochromocytomas, carcinomas and metastases). A total of 118 patients (36 men; 82 women) (mean age: 57.3 ± 13.3 years) presenting with 138 adrenal nodules/masses were prospectively assessed. A multivoxel system was utilized with a 2D point-resolved spectroscopy/chemical shift imaging sequence. The following ratios were calculated: choline (Cho)/creatine (Cr), 4.0-4.3/Cr, lipid (Lip)/Cr, Cho/Lip and lactate (Lac)/Cr. 2D-1H-MRS was successful in 123 (89.13%) lesions. Sensitivity and specificity values observed for the ratios and cutoff points were the following: Cho/Cr ≥ 1.2, 100% sensitivity, 98.2% specificity (differences between adenomas/pheochromocytomas and carcinomas/ metastases); 4.0-4.3 ppm/Cr ≥ 1.5, 92.3% sensitivity, 96.9% specificity (differences between carcinomas/pheochromocytomas and adenomas/metastases); Lac/Cr ≤ -7.449, 90.9% sensitivity and 77.8% specificity (differences between pheochromocytomas and carcinomas/adenomas). Information provided by 2D-1H-MRS were effective and allowed for the differentiation between adrenal masses and nodules in most cases of lesions with > 1.0 cm in diameter.

  4. Adrenal cysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Ture cysts of the adrenal gland are lined with endothelium or epithe lium.Most lesions are asympomatic and are discovered incidentally.They may produce s ymptoms because of hemorrhage.CT findings of cysts include(Fig 1): ① Cyst are well-marginated, nonenhancing, homogeneous, fluid-cont aining masses; ② The wall may have thin peripheral calcification if previous hemor rhage has occurred.③ Cyst contents have characteristics of simple fluids(<20 HU)unle ss hemorrhage has occurred.

  5. Effect of cortisol infusion on the pituitary-adrenal axis of the hypothalamo-pituitary-disconnected fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolovich, G C; McMillen, I C; Robinson, P M; Silver, M; Young, I R; Perry, R A

    1992-09-01

    In order to determine whether cortisol acts directly at the level of the fetal pituitary to promote pars distalis corticotroph maturation, we have infused cortisol into the hypothalamo-pituitary-disconnected (HPD) fetal sheep from 111 to 117 days of gestation. In this study we have measured fetal plasma cortisol and immunoreactive adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ir-ACTH) concentrations between 105 and 116 days of gestation, and we have determined the proportions of adult- and fetal-type corticotrophs in the pars distalis of catheter control fetuses and in HPD fetuses infused with either saline (HPD+SAL) or cortisol (2 mg/day; HPD+F). The fetal plasma cortisol concentrations did not change significantly following HPD. The mean fetal plasma cortisol concentration between 113 and 116 days was threefold higher in the HPD+F fetuses than that measured in HPD fetuses. Following HPD, fetal plasma ir-ACTH concentrations were significantly higher than in catheter control fetuses. Despite the significant elevation in plasma cortisol concentrations in HPD+F fetuses between 113 and 116 days, plasma ir-ACTH concentrations were not different in these fetuses from HPD fetuses infused with saline. At 117 days of gestation in HPD+F fetuses, the proportion of fetal-type corticotrophs in the pars distalis was significantly less than in the HPD+SAL fetuses; however, there was no significant change in the proportion of adult-type corticotrophs in the pars distalis following cortisol infusion. We have shown that cortisol has a direct trophic effect on the maturation of the pars distalis corticotrophs; however, the full maturation of these cells requires an intact hypothalamo-pituitary axis. These findings demonstrate the importance of the fetal hypothalamus in anterior pituitary corticotroph maturation during the last third of gestation.

  6. Fetal alcohol exposure alters proopiomelanocortin gene expression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function via increasing MeCP2 expression in the hypothalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omkaram Gangisetty

    Full Text Available Proopiomelanocortin (POMC is a precursor gene of the neuropeptide β-endorphin in the hypothalamus and is known to regulate various physiological functions including stress response. Several recent reports showed that fetal alcohol exposure programs the hypothalamus to produce lower levels of POMC gene transcripts and to elevate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis response to stressful stimuli. We investigated the role of methyl CpG binding protein (MeCP2 in the effects of prenatal ethanol on POMC gene expression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed between GD 7 and 21 with a liquid diet containing 6.7% alcohol, pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diet, or fed ad libitum with rat chow, and their male offsprings were used at 60 days after birth in this study. Fetal alcohol exposure reduced the level of POMC mRNA, but increased the level of DNA methylation of this gene in the arcuate nucleus (ARC of the hypothalamus where the POMC neuronal cell bodies are located. Fetal alcohol exposed rats showed a significant increase in MeCP2 protein levels in POMC cells, MeCP2 gene transcript levels as well as increased MeCP2 protein binding on the POMC promoter in the arcuate nucleus. Lentiviral delivery of MeCP2 shRNA into the third ventricle efficiently reduced MeCP2 expression and prevented the effect of prenatal ethanol on POMC gene expression in the arcuate nucleus. MeCP2-shRNA treatment also normalized the prenatal ethanol-induced increase in corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH gene expression in the hypothalamus and elevated plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone hormone responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenge. These results suggest that fetal alcohol programming of POMC gene may involve recruitment of MeCP2 on to the methylated promoter of the POMC gene to suppress POMC transcript levels and contribute to HPA axis dysregulation.

  7. [Action of adaptogens: cucurbitacin R diglucoside as a stimulator of arachidonic acid metabolism in the rat adrenal gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panosian, A G; Dadaian, M A; Gevorkian, G A

    1989-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that cucurbitacin R diglucoside (CRD), an adaptogen increasing the rat working capacity and stimulating corticosteroid secretion, stimulates the release of arachidonic acid (AA) in the rat adrenal cortex in vivo (the administration of CRD during 14 days) as well as in vitro (the incubation of isolated rat adrenocortical cells with CRD in the presence of eicosatetraenoic acid, the AA metabolism inhibitor) experiments. The incubation of isolated rat adrenocortical cell with CRD in the presence of AA increases the biosynthesis of 5-HETE, the precursor of which 5-HPETE is known to be a modulator of ACTH-induced corticosteroid secretion.

  8. Development of hair coat and skin glands in fetal porcine integument.

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, W.; Görgen, S

    1986-01-01

    The prenatal development of the hair coat and skin glands was studied in skin samples of ten body regions of porcine fetuses (German Landrace) ranging between 40 and 114 days (birth) of gestation (15-1000 g body weight), using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. During the development of hair follicles, central and lateral primary hair follicles as well as secondary hair follicles can be distinguished. Initiation of primary hair follicles begins at 40-41 days of gestational age...

  9. Effects of adrenoceptor antagonists and neuronal uptake inhibitors on dimethylphenylpiperazinium-induced release of catecholamines from the rabbit isolated adrenal gland and guinea-pig atria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, A.R.; Story, D.F.

    1984-11-01

    Isolated rabbit adrenal glands were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37 degrees C and the catecholamine storage sites were labeled with (/sup 3/H)epinephrine. Release of radioactivity was evoked by 2-min periods of perfusion with dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP, 100 microM). DMPP-induced efflux of radioactivity was decreased by desipramine (1 microM), cocaine (30 microM), phenoxybenzamine (1 and 10 microM), phentolamine (1, 3 and 10 microM) and propranolol (1 microM). The reduction in DMPP-induced efflux cannot be accounted for by interactions with alpha adrenoceptors, as prazosin (1 microM) and yohimbine (1 microM) were without effect. There also was no correlation between inhibition of DMPP-induced efflux and ability of the drugs to inhibit catecholamine uptake as phentolamine (1 microM) and propranolol (1 microM) did not affect the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)epinephrine by the gland. In guinea-pig atria, in which the catecholamine storage sites had been labeled with (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine, efflux of radioactivity was elicited by 1-min periods of contact with DMPP. DMPP-induced efflux of radioactivity from atria was decreased by desipramine (1 microM), cocaine (30 microM), phenoxybenzamine (1 and 10 microM), phentolamine (1 and 10 microM) and propranolol (1 microM) but not by prazosin (1 microM) or yohimbine (1 microM). The inhibition of DMPP-induced efflux in guinea-pig atria could not be correlated with alpha adrenoceptor antagonism or blockade of neuronal uptake. There were differences between the two preparations in the degree of inhibition of DMPP-induced release produced by the above drugs.

  10. Bilateral adrenal histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent man from Texas

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    Colin J. Rog

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated histoplasmosis affecting the adrenal gland(s of immunocompetent adults is a very rare infection. Here, we present a case of bilateral adrenal histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent, 62-year-old gentleman from Texas along with a brief review of the published literature. Given the risk of patient decompensation secondary to adrenal insufficiency and the wide availability of effective treatments, adrenal histoplasmosis must be considered even in immunocompetent adults who acquire adrenal masses.

  11. Primary adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma

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    Aftab S. Shaikh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal sarcomatoid carcinomas are extremely rare tumors presenting with extensive locoregional spread at the time of diagnosis. Patients succumb to metastases within a couple of months. As a result, very few cases are reported in the literature until now. We present a case of a 62-year old female with non-functional sarcomatoid carcinoma of the right adrenal gland. There was no radiological evidence of locoregional metastases. Patient underwent right adrenalectomy. Follow up after 3 months showed para-aortic lymphadenopathy and similar left adrenal mass on computed tomography. Patient refused further treatment and succumbed to the disease. A brief case report with review of literature is presented.

  12. A case report of metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of the right adrenal gland successfully treated with chemotherapy and surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Toshiya; Komiyama, Sosuke; Ikoma, Hisashi; Kubota, Takeshi; Nakanishi, Masayoshi; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Kikuchi, Shojiro; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Sakakura, Chohei; Kokuba, Yukihito; Sonoyama, Teruhisa; Otsuji, Eigo

    2010-08-01

    Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma has a poor prognosis, especially when associated with distant metastasis. A 60-year-old man was admitted to a private hospital because of dyspnea at work in 2007. Computed tomography revealed lung infarction and a right adrenal tumor sized 12 cm in diameter that was tightly compressed against the inferior vena cava (IVC). Moreover, multiple lymph node metastases around the celiac axis and a solitary liver metastasis at the lateral segment were observed. Thus, we planned chemotherapy without surgery. We selected a combination therapy of irinotecan (CPT-11) and cisplatin (CDDP) (i.e., IP therapy): administration of CDDP [60 mg/m(2) body surface area (BSA)] on day 1 plus CPT-11 (80 mg/m(2)) BSA on days 1 and 8. Thereafter, this protocol was repeated at 3-week intervals. After 15 months of this chemotherapy strategy, the whole lesions showed a partial response by RECIST. The primary tumor had shrunk to 4.2 cm in diameter. In November 2008, we planned surgery to perform resection of the whole lesions. Histological diagnosis of the specimen was a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma based on the immunostaining features, i.e., synaptophysin- and chromogranin positive. There were no viable tumor cells at the dissected lymph nodes or at the liver tumor. After surgery, CPT-11 administration was continued. The patient has remained well for 9 months without recurrence.

  13. Preparation and Amplification of Colony of Goat Transgenic Fetal Fibroblast and Mammary Gland Epithelial Cell with Human Lactoferrin Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-ling; LIU Feng-jun; ZHANG Yong

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to explore technical system of making single transgenic positive cells become colony cells by amplification culture. [Method] Fetal fibroblasts and mammary gland epithelial cells of single goat fetus of pBLM-C1 which specifically expressed human lactoferrin were cloned. Single cell colony of single transfection cell was prepared with 3 concentrations of 0%, 50% and 100% conditioned culture media. Transfection cell and non-transfection cell were carried out amplification culture by con-culture, neo gene was as screened gene, genome DNA of transfection cell was detected by PCR method. Chromosome karyotype analysis of single colony cell was tested. [Result] Compared with non-conditioned culture medium, 100% conditioned culture medium could greatly increase survived rate of single colony cells (FF: 53.33% vs. 10.00%; MGE: 33.33% vs. 6.67%). Compared with control, con-culture of transfection cell and non-transfection cell could greatly increase rate of transfection cell single colony after amplification culture (FF: 53.33% vs. 10.00%;MGE: 33.33% vs. 6.67%), confluence time of amplification culture was significantly decreased (20-30 d). The result of PCR showed that the colony cell obtained by above method contained hLF target gene. The result of karyotype analysis showed that most cloned cell chromosomes were normal. [Conclusion] The study provides a reliable method for separating transgenic cell, inserting and diagnosing ideal vector, and can save expense and time for transgenic animal production.

  14. 100名健康者肾上腺18F-FDG PET/CT显像分析%18F-FDG PET/CT imaging of 100 normal adrenal gland cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于治国; 屈婉莹; 姚稚明; 郑建国; 宋人和; 刘秀芹

    2008-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to obtain the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake characteristics in normal adrenal gland as the criteria to diagnose abnormal glucose metabolism in adrenal gland by 18F-FDG PET or PET/CT imaging. Methods One hundred healthy persons underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging in this study. The images were reviewed by visual judgement and measured by standardized uptake value (SUV). With reference to normal liver, the uptake of adrenal gland was scored from 0 to 3, namely, 0=no uptake, 1=less than the uptake of normal liver, 2=equal to the uptake of normal liver. 3=more than the uptake of normal liver. SUV was measured on the trans-axial images. The regions of interest (ROIs) of adrenal glands and livers were manually drawn based on the CT images. Both average SUV (SUVmax) and maximum SUV (SUVmax) were calculated. Results (1) By visual judgment, 94% and 91% of left and right normal adrenal glands had uptake intensity less than that of livers. (2) The SUVmax of left and right adrenal glands were 1.39 and 1.65, and the SUVmax 1.98 and 2.19, respectively with the upper limit of 95% confidence interval (CI). (3) The ratios of left and right adrenal glands SUVmax to livers SUVmax were 0.65 and 0.75 and left and right adrenal glands SUVmax to livers SUVmax were 0.76 and 0.83 respectively with the upper limit of 95% CI. (4) The uptake of right adrenal gland was higher than that of the left. (5) There was no significant difference of the SUVs between men and women, except that right adrenal gland SUVmax of men was higher than that of women. (6) There was no significant difference in 18F-FDG uptake between persons younger and elder than 60 years old. Conclusion The physiological FDG uptake of the adrenal gland in normal healthy individuals is generally lower than that of liver.%目的 探讨正常肾上腺18F-脱氧葡萄糖(FDG) PET显像特征,为在18F-FDG PET或PET/CT显像中判断肾上腺是否有高代谢灶提供依据.方法 选择

  15. Computed tomography in untreated congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harinarayana, C.V.; Renu, G.; Ammini, A.C.; Khurana, M.L.; Ved, P.; Karmarkar, M.G.; Ahuja, M.M.S.; Berry, M. (AIIMS, New Delhi (India))

    1991-02-01

    Six children with untreated congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) were examined by computed tomography (CT). Three cases demonstrated diffuse enlargement of both adrenal glands with preservation of normal configuration and two showed tumorous transformation in one of the enlarged glands. One had equivocal in this group (age 2 years) also showed bilateral hyperplasia. (orig.).

  16. Principles and management of adrenal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javadpour, N. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    Principles and Management of Adrenal Cancer is a comprehensive presentation of the medical and surgical management of neoplastic diseases of the adrenal glands. It consists of two parts. The first provides an overview of the embryology, anatomy, physiology, pathology, and advances in methods of diagnosis and imaging techniques. The second deals with specific diseases of the adrenal cortex and medulla. With 121 figs.

  17. Aldosterone synthase gene polymorphism in alimentary obesity, metabolic syndrome components, some secondary forms of arterial hypertension, pathology of the adrenals glands core (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Koval

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal factors of adrenal origin belong to the pathophysiological mechanisms of the formation and progression of arterial hypertension (AH and should be consi­dered while developing differentiated approaches to the treatment and prevention of hypertensive states, their primary, secondary and resistant forms. The first thing we should point up is aldosterone (AL, enzyme aldosterone synthase (AS, which takes a direct part in the formation of this hormone, as well as gene polymorphisms of AS, which have not only molecular genetic, but also differential diagnostic and therapeutic significance for secondary forms of arterial hypertension, abdominal obesity (AO, metabolic syndrome (MS, adrenal pathology and other endocrine disorders. AL is a steroid (mineralocorticoid hormone of the adrenal cortex, which is synthesized from cholesterol (CH, mainly in the glomerular zone of the adrenal glands, is released under the action of angiotensin II (A II and potassium ions (K+. AL acti­vity is mediated through the corresponding mineralocorticoid receptors (MKR. The particular importance in AH and MS development belongs to AL activation and MKR density in adipocytes, this phenomenon is accompanied by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leptin, an adipogenic effect, and the inhibition of MCR activity is accompanied by increased production of adiponectin, which is more pronounced in patients with AH. Aldosterone synthase, a mitochondrial human enzyme encoded by the CYP11B2 gene (cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily B, polypeptide 2 is located on the 8th chromosome. AS belongs to the superfamily of cytochrome P450 and regulates the synthesis of AL hormone. The CYP11B2 gene encodes the key enzyme for the synthesis of AL 18-hydroxylase. In scientific papers, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of AS gene is often studied, such as 5312T, Intron 2, Lys-173/Arg; T-344C, 3097 C/A. 227 SNP of the AS gene were identified in different

  18. Urocortin 1, urocortin 3/stresscopin, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in human adrenal and its disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Saruta, Masayuki; Watanabe, Mika; Nakata, Taisuke; Sasano, Hironobu

    2005-08-01

    Urocortin 1 (Ucn1) and urocortin 3 (Ucn3)/stresscopin are new members of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neuropeptide family. Ucn1 binds to both CRF type 1 (CRF1) and type 2 receptors (CRF2), whereas Ucn3 is a specific agonist for CRF2. Recently, direct involvement of the locally synthesized CRF family in adrenocortical function has been proposed. We examined in situ expression of Ucn and CRF receptors in nonpathological human adrenal gland and its disorders using immunohistochemistry and mRNA in situ hybridization. Ucn immunoreactivity was localized in the cortex and medulla of nonpathological adrenal glands. Ucn1 immunoreactivity was marked in the medulla, whereas Ucn3 was immunostained mostly in the cortex. Both CRF type 1 and CRF2 were expressed in the cortex, particularly in the zonae fasciculata and reticularis but very weakly or undetectably in the medulla. Immunohistochemistry in serial tissue sections with mirror images revealed that both Ucn3 and CRF2 were colocalized in more than 85% of the adrenocortical cells. mRNA in situ hybridization confirmed these findings above. In fetal adrenals, Ucn and CRF receptors were expressed in both fetal and definitive zones of the cortex. Ucn and CRF receptors were all expressed in the tumor cells of pheochromocytomas, adrenocortical adenomas, and carcinomas, but its positivity was less than that in nonpathological adrenal glands, suggesting that Ucn1, Ucn3, and CRF receptors were down-regulated in these adrenal neoplasms. Ucn1, Ucn3, and CRF receptors are all expressed in human adrenal cortex and medulla and may play important roles in physiological adrenal functions.

  19. Silent Intravascular Lymphoma Initially Manifesting as a Unilateral Adrenal Incidentaloma

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    Yoshiko Takahashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL is a rare subtype of malignant lymphoma. Although the involvement of adrenal glands in IVLBCL is often observed, primary adrenal IVLBCL is rare. Most reported cases of adrenal IVLBCL showed bilateral lesions resulting in rapidly progressive adrenal failure and poor prognosis. Here, we report a case of slowly progressive primary adrenal IVLBCL manifesting initially with unilateral adrenal incidentaloma. This case is a silent IVLBCL and shows that the enlargement of both adrenal glands can be followed.

  20. In vivo production of novel vitamin D2 hydroxy-derivatives by human placentas, epidermal keratinocytes, Caco-2 colon cells and the adrenal gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Andrzej T.; Kim, Tae-Kang; Shehabi, Haleem Z.; Tang, Edith; Benson, Heather A. E.; Semak, Igor; Lin, Zongtao; Yates, Charles R.; Wang, Jin; Li, Wei; Tuckey, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the metabolism of vitamin D2 to hydroxyvitamin D2 metabolites ((OH)D2) by human placentas ex-utero, adrenal glands ex-vivo and cultured human epidermal keratinocytes and colonic Caco-2 cells, and identified 20(OH)D2, 17,20(OH)2D2, 1,20(OH)2D2, 25(OH)D2 and 1,25(OH)2D2 as products. Inhibition of product formation by 22R-hydroxycholesterol indicated involvement of CYP11A1 in 20- and 17-hydroxylation of vitamin D2, while use of ketoconazole indicated involvement of CYP27B1 in 1α-hydroxylation of products. Studies with purified human CYP11A1 confirmed the ability of this enzyme to convert vitamin D2 to 20(OH)D2 and 17,20(OH)2D2. In placentas and Caco-2 cells, production of 20(OH)D2 was higher than 25(OH)D2 while in human keratinocytes the production of 20(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D2 were comparable. HaCaT keratinocytes showed high accumulation of 1,20(OH)2D2 relative to 20(OH)D2 indicating substantial CYP27B1 activity. This is the first in vivo evidence for a novel pathway of vitamin D2 metabolism initiated by CYP11A1 and modified by CYP27B1, with the product profile showing tissue- and cell-type specificity. PMID:24382416

  1. Concentrations of the adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and sex steroid hormones and the expression of the androgen receptor in the pituitary and adrenal glands of male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) during growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiezun, J; Kaminska, B; Jankowski, J; Dusza, L

    2015-01-01

    Androgens take part in the regulation of puberty and promote growth and development. They play their biological role by binding to a specific androgen receptor (AR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of AR mRNA and protein in the pituitary and adrenal glands, to localize AR protein in luteinizing hormone (LH)-producing pituitary and adrenocortical cells, to determine plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone and the concentrations of corticosterone, testosterone (T), androstenedione (A4) and oestradiol (E2) in the adrenal glands of male turkeys at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28weeks. The concentrations of hormones and the expression of AR varied during development. The expression of AR mRNA and protein in pituitary increased during the growth. The increase of AR mRNA levels in pituitary occurred earlier than increase of AR protein. The percentage of pituitary cells expressing ARs in the population of LH-secreting cells increased in week 20. It suggests that AR expression in LH-producing pituitary cells is determined by the phase of development. The drop in adrenal AR mRNA and protein expression was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of adrenal androgens. Those results could point to the presence of a compensatory mechanism that enables turkeys to avoid the potentially detrimental effects of high androgen concentrations. Our results will expand our knowledge of the role of steroids in the development of the reproductive system of turkeys from the first month of age until maturity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Diabetic fetopathy associated with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia and ambiguous genitalia: a case report

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    Tantbirojn Patou

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Many fetal malformations can occur because of maternal diabetes. However, ambiguous genital organs have never been reported as an associated finding in the literature. This is the first report of associated ambiguous genital organ and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia in a case of diabetic fetopathy. Case presentation A 19-year-old Thai primigravida with familial history of diabetes mellitus (DM was diagnosed as having gestational DM type 2, based on 100 g oral glucose tolerance test, and was poorly controlled with insulin injections. Delayed targeted ultrasonography at 28 weeks gestation revealed multiple fetal anomalies. The woman underwent low transverse cesarean section at 30 weeks gestation due to preterm labor and transverse lie. The newborn with ambiguous genitalia was delivered but expired after birth. Autopsy findings revealed alobar holoprosencephaly, a prominent forehead, hypotelorism, an absent nose, absent bilateral ears, median cleft lip and palate, preaxial polydactyly of the right hand, accessory spleens, single umbilical artery, markedly enlarged adrenal glands and ambiguous external genitalia The subsequent fetal chromosomal study revealed 46,XX. Conclusion We describe a case of diabetic fetopathy with classic facial malformation and preaxial hallucal polydactyly which has been proposed as a marker of diabetic embryopathy. Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia with ambiguous genitalia, an uncommon associated anomaly, was also identified. It is controversial whether adrenal hyperplasia can be a novel feature of diabetic fetopathy or just a coincidental finding. Further observation and adequate investigation are needed in such cases.

  3. Intraoperative identification of adrenal-renal fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Griffin; Rattan, Rishi; Yilmaz, Osman; Tarnoff, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal - renal fusion is a rare entity defined as incomplete encapsulation of the adrenal gland and kidney with histologically adjacent functional tissue. This report describes the first published intraoperative identification of this anomaly during laparoscopic adrenalectomy. The patient was a 59-year-old man with chronic hypertension refractory to multiple antihypertensives found to be caused by a right-sided aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma in the setting of bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. During laparoscopic adrenalectomy, the normal avascular plane between the kidney and adrenal gland was absent. Pathologic evaluation confirmed adrenal - renal fusion without adrenal heterotopia. Identified intraoperatively, this may be misdiagnosed as invasive malignancy, and thus awareness of this anomaly may help prevent unnecessarily morbid resection. PMID:26195881

  4. [Adrenal injury in blunt abdominal trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumov, M M; Smoliar, A N; Barmina, T G; Boĭko, A V; Shalimova, I G

    2009-01-01

    10 patients with adrenal damage were observed during 2.5 years. It amounted 0.93% of all patients with closed abdominal injuries. The right adrenal gland was traumatized in all cases evidently due to it's compression between right lobe of liver and vertebral column. Adrenal damage is observed quite often in combination with injuries of right liver lobe, right kidney and retroperitoneal hematoma formation. 5 patients underwent laparotomy on account of intra-abdominal bleeding, but adrenal damage was never revealed. Ultrasound and tomographic semiotics of adrenal damage was worked out, which allowed ascertaining diagnosis in 80% on application of ultrasound study and in 100% at computer tomography. Injury of one adrenal gland was not accompanied by adrenal failure and did not require hormonal replacement therapy.

  5. The effect of hypothalamo-pituitary disconnection on the functional and morphologic development of the pituitary-adrenal axis in the fetal sheep in the last third of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolovich, G C; McMillen, I C; Robinson, P M; Silver, M; Young, I R; Perry, R A

    1991-09-01

    We have investigated the effect of hypothalamo-pituitary disconnection (HPD) on the maturation of basal ir-ACTH and cortisol concentrations in fetal sheep plasma, and on the development of the anterior pituitary corticotroph population in the last third of gestation. After HPD, fetal plasma ir-ACTH concentrations were significantly elevated, and continued to rise with increasing gestational age. However, despite elevated ir-ACTH concentrations, there was no increase in fetal plasma cortisol concentrations, and parturition was delayed for at least 8 days beyond normal term. Furthermore, HPD resulted in a significant disruption of the maturation of the pars distalis corticotrophs. We also examined the change in fetal plasma concentrations of ir-ACTH and cortisol to exogenous CRF after HPD. There was a significant increase in plasma ir-ACTH in response to CRF administration in the HPD fetuses, which was qualitatively similar to that observed in sham-operated fetuses. In contrast, the plasma cortisol response was less in HPD fetuses when compared to that in sham-operated fetuses. The results of this study demonstrate that ir-ACTH secretion is not maintained by the fetal hypothalamus in the last third of gestation, and that ir-ACTH secretion is tonically inhibited by the hypothalamus during this time. The disconnection of the pituitary from the hypothalamus disrupts the maturation of the pituitary-adrenal axis, thus demonstrating the fundamental importance of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis in the normal maturational cascade which culminates in birth in this species.

  6. Adrenal pathology in childhood: a spectrum of disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Anne [Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, 180 Falls Road, Belfast BT12 6BE (United Kingdom)

    2002-10-01

    Adrenal lesions in children may present with an asymptomatic adrenal mass lesion, an endocrinopathy, a hypertensive or metabolic crisis or a paraneoplastic syndrome. Some of the underlying disease processes remain localised within the adrenal gland or may develop into disseminated disease. The role of the radiologist is to confirm the adrenal location of a lesion and to document any other foci of disease. Ultrasound, CT, MR imaging and metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy are the most commonly utilised imaging modalities for examining the adrenal glands and their pathologies in children. This paper reviews the spectrum of adrenal disease in childhood and presents the information as a series of radiological appearances: anomalies of adrenal shape, location, number and size, cystic adrenal masses, solid adrenal mass lesions, and adrenal calcifications are all examined. The radiological findings must always be interpreted in conjunction with the patient's age, the clinical history, the findings on physical examination and the available biochemical data. (orig.)

  7. Genetic disorders involving adrenal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Achermann, John C

    2007-01-01

    The past decade has seen significant advances in our understanding of the genetic aetiology of several forms of adrenal failure that present in infancy or childhood. Several of these disorders affect adrenal development and are termed 'adrenal hypoplasia'. These conditions can be broadly divided into: (1) secondary forms of adrenal hypoplasia due to panhypopituitarism (e.g. HESX1, LHX4, SOX3) or abnormalities in ACTH synthesis (TPIT) or processing (e.g. POMC or PC1); (2) adrenal hypoplasia as part of an ACTH resistance syndrome [MC2R/ACTH receptor, MRAP, AAAS (triple A syndrome)], and (3) primary defects in the development of the adrenal gland itself (primary adrenal hypoplasia). Primary adrenal hypoplasia most commonly occurs in an X-linked form due to mutations in the nuclear receptor DAX1 (NR0B1) but can occur in a poorly understood recessive form or as part of the IMAGe (intrauterine growth retardation, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia, genitourinary anomalies) syndrome. Defining the molecular basis of these conditions can have significant clinical implications for management, counselling and presymptomatic diagnosis, as well as providing fascinating insight into normal and abnormal mechanisms of adrenal development in humans.

  8. Adrenal Function Status in Patients with Paracoccidioidomycosis after Prolonged Post-Therapy Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobón, Angela M.; Agudelo, Carlos A.; Restrepo, Carlos A.; Villa, Carlos A.; Quiceno, William; Estrada, Santiago; Restrepo, Angela

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed adrenal function in patients with paracoccididioidomycosis who had been treated to determine a possible connection between high antibody titers and adrenal dysfunction attributable to persistence of the fungus in adrenal gland. Adrenal gland function was studied in 28 previously treated patients, 2 (7.1%) of whom were shown to have adrenal insufficiency and 7 (259%) who showed a below normal response to stimuli by adrenocorticotropic hormone. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was detected in the adrenal gland from one of the patients with adrenal insufficiency. Although the study failed to demonstrate a significant difference between high antibody titers and low cortisol levels, the proportion of adrenal insufficiency detected and the subnormal response to adrenocorticotropic hormone confirmed that adrenal damage is an important sequela of paracoccidioidomycosis. Studies with a larger number of patients should be conducted to confirm the hypothesis of persistence of P. brasiliensis in adrenal gland after therapy. PMID:20595488

  9. Target cells for cytochrome p450-catalysed irreversible binding of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in rodent adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhe, Orjan; Granberg, Lizette; Brandt, Ingvar

    2002-08-01

    7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) is an adrenocorticolytic agent that causes apoplexy (haemorrhage) and massive necrosis in the adrenal cortex in rat. Several explanations regarding the origin of toxicity have been proposed. Huggins and Morii (J Exp Med 114:741-60, 1961) suggested that the cells of the inner adrenal cortex are the primary target, whereas Horváth and Kovács (Pathol Eur 8:43-59, 1973) suggested the vascular endothelium as being the origin of toxicity. In the present study, cultured precision-cut tissue slices were used to localize target cells for irreversible [(3)H]DMBA binding in rat and mouse adrenal cortex. The sites of binding were confirmed by autoradiography in vivo. Irreversible [(3)H]DMBA binding was confined to zona fasciculata/reticularis cells in rat (but not in mouse) adrenal cortex. Pronounced binding was observed in clusters of cells (focal binding), localized predominantly in zona reticularis of rat. [(3)H]DMBA binding in zona fasciculata/reticularis cells was inhibited by the cytochrome p450 1A/B (CYP1A/B) inhibitors ellipticine, alpha-naphthoflavone, and 1-ethynylpyrene. The CYP11B1-inhibitor metyrapone did not reduce [(3)H]DMBA binding. In CYP1-induced (PCB 126-treated) rats and mice, intense irreversible [(3)H]DMBA binding was found also in endothelial cells of the adrenal cortex. The endothelial binding was abolished by the CYP1 inhibitors but remained unaffected by metyrapone. We conclude that the metabolic activation in adrenal parenchymal cells is presumably catalysed by CYP1B1, whereas CYP1A1 presumably catalyses the activation in endothelial cells. We suggest that the adrenocorticolytic effect of DMBA is the result of a dual mode of action, targeting both endothelial and parenchymal cells in the rat adrenal cortex.

  10. Adrenal Collision Tumor: Coexistence of Pigmented Adrenal Cortical Oncocytoma and Ganglioneuroma

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    Hye Seung Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adrenal collision tumors (ACTs, in which distinct tumors coexist without intermingling in the same adrenal gland, are rare and their actual prevalence is unknown. ACTs commonly consist of adrenal cortical adenoma, pheochromocytoma, or metastatic malignant tumor. Case Report. A 32-year-old woman who had been experiencing gastric discomfort for one month was referred to our hospital with abnormal imaging findings. The physical examination and the laboratory data including endocrine studies were unremarkable. Abdomen computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed two adjacent masses in the left suprarenal fossa, and a laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was done. Histological and immunohistochemical (IHC examinations revealed two distinct tumors: a pigmented adrenal cortical oncocytoma (ACO and a ganglioneuroma, respectively. Conclusion. Both tumors are rare in the adrenal gland and exist as ACTs only exceptionally rarely. This is the first reported case of coexisting oncocytoma and ganglioneuroma in the same adrenal gland to our knowledge.

  11. Laparoscopic Management of a Complex Adrenal Cyst

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    Koichi Kodama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal cysts are rare, and their clinical management remains controversial. We report a case involving an adrenal cyst with a complicated appearance on radiological studies. Unenhanced computed tomography revealed a unilocular, noncalcified, hypoattenuating mass with a thin wall in the left adrenal gland. The lesion gradually increased in size from 10 to 50 mm at two-year follow-up. On contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, a mural nodule with contrast enhancement was observed. The entire adrenal gland was excised en bloc via a lateral transperitoneal laparoscopic approach without violating the principles of surgical oncology. The pathological diagnosis was an adrenal pseudocyst. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe option for the treatment of complex adrenal cysts, while maintaining the benefits of minimal invasiveness.

  12. Laparoscopic Resection of an Adrenal Schwannoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinos, Toutouzas G.; Panagiotis, Kekis B.; Nikolaos, Michalopoulos V.; Ioannis, Flessas; Andreas, Manouras; Geogrios, Zografos

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Schwannomas are tumors originating from Schwann cells of the peripheral nerve sheath (neurilemma) of the neuroectoderm. Rarely, schwannomas can arise from the retroperitoneum and adrenal medulla. We describe a case of a 71-y-old woman who presented with an incidentally discovered adrenal tumor. Methods: Ultrasound and computed tomography scans revealed a lesion with solid and cystic areas originating from the left adrenal gland. The patient underwent complete laparoscopic resection of the tumor and the left adrenal gland. Results: Histopathological examination and immunohistochemical staining of the excised specimen revealed a benign schwannoma measuring 5.5×5×3.7 cm. To our knowledge, few other cases of laparoscopic resection of adrenal schwannomas have been reported. Conclusion: Because preoperative diagnosis of adrenal tumors is inconclusive, complete laparoscopic excision allows for definitive diagnosis with histological evaluation and represents the treatment of choice. PMID:23484583

  13. Unilateral adrenal hemorrhagic infarction in essential thrombocythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnet, G; Lambert, M; Annet, L; Lefebvre, C

    2015-12-01

    Adrenal hemorrhage is a rare disease associated with various conditions. We report a case of a 68-year-old woman with abdominal and back pain. The diagnostic work-up showed a left adrenal gland infarction associated with essential thrombocythemia. Treatment consisted in painkillers and treating the underlying condition in order to prevent further thrombotic events.

  14. 酵母双杂交筛选胎肾上腺cDNA文库中HNP-1结合蛋白%SCREENING THE GENE SEQUENCES OF THE INTERACTION PROTEINS OF HNP-1 FROM HUMAN FETAL ADRENAL CDNA LIBRARY BY YEAST TWO HYBRID SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜润滋; 邓璐霞; 黄宁; 罗朝志

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To screen proteins binding with α-defensin (HNP-1) mature peptide from placenta cDNA libraty by yeast two hybrid technique. [Methods] The cDNA fragment encoding HNP-1 mature peptide was amplified by polymera-sechain reaction (PCR) and constructed into pGBK-T7 vector as the bait plasmid in yeast two hybrid system 3. Subsequently , the RNA from fetal adrenal gland was obtained and then transformed into cDNA library using SMART technology. The fetal adrenal cDNA library was screened with pGBKT7-HNP-1 as bait plasmid by yeast-two hybrid system Matchmaker Lexa. Finally, the positive clone was obtained by PCR and then identified by sequence. Then the interaction between them was determined by GST pull down in vitro and coimmunoprecipitates experiments in vivo. [Results] Bait and cDNA library have been constructed successfully and transformed into yeast. Then the interaction protein was found-melanocortin 2 receptor (ACTHR), CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP), Tramembrane trafficking protein (TMP21), low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6). Therefore, melanocortin 2 receptor (ACTH-R) was determined into the major subjects. And bands which can demonstrate the relationship between HNP-1 and ACTH-R was obtained in GST pull down and coimmunoprecipitates experiments. [Conclusion] ACTH-R can bind to HNP-1 we obtained from fetal adrenal cDNA library and it may play important roles in the function of HNP-1 mature peptide.%[目的]筛选胎肾上腺cDNA文库中与α防御素HNP-1成熟肽具有相互作用的蛋白分子.[方法]通过聚合酶链反应(PCR)成功获得HNP-1成熟肽基因插入酵母表达载体pGBK-T7中构建诱饵质粒,同时提取胎肾上腺RNA,SMART技术制备人胎肾上腺cDNA文库,并采用Matchmaker LexA酵母双杂交系统从胎肾上腺cDNA文库中筛选与HNP-1成熟肽相互作用的蛋白.最后通过PCR筛选获得阳性克隆并测序,而后经回转实验,GST pull down以及免疫共沉淀再次验证

  15. Human fetal chromaffin cells: a potential tool for cell pain therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozan, Suzanne; Aziza, Jacqueline; Châtelin, Sophie; Evra, Corinne; Courtade-Saïdi, Monique; Parant, Olivier; Sol, Jean Christophe; Zhou, Huafang; Lazorthes, Yves

    2007-06-01

    Transplantation of adrenal medulla cells has been proposed in the treatment of various conditions. Indeed, these cells possess a bipotentiality: neural and neuroendocrine, which could be exploited for brain repair or pain therapy. In a previous study, we characterized these human cells in vitro over 7-10 gestational weeks (GW) [Zhou, H., Aziza, J., Sol, J.C., Courtade-Saidi, M., Chatelin, S., Evra, C., Parant, O., Lazorthes, Y., and Jozan, S., 2006. Cell therapy of pain: Characterization of human fetal chromaffin cells at early adrenal medulla development. Exp. Neurol. 198, 370-381]. We report here our results on the extension to 23 GW. This developmental period can be split into three stages. During the first stage (7-10 GW), we observed in situ that extra-adrenal surrounding cells display the same morphology and phenotype as the intra-adrenal chromaffin cells. We also found that the intra-adrenal chromaffin cells could be committed in vitro towards an adrenergic phenotype using differentiating agents. During the second stage (11 to 15-16 GW), two types of cells (Type 1 and Type 2 cells) were identified morphologically both inside and outside the gland. Interestingly, we noted that the Type 2 cells stem from the Type 1 cells. However, during this developmental period only the intra-adrenal Type 2 cells will evolve towards an adrenergic phenotype. In the third stage (17-23 GW), we observed the ultimate location of the medulla gland. Both the in situ results and the in vitro experiments indicate that particular procedures need to be implemented prior transplantation of chromaffin cells. First, in order to obtain a large number of immature chromaffin cells, they must be isolated from the intra and extra-adrenal gland and should then be committed towards an adrenergic phenotype in vitro for subsequent use in pain therapy. This strategy is under investigation in our laboratory.

  16. Adrenal Gland and Lung Lesions in Gulf of Mexico Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) Found Dead following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Venn-Watson; Kathleen M. Colegrove; Jenny Litz; Michael Kinsel; Karen Terio; Jeremiah Saliki; Spencer Fire; Ruth Carmichael; Connie Chevis; Wendy Hatchett; Jonathan Pitchford; Mandy Tumlin; Cara Field; Suzanne Smith; Ruth Ewing

    2015-01-01

    A northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) cetacean unusual mortality event (UME) involving primarily bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama began in February 2010 and continued into 2014. Overlapping in time and space with this UME was the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, which was proposed as a contributing cause of adrenal disease, lung disease, and poor health in live dolphins examined during 2011 in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. To assess potential contributin...

  17. Post-surgical hemorrhagic infarction of the adrenal gland as the first clinical manifestation of antiphospholipid syndrome after 43 years of antibody-positivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselboeck, Johanna; Ringl, Helmut; Mueller, Catharina; Pabinger, Ingrid; Winkler, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    We report on a male patient who tested positive for antiphospholipid antibodies for 43 years without thromboembolic manifestation of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). He has been followed up in a prospective cohort study since 2001. Following his second hip replacement surgery, the patient developed acute adrenal failure due to bilateral hemorrhagic infarction. Prophylactic anticoagulation, surgery, or an immunological reaction to blood transfusion may have triggered this late and unusually located primary manifestation of APS in our patient.

  18. Pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland and the thyroglossal duct remnant: a study using human fetal sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanashi, Yoshitaka; Honkura, Yohei; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Kawase, Tetsuaki; Katori, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    To investigate developmental changes in the thyroglossal duct, we observed serial sagittal sections of eight embryos (crown-rump length (CRL) 6-12 mm; approximately 5-6 weeks of gestation) as well as serial horizontal or cross-sections of 70 embryos and fetuses (CRL 15-110 mm; 6-15 weeks). In the sagittal sections, the thyroglossal duct was identified as a small sheet or mass of relatively large cells with vacuolization anterior, superior or inferior to the fourth pharyngeal arch artery. However, we found no continuous duct-like structure that reached the thyroid gland. Thus, previous classical schemes might have overestimated the continuity of the duct. Among cross-sections of 70 specimens, we found the thyroglossal duct remnant in only two specimens (CRL 15 mm and 100 mm), in contrast to the pyramidal lobe, which was seen in one-third of the specimens. The duct remnant ran downward along the lateral edge of the hyoid body to reach the anterior aspect of the thyroid cartilage. However, the connection between the pyramidal lobe and the duct remnant was interrupted by the anterior cervical muscles. Therefore, it was unlikely that the thyroglossal duct remnant would more frequently be evident in fetuses than in adults. The highly tortuous course of the duct along the lingual aspect of the hyoid body, which has been reported previously, appeared to become established near term. Descent of the thyroid gland was not evident after the CRL 20 mm stage (6 weeks): the gland appeared to retain its position at the level of the third-sixth cervical vertebrae.

  19. Adrenal haemorrhage with cholestasis and adrenal crisis in a newborn of a diabetic mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koklu, Esad; Kurtoglu, Selim; Akcakus, Mustafa; Koklu, Selmin

    2007-03-01

    The large hyperaemic foetal adrenal gland is vulnerable to vascular damage. This may occur in the neonatal period as a consequence of difficult labour, or its aetiology may not be apparent. The spectrum of presentation is considerable, ranging from asymptomatic to severe life-threatening intra-abdominal haemorrhage. The presentation of adrenal insufficiency may be delayed but the regenerative capacity of the adrenal is great, and most adrenal haemorrhage is not associated with significantly impaired function. Some reports showed that cholestatic hepatopathy with congenital hypopituitarism reversed by hydrocortisone treatment is considered in the context of the endocrine syndrome, probably as a consequence of the adrenal failure. We describe a case of bilateral adrenal haemorrhage with hepatitis syndrome and persistent hypoglycaemia in a newborn male with striking features of neonatal cholestasis and adrenal crisis.

  20. [Palmitoyl-CoA-dehydrogenase from rabbit adrenals, liver and myocardium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, N A; Mandrik, K A; Vinogradov, V V

    1988-01-01

    Partially purified preparations of palmitoyl-CoA dehydrogenase from rabbit adrenal glands, liver and heart tissues exhibited similar kinetic parameters. Km value constituted 6.58, 5.26 and 6.67 microM for the enzyme from adrenal glands, liver and heart tissues, respectively. At the same time, palmitoyl-CoA dehydrogenase possessed lower catalytic capacity in adrenal glands due to the decreased amount of the enzyme as compared with that of liver or heart tissues.

  1. Microelectrode arrays of diamond-insulated graphitic channels for real time detection of exocytotic events from cultured chromaffin cells and slices of adrenal glands

    CERN Document Server

    Picollo, F; Bernardi, E; Marcantoni, A; Pasquarelli, A; Carbone, E; Olivero, P; Carabelli, V

    2016-01-01

    A microstructured graphitic 4x4 multielectrode array was embedded in a single crystal diamond substrate (4x4 {uG-SCD MEA) for real-time monitoring of exocytotic events from cultured chromaffin cells and adrenal slices. The current approach relies on the development of a parallel ion beam lithographic technique, which assures the time effective fabrication of extended arrays with reproducible electrode dimensions. The reported device is suitable for performing amperometric and voltammetric recordings with high sensitivity and temporal resolution, by simultaneously acquiring data from 16 rectangularly shaped microelectrodes (20x3.5 um^2) separated by 200 um gaps. Taking advantage of the array geometry we addressed the following specific issues: i) detect both the spontaneous and KCl-evoked secretion simultaneously from several chromaffin cells directly cultured on the device surface, ii) resolve the waveform of different subsets of exocytotic events, iii) monitoring quantal secretory events from thin slices of ...

  2. Localization of functional adrenal tumors by computed tomography and venous sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnick, N.R. (National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD); Doppman, J.L.; Gill, J.R. Jr.; Strott, C.A.; Keiser, H.R.; Brennan, M.F.

    1982-02-01

    Fifty-eight patients with functional lesions of the adrenal glands underwent radiographic evaluation. Twenty-eight patients had primary aldosteronism (Conn syndrome), 20 had Cushing syndrome, and 10 had pheochromocytoma. Computed tomography (CT) correctly identified adrenal tumors in 11 (61%) of 18 patients with aldosteronomas, 6 of 6 patients with benign cortisol-producing adrenal tumors, and 5 (83%) of 6 patients with pheochromocytomas. No false-positive diagnoses were encountered among patients with adrenal adenomas. Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia appeared on CT scans as normal or prominent adrenal glands with a normal configuration; however, CT was not able to exclude the presence of small adenomas. Adrenal venous sampling was correct in each case, and reliably distinguished adrenal tumors from hyperplasia. Recurrent pheochromocytomas were the most difficult to loclize on CT due to the surgical changes in the region of the adrenals and the frequent extra-adrenal locations.

  3. Giant Bilateral Adrenal Myelolipoma with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Al-Bahri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myelolipomas are rare and benign neoplasms, predominant of the adrenal glands, consisting of adipose and mature hematopoietic tissue, commonly discovered incidentally with increased use of radiologic imaging. Few cases of giant bilateral adrenal masses are reported, especially in the setting of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. We report the case of a 39-year-old male with a history of CAH secondary to 21-α hydroxylase deficiency on steroids since childhood, self-discontinued during adolescence, presenting with abdominal distension, fatigue, decreased libido, and easy bruising. Imaging revealed giant bilateral adrenal masses. He subsequently underwent bilateral adrenalectomy found to be myelolipomas measuring 30 × 25 × 20 cm on the left and weighing 4.1 kg and 25 × 20 × 13 cm on the right and weighing 2.7 kg. Adrenal myelolipomas are found to coexist with many other conditions such as Cushing’s syndrome, Addison’s disease, and CAH. We discuss the association with high adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH states and review the studies involving ACTH as proponent leading to myelolipomas. Massive growth of these tumors, as in our case, can produce compression and hemorrhagic symptoms. We believe it is possible that self-discontinuation of steroids, in the setting of CAH, may have resulted in the growth of his adrenal masses.

  4. Ectopic Thyroid in the Adrenal Presenting as an Adrenal Incidentaloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Aktaş Yılmaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal incidentalomas are clinical dilemmas for the clinicians. The work up, to differentiate between malignant and benign lesions, and hyperfunctioning and nonfunctioning lesions is mandatory before the consideration of surgical resection. Ectopic thyroid tissue located in the adrenal gland (ETTAG is a very rare condition. We report a case of ETTAG presenting with adrenal incidentaloma. A 57-year-old woman was admitted with incidental right adrenal mass. Hormone evaluation showed no hormonal activity. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 20x17 mm lobulated solid mass, which contained millimetric hypointense nodular areas consistent with calcifications. Loss of signal intensity on out-of-phase could not be evaluated because of the calcifications. Right adrenalectomy was performed to establish the histopathological diagnosis and to rule out malignancy. Histopathological diagnosis revealed ETTAG. Her medical history was positive for multinodular goiter and bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy 32 years ago. Thyroid ultrasonography showed residual thyroid tissue in both the right and left lobes, and colloid thyroid nodules. Fine needle aspiration biopsy from the nodules revealed benign nodules. The patient has been followed up for six years, and no change in thyroid nodule sizes and no evidence of metastatic foci have been detected. ETTAG would be considered in the differential diagnosis of adrenal mass showing no hormonal activity, especially when magnetic resonance images are not consistent with adrenal adenoma. Long follow-up duration of this case suggests that it was a benign condition.

  5. Non-invasive prenatal molecular detection of a fetal point mutation for congenital adrenal hyperplasia using co-amplification at lower denaturation temperature PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Juan; ZOU Xin; PAN Yi; LI Shuang-fei; LU Guang-xiu

    2010-01-01

    @@ Conventional prenatal diagnosis relies on invasive chorionic biopsy or amniocentesis, which increases the risk of miscarriage, and is undertaken at 11-20 weeks gestation.1 The discovery of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma has, however, offered a new strategy for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis.2

  6. Incidental findings of the kidneys, adrenal glands, adnexa uteri, gastrointestinal tract, mesentery and lymph nodes. Assessment and management recommendations; Zufallsbefunde von Niere, Nebenniere, Adnexen, Gastrointestinaltrakt, Mesenterium und Lymphknoten. Bewertung und Managementempfehlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharitzer, M.; Tamandl, D.; Ba-Ssalamah, A. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria)

    2017-04-15

    Besides the upper abdominal parenchymal organs, the increasing application of cross-sectional imaging has also led to a rising number of incidental findings in the kidneys, adrenal glands, adnexa uteri, the gastrointestinal tract, mesentery and abdominal lymph nodes. Abdominal computed tomography investigations often show unexpected findings without any correlating symptoms. The growing clinical relevance is due to the large number of incidental findings as well as an increasing awareness of ethical and socioeconomic factors. When interpreting radiological findings not only morphological criteria but also individual risk factors of the patient and the clinical context are of great importance. The aims of this article are the description and evaluation of frequent incidental findings detected by computed tomography and to provide information about management recommendations. (orig.) [German] Neben den parenchymatoesen Oberbauchorganen hat der zunehmende Einsatz von Schnittbildverfahren zu einer vermehrten Anzahl von Zufallsbefunden der Nieren, Nebennieren, Adnexe, des Gastrointestinaltrakts, Mesenteriums und der intraabdominellen Lymphknoten gefuehrt. Abdominelle CT-Untersuchungen zeigen haeufig unerwartete Befunde ohne korrelierende Symptomatik. Die steigende klinische Relevanz ist einerseits auf die Zunahme inzidenteller Pathologien und andererseits auf ein wachsendes Bewusstsein ethischer und soziooekonomischer Faktoren zurueckzufuehren. Bei der radiologischen Interpretation sind neben morphologischen Kriterien sowohl die Einbeziehung der individuellen Risikofaktoren des Patienten als auch der klinische Gesamtkontext von grosser Bedeutung. Das Ziel dieses Artikels ist eine Beschreibung und Bewertung der in der Computertomographie detektierten genannten Zufallsbefunde sowie weiterer Managementempfehlungen. (orig.)

  7. A genomic atlas of human adrenal and gonad development [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio del Valle

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In humans, the adrenal glands and gonads undergo distinct biological events between 6-10 weeks post conception (wpc, such as testis determination, the onset of steroidogenesis and primordial germ cell development. However, relatively little is currently known about the genetic mechanisms underlying these processes. We therefore aimed to generate a detailed genomic atlas of adrenal and gonad development across these critical stages of human embryonic and fetal development. Methods: RNA was extracted from 53 tissue samples between 6-10 wpc (adrenal, testis, ovary and control. Affymetrix array analysis was performed and differential gene expression was analysed using Bioconductor. A mathematical model was constructed to investigate time-series changes across the dataset. Pathway analysis was performed using ClueGo and cellular localisation of novel factors confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Results: Using this approach, we have identified novel components of adrenal development (e.g. ASB4, NPR3 and confirmed the role of SRY as the main human testis-determining gene. By mathematical modelling time-series data we have found new genes up-regulated with SOX9 in the testis (e.g. CITED1, which may represent components of the testis development pathway. We have shown that testicular steroidogenesis has a distinct onset at around 8 wpc and identified potential novel components in adrenal and testicular steroidogenesis (e.g. MGARP, FOXO4, MAP3K15, GRAMD1B, RMND2, as well as testis biomarkers (e.g. SCUBE1. We have also shown that the developing human ovary expresses distinct subsets of genes (e.g. OR10G9, OR4D5, but enrichment for established biological pathways is limited. Conclusion: This genomic atlas is revealing important novel aspects of human development and new candidate genes for adrenal and reproductive disorders.

  8. Symptomatic Adrenal Insufficiency due to Bilateral Adrenal Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şafak Akın

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary involvement of the adrenal gland with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma has been reported to occur in up to 25% of patients during the course of the disease. A 45-year-old man presented with a several month history of nausea, fatigue and weight loss. His medical history was unremarkable. Abdominal computed tomography (CT was performed and showed bilateral adrenal massive masses measuring 10x7.5 cm on the left and 4.8x4 cm on the right. He developed adrenal insufficiency in the follow-up period. The patient was started on replacement dose of prednisolone. A positron emission tomography-CT scan was acquired for further staging of the disease and showed intense fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in both adrenal glands, additionally a slight fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation was observed in the ileocecal site. He did not accept adrenal biopsy or surgery. Histopathological examination of the ileocecal site revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. He was administered rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy. Bilateral adrenal lymphoma is a rare entity when compared with the incidence of adenoma and adrenal metastases of other cancers. Adrenal insufficiency may be the primary symptom of presentation, especially with bilateral involvement as in bilateral adrenal lymphoma.

  9. Adrenal scintigraphy. [/sup 131/I tracer techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrall, J.H.; Freitas, J.E.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    Adrenal scintigraphy has been clinically feasible since the development of /sup 131/I-19-iodocholesterol in 1970. This agent has been supplanted by the current agent of choice, 6-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol. Patients receive Lugol's iodine to block the thyroid gland and receive 1 to 2 mCi of radiocholesterol intravenously. Imaging is accomplished 4 to 7 days postinjection with the gamma camera. Adrenal percent uptake determinations similar to thyroid uptakes may be accomplished with the aid of a digital computer and standard percent uptake curves derived from phantom studies. Adrenal suppression scans were developed to enhance differences between the normal and abnormal adrenal cortex in certain clinical conditions. Patients receive dexamethasone prior to radiotracer injection, and serial scans beginning 2 to 3 days postinjection are obtained. In the normal adrenal scintigram, the right adrenal gland is higher than the left and appears slightly hotter. The left adrenal has an oval configuration, while the right adrenal has a truncated or circular configuration in most subjects. Knowledge of the patient's clinical hormonal status is necessary for proper scintigraphic interpretation. With documented glucocorticoid excess, symmetrical visualization is due to adrenal hyperplasia, usually secondary to Cushing's disease. Unilateral visualization indicates the presence of an adenoma or a postsurgical adrenal remnant; and bilateral nonvisualization is typically due to carcinoma. On dexamethasone suppression scans in primary aldosteronism and adrenal androgenism, adenomas demonstrate unilateral or markedly asymmetrical uptake. Patients with micro- and macronodular hyperplasia typically demonstrate bilateral breakthrough in contrast to normal subjects in whom there should be no visualization while on dexamethasone suppression.

  10. The diagnosis and treatment analysis for primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the adrenal gland:2 cases report and literature review%肾上腺原始神经外胚层肿瘤二例诊治分析并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴再军; 付海英

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnosis and treatment for primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the adrenal gland.Methods The clinical data of 2 patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the adrenal gland were retrospectively analyzed.Literatures about diagnosis and treatment of primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising from the adrenal gland were also reviewed.Results B type ultrasonography and computer tomography scans showed a cystic and solid soft tissue masses about 3 cm (patient 1) and 15 cm (patient 2) in maximum diameter with rough border.Surgeries were performed successfully in 2 patients.The diagnosis of primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising from the adrenal gland was confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry.During follow up,evidences of tumor recurrence were not found in the first patient.However,the second patient had diffuse retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis 3 months after surgery.Then,the patient died 6 months after surgery.Conclusion The primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the adrenal gland is extremely rare with highly malignant and poor prognosis.Its diagnosis is based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry.Multimodal therapeutic regimens including surgery,combination with chemotherapy and radiotherapy were recommended.%目的 探讨国内外肾上腺原始神经外胚层肿瘤(PNET)的诊断和治疗.方法 回顾性分析桐乡市中医医院诊治的2例肾上腺PNET患者的临床资料,并结合相关国内外文献探讨其诊断和治疗方法.结果 B超、CT检查示两例患者肾上腺区边界不清的囊实性软组织肿块,最大直径分别约3 cm和15 cm.2例患者均行手术治疗.术后病理及免疫组化确诊为肾上腺PNET.患者1尚无肿瘤复发证据.患者2随访3个月后发现腹膜后广泛淋巴结转移.6个月后死亡.结论 肾上腺PNET临床罕见,恶性程度高且预后不良,确诊主要依靠病理和免疫组化,治疗提倡多手段综合治疗.

  11. Concomitant testicular seminoma and ectopic adrenal tissue of the cord in a 45-year-old male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Michael S; Itam, Sarah; Nasir, Nyla; Weerasinghe, Suboda M; Irwin, Paul P; Maddineni, Satish B

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant adrenal tissue near the adrenal gland is common, but the finding of ectopic adrenal tissue in structures around the spermatic cord and testis is rare. We describe a case of concomitant seminoma and ectopic adrenal tissue of the spermatic cord occurring in an adult patient who had undergone orchidopexy as a child.

  12. Bilateral adrenal [corrected] nodules due to histoplasmosis in an elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Flávio Pedreira de Freitas de; Curiati, José Antônio Esper; Mauad, Thaís; Incerti, Milena Mendes; Jacob Filho, Wilson

    2007-02-01

    We report a case history of an 84-year-old elderly male patient that presented with a clinical picture suggestive of adrenal failure and bilateral adrenal nodules detected by abdominal computed tomography. A fine needle-guided biopsy was inconclusive for achieving a final diagnosis. The patient died due to septic shock and the autopsy disclosed histoplasmosis with extensive bilateral necrosis of the adrenal glands. Although the adrenal involvement in chronic disseminated histoplasmosis has been described, there have been few reports of the infection being associated with adrenal insufficiency.

  13. Arterial supply to the thyroid gland and the relationship between the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the inferior thyroid artery in human fetal cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgüner, G; Sulak, O

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the arterial supply to the thyroid gland and the relationship between the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) in fetal cadavers using anatomical dissection. The anterior necks of 200 fetuses were dissected. The origins of the superior thyroid artery (STA) and the ITA and location of the ITA in relation to the entrance of the thyroid lobe were examined. The relationship between the ITA and the RLN was determined. The origins of the STA were classified as: external carotid artery, common carotid artery (CCA), and the thyrolingual trunk. The origins of the ITA were the thyrocervical trunk and the CCA. The ITA was absent on the left side in two cases. The relationship of the RLN to the ITA fell into seven different types. Type 1: the RLN lay posterior to the artery; right (42.5%), left (65%). Type 2: the RLN lay anterior to the artery; right (40.5%), left (22.5%). Type 3: the RLN lay parallel to the artery; right (11.5%), left (7%). Type 4: the RLN lay between the two branches of the artery; right (1%), left (3.5%). Type 5: The extralaryngeal branch of the RLN was detected before it crossed the ITA; right (4.5%), left (0%). Type 6: the ITA lay between the two branches of the RLN; right (0%), left (0.5%). Type 7: the branches of the RLN lay among the branches of the ITA; right (0%), left (0.5%). The results from this study would be useful in future thyroid surgeries. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. MRI study of normal pituitary gland in children and adolescents for adrenal gland: Its effect on MPR qnality%正常儿童垂体MIR测量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉艳; 于台飞; 李桂梅; 杨金永; 时启红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To measure the volume and size of pituitary glands in healthy children and provide database for researching on a variety of diseases associated with alteration of pituitary structure. Methods Ninety-nine participator children were scanned by MRI using T1 weighted three-dimensional magnetization fast gradient recalled echo sequence. The volume and size of pituitary were measured using post-processing images by MIP and Reformat. The difference among three groups of same sexualities and different ages were compared by one-way ANOVA; difference between male and female were analyzed by the two-sample t-test, and the difference among measurements of the types of pituitary glands were analyzed by Chi-square test. Results The volume of pituitary among different ages has difference significance in male and female ( P <0. 05). The typing was more bigger than another ( P <0. 05). Conclusion With higher solution MRI and 3D volumetric analytic software, volume and size of pituitary glands were accurately measured so as to provide the basic data for research of the Pituitary.%目的 测量正常儿童垂体体积及各径线的值,为各种导致垂体结构改变疾病的临床诊断和科学研究提供基础数据.方法 对99例自愿者儿童依次采用MRI三维快速扰相梯度回波T1 (3D T1 WI FSPGR)序列进行扫描,垂体的体积及各方向径线测量使用MIP和Reformat处理软件的图像.相同性别不同年龄组的比较采用方差分析,不同性别相同组别的比较采用独立样本t检验分析,垂体分型数据采用卡方分析.结果 垂体体积在相同性别不同年龄组间存在显著性差异(P<0.05);不同性别相同年龄组间分型有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论 采用高分辨率MRI获得正常人儿童不同年龄段的垂体体积及多方向径线数据,为进一步研究垂体相关疾病提供了基础性数据.

  15. Primary adrenal lymphoma with paraneoplastic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Dasararaju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The adrenal gland is a common site for neoplastic diseases and primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL is a rare tumor with around 120 cases reported so far. Case Report: We present a rare case of 76-year-old male who presented with headache, confusion, inappropriate body movements and abdominal pain. Adrenal biopsy revealed PAL and he has had an excellent neurologic outcome to date with chemotherapy and involved field radiation. Conclusion: The majority of cases of PAL are B cell lymphomas with diffuse large cell in 70% of cases. Clinical symptoms are variable and patients may present with abdominal pain, fever, anorexia, weight loss, fatigue or symptoms of adrenal insufficiency. Therapeutic modalities for PAL include surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy and corticosteroid replacement. With this case report, we hope to raise awareness about this rare disease and to include lymphoma in the differential of adrenal masses.

  16. Cystic Pheochromocytoma Presenting as Adrenal Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulsalam, Mohammed Shafi; Satish, Priyanka; Janakiraman, Raghunath Keddy; Singh, Shivshankar

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are usually solid tumours. But it can present as cystic lesions in the adrenal gland. Cystic lesions in adrenal gland with hypertension needs attention to rule out pheochromocytoma. If ignored, it may lead to hypertensive emergency, multisystem crisis and death. Early diagnosis with biochemistry, Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of abdomen, proper functional imaging like Meta Iodo Benzyl Guanidine (MIBG) scan is essential. Proper preoperative preparation is important to prevent hypertensive crisis during and after surgery. We are reporting a case of cystic pheochromocytoma in a young male. PMID:28050427

  17. 脂多糖刺激对断奶仔猪下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺轴PPARγ表达的影响%Effects of Lipopolysaccharide Challenge on PPARγ Expression in Hypothalamus Pituitary Gland Adrenal Gland Axis of Weanling Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉兰; 石君霞; 鲁晶; 古殿超; 朱惠玲; 侯永清; 丁斌鹰

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of lipopolysaccharide(LPS) on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-y (PPARy) expression in the hypothalamus pituitary gland adrenal gland(HPA) axis of weanling pigs. The pigs in the treatment group were injected intraperitoneally with LPS, whereas pigs in the control group were injected with sterile saline. Blood samples were collected at 1.5 and 3 h post-challenge. Following blood collection at 3 h, the pigs were slaughtered. The results showed that, at 1.5 h, LPS reduced neutrophil number and proportion (P < 0.05). At 3 h, LPS reduced white blood cell, lymphocyte and neutrophil (P < 0.05). Tumour necrosis factor-α and cortisol were increased significantly 1.5 and 3 h after LPS challenge (P < 0.01), adrenal cortical hormone was increased significantly 1.5 h after LPS challenge (P < 0.05), and adrenocorticotropic hormone was increased significantly (P < 0.05) 3 h after LPS challenge. LPS challenge increased PPARγ-positive cell percentage in the hypothalamus, adenohypophysis, adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla (P < 0.05). These results indicate that LPS challenge induces acute immunological stress in Pigs, and actives HPA axis and induces PPARy expression of HPA axis.%研究脂多糖(LPS)对断奶仔猪下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺(HPA)轴过氧化物酶体增殖物活化受体γ(PPARγ)表达的影响.对照组注射生理盐水,试验组注射LPS.注射后1.5 h和3 h采血,3 h采血后屠宰.结果表明:LPS刺激后1.5 h,中性粒细胞含量及其比例显著下降(P<0.05);LPS刺激后3 h,白细胞、淋巴细胞、中性粒细胞含量显著下降(P<0.05).LPS刺激后1.5 h,血浆肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)-a、皮质醇和促肾上腺皮质激素释放素激素(CRH)含量显著上升(P<0.05);LPS刺激后3 h,血浆TNF-a、皮质醇和促肾上腺皮质激素(ACTH)含量显著上升(P<0.05);LPS刺激导致下丘脑、腺垂体、肾上腺皮质和髓质中PPARγ阳性细胞百分率显著升高(P<0.05).这

  18. 神经母细胞瘤及胚胎肾上腺组织端粒酶基因表达的研究%Studies on telomerase gene expression in neuroblastoma and fetal adrenal tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王焕民; 张金哲; 周春菊; 祝秀丹; 何乐健; 李家驹

    2001-01-01

    目的观察神经母细胞瘤和胚胎肾上腺组织中端粒酶基因(hTR/hTRT)的表达,以及神经母细胞瘤细胞在药物诱导分化时端粒酶基因表达的变化,探讨端粒酶在神经母细胞瘤形成和发展中的作用。方法体外转录法制备生物素标记的hTR、hTRT cRNA探针。神经母细胞瘤存档石蜡标本20例,2~5个月胎儿肾上腺组织石蜡标本12例。应用原位杂交组织化学(ISHH)方法检测hTR及hTRT表达。用维甲酸类似物R9158诱导人神经母细胞瘤细胞系SH-SY-5Y及SK-N-SH,细胞涂片经ISHH检测hTR表达。结果20例神经母细胞瘤中hTR 19例(95.0%)阳性;hTRT18例(90.0%)阳性。各月龄胎儿肾上腺组织均有hTR及hTRT表达,神经嵴细胞和继发皮质细胞内信号强于原发皮质细胞。神经嵴细胞形态极似神经母细胞瘤细胞。维甲酸敏感细胞SH-SY-5Y在R9158作用5 d后出现明显形态学变化,表达hTR的细胞明显减少。维甲酸耐受细胞SK-N-SH无明显变化。结论端粒酶基因在神经母细胞瘤和胚胎肾上腺组织中高表达。神经母细胞瘤细胞在药物诱导下分化时端粒酶基因hTR表达明显降低。端粒酶在神经母细胞瘤形成和发展中有重要作用。%Objective To observe telomerase gene (hTR and hTRT) expression in neuroblastoma (NB) and fetal adrenal tissues, and its alterations during NB cell differentiation induced by retinoic acid anologues (R9158), so as to discuss the role of relomerase in the formation and development of neuroblastoma. Methods The tumor samples came from paraffin-embedded archival materials of 20 cases of NB. 3specimens of fetal adrenal tissue were obtained from fetus of 2,3,4,5 month gestation each. The plasmids,pGRN83-hTR and pBS-hTRT, containing full-length hTR and hTRT complementary DNA respectively,were used as template to generate biotin labeled probes through transcription in vitro. The 5μm paraffinembedded tissue sections underwent in situ

  19. [Adrenal mass and adrenal insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Albaladejo, M; García López, B; Serrano Corredor, S; Alguacil García, G

    1996-12-01

    Primary adrenal insufficiency is a non frequent disease, that is declared in young adults and in the most of the cases is produced from an autoimmune mechanism or a tuberculous disease. The incidence of these forms in the different geographic areas is dependent of degree of irradication of the tuberculosis. We report the case of a patient with latent chronic adrenal insufficiency of tuberculous origin who was affected for an addisonian crisis during an intercurrent infectious disease, which permitted the diagnosis of the addisonian crisis, and Mal of Pott was moreover detected. Evolution with corticosteroid and specific treatment was very favorable.

  20. [Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: clinical aspects and neonatal screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stikkelbroeck, M.M.L.; Otten, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a disorder of adrenal steroid synthesis. In 95% of CAH cases, it is caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency, leading to cortisol deficiency and (in most cases) aldosterone deficiency. The compensatory increase in ACTH secretion by the pituitary gland leads to stim

  1. [Lipid peroxidation in the adrenal cortex during exhausting stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, N A; Antsulevich, S N; Naumov, A V; Vinogradov, V V

    1990-05-01

    Under prolonged stress which is connected with exhaustion of functional resources of adrenal cortex the activation of lipid peroxidation processes in this gland was found. It is possible that the reason for such lipid peroxidation activation is the decrease in the content of adrenal cortex ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol.

  2. The agonistic adrenal: melatonin elicits female aggression via regulation of adrenal androgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Nikki M; Rudolph, Lauren M; Sengelaub, Dale R; Demas, Gregory E

    2015-11-22

    Classic findings have demonstrated an important role for sex steroids as regulators of aggression, but this relationship is lacking within some environmental contexts. In mammals and birds, the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a non-gonadal precursor of biologically active steroids, has been linked to aggression. Although females, like males, use aggression when competing for limited resources, the mechanisms underlying female aggression remain understudied. Here, we propose a previously undescribed endocrine mechanism regulating female aggression via direct action of the pineal hormone melatonin on adrenal androgens. We examined this in a solitary hamster species, Phodopus sungorus, in which both sexes are highly territorial across the seasons, and display increased aggression concomitant with decreased serum levels of sex steroids in short 'winter-like' days. Short- but not long-day females had increased adrenal DHEA responsiveness co-occurring with morphological changes in the adrenal gland. Further, serum DHEA and total adrenal DHEA content were elevated in short days. Lastly, melatonin increased DHEA and aggression and stimulated DHEA release from cultured adrenals. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that DHEA is a key peripheral regulator of aggression and that melatonin coordinates a 'seasonal switch' from gonadal to adrenal regulation of aggression by direct action on the adrenal glands.

  3. Transposition of pedicled adrenal gland for the treatment of adrenocortical and medullary hyperplasia%带蒂肾上腺背部皮下移位术治疗肾上腺皮髓质增生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆军; 赵高贤; 徐培元; 白悦心; 张卫星; 魏金星

    2009-01-01

    DA和VMA、血钾和Ald均恢复正常;4例血压、17-OH和17-KS仍偏高,再行对侧肾上腺移位或切除后,恢复正常. 结论 带蒂肾上腺背部皮下移位术是治疗肾上腺皮髓质增生的有效方法.%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of pedicled adrenal transposition for the treatment of adrenocortical and medullary hyperplasia, Methods Twenty cases of adrenal hyperpla-sia (6 men and 14 women; mean age,36 years ) had history of hypertension from 0.5 to 5 years. Of all cases, 15 had centripetal obesity and purple striae, 2 had weakness and polyuria, 3 had durative hypertension. Serum potassium and aldosterone were increased in 4 and 3 cases, respectively. Urinary 17-OH and 17-KS were increased in 15 cases. Epinepgrine, norepinephrine and dopamine increased in 3 cases, VMA increased in 4 cases. CT scan and MRI revealed adrenal diffuse enlargement with in-creased thickness or nodules in 18 and 3 cases, respectively, 131I-MIBG scan showed positive in 3 ca-ses. Preoperative diagnoses were Cushing's syndrome in 11 cases, hyperaldosteronism in 2 cases, pheochromocytoma in 1 case, adrenomedullary hyperplasia in 2 cases, Cushing's syndrome-cate-cholamine syndrome in 4 cases. All cases were treated with transposition of pedicled adrenal gland into the subcutaneous tissues. Results All operations were successful. The average operation time was 120 min, the average blood loss was 40 ml and the average hospital stay was 10 d. No obvious surgical complications occurred. Pathological studies of all the cases revealed the coexistence of adrenocortical and medullary hyperplasia. Seventeen cases were followed up for 0.5-8 years. Thirteen cases had no symptom and normal biochemical results. Four cases still had hypertension and abnormal biochemical results. They were recovered after adrenal operation of the ther side. Conclusion Transposition of pedicled adrenal gland could be an available option to treat patients with adrenocortical and medullary

  4. Giant adrenal cyst - a case report and classification; Cisto gigante da adrenal - relato de caso e classificacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitaki, Sergio Augusto Munhoz; Louveira, Maria Helena [Clinica Radiologica Pitaki, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Alphasonic; Rorato, Luciana; Antonik, Gustavo; Andrade, Andre Luis Lugnani de; Teixeira, Ana Maria Gonzaga [Faculdade Evangelica de Medicina do Parana (FEMPAR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    1999-12-01

    Cystic lesions of the adrenal gland are relatively rare, but they must be considering in the differential diagnosis of abdominal masses. The authors report a case of a giant adrenal cyst assessed by ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and outline their features and classification. (author)

  5. THE POSSIBILITIES TO DETERMINE FETAL MATURITY BY ULTRASOUND DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Lysenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extragenital disorders in a pregnant patient, as well as complications of pregnancy often necessitate preterm delivery, when the state of the fetus is one of the criteria determining terms and type of delivery. In connection with this, the physician faces the challenge of accurate assessment of fetal maturity. Aim: To identify ultrasound signs of functional fetal maturity. Materials and methods: 120 pregnant patients were assessed at 35 to 40 weeks of gestation. Beyond a standard fetometry, we assessed interhemispheric cerebellar size, the biggest size of the Beclard’s nucleus, the ratio of cortical to medullar substance of fetal adrenal glands (adrenal coefficient, the ration between ultrasound density of lungs, liver and ultrasound density of fetal urine (histogram analysis. Results: Up to 36 weeks of gestation, the interhemispheric cerebellar size was below 52 mm, starting from 37 weeks, above 53 mm and from week 40 on, above 58 mm. All newborns, which had their interhemispheric cerebellar size ≥ 53 mm antenatally, were assessed as being mature at birth (p < 0.05. All newborns, which had Beclard’s nucleus size ≥ 5 mm antenatally, were assessed as being mature at birth (p < 0.05. At 35–35.6 weeks of gestation, mean adrenal coefficients in all cases exceeded 1. Starting with full 36 weeks of gestation onwards, this parameter decreased to 0.94 and showed a steady decrease thereafter. There were no signs of functional immaturity or respiratory distress among newborns with antenatal adrenal coefficient of ≤ 0.99 (p < 0.05. The ratio between ultrasound density of lungs to ultrasound density of bladder contents increases up to 37 weeks of gestation and remains stable up to 40 weeks. The ratio of liver density to the same substrate is non-significantly lower due to lower ultrasound density of the liver itself. The ratio of ultrasound density of the lung to that of the liver up to 36 weeks was at least 1.41 and decreased

  6. Adrenal Lymphangioma Masquerading as a Catecholamine Producing Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Hodish

    2015-01-01

    with an adrenal cystic lesion and biochemical testing concerning for pheochromocytoma. The pertinent diagnostic and imaging features of adrenal lymphangiomas are reviewed. Methods. We describe a 59-year-old patient who presented with hyperhidrosis and a 2.2 by 2.2 cm left adrenal nodule. Biochemical evaluation revealed elevated plasma-free normetanephrine, urine normetanephrine, urine vanillylmandelic acid, and urine norepinephrine levels. Elevated plasma norepinephrine levels were not suppressed appropriately with clonidine administration. Results. Given persistent concern for pheochromocytoma, the patient underwent adrenalectomy. The final pathology was consistent with adrenal lymphangioma. Conclusions. Lymphangiomas are benign vascular lesions that can very rarely occur in the adrenal gland. Imaging findings are generally consistent with a cyst but are nonspecific. Excluding malignancy in patients presenting with adrenal cysts can be difficult. Despite its benign nature, the diagnosis of adrenal lymphangioma may ultimately require pathology.

  7. Adrenal adrenoceptors in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio ede Lucia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is a chronic clinical syndrome characterized by the reduction in left ventricular (LV function and it represents one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite considerable advances in pharmacological treatment, HF represents a severe clinical and social burden. Sympathetic outflow, characterized by increased circulating catecholamines (CAs biosynthesis and secretion, is peculiar in HF and sympatholytic treatments (as β-blockers are presently being investigated for the treatment of this disease. Adrenal gland secretes Epinephrine (80% and Norepinephrine (20% in response to acetylcholine stimulation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors on the chromaffin cell membranes. This process is regulated by adrenergic receptors (ARs: α2ARs inhibit CA release through coupling to inhibitory Gi-proteins, and βARs (mainly β2ARs stimulate CA release through coupling to stimulatory Gs-proteins. All ARs are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and GPCR kinases (GRKs regulate their signaling and function. Adrenal GRK2-mediated α2AR desensitization and downregulation are increased in HF and seem to be a fundamental regulator of CA secretion from the adrenal gland. Consequently, restoration of adrenal a2AR signaling through the inhibition of GRK2 is a fascinating sympatholytic therapeutic strategy for chronic HF. This strategy could have several significant advantages over existing HF pharmacotherapies (antiadrenergic, such as bAR-blockers minimizing side-effects on extra-cardiac tissues and reducing the chronic activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone and endothelin systems.The role of adrenal ARs in regulation of sympathetic hyperactivity opens interesting perspectives in understanding pathophysiology of HF and identifying new potential therapeutic targets.

  8. Bases fisiológicas para una interacción entre las células cromafines y las endoteliales de la glándula adrenal Physiological bases for an interaction between chromaffin and endothelial cells from the adrenal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO LUXORO

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo tratamos de investigar las posibles interacciones entre las células endoteliales de la glándula adrenal y aquellas sustancias relacionadas con la secreción de las células cromafines. Para lo anterior, estudiamos el efecto de acetilcolina (ACh, o de catecolaminas (CA tanto en el nivel de Ca2+ citoplasmático ([Ca2+]i, como en el potencial de membrana de las células endoteliales. Nuestros resultados muestran que tanto la ACh como la nicotina, pero no la muscarina, son capaces de inducir un aumento del [Ca2+]i y una despolarización de la membrana plasmática de las células endoteliales. El antagonista nicotínico, hexametonium, bloquea tanto el efecto de la ACh como de la nicotina lo que sugiere la presencia de receptores nicotínicos. Por otra parte, las CA (tanto adrenalina como noradrenalina o agonistas a1-adrenérgicos también producen un aumento del [Ca2+]i en las células endoteliales aunque no despolarización evidente. En este caso, el aumento es bifásico siendo la primera fase de un pico rápido e independiente del Ca2+ extracelular en tanto que la segunda se presenta con oscilaciones y depende tanto de que los canales de Ca2+ no estén bloqueados como de la presencia de ese ión en el medio externo. Dado que se ha demostrado que el aumento del [Ca2+]i en las células endoteliales desencadena la secreción de sustancias vasodilatadoras (prostaciclina y óxido nítrico, proponemos que éste sería un mecanismo compensatorio del sistema para contrarestar el enorme efecto vasoconstrictor de las CA secretadas por las células cromafinesIn this work we investigated the possible interactions between the endothelial cells from the adrenal gland and the substances related with the secretion from the chromaffin cells. In order to do so, we studied the effect of acetyl-choline (ACh or of catecholamines (CA on the level of the membrane potential and the cytoplasmic concentration of free calcium ([Ca2+]i in the endothelial

  9. [Isolated bilateral adrenal metastasis from renal cancer. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabii, R; Joual, A; Naciri, K; Guessous, H; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1999-01-01

    The authors report an uncommon case of bilateral synchronous adrenal gland metastases from left renal cell carcinoma. The diagnosis was established by abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography. The surgical approach initially consisted of left radical nephrectomy and ipsilateral adrenalectomy. Histologically, the tumor of the left adrenal gland was identical to the left renal cell carcinoma. Subsequent contralateral adrenalectomy showed an adrenal metastasis identical to the left renal cell carcinoma. Patient follow-up was good with no recurrence of the disease after one year. This is an uncommon case for renal cancer. The treatment and prognosis are discussed.

  10. Imaging features of benign adrenal cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanal, Hatice Tuba [Department of Radiology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: tubasanal@yahoo.com; Kocaoglu, Murat [Department of Radiology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara (Turkey); Yildirim, Duzgun [Department of Radiology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara (Turkey); Bulakbasi, Nail [Department of Radiology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara (Turkey); Guvenc, Inanc [Department of Radiology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara (Turkey); Tayfun, Cem [Department of Radiology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara (Turkey); Ucoz, Taner [Department of Radiology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-12-15

    Benign adrenal gland cysts (BACs) are rare lesions with a variable histological spectrum and may mimic not only each other but also malignant ones. We aimed to review imaging features of BACs which can be helpful in distinguishing each entity and determining the subsequent appropriate management.

  11. Idiopathic Adrenal Hematoma Masquerading as Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Sasaki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We report herein a case of idiopathic adrenal hematoma. A 59-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital for evaluation of a 7.0 cm mass in the right upper abdominal cavity. The tumor was suspected to originate from either the posterior segment of the liver or the right adrenal gland. His chief complaint was weight loss of 8 kg over the previous 6 months. He had no past medical history and took no medications, including no anticoagulants. Laboratory data were almost normal except for a slight elevation of PIVKA-II. The origin of the tumor was found to be the adrenal gland, as angiography revealed the blood supply to the mass to derive from the right superior and inferior adrenal arteries. A fine needle biopsy of the lesion was unable to confirm the diagnosis. Open right adrenalectomy was performed. The histopathological findings of the surgical specimen revealed a hematoma with normal adrenal tissue. In the absence of any obvious etiology, the diagnosis was idiopathic adrenal hematoma.

  12. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Speiser, Phyllis W

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia associated with deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase is the most common inborn error in adrenal function and the most common cause of adrenal insufficiency in the pediatric age group...

  13. Adrenal imaging with technetium-99m-labelled low density lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacsohn, J.L.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Strauss, H.W.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Moore, T.J.

    1986-04-01

    Evaluation of adrenal cortical function by external imaging is currently accomplished by injection of radiolabelled analogs of cholesterol. Although the adrenals do utilized exogenous cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis, the cholesterol is delivered to the glands not as free cholesterol but through the uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL), which are subsequently degraded within the adrenal cortical cells to provide cholesterol. Thus, we sought to assess the use of /sup 99m/Tc-labelled LDL injected into rabbits to obtain external images of the adrenal glands. Adrenal images of all nine rabbits tested were obtained within 18 to 21 hours after injection of /sup 99m/Tc-LDL. Seven of the rabbits were subjected to adrenal cortical suppression with dexamethasone and then all nine rabbits were imaged a second time. In the untreated animals, visualization of the adrenal glands was accompanied by normal serum cortisol concentrations and accumulation of radiolabel in the adrenals, whereas in the dexamethasone-treated animals, lack of visualization of the adrenal glands was correlated with low serum cortisols, and greatly decreased accumulation of the radionuclide in the adrenals. These findings demonstrate for the first time that LDL, when labelled with /sup 99m/Tc, can be used to evaluate adrenal cortical function by external imaging.

  14. Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenita Presenting as Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Flint

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a patient with genetically confirmed adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC whose presentation and laboratory abnormalities were consistent with the more common condition, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. The patient presented with failure to thrive and salt wasting. General appearance showed marked hyperpigmentation and normal male genitalia. He displayed mildly elevated 17-hydroxyprogesterone and markedly elevated 11-deoxycortisol levels at baseline and with ACTH stimulation testing. Results were consistent with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency. He required glucocorticoids and high doses of mineralocorticoids. The marked elevation in 11-deoxycortisol directed our clinical reasoning away from a hypoplastic condition and towards a hyperplasic adrenal condition. Sequencing of the DAX1 gene (named for dosage-sensitive sex reversal (DSS locus and the AHC locus on the X chromosome revealed a missense mutation. A review of the literature revealed that elevated 11-deoxycortisol levels have been noted in kindreds with DAX1 mutations, but only when measured very early in life. A mouse model has recently been described that displays elevated 11-deoxycorticosterone levels and evidence for hyperplasia of the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland. We conclude that DAX1 testing may be considered in patients with laboratory evidence of 11β-hydroxylase deficiency, especially in those with severe salt wasting.

  15. Adrenal insufficiency and adrenal replacement therapy. Current status in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulinas, Anna; Casanueva, Felipe; Goñi, Fernando; Monereo, Susana; Moreno, Basilio; Picó, Antonio; Puig-Domingo, Manel; Salvador, Javier; Tinahones, Francisco J; Webb, Susan M

    2013-03-01

    Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a rare endocrine disease, associated to increased mortality if left untreated. It can be due to a primary failure of the adrenal glands (primary AI) or malfunctioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) (secondary AI). The lack of data on incidence/prevalence of adrenal insufficiency in Spain complicates any evaluation of the magnitude of the problem in our country. Initial symptoms are non-specific, so often there is a delay in diagnosis. Current therapy with available glucocorticoids is associated with decreased quality of life in patients with treated AI, as well as with increased mortality and morbidity, probably related to both over-treatment and lack of hydrocortisone, associated with non-physiological peaks and troughs of the drug over the 24 hours. The availability of a new drug with a modified dual release (immediate and retarded), that requires one only daily dose, improves and simplifies the treatment, increases compliance as well as quality of life, morbidity and possibly mortality. This revision deals with the knowledge on the situation both globally and in Spain, prior to the availability of this new drug.

  16. Rifampicin induced adrenal crisis in an uncommon setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Animesh; Suri, J. C.; Gupta, Mansi

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal crisis occurs when there is decreased secretions of steroid hormones (mainly cortisol) from the adrenal glands due to varied reasons. It may arise due to a primary adrenal condition or due to decreased hormonal signals from the pituitary secondary to a hypofunctioning pituitary. Hypopituitarism may result due to direct causes like trauma, tumour, infection or it may be due to some vascular insult as seen in Sheehan syndrome. We report an unusual presentation of Sheehan syndrome in the form of life-threatening adrenal crisis precipitated by the usage of rifampicin. PMID:24339502

  17. Rifampicin induced adrenal crisis in an uncommon setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Ray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal crisis occurs when there is decreased secretions of steroid hormones (mainly cortisol from the adrenal glands due to varied reasons. It may arise due to a primary adrenal condition or due to decreased hormonal signals from the pituitary secondary to a hypofunctioning pituitary. Hypopituitarism may result due to direct causes like trauma, tumour, infection or it may be due to some vascular insult as seen in Sheehan syndrome. We report an unusual presentation of Sheehan syndrome in the form of life-threatening adrenal crisis precipitated by the usage of rifampicin.

  18. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A disrupts adrenal steroidogenesis in adult mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medwid, Samantha; Guan, Haiyan; Yang, Kaiping

    2016-04-01

    The present study sought to determine if prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters adrenal steroidogenesis in adult offspring. Pregnant mice were exposed to BPA (25mg BPA/kg food pellet) via diet from day 7 to the end of pregnancy. At eight weeks of age, offsprings were sacrificed, blood samples and adrenal glands were collected for hormone assays and western blot analysis, respectively. We found that: (1) BPA increased adrenal gland weight in both males and females; (2) although BPA elevated plasma corticosterone levels in both sexes, it stimulated the expression of StAR and cyp11A1, the two rate-limiting factors in the steroidogenic pathway, only in female adrenal glands; and interestingly (3) BPA did not alter plasma ACTH levels or adrenal expression of the key steroidogenic transcription factor SF-1 in either sex. Taken together, the present study provides novel insights into the long-term consequences of developmental BPA exposure on adrenal steroidogenesis.

  19. [Primary adrenal insufficiency in adults: 150 years after Addison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Regina do Carmo; Castro, Margaret de; Kater, Claudio E; Cunha, Andréa Aparecida; Moraes, Andréia M de; Alvarenga, Daniela B de; Moreira, Ayrton C; Elias, Lucila L K

    2004-10-01

    Thomas Addison first described, 150 years ago, a clinical syndrome characterized by salt-wasting and skin hyperpigmentation, associated with a destruction of the adrenal gland. Even today, over a century after Addison's report, primary adrenal insufficiency can present as a life-threatening condition, since it frequently goes unrecognized in its early stages. In the 1850s, tuberculous adrenalitis was present in the majority of patients, but nowadays, autoimmune Addison's disease is the most common cause of primary adrenal insufficiency. In the present report, we show the prevalence of different etiologies, clinical manifestations and laboratorial findings, including the adrenal cortex autoantibody, and 21-hydroxylase antibody in a Brazilian series of patients with primary adrenal insufficiency followed at Divisão de Endocrinologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP) and at Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto-USP (FMRP-USP).

  20. Expression of adrenomedullin 2/intermedin in human adrenal tumors and attached non-neoplastic adrenal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Ryo; Satoh, Fumitoshi; Murakami, Osamu; Hirose, Takuo; Totsune, Kazuhito; Imai, Yutaka; Arai, Yoichi; Suzuki, Takashi; Sasano, Hironobu; Ito, Sadayoshi; Takahashi, Kazuhiro

    2008-07-01

    Adrenomedullin 2/intermedin (AM2/IMD) is a new member of calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide family. AM is expressed in various tumors including adrenocortical tumors and modulates tumor growth. The AM2/IMD expression has not been studied, however, in adrenal tumors. The expression of AM2/IMD and AM was therefore studied in human adrenal tumors and attached non-neoplastic adrenal tissues by immunocytochemistry (ICC). Immunoreactive (IR)-AM2/IMD was measured by RIA. Furthermore, the expression of AM2/IMD and its receptor components, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), and receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) 1, 2, and 3 mRNA in these tissues was studied by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). ICC showed that AM2/IMD and AM immunoreactivities were localized in adrenocortical tumors and pheochromocytomas. AM2/IMD and AM immunoreactivities were detected in medulla of attached non-neoplastic tissues, while the degree of immunoreactivity for AM2/IMD and AM in cortices of attached adrenals was relatively weak or undetectable. RIA detected IR-AM2/IMD in adrenal tumors (0.414+/-0.12 to 0.786+/-0.27 pmol/g wet weight, mean+/-S.E.M.) and attached adrenal tissues (0.397+/-0.052 pmol/g wet weight). Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography showed one broad peak eluted in the similar position to synthetic AM2/IMD with several minor peaks. RT-PCR showed expression of AM2/IMD, CRLR, and RAMP1, RAMP2, and RAMP3 mRNA in tissues of adrenal tumors and attached adrenal glands. In conclusion, AM2/IMD is expressed in human adrenal tumors and attached non-neoplastic adrenal tissues and may play (patho-)physiological roles in normal and neoplastic adrenals as an autocrine/paracrine regulator.

  1. Contralateral adrenal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma with tumor thrombus in the adrenal vein: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Piotrowicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 64-year-old woman presented with contralateral right adrenal metastasis with adrenal vein thrombus, which was diagnosed many years after left nephrectomy with adrenalectomy due to renal cell cancer. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy with adrenal vein tumor thrombectomy for treatment. The pathologic examination confi rmed metastatic clear cell carcinoma. The remote but existing risk of developing contralateral adrenal metastasis (CAM after primary radical nephrectomy supports the idea of sparing the adrenal gland in suitable patients who undergo radical nephrectomy. Contralateral adrenal metastasis from RCC is a rare fi nding with the potential benefi t of cure after resection. Care must be taken in preoperative diagnostics, as this metastasis is capable of causing inferior vena cava tumor thrombus via the suprarenal venous route. According to our knowledge, our case is the second similar entity described in literature so far.

  2. Bilateral adrenal histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent man Histoplasmose adrenal bilateral em um homem imunocompetente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico Lopes Benevides

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a fungal disease that is endemic in Brazil. It may present as chronic pulmonary infection or in disseminated form. Disseminated histoplasmosis frequently affects the adrenal gland; however, unilateral involvement in immunosuppressed patients is the usual presentation. We report a case of an elderly immunocompetent male with history of weight loss, fever and bilateral adrenal mass who was successfully treated with itraconazole.Histoplasmose é uma doença fúngica endêmica no Brasil que pode se apresentar como infecção pulmonar crônica ou na forma disseminada. A histoplasmose disseminada freqüentemente acomete a glândula adrenal; entretanto, ocorre mais em pacientes imunossuprimidos e de forma unilateral. Relatamos um caso de um homem idoso imunocompetente com história de perda de peso, febre e massa adrenal bilateral que foi tratada com itraconazol, com sucesso.

  3. Localization of aldosterone-producing adenoma on computed tomography. A comparative study with adrenal scintigraphy and plasma aldosterone concentration in the adrenal or renal vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruyama, K.; Shigetomi, S.; Yamazaki, M.; Toki, T.; Yaginuma, K.; Fukuchi, S. (Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1982-09-01

    An abdominal CT scan was performed on six patients with primary aldosteronism, one with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism and one with glucocorticoid responsive hyperaldosteronism; in an attempt to evaluate the utility of this noninvasive procedure. Diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism was made by demonstrating the elevated plasma aldosterone concentration and aldosterone secretion rate, normal excretion rate of urinary 17-OHCS and 17-KS, and low plasma renin activity. The CT scan correctly predicted unilateral adrenal adenoma in all the patients with primary aldosteronism of which the findings were identical to those demonstrated by surgery. The diameter of these tumors ranged from 10 x 7 x 6 to 19 x 17 x 14 mm. Also the CT scan in idiopathic hyperaldosteronism and glucocorticoid responsive hyperaldosteronism showed bilateral adrenal hyperplasia and bilateral normal adrenal glands, respectively. The pathological findings in these two cases disclosed the adrenal hyperplasia of zona glomerulosa and adrenal hyperplasia of zona subglomerulosa accompanied by a normal thickness of the adrenal gland, respectively. The precision of the CT scan, adrenal scintigraphy and determination of plasma aldosterone in the adrenal or renal veins were almost equal to the diagnosis of the localization of adrenal adenoma. It is concluded that the CT scan is a noninvasive and most useful method for the localization of aldosterone-producing adenoma and helpful in distinguishing adrenal adenoma from adrenal hyperplasia.

  4. Adrenal Steroidogenesis and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcu, Adina F.; Auchus, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Adrenal steroidogenesis is a dynamic process, reliant on de novo synthesis from cholesterol, under the stimulation of ACTH and other regulators. The syntheses of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens occur in separate adrenal cortical zones, each expressing specific enzymes. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) encompasses a group of autosomal recessive enzymatic defects in cortisol biosynthesis. 21-hydroxylase (21OHD) deficiency accounts for over 90% of CAH cases and when milder or nonclassic forms are included, 21OHD is one of the most common genetic diseases. This review discusses in detail the epidemiology, genetics, diagnostic, clinical aspects and management of 21OHD. PMID:26038201

  5. Development of the adrenal axis in the neonatal rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, Ronnie [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Plasma corticosterone and ACTH concentrations were determined in neonatal rats 1, 7, 14, and 21 days old, under a variety of experimental conditions, to obtain more information on the postnatal development of the rat hypothalamo-adrenal (HHA) axis. The results indicate that: (1) there is a diminution followed by an increase in responsiveness of the adrenal gland, but the pituitary response to direct hormonal stimulation is unchanged during the first three postnatal weeks; (2) continued stimulation of the adrenal by ACTH or of the central nervous system (CNS) or hypothalamus by corticosterone is necessary during early postnatal development to allow normal maturation of the HHA axis; and (3) feedback inhibition is operative by birth, at least to a moderate degree. Taken together, the studies suggest that both the adrenal and pituitary glands are potentially functional at birth, but that the hypothalamic and CNS mediators of the stress response are not mature until at least the second or third postnatal week. (ERB)

  6. GATA transcription factors in adrenal development and tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Helka; Kiiveri, Sanne; Bielinska, Malgorzata; Rahman, Nafis; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Wilson, David B; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2007-02-01

    Of the six GATA transcription factors, GATA-4 and GATA-6 are expressed in the mouse and human adrenal with distinct developmental profiles. GATA-4 is confined to the fetal cortex, i.e. to the less differentiated proliferating cells, while GATA-6 is expressed both in the fetal and adult adrenal. In vitro, GATA-4 regulates inhibin-alpha and steroidogenic factor-1 implicated in normal adrenal function. GATA-6 probably has roles in the development and differentiation of adrenocortical cells, and in the regulation of steroidogenesis. GATA-4 expression is dramatically upregulated and GATA-6 downregulated in gonadotropin dependent mouse adrenocortical tumors. This is accompanied by the appearance of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR). In vitro, GATA-4 transactivates LHR promoter, and gonadotropins upregulate GATA-4 levels. Human adrenal tumors occasionally express GATA-4, whereas GATA-6 levels are usually lower than normal.

  7. Diminished epinephrine response to hypoglycemia despite enlarged adrenal medulla in trained rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Kjaer, M; Mikines, K J

    1990-01-01

    )]. Cold stress or sham swim training did not increase adrenal weight or volume of adrenal medulla (P greater than 0.05). To stimulate adrenal medulla secretion, rats had an insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Insulin dose needed to suppress plasma glucose below 4.0 mM was four times greater in sedentary....../day or served as controls being either sedentary freely eating (C), food restricted (FR), sham swim trained (ST), or cold stressed (CS). Adrenal glands were weighted and cross sectioned for light microscopic determination of size of the adrenal medulla. Endurance-trained compared with control rats had heavier...

  8. Lymphocytic adrenal medullitis and lymphocytic thyroiditis in a laboratory beagle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Takuya; Tomonari, Yuki; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Yamada, Naoaki; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2017-02-04

    Lymphocytic adrenal medullitis characterized by inflammation and atrophy in the medulla of the bilateral adrenal glands was observed in an 18-month-old male laboratory beagle dog. It might be that the present lymphocytic adrenal medullitis is an autoimmune-mediated disease as the histological characteristics are consistent with an autoimmune pathogenesis. However, the actual cause remains unclear as the existence of serum autoantibodies against the adrenal medulla could not be confirmed. Although this dog also contracted lymphocytic thyroiditis along with serum thyroglobulin autoantibodies, indicating that the thyroiditis occurred with an autoimmune basis; the relation between the adrenal medullitis and thyroiditis is unknown.

  9. Imaging of unilateral adrenal hemorrhages in patients after blunt abdominal trauma: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Tanrivermis Sayit

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal hemorrhage following blunt abdominal trauma is extremely rare. Most of the lesions are unilateral and right sided. Although often asymptomatic, life-threatening adrenal insufficiency may develop in the bilateral adrenal gland hemorrhage. Isolated adrenal injuries are very rare. They are often associated with other organ injuries. The mortality rates of patients range from 7% to 32%. In this report, we present the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of unilateral adrenal hemorrhages in two patients with a history of fall from a height.

  10. [Hypoplasia adrenal congenita of anencephalic type: two cases with pituitary abnormalities and review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folligan, K; Roume, J; Razavi, F; Sepaniak, S; Bouvier, R; Morel, Y; Trouillas, J

    2011-03-01

    Hypoplasia adrenal congenita is an extremely uncommon disease of early onset. This condition can be lethal in the absence of treatment. Some forms are due to the congenital adrenal hypoplasia of anencephalic type whose origin is even unknown. Here, we present two cases of congenital adrenal hypoplasia of anencephalic type with pituitary abnormalities. The two male newborns died because adrenal insufficiency in the neonatal period. The adrenal glands were hypoplastic with a histological structure of anencephalic type Immunocytochemical study of the pituitary revealed an absence of the gonadotrophs. No mutation of DAX 1 and SF-1 was found.

  11. Stage 4S Bilateral Adrenal Neuroblastoma in a Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Gupta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stage 4S bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma presenting in the neonatal period is extremely rare. A 1-day-old male with 4S bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma complicated by marked hepatomegaly managed by chemotherapy is being reported. The provisional diagnosis of neuroblastoma was made in the fetal life during the last trimester of pregnancy. Cardiomyopathy due to doxorubicin cytotoxicity developed over ensuing years, which is being treated.

  12. Addiction and the adrenal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Gavin P; Brennan, Caroline H

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence shows that the hypophyseal–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and corticosteroids are involved in the process of addiction to a variety of agents, and the adrenal cortex has a key role. In general, plasma concentrations of cortisol (or corticosterone in rats or mice) increase on drug withdrawal in a manner that suggests correlation with the behavioural and symptomatic sequelae both in man and in experimental animals. Corticosteroid levels fall back to normal values in resumption of drug intake. The possible interactions between brain corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) products and the systemic HPA, and additionally with the local CRH–POMC system in the adrenal gland itself, are complex. Nevertheless, the evidence increasingly suggests that all may be interlinked and that CRH in the brain and brain POMC products interact with the blood-borne HPA directly or indirectly. Corticosteroids themselves are known to affect mood profoundly and may themselves be addictive. Additionally, there is a heightened susceptibility for addicted subjects to relapse in conditions that are associated with change in HPA activity, such as in stress, or at different times of the day. Recent studies give compelling evidence that a significant part of the array of addictive symptoms is directly attributable to the secretory activity of the adrenal cortex and the actions of corticosteroids. Additionally, sex differences in addiction may also be attributable to adrenocortical function: in humans, males may be protected through higher secretion of DHEA (and DHEAS), and in rats, females may be more susceptible because of higher corticosterone secretion. PMID:23825159

  13. Surgical technique: Retroperitoneoscopic approach for adrenal masses in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovic, F; Undre, S; Mushtaq, I

    2014-04-01

    Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered to be the standard of care for the surgical excision of adrenal masses. The transperitoneal laparoscopic and retroperitoneoscopic approaches are described. Both are safe and as effective as open adrenalectomy, with the added benefit of the minimally invasive approach. It can be utilized for patients requiring surgery for a phaeochromocytoma, adrenal adenoma, adrenal adenocarcinoma, Cushing's syndrome, neuroblastoma, and an incidentaloma. Relative contraindications include previous surgery of the liver or kidney, large tumours (>8-10 cm in diameter) or coagulation disorders. Although the transperitoneal route is used more widely, the retroperitoneal approach provides direct access to the adrenal gland and easy visualization of the adrenal vein. It avoids also colonic mobilization, minimizes the risk of injury to hollow viscera, and the potential risk of adhesion formation. However, the reversed orientation of the kidney and hilum, combined with a significantly smaller working space, may make this approach difficult to master.

  14. [Phenotype B primitive adrenal lymphoma, diagnosed by percutaneous aspiration biopsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahami, Z; Debbagh, A; Dakir, M; Hafiani, M; Joual, A; Bennani, S; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2001-01-01

    The authors report a case of primary adrenal lymphoma in a 30-year old-female who complained of lumbar pain and was in poor general condition. Ultrasonography and CT scan revealed a heterogeneous mass with necrosis in the left adrenal gland. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B-cell origin was determined by ultrasound-guided aspiration biopsy of the adrenal mass. Taking this case and the findings in the literature into consideration, the features of this disease have been reviewed and the problem of diagnosis, treatment and prognosis have been examined.

  15. The role of impairment of adrenal mineraloglucocorticoid function in the development of infertility in varicocele patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazo, E B; Koryakin, M V; Kudryavtsev JuV; Evseev, L P; Akopyan, A S

    1989-01-01

    The study was aimed at the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of the impairment of spermatogenesis in varicocele patients. The crucial role of tension increase in the venous plexus of the spermatic cord in spermatogenesis damage in the testis on the varicocele side and absence of any effect of haemodynamic abnormalities on spermatogenesis in the complementary testis has been determined. Retrograde blood flow through the central vein of the left adrenal gland in varicocele has been evidenced by X-ray examination. The role of this phenomenon in the changes of functional activity of the adrenal gland is discussed. Results of the study of functional status of adrenal glands revealed their tendency to provide hyperactivity in synthesis of mineraloglucocorticoids. Correlation between cortisol level in peripheral blood and percentage of abnormal sperm in ejaculate was shown. This fact supported the idea about the existence of a causal interrelationship between abnormalities in the functional status of adrenal glands and development of infertility in varicocele patients.

  16. A new pathological scoring method for adrenal injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wenhong; Hui, Yuanjian; Yu, Jia; Wang, Weixing; Xu, Sheng; Chen, Chen; Xiong, Xincheng

    2014-12-01

    These studies investigated the appearance and function of adrenal glands in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and established a new histopathological score to evaluate adrenal histopathological changes. Severe acute pancreatitis relied on retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the bile-pancreatic duct. The damage of SAP was estimated by serum amylase, secretory phospholipase A2 and pancreatic histopathology. Light and electron microscopy of adrenal gland, and the levels of serum corticosterone were investigated. These results showed that the generally ascending trend of adrenal pathological score was inversely proportional to the generally descending trend of serum corticosterone levels, but parallel with the changes of pancreatic histopathology. Herein, the new adrenal histopathological score was effective in the evaluation of adrenal injury following SAP. It may indirectly reflect the variation of serum cortisol levels and the severity of pancreatitis to a certain extent.

  17. Primary bilateral adrenal B-cell lymphoma associated with EBV and JCV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzzardo Vincenza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary lymphoma of the adrenal gland is a rare and highly aggressive disease, with only a few reports in the literature. The pathogenesis is unknown, but detection of Epstein Barr virus (EBV genome sequences and gene expression in some cases of primary adrenal lymphomas suggested the virus might be a causative agent of the malignancy. While investigating the presence of genome sequences of oncogenic viruses in a large series of adrenal tumors, both EBV and JC polyomavirus (JCV DNA sequences were detected in a diffuse large primary bilateral B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the adrenal gland, which was diagnosed only at postmortem examination in a 77 year-old woman with incidentally discovered adrenal masses and primary adrenal insufficiency. The presence of both EBV and JCV genome sequences suggests the relevance of EBV and JCV coinfection in the pathogenesis of this rare form of B-cell lymphoma.

  18. Bilateral Adrenal Metastasis in Bronchogenic Carcinoma: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargess Afzali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nAdrenal metastases from bronchogenic carcinoma are found in approximately one third of patients at autopsy. Tumors that commonly metastasize to the adrenal gland include bronchogenic carcinoma, breast carcinoma and melanoma and small cell lung cancer, accounting for 6% of the adrenal metastasis. Routine preoperative upper abdominal CT scanning reveals an adrenal mass in approximately 10% of the patients. In selected patients, excision of the primary lung tumor and the isolated adrenal metastasis may improve survival. "nHere a 82-year-old female is presented with a history of 3 months pleuritic chest pain, chronic cough, dyspnea and also abdominal distention and discomfort. Bronchoscopy revealed tumoral vegetation in the posterior segment bronchus of the right lung upper lobe. It was diagnosed as an undifferentiated lung carcinoma pathologically. Abdominal CT scan revealed bilateral large heterogeneous masses in the adrenal glands. Biopsy of the adrenal masses revealed their metastatic nature. The patient was expired before excision of the abdominal masses because of lung cancer with pericardial invasion.   

  19. Acute adrenal crisis after orthopedic surgery for pathologic fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto Nobuyuki

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adrenal crisis after surgical procedure is a rare but potentially catastrophic life-threatening event. Its manifestations, such as hypotension, tachycardia, hypoxia, and fever mimic the other more common postoperative complications. Clinical outcome is dependent upon early recognition of the condition and proper management with exogenous steroid administration. Case presentation We report a 75-year-old man who presented with shock immediately after surgery for a femoral fracture from lung cancer metastasis. Anemia and severe hyponatremia were detected. Despite adequate fluid resuscitation, nonspecific symptoms including hypotension, tachycardia, hypoxia, fever and confusion occurred. Emergent CT revealed enlarged bilateral adrenal glands. Under the diagnosis of adrenal crisis due to metastatic infiltration of adrenal glands, the patient was treated with appropriate steroid replacement resulting in rapid improvement and recovery. Conclusion We describe a case of adrenal crisis caused by the lack of adrenal reserve based on metastatic involvement and surgical stress, the first published case of adrenal crisis after surgery for a pathologic fracture from lung cancer metastasis. Surgeons treating pathologic fractures should be aware of this complication and familiar with its appropriate therapy because of increasing opportunity to care patients with metastatic bone tumors due to recent advances in cancer treatment.

  20. Adrenal cryptococcosis in an immunosuppressed patient showing intensely increased metabolic activity on (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios Z; Holland, Steven M; Quezado, Martha; Patronas, Nicholas J

    2016-12-01

    Disseminated cryptococcosis most commonly occurs in immunosuppressed patients and can rarely affect the adrenal glands. We report on a patient with biopsy proven bilateral adrenal cryptococcosis resulting in primary adrenal insufficiency, which was evaluated with whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan using (18)F-FDG. Both enlarged adrenal glands presented intensely increased (18)F-FDG activity in the periphery, while central necrotic regions were photopenic. Although diagnosis was established by adrenal gland biopsy, (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan can significantly contribute to the assessment of disease activity and monitoring of treatment response. Furthermore, fungal infections should always be considered when encountering hypermetabolic adrenal masses, especially in the setting of immunodeficient patients.

  1. Significant growth of adrenal lymphangioma: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Ho Kim

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Lymphangiomas are most commonly located in the neck, axillary region and mediastinum, which are rare at adrenal gland. Transperitoneal laparoscopic removal of the adrenal lymphangiomas is regarded as a safe, effective and minimally invasive approach. In our case, laparoscopic removal of the tumor was successfully performed via a transperitoneal approach.

  2. Computed tomography in the early detection of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Matsuo, N.; Kohda, E.

    1988-05-01

    This paper describes the successful use of abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan in diagnosing congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia in a Japanese male with no virilization at 9 days of age. The CT unequivocally delineated massively enlarged adrenal glands of fat-tissue attenuation, enabling early replacement therapy.

  3. Mielolipoma adrenal bilateral em um cão Bilateral adrenal myelolipoma in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Araújo França

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente relato descreve um caso de mielolipoma adrenal bilateral em uma cadela Poodle de 13 anos de idade. O cão morreu por peritonite séptica aguda, decorrente de ulceração e perfuração intestinal por corpo estranho linear. O neoplasma foi achado incidentalmente durante a necropsia. Macroscopicamente, as adrenais estavam redondas e com volume e aumentados. Ao corte elas eram friáveis, vermelho-amarronzadas, intercaladas por áreas branco-amareladas levemente proeminentes. Histologicamente, extensas áreas do parênquima continham adipócitos bem diferenciados, células hematopoéticas e macrófagos com hemossiderina, achados característicos de mielolipoma adrenal.A case of bilateral adrenal myelolipoma in a 13-year-old female Poodle is reported. Acute septic peritonitis due to intestinal ulceration and perforation caused by a linear foreign body was the cause of death. The adrenal neoplasm was an incidental necropsy finding. The adrenal glands were grossly rounded, enlarged and friable, and had red-brownish parenchyma interwoven by slightly prominent white-yellowish foci. Histologically, the findings of differentiated adipocytes in large areas of the parenchyma, in association to hematopoietic cells and macrophages with hemosiderin were consistent with the diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma.

  4. [Pediatric emergency: adrenal insufficiency and adrenal crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Alicia; Pasqualini, Titania; Stivel, Mirta; Heinrich, Juan Jorge

    2010-04-01

    Adrenal insufficiency is defined by impaired secretion of adrenocortical hormones. It is classified upon the etiology in primary and secondary. Rapid recognition and therapy of adrenocortical crisis are critical to survival. Patients often have nonspecific symptoms: anorexia, vomiting, weakness, fatigue and lethargy. They are followed by hypotension, shock, hypoglicemia, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. All patients with adrenal insufficiency require urgent fluid reposition, correction of hypoglycemia and glucocorticoid replacement, in order to avoid serious consequences of adrenal crisis. After initial crisis treatment, maintenance dose of corticoids should be indicated. Mineralocorticoids replacement, if necessary, should also be initiated.

  5. Assessment of ghrelin, GHS-R, GH, and neurohormones in human fetal pituitary glands and central nervous system: an immunohistochemical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Obara-Moszynska

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was evaluation of expression of ghrelin and GHS-R1a receptor in somatotrops and in neuronal cells of brain tissue in the process of human fetal ontogenesis. Relations were also looked for between GHRH and SS in the pituitary and in the CNS neurones of the studied fetuses. The study was based on 8 pituitaries and 8 brains from fetuses in different periods of intrauterine life. The immunocytochemical technique was used. The presence of ghrelin, GHS-R was shown in the glandular part of the pituitary and CNS during the whole period of intrauterine life. Neurohormones in the stalk of the pituitary were found in fetuses from the 32nd week of pregnancy whereas in the CNS neurones these hormones could be detected throughout the whole period of intrauterine life. The results obtained suggest that stimulation of GH secretion by ghrelin is independent of the feedback concentration and these two hormones act like signals of metabolic balance. GH release by ghrelin in fetal life is independent of somatostatin. The hypothalamic-pituitary axis which regulates pulsatile GH release from the pituitary matures functionally in the third trimester of pregnancy independent of the previous anatomical differentiation.

  6. Direct evaluation of adrenocortical function by measurement of adrenal percent uptake of sup 131 I-6. beta. -iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol using single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimura, Junji (Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan))

    1990-12-01

    In 55 patients (110 adrenal glands) with suspected adrenocortical abnormalities, I assessed the clinical usefulness of adrenal percent uptake of {sup 131}I-6{beta}-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (NCL-6-{sup 131}I) by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The percent uptake of NCL-6-{sup 131}I in 6 hyperfunctioning glands of patients with the final diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (2.62{+-}1.13(SD)%) was significantly (p<0.01) higher than that in 10 glands of patients with the final diagnosis of adenoma of primary aldosteronism (1.16{+-}0.09(SD)%). Moreover, the percent uptake of NCL-6-{sup 131}I in adrenal glands with hyperfunctioning lesions was significantly (p<0.01) higher than those in 10 contralateral normal glands of primary aldosteronism (0.55{+-}0.23(SD)%), 30 right glands (0.57{+-}0.24(SD)%) and 30 left glands (0.53{+-}0.22(SD)%) of essential hypertension with normally functioning adrenal cortices. The adrenal percent uptake of NCL-6-{sup 131}I in 24 glands with hypofunctioning adrenal cortices, including 4 glands suppressed by adenomas of Cushing's syndrome, was below the detectable limit. The data presented above show that the adrenocortical function can be evaluated directly based on measurement of adrenal percent uptake of NCL-6-{sup 131}I using SPECT. (author).

  7. Solitary Contralateral Adrenal Metastases after Nephrectomy for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Antoniou

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases are reported of patients with a single metastasis in the contralateral adrenal, one and nine years respectively after nephrectomy for localized cancer in the opposite kidney. These types of metastases are usually asymptomatic they do not appear with signs of adrenal insufficiency, they are detected incidentally and the diagnosis is confirmed mainly with CT scan, which comprises the method of choice for the detection of such types of metastases. Many adrenal metastases probably have been overlooked in the past when advanced imaging techniques were not available. Both patients underwent adrenalectomy and replacement therapy with corticosteroids. Approximately 50% of all patients with renal cell carcinoma either present with metastases at diagnosis or will have metastatic disease after nephrectomy11. In order of decreasing frequency, the most common metastatic sites are the lungs, lymph nodes, liver, bone, contralateral kidney and ipsilateral adrenal glands. Adrenal involvement has been reported in 7 to 19% of autopsystudies. 1,3 Solitary metachronous metastatic involvement of the contralateral adrenal from renal cell carcinoma is rarely diagnosed during life and only 4 cases have been reported. 4,5 Recent advances in imaging techniques have allowed the diagnosis of adrenal involvement by renal cancer. Two cases of contralateral adrenal metastasis are reported 1 and 9 years after radical nephrectomy for localized renal cell carcinoma. Both patients underwent adrenalectomy and steroid replacement therapy.

  8. Synchronous Bilateral Adrenal Metastases from Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Gokcen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of synchronous bilateral adrenal metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. The contralateral metastatic adrenal mass was treated by the laparoscopic transperitoneal approach. The renal mass and its huge ipsilateral metastatic adrenal gland were removed en bloc with open procedure. A 54-year-old man presented to our clinic with left-sid renal cell carcinoma synchronously bilateral adrenal metastases. The primary tumor was localized in the upper-mid pole of the kidney. The diagnosis was established preoperatively by computed tomography. The size of the contralateral adrenal mass was 65 x 45 mm, but the ipsilateral metastatic adrenal mass was huge (140 x 65 mm. After all analysis and other scannings for any metastasis, a contralateral lapararoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy and a left open nephroadrenalectomy were performed simultaneously. Synchronous bilateral adrenal metastases from primary renal cell carcinoma without another metastasis is very rare. The optimal surgical procedure should be selected according to the metastatic adrenal masses size and the patient%u2019s status.

  9. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasmas. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. This discussion will focus on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid glands, and pancreas in companion animals and will concentrate on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis.

  10. MR demonstration of a prostate gland in a female pseudohermaphrodite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Subramanian; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Sharma, Raju [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India)

    2006-11-15

    We present the rare case of a 14-year-old female pseudohermaphrodite due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). MRI revealed the presence of a hypoplastic uterus, ovaries, clitoromegaly, and prostate gland with its typical zonal anatomy. Transrectal sonography also confirmed the presence of a prostate gland. (orig.)

  11. [Surgical adrenal approaches: learned experiences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Lázaro, Santos; Hernandis-Villalba, Juan; Meroño-Carbajosa, Emilio; Navío-Perales, Juan; Marzal-Felici, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is the standard approach for surgical adrenal gland pathology. However, the open procedure still has its role. Our intention is to report our results and experience using different techniques. A retrospective study of 40 patients was carried out. Demographic and surgical data were analyzed. Thirty two patients had benign pathology and eight had malignant tumors. Laparotomy was performed in 18 patients: seven patients with malignant tumors and 11 with benign pathology. Young's approach was indicated in four patients. Laparoscopic aproach was indicated in 25 patients with seven patients requiring conversion to laparotomy. The conversion rate was 28% In most cases, the laparoscopic approach is the standard technique. Appropriate case selection is of primary importance. Other surgical techniques should be considered if necessary.

  12. Late effects of total-head gamma irradiation in mice. 2. Pathomorphological analysis of organic changes with regard to the role of the hypophysis - adrenal gland axis and of the thymolymphatic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkadlecek, L.; Viklicka, S.; Karpfel, Z.; Pospisil, M.; Netikova, J. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno. Biofysikalni Ustav)

    1985-01-01

    Relations between late manifestations of wasting of C57BL/10 mice whose heads were irradiated with a dose of 16 Gy of /sup 60/Co gamma rays, and some pathomorphological findings in the organs of animals in the late period after irradiation were studied. A close correlation was found between the fall in body weight of animals during the period of the 6th month after irradiation and involution of the thymolymphatic system. Adenohypophysis and adrenal cortex of wasting animals revealed clear signs of structural defects, indicating failure of their hormonal functions. Morphological examination of brain, cerebellum, duodenum and liver did not exhibit signs of damage.

  13. 左肾上腺区特殊囊性占位病变的诊治——附胃重复囊肿二例报告%Diagnosis and treatment of specially cystic lesion located at the area of the left adrenal gland : 2 cases reports of adult gastric duplicated cyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海涛; 张继伟; 阎乙夫; 夏溟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate thedifferential diagnosis of specially cystic masses located at the area of the left adrenal gland,and to improve the understanding of the clinical symptoms and pathological features,diagnosis and treatment of gastric duplicated cyst.Methods A retrospective study,with literature review,of clinical characteristics and imaging findings of pathologically proved gastric duplicated cyst in 2 adults (2 males,28 years and 42 years)was conducted.Two patients presented no clinical manifestation.Abdominal ultrasonography and CT scan revealed a cystic lesion,in the area of the left adrenal gland,with a thickness wall,measuring 5 cm ×6 cm× 7 cm and 8 cm × 12 cm × 13 cm,attached to the greater curvature of the stomach.The lesion had septums,and the walls and septums could not be enhanced.Preoperative diagnosis of patients was misdiagnosed as a cyst of the left adrenal gland,with inflection or bleeding.Results Complete excision was performed by laparoscopic surgery in all cases.The lesion located in the area of left adrenal gland and no communication between the duplicated cyst and the lumen of stomach was detected.Postoperatively,the lesions were pathologically proved to be gastric duplicated cyst.There was no recurrence during the follow-up of 8 months and 2 years.Conclusions Preoperative definite diagnosis of adult gastric duplication cyst is very difficult.Ultrasonography and Computed Tomography are valuable imaging modality for locating the site and determining the nature of adult gastric duplicated cyst.Preoperative definite diagnosis could be made by EUS (endoscopic ultrasonography) and EUS-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in gastric duplicated cyst.Although adult gastric duplicated cyst is an extremely rare disease entity,but this unusual developmental abnormality should be include in the differential diagnosis of cystic masses located the area of the left adrenal gland.Because of the possibility of malignancy of the cyst

  14. Lethal hypoplasia and developmental anomalies of the lungs in a newborn with intrauterine adrenal hemorrhage and cerebral infarcts: a proposed pulmonary disruption sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsburapa, Terakeith; Vargas, Diana; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn; Tantravahi, Umadevi; Gündoğan, Füsun; DeLaMonte, Suzanne; Coyle, Mara G; De Paepe, Monique E

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 31-week-gestation male newborn who died soon after birth from intractable respiratory failure and persistent pulmonary hypertension. The pregnancy had been complicated by intermittent bleeding between 13 and 20 weeks' gestation, attributed to peripheral placental separation, as well as bilateral fetal adrenal hemorrhage, first detected at 17 weeks' gestation. Postmortem examination revealed small, calcified adrenal glands as well as several remote cerebral and cerebellar infarcts. The lungs were hypoplastic (lung weight/body weight ratio: 1.64%; 10th percentile for 28-36 weeks' gestation: 2.27%) and distorted by exaggerated lobulation. Microscopically, the lungs exhibited several developmental anomalies, including focal acinar dysgenesis suggestive of arrested development in the pseudoglandular stage of development (8-16 weeks' gestation) (mainly in the upper lobes), and features of bronchial obstruction, including focal lobular hyperplasia and microcystic maldevelopment (mainly in the lower lobes). The adrenal and cerebral findings were consistent with a severe early-gestation hypoxic-ischemic insult, likely related to peripheral placental separation and chronic abruption. The co-occurrence and timing of these well-recognized hypoxic lesions provide further evidence that certain developmental lung anomalies, such as focal acinar dysplasia, focal lobular hyperplasia, and microcystic maldevelopment, may, at least in some cases, have a hypoxic/ischemic etiology.

  15. Myth vs. Fact: Adrenal Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unlikely to cover the costs. What is the theory behind adrenal fatigue? Supporters of adrenal fatigue believe ... by producing hormones like cortisol. According to the theory of adrenal fatigue, when people are faced with ...

  16. Fetal Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Fetal Circulation Updated:Oct 18,2016 click to enlarge The ... fetal heart. These two bypass pathways in the fetal circulation make it possible for most fetuses to survive ...

  17. Inclusões intracitoplasmáticas hialinas na medular da adrenal de bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P Mesquita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in adrenal medullary chromaffin cells have been described in various species including humans. These inclusions are believed to be related to certain infectious, toxic and neurodegenerative diseases. No reports concerning such adrenal inclusions have been described in bovines. Adrenal glands from twenty bovines were evaluated in a retrospective study. Seven of these exhibited inclusions - three cases of rabies, two cases of chronic suppurative bronchopneumonia, one case of chronic suppurative peritonitis, and one case of gangrenous mastitis. The inclusions were present in higher numbers especially in cases of rabies and also in one case of chronic suppurative bronchopneumonia. The inclusions were intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic, rounded, single or multiple, of various sizes, strongly stained by PAS and were present in higher numbers in the external layer of the adrenal medulla. The inclusions were negative when subjected to immunohistochemistry for detection of viral antigens in the cases of rabies. Although inclusion bodies were present in adrenal glands devoid of other histological alterations, they were more abundant in cases in which the adrenal gland had other alterations. The correlation between certain diseases and the development of inclusion bodies is not known, which highlights the importance of further studies on these inclusions in adrenal glands of bovines.

  18. Tumours of the fetal body: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avni, Fred E.; Massez, Anne; Cassart, Marie [University Clinics of Brussels - Erasme Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-11-15

    Tumours of the fetal body are rare, but lesions have been reported in all spaces, especially in the mediastinum, the pericardial space, the adrenals, the kidney, and the liver. Lymphangioma and teratoma are the commonest histological types encountered, followed by cardiac rhabdomyoma. Adrenal neuroblastoma is the commonest malignant tumour. Imaging plays an essential role in the detection and work-up of these tumours. In addition to assisting clinicians it also helps in counselling parents. Most tumours are detected by antenatal US, but fetal MRI is increasingly used as it brings significant additional information in terms of tumour extent, composition and complications. (orig.)

  19. [Hyperprogesteronism due to bilateral adrenal carcinomas in a cat with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quante, S; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N; Wilhelm, S; Favrot, C; Dennler, M; Reusch, C

    2009-09-01

    An 8 year old male castrated Russian Blue cat with polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, abdominal enlargement, unkempt and easily epilated hair coat and abdominal alopecia is described. As a first step diabetes mellitus was diagnosed. Further work-up by ultrasonography revealed severe bilateral enlargement of the adrenal glands. Hypercortisolism was suspected and therefore ACTH stimulation test and dexamethasone suppression test were performed. In all samples cortisol concentrations were below the detection limit of the assay used. Various precursor hormones were measured and high progesterone concentrations were found. Histologically, the adrenal masses were characterised as bilateral adrenal carcinomas of the adrenal cortex. The case report demonstrates that adrenal gland tumors are also capable to secrete sex hormones instead of cortisol. Clinical signs of hyperprogesteronism are identical to those of hypercortisolism.

  20. Studies on the isolation, structural analysis and tissue localization of fetal antigen 1 and its relation to a human adrenal-specific cDNA, pG2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Teisner, Børge; Højrup, Peter

    1993-01-01

    , prolines and amino acids (aa) with acidic side-chains indicating that fetal antigen 1 is a compactly folded, strongly hydrophilic molecule. The N-terminal amino acid sequence (37 aa) revealed no homology to other known protein sequences, implying that fetal antigen 1 is a 'novel' human protein. When the aa...... is encoded by the mRNA defined by the cDNA clone pG2, but definitive sequencing and expression studies of this mRNA have not been achieved. Udgivelsesdato: 1993-Apr...

  1. 单孔后腹腔镜手术在肾及肾上腺疾病中的应用(附33例报告)%Single-site Retroperitoneal Laparoscopy for Kidney and Adrenal Gland Diseases: Report of 33 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志军; 李庆文; 薛胜; 常睿; 汪盛; 张青川; 刘贝贝; 王成勇

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨利用自制单孔多通道装置及常规腹腔镜器械完成单孔后腹腔镜肾及肾上腺手术的可行性.方法 2011年8月~ 2012年3月,采用切口保护器+橡胶手套自制单孔多通道装置,利用常规腹腔镜器械完成33例单孔后腹腔镜手术,其中肾上腺肿瘤切除10例,肾癌根治性肾切除6例,肾囊肿去顶减压术12例,肾蒂淋巴管结扎术4例,肾盂成形术1例.结果 33例手术均顺利完成,其中1例肾盂成形术因术中缝合困难另增加-5 mm通道完成手术,无中转开放手术.住院时间4~9d,平均6d.术中术后未出现明显并发症.结论 自制单孔多通道后腹腔镜手术在治疗肾及肾上腺疾病方面安全可行,具有创伤小、切口美观等优点.自制单孔多通道装置制作使用方便,价格低廉.%Objective To summarize the feasibility of home-made single-site retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery for kidney and adrenal gland diseases. Methods From August 2011 to March 2012, 33 patients underwent retroperitoneal laparoendoseopic single-site surgery ( LESS) by using a home-made single-port multichannel device and standard laparoscopic instruments. The procedures included adrenalectomy (10 cases) , radical nephrectomy (6 cases) , renal cyst unroofing (12 cases) , ligation of renal lymphatic vessels (4 cases) , and pyeloplasty (1 case). Results All the operations were successfully completed without conversion to open surgery, but a additional 5-mm trocar was used to assist the procedure in one case ( pyeloplasty) ; no intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. The mean hospital stay was 6 days (4-9 days). Conclusions Retroperitoneal LESS is feasible, effective and safe for kidney and adrenal gland diseases, with good cosmetic outcomes. Home-made port is convenient to make and use while its cost is low.

  2. [Adrenal failure caused by primary adrenal non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Marín, B; Díaz Muñoz de la Espada, V M; Alvarez Alvarez, R; Encinas García, S; Khosravi Shahi, P; Pérez Fernández, R; Pérez Manga, G

    2008-03-01

    We report a case of 78-year old man who presented with symptoms of adrenal insufficiency. The computed tomography (CT) scan showed the presence of bilateral adrenal masses. A CT-scan guided needle biopsy revealed diffuse large- B cell lymphoma. The absence of pathological findings in clinical, bone marrow and CT scan examinations supported the diagnosis of primary non-Hodgkin Lymphoma of the adrenal glands. The patient was treated with four cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy with Rituximab, liposomal Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine and Prednisolone. At the end of fourth cycle there was radiological improvement but the chemotherapy was stopped because of IV grade toxicity. He completed treatment with radiotherapy of right adrenal mass. Few days after finishing radiation therapy the patient died due to a disseminated infection. No progressive disease was founded.

  3. Clinical analysis of stereotactic gamma-ray body radiation therapy for 24 patients with adrenal gland metastases%体部伽马刀治疗肾上腺转移癌24例效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝睿; 祁会特; 李明; 常冬姝; 李宏奇; 李平; 王颖杰; 夏廷毅

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价体部伽马刀在肾上腺转移癌中的疗效与安全性.方法 回顾分析采用体部伽马刀治疗的24例肾上腺转移癌患者临床资料,共26个病灶.计划要求50%的等剂量线覆盖100%计划靶体积,单次照射剂量3~5Gy,5次/周,治疗10~17次,总剂量40~52 Gy.结果 中位随访时间28个月,随访率为100%.病灶完全缓解率、部分缓解率分别为53.8%(14/26)、30.8%(8/26),总有效率为84.6%.1、2年局部控制率分别为100.0%(15/15)、90.0%(9/10).治疗后1、2、3年生存率分别为62.5%(15/24)、41.7%(10/24)、18.2%(4/22).治疗前腰背痛6例,治疗后疼痛完全缓解2例,疼痛减轻3例.不良反应多为Ⅰ~Ⅱ级消化道及血液学反应.结论 体部伽马刀治疗肾上腺转移癌疗效好,不良反应轻.%Objective To evaluate clinical efficacy and safety of gamma-knife in the treatment of adrenal metastases.Methods The data from 24 patients with adrenal metastatic carcinoma performed with γ-SBRT were analyzed.A total dose sent 3-5 Gy/fiaction to 50 % isodose covering 100 % PTV,the radiation dose to adrenal nidus ranged from 40 to 52 Gy,and five times per week.Results The median follow-up time was 28 months,and the follow-up rate was 100 %.There were 26 lesions.The local lesions response rate was 84.6 % (22/26),with complete remission was 53.8 % (14/26) and partial was 30.8 % (8/26).Local control rate of 1-year,2-year were 100.0 % (15/15) and 90.0 % (9/10).The overall survival rate of 1-year,2-year and 3-year were 62.5 % (15/24),41.7 % (10/24) and 18.2 % (4/22).6 cases had back pain,2 patients had complete relief of pain,3 patients had pain relief.The majority of radioreactions were Grades 1 to 2 toxicities.Conclusion Gamma knife treatment has yielded good curative effect on adrenal metastatic carcinoma,and adverse reactions are mild.

  4. Repetitive ultrasonographic assessment of adrenal size and shape changes: a clue for an asymptomatic sex hormone-secreting adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seunghyeon; Oui, Heejin; Lee, Ju-hwan; Son, Kyu-Yeol; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of an adrenal tumor without typical clinical signs related to hyperadrenocorticism and elevated alkaline phosphatase is challenging. This report describes a sex hormone-secreting adrenal tumor in a 10-year-old castrated male Shih Tzu evaluated through repetitive ultrasonographic examination. An adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test revealed elevated concentrations of androstenedione and 17-hydroxyprogesterone but a normal cortisol concentration. A mass was surgically excised and adenoma was diagnosed histopathologically. In the present case, adrenal tumor was strongly suspected based on a gradual increase in adrenal size and a change from peanut shape to an irregular mass on repetitive ultrasonography. Repetitive ultrasonographic examination of the adrenal gland is recommended when an abnormal ultrasonographic appearance of adrenal gland is identified, even in an asymptomatic dog. PMID:27297418

  5. A rare coexistence of adrenal cavernous hemangioma with extramedullar hemopoietic tissue: a case report and brief review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos; Kyriazi, Maria; Yiallourou, Anneza I; Stafyla, Vaia K; Theodosopoulos, Theodosios; Dafnios, Nikolaos; Smyrniotis, Vassilis; Kondi-Pafiti, Agathi

    2009-01-01

    Background Cavernous hemangiomas of the adrenal gland are rare, benign, non-functioning neoplastic tumors. To our knowledge, 55 cases have been reported in the literature to date. Case presentation We report the first case of a large, non-functioning adrenal cavernous hemangioma that was incidentally found during the preoperative staging workup of a 75 year old woman with left breast adenocarcinoma. Imaging with US, CT scan and MRI showed a heterogeneous 8 cm mass with non-specific radiological features that was located on the left adrenal gland. The mass was surgically excised and pathology revealed an adrenal hemangioma with areas of extramedullar hemopoiesis. Conclusion Although adrenal hemangiomas are rare and their preoperative diagnosis is difficult, they should always be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal neoplasms. PMID:19193247

  6. Histoplasmosis suprarrenal incidental Incidental adrenal histoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Nine

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available El hallazgo de masas adrenales detectadas mediante técnicas ecográficas o tomográficas solicitadas por algún otro motivo, y por ello incidentales, constituye un nuevo desafío diagnóstico. El paciente que presentamos se encontraba asintomático y no refería antecedentes patológicos. Una ecografía mostró agrandamiento de la glándula suprarrenal derecha, que medía 66 por 33mm. La tomografía computada mostró agrandamiento irregular de ambas suprarrenales. Se descartaron neoplasias extra-adrenales y tumores hiperfuncionantes. Se realizó una biopsia guiada por tomografía, y el estudio histopatológico informó Histoplasma capsulatum. El paciente vivía en una zona endémica para esta enfermedad y, por exposición laboral, tenía contacto diario con excremento de aves. La histoplasmosis es una causa infrecuente de masas adrenales bilaterales en el huesped inmu-nocompetente.An adrenal mass found in the course of abdominal ecographic or computed tomography (CT techniques performed for other reasons is a new diagnostic challenge. The patient in this case was asymptomatic and without previous illness. An ecographic study revealed an enlarged right adrenal gland, 66 by 33 mm. CT showed bilateral irregular enlargement of both adrenal glands. Nonadrenal malignancies and hyperfunctioning tumors were ruled out. A CT-guided biopsy was performed, and the histopathologic study was consistent with the diagnosis of histoplasmosis. The patient lived in an area endemic for this disease, and had daily contact with bird droppings. Histoplasmosis is a rare unsuspected cause of bilateral adrenal masses in the asymptomatic immunocompetent host.

  7. Fetal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, John T.; Sladek, John R.

    1989-11-01

    This article reviews some of the significant contributions of fetal research and fetal tissue research over the past 20 years. The benefits of fetal research include the development of vaccines, advances in prenatal diagnosis, detection of malformations, assessment of safe and effective medications, and the development of in utero surgical therapies. Fetal tissue research benefits vaccine development, assessment of risk factors and toxicity levels in drug production, development of cell lines, and provides a source of fetal cells for ongoing transplantation trials. Together, fetal research and fetal tissue research offer tremendous potential for the treatment of the fetus, neonate, and adult.

  8. Adrenal insufficiency in primary adrenal lymphoma: Innocuous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-13

    Feb 13, 2011 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Jan-Mar 2011 • Vol 14 • Issue 1 ... abdominal pain, pallor and weight loss and was found to have primary adrenal lymphoma. The case highlights .... J Korean Med Sci 2009;24:525-8. 4.

  9. Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People Who Were Treated with hGH Adrenal Insufficiency & Addison's Disease What is adrenal insufficiency? Adrenal insufficiency is an ... under “ How is adrenal insufficiency treated? ” What causes Addison’s disease? Autoimmune disorders cause most cases of Addison’s disease. ...

  10. The Role of Population-Dependent Factors in Altering Adrenal Steroidogenesis and Reproduction in the Cottontail Rabbit in Ohio.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Vernon C

    1966-11-17

    Fifty-one female cottontails were collected during their first pregnancy of the breeding season in 1964. The reproductive performance of these animals has been completely evaluated and the adrenal glands incubated. Chromatographic separation and quantitation have been carried out on the majority of the adrenal incubates.

  11. Fetal control of parturition in marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G; Renfree, M B

    2001-01-01

    Among marsupials, the control of birth is best understood in the tammar wallaby. The young is tiny relative to the mother and is highly altricial. Adult female tammar wallabies weigh 5 kg, whereas the neonate weighs about 400 mg. However, despite this small size, there is clear evidence that the fetus provides the signal that sets the timing of birth through several mechanisms. A fetal signal activates a nitric oxide-guanylate cyclase system in the myometrium that may maintain myometrial inactivity, and this is down-regulated at term. There is also up-regulation of prostaglandin (PG) production in the gravid endometrium during the last two days of gestation that parallels increased placental PG synthesis, and a pregnancy-specific up-regulation of oxytocin receptors in the gravid myometrium that increases the responsiveness of the gravid uterus to mesotocin. These changes facilitate parturition, but an acute fetus-derived signal appears to trigger parturition. The fetal signal is probably related to glucocorticoid production. The fetal adrenal matures and is able to synthesize cortisol by Day 22 of the 26-day gestation. The fetal adrenals double in size between Day 24 and term, and their cortisol content increases over 10-fold. The pituitary of the neonate contains presumptive corticotrophs, and the adrenals increase cortisol production in response to adrenocorticotrophin. Prostaglandin E2, which is produced by the placenta, is also a potent stimulant of fetal adrenal cortisol synthesis. Treatment of tammars in late gestation with the cortisol agonist, dexamethasone, triggers birth around 23 h later. There is thus a strong case that fetal adrenal cortisol plays a key role in the preparation for birth and the timing of it. Further studies are in progress to more clearly define the mechanisms behind these actions of cortisol.

  12. Endocrine glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes Gigantism Diabetes insipidus Cushing Disease Watch this video about: Pituitary gland Testes and ovaries: Lack of sex development (unclear genitalia) Thyroid: Congenital hypothyroidism Myxedema Goiter ...

  13. Embryo number and periconceptional undernutrition in the sheep have differential effects on adrenal epigenotype, growth, and development

    OpenAIRE

    Williams-Wyss, Olivia; Zhang, Song; MacLaughlin, Severence M.; Kleemann, David; Walker, Simon K.; Suter, Catherine M; Jennifer E Cropley; Janna L Morrison; Roberts, Claire T.; I. Caroline McMillen

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to poor maternal nutrition around the time of conception results in an early prepartum activation of the fetal pituitary-adrenal axis and in increased adrenal growth and stress response after birth associated with epigenetic changes in a differentially methylated region (DMR) of adrenal IGF2/H19. We have determined the effects of maternal undernutrition during the periconceptional period (PCUN: 70% of control intake from 60 days before until 6 days after conception) and early preimpl...

  14. Transperitoneal Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy for Adrenal Tumours: Experience with 54 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih Balci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present our laparoscopic surgery experience in the treatment of adrenal masses. Methods: Between January 2008 and March 2015, a total of 58 adrenal glands in 54 patients (39 females, 15 males underwent transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy (TLA to remove an adrenal mass. The patients underwent hormonal evaluation, triphasic magnetic resonance imaging, and/or abdominal computed tomography. Thirty-one patients (57.4% had a hormonally active adrenal mass. Results: Twenty-nine right, 21 left, and 4 bilateral TLA were performed. The mean age and body mass index of the patients were 49.5±11.2 years and 27.2±4.3 kg/m2, respectively. The mean adrenal mass size, operation time, estimated blood loss, and hospitalisation duration were 35.9±15.0 mm, 92.7±29.6 minutes, 50.8±33.1 ml, and 3.7±2.5 days, respectively. No minor or major complications were observed postoperatively. In pathological examinations, 38 (70.3% patients had adenoma or adrenal hyperplasia, 8 (14.7% had pheochromocytoma, 2 (3.7% had periadrenal paraganglioma, 2 (3.7% had adrenal cysts, 1 (1.9% had schwannoma, 1 (1.9% had myelolipoma, 1 (1.9% had myeloid metaplasia, and 1 (1.9% had adrenal cortical carcinoma. Conclusion: TLA is a safe and efficient minimally invasive treatment option with a low morbidity rate in the surgical treatment of adrenal masses.

  15. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to treat congenital adrenal hyperplasia do not usually cause side effects such as obesity or weak bones, because the doses replace the hormones that the child's body cannot make. It is important for parents ...

  16. Uncommon Cause of Acute Adrenal Failure - Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Adrenomyeloneuropathy is a rare X-linked inherited disorder of peroxisomes characterized by accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA in the central and peripheral nervous system, adrenal glands and testes, leading to dysfunction of these organs and systems (1. Here, we report a case of adrenomyeloneuropathy presenting initially as acute adrenal crisis, which progressed rapidly within one year to variant neurological manifestations, dementia, sensory, motor and psycho-intellectual dysfunction, and generalized spasticity. Turk Jem 2010; 14: 103-5

  17. Primary Aldosteronism Caused by Unilateral Adrenal Hyperplasia: Rethinking the Accuracy of Imaging Studies

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    Su-Yu Chen

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A rare type of aldosteronism, known as unilateral adrenal hyperplasia (UAH, is difficult to diagnose, not only because it fails to conform to the typical common subtypes, but also because imaging results are unreliable. We report 2 Taiwanese patients with UAH. Case 1 was a 44-year-old man with 2 episodes of hypokalemic paralysis. Hypertension and suppressed plasma renin activity (PRA with elevated plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC were observed. Abdominal computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a right adrenal mass, but adrenal scintigraphy revealed no definite laterality. The patient underwent a laparoscopic right adrenalectomy. Adrenal cortical hyperplasia was discovered from results of the histologic analysis. Case 2 was a 33-year-old woman referred for hypokalemia, hypertension, and a left adrenal mass found on a CT scan. However, MRI revealed normal adrenal glands. The adrenal vein sampling for PAC showed overproduction of PAC from the left adrenal gland. A laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was done. Pathology results revealed micronodular cortical hyperplasia with central hemorrhage. Blood pressure, plasma potassium, aldosterone, and renin activity levels returned to normal after operation in both cases. Both patients have been well for 3 years and 16 months, respectively, after surgery. We review the literature and discuss the limitations of imaging studies.

  18. [Adrenal cortex scintigraphy with and without dexamethasone suppression in the study of primary aldosteronism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milà López, M; Castell-Conesa, J; Pifarré Montaner, P; Lorenzo Bosquet, C; García-Burillo, A; Porta Biosca, F; Roca Bielsa, I

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance and efficacy of adrenal scintigraphy in primary aldosteronism following the protocol that combines adrenal suppression scintigraphy plus non-suppression study. 20 patients referred to our service with the suspicion of primary aldosteronism were studied by combined scintigraphy. Thirteen men and 7 women, mean age of 52 years, aged from 31 to 73 years, were included. Uptake of free iodine by the thyroid was inhibited by oral Lugol 5 % administration. Dexamethasone 4 mg per day was administered from day 7 to the third day of detection, when administration was stopped. Adrenal scintigraphy was performed after intravenous injection of I-131-norcolesterol (37 MBq). Images were taken at 24 and/or 48 hours and on the third day. Afterwards, dexamethasone administration was stopped and late images on 5th and/or 7th days were obtained. The scintigraphic result was confirmed with the final clinical evaluation (FCE) of the patient. 11 patients presented pathological studies, 9 adenomas (8TP + 1FP) and 2 bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (2TP); 7 normal scintigraphies (6TN and 1 non-conclusive FCE) and 2 non-conclusive scintigraphies (1 incidentaloma and 1 non-conclusive FCE). Normal adrenal glands were visualized in all cases on the 5th and/or 7th day scintigraphy. The study of adrenal functionalism by the combined protocol of adrenal suppression study plus later non-suppression study made it possible to identify with high precision primary aldosteronism and to confirm the function of normal adrenal glands.

  19. Embryo number and periconceptional undernutrition in the sheep have differential effects on adrenal epigenotype, growth, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Wyss, Olivia; Zhang, Song; MacLaughlin, Severence M; Kleemann, David; Walker, Simon K; Suter, Catherine M; Cropley, Jennifer E; Morrison, Janna L; Roberts, Claire T; McMillen, I Caroline

    2014-07-15

    Exposure to poor maternal nutrition around the time of conception results in an early prepartum activation of the fetal pituitary-adrenal axis and in increased adrenal growth and stress response after birth associated with epigenetic changes in a differentially methylated region (DMR) of adrenal IGF2/H19. We have determined the effects of maternal undernutrition during the periconceptional period (PCUN: 70% of control intake from 60 days before until 6 days after conception) and early preimplantation period (PIUN: 70% of control intake for 6 days after conception) on fetal plasma ACTH and cortisol concentrations and fetal adrenal ACTHR, StAR, 3βHSD, CYP11B, CYP17, TGFβ1, IGF1, IGF1R, IGF2, and IGF2R mRNA expression and the methylation level of sites within the DMRs of IGF2/H19 and IGF2R in the adrenal of twin and singleton fetuses at 136-138 days gestation. Being a twin resulted in a delayed prepartum increase in fetal ACTH and in a lower cortisol response to CRH in the control but not PCUN and PIUN groups. PCUN, but not PIUN, resulted in an increase in adrenal weight and CYP17 expression in singletons, a decrease in adrenal IGF2 expression in singletons, and an increase in adrenal IGF2R expression in both twins and singletons. IGF2/H19 and IGF2R DMR methylation levels and ACTHR expression were lower in the twin adrenal. Thus, exposure of the oocyte and embryo to maternal undernutrition or to the environment of a twin pregnancy have differential effects on epigenetic and other factors that regulate fetal adrenal growth and IGF2 and IGF2R expression.

  20. Plasminogen activator inhibitor (type-1) in rat adrenal medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, J; Kristensen, P; Pyke, C; Danø, K

    1989-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) was identified in extracts of rat adrenal medulla, and its immunohistochemical localization was studied together with that of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). By staining of adjacent sections and by double-staining of the same section we demonstrate that the same cells of the adrenal medulla contain both PAI-1 and t-PA immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm. In addition a few ganglion cells of the adrenal medulla were found to contain PAI-1 but not t-PA. Neither of the components were found in the adrenal cortex. Analysis of extracts from isolated adrenal medulla using reverse zymography showed the presence of a plasminogen activator inhibitor with Mr approximately 46,000. The inhibitory activity disappeared when the extract was passed through a column with sepharose-coupled anti-PAI-1 IgG, while the run-through from a similar column coupled with preimmune IgG still contained the inhibitor. The present findings suggest that PAI-1 could play a role in the regulation of t-PA activity in the rat adrenal gland medullary cells.

  1. 平肝潜阳法对偏头痛肝阳上亢型大鼠模型肾上腺组织蛋白质组的影响%Effects of ping-gan qianyang therapy on adrenal gland proteome in migraine rat model with hyperactivity of Hver-yang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建军; 陈泽奇; 钟广伟; 李炜; 尹耀慧

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the molecule mechanisms of ping-gan qianyang therapy on migraine rat model with the hyperactivity of liver-yang.Methods An animal model of migraine with hyperactivity of liver-yang was established through electrical trigeminal ganglion stimulation and administering orally with Fuzi decoction.The total proteins of adrenal#and in the rats were separated by immobilized PH gradient-based two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and the 2-DE images Was analyzed by PDQuest 7.0 software.Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry(MALDI-TOF-MS)and SWISS-PORT and MSDB database were used to identify differential proteins.Result The well-resolution and reproducible 2-DE patterns of rat adrenal glands in normal group,model group and therapy group were obtained.A total of 8 differentially expressed proteins were identified.Conclusion Ping-gan qianyang therapy may effect on migraine by regulating the expression of proteins related to energy metabolism and ubiquitin.%目的 探讨平肝潜阳法对偏头痛肝阳上亢型大鼠模型作用的分子机制.方法 用电刺激SD大鼠三叉神经节的方法并灌服附子汤制造偏头痛肝阳上亢型模型.采用双向凝胶电泳(2-DE)技术分离大鼠肾上腺组织的总蛋白,图像分析识别差异表达的蛋白质点.基质辅助激光解吸电离飞行时间质谱(MALDI-TOF-MS)获得相应的肽质量指纹图(PMF),搜索数据库鉴定蛋白质.结果 得到分辨率及重复性较好的正常对照组、偏头痛肝阳上亢型大鼠、中药治疗组大鼠肾上腺组织的2-DE图谱,质谱分析鉴定得到其中的8个差异蛋白质点.结论 平肝潜阳药物可能通过调节多种与能量代谢有关的蛋白和泛素的表达而起到治疗偏头痛肝阳上亢证的作用.

  2. 原发性双侧肾上腺非霍奇金淋巴瘤2例报告并文献复习%Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the adrenal gland: 2 cases report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰; 苟欣; 刘朝东; 汤召兵

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨原发性肾上腺非霍奇金淋巴瘤的临床特征和诊治方法.方法 分析我院2例原发性肾上腺淋巴瘤临床特征并复习文献.患者均为男性,年龄65岁及52岁,均以腰部隐痛为表现,通过CT检查发现双侧肾上腺占位,最终依靠穿刺活检及腹腔镜下手术组织活检确诊.结果 2例病理诊断为非霍奇金淋巴瘤,行CHOP方案化疗,1例部分缓解,定期随访.复习文献中65例完全缓解7例(10%),15例对化疗部分有效,43例死亡或失访,生存期为3 d~26个月.结论 原发性肾上腺淋巴瘤大多双侧肾上腺受侵,无特征性临床症状.目前穿刺活检是确诊的首选方法.治疗包括手术、化疗或手术联合化疗、放疗,有其他器官累及的患者预后不良.%Objective To discuss the clinical features, diagnosis and therapy of primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) . Methods Two patients (65-year old and 52-year old respectively) who complained vague pain were analyzed. Occupying lesions in adrenal gland were discovered by computed tomography (CT) and diagnosed by needle biopsy and laparoscopic surgery. Results The two patients in our hospital were diagnosed as nonHodgkin's lymphoma. They were treated with chemotherapy and one of them was partial response. Literatures on PAL were reviewed. In the literature, 7 of the 65 patients achieved complete response, 15 partial response, 43 death or unspecified and the survival duration was 3 days to 26 months. Conclusions Most of PAL are bilateral, without specific clinical characters. Neele biopsy is the first choice to make the diagnosis. The therapeutic modalities for PAL include surgery, chemotherapy, surgery followed by chemotherapy as well as radiation therapy. The prognosis of PAL is poor if other organs are involved.

  3. Positive iodine-131 6 beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (NP-59) adrenal images can precede return of adrenocortical function after o,p' DDD treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparagana, M.; Ackerman, L.

    1988-05-01

    A patient with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, due to the ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) syndrome, received a 3-month course of treatment with 1,1 dichloro-2(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p' DDD), which caused adrenal hypofunction requiring steroid therapy. Eleven months later, Cushing's syndrome recurred. His CT scan showed a left adrenal gland that was enlarged and a normal-sized right adrenal gland. However, the NP-59 image showed increased uptake by both glands. Venous effluent was sampled from each adrenal vein. The plasma cortisol level from the left gland was 1392 ng/ml, and that from the right gland was 667 ng/ml. The latter value was not significantly different from the values obtained at peripheral sites (517-744 ng/ml). In the course of recovery from o,p' DDD damage, the ability of the adrenal gland to take up NP-59 may be restored before the return of its biosynthetic and secretory functions. Serial NP-59 adrenal images can anticipate the recurrence of Cushing's syndrome after adrenolytic therapy, thereby permitting early retreatment.

  4. Complex Genital Malformation in a Female with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Evaluation with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klessen, C.; Asbach, P.; Hein, P. A.; Beyersdorff, D.; Hamm, B.; Taupitz, M. [Humboldt-Univ. of Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-12-01

    This is a case of complex genital malformation in a young patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings included ostium of the vagina into the urethra (common urogenital opening), prostate-like tissue surrounding the urethra, and hyperplasia of the left adrenal gland. The report provides information on the clinical findings, the MRI examination, including the applied sequences and the MR findings, and gives an overview of the disease pattern and its frequency of occurrence.

  5. [Unilateral spontaneous adrenal hematoma: an unusual cause of retroperitoneal hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrell, J R; Alcover, J; Alcaraz, A; Llopis, J; Gutierrez, R; Barranco, M A; Carretero, P

    1996-01-01

    Presentation of one case of spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage in a 72 year-old male, his first symptom being a left retrothoracic pain of sudden onset. The supplementary studies performed (ultrasound, CAT and MNR) pointed to the adrenal gland as the origin of the haemorrhage. Faced eith the uncertainty of the etiological diagnosis, a left supra-renalectomy was conducted which confirmed the pathological anatomy of the piece and the presence of massive haematoma of the suprarenal gland with no other pathological data. The clinical, diagnostic and therapeutical aspects are discussed.

  6. Severe Psychotic Disorder as the Main Manifestation of Adrenal Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Julia de Lima; Lauand, Carolina Villar; Chequi, Lucas; Fortunato, Enrico; Pasqualino, Felipe; Bignotto, Luis Henrique; Batista, Rafael Loch; Aprahamian, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of severe psychotic disorder as the only manifestation of primary adrenal insufficiency. A 63-year-old man presented with psychotic symptoms without any prior psychiatric history. During the clinical and laboratorial investigation, exams revealed a normovolemic hyponatremia. The patient showed no other clinical signs or symptoms compatible with adrenal insufficiency but displayed very high ACTH and low serum cortisol concentrations. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no significant changes, including the pituitary gland. The patient was initially treated with intravenous corticosteroids, resulting in rapid remission of the psychotic symptoms. The association between adrenal insufficiency and neuropsychiatric symptoms is rare but these symptoms can often be the first clinical presentation of the disease. PMID:25954562

  7. Severe Psychotic Disorder as the Main Manifestation of Adrenal Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia de Lima Farah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of severe psychotic disorder as the only manifestation of primary adrenal insufficiency. A 63-year-old man presented with psychotic symptoms without any prior psychiatric history. During the clinical and laboratorial investigation, exams revealed a normovolemic hyponatremia. The patient showed no other clinical signs or symptoms compatible with adrenal insufficiency but displayed very high ACTH and low serum cortisol concentrations. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no significant changes, including the pituitary gland. The patient was initially treated with intravenous corticosteroids, resulting in rapid remission of the psychotic symptoms. The association between adrenal insufficiency and neuropsychiatric symptoms is rare but these symptoms can often be the first clinical presentation of the disease.

  8. Primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with adrenal hemorrhage in a child : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hun; Lee, Soo Hyun; Kim, Hyun Joo; Yoo, Han Wook; Yoon, Chong Hyun [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-11-01

    Primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a disease that is clinically diagnosed if a patient suffers recurrent thromboses, stroke, recurrent fetal loss, livedo reticularis, and thrombocytopenia, without evidence of systemic lupus erythematosus or other connective diseases. Adrenal hemorrhage in a patient with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a rarely recognized, but potentially catastrophic disorder. We recently encountered bilateral adrenal hemorrhaging in a child with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and casem as well as reviewing the literature.

  9. Adrenal enlargement and failure of suppression of circulating cortisol by dexamethasone in patients with malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, P J; Sohaib, S A; Trainer, P J; Lister, T A; Besser, G M; Reznek, R

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this study was to further elucidate the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with malignancy and to correlate this with the size of the adrenal glands. Fourteen patients with a variety of malignancies were studied prior to receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy. During routine staging computerized tomographic (CT) scans, the size of the body, medial and lateral limbs of the adrenal glands were measured and compared with those of a normal group of patients studied previously. Measurements of 09:00 h serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels were made before and after the administration of dexamethasone (0.5 mg 6-hourly for 48 h) in addition to the peak cortisol response to i.v corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH). Overall, patients with malignancy had significantly larger adrenal glands than patients without malignancy; those with non-haematological malignancies had larger glands than patients with haematological malignancies. Following dexamethasone to suppress circulating cortisol levels, nine patients (64%) demonstrated abnormal resistance with cortisol levels > 50 nmol l(-1): mean value 294 nmol l(-1) (range 67-1147). Those patients who failed to suppress after dexamethasone had significantly larger adrenal glands than those that did suppress and tended to have non-haematological malignancies. ACTH levels were undetectable or low in three patients in whom it was measured and who did not suppress with dexamethasone. Following CRH, the cortisol levels were highest (823 and 853 nmol l(-1)) in two of these patients. Malignancy is associated with diffuse enlargement of the adrenal glands and resistance to dexamethasone-induced suppression of the HPA axis, which is not due to ectopic ACTH secretion. This disturbance of the normal control of the HPA axis is unexplained and its functional significance remains uncertain.

  10. A case of adrenal tumour in a lion (Panthera leo: tomographic and ultrasonographic findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Longo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal gland tumors are common in humans and in several animal species. Studies concerning this neoplasia in human medicine indicate that clinical signs have a high variability. Adrenal adenomas can be occasionally observed in asymptomatic patients during tomographic studies while estrogen-secreting tumors, known as "feminizing adrenal tumors" (FATs, have been rarely reported. The aim of this study is to describe for the first time the Imaging findings of a captivity lion affected by a neoplastic secreting adrenal tumour. An 8 year-old male lion with progressive lack of secondary sex characteristics, disorexia and weight loss was referred to our Institution. The patient was chemically immobilized to undergo general clinical evaluation, hematologic, serum biochemical and hormonal profile, FIV and FeLV tests. Three months later a total body computed tomography and abdominal ultrasonography were performed. Liver and left adrenal lesions FNABs were performed. Imaging findings showed the presence of an extended expansive neoplastic lesion on the left adrenal gland (40x39x37 mm with right adrenal gland atrophy. Generalized hepatopathy associated with a suspected intrahepatic cholestasis was confirmed by ultrasonography. Cytological evaluation ruled out the presence of neuroendocrine cells without malignancy evidences compatible with the adenomatous nature of the lesion, associated with moderate degenerative hepatopathy. Blood tests reported an estradiol concentration of 462 ng/dl. To our knowledge, this is the first description of adrenal mass in a lion associated with secondary feminization, inappetence and high values of hematic estradiol, referable to a feminizing adrenal tumor (FAT. 

  11. Cisplatin-induced peptic ulcers, vagotomy, adrenal and calcium modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, S K; San Antonio, J D; Sokhansanj, A; Miller, C

    1994-04-01

    Cytochemical and autoradiographic studies in Wistar rats [Crl:(WI)BR] show that cisplatin treatment (9 mg/kg) inhibits the release of acetylcholine from the axonal endings of the stomach smooth muscle resulting in bloating of the stomach and ulceration. Cisplatin also induces corticosteroid release from the adrenal gland stimulating peptic ulceration. Vagotomy helps ameliorate the effect but not eliminate it. Calcium supplementation restores normal neuromuscular function to gastric smooth muscle, thereby eliminating the gastro-intestinal toxicity due to cisplatin.

  12. Imaging of adrenal disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, S. (Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1982-03-01

    Adrenal scintillation scanning, CT and ultrasonography are compared with the conventional imaging methods. The accuracy of retroperitoneal pneumography and adrenal venography are not high, and they detected only large tumors such as Cushing's syndrome and pheochromocytoma. Scintillation scanning is highly effective for the diagnoses of primary aldosteronism and Cushing's syndrome. However, this technique does not visualize pheochromocytoma or hypopituitarism. CT is noninvasive and of high diagnostic value. It is impossible to diagnose tumors by ultrasonography unless the size is more than 3 cm.

  13. Nonclassic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Feldman Witchel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH due to P450c21 (21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive disorder. This disorder is due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene which is located at chromosome 6p21. The clinical features predominantly reflect androgen excess rather than adrenal insufficiency leading to an ascertainment bias favoring diagnosis in females. Treatment goals include normal linear growth velocity and “on-time” puberty in affected children. For adolescent and adult women, treatment goals include regularization of menses, prevention of progression of hirsutism, and fertility. This paper will review key aspects regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NCAH.

  14. Primary adrenal lymphoma causing hypoaldosteronism in a cat

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    Jessica F Romine

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 10-year-old, 5.1 kg (11.2 lb, male castrated cat was presented with signs of lethargy and decreased appetite at home after being previously healthy. Serum biochemical analysis identified normokalemia (5.1 mmol/l; reference interval [RI] 3.4–5.6 mmol/l and severe hyponatremia (123 mmol/l; RI 145–158 mmol/l, with an Na/K ratio of 24 (RI 32–41. Baseline serum cortisol was low to normal, but serum aldosterone was markedly decreased with a pre-adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation concentration of 13 pmol/l (RI 194–388 pmol/l and post-adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation concentration of 21 pmol/l (RI 277–721 pmol/l. Hematologic and biochemical analyses were otherwise unremarkable. Abdominal ultrasound revealed bilaterally enlarged adrenal glands with no other abnormalities noted; thoracic radiographs also did not identify any signs of metastasis. Fine-needle aspiration was strongly suggestive of lymphoma of the adrenal glands, and PCR for antigen receptor rearrangement was positive for B-cell clonal expansion; based on these findings, a diagnosis of primary adrenal B-cell lymphoma was made. Stable disease was achieved for a short period of time following vincristine, cyclophosphamide, prednisolone and fludrocortisone therapy, followed by progressive adrenal enlargement and electrolyte derangements that responded to neither doxorubicin nor adjustments in fludrocortisone dosage. Ultrasonographic metastasis was not identified at any time, and other organ derangements were not noted on hematologic or biochemical analyses. The cat was euthanized 55 days after initial presentation. Relevance and novel information This is the first report of primary adrenal lymphoma in a cat, with presenting signs compatible with hypoaldosteronism. Lymphoma should be a differential for cats presenting with adrenal enlargement or clinical signs and biochemical changes consistent with hypoaldosteronism or hypoadrenocorticism.

  15. A review of the anatomy and clinical significance of adrenal veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesmebasi, Alper; Du Plessis, Maira; Iannatuono, Mark; Shah, Sameer; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2014-11-01

    The adrenal veins may present with a multitude of anatomical variants, which surgeons must be aware of when performing adrenalectomies. The adrenal veins originate during the formation of the prerenal inferior vena cava (IVC) and are remnants of the caudal portion of the subcardinal veins, cranial to the subcardinal sinus in the embryo. The many communications between the posterior cardinal, supracardinal, and subcardinal veins of the primordial venous system provide an explanation for the variable anatomy. Most commonly, one central vein drains each adrenal gland. The long left adrenal vein joins the inferior phrenic vein and drains into the left renal vein, while the short right adrenal vein drains immediately into the IVC. Multiple variations exist bilaterally and may pose the risk of surgical complications. Due to the potential for collaterals and accessory adrenal vessels, great caution must be taken during an adrenalectomy. Adrenal venous sampling, the gold standard in diagnosing primary hyperaldosteronism, also requires the clinician to have a thorough knowledge of the adrenal vein anatomy to avoid iatrogenic injury. The adrenal vein acts as an important conduit in portosystemic shunts, thus the nature of the anatomy and hypercoagulable states pose the risk of thrombosis.

  16. Adrenal metastasis as first presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharakis Evangelos

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC can be found in the lung and adrenal gland. We report case of a patient who presented with adrenal metastasis as the first clinical manifestation of HCC. Case presentation A patient was referred for surgical treatment for a tumor in retro-peritoneal space. The computerized tomography (CT scan revealed a mass originating from the left adrenal gland. The patient underwent left adrenalectomy and the exploration of abdominal cavity did not reveal any other palpable lesions. Histologically, the resected lesion was a poorly differentiated metastatic tumor from HCC. Seven months later patient was readmitted complaining of cachexia, icterus, and significant weight loss. CT scan revealed hyperdense lesions of the liver Conclusion HCC may have atypical presentations like in present case. Fine needle aspiration/tru-cut® biopsy might be useful in the investigation of an accidentally discovered adrenal mass regardless of the size and can lead to the detection of a primary tumor.

  17. Adrenal GRK2 upregulation mediates sympathetic overdrive in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperopoulos, Anastasios; Rengo, Giuseppe; Funakoshi, Hajime; Eckhart, Andrea D; Koch, Walter J

    2007-03-01

    Cardiac overstimulation by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is a salient characteristic of heart failure, reflected by elevated circulating levels of catecholamines. The success of beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) antagonists in heart failure argues for SNS hyperactivity being pathogenic; however, sympatholytic agents targeting alpha2AR-mediated catecholamine inhibition have been unsuccessful. By investigating adrenal adrenergic receptor signaling in heart failure models, we found molecular mechanisms to explain the failure of sympatholytic agents and discovered a new strategy to lower SNS activity. During heart failure, there is substantial alpha2AR dysregulation in the adrenal gland, triggered by increased expression and activity of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2). Adrenal gland-specific GRK2 inhibition reversed alpha2AR dysregulation in heart failure, resulting in lowered plasma catecholamine levels, improved cardiac betaAR signaling and function, and increased sympatholytic efficacy of a alpha2AR agonist. This is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of a molecular mechanism for SNS hyperactivity in heart failure, and our study identifies adrenal GRK2 activity as a new sympatholytic target.

  18. Adrenal venous sampling in a patient with adrenal Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Builes-Montaño, Carlos Esteban; Villa-Franco, Carlos Andrés; Román-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Velez-Hoyos, Alejandro; Echeverri-Isaza, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    The primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia or the independent adrenocorticotropic hormone bilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause hypercortisolism, its diagnosis is challenging and there is no clear way to decide the best therapeutic approach. Adrenal venous sampling is commonly used to distinguish the source of hormonal production in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism. It could be a useful tool in this context because it might provide information to guide the treatment. We report the case of a patient with ACTH independent Cushing syndrome in whom the use of adrenal venous sampling with some modifications radically modified the treatment and allowed the diagnosis of a macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.

  19. Adrenal failure followed by status epilepticus and hemolytic anemia in primary antiphospholipid syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bures Vladimir

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on a 14 year old boy who presented with the symptoms abdominal pain, fever and proteinuria. A hematoma in the region of the right pararenal space was diagnosed. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged, lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies were positive and serum cortisol was normal. Ten days after admission the boy suddenly suffered generalized seizures due to low serum sodium. As well, the patient developed hemolytic anemia, acute elevated liver enzymes, hematuria and increased proteinuria. At this time a second hemorrhage of the left adrenal gland was documented. Adrenal function tests revealed adrenal insufficiency. We suspected microthromboses in the adrenals and secondary bleeding and treated the boy with hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone and phenprocoumon. Conclusion Adrenal failure is a rare complication of APS in children with only five cases reported to date. As shown in our patient, this syndrome can manifest in a diverse set of simultaneously occurring symptoms.

  20. A Rare Adrenal Mass in a 3-Month-Old: A Case Report and Literature Review

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    Ashish Garg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-month-old female infant presented with abdominal distention for 2 months. A large palpable mass in right upper quadrant was noted on physical exam. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a large heterogeneous mass with multiple cystic components. Mass was surgically excised and pathology was consistent with mature adrenal teratoma. Teratoma is a germ cell tumor mainly found in gonadal tissues. Occurrence of adrenal gland teratoma in children is very rare with less than 10 pediatric case reports in English literature. We present a rare case of primary adrenal tumor in an infant and a review of the literature.

  1. Adrenal Ganglioneuroblastoma in Adults: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Stefano Benedini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidentally discovered adrenal masses are very common given the increased number of imaging studies performed in recent years. We here report a clinical case of a 20-year-old woman who presented with left flank pain. Ultrasound examination revealed a contralateral adrenal mass, which was confirmed at computed tomography (CT scan. Hormonal hypersecretion was excluded. Given the size (11 × 10 × 7 cm and the uncertain nature of the mass, it was surgically removed and sent for pathological analyses. Conclusive diagnosis was ganglioneuroblastoma. Ganglioneuroblastoma is an uncommon malignant tumor, extremely rare in adults, particularly in females. This neoplasm is frequently localized in adrenal gland.

  2. Large bilateral adrenal metastases in non-small cell lung cancer

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    Karanikiotis Charisios

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adrenal gland is one of the common sites of metastasis from primary lung cancer. Adrenal metastases are usually unilateral however bilateral adrenal metastases are seen in 10% of all lung cancer patients; of these 2–3% occurs at the initial presentation of non-small cell lung cancer. Secondary tumors can disrupt the structure and function of the adrenal. This can lead to adrenal hemorrhage, which constitutes a life threatening hazard for the patient. Case presentation A 59-year-old male presented with persisting abdominal pain. His initial work-up revealed significant anemia, an invasive process in the right upper lobe of the lung and large masses of heterogeneous texture, with hemorrhagic and necrotic elements in both adrenal glands. A biopsy confirmed it to be a large-cell carcinoma of the lungs. The patient developed severe leukocytosis akin to the paraneoplastic syndrome and died suddenly five days after the administration of chemotherapy. Conclusion Intratumoral hemorrhage is a rare but life threatening complication of adrenal metastases and should be treated as soon as it has been diagnosed. If adrenalectomy is not feasible, combination chemotherapy should be applied as in metastatic disease. For choosing the appropriate chemotherapeutic regimen it is important to accurately achieve the diagnosis.

  3. Chronic cardiac pressure overload induces adrenal medulla hypertrophy and increased catecholamine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Johanna; Lother, Achim; Hein, Lutz; Gilsbach, Ralf

    2011-06-01

    Increased activity of the sympathetic system is an important feature contributing to the pathogenesis and progression of chronic heart failure. While the mechanisms and consequences of enhanced norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerves have been intensely studied, the role of the adrenal gland in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and progression of heart failure is less well known. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of chronic cardiac pressure overload in mice on adrenal medulla structure and function. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in wild-type mice by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 8 weeks. After TAC, the degree of cardiac hypertrophy correlated significantly with adrenal weight and adrenal catecholamine storage. In the medulla, TAC caused an increase in chromaffin cell size but did not result in chromaffin cell proliferation. Ablation of chromaffin α(2C)-adrenoceptors did not affect adrenal weight or epinephrine synthesis. However, unilateral denervation of the adrenal gland completely prevented adrenal hypertrophy and increased catecholamine synthesis. Transcriptome analysis of microdissected adrenal medulla identified 483 up- and 231 downregulated, well-annotated genes after TAC. Among these genes, G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 (Grk2) and 6 and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (Pnmt) were significantly upregulated by TAC. In vitro, acetylcholine-induced Pnmt and Grk2 expression as well as enhanced epinephrine content was prevented by inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent signaling. Thus, activation of preganglionic sympathetic nerves innervating the adrenal medulla plays an essential role in inducing adrenal hypertrophy, enhanced catecholamine synthesis and induction of Grk2 expression after cardiac pressure overload.

  4. Vigilancia Fetal

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    SAONA UGARTE, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    La percepción de la actividad fetal por la madre es la técnica más antigua y menos costosa de controlar el bienestar fetal. Tradicionalmente se ha considerado la disminución o ausencia de movimientos fetales percibidos por la madre, como una señal de alarma, en especial cuando existe insuficiencia útero placentaria. Varios investigadores han descrito el valor del registro diario de movimientos fetales como un método para identificar el feto en peligrote morir. El poder discernir si el feto se...

  5. Double-hit primary unilateral adrenal lymphoma with good outcome

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    Marković Olivera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary adrenal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL is a rare neoplasm with poor prognosis. On the other side, double-hit lymphomas with BCL2 and MYC translocation are characterized by advanced disease stage, extranodal and central nervous system involvements at presentation or disease progression. Case report. We reported a 73-year-old male patient with double-hit primary adrenal lymphoma and preserved adrenal function, showing a favorable clinical course. Computed tomography of abdomen showed a 9 7 cm mass of the left adrenal gland. Laparatomy with left adrenalectomy was done and histological examination revealed diagnosis of a diffuse large B-cell NHL (DLBCL, non-GCB subtype. The patient was treated with 6 cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy with reduced doses of doxorubicin because of the decreased left verticle ejection fraction. The patient was followed up regularly for 20 months with no evidence of tumor recurrence despite the inherently poor prognostic profile and double-hit phenotype of the disease. Conclusion. R-CHOP chemotherapy in combination with adrenalectomy can be an effective first-line regimen for primary adrenal DLBCL, despite the inherently poor prognostic profile (non-GCB subtype, bulky disease, elevated lactate dehydrogenase and double-hit phenotype of the disease.

  6. The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in routine clinical practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davenport, Colin

    2012-02-01

    The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma (AI) on computed tomography (CT) in the general population has been reported to be as high as 4.2%. However, many of the previous studies in this field utilised a prospective approach with analysis of CT scans performed by one or more radiologists with a specialist interest in adrenal tumours and a specific focus on identifying the presence of an adrenal mass. A typical radiology department, with a focus on the patient\\'s presenting complaint as opposed to the adrenal gland, may not be expected to diagnose as many adrenal incidentalomas as would be identified in a dedicated research protocol. We hypothesised that the number of AI reported in routine clinical practice is significantly lower than the published figures would suggest. We retrospectively reviewed the reports of all CT thorax and abdomen scans performed in our hospital over a 2 year period. 3,099 patients underwent imaging, with 3,705 scans performed. The median age was 63 years (range 18-98). Thirty-seven true AI were diagnosed during the time period studied. Twenty-two were diagnosed by CT abdomen (22\\/2,227) and 12 by CT thorax (12\\/1,478), a prevalence of 0.98 and 0.81% with CT abdomen and thorax, respectively, for AI in routine clinical practice.

  7. The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in routine clinical practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davenport, Colin

    2011-03-10

    The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma (AI) on computed tomography (CT) in the general population has been reported to be as high as 4.2%. However, many of the previous studies in this field utilised a prospective approach with analysis of CT scans performed by one or more radiologists with a specialist interest in adrenal tumours and a specific focus on identifying the presence of an adrenal mass. A typical radiology department, with a focus on the patient\\'s presenting complaint as opposed to the adrenal gland, may not be expected to diagnose as many adrenal incidentalomas as would be identified in a dedicated research protocol. We hypothesised that the number of AI reported in routine clinical practice is significantly lower than the published figures would suggest. We retrospectively reviewed the reports of all CT thorax and abdomen scans performed in our hospital over a 2 year period. 3,099 patients underwent imaging, with 3,705 scans performed. The median age was 63 years (range 18-98). Thirty-seven true AI were diagnosed during the time period studied. Twenty-two were diagnosed by CT abdomen (22\\/2,227) and 12 by CT thorax (12\\/1,478), a prevalence of 0.98 and 0.81% with CT abdomen and thorax, respectively, for AI in routine clinical practice.

  8. Aldo-Keto Reductases 1B in Adrenal Cortex Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastel, Emilie; Pointud, Jean-Christophe; Martinez, Antoine; Lefrançois-Martinez, A Marie

    2016-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AKR1B) proteins are monomeric enzymes, belonging to the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. They perform oxidoreduction of carbonyl groups from a wide variety of substrates, such as aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes or ketones. Due to the involvement of human aldose reductases in pathologies, such as diabetic complications and cancer, AKR1B subgroup enzymatic properties have been extensively characterized. However, the issue of AKR1B function in non-pathologic conditions remains poorly resolved. Adrenal activities generated large amount of harmful aldehydes from lipid peroxidation and steroidogenesis, including 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and isocaproaldehyde (4-methylpentanal), which can both be reduced by AKR1B proteins. More recently, some AKR1B isoforms have been shown to be endowed with prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS) activity, suggesting that, in addition to possible scavenger function, they could instigate paracrine signals. Interestingly, the adrenal gland is one of the major sites for human and murine AKR1B expression, suggesting that their detoxifying/signaling activity could be specifically required for the correct handling of adrenal function. Moreover, chronic effects of ACTH result in a coordinated regulation of genes encoding the steroidogenic enzymes and some AKR1B isoforms. This review presents the molecular mechanisms accounting for the adrenal-specific expression of some AKR1B genes. Using data from recent mouse genetic models, we will try to connect their enzymatic properties and regulation with adrenal functions.

  9. Adrenal and gonadal function in hypothyroid adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohei, A; Akai, M; Tomabechi, T; Mamada, M; Taya, K

    1997-01-01

    The functional relationship between thyroid, adrenal and gonadal hormones was investigated using adult male rats. Hypothyroidism was produced by the administration of 4-methyl-2-thiouracil (thiouracil) in the drinking water for 2 weeks. Plasma concentrations of TSH dramatically increased, whereas plasma concentrations of tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine decreased in thiouraciltreated rats as compared with euthyroid rats. Hypothyroidism increased basal levels of plasma ACTH and pituitary content of ACTH. The pituitary responsiveness to CRH for ACTH release markedly increased, whereas the adrenal responsiveness to ACTH for corticosterone release decreased. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction in adult male rats. Pituitary contents of LH and prolactin decreased in hypothyroid rats as compared with euthyroid rats. In addition, hypothyroidism lowered pituitary LH responsiveness to LHRH. Testicular responsiveness to human chorionic gonadotrophin for testosterone release, however, was not different between euthyroid and hypothyroid animals. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction and results in hypersecretion of ACTH from the pituitary gland. Adrenal dysfunction may contribute to the inhibition of LHRH secretion from the hypothalamus, possibly mediated by excess CRH.

  10. Experience with surgical treatment for primary malignant adrenal tumors

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    V. R. Latypov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adrenal tumors occur in 3–10 % of the population and are mostly benign adrenal cortical tumors. Adrenocortical carcinoma is a very rare tumor and has an annual incidence of 1–2 cases per million people. The U.S. National Cancer Data Base registered 4275 patients with adrenocortical carcinoma in 1985 to 2007. It is extremely difficult to assess Russia’s epidemiological data, as reports on adrenocortical carcinoma are not presented separately.Materials and methods. A total of 133 patients (49 men and 84 women (1:1.7 with adrenal tumors were operated on at the clinics of the Siberian State Medical University in the period December 1998 to March 2015. The patients’ mean age was 51.3 (16–80 years (median age 51.0 years. The right and left adrenal glands were affected in 49 (36.9 % and 77 (57.9 % patients, respectively; both adrenal glands were involved in 7 (5.3 %. A group of 21 (15.8 % people with primary malignant adrenal tumors was identified among all the patients. The clinical manifestations of the disease were evaluated from the presence of hormonal activity, gastrointestinal symptoms, pain syndrome, and hypertension. All the patients were operated on under endotracheal anesthesia. The data were statistically processed using the program package Statistica 6.0. Survival rates were analyzed by the Kaplan–Meier method. The Gehan–Wilcoxon test was used to compare the groups.Results. The investigation analyzed treatment results in 21 (15.8 % patients with primary malignant adrenal lesions (Group 1. The most common morphological form was adrenocortical carcinoma in 15 (11.3 % patients (5 men and 10 women (1:2; their mean age was 48.1 years. The right, left, and both adrenal glands were affected in 4, 9, and 2 cases, respectively. In Group 2, other malignant adrenal involvements were identified from 1 case of rare malignant adrenal tumors: malignant pheochromocytoma, sarcoma, melanoma, squamous cell

  11. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor - in utero and postnatal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Elluru, Ravindhra G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of an infant with congenital salivary gland anlage tumor, with fetal and postnatal imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing the in utero imaging findings of salivary gland anlage tumor. A fetal MRI was performed secondary to the clinical finding of polyhydramnios, which identified a nasopharyngeal mass. Because findings were concerning for airway obstruction, the fetus was delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to airway procedure. A postnatal CT confirmed the findings of the fetal MRI. The lesion was resected when the baby was 4 days old and recovery was uneventful. (orig.)

  12. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor - in utero and postnatal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A; Lim, Foong-Yen; Elluru, Ravindhra G; Koch, Bernadette L

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of an infant with congenital salivary gland anlage tumor, with fetal and postnatal imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing the in utero imaging findings of salivary gland anlage tumor. A fetal MRI was performed secondary to the clinical finding of polyhydramnios, which identified a nasopharyngeal mass. Because findings were concerning for airway obstruction, the fetus was delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to airway procedure. A postnatal CT confirmed the findings of the fetal MRI. The lesion was resected when the baby was 4 days old and recovery was uneventful.

  13. Cystic adrenal lesions: focus on pediatric population (a review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsote, Mara; Ghemigian, Adina; Terzea, Dana; Gheorghisan-Galateanu, Ancuta Augustina; Valea, Ana

    2017-01-01

    The cysts may potentially affect any organ; adrenals cysts are rare. This is a review of the literature regarding adrenal cysts, focusing on children and young adults. Three major types have been described: pure cysts (endothelial, epithelial, and hemorrhagic or pseudocyst), parasitic (as hydatid) cysts and cystic part of a tumour (most frequent are neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroma, pheocromocytoma, and teratoma). The complications are: bleeding, local pressure effects; infection; rupture (including post-traumatic); arterial hypertension due to renal vessels compression. Adrenal hemorrhage represents a particular condition associating precipitating factors such as: coagulation defects as Factor IX or X deficiency, von Willebrand disease, thrombocytopenia; antiphospholipid syndrome; previous therapy with clopidogrel or corticosteroids; the rupture of a prior tumour. At birth, the most suggestive features are abdominal palpable mass, anemia, and persistent jaundice. Adrenal insufficiency may be found especially in premature delivery. The hemorrhage is mostly self-limiting. Antenatal ultrasound diagnosis of a cyst does not always predict the exact pathology result. The most important differential diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage/hemorrhagic cyst is cystic neuroblastoma which is highly suggestive in the presence of distant metastases and abnormal catecholamine profile. The major clue to differentiate the two conditions is the fact that the tumor is stable or increases over time while the adrenal hemorrhage is expected to remit within one to two weeks. Pediatric adrenal cysts vary from simple cysts with a benign behavior to neoplasia- related lesions displaying severe prognosis as seen in cystic neuroblastoma. A multidisciplinary team is required for their management which is conservative as close follow-up or it makes necessary different surgical procedures in cases with large masses or if a malignancy suspicion is presented. Recently, laparoscopic approach is regarded as

  14. Clinical Characteristics for 348 Patients with Adrenal Incidentaloma

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    Jongho Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAdrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal neoplasm frequently encountered in clinical practice for which detection rates have recently increased. We describe here the clinical characteristics of adrenal incidentalomas.MethodsA retrospective study was performed examining the age, sex, location, size, function, and the histological findings for 348 patients with an adrenal mass discovered incidentally on computed tomography (CT undertaken for health examination or nonadrenal disease from August 2005 to May 2012.ResultsPatients consisted of 156 males (44.8% and 192 females (55.2%, aged between 20 and 86. Adrenal masses were most commonly found in patients in their sixth decade (32.5%. Regarding the location of the masses, 62.0% were found in the left adrenal gland, 30.2% were found in the right, and 7.8% were found bilaterally. Of all of the masses analyzed, 87.1% were 1 to 4 cm in size, and an adenoma-like appearance was the most common finding (75.3% seen on CT scans. Hormonal analysis showed that 82.2% of the masses were nonfunctioning, 6.0% were diagnosed as subclinical Cushing's syndrome, 4.6% were aldosterone-producing adenomas, and 7.2% were pheochromocytomas. Adrenalectomy was performed in a total of 69 patients having adenoma (50.7%, pheochromocytoma (24.6%, and carcinoma (4.3%.ConclusionThe characteristics of benign, malignant, nonfunctional, and functional adrenal masses that were incidentally found at our hospital were similar to those presented in other studies.

  15. Case Report: An incidentaloma that catches your eye - adrenal myelolipoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addosio, Rosanna; Rojas, Joselyn; Bermúdez, Valmore; Ledesma, Flor; Hoedebecke, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    Background: Adrenal incidentaloma refers to the incidental finding of a tumor in the adrenal gland, where nonfunctional forms are the most common variant. Myelolipoma is a rare (0.08-0.4%) occurrence characterized by adipose and hematopoietic tissue. The aim of this case report is to describe the diagnosis and appropriate management of a myelolipoma in an asymptomatic patient, which was originally considered an incidental hepatic hemangioma prior to being identified as a giant adrenal adenoma. Case description: The patient was a 54 year old obese female with a recent diagnosis of diabetes type II and dyslipidemia with recent ultrasound imaging suggestive of a hepatic hemangioma. An MRI was performed revealing a 7x6cm lesion in the right adrenal area indicating a giant adrenal adenoma. An adrenalectomy was performed without complications. The pathology report identified a myelolipoma. Discussion: The incidence of myelolipoma has recently increased due to advances in radiological techniques. Its etiology is unclear and the most accepted theories support a myeloid cell metaplasia in the embryonic stage as a result of stress, infections, or adrenocorticotropic hormone or erythropoietin stimulus. Contributing components may include bone morphogenetic protein 2 and β-catenin, as well as the presence of the chromosomal translocation (3, 21) (q25; p11). Despite its benign nature, the association with other adrenal lipomas must be ruled out. A biochemical evaluation is essential for detecting subclinical states, such as Cushing syndrome and pheochromocytoma. Conclusion: Adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign tumors that are generally asymptomatic. Uncertainty still exists surrounding their etiology. Surgical management depends on hormone production, tumor size, high risk features on imaging and patient consent.  Additional information is needed to better understand myelolipomas, their etiology, and clinical management.  Incidentalomas may confuse the physician and patient

  16. Case Report: An incidentaloma that catches your eye - adrenal myelolipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addosio, Rosanna; Rojas, Joselyn; Bermúdez, Valmore; Ledesma, Flor; Hoedebecke, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    Background: Adrenal incidentaloma refers to the incidental finding of a tumor in the adrenal gland, where nonfunctional forms are the most common variant. Myelolipoma is a rare (0.08-0.4%) occurrence characterized by adipose and hematopoietic tissue. The aim of this case report is to describe the diagnosis and appropriate management of a myelolipoma in an asymptomatic patient, which was originally considered an incidental hepatic hemangioma prior to being identified as a giant adrenal adenoma. Case description: The patient was a 54 year old obese female with a recent diagnosis of diabetes type II and dyslipidemia with recent ultrasound imaging suggestive of a hepatic hemangioma. An MRI was performed revealing a 7x6cm lesion in the right adrenal area indicating a giant adrenal adenoma. An adrenalectomy was performed without complications. The pathology report identified a myelolipoma. Discussion: The incidence of myelolipoma has recently increased due to advances in radiological techniques. Its etiology is unclear and the most accepted theories support a myeloid cell metaplasia in the embryonic stage as a result of stress, infections, or adrenocorticotropic hormone or erythropoietin stimulus. Contributing components may include bone morphogenetic protein 2 and β-catenin, as well as the presence of the chromosomal translocation (3, 21) (q25; p11). Despite its benign nature, the association with other adrenal lipomas must be ruled out. A biochemical evaluation is essential for detecting subclinical states, such as Cushing syndrome and pheochromocytoma. Conclusion: Adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign tumors that are generally asymptomatic. Uncertainty still exists surrounding their etiology. Surgical management depends on hormone production, tumor size, high risk features on imaging and patient consent.  Additional information is needed to better understand myelolipomas, their etiology, and clinical management.  Incidentalomas may confuse the physician and patient

  17. Cystic adrenal lesions: focus on pediatric population (a review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARSOTE, MARA; GHEMIGIAN, ADINA; TERZEA, DANA; GHEORGHISAN-GALATEANU, ANCUTA AUGUSTINA; VALEA, ANA

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim The cysts may potentially affect any organ; adrenals cysts are rare. This is a review of the literature regarding adrenal cysts, focusing on children and young adults. General data Three major types have been described: pure cysts (endothelial, epithelial, and hemorrhagic or pseudocyst), parasitic (as hydatid) cysts and cystic part of a tumour (most frequent are neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroma, pheocromocytoma, and teratoma). The complications are: bleeding, local pressure effects; infection; rupture (including post-traumatic); arterial hypertension due to renal vessels compression. Adrenal hemorrhage represents a particular condition associating precipitating factors such as: coagulation defects as Factor IX or X deficiency, von Willebrand disease, thrombocytopenia; antiphospholipid syndrome; previous therapy with clopidogrel or corticosteroids; the rupture of a prior tumour. At birth, the most suggestive features are abdominal palpable mass, anemia, and persistent jaundice. Adrenal insufficiency may be found especially in premature delivery. The hemorrhage is mostly self-limiting. Antenatal ultrasound diagnosis of a cyst does not always predict the exact pathology result. The most important differential diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage/hemorrhagic cyst is cystic neuroblastoma which is highly suggestive in the presence of distant metastases and abnormal catecholamine profile. The major clue to differentiate the two conditions is the fact that the tumor is stable or increases over time while the adrenal hemorrhage is expected to remit within one to two weeks. Conclusion Pediatric adrenal cysts vary from simple cysts with a benign behavior to neoplasia- related lesions displaying severe prognosis as seen in cystic neuroblastoma. A multidisciplinary team is required for their management which is conservative as close follow-up or it makes necessary different surgical procedures in cases with large masses or if a malignancy suspicion is presented

  18. CBS and CSE are critical for maintenance of mitochondrial function and glucocorticoid production in adrenal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang-Nan; Liu, Yu-Jian; Duan, Guo-Li; Zhao, Wei; Li, Xiao-Han; Zhu, Xiao-Yan; Ni, Xin

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondria are known to play a central role in adrenocortical steroidogenesis. Recently, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gaseous transmitter endogenously produced by cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), has been found to improve mitochondrial function. The present study aimed at examining whether CBS and CSE are expressed in adrenal glands, and investigated the role of these enzymes in the maintenance of mitochondrial function and the production of glucocorticoids in adrenocortical cells. Both CBS and CSE are present in murine adrenocortical cells and account for H2S generation in adrenal glands. Using a combination of both in vivo and in vitro approaches, we demonstrated that either CBS/CSE inhibitors or small interfering RNAs led to mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction, which meanwhile resulted in blunted corticosterone responses to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). These effects were significantly attenuated by the treatment of H2S donor GYY4137. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) also caused mitochondrial damage, thereby resulting in adrenal insufficiency. Moreover, LPS inhibited CBS/CSE expression and H2S production in adrenal glands, while H₂S donor GYY4137 protected against LPS-induced mitochondrial damage and hyporesponsiveness to ACTH. Local suppression of CBS or CSE in adrenal glands significantly increased the mortality in endotoxemic mice, which was also improved by GYY4137. The identification of endogenous H2S generation as critical regulators of adrenocortical responsiveness might result in the development of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of relative adrenal insufficiency during sepsis. Endogenous H₂S plays a critical role in the maintenance of mitochondrial function in the adrenal cortex, thereby resulting in an adequate adrenocortical response to ACTH.

  19. Quantitative trait locus mapping of genes associated with vacuolation in the adrenal X-zone of the DDD/Sgn inbred mouse

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    Suto Jun-ichi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adrenal gland of mice contains a transient zone between the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla: the X-zone. There are clear strain differences in terms of X-zone morphology. Nulliparous females of the inbred mouse DDD strain develop adrenal X-zones containing exclusively vacuolated cells, whereas females of the inbred mouse B6 strain develop X-zones containing only non-vacuolated cells. The X-zone vacuolation is a physiologic process associated with the X-zone degeneration and is tightly regulated by genetic factors. Identification of the genetic factors controlling such strain differences should help analyze the X-zone function. In this study, a quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis for the extent of X-zone vacuolation was performed for two types of F2 female mice: F2Ay mice (F2 mice with the Ay allele and F2 non-Ay mice (F2 mice without the Ay allele. These were produced by crossing B6 females and DDD.Cg-Ay males. DDD.Cg-Ay is a congenic mouse strain for the Ay allele at the agouti locus and is used for this study because a close association between the X-zone morphology and the agouti locus genotype has been suggested. The Ay allele is dominant and homozygous lethal; therefore, living Ay mice are invariably heterozygotes. Results Single QTL scans identified significant QTLs on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, and X for F2 non-Ay mice, and on chromosomes 2, 6, and 12 for F2Ay mice. The QTL on chromosome 2 was considered to be because of the agouti locus, which has been suggested to be associated with X-zone vacuolation. A significant QTL that interacted with the agouti locus was identified on chromosome 8. Conclusions The extent of X-zone vacuolation in DDD females was controlled by multiple genes with complex interactions. The murine X-zone is considered analogous structure to the human fetal zone. Therefore, the results of this study will aid in understanding function of not only of the X-zone but also of the human fetal zone

  20. Quantitative trait locus mapping of genes associated with vacuolation in the adrenal X-zone of the DDD/Sgn inbred mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Jun-Ichi

    2012-11-06

    Adrenal gland of mice contains a transient zone between the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla: the X-zone. There are clear strain differences in terms of X-zone morphology. Nulliparous females of the inbred mouse DDD strain develop adrenal X-zones containing exclusively vacuolated cells, whereas females of the inbred mouse B6 strain develop X-zones containing only non-vacuolated cells. The X-zone vacuolation is a physiologic process associated with the X-zone degeneration and is tightly regulated by genetic factors. Identification of the genetic factors controlling such strain differences should help analyze the X-zone function. In this study, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for the extent of X-zone vacuolation was performed for two types of F2 female mice: F2Ay mice (F2 mice with the Ay allele) and F2 non-Ay mice (F2 mice without the Ay allele). These were produced by crossing B6 females and DDD.Cg-Ay males. DDD.Cg-Ay is a congenic mouse strain for the Ay allele at the agouti locus and is used for this study because a close association between the X-zone morphology and the agouti locus genotype has been suggested. The Ay allele is dominant and homozygous lethal; therefore, living Ay mice are invariably heterozygotes. Single QTL scans identified significant QTLs on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, and X for F2 non-Ay mice, and on chromosomes 2, 6, and 12 for F2Ay mice. The QTL on chromosome 2 was considered to be because of the agouti locus, which has been suggested to be associated with X-zone vacuolation. A significant QTL that interacted with the agouti locus was identified on chromosome 8. The extent of X-zone vacuolation in DDD females was controlled by multiple genes with complex interactions. The murine X-zone is considered analogous structure to the human fetal zone. Therefore, the results of this study will aid in understanding function of not only of the X-zone but also of the human fetal zone. Identifying the genes responsible for the QTLs will be

  1. The postprandial rise in plasma cortisol in men is mediated by macronutrient-specific stimulation of adrenal and extra-adrenal cortisol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimson, Roland H; Mohd-Shukri, Nor A; Bolton, Jennifer L; Andrew, Ruth; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Walker, Brian R

    2014-01-01

    Circadian variation is a fundamental characteristic of plasma glucocorticoids, with a postprandial rise in cortisol an important feature. The diurnal rhythm is presumed to reflect alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity; however, cortisol is produced not only by the adrenal glands but also by regeneration from cortisone by the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, mainly in liver and adipose tissue. We tested the contribution of peripheral cortisol regeneration to macronutrient-induced circadian variation of plasma cortisol in humans. This was a randomized, single-blinded, crossover study. The study was conducted at a hospital research facility. Eight normal-weight healthy men participated in the study. Subjects were given isocaloric energy isodense flavor-matched liquid meals composed of carbohydrate, protein, fat, or low-calorie placebo during infusion of the stable isotope tracer 9,11,12,12-[2H]4-cortisol. Plasma cortisol increased similarly after all macronutrient meals (by ∼90 nmol/L) compared with placebo. Carbohydrate stimulated adrenal secretion and extra-adrenal regeneration of cortisol to a similar degree. Protein and fat meals stimulated adrenal cortisol secretion to a greater degree than extra-adrenal cortisol regeneration. The increase in cortisol production by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 was in proportion to the increase in insulin. The postprandial cortisol rise was not accounted for by decreased cortisol clearance. Food-induced circadian variation in plasma cortisol is mediated by adrenal secretion and extra-adrenal regeneration of cortisol. Given that the latter has the more potent effect on tissue cortisol concentrations and that effects on adrenal and extra-adrenal cortisol production are macronutrient specific, this novel mechanism may contribute to the physiological interplay between insulin and glucocorticoids and the contrasting effects of certain diets on postprandial metabolism.

  2. Bilateral primary adrenal lymphoma presenting with adrenal insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jakob; Breum, Leif; Stenfeldt, Katrine

    2012-01-01

    surgery was performed. A new computerized tomography scan showed rapid progression of disease with further enlargement of the adrenal masses and both pulmonary and hepatic metastasis. Needle biopsy was performed but the patient refused further treatment and died before a diagnosis was obtained....... The immuneohistochemical diagnosis was large B-cell lymphoma. This case should remind clinicians that PAL may be a cause of bilateral adrenal incidentaloma especially if the patient presents with adrenal insufficiency....

  3. Candesartan decreases the sympatho-adrenal and hormonal response to isolation stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Armando

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A change from group housing to isolation in unfamiliar metabolic cages represents, for rodents, a significant emotional stress. We studied the effect of candesartan, a peripheral and central angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonist, on the hormonal and sympathetic response to acute isolation. We pretreated rats with 1 mg/kg/day candesartan for 13 days via subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps, followed by 24-hour isolation in individual metabolic cages. We measured brain, pituitary and adrenal angiotensin II (Ang II receptor binding by quantitative autoradiography and adrenal hormones and catecholamines by RIA and HPLC. Isolation increased adrenal catecholamines, aldosterone and corticosterone, AT1-receptor binding in the zona glomerulosa and AT2-receptor binding in the adrenal medulla. Candesartan pretreatment decreased adrenal catecholamines, aldosterone and corticosterone, AT1-receptor binding in adrenal zona glomerulosa and medulla, pituitary gland and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, and AT2-receptor binding in adrenal medulla, but increased AT2-receptor binding in zona glomerulosa. We conclude that peripheral and central AT1-receptor blockade with candesartan decreases the sympatho-adrenal and hormonal response to acute stress. Our results indicate that Ang II is an important stress hormone and suggest that blockade of the physiologically active AT 1-receptors could influence stress-related disorders.

  4. Adrenal scintigraphy in primary aldosteronism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, M.; Vetter, W.; Winterg, B.; Zidek, W.; Vetter, H.

    1982-05-01

    In primary aldosteronism the type of adrendal lesion was correctly identified in 28 of 40 patients (70%) by standard adrenal scintigraphy. Suppression scintigraphy did not improve the validity of the method. In all patients the diagnosis was confirmed by surgery (unilateral adenoma n = 32; bilateral adrenal hyperplasia n = 11). False classification of the adrenal lesion(s) with standards scintigraphy was mostly due to a bilateral adrenal isotropic uptake in patients with an unilateral aldosteronoma. However, a substantial number of these patients (6 of 11 patients) received long-term spironolactone treatment prior to the examination. Thus, in primary aldosteronism adrenal changes induced by chronic spironolactone administration are probably a major cause for incorrect differentiation between adenomas and hyperplasia by adrenal scintigraphy.

  5. Approach to the handling of adrenal insufficiency Manejo de la insuficiencia adrenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Uribe Londoño

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The term adrenal insufficiency refers to the hypofunction of this gland. From the etiologic point of view it may be either primary or secondary. This insufficiency manifests as inadequate serum levels of cortisol and adrenal androgens in the secondary form and of these and mineralocorticoids in the primary one. Clinical manifestations are often nonspecific and, consequently, diagnosis may be difficult to establish and treatment may be delayed with increased morbidity and mortality. This article on adrenal insufficiency includes its definition, epidemiology, etiology, physiopathology, classification, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria and treatment guidelines. Besides, some special situations like critically ill patients and pregnant women are given special consideration. Emphasis is done on a diagnostic algorithm to make it easier for general practitioners the approach to patients with this endocrine disorder. La insuficiencia adrenal (ia se refiere a la hipofunción de dicha glándula debida a causas tanto primarias como secundarias, que resultan en niveles plasmáticos inadecuados de cortisol, andrógenos adrenales y adicionalmente, en la falla primaria de mineralocorticoides. Sus manifestaciones inespecíficas dificultan o retrasan con frecuencia el diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno, lo cual incrementa la morbilidad y eventualmente la mortalidad de estos pacientes. Se incluyen en este artículo: definición, epidemiología, causas, fisiopatología, clasificación, manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la IA. Además se consideran algunas situaciones especiales como la IA en el paciente críticamente enfermo y en la mujer gestante. Finalmente se hace especial énfasis en un algoritmo diagnóstico, con la finalidad de facilitarle al médico general un enfoque ágil y oportuno de los pacientes con este problema endocrino.

  6. Pre-receptor Regulation of Cortisol in Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Functioning an Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.H.J. Dekker (Marieke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractGlucocorticoids (GCs) are ubiquitous, nuclear hormones, which are essential for life. In man, the main GC is cortisol, produced by the adrenals, endocrine glands that are situated on top of the kidneys. Cortisol exerts its functions in nearly all tissues and is crucial in the mediation o

  7. Decreased catecholamine secretion from the adrenal medullae of chronically diabetic BB-Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, R. A.; Riley, D. A.; Lelkes, P. I.; Hillard, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    Many humans with IDDM eventually lose the capacity to secrete epinephrine from their adrenal medullae. The mechanism for this pathological change is unknown. We hypothesized that this abnormality is attributable to neuropathic changes in the greater splanchnic nerves or in the chromaffin cells that they innervate. To study this hypothesis, we isolated rat adrenal glands, perfused them ex vivo, and measured the epinephrine content of the perfusate under various conditions of stimulation. We used transmural electrical stimulation (20-80 V, at 10 Hz) to induce epinephrine secretion indirectly by selectively activating residual splanchnic nerve terminals within the isolated glands. Under these conditions, epinephrine secretion was severely attenuated in glands from female BB-Wistar rats with diabetes of 4 mo duration compared with their age-matched, nondiabetic controls. These perfused diabetic adrenal medullae also demonstrated decreased catecholamine release in response to direct chromaffin cell depolarization with 20 mM K+, evidence that a functional alteration exists within the chromaffin cells themselves. Nonetheless, total catecholamine content of adrenal medullae from these diabetic rats was not significantly different from controls, indicating that the secretory defect was not simply attributable to a difference in the amount of catecholamines stored and available for release. Herein, we also provide histological evidence of degenerative changes within the cholinergic nerve terminals that innervate these glands.

  8. Distinctive features in postnatal development of rabbit adrenals following intrauterine radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldavskii, M.I.

    1977-01-01

    Following exposure of pregnant rabbits to radiation, biochemical and histological changes in the adrenal glands of the offspring were studied at intervals during postnatal development. Morphological changes in the medulla, cortex, and glomerular zone at various stages of development are described as well as changes in the content of lipid, ascorbic acid, and alkaline phosphatase. (HLW)

  9. Adrenal Cortical and Medullar Hyperplasia-A Retrospective Analysis of 6 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 鲁功成; 张齐均

    2002-01-01

    Summary: The features of the symptoms, laboratory tests and pathological characteristics of a-drenal cortical and medullary hyperplasia were studied. In 6 cases of hypercatecholaminenia, plas-ma norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), catecholamine (CA) and 24-h urinary vanillylmandelicacid (VMA), 17-hydroxycorticosteroid (OHCS) and 17-ketosteroid (KS) were determined. A-drenal glands were examined by CT scan and 131I-MIBG imaging. Pathological examination wasperformed after operation. The results showed that in 6 cases of hypercatecholaminenia (3 menand 3 women) aged from 34-50 years, the clinical features were just like "pheochromocytoma",for example, episodic headache, perspiration, palpitation, pallor, apprehension, nausea, tremor,anxiety and so on. Plasma levels of CA, NE and E were elevated in all 6 cases. 24-h urinary sam-ples obtained at the onset revealed elevated VMA in 1 case. 24-h urinary cortisol was obviously el-evated in all 6 cases. 24-h urinary 17-OHCS, 17-KS was normal. B-type ultrasound, CT, MRIand 13I-MIBG revealed 9 lateral adrenal gland diffuse or nodular enlargement in 6 cases. Patholog-ic examination showed adrenal cortical and medullary hyperplasia. Clinically, adrenal cortical andmedullary hyperplasia resembled "pheochromocytoma". The most significant feature of this dis-ease was both elevated plasma CA and 24-h urinary cortisol obviously. Pathologic examinationshowed adrenal cortex nodular hyperplasia and medullar diffuse or limit hyperplasia. Whether it isan independent disease or symptoms of the other disease has not final conclusion up till now

  10. A case of ACTH-independent bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia and severe congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, D; Alonso, M; Weiss, R E

    2006-11-01

    Cortisol secretion in ACTH independent bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) can be regulated by aberrant adrenal receptors. We describe a patient with Cushing's syndrome (CS) due to AIMAH and concomitant Class IV congestive heart failure (CHF). Clinical testing for the presence of aberrant receptors revealed a pronounced serum cortisol (257%) and aldosterone response (212%) to the administration of ACTH and a partial serum cortisol (35%) and aldosterone (106%) response to upright posture. This suggested the possible presence of aberrant hormone receptors for ACTH [melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2-R)], vasopressin, catecholamines or angiotensin II (AT-II) on the patient's adrenal glands. Adrenal tissue from the patient demonstrated an eight-fold increased expression of MC2-R compared to normal adrenal tissue. This increased expression was consistent with the increase in cortisol and aldosterone seen in response to exogenous ACTH. We propose that the severe CHF resulted in activation of the renin-angiotensin system, with an increased production of AT-II. The elevated circulating levels of AT-II may have led to increased expression of MC2-R on the patient's adrenal glands and increased responsiveness to ACTH. This unusual case of CS may elucidate a heretofore unknown mechanism for the development of AIMAH.

  11. Down-regulation of the beacon gene expression in the regenerating rat adrenal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Rucinski, Marcin; Tyczewska, Marianna; Belloni, Anna Sandra; Nowak, Magdalena; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2006-12-01

    Beacon, a hypothalamic peptide involved in the regulation of food intake, has been recently shown to be expressed in the adrenal cortex, and to inhibit its secretion and growth. To further characterize the role of beacon in the control of adrenal growth, we investigated the level of beacon gene expression in the regenerating rat adrenal cortex. Conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunocytochemistry demonstrated the expression of beacon mRNA and protein in the adrenals at both days 5 and 8 of regeneration after enucleation and contralateral adrenalectomy. Semiquantitative real time-PCR revealed a net down-regulation of beacon mRNA in the regenerating glands, as compared to the intact adrenal cortex of sham-operated animals. Beacon gene expression was higher at day 8 than at day 5 of regeneration. Mitotic index, as assayed by the stachmokinetic method with vincristin, was negligible in the intact adrenal, but greatly elevated in regenerating gland, with a higher index found at day 5 than at day 8 after surgery. Taken together our findings indicate that the level of beacon gene expression is inversely correlated with the proliferative activity of adrenocortical cells, and suggest that beacon might act as an endogenous inhibitor of adrenocortical growth in the rat.

  12. Alterations in maternal corticosteroid levels influence fetal urine and lung liquid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Ellen; Wood, Charles E; Keller-Wood, Maureen

    2003-12-01

    This study was designed to test the hypotheses that disruption of maternal adrenal secretion in late pregnancy requires fetal adaptations in order to maintain fetal blood volume and fetal viability. Pregnant ewes were adrenalectomized at approximately 112 days, and cortisol and aldosterone were replaced to either normal pregnant levels (with 1 mg/kg per day of cortisol and 3 microg/kg per day of aldosterone) or normal nonpregnant levels of aldosterone or cortisol (0.5 mg/kg per day of cortisol or 1.5 microg/kg per day of aldosterone). Fetal blood volume, blood pressure, lung liquid production, urine production, free water clearance, and glomerular filtration rate were measured at 130 days. In a separate group, fetal organ blood flow was measured. Fetal blood volume was not significantly decreased by disruption of maternal corticosteroid secretion. However fetal urine production and free water clearance were reduced in fetuses of low cortisol or low aldosterone ewes. Fetal lung liquid secretion was also significantly reduced in the low aldosterone group. The glomerular filtration rate was reduced in fetuses of all adrenalectomized ewes, regardless of replacement dose. Fetal blood pressure was significantly reduced in the fetuses of low aldosterone ewes; blood flow to several fetal organs was increased in this group, indicating that decreased vascular resistance may contribute to the relative hypotension. Alterations in maternal adrenal corticosteroid levels resulted in fetal adaptation to maintain fetal blood volume despite relative maternal hypovolemia. These adaptations occurred at the expense of fetal urine and lung liquid production.

  13. Fetal Macrosomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might need special care in the hospital's neonatal intensive care unit. Keep in mind that your baby might ... References Copel JA, et al. Fetal macrosomia. In: Obstetric Imaging. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www. ...

  14. Fetal Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... needle placement during certain prenatal tests, such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Determine fetal position before ... home. Accessed Aug. 11, 2015. Ghidini A. Diagnostic amniocentesis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 11, ...

  15. Adrenal Pathology in the Adult: A Urological Pathologist's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Donna E; Reuter, Victor E

    2016-09-01

    Adrenal gland diagnostics can pose significant challenges. In most academic and community practice settings, adrenal gland resections are encountered less frequently than other endocrine or genitourinary specimens, leading to less familiarity with evolving classifications and criteria. The unique dichotomy between cortical and medullary lesions reflects the developmental evolution of these functionally independent components. Adrenal cortical lesions at resection include hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma, with some cases straddling the boundary between these distinct clinical classifications. The lack of immunohistochemical or molecular markers to definitively categorize these intermediate lesions enhances the diagnostic challenge. In addition, modified terminology for oncocytic and myxoid cortical lesions has been proposed. Medullary lesions are somewhat easier to categorize; however, the prediction of aggressive behavior in pheochromocytomas remains a challenge due to a lack of reliable prognostic biomarkers. Recent work by the Cancer Genome Atlas Project and other research groups has identified a limited subset of molecular and signaling pathway alterations in these 2 major neoplastic categories. Ongoing research to better define prognostic and predictive biomarkers in cortical and medullary lesions has the potential to enhance both pathologic diagnosis and patient therapy.

  16. Testicular adrenal rest tumours in congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Otten, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    In adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), the presence of testicular adrenal rest tumours (TART) is an important complication leading to gonadal dysfunction and infertility. These tumours can be already found in childhood and puberty. In this paper, we review the embryological, hi

  17. Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumours in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otten BJ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, the presence of testicular adrenal rest tumours (TART is an important complication leading to gonadal dysfunction and infertility. These tumours can be already found in childhood and puberty. In this paper, we review the embryological, histological, biochemical, and clinical features of TART and discuss treatment options.

  18. Testicular adrenal rest tumours in congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Otten, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    In adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), the presence of testicular adrenal rest tumours (TART) is an important complication leading to gonadal dysfunction and infertility. These tumours can be already found in childhood and puberty. In this paper, we review the embryological,

  19. Effect of ether inhalation by adrenalectomized pregnant rats on the adrenal corticosterone concentration in norma, decapitated, and encephalectomized fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negellen-Perchellet, E; Cohen, A

    1975-01-01

    The influence of decapitation or encephalectomy (total removal of the brain leaving the pituitary in place) on the adrenal corticosterone concentration of the 20-day-old rat fetus has been studied in normal pregnant rats, in adrenalectomized pregnant rats, and in adrenalectomized pregnant rats subjected to the stress conditions of inhalation of ether for 40 min. Decapitation or encephalectomy of the fetus always results in a drop in adrenal corticosterone concentration within 4 h which is prevented in 15 min by injecting 3.2 mU of hog ACTH into the decapitated fetus. In mothers adrenalectomized in order to avoid a negative feedback reaction of maternal corticosteroids on the fetal pituitary-adrenal system, ether inhalation causes an important rise in adrenal corticosterone concentration in normal fetuses but not in decapitated or encephalectomized ones. Thus ether, which crosses the placental barrier, is a stressor agent for the fetal rat.

  20. Fetal pain

    OpenAIRE

    Adama van Scheltema, Phebe

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the fetus is capable of exhibiting a stress response to intrauterine needling, resulting in alterations in fetal stress hormone levels. Intrauterine transfusions are performed by inserting a needle either in the umbilical cord root at the placental surface (PCI), or in the intrahepatic portion of the umbilical vein (IHV). Aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that fetal hormonal changes during intrauterine transfusion are more pronounced when the needl...

  1. What Are the Symptoms of Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and possible trouble getting pregnant (in women) Excess facial hair (in women) Symptoms of the severe form of CAH, which ... and possible trouble getting pregnant (in women) Excess facial hair (in women) Benign testicular tumors and infertility (in men) Pituitary ...

  2. Ion channelopathies of the kidney and adrenal gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, B. B.; Wollnik, B.; Koemhoff, M.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic kidney diseases represent a significant proportion of kidney diseases manifesting in childhood and adolescence, but are also gaining importance in slowly progressive or late-onset adult diseases. A significant portion of kidney diseases particularly in childhood are associated with end stage

  3. Ion channelopathies of the kidney and adrenal gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, B. B.; Wollnik, B.; Koemhoff, M.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic kidney diseases represent a significant proportion of kidney diseases manifesting in childhood and adolescence, but are also gaining importance in slowly progressive or late-onset adult diseases. A significant portion of kidney diseases particularly in childhood are associated with end stage

  4. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PREOPERATIVE DIAGNOSIS AND PATHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS IN ADRENAL SWELLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saju P. R

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The adrenal gland neoplasms include primary and metastatic malignant tumours. They can be functional or non-functional and also detected as incidentaloma lesions. Advanced imaging often reveals adrenal tumours and tumour-like conditions in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Even with the functional study and advanced imaging, preoperative diagnosis is always challenging. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study of adrenal tumours performed during July 2014-April 2016 was done. Total 7 cases were included. Case records and histopathology reports were reviewed to collect data. RESULTS Majority were females (85% with mean age of 50 years. 71% patients presented symptomatically and incidentaloma was noticed in 29%. Functional tumours were found in 71%. 42% discrepancy were noted between the radiological and final histopathological findings. 28% noted in benign lesions and 14% in malignant conditions. CONCLUSION In the current era, even though imaging can aid in diagnosis, histopathology still remains as gold standard investigation in adrenal tumours.

  5. Surgical resection of adrenal metastasis from primary liver tumors:a report of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Durgatosh Pandey; Kai-Chah Tan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the treatment of extrahepatic metastases from primary liver tumors is essentially palliative, solitary metastasis from such tumors offers a possibility of cure by surgical resection. The adrenal gland is an uncommon site for metastasis from primary liver tumors. METHOD: We report two cases of adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal metastasis: one from intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and the other from hepatocellular carcinoma. RESULTS: The patient with intrahepatic cholangiocar-cinoma had a synchronous adrenal metastasis and underwent simultaneous liver resection and adrenalectomy. However, he developed recurrent disease 17 months following surgery for which he is presently on palliative chemotherapy. The other patient underwent adrenalectomy for adrenal metastasis 3 months following liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma. He is presently alive and disease-free 27 months after adrenalectomy. CONCLUSION: Carefully selected patients with solitary metastasis from primary liver tumors may be considered for resection.

  6. Primary adrenal leiomyosarcoma: A case report with immunohistochemical study and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay D Deshmukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary adrenal mesenchymal tumors are exceptionally rare. Diagnosis is based entirely on histological and immunohistochemical evaluation which is indispensable not only for determining tumor type but also for predicting biological behavior. We report a rare case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the left adrenal gland, in a 60 year old woman who presented with flank pain. Computed tomography revealed a well defined left adrenal tumor which was surgically resected. Histological examination of the tumor showed malignant spindle cells in interlacing fascicles and whorls. Nuclear pleomorphism, tumor giant cells and abnormal mitotic figures were seen. On immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells showed reactivity for smooth muscle actin, vimentin and desmin; and were negative for cytokeratin, S100 protein, CD117 and HMB-45. A diagnosis of primary adrenal leiomyosarcoma was offered. Postoperative recovery of the patient was uneventful and the patient was symptom free with no evidence of tumor metastasis or recurrence 21 months after surgery.

  7. [Fetal magnetocardiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, P

    1997-09-01

    Fetal magnetocardiography is a new, alternative method for prenatal surveillance. The fetal magnetocardiogram (FMCG) registers the magnetic field produced by conduction currents in the fetal heart. Compared to the fetal electrocardiogram, the propagation of magnetic fields is relatively undisturbed by surrounding tissue. The FMCG thus has the advantage of a higher signal-to-noise ratio and can be acquired earlier pregnancy. Also, the high temporal resolution of the signal permits a significantly more precise determination of fetal heart rate parameters than fetal ultrasound. FMCG registration using a biomagnetometer is noninvasive and can be performed as of the second trimeter. It can be used to examine signal morphology, ca