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Sample records for fescue festuca arundinacea

  1. Host suitability of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) cultivars to Meloidogyne ethiopica and M. graminicola.

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    Considering the importance of the perennial grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) having as forage potential and its resistance to many pests, including some phytoparasitic nematodes, the host reaction of three tall fescue cultivars (cvs. Bulldogs 51, Georgia 5 and Jesup AR542 ) were evaluated for...

  2. Development of SCAR Marker Related to Summer Stress Tolerance in Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea

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    Xiaojun YUAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Summer stress tolerance (SST is one of the most important breeding objectives in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea, an important perennial cool-season grass. However, breeding for better SST is generally complicated by the many environmental factors involved during the growing season. Utilizing the bulked segregant analysis (BSA, we were able to identify one marker related to SST from 100 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers and 800 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers, and successfully developed a dominant sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR marker T_SC856 from the UBC856 sequence. Furthermore, the SCAR marker was tested in different clones of new populations, which were identified under complex summer stress (high temperature and humidity, Pythium blight, and brown patch, and it exhibited relatively high consistency (77% with the phenotype. We believe that with more markers obtained in the future, better efficiency is likely to be achieved in breeding for improved SST in tall fescue and possibly other species as well. Further studies that analyze the factors relating to the SCAR marker are needed.

  3. Surfactant enhanced pyrene degradation in the rhizosphere of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea).

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    Cheema, Sardar Alam; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Tang, Xianjin; Shen, Chaofeng; Farooq, Muhammad; Chen, Yingxu

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of two non ionic surfactants (Tween 80 and Triton X-100), a biosurfactant (Lecithin), and randomly methylated-β-cyclodextrins (RAMEB) on the remediation of pyrene from soil planted with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Soils with pyrene concentration of about 243 mg kg(-1) was grown with tall fescue and were individually amended with 0, 200, 600, 1000, and 1500 mg kg(-1) of Tween 80, Triton X-100, biosurfactant, and RAMEB. The results show that all surfactants significantly increased plant biomass compared to unamended soil. Dehydrogenase activity was also stimulated as a result of surfactant addition. Only 3.9 and 3.2 % of pyrene was decreased in the uncovered and covered abiotic sterile control, suggesting that microbial degradation was the main removal mechanism of pyrene from soil. In the planted treatment receiving no surfactant, the remediation of pyrene was 45 % which is significantly higher than that of corresponding unplanted control soil, suggesting that the cultivation of tall fescue alone could enhance the overall remediation of pyrene in soil. All surfactants had significantly higher rates of pyrene remediation compared to the unamended planted soil. Generally, RAMEB displayed the highest remediation rates, i.e., 64.4-79.1 % followed by the Triton X-100, i.e., 60.1-74.8 %. The positive impact of surfactants on pyrene remediation could possibly be because of their capacities to increase its bioavailability in soil. The evidence from this study suggests that the addition of surfactants could enhance phytoremediation of PAHs polluted soil.

  4. Comparative analysis of transgenic tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) plants obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and particle bombardment.

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    Gao, Caixia; Long, Danfeng; Lenk, Ingo; Nielsen, Klaus Kristian

    2008-10-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and particle bombardment are the two most widely used methods for genetically modifying grasses. Here, these two systems are compared for transformation efficiency, transgene integration and transgene expression when used to transform tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). The bar gene was used as a selectable marker and selection during tissue culture was performed using 2 mg/l bialaphos in both callus induction and regeneration media. Average transformation efficiency across the four callus lines used in the experiments was 10.5% for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and 11.5% for particle bombardment. Similar transgene integration patterns and co-integration frequencies of bar and uidA were observed in both gene transfer systems. However, while GUS activity was detected in leaves of 53% of the Agrobacterium transformed lines, only 20% of the bombarded lines showed GUS activity. Thus, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation appears to be the preferred method for producing transgenic tall fescue plants.

  5. How planting configuration influences plant secondary metabolites and total N in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.)

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    Theories suggest that incorporating alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.; Alf) or birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT) into endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceas Schreb.; E+TF) pasturelands may improve livestock production. We investigated how planting configuration might influence p...

  6. Optimum distribution between autumn-applied and spring-applied nitrogen in seed production of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Kristensen, Kristian;

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different autumn and spring nitrogen (N) application rates on plant establishment, plant development, and seed yield were tested in a field experiment using tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Results clearly showed that the optimum distribution of N between autumn and spring...

  7. Ascorbic acid enhances the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in roots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb..

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    Yanzheng Gao

    Full Text Available Plant contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs is crucial to food safety and human health. Enzyme inhibitors are commonly utilized in agriculture to control plant metabolism of organic components. This study revealed that the enzyme inhibitor ascorbic acid (AA significantly reduced the activities of peroxidase (POD and polyphenol oxidase (PPO, thus enhancing the potential risks of PAH contamination in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.. POD and PPO enzymes in vitro effectively decomposed naphthalene (NAP, phenanthrene (PHE and anthracene (ANT. The presence of AA reduced POD and PPO activities in plants, and thus was likely responsible for enhanced PAH accumulation in tall fescue. This conclusion is supported by the significantly enhanced uptake of PHE in plants in the presence of AA, and the positive correlation between enzyme inhibition efficiencies and the rates of metabolism of PHE in tall fescue roots. This study provides a new perspective, that the common application of enzyme inhibitors in agricultural production could increase the accumulation of organic contaminants in plants, hence enhancing risks to food safety and quality.

  8. Ascorbic acid enhances the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in roots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).

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    Gao, Yanzheng; Li, Hui; Gong, Shuaishuai

    2012-01-01

    Plant contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is crucial to food safety and human health. Enzyme inhibitors are commonly utilized in agriculture to control plant metabolism of organic components. This study revealed that the enzyme inhibitor ascorbic acid (AA) significantly reduced the activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), thus enhancing the potential risks of PAH contamination in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). POD and PPO enzymes in vitro effectively decomposed naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE) and anthracene (ANT). The presence of AA reduced POD and PPO activities in plants, and thus was likely responsible for enhanced PAH accumulation in tall fescue. This conclusion is supported by the significantly enhanced uptake of PHE in plants in the presence of AA, and the positive correlation between enzyme inhibition efficiencies and the rates of metabolism of PHE in tall fescue roots. This study provides a new perspective, that the common application of enzyme inhibitors in agricultural production could increase the accumulation of organic contaminants in plants, hence enhancing risks to food safety and quality.

  9. Effect of simulated acid rain on the mutualism between tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and an endophytic fungus (Acremonium coenophialum)

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    Cheplick, G.P. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Whitewater (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Biotic interactions between plants and microorganisms have the potential to be affected by acidic precipitation. I examined the effect of simulated sulfuric acid rain on the mutualism between a perennial forage grass (Festuca arundinacea) and a fungal endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum). Acid water was supplied as mists sprayed onto leaf surfaces or as water added to the soil for two groups in a greenhouse: one group had high levels of endophyte infection, while the other was predominantly noninfected. Control plants received distilled water (pH 6), while others received sulfuric acid water at pH 4.5 or pH 3. Plants were harvested after 4, 6, 8, and 23 wk. Leaf endophyte infection intensity as measured by hyphal counts was not affected by acid water treatment. Root mass and root: shoot ratios generally decreased with increasing acidity of both foliar sprays and soil water, but shoot mass was mostly not affected. There was a significant pH x infection interaction for plants exposed to acidic foliar sprays for 4 wk; root and shoot mass decreased with acidity, but only for infected plants. It was found that acid rain may be deleterious to tall fescue growth at specific stages of development, but biomass production in response to acid rain is not likely to be influenced by fungal endophytes within mature plants. 55 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Genome-wide SNP identification in multiple morphotypes of allohexaploid tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb

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    Hand Melanie L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs provide essential tools for the advancement of research in plant genomics, and the development of SNP resources for many species has been accelerated by the capabilities of second-generation sequencing technologies. The current study aimed to develop and use a novel bioinformatic pipeline to generate a comprehensive collection of SNP markers within the agriculturally important pasture grass tall fescue; an outbreeding allopolyploid species displaying three distinct morphotypes: Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous. Results A bioinformatic pipeline was developed that successfully identified SNPs within genotypes from distinct tall fescue morphotypes, following the sequencing of 414 polymerase chain reaction (PCR – generated amplicons using 454 GS FLX technology. Equivalent amplicon sets were derived from representative genotypes of each morphotype, including six Continental, five Mediterranean and one rhizomatous. A total of 8,584 and 2,292 SNPs were identified with high confidence within the Continental and Mediterranean morphotypes respectively. The success of the bioinformatic approach was demonstrated through validation (at a rate of 70% of a subset of 141 SNPs using both SNaPshot™ and GoldenGate™ assay chemistries. Furthermore, the quantitative genotyping capability of the GoldenGate™ assay revealed that approximately 30% of the putative SNPs were accessible to co-dominant scoring, despite the hexaploid genome structure. The sub-genome-specific origin of each SNP validated from Continental tall fescue was predicted using a phylogenetic approach based on comparison with orthologous sequences from predicted progenitor species. Conclusions Using the appropriate bioinformatic approach, amplicon resequencing based on 454 GS FLX technology is an effective method for the identification of polymorphic SNPs within the genomes of Continental and Mediterranean tall fescue. The

  11. Interaction of heavy metals and pyrene on their fates in soil and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea).

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    Lu, Mang; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Wang, Jing-Xiu; Zhang, Min; Xu, Yu-Xin; Wu, Xue-Jiao

    2014-01-21

    90-Day growth chamber experiments were performed to investigate the interactive effect of pyrene and heavy metals (Cu, Cd, and Pb) on the growth of tall fescue and its uptake, accumulation, and dissipation of heavy metals and pyrene. Results show that plant growth and phytomass production were impacted by the interaction of heavy metals and pyrene. They were significantly decreased with heavy metal additions (100-2000 mg/kg), but they were only slightly declined with pyrene spiked up to 100 mg/kg. The addition of a moderate dosage of pyrene (100 mg/kg) lessened heavy metal toxicity to plants, resulting in enhanced plant growth and increased metal accumulation in plant tissues, thus improving heavy metal removal by plants. In contrast, heavy metals always reduced both plant growth and pyrene dissipation in soils. The chemical forms of Cu, Cd, and Pb in plant organs varied with metal species and pyrene addition. The dissipation and mineralization of pyrene tended to decline in both planted soil and unplanted soils with the presence of heavy metals, whereas they were enhanced with planting. The results demonstrate the complex interactive effects of organic pollutants and heavy metals on phytoremediation in soils. It can be concluded that, to a certain extent, tall fescue may be useful for phytoremediation of pyrene-heavy metal-contaminated sites. Further work is needed to enhance methods for phytoremediation of heavy metal-organics co-contaminated soil.

  12. A Combination of Plant NDVI and LiDAR Measurements Improve the Estimation of Pasture Biomass in Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea var. Fletcher

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    Michael T. Schaefer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The total biomass of a tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea var. Fletcher pasture was assessed by using a vehicle mounted light detection and ranging (LiDAR unit to derive canopy height and an active optical reflectance sensor to determine the spectro-optical reflectance index, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI. In a random plot design, measurements of NDVI and pasture height were combined to estimate biomass with a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP equal to ±455.28 kg green dry matter (GDM/ha, over a range of 286 kg to 3933 kg GDM/ha. The combination of NDVI and height measurements were observed to be more accurate in assessing total biomass than just the NDVI (RMSEP ± 846.51 kg/ha and height (RMSEP ± 708.13 kg/ha. Based on the results of the study it was concluded the use of combined LiDAR and active optical reflectance sensors can help unlock the complex interrelationship between green fraction and biomass in swards containing both green and senescent material.

  13. Oxygen and radiation effects on C02 exchange in fight and in darkness of decaploid and hexaploid tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.

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    Jerzy W. Poskuta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rates of apparent photosynthesis (APS. photorespiration (PR, CO2 compensation (I and dark respiration (DR were determined on attached shoots of decaploid (70 chromosomes and a hexaploid (42 chromosomes genotype of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. using an infra red CO2 analyzer arranged in a closed circuit system. Plants were grown at a photon flux density 500 µmol m-2s-1 (400-700 nm and at 25°C. Measurements were made at 25°C in O2 concentrations of l, 21 and 100% and at irradiance of 500 or 1800 µmol m-2s-1. The decaploid exhibited rates of APS that was from 26 to 46% higher in 1 and 21% O2 but not in 100% O2, than those of hexaploid. Rates of PR were positively related to rates of APS. Values of r were very similar for both genotypes, they were little affected by irradiance, and were a linear function of O2 Concentration. The percentages of PR in true photosynthesis (TPS = APS+ PR were also similar for the two genotypes, and were a linear function of O2 concentration. Alternatively, rates of DR were by 16-26% higher in the hexaploid than decaploid genotype, and were little affected by O2 concentration or by previous rates of APS.

  14. Association Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR Markers with Agronomic Traits in Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb..

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    Yanhong Lou

    Full Text Available Tall fescue is widely used in temperate regions throughout the world as a dominant forage grass as well as a turfgrass, in pastoral and turf industry. However, the utilization of tall fescue was limited because of its leaf roughness, poor regeneration ability and poor stress resistance. New cultivars were desirable in modern pastoral industries exceed the potential of existing cultivars. Therefore, well understanding the agronomic traits and describing germplasms would help to overcome these constraints, and morphological evaluation of tall fescue germplasm is the key component in selecting rational parents for hybridization breeding. However, describing the morphological traits of tall fescue germplasm is costly and time-consuming. Fortunately, biotechnology approaches can supplement conventional breeding efforts for tall fescue improvement. Association mapping, as a powerful approach to identify association between agronomic traits and molecular markers has been widely used for enhancing the utilization, conservation and management of the tall fescue germplasms. Therefore, in the present research, 115 tall fescue accessions from different origins (25 accessions are cultivars; 31 accessions from America; 32 accessions from European; 7 accessions from Africa; 20 accessions from Asia, were evaluated for agronomic traits and genetic diversity with 90 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. The panel displayed significant variation in spike count per plant (SCP and spike weight (SW. However, BCS performed the lowest CV among all the observed agronomic traits. Three subpopulations were identified within the collections but no obvious relative kinship (K was found. The GLM model was used to describe the association between SSR and agronomic traits. Fifty-one SSR markers associated with agronomic traits were observed. Twelve single-associated markers were associated with PH; six single-associated markers were associated with BCS; eight single

  15. Infestation of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. with Neotyphodium coenophialum and its influence on growth of chosen microorganisms in vitro

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    Dariusz Pańka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of Neotyphodium coenophialum in tall fescue cultivars cultivated in Poland and determination an endophyte inhibition effect on mycelium growth of chosen microorganisms in vitro were investigated. Seventeen seed lots of 11 cultivars of tall fescue were examined. The endophyte mycelium was dyed with bengal rose and microscopically examined to detect N. coenophialum. Occurrence of endophyte was checked with PCR method. Influence of endophyte on growth of 15 microorganisms was established in the laboratory conditions on Petri dishes with PDA medium at 10, 20 and 30°C. Neotyphodium coenophialum occurred only in two seed lots, 'Barrocco' - 42% and Terros - 2%. Living mycelium of endophyte was isolated only from 'Barrocco'. The highest mycelium growth inhibition of Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium avenaceum, F. equiseti, Microdochium nivale and Gaeumannomyces graminis by endophyte at 30°C was recorded. The highest width of growth inhibition zone (4mm was detected for the last pathogen. Mycelium growth of B. sorokiniana and M. nivale was not inhibited at 10°C, and for F. avenaceum at 10 and 20°C.

  16. Effects of untreated and treated wastewater at the morphological, physiological and biochemical levels on seed germination and development of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).

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    Rekik, Imen; Chaabane, Zayneb; Missaoui, Amara; Bouket, Ali Chenari; Luptakova, Lenka; Elleuch, Amine; Belbahri, Lassaad

    2017-03-15

    Wastewater reuse in agriculture may help mitigate water scarcity. This may be reached if high quality treatments removing harmful pollutants are applied. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of untreated (UTW) and treated wastewater (TW) on germination and seedlings development of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). UTW presented high turbidity (130 NTU), chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD, 719mgL(-1), BOD5, 291mgL(-1)) and metal concentrations. These levels caused mortality (18% for fescue), decreased germination speed in seeds (37.5% for alfalfa) and reductions of root and stem length in seedlings (80% and 22% respectively for alfalfa). Adverse effects on seeds germination were reflected at the biochemical level by increased H2O2 levels (6 times for sorghum after 5days) and by increased Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (more than 600 times for sorghum roots) during seedlings development. When TW was used, these parameters were close to control seeds ones. They were also dependent on plant species and developmental stage. Therefore, for efficient reclaimed wastewater reuse in irrigation, suitable crops, displaying wide tolerance to toxic contents during germination and later seedling development stages have to be selected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 不同配方营养液对水培高羊茅的影响%Effects of Different Nutrient Solutions on Hydroponic Tall Fescue(Festuca arundinacea)

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    董曙光; 郎法勇

    2013-01-01

    [目的]为了探索适合草坪水培栽培的营养液.[方法]以高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea)为材料,进行不同营养液配方对水培高羊茅生长的影响研究.[结果]在5种营养液配方中,霍格兰营养液培养的高羊茅株高、单株叶片数、单株分蘖数、植株鲜干重(生物量)以及根系活力等各项指标最好,是高羊茅水培的最佳营养液配方,斯泰纳配方培养的高羊茅各项指标最差,与其他营养液配方之间差异显著,故不适宜作为高羊茅水培的营养液[结论]该研究可为水培建植草坪所需营养液选择提供参考,并为草坪水培技术的进一步研究提供参考.%[Objective] The aim was to explore the suitable nutrient solution for turf hydroponic. [ Method] The effects of five hydroponics nutrient solution formulas on tall fescue growth were studied. [ Result] The results showed that the indicators of tall fescue turfgrass cultivated by Hoagland solution formula, such as the plant height, leal number, plant biomass, number of tillers and root vigor, were the higher than those of the other formulas. The indicators of tall fescue turfgrass under Steiner formula were the lower than those of the other formulas. It was suggested that Hoagland formula was the best suitable for the tall fescue hydroponic in five formulas and Steiner formula was not suitable. [ Conclusion] The study provides a reference for selecting nutrient solutions planting lawn by hydroponic cultivation, and researching lawn hydroponic technology deeply.

  18. The Physiological, Morphological and Bio-Chemical Comparison of the Current Grass Shiraz City’s Green Space withTall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb

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    M. Zadehbagheri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems of Shiraz city’s green space is the change of color and visual quality of turf during cold months. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate tall fescue in order to find if it is suitable for replacement. This experiment was in the form of complete random blocks and it was done during two consecutive years. Each treatment had 4 repetitions. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 16.0, and the means were compared using t or LSD tests at a significance level of 5%. The results showed that tall fescue was superior to normal sport grass in cold months with respect to its chlorophyll, catalase, protein, prolin, and soluble sugar content, as well as its visual quality and root depth. Prolin fluctuations in tall fescue were very high which showed that these types of grass can increase the plant’s prolin content under stress. Therefore, there is a fivefold increase in the prolin content of the grass in cold months (cold tension compared to the beginning of spring (best condition for growth. However, this change does not exist in sport grass. Based on the obtained results we can conclude that tall fescue can resist environmental tension, especially coldness, using different mechanisms, and is a good substitute for normal sport grass.

  19. In situ phytoremediation of PAH-contaminated soil by intercropping alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and associated soil microbial activity

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    Sun, Mingming; Fu, Dengqiang; Teng, Ying; Shen, Yuanyuan; Luo, Yongming; Li, Zhengao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation; Christie, Peter [Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast (United Kingdom). Agri-Environment Branch

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: A 7-month field experiment was conducted to investigate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) remediation potential of two plant species and changes in counts of soil PAH-degrading bacteria and microbial activity. Materials and methods: Alfalfa and tall fescue were grown in monoculture and intercropped for 7 months in contaminated field soil. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for PAHs. Plant biomass, densities of PAH-degradation soil bacteria, soil microbial biomass C and N, enzyme activities, and the physiological profile of the soil microbial community were determined. Results and discussion: Average removal percentage of total PAHs in intercropping (30.5%) was significantly higher than in monoculture (19.9%) or unplanted soil (-0.6%). About 7.5% of 3-ring, 12.3% of 4-ring, and 17.2% of 5(+6)-ring PAHs were removed from the soil by alfalfa, with corresponding values of 25.1%, 10.4%, and 30.1% for tall fescue. Intercropping significantly enhanced the remediation efficiency. About 18.9% of 3-ring, 30.9% of 4-ring, and 33.4% of 5(+6)-ring PAHs were removed by the intercropping system. Higher counts of soil culturable PAH-degrading bacteria and elevated microbial biomass and enzyme activities were found after intercropping. Soil from intercropping showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) average well-color development obtained by the BIOLOG Ecoplate assay and Shannon-Weaver index compared with monoculture. Conclusions: Cropping promoted the dissipation of soil PAHs. Tall fescue gave greater removal of soil PAHs than alfalfa, and intercropping was more effective than monoculture. Intercropping of alfalfa and tall fescue may be a promising in situ bioremediation strategy for PAH-contaminated soils. (orig.)

  20. Stress memory induced rearrangements of HSP transcription, photosystem II photochemistry and metabolism of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. in response to high-temperature stress

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    Tao eHu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When plants are pre-exposed to stress, they can produce some stable signals and physiological reactions that may be carried forward as ‘stress memory’. However, there is insufficient information about is known about plants’ stress memory responses mechanisms. Here, two tall fescue genotypes, heat-tolerant PI 574522 and heat-sensitive PI 512315, were subjected to recurring high-temperature pre-acclimation treatment. Two heat shock protein (HSP genes, LMW-HSP and HMW-HSP, exhibited transcriptional memory for their higher transcript abundance during one or more subsequent stresses (S2, S3, S4 relative to the first stress (S1, and basal transcript levels during the recovery states (R1, R2 and R3. Activated transcriptional memory from two trainable genes could persist up to 4 days, and induce higher thermotolerance in tall fescue. This was confirmed by greater turf quality and lower electrolyte leakage. Pre-acclimation treatment inhibited the decline at steps of O-J-I-P and energy transport fluxes in active Photosystem II reaction center (PSII RC for both tall fescue genotypes. The heat stress memory was associated with major shifts in leaf metabolite profiles. Furthermore, there was an exclusive increase in leaf organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, tris phosphoric acid, threonic acid, sugars (sucrose, glucose, idose, allose, talose, glucoheptose, tagatose, psicose, amino acids (serine, proline, pyroglutamic acid, glycine, alanine and one fatty acid (butanoic acid in pre-acclimated plants. These discoveries involved in transcriptional memory, PSII RC energy transport and metabolite profiles could provide new insights into the plant high–temperature response process.

  1. Impact of microbial/plant interactions on the transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rhizosphere of Festuca arundinacea.

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    Ho, C H; Applegate, B; Banks, M K

    2007-01-01

    The promotion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation was demonstrated in the rhizosphere of Festuca arundinacea with Pseudomonas fluorescens. P. fluorescens 5RL more significantly interacted with salicylate and dextrose in the agar containing tall fescue than agar without plant roots. Although the presence of tall fescue did not promote catabolic enzyme induction in the absence of salicylate, an increase in dioxygenase activity relative to no plant controls implies that this plant may enhance the degradation of PAHs or facilitate the genotypes that are capable of transforming PAH in the rhizosphere.

  2. Cytogenetic studies of Lolium multiflorum Lam., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., their hybrids and amphidiploids

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    Kleijer, G.

    1982-01-01

    Plant breeders intercross Lolium multiflorum and Festuca arundinacea with the purpose of obtaining hybrids which combine agronomically interesting characters of the parent species. The end result can be an amphidiploid, or the transfer of a limited number of genes from one species to the other. Espe

  3. STUDY ON PHYTO-EXTRACTION BALANCE OF ZN, CD AND PB FROM MINE-WASTE POLLUTED SOILS BY USING FESTUCA ARUNDINACEA AND LOLIUM PERENNE SPECIES

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    B. LIXANDRU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Through the cultivation of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea and of perennial ryegrass for two years on a chernozem type of soil, in the Banat's plain area we investigated the phyto-extraction potential of Zn, Cd and Pb. In the experimental plot it has been incorporated a quantity of 20 kg of mine-waste per square meter, in a mass ratio of 1:2,5. The mine-waste polluting "contribution" was of 1209 mg Zn / kg d.s., 4.70 mg Cd / kg d.s. and 188.2 mg Pb / kg d.s. The metals content in the soil was determined at the two moments of biomass harvesting, and through balance calculations we could establish the phyto-extraction efficiency of the two foragegrasses species. The obtained results indicate that Festuca arundinacea has an average phyto-extraction yield of 50% for Zn and Cd in the soil; in the case of an ionic excess of 3,5 to 4 times, the phyto-extraction efficiency is reduced, more obvious in the case of Pb (lead ions. The species Lolium perenne registers a yield of almost 92% in the process of phyto-extraction of Zn. The yield values for Cd si Pb are lower, but comparable with the control plot. Unlike Festuca arundinacea, the Lollium perenne species tolerates better the Cd and Pb ionic excess.

  4. Evolutionary history of tall fescue morphotypes inferred from molecular phylogenetics of the Lolium-Festuca species complex

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    Stewart Alan V

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The agriculturally important pasture grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. syn. Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb. Darbysh. is an outbreeding allohexaploid, that may be more accurately described as a species complex consisting of three major (Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous morphotypes. Observation of hybrid infertility in some crossing combinations between morphotypes suggests the possibility of independent origins from different diploid progenitors. This study aims to clarify the evolutionary relationships between each tall fescue morphotype through phylogenetic analysis using two low-copy nuclear genes (encoding plastid acetyl-CoA carboxylase [Acc1] and centroradialis [CEN], the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS and the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA genome-located matK gene. Other taxa within the closely related Lolium-Festuca species complex were also included in the study, to increase understanding of evolutionary processes in a taxonomic group characterised by multiple inter-specific hybridisation events. Results Putative homoeologous sequences from both nuclear genes were obtained from each polyploid species and compared to counterparts from 15 diploid taxa. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed F. pratensis and F. arundinacea var. glaucescens as probable progenitors to Continental tall fescue, and these species are also likely to be ancestral to the rhizomatous morphotype. However, these two morphotypes are sufficiently distinct to be located in separate clades based on the ITS-derived data set. All four of the generated data sets suggest independent evolution of the Mediterranean and Continental morphotypes, with minimal affinity between cognate sequence haplotypes. No obvious candidate progenitor species for Mediterranean tall fescues were identified, and only two putative sub-genome-specific haplotypes were identified for this morphotype. Conclusions This study describes the first

  5. Calidad nutritiva de láminas de dos cultivares de festuca alta (Festuca arundinacea Schreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INSUA, J.R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la calidad nutritiva de dos cultivares de festuca alta (Festuca arundinacea Schreb durante unrebrote estival (temperatura media: 21±2.8 °C, en relación a la morfogénesis de dos cultivares (Tradicional:El Palenque PlusINTA y Hojas flexibles: Grasslands AdvanceGentos. El diseño fue completamente aleatorizado(n=3 en 250 macetas/cultivar al aire libre, sin limitantes hídricas ni de N y P. Se realizaron 8 cosechas destructivasde 300 macollos vegetativos/cosecha en un período 14 semanas. La frecuencia se ajustó al estadoontogénico de las hojas para obtener láminas en 6 estados de similar edad térmica (desde el inicio de crecimientoa la senescencia completa de 3 generaciones consecutivas de hojas (G1, G2 y G3. Las variables demorfogénesis se midieron en 15 macollos marcados por cultivar. La edad, Vida Media Foliar (VMF e Intervalode Aparición de Hoja (IAH se expresaron en Grados Días de Crecimiento (GDC: ΣTem½ - 4 ºC. En las hojasse midió la longitud de las láminas y vainas; y en las láminas el contenido de Fibra Detergente Neutro (FDN yla digestibilidad in vitro de la FDN (DFDN y de la MS (DAMS por incubación a 24 horas en digestor DaisyII. Lasvariables de morfogénesis se evaluaron como medidas repetidas en el tiempo; y para las de calidad se ajustaronfunciones lineales con la edad y el largo foliar, y se compararon mediante análisis de variables dummy.Los cultivares no se diferenciaron en morfogénesis, con excepción de la VMF y el Número de Hojas Vivas pormacollo (NHV que fueron menores para Advance. La DFDN de ambos cultivares disminuyó linealmente conla edad y con el aumento del largo foliar entre hojas sucesivas de rebrote, con mayor tasa en Advance. Peroel contenido de FDN no se diferenció entre cultivares, sino que se mantuvo constante durante la vida foliar(54,5±3,2% y aumentó durante la senescencia (64,9±0,8%. Los cultivares no se diferenciaron en calidadal mismo estado ontogénico, lo cual indica que

  6. Neotyphodium Endophyte Changes Phytoextraction of Zinc in Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Narges; Sabzalian, Mohammad R; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amirhossein; Afyuni, Majid

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Neotyphodium endophytes on growth parameters and zinc (Zn) tolerance and uptake was studied in two grass species of Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne. Plants were grown under different Zn concentrations (control, 200, 400, 800, and 1800 mg kg(-1)) in potted soil for 5 months. The results showed that the number of plant tillers was 85 and 51% greater in endophyte infected Festuca (FaEI) and Lolium (LpEI), respectively, compared to their endophyte free (EF) plants. Roots and shoots dry weights in infected Festuca were 87 and 9% greater than non-infected counterparts but in opposite, EF Lolium had 47 and 8% greater root and shoot dry weights than LpEI. Endophyte infected Festuca and Lolium improved chlorophyll fluorescence as Fv/Fm at high concentrations of Zn, showing their better chlorophyll functions and significant reduction of Zn stress in endophyte infected plants. Shoots of endophyte infectedFestuca had 82% greater concentration of Zn than EF Festuca when grown in soil containing 1800 mg kg(-1) Zn. Festuca and Lolium may tolerate high Zn concentration in soil without reduction in shoot and root growth. Endophyte infection in Festuca may help the grass accumulate and transport more Zn in aboveground parts under Zn-stress, thereby aiding phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

  7. Response to elevated CO2 in the temperate C3 grass Festuca arundinaceae across ten soil orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Nord

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Soils vary widely in mineral nutrient availability and physical characteristics, but the influence of this variability on plant responses to elevated CO2 remains poorly understood. As a first approximation of the effect of global soil variability on plant growth response to CO2, we evaluated the effect of CO2 on tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea grown in soils representing 10 of the 12 global soil orders plus a high-fertility control. Plants were grown in small pots in continuously stirred reactor tanks in a greenhouse. Elevated CO2 (800 ppm increased plant biomass in the high-fertility control and in two of the more fertile soils. Elevated CO2 had variable effects on foliar mineral concentration - nitrogen was not altered by elevated CO2, and phosphorus and potassium were only affected by CO2 in a small number of soils. While leaf photosynthesis was stimulated by elevated CO2 in six soils, canopy photosynthesis was not stimulated. Four principle components were identified; the first was associated with foliar minerals and soil clay, and the second with soil acidity and foliar manganese concentration. The third principle component was associated with gas exchange, and the fourth with plant biomass and soil minerals. Soils in which tall fescue did not respond to elevated CO2 account for 83% of global land area. These results show that variation in soil physical and chemical properties have important implications for plant responses to global change, and highlight the need to consider soil variability in models of vegetation response to global change.

  8. Response to elevated CO2 in the temperate C3 grass Festuca arundinaceae across a wide range of soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Eric A; Jaramillo, Raúl E; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    Soils vary widely in mineral nutrient availability and physical characteristics, but the influence of this variability on plant responses to elevated CO2 remains poorly understood. As a first approximation of the effect of global soil variability on plant growth response to CO2, we evaluated the effect of CO2 on tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) grown in soils representing 10 of the 12 global soil orders plus a high-fertility control. Plants were grown in small pots in continuously stirred reactor tanks in a greenhouse. Elevated CO2 (800 ppm) increased plant biomass in the high-fertility control and in two of the more fertile soils. Elevated CO2 had variable effects on foliar mineral concentration-nitrogen was not altered by elevated CO2, and phosphorus and potassium were only affected by CO2 in a small number of soils. While leaf photosynthesis was stimulated by elevated CO2 in six soils, canopy photosynthesis was not stimulated. Four principle components were identified; the first was associated with foliar minerals and soil clay, and the second with soil acidity and foliar manganese concentration. The third principle component was associated with gas exchange, and the fourth with plant biomass and soil minerals. Soils in which tall fescue did not respond to elevated CO2 account for 83% of global land area. These results show that variation in soil physical and chemical properties have important implications for plant responses to global change, and highlight the need to consider soil variability in models of vegetation response to global change.

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhiza affects nickel translocation and expression of ABC transporter and metallothionein genes in Festuca arundinacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Leila; Sabzalian, Mohammad R; Mostafavi pour, Sodabeh

    2016-01-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi are key microorganisms for enhancing phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. In this study, the effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Funneliformis mosseae (=Glomus mosseae) on physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in the nickel (Ni) tolerance of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea = Schedonorus arundinaceus) were investigated. Nickel addition had a pronounced negative effect on tall fescue growth and photosynthetic pigment contents, as well as on AMF colonization. Phosphorus content increased markedly in mycorrhizal plants (M) compared to non-inoculated (NM) ones. However, no significant difference was observed in root carbohydrate content between AMF-inoculated and non-inoculated plants. For both M and NM plants, Ni concentrations in shoots and roots increased according to the addition of the metal into soil, but inoculation with F. mosseae led to significantly lower Ni translocation from roots to the aboveground parts compared to non-inoculated plants. ABC transporter and metallothionein transcripts accumulated to considerably higher levels in tall fescue plants colonized by F. mosseae than in the corresponding non-mycorrhizal plants. These results highlight the importance of mycorrhizal colonization in alleviating Ni-induced stress by reducing Ni transport from roots to shoots of tall fescue plants.

  10. Effects of sewage sludge on Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate uptake by plants. [Lactuca sativa L. ; Daucus carota L. ; Capsicum annuum L. ; Festuca arundinacea Schreb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, J.M.; O' Connor, G.A.; Eiceman, G.A. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces (USA))

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a priority organic pollutant frequently found in municipal sludges. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effect of sludge on plant uptake of {sup 14}C-DEHP (carbonyl labeled). Plants grown included three food chain crops, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Net {sup 14}C concentration in plants grown in soil amended with {sup 14}C-DEHP-contaminated sludge was independent of sludge rate (at the same DEHP loading) for lettuce, chile fruit, and carrot roots. Net {sup 14}C concentration, however, was inversely related to sludge rate in carrot tops, fescue, and chile plants. Intact DEHP was not detected in plants by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Calculated plant DEHP concentrations (based on measured net {sup 14}C concentrations and DEHP specific activities) were generally correlated better with DEHP soil solution concentrations than with total DEHP soil concentrations. Net {sup 14}C-DEHP bioconcentration factors were calculated from initial soil DEHP concentration and plant fresh weights. Bioconcentration factors ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 for fescue, lettuce, carrots, and chile, suggesting little DEHP uptake. Additionally, because intact DEHP was not detected in any plants, DEHP uptake by plants was of minor importance and would not limit sludge additions to soils used to grow these crops.

  11. 渗透胁迫下感染内生真菌的高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)种群与非感染种群若干生理指标的比较研究%A Comparison Study between Endophyte-infected and Endophyte-free Populations of Tall Fescue in Some Physiological Characters under Osmotic Stress Coditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢凤行; 任安芝; 葛崇葳; 王银华; 高玉葆

    2007-01-01

    在温室中用PEG模拟干旱胁迫,比较了内生真菌感染(EI)和非感染(EF)的高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea Schreb.cv.Millennium)种群的几项与水分生理相关的指标.结果表明在对照和轻度胁迫时,EI植株的分蘖、叶长、渗透势、游离脯氨酸含量及生物量与EF种群相比都没有显著差异;重度胁迫条件下,复水后EI植株叶片展开程度明显大于EF植株,根系活力显著高于EF植株(P<0.05),说明重度干旱胁迫下内生真菌感染对高羊茅的恢复生长有一定的增益作用.

  12. Water use efficiency and shoot biomass production under water limitation is negatively correlated to the discrimination against 13C in the C3 grasses Dactylis glomerata, Festuca arundinacea and Phalaris arundinacea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mårtensson, Linda-Maria; Carlsson, Georg; Prade, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Climate change impacts rainfall patterns which may lead to drought stress in rain-fed agricultural systems. Crops with higher drought tolerance are required on marginal land with low precipitation or on soils with low water retention used for biomass production. It is essential to obtain plant br...... production and potential tolerance to water limitation. We conclude that discrimination against 13C appears to be a useful indicator, when selecting C3 grass crops for biomass production under drought conditions....... breeding tools, which can identify genotypes with improved drought tolerance and water use efficiency (WUE). In C3 plant species, the variation in discrimination against 13C (Δ13C) during photosynthesis has been shown to be a potential indicator for WUE, where discrimination against 13C and WUE were...... negatively correlated. The aim of this study was to determine the variation in the discrimination against 13C between species and cultivars of three perennial C3 grasses (Dactylis glomerata (cocksfoot), Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue) and Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass)) and test the relationships...

  13. Gangrenous ergotism in cattle grazing fescue (Festuca elatior L. in South Africa : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Botha

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The 1st outbreak of fescue toxicosis in South Africa was recently confirmed in a Brahman herd at Perdekop, near Standerton, in Mpumalanga province, SouthAfrica.Within 3 weeks of being placed on a fescue pasture in mid-winter, 50 of 385 cattle developed lameness and / or necrosis of the tail. The farmer had established Festuca elatior L. (tall fescue, Iewag variety on c. 140 ha for winter grazing. Fescue may be infected by an endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, which produces ergot alkaloids, in particular ergovaline. Ergovaline concentrations in basal leaf sheaths and grass stems collected during the outbreak ranged from 1720-8170 ppb on a dry-matter basis.

  14. Effect of Festuca arundinacea and Festulolium additional sown on the change of stand composition by semi-natural grass stand

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    Jiří Skládanka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The work was carried aut to study influence of additional sown on the change of herbage composition. The experiment was situated in the Bohemian-Moravian Highland (Czech Republic at an altitude 553 m. a. s. l. The semi-natural grass sward was created Festuca rubra (19.7%, Agrostis capillaris (15.5%, Taraxacum officinale (11.3%, Dactylis glomerata (11.0%, Elytrigia repens (9.4%, Trisetum flavescens (8.6%, Phleum pratense (8.0%, Poa ssp. (7.6% and Trifolium pratense (7.7% species. Additional sown of Festuca arundinacea (35 kg ha – 1 and Festulolium (35 kg ha – 1 was performed in the year 2000. The grass sward was cuted twice for year. First cut was in June and second cut in November. The proportion of Festuca arundinacea was 1.0% in June 2001 and 34.2% in June 2003. The proportion of Festulolium was 1.0% in June 2001 and 20.6% in June 2003. The additional sown species dominated more in November than in June. The proportion of Festuca arundinacea was fourth year for additional sown 73.7% and proportion of Festulolium 48.7%. The additional sown reflected on the change of herbage composition. The herbage composition was most expressive between second and third year.

  15. Effects of the utilization term and additional sowing of Festuca arundinacea and Festulolium on the production of winter pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Skládanka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The work was carried out to study the influence of additional sowing and differentiated systems of use in the summer period on the production of grass sward in the autumn and winter period. An additional sowing of Festuca arundinacea and Festulolium was made into the grass stand with dominating Festuca rubra, Taraxacum officinale, Agropyron repens, Dactylis glomerata, Trisetum flavescens, Agrostis stolonifera and Phleum pratense. In summer (preparatory cut, the grass stand was utilized in June, July and August. In the autumn (main use, it was utilized in November, December and January. The additional sowing, the preparatory cut and the main use were monitored for their influence on the yield of dry matter. Another assessment was made of the share of Festuca arundinacea and Festulolium in the harvested herbage. In June 2001, the share of additionally sown herb species in the harvested herbage did not exceed 2%. However, their proportion increased to more than 20% in four years of the study. In the summer period, the additional sowing did not show any significant effect on dry matter yields. The additionally sown herb species exhibited a pronounced dominance in November. The shares of Festuca arundinacea and Festulolium in the harvested herbage were 80.1% and 71.3%, respectively. Yields from the additionally sown grass stands were higher from the third year of the study (by 1.07–1.26 t.ha–1 than those from the grass stand with no additional sowing (0.66–0.97 t.ha–1 the variance being insignificant. In the autumn and in winter, a significant decrease (P < 0.05 was seen in yields from the grass stand utilized until the beginning of August and the yields further decreased with the proceeding winter.

  16. Water use efficiency and shoot biomass production under water limitation is negatively correlated to the discrimination against (13)C in the C3 grasses Dactylis glomerata, Festuca arundinacea and Phalaris arundinacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, Linda-Maria; Carlsson, Georg; Prade, Thomas; Kørup, Kirsten; Lærke, Poul Erik; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2017-04-01

    Climate change impacts rainfall patterns which may lead to drought stress in rain-fed agricultural systems. Crops with higher drought tolerance are required on marginal land with low precipitation or on soils with low water retention used for biomass production. It is essential to obtain plant breeding tools, which can identify genotypes with improved drought tolerance and water use efficiency (WUE). In C3 plant species, the variation in discrimination against (13)C (Δ(13)C) during photosynthesis has been shown to be a potential indicator for WUE, where discrimination against (13)C and WUE were negatively correlated. The aim of this study was to determine the variation in the discrimination against (13)C between species and cultivars of three perennial C3 grasses (Dactylis glomerata (cocksfoot), Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue) and Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass)) and test the relationships between discrimination against (13)C, season-long water use WUEB, shoot and root biomass production in plants grown under well-watered and water-limited conditions. The grasses were grown in the greenhouse and exposed to two irrigation regimes, which corresponded to 25% and 60% water holding capacity, respectively. We found negative relationships between discrimination against (13)C and WUEB and between discrimination against (13)C and shoot biomass production, under both the well-watered and water-limited growth conditions (p < 0.001). Discrimination against (13)C decreased in response to water limitation (p < 0.001). We found interspecific differences in the discrimination against (13)C, WUEB, and shoot biomass production, where the cocksfoot cultivars showed lowest and the reed canary grass cultivars highest values of discrimination against (13)C. Cocksfoot cultivars also showed highest WUEB, shoot biomass production and potential tolerance to water limitation. We conclude that discrimination against (13)C appears to be a useful indicator, when selecting C3

  17. Caracterização morfofisiológica e agronômica de Paspalum dilatatum Poir. biótipo Virasoro e Festuca arundinacea Schreb: 2. Disponibilidade de forragem e valor nutritivo Morphophysiological and agronomic characterization of Paspalum dilatatum Poir. biotype Virasoro and Festuca arundinacea Schreb: 2. Forage availability and nutritive value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Isabel da Costa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial forrageiro de Paspalum dilatatum Poir. biótipo Virasoro e Festuca arundinacea Schreb., exótica e hibernal na região sul do Brasil. Foi colhida mensalmente a parte aérea de plantas individuais, cultivadas no campo durante 12 meses e avaliadas quanto à disponibilidade de massa seca (DMS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra detergente neutro (FDN e fibra detergente ácido (FDA. O virasoro apresentou ciclo estacional, com a maior DMS na primavera/verão (98 g MS/planta, enquanto a festuca teve a maior DMS no inverno/primavera (100 g MS/planta. O virasoro mostrou teores mais elevados de PB nas folhas (19,09% em relação à festuca (17,8%, mas essa apresentou menor conteúdo de FDA (29% em relação ao virasoro (43%; para FDN nas folhas não houve diferença entre as espécies, com médias de 62%. No colmo, as diferenças foram apenas no outono (festuca=19,9%; virasoro=73,9%. O biótipo Virasoro não foi infectado por Claviceps paspali, que comumente ocorre em P. dilatatum, indicando resistência ao fungo. O biótipo Virasoro detém características desejáveis como planta forrageira, sendo uma boa opção para a estação quente.This work had the objective to evaluate the forage potential of Paspalum dilatatum Poir. biotype Virasoro and Festuca arundinacea Schreb., an exotic species in the southern regions of Brazil. The individual plant shoots were harvested for twelve months, cultivated in the field, and evaluated as for the dry matter availability (DMA, crude protein (CP and neutral and acid detergent fiber (NDF and ADF. The virasoro showed seasonal cicle, with the maximum DMA in the spring/summer period (98 g DM/plant, while tall fescue had the top DMD in the winter/spring period (100 g DM/plant. The virasoro showed higher CP in the leaves (19,09% in relation to tall fescue (17.8%, but the latter had the smallest values of ADF (29% in relation to the former (43%; the ADF in the leaves

  18. meta-Tyrosine in Festuca rubra ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue) is synthesized by hydroxylation of phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tengfang; Rehak, Ludmila; Jander, Georg

    2012-03-01

    m-Tyrosine is a non-protein amino acid that is structurally similar to the common protein amino acids p-tyrosine and phenylalanine. Copious amounts of m-tyrosine can be found in root exudates of the fine fescue cultivar, Festuca rubra L. ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue). The phytotoxicity of m-tyrosine may contribute to the allelopathic potential of F. rubra. m-Tyrosine in Euphorbia myrsinites (donkey-tail spurge), was previously shown to be synthesized via transamination of m-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Here we show that m-tyrosine biosynthesis in F. rubra occurs through direct hydroxylation of phenylalanine in the root tips, perhaps through the activity of a cytochrome P450 enzyme. Hence, E. myrsinites and F. rubra, the only two plant species known to produce m-tyrosine, use distinct biosynthetic pathways that likely arose independently in evolutionary history.

  19. The dtudy of physiological and biochemical responses of Agrostis stolonifera and Festuca arundinacea Schreb. under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Alibiglouei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a main limiting factor of turfgrass growth in arid and semi-arid regions. Therefore, in this study, the physiological and biochemical changes in two turfgrass species Agrostis stolonifera and Festuca arundinacea schreb during drought stress (70-75 centibar in a 40-day period and recovery were investigated. Control plants during drought stress were regularly irrigated at soil field capacity (20-25 centibar. The results showed that leaf relative water content and leaf chlorophyll content with long-term stress decreased. Electrolyte leakage and proline during drought stress significantly increased and in recovery stage, the level of electrolyte leakage and proline reached to the control. The activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in two turfgrass significantly increased after 30 days and then significantly reduced. In F. arundinacea schreb the activity of ascorbat peroxidase after 20 days significantly increased and then significantly reduced. Also, in F. arundinacea schreb species the activity of catalase increased during drought stress and in recovery stage the activity of catalase reduced. In studied species during drought stress and recovery stage, the activity of ascorbat peroxidase and catalase significantly increased compared to the control. These results suggested that the resistant species F. arundinacea schreb, under drought stress had a low level of electrolyte leakage, higher level of relative water content and chlorophyll destruction was less than A. stolonifera.

  20. Identification and characterization of a salt stress-inducible zinc finger protein from Festuca arundinacea

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    Martin Ruth C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased biotic and abiotic plant stresses due to climate change together with an expected global human population of over 9 billion by 2050 intensifies the demand for agricultural production on marginal lands. Soil salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses responsible for reduced crop productivity worldwide and the salinization of arable land has dramatically increased over the last few decades. Consequently, as land becomes less amenable for conventional agriculture, plants grown on marginal soils will be exposed to higher levels of soil salinity. Forage grasses are a critical component of feed used in livestock production worldwide, with many of these same species of grasses being utilized for lawns, erosion prevention, and recreation. Consequently, it is important to develop a better understanding of salt tolerance in forage and related grass species. Findings A gene encoding a ZnF protein was identified during the analysis of a salt-stress suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH expression library from the forage grass species Festuca arundinacea. The expression pattern of FaZnF was compared to that of the well characterized gene for delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS, a key enzyme in proline biosynthesis, which was also identified in the salt-stress SSH library. The FaZnF and P5CS genes were both up-regulated in response to salt and drought stresses suggesting a role in dehydration stress. FaZnF was also up-regulated in response to heat and wounding, suggesting that it might have a more general function in multiple abiotic stress responses. Additionally, potential downstream targets of FaZnF (a MAPK [Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase], GST [Glutathione-S-Transferase] and lipoxygenase L2 were found to be up-regulated in calli overexpressing FaZnF when compared to control cell lines. Conclusions This work provides evidence that FaZnF is an AN1/A20 zinc finger protein that is involved in the regulation

  1. Interaction of Plant Epicuticular Waxes and Extracellular Esterases of Curvularia eragrostidis during Infection of Digitaria sanguinalis and Festuca arundinacea by the Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang-Lai Xu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Curvularia eragrostidis, a causal agent of head blight on the weed (Digitariasanguinalis, did not cause disease on the turfgrass Festuca arundinacea. Differentextracellular esterase isoenzymes were detected in saprophytic and parasitic phases duringthe fungal germination. The epicuticular waxes of D. sanguinalis were more efficient toinduce the secretion of esterases from the fungus than that of F. arundinacea, but were morerapidly degraded by the fungal enzymes. Component analysis indicated that the epicuticularwaxes from D. sanguinalis were mostly composed of alcohols, with 54.3% being 9,12-Octadecadien-1-ol. The main component of F arundinacea waxes was alkyl compounds,with 49.8% being olefin, 9-Tricosence. More long-chained esters were found in D.sanguinalis waxes, which were easier to be digested than those in F. arundinacea waxes byextreacellular esterases of the fungus. Epicuticular waxes play a role in varyingpathogenicity of C. eragrostidis on D. sanguinalis and F arundinacea.

  2. Identification of Festuca arundinacea Schreb Cat1 Catalase Gene and Analysis of its Expression Under Abiotic Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Abiotic stresses, such as drought, high salinity, and cold/freezing, lead plants to produce excess reactive oxygen species. Catalase, a unique hydrogen peroxide-scavenging enzyme, plays a very important role in plants. To characterize the catalase involved in plant response to abiotic stresses, we constructed a cDNA library from 4 ℃-treated Festuca arundinacea Schreb seedlings and isolated a catalase gene from this library.The cDNA (FaCat1, 1 735 bp) contained an open reading frame of 1 479 bp. BLAST analysis indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence showed 96% identity with that from wheat TaCat1 and 87% identity with that from maize ZmCat2. Northern blotting analysis showed an obvious increase of FaCat1 transcripts in leaves in contrast with roots. Time-course analysis of the expression of FaCat1 in F. arundinacea leaves showed that FaCat1 expression was upregulated in cold- and salt-stressed leaves, with the FaCat1 transcripts accumulating mostly at 4 or 2 h after cold or salt stress, respectively. No significant changes in FaCat1 transcription were observed in dried leaves and inhibition of FaCat1 transcription was found in abscisic acid (ABA)-treated leaves,indicating that the FaCat1 gene is differentially expressed during cold, high salt, drought, and ABA treatment in F. arundinacea leaves.

  3. Calidad nutritiva de láminas de festuca alta (Festuca arundinacea Schreb en rebrotes de verano y otoño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INSUA, J.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la morfogénesis y estructura foliar en la calidad de las láminas de rebrotes de verano y otoño de Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado (n=3 en 250 macetas al aire libre sin limitantes hídricas de N y P. En los rebrotes de cada estación se realizaron tres cosechas de 300 macollos/repetición para obtener láminas en tres estados de desarrollo (recientemente expandida,adulta y pre-senescencia, correspondientes a tres generaciones consecutivas de hojas.

  4. Fescues of the Intravaginal group of Festuca L. section Festuca in the lowland and montane areas of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyke, S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fescues of the Intravaginal group of Festuca L. section Festuca in the lowland and montane areas of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula.— Morphologically similar fescues occur across the study area (Mediterranean area of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula at low and middle elevations. With the exception of the high mountain or alpine species, these populations are reviewed here, with particular attention being paid to the Festuca inops (F. gracilior group, as well as to some other species, in particular F. lemanii, which are not easily understood and can complicate identification, especially where the taxa occur sympatrically. The application of the binomen F. inops De Not. to some of the Iberian populations constituting the F. inops group is discussed. New records for F. tarraconensis, F. occitanica, F. michaelis and F. heteroidea amplify the distribution range of these little-known taxa within the Iberian Peninsula.Diferentes especies de Festuca morfológicamente afines crecen en gran parte del territorio objeto de esta reseña (tierras mediterráneas del nordeste de la Península Ibérica, a baja y mediana altitud. Excluyendo las especies de alta montaña, estas poblaciones se han estudiado aquí haciendo hincapié en Festuca grupo inops (F. gracilior, y se han tratado otras especies (F. lemanii en especial que a veces complican la identificación de los miembros de dicho grupo, sobre todo cuando solapan sus distribuciones. Se comenta la aplicación del binomen F. inops De Not. a algunas poblaciones ibéricas del grupo F. inops. Nuevas citas de F. tarraconensis, F. occitanica, F. michaelis y F. heteroidea amplían la distribución de estos taxones dentro de la Península Ibérica.

  5. TALL FESCUE AND ASSOCIATED MUTUALISTIC TOXIC FUNGAL ENDOPHYTES IN AGROECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon et al. (1977) proposed and Hoveland et al. (1980, 1986) substantiated that impaired health and performance of livestock grazing tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum S. J. Darbyshire, formerly Festuca arundinacea Schreb.] were associated with the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum Glenn, Ha...

  6. The effect of water extracts from leaves of Festuca rubra, F. ovina and F. Arundinacea on the initial growth and development of other grass species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Lipińska

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic effect of plants is one of the least known factors determining the stability of lawn swards. Leaves are a rich source of allelopathic substances. Washed out by rain or dew drops, or released during biomass decomposition, these substances can impact plants. In practice, cut sward is often left on the lawn surface and can have an allelopathic effect on regrowing plants. The effect of released allelochemicals depends on many factors, including their concentration. Hence, in order to maintain the high functional properties of the lawn, information is needed on the critical concentrations of allelochemicals inhibiting plant growth and development. Laboratory research was thus undertaken (on Petri dishes to evaluate the effect of various water extracts of leaves of selected lawn grass cultivars. The following cultivars were the donors: 'Areta', 'Nimba', 'Olivia' (Festuca rubra; 'Espro', 'Pintor' (F. ovina,and 'Asterix' (F. arundinacea, while the acceptors were: 'Niwa' (Agrostis capillaris, 'Asterix' (Festuca arundinacea, 'Espro' (F. ovina, 'Areta' (F. rubra, 'Stadion' (Lolium perenne, and 'Bila' (Poa pratensis – the species frequently sown in lawns. In the control treatments, distilled water was applied to the substrate. The experiment revealed that the effect of water extracts of leaves varied depending on their concentration and donor variety as well as the sensitivity of the acceptor (the test plant. In comparison with the control treatments, the strongest negative impact was caused by the cultivars 'Olivia' (F. rubraand 'Pintor' (F. ovina, followed by 'Asterix' (F. arundinacea. Among the acceptors, the greatest sensitivity to the presence of allelochemicals was shown by A. capillaris, and the smallest by F. arundinacea. .

  7. Comportamento de leguminosas (Adesmia, Lotus, Trifolium em mistura com festuca Response of legumes (Adesmia, Lotus, Trifolium in mixture with tall fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso

    2002-11-01

    temperate legumes (Adesmia latifolia (wild, Lotus corniculatus, L. subbiflorus, L. uliginosus and Trifolium repens cv. Yi and cv. Regal was evaluated in mixture with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea. There was a period of 475 days between sowing date and the last cut and six cuts were made; on the autumn-winter/2000 only one cut was made, on the spring-summer, three cuts and on the autumn-winter/2001, two cuts. The intervals between cuts ranged between 43 and 91 days, being reduced in the warm season. During the total assay period, the average of the mixtures yielded 15038 kg/ha of DM; in the warm season 54% of this total was produced, with an average growth rate of 46 kg/ha/day of DM. In the cold season of 2000 and 2001 this rate was of 22 and 24 kg/ha/day of DM. The birdsfoot trefoil and white clover cv. Yi were the most productive legumes; the former was the best in the warm season (3500 kg/ha of DM and the last participated with 86,3% in the mixture in the autumn-winter/2001, with 2300 kg/ha/day of DM. The mixtures containing these legumes presented the smallest quantity of weeds and produced 13663 and 11,184 kg/ha of DM respectively, being 82% and 71% of these totals composed of legumes, fescue and ryegrass. A. latifolia did not have a good establishment and its contribution was only 0,84% in the first cut. The L. subbiflorus had a good establishment on the first year, but it disappeared from the mixture in the second year. L. uliginosus had a good establishment and persistence producing up to 1400 kg/ha of DM in the autumn/2001.

  8. Novel endophyte-infected tall fescue for growing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, S A; Beck, P A

    2004-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea, Shreb.) is the predominant cool-season, perennial grass in the eastern half of the United States, and the majority is infected with the endemic endophyte (E+) Neotyphodium coenophialum, resulting in millions of dollars in revenues lost to the beef industry. Endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue was initially tapped as a "silver bullet" for the solution to fescue toxicosis, but drought intolerance and overgrazing have often resulted in nearly complete stand losses in 3 to 4 yr. Recently, the discovery of new endophytes that do not produce ergot alkaloids has resulted in the development of novel-endophyte-infected (NE+), stress-tolerant tall fescue plants. These NE+ tall fescue plants combine the plant persistence advantages of E+ (infected) tall fescue with the animal performance advantages of an E- tall fescue. Controlled studies from several locations in the southern United States have shown that the three commercially available cultivars of NE+ tall fescue persist as well as E+ tall fescues. Stocker cattle performance trials from five states have shown that the ADG in cattle grazing NE+ tall fescue was 47% greater than in cattle grazing E+ tall fescue and that cattle show no signs of fescue toxicosis. Economic evaluations of establishment cost and improved animal performance indicate that a stand of NE+ tall fescue would require 7 yr to pay off and begin to return profit to the enterprise if calves grazing E+ pasture are not discounted in price for fescue toxicosis at marketing. Average discounts at marketing for cattle showing signs of fescue toxicosis are $7.49/45.4 kg of BW. Assuming E+ cattle are discounted at sale and the quality of cattle is not decreased by the use of NE+ tall fescue, a stand of NE+ tall fescue would require 3 yr to pay the expense of establishment and begin to return profit to the enterprise.

  9. Effects of pseudo-microgravity on symbiosis between endophyte, Neotyphodium, and its host plant, tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Hiraishi, K.; Yoshida, S.; Hashimoto, H.; Shinozaki, S.; Yamashita, M.

    Endophyte is a group of microbes that symbiotically live in plant body Endophyte provides host plant its metabolites that protect the plant from insect pests In addition to this host plants are resistive against environmental stress In general endophyte lives in seeds to seeds of the infected plants through multiple generations The infection of fungi has never been observed and their original pathway is still unknown in nature The aim of this study is to examine whether this stable symbiosis between endophytes and its host plant would be modified under pseudo-microgravity or not We also aim to observe the infection under an exotic environment in terms of gravity We found that the internal hyphae of both the incubated plant under pseudo-microgravity and the ground control became indistinct with the number of incubation days A part of the endophyte in the seed under its autolysis was suggested because the amount of fungi in the base of the shoot that was observed with the incubated plant under the ground control was far less than that in the seed before sowing Hyphae began to grow in the germinating seed after a 3-day incubation period However a lot of aggregated fungi still existed in the 3-day incubated seed under pseudo-microgravity Moreover hyphae in the 3-day incubated seed under pseudo-microgravity were more indistinctly than that under the ground control The fungi were observed in the boundary of the seed and the shoot of the 5-day incubated seed under the ground control but not under pseudo-microgravity By this observation it was suggested that

  10. Water deficit affects primary metabolism differently in two Lolium multiflorum/Festuca arundinacea introgression forms with a distinct capacity for photosynthesis and membrane regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Perlikowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how plants respond to drought at different levels of cell metabolism is an important aspect of research on the mechanisms involved in stress tolerance. Furthermore, a dissection of drought tolerance into its crucial components by the use of plant introgression forms facilitates to analyze this trait more deeply. The important components of plant drought tolerance are the capacity for photosynthesis under drought conditions, and the ability of cellular membrane regeneration after stress cessation. Two closely related introgression forms of Lolium multiflorum/Festuca arundinacea, differing in the level of photosynthetic capacity during stress, and in the ability to regenerate their cellular membranes after stress cessation, were used as forage grass models in a primary metabolome profiling and in an evaluation of chloroplast 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase accumulation level and activity, during 11 days of water deficit, followed by 10 days of rehydration. It was revealed here that the introgression form, characterized by the ability to regenerate membranes after rehydration, contained higher amounts of proline, melibiose, galactaric acid, myo-inositol and myo-inositol-1-phosphate involved in osmoprotection and stress signaling under drought. Moreover, during the rehydration period, this form also maintained elevated accumulation levels of most the primary metabolites, analyzed here. The other introgression form, characterized by the higher capacity for photosynthesis, revealed a higher accumulation level and activity of chloroplast aldolase under drought conditions, and higher accumulation levels of most photosynthetic products during control and drought periods. The potential impact of the observed metabolic alterations on cellular membrane recovery after stress cessation, and on a photosynthetic capacity under drought conditions in grasses, are discussed.

  11. Remediation of PAH-contaminated soil by the combination of tall fescue, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and epigeic earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan-Fei; Lu, Mang

    2015-03-21

    A 120-day experiment was performed to investigate the effect of a multi-component bioremediation system consisting of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) (Glomus caledoniun L.), and epigeic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) for cleaning up polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soil. Inoculation with AMF and/or earthworms increased plant yield and PAH accumulation in plants. However, PAH uptake by tall fescue accounted for a negligible portion of soil PAH removal. Mycorrhizal tall fescue significantly enhanced PAH dissipation, PAH degrader density and polyphenol oxidase activity in soil. The highest PAH dissipation (93.4%) was observed in the combination treatment: i.e., AMF+earthworms+tall fescue, in which the soil PAH concentration decreased from an initial value of 620 to 41 mg kg(-1) in 120 days. This concentration is below the threshold level required for Chinese soil PAH quality (45 mg kg(-1) dry weight) for residential use.

  12. Acremonium in fescue and ryegrass: boon or bane? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joost, R E

    1995-03-01

    Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones and Gams, an endophytic fungus commonly found in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), has been identified as the cause of poor performance of beef cattle and horses on tall fescue. Ryegrass staggers, a neurological disorder of sheep, has been linked to the presence of a similar fungus, A. lolii Latch, Christensen and Samuels, in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Renovation of endophyte-infected (E+) pastures with endophyte-free (E-) cultivars of tall fescue or perennial ryegrass has resulted in improved animal performance, but productivity and stand persistence of the grasses have been reduced. Stand loss of E- tall fescue has been attributed to a number of stresses, including insect attack, disease, root predation by nematodes, and drought stress. The Acremonium endophyte has been observed to stimulate the tall fescue plant's production of chitinase, an enzyme associated with disease resistance. Nematode resistance, which can also be enhanced in E+ plants, has been attributed, in part, to thickening of the root endodermal layer. Drought stress has been identified as the most common cause of E- tall fescue stand loss in the eastern United States. Endophyte-infected tall fescue plants exhibit several adaptive morphological and physiological responses to drought stress compared with E- plants. Drought-induced leaf rolling, leaf senescence, stomatal closure, and osmotic adjustment are more prevalent in E+ than in E- plants and may be mediated through endophyte enhancement of the production of phytohormones such as abscisic acid. Endophyte-infected tall fescue plants have been shown to be more productive and competitive than E- plants through improvement of germination, tillering, and biomass production per tiller.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Responses of Lactuca sativa and Festuca arundinacea to the allelopathy of water extracts from Jacaranda mimosifolia flowers%莴苣与高羊茅对蓝花楹花水浸液化感作用的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 石锦安; 刘月婷; 孙莹; 邵小鹏

    2015-01-01

    In order to verify whether there are relevant substances in J acaranda mimosifolia that can produce the al-lelopathy to other plants.We studied the allelopathy of the concentration of 0.001,0.025,0.050 g·mL-1 water ex-tract of the flowers of J .mimosifolia for the seed germination and seedling growth,taking the complete single flow-ers of J .mimosifolia grown in Wenjiang region as materials,the seeds of Lactuca sativa and Festuca arundinacea as receptor materials,and the water treatment as the control CK .The results were as follows:firstly,the seed germi-nation of F .arundinacea and Lactuca sativa was suppressed by the water extract,especially performance on the ger-mination index,and the comprehensive allelopathies (SE 2 )were-0.13 and-0.27 respectively;secondly,the seedling height of L .sativa was promoted but its root length and root-shoot ratio were suppressed,and the values of SE 3 ,SE 4 ,SE 5 were 0.13,-0.36,-0.16,while the root-shoot ratio of Festuca arundinacea were promoted but its seedling height and root length were suppressed,and the values of SE 3 ,SE 4 ,SE 5 were-0.12,-0.08,0.16 respectively.Mean-while the MDA contents and root vigor of Lactuca sativa were also suppressed,whose values of SE 6 and SE 7 were-0.25 and-0.44,the values of Festuca arundinacea were 0.04 and 0.34 reversely.Most of all,when the concentration of the water extracts was 0.025 g·mL-1 ,it showed the RI peak and inflection point of some trend in many places, especially the changes in MDA contents and root vigor of receiver plant’s leaves.Thus,the experiment proved the existence of allelochemicals in water extract of J acaranda mimosifolia flowers,Lactuca sativa and Festuca arundi-nacea ,and they had different responses to the allelochemicals,which will provide the relevant theoretical basis to the plant landscape design and maintenance of J acaranda mimosifolia in the future.%为探明蓝花楹是否存在对其它植物产生化感作用的相关物质,以生长在四川温

  14. Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century is a comprehensive monograph by experts from around the world about the science of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort., formerly Fes¬tuca arundinacea Schreb. var. arundinacea] and its applications. ...

  15. Pathological changes seen in horses in New Zealand grazing Mediterranean tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) infected with selected endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala) causing equine fescue oedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, J S; Finch, S C; Vlaming, J B; Sutherland, B L; Fletcher, L R

    2017-05-01

    To investigate whether Mediterranean tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. (syn Festuca arundinacea)) infected with selected fungal endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum)) caused equine fescue oedema when grown in New Zealand, and to examine the pathological changes associated with this intoxication. Horses were grazed on Mediterranean tall fescue that was infected with the endophytes AR542 (n=2), or AR584 (n=3), or Mediterranean tall fescue that was endophyte-free (n=2). Blood samples were taken up to 7 days after the start of feeding to detect changes in concentrations of total protein in serum and packed cell volume. Any horse showing clinical evidence of disease was subject to euthanasia and necropsy. Within 6 days, both horses grazing fescue infected with AR542 became depressed and lethargic. One horse grazing fescue infected with endophyte AR584 became depressed within a 5-day feeding period while another horse in this group died shortly after being removed from the AR584 pasture. The third horse in this group did not develop clinical signs within the 5-day feeding period. However, haemoconcentration and hypoproteinaemia was detected in all horses grazing Mediterranean tall fescue that was infected by AR542 or AR584 endophyte. No abnormalities were observed in horses grazing fescue that was endophyte-free. Necropsy examination was performed on two horses grazing fescue infected with AR542 and one horse grazing fescue infected with AR584. All three horses had marked oedema of the gastrointestinal tract. Histologically, the oedema was accompanied by large numbers of eosinophils, but no necrosis. Horses grazing Mediterranean tall fescue that was infected by AR542 or AR584 developed hypoproteinaemia and haemoconcentration, most likely due to leakage of plasma proteins into the gastrointestinal tract. This suggests that these selected endophytes produce a compound that is toxic to horses, although the toxic principle

  16. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy used to detect endophyte-mediated accumulation of metals by tall fescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Madhavi Z.; Stewart, Arthur J.; Gwinn, Kimberley D.; Waller, John C.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to determine the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) infection on elemental composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Leaf material from endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue populations in established plots was examined. Leaf-tissue digestates were also tested for metals, by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS). Seven of eleven metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn) were measured by both techniques at concentrations great enough for a reliable comparison. Mg, Zn, and Cd, a toxic metal that can be present in forage, were readily detected by LIBS, even though Cd concentrations in the plants were below levels typically achieved using ICP MS detection. Implications of these results for research on forage analysis and phytoremediation are discussed.

  17. Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy used to Detect Endophyte-mediated Accumulation of Metals by Tall Fescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Gwinn, Dr. Kimberley [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Waller, John C [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was used to determine the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) infection on elemental composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Leaf material from endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue populations in established plots was examined. Leaf-tissue digestates were also tested for metals, by ICP-MS. Seven of eleven metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni and Zn) were measured by both techniques at concentrations great enough to reliably compare. Mg, Zn, and Cd, a toxic metal that can be present in forage, were readily detected by LIBS, even though Cd concentrations in the plants were below levels typically achieved using ICP-MS detection. Implications of these results for research on forage analysis and phytoremediation are discussed.

  18. Genotypic and chemotypic diversity of Neotyphodium endophytes in tall fescue from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takach, Johanna E; Mittal, Shipra; Swoboda, Ginger A; Bright, Sherrita K; Trammell, Michael A; Hopkins, Andrew A; Young, Carolyn A

    2012-08-01

    Epichloid endophytes provide protection from a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses for cool-season grasses, including tall fescue. A collection of 85 tall fescue lines from 15 locations in Greece, including both Continental and Mediterranean germplasm, was screened for the presence of native endophytes. A total of 37 endophyte-infected lines from 10 locations were identified, and the endophytes were classified into five distinct groups (G1 to G5) based on physical characteristics such as colony morphology, growth rate, and conidial morphology. These classifications were supported by phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes tefA and tubB, and the endophytes were further categorized as Neotyphodium coenophialum isolates (G1, G4, and G5) or Neotyphodium sp. FaTG-2 (Festuca arundinacea taxonomic group 2 isolates (G2 and G3). Analyses of the tall fescue matK chloroplast genes indicated a population-wide, host-specific association between N. coenophialum and Continental tall fescue and between FaTG-2 and Mediterranean tall fescue that was also reflected by differences in colonization of host tillers by the native endophytes. Genotypic analyses of alkaloid gene loci combined with chemotypic (chemical phenotype) profiles provided insight into the genetic basis of chemotype diversity. Variation in alkaloid gene content, specifically the presence and absence of genes, and copy number of gene clusters explained the alkaloid diversity observed in the endophyte-infected tall fescue, with one exception. The results from this study provide insight into endophyte germplasm diversity present in living tall fescue populations.

  19. Farklı Azot Dozlarının Kamışsı Yumak (Festuca arundinacea L. Çeşitlerinin Çim Alan Performansı Üzerine Etkileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan KILIÇ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma, Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Tarımsal Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezinde bazı kamışsı yumak çeşitlerinin yeşil alan performanslarına farklı azot dozlarının etkisini belirlemek amacıyla 2014-2015 yıllarında, tesadüf blokları deneme desenine göre 3 tekerrürlü olarak yürütülmüştür. Bu araştırmada kamışsı yumak (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. çim türünün Starlet, Debussy ve Rebel çeşitlerine 4 farklı azot dozu (0, 2, 4 ve 6 g m2/ay uygulanmıştır. Araştırmada kamışsı yumak çeşitlerine ait; çıkış hızı (gün, kaplama hızı (gün, kışa dayanıklılık (1-9 puan, kaplama derecesi (1-9 puan, yaprak dokusu (1-9 puan, yaprak rengi (1-9 puan, yenilenme gücü (1-5 puan, dm2’deki kardeş sayısı, kuru madde verimi (kg/da ve genel görünüm (1-9 puan değerleri tespit edilmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre, Debussy çeşidi yaprak rengi, yenileme gücü ve kuru madde verimi bakımından en iyi performansı göstermiştir. Çim performansına azotlu uygulamalarının etkileri önemli bulunmuştur. Azot dozlarının artmasıyla kışa dayanıklılık, kaplama derecesi, yaprak dokusu, yaprak rengi, yenilenme gücü, kardeş sayısı, kuru madde verimi ve genel görünümde bir artış belirlenmiştir.

  20. ParasiticMeloidogyne and mutualisticAcremonium increase chitinase in tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C A; Marek, S M; Niblack, T L; Karr, A L

    1992-07-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is a C-3 perennial grass noted for its persistence in harsh environments. Tall fescue persistence is enhanced byAcremonium coenophialum, a mutualistic fungal endophyte that increases resistance to drought, pathogens, and insects. This research was conducted to identify and elicit biochemical mechanism(s) that could account for tall fescue persistence. In initial studies, two cultivars known to differ in persistence were analyzed for chitinase, an antifungal hydrolase associated with disease resistance in other plants.Acremonium-infected Kentucky 31 (KY31), a persistent cultivar, and Johnstone, a nonpersistent cultivar, were inoculated with the parasitic nematode,Meloidogyne marylandi, grown for 50 days, and analyzed at 10-day intervals. Chitinase fluctuated throughout the 50-day period of seedling development, and activity was highest in the persistentAcremonium-infected KY31. In addition, chitinase was elicited by parasiticM. marylandi and expressed systemically. Subsequent studies were conducted to determine whether or not mutualisticAcremonium could increase chitinase activity. Genetically identical KY31, with and withoutAcremonium, were grown for 25 days and analyzed for chitinase at 5-day intervals. After 20 days,Acremonium-infected KY31 expressed more chitinase thanAcremonium-free KY31. We concluded that chitinase is related to tall fescue persistence; it was highest in the most persistent cultivar, increased under pathogen attack, and increased in the presence ofAcremonium, a symbiont known to enhance disease resistance.

  1. Comparative Genome Analysis of Lolium-Festuca Complex Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czaban, Adrian; Byrne, Stephen; Sharma, Sapna;

    2015-01-01

    The Lolium-Festuca complex incorporates species from the Lolium genera and the broad leaf Fescues. Plants belonging to this complex exhibit significant phenotypic plasticity for agriculturally important traits, such as annuality/perenniality, establishment potential, growth speed, nutritional val...

  2. The method of analysis of the leaf blade anatomical structure of narrow-leaves fescues on example of populations of Festuca valesiaca agg. (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna O. Bednarsk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the taxonomy of narrow-leaves Festuca species, the leading diagnostic criteria are characteristic of leave anatomy structure. In order to study their variability in difficult taxonomic groups, author method was developed. On the example of F. valesiaca agg., the approaches and criteria for the analysis of 13 anatomical features was described. These methods can be applied for comparative analysis of the variability of populations different species of the genus. In combination with morphometric parameters, the method provide grounds for the detection of ecological and geographical differentiation of species and the degree of overlap of diagnostic parameters in the populations of critical taxa.

  3. Survey of ABC transporter and metallothionein genes expressions in tall fescue inoculated with Funneliformis intraradices under Nickel toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massomeh Rafiei-Demneh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In plants, there are complex network of transport, chelation, and sequestration processes that functions in maintaining concentrations of essential metal ions in different cellular compartments, thus minimizing the damage caused by entry of non-essential metal ions into the cytosol. In the presence of toxic ones, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi are able to alleviate metal toxicity in the plant. In this study the effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Funneliformis intraradices on growth, Nickel tolerance, and ABC transporter and metallothionein expression in leaves and roots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea plants cultivated in Ni polluted soil were evaluated. The fungi infected (M+ and uninfected (M- fescue plants were cultivated in soil under different Ni concentrations (0, 30, 90 and 180 ppm for 3 months. Results demonstrated the positive effect of fungi colonization on the increase in growth and reduction in Ni uptake (90 and 180 ppm and Ni translocation from roots to shoot of tall fescue under Ni stress. The results also demonstrated that the level of ABC transporterand metallothionein transcripts accumulation in roots was considerably higher for both M- and M+ plants compared to the control. Also, M+ plants showed less ABC and MET expression compared to the M- plants. These results demonstrated the importance of mycorrhizal colonization of F. intraradices in reduction of Ni transport from root to shoot of tall fescue which alleviates Ni-induced stress.

  4. Tasco-Forage: I. Influence of a seaweed extract on antioxidant activity in tall fescue and in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, J H; Allen, V G; Schmidt, R E; Zhang, X; Fontenot, J P; Bagley, C P; Ivy, R L; Evans, R R; Coelho, R W; Wester, D B

    2001-04-01

    Seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) is a known source of plant growth regulators, and application to turfgrasses has increased activity of the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and specific vitamin precursors. Increased antioxidant activity in both plants and animals diminishes oxidative stress. Two pasture experiments investigated effects of Tasco-Forage (a proprietary seaweed-based product) applied to tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) on antioxidant activity in plants and in ruminants that grazed the forage. In Exp. 1, fescue was 70 to 100% infected with the endophyte fungus Neotyphodium coenophialum ([Morgan-Jones and Gams] Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin). Twenty-four wether lambs (initial BW 41 kg; SD = 5) grazed fescue treated with 0, 1.7, or 3.4 kg Tasco/ha applied in April and July, 1994, with four replications per treatment. Grazing occurred for 26 d beginning April 21 and for 22 d beginning July 19. In July, there was a linear increase in daily gains (P Prairie, MS, where 1/4 Brahman x 3/4 Angus steers were used. Forty-eight steers were included at each location in each year (n = 192 total steers for 1996 and 1997). Steers that grazed infected tall fescue in Mississippi had lower (P antioxidant activity in grazing steers, whereas Tasco seemed to increase antioxidant activity in both the forage and the grazing ruminant. Tasco may provide opportunities to reduce oxidative stress in plants and animals.

  5. Meiosis and chromosome behavior of pollen mother cells in male-sterile plant of Festuca arundinacea%高羊茅雄性不育株花粉母细胞减数分裂染色体行为观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付薇; 吴佳海; 陈伟; 王小利; 牟琼

    2012-01-01

    The meiosis process and abnormal behavior of pollen mother cells(PMCs) in tall fescues(Festuca arundinacea) were observed with carbol fuchsin staining.The results of this study showed that the meiosis process of tall fescues was closely correlated with the floret size,anther length and color.The meiotic cycle asynchrony was founded and two to four different division phases were observed in the same slice production,which was an evolutional behavior of adaptation of tall fescue to the condition,benefiting to increased stability of population reproduction.Abnormal chromosome behaviors were observed in PMCs from tall fescue,including a mass of univalent,chromosome bridges,laggard chromosomes,unequal supranational chromosomes,micronucleus and triad,which was possible reasons resulted in abortive pollen of tall fescue.%采用卡宝品红染色制片法,对高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea)雄性不育植株花粉母细胞减数分裂过程及异常行为进行观察,结果发现,高羊茅减数分裂进程与小花大小、花药长度、色泽有较为密切的关系。减数分裂周期具有不同步性,同一制片中可观察到2~4个不同时期的分裂相,这种现象是高羊茅在进化过程中环境适应的一种表现,有利于增强种群繁殖稳定性。本研究还发现,减数分裂过程中存在大量单价体、染色体桥、落后染色体、不均等分离、微核、三分体等异常现象,初步分析确定这些小孢子异常分裂是导致高羊茅花粉败育的重要原因之一。

  6. ABC transporter and metallothionein expression affected by NI and Epichloe endophyte infection in tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzahossini, Zahra; Shabani, Leila; Sabzalian, Mohammad R; Sharifi-Tehrani, Majid

    2015-10-01

    Epichloe endophytes are symbiotic fungi which unlike mycorrhiza grow within aerial parts of host plants. The fungi may increase host tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the effect of endophyte infection on growth and tolerance, carbohydrate contents and ABC (ABC transporter) and MET (metallothionein) expression in the leaves of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) plants cultivated in Ni polluted soil were evaluated. The endophyte infected (E+) and non-infected (E-) fescue plants were cultivated in soil under different Ni concentrations (30, 90 and 180mgkg(-1)). Growth parameters including root, shoot, total biomass, tiller number and total chlorophyll content of plants and H2O2 content of shoots were measured at the end of experiment. Ni translocation to the shoots, carbohydrate contents in roots and expression of ABC and MET of the leaves were also measured after 10 weeks of growth. Results demonstrated the beneficial effect of endophyte association on growth and Ni tolerance of tall fescue under Ni stress through an avoidance mechanism (reduction of Ni accumulation and translocation to the shoots). Endophyte infected plants showed less ABC and MET expression compared to the endophyte free plants. In endophyte free plants, H2O2 production had a significant positive correlation with genes expression, indicating that an increase in H2O2 might be involved in the up-regulation of ABC and MET under Ni stress.

  7. Animal performance and economic comparison of novel and toxic endophyte tall fescues to cool-season annuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P A; Gunter, S A; Lusby, K S; West, C P; Watkins, K B; Hubbell, D S

    2008-08-01

    Increased costs of annual establishment of small grain pasture associated with fuel, machinery, and labor are eroding the profitability of stocker cattle enterprises. Interest has therefore increased in development of cool-season perennial grasses that are persistent and high quality. This study occurred on 24 ha (divided into thirty 0.81-ha paddocks) located at the University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture Livestock and Forestry Branch Station, near Batesville. Two tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) cultivars infected with novel endophytes (NE), Jesup infected with AR542 endophyte (Jesup AR542), and HiMag infected with Number 11 endophyte (HM11) were established in September 2002. Jesup AR542 and HM11 were compared with endemic endophyte Kentucky 31 (KY-31) tall fescue; wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and cereal rye (WR, Secale cereale L.) planted in September 2003, 2004, and 2005; and annual ryegrass [RG, Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot] planted in September 2004 and 2005. Each year, 3 steers (3.7 steers/ha) were placed on each pasture for fall and winter grazing, and 5 steers (6.2 steers/ha) were placed on each pasture for spring grazing. Animal performance is presented by year in the presence of a year x treatment interaction (P or = 0.14). Body weight gain per hectare was least (P < 0.01) for steers grazing KY-31. Average net return of NE tall fescue was greater (P < 0.01) than KY-31, but profitability of NE did not consistently differ from cool-season annuals. Across the 3-yr study, NE tall fescue produced net returns per hectare of $219; this level of profitability would require 4 yr for a new planting of NE tall fescue to break even. Novel endophyte tall fescues offer potential benefits related to decreased risk of stand establishment of annual forage crops, longer growing season, and acceptable animal performance.

  8. An increasing need for productive and stress resilient Festulolium amphiploids: what can be learnt from the stable genomic composition of Festuca pratensis subsp. apennina (De Not. Hegi?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kopecký

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome composition of Festuca pratensis subsp. apennina (De Not. Hegi, a tetraploid fescue species native to the tall forbs communities of south-eastern Europe at altitudes between 1100 and 2200m a.s.l. has been the subject of some debate by grass taxonomists. Our cytogenetic analyses including fluorescence in situ hybridisation with probes for genomic DNA and selected DNA repeats revealed the species to be allotetraploid and derived from interspecific hybridization between F. pratensis Huds., a species confined to grassland at lower altitudes, and a so far unknown Festuca species. Besides tetraploids, triploids and pentaploids were found growing in Alpine meadows in close association with F. pratensis subsp. apennina. Triploid cytotypes predominated at many sites in Switzerland and Romania, and in some localities, they were the only cytotypes observed. Cytogenetic analyses revealed the triploids to be hybrids between diploid F. pratensis and tetraploid Festuca pratensis subsp. apennina, while the pentaploid cytotypes originated from hybridization between F. pratensis subsp. apennina and hexaploid F. arundinacea Schreb., a closely-related species growing in a close vicinity to F. pratensis subsp. apennina. Parental genomes of F. pratensis subsp. apennina and of the triploid and pentaploid hybrids showed no evidence of homoeologous chromosome pairing and interspecific recombination, supporting previous observation of a disomic inheritance at meiosis, where chromosome pairing was restricted to bivalent associations. A hypothesis is presented that a chromosome pairing regulator(s, reported previously in other polyploid broad-leaved fescue species of the Festuca subg. Schedonorus, is present and functional in F. pratensis subsp. apennina. It is likely that a common ancestors’ genome that carries the chromosome pairing regulator(s is present in all polyploid broad-leaved fescue species, and its acquisition was a key event that enabled speciation

  9. Preliminary studies on allelopatic effect of some woody plants on seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arouiee, H; Nazdar, T; Mousavi, A

    2010-11-01

    In order to investigation of allelopathic effects of some ornamental trees on seed germination of rye-grass (Lolium prenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae), this experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates at the laboratory of Horticultural Sciences Department of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2008. In this research, we studied the effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Afghanistan pine (Pinus eldarica), arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica), black locust (Robinia psedue acacia) and box elder (Acer negundo) leaves that prepared in 1:5 ratio on seed germination percent and rate for two grasses. The results showed that all extracts decreased statistically seed germination in compared to control treatment. The highest germination percentage and germination rate of tested grass detected in control treatment. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of all woody plants (15, 30%) were completely inhibited seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue. Also aqueous extract of arizona cypress was completely inhibited seed germination of tall fescue and had more inhibitory activity than other aqueous extracts on rye-grass. Between aqueous extracts, the highest and lowest seed germination of rye-grass was found in Afghanistan pine and arizona cypress, respectively.

  10. The Alleviation of Heat Damage to Photosystem II and Enzymatic Antioxidants by Exogenous Spermidine in Tall Fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb is a typical cool-season grass that is widely used in turf and pasture. However, high temperature as an abiotic stress seriously affects its utilization. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of spermidine (Spd on heat stress response of tall fescue. The samples were exposed to 22°C (normal condition or 44°C (heat stress for 4 h. The results showed that exogenous Spd partially improved the quality of tall fescue leaves under normal temperature conditions. Nevertheless, after heat stress treatment, exogenous Spd significantly decreased the electrolyte leakage of tall fescue leaves. Spd also profoundly reduced the H2O2 and O2⋅- content and increased antioxidant enzymes activities. In addition, PAs can also regulate antioxidant enzymes activities including SOD, POD, and APX which could help to scavenge ROS. Moreover, application of Spd could also remarkably increase the chlorophyll content and had a positive effect on the chlorophyll α fluorescence transients under high temperature. The Spd reagent enhanced the performance of photosystem II (PSII as observed by the JIP-test. Under heat stress, the Spd profoundly improved the partial potentials at the steps of energy bifurcations (PIABS and PItotal and the quantum yields and efficiencies (φP0, δR0, φR0, and γRC. Exogenous Spd could also reduce the specific energy fluxes per QA- reducing PSII reaction center (RC (TP0/RC and ET0/RC. Additionally, exogenous Spd improved the expression level of psbA and psbB, which encoded the proteins of PSII core reaction center complex. We infer that PAs can stabilize the structure of nucleic acids and protect RNA from the degradation of ribonuclease. In brief, our study indicates that exogenous Spd enhances the heat tolerance of tall fescue by maintaining cell membrane stability, increasing antioxidant enzymes activities, improving PSII, and relevant gene expression.

  11. Biomass production by fescue and switchgrass alone and in mixed swards with legumes. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Univ. of Agronomy

    1994-06-01

    In assessing the role of biomass in alleviating potential global warming, the absence of information on the sustainability of biomass production on soils of limited agricultural potential is cited as a major constraint to the assessment of the role of biomass. Research on the sustainability of yields, recycling of nutrients, and emphasis on reduced inputs of agricultural chemicals in the production of biomass are among the critical research needs to clarify optimum cropping practice in biomass production. Two field experiments were conducted between 1989 and 1993. One study evaluated biomass production and composition of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) grown alone and with bigflower vetch (Vicia grandiflora L.) and the other assessed biomass productivity and composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grown alone and with perennial legumes. Switchgrass received 0, 75 or 150 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually as NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} or was interseeded with vetch. Tall fescue received 0, 75, 150 or 225 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually or was interseeded with alfalfa (Medicago L.) or birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). It is hoped that production systems can be designed to produce high yields of biomass with minimal inputs of fertilizer N. Achievement of this goal would reduce the potential for movement of NO{sub 3} and other undesirable N forms outside the biomass production system into the environment. In addition, management systems involving legumes could reduce the cost of biomass production.

  12. Forages and pastures symposium: fungal endophytes of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass: pasture friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C A; Hume, D E; McCulley, R L

    2013-05-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. syn. Festuca arundinacea Schreb.] and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) are important perennial forage grasses utilized throughout the moderate- to high-rainfall temperate zones of the world. These grasses have coevolved with symbiotic fungal endophytes (Epichloë/Neotyphodium spp.) that can impart bioactive properties and environmental stress tolerance to the grass compared with endophyte-free individuals. These endophytes have proven to be very important in pastoral agriculture in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia, where forage grasses are the principal feed for grazing ruminants. In this review, we describe the biology of these grass-endophyte associations and implications for the livestock industries that are dependent on these forages. Endophyte alkaloid production is put in context with endophyte diversity, and we illustrate how this has facilitated utilization of grasses infected with different endophyte strains that reduce livestock toxicity issues. Utilization of tall fescue and use of perennial ryegrass in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia are compared, and management strategies focused predominantly on the success of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass in New Zealand and Australia are discussed. In addition, we consider the impact of grass-endophyte associations on the sustainability of pasture ecosystems and their likely response to future changes in climate.

  13. Biological Control of Bipolaris sorokiniana on Tall Fescue by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strain C3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Yuen, G Y

    1999-09-01

    ABSTRACT Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain C3 was evaluated for control of leaf spot on tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana. In growth chamber experiments, C3 inhibited conidial germination on leaf surfaces and reduced lesion frequency and percent diseased leaf area compared with nontreated controls. The amount of leaf spot suppression was related to the C3 dose applied. The highest dose tested, 10(9) CFU/ml, prevented nearly all B. sorokiniana conidia from germinating on treated leaf surfaces and provided nearly complete suppression of lesion development. When colloidal chitin was added to C3 cell suspensions of 10(7) or 10(8) CFU/ml, biocontrol efficacy was significantly increased over C3 applied alone, whereas addition of chitin to a C3 cell suspension of 10(9) CFU/ml had no effect. In field experiments, application of C3 to tall fescue turf resulted in significant reductions in infection frequency and disease severity compared with nontreated controls. Strain C3 applied at 10(9) CFU/ml was more effective than C3 applied at 10(7) CFU/ml, and amendment of the lower dose with colloidal chitin enhanced its efficacy. Populations sizes of C3 established on foliage in a growth chamber and in the field were directly related to dose applied. Chitin amendments did not affect C3 population size.

  14. Effects of environmental heat and intake of tall fescue seed infested with Acremonium coenophialum on the acid-base status of young bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, L L; Vogt, D W; Lipsey, R J; Garner, G B; Cornell, C N

    1996-04-01

    Effects of high environmental temperature and dietary intake of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) seed containing the endophyte Acremonium coenophialum on bovine acid-base status were studied using 3 groups of bull calves (2 Simmental, 1 Angus). Experimental animals were housed in controlled-climate chambers and subjected to gradual increases in environmental temperature, first while being fed an endophyte-free diet and then while being fed a diet containing 17% endophyte-infested fescue seed. Marked acid-base disturbances were not observed in any animals. In general, Pco2, HCO3-, base excess, and arterial blood pH values were reduced in response to heat stress, both with endophyte-free and endophyte-containing diets. In most individuals anion gap increased. These results reflected metabolic compensation for mild chronic alveolar hyperventilation and retention of organic acids. These findings suggest that, under conditions similar to those found during the summer in central Missouri, normal cattle should not be at great risk of developing respiratory alkalosis or other severe acid-base disturbances as a result of heat stress and/or intake of tall fescue endophyte.

  15. 9个高羊茅品种初期生长对镉胁迫的响应%Responses to Cadmium Stress of Nine Festuca arundinacea Schreb Varieties in Initial Growth Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远兵; 刘爱荣; 禹智辉; 李发院

    2011-01-01

    The effect of Cd 2+ concentration (0, 25, 50, 75 mg/L) stress on the seed germination potential, germination rate, seedling root length, seedling height, fresh weight, chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde ( MDA) content, cell membrane permeability of nine varieties of F. arundinacea Schreb were studied through solution culture experiment. The result showed that with Cd2 + concentration increased, germination potential and germination rate of Plantation and fresh weight of Magellan increased initial and then declined, and those of other eight varieties declined; seedling root length, seedling height, chlorophyll content of nine varieties declined; but MDA content and cell membrane permeability of them increased. The synthetic analysis of eight parameters indicated that under Cd2 + 25 mg/L stress, the order of cadmium tolerance was Southeast > Triple A > Wrangler II > Bingo > Magellan > Plantation > Acending Star > Reward >Arid 3, but under cadmium 50 mg/L stress, the order was Southeast > Triple A > Bingo > Magellan > Wrangler Ⅱ > Plantation > Acending Star > Arid 3 > Reward, whereas under cadmium 75 mg/L stress, the order was Southeast > Bingo > Wrangler Ⅱ > Triple A > Plantation > Magellan > Arid 3 > Acending Star > Reward. Therefore, F. arundinacea Schreb varieties should he selected reasonably in the environmental management of Cd + pollution according to the pollution degree.%用Cd2+浓度0(对照)、25、50、75 mg/L分别处理9个高羊茅品种种子,测定供试品种种子发芽势、发芽率、幼苗苗高、根长、鲜重、叶绿素含量、丙二醛含量、质膜透性等8项指标,比较9个品种耐镉性.结果表明:与对照相比,在不同浓度Cd2+胁迫下,家园的发芽势和发芽率以及麦哲伦鲜重呈先略上升后下降趋势,其余品种的均呈下降趋势;9个高羊茅品种幼苗根长、苗高、叶绿素含量均呈下降趋势;9个高羊茅品种丙二醛含量和质膜透性均呈上升趋势.对测定的8

  16. Seedling Establishment of Tall Fescue Exposed to Long-Term Starvation Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Claudia Roberta; Stefanini, Sara; Vernieri, Paolo; Huarancca Reyes, Thais; Volterrani, Marco; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    In germinating seeds under unfavorable environmental conditions, the mobilization of stores in the cotyledons is delayed, which may result in a different modulation of carbohydrates balance and a decrease in seedling vigor. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) caryopses grown at 4°C in the dark for an extended period in complete absence of nutrients, showed an unexpected ability to survive. Seedlings grown at 4°C for 210 days were morphologically identical to seedlings grown at 23°C for 21 days. After 400 days, seedlings grown at 4°C were able to differentiate plastids to chloroplast in just few days once transferred to the light and 23°C. Tall fescue exposed to prolonged period at 4°C showed marked anatomical changes: cell wall thickening, undifferentiated plastids, more root hairs and less xylem lignification. Physiological modifications were also observed, in particular related to sugar content, GA and ABA levels and amylolytic enzymes pattern. The phytohormones profiles exhibited at 4 and 23°C were comparable when normalized to the respective physiological states. Both the onset and the completion of germination were linked to GA and ABA levels, as well as to the ratio between these two hormones. All plants showed a sharp decline in carbohydrate content, with a consequent onset of gradual sugar starvation. This explained the slowed then full arrest in growth under both treatment regimes. The analysis of amylolytic activity showed that Ca2+ played a central role in the stabilization of several isoforms. Overall, convergence of starvation and hormone signals meet in crosstalk to regulate germination, growth and development in tall fescue. PMID:27832166

  17. Short-term temporal dynamics of yeast abundance on the tall fescue phylloplane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, Shannon S; Burpee, Leon L; Jackson, Kimberly L; Buck, James W

    2008-04-01

    Six replicate trials were conducted to determine the short-term temporal dynamics and the effects of foliar applications of nutrients on the phylloplane yeast community of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). In each trial, 2% sucrose + 0.5% yeast extract solution or sterile deionized water (control) was applied to the experiment plots. Twelve hours post-treatment (at 0600 hours), leaf samples were collected and yeast colony-forming units (cfu) were enumerated by dilution plating. This process was repeated at 1200, 1800, and 2400 hours in each trial. Significant differences were observed between the number of yeast cfu and the time at which the samples were collected. On average, the number of yeast cfu recovered was significantly less at 1800 hours and significantly greatest at 2400 hours when compared with all other sampling times. Averaged over all time intervals, we observed a trend of increased yeast abundance in turf treated with the nutrient solution compared with control treatments. In a separate investigation, atmospheric yeast abundance above the canopy of tall fescue was assessed in the morning (0900) and in the afternoon (1500) using a Thermo Andersen single stage viable particle sampler. In 5 of the 6 trials of this experiment, atmospheric yeast abundance was significantly greater in the morning than in the afternoon. Results suggest the following colonization model: phylloplane yeasts on tall fescue reproduce during the late evening and early morning, stabilize during the late morning and early afternoon through exchange of immigrants and emigrants, and decline during the late afternoon and (or) early evening.

  18. Effects of ultrasonication on increased germination and improved seedling growth of aged grass seeds of tall fescue and Russian wildrye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Quanzhen; Karagić, Đura; Liu, Xv; Cui, Jian; Gui, Jing; Gu, Muyu; Gao, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The effects of ultrasonic treatments on the germination and seedling growth of aged tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and Russian wild rye (Psathyrostaehys juncea Nevski) seeds were determined using orthogonal matrix experimental design with four ultrasonic factors. The multivariate analysis of variance detected significant differences and coupling effects of the pair-wise factors. The activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Peroxidase (POD) and the Malondialdehyde (MDA) content were affected. The ultrasonic treatments had positive effects on the germination percentage (GP) of the aged seeds and the growth of the seedlings (GS) and therefore we provided a basic evidence for the application of ultrasonic treatment to pretreat aged grass seeds. For the four ultrasonic factors, the optimal conditions were a sonication time of 36.7 min, a sonication temperature of 35 °C, an output power of 367 W and a seed soaking time 4.1 h after binary quadratic regressions analyses. The ultrasonic treatment has the potential to improve seedling growth. Moreover, the longevity of the tall fescue and the Russian wild rye seeds was approximately 9.5 and 11.5 years, respectively, under natural conditions of storage. The physiological mechanisms that might contribute to the improved GP and GS were discussed.

  19. 接种垃圾堆肥微生物菌剂对黑麦草和高羊茅初期生长的影响%Effects of Microbial Preparation from MSW Compost on Initial Growth of Lolium perenne L.and Festuca arundinacea L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶晶; 赵树兰; 多立安

    2011-01-01

    Microbial preparation were made from municipal solid waste (MSW) compost and applied to turfgrass medium. Effects of microbial preparation on initial growth of Lolium perenne L. and Festuca arundinacea L. were investigated to determine the optimal proportion of complex microbial preparation.Significant differences were found in growth indices and chlorophyll content between microbial preparation inoculation treatment and control. Treatments with complex microbial preparation of 3 microbial species were better than treatments with 2 or one microbial species. Compared to the control, seed germination rate, seedling height, shoot dry weight, root weight, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b of F. arundinacea treated with complex microbial preparation containing 3 microbial species were increased by 13. 41%,58.92 %, 72. 86 %, 100 %, 68.92 % and 37.61 %. Those indices of L. perenne were increased by 15. 11 %,34.44%, 71.74%, 100%, 66.89% and 33.41%. The optimum proportion(v/v)of complex microbial preparation was bacillus subtilis: actinomycetes: yeast =1 ∶ 1 ∶ 1.%以城市生活垃圾堆肥中提取出的有益菌种为原料,配制微生物菌剂,研究堆肥微生物菌剂对黑麦草和高羊茅初期生长的影响,从而确定堆肥有益微生物中最佳菌种复配比例.结果表明,黑麦草和高羊茅各项生长指标与叶绿素含量与没接种菌剂处理间均存在显著性差异,3种有益菌种配置的复合微生物菌剂的处理要优于双菌种处理和单菌种处理.和对照相比,在接种三菌种复合菌剂处理下,高羊茅种子发芽率、幼苗株高、地上干重、根重、叶绿素a和叶绿素b含量分别高出对照13.41%、58.92%、72.86%、100%、68.92%和37.61%;黑麦草分别高于对照15.11%、34.44%、71.74%、100%、66.89%和33.41%.综合各项指标,从中优选出一组堆肥高效复合微生物菌剂,其复配体积比例为枯草芽孢杆菌:放线菌:酵母菌=1:1:1.

  20. Taxonomic study of Festuca L. subgenus Schedonorus (P. Beauv. Peterm. in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Zabihollah Hosseini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was based upon a taxonomic review of the subgenus Schedonorus in Iran. A collection of 30 specimens belonging to the herbaria: W, B and HUI (herbarium of the University of Isfahan were studied. Based on the results of this study, this subgenus included three species: Festuca arundinacea, F. gigantea and F. pratensis in Iran. Furthermore, this study showed that F. arundinacea, occured in this country with two subspecies: orientalis (Hack. Tzvelev and fenas (Lag. Arcang. with the greatest area of distribution compared to the other two species. Our examination of the type specimen of F. elatior subsp. pratensis var. elbursiana confirmed its synonymy with F. arundinacea.

  1. Effect of root death and decay on dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere of yellow sweet clover and tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Zakia D; Banks, M Katherine; Schwab, A Paul

    2005-01-01

    A 12-mo greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the contribution of root death and decay on the dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rhizosphere soil. The contaminated soil was previously treated by land-farming, but residual PAHs remained after treatment. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis Lam.) were the target plants. To specifically evaluate the effect of root decay on contaminant dissipation, plants were treated with glyphosate, a broad spectrum herbicide, to induce root decay. Although tall fescue treatments had the highest root and shoot biomass and root surface area, this plant did not result in the highest contaminant degradation rates. Significant differences were noted between treatments for seven PAHs, with the active yellow sweet clover resulting in 60 to 75% degradation of these compounds. Induced root death and decay did not produce a significant enhancement of PAH degradation. The PAH microbial degrader populations in the vegetated treatments were more than 100 times greater than those in the unvegetated control. The phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) structural group profile shifted over the growing period, indicating a change in the community structure. In conclusion, phytoremediation was shown to be an effective polishing tool for PAH-affected soil previously subjected to biological treatment.

  2. Production of Transgenic Tall Fescue Plants with Enhanced Stress Tolerances by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guan-ting; CHEN Jin-qing; HU Zhang-hua; LANG Chun-xiu; CHEN Xiao-yun; WANG Fu-lin; JIN Wei; XIA Ying-wu

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve stress tolerances of turf-type tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 carrying plasmid pCMD containing stress tolerance-related CBF1 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana was used to transform mature seeds-derived embryogenic calli of four cultivars. A total of 112 transgenic plants were regenerated from 32 independent lines and verified by histochemical detection of GUS activity, PCR assay and Southern hybridization analysis. The transformation frequency ranged from 0.92 to 2.87% with apparent differences among the cultivars. Stress tolerances of transgenic plants were enhanced, which was shown by the facts that transgenic plants had distinct growth superiority and significantly higher survival rate than non-transformed ones under high salinity and high osmosis stresses,and that relative electronic conductivity of in vitro leaves treated with low and high temperatures, dehydration and high salinity stresses was 25-30% lower in transgenic plants than in control plants. In addition, it was observed that growth of transgenic plants was inhibited due to constitutive overexpression of CBF1 gene under normal environmental conditions.

  3. Effect of hydrogel and different types of fertilizers on the number of turf shoots in lawns created by monocultures of red fescue (Festuca rubra L. cultivars and its mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Jankowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of the hydrogel content in the soil substrate on the number of shoots per unit area of grass lawns with different proportions of red fescue and monoculture turf produced from the following fescue cultivars: Adio, Libano, Corail, Simone. In the period 2003-2004, a field experiment was carried out in a randomized block design in four replications. In combination with a hydrogel (Aqua-Gel P4, 0.05 kg x m-2 of sorbent was placed at a depth of 10 cm below the soil surface in 2002. Another experimental factor was the type of fertilizer. Trawovit (a fertilizer with standard effects and Sierrablen (a controlled-release fertilizer were used for this purpose. The quantities of fertilizer and time of fertilization date followed manufacturer's instructions. The number of shoots per 1 m2 was determined at the end of the growing season. The study showed that, regardless of years of cultivation, the type of soil substrate and fertilizer, the average number of shoots for the mixtures was about 32% lower than for monoculture lawns. The presence of the hydrogel in the soil substrate regulated soil moisture, and therefore in the mixture lawns the values of the tested features were significantly higher in the treatments with hydrogel. Fertilization with Trawovit, regardless of the type of soil substrate (H, BH, does not lead to a statistically significant difference in the number of shoots between the studied mixtures. However, in the treatments fertilized with Sierrablen, the presence of the hydrogel in the soil substrate caused a significant increase in the traits examined for the mixtures containing, respectively, 20 and 80% of red fescue in their composition. The addition of Aqua-Gel P4 to the soil substrate, when the turf lawns were fertilized with Trawovit, resulted in a significant increase in the number of shoots for the cultivars Adio, Libano and Corail.

  4. Effects of the fungal endophyte Acremonium coenophialum on nitrogen accumulation and metabolism in tall fescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, P.C. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA)); Evans, J.J.; Bacon, C.W. (Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Infection by the fungal endophyte Acremonium coenophialum affected the accumulation of inorganic and organic N in leaf blades and leaf sheaths of KY31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grown under greenhouse conditions. Total soluble amino acid concentrations were increased in either the blade or sheath of the leaf from infected plants. A number of amino acids were significantly increased in the sheath, but only asparagine increased in the blade. Infection resulted in higher sheath NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations, whereas NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} concentrations decreased in both leaf parts. The effects on amino acid, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations were dependent upon the level of N fertilization and were usually apparent only at the high rate (10 millimolar) of application. Administration of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} to the leaf blades increased the accumulation of {sup 14}C in their amino acid fraction but not in the sheaths of infected plants. This may indicate that infection increased amino acid synthesis in the blade but that translocation to the sheath, which is the site of fungal colonization, was not affected. Glutamine synthetase activity was greater in leaf blades of infected plants at high and low N rates of fertilization, but nitrate reductase activity was not affected in either part of the leaf. Increased activities of glutamine synthetase together with the other observed changes in N accumulation and metabolism in endophyte-infected tall fescue suggest that NH{sub 4}{sup +} reassimilation could also be affected in the leaf blade.

  5. 硅酸盐细菌对滨海盐渍土高羊茅生长及表土淋溶脱盐的影响%Effect of coastal saline soils inoculated with silicate bacteria to growth of Festuca arundinacea and topsoil leaching desalination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱义

    2012-01-01

    针对新成陆的上海临港新城滨海盐渍土进行硅酸盐细菌接种处理,研究对高羊茅生长和表层种植土淋溶脱盐的影响.结果表明:滨海盐渍土接种巨大芽孢杆菌和胶质芽孢杆菌,能够提高高羊茅根系伸长、株高、生物量积累和相对含水量,并将根冠比均值分别提高了3.66%和3.21%;在相同渗滤条件下收集1.80 L滤液,接种硅酸盐细菌的试验组土壤渗滤性能比未接种试验组提高了3.70 ~ 6.60 min,比无植物种植试验组提高了23.70~26.60 min,同时有利于高羊茅根系区域Ca2+ K+浓度的提升,Na+的向下迁移,使得表层土电导率(EC)值持续降低,并且没有出现短期内淋溶脱盐过程中pH升高的现象.%A greenhouse experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effects of peat inoculated with two types of silicate bacteria, Bacillus megaterium and B. mucilaginosus, in the amendment of coastal saline soil from Lingang, Shanghai. The result showed that coastal soils inoculated with B. megaterium or B. mucilaginosus was more efficient than non-inoculated treatments in Festuca arundinacea growth promoting of root length, shoot height, biomass and relative water content of tissue, the mean ratio of root to shoot was raised by 3. 66 % and 3.21 % respectively. The leachate volume of 1. 80 L were collected at 130 % water-holding capacity of the soil, the inoculated cropped-treatments took less 3.70 -6.60 min than non-inoculated cropped-treatment, also took less 23.70 -26.60 min than control treatment. In comparison with non-inoculated treatment, the inoculated treatments had significantly higher concentrations of Ca2+ and K+ , that subsequently removed a greater amount of Na* from topsoil. The inoculated treatments had lower mean value of EC in topsoil, and the desalting process happened in inoculated treatments would not cause pH increase.

  6. Tasco-Forage: IV. Influence of a seaweed extract applied to tall fescue pastures on sensory characteristics, shelf-life, and vitamin E status in feedlot-finished steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, J L; Allen, V G; Pond, K R; Miller, M F; Wester, D B; Brown, C P; Evans, R; Bagley, C P; Ivy, R L; Fontenot, J P

    2001-04-01

    Tasco-Forage is an Ascophyllum nodosum seaweed-based product that has increased antioxidant activity in both plants and animals. Endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum ([Morgan-Jones and Gams] Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin)-infected and uninfected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) pastures in Virginia and Mississippi during 1997 were treated or not with 3.4 kg Tasco/ha in April and July. There were two replications of each treatment at each location. Forty-eight steers (6/replication) grazed pastures at each location (n = 96) from April to October prior to transportation to Texas Tech, Lubbock, for finishing during a 160-d period in the feedlot. Blood (antemortem) and liver (postmortem) samples were collected. After slaughter and chilling, the left strip loins (IMPS #180) were collected from three randomly selected steers from within each pasture replication (n = 48). Strip loins were vacuum-packaged and stored at 2 degrees C. At postmortem d 7, 14, 21, and 28, strip loins were removed from packaging and fabricated into 2.54-cm steaks. Following each fabrication day postmortem, the strip loins were repackaged and stored at 2 degrees C until the following postmortem time. After the prescribed fabrication, steaks were overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride film, subjected to simulated retail display at 2 degrees C for up to 3 d, and subjective and objective color were evaluated daily by a trained panel. Steaks from Mississippi steers that had grazed Tasco-treated fescue retained higher (P < 0.05) CIE a* color scores throughout retail display. Steaks were more uniform and had less discoloration and less browning (P < 0.05) if they were from steers that had grazed Tasco-treated fescue, and the effect was greatest for steers from Mississippi (location x Tasco interaction; P < 0.05). The endophyte in tall fescue may decrease uniformity and increase lean discoloration and two-toning of beef steaks when removed from vacuum packaging on or beyond d 21 postmortem (endophyte x

  7. Polyphenol oxidase activity in subcellular fractions of tall fescue contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Wanting; Lu, Xiaodan; Gao, Yanzheng; Liu, Juan; Sun, Yandi

    2012-01-01

    Understanding enzyme responses to contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is a key step in the elucidation of POP metabolic mechanisms in plants. However, there is little information available on enzyme activity in subcellular fractions of POP-contaminated plants. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in cell fractions of plants under contamination stress from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using a greenhouse batch technique. Three parameters, E(cell), E(cell-n), and P(cell), denoting the amount of PPO activity, cell fraction content-normalized PPO activity, and proportion of PPO activity in each cell fraction, respectively, were used in this study. Contamination with phenanthrene, as a representative PAH, at a relatively high level (>0.23 mg L⁻¹) in culture solution generally stimulated PPO activity in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) roots and shoots and their cellular fractions. The amount and distribution proportion of PPO activity in each cell fraction of phenanthrene-contaminated roots and shoots were (in descending order): cell solution > > cell wall > cell organelles. Cell solution was the dominant storage domain of PPO activity and contributed 84.0 and 82.8% of PPO activity in roots and shoots, respectively. The cell wall had the highest density of PPO activity in roots and shoots, based on the highest cell fraction content normalized PPO activity in this cell fraction. Our results provide new information on enzyme responses in plant intracellular fractions to xenobiotic POPs and fundamental information on within-plant POP metabolic mechanisms.

  8. Comparative Genome Analysis of Lolium-Festuca Complex Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czaban, Adrian; Byrne, Stephen; Sharma, Sapna

    2015-01-01

    The Lolium-Festuca complex incorporates species from the Lolium genera and the broad leaf Fescues. Plants belonging to this complex exhibit significant phenotypic plasticity for agriculturally important traits, such as annuality/perenniality, establishment potential, growth speed, nutritional value......, winter hardiness, drought tolerance and resistance to grazing. In this study we have sequenced and assembled the low copy fraction of the genomes of Lolium westerwoldicum, Lolium multiflorum, Festuca pratensis and Lolium temulentum. We have also generated de-novo transcriptome assemblies for each species......, and these have aided in the annotation of the genomic sequence. Using this data we were able to generate annotated assemblies of the gene rich regions of the four species to complement the already sequenced Lolium perenne genome. Using these gene models we have identified orthologous genes between the species...

  9. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantification of target gene expression with quantitative real-time PCR for tall fescue under four abiotic stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Yang

    Full Text Available Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. is widely utilized as a major forage and turfgrass species in the temperate regions of the world and is a valuable plant material for studying molecular mechanisms of grass stress tolerance due to its superior drought and heat tolerance among cool-season species. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target gene expression is important for the discovery of molecular mechanisms underlying improved growth traits and stress tolerance. The stability of nine potential reference genes (ACT, TUB, EF1a, GAPDH, SAND, CACS, F-box, PEPKR1 and TIP41 was evaluated using four programs, GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. The combinations of SAND and TUB or TIP41 and TUB were most stably expressed in salt-treated roots or leaves. The combinations of GAPDH with TIP41 or TUB were stable in roots and leaves under drought stress. TIP41 and PEPKR1 exhibited stable expression in cold-treated roots, and the combination of F-box, TIP41 and TUB was also stable in cold-treated leaves. CACS and TUB were the two most stable reference genes in heat-stressed roots. TIP41 combined with TUB and ACT was stably expressed in heat-stressed leaves. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR assays of the target gene FaWRKY1 using the identified most stable reference genes confirmed the reliability of selected reference genes. The selection of suitable reference genes in tall fescue will allow for more accurate identification of stress-tolerance genes and molecular mechanisms conferring stress tolerance in this stress-tolerant species.

  10. Resistance of closely-mown fine fescue and bentgrass species to snow mold pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) is the primary species used on golf courses in temperate regions but requires prophylactic fungicide treatment to prevent snow mold diseases. We hypothesized that fine fescues (Festuca spp.) and colonial bentgrass (A. capillaris) have superior resistance to...

  11. Foliar anatomy and micromorphology of Festuca L. and its taxonomic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zarinkamar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, leaf micromorphological structure of eight species of Festuca (F. akhanii, F. elwendiana, F. heterophylla, F. sulcata, F. valesiaca, F. arundinacea, F. gigantean and F. drymeia and leaf anatomy structure of three species of Festuca (F. arundinacea, F. gigantean and F. drymeia belonging to the four subgenera were examined with different repeations. About 40 quantitative and qualitative anatomical features of the leaves were statistically analyzed for several times from superficial view and on transversal section. These characters included observation of ribs and furrows in epidermis, the density of stomata and trichome, and the arrangement of vascular bundles. Sclerenchyma and bulliform cells were studied and their taxonomic value was verified in order to classify different species. The micromorphology data and anatomy characteristics of the species were used for multivariate analysis, which partly supported the taxonomic treatment of the genus Festuca in the flora of Iran. In order to group the species studied on the basis of similarity in their anatomical features as well as their micro morphological characteristics, different clustering methods of Between Groups, Single Linkage and WARD were observed. The first cluster composed of F. sulcata, F. valesiaca, F. elwendiana, F. heterophylla and F. akhanii. The species of F. arundinacea, F. gigantea and F. drymeia were positioned in clusters two.

  12. Remodeling of leaf cellular glycerolipid composition under drought and re-hydration conditions in grasses from the Lolium-Festuca complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Perlikowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought tolerant plant genotypes are able to maintain stability and integrity of cellular membranes in unfavorable conditions, and to regenerate damaged membranes after stress cessation. The profiling of cellular glycerolipids during drought stress performed on model species such as Arabidopsis thaliana does not fully cover the picture of lipidome in monocots, including grasses. Herein, two closely related introgression genotypes of Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass × Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue were used as a model for other grass species to describe lipid rearrangements during drought and re-hydration. The genotypes differed in their level of photosynthetic capacity during drought, and in their capacity for membrane regeneration after stress cessation. A total of 120 lipids, comprising the classes of monogalactosyldiacyloglycerol, digalactosyldiacyloglycerol, sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, diacylglicerol and triacylglicerol, were analyzed. The results clearly showed that water deficit had a significant impact on lipid metabolism in studied forage grasses. It was revealed that structural and metabolic lipid species changed their abundance during drought and re-watering periods and some crucial genotype-dependent differences were also observed. The introgression genotype characterized by an ability to regenerate membranes after re-hydration demonstrated a higher accumulation level of most chloroplast and numerous extra-chloroplast membrane lipid species at the beginning of drought. Furthermore, this genotype also revealed a significant reduction in the accumulation of most chloroplast lipids after re-hydration, compared with the other introgression genotype without the capacity for membrane regeneration. The potential influence of observed lipidomic alterations on a cellular membrane stability and photosynthetic capacity, are

  13. Development of fine-leaved Festuca grass populations identified genetic resources having potential for improved forage production and wildfire control in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought and heat tolerant fine-leaved fescue (Festuca ssp.) grasses have potential as components in rangeland greenstrips for wildfire control in semi-arid climates. However, such fine-leaved grasses have been difficult to identify because of specific adaptations, lack of late maturity, and often p...

  14. Further investigation of equine fescue oedema induced by Mediterranean tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) infected with selected fungal endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, S C; Munday, J S; Sutherland, B L; Vlaming, J B; Fletcher, L R

    2017-11-01

    AIMS To determine if equine fescue oedema (EFO) induced by grazing Mediterranean-type tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) infected with selected endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala) could be prevented by treatment with the corticosteroid, methylprednisolone, and anti-histamine, cetirizine, and to determine concentrations of lolines, specifically N-acetyl norloline (NANL), in grasses grazed by horses that did and did not develop EFO. METHODS Four horses were grazed on AR542-infected Mediterranean tall fescue pasture (from Day 0) for 7 days prior to being subjected to euthanasia. Two of these horses were treated with 250 mg methylprednisolone and 300 mg cetirizine hydrochloride every 12 hours orally from Days 0-7. Two more horses grazed meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) infected with the naturally-occurring, common endophyte (Epichloë uncinata) for 21 days before euthanasia. All horses were observed closely for signs of EFO, and blood samples were taken daily for measurement of concentrations of total protein (TP) in serum. Following euthanasia post-mortem examinations were conducted on all horses. Pasture samples of meadow fescue and Mediterranean tall fescue from the current study, and endophyte-infected Mediterranean tall fescue from a previous study that were associated with EFO, were analysed for concentrations of lolines using gas chromatography. RESULTS By Day 7, the treated and untreated horses grazing AR542-infected Mediterranean tall fescue all developed signs of EFO, and concentrations of TP in serum of all horses were Mediterranean tall fescue. In the sample of meadow fescue, concentrations of total lolines and N-acetyl norloline (NANL) were 2,402 and 543 mg/kg, respectively. In the three samples of Mediterranean tall fescue associated with EFO, concentrations of total lolines were 308, 629 and 679 mg/kg, and concentrations of NANL were 308, 614 and 305 mg/kg. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In horses grazing Mediterranean tall fescue infected

  15. The Impact of Nitrogen Fertilisation on the Evolution of Floristic Composition in Mixtures of Festuca rubra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Cristea

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Festuca rubra L. is a good competitive species that makes up the floristic structure of temporary meadows and that are used for grazing or mixed use (haymaking field – grassland together with Festuca pratensis L., Phleum pratense L., Poa pratense L., Trifolium repens L. and Lotus corniculatus L. The paper aims at pointing out the evolution of the floristic composition of the vegetal cover in different mixtures based on (creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra L., Dutch / white clover (Trifolium repens L. and bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.. Analysis of mean results concerning the structure of the floristic composition of mixtures based on Festuca rubra L. (60% shows that in all 9 types of mixtures there was balance between the degree of participation of (creeping red fescue and the share of the other two legume species studied. In the control variants, in the two simple mixtures, the share of Dutch / white clover was 48% and that of bird’s-foot trefoil was 44%. These values decreased, on the average, with 10% when applying a rate of N50 and with 14% when applying a rate of N100. In the complex mixture, there was a mean value of the degree of participation of the two species of legumes of 46% (with a higher share of the bird’s-foot trefoil in the control variant, of 34% in the variant treated with N50 and of 30% in the variant treated with N100.

  16. Seed production of two meadow fescue cultivars differing in growth habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. MÄKELÄ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds. is grown widely in the Nordic countries in forage grass mixtures. Locally adapted cultivars are preferred for establishment of mixed swards. Meadow fescue seed yield is determined by seed weight, the number of panicle bearing tillers, size of panicles and the number of fertile florets. We aimed to determine the differences in components of seed yield in two different meadow fescue cultivars differing in forage quality; Kalevi, released in 1979, and Fure, released in 1999. Biomass accumulation was monitored, numbers of fertile and sterile florets, and seeds were counted, and the forage quality was analysed. Seed quality was also analysed. Fure was leafier and accumulated more vegetative biomass than Kalevi. Kalevi had significantly more panicles than Fure, although Fure compensated for the lower number of panicles with increased panicle size. There were no differences in number of sterile and aborted florets between cultivars. Based on the results it seems that these two meadow fescue cultivars have a completely different strategy in seed production even though the final seed yield was not markedly different. It is apparent that meadow fescues have good ability to compensate among the components of seed yield. Long-term field experiments should be conducted to investigate the interactions between plant stand ecology, seed production and cultivation technology.;

  17. Meadow Fescue: The Forgotten Grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1990, we found an unknown grass growing on a farm in southwestern Wisconsin. We have identified this grass as meadow fescue, popular in the late 19th century and early 20th century before tall fescue was imported into the USA. The grass was established throughout the Charles Opitz farm by harve...

  18. THE ALLELOPATHIC INFLUENCE OF TARAXACUM OFFICINALE ON THE INITIAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF FESTUCA RUBRA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Jankowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg is perennial plant often stepping out in very large quantity in the sward of natural meadows. This species expands, enlarging its population very quickly. In the literature there is the lack of data related to influences of the common dandelion on plants growing in it’s neighbourhood. It is also unknown why this species creates large clusters. It may compete with different plants through the allelopatic influence. Therefore, the aim of this work was to test of the influence of water extracts from leaves and from the roots of common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale as well as soil extracts from the radicular layer of this species on the germination of the seeds and the initial growth of Red fescue (Festuca rubra L.. The investigative material came from leaves and roots of Taraxacum officinale and soil coming from the radicular layer of this species. It was applied most often in biotest experiments on germination. Red fescue was the tested plant. The germination energy of red fescue was the most braked through the plant extracts prepared from roots and leaves of Taraxacum officinale.

  19. Development and mapping of DArT markers within the Festuca - Lolium complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopecký, David; Bartos, Jan; Lukaszewski, Adam J

    2009-01-01

    Background Grasses are among the most important and widely cultivated plants on Earth. They provide high quality fodder for livestock, are used for turf and amenity purposes, and play a fundamental role in environment protection. Among cultivated grasses, species within the Festuca-Lolium complex...... predominate, especially in temperate regions. To facilitate high-throughput genome profiling and genetic mapping within the complex, we have developed a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) array for five grass species: F. pratensis, F. arundinacea, F. glaucescens, L. perenne and L. multiflorum. Results The DAr......T markers identified in every single genotype varied from 821 to 1852. To test the usefulness of DArTFest array for physical mapping, DArT markers were assigned to each of the seven chromosomes of F. pratensis using single chromosome substitution lines while recombinants of F. pratensis chromosome 3 were...

  20. Genome Size and GC Content Evolution of Festuca: Ancestral Expansion and Subsequent Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmarda, Petr; Bureš, Petr; Horová, Lucie; Foggi, Bruno; Rossi, Graziano

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant evolution is well known to be frequently associated with remarkable changes in genome size and composition; however, the knowledge of long-term evolutionary dynamics of these processes still remains very limited. Here a study is made of the fine dynamics of quantitative genome evolution in Festuca (fescue), the largest genus in Poaceae (grasses). Methods Using flow cytometry (PI, DAPI), measurements were made of DNA content (2C-value), monoploid genome size (Cx-value), average chromosome size (C/n-value) and cytosine + guanine (GC) content of 101 Festuca taxa and 14 of their close relatives. The results were compared with the existing phylogeny based on ITS and trnL-F sequences. Key Results The divergence of the fescue lineage from related Poeae was predated by about a 2-fold monoploid genome and chromosome size enlargement, and apparent GC content enrichment. The backward reduction of these parameters, running parallel in both main evolutionary lineages of fine-leaved and broad-leaved fescues, appears to diverge among the existing species groups. The most dramatic reductions are associated with the most recently and rapidly evolving groups which, in combination with recent intraspecific genome size variability, indicate that the reduction process is probably ongoing and evolutionarily young. This dynamics may be a consequence of GC-rich retrotransposon proliferation and removal. Polyploids derived from parents with a large genome size and high GC content (mostly allopolyploids) had smaller Cx- and C/n-values and only slightly deviated from parental GC content, whereas polyploids derived from parents with small genome and low GC content (mostly autopolyploids) generally had a markedly increased GC content and slightly higher Cx- and C/n-values. Conclusions The present study indicates the high potential of general quantitative characters of the genome for understanding the long-term processes of genome evolution, testing evolutionary

  1. Novel endophyte provides fescue toxicosis relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall fescue is extremely persistent and productive in the climatic and soil conditions in the fescue belt, which makes it extremely challenging to replace toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue with non-toxic grass alternatives. There is another option, which is to replace toxic endophyte-infected ta...

  2. 干旱胁迫下内生真菌对高羊茅保护酶活性的影响%The Effect of Endophyte on Activities of Protective Enzyme of Tall Fescue Under ought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡桂馨; 王代军; 刘荣堂

    2001-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine the soluble carbohydrate and the activities of protective enzyme of endophyte(Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones & Gams)-infected Crossfire II Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and endophyte-uninfected Crossfire II Tall Fescue under sustained drought stress in greenhouse. The activities of the protective enzymes in membrane systems of endophyte-infected Crossfire II and endophyte-uninfected plant were different under drought stress. The activities of CAT in sheath and leaf of the endophyte-infected the one were significantly higher than those of the endophyte-uninfected the one (P<0.05), and the differences of CAT in sheath were more remarkable (P<0.01). However, the activities of POD in the endophyte-infected plant were lower remarkably than those in the endophyte-uninfected plant (P<0.05). During testing it was also found that the morphological characters of drought tolerance of endophyte-infected Crossfire Ⅱ Tall Fescue were much better than that of endophyte-uninfected Crossfire Ⅱ. The recovery rate of the endophyte-infected plant , was above 70% after the treatment of drought stress, but the recovery rate of the endophyte-uninfected plant was lower than 2%.%研究对内生真菌(Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones & Gams)侵染(E+)和未侵染(E-)的交战Ⅱ(Crossfire Ⅱ)高羊茅,在温室持续干旱胁迫下膜系统保护酶活性变化连续测定,发现:在干旱胁迫过程中E+植株的茎、叶中过氧化氢酶(CAT)的活性均显著高于E-植株CAT的活性(P<0.05),在茎中的变化差异极显著(P<0.01)。但E+植株与E-植株中的过氧化物酶(POD)的活性表现与CAT活性相反,也就是在干旱胁迫过程中E+植株POD酶活性显著低于E-植株POD活性(P<0.05)。干旱胁迫下,E+植株在抗旱形态特征表现均优于E+植株,其根量、卷叶率均高于不带菌植株;干旱后的恢复率带菌植株达到70%以

  3. In vitro rumen simulated (RUSITEC) metabolism of freshly cut or wilted grasses with contrasting polyphenol oxidase activities

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated in vitro simulated rumen metabolism of freshly cut and wilted cocksfoot [Dactylis glomerata; high polyphenol oxidase (PPO)] and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea; low PPO). A 16-vessel RUSITEC was used with the four treatment combinations: cocksfoot wilted (C(w)); cocksfoot fresh (C(f)); tall fescue wilted (TF(w)) and tall fescue fresh (TF(f)). Rumen liquor was collected from four fistulated dairy cows maintained on permanent pasture. The experiment ran for 12 d with sam...

  4. 污泥对高羊茅抗旱性的影响研究%Influences of biosolids on drought resistance of tall fescue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩朝; 刘洋; 董慧; 常智慧

    2014-01-01

    Biosolids contain biologically active substances,such as humus and auxin,which will influence plant growth.The influences of biosolids on drought resistance of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea)were studied at the same nitrogen level.Split-plot treatments included well-watered and drought stress.Subplot treatments all had nitrogen applied at 75 mg/kg.The control had 75 mg N/kg soil completely provided by NH4NO3 solu-tion).The biosolids 0.5× rate had 37.5 mg N/kg soil provided by biosolids,and 37.5 mg N/kg soil provided by NH4 NO3 solution.The biosolids 1× rate had 75 mg N/kg soil completely provided by biosolids).Nitrogen treatments at biosolids 1× and 0.5× rates improved turfgrass quality,leaf relative water content,leaf chloro-phyll content,and reduced leaf wilting rate under drought stress (P<0.05)indicating that biosolids improved the aboveground growth condition of tall fescue under drought stress.Treatment with the biosolids 1 × rate al-so increased leaf water use efficiency of tall fescue and maintained better water metabolism at 50% container ca-pacity (P<0.05).Treatments at biosolids 1× and 0.5×rates increased root dry weight of tall fescue under both moisture conditions and improved root viability under severe drought stress.Proline accumulation was al-so promoted by bisolids under both water conditions (P<0.05).It is suggested that biologically active sub-stances in biosolids can enhance drought tolerance of tall fescue.%污泥中含有腐殖质和生长素等生物活性类物质,会对植物的生长产生影响。本试验在相同氮肥条件下,研究了污泥对高羊茅抗旱性的影响。采用裂区实验设计,主处理包括充分浇水和干旱2个水平;副处理为不同的氮源:对照(75.0 mg/kg的氮素由硝酸铵提供)、半污泥(硝酸铵和污泥各提供37.5 mg/kg的氮素)、全污泥(75.0 mg/kg的氮素由污泥提供)。结果表明,干旱条件下全污泥和半污泥处理能够显著提

  5. FUNCIONALES PROPERTIES SAGO STARCH (Maranta arundinacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemente Granados C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Maranta arundinacea sago whose rhizome is used in parts of Colombian for the production of products intended for human consumption. Starch was extracted and determined the functional properties of starches presented high water capacity % CRA (162,8% for sago, compared to 226% of cassava, a high rate of absorption of lipids % I.A.L (51% for sago, compared to 82,25% of cassava starch. Gelatinization temperature is relatively low (65-75ºC at 10 minutes compared to sago starch cassava with 70-75ºC in 20 minutes, has a high percentage of amylopectin (77% for sago starch, compared with 83,3% for cassava starch is a gel so that no retrograde and from a stable paste. As it is concluded that can be used as an alternative promising in the food industry.

  6. Genotypic evaluation of tall fescue dihaploids by capillary electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent innovations in tall fescue breeding and selection allow for the generation of dihaploid tall fescue lines. During the dihaploid generation process, two possible products can be generated. These being tall fescue hybrids generated from outcrossing and homozygous dihaploid tall fescue lines. As...

  7. Resource Limitations Influence Growth and Vigor of Idaho Fescue, a Common Understory Species in Pacific Northwest Ponderosa Pine Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Carr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in under-canopy resource availability associated with elevated ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. abundance can negatively influence understory vegetation. Experimental evidence linking under-canopy resource availability and understory vegetation is scarce. Yet this information would be beneficial in developing management strategies to recover desired understory species. We tested the effects of varying nitrogen (N and light availability on Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis Elmer, the dominant understory species in ponderosa pine/Idaho fescue plant associations in eastern Oregon. In a greenhouse experiment, two levels of N (50 kg∙N∙ha−1 and 0 kg∙N∙ha−1 and shade (80% shade and 0% shade were applied in a split-plot design to individual potted plants grown in soil collected from high abundance pine stands. Plants grown in unshaded conditions produced greater root (p = 0.0027 and shoot (p = 0.0017 biomass and higher cover values (p = 0.0378 compared to those in the shaded treatments. The addition of N had little effect on plant growth (p = 0.1602, 0.5129, and 0.0853 for shoot biomass, root biomass, and cover, respectively, suggesting that soils in high-density ponderosa pine stands that lack understory vegetation were not N deficient and Idaho fescue plants grown in these soils were not N limited. Management activities that increase under-canopy light availability will promote the conditions necessary for Idaho fescue recovery. However, successful restoration may be constrained by a lack of residual fescue or the invasion of more competitive understory vegetation.

  8. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF REPLACING WILD-TYPE ENDOPHYTE INFECTED TALL FESCUE WITH NOVEL ENDOPHYTE-INFECTED FESCUE

    OpenAIRE

    Lacy, Curt; Anderson, John D.; Andrae, John

    2003-01-01

    Empirical animal performance data is used in evaluating the decision to convert toxic endophyte fescue to novel endophyte fescue. Results indicate that producers at three risk aversion levels prefer replacing their existing toxic fescue stands when the expected stand life for novel endophyte fescue is more than five years.

  9. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticle using Bambusa arundinacea leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Bharat; Shyam, Vasvani; Kaushik, Babiya; Vasoya, Jaydeep; Joseph, Joyce; Savaliya, Chirag; Kumar, Sumit; Parikh, Sachin P.; Thakar, C. M.; Pandya, D. D.; Ravalia, A. B.; Markna, J. H.; Shah, N. A.

    2017-05-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticles using ecofriendly way is an interesting area in advance nanotechnology. Silver (Ag) nanoparticles are usually synthesized by chemicals route, which are quite flammable and toxic in nature. This study deals with a biosynthesis process (environment friendly) of silver nanoparticles using Bambusa arundinacea leaves for its antibacterial activity. The formation and characterization of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from AgNO3 through a simple green route using the latex of Bambusa arundinacea leaves as reducing as well as capping agent. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) study indicates the formation of grains (particles) with different size and shape.

  10. SOLiD-SAGE of endophyte-infected red fescue reveals numerous effects on host transcriptome and an abundance of highly expressed fungal secreted proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen V Ambrose

    Full Text Available One of the most important plant-fungal symbiotic relationships is that of cool season grasses with endophytic fungi of the genera Epichloë and Neotyphodium. These associations often confer benefits, such as resistance to herbivores and improved drought tolerance, to the hosts. One benefit that appears to be unique to fine fescue grasses is disease resistance. As a first step towards understanding the basis of the endophyte-mediated disease resistance in Festuca rubra we carried out a SOLiD-SAGE quantitative transcriptome comparison of endophyte-free and Epichloë festucae-infected F. rubra. Over 200 plant genes involved in a wide variety of physiological processes were statistically significantly differentially expressed between the two samples. Many of the endophyte expressed genes were surprisingly abundant, with the most abundant fungal tag representing over 10% of the fungal mapped tags. Many of the abundant fungal tags were for secreted proteins. The second most abundantly expressed fungal gene was for a secreted antifungal protein and is of particular interest regarding the endophyte-mediated disease resistance. Similar genes in Penicillium and Aspergillus spp. have been demonstrated to have antifungal activity. Of the 10 epichloae whole genome sequences available, only one isolate of E. festucae and Neotyphodium gansuense var inebrians have an antifungal protein gene. The uniqueness of this gene in E. festucae from F. rubra, its transcript abundance, and the secreted nature of the protein, all suggest it may be involved in the disease resistance conferred to the host, which is a unique feature of the fine fescue-endophyte symbiosis.

  11. SOLiD-SAGE of endophyte-infected red fescue reveals numerous effects on host transcriptome and an abundance of highly expressed fungal secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Karen V; Belanger, Faith C

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important plant-fungal symbiotic relationships is that of cool season grasses with endophytic fungi of the genera Epichloë and Neotyphodium. These associations often confer benefits, such as resistance to herbivores and improved drought tolerance, to the hosts. One benefit that appears to be unique to fine fescue grasses is disease resistance. As a first step towards understanding the basis of the endophyte-mediated disease resistance in Festuca rubra we carried out a SOLiD-SAGE quantitative transcriptome comparison of endophyte-free and Epichloë festucae-infected F. rubra. Over 200 plant genes involved in a wide variety of physiological processes were statistically significantly differentially expressed between the two samples. Many of the endophyte expressed genes were surprisingly abundant, with the most abundant fungal tag representing over 10% of the fungal mapped tags. Many of the abundant fungal tags were for secreted proteins. The second most abundantly expressed fungal gene was for a secreted antifungal protein and is of particular interest regarding the endophyte-mediated disease resistance. Similar genes in Penicillium and Aspergillus spp. have been demonstrated to have antifungal activity. Of the 10 epichloae whole genome sequences available, only one isolate of E. festucae and Neotyphodium gansuense var inebrians have an antifungal protein gene. The uniqueness of this gene in E. festucae from F. rubra, its transcript abundance, and the secreted nature of the protein, all suggest it may be involved in the disease resistance conferred to the host, which is a unique feature of the fine fescue-endophyte symbiosis.

  12. Development of a fescue toxicosis model using a fescue seed extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to examine the efficacy of a fescue seed extract for inducing fescue toxicosis in cattle. Four growing Holstein steers (BW = 309±36kg) surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas were utilized in a four phase crossover design experiment. The basal diet consisted of endophyte fr...

  13. Photosynthesis and Rubisco kinetics in spring wheat and meadow fescue under conditions of simulated climate change with elevated CO2 and increased temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. HAKALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.cv.Polkkaand meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Hudson cv. Kalevicwere grown in ambient and elevated (700 µl l -1 carbon dioxide concentration both at present ambient temperatures and at temperatures 3°C higher than at present simulating a future climate.The CO2 concentrations were elevated in large (3 m in diameteropen top chambers and the temperatures in a greenhouse built over the experimental field.The photosynthetic rate of both wheat and meadow fescue was 31 –37%higher in elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2 than in ambient CO 2 (aCO2 throughout the growing season.The enhancement in wheat photosynthesis in eCO2 declined 10 –13 days before yellow ripeness,at which point the rate of photosynthesis in both CO 2 treatments declined.The stomatal conductance of wheat and meadow fescue was 23–36% lower in eCO2 than in aCO2 .The amount and activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco in wheat were lower under conditions of eCO2 ,except at elevated temperatures in 1993 when there was a clear yield increase.There was no clear change in the amount and activity of Rubisco in meadow fescue under eCO2 at either elevated or ambient temperature.This suggests that adaptation to elevated CO2 at biochemical level occurs only when there is insufficient sink for photosynthetic products.While the sink size of wheat can be increased only by introducing new,more productive genotypes,the sink size of meadow fescue can be regulated by fitting the cutting schedule to growth.;

  14. Fungal Endophyte (Epichloë festucae) Alters the Nutrient Content of Festuca rubra Regardless of Water Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez-de-Aldana, Beatriz R; Antonia García-Ciudad; Balbino García-Criado; Santiago Vicente-Tavera; Iñigo Zabalgogeazcoa

    2013-01-01

    Festuca rubra plants maintain associations with the vertically transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae. A high prevalence of infected host plants in semiarid grasslands suggests that this association could be mutualistic. We investigated if the Epichloë-endophyte affects the growth and nutrient content of F. rubra plants subjected to drought. Endophyte-infected (E+) and non-infected (E-) plants of two half-sib lines (PEN and RAB) were subjected to three water availability treatments. S...

  15. Effect of adding wet hulless barley distillers' grains on fermentation quality of mixed ensilage of hulless barley straw and tall fescue in Tibet%添加青稞酒糟对西藏地区青稞秸秆和高羊茅混合青贮发酵品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原现军; 余成群; 李志华; 下条雅敬; 邵涛

    2012-01-01

    为评价添加不同水平青稞酒糟对青稞秸秆与高羊茅(4∶6)混合青贮发酵品质的影响,试验设对照组( Control)和3个添加水平(10%,20%和30%)的青稞酒糟处理组,青贮后第7,14和30天后打开青贮窖,测定青贮饲料发酵品质.结果表明,添加青稞酒糟可以抑制青贮早期好氧性微生物的活性,促进乳酸发酵,使pH值快速下降,青贮饲料快速进入稳定阶段.青贮30 d后,与对照组相比酒糟处理显著降低(P<0.05)了青贮饲料的pH值,提高了乳酸和水溶性碳水化合物含量,降低了(P<0.05)氨态氮/总氮及丙酸和丁酸含量.综合考虑,添加20%酒糟效果更佳.%The effect of adding wet,hulless barley distillers' grains (WHDG) on the fermentation quality in mixed silage of hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare) straw and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) during ensiling was assessed.There were three treatments of different WHDG addition ratios (10%,20% and 30% of fresh weight) plus a control.The silos were opened on 7,14 and 30 days after ensiling and the fermentation quality was analyzed.WHDG addition significantly improved the mixed silage fermentation quality,as indicated by a sharp accumulation of lactic acid (LA) (Pfescue.

  16. Ergovaline Stability in Tall Fescue Based on Sample Handling and Storage Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista La Moen Lea

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ergovaline is an ergot alkaloid produced by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams found in tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinacea (Schreb. Dumort. and blamed for a multitude of livestock disorders. Ergovaline is known to be unstable and affected by many variables. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sample handling and storage on the stability of ergovaline in tall fescue samples. Fresh tall fescue was collected from a horse farm in central Kentucky at three harvest dates and transported on ice to the University of Kentucky Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Plant material was frozen in liquid nitrogen, milled and mixed before being allocated into different sub-samples. Three sub-samples were assigned to each of 14 sample handling or storage treatments. Sample handling included increased heat and UV light to simulate transportation in a vehicle and on ice in a cooler per standard transportation recommendations. Storage conditions included storage at 22oC, 5oC and -20oC for up to 28 days. Each sub-sample was then analyzed for ergovaline concentration using HPLC with fluorescence detection and this experiment was repeated for each harvest date. Sub-samples exposed to UV light and heat lost a significant fraction of ergovaline in 2 hours, while sub-samples stored on ice in a cooler showed no change in ergovaline in 2 hours. All sub-samples stored at 22oC, 5oC and -20oC lost a significant fraction of ergovaline in the first 24 hours of storage. There was little change in ergovaline in the freezer (-20oC after the first 24 hours up to 28 days of storage but intermittent losses were observed at 22oC and 5oC. To obtain results that most closely represent levels in the field, all samples should be transported on ice to the laboratory immediately after harvest for same day analysis. If immediate testing is not possible, samples should be stored at -20oC until analysis.

  17. Ergovaline Stability in Tall Fescue Based on Sample Handling and Storage Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Krista; Smith, Lori; Gaskill, Cynthia; Coleman, Robert; Smith, S.

    2014-09-01

    Ergovaline is an ergot alkaloid produced by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) found in tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinacea (Schreb.) Dumort.) and blamed for a multitude of livestock disorders. Ergovaline is known to be unstable and affected by many variables. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sample handling and storage on the stability of ergovaline in tall fescue samples. Fresh tall fescue was collected from a horse farm in central Kentucky at three harvest dates and transported on ice to the University of Kentucky Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Plant material was frozen in liquid nitrogen, milled and mixed before being allocated into different sub-samples. Three sub-samples were assigned to each of 14 sample handling or storage treatments. Sample handling included increased heat and UV light to simulate transportation in a vehicle and on ice in a cooler per standard transportation recommendations. Storage conditions included storage at 22oC, 5oC and -20oC for up to 28 days. Each sub-sample was then analyzed for ergovaline concentration using HPLC with fluorescence detection and this experiment was repeated for each harvest date. Sub-samples exposed to UV light and heat lost a significant fraction of ergovaline in 2 hours, while sub-samples stored on ice in a cooler showed no change in ergovaline in 2 hours. All sub-samples stored at 22oC, 5oC and -20oC lost a significant fraction of ergovaline in the first 24 hours of storage. There was little change in ergovaline in the freezer (-20oC) after the first 24 hours up to 28 days of storage but intermittent losses were observed at 22oC and 5oC. To obtain results that most closely represent levels in the field, all samples should be transported on ice to the laboratory immediately after harvest for same day analysis. If immediate testing is not possible, samples should be stored at -20oC until analysis.

  18. Levels of Organic Compounds, Number of Microorganisms and Cadmium Accumulation in Festuca ovina Hydroponic Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Małgorzata; Słomka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the microbiological, biochemical and physiological aspects of phytoremediation of soil and water environments polluted to different degrees with heavy metals has very important theoretical and practical implications. In this study, a comparison was made between total cadmium concentration in root and shoot tissues as well as concentrations of particular fractions of Cd immobilized by roots of Festuca ovina (Sheep’s fescue) hydroponically cultivated in nutrient solutions supplemented with 1 μg Cd ml(–1) and those cultivated at 10 μg Cd ml(–1). After three weeks of F. ovina cultivation, the number of bacterial CFU and the amounts of organic chelators, siderophores, proteins and reducing sugars in the growth medium and on the root surface were higher at 10 than at 1 μg Cd ml(–1). The grass also reacted to the high Cd concentration by a decrease in plant growth and dehydrogenase activity in root tissues. The concentration of Cd determined in fractions bound with different strength in roots was significantly dependent on Cd concentration in the growth medium. When the plants were grown at 1 μg Cd ml(–1), 9% of the immobilized cadmium was loosely bound to the root surface, 20% was exchangeable adsorbed, and 28% was bound by chelation; at 10 μg Cd ml(–1), the respective values were 12%, 25%, and 20%. About 43% of the immobilized cadmium remained in roots after sequential extraction, and bioaccumulation factors in shoots had the same values independently of Cd concentration. At both Cd concentrations, the cadmium translocation index for F. ovina was low (< 1), which is why this grass can be recommended for phytostabilization of the metal under study.

  19. Assimilating efficiency of soil nutrition of Phalaris arundinacea L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Phalaris arundinacea L. is fine perennial herbage of Gramineae. Eight treatments including N, P, K, NP, NK, NPK, PK and controls were done for studying its absorbing efficiency of soil nutrition. At tillering stage, the coefficient of absorbing and utilizing of N, P, and K from soil and fertilizer were analyzed according to M.K. Kaeomobk's formula and the contents of crude protein and fat were also measured. The yields of fresh crop, hay and seed were measured at ripening stage. For N absorbing coefficient of Ph. arundinacea from soil (Kn%), the composition PK treatment is best (12.36%) and K treatment is worse, while for N absorbing coefficient from fertilizer (Ky%), all the treatments are higher than control but the composition NPK treatment presented the highest (14.78%). For the absorbing coefficient of P from soil (Kn%), composition NK treatment is highest (19.30%), but K treatment was lower than control, while for that of P from fertilizer (Ky%), all the treatment were higher than control but the composition NP treatment showed the highest (19.52%). As to K absorbing coefficient from soil (Kn%), NP treatment is the best (19.2%) and single P treatment is worst, while for that (Ky%) of K from fertilizer the composition NPK treatment was best (28.44%). As concerns treatments for the outputs of fresh and dry crop, the composition NP treatment was best and all the treatment were higher than control. The composition NK treatment produced highest yield of seed and highest content of crude protein as compared to other treatments. For content of crude fat, the compositions NK and N treatments are best. The experi-ment indicates that application of fertilizer at proper proportions could increase the yield of Ph. Arundinacea and raise the utiliz-ing efficiency of nourishment element from soil and fertilizer.

  20. Fungal endophyte (Epichloe festucae alters the nutrient content of Festuca rubra regardless of water availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz R Vázquez-de-Aldana

    Full Text Available Festuca rubra plants maintain associations with the vertically transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae. A high prevalence of infected host plants in semiarid grasslands suggests that this association could be mutualistic. We investigated if the Epichloë-endophyte affects the growth and nutrient content of F. rubra plants subjected to drought. Endophyte-infected (E+ and non-infected (E- plants of two half-sib lines (PEN and RAB were subjected to three water availability treatments. Shoot and root biomass, nutrient content, proline, phenolic compounds and fungal alkaloids were measured after the treatments. The effect of the endophyte on shoot and root biomass and dead leaves depended on the plant line. In the PEN line, E+ plants had a greater S:R ratio than E-, but the opposite occurred in RAB. In both plant lines and all water treatments, endophyte-infected plants had greater concentrations of N, P and Zn in shoots and Ca, Mg and Zn in roots than E- plants. On average, E+ plants contained in their shoots more P (62%, Zn (58% and N (19% than E- plants. While the proline in shoots increased in response to water stress, the endophyte did not affect this response. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status and plant line impose stronger differences in the performance of the plants than the water stress treatments. Furthermore, differences between PEN and RAB lines seemed to be greater in E- than in E+ plants, suggesting that E+ plants of both lines are more similar than those of their non-infected version. This is probably due to the endophyte producing a similar effect in both plant lines, such as the increase in N, P and Zn in shoots. The remarkable effect of the endophyte in the nutrient balance of the plants could help to explain the high prevalence of infected plants in natural grasslands.

  1. Seedling Performance Associated with Live or Herbicide Treated Tall Fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Halvorson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tall fescue is an important forage grass which can host systemic fungal endophytes. The association of host grass and endophyte is known to influence herbivore behavior and host plant competition for resources. Establishing legumes into existing tall fescue sods is a desirable means to acquire nitrogen and enhance the nutritive value of forage for livestock production. Competition from existing tall fescue typically must be controlled to ensure interseeding success. We used a soil-on-agar method to determine if soil from intact, living (L, or an herbicide killed (K tall fescue sward influenced germination and seedling growth of three cultivars of tall fescue (E+, MaxQ, and E− or legumes (alfalfa, red clover, and white clover. After 30 days, seedlings were larger and present in greater numbers when grown in L soil rather than K soil. Root growth of legumes (especially white clover and tall fescue (especially MaxQ were not as vigorous in K soil as L soil. While shoot biomass was similar for all cultivars of tall fescue in L soil, MaxQ produced less herbage when grown in K soil. Our data suggest establishing legumes or fescue cultivars may not be improved by first killing the existing fescue sod and seedling performance can exhibit significant interseasonal variation, related only to soil conditions.

  2. Seedling performance associated with live or herbicide treated tall fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall fescue is an important forage grass which can host systemic fungal endophytes. The association of host grass and endophyte is known to influence herbivore behavior and host plant competition for resources. Establishing legumes into existing tall fescue sods is a desirable means to acquire nitro...

  3. Comparative interpretation of the development of species Phalaris arundinacea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionel, Samfira; Andreea, Ghica; Marius, Boldea; Monica, Butnariu; Marius, Sendroni; Andrei, M.-Kiss

    2013-10-01

    The development of the morpho-productive features of species Phalaris arundinacea was studied from 2011 to 2012. The study dwelt on a collection of 1000 of the Romanian Premier cultivar and a Polycross field, set in Banat Plain. We assessed the dynamics of the following morpho-productive features: plant height, number of shoots, number of leaves, leaf width, leaf length, and foliar area of a shoot, in accordance with the BBCH code. The growth dynamics of the previously mentioned mean morpho-productive features were measured every 7 days in 20 clones of the Premier. Our findings revealed that the growth dynamics under the conditions provided on the plain area involve the height growth of 0.96 cm/day. In addition, height growth presents significantly positive correlation with the increase of the foliar area of a shoot, as well as of the entire plant.

  4. PROPIEDADES FUNCIONALES DEL ALMIDON DE SAGU (Maranta arundinacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLEMENTE GRANADOS C

    Full Text Available El sagú (Maranta arundinacea cuyo rizoma es utilizado en algunas zonas de Colombia para la elaboración de productos destinados a la alimentación humana. Se extrajo el almidón y se determinaron las propiedades funcionales, los almidones presentaron alta capacidad de retención de agua% CRA (162,8% para el sagú, respecto al 226% de la yuca, un alto índice de absorción de lípidos, % I.A.L (51% para sagú, respecto al 82,25% del almidón de yuca. La temperatura de gelatinización esrelativamente baja (65-75°C a 10 minutos para sagú respecto al almidón de yuca con 70-75°C en 20 minutos, posee un alto porcentaje de amilopectina (77% para el almidón de sagú, en comparación con 83,3% para el almidón de yuca por tanto es un gel que no retrograda y forma una pasta estable. Por lo que se concluye que se puede usar como alternativa promisoria en la industria alimentaria.

  5. Efficient targeted mutagenesis in Epichloë festucae using a split marker system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, M; Forester, N; Ariyawansa, K G S U; Voisey, C R; Johnson, L J; Johnson, R D; Fleetwood, D J

    2017-03-01

    A split-marker system for targeted gene deletion was developed for the model grass endophytic fungus Epichloë festucae. Compared to the conventional system that yields up to 25% homologous recombinants, the method resulted in 33-74% targeted deletions in E. festucae using as little as 1.5kb of targeting sequence.

  6. Effects of gibberellin on seed germination and seedling growth of tall fescue under drought stress%赤霉素对干旱胁迫下高羊茅萌发及幼苗生长的缓解效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志飞; 宋书红; 张晓娜; 张莹; 李欣悦; 杨云贵

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of gibberellin concentrations on seed germination and seedling growth of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea )under drought stress.The seed germination experiment was con-ducted at 5 polyethylene glycol (PEG)levels (0%,5%,10%,15% and 20%)after soaking seeds in 5 gibber-ellin concentrations (0,100,200,300 and 400 mg/L).The malondialdehyde concentration (MDA)and electri-cal conductivity of seeds were determined before germination,then the seedling growth,seed germination rate and potential were measured during germination.The electrical conductivities of seeds soaked in 0 and 100 mg/L gibberellin were significantly (P ≤0.05)higher than those of seeds soaked at the other three gibberellin concentrations,and MDA concentrations of seeds soaked with 0 and 100 mg/L gibberellin solution were signifi-cantly lower (P ≤0.05)than those of seeds soaked at the three higher gibberellin concentrations.Compared to seeds soaked in pure water,the 5% and 10% PEG treatments had,respectively,47.06% and 37.33% greater germination potential,and 19.46% and 16.95% higher germination rate.However,the germination rate,and root and bud length were obviously decreased when the PEG concentration was 15% or higher.After soaking in 200 mg/L gibberellin solution,root length was increased 53.26%,30.12% (compared with soaking in pure water)and the corresponding increases in bud length were 79.87% and 50.75% at 5% and 10% PEG solu-tions.The effect of gibberellin decreased with increase in PEG level.The inhibition of PEG stress on bud length was stronger than on root length,but the root length:bud length ratio was obviously decreased water after gibberellin treatment,compared to that of seeds soaked in pure.In summary,the optimum gibberellin concen-tration for enhancing the seed germination and seedling growth of tall fescue under drought stress was 100-200 mg/L.%为研究 PEG 胁迫下赤霉素浸种对高羊茅种子萌发的影响,试验选用5

  7. Agronomic, leaf anatomy, morphology, endophyte presence and ploidy characterization of accessions of Festuca group rubra collected in northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, J. A.; Gutierrez-Villarias, M. I.; Fernandez-Casado, M. A.; Costal-Andrade, L.; Gonzalez-Arraez, E.; Bughrara, S. S.; Afif, E.

    2008-07-01

    Fifteen accessions of Facet's group rubra collected in northern Spain were characterized and grouped into four Festuca taxa on the basis of leaf anatomy, morphology and ploidy; seven were identified as F. heteromalla; two as F. trichophylla ssp. asperifolia; two as F. nigrescens ssp. microphylla and four as F. rubra ssp. pruinosa. All the accessions and one commercial cultivar Wilma (F. nigrescens ssp. nigrescens), used as control, were established at the Mabegondo Agronomical Research Centre, A Coruna (Galicia) in a completely randomised block design with three replicates of 10 plants per accession. The plants were agronomically characterized for seven traits during 2004 and 2005. Cluster analysis was useful in identifying four clusters that described 66.5% of the phenotypic variation. Cluster 1 consisted of nine accessions with early heading, intermediate values of green colour and tolerance to crown rust in autumn and the highest seasonal growth. Cluster 2 contained two accessions with intermediate values of heading, green colour, good tolerance to crown rust in autumn and intermediate seasonal growth. Cluster 3 contained two accessions and the cultivar Wilma, which showed early heading, dark green colour, good tolerance to crown rust in autumn and spring and intermediate seasonal growth. Cluster 4 consisted of two late heading accessions with dark green colour, and the best tolerance to crown rust in autumn and intermediate seasonal growth. Thirteen of the 15 accessions (86.6%) were infected by fungal endophytes, with the degree of infection ranging from 2 to 73%. Additional key words: endophyte, fine fescues, genetic resources, hierarchical clustering, leaf sections, multivariate analysis, turf grass. (Author) 33 refs.

  8. Isolation of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Produced ACC Ammonialyase and Its Influence on Tall Fescue Growth%产ACC脱氨酶植物根际促生菌的筛选及其对修复植物高羊茅生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁琳琳; 刘五星; 孙剑英; 骆永明; 徐旭士; 李振高

    2013-01-01

    以1-氨基环丙烷-1-羧酸(ACC)为唯一氮源,从石油污染的土壤中分离得到一株具有ACC脱氨酶活性的菌株D5A.该菌在以ACC为唯一氮源条件下,其ACC脱氨酶比活力为0.084 U/mg.另外,D5A还具有产生吲哚乙酸(IAA)、耐盐以及溶磷的特性.在液体培养条件下该菌株产IAA高达112 mg/L,在90 g/kg盐含量的培养基中仍能够正常生长且具有较强的溶解矿物磷能力.同时该菌对酸碱具有良好的适应性,在初始pH4~10的LB培养基中生长良好.种子发芽试验表明在3 g/kg和6 g/kg浓度NaC1的逆境条件下,该菌株能显著提高高羊茅种子的发芽率和芽长.最后,通过对其进行生理生化特性和16S rDNA序列分析,该菌株初步鉴定为克雷伯氏菌(Klebsiellasp.).%In this study,the strains with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity were isolated from an oil-polluted soil.The ACC deaminase activity of the strain D5A was 0.084 U/mg in minimal medium containing ACC as the sole nitrogen source.In addition,D5A also had properties of producing indole acetic acid (IAA),salt tolerance and dissolving phosphorus.In liquid culture conditions,the strains produced IAA up to 112 mg/L.It was still able to grow normally in the medium of 90 g/kg salt and had a strong ability to dissolve the mineral phosphorus.The strains grew well in LB medium from the initial pH value of 4 to 10,which showed the strains had good adaptability of pH.Seed germination tests showed that the strains could significantly improve seed germination and bud of tall fescue(Festuca arundinacea) at adverse conditions of 3 g/kg and 6 g/kg NaCl.Finally,based on physiological,biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis,the strains was identified as Klebsiella sp.

  9. From the Lab Bench: Should you plant a non-toxic endophyte tall fescue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A column was written to discuss planting novel endophyte tall fescue for alleviating fescue toxicosis. Endophyte-free tall fescue cultivars can be grazed as a non-toxic alternative, but it maust be understood that it is the endophyte, through production of alkaloids other than ergot alkaloids, that...

  10. Impact of habitat conditions on the biological traits of the reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kieloch

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the morphology, and selected aspects of biology (seed germination capacity, biomass productivity of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L. growing in two locations with different soil conditions near Wrocław. Habitat 1 was characterized by low to moderate contents of nutrients, slightly acidic pH, and low organic matter content in the soil, whereas habitat 2 had soil richer in nutrients, a neutral pH, and higher organic matter content. During the growing period, phytosociological relevés were taken and biometric measurements were performed. In controlled conditions, the germination rate and biomass productivity were estimated in the initial growth stage. The soil conditions that were more favorable for P. arundinacea growth (neutral pH, higher content of organic matter and nutrients promoted its dominance, and substantially limited the occurrence of other taxa. The floristic composition in the less fertile habitat was considerably richer and the abundance of P. arundinacea was much lower in it, compared with the other location. Phalaris arundinacea plants growing on the nutrient-richer soil were higher and had longer leaf blades and panicles with a greater number of spikelets per panicle than specimens growing on the poorer soil. Seeds collected from plants growing on the more fertile soil exhibited greater germination capacity than seeds from plants originating from the poorer habitat. However, there were no differences in the quantity of biomass produced in the controlled conditions.

  11. Fungal endophyte (Epichloë festucae) alters the nutrient content of Festuca rubra regardless of water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-de-Aldana, Beatriz R; García-Ciudad, Antonia; García-Criado, Balbino; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago; Zabalgogeazcoa, Iñigo

    2013-01-01

    Festuca rubra plants maintain associations with the vertically transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae. A high prevalence of infected host plants in semiarid grasslands suggests that this association could be mutualistic. We investigated if the Epichloë-endophyte affects the growth and nutrient content of F. rubra plants subjected to drought. Endophyte-infected (E+) and non-infected (E-) plants of two half-sib lines (PEN and RAB) were subjected to three water availability treatments. Shoot and root biomass, nutrient content, proline, phenolic compounds and fungal alkaloids were measured after the treatments. The effect of the endophyte on shoot and root biomass and dead leaves depended on the plant line. In the PEN line, E+ plants had a greater S:R ratio than E-, but the opposite occurred in RAB. In both plant lines and all water treatments, endophyte-infected plants had greater concentrations of N, P and Zn in shoots and Ca, Mg and Zn in roots than E- plants. On average, E+ plants contained in their shoots more P (62%), Zn (58%) and N (19%) than E- plants. While the proline in shoots increased in response to water stress, the endophyte did not affect this response. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status and plant line impose stronger differences in the performance of the plants than the water stress treatments. Furthermore, differences between PEN and RAB lines seemed to be greater in E- than in E+ plants, suggesting that E+ plants of both lines are more similar than those of their non-infected version. This is probably due to the endophyte producing a similar effect in both plant lines, such as the increase in N, P and Zn in shoots. The remarkable effect of the endophyte in the nutrient balance of the plants could help to explain the high prevalence of infected plants in natural grasslands.

  12. Competition between Festuca rubra L. and F. pratensis Huds. in natural conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Widera

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the edaphic conditions and properties of pure and cenopopulations of Festuca rubra and Festuca pratensis allowed to establish the competitivity of these two species on 4 different lithological substrates in the Sudetes Foothills. A model of competition between F. rubra and F. pratensis was constructed on the basis of the biomass of their populations. On a substrate of porphyry, sand and granite F. rubra prevails in competition while on basalt F. pratensi is preponderant.

  13. Functional characterization of salicylate hydroxylase from the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrose, Karen V.; Zipeng Tian; Yifei Wang; Jordan Smith; Gerben Zylstra; Bingru Huang; Belanger, Faith C.

    2015-01-01

    Epichloë spp. are symbiotic fungal endophytes of many cool season grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes often confers insect, drought, and disease tolerance to the host grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes within the host plants does not elicit host defense responses. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is not known. Epichloë festucae, the endophyte of Festuca rubra, expresses a salicylate hydroxylase similar to NahG from the bacterium Pseudomonas putida. Few fungal sal...

  14. Green fescue rangelands: changes over time in the Wallowa Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles G. Johnson

    2003-01-01

    This publication documents over 90 years of plant succession on green fescue grasslands in the subalpine ecological zone of the Wallowa Mountains in northeast Oregon. It also ties together the work of four scientists over a 60-year period. Arthur Sampson initiated his study of deteriorated rangeland in 1907. Elbert H. Reid began his studies of overgrazing in 1938. Both...

  15. Variation in sequences containing microsatellite motifs in the perennial biomass and forage grass, Phalaris arundinacea (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Susanne; Jankowska, Marta Jolanta; Hodkinson, Trevor Roland; Vellani, Tia; Klaas, Manfred

    2016-03-22

    Forty three microsatellite markers were developed for further genetic characterisation of a forage and biomass grass crop, for which genomic resources are currently scarce. The microsatellite markers were developed from a normalized EST-SSR library. All of the 43 markers gave a clear banding pattern on 3% Metaphor agarose gels. Eight selected SSR markers were tested in detail for polymorphism across eleven DNA samples of large geographic distribution across Europe. The new set of 43 SSR markers will help future research to characterise the genetic structure and diversity of Phalaris arundinacea, with a potential to further understand its invasive character in North American wetlands, as well as aid in breeding work for desired biomass and forage traits. P. arundinacea is particularly valued in the northern latitude as a crop with high biomass potential, even more so on marginal lands.

  16. Plant and Endophyte Effect on Fiber, N, and P Concentrations in Tall Fescue

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, James K.; Ben C. Morton; Jagadeesh Mosali

    2011-01-01

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) infected with an endophyte (Neotyphodium spp.) generally has agronomic advantages over endophyte-free tall fescue. The objective of this study was to determine if endophyte presence (E+) or absence (E−) in three tall fescue genotypes affects concentrations of acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) in field and greenhouse studies. E+ plants had higher concentrations of ADF and NDF (nonsignificant in one ge...

  17. DRY MATTER YIELD OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF DACTYLIS GLOMERATA AND FESTUCA PRATENSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Sosnowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze yield variation of Dactylis glomerata and Festuca pratensis varieties grown on organic and mineral soil. This paper has drawn on two field experiments set up and carried out between 2010 and 2013. The experiment was conducted in two experimental stations: one in the Research Centre for Cultivar Testing in Krzyżewo and the other in the Experimental Stations for Variety Testing in Uhinin. The experiment in Krzyżewo was set up on ploughed soil, with spring barley as a forecrop. In Uhnin the experimental plots were located on peat meadow. The experimental plots were sown with varieties of Dactylis glomerata: Niva, Tukan, Amila, Crown Royale and with varieties of Festuca pratensis: Limosa, Pasja, Anturka, Amelka. The full exploitation of Dactylis glomerata varieties was due between 2012 and 2013, whereas for Festuca pratensis it was due between 2011 and 2012. In the experimental plots with the varieties of Dactylis glomerata the grass was harvested six times a year and chemical analysis of the biomass was done taking dry matter only from five cuts. The varieties of Festuca pratensis were harvested four times. Each year in the course of the experiment fresh and dry matter of each cut were weighed. The grass species and their varieties as well as the particular mowing and kind of soil where the grass was grown have an impact on the yield. On mineral soil the yield of Dactylis glomerata was higher than Festuca pratensis. On organic soil the yield of both species was similar. During the two years of experiment the highest yield among Festuca pratensis varieties was noted for Amelka whereas among varieties of Dactylis glomerata the yield was similar and differences were not statistically significant.

  18. Performance and Physiology of Steers Grazing Toxic Tall Fescue as Influenced by Concentrate Feeding and Steroidal Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fescue toxicosis has a negative impact on animal performance and physiology, but concentrate feeding and ear implantation with steroid hormones could mitigate problems in grazing yearling cattle on toxic tall fescue. Sixty-four steers were grazed on endophyte-infected (E+) ‘KY-31’ tall fescue for 7...

  19. Comparative transcriptome analysis within the Lolium/Festuca species complex reveals high sequence conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czaban, Adrian; Sharma, Sapna; Byrne, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    -Festuca complex show very diverse phenotypes, including for many agronomically important traits. Analysis of sequenced transcriptomes of these non-model species may shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotypic diversity. Results We have generated de novo transcriptome assemblies for four...... clusters for the four species using OrthoMCL and analyzed their inferred phylogenetic relationships. Our results indicate that VRN2 is a candidate gene for differentiating vernalization and non-vernalization types in the Lolium-Festuca complex. Grouping of the gene families based on their BLAST identity...

  20. Tall fescue endophyte effects on tolerance to water-deficit stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand more about the enhanced drought tolerance conferred by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum in tall fescue, we analyzed the effect of the endophyte on genetically identical tall fescue clones with (E+) and without the endophyte (E-), by generating E- plants through fungicide trea...

  1. Influence of protein supplementation and implant status on alleviating fescue toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, G E; Piper, E L; Miesner, C R

    2001-04-01

    Heat stress is a major problem in transporting stocker calves with symptoms of fescue toxicosis. Removing calves from tall fescue pastures and offering diets devoid of endophyte-infected tall fescue could reduce the severity of toxicosis and precondition calves for transport to the feedlot. In the present experiment, a pasture phase was used to condition yearling steers to grazing tall fescue and induce symptoms of fescue toxicosis, and a pen phase followed to determine effects of implanting at the start of grazing and protein supplementation (hay only vs hay plus supplement) on short-term changes in rectal temperature and serum prolactin concentration. Neither implant status nor protein supplementation affected (P > 0.10) white blood cell count or rectal temperature. White blood cell counts at the conclusion of the pasture phase averaged 8,778 cells/microL and were within a range indicating no immunological response. Changes in rectal temperature and serum prolactin concentration during the pen phase were not influenced (P > 0.10) by implanting or supplementation. Initial rectal temperatures for the pen phase were high (39.9 degrees C) but declined linearly (P calves from tall fescue pastures and excluding dietary tall fescue for 3 to 4 d may alleviate symptoms of fescue toxicosis.

  2. Genome-Wide Analysis of Codon Usage Bias in Epichloë festucae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhang Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of codon usage data has both practical and theoretical applications in understanding the basics of molecular biology. Differences in codon usage patterns among genes reflect variations in local base compositional biases and the intensity of natural selection. Recently, there have been several reports related to codon usage in fungi, but little is known about codon usage bias in Epichloë endophytes. The present study aimed to assess codon usage patterns and biases in 4870 sequences from Epichloë festucae, which may be helpful in revealing the constraint factors such as mutation or selection pressure and improving the bioreactor on the cloning, expression, and characterization of some special genes. The GC content with 56.41% is higher than the AT content (43.59% in E. festucae. The results of neutrality and effective number of codons plot analyses showed that both mutational bias and natural selection play roles in shaping codon usage in this species. We found that gene length is strongly correlated with codon usage and may contribute to the codon usage patterns observed in genes. Nucleotide composition and gene expression levels also shape codon usage bias in E. festucae. E. festucae exhibits codon usage bias based on the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU values of 61 sense codons, with 25 codons showing an RSCU larger than 1. In addition, we identified 27 optimal codons that end in a G or C.

  3. Seed transfer zones for a native grass Festuca roemeri: genecological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Wilson; Dale C. Darris; Rob Fiegener; Randy Johnson; Matthew E. Horning; Keli Kuykendall

    2008-01-01

    A common-garden study of Festuca roemeri (Pavlick) E. B. Alexeev (Poaceae) revealed substantial genetic variation within and among 47 populations from throughout its range in the Pacific Northwest, USA, for growth, fitness, phenological, and morphological traits. Using climatic and physiographic variables, genetic patterns over the landscape were...

  4. Studies upon morhological and biological traits of Festuca rubra, subsp.fallax (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Sawicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Observation and measurements of some traits of Festuca rubra L., subsp. fallax (Thuill. Hack. ecotypes were made in 1995-1997 using samples selected from natural habitats and collected in Grassland Experimental Station in Sosnowica. High differentiation of traits under study and their correlations were found. Valorized ecotypes are good material for new varieties breeding.

  5. Het Festuca ovina-complex in Nederland. 2. F. lemanii Bast. en F. brevipila Tracey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, Rense

    2005-01-01

    In de Nederlandse flora’s worden de grofbladige schapengrassen met lange naalden samengevat onder Festuca cinerea Vill. Dit taxon blijkt echter een klein areaal te hebben dat beperkt is tot Zuidoost-Frankrijk. Andere namen die in de literatuur worden genoemd voor deze grofbladige schapengrassen in

  6. Het Festuca ovina-complex in Nederland. 2. F. lemanii Bast. en F. brevipila Tracey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, Rense

    2005-01-01

    In de Nederlandse flora’s worden de grofbladige schapengrassen met lange naalden samengevat onder Festuca cinerea Vill. Dit taxon blijkt echter een klein areaal te hebben dat beperkt is tot Zuidoost-Frankrijk. Andere namen die in de literatuur worden genoemd voor deze grofbladige schapengrassen in N

  7. A study on allelopathic potential of white clover and tall fescue on seedling of radish%白三叶和高羊茅不同品种对萝卜幼苗的化感作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱旺生; 沈益新

    2004-01-01

    用白三叶(Trifolium repens)和高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea)的水浸提液进行萝卜(Raphanus sativus)种子发芽和幼苗生长试验, 比较了白三叶和高羊茅种间及白三叶海发(Haifa)、铺地(Persistent)、威亚(Huia)、瑞文德(Rivendai)4个品种和高羊茅威加斯(Vegas)、法恩(Fawn)、巴比伦(Babilan)3个品种间的化感作用差异,并初步探讨了白三叶和高羊茅对萝卜幼苗生长的化感抑制机制.结果表明,所用品种的水浸提液对萝卜种子的发芽率、幼苗生长均有明显的抑制作用;白三叶的抑制作用大于高羊茅,且品种间存在显著差异.化感物质进一步的试验表明,白三叶和高羊茅释放的酚类能显著抑制萝卜幼苗细胞的生长.

  8. Las especies del género festuca (poaceae en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stancík

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el primer estudio taxonómico del género Festuca para Colombia, el cual se encuentra representado por 31 especies nativas y 2 especies introducidas. Se describen 12 especies y 1 subespecie nuevas para la ciencia (F. boyacensis, F. chita, F. chitagana, F. cocuyana, F. hatico, F. monguensis, F. nereidaensis, F. pilar-franceii, F. sumapana, F. toca, F. venezuelana y F. woodii. Se incluyen descripciones e ilustraciones de todas las especies, aportándose datos sobre su ecología y distribución geográfica y una clave para facilitar la determinación de todas las especies de Festuca en Colombia

  9. Protective roles of nitric oxide on antioxidant systems in tall fescue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-18

    Jan 18, 2010 ... Key words: Antioxidant, high-light stress, nitric oxide, tall fescue. INTRODUCTION ... effective molecular reaction or indirect effect of changing potential ... regime of 14/10 h and a photosynthetic photo flux density (PPFD).

  10. Fungal endophyte infection increases carbon sequestration potential of southeastern USA tall fescue stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceous (Schreb.)) is often infected with a common toxic fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) capable of producing alkaloids that affect grazing animal health, insect herbivory, plant production, and litter decomposition. The strength of these endophyte-associa...

  11. INVESTMENT ANALYSIS OF REPLACING ENDOPHYTE-INFECTED WITH ENDOPHYTE-FREE TALL FESCUE PASTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Marchant, Mary A.; Murrell, Courtney Paige; Zhuang, Jun

    2004-01-01

    Cattle consuming tall fescue pastures infected with the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum often suffer physiological disorders that reduce animal performance. One solution is to replace endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures with an endophyte-free mixture. A benefit-cost analysis was conducted to determine the profitability of pasture restoration. The profitability of this action depends on the percentage of endophyte in existing pastures, the discount rate, and the stand life of the endop...

  12. Tall fescue endophyte effects on tolerance to water-deficit stress

    OpenAIRE

    Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Dinkins, Randy D; Wood, Constance L; Bacon, Charles W.; Schardl, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The endophytic fungus, Neotyphodium coenophialum, can enhance drought tolerance of its host grass, tall fescue. To investigate endophyte effects on plant responses to acute water deficit stress, we did comprehensive profiling of plant metabolite levels in both shoot and root tissues of genetically identical clone pairs of tall fescue with endophyte (E+) and without endophyte (E-) in response to direct water deficit stress. The E- clones were generated by treating E+ plants with fun...

  13. Functional characterization of salicylate hydroxylase from the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Karen V; Tian, Zipeng; Wang, Yifei; Smith, Jordan; Zylstra, Gerben; Huang, Bingru; Belanger, Faith C

    2015-06-09

    Epichloë spp. are symbiotic fungal endophytes of many cool season grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes often confers insect, drought, and disease tolerance to the host grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes within the host plants does not elicit host defense responses. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is not known. Epichloë festucae, the endophyte of Festuca rubra, expresses a salicylate hydroxylase similar to NahG from the bacterium Pseudomonas putida. Few fungal salicylate hydroxylase enzymes have been reported. The in planta expression of an endophyte salicylate hydroxylase raised the possibility that degradation of plant-produced salicylic acid is a factor in the mechanism of how the endophyte avoids eliciting host plant defenses. Here we report the characterization of the E. festucae salicylate hydroxylase, designated Efe-shyA. Although the fungal enzyme has the expected activity, based on salicylic acid levels in endophyte-free and endophyte-infected plants it is unlikely that expression of the endophyte salicylate hydroxylase is a factor in the lack of a host defense response to the presence of the fungal endophyte.

  14. Influence of the soil Ca on the tolerance of Festuca rubra populations against toxic metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karataglis, S.S.

    1981-02-15

    Festuca rubra populations from toxic or non-toxic areas were studied. Their tolerance against the soil content in toxic metals and in combination with the Ca content was also correlated. It was demonstrated that the Festuca rubra populations developed in an environment with high concentrations of toxic metals and with high concentrations of Ca at the same time, showed very little or almost no tolerance against these metals. On the contrary, populations from other mines with normal Ca concentrations in their soil indicated increased tolerance against the toxic metals found in it. This behaviour expressed by the Festuca rubra populations of the Ecton mine is probably due to the high Ca concentration found in the soil in the form of CaCO/sub 2/. CaCO/sub 3/ along with the heavy metals has the ability to form undissolved or not easily dissolved carbonate salts. As a result there are no free ions of toxic metals in the immediate environment of the root and consequently the plants cannot be selected against these metals.

  15. Forages and pastures symposium: managing the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis for optimum forage-animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, G E; Strickland, J R

    2013-05-01

    Alkaloids produced by the fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a paradox to cattle production. Although certain alkaloids impart tall fescue with tolerances to environmental stresses, such as moisture, heat, and herbivory, ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte can induce fescue toxicosis, a malady that adversely affects animal production and physiology. Hardiness and persistence of tall fescue under limited management can be attributed to the endophyte, but the trade-off is reduced cattle production from consumption of ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte. Improved understanding and knowledge of this endophyte-grass complex has facilitated development of technologies and management systems that can either mitigate or completely alleviate fescue toxicosis. This review discusses the research results that have led to development of 5 management approaches to either reduce the severity of fescue toxicosis or alleviate it altogether. Three approaches manipulate the endophyte-tall fescue complex to reduce or alleviate ergot alkaloids: 1) use of heavy grazing intensities, 2) replacing the toxic endophyte with nonergot alkaloid-producing endophytes, and 3) chemical suppression of seed head emergence. The remaining 2 management options do not affect ergot alkaloid concentrations in fescue tissues but are used 1) to avoid grazing of tall fescue with increased ergot alkaloid concentrations in the late spring and summer by moving cattle to warm-season grass pasture and 2) to dilute dietary alkaloids by interseeding clovers or feeding supplements.

  16. Plasticity of nitrogen allocation in the leaves of the invasive wetland grass, Phalaris arundinacea and co-occurring Carex species determines the photosynthetic sensitivity to nitrogen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holaday, A Scott; Schwilk, Dylan W; Waring, Elizabeth F; Guvvala, Hasitha; Griffin, Chelsea M; Lewis, O Milo

    2015-04-01

    Phalaris arundinacea displaces the slower-growing, native sedge, Carex stricta, where nitrogen availability is high. Our aim was to address whether morphological and physiological traits associated with carbon gain for P. arundinacea and C. stricta responded to nitrogen supply differently and if the species exhibited different degrees of plasticity in these traits. The plants were grown in gravel and provided modified Hoagland's solution containing four nitrogen concentrations from 0.15 to 15 mM for 6 to 7 weeks. Supplied nitrogen affected the leaf nitrogen content to the same degree for both species. Increasing supplied nitrogen strongly increased CO2 assimilation (A), photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE), and respiration for P. arundinacea but had only a small effect on these parameters for C. stricta. Relative to growth at 15 mM nitrogen, growth at 0.15 mM for young leaves decreased carboxylation capacity and efficiency and the capacity for electron transport for P. arundinacea and a larger, stouter Carex species, Carex lacustris, by 53 to 70% but only 20 to 24% for C. stricta. Leaf nitrogen decreased approximately 50% for all species, but vacuolar nitrate did not decrease for P. arundinacea and C. stricta, suggesting that it does not serve as a nitrogen reserve for use during nitrogen deprivation in these species. After 4 months of nitrogen deprivation, P. arundinacea doubled A in 12 days after being supplied 15 mM nitrogen, whereas A for C. stricta increased only 22%. We propose that one factor linking P. arundinacea abundance to nitrogen availability involves this species' plastic response of carbon gain to nitrogen supply. C. stricta appears to be adapted to tolerate low nitrogen availability but cannot respond as rapidly and extensively as P. arundinacea when nitrogen supply is high.

  17. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell eBush

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  18. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F; Klotz, J; Bush, Lowell

    2014-01-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W × L × D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  19. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Lowell

    2014-12-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v) and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  20. The Effect of Three Fescue Types and Lakota Prairie Grass on Copper Status, Dry Matter Intake, and Alkaloid Appearance of Beef Steers

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort.] is an important forage crop in the United States and covers over 14 million ha. The presence of Neotyphodium coenophialum, an endophytic fungus in tall fescue, is associated with several disorders in grazing livestock, but also increased persistence of tall fescue. These disorders, commonly called fescue toxicosis, are responsible for large economic losses in the beef cattle industry each year. This research examined the effect of t...

  1. Allocating forage to fall-calving cow-calf pairs strip-grazing stockpiled tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, L E; Kallenbach, R L; Roberts, C A

    2008-03-01

    In a 2-yr study, we evaluated the effect of different forage allocations on the performance of lactating beef cows and their calves grazing stockpiled tall fescue. Allocations of stockpiled tall fescue at 2.25, 3.00, 3.75, and 4.50% of cow-calf pair BW/d were set as experimental treatments. Conventional hay-feeding was also evaluated as a comparison to grazing stockpiled tall fescue. The experiment had a randomized complete block design with 3 replications and was divided into 3 phases each year. From early December to late February (phase 1) of each year, cows and calves grazed stockpiled tall fescue or were fed hay in the treatments described above. Immediately after phase 1, cows and calves were commingled and managed as a single group until weaning in April (phase 2) so that residual effects could be documented. Residual effects on cows were measured after the calves were weaned in April until mid-July (phase 3). During phase 1 of both years, apparent DMI of cow-calf pairs allocated stockpiled tall fescue at 4.50% of BW/d was 31% greater (P calf BW/d, pasture utilization fell (P 0.40). Calf ADG in phase 1 increased linearly (P calf gain per hectare decreased linearly (P calf pairs allocated stockpiled tall fescue at 4.50% BW/d was nearly 40% less (P calf pairs stockpiled tall fescue at 2.25% of BW/d likely optimizes its use; because cow body condition is easily regained in the subsequent spring and summer months, less forage is used during winter, and calf gain per hectare is maximized.

  2. Estimation of photosynthetic pigment of Festuca arundinacea using hyper-spectral data%利用高光谱数据快速估算高羊茅牧草光合色素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱育蓉; 杨峰; 李建龙; 干晓宇; 杨齐; 王卫源

    2009-01-01

    光合色素是植物体进行初级生产的重要物质, 能够间接反映植被的健康状况与光合能力,同时,高光谱遥感为快速、大面积监测植被的色素变化提供了可能.本研究以高羊茅牧草为材料,实测了高羊茅冠层的高光谱反射率与光合色素含量数据, 对二者进行了相关分析,从5大类12个高光谱特征变量{Rg、R710、Dλr、Dλ700、D[log(1/λi)]、Sg、RVIa、RVIb、PSSR、PSND、Rch、CARI}中挑选了光合色素敏感参数,建立了植被指数光合色素估算模型.结果表明,光合色素叶绿素a、叶绿素b、总叶绿素和类胡萝卜素与原始光谱进行相关性比较分析时,叶绿素b效果最好;原始光谱、光谱一阶导和倒数对数一阶导3种光谱形式与光合色素进行比较分析时,光谱一阶导在700 nm附近与光合色素相关性最好,相关系数为-0.897;通过12个高光谱特征变量与光合色素相关性比较,选择达到极显著水平的6个变量:Rg、Dλ700、D[log(1/R730)]、RVIb、Rch、CARI进行光合色素含量的回归模型建立,这为利用物理方法快速、无损伤探测高羊茅牧草的营养状况及牧草质量提供了理论支持.

  3. Festuca paniculata (L. Schinz & Thell. subsp. paui, nuevo taxon para la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebolla, Consuelo

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available A new subspecies, Festuca paniculata (L. Schinz & Thell. subsp. paui Cebolla & Rivas Ponce (Poaceae is described.

    Se describe una subespecie nueva, Festuca paniculata (L. Schinz & Thell. subsp. paui Cebolla & Rivas Ponce (Poaceae.

  4. Performance and Physiology of Yearling Steers Grazing Toxic Tall Fescue as Influenced by Feeding Soybean Hulls and Steroidal Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    An endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infests tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) produces ergot alkaloids that adversely affect performance and physiology of cattle to inflict a malady collectively termed ‘fescue toxicosis’. A two-yr grazing experiment was conducted with yearling steers graz...

  5. Alterations in serotonin receptor-induced contractility of bovine lateral saphenous vein in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a large 2-year study documenting the physiologic impact of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue on growing cattle, 2 experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate the effects of grazing 2 levels of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on vascular contractility and ser...

  6. Update On The Development Of DArT Markers And 454-Sequencing In Festuca/Lolium And Phleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandve, Simen R; Bartos, Jan; Kopecky, David;

    Development of genomic resources in perennial grasses for high-throughput applications in genomic research and plant breeding has lagged behind most other crops. The predicted climate changes create novel patterns of biotic and abiotic stresses. Efficient characterization and utilization of genetic...... resources for developing improved cultivars adapted to the future climates depend on modern genomic resources. We will describe our recent activity in developing genomic resources for Festuca/Lolium and Phleum. These resources include the development and mapping of DArT-markers in Festuca pratensis......, application of the DArTFest array in studying freezing tolerance in Festulolium, high-throughput EST sequencing (454-sequencing) targeting cold regulated genes in Festuca and Phleum, and the development of genic SNP markers for these species....

  7. Seasonal Change of Loline Alkaloids in Endophyte-lnfected Meadow Fescue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG De-wen; WANG Jin-yi; Brain Patchett; Ravi Gooneratne

    2006-01-01

    Lolines are a group of saturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids that possess broad bioactivity against a wide array of herbivorous insects. However, they do not exhibit toxicity to ruminants such as cattle and sheep. In order to study the direct and potential physiological effects on ruminants and the mechanism of insecticide/insectifuge, the distribution of loline alkaloids in endophyte-infected meadow fescue and the seasonal change of the distribution were analyzed. The crowns,roots and leaves of endophyte-infected meadow fescue at its four different growth periods, i.e., spring, summer, early autumn and late autumn, in New Zealand were colleted. After powdering, organic solvent extraction and purification by column chromatography, all loline alkaloid samples were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with 4-phenylmorpholine (PM) as an internal standard. The analytic results showed that the loline contents in the roots, crowns and leaves of endophyte-infected meadow fescue vary with seasons. Even within the same season, the distribution of lolines in endophyte-infected meadow fescue varies. During summer, lolines mainly existed in the leaves and roots, but in early autumn, they are produced in the crowns. It was concluded that, lolines were mainly produced in the leaves and roots of endophyte-infected meadow fescue. In gas chromatographic analysis, N-formylloline, the major component of loline alkaloid in the plant, was employed to assay the alkaloids.

  8. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Lynne Mcculley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue’s ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines and mammals (ergots; which can cause ‘fescue toxicosis’ in grazing animals. The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3oC and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean from 2009 – 2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30-40% in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may

  9. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcculley, Rebecca; Bush, Lowell; Carlisle, Anna; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim

    2014-10-01

    Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue’s ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause ‘fescue toxicosis’ in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3oC) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009 - 2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30-40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue

  10. Mineral Fertilization with UAN on Natural Grassland Festuca rubra L. with Agrostis capillaries L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Rotar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An important part of efficient livestock production is ensuring the sufficient grass for hay and pasture. However, low soil nutrient levels often limit forage production. With good fertilizer management and soil fertility, the productivity of many hay and pasture fields can be greatly improved. Through good fertilizer management, the productivity of many hay and pasture fields can be significantly improved by Ross H. McKenzie (2005. The aim of this paper was the effect of fertilization with liquid fertilizer (UAN the harvest of dry and floristic composition changing on natural grassland. The experiment whose results we present was placed in 2014 in the place in Baisoara Mountain village, Cluj County. Experience has been placed on the Festuca rubra and Agrostis capillaries - of grassland type. The natural grassland of Festuca rubra with Agrostis capillaries responded very well to mineral fertilizers with liquid fertilizer UAN. The floristic composition of natural grassland fertilized with liquid fertilizers based on nitrogen, it can be seen an increase the Gramineae families and an evidence downward trend from Fabaceae families.

  11. Postgraze assessment of toxicosis symptoms for steers grazed on toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, G E; Klotz, J L; Johnson, J M; Strickland, J R; Schrick, F N

    2013-12-01

    A 2-yr pen experiment was conducted using 12 different crossbred Angus steers each year to determine if short-term changes in prolactin concentrations, body temperature, and vasoconstriction reflect recovery from fescue toxicosis after steers that previously grazed toxic endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected Kentucky 31 tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] are placed on nontoxic feed. Groups of 6 steers from toxic endophyte-infected and endophyte-free tall fescue grazing treatments were blocked by BW for assignment to pens as a randomized complete block design with 2 replications. Two environments were implemented by initiating the experiment on 18 August in yr 1 and on 8 September in yr 2 for durations of 30 and 21 d, respectively. Rectal temperatures were recorded, jugular blood was collected for assaying serum prolactin, and cross sections of the caudal artery were ultrasonically imaged at selected time points to evaluate temporal changes in the response variables. Rectal temperatures in steers on the toxic endophyte pasture treatment declined (P 0.10) to those on endophyte-free treatment on d 30 in yr 1 and by d 15 in yr 2. Prolactin concentrations in steers on the toxic endophyte pasture treatment showed curvilinear increases (P 0.10) to steers on the endophyte-free treatment by d 15 in yr 1 and by d 10 in yr 2. Luminal areas of the caudal artery in toxic endophyte steers were less (P endophyte-free steers across all dates in both years. Results indicated that rectal temperatures in steers after they are removed from toxic fescue may decrease over time, but temporal changes in rectal temperatures could be affected more by prevailing ambient temperatures than by actual mitigation of fescue toxicosis. Prolactin concentrations in steers after they are removed from toxic endophyte tall fescue can increase and stabilize in less than 2 wk, but alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction that causes a vulnerability to severe heat stress is not

  12. Does fungal endophyte infection improve tall fescue's growth response to fire and water limitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Hall

    Full Text Available Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue's ability to form a symbiosis with Neotyphodium coenophialum, an aboveground fungal endophyte, may enhance its environmental stress tolerance and persistence in these environments. We used a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of endophyte infection (E+ vs. E-, prescribed fire (1 burn vs. 2 burn vs. unburned control, and watering regime (dry vs. wet on tall fescue growth. We assessed treatment effects for growth rates and the following response variables: total tiller length, number of tillers recruited during the experiment, number of reproductive tillers, tiller biomass, root biomass, and total biomass. Water regime significantly affected all response variables, with less growth and lower growth rates observed under the dry water regime compared to the wet. The burn treatments significantly affected total tiller length, number of reproductive tillers, total tiller biomass, and total biomass, but treatment differences were not consistent across parameters. Overall, fire seemed to enhance growth. Endophyte status significantly affected total tiller length and tiller biomass, but the effect was opposite what we predicted (E->E+. The results from our experiment indicated that tall fescue was relatively tolerant of fire, even when combined with dry conditions, and that the fungal endophyte symbiosis was not important in governing this ecological ability. The persistence of tall fescue in native grassland ecosystems may be linked to other endophyte-conferred abilities not measured here

  13. Does fungal endophyte infection improve tall fescue's growth response to fire and water limitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah L; McCulley, Rebecca L; Barney, Robert J; Phillips, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue's ability to form a symbiosis with Neotyphodium coenophialum, an aboveground fungal endophyte, may enhance its environmental stress tolerance and persistence in these environments. We used a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of endophyte infection (E+ vs. E-), prescribed fire (1 burn vs. 2 burn vs. unburned control), and watering regime (dry vs. wet) on tall fescue growth. We assessed treatment effects for growth rates and the following response variables: total tiller length, number of tillers recruited during the experiment, number of reproductive tillers, tiller biomass, root biomass, and total biomass. Water regime significantly affected all response variables, with less growth and lower growth rates observed under the dry water regime compared to the wet. The burn treatments significantly affected total tiller length, number of reproductive tillers, total tiller biomass, and total biomass, but treatment differences were not consistent across parameters. Overall, fire seemed to enhance growth. Endophyte status significantly affected total tiller length and tiller biomass, but the effect was opposite what we predicted (E->E+). The results from our experiment indicated that tall fescue was relatively tolerant of fire, even when combined with dry conditions, and that the fungal endophyte symbiosis was not important in governing this ecological ability. The persistence of tall fescue in native grassland ecosystems may be linked to other endophyte-conferred abilities not measured here (e

  14. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Tall Fescue Transcriptome under Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Talukder

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Water stress is a fundamental problem for tall fescue [ (Schreb. Darbysh.] cultivation in the south–central United States. Genetic improvement of tall fescue for water-stress tolerance is the key strategy for improving its persistence in the region. Genotypes with contrasting characteristics for relative water content and osmotic potential were identified from a tall fescue population. Transcriptome profiling between water-stress-tolerant (B400 and water-stress-susceptible (W279 genotypes was performed to unravel the genetic regulatory mechanism of water-stress responses in tall fescue. RNA samples from leaf, shoot, root, and inflorescence were pooled and sequenced through Illumina paired-end sequencing. A total of 199,399 contigs were assembled with an average length of 585 bp. Between the two genotypes, 2986 reference transcripts (RTs were significantly differentially expressed and 1048 of them could be annotated and found to associate with metabolic pathways and enzyme coding genes. In total, 175 differentially expressed RTs were reported for various stress-related functions. Among those, 65 encoded kinase proteins, 40 each encoded transposons, and transporter proteins were previously reported to be involved with abiotic stress responses. A total of 6348 simple sequence repeats and 6658 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the contig sequences. Primers were developed from the corresponding sequences, which might be used as candidate gene markers in tall fescue. This study will lead to identification of genes or transcription factors related to water-stress tolerance and development of a comprehensive molecular marker system to facilitate marker-assisted breeding in tall fescue.

  15. Estrogenic activity of a hydro-alcoholic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae leaves on female wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talha Jawaid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the estrogenic activity of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae leaves (HEBA in female Wistar rats. The dried powdered leaves were extracted with hydroalcoholic mixture (60%, and the resultant extract was subjected for phytochemical analyses to identify different phytoconstituents. HEBA were administered to ovariectomized rats for 7 days at three different doses (viz., 200, 300, 400 mg/kg body weight, p.o. and their estrogenic activity were compared with each of daily treatment with 0.2 mg/kg body weight, i.p. conjugated equine estrogen as a positive control or olive oil as a negative control. Estrogenic activity was evaluated by doing uterotropic assay, vaginal cytology and measurement of vaginal opening in female Wistar rats. Oral administration of HEBA in ovariectomized immature and mature female Wistar rats in a dose of 400 mg/kg b.w. resulted in significant increase in the uterine wet weight (in mg (224.82 ± 7.01 and (912.25 ± 27.22 when compared with ovariectomized control rats (111.52 ± 3.17 and (506.67 ± 21.39. HEBA (400 mg/kg b.w., p.o. treated rats, showing only cornified epithelial cells which was an indication of the presence of the estrogen and also showed 100% vaginal opening. It was observed that HEBA possess significant estrogenic activity at 400 mg/kg b.w., p.o. which was evident by uterotropic assay, measurement of vaginal opening, and histopathological changes.

  16. Polycross populations of the native grass Festuca roemeri as pre-varietal germplasm: their derivation, release, increase, and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale C. Darris; Barbara L. Wilson; Rob Fiegener; Randy Johnson; Matthew E. Horning

    2008-01-01

    Results of a recent common-garden study provide evidence needed to delineate appropriate seed transfer zones for the native grass Festuca roemeri (Pavlick) E. B. Alexeev (Poaceae). That information has been used to develop pre-variety germplasm releases to provide ecologically and genetically appropriate seeds for habitat restoration, erosion...

  17. A spectroscopy approach to the study of virus infection in the endophytic fungus Epichloë festucae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez-de-Aldana Beatriz R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this work we propose a rapid method based on visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR spectroscopy to determine the occurrence of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA viruses in Epichloë festucae strains isolated from Festuca rubra plants. In addition, we examined the incidence of infections by E. festucae in populations of F. rubra collected in natural grasslands of Western Spain. Methods Vis-NIR spectra (400-2498 nm from 124 virus-infected and virus-free E. festucae isolates were recorded directly from ground and freeze-dried mycelium. To estimate how well the spectra for uninfected and infected fungal samples could be differentiated, we used partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS1-DA and several data pre-treatments to develop calibration models. Results Applying the best regression model, obtained with two sampling years and using standard normal variate (SNV combined with first derivative transformation to a new validating data set (42 samples, we obtained a correct classification for 75% of the uninfected isolates and up to 86% of the infected isolates. Conclusions The results obtained suggest that Vis-NIR spectroscopy is a promising technology for detection of viral infections in fungal samples when an alternative faster approach is desirable. It provides a tool adequately exact and more time- and cost-saving than the conventional reference analysis.

  18. Development and mapping of DArT markers within the Festuca - Lolium complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopecký, David; Bartos, Jan; Lukaszewski, Adam J

    2009-01-01

    Background Grasses are among the most important and widely cultivated plants on Earth. They provide high quality fodder for livestock, are used for turf and amenity purposes, and play a fundamental role in environment protection. Among cultivated grasses, species within the Festuca-Lolium complex...

  19. From the Lab Bench: Soy Hulls: A Special Feed for Cattle on Toxic Endophyte Fescue Pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy hulls have a nutritive value that is comparable to a moderate quality hay and is often fed as a hay substitute. However, based on results of published research we conducted, it may offer more than the typical hay if fed to cattle grazing toxic endophyte tall fescue. A grazing experiment was co...

  20. Ecophysiological responses of tall fescue genotypes to fungal endophyte infection and elevated temperature and precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) can form a symbiosis with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala, whose presence can benefit the plant, depending on plant and fungal genetics and prevailing environmental conditions. Despite this symbiosis having agricultural, economic and ecological impor...

  1. Vasoactivity and vasoconstriction changes in cattle related to time off toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has indicated that serotonergic and a-adrenergic receptors in peripheral vasculature are affected by exposure of cattle grazing toxic endophyte-infected (E+; Epichlöe coenophialia) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). The objective of this experiment was to determine the period of ti...

  2. Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We hypothesized that consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period inhibits mammary differentiation and subsequent milk produ...

  3. Vasoconstriction in horses caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed is detected with Doppler ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hypotheses that endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue (TF) seed causes vasoconstriction in horses in vivo and that ground seed would cause more pronounced vasoconstriction than whole seed were tested. Ten horses each received 1 of 3 treatments: endophyte-free ground (E–G; n ...

  4. Alteration of fasting heat production during fescue toxicosis in Holstein steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to examine alteration of fasting heat production (FHP) during fescue toxicosis. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (BW=348 ±13 kg) were weight-matched into pairs and utilized in a two period crossover design experiment. Each period consisted of two temperature segments,...

  5. Effect of grazing seedhead-suppressed tall fescue pasture on the vasoactivity of serotonin receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to ergot alkaloids reduces vasoactivity of serotonin (5HT) receptors. Chemical suppression of tall fescue seedhead production is a tool to reduce the level of exposure to ergot alkaloids by a grazing animal. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate co...

  6. Tennessee Report (Annual Report to SERA-IEG8 Tall Fescue Toxicosis/Endophyte Workshop)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of updates on research projects conducted within Tennessee concerning tall fescue (Lolium arundinacium) and its symbiotic endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) were presented at the annual SERA-IEG 8 workshop including one with Forage-Animal Production Research Unit scientist collaborations...

  7. Kentucky Report (Annual Report to SERA-IEG8 Tall Fescue Toxicosis/Endophyte Workshop)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of updates on research projects conducted within Kentucky concerning tall fescue (Lolium arundinacium) and its symbiotic endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) were presented at the annual SERA-IEG 8 workshop including a number with Forage-Animal Production Research Unit scientist collaborat...

  8. Seedling emergence of tall fescue and wheat grass under different climate conditions in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behtari, B.; Luis, M. de

    2012-11-01

    Seedling emergence is one of the most important processes determining yield and the probability of crop failure. The ability to predict seedling emergence could enhance crop management by facilitating the implementation of more effective weed control strategies by optimizing the timing of weed control. The objective of the study was to select a seedling emergence thermal time model by comparing five different equations for tall fescue and wheat grass in two sites with different climate conditions (semiarid-temperate and humid-warm) in Iran. In addition, seedling emergence between two target species were studied. Among the five models compared, the Gompertz and Weibull models gave more successful results. In humid-warm conditions, the total emergence of wheat grass was higher than observed in tall fescue. In contrast, emergence was faster in tall fescue than wheat grass in both study sites. Given that early-emerging plants have been described as contributing more to crop yield than later-emerging ones, tall fescue is proposed as a more suitable specie for semiarid- temperate conditions in Iran. (Author) 31 refs.

  9. An 11-year history of crop rotation into new perennial ryegrass and tall fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converting multi-year remote sensing classification data into crop rotations is beneficial by defining the length of crop rotation cycles and the specific sequences of intervening crops grown between the final year of a grass seed stand and establishment of new perennial ryegrass and tall fescue see...

  10. OCCURRENCE OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN SOILS FROM FESTUCA PRATENSIS HUDS. CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Kolczarek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic fungi are the largest group of microorganisms existing in the soil environment. Occurrence and pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi in soil is dependent on many factors affecting the soil environment. The aim of this study was to compare the species composition and the intensity of the occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in soils from monoculture crops of Festuca pratensis Huds. The study material consisted of soil samples taken from the experiment conducted in two experimental stations of the Research Centre for Cultivars Study. The insecticides fungi were isolated from soil using a method of the selective substrate. Three species of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae were isolated from the study soils using the selective medium.

  11. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingqi; McCulley, Rebecca L; McNear, David H

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)] is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce the mammal-toxic alkaloids but maintain abiotic and biotic stress tolerance benefits. Little attention has been given to the influence of the plant-fungal symbiosis on rhizosphere processes. Therefore, our objective was to study the influence of this relationship on plant biomass production and root exudate composition in tall fescue cultivars PDF and 97TF1, which were either not infected with the endophyte (E-), infected with the common toxic endophyte (CTE+) strain or with one of two novel endophytes (AR542E+, AR584E+). Plants were grown sterile for 3 weeks after which plant biomass, total organic carbon, total phenolic content and detailed chemical composition of root exudates were determined. Plant biomass production and exudate phenolic and organic carbon content were influenced by endophyte status, tall fescue cultivar, and their interaction. GC-TOF MS identified 132 compounds, including lipids, carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. Cluster analysis showed that the interaction between endophyte and cultivar resulted in unique exudate profiles. This is the first detailed study to assess how endophyte infection, notably with novel endophytes, and tall fescue cultivar interact to influence root exudate composition. Our results illustrate that tall fescue cultivar and endophyte status can influence plant growth and root exudate composition, which may help explain the observed influence of this symbiosis on rhizosphere biogeochemical processes.

  12. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqi eGuo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb. is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce the mammal-toxic alkaloids but maintain abiotic and biotic stress tolerance benefits. Little attention has been given to the influence of the plant-fungal symbiosis on rhizosphere processes. Therefore, our objective was to study the influence of this relationship on plant biomass production and root exudate composition in tall fescue cultivars PDF and 97TF1, which were either not infected with the endophyte (E-, infected with the common toxic endophyte (CTE+ strain or with one of two novel endophytes (AR542E+, AR584E+. Plants were grown sterile for three weeks after which plant biomass, total organic carbon, total phenolic content and detailed chemical composition of root exudates were determined. Plant biomass production and exudate phenolic and organic carbon content were influenced by endophyte status, tall fescue cultivar, and their interaction. GC-TOF MS identified 132 compounds, including lipids, carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. Cluster analysis showed that the interaction between endophyte and cultivar resulted in unique exudate profiles. This is the first detailed study to assess how endophyte infection, notably with novel endophytes, and tall fescue cultivar interact to influence root exudate composition. Our results illustrate that tall fescue cultivar and endophyte status can influence plant growth and root exudate composition, which may help explain the observed influence of this symbiosis on rhizosphere biogeochemical processes.

  13. 芘胁迫对5种羊茅属植物根系分泌的几类低分子量有机物的影响%Effects of Pyrene on Low Molecule Weight Organic Compounds in the Root Exudates of Five Species of Festuca

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘声旺; 袁馨; 刘灿; 李亚阑; 杨婷; 唐海云; 黄方玉

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an important measure to remove organic pollutants from contaminated soil, and the root secretion of plant is considered to be closely related to the mechanisms of phytoremediation of organic pollutants. It is in favor of revealing the mechanisms of remediation by studying the characteristics of root exudates of plants with phytoremediation potential under the stress of pollutants. In the present research, pyrene and five species of Festuca which have been testified to be tolerant to pyrene stress were selected as studied objects. A soil-cultivating experiment with rhizobag technique was conducted to investigate the effects of pyrene on low molecule weight organic compounds in the root exudates of plant species under five concentration levels of pyrene (10. 19, 20. 32, 40. 36, 79. 94, and 160. 68 mg•kg - 1 , denoted by C1, C2, C3, C4 and C5, respectively) on day 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 of experiments. The results showed that the presence of vegetation significantly enhanced the dissipation of pyrene in the soil environment. This effect was especially marked with Festuca arundinacea, followed by those with Festuca mazzetiana, Festuca pubiglumis, and Festuca longiglumis, and that with Festuca stapfii was the lowest. During the whole experiments, the amounts of soluble sugar excreted by the five species of Festuca tested in root exudates were promoted with pyrene stress, then fluctuated with a stable trend along with the increase of stress concentration or the extension of stress period, which appeared to rise appreciably at relative low pyrene spiked (C1-C3) or earlier stress stage (30-40 d) and reduce at relative high pyrene spiked level (C3-C5) or later stress stage (40-70 d), and the highest amount of soluble sugars in root exudates occurred on day 50 of experiments with 40. 36 mg•kg - 1 pyrene treatment. The greater the phytoremediation potential of the plant species tested, the more obvious this trend wads. Compared with the control

  14. THE EFFECT OF BIOSOLIDS ON MEDICAGO SATIVA AND FESTUCA ARUNDINACEEA PLANTS PHYTOREMEDIATION PROCESS OF WASTE DUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. LIXANDRU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The storage of waste dump gravely deteriorates the soil’s physical, chemical and biological properties, both in the storage area and the surrounding zones. In time, serious perturbations may occur in the biocenosis from the surrounding ecosystems, through the sweeping away of the inorganic matter or through precipitations. The main problem in this case is to find the most suitable phytoremediation method for these waste dumps, by sowing plant species (grasses, in order to stop the erosion generated by wind and rain. Establishing a herbaceous “carpet” , in time, is very difficult, because the waste dump contains no organic matter, has a weak water retaining capacity and has a high bareness index. The purpose of this study was the experimentation of a method of cultivating the waste dumps using alfalfa, fescue and biosolids as fertilizers.

  15. Characterization of Epichloë coenophiala within the U.S.: are all tall fescue endophytes created equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Carolyn; Charlton, Nikki; Takach, Johanna; Swoboda, Ginger; Trammell, Michael; Huhman, David; Hopkins, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is a valuable and broadly adapted forage grass that occupies approximately 14 million hectares across the United States. A native to Europe, tall fescue was likely introduced into the U.S. around the late 1800’s. Much of the success of tall fescue can be attributed to Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum) a seed borne symbiont that aids in host persistence. Epichloë species are capable of producing a range of alkaloids (ergot alkaloids, indole-diterpenes, lolines and peramine) that provide protection to the plant host from herbivory. Unfortunately, most tall fescue within the U.S., commonly referred to as KY31, harbors the endophyte E. coenophiala that causes toxicity to grazing livestock due to the production of ergot alkaloids. Molecular analyses of tall fescue endophytes have identified four independent associations, representing tall fescue with E. coenophiala, Epichloë sp. FaTG-2, Epichloë sp. FaTG-3 or Epichloë sp. FaTG-4. Each of these Epichloë species can be further distinguished based on genetic variation that equates to differences in the alkaloid gene loci. Tall fescue samples were evaluated using markers to SSR and alkaloid biosynthesis genes to determine endophyte strain variation present within continental U.S. Samples represented seed and tillers from the Suiter farm (Menifee County, KY), which is considered the originating site of KY31, as well as plant samples collected from 14 states, breeder’s seed and plant introduction lines (National Plant Germplasm System, NPGS). This study revealed two prominent E. coenophiala genotypes based on presence of alkaloid biosynthesis genes and SSR markers and provides insight into endophyte variation within continental U.S. across historical and current tall fescue samples.

  16. Effects of Tall Fescue and Its Fungal Endophyte on the Development and Survival of Tawny-Edged Skippers (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Karin J; Debinski, Diane M; Mcculley, Rebecca L

    2016-02-01

    Invasive, exotic grasses are increasing in tallgrass prairie and their dominance may be contributing to the decline of grassland butterflies through alterations in forage quality. Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort.), an exotic grass covering millions of acres in the United States, can host a fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala (Morgan-Jones & Gams). Alkaloids produced by the endophyte are known to be toxic to some foliar-feeding pest insects. Endophyte-infected tall fescue is commonly planted in hayfields, pastures, lawns, and is invading natural areas, but effects of the endophyte on nonpest insects such as butterflies are relatively unknown. Our objective was to investigate the role that tall fescue and its endophyte might play in the decline of grass skippers (Hesperiidae). We examined growth and survival parameters of tawny-edged skippers (Polites themistocles (Latreille)) that were reared on endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+), endophyte-free tall fescue (E-), and Kentucky bluegrass (KBG). KBG was included as a comparison because it is a cool season grass known to be palatable to P. themistocles larvae. Interestingly, results showed that the endophyte did not affect growth and survival of larvae compared to uninfected tall fescue, even though significant amounts of loline alkaloids (average 740 ppm) were measured in endophyte-infected plant material. Larvae feeding on KBG grew faster with greater survival rates than larvae on both tall fescue treatments. These results confirm that tall fescue invasion and dominance may be deteriorating the quality of grassland habitats for native pollinators; however, this effect does not appear to be linked to endophyte infection.

  17. Performance, forage utilization, and ergovaline consumption by beef cows grazing endophyte fungus-infected tall fescue, endophyte fungus-free tall fescue, or orchardgrass pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C W; Grigsby, K N; Aldrich, C G; Paterson, J A; Lipsey, R J; Kerley, M S; Garner, G B

    1992-05-01

    Two 120-d trials (May to September, 1988 and 1989) determined the effects of grazing tall fescue (two varieties) or orchardgrass on forage intake and performance by beef cows. Each summer, 48 cow-calf pairs grazed endophyte-infected Kentucky-31 tall fescue (KY-31), endophyte-free Mozark tall fescue (MOZARK), or Hallmark orchardgrass (OG) pastures (16 pairs/treatment). Forage OM intakes and digestibilities were determined during June and August each year. Cow and calf BW and milk production were determined every 28 d. During June of both years, OM intakes did not differ (P greater than .10) among treatments. During August of 1988, intakes were 18% lower (P less than .05) by KY-31 cows (1.6% of BW) than by MOZARK or OG cows (average 1.95% of BW); however, no differences (P greater than .10) were measured in August of 1989. Estimates of ergovaline consumption during June from KY-31 were between 4.2 (1988) and 6.0 mg/d (1989), whereas August estimates were between 1.1 (1988) and 2.8 mg/d (1989). Ergovaline in MOZARK estrusa was below detection limits, except in August of 1989. Cows that grazed KY-31 lost three times (P less than .01) more BW than cows that grazed MOZARK or OG (42 vs 9 and 13 kg, respectively). Milk production by KY-31 cows was 25% lower (P less than .01) than that by cows that grazed MOZARK or OG (6.0 vs average of 8.0 kg/d). Similarly, slower (P less than .01) calf gains were noted for KY-31 than for MOZARK or OG (.72 vs .89 and .88 kg/d, respectively). Cows grazing KY-31 experienced accelerated BW loss and reduced milk production and weaned lighter calves than did cows grazing MOZARK or OG. Decreased performance was not explained by consistently reduced forage intakes; hence, altered nutrient utilization was suspected.

  18. Alterations in hemograms and serum biochemical analytes of steers after prolonged consumption of endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J W; Schultze, A E; Rohrbach, B W; Fribourg, H A; Ingle, T; Waller, J C

    2000-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to delineate changes that occur in serum analytes and blood cellular elements in cattle that graze endophyte-infested (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue. Tall fescue is grown on more than 35 million acres (14.2 million ha) of pasture in the United States, and three-fourths of the pastures are infected with the endophyte at a 60% or greater level. Tall fescue toxicosis caused by endophyte-produced ergot alkaloids continues to be the most important grass-related disease in the United States, in terms of economic loss to animal producers. However, the agronomic attributes of tall fescue make it an attractive forage species because of its ability to withstand cool temperatures, drought, poor soil conditions, and intensive defoliation from herbivore species, including insects. Tall fescue toxicosis is a complex disease and the need exists to understand the mechanisms of the toxic effects in order to institute effective, prophylactic control measures. Our group previously reported changes that occur in serum biochemical analytes of cattle that graze endophyte-infected tall fescue. An additional year's worth of data have been added, strengthening and corroborating these data. Consistent and significant changes associated with tall fescue toxicosis during the 3-yr study included decreased serum concentrations of cholesterol, globulin (increased albumin/globulin ratio), prolactin, total protein, and copper. The activity of alanine aminotransferase was decreased in serum, whereas an increase in serum concentrations of creatinine and total bilirubin occurred. The present report also documents comparative hemograms of cattle that grazed endophyte-infected or endophyte-free tall fescue over a prolonged period. The mean erythrocyte counts were increased in cattle that grazed endophyte-infected tall fescue, whereas mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume were decreased, as were mean eosinophil counts. Thus, repeatable

  19. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Genetic resistance to the effects of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T; Cassady, J P

    2015-12-01

    Forages are the base source of nutrition for any cow-calf operation. Forage types vary based on soil type and climate. Tall fescue () is the most commonly used cultivated grass for grazing beef cattle in the United States. This cool-season perennial is easily established; is resistant to drought, insects, and nematodes; and has the ability to withstand heavy grazing pressure. Most tall fescue varieties are infected with the endophyte fungus () that is essential for the plant's survival but detrimental to cattle performance. Ergot alkaloids are the generally accepted toxic agents produced by the fescue endophyte. Cattle that consume forages infected with this endophyte can develop fescue foot, fat necrosis, or fescue toxicosis. It is estimated that the beef industry loses over US$500 million annually due to fescue toxicosis through heat stress, reduced weight gain, suppressed appetite, and decreased reproductive performance. Other symptoms include a retained or rough hair coat and increased body temperature, which can be detrimental when animals are located in hot and or humid environments. Different forages and forage systems, feed additives, and animal management strategies have been tested through the years allowing the use of tall fescue in beef production systems while minimizing the adverse effects. An animal genetics approach needs to identify and select animals less susceptible to the ergot alkaloids. Research in this area reports that different cattle within the same herd can respond differently when grazing tall fescue, and evidence exists that breed type may also play a role in genetic tolerance to the negative effects on performance. Some studies have looked at the potential of identifying genetic markers that may assist in the selection of more resistant animals. From these studies, there is evidence that genetic variation does exist for resistance to the ergot alkaloids present when grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue. Forage management coupled with

  20. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition

    OpenAIRE

    Jingqi eGuo; Rebecca Lynne McCulley; McNear, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)) is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce t...

  1. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jingqi; Rebecca L. McCulley; McNear, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)] is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce th...

  2. Redox regulation of an AP-1-like transcription factor, YapA, in the fungal symbiont Epichloe festucae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Gemma M; Scott, Barry

    2013-10-01

    One of the central regulators of oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is Yap1, a bZIP transcription factor of the AP-1 family. In unstressed cells, Yap1 is reduced and cytoplasmic, but in response to oxidative stress, it becomes oxidized and accumulates in the nucleus. To date, there have been no reports on the role of AP-1-like transcription factors in symbiotic fungi. An ortholog of Yap1, named YapA, was identified in the genome of the grass symbiont Epichloë festucae and shown to complement an S. cerevisiae Δyap1 mutant. Hyphae of the E. festucae ΔyapA strain were sensitive to menadione and diamide but resistant to H2O2, KO2, and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH). In contrast, conidia of the ΔyapA strain were very sensitive to H2O2 and failed to germinate. Using a PcatA-eGFP degron-tagged reporter, YapA was shown to be required for expression of a spore-specific catalase gene, catA. Although YapA-EGFP localized to the nucleus in response to host reactive oxygen species during seedling infection, there was no difference in whole-plant and cellular phenotypes of plants infected with the ΔyapA strain compared to the wild-type strain. Homologs of the S. cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe redox-sensing proteins (Gpx3 and Tpx1, respectively) did not act as redox sensors for YapA in E. festucae. In response to oxidative stress, YapA-EGFP localized to the nuclei of E. festucae ΔgpxC, ΔtpxA, and ΔgpxC ΔtpxA cells to the same degree as that in wild-type cells. These results show that E. festucae has a robust system for countering oxidative stress in culture and in planta but that Gpx3- or Tpx1-like thiol peroxidases are dispensable for activation of YapA.

  3. Tall fescue endophyte effects on tolerance to water-deficit stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The endophytic fungus, Neotyphodium coenophialum, can enhance drought tolerance of its host grass, tall fescue. To investigate endophyte effects on plant responses to acute water deficit stress, we did comprehensive profiling of plant metabolite levels in both shoot and root tissues of genetically identical clone pairs of tall fescue with endophyte (E+) and without endophyte (E-) in response to direct water deficit stress. The E- clones were generated by treating E+ plants with fungicide and selectively propagating single tillers. In time course studies on the E+ and E- clones, water was withheld from 0 to 5 days, during which levels of free sugars, sugar alcohols, and amino acids were determined, as were levels of some major fungal metabolites. Results After 2–3 days of withholding water, survival and tillering of re-watered plants was significantly greater for E+ than E- clones. Within two to three days of withholding water, significant endophyte effects on metabolites manifested as higher levels of free glucose, fructose, trehalose, sugar alcohols, proline and glutamic acid in shoots and roots. The fungal metabolites, mannitol and loline alkaloids, also significantly increased with water deficit. Conclusions Our results suggest that symbiotic N. coenophialum aids in survival and recovery of tall fescue plants from water deficit, and acts in part by inducing rapid accumulation of these compatible solutes soon after imposition of stress. PMID:24015904

  4. Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue and its potential application in the phytoremediation of saline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L; Ren, A; Wei, M; Wu, L; Zhou, Y; Li, X; Gao, Y

    2014-01-01

    The growth response of endophyte-infected (EI) and endophyte-free (EF) tall fescue to salt stress was investigated under two growing systems (hydroponic and soil in pots). The hydroponic experiment showed that endophyte infection significantly increased tiller and leaf number, which led to an increase in the total biomass of the host grass. Endophyte infection enhanced Na accumulation in the host grass and improved Na transport from the roots to the shoots. With a 15 g l(-1) NaCl treatment, the phytoextraction efficiency of EI tall fescue was 2.34-fold higher than EF plants. When the plants were grown in saline soils, endophyte infection also significantly increased tiller number, shoot height and the total biomass of the host grass. Although EI tall fescue cannot accumulate Na to a level high enough for it to be termed a halophyte, the increased biomass production and stress tolerance suggested that endophyte/plant associations had the potential to be a model for endophyte-assisted phytoextraction in saline soils.

  5. An extracellular siderophore is required to maintain the mutualistic interaction of Epichloe festucae with Lolium perenne.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Johnson

    Full Text Available We have identified from the mutualistic grass endophyte Epichloë festucae a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene (sidN encoding a siderophore synthetase. The enzymatic product of SidN is shown to be a novel extracellular siderophore designated as epichloënin A, related to ferrirubin from the ferrichrome family. Targeted gene disruption of sidN eliminated biosynthesis of epichloënin A in vitro and in planta. During iron-depleted axenic growth, ΔsidN mutants accumulated the pathway intermediate N(5-trans-anhydromevalonyl-N(5-hydroxyornithine (trans-AMHO, displayed sensitivity to oxidative stress and showed deficiencies in both polarized hyphal growth and sporulation. Infection of Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass with ΔsidN mutants resulted in perturbations of the endophyte-grass symbioses. Deviations from the characteristic tightly regulated synchronous growth of the fungus with its plant partner were observed and infected plants were stunted. Analysis of these plants by light and transmission electron microscopy revealed abnormalities in the distribution and localization of ΔsidN mutant hyphae as well as deformities in hyphal ultrastructure. We hypothesize that lack of epichloënin A alters iron homeostasis of the symbiotum, changing it from mutually beneficial to antagonistic. Iron itself or epichloënin A may serve as an important molecular/cellular signal for controlling fungal growth and hence the symbiotic interaction.

  6. Influence of Rough Hair Coats and Steroidal Implants on Hair Growth, Rectal Temperatures, and Sweating by Steers Grazed on Toxic Tall Fescue During the Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle grazing toxic tall fescue months [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.)] typically retain their rough hair coats into the summer, which can exacerbate heat stress induced by fescue toxicosis. Further, previous research has indicated that progesterone and estradiol implants may increase body tem...

  7. The effects of steroid implant and dietary soybean hulls on estrogenic activity of sera of steers grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean hulls (SBHs), a co-product of soybean meal milling, have been fed to cattle pasturing on endophyte-infected tall fescue in attempts to increase rate of gain. Literature reports indicated some symptoms associated with fescue toxicosis were ameliorated by the use of steroidal implants contain...

  8. Cellular composition and expression of potential stem cell markers in mammary tissue of cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period and early lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the impact of consuming endophyte-infected fescue during late pregnancy on parameters of mammary development in Holstein cows. Cows (N = 16) were fed 10% of their ration as tall fescue seed that was free from (CON) or infected with endophyte (INF) from 90d before expected calving until ...

  9. Infection with a Shoot-Specific Fungal Endophyte (Epichloë) Alters Tall Fescue Soil Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Xavier; Guo, Jingqi; Leff, Jonathan W; McNear, David H; Fierer, Noah; McCulley, Rebecca L

    2016-07-01

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) is a widespread grass that can form a symbiotic relationship with a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala). While the effects of fungal endophyte infection on fescue physiology and ecology have been relatively well studied, less attention has been given to how this relationship may impact the soil microbial community. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing and phospholipid fatty acid analysis to determine the structure and biomass of microbial communities in both bulk and rhizosphere soils from tall fescue stands that were either uninfected with E. coenophiala or were infected with the common toxic strain or one of several novel strains of the endophyte. We found that rhizosphere and bulk soils harbored distinct microbial communities. Endophyte presence, regardless of strain, significantly influenced soil fungal communities, but endophyte effects were less pronounced in prokaryotic communities. E. coenophiala presence did not change total fungal biomass but caused a shift in soil and rhizosphere fungal community composition, increasing the relative abundance of taxa within the Glomeromycota phylum and decreasing the relative abundance of genera in the Ascomycota phylum, including Lecanicillium, Volutella, Lipomyces, Pochonia, and Rhizoctonia. Our data suggests that tripartite interactions exist between the shoot endophyte E. coenophiala, tall fescue, and soil fungi that may have important implications for the functioning of soils, such as carbon storage, in fescue-dominated grasslands.

  10. Effects of Seed Maturity of Turf-Type Tall Fescue on the Seed Vigor and the Optimal Harvesting Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Rong; HAN Jian-guo

    2003-01-01

    By assay of accelerated aging germination, germination index, vigor index, seedling length,seedling weight, electric conductivity, dehydrogenase activity, ATP content and acid phosphoesterase activityduring seed development of turf-type tall fescue, the seed vigor of tall fescue were studied. Combining withseed moisture content and yield, the optimal harvesting time of tall fescue was determined. The results indica-ted that the seed vigor increased continuously along with seed maturity, and the higher seed vigor was achievedat 19th day after perk anthesis and maintained continuously until 31st day after peak anthesis. At 25th day af-ter peak anthesis, the highest yield of 3 533 kg ha-1 and the good quality of seeds of tall fescue were harvestedwith 32.19% moisture content. From 22nd to 31st day after peak anthesis, the seed yield of 3 300 kg ha-1 andthe good quality seeds of tall fescue were harvested with 40 -12.43% moisture content, and the span was theoptimal harvesting time.

  11. Plant-mediated CH4 transport and C gas dynamics quantified in-situ in a Phalaris arundinacea-dominant wetland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Askær; Elberling, Bo; Friborg, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Northern peatland methane (CH4) budgets are important for global CH4 emissions. This study aims to determine the ecosystem CH4 budget and specifically to quantify the importance of Phalaris arundinacea by using different chamber techniques in a temperate wetland. Annually, roughly 70...... passive. Thus, diurnal variations are less important in contrast to wetland vascular plants facilitating convective gas flow. Despite of plant-dominant CH4 transport, net CH4 fluxes were low (–0.005–0.016 µmol m-2 s-1) and annually less than 1% of the annual C-CO2 assimilation. This is considered a result...... of an effective root zone oxygenation resulting in increased CH4 oxidation in the rhizosphere at high water levels. This study shows that although CH4, having a global warming potential 25 times greater than CO2, is emitted from this P. arundinacea wetland, less than 9% of the C sequestered counterbalances the CH...

  12. Floristic diversity and agricultural value of Phalaridetum arundinaceae (Koch 1926 n.n. Lib. 1931 in the selected river valleys of the Zamość region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Grażyna Wyłupek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the results of a floristic survey conducted using the Braun-Blanquet method (50 phytosociological relevés in permanent grasslands in three river valleys of the Zamość region (Por, Huczwa, Wieprz. The goal of the survey was to determine the floristic diversity and fodder value of the Phalaridetum arundinaceae association (Koch 1926 n.n. Lib. 1931.  A total of 93 plant species from 25 botanical families were identified in the areas under study. The species richness of the Phalaridetum arundinaceae differed among river valleys. It was observed that these are often transitional forms similar to the association of the Molinio-Arrhenatheretea class, Molinietalia order. Predominance of hemicryptophytes and a relatively large share of geophytes was recorded. Based on the fodder value score calculated for the dry matter of the association, the community under study can be classified as having a medium or poor nutritional value.

  13. Optimizing the number of consecutive seed harvests in red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) for yield, yield components and economic return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Kristensen, Kristian; Gislum, René;

    2013-01-01

    . The diploid amenity cv. Allegro and forage type cv. Borvi of perennial ryegrass can be harvested in five consecutive years without a significant yield reduction. The tetraploid type cv. Tivoli had the highest thousand seed weight and a significant yield decrease from the first to the second year of seed...

  14. Geographic Variation in Festuca rubra L. Ploidy Levels and Systemic Fungal Endophyte Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirihan, Serdar; Helander, Marjo; Väre, Henry; Gundel, Pedro E.; Garibaldi, Lucas A.; Irisarri, J. Gonzalo N.; Saloniemi, Irma; Saikkonen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Polyploidy and symbiotic Epichloë fungal endophytes are common and heritable characteristics that can facilitate environmental range expansion in grasses. Here we examined geographic patterns of polyploidy and the frequency of fungal endophyte colonized plants in 29 Festuca rubra L. populations from eight geographic sites across latitudes from Spain to northernmost Finland and Greenland. Ploidy seemed to be positively and negatively correlated with latitude and productivity, respectively. However, the correlations were nonlinear; 84% of the plants were hexaploids (2n = 6x = 42), and the positive correlation between ploidy level and latitude is the result of only four populations skewing the data. In the southernmost end of the gradient 86% of the plants were tetraploids (2n = 4x = 28), whereas in the northernmost end of the gradient one population had only octoploid plants (2n = 8x = 56). Endophytes were detected in 22 out of the 29 populations. Endophyte frequencies varied among geographic sites, and populations and habitats within geographic sites irrespective of ploidy, latitude or productivity. The highest overall endophyte frequencies were found in the southernmost end of the gradient, Spain, where 69% of plants harbored endophytes. In northern Finland, endophytes were detected in 30% of grasses but endophyte frequencies varied among populations from 0% to 75%, being higher in meadows compared to riverbanks. The endophytes were detected in 36%, 30% and 27% of the plants in Faroe Islands, Iceland and Switzerland, respectively. Practically all examined plants collected from southern Finland and Greenland were endophyte-free, whereas in other geographic sites endophyte frequencies were highly variable among populations. Common to all populations with high endophyte frequencies is heavy vertebrate grazing. We propose that the detected endophyte frequencies and ploidy levels mirror past distribution history of F. rubra after the last glaciation period, and local

  15. Use of different levels of ground endophyte-infected tall fescue seed during heat stress to separate characteristics of fescue toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, D E; Wax, L E; Eichen, P A; Rottinghaus, G E; Evans, T J; Keisler, D H; Ellersieck, M R

    2012-10-01

    Studies of fescue toxicosis using whole seed diets show reduced feed intake and thermoregulatory ability, but much of the seed passes undigested through the animal. Cattle were fed ground tall fescue seed at different levels to potentially facilitate digestion and absorption of toxins and identify toxin sensitivity for major characteristics of the condition [i.e., hyperthermia, reduced feed intake (FI), reduced blood prolactin]. Steers (n = 18; 350 kg BW) were housed in the Brody Climatology Laboratory at thermoneutrality (TN; 19°C) and randomly assigned to daily diet treatments with either ground endophyte-infected [E+; low and high doses at 20 and 40 μg ergovaline/(kg BW/d), respectively] or endophyte-free [E-; control at 0 μg ergovaline/(kg BW/d)] tall fescue seed. After 12 d at TN, animals received 2 d of transition to heat stress (HS; 36°C daytime, 25°C nighttime) and maintained for 14 more days. Cattle were fed twice daily at 0800 and 1600 h, with water ad libitum. Feed intake was measured at 0700 h, with skin and rectal temperatures, and respiration rate at 0600, 1100, 1600, and 2100 h. Blood was sampled on selected days for prolactin and leptin determinations. Steers fed ground E+ diet decreased (P ≤ 0.0001) FI below controls at TN, with no dose effect. Maximum FI reduction with E+ treatment was 25% at TN, with an additional 46% decrease during HS (P ≤ 0.05). By the end of HS, E+ FI increased (P > 0.05) to that of E-, suggesting recovery. Prolactin was reduced (P ≤ 0.05) in high E+ cattle below controls at study end. Leptin blood concentrations were unaffected by E+ treatment (P > 0.05) but was reduced (P ≤ 0.05) by the end of HS. Pattern of rectal temperature response to HS showed a more rapid initial increase and decline for both E+ groups compared with controls (P ≤ 0.05). Skin temperature was the only variable that identified E+ dose differences. Although there were no treatment differences at TN, skin temperature was lower (P ≤ 0

  16. Random distribution pattern and non-adaptivity of genome size in a highly variable population of Festuca pallens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarda, Petr; Bures, Petr; Horová, Lucie

    2007-07-01

    The spatial and statistical distribution of genome sizes and the adaptivity of genome size to some types of habitat, vegetation or microclimatic conditions were investigated in a tetraploid population of Festuca pallens. The population was previously documented to vary highly in genome size and is assumed as a model for the study of the initial stages of genome size differentiation. Using DAPI flow cytometry, samples were measured repeatedly with diploid Festuca pallens as the internal standard. Altogether 172 plants from 57 plots (2.25 m(2)), distributed in contrasting habitats over the whole locality in South Moravia, Czech Republic, were sampled. The differences in DNA content were confirmed by the double peaks of simultaneously measured samples. At maximum, a 1.115-fold difference in genome size was observed. The statistical distribution of genome sizes was found to be continuous and best fits the extreme (Gumbel) distribution with rare occurrences of extremely large genomes (positive-skewed), as it is similar for the log-normal distribution of the whole Angiosperms. Even plants from the same plot frequently varied considerably in genome size and the spatial distribution of genome sizes was generally random and unautocorrelated (P > 0.05). The observed spatial pattern and the overall lack of correlations of genome size with recognized vegetation types or microclimatic conditions indicate the absence of ecological adaptivity of genome size in the studied population. These experimental data on intraspecific genome size variability in Festuca pallens argue for the absence of natural selection and the selective non-significance of genome size in the initial stages of genome size differentiation, and corroborate the current hypothetical model of genome size evolution in Angiosperms (Bennetzen et al., 2005, Annals of Botany 95: 127-132).

  17. Mathematical Modeling of Allelopathy. III. A Model for Curve-Fitting Allelochemical Dose Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, De Li; An, Min; Johnson, Ian R.; Lovett, John V.

    2003-01-01

    Bioassay techniques are often used to study the effects of allelochemicals on plant processes, and it is generally observed that the processes are stimulated at low allelochemical concentrations and inhibited as the concentrations increase. A simple empirical model is presented to analyze this type of response. The stimulation-inhibition properties of allelochemical-dose responses can be described by the parameters in the model. The indices, p% reductions, are calculated to assess the allelochemical effects. The model is compared with experimental data for the response of lettuce seedling growth to Centaurepensin, the olfactory response of weevil larvae to α-terpineol, and the responses of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra L., cv. Ensylva), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L., cv. Kenblue), perennial ryegrass (L. perenne L., cv. Manhattan), and Rebel tall fescue (F. arundinacea Schreb) seedling growth to leachates of Rebel and Kentucky 31 tall fescue. The results show that the model gives a good description to observations and can be used to fit a wide range of dose responses. Assessments of the effects of leachates of Rebel and Kentucky 31 tall fescue clearly differentiate the properties of the allelopathic sources and the relative sensitivities of indicators such as the length of root and leaf. PMID:19330111

  18. Decontamination of a polychlorinated biphenyls-contaminated soil by phytoremediation-assisted bioaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secher, C; Lollier, M; Jézéquel, K; Cornu, J Y; Amalric, L; Lebeau, T

    2013-07-01

    A 70 day pot experiment was conducted for the cleaning-up of a PCBs-contaminated soil (104 mg kg(-1) soil DW) using bioaugmentation with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (LB400) assisted or not by the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). The total cultivable bacteria of the soil were higher with the presence of plants. Real-time PCR showed that LB400 (targeting 16S-23S rRNA ITS) survived with abundance related to total bacteria (targeting 16S rRNA) being higher with fescue (up to a factor of three). Bioaugmentation had a positive effect on fescue biomass and more specifically on roots (by a factor of three). PCB dissipation (sum of congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 180) averaged 13 % (bioaugmented-planted) up to 32 % (non bioaugmented-planted), without any significant difference between treatments. Basically our results demonstrated that indigenous bacteria were able to dissipate PCBs (26.2 % dissipation). PCB dissipation was not related to the abundance of LB400 or to the total bacterial counts. Bioaugmentation or fescue altered the structure of the bacterial community of the soil, not the combination of both. Principal component analysis showed that bioaugmentation tended to improve the control of the process (lower variability in PCB dissipation). Opposite to that bioaugmentation increased the variability of the structure of the bacterial community.

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Allelopathy. III. A Model for Curve-Fitting Allelochemical Dose Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, De Li; An, Min; Johnson, Ian R; Lovett, John V

    2003-01-01

    Bioassay techniques are often used to study the effects of allelochemicals on plant processes, and it is generally observed that the processes are stimulated at low allelochemical concentrations and inhibited as the concentrations increase. A simple empirical model is presented to analyze this type of response. The stimulation-inhibition properties of allelochemical-dose responses can be described by the parameters in the model. The indices, p% reductions, are calculated to assess the allelochemical effects. The model is compared with experimental data for the response of lettuce seedling growth to Centaurepensin, the olfactory response of weevil larvae to alpha-terpineol, and the responses of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra L., cv. Ensylva), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L., cv. Kenblue), perennial ryegrass (L. perenne L., cv. Manhattan), and Rebel tall fescue (F. arundinacea Schreb) seedling growth to leachates of Rebel and Kentucky 31 tall fescue. The results show that the model gives a good description to observations and can be used to fit a wide range of dose responses. Assessments of the effects of leachates of Rebel and Kentucky 31 tall fescue clearly differentiate the properties of the allelopathic sources and the relative sensitivities of indicators such as the length of root and leaf.

  20. Study of the Capability of Niosomes that Used Maltodextrin from Garut Starch (Maranta arundinaceae Linn. as a Chlorpheniramine Maleate Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Jufri

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the entrapment ability of ampiphylic drug, chlorpheniramine maleate (CTM, by niosome. Like liposomes, niosomes is an encapsulated drug carrier that has important role in a drug release system. Niosomes and liposomes are unstable, but niosomes could be handled by proniosomes. Proniosomes in this research was prepared using the combination of maltodextrin DE 5-10 from arrowroot starch (Maranta arundinaceae Linn., Span 60 and Cholesterol as non ionic surfactant in six formulas. The entrapment level of CTM depends on combination of surfactant in proniosomes, drug substance concentration and proniosomes quantity, temperature, and hydration times. Niosomes (10mM that was prepared by proniosomes in formula 3 has been hydrated at 80 oC for 2 minutes using demineralized water could entrapped 94,04%, of 1 mM CTM. The proniosomes in formula 3 was increased up to 30 mM surfactant and 10 mM CTM in niosomes, could increase the entrapment of CTM.

  1. The weed species composition in a reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L. plantation for energy purposes depending on its age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz R. Sekutowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment, carried out in nine production fields of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea grown for energy purposes, evaluated the effect of plantation age on the occurrence and species composition of weeds. The selected plantations were divided into 3 groups that were conventionally called “young” (1–2 years old, “middle-aged” (3–5 years old, and “older” plantations (6–8 years old. Regardless of plantation age, altogether 43 species were found in the experimental fields. Moreover, 6 species were common for all the plantations and were found in them regardless of plantation age. The least species, only 18, were found on the “young” plantations, almost twice more on the “older” ones (30 species, whereas the largest spectrum of species was found in the “middle-aged” plantations (33 species. In the “young” plantations, annual weeds were the most common, with the highest constancy and coverage index found for Chenopodium album, Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora and Echinochloa crus-galli. The greatest variation in species was found in the “middle-aged” plantations. However, only 4 species achieved the highest constancy and coverage index: Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora, Cirsium arvense, Poa trivialis and Taraxacum officinale. Furthermore, perennial weeds were found to be dominant in the “older” plantations. Within this group, Poa trivialis, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Plantago maior, and Cirsium arvense had the highest constancy and coverage index.

  2. Interaction between a tannin-containing legume and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lambs’ feeding behavior and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was hypothesized that a tannin-rich legume like sainfoin reduces the negative post-ingestive effects of ergot alkaloids in tall fescue. Thirty-two 4-month-old lambs were individually penned and randomly assigned to a 2X2 factorial arrangement with two legume species (1-sainfoin [SAN; ' 3% condens...

  3. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period does not decrease milk production in the following lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We investigated the effects of consuming endophyte-infected fescue during late lactation and the dry period on mammary growth, differentiation ...

  4. Ruminal tryptophan-utilizing bacteria degrade ergovaline from tall fescue seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, B E; Goodman, J P; Lynn, B C; Flythe, M D; Ji, H; Aiken, G E

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate degradation of ergovaline in a tall fescue [ (Schreb.) Darbysh.] seed extract by rumen microbiota ex vivo and to identify specific bacteria capable of ergovaline degradation in vitro. Rumen cell suspensions were prepared by harvesting rumen fluid from fistulated wether goats ( = 3), straining, and differential centrifugation. Suspensions were dispensed into anaerobic tubes with added Trypticase with or without extract (∼10 μg kg ergovaline). Suspensions were incubated for 48 h at 39°C. Samples were collected at 0, 24, and 48 h for ergovaline analysis and enumeration of hyper-ammonia producing (HAB) and tryptophan-utilizing bacteria. Ergovaline values were analyzed by repeated measures using the mixed procedure of SAS. Enumeration data were log transformed for statistical analysis. When suspensions were incubated with extract, 11 to 15% of ergovaline disappearance was observed over 48 h ( = 0.02). After 24 h, suspensions with added extract had 10-fold less HAB than controls ( = 0.04), but treatments were similar by 48 h ( = 1.00). However, after 24 h and 48 h, suspensions with extract had 10-fold more tryptophan-utilizing bacteria ( bacteria tested did not degrade ergovaline. The results of this study indicate which rumen bacteria may play an important role in ergovaline degradation and that microbiological strategies for controlling their activity could have ramifications for fescue toxicosis and other forms of ergotism in ruminants.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus Strain GM3FR, an Endophyte Isolated from Aerial Plant Tissues of Festuca rubra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollensteiner, Jacqueline; Daniel, Rolf; Liesegang, Heiko; Vidal, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus pumilus GM3FR, an endophytic bacterium isolated from aerial plant tissues of Festuca rubra L. The draft genome consists of 3.5 Mb and harbors 3,551 predicted protein-encoding genes. The genome provides insights into the biocontrol potential of B. pumilus GM3FR. PMID:28360161

  6. Effects of NaCl salinity on nitrate uptake and partitioning of N and C in Festuca rubra L. in relation to growth rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubinigg, M; Elzenga, JTM; Stulen, G

    2002-01-01

    The effect of salinity on nitrate net uptake rate was studied in the moderately salt tolerant halophyte Festuca rubra L., in relation to changes in relative growth rate, root weight ratio and nitrogen and carbon partitioning. Plants were grown for 21 days on nutrient solution containing 50, 100 and

  7. Linkage Maps of a Mediterranean × Continental Tall Fescue Population and their Comparative Analysis with Other Poaceae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Dierking

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperate grasses belonging to the complex are important throughout the world in pasture and grassland agriculture. Tall fescue ( Schreb. is the predominant species in the United States, covering approximately 15 million ha. Tall fescue has distinctive morphotypes, two of which are Continental (summer active and Mediterranean (summer semidormant. This is the first report of a linkage map created for Mediterranean tall fescue, while updating the Continental map with additional simple sequence repeat and sequence-tagged site markers. Additionally, this is the first time that diversity arrays technology (DArT markers were used in the construction of a tall fescue map. The male parent (Continental, R43-64, map consisted of 594 markers arranged in 22 linkage groups (LGs and covered a total of 1577 cM. The female parent (Mediterranean, 103-2, map was shorter (1258 cM and consisted of only 208 markers arranged in 29 LGs. Marker densities for R43-64 and 103-2 were 2.65 and 6.08 cM per marker, respectively. When compared with the other Poaceae species, meadow fescue ( Huds., annual ryegrass ( Lam., perennial ryegrass ( L., (L. Beauv., and barley ( L., a total of 171 and 98 orthologous or homologous sequences, identified by DArT analysis, were identified in R43-64 and 103-2, respectively. By using genomic in situ hybridization, we aimed to identify potential progenitors of both morphotypes. However, no clear conclusion on genomic constitution was reached. These maps will aid in the search for quantitative trait loci of various traits as well as help define and distinguish genetic differences between the two morphotypes.

  8. Nitrogen transfer from forage legumes to grass in a systematic planting design. [Medicago sativa; Lotus corniculatus; Phalaris arundinacea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, L.S.; Heichel, G.H.; Russelle, M.P.

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most important forage legume in the USA, but N transfer from this or other perennial forage species to companion grasses growing in a mixed sward is poorly understood. Furthermore, interplant distances and legume/grass ratios have seldom been controlled in studies of N transfer from legumes to non-legumes. The objectives of this field study were: (i) to determine the amount of N transferred from alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus carniculatus L.) to reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.); (ii) to define conditions of distance and species ratio under which N transfer occurs; (iii) to compare the two legumes for N transfer; and (iv) to determine the effect of grass proximity on legume N/sub 2/ fixation. Legumes were interplanted with grass in single-species rows within km/sup 2/ plots on a Typic hapludoll soil labeled with /sup 15/N. Analysis of herbage showed significantly lower /sup 15/N concentration in grass near legumes than in grass grown alone, and significantly lower /sup 15/N concentration in legumes near grass than legumes in monoculture. Calculations using isotope dilution methods showed that grass derived a maximum of 68% of its N from alfalfa and 79% from trefoil. This N represented 13% of the N/sub 2/ fixed by trefoil and 17% of that fixed by alfalfa. The results indicated that N transfer occurred over a distance of 20 cm with maximum N transfer in areas of high legume/grass ratio. At third harvest, N derived from symbiosis was significantly higher (95% in alfalfa, 92% in trefoil) for legumes grown in mixture with grass than for legumes grown in monoculture (86% in alfalfa, 80% in trefoil). These results indicate that significant N transfer occurred, and that the amount of N transferred was dependent on interspecies distance and legume/grass ratio.

  9. Reclamation of acid coal refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, F.J.; Chong, S.K. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (USA))

    1991-07-01

    Slurry (coal refuse), which contains pyritic materials, produces sulfuric acid when wetted and oxidized. The acidity, together with droughtiness and high surface temperatures, create a complex problem for revegetation. Four grasses, orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), redtop (Agrostis alba L.), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Shreb.), were planted on an acid slurry site at Captain Mine, Arch of Illinois Inc., Perry County, IL, USA, to evaluate the effects of soil amendments. Organic material from composted garbage (0, 112, 224 and 336 Mg/ha), limestone (0, 45, 90 and 135 Mg/ha) and a mixture of organic material and limestone (56/22.5, 112/45 and 168/67.5 Mg/ha) were incorporated into the slurry. All the grasses established succesfully and persisted best on treatments involving the addition of limestone. Tall fescue and reed canarygrass were the grasses best suited for the revegetation of the acid slurry impoundments. The grasses did not accumulate heavy metals to levels considered potentially toxic to livestock. The application of limestone with or without organic material appears to be a possible alternative method for revegetating acid slurry without the addition of a soil cover. 6 tabs., 12 refs.

  10. Vegetation establishment on a deposit of zinc mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholm, J; Steen, E

    1989-01-01

    Field trials concerning the establishment of plant cover on a deposit of wastes from the Ammeberg zinc mine in central Sweden were carried out during 1976-1985. Different soil conditioners and manures were applied and plant species cultivars were evaluated with regard to plant biomass, vigour, durability and content of zinc, lead and cadmium. Sewage sludge and topsoil led to better establishment of grasses than did municipal waste, straw and hydraulic seeding. After 2 years, Festuca rubra and Poa pratensis dominated the swards. Other species (Dactylis glomerata, Bromus inermis, Lolium perenne, Phleum nodosum, Festuca pratensis and F. arundinacea) constituted only a minor part of the stand. After 10 years, F. rubra was the most dominant species, while native Agrostis tenuis had invaded 20-50% of the area within the plots. Merlin was the clearly dominant red fescue cultivar. The concentration of zinc in shoots (616 mg kg(-1) dw) was about 10% of that in the soil. Zinc concentration decreased with increasing biomass above ground. It increased with age in Scots pine needles and was very high in birch leaves. Grasses survived longer than legumes in the zinc sand waste. Among the surviving grasses was a group with high (3800 mg kg(-1) dw) and a group with low (320 mg kg(-1) dw) zinc concentrations. The low group included Merlin red fescue and Sobel creeping bent. The cultivar Merlin contained a much lower zinc concentration than the other cultivars of red fescue (375 and 624 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively). A large amount of root biomass was present in plots with dominating Merlin red fescue (1715 g m(-2)), 97% of which was concentrated in the top 10 cm of the soil. The concentration of zinc in the roots was very high (13 000-25 000 mg kg(-1) dw). Nitrate fertilizer, especially ammonium nitrate, and acidic water (pH 4.3) increased zinc leaching.

  11. Heavy metal concentration in forage grasses and extractability from some acid mine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W. (Alabama A and M University, Normal (United States). Department of Plant and Soil Science)

    1993-06-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted on several forage grasses, bermudagrass ([ital Cynodon dactylon]), creeping red fescue ([ital Festuca rubra]), Kentucky 31-tall fescue ([ital Festuca arundinacea]), oat ([ital Avena sativa]), orchardgrass ([ital Dactylis glomerata]), perennial ryegrass ([ital Lolium perenne]), sorghum ([ital Sorghum bicolor]), triticale (X. [ital triticosecale Wittmack]), and winter wheat ([ital Triticum aestivum]) grown on three Alabama acid mine spoils to study heavy metal accumulation, dry matter yield and spoil metal extractability by three chemical extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl). Heavy metals removed by these extractants were correlated with their accumulation by several forage grasses. Among the forages tested, creeping red fescue did not survive the stressful conditions of any of the spoils, while orchard grass and Kentucky 31-tall fescue did not grow in Mulberry spoil. Sorghum followed by bermudagrass generally produced the highest dry matter yield. However, the high yielding bermudagrass was most effective in accumulating high tissue levels of Mn and Zn from all spoils (compared to the other grasses) but did not remove Ni. On the average, higher levels of metals were extracted from spoils in the order of 0.1 M HCl[gt] Mehlich 1[gt] DTPA. However, DTPA extracted all the metals from spoils while Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract detectable levels of Ni. All of the extractants were quite effective in determining plant available Zn from the spoils. For the other metals, the effective determination of plant availability depended on the crop, the extractant, and the metal in concert. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  12. Regional differences in the fescue toxicosis response of Bos taurus cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. S.; Bryant, J. K.; Scharf, B.; Kishore, D. K.; Coate, E. A.; Eichen, P. A.; Keisler, D. H.; Spiers, D. E.

    2015-04-01

    Cattle of the same breed from different regions of the USA may have altered responses to heat stress and fescue toxicosis. Angus steers from Missouri (MO ANG, n = 10, 513.6 ± 13.6 kg BW) and Oklahoma (OK ANG, n = 10, 552.8 ± 12.0 kg BW) were fed a diet containing either endophyte-infected (E+, 30 μg ergovaline/kg BW/day) or endophyte-uninfected (E-, 0 μg ergovaline/kg BW/day) tall fescue seed for 23 days. Diet treatment began on day 2. Animals were maintained at thermoneutrality (TN, 19-22 °C, days 1-8) and then exposed to heat stress (HS, cycling 26-36 °C, days 9-22). On day 23, ambient temperature was returned to TN and used as a recovery day. Feed intake (FI) was measured daily, with rectal and skin temperatures determined six times daily. Feed intake reduction from pretreatment levels was greater ( P < 0.01) for E + (13.9 ± 0.9 versus 11.9 ± 0.3 kg/day) compared to E - (12.6 ± 0.9 versus 12.4 ± 0.3 kg/day) steers over the entire TN period, regardless of Angus group. During HS, E + cattle had reduced FI ( P < 0.02; 6.9 ± 0.2 versus 8.4 ± 0.2 kg/day) compared to E - animals, independent of region of origin. A greater decrease in FI ( P < 0.01) was observed for OK (12.1 ± 0.3 versus 6.2 ± 0.2 kg/day) compared to MO ANG (12.2 ± 0.3 versus 7.9 ± 0.2 kg/day) when ambient temperature was increased from TN to HS. On day 13 and days 15-22, OK ANG (E+) had reduced FI ( P < 0.01, -2.21 kg) compared to OK ANG (E-), while there was no effect on MO ANG. From day 12 to day 22 of HS, daily minimum temperatures for ear, rump, and tail skin were less for E + ( P < 0.05) when compared with E-treated steers, signifying peripheral vasoconstriction in E + animals. This was supported by reduced shoulder and lower tail temperatures ( P < 0.01) for E + compared to E-treated OK ANG on the recovery day. In summary, regional differences in the response to fescue toxicosis exist, with peripheral vasomotor effects becoming most evident when animals are subjected to rapid

  13. The effect of alkali metals on combustion and pyrolysis of Lolium and Festuca grasses, switchgrass and willow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Fahmi; A.V. Bridgwater; L.I. Darvell; J.M. Jones; N. Yates; S. Thain; I.S. Donnison [Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Bio-Energy Research Group, Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry

    2007-07-15

    The effect of alkali metals on the thermal degradation of biomass during combustion and pyrolysis has been investigated for 19 Lolium and Festuca grass varieties. These samples have been grown under the same conditions, but has been genetically mutated to give varying lignin contents in the range 2-6% measured by Klason. These grasses also have a high alkali metal content resulting in a high ash content. In order to compare the Lolium and Festuca grasses willow chip and switchgrass were also studied to act as a reference fuels. All samples were subjected to different washing conditions to investigate the effect of decreasing the metal content. The resulting biomass samples were studied for pyrolysis characteristics using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (pyroprobe-GC/MS) and for combustion characteristics by TGA. A strong catalytic effect of metals, particularly potassium, was observed in both pyrolysis and combustion. Also, it was found that as the lignin content increases, the metal content (especially potassium and sodium) decreases. Furthermore, the char yield from pyrolysis (measured at 773 K from TGA pyrolysis traces) increases as metals increase, and hence char yield increases as the lignin content decreases. Py-GCMS showed that peak intensities varied for untreated and treated samples; in particular the levoglucosan yield is higher and the hydroxyacetaldehyde yield is lower for treated (low metal content) samples. This supports previous work mechanisms by Liden et al. in which alkali metals promote an ionic route that favours ring-scission and hydroxyacetaldehyde formation. 13 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Variability of ribosomal DNA sites in Festuca pratensis, Lolium perenne, and their intergeneric hybrids, revealed by FISH and GISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiazczyk, T; Taciak, M; Zwierzykowski, Z

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the variability of chromosomal location and number of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sites in some diploid and autotetraploid Festuca pratensis and Lolium perenne cultivars, as well as on identification of rDNA-bearing chromosomes in their triploid and tetraploid F. pratensis × L. perenne hybrids. The rDNA loci were mapped using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 25S rDNA probes, and the origin of parental genomes was verified by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) with L. perenne genomic DNA as a probe, and F. pratensis genomic DNA as a block. FISH detected variation in the number and chromosomal location of both 5S and 45S rDNA sites. In F. pratensis mostly additional signals of 5S rDNA loci occurred, as compared with standard F. pratensis karyotypes. Losses of 45S rDNA loci were more frequent in L. perenne cultivars and intergeneric hybrids. Comparison of the F. pratensis and L. perenne genomes approved a higher number of rDNA sites as well as variation in chromosomal rDNA location in L. perenne. A greater instability of F. pratensis-genome-like and L. perenne-genome-like chromosomes in tetraploid hybrids was revealed, indicating gains and losses of rDNA loci, respectively. Our data indicate that the rDNA loci physically mapped on chromosomes 2 and 3 in F. pratensis and on chromosome 3 in L. perenne are useful markers for these chromosomes in intergeneric Festuca × Lolium hybrids.

  15. Effects of fescue toxicosis on bull growth, semen characteristics, and breeding soundness evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, H M; Miller, M; Burns, M G; Calcatera, S M; Andrae, J G; Aiken, G E; Schrick, F N; Cushing, T; Bridges, W C; Pratt, S L

    2013-08-01

    Tall fescue possesses heat, drought, and pest resistance conferred to the plant by its mutualistic relationship with the ergot alkaloid producing fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of ergot alkaloid consumption on growth, scrotal circumference (SC), and semen quality. The SC measurement and percentage of motile and normal sperm were used to determine if a bull passed the breeding soundness exam (BSE) requirements. Bulls (n = 14) between 13 and 16 mo of age exhibiting ≥32 cm SC and having passed a BSE were assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments accounting for BCS and BW. Bulls were fed the treatment diet containing toxic tall fescue seed (E+; 0.8 μg of ergovaline and ergovalanine/g DM) or the control diet containing endophyte-free nontoxic tall fescue seed (E-) for 126 d. Blood samples were collected and BSE and BCS accessed at the start of the test (d 0) and every 21 d to the end of test (d 126). Weights were obtained on d 0 and d 126. Serum prolactin (PRL) concentrations were affected by treatment × day interactions (P = 0.04) verifying the effectiveness of the E+ diet. Bulls consuming the E+ diet exhibited declining PRL concentrations from 250 ± 52.1 ng/mL on d 0 to 30.6 ± 46.9 ng/mL by d 126 whereas bulls receiving the E- ration maintained serum PRL concentrations greater than or equal to 226.7 ± 50.4 ng/mL across the 126-d study. Body condition score (P = 0.4) and BW (P = 0.4) were not different between treatments. No difference due to treatment was observed for the percentage of bulls passing a standard BSE exam (P = 0.6) and no treatment effect was observed for any semen characteristic measured by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA; P ≥ 0.2). The SC was negatively affected by treatment × day interaction (P = 0.04) with E- bulls exhibiting a larger SC at d 126 compared with E+ bulls of 36.7 ± 0.8 versus 34.3 ± 0.8 cm, respectively. Within treatment, E+ bulls exhibited a decrease in

  16. Effects of citric acid and the siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFO-B) on the mobility of germanium and rare earth elements in soil and uptake in Phalaris arundinacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Tischler, Dirk; Fauser, Carla; Lodemann, Jana; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2017-02-03

    Effects of citric acid and desferrioxamine B (DFO-B) on the availability of Ge and selected REEs (La, Nd, Gd, Er) to P. arundinacea were investigated. A soil dissolution experiment was conducted to elucidate the effect of citric acid and DFO-B at different concentrations (1 and 10 mmol l(-1) citric acid) on the release of Ge and REEs from soil. In a greenhouse plants of P. arundinacea were cultivated on soil and on sand cultures to investigate the effects of citric acid and DFO-B on the uptake of Ge and REEs by the plants. Addition of 10 mmol l(-1) citric acid significantly enhanced desorption of Ge and REEs from soil and uptake into soil-grown plants. Applying DFO-B enhanced the dissolution and the uptake of REEs, while no effect on Ge was observed. In sand cultures, presence of citric acid and DFO-B significantly decreased the uptake of Ge and REEs, indicating a discrimination of the formed complexes during uptake. This study clearly indicates that citric acid and the microbial siderophore DFO-B may enhance phytoextraction of Ge and REEs due to the formation of soluble complexes that increase the migration of elements in the rhizosphere.

  17. E/Z-Thesinine-O-4'-alpha-rhamnoside, pyrrolizidine conjugates produced by grasses (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulman, Albert; Seeliger, Claudine; Edwards, Patrick J B; Fraser, Karl; Simpson, Wayne; Johnson, Linda; Cao, Mingshu; Rasmussen, Susanne; Lane, Geoffrey A

    2008-06-01

    Based on direct infusion mass spectrometry we identified a novel alkaloid as a major component of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Initial mass spectral data suggested it to be a pyrrolizidine conjugate. As this class of alkaloids has not been described before from grasses, we isolated it to elucidate its structure. The isolated alkaloid proved to be a mixture of two stereoisomers. The structures of the two compounds as determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, were E-thesinine-O-4'-alpha-rhamnoside (1) and Z-thesinine-O-4'-alpha-rhamnoside (2). These identifications were supported by the characterisation by GC-MS and optical rotation of (+)-isoretronecanol as the necine base released on alkaline hydrolysis of these alkaloids. 1 and 2 together with the aglycone and a hexoside were also detected in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). This is the first report of pyrrolizidine alkaloids produced by grasses (Poaceae).

  18. The Effect of Endophytic Fungi on Nematode Populations in Summer-dormant and Summer-active Tall Fescue

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, James K.; Walker, Nathan R.; Young, Carolyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Summer-active (continental) and summer-dormant (Mediterranean) tall fescue morphotypes are each adapted to different environmental conditions. Endophyte presence provides plant parasitic nematode resistance, but not with all endophyte strains and cultivar combinations. This study sought to compare effects of four nematode genera on continental and Mediterranean cultivars infected with common toxic or novel endophyte strains. A 6-mon greenhouse study was conducted with continental cultivars, K...

  19. The bull sperm microRNAome and the effect of fescue toxicosis on sperm microRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, Heather M; Calcatera, Samantha M; Dimmick, Marcy A; Andrae, John G; Duckett, Susan K; Pratt, Scott L

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue [Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub] accounts for nearly 16 million hectares of pasture in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic U.S. due to its heat, drought, and pest resistance, conferred to the plant by its symbiotic relationship with the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. The endophyte produces ergot alkaloids that have negative effects on the growth and reproduction of animals, resulting in the syndrome known as fescue toxicosis. The objectives of our study were to identify microRNA (miRNA) present in bovine sperm and to evaluate the effects of fescue toxicosis on sperm miRNA expression. Angus bulls were assigned to treatments of either toxic or non-toxic fescue seed diets. Semen was collected and subjected to RNA isolation. Three samples from each treatment group were chosen and pooled for deep sequencing. To compare miRNA expression between treatment groups, a microarray was designed and conducted. For each of the top ten expressed miRNA, target prediction analysis was conducted using TargetScan. Gene ontology enrichment was assessed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Sequencing results elucidated the presence of 1,582 unique small RNA present in sperm. Of those sequences, 382 were known Bos taurus miRNA, 22 were known but novel to Bos taurus, and 816 were predicted candidate miRNA that did not map to any currently reported miRNA. Of the sequences chosen for microarray, twenty-two showed significant differential expression between treatment groups. Gene pathways of interest included: regulation of transcription, embryonic development (including blastocyst formation), Wnt and Hedgehog signaling, oocyte meiosis, and kinase and phosphatase activity. MicroRNA present in mature sperm appears to not only be left over from spermatogenic processes, but may actually serve important regulatory roles in fertilization and early developmental processes. Further, our results indicate the possibility that environmental

  20. The bull sperm microRNAome and the effect of fescue toxicosis on sperm microRNA expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Stowe

    Full Text Available Tall fescue [Schedonorus phoenix (Scop. Holub] accounts for nearly 16 million hectares of pasture in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic U.S. due to its heat, drought, and pest resistance, conferred to the plant by its symbiotic relationship with the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. The endophyte produces ergot alkaloids that have negative effects on the growth and reproduction of animals, resulting in the syndrome known as fescue toxicosis. The objectives of our study were to identify microRNA (miRNA present in bovine sperm and to evaluate the effects of fescue toxicosis on sperm miRNA expression. Angus bulls were assigned to treatments of either toxic or non-toxic fescue seed diets. Semen was collected and subjected to RNA isolation. Three samples from each treatment group were chosen and pooled for deep sequencing. To compare miRNA expression between treatment groups, a microarray was designed and conducted. For each of the top ten expressed miRNA, target prediction analysis was conducted using TargetScan. Gene ontology enrichment was assessed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Sequencing results elucidated the presence of 1,582 unique small RNA present in sperm. Of those sequences, 382 were known Bos taurus miRNA, 22 were known but novel to Bos taurus, and 816 were predicted candidate miRNA that did not map to any currently reported miRNA. Of the sequences chosen for microarray, twenty-two showed significant differential expression between treatment groups. Gene pathways of interest included: regulation of transcription, embryonic development (including blastocyst formation, Wnt and Hedgehog signaling, oocyte meiosis, and kinase and phosphatase activity. MicroRNA present in mature sperm appears to not only be left over from spermatogenic processes, but may actually serve important regulatory roles in fertilization and early developmental processes. Further, our results indicate the possibility that

  1. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Does tall fescue toxicosis negatively impact bull growth and breeding potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, S L; Andrae, J G

    2015-12-01

    The predominant cool-season forage in the southeastern United States is the tall fescue cultivar Kentucky 31 (KY31). Kentucky 31 possesses an endophyte (), which produces a family of toxins called ergot alkaloids. These toxins negatively affect the physiology of animals on consumption and result in the syndrome known as fescue toxicosis. Currently, the United States annually produces approximately 11.4 billion kg of beef, of which 25% originates in the southeastern region of the United States where forage systems frequently are tall fescue based. Cattle within this forage system exhibit reduced gains and reproductive performance. The result is a reduction in the nation's beef supply with annual revenue losses recently estimated at approximately US$1 billion. Our hypothesis is that exposure to these ergot alkaloids in conjunction with limited availability of nutrients decreases bull semen quality and fertility. Although the literature is clear that these toxins affect BW, body temperature, blood flow, hair growth, and female reproduction in cattle, their effect on bull reproduction and the mechanisms through which the toxins act are not well defined. Six studies published from 2004 to 2015 assessed bull growth, body composition, and semen quality of young beef bulls exposed to ergot alkaloids. If semen quality or fertility is altered, the mechanisms involved may be either direct effects of ergot alkaloids through neurotransmitter receptors or indirect effects such as inhibiting the release of prolactin (PRL). The possible effects of ergot alkaloids or PRL require establishing the presence or absence of dopamine, adrenergic, serotonin, or PRL receptors in the testis, epididymis, and sperm cell of the bull. The objective of this review is to relate our findings to the few previous studies conducted that evaluated the impact of fescue toxicosis on bull reproduction and to propose possible mechanisms of action for lowered semen quality.

  2. Effects of multiple climate change factors on the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis: infection frequency and tissue chemistry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosi, Glade [University of Kentucky; McCulley, Rebecca L [University of Kentucky; Bush, L P [University of Kentucky; Nelson, Jim A [University of Kentucky; Classen, Aimee T [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Norby, Richard J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Climate change (altered CO{sub 2}, warming, and precipitation) may affect plant-microbial interactions, such as the Lolium arundinaceum-Neotyphodium coenophialum symbiosis, to alter future ecosystem structure and function. To assess this possibility, tall fescue tillers were collected from an existing climate manipulation experiment in a constructed old-field community in Tennessee (USA). Endophyte infection frequency (EIF) was determined, and infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) tillers were analysed for tissue chemistry. The EIF of tall fescue was higher under elevated CO{sub 2} (91% infected) than with ambient CO{sub 2} (81%) but was not affected by warming or precipitation treatments. Within E+ tillers, elevated CO{sub 2} decreased alkaloid concentrations of both ergovaline and loline, by c. 30%; whereas warming increased loline concentrations 28% but had no effect on ergovaline. Independent of endophyte infection, elevated CO{sub 2} reduced concentrations of nitrogen, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. These results suggest that elevated CO{sub 2}, more than changes in temperature or precipitation, may promote this grass-fungal symbiosis, leading to higher EIF in tall fescue in old-field communities. However, as all three climate factors are likely to change in the future, predicting the symbiotic response and resulting ecological consequences may be difficult and dependent on the specific atmospheric and climatic conditions encountered.

  3. Use of two grasses for the phytoremediation of aqueous solutions polluted with terbuthylazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Daniele Del; Pannacci, Euro; Bartucca, Maria Luce; Nasini, Luigi; Proietti, Primo; Tei, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    The capacity of two grasses, tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), to remove terbuthylazine (TBA) from polluted solutions has been assessed in hydroponic cultures. Different TBA concentrations (0.06, 0.31, 0.62, and 1.24 mg/L) were chosen to test the capacity of the two grasses to resist the chemical. Aerial biomass, effective concentrations (to cause reductions of 10, 50, and 90% of plant aerial biomass) and chlorophylls contents of orchardgrass were found to be more affected. Tall fescue was found to be more capable of removing the TBA from the growth media. Furthermore, enzymes involved both in the herbicide detoxification and in the response to herbicide-induced oxidative stress were investigated. Glutathione S-transferase (GST, EC. 2.5.1.18) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC. 1.11.1.11) of tall fescue were found to be unaffected by the chemical. GST and APX levels of orchardgrass were decreased by the treatment. These negative modulations exerted by the TBA on the enzyme of orchardgrass explained its lower capacity to cope with the negative effects of the TBA.

  4. The influence of exogenous nutrients on the abundance of yeasts on the phylloplane of turfgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix-Stohr, Shannon; Burpee, Leon L; Buck, James W

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess the effect of foliar applications of various nutrient solutions on the phylloplane yeast community of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). In the first three experiments, increasing concentrations of sucrose (2-16%), yeast extract (0.5-2.5%), and sucrose plus yeast extract (2.5-18.5% total) were applied and the yeast colony forming units (cfu) enumerated 14 h later by dilution plating. Significant positive linear relationships were observed between the number of yeast cfu and applications of both yeast extract and sucrose plus yeast extract. Foliar applications of sucrose alone had no significant effect on yeast community abundance, indicating that phylloplane yeasts of turfgrass are not limited by the amount or availability of carbohydrates. In the fourth experiment, five different solutions were applied to tall fescue to investigate the response of the yeast community to organic and inorganic nitrogen sources. Tryptone or yeast extract, both with considerable amino acid composition, significantly increased the yeast population, while yeast nitrogen base (with or without amino acids) and ammonium sulfate had no affect on yeast abundance. These results suggest that organic nitrogen stimulate yeast community growth and development on the phylloplane of tall fescue, while carbohydrates, inorganic nitrogen, and non-nitrogenous nutrients have little positive effect.

  5. Preliminary note on potential use of forage crops for soil phytoremediation of dieldrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnarumma, L; Annesi, T; Pompi, V; Rosati, S; Conte, E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the feasibility of using tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) for phytoremediation of dieldrin. Experimental trial was carried out in greenhouse with temperature and light control. Each tested crop were seeded in individual pots (10 plants/pot) filled with contaminated soil (47 microg/kg dieldrin) and uncontaminated soil collected in sites located in the province of Latina (Italy). Samples of soil, root, and aerial part of plants were analysed at 3 and 6 months after seeding. The analytical determinations in soil and plant samples were carried out by GLC-ECD and confirmed by GLC-MS. After 6 months in the greenhouse, recoveries of dieldrin from soil planted with tall fescue and alfalfa were significantly lower than recoveries in unplanted control soil. Dieldrin residue values in root did not differ between the two different sampling times for each forage crop tested, but they were always higher in fescue than in alfalfa. Residue levels in aerial part were low (dieldrin in soil at low level of contamination.

  6. Influence of papermill sludge on growth of Medicago sativa, Festuca rubra and Agropyron trachycaulum in gold mine tailings: A greenhouse study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Scott [Department of Botany, University of Manitoba, 505 Buller building, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Renault, Sylvie [Department of Botany, University of Manitoba, 505 Buller building, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)], E-mail: renaults@cc.umanitoba.ca

    2008-02-15

    A greenhouse study was undertaken to determine the suitability of adding papermill sludge to neutral/alkaline gold mine tailings to improve the establishment of Festuca rubra, Agropyron trachycaulum and Medicago sativa. Festuca rubra root and shoot biomass and A. Trachycaulum shoot biomass were increased with papermill sludge amendment. The addition of papermill sludge and fertilizer drastically increased the shoot and root biomass of M. sativa (20-30 times) while A. trachycaulum and F. rubra showed a more moderate increase in growth. Photosynthetic pigment content of the leaves was higher in papermill sludge treatments than in the treatments without papermill sludge. The organic carbon content, macro-aggregate content and field capacity of the gold mine tailings were increased while the bulk density was decreased by the addition of papermill sludge. This study suggests that addition of papermill sludge and adequate fertilization can alleviate some of the adverse conditions of neutral/alkaline gold mine tailings. - Addition of papermill sludge and adequate fertilization of neutral gold mine tailings increased growth of Medicago sativa, Festuca rubra and Agropyron trachycaulum.

  7. Pengaruh Lama Penyinaran Gelombang Mikro Terhadap Pembentukan Struktur dan Sifat Thermal Karbon Hitam dari Bambu Ori (Bambusa arundinacea dan Bambu Petung (Dendrocalamus asper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahma Rei Sakura

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bambu merupakan salah satu tumbuhan yang memiliki bentuk batang tinggi, berongga, berbentuk bulat dan memiliki kekuatan yang baik. Penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari pengaruh proses penyinaran gelombang mikro terhadap pembentukan struktur dan sifat thermal karbon hitam dari bambu ori (Bambusa arundinacea dan bambu petung (Dendrocalamus asper. Metode sintesis karbon hitam yaitu dengan melakukan penyinaran gelombang mikro dengan variasi lama penyinaran selama 1, 2, 3, 4, dan 5 menit, serta variasi daya 400, 600, dan 800 watt. Pengujian nilai kalor terhadap karbon hitam untuk mengetahui potensi bahan bakar. Perubahan gugus fungsi diuji dengan Fourier Transforms Infrared Spectrometer. Untuk mengidentifikasi senyawa atau fasa, dilakukan pengujian X-Ray Difraction. Struktur mikro akan dipelajari menggunakan uji Scanning Electron Microscope. Hasil dari pengujian tersebut yaitu semakin lama pemanasan gelombang mikro, maka berat sisa yang dihasilkan semakin sedikit. Semakin tinggi daya, maka karbon yang dihasilkan semakin homogen. Waktu pemanasan yang semakin lama, mengakibatkan karbon yang terbentuk semakin baik dan homogen.

  8. Anatomical-morphological changes in Glyceria aquatica (L. Wahlb. and Phalaris arundinacea L. growing in the zone inundated by the Kwiecko lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz R. Śpiewakowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological-anatomical changes are described in the shoots of Glyceria aquatica and Phalaris arundinacea. These grasses encroach upon the zone inundated by the lake Kwiecko which is the lower reservoir of the Hydroelectric Plant Żydowo. The interaction of habitat and anthropogenic factors causes disturbances in the physiology of reproduction in the above mentioned plants and produces changes in their external and internal structure. Both species form in the zone inundated by the lake vegetative shoots exclusively, with profuse aerial tillering at the apical meristems. The morphological changes consist in shortening of the shoots and multiplication of the internodes. In the internal structure a narrowing of the ring of sclerenchyma, a shift of the vascular bundles into the sclerenchyma and an increase of its layer and air channels are observed.

  9. Growth Strategy of Rhizomatous and Non-Rhizomatous Tall Fescue Populations in Response to Defoliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racheal H. Bryant

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the morphology of rhizome production, in two contrasting rhizomatous (R and non-rhizomatous (NR tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort populations, and to assess whether rhizome production is associated with changed biomass allocation or plant growth pattern. Growth of R and NR populations was compared, under hard defoliation (H, 50 mm stubble, lax defoliation (L, 100 mm stubble, or without defoliation (U, uncut. Populations were cloned and grown in a glasshouse and defoliated every three weeks, with destructive harvests performed at 6, 12 and 18 weeks. R plants allocated more biomass to root and less to pseudostem than NR plants. Plant tiller numbers were greatly reduced by defoliation, and R and NR populations differed in leaf formation strategy. R plants had narrower leaves than NR, but their leaves were longer, because of greater leaf elongation duration. R plants were more plastic than NR plants in response to defoliation. Ultimately, biomass allocation to rhizomes did not differ between populations but R plants exhibited a subtle shift in distribution of internode length with a few longer internode segments typically located on secondary and tertiary tillers.

  10. Effect of protein supplementation and forage allowance on the growth and reproduction of beef heifers grazing stockpiled tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, S E; Shaeffer, A D; Drewnoski, M E; Poore, M H; Poole, D H

    2016-04-01

    Stockpiled tall fescue can provide adequate winter forage for beef cattle, although unsupplemented replacement heifers may display marginal performance before breeding. The objective of this study was to determine if protein supplementation and/or additional forage improves growth and reproductive performance of replacement heifers grazing stockpiled fescue. Cattle averaging 272 ± 1.59 kg were stratified by BW and then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 plots within a pasture replication. Treatment combinations were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement and included 1) a conservative forage allocation ("normal," targeting 85% forage use) and mineral supplement (normal forage allocation with mineral supplement [FM]), 2) normal forage allocation with protein tub (FT), 3) more liberal forage allocation ("extra," targeting 70% forage use) and mineral supplement (extra forage allocation with mineral supplement [EM]), and 4) "extra forage allocation with protein tub (ET). Treatments were administered for 8 wk from early November to early January. Heifers were fed fescue hay for 1 wk before breeding in late January. Heifers were synchronized with the 7-d CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release device protocol and inseminated in late January. Heifers were checked for pregnancy by ultrasonography at 35 and 90 d after AI. Main and interaction effects between the 2 treatments were determined. Total supplement intake was greater for protein tub than mineral supplement (0.36 vs. 0.11 kg·heifer·d, respectively; Reproductive tract scores, pelvic area, and AI pregnancy rates were not different between treatments ( > 0.05). Overall, feeding a protein supplement or providing extra forage increased gain and interacted to increase BCS but did not have an effect on reproductive performance. Supplementing with protein and providing extra forage are strategies that can increase gain in heifers, which could aid heifers in reaching puberty before estrous synchronization.

  11. Exogenous Application of Citric Acid Ameliorates the Adverse Effect of Heat Stress in Tall Fescue (Lolium arundinaceum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Zhang, Zhifei; Xiang, Zuoxiang; Yang, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Citric acid may be involved in plant response to high temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous citric acid could improve heat tolerance in a cool-season turfgrass species, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum), and to determine the physiological mechanisms of citric acid effects on heat stress tolerance. The grasses were subjected to four citric acid levels (0, 0.2, 2, and 20 mM) and two temperature levels (25/20 and 35/30 ± 0.5°C, day/night) treatments in growth chambers. Heat stress increased an electrolyte leakage (EL) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content, while reduced plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), root activity and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD). External citric acid alleviated the detrimental effects of heat stress on tall fescue, which was evidenced by decreased EL and MDA content, and improved plant growth under stress conditions. Additionally, the reduction in Chl content, Fv/Fm, SOD, POD, CAT and root activity were ameliorated in citric acid treated plants under heat stressed conditions. High temperature induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes, which exhibited greater expression levels after citric acid treatment under heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous citric acid application may alleviate growth and physiological damage caused by high temperature. In addition, the exogenously applied citric acid might be responsible for maintaining membrane stability, root activity, and activation of antioxidant response and HSP genes which could contribute to the protective roles of citric acid in tall fescue responses to heat stress.

  12. An Epichloë festucae homologue of MOB3, a component of the STRIPAK complex, is required for the establishment of a mutualistic symbiotic interaction with Lolium perenne

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Kimberly A.; Becker, Yvonne; Helen L Fitzsimons; Scott, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Summary In both Sordaria macrospora and Neurospora crassa, components of the conserved STRIPAK (striatin‐interacting phosphatase and kinase) complex regulate cell–cell fusion, hyphal network development and fruiting body formation. Interestingly, a number of Epichloë festucae genes that are required for hyphal cell–cell fusion, such as noxA, noxR, proA, mpkA and mkkA, are also required for the establishment of a mutualistic symbiotic interaction with Lolium perenne. To determine whether MobC,...

  13. Determination of total content of reducing saccharide in dry powder of Maranta arundinacea L.by spectrophotomertry%分光光度法测定竹芋粉中总还原糖含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宁彰; 黄广民; 吴蕊

    2013-01-01

      Objective To establish a method for the determination of total content of reducing saccharide in Maranta arundinacea L.. Methods Using glucose as standard and DNS as color developing reagent, the content of total reducing saccharide in Maranta arundinacea L. was determined by spectrophotometry. Results The maximum absorption wavelength of the sample was 480 nm. The recoveries were 98.3%∼101.2%with the relative standard deviation of 1.7%. The content of total saccharide and starch in Maranta arundinacea L. were 77.83%and 70.05%, respectively. Conclusion This method is suitable for the detection of total reducing saccharide and starch in Maranta arundinacea L..%  目的建立竹芋粉中总还原糖含量的3,5-二硝基水杨酸(DNS)比色测定方法。方法以葡萄糖为标准品,以3,5-二硝基水杨酸(DNS)为显色剂,用分光光度法测定竹芋粉中总还原糖的含量。结果在最大吸收波长为480 nm,测得回收率为98.3%~101.2%,相对标准偏差为±1.7%,竹芋粉中总还原糖含量为77.83%,竹芋粉中淀粉含量为70.05%。结论本方法适用于竹芋粉中总还原糖含量的测定。

  14. Acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue does not alter absorptive or barrier function of the isolated ruminal epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in VFA absorption from the washed rumen of steers. Previous data also indicates that incubating an extr...

  15. Isolation of Burkholderia cepacia JB12 from lead- and cadmium-contaminated soil and its potential in promoting phytoremediation with tall fescue and red clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhong Min; Sha, Wei; Zhang, Yan Fu; Zhao, Jing; Ji, Hongyang

    2013-07-01

    Phytoremediation combined with suitable microorganisms and biodegradable chelating agents can be a means of reclaiming lands contaminated by toxic heavy metals. We investigated the ability of a lead- and cadmium-resistant bacterial strain (JB12) and the biodegradable chelator ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) to improve absorption of these metals from soil by tall fescue and red clover. Strain JB12 was isolated from contaminated soil samples, analysed for lead and cadmium resistance, and identified as Burkholderia cepacia. Tall fescue and red clover were grown in pots to which we added JB12, (S,S)-EDDS, combined JB12 and EDDS, or water only. Compared with untreated plants, the biomass of plants treated with JB12 was significantly increased. Concentrations of lead and cadmium in JB12-treated plants increased significantly, with few exceptions. Plants treated with EDDS responded variably, but in those treated with combined EDDS and JB12, heavy metal concentrations increased significantly in tall fescue and in the aboveground parts of red clover. We conclude that JB12 is resistant to lead and cadmium. Its application to the soil improved the net uptake of these heavy metals by experimental plants. The potential for viable phytoremediation of lead- and cadmium-polluted soils with tall fescue and red clover combined with JB12 was further enhanced by the addition of EDDS.

  16. Influence of harvest managements on biomass nutrient concentrations and removal rates of festulolium and tall fescue from a poorly drained nutrient-rich fen peatland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka; Elsgaard, Lars; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to show the effects of harvest time and frequency on biomass nutrient concentrations (total ash, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) as well as total nutrient removal potential by festulolium and tall fescue cultivated on a nutrient-rich fen peatland. The harvest managemen...

  17. Influence of harvest time and frequency on light interception and biomass yield of festulolium and tall fescue cultivated on a peatland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka; Elsgaard, Lars; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2016-01-01

    tIn this study, we report efficiencies of light capture and biomass yield of festulolium and tall fescue cul-tivated on a riparian fen in Denmark under different harvesting managements. Green biomass targetedfor biogas production was harvested either as two cuts (2C) or three cuts (3C) in a year....

  18. Antagonism of lateral saphenous vein serotonin receptors from steers grazing endophyte-free, wild-type, or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharmacologic profiling of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline (ERV), 5HT, 5HT2A and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT...

  19. Genomic and metabolic characterisation of alkaloid biosynthesis by asexual Epichloë fungal endophytes of tall fescue pasture grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanayake, Piyumi N; Kaur, Jatinder; Tian, Pei; Rochfort, Simone J; Guthridge, Kathryn M; Sawbridge, Timothy I; Spangenberg, German C; Forster, John W

    2017-01-04

    Symbiotic associations between tall fescue grasses and asexual Epichloë fungal endophytes exhibit biosynthesis of alkaloid compounds causing both beneficial and detrimental effects. Candidate novel endophytes with favourable chemotypic profiles have been identified in germplasm collections by screening for genetic diversity, followed by metabolite profile analysis in endogenous genetic backgrounds. A subset of candidates was subjected to genome survey sequencing to detect the presence or absence and structural status of known genes for biosynthesis of the major alkaloid classes. The capacity to produce specific metabolites was directly predictable from metabolic data. In addition, study of duplicated gene structure in heteroploid genomic constitutions provided further evidence for the origin of such endophytes. Selected strains were inoculated into meristem-derived callus cultures from specific tall fescue genotypes to perform isogenic comparisons of alkaloid profile in different host backgrounds, revealing evidence for host-specific quantitative control of metabolite production, consistent with previous studies. Certain strains were capable of both inoculation and formation of longer-term associations with a nonhost species, perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Discovery and primary characterisation of novel endophytes by DNA analysis, followed by confirmatory metabolic studies, offers improvements of speed and efficiency and hence accelerated deployment in pasture grass improvement programs.

  20. The impact of endophyte-infected fescue consumption on digital circulation and lameness in the distal thoracic limb of the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douthit, T L; Bormann, J M; Gradert, K C; Lomas, L W; DeWitt, S F; Kouba, J M

    2012-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate if consumption of endophyte-infected fescue alters digital circulation in the distal thoracic limb of the horse and to assess if soundness of the hooves of horses is affected by consumption of endophyte-infected fescue. Twelve American Quarter Horses (mean initial BW 459 ± 31 kg), 6 mares and 6 geldings, were used in this 90-d study that comprised high-endophyte (E+) and low-endophyte (E-) treatment groups. Fescue seed was integrated into the E+ diet at a rate sufficient to bring total ergovaline to 200 μg/kg, and endophyte-free fescue seed was incorporated into the E- diet from d 0 to 90. From d 30 to 60, native prairie hay was replaced with high- or low-endophyte fescue hay, bringing total dietary ergovaline to 280 μg/kg (E+) and 18 μg/kg (E-). From d 61 to 90, fescue seed was ground to decrease particle size. On d 0, 30, 60, and 90, Doppler ultrasonography and thermographic imaging were used to measure the diam. of the medial palmar artery, velocity of blood flow, and surface temperature of the hoof as indicators of digital circulation. Lameness examinations were conducted on the same days. There were no consistent treatment differences observed when evaluating measurements of digital circulation. On d 60, horses in the E+ treatment group showed increased hoof sensitivity in the left limb (P = 0.02). These horses tended to have increased hoof sensitivity when both thoracic limbs were averaged (P = 0.06), and they demonstrated increased lameness during longeing (P = 0.08). Data indicated that mares may have increased digital circulation, regardless of treatment, compared with geldings (P ≤ 0.05). Heavier horses also had greater arterial diam., velocity of blood flow, and hoof temperature than lighter BW horses (P ≤ 0.05) on d 30, 60, and 90 at time points that ranged from 90 to 180 min after feeding. Although horses consuming the E+ diet demonstrated increased lameness, especially on d 60, compared with horses

  1. Antagonism of lateral saphenous vein serotonin receptors from steers grazing endophyte-free, wild-type, or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, J L; Aiken, G E; Johnson, J M; Brown, K R; Bush, L P; Strickland, J R

    2013-09-01

    Pharmacologic profiling of serotonin (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline, 5HT, 5HT2A, and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT receptor activity of tall fescue alkaloids is affected by grazing endophyte-free (EF), wild-type [Kentucky-31 (KY31)], novel endophyte AR542-infected (MAXQ), or novel endophyte AR584-infected (AR584) tall fescue, contractile responses of lateral saphenous veins biopsied from cattle grazing these different fescue-endophyte combinations were evaluated in presence or absence of antagonists for 5HT2A (ketanserin) or 5HT7 (SB-269970) receptors. Biopsies were conducted over 2 yr on 35 mixed-breed steers (361.5 ± 6.3 kg) grazing EF (n = 12), KY31 (n = 12), MAXQ (n = 6), or AR584 (n = 5) pasture treatments (3 ha) between 84 and 98 d (Yr 1) or 108 to 124 d (Yr 2). Segments (2 to 3 cm) of vein were surgically biopsied, sliced into 2- to 3-mm cross-sections, and suspended in a myograph chamber containing 5 mL of oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer (95% O2/5% CO2; pH = 7.4; 37°C). Veins were exposed to increasing concentrations of 5HT, ergovaline, and ergovaline + 1 × 10(-5) M ketanserin or + 1 × 10(-6) M SB-269970 in Yr 1. In Yr 2, ergotamine and ergocornine were evaluated in presence or absence of 1 × 10(-5) M ketanserin. Contractile response data were normalized to a reference addition of 1 × 10(-4) M norepinephrine. In Yr 1, contractile response to 5HT and ergovaline were least (P endophyte-fescue combinations.

  2. The Effects of Steroid Implant and Dietary Soybean Hulls on Estrogenic Activity of Sera of Steers Grazing Toxic Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shappell, Nancy W; Flythe, Michael D; Aiken, Glen E

    2015-01-01

    Soybean hulls (SBHs) have been fed to cattle pasturing on endophyte-infected tall fescue in attempts to increase rate of gain. Literature reports indicated some symptoms associated with fescue toxicosis were ameliorated by the use of steroidal implants containing estradiol (E2) and progesterone [implantation (IMP)], feeding SBHs, or the combination of the two. While the mechanism for amelioration was unclear, the SBHs were postulated as acting as a diluent of the toxic factors of the fescue. Alternatively, estradiol and phytoestrogens of SBHs might be acting through relaxation of the persistent vasoconstriction found in animals ingesting ergot alkaloids of endophyte-infected fescue. If so, estrogenic activity of serum of steers receiving SBHs, IMP, or a combination of the two should be elevated. Using the cellular proliferation assay of estrogenicity (E-Screen), estradiol equivalents (E2Eqs) were determined on both SBHs and the serum of steers from a previously reported study. Range of SBHs was 5.0-8.5 ng Eqs g(-1) DM (mean 6.5, n = 4 from different commercial sources of SBHs). At the rate fed, theoretically calculated blood E2Eq could be physiologically relevant (~80 pg mL(-1), based on 2.3 kg SBHs d(-1), 300 kg steer, 5.7% blood volume, and 10% absorption). Serum E2Eqs did increase in steers (P ≤ 0.05) with steroidal implants or fed SBHs by 56 and 151% over control, respectively, and treatments were additive (211% increase). Serum prolactin was also greatest for the SBH + IMP group (188 ng mL(-1), P phytoestrogens or exogenous sources of estradiol can further reduce symptoms of fescue toxicosis. The E-Screen assay was an effective tool in monitoring serum for estrogenic effects of dietary supplementation with SBHs or estrogenic implants.

  3. Cd, Cu and Zn mobility in contaminated sediments from an infiltration basin colonized by wild plants: the case of Phalaris arundinacea and Typha latifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulais, M; Bedell, J P; Delolme, C

    2011-01-01

    Infiltration basins are shallow reservoirs in which stormwater is temporarily collected in order to reduce water volume in downstream networks. The settling of stormwater particles leads to a contaminated sediment layer. Wild plants can colonize these basins and can also play a role on the fate of heavy metals either directly by their uptake or indirectly by modification of physico-chemical characteristics of the sediment and therefore by modification of the mobility of heavy metals. The aim of this study, carried out in a vegetated infiltration basin, is to assess Cd, Cu and Zn mobility in two zones colonized by different species, Phalaris arundinacea and Typha latifolia. The study was carried out using three single chemical extractions: CaCl2 for the exchangeable phase, acetate buffer for the acido-soluble fraction and diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) for the fraction associated to the organic matter. Zn and Cd are mainly associated to carbonated and organic matter phases of the sediment. Moreover, acetate buffer-extractable Zn contents are strongly correlated to carbonates content in the sediment. DTPA-extractable Cu contents are strongly correlated with organic carbon sediment contents. We have also noted that extractable contents were significantly different between both zones whatever the metal.

  4. Induced Resistance as a Mechanism of Biological Control by Lysobacter enzymogenes Strain C3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic-Ekici, Ozlem; Yuen, Gary Y

    2003-09-01

    ABSTRACT Induced resistance was found to be a mechanism for biological control of leaf spot, caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana, in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) using the bacterium Lysobacter enzymogenes strain C3. Resistance elicited by C3 suppressed germination of B. sorokiniana conidia on the phylloplane in addition to reducing the severity of leaf spot. The pathogen-inhibitory effect could be separated from antibiosis by using heat-inactivated cells of C3 that retained no antifungal activity. Application of live or heat-killed cells to tall fescue leaves resulted only in localized resistance confined to the treated leaf, whereas treatment of roots resulted in systemic resistance expressed in the foliage. The effects of foliar and root applications of C3 were long lasting, as evidenced by suppression of conidial germination and leaf spot development even when pathogen inoculation was delayed 15 days after bacterial treatment. When C3 population levels and germination of pathogen conidia was examined on leaf segments, germination percentage was reduced on all segments from C3-treated leaves compared with segments from non-treated leaves, but no dose-response relationship typical of antagonism was found. Induced resistance by C3 was not host or pathogen specific; foliar application of heat-killed C3 cells controlled B. sorokiniana on wheat and also was effective in reducing the severity of brown patch, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, on tall fescue. Treatments of tall fescue foliage or roots with C3 resulted in significantly elevated peroxidase activity compared with the control.

  5. Gene expression profiling indicates an increased capacity for proline, serine, and ATP synthesis and mitochondrial mass by the liver of steers grazing high vs. low endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S F; Boling, J A; Matthews, J C

    2015-12-01

    Grazing -infected forages results in a variety of reduced animal performance parameters, collectively known as "fescue toxicosis." The initial, limited evaluations of hepatic mechanisms affected by fescue toxicosis have used transcriptomic expression profiling of experimental phenotypes developed by short-term feeding of concentrated ergot alkaloids or fescue seeds to rodents and steers. To assess the effects of fescue toxicosis in growing cattle using a commercially relevant phenotype, we induced fescue toxicosis in beef steers by summer-long grazing (89 to 105 d) of a single high toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture (HE; 0.746 μg/g ergot alkaloids; 5.7 ha; = 10; BW = 267 ± 14.5 kg) vs. a low toxic endophyte tall fescue-mixed pasture (LE; 0.023 μg/g ergot alkaloids; 5.7 ha; = 9; BW = 266 ± 10.9 kg). High toxic endophyte tall fescue-mixed pasture steers had decreased BW (313 vs. 338 kg) and an increased potential for hepatic gluconeogenesis from AA-derived carbons. To gain a greater perspective into fescue toxicosis-induced hepatic metabolism and identify candidate regulatory mechanisms, the goal of the current research was to examine liver samples for changes in gene (mRNA) expression profiles using a Bovine Affymetrix microarray and selected reverse-transcription PCR and immunoblot analyses. The expression (false discovery rate endophyte tall fescue-mixed pasture steers had increased ( ≤ 0.022) expression of genes critical for increased (1) Pro () and Ser () synthesis, (2) shunting of AA carbons into pyruvate () and ATP synthesis (, , , COX4, , and ), and (3) mitochondrial mass (COX4). Targeted reverse-transcribed PCR or immunoblot assays corroborated ( ≤ 0.035) these latter microarray findings for , , , , and COX4. Moreover, network analysis identified glucocorticoid receptor-mediated signaling as the most probable mechanism to coordinate the above findings. These results greatly extend our knowledge of the consequences of summer-long grazing of

  6. The effects of steroid implant and dietary soybean hulls on estrogenic activity of sera of steers grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy W. Shappell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soybean hulls (SBHs have been fed to cattle pasturing on endophyte-infected tall fescue in attempts to increase rate of gain. Literature reports indicated some symptoms associated with fescue toxicosis were ameliorated by the use of steroidal implants containing estradiol (E2 and progesterone (IMP, feeding SBHs, or the combination of the two. While the mechanism for amelioration was unclear, the SBHs were postulated as acting as a diluent of the toxic factors of the fescue. Alternatively, estradiol and phytoestrogens of SBHs might be acting through relaxation of the persistent vasoconstriction found in animals ingesting ergot alkaloids of endophyte-infected fescue. If so, estrogenic activity of serum of steers receiving SBHs, IMP, or a combination of the two should be elevated. Using the cellular proliferation assay of estrogenicity (E-Screen, estradiol equivalents (E2Eqs were determined on both SBHs and the serum of steers from a previously reported study. Range of SBHs was 5.0 to 8.5 ng Eqs g-1 DM (mean 6.5, n=4 different commercial sources of SBHs. At the rate fed, theoretical calculated blood E2Eq could be physiologically relevant (~ 80 pg mL-1, based on 2.3 kg SBHs d-1, 300 kg steer, 5.7% blood volume, and 10% absorption. Serum E2Eqs did increase in steers (P ≤ 0.05 with steroidal implants or fed SBHs by 56 and 151% over control respectively, and treatments were additive (211% increase. Serum prolactin was also greatest for the SBH+IMP group (188 ng mL-1, P < 0.05, concentrations comparable to values reported for steers grazing endophyte-free fescue. Prolactin in the SBH group was higher than IMP or control groups (146 vs 76 and 60 ng mL-1, respectively. Still unknown is if additional E2Eqs from dietary phytoestrogens or exogenous sources of estradiol can further reduce symptoms of fescue toxicosis. The E-Screen assay was an effective tool in monitoring serum for estrogenic effects of dietary supplementation with SBHs or estrogenic

  7. Détermination de la cellulose, des hémicelluloses, de la lignine et des cendres dans diverses cultures lignocellulosiques dédiées à la production de bioéthanol de deuxième génération

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godin, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and ash contents in various lignocellulosic crops for second generation bioethanol production. Various green energy crops are available for the production of renewable energy vectors such as second generation bioethanol. The efficiency of the energy recovery potential of these lignocellulosic crops depends on the crop husbandry, their content of main components (cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, ash and on the second generation bioethanol production process. The lignocellulosic crops investigated in this study are miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus J.M.Greef & Deuter ex Hodk. & Renvoize, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb., fiber sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, fiber corn (Zea mays L., "cocksfoot-alfalfa" mixture (Dactylis glomerata L. – Medicago sativa L., comfrey (Symphytum officinale L., jerusalem artichoke (aerial part (Helianthus tuberosus L. and hemp (Cannabis sativa L.. The samples came from different energy crop trials and their content in cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin was quantified using the Van Soest method. The ash content has also been quantified. The lignocellulosic crops with the best theoretical potential to produce second generation bioethanol based on their biochemical composition (with a yield of 100% for the hydrolysis and the fermentation of cellulose and hemicelluloses are in decreasing order miscanthus, switchgrass, fescue, fiber sorghum, fiber corn and hemp. On one hand, these crops are composed of high amounts of cellulose and hemicelluloses and, on the other hand, the lignin and ash concentration are low. A principal component analysis showed that commeniloïd monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous lignocellulosic crops formed two differentiated categories.

  8. An anti-herbivore defense mutualism under elevated CO2 levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, S.; Lincoln, D.E. (Winthrop Univ., Rock Hill, SC (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that insects typically consume more when fed leaf tissue grown under CO2 enrichment, but with few negative effects on growth. On the other hand, Lepidopteran larvae fed tissue infected with Balansiae fungal endophytes (which produce toxic alkaloids) typically eat less but suffer negative effects on growth and survival. This study was carried out to see how these two factors would interact to affect consumption and growth of Fall Armyworm larvae (Spodoptera frugiperda). Infected and uninfected ramets of a single genotype of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) were grown under CO2 concentrations of 400 and 700 ul/L. Larvae had increased relative growth in the high CO2 treatment, but decreased growth when fed infected tissue. Relative consumption of leaf tissue was greater in the high CO2 treatment, but was not effected by infection. CO2 level, infection, and their interaction all significantly reduced the efficiency of conversion of food ingested (ECI). It appears that tall fescue may not be as well defended against herbivores under CO2 enrichment, although insects may still avoid and be negatively effected by endophyte infected plants.

  9. Growth of forage legumes and grasses in acidic soil amended with flue gas desulfurization products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.B.; Baligar, V.C. [USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD (USA)

    2003-07-01

    Large amounts of flue gas desulfurization products (FGDs) are produced when SO{sub 2} emissions are trapped in the coal burning process for generation of electricity. FGDs are normally discarded instead of being reused, and reuse on soils could be important in overall management of these products. Glasshouse experiments were conducted to determine effects of various levels of three FGDs (a FGD gypsum, an oxidized FGD + Mg, and a stabilized FGD) and the control compounds CaCO{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 3}, and CaSO{sub 4} on growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), white clover (Trifolium repens), orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides) in acidic (pH 4) soil (Typic Hapludult). The FGDs enhanced growth of each plant species, with alfalfa, white clover, and tall fescue receiving greater increases than the other species, especially when grown in soil amended with FGD + Mg. FGD gypsum did not often enhance growth unless high amounts were added. FGDs containing high B and low levels of CaSO{sub 3} were detrimental to growth. Overall, FGDs improved growth responses of these forage plants grown in an infertile low pH soil.

  10. Alkaloid Quantities in Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue are Affected by the Plant-Fungus Combination and Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, M; Phillips, T; Faeth, S H; Bush, L P; McCulley, R; Saloniemi, I; Saikkonen, K

    2016-02-01

    Many grass species are symbiotic with systemic, vertically-transmitted, asymptomatic Epichloë endophytic fungi. These fungi often produce alkaloids that defend the host against herbivores. We studied how environmental variables affect alkaloids in endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix) from three Northern European wild origins and the widely planted US cultivar 'Kentucky-31' (KY31). The plants were grown in identical common garden experiments in Finland and Kentucky for two growing seasons. Plants were left as controls (C) or given water (W), nutrient (N) or water and nutrient (WN) treatments. For 8-10 replications of each plant origin and treatment combination in both experiments, we analyzed ergot alkaloids, lysergic acid, and lolines. In Finland, tall fescue plants produced 50 % more ergot alkaloids compared to plants of the same origin and treatments in Kentucky. Origin of the plants affected the ergot alkaloid concentration at both study sites: the wild origin plants produced 2-4 times more ergot alkaloids than KY31, but the ergot alkaloid concentration of KY31 plants was the same at both locations. Overall lysergic acid content was 60 % higher in plants grown in Kentucky than in those grown in Finland. Nutrient treatments (N, WN) significantly increased ergot alkaloid concentrations in plants from Finland but not in plants from Kentucky. These results suggest that the success of KY31 in US is not due to selection for high ergot alkaloid production but rather other traits associated with the endophyte. In addition, the environmental effects causing variation in alkaloid production of grass-endophyte combinations should be taken into account when using endophyte-infected grasses agriculturally.

  11. Influence of plant growth regulators (PGRs and various additives on in vitro plant propagation of Bambusa arundinacea (Retz. Wild: A recalcitrant bamboo species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Venkatachalam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An efficient micropropagation protocol for high frequency plant regeneration was developed using nodal explants derived in vitro seedlings of Bambusa arundinacea which is an important multipurpose and edible bamboo species and recalcitrant to tissue culture. The nodal explants excised from 20-day-old seedlings were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium fortified with various concentrations of 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP and kinetin (KIN (0.5–5.0 mg/l alone and/or in combination with 0.5 mg/l of different auxins [indole-3-butyric acid (IBA α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA] for shoot bud induction. The combination of BAP (3.0 mg/l and IBA (0.5 mg/l was found to be the best for the highest percent of shoot bud initiation (87.2%, with 24.2 shoots/explant. The highest frequency (95.2% of shoot bud multiplication with maximum number of shoots (90.5 shoots/culture was noticed on medium containing 4% coconut water with 4% sucrose. The regenerated shoot buds were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of auxins alone and/or in combination with AgNO3 (0.5–4.0 mg/l for in vitro rooting. Maximum percent of rooting (85% was noticed on MS medium augmented with 3.0 mg/l IBA and 2.0 mg/l AgNO3 after 14 days of culture. Well rooted plantlets obtained were established in the field with 92% survival rate. The present plant regeneration protocol could be used for large scale propagation and ex-situ conservation of this important bamboo species in the near future.

  12. Estimation of carbon sequestration in reclaimed coalmine degraded land dominated by Albizia lebbeck, Dalbergia sissoo and Bambusa arundinacea plantation: a case study from Jharia Coalfields, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rimi Das; Subodh Kumar Maiti

    2016-01-01

    Reclaimed mined lands provide an excellent opportunity to sequester carbon and combat global warming.Carbon sequestration on reclaimed sites depend on age of reclamation,composition of species,geomining conditions (soil characteristics) and prevailing climate.The aims of the present study were to calculate carbon ?—stock of biomass of 4 years old plantation (dominated by Albizia lebbeck,Dalbergia sissoo and Bambusa arundinacea),understorey vegetation and litter,soil organic carbon in reclaimed minesoil (RMS) and compare with reference forest site.Allometric equation was used for the estimation of biomass C stock and found 13.0 Mg C ha-1 (A lebbeck 7.8 Mg C ha-1,D sissoo 3.5 Mg C ha-1 and B.arundincea 1.2 Mg C ha-1),while stock of understorey vegetation was 0.98 Mg C ha-1.In RMS,C stock was 16.3 Mg C ha-1,out of which inorganic C contributed 1.7 g kg-1 (8 % of total soil C),Coal C 8.7 g kg-1(43 % of total soil C) and biogenic C 9.8 g kg-1 (49 % of total soil C).Total C stock in reclaimed site was calculated as 30.3 Mg C ha-1 (equivalent to 111 Mg CO2 ha-1).The study concluded that (i) coal C is responsible for overestimation of C stock in RMS (ii) Maximun C stock stored in aboveground biomass component and (iii) reclaimed mined lands will take approximately 17 years to reach the level of C stock of reference forest site in dry tropical climate.

  13. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of the ribosomal RNA genes (5S and 35S in the genus Lolium: Lolium canariense, the missing link with Festuca?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inda, Luis A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of taxa can be distinguished within the genus Lolium L. based on the pollination system, chromosome size, chromosomal location of nrDNA (5S and 35S (18S-5.8S-26S] and nrDNA phylogeny. The first group includes self-pollinated taxa (L. temulentum, L. persicum and L. remotum, whereas the second group comprises cross-pollinated species (L. perenne, L. multiflorum and L. rigidum. Here we describe that the autogamous species have two 5S sites and four 35S sites in their genome. Two of the 35S sites are present in the chromosomes containing the 5S regions. The allogamous taxa possess two 5S rDNA sites and 6-10 35S sites per genome, depending on the species. Two of these regions (35S may also be present in the chromosomes bearing 5S sites. Our study also demonstrates that Lolium canariense shows a distinctive pattern. It has two 5S and four 35S sites. In this case, the 35S loci are located in different chromosomes than the 5S. This cytogenetic pattern is consistent with that of Festuca pratensis. Thus, despite being allogamous, Lolium canariense does not entirely fit in either of the groups defined for the genus Lolium. The physical mapping of the nrDNA regions in L. canariense is different, and resembles that of F. pratensis, suggesting that this Macaronesian Lolium could be intermediate between Festuca and Lolium.En trabajos previos se ha descrito que el género Lolium L. está formado por dos grupos de taxones basados en el tipo de polinización, tamaño de los cromosomas, localización cromosómica de los loci del ADN ribosómico [5S y 35S (18S-5.8S-26S] y filogenia molecular basada en secuencias de ADN ribosómico. Los dos grupos son: especies autógamas (L. temulentum, L. persicum y L. remotum y especies alógamas (L. perenne, L. multiflorum y L. rigidum. Aquí describimos que según la localización cromosómica de los loci ribosómicos, las especies autógamas tienen dos sitios 5S y cuatro sitios 35S; dos de las cuales coinciden en

  14. Ascorbic Acid Alleviates Damage from Heat Stress in the Photosystem II of Tall Fescue in Both the Photochemical and Thermal Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available L-Ascorbate (Asc plays important roles in plant development, hormone signaling, the cell cycle and cellular redox system, etc. The higher content of Asc in plant chloroplasts indicates its important role in the photosystem. The objective of this study was to study the roles of Asc in tall fescue leaves against heat stress. After a heat stress treatment, we observed a lower value of the maximum quantum yield for primary photochemistry (φPo, which reflects the inhibited activity of the photochemical phase of photosystem II (PSII. Moreover, we observed a higher value of efficiency of electron transfer from QB to photosystem I acceptors (δR0, which reflects elevated activity of the thermal phase of the photosystem of the tall fescue. The addition of Asc facilitate the behavior of the photochemical phase of the PSII by lowering the ROS content as well as that of the alternative electron donor to provide electron to the tyrosine residue of the D1 protein. Additionally, exogenous Asc reduces the activity of the thermal phase of the photosystem, which could contribute to the limitation of energy input into the photosystem in tall fescue against heat stress. Synthesis of the Asc increased under heat stress treatment. However, under heat stress this regulation does not occur at the transcription level and requires further study.

  15. Epichloë endophytes alter inducible indirect defences in host grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Blande, James D; Gundel, Pedro E; Helander, Marjo; Saikkonen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Epichloë endophytes are common symbionts living asymptomatically in pooid grasses and may provide chemical defences against herbivorous insects. While the mechanisms underlying these fungal defences have been well studied, it remains unknown whether endophyte presence affects the host's own defences. We addressed this issue by examining variation in the impact of Epichloë on constitutive and herbivore-induced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), a well-known indirect plant defence, between two grass species, Schedonorus phoenix (ex. Festuca arundinacea; tall fescue) and Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue). We found that feeding by a generalist aphid species, Rhopalosiphum padi, induced VOC emissions by uninfected plants of both grass species but to varying extents, while mechanical wounding failed to do so in both species after one day of damage. Interestingly, regardless of damage treatment, Epichloë uncinata-infected F. pratensis emitted significantly lower quantities of VOCs than their uninfected counterparts. In contrast, Epichloë coenophiala-infected S. phoenix did not differ from their uninfected counterparts in constitutive VOC emissions but tended to increase VOC emissions under intense aphid feeding. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status imposed stronger differences in VOC profiles of F. pratensis than damage treatment, while the reverse was true for S. phoenix. Additionally, both endophytes inhibited R. padi population growth as measured by aphid dry biomass, with the inhibition appearing greater in E. uncinata-infected F. pratensis. Our results suggest, not only that Epichloë endophytes may play important roles in mediating host VOC responses to herbivory, but also that the magnitude and direction of such responses may vary with the identity of the Epichloë-grass symbiosis. Whether Epichloë-mediated host VOC responses will eventually translate into effects on higher trophic levels merits future investigation.

  16. Epichloë Endophytes Alter Inducible Indirect Defences in Host Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Blande, James D.; Gundel, Pedro E.; Helander, Marjo; Saikkonen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Epichloë endophytes are common symbionts living asymptomatically in pooid grasses and may provide chemical defences against herbivorous insects. While the mechanisms underlying these fungal defences have been well studied, it remains unknown whether endophyte presence affects the host's own defences. We addressed this issue by examining variation in the impact of Epichloë on constitutive and herbivore-induced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), a well-known indirect plant defence, between two grass species, Schedonorus phoenix (ex. Festuca arundinacea; tall fescue) and Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue). We found that feeding by a generalist aphid species, Rhopalosiphum padi, induced VOC emissions by uninfected plants of both grass species but to varying extents, while mechanical wounding failed to do so in both species after one day of damage. Interestingly, regardless of damage treatment, Epichloë uncinata-infected F. pratensis emitted significantly lower quantities of VOCs than their uninfected counterparts. In contrast, Epichloë coenophiala-infected S. phoenix did not differ from their uninfected counterparts in constitutive VOC emissions but tended to increase VOC emissions under intense aphid feeding. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status imposed stronger differences in VOC profiles of F. pratensis than damage treatment, while the reverse was true for S. phoenix. Additionally, both endophytes inhibited R. padi population growth as measured by aphid dry biomass, with the inhibition appearing greater in E. uncinata-infected F. pratensis. Our results suggest, not only that Epichloë endophytes may play important roles in mediating host VOC responses to herbivory, but also that the magnitude and direction of such responses may vary with the identity of the Epichloë–grass symbiosis. Whether Epichloë-mediated host VOC responses will eventually translate into effects on higher trophic levels merits future investigation. PMID:24978701

  17. Ergot alkaloid intoxication in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne): an emerging animal health concern in Ireland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canty, Mary J; Fogarty, Ursula; Sheridan, Michael K; Ensley, Steve M; Schrunk, Dwayne E; More, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    Four primary mycotoxicosis have been reported in livestock caused by fungal infections of grasses or cereals by members of the Clavicipitaceae family. Ergotism (generally associated with grasses, rye, triticale and other grains) and fescue toxicosis (associated with tall fescue grass, Festuca arundinacea) are both caused by ergot alkaloids, and referred to as 'ergot alkaloid intoxication'. Ryegrass staggers (associated with perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne) is due to intoxication with an indole-diperpene, Lolitrem B, and metabolites. Fescue-associated oedema, recently described in Australia, may be associated with a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, N-acetyl norloline. Ergotism, caused by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, is visible and infects the outside of the plant seed. Fescue toxicosis and ryegrass staggers are caused by Neotyphodium coenophalium and N. lolii, respectively. Fescue-associated oedema has been associated with tall fescue varieties infected with a specific strain of N. coenophialum (AR542, Max P or Max Q). The name Neotyphodium refers to asexual derivatives of Epichloë spp., which have collectively been termed the epichloë fungi. These fungi exist symbiotically within the grass and are invisible to the naked eye. The primary toxicological effect of ergot alkaloid involves vasoconstriction and/or hypoprolactinaemia. Ingestion of ergot alkaloid by livestock can cause a range of effects, including poor weight gain, reduced fertility, hyperthermia, convulsions, gangrene of the extremities, and death. To date there are no published reports, either internationally or nationally, reporting ergot alkaloid intoxication specifically associated with perennial ryegrass endophytes. However, unpublished reports from the Irish Equine Centre have identified a potential emerging problem of ergot alkaloid intoxication with respect to equines and bovines, on primarily perennial ryegrass-based diets. Ergovaline has been isolated in varying concentrations in the herbage of a

  18. Cloning and characterization of a Phragmites australis phytochelatin synthase (PaPCS and achieving Cd tolerance in tall fescue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuizhu Zhao

    Full Text Available The production of phytochelatins (PCs provides an important means for plants to achieve tolerance to cadmium (Cd toxicity. A reed gene encoding PC synthase (PaPCS was isolated and its function tested through its heterologous expression in a strain of yeast sensitive to Cd. Subsequently, the Cd sensitive and high biomass accumulating species tall fescue was transformed either with PaPCS or PaGCS (a glutamyl cysteine synthetase gene of reed on their own (single transformants, or with both genes together in the same transgene cassette (double transformant. The single and double transformants showed greater Cd tolerance and accumulated more Cd and PC than wild type plants, and their Cd leaf/root ratio content was higher. The ranking in terms of Cd and PC content for the various transgenic lines was double transformants>PaGCS single transformants>PaPCS single transformants>wild type. Thus PaGCS appears to exert a greater influence than PaPCS over PC synthesis and Cd tolerance/accumulation. The double transformant has interesting potential for phytoremediation.

  19. Explosive Ordnance Disposal Proficiency Range and Multi-Purpose Contingency Training Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    umbellata), Russian olive ( Elaeagnus angustifolia ), beggar-ticks (Bidens polylepis), tall fescue (Festuca elatior), purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria...wineberry (Rubus phoenicolasius), tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima), oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), autumn olive ( Elaeagnus

  20. Environmental Assessment for the Upgrade of the Andrews Air Force Base Airfield Security System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    Russian olive ( Elaeagnus angustifolia ), beggar-ticks (Bidens polylepis), tall fescue (Festuca elatior), purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria...wineberry (Rubus phoenicolasius), tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima), oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), autumn olive ( Elaeagnus umbellata

  1. Environmental Assessment for the National Capital Region Readiness Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    of-heaven 17 (Ailanthus altissima), oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), autumn olive ( Elaeagnus 18 umbellata), Russian olive ( Elaeagnus ... angustifolia ), beggar-ticks (Bidens polylepis), tall fescue 19 (Festuca elatior), purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), Korean lespedeza (Lespedeza

  2. Physiological characteristics of Phalaris arundinacea cv. Picta under drought stress simulated by PEG%PEG模拟干旱胁迫对玉带草生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓东; 李洋洋; 何淼

    2012-01-01

    采用PEG-6000模拟干旱胁迫的方法,研究了不同质量浓度PEG-6000胁迫不同时间后玉带草(Phalaris arundinacea cv.Picta)叶片的形态和生理特性的变化,分析玉带草的耐旱性,以期为玉带草的应用和推广提供理论基础。结果表明,在胁迫下玉带草的叶枯率、细胞膜透性、丙二醛含量、游离脯氨酸含量呈升高趋势,可溶性蛋白含量先降低后升高,超氧化物歧化酶活性、过氧化物酶活性先升高后降低,且此7项指标均与胁迫质量浓度呈显著正相关;叶片含水量呈降低趋势,与胁迫质量浓度呈显著负相关。比较不同胁迫质量浓度下的形态和生理指标的变化,可以确定玉带草具有一定的耐旱性,但重度干旱胁迫会严重损伤玉带草。%In order to provide the academic basis of application and popularization, morphological and physiological characteristics of Phalaris arundinacea cv. Picta under drought stress simulated by PEG-6000 with different concentrations and different periods were studied in this experiment. The results showed that the percentage of withered leaves, leaf relative electrolytic leakage, contents of MDA and free proline increased gradually; while content of water soluble protein declined firstly and then increased. SOD and POD activities welevated at begainning then declined. Above 7 parameters showed a significant positive correlation with PEG stress. However, the leaf relative water content decreased continuously and showed an obvious negative correlation with PEG stress. According to the morphological and physiological parame- ters under drought stress, P. arundinacea cv. Picta could be determined as a drought tolerance species and grew normally under moderate drought stress, but it would be damaged under severe drought stress.

  3. Expression and function analysis of the metallo-thionein-like (MT-like) gene from Festuca rubra in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The cDNA of the metallothionein-like (MT-like) gene from Festuca rubra cv. Merlin was optimized with bias codon of Chlamydomonous reinhardtii chloroplast genome. The optimized MT-like gene was de-livered into C. reinhardtii chloroplast and the transgenic strains expressing MT-like gene was obtained. PCR-Southern blot and RT-PCR-Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the MT-like gene was inte-grated into chloroplast genome of C. reinhardtii and expressed at the transcriptional level. The cad-mium binding capacity of the transgenic C. reinhardtii was determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) and the binding properties were analyzed. Results showed that the transgenic C. reinhardtii expressing the MT-like gene exhibited remarkably higher Cd2+ binding capacity and grew to higher densities at toxic Cd2+ concentrations (40-100 μmol/L) than the wild type strain, and that the IC50 of Cd2+ (3-d treating ) to algal cell growth of transgenic strain was 55.43% higher than that of the wild type strain, indicating that the Cd2+ binding capacity and Cd2+ tolerance of C. reinhardtii was enhanced through the expression of the foreign MT-like gene in chloroplast.

  4. Prediction of Klason lignin and lignin thermal degradation products by Py-GC/MS in a collection of Lolium and Festuca grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmi, R.; Bridgwater, A.V. [Bio-Energy Research Group, Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Thain, S.C.; Donnison, I.S.; Morris, P.M. [Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, Plas Gogerddan, Aberystwyth SY23 3EB (United Kingdom); Yates, N. [Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    A rapid method for the analysis of biomass feedstocks was established to identify the quality of the pyrolysis products likely to impact on bio-oil production. A total of 15 Lolium and Festuca grasses known to exhibit a range of Klason lignin contents were analysed by pyroprobe-GC/MS (Py-GC/MS) to determine the composition of the thermal degradation products of lignin. The identification of key marker compounds which are the derivatives of the three major lignin subunits (G, H, and S) allowed pyroprobe-GC/MS to be statistically correlated to the Klason lignin content of the biomass using the partial least-square method to produce a calibration model. Data from this multivariate modelling procedure was then applied to identify likely 'key marker' ions representative of the lignin subunits from the mass spectral data. The combined total abundance of the identified key markers for the lignin subunits exhibited a linear relationship with the Klason lignin content. In addition the effect of alkali metal concentration on optimum pyrolysis characteristics was also examined. Washing of the grass samples removed approximately 70% of the metals and changed the characteristics of the thermal degradation process and products. Overall the data indicate that both the organic and inorganic specification of the biofuel impacts on the pyrolysis process and that pyroprobe-GC/MS is a suitable analytical technique to asses lignin composition. (author)

  5. Expression and function analysis of the metallo-thionein-like (MT-like) gene from Festuca rubra in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN SiHai; HU ZhangLi; LEI AnPing

    2008-01-01

    The cDNA of the metallothionein-like (MT-like) gene from Festuca rubra cv. Merlin was optimized with bias codon of Chlamydomonous reinhardtii chloroplast genome. The optimized MT-like gene was delivered into C. reinhardtii chloroplast and the transgenic strains expressing MT-like gene was obtained. PCR-Southern blot and RT-PCR-Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the MT-like gene was integrated into chloroplast genome of C. reinhardtii and expressed at the transcriptional level. The cadmium binding capacity of the transgenic C. reinhardtii was determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) and the binding properties were analyzed. Results showed that the transgenic C. reinhardtii expressing the MT-like gene exhibited remarkably higher Cd2+ binding capacity and grew to higher densities at toxic Cd2+ concentrations (40-100 μmol/L) than the wild type strain, and that the IC50 of Cd2+ (3-d treating) to algal cell growth of transgenic strain was 55.43% higher than that of the wild type strain, indicating that the Cd2+ binding capacity and Cd2+ tolerance of C. reinhardtii was enhanced through the expression of the foreign MT-like gene in chloroplast.

  6. Climatic sensitivity of hydrology and carbon exchanges in boreal peatland ecosystems, with implications on sustainable management of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea, L.) on cutaway peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong Jinnan

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of climate change on soil hydrology and carbon (C) fluxes in boreal peatland ecosystems, with implications for the feasibility of cultivating reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea, L; RCG) as a way to restore the C sink in cutaway peatlands under Finnish conditions. First, hydrological models were developed for pristine peatland ecosystems and the cutaway peatlands under RCG cultivation. Concurrently, the hydrological responses to varying climatic forcing and mire types were investigated for these ecosystems. Thereafter, process-based models for estimating the seasonal and annual C exchanges were developed for the pristine mires and cutaway peatlands. The C models incorporated the hydrological models for corresponding ecosystems. Model simulations based on the climate scenarios (ACCLIM, developed by the Finnish Meteorological Institute, FMI) were further carried out to study the impacts of climate change on the C exchanges in the peatland ecosystems during the 21st century. The simulation showed that the water table (WT) in the pristine Finnish mires would draw down slightly during the 21st century. Such a chance in WT would be related to a decrease in the CO{sub 2} sink but an increase in the CH{sub 4} source at the country scale, as driven mainly by the rising temperature (Ta) and increasing precipitation (P). These changes in CO{sub 2}/ CH{sub 4} fluxes would decrease the total C-greenhouse gas (GHG) sink (CO{sub 2} equilibrium) by 68% at the country scale, and the changes would be more pronounced toward the end of the century. The majority of pristine fens in southern and western Finland and the pristine bogs near the coastal areas would become centurial CO{sub 2} sources under the changing climate. On the other hand, the major distribution of fens in northern Finland would act to increase the CH{sub 4} source at the country scale, whereas the CH{sub 4} emission would tend to decrease with WT in the southern

  7. Effects of form of nitrogen fertilization on the accumulation of Pb, As, Sc Ge and U in shoots of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization is necessary for growth and development of plants but it may also causes an increased metal uptake by plants due to changes of physiochemical properties of the elements in soil. The research in phytoremediation and phytomining conducted so far has revealed that the effect of nitrogen fertilizers initially depends on the form of application, as N is the only element that can be readily utilized by plants in its cationic (ammonia) or anionic form (nitrate) causing several effects in soil-plant system. However, to our knowledge most of the recent studies only documented an improvement of yield parameters and the uptake of heavy metals by plants as a result of different forms of N-fertilization. Here we report the result of a field experiment were we tried to obtain more information about the effects of form of N-fertilization on uptake of As, Pb, Sc Ge and U in reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.). In this study, reed canary grass was grown on 15 plots (4 m² each) under field conditions on a semi-field lysimer at the off-site soil recycling and remediation center in Hirschfeld (Saxony, Germany). To test the effects of a fertilization with different N-forms on the accumulation, the plots plants received 5 g N / m² in three doses as NH4SO4, Mg(NO3)2 or NH4NO3. The geometrical arrangement of plots was randomized and every treatment was fivefold replicated. After a 50 day period of plant growth, the plants were harvested and concentrations of trace metals in the shoots were measured with ICP-MS. As a result of the different N-treatments we found that in plants treated with NH4SO4 concentrations of Pb and As as well as of Sc, Ge and U were significantly increased in plant tissues compared to plants treated with NH4NO3. Furthermore, no significant changes in mineral composition of plants between the Mg(NO3)2 and NH4NO3 treatments could be observed. Our interpretation of these results is that it might be an effect of the acidification of

  8. Genotype x environmental interaction for mature size and rate of maturing for Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte infected fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelin, B A; Brown, A H; Brown, M A; Johnson, Z B; Kellogg, D W; Stelzleni, A M

    2002-12-01

    Mature weight and rate of maturing were estimated in 177 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue over a 4-yr period to evaluate genotype x environment interactions. Data were collected every 28 d until cows were approximately 18 mo of age and then at prebreeding, postcalving, and weaning of calf. All cows with weight data to at least 42 mo of age were included in the analysis. Mature weight and rate of maturing were estimated using the three-parameter growth curve model described by Brody (1945). Data were pooled over year and analyzed by the general linear model procedure of SAS. Included in the models for mature weight and rate of maturing were the independent variables of genotype, environment, and genotype x environment interaction. There was a genotype x environment interaction (P Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass (611 +/- 17 vs 546 +/- 16 kg). Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass had lower (P Brahman x Angus cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte-infected fescue and Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass (546 +/- 16 vs 624 +/- 19, 614 +/- 22 and 598 +/- 20 kg, respectively). Brahman cows grazing endophyte-infected fescue had smaller (P Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass. Angus cows had a smaller (P Brahman and Brahman x Angus cows (0.039 +/- 0.002 vs 0.054 +/- 0.002 and 0.049 +/- 0.002%/mo, respectively), respectively, and Angus x Brahman cows had a larger (P Brahman x Angus and Brahman cows (0.054 +/- 0.002 vs 0.049 +/- 0.002 and 0.041 +/- 0.002 %/mo, respectively). There was a direct breed x forage interaction (P < 0.05) for mature BW. These data suggest that the choice of breed type is important in maintaining a crossbreeding program, in that mature BW and rate of maturing are critical to the matching of animal requirements to available production resources.

  9. Acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue does not alter absorptive or barrier function of the isolated bovine ruminal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, A P; Penner, G B; Walpole, M E; Klotz, J L; Brown, K R; Bush, L P; Harmon, D L

    2014-07-01

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in volatile fatty acids (VFA) absorption from the washed rumen of steers. Previous data also indicates that incubating an extract of endophyte-infected tall fescue seed causes an increase in the amount of VFA absorbed per unit of blood flow, which could result from an alteration in the absorptive or barrier function of the rumen epithelium. An experiment was conducted to determine the acute effects of an endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract (EXT) on total, passive or facilitated acetate and butyrate flux across the isolated bovine rumen as well as the barrier function measured by inulin flux and tissue conductance (G t ). Flux of ergovaline across the rumen epithelium was also evaluated. Rumen tissue from the caudal dorsal sac of Holstein steers (n=6), fed a common diet, was collected and isolated shortly after slaughter and mounted between two halves of Ussing chambers. In vitro treatments included vehicle control (80% methanol, 0.5% of total volume), Low EXT (50 ng ergovaline/ml) and High EXT (250 ng ergovaline/ml). Results indicate that there is no effect of acute exposure to ergot alkaloids on total, passive or facilitated flux of acetate or butyrate across the isolate bovine rumen epithelium (P>0.51). Inulin flux (P=0.16) and G t (P>0.17) were not affected by EXT treatment, indicating no alteration in barrier function due to acute ergot alkaloid exposure. Ergovaline was detected in the serosal buffer of the High EXT treatment indicating that the flux rate is ~0.25 to 0.44 ng/cm2 per hour. Data indicate that specific pathways for VFA absorption and barrier function of the rumen epithelium are not affected by acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from tall fescue at the concentrations tested. Ergovaline has the potential to be absorbed from the rumen of cattle that

  10. Ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue decrease reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption from the washed reticulorumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, A P; Kristensen, N B; Klotz, J L; Kim, D H; Koontz, A F; McLeod, K R; Bush, L P; Schrick, F N; Harmon, D L

    2013-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine if ergot alkaloids affect blood flow to the absorptive surface of the rumen. Steers (n=8) were pair-fed alfalfa cubes and received ground endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum; E+) seed (0.015 mg ergovaline·kg BW(-1)·d(-1)) or endophyte-free tall fescue (E-) seed via the rumen cannula 2x daily for 7 d at thermoneutral (TN; 22°C) and heat stress (HS; 32°C) conditions. On d 8, the rumen was emptied and rinsed. A buffer containing VFA was incubated in the following sequence: control (CON), 15 μg ergovaline·kg BW(-1) (1×EXT) from a tall fescue seed extract, and 45 μg ergovaline·kg BW(-1) (3×EXT). For each buffer treatment there were two 30-min incubations: a 30-min incubation of a treatment buffer with no sampling followed by an incubation of an identical sampling buffer with the addition of Cr-EDTA and deuterium oxide (D2O). Epithelial blood flow was calculated as ruminal clearance of D2O corrected for influx of physiological water and liquid outflow. Feed intake decreased with dosing E+ seed at HS but not at thermoneutral conditions (TN; P0.05). Inclusion of the extract in the buffer caused at least a 50% reduction in epithelial blood flow at TN (P=0.004), but there was no difference between 1×EXT and 3×EXT. There was a seed × buffer treatment interaction at HS (P=0.005), indicating that the reduction of blood flow induced by incubating the extract was larger for steers receiving E- seed than E+ seed. Volatile fatty acid flux was reduced during the 1×EXT and 3×EXT treatments (P0.80), indicating that observed differences are due to the presence of ergot alkaloids in the rumen. A decrease in VFA absorption could contribute to the signs of fescue toxicosis including depressed growth and performance.

  11. Effects of cottonseed meal supplementation time on ruminal fermentation and forage intake by Holstein steers fed fescue hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkins, M B; Krysl, L J; Barton, R K; Holcombe, D W; Gunter, S A; Broesder, J T

    1991-09-01

    Four ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (average BW 303 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design digestion trial to study the influence of daily cottonseed meal (CSM; 1.6 g of CP/kg of BW) supplementation time on forage intake and ruminal fluid kinetics and fermentation. Steers were housed individually in tie stalls and were fed chopped fescue hay on an ad libitum basis at 0600 and 1400. Treatments were 1) control, grass hay only (CON) and grass hay and CSM fed once daily at 2) 0600 (EAM) 3) 1000 (MAM), or 4) 1400 (PM). Ruminal NH3 N concentrations reflected a time of supplementation x sampling time interaction (P less than .05); CON steers had the lowest (P less than .05) ruminal NH3 N concentrations at all times other than at 0600, 1000, 1200, and 2400, when they did not differ (P greater than .05) from at least one of the supplemented groups. Forage intake, ratio of bacterial purine:N, rate of DM and NDF disappearance, and ruminal fluid kinetics were not influenced (P greater than .05) by supplementation time. Total ruminal VFA differed (P less than .05) between CON and supplemented steers, as well as among supplemented steers (linear and quadratic effects P less than .05). Acetate, propionate, and valerate proportions were influenced (P less than .05) by a sampling time X supplementation time interaction. Under the conditions of this study, greater peak ammonia concentrations with morning supplementation than with afternoon supplementation did not stimulate ruminal fermentation or rate of NDF disappearance.

  12. Some adverse effects of soil amendment with organic Materials-The case of soils polluted by copper industry phytostabilized with red fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuske, Mateusz; Karczewska, Anna; Gałka, Bernard; Dradrach, Agnieszka

    2016-08-02

    The study was aimed to examine the effects of soil amendment with organic waste materials on the growth of red fescue and the uptake of Cu and Zn by this grass, in view of its potential usage for phytostabilization of Cu-polluted soils. Five soils, containing 301-5180 mg/kg Cu, were collected from the surroundings of copper smelter Legnica, and amended with lignite (LG) and limed sewage sludge (SS). Plant growth and the concentrations of Cu and Zn in the shoots and roots of grass were measured in a pot experiment and related to the results of Pytotoxkit and Microtox® tests performed on soil solution. The effects of soil amendment with LG and SS differed greatly, and depended on soil properties. In some cases, the application of alkaline SS resulted in dramatic increase of Cu phytotoxicity and its enhanced uptake by plants, while application of LG to slightly acidic soil caused increased accumulation of Zn in plants, particularly in their roots. The study confirmed good suitability of red fescue for phytostabilization of Cu-contaminated soils except for those extremely polluted. Organic amendments to be used for metal immobilization should be thoroughly examined prior to application.

  13. Postweaning performance of calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue or common bermudagrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Phillips, W A; Brown, A H; Coleman, S W; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1999-01-01

    Data from 403 Polled Hereford-sired calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows were used to evaluate the effects of preweaning forage environment on postweaning performance. Calves were spring-born in 1991 to 1994 and managed on either endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+) or common bermudagrass (BG) during the preweaning phase. After weaning, calves were shipped to the Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK and stratified to one of two winter stocker treatments by breed and preweaning forage; stocker treatments were winter wheat pasture (WW) or native range plus supplemental CP (NR). Each stocker treatment was terminated in March, calves grazed cool-season grasses, and calves were then moved to a feedlot phase in June. In the feedlot phase, calves were fed to approximately 10 mm fat over the 12th rib and averaged approximately 115 d on feed. When finished, calves were weighed and shipped to Amarillo, TX for slaughter. Averaged over calf breed group, calves from E+ gained faster during the stocker phase (Pcarcass weights (Pcarcass weight (P<.16). These data suggest that few carryover effects from tall fescue preweaning environments exist, other than lighter, but acceptable, weights through slaughter. These data further suggest that the tolerance to E+ in calves from reciprocal-cross cows, expressed in weaning weights, moderated postweaning weight differences between E+ and BG compared to similar comparisons in calves from purebred cows.

  14. Effects of partial replacement of corn and alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, R W; Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2016-07-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of replacing either corn or alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows. Twenty-four primiparous (75±35 d in milk) and 40 multiparous (68±19 d in milk) Holstein cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a pen equipped with 32 feeding gates to record intake by cow. Each gate was randomly assigned to 1 treatment group; thus, each cow had access to all 8 gates within the respective treatment and cow was the experimental unit. Treatments were formulated to replace either corn silage (CS) or alfalfa silage (AS) with tall fescue hay (TF) as follows (DM basis): 33% AS and 67% CS (control; 33AS67CS), 60% TF and 40% AS (60TF40AS), 60% TF and 40% CS (60TF40CS), and 33% TF and 67% CS (33TF67CS). The experiment was a 7-wk continuous lactation trial with a 2-wk covariate period. Milk production did not differ among treatments and averaged 40.4 kg/d. Fat yield and concentration and protein yield and concentration did not differ among treatments and averaged 1.58 kg/d, 3.94%, 1.28 kg/d, and 3.15%, respectively. Dry matter intake was greater for 33AS67CS (24.5 kg/d) compared with 60TF40CS (22.1 kg/d) and 33TF67CS (22.7 kg/d), and tended to be greater than 60TF40AS (23.2 kg/d). In vivo total-tract dry matter digestibility did not differ among treatments and averaged 66.2%. In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility was lower for 33AS67CS (37.8%) compared with 60TF40AS (44.4%) and 33TF67CS (45.3%), and similar to 60TF40CS (42.4%). In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility and an estimate of in situ total-tract NDF digestibility were similar between techniques across all treatment diets (42.3 vs. 42.6%, respectively). Inclusion of tall fescue grass hay increased the total-tract NDF digestibility of the diet and has the potential to replace corn silage and alfalfa silage and maintain milk production if economically feasible

  15. 紫羊茅新品系抗旱性比较研究%Comparative Research on Drought Resistance of Festuca rubra L.Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛; 李健; 白史且; 张昌兵; 鄢家俊; 李达旭; 游明鸿

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,base on the relative water content,chlorophyll content,the relative conductance rate and the malondiadehyde(MDA),The drought resistance were studied for Festuca rubra L.strains("SAGS-05054","SAGS-05055",and "SAGS-05056") and one control-"Polar".The main results showed as fallows:Under drought stress,the relative water content(RWC) and chlorophyll content were in a decreasing trend;the relative conductance rate(RPP) and the malondiadehyde(MDA) presented increase;the dissociated praline(Pro) presented first increasing then descending.The drought coefficients of five physiological parameters were evaluated by subordinate function analysis.The capacity of drought resistance of the four varieties was ordered as follows:"SAGS-05056""polar""SAGS-05055""SAGS-05054".%试验以3个紫羊茅新品系(SAGS-05054,SAGS-05055,SAGS-05056)为材料,以国外品种"极地"紫羊茅为对照,从相对含水量、细胞膜透性(RPP)、游离脯氨酸(Pro)、丙二醛(MDA)等方面对紫羊茅品系抗旱性进行系统评价,结果表明:模拟干旱胁迫下,供试材料叶片含水量和叶绿素总含量总体呈递减趋势,相对电导率和丙二醛含量呈递增趋势,游离脯氨酸含量先递增,达峰值后略微下降,各测定生理指标间相关性均达极显著。隶属函数抗旱性分析排序:"SAGS-05056"〉"极地"〉"SAGS-05055"〉"SAGS-05054"。

  16. Seedling Establishment and Forage Accumulation of ‘Ceres Tonic’ Plantain in Pure Stands and in Grass Mixtures Implantación y Acumulación de Forraje de Plantago ‘Ceres Tonic’ Puro y en Mezcla con Gramíneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Silvia Cid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the balance of species 2 mo after sowing, its effects on seasonal and annual dry matter accumulation of Plantago lanceolata L. ‘Ceres Tonic’ sown in pure stands, in binary mixtures with three grasses, and different initial growth rates: annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb., and orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L.. Plantain monocultures were sown at three densities (4, 8, and 12 kg seed ha-1, while halved densities were used in the mixtures. Each grass was sown at the density that is typical for the region (annual ryegrass = 30, tall fescue = 15, and orchard grass = 6 kg seed ha-1. The trial was carried out in Balcarce (37º45’ S, 58º18’ W; 130 m.a.s.l., Argentina in 1.4 × 5 m plots sown in April 2005 with a randomized complete block design, a factorial arrangement of pasture type and plantain sowing density, and seasons as a measurement repeated over time. Plant density 2 mo after sowing was not a good estimator of the balance between species for all pasture types at the end of the first year. Total forage accumulation throughout the experimental period was affected by pasture type (p = 0.08 and plantain sowing density (p 0.05. The plantain and annual ryegrass mixture accumulated 28% more biomass than the mean biomass of all the other pastures (7948 ± 647 vs. 6204 ± 502 kg DM ha-1 mainly because of its higher yield in fall and winter. Total precipitation during the year under study was 15% lower than the historic average so that higher accumulations could be expected in years with higher precipitation.Se evaluó si el balance de especies logrado a los 2 meses de la siembra incide en la acumulación estacional y anual de Plantago lanceolata L. ‘Ceres Tonic’ en cultivos puros y en mezclas binarias con tres gramíneas de diferente velocidad de crecimiento inicial: raigrás anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam., festuca alta (Festuca arundinaceas Schreb., y pasto ovillo

  17. Antiherbivore defense mutualism under elevated carbon dioxide level: A fungal endophyte and grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, S. [Winthrop Univ., Rock Hill, SC (United States); Lincoln, D.E. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that insects commonly consume more when fed leaf tissue grown under CO{sub 2} enrichment, but with few negative effects on growth. However, lepidoteran larvae fed tissue infected with Balansiae fungal endophytes (which product toxic alkaloids) typically eat less but also suffer negative effects on growth and survival. This study was carried out to understand how these 2 factors may interact to affect larval consumption and growth in fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Infected and uninfected ramets of a single genotype of tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea Schreb., were grown under CO{sub 2} concentrations, but was not influenced by infection. As expected, larvae had significantly reduced efficiency of conversion of ingested food. These 2 factors also interacted so that the lowest efficiency of conversion of ingested food was seen when both infection and an enriched atmospheric CO{sub 2} environment were present. As global atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels continue to increase, it appears that fungal endophytes will continue to be important in turfgrasses as protection against insect herbivores and may lead to increased fitness for infected plant genotypes. 47 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Mineral concentrations of forage legumes and grasses grown in acidic soil amended with flue gas desulfurization products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.B.; Baligar, V.C. [USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD (USA). Beltsville Agricultural Research Center West

    2003-07-01

    Considerable quantities of flue gas desulfurization products (FGDs) are generated when coal is burned for production of electricity, and these products have the potential to be reused rather than discarded. Use of FGDs as soil amendments could be important in overall management of these products, especially on acidic soils. Glasshouse studies were conducted to determine shoot concentrations of calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), boron (B), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), sodium (Na), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), white clover (Trifolium repens), orchardgrass (Dacrylis glomerata), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides) grown in acidic (pH 4) soil (Typic Hapludult) amended with various levels of three FGDs and the control compounds CaCO{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 3}, and CaSO{sub 4}. Shoot concentrations of Ca, S, Mg, and B generally increased as levels of soil applied FGD increased. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu were lower in shoots, especially when soil pH was high ({gt}7). Shoot concentrations of the trace elements Mo, Ni, Cd, Cr, and Pb were not above those reported as normal for foliage. Overall concentrations of most minerals remained near normal for shoots when plants were grown in FGD amended acidic soil.

  19. Trace metals in soil vegetation, and voles from mine land treated with sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberici, T.M.; Sopper, W.E.; Storm, G.L.; Yahner, R.H.

    Trace-metal concentrations in soil, vegetation, and tissues of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) were compared on a stripmined site reclaimed conventionally (control site) and with municipal sludge (treated site) in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, in March and April 1983. With the exception of Zn concentrations in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), reclamation with municipal sludge did not increase trace metal concentrations in soil, vegetation, or meadow voles in comparison to the site reclaimed conventionally. Zinc concentration in birdsfoot trefoil from the site reclaimed with sludge was higher than that from the site reclaimed conventionally but was below phytotoxic levels. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Co, Cd, and Ni in vole tissues were not significantly different between control and treated sites. However, Cr concentrations in kidney and bone and Pb concentrations in liver and bone were higher on the control site than on the treated site. Stomach analyses indicated that meadow voles preferred tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae L.) and quackgrass (Agropyron repens L.) to birdsfoot trefoil and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) 27 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  20. A multi-process phytoremediation system for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Xiaodong; El-Alawi, Yousef; Penrose, Donna M.; Glick, Bernard R.; Greenberg, Bruce M

    2004-08-01

    To improve phytoremediation processes, multiple techniques that comprise different aspects of contaminant removal from soils have been combined. Using creosote as a test contaminant, a multi-process phytoremediation system composed of physical (volatilization), photochemical (photooxidation) and microbial remediation, and phytoremediation (plant-assisted remediation) processes was developed. The techniques applied to realize these processes were land-farming (aeration and light exposure), introduction of contaminant degrading bacteria, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), and plant growth of contaminant-tolerant tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Over a 4-month period, the average efficiency of removal of 16 priority PAHs by the multi-process remediation system was twice that of land-farming, 50% more than bioremediation alone, and 45% more than phytoremediation by itself. Importantly, the multi-process system was capable of removing most of the highly hydrophobic, soil-bound PAHs from soil. The key elements for successful phytoremediation were the use of plant species that have the ability to proliferate in the presence of high levels of contaminants and strains of PGPR that increase plant tolerance to contaminants and accelerate plant growth in heavily contaminated soils. The synergistic use of these approaches resulted in rapid and massive biomass accumulation of plant tissue in contaminated soil, putatively providing more active metabolic processes, leading to more rapid and more complete removal of PAHs. - Persistent PAH contaminants in soils can be removed more completely and rapidly by using multiple remediation processes.

  1. Thermal-treated soil for mercury removal: Soil and phytotoxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Y.; Edwards, N.T.; Lee, S.Y.; Stiles, C.A.; Armes, S.; Foss, J.E.

    2000-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of soils and sediments is one of many environmental problems at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, TN. Mercury-contaminated soil from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Reservation was treated thermally to reduce Hg concentration to a below target level (20 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) as a pilot scale thermal treatment demonstration. As a part of performance evaluation, the soil characteristics and plant growth response of the untreated and treated soil were examined. The soil treated at 350 C retained most of its original soil properties, but the soil treated at 600 C exhibited considerable changes in mineralogical composition and physicochemical characteristics. Growth and physiological response of the three plant species radish (Raphanus sativus L.), fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and oat (Avena sativa L.) indicated adverse effects of the thermal treatment. The addition of N fertilizer had beneficial effects in the 350 C treated soil, but had little beneficial effect in the 600 C treated soil. Some changes of soil characteristics induced by thermal treatment cannot be avoided. Soil characteristics and phytotoxicity test results strongly suggest that changes occurring following the 350 C treatment do not limit the use of the treated soil to refill the excavated site for full-scale remediation. The only problem with the 350 C treatment is that small amounts of Hg compounds (<15 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) remain in the soil and a processing cost of $45/Mg.

  2. Energy efficiency and energy homeostasis as genetic and epigenetic components of plant performance and crop productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Block, Marc; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke

    2011-06-01

    The importance of energy metabolism in plant performance and plant productivity is conceptually well recognized. In the eighties, several independent studies in Lolium perenne (ryegrass), Zea mays (maize), and Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue) correlated low respiration rates with high yields. Similar reports in the nineties largely confirmed this correlation in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Cucumis sativus (cucumber). However, selection for reduced respiration does not always result in high-yielding cultivars. Indeed, the ratio between energy content and respiration, defined here as energy efficiency, rather than respiration on its own, has a major impact on the yield potential of a crop. Besides energy efficiency, energy homeostasis, representing the balance between energy production and consumption in a changing environment, also contributes to an enhanced plant performance and this happens mainly through an increased stress tolerance. Although a few single gene approaches look promising, probably whole interacting networks have to be modulated, as is done by classical breeding, to improve the energy status of plants. Recent developments show that both energy efficiency and energy homeostasis have an epigenetic component that can be directed and stabilized by artificial selection (i.e. selective breeding). This novel approach offers new opportunities to improve yield potential and stress tolerance in a wide variety of crops.

  3. Ectopic Expression of FaDREB2 Enhances Osmotic Tolerance in Paper Mulberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Ru Li; Yan Li; Hong-Qing Li; Guo-Jiang Wu

    2011-01-01

    Dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB) proteins are a subfamily of AP2/ERF transcription factors that have been shown to improve tolerance to osmotic stresses in plants.To improve the osmotic stress tolerance of paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera L.Vent),an economically important tree,we transformed it with a plasmid carrying tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) FaDREB2 under the control of CaMV 35S.The ectopic expression of FaDREB2 did not cause growth retardation,and the paper mulberry seedlings expressing FaDREB2 showed higher salt and drought tolerance than wild-type plants (WT).After 13 d of withholding water,or 15 d in the presence of 250 mM NaCI,all the WT plants died,while the plants expressing FaDREB2 survived.The FaDREB2 transgenic plants had higher leaf water and chlorophyll contents,accumulated more proline and soluble sugars,and had less membrane damage than the WT plants under high salt and water-deficient conditions.Taken together,the results indicate the feasibility of improving tolerance to multiple environmental stresses in paper mulberry seedlings via genetic engineering,by introducing FaDREB2,which promotes the increased accumulation of osmolytes (soluble sugars and proline),to counter osmotic stresses caused by abiotic factors.

  4. Characterization of a Brome mosaic virus strain and its use as a vector for gene silencing in monocotyledonous hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xin Shun; Schneider, William L; Chaluvadi, Srinivasa Rao; Mian, M A Rouf; Nelson, Richard S

    2006-11-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is used to analyze gene function in dicotyledonous plants but less so in monocotyledonous plants (particularly rice and corn), partially due to the limited number of virus expression vectors available. Here, we report the cloning and modification for VIGS of a virus from Festuca arundinacea Schreb. (tall fescue) that caused systemic mosaic symptoms on barley, rice, and a specific cultivar of maize (Va35) under greenhouse conditions. Through sequencing, the virus was determined to be a strain of Brome mosaic virus (BMV). The virus was named F-BMV (F for Festuca), and genetic determinants that controlled the systemic infection of rice were mapped to RNAs 1 and 2 of the tripartite genome. cDNA from RNA 3 of the Russian strain of BMV (R-BMV) was modified to accept inserts from foreign genes. Coinoculation of RNAs 1 and 2 from F-BMV and RNA 3 from R-BMV expressing a portion of a plant gene to leaves of barley, rice, and maize plants resulted in visual silencing-like phenotypes. The visual phenotypes were correlated with decreased target host transcript levels in the corresponding leaves. The VIGS visual phenotype varied from maintained during silencing of actin 1 transcript expression to transient with incomplete penetration through affected tissue during silencing of phytoene desaturase expression. F-BMV RNA 3 was modified to allow greater accumulation of virus while minimizing virus pathogenicity. The modified vector C-BMV(A/G) (C for chimeric) was shown to be useful for VIGS. These BMV vectors will be useful for analysis of gene function in rice and maize for which no VIGS system is reported.

  5. Coal slurry solids/coal fluidized bed combustion by-product mixtures as plant growth media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmody, R.G.; Green, W.P.; Dreher, G.B.

    1998-01-01

    Fine-textured, pyritic waste produced by coal cleaning is stored in slurry settling ponds that eventually require reclamation. Conventionally, reclamation involves covering the dewatered coal slurry solids (CSS) with 1.3 m of soil to allow plant growth and prevent acid generation by pyrite oxidation. This study was conducted to determine the feasiblity of a less costly reclamation approach that would eliminate the soil cover and allow direct seeding of plants into amended CSS materials. Potential acidity of the CSS would be neutralized by additions of fluidized-bed combustion by-product (FBCB), an alkaline by-product of coal combustion. The experiment involved two sources of CSS and FBCB materials from Illinois. Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.) were seeded in the greenhouse into pots containing mixtures of the materials. CSS-1 had a high CaCO3:FeS2 ratio and needed no FBCB added to compensate for its potential acidity. CSS-2 was mixed with the FBCB materials to neutralize potential acidity (labeled Mix A and B). Initial pH was 5.6, 8.8, and 9.2 for the CSS-1, Mix A, and Mix B materials, respectively. At the end of the 70-day experiment, pH was 5.9 for all mixtures. Tall fescue and sweet clover grew well in all the treatments, but birdsfoot trefoil had poor emergence and survival. Elevated tissue levels of B, Cd, and Se were found in some plants. Salinity, low moisture holding capacity, and potentially phytotoxic B may limit the efficacy of this reclamation method.

  6. The Role of Chitinase Production by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strain C3 in Biological Control of Bipolaris sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Yuen, G Y

    2000-04-01

    ABSTRACT The role of chitinase production by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain C3 in biological control of leaf spot on tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana, was investigated in vitro and in vivo. The filtrate of a broth culture of C3, with chitin as the carbon source, was separated into fractions. A high molecular-weight fraction (>8 kDa) was chitinolytic and more inhibitory than a low-molecular-weight, nonchitinolytic fraction to conidial germination and hyphal growth by B. sorokiniana and to leaf spot development. A protein fraction derived by ammonium sulfate precipitation and a chitinase fraction purified by chitin affinity chromatography also were chitinolytic and highly antifungal. The chitinolytic fractions caused swelling and vacuolation of conidia and discoloration, malformation, and degradation of germ tubes. When boiled, the chitinolytic fractions lost chitinase activity along with most of the antifungal properties. Two chitinase-deficient and two chitinase-reduced mutants of C3 were compared with the wild-type strain for inhibition of germination of B. sorokiniana conidia on tall fescue leaves and for suppression of leaf spot development in vivo. The mutants exhibited reduced antifungal activity and biocontrol efficacy, but did not lose all biocontrol activity. An aqueous extract of leaves colonized by wild-type C3 had higher chitinase activity than that of noncolonized leaves and was inhibitory to conidial germination. The addition of chitin to leaves along with the wild-type strain increased both chitinase and antifungal activity. The chitinase activity level of extracts from leaves colonized by a chitinase-deficient mutant of C3, with and without added chitin, was no higher than the background, and the extracts lacked antifungal activity. Chitinolysis appears to be one mechanism of biological control by strain C3, and it functions in concert with other mechanisms.

  7. Composition of structural carbohydrates in biomass: precision of a liquid chromatography method using a neutral detergent extraction and a charged aerosol detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Bruno; Agneessens, Richard; Gerin, Patrick A; Delcarte, Jérôme

    2011-09-30

    We adapted and optimized a method to quantify the cellulose, hemicellulose, xylan, arabinan, mannan, galactan contents in lignocellulosic biomass. This method is based on a neutral detergent extraction (NDE) of the interfering biomass components, followed by a sulfuric acid hydrolysis (SAH) of the structural polysaccharides, and a liquid chromatography with charged aerosol detection (LC-CAD) to analyze the released monosaccharides. The first step of this NDE-SAH-LC-CAD method aims at removing all compounds that interfere with the subsequent sulphuric acid hydrolysis or with the subsequent chromatographic quantification of the cellulosic and hemicellulosic monosaccharides. This step includes starch hydrolysis with an analytical thermostable α-amylase followed by an extraction of soluble compounds by a Van Soest neutral detergent solution (NDE). The aim of this paper was to assess the precision of this method when choosing fiber sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as representative lignocellulosic biomass. The cellulose content of fiber sorghum, tall fescue and fiber hemp determined by the NDE-SAH-LC-CAD method were 28.7 ± 1.0, 29.7 ± 1.0 and 43.6 ± 1.2g/100g dry matter, respectively, and their hemicellulose content were 18.6 ± 0.5, 16.5 ± 0.5 and 14.5 ± 0.2g/100g dry matter, respectively. Cellulose, mannan and galactan contents were higher in fiber hemp (dicotyledon) as compared to tall fescue and fiber sorghum (monocotyledons). The xylan, arabinan and total hemicellulose contents were higher in tall fescue and fiber sorghum as compared to fiber hemp. The precision of the NDE-SAH-LC-CAD method was better for polysaccharide concentration levels above 1g/100g dry matter. Galactan analysis offered a lower precision, due to a lower CAD response intensity to galactose as compared to the other monosaccharides. The dispersions of the results (expanded uncertainty) of the NDE

  8. 高温胁迫下高羊茅草坪草生理特性研究%Physiological response to heat stress in tall fescue turfgrasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余高镜; 林文雄

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-nine tall fescue varieties introduced from America were devided into five ecotypes, from which five cultivars were collected for testing the changes of turf quality, root activity, soluble sugar content around years,meanwhile antioxidant enzyme activity, lipid proxidation etc under heat stress conditions were tested too in 1999-2000.The results indicated that changes of root activity and content of soluble sugar in the leaves were to some extent responsible for adjusting the stress-resistance in heat stresses, It implied that the two parameters had a great effect on the turf quality of tall fescue around the year.It was also indicated that the increasing rate of MDA content was significantly positively correlated with the changes of electrolyte leakage in the leaves of turf grass. When exposed to 40 ℃ heat stress,the relative activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and peroxidase(POD) in the leaf of turf cultivars concerned were significantly negatively correlated with malonaldehyde(MDA) and electrolyte leakage.Based on the index of active oxygen and electrolyte leakage, the ability of heat tolerance in the five ecotypes of tall fescue was in order:Gooden>Regiment>Tomahawk>SR-8210>Brandy. Finally, a rapid accurate laboratory procedure of measuring turf grass tolerance to heat was also disscussed.%从美国引进的39个高羊茅草坪草种分成了5个生态类型,在1999-2000年从每类中找出一个具有典型性状的草种,测定其周年草坪坪质表现、根系活力、叶片可溶性糖含量变化,同时测定各类草种在高温胁迫下保护酶活性与质膜透性的变化.结果表明,根系活力及可溶性糖含量在一定程度上影响着草坪坪质的周年变化.同时,草坪草叶片MDA含量的增长率和草坪草叶片的质膜透性增长率具有显著的正相关效应.在40 ℃高温胁迫下,草坪草叶片SOD与POD相对活性和MDA含量的增长率及PMP增长率具有显著的负相关效应,5个草种对

  9. Metabolite analysis of the effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on the association between tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) and its fungal symbiont Neotyphodium coenophialum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Geraldine D; Rasmussen, Susanne; Xue, Hong; Parsons, Anthony J; Newman, Jonathan A

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 is expected to increase to between 550 ppm and 1000 ppm in the next century. CO2-induced changes in plant physiology can have ecosystem-wide implications and may alter plant-plant, plant-herbivore and plant-symbiont interactions. We examined the effects of three concentrations of CO2 (390, 800 and 1000 ppm) and two concentrations of nitrogen fertilizer (0.004 g N/week versus 0.2 g N/week) on the physiological response of Neotyphodium fungal endophyte-infected and uninfected tall fescue plants. We used quantitative PCR to estimate the concentration of endophyte under altered CO2 and N conditions. We found that elevated CO2 increased the concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates and decreased the concentration of plant total amino acids in plants. Fungal-derived alkaloids decreased in response to elevated CO2 and increased in response to nitrogen fertilization. Endophyte concentration (expressed as the number of copies of an endophyte-specific gene per total genomic DNA) increased under elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization. The correlation between endophyte concentration and alkaloid production observed at ambient conditions was not observed under elevated CO2. These results suggest that nutrient exchange dynamics important for maintaining the symbiotic relationship between fungal endophytes and their grass hosts may be altered by changes in environmental variables such as CO2 and nitrogen fertilization.

  10. Study of Potential and Real Seed Producing Capacity in Some Romanian Varieties of Legumes and Perennial Gramineae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Dragomir

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the potential and real seed producing capacity in some Romanian varieties of legumes and perennial gramineae: Trifolium repens, Lotus corniculatus, Lolium perenne, Festuca pratensis, Festuca arundinacea and Dactylis glomerata. To calculate the potential production, we performed determinations and analyses on each variety, regarding floral apparatus’ morphological and anatomic structure (number of inflorescences, number of flowers, number of ovules/ovary, and the real production was determined „in situ”.

  11. THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WAXES SECRETED BY A SCALE INSECT ERIOPELTIS FESTUCAE (HOMOPTERA: COCCOIDEA)%背刺毡蜡蚧蜡泌物的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢映平; 郑乐怡

    2002-01-01

    采用红外光谱和气相色谱/质谱联用技术,研究了背刺毡蜡蚧Eriopeltis festucae(Fonsc.)(蚧总科Coc-coidea,蚧科Coccidae)蜡泌物的化学成分.结果证明,该虫蜡泌物主要成分是一系列高分子的长链饱和烃、饱和与不饱和脂肪酸、脂肪醇和类酯,同时有少量的酮类、带有氧环和苯环的化合物.其碳原子数目在14~28之间,饱和烃为C21-、C22-、C24-、C28-(占28.47%),带氧环的长链烃C19-(占19.41%).饱和酸是C16-(占50.09%)、C18-(占17.15%)、C24-(占19.24%).醇是C25-烷醇和C22-烯醇.酯类是C27-辛酸甘油酯和C16-乙酸烯酯.

  12. Productividad de pasturas y producción de leche bovina bajo pastoreo de gramínea y gramínea + lotus uliginosus en mosquera , cundinamarca

    OpenAIRE

    RE Castro; MOJICA RJE; JM Leòn; ML Pabón; FJE Carulla; REA Cárdenas

    2009-01-01

    en el presente estudio se determinó y evaluó la producción de biomasa aérea (g Ms/m2), composición botánica, calidad nutricional, y producción y calidad de leche en dos tipos de pasturas para clima frío. el ensayo se realizó en el centro agropecuario Marengo de la Universidad nacional en Mosquera, Cundinamarca, donde se evaluaron dos pasturas, una de mezcla de kikuyo (Pennisetum clandestinum) y festuca alta (Festuca arundinacea) la segunda, una mezcla de festuca alta y ...

  13. PRODUCTIVIDAD DE PASTURAS Y PRODUCCIÓN DE LECHE BOVINA BAJO PASTOREO DE GRAMÍNEA Y GRAMÍNEA + LOTUSULIGINOSUS EN MOSQUERA, CUNDINAMARCA

    OpenAIRE

    RE Castro; MOJICA RJE; JM Leòn; ML Pabón; FJE Carulla; REA Cárdenas

    2008-01-01

    en el presente estudio se determinó y evaluó la producción de biomasa aérea (g Ms/m2), composición botánica, calidad nutricional, y producción y calidad de leche en dos tipos de pasturas para clima frío. el ensayo se realizó en el centro agropecuario Marengo de la Universidad nacional en Mosquera, Cundinamarca, donde se evaluaron dos pasturas, una de mezcla de kikuyo (Pennisetum clandestinum) y festuca alta (Festuca arundinacea) la segunda, una mezcla de festuca alta y ...

  14. Productividad de pasturas y producción de leche bovina bajo pastoreo de gramínea y gramínea + lotus uliginosus en mosquera , cundinamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Edwin; Mojica, Edwin; Leòn, J M; Carulla Fornaguera, Juan Evangelista; Cárdenas Rocha, Edgar Alberto; Pabón Restrepo, Martha Lucía

    2009-01-01

    En el presente estudio se determinó y evaluó la producción de biomasa aérea (g MS/m2), composición botánica, calidad nutricional, y producción y calidad de leche en dos tipos de pasturas para clima frío. El ensayo se realizó en el centro agropecuario Marengo de la Universidad Nacional en Mosquera, Cundinamarca, donde se evaluaron dos pasturas, una de mezcla de kikuyo (Pennisetum clandestinum) y festuca alta (Festuca arundinacea) la segunda, una mezcla de festuca alta y la leguminosa trébol pa...

  15. Effect of individual grass species and grass species mixtures on soil quality as related to root biomass and grass yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Bos, M.; Wit, de J.; Keidel, H.; Bloem, J.

    2010-01-01

    For the purpose of feeding value, drought resistance and nitrogen utilization, other grasses (e.g. Festuca arundinacea and Dactylis glomerata) than the currently widely used perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) are introduced in dairy farming, either as a monoculture or in a mixture. To study the ef

  16. Phytomining Perspectives in Rehabilitation of Mining and Industrial Areas of South Ural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Ulrikh, D. V.; Timofeev, S. S.

    2017-05-01

    The ability of midland hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata (Poir)), common barberry (Berberis vulgaris), red elder (Sambucus racemosa), cinnamon rose (Rosa cinnamomea L.), couch grass (Elytrigia repens), crested wheat grass (Agropyron cristatum), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) and meadow grass (Poa pratensis) for phytoextraction of heavy metals from technogenic soil is proved in the article. The possibility of effective phytoextraction with the use of hawthorn and elder is shown. Maximum accumulation of zinc takes place in the surface mass of couch grass and meadow fescue. In regard to the conditions of South Ural, planting of elder and hawthorn with seeding of couch grass and meadow fescue is recommended for phytomining purposes.

  17. Methanol and ethanol modulate responses to danger- and microbe-associated molecular patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire T Hann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is a byproduct of cell wall modification, released through the action of pectin methylesterases (PMEs, which demethylesterify cell wall pectins. Plant PMEs play not only a role in developmental processes but also in responses to herbivory and infection by fungal or bacterial pathogens. Molecular mechanisms that explain how methanol affects plant defenses are poorly understood. Here we show that exogenously supplied methanol alone has weak effects on defense signaling in three dicot species, however it profoundly alters signaling responses to danger- and microbe-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs, MAMPs such as the alarm hormone systemin, the bacterial flagellum-derived flg22 peptide, and the fungal cell wall-derived oligosaccharide chitosan. In the presence of methanol the kinetics and amplitudes of DAMP/MAMP-induced MAP kinase (MAPK activity and oxidative burst are altered in tobacco and tomato suspension-cultured cells, in Arabidopsis seedlings and tomato leaf tissue. As a possible consequence of altered DAMP/MAMP signaling, methanol suppressed the expression of the defense genes PR-1 and PI-1 in tomato. In cell cultures of the grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea, Poaceae, Monocots, methanol alone activates MAPKs and increases chitosan-induced MAPK activity, and in the darnel grass Lolium temulentum (Poaceae, it alters wound-induced MAPK signaling. We propose that methanol can be recognized by plants as a sign of the damaged self. In dicots, methanol functions as a DAMP-like alarm signal with little elicitor activity on its own, whereas it appears to function as an elicitor-active DAMP in monocot grasses. Ethanol had been implicated in plant stress responses, although the source of ethanol in plants is not well established. We found that it has a similar effect as methanol on responses to MAMPs and DAMPs.

  18. Deep rooting plants influence on soil hydraulic properties and air conductivity over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uteau, Daniel; Peth, Stephan; Diercks, Charlotte; Pagenkemper, Sebastian; Horn, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    Crop sequences are commonly suggested as an alternative to improve subsoil structure. A well structured soil can be characterized by enhanced transport properties. Our main hypothesis was, that different root systems can modify the soil's macro/mesopore network if enough cultivation time is given. We analyzed the influence of three crops with either shallower roots (Festuca arundinacea, fescue) or taproots (Cichorium intybus, chicory and Medicago sativa, alfalfa). The crops where cultivated on a Haplic Luvisol near Bonn (Germany) for one, two or three years. Undisturbed soil cores were taken for measurement of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and air permeability. The unsaturated conductivity was measured using the evaporation method, monitoring the water content and tension at two depths of each undisturbed soil core. The van Genuchten-Mualem model (1991) was fitted to the measured data. Air permeability was measured in a permeameter with constant flow at low pressure gradient. The measurements were repeated at -1, -3, -6, -15, -30 and -50 kPa matric tension and the model of Ball et al. (1988) was used to describe permeability as function of matric tension. Furthermore, the cores equilibrated at -15 kPa matric tension were scanned with X-Ray computer tomography. By means of 3D image analysis, geometrical features as pore size distribution, tortuosity and connectivity of the pore network was analyzed. The measurements showed an increased unsaturated hydraulic conductivity associated to coarser pores at the taprooted cultivations. A enhanced pore system (related to shrink-swell processes) under alfalfa was observed in both transport measurements and was confirmed by the 3D image analysis. This highly functional pore system (consisting mainly of root paths, earthworm channels and shrinking cracks) was clearly visible below the 75 cm of depth and differentiated significantly from the other two treatments only after three years of cultivation, which shows the time

  19. Limestone, gypsum, and magnesium oxide influence restoration of an abandoned Appalachian pasture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchey, K.D.; Snuffer, J.D. [USDA ARS, Beaver, WV (United States). Appalachian Farming Systems Research Centre

    2002-07-01

    When restoring abandoned pastures on acidic hill-land soils to productivity, it is important to bring soil Ca and Mg to adequate levels. Gypsum is a readily available Ca amendment that is sufficiently soluble to move rapidly into the soil when surface-applied. Gypsum has been shown to reduce detrimental effects of subsurface acidity in soils of the southeastern USA. A 4-yr experiment was initiated to measure effects of surface gypsum application on forage production and to evaluate Mg-containing amendments to avoid gypsum-induced Mg deficiency. The study site was a southern West Virginia Gilpin silt loam (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic, Typic Hapludult) where abandoned hill-and pasture was being restored to productivity. Treatments included 0, 1000, 8000; 16 000, and 32 000 kg/ha flue gas desulfurization coal combustion by-product gypsum (gypsum) together with dolomitic limestone and five additional treatments to evaluate sources of supplemental Mg. Application of 16 000 kg/ha gypsum together with limestone increased forage yields of mixed orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) pasture during establishment by 42% and production by 11% compared with limestone alone. About 8% of the mean 790 kg/ha yield increase could be attributed to acidity-neutralizing effects of alkaline constituents in the gypsum by-product. Plants in higher gypsum treatments had higher concentrations of K and P, but gypsum application decreased soil and plant Mg concentrations. This indicated that gypsum should not be applied on typical acid soils without supplemental Mg.

  20. Novel O-D-galacturonoyl esters in the pectic polysaccharides of suspension-cultured plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J A; Fry, S C

    1993-11-01

    Driselase digestion of uronate-6-14C-labeled primary walls of cultured spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cells yielded about 18 novel uronate-containing compounds, most of which could be hydrolyzed by cold dilute alkali to yield oligo-[14C]galacturonides. One typical Driselase digestion product (compound 17) yielded alpha-(1-->4)-D-[14C]galacturonotriose(GalA3) upon very mild treatment with alkali (50% yield of GalA3 in 7.2 min at pH 11 and 25 degrees C). One of the three galacturonate residues in compound 17 was reducible to a galactose residue with sodium borohydride, indicating that that GalA residue was esterified, via its--COOH group, to a putative alcohol. Compound 17 had a higher mobility than GalA3 on paper chromatography, indicating that the putative alcohol was relatively nonpolar. The putative alcohol could not have been methanol because Driselase readily hydrolyzed mono-, di-, and trimethyl esters of GalA3 to yield free galacturonic acid. Another Driselase digestion product (compound 12) was a derivative of GalA3 that apparently possessed two nonpolar esterified substituents: one about as labile as in compound 17, and the other approximately 10 times more stable. Compounds 12 and 17 could not labeled by in vivo feeding of [U-14C]cinnamate, suggesting that they were not phenolic conjugates. Similar but chromatographically distinguishable uronate-14C-labeled esters were obtained by Driselase digestion of walls of cultured carrot (Daucus carota L.), Paul's Scarlet rose (Rosa sp.), and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreber) cells. In spinach, the novel compounds constituted about 5% of the total galacturonate residues of the cell wall. The observations suggest that pectic polysaccharides are linked, via O-D-galacturonoyl ester bonds, to relatively hydrophobic constituents of the primary cell wall. Their possible role in wall architecture is discussed.

  1. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  2. Gibberellin-Stimulation of Rhizome Elongation and Differential GA-Responsive Proteomic Changes in Two Grass Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiqing; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and extensive rhizome development is a desirable trait for perennial grass growth and adaptation to environmental stresses. The objective of this study was to determine proteomic changes and associated metabolic pathways of gibberellin (GA) -regulation of rhizome elongation in two perennial grass species differing in rhizome development. Plants of a short-rhizome bunch-type tall fescue (TF; Festuca arundinacea; ‘BR’) and an extensive rhizomatous Kentucky bluegrass (KB; Poa pratensis; ‘Baron’) were treated with 10 μM GA3 in hydroponic culture in growth chambers. The average rhizome length in KB was significantly longer than that in TF regardless of GA3 treatment, and increased significantly with GA3 treatment, to a greater extent than that in TF. Comparative proteomic analysis using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was performed to further investigate proteins and associated metabolic pathways imparting increased rhizome elongation by GA. A total of 37 and 38 differentially expressed proteins in response to GA3 treatment were identified in TF and KB plants, respectively, which were mainly involved in photosynthesis, energy and amino acid metabolism, protein synthesis, defense and cell development processes. Accelerated rhizome elongation in KB by GA could be mainly associated with the increased abundance of proteins involved in energy metabolism (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, and ATP synthase), amino acid metabolism (S-adenosylmethionine and adenosylhomocysteinase), protein synthesis (HSP90, elongation factor Tu and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A), cell-wall development (cell dividion cycle protein, alpha tubulin-2A and actin), and signal transduction (calreticulin). These proteins could be used as candidate proteins for further analysis of molecular mechanisms controlling rhizome growth. PMID:27446135

  3. Changes in metal bioavailability in soil and their accumulation in plants during a two years' aided phytostabilization experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżak, Jacek; Płaza, Grażyna; Pogrzeba, Marta

    2013-04-01

    Aided phytostabilization is quite a promising method to solve the main problems of metal polluted soils. This method is based on the use of soil additives, which limit metal bioavailability and help in creation of a dense plant cover on the soil surface. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of aided phytostabilization on lead, cadmium, zinc and arsenic bioavailability and their accumulation in plant tissues during a two years' pilot-scale (plot) experiment. For the study two plots were established: (i) a control plot with heavy metal contaminated soil and (ii) an experimental one, where contaminated soil was amended with lignite and lime to reduce metal bioavailability. Both plots were vegetated with grass Festuca arundinacea. Application of lignite and lime increased pH and organic matter content in soil. After amendment application the bioavailable metal concentration significantly decreased, maintaining at the same level during the whole experiment. Cadmium and arsenic bioavailable forms were reduced by about 70 %, whereas in the case of zinc a 60 % decrease in bioavailable forms was observed. Diminishing of heavy metal accumulation in tall fescue, grown on amended soil, was also observed. It was was three-fold lower for lead, zinc and arsenic and two-fold lower for cadmium, in comparison to the control plot. Moreover, on the surface of the stabilized soil a dense plant cover was created, with total biomass production over four-fold higher than on the control plot. The in situ aided phytostabilization approach to contaminated soil, proposed in this study, showed that it could be a sustainable option for degraded soil management.

  4. Non-wood plants as raw material for pulp and paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. SAIJONKARI-PAHKALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was begun in 1990 when there was a marked shortage of short fibre raw material for the pulp industry. During the last ten years the situation has changed little, and the shortage is still apparent. It was estimated that 0.5 to 1 million hectares of arable land would be set aside from cultivation in Finland during this period. An alternative to using hardwoods in printing papers is non-wood fibres from herbaceous field crops. The study aimed at determining the feasibility of using non-wood plants as raw material for the pulp and paper industry, and developing crop management methods for the selected species. The properties considered important for a fibre crop were high yielding ability, high pulping quality and good adaptation to the prevailing climatic conditions and possibilities for low cost production. A strategy and a process to identify, select and introduce a crop for domestic short fibre production is described in this thesis. The experimental part of the study consisted of screening plant species by analysing fibre and mineral content, evaluating crop management methods and varieties, resulting in description of an appropriate cropping system for large-scale fibre plant production. Of the 17 herbaceous plant species studied, monocotyledons were most suitable for pulping. They were productive and well adapted to Finnish climatic conditions. Of the monocots, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L. and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. were the most promising. These were chosen for further studies and were included in field experiments to determine the most suitable harvesting system and fertilizer application procedures for biomass production. Reed canary grass was favoured by delayed harvesting in spring when the moisture content of the crop stand was 10-15% of DM before production of new tillers. When sown in early spring, reed canary grass typically yielded 7-8 t ha-1 within three years on clay soil. The yield

  5. Urolithiasis in a herd of beef cattle associated with oxalate ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltner-Toews, D; Meadows, D H

    1980-02-01

    An unusually high incidence of urinary calculi in a group of feeder cattle is described. Necropsy findings in one affected animal suggested that oxalates in the feed, specifically in fescue (Festuca spp.) seed screenings, may have been the cause. Low dietary calcium and decreased water intake by the cattle appear to have been predisposing factors. Control measures are discussed.

  6. Urolithiasis in a Herd of Beef Cattle Associated with Oxalate Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Waltner-Toews, D; Meadows, D H

    1980-01-01

    An unusually high incidence of urinary calculi in a group of feeder cattle is described. Necropsy findings in one affected animal suggested that oxalates in the feed, specifically in fescue (Festuca spp.) seed screenings, may have been the cause. Low dietary calcium and decreased water intake by the cattle appear to have been predisposing factors. Control measures are discussed.

  7. Reforesting unused surface mined lands by replanting with native trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick N. Angel; James A. Burger; Carl E. Zipper; Scott Eggerud

    2012-01-01

    More than 600,000 ha (1.5 million ac) of mostly forested land in the Appalachian region were surface mined for coal under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. Today, these lands are largely unmanaged and covered with persistent herbaceous species, such as fescue (Festuca spp.) and sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata [Dum. Cours.] G. Don,) and a mix of...

  8. Seed yield components and their potential interaction in grasses - to what extend does seed weigth influence yield?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, B; Gislum, R

    2010-01-01

     In a first-year seed crop of red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) the degree of lodging was controlled by the use of Moddus (Trinexapac-ethyl). Seed weight was found to increase by the decreasing degree of lodging prior to harvest. The higher seed weights were accompanied by higher yields even though t...

  9. Effects of species diversity on seasonal variation in herbage yield and nutritive value of seven binary grass-legume mixtures and pure grass under cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen

    2016-01-01

    , Lotus corniculatus) and white clover (WC, Trifolium repens); WC was also sown with hybrid ryegrass (HR, Lolium × boucheanum), meadow fescue (MF, Festuca pratensis) and timothy (TI, Phleum pratense). Herbage productivity was lowest in pure PR followed by PR/BT, and highest in PR/RC; this mixture had...

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03911-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12ST096_338113 Tall fescue, Festuca arun... 44 6e-08 4 ( DB872213 ) Lipochromis sp. 'matumbi hunter...' cDNA clone:hm769... 56 6e-08 2 ( DB866234 ) Lipochromis sp. 'matumbi hunter' cDNA clone:

  11. 高羊茅在低氮胁迫下的蛋白组学分析%Proteomic analysis of nitrogen stress-responsive proteins in the leaves of tall fescue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小冬; 舒健虹; 于二汝; 吴佳海; 蔡一鸣; 王小利

    2016-01-01

    为了研究高羊茅在低氮胁迫条件下的蛋白水平变化,我们采用 iTRAP 技术分析了氮胁迫30 d 的高羊茅叶片中蛋白组学的变化。一共检测到595个差异蛋白(295个上调,300个下调),分别参与了多个不同的代谢途径。在高严谨筛选标准下,氮代谢、氧化还原反应以及胁迫相关代谢等多个途径的基因被明显上调表达。通过生理生化测定发现,叶绿素、可溶性蛋白以及游离氨基酸的含量显著下降,而过氧化物酶(POD)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)以及谷胱甘肽合成酶(GS)等活性氧清除酶活性显著升高。采用荧光定量 PCR 的方法验证蛋白组学数据发现所有挑选的基因都具有相同的变化趋势。分析显著富集的14-3-3基因家族的表达,发现其都能被低氮胁迫诱导,因此胁迫相关的基因可能是调节高羊茅抵抗多种不同逆境的关键基因。本文首次在高羊茅中采用蛋白组学的方法分析低氮胁迫条件下基因的表达变化,获得重要候选基因,并对其应用进行了讨论。%In order to thoroughly investigate the protein level changes of tall fescue in low-nitrogen conditions, we analyzed the proteome of the leaves from 30 day old plants exposed to low-nitrogen stress using the iTRAP technique.In total,595 proteins were differentially accumulated (295 up-regulated and 300 down-regulated), which participated in diverse metabolic pathways.According to a strict selection standard,we discovered that the genes related to redox reactions and stresses significantly increased.Physiological and biochemical analysis revealed that the contents of chlorophyll,soluble proteins and free amino acid dramatically decreased,while re-active oxygen-scavenging enzymes such as POD,SOD and GS were highly active.The expression pattern of af-fected genes,detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR,coincided with the proteomic data.No-tably,most of the 14

  12. Herbage productivity, chemical composition and persistence of introduced grass cultivars in mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Leto

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The seeds for grassland establishment and renovation have been mostly imported into the Republic of Croatia. The aim of the present research was to determine yield, chemical composition and persistence of 13 introduced grass cultivars (cv. in the hilly mountain area of Croatia. The Lolium perenne cv. Pimpernel and Calibra, and Phleum pratense cv. Richmond had the highest dry matter (DM yield in the year 2000 (10,5 t/ha in average. Phalaris arundinacea had the lowest DM yield (6,35 t/ha but not statistically lower than Bromus inermis, Festuca rubra, and all three Dactylis glomerata cultivars, Lolium westerwoldicum and Phleum pratense cv. Bilbo (7,12 t/ha in average. The highest DM yields determined in the year 2001 were obtained from Festuca rubra, Phalaris arundinacea, Bromus inermis, Festuca pratensis, Dactylis glomerata cv. Okay, cv. Baraula, cv. Amba, Lolium perenne cv. Pimpernel, (14,9 t/ha in average. The lowest DM yield had Lolium westerwoldicum and Lolium multiflorum (9,8 t/ha in average. Phalaris arundinacea had the highest DM yield (12,89 t/ha in 2002. followed by Bromus inermis and Dactylis glomerata cultivars with 20% lower DM yield than Phalaris arundinacea, and Lolium westerwoldicum and Phleum pratense cv. Bilbo which had 24% lower DM yield, while both Lolium perenne cultivars had about 30% lower DM yield in comparison with Phalaris arundinacea. Significant differences (P<0.05 were observed between cultivars for all the chemical parameters investigated except fort nitrogen free extract (NFE. The highest crude protein (CP concentration was observed in Bromus inermis, Lolium multiflorum cv. Bofur, Dactylis glomerata cultivars, Phalaris arundinacea, Festuca pratensis, Lolium westerwoldicum, Phleum pratense cv. Bilbo (24,78% in average. Significantly the lowest crude fibre (CF was determined in Lolium westerwoldicum (18,07%, Festuca pratensis, Lolium multiflorum and Phalaris arundinacea (19,7% in average. The highest ground cover and

  13. Mutagenesis of beta-1,3-Glucanase Genes in Lysobacter enzymogenes Strain C3 Results in Reduced Biological Control Activity Toward Bipolaris Leaf Spot of Tall Fescue and Pythium Damping-Off of Sugar Beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Jeffrey D; Yuen, Gary Y; Jochum, C Christine; Tatum, Kristin; Kobayashi, Donald Y

    2005-06-01

    ABSTRACT Lysobacter enzymogenes produces extracellular lytic enzymes capable of degrading the cell walls of fungi and oomycetes. Many of these enzymes, including beta-1,3-glucanases, are thought to contribute to the biological control activity expressed by several strains of the species. L. enzymogenes strain C3 produces multiple extracellular beta-1,3-glucanases encoded by the gluA, gluB, and gluC genes. Analysis of the genes indicates they are homologous to previously characterized genes in the related strain N4-7, each sharing >95% amino acid sequence identity to their respective counterparts. The gluA and gluC gene products encode enzymes belonging to family 16 glycosyl hydrolases, whereas gluB encodes an enzyme belonging to family 64. Mutational analysis indicated that the three genes accounted for the total beta-1,3-glucanase activity detected in culture. Strain G123, mutated in all three glucanase genes, was reduced in its ability to grow in a minimal medium containing laminarin as a sole carbon source. Although strain G123 was not affected in antimicrobial activity toward Bipolaris sorokiniana or Pythium ultimum var. ultimum using in vitro assays, it was significantly reduced in biological control activity against Bipolaris leaf spot of tall fescue and Pythium damping-off of sugar beet. These results provide direct supportive evidence for the role of beta-1,3-glucanases in biocontrol activity of L. enzymogenes strain C3.

  14. Drought resistance of four grasses using pressure-volume curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xingdong; CONG Peifang; GAO Yubao; LU Jianguo; WANG Haitao; XUE Pingping; ZHANG Xu

    2007-01-01

    Pressure-volume curve (PV curve) technique is a major method for studying critical plant water potential and critical tissue water content when plasmolysis takes place.In the present study,a mathematical solution method is put forward to obtain parameters based on the PV curve.The calculated results for the parameters ofLolium perenne,Festuca arundinacea,Leymus chinensis and Stipa krylovii indicated that the mathematical solution method is convenient for actual research compared with the graphical method.Further analysis of the calculations suggested that drought resistance decreased in the following order:S.krylovii > F.arundinacea and L.chinensis > L.perenne.

  15. Biomass Distributing Law Research on Slope-protecting Plants%混播护坡植物生物量分配规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐远杰

    2006-01-01

    以双荚决明Cassia bicapsularis L.和高羊茅Festuca arundinacea Schred.两种护坡植物为试验材料,采用3因素3水平正交设计对两者进行混播,研究不同处理对这两种植物各部分生物量的影响.

  16. Anatomical Structure of Vegetative Organs of Phalaris arundinacea L.in Relation to Drought Resistance, Waterlogging Resistance and Use Value%虉草营养器官解剖结构与抗旱耐涝性及利用之间的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    斯日古楞; 王明玖; 额尔敦花

    2013-01-01

    Paraffin wax section technique was applied for microscopic observation of vegetative organs (root,stem and leaf),to study the drought and waterlogging resistance and use value of Phalaris arundinacea L.The results showed that the structure of the root,from outside to inside,was as follows:epidermis,cortex,bundle sheath,primary phloem and primary xylem.Stem was composed of epidermis,ground tissues and vascular bundles.Leaf was composed of epidermis,mesophyll cells and veins.Good ventilation organization visible in root cortex cell gaps and air cavity,primary xylem epigenetic catheter and medullary cavity were the main microscopic characteristics of watedogging resistance.The hornificated epidermis of stem and leaves and its abundant bulliform cell groups were the main anatomical structure reasons for drought resistance.Tightly arranged mesophyll cells which contained large amounts of chloroplasts reduced transpiration and enhanced photosynthesis to ensure plant' s photosynthesis even under drought conditions.A large numbers of wood fibers in vascular bundles of stem and leaves which support the plant,were major microscopic characteristics of trampling resistance.There were large areas of sclerenchyma cells in root epidermis and vascular tissues.Stem ground tissues and vascular bundles and leaves veins which were abundant in lignin and cellulose are the necessary characteristics of a new bioenergy plant.%为了从显微结构上进一步探讨虉草(Phalaris arundinacea L.)的抗旱耐涝性及与利用的关系,于2011年采用常规石蜡切片技术,对其根、茎叶3种营养器官进行解剖观察.结果表明,虉草根的结构自外而内依次为表皮、皮层、维管束鞘、初生韧皮部和初生木质部;茎由表皮、基本组织和维管柬构成;叶片内部结构可分为表皮、叶肉和叶脉3部分.根皮层大的细胞间隙和气腔,初生木质部的后生大导管和茎基本组织解体形成的髓腔都是虉

  17. 垃圾堆肥放线菌发酵过滤液对高羊茅初期生长的影响%Effects of actinomycetes fermented filtrates from MSW compost on seedling growth of tall fescue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程田; 赵树兰; 多立安

    2012-01-01

    通过向草坪基质中加入不同浓度生活垃圾堆肥放线菌发酵滤液,研究了堆肥放线菌发酵液对草坪草高羊茅萌发及初期生长的影响。结果表明:各浓度放线菌发酵滤液对高羊茅的生长指标和叶绿素含量均有显著的促进作用,其中,以稀释4倍的放线菌发酵滤液的促进效果最为明显。在稀释4倍的放线菌发酵滤液的处理下,高羊茅的发芽率、株高、地上干重、地下干重和叶绿素含量分别比对照提高了17.3%、17.9%、20.0%、66.7%和60.3%。虽然,不同浓度的放线菌发酵滤液对高羊茅的萌发和初期生长均具有一定的促进作用,但以稀释4倍的放线菌发酵滤液效果为最佳。%The effect of different concentrations of actinomycetes fermented filtrate from municipal solid waste(MSW) compost on germination and seedling growth of tall fescue was studied.The results showed that different treatments of actinomycetes filtrates promoted the seed germination and growth.Among the three treatments,4 times diluted actinomycetes filtrate had the most obvious effect.Compared with the control,4 times diluted actinomycetes filtrate increased the germination rate,seedling height,aboveground dry weight,underground dry weight and total chlorophyll content by 17.3%,17.9%,20%,66.7% and 60.3% respectively.It could be concluded that actinomycetes filtrates at different concentrations could promote seed germination and seedling growth,and 4 times diluted actinomycetes filtrate was the most effective.

  18. Path Analysis Between Soil Microbial Biomass and Soil Nutrient Contents in Cover Cropping System of Vineyard%行间生草葡萄园土壤微生物量与土壤养分的通径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠竹梅; 岳泰新; 张振文

    2011-01-01

    Two perennial legumes (white clover and alfalfa) and a perennial grass (tall fescue) were sown in inter-rows of Cabernet sauvignon vineyard. The effects of inter-row cover cropping on soil microbial bio-mass, respiration strengths, microbial quotient, soil nutrient contents and their relationships were studied with clean tillage as control. Results showed that white clover and alfalfa increased the contents of soil organic matter and soil total N significantly, and decreased available P contents; tall fescue significantly decreased soil organic matter and available K contents. The soil microbial biomass carbon contents of white clover, alfalfa and tall fescue increased 65. 2% , 61. 6% ,6. 7% , respectively, and soil microbial biomass nitrogen contents increased 53. 6% , 52. 4% , 15. 0% , respectively, compared with control. The soil microbial quotients in cover cropping treatments were increased significantly, but the soil respirations had no significant differences between cover crop treatments and control. The soil microbial indicators showed significant positive correlations with soil organic matter, total N, hydrolyzable N and available K, and significant negative correlations with total P and available P. Path analysis indicated that in the vineyard intercropping system, soil hydrolyzable N and total N were direct factors affecting the accumulation of soil microbial biomass, respiration strengths and microbial quotient.%在酿酒葡萄(Vitis vini era)园行间播种白三叶草(Tri folium repens L.)、紫花苜蓿(Medicago sativa L.)和高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea Schreb),以清耕为对照,研究了土壤微生物量、土壤微生物呼吸强度和土壤微生物熵的变化及其与土壤养分的关系.结果表明:与清耕(对照)相比,白三叶草和紫花苜蓿处理显著提高了土壤有机质、全氮含量,显著降低了速效磷含量;而高羊茅处理土壤有机质和速效钾含量显著低于清耕.白三叶草、紫花苜蓿和高羊

  19. KARAKTERISTIK AGROEKOLOGI GARUT (Marantha arundinaceae L. PULAU MADURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Hermansyah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This research purpose to learn agroecology, distribution and potential production of arrowroot in Madura island. Research methode is exploration, done in Madura island on December 2008 until May 2009. The observations include measurements agroecology, distribution, characterization of morphology and potential production. Data could be analyzed descriptively and statistical. Results agroecology observation shows that the average Rainfall during last 10 years as a lot as 1202.983 mm/years. The composition of Nitrogen are as a lot as 0.1342%. Arrowroot crop distribution in Madura island of west to east respectively - participated in the south region, central and central until north. The pattern of distribution is group. Based on the morphology characters there are 3 variations. Potential production of arrowroot is average as a lot as 2.65 tons/ha. Relationship potential production of arrowroot agroecology obtained equation Y = 3.7362 + 0.1441 (X1 + 0.888 (X2 (R2 = 0.523% at α 95%.

  20. Proposed Construction of Boulder Seismic Station Monitoring Sites, Boulder, Wyoming. Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    nevadensis 1 Idaho Fescue Festuca idahoensis 2 Indian Rice Grass Oryzopsis hymenoides 1 Needle-and-Thread Grass Stipa comata 1 Blue Wild Rye ...detailed in Table 2-2. Table 2-2. Proposed Reclamation Seed Mix Seed Mixture Scientific Name lbs/acre Great Basin Wild Rye Elymus cinereus 0.5...Bluebunch Wheatgrass Agropyron spicatum 2 Mountain Timothy Phleum alpinum 1 Squirrel Tail Grass (Bottle Brush) Stianion hystrix 1 Nevada Bluegrass Poa

  1. Soil Rhizosphere Microbial Communities and Enzyme Activities under Organic Farming in Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Senwo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the soil rhizosphere has been limited by the lack of robust assessments that can explore the vast complex structure and diversity of soil microbial communities. Our objective was to combine fatty acid methyl ester (FAME and pyrosequencing techniques to evaluate soil microbial community structure and diversity. In addition, we evaluated biogeochemical functionality of the microbial communities via enzymatic activities of nutrient cycling. Samples were taken from a silt loam at 0–10 and 10–20 cm in an organic farm under lettuce (Lactuca sativa, potato (Solanum tuberosum, onion (Allium cepa L, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and Tall fescue pasture grass (Festuca arundinacea. Several FAMEs (a15:0, i15:0, i15:1, i16:0, a17:0, i17:0, 10Me17:0, cy17:0, 16:1ω5c and 18:1ω9c varied among the crop rhizospheres. FAME profiles of the soil microbial community under pasture showed a higher fungal:bacterial ratio compared to the soil under lettuce, potato, onion, and broccoli. Soil under potato showed higher sum of fungal FAME indicators compared to broccoli, onion and lettuce. Microbial biomass C and enzyme activities associated with pasture and potato were higher than the other rhizospheres. The lowest soil microbial biomass C and enzyme activities were found under onion. Pyrosequencing revealed significant differences regarding the maximum operational taxonomic units (OTU at 3% dissimilarity level (roughly corresponding to the bacterial species level at 0–10 cm (581.7–770.0 compared to 10–20 cm (563.3–727.7 soil depths. The lowest OTUs detected at 0–10 cm were under broccoli (581.7; whereas the lowest OTUs found at 10–20 cm were under potato (563.3. The predominant phyla (85% in this soil at both depths were Bacteroidetes (i.e., Flavobacteria, Sphingobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Flavobacteriaceae and Xanthomonadaceae were predominant under broccoli. Rhizobiaceae, Hyphomicrobiaceae, and Acidobacteriaceae were more

  2. Can inter-cultivar variation in caesium and strontium uptake reduce contamination of forage grasses? - Can inter-cultivar variation in caesium and strontium accumulation by forage grasses be used to reduce contamination of cows' milk in radiologically contaminated areas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penrose, B. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire, LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Beresford, N. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Broadley, M.; Crout, N.M.J.; King, J.; Young, S. [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire, LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Lovatt, A. [Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS), Aberystwyth University, Gogerddan, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, SY23 3E E (United Kingdom); Thomson, R. [Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture (SASA), Roddinglaw Road, Edinburgh, EH12 9FJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Radiocaesium and radiostrontium primarily enter the food chain via plant root uptake, including indirectly via animal fodders. Inter-species variation in caesium and strontium accumulation in plants has previously been reported to be over two orders of magnitude. This variation could be exploited to select crops with relatively low uptake to reduce transfer of these radionuclides to consumers in contaminated areas. Exploiting intra-species (i.e. inter-cultivar) variation in caesium and strontium uptake has not yet been evaluated as a remediation strategy as sufficient data have not been available. As cows' milk has been one of the main contributors to human dose following the Chernobyl and Mayak accidents, we have chosen to focus on elucidating the extent and nature of inter-cultivar variation in caesium and strontium uptake in forage grasses. A total of 412 cultivars from four species of forage grass; perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne; 284 cultivars), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum; 17 cultivars), hybrid ryegrass (Lolium hybridum; 101 cultivars) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea; 10 cultivars) were sampled from 20 sets of experimental plots in Aberystwyth (Wales, UK) and Edinburgh (Scotland, UK). Fifty-nine cultivars were grown in both locations. At least three replicates of the same cultivar were grown in each set of plots. Vegetation samples from 2208 plots were collected both in spring 2013 (May-June) and summer 2013 (August-September). The samples were oven-dried and milled then analysed for elemental composition using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Stable caesium and strontium were measured as a proxy measurement for radiocaesium and radiostrontium concentrations. Concentrations of chemical analogues of caesium and strontium (potassium and calcium) and a number of other elements were measured. Soil samples from the experimental plots were also collected, dried, milled and analysed using ICP-MS. This paper will present

  3. Impact of pretreatment and downstream processing technologies on economics and energy in cellulosic ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Ganti S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While advantages of biofuel have been widely reported, studies also highlight the challenges in large scale production of biofuel. Cost of ethanol and process energy use in cellulosic ethanol plants are dependent on technologies used for conversion of feedstock. Process modeling can aid in identifying techno-economic bottlenecks in a production process. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was performed for conversion of cellulosic feedstock to ethanol using some of the common pretreatment technologies: dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion. Detailed process models incorporating feedstock handling, pretreatment, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, ethanol recovery and downstream processing were developed using SuperPro Designer. Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb was used as a model feedstock. Results Projected ethanol yields were 252.62, 255.80, 255.27 and 230.23 L/dry metric ton biomass for conversion process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment technologies respectively. Price of feedstock and cellulose enzymes were assumed as $50/metric ton and 0.517/kg broth (10% protein in broth, 600 FPU/g protein respectively. Capital cost of ethanol plants processing 250,000 metric tons of feedstock/year was $1.92, $1.73, $1.72 and $1.70/L ethanol for process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Ethanol production cost of $0.83, $0.88, $0.81 and $0.85/L ethanol was estimated for production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Water use in the production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment was estimated 5.96, 6.07, 5.84 and 4.36 kg/L ethanol respectively. Conclusions Ethanol price and energy use were highly dependent on process conditions used in the ethanol production plant. Potential for

  4. Comparison of lime and fly ash as amendments to acidic coal mine refusej growth responses and trace-element uptake of two grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasrow, J. D.; Zimmerman, C. A.; Dvorak, A. J.; Hinchman, R. R.

    1979-10-01

    Two commonly used revegetation species, Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and Lincoln smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) were grown for 60 days in pots containing coarse coal mine refuse (referred to as gob, pH = 3.5) that was amended with lime or alkaline fly ash. Both species were also grown in pots containing a silt-loam surface soil as a control. Morphological growth parameters were measured over time; dry weights and shoot:root ratios were determined at harvest. Concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn in the plant shoots were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plant growth of both species was not as good on either lime- or fly ash-amended gob as it was on surface soil. Although plant height and length of the longest lead were not significantly different (p > 0.10) at the end of the experiment for plants grown on the two amended-gob substrates, parameters giving an indication of plant vigor (i.e., number of leaves and stems, width of the longest lead, and biomass) were significantly greater (p < 0.01) for plants grown on lime-amended gob than for those grown on fly ash-amended gob. Significant (p < 0.05) differences in the tissue concentrations of Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn were found among the plants grown on the three substrates. Except for Hg and Pb, these elements were higher in plants grown on at least one of the amended-gob substrates than in plants grown on surface soil. Significant substrate differences were not observed for Al, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Se. The tissue concentrations of some elements - notably Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, V, and Zn - were high enough in plants from one or more of the substrates to either approach or exceed concentrations that have been reported to be associated with toxic effects in some plant species.

  5. Plant and soil reactions to nickel ore processed tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheets, P.J.; Volk, V.V.; Gardner, E.H.

    1982-07-01

    Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effect that tailings, produced during the processing of nickeliferous laterite ores by a proposed U.S. Bureau of Mines Process, would have on plant growth and soil properties. The tailings contained soluble salts (7.6 mmhos/cm), NH/sub 4/-N (877 ..mu..g/g), Ni (0.28%), Mn (82 ..mu..g/g DTPA-extractable), Cr (0.44%), P (2 and 6 ..mu..g/g acid F- and NaHCO/sub 3/-extractable, respectively), and Ca and Mg (1.0 and 20.7 meq/100 g NH/sub 4/Ac-extractable, respectively). Water leaching decreased the NH/sub 4/-N concentration to 53 ..mu..g/g and the EC to 0.4 mmhos/cm by removal of (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and MgSO/sub 4/ salts. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) was grown on Eightlar clay soil (skeletal, serpentinitic, mesic Typic Xerochrept) amended with 0, 223, 446, and 669 g tailings/kg soil and pure, unleached tailings for 32 weeks in the greenhouse. Seedling establishment of plants grown on soil amended at the highest tailings rate and the pure tailings was initially slow, but plants grown on soil amended at lower rates established readily and grew well. Plant P was <0.24%, while plant Ca concentrations were <0.45% throughout the growth period even though Ca(H/sub 2/PO/sub 2/)/sub 2/ and gypsum had been added. Ammonium acetate-extractable Ca at the end of the growth period was <5.0 meq/100 g on all amended soils.The Mn, Ni, and Cr concentrations of plants grown on treated soils were within normal ranges, although soil-analysis values were higher than commonly found. It is recommended that the tailings be washed to reduce NH/sub 4/-N and soluble salts prior to revegetation, and that native soil be added to the surface to reduce crusting.

  6. Effect of rhizosphere enzymes on phytoremediation in PAH-contaminated soil using five plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was performed to study the effectiveness of remediation using different plant species and the enzyme response involved in remediating PAH-contaminated soil. The study indicated that species Echinacea purpurea, Festuca arundinacea Schred, Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea, and Medicago sativa L. possess the potential for remediation in PAH-contaminated soils. The study also determined that enzymatic reactions of polyphenol oxidase (except Fire Phoenix, dehydrogenase (except Fire Phoenix, and urease (except Medicago sativa L. were more prominent over cultivation periods of 60d and 120d than 150d. Urease activity of the tested species exhibited prominently linear negative correlations with alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content after the tested plants were cultivated for 150d (R2 = 0.9592. The experiment also indicated that alkaline phosphatase activity in four of the five tested species (Echinacea purpurea, Callistephus chinensis, Festuca arundinacea Schred and Fire Phoenix was inhibited during the cultivation process (at 60d and 120d. At the same time, the study determined that the linear relationship between alkaline phosphatase activity and effective phosphorus content in plant rhizosphere soil exhibited a negative correlation after a growing period of 120d (R2 = 0.665. Phytoremediation of organic contaminants in the soil was closely related to specific characteristics of particular plant species, and the catalyzed reactions were the result of the action of multiple enzymes in the plant rhizosphere soil.

  7. Effect of Rhizosphere Enzymes on Phytoremediation in PAH-Contaminated Soil Using Five Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Dai, Yuanyuan; Sun, Libo

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the effectiveness of remediation using different plant species and the enzyme response involved in remediating PAH-contaminated soil. The study indicated that species Echinacea purpurea, Festuca arundinacea Schred, Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sativa L. possess the potential for remediation in PAH-contaminated soils. The study also determined that enzymatic reactions of polyphenol oxidase (except Fire Phoenix), dehydrogenase (except Fire Phoenix), and urease (except Medicago sativa L.) were more prominent over cultivation periods of 60d and 120d than 150d. Urease activity of the tested species exhibited prominently linear negative correlations with alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content after the tested plants were cultivated for 150d (R2 = 0.9592). The experiment also indicated that alkaline phosphatase activity in four of the five tested species (Echinacea purpurea, Callistephus chinensis, Festuca arundinacea Schred and Fire Phoenix) was inhibited during the cultivation process (at 60d and 120d). At the same time, the study determined that the linear relationship between alkaline phosphatase activity and effective phosphorus content in plant rhizosphere soil exhibited a negative correlation after a growing period of 120d (R2 = 0.665). Phytoremediation of organic contaminants in the soil was closely related to specific characteristics of particular plant species, and the catalyzed reactions were the result of the action of multiple enzymes in the plant rhizosphere soil. PMID:25822167

  8. 果园生草试验及适生草种评价%Orchard Grass Cultivation Experiment and Adaptable Forages Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳东; 吕德国; 于云政; 徐田伟; 杜国栋; 秦嗣军

    2012-01-01

    试验以自然生草和自然生草+人工生草(紫花苜蓿、白三叶、红三叶、早熟禾、高羊茅和黑麦草)的‘寒富’苹果园为研究对象,以清耕为对照,研究了自然生草对土壤理化性质、微生物数量和酶活性的影响,并对自然生草条件下的人工草种进行了初步评价。结果表明,与对照相比,自然生草处理土壤pH值、有机质、全氮、全磷、碱解氮、速效磷、速效钾、细菌、真菌、放线菌、脲酶和磷酸酶明显升高,全钾增幅较小,但含水量降低了。通过适宜草种评价的初步研究可知,以生草覆盖为目的、刈割次数少的可选择白三叶、高羊茅和黑麦草等品种;为增加土壤有机质、提高土壤肥力,需要刈割用于覆盖的则应选择紫花苜蓿、红三叶等产草量较高的草种。%The present experiment studied the impact of ‘Natural vegetation of grasses' on the soil properties,microbial quantity and enzyme activity,and made a preliminary evaluation on ‘Sowing vegetation of grasses' the under natural grass conditions simultaneously,used ‘Hanfu' apple orchard with ‘Natural vegetation of grasses' and ‘Natural vegetation of grasses plus Sowing vegetation of grasses [alfafa(Medicago sativa L.),white clover(Trifoliurn repens L.),red clover(Trifolium pratense L.),bluegrass(Poa pratensis L.),tall fescue(Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and perennial ryegrass(Lolium Perenne L.)]' as materials,and ‘Clean cultivation' as control.The results showed that,the soil pH,the content of soil organic matter,total nitrogen,total phosphorus,available nitrogen,available phosphorus and available potassium,and the quantity of bacteria,fungi and actinomycetes,and the activity of urease and phosphatase of Natural vegetation of grasses were significantly increased,the content of total potassium increased little,but the soil moisture reduced,compared with ‘Clean cultivation'.Preliminary study of optimal grass species

  9. 内生真菌和水引发对 NaCl 胁迫条件下中华羊茅种子萌发的影响%Effects of Epichloёendophyte and seed hydro-priming on the germination of Festuca sinensis under NaCl stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    旷宇; 南志标; 田沛

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the germination and vigor of Festuca sinensis seeds infected (E+)and unin-fected (E-)with Epichloё endophyte and under different levels of NaCl stress after hydro-priming.The re-sults showed that NaCl stress treatments significantly reduced seed germination rate,interim germination,the germination index,the length of embryo and radicle and the dry weights of both E + and E - F .sinensis seeds.Compared with E-,infection with Epichloёendophyte can significantly improve germination and seed-ling growth of F .sinensis seeds under different concentrations of NaCl.There were interaction effects between seed hydro-priming and the Epichloё endophyte.The highest levels of interaction were with 20 mins seed hydro-priming,when the germination indices and seedling growth rates were significantly higher than for all the other treatments.Correlation analysis showed that F .sinensis seed germination rate,interim germination, germination index,the length of embryo and radicle and dry weight were all significantly positively related to each other.%本试验以带 Epichloё内生真菌(E+)及不带内生真菌(E-)中华羊茅种子为研究材料,研究其水引发后,在NaCl 胁迫条件下的萌发情况。结果表明,NaCl 胁迫显著降低中华羊茅种子发芽率、发芽势、发芽指数、胚芽长、胚根长和干重。除对照处理外,相对于不带内生真菌的中华羊茅种子,内生真菌能显著提高不同 NaCl 浓度胁迫条件下中华羊茅种子的萌发力及幼苗生长。水引发与内生真菌可产生互作,在引发时间为20 min 时与内生真菌的互作效果最为明显,在不同 NaCl 浓度胁迫下中华羊茅种子各萌发指标及幼苗生长情况均显著高于其他处理。在对各指标的相关性分析显示,中华羊茅种子的发芽率、发芽势、发芽指数、胚芽长、胚根长和干重相互之间均呈极显著正相关。

  10. Cambios en las propiedades de un suelo franco bajó producción orgánica de manzano utilizando coberturas vegetales Changes in soil properties in a loamy soil under organic production of apples using cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martía Cristina Aruani

    2006-12-01

    tratamientos con coberturas perennes (A+F y Tr.Orchard floor management in the Rio Negro valley is based on continuous tillage which in the long term may negatively affect soil properties. Therefore, the aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of different soil management treatments in an organic apple orchard (Malus domestica Bork. cv. Royal Gala on nutrient availability, soil aggregates stability and organic carbon (CO and total nitrogen (Nt concentration in soil aggregates in a loamy soil. In March 1999, cover treatments applied to the inter-row spaces were: 1 permanent cover of fescue (Festuca arundinacea plus alfalfa (Medicago sativa (A+F; 2 permanent cover of strawberry clover (Trifolium fragiferum (Tr; 3 seeding of common vetch (Vicia sativa (V; and 4 control, natural soil vegetation and disking twice in late winter (T. In November 2002, soil samples were taken at three soil depths, 0-7.5; 7.5-15, and 15-30 cm to determine soil organic matter (OM, total nitrogen (Nt, available phosphorus (P and exchangeable bases (Ca+2, K+ and Mg+2. In the top 0-7.5 cm macro aggregate (100-2,000 µm micro aggregate (0-100 µm fractions and the content of OM, OC and Nt were determined. Organic matter and Nt concentration in the perennial cover crops treatments (A+F and Tr increased, and K+ were higher only in the 0-7.5 cm soil depths respect the V and T treatments. Magnesium concentration increased two-fold in the top 15 cm of soil in A+F compared to T. Calcium concentrations in A+F and Tr were higher than T at all soil depths and for the top 15 cm, respectively. In the T treatment macro-aggregates diminished and microaggregates increased due to soil cultivation compared to the perennial cover crops.

  11. 草坪草内生真菌与草坪草抗逆性关系研究进展%Research Progress of the Relationship Between Endophytic Fungi and Stress Resistance of Turfgass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓洁; 张志飞; 饶力群; 胡晓敏

    2007-01-01

    提高草坪草的抗性是培育草坪的重要目标之一,综述了内生真菌对改良两种常见冷季型草坪草-黑麦草(Lolium perenne L.)和高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)抗逆性等方面的作用,为更好地利用我国广泛分布的真菌草种资源提供参考.

  12. Producción de variedades de alfalfa y praderas polifitas de regadío en un suelo pardo calizo de la provincia de Granada

    OpenAIRE

    Ratera, C.; Muslera, E.; Ruiz Cornejo, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Se presentan los resultados de unos ensayos realizados durante tres años en un suelo pardo calizo de la provincia de Granada, en la que se compararon 12 variedades de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv Moapa, Galilea, Gilboa, Caliente, AS-13, AS-49, Peruana, Africana, Aragón, Albaida, Mireille y Alfa II) y las mezclas obtenidas de la combinación de cada una de las tres gramíneas, Lolium perenne L. Compás, Dactylis glomerata L. Bar aula, Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Manade, con cada una de las legu...

  13. Comparative assessment of the phytomeliorative efficiency of perennial grasses on chernozems in the transural part of Bashkortostan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanova, R. F.; Suyundukov, Ya. T.; Suyundukova, M. B.

    2010-01-01

    The phytomeliorative efficiency of different groups of perennial herbs was studied. The agrophysical properties of soils under natural grasses (the feather grasses Stipa pennata, S. zalesskii, and S. Lessingiana; the fescue grass Festuca pseudovina; and quack grass), sawn herbs (awnless brome, crested wheat grass, purple alfalfa, the holy clover Onobrychis sibirica, the galega Galega orientalis, and yellow sweet clover), and cereal crops (winter rye and spring wheat) were compared. The formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass and the influence of phytomeliorative herbs on the aggregate state of leached, ordinary, and southern chernozems in the Transural part of Bashkortostan were analyzed.

  14. Impacts of endophyte infection of ryegrass on rhizosphere metabolome and microbial community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakelin, S.; Harrison, Scott James; Mander, C.

    2015-01-01

    of these interactions on rhizosphere microbiology are not well characterised. This is important, because there may be opportunities or risks associated with selective disruption of the rhizosphere microbiota. We explored the interaction of two commercially used endophyte fungi, E. festucae var. lolii strains AR1 and AR......The use of grasses such as ryegrass and fescues infected with endophytic fungi of the Epichloë genus is widespread in New Zealand's pastoral systems. Each endophyte-cultivar combination represents a distinctive genome-genome association, resulting in unique biological outcomes. The wider influence...

  15. USE OF COVER CROPS FOR WEED SUPPRESSION IN HAZELNUT (CORYLUS AVELLANA L.) IN TURKEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, D; Dok, M; Ak, K; Macit, I; Demir, Z; Mennan, H

    2014-01-01

    Weed management is critical in hazelnut (Corylus avellana) production. Weeds reduce nutrient availability, interfere with tree growth, and reduce hand-harvesting efficiency. Field experiments were conducted to test effects of cover crops as alternative weed management strategies in hazelnut. The cover crop treatments consisted of Trifolium repens L., Festuca rubra subsp. rubra L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Vicia villosa Roth. And Trifolium meneghinianum Celmand fallow with no cover crop. Control plots such as weedy control, herbicide control and mechanical control were added as reference plots. The lowest weed dry biomass was obtained from Vicia villosa plots, and there were no significant differences among all other cover crop treatments. The highest cover crop dry biomass was measured in the Trifolium meneghinianum plots. Regarding the effect of cover crops on hazelnut yields, the lowest yield was ob- tained from weedy control plots, while the highest yield was obtained from F. arundinacea plots. This research indicated that cover crops could be used as living mulch in integrated weed management programs to manage weeds in the hazelnut orchards.

  16. Influence factors and prediction of stormwater runoff of urban green space in Tianjin, China: laboratory experiment and quantitative theory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; You, Xue-Yi; Ji, Min; Nima, Ciren

    2013-01-01

    The effects of limiting factors such as rainfall intensity, rainfall duration, grass type and vegetation coverage on the stormwater runoff of urban green space was investigated in Tianjin. The prediction equation of stormwater runoff was established by the quantitative theory with the lab experimental data of soil columns. It was validated by three field experiments and the relative errors between predicted and measured stormwater runoff are 1.41, 1.52 and 7.35%, respectively. The results implied that the prediction equation could be used to forecast the stormwater runoff of urban green space. The results of range and variance analysis indicated the sequence order of limiting factors is rainfall intensity > grass type > rainfall duration > vegetation coverage. The least runoff of green land in the present study is the combination of rainfall intensity 60.0 mm/h, duration 60.0 min, grass Festuca arundinacea and vegetation coverage 90.0%. When the intensity and duration of rainfall are 60.0 mm/h and 90.0 min, the predicted volumetric runoff coefficient is 0.23 with Festuca arundinacea of 90.0% vegetation coverage. The present approach indicated that green space is an effective method to reduce stormwater runoff and the conclusions are mainly applicable to Tianjin and the semi-arid areas with main summer precipitation and long-time interval rainfalls.

  17. Effects of herbaceous vegetation on the survival and growth of hardwood tree seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, E.W.

    1979-12-01

    First year survival and growth of several hardwood tree species planted with herbaceous vegetation on recently mined areas where soil, lime, and fertilizers were used at five locations throughout the bituminous coal region of Pennsylvania is discussed. In one study begun in 1978, five tree species (Robinia pseudacaia, Quercus rubra, Liriodendron tulipifera, Populus robusta, and Juglans nigra) were planted in vegetated and non-vegetated plots. Survival was good for all species except Populus robusta, which failed due to poor quality stock. Height growth of Robinia pseudoacacia was good, all other species were poor. In another study in 1978, herbaceous competition was evaluated using three grass-legume mixtures (Lotus corniculatus L. with either Festuca arundinacea L., Eragrostis curvula L.), seeded at two rates, and using two herbicides on an area with a previously established cover. No significant differences occurred between herbaceous covers in survival and first year height growth of the two species (Robinia pseudoacacia and Quercus rubra) used. In a third study begun in 1979, eight tree species (the five already mentioned plus Alnus gluthosa, Acer saccharum, and Fraxinus americana) were planted in non-seeded plots and in plots seeded with two different mixtures (Festuca arundinacea L. with either Lotus corniculatus or Cornilla varia L.). Early survival was good for all species.

  18. Control effect of lanthanum against plant disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yajia; WANG Yan; WANG Fubin; LIU Yuming; CUI Jianyu; HU Lin; MU Kangguo

    2008-01-01

    Effect of La on emergence, growth and development of Isatis indigotica Fort and Festuca arundinacea seedlings was researched by pot experiments of inoculating Rhizoctonia solani and with the mixture of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani in disinfected soil after the seeds were soaked in the solution with different concentrations of La3+. The results indicated that infection rate decreased and there were significant disease controlling effects on seed rot, bud rot and root rot caused by pathogenic fungi when the seeds were soaked by La3+. Thus, the rates of emergence of Isatis indigotica Fort. And turfgrass Festuca arundinacea were increased. When La3+ concentration was in a proper range, the growth and development of plant seedlings were promoted. Spraying La on rice plants showed a significant controling effect on Rhizoctonia solani. Furthermore, the EC50 of La3+ performed 128.7 and 128.1 mg/L at 1 and 7 d after spraying La in rice plants, respectively. The EC50ofLa3+ performed in vivo (in rice plant) was lower than that in vitro (171.9 mg/L).

  19. Lipid composition of grains from wild grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zydgalo, J. A.

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid and sterol composition were studied in grains of Agropyron elongatum, Bromus catharticus, Festuca arundinacea, Stipa hyaline and Panicum maximum. The highest protein level was found in A. elongatum. Linoleic and palmitic acids were the predominant fatty acids in all species, β-sitosterol was by far the most prominent sterol component in all samples, while Δ7-stigmasterol was detected in only trace amounts.

    Se estudió las características físico-químicas, la composición de ácidos grasos y esteroles de Agropyron elongatum, Bromus catharticus, Festuca arundinacea, Stipa hialina y Panicum maximum. Los niveles más altos de proteínas fueron encontrados en A. elongatum. Dentro de los ácidos grasos el linoleico y el palmítico fueron los predominantes. En todas las muestras el β-sitosterol fue el esterol que se presentó en mayor cantidad, mientras que el Δ7-estigmasterol fue detectado en cantidades trazas.

  20. Plant diversity reduces the effect of multiple heavy metal pollution on soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang GAO; Chiyuan MIAO; Jun XIA; Liang MAO; Yafeng WANG; Pei ZHOU

    2012-01-01

    It is unclear whether certain plant species and plant diversity could reduce the impacts of multiple heavy metal pollution on soil microbial structure and soil enzyme activities. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to analyze the genetic diversity and microbial similarity in planted and unplanted soil under combined cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) pollution. A metal hyper- accumulator, Brassica juncea, and a common plant, Festuca arundinacea Schreb, were used in this research. The results showed that microorganism quantity in planted soil significantly increased, compared with that in unplanted soil with Cd and Pb pollution. The order of microbial community sensitivity in response to Cd and Pb stress was as follows: actinomycetes 〉 bacteria 〉 fungi. Respiration, phosphatase, urease and dehydrogenase activity were significantly inhibited due to Cd and Pb stress. Compared with unplanted soil, planted soils have frequently been reported to have higher rates of microbial activity due to the presence of additional surfaces for microbial colonization and organic compounds released by the plant roots. Two coexisting plants could increase microbe population and the activity of phosphatases, dehydrogenases and, in particular, ureases. Soil enzyme activity was higher in B. juncea phytoremediated soil than in F. arundinacea planted soil in this study. Heavy metal pollution decreased the richness of the soil microbial community, but plant diversity increased DNA sequence diversity and maintained DNA sequence diversity at highlevels. The genetic polymorphism under heavy metal stress was higher in B. juncea phytoremediated soil than in F. arundinacea planted soil.

  1. Effects of shade on soil respiration,temperature and biomass in mixed cool season turf%遮荫对冷季型混播草坪土壤呼吸速率、温度及生物量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任健; 杨春勐; 代微然; 宋丽梅; 尹以爽

    2014-01-01

    以草地早熟禾、多年生黑麦草和高羊茅组成的冷季型混播草坪为研究对象,测定了树冠遮荫41%和全光照下的草坪的土壤呼吸速率、叶绿素和地上生物量等指标。试验结果表明:(1)遮荫下混播草坪在白天的土壤呼吸速率低于光照充足下的草坪,尤其在14∶00时有着显著差异(P <0.05);(2)从土壤温度和土壤水分的日变化分析,遮荫降低了混播草坪的土壤温度,到14∶00以后与全光照处理趋于一致;土壤水分含量的变化呈先降低,后升高的趋势,从8∶00~12∶00,遮荫下的土壤水分含量均高于全光照混播草坪;(3)全光照下草坪的土壤呼吸速率与土壤水分含量存在显著的正相关,但遮荫下二者的相关性不显著;(4)遮荫显著地提高了草坪草的叶绿素 a、b 及整个叶绿素含量,降低了地上部生物量。%The paper studied the effects of tree canopy shade (41%)on soil respiration rate,chlorophyll con-tent and aboveground biomass in the mixed cool season turf with Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis ),perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne )and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea ).The results showed that:1)The soil respira-tion rate of the mixed turf under tree canopy shade was lower than the turf under full sun light.There was sig-nificant difference in the soil respiration rate between two treatmens at 14:00 (P <0.05 ).2)In term of daily change of soil temperature and soil moisture,the shade decreased soil temperature,however,the soil temperature was the same between two treatments after 14∶00.However,the soil moisture in the turf under shade was high-er than that in the turf under sunlight from 8∶00~12∶00.3)There was a significant positive correlation between the soil respiration rate and the soil moisture in the turf under the sunlight.However,there was no correlation between the two indictors in the truf under shade.4)Shade significantly increased content of chlorophyll a and b

  2. Effects of co-grazing dairy heifers with goats on animal performance, dry matter yield, and pasture forage composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, T S; Unruh-Snyder, L J; Neary, M K; Nennich, T D

    2012-12-01

    Mixed livestock grazing can offer an alternative management system for rearing dairy replacement heifers (Bos taurus). A 2-yr study was conducted during 2009 (yr 1) and 2010 (yr 2) to determine the effects of co-grazing Holstein heifers under rotational stocking with Boer × Kiko goats on animal performance, pasture DM yield, and botanical composition. Each year, 24 heifers (134 ± 6 d of age and 147.4 ± 31.2 kg BW in yr 1; 166 ± 11 d of age and 168.0 ± 27.6 kg BW in yr 2) and 6 goats (2 yr old and 39.7 ± 16.2 kg BW in yr 1; 1 yr old and 33.7 ± 7.4 kg BW in yr 2) were divided into 6 paddocks with 4 heifers and 2 goats, where applicable, per group. Low endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pastures were used to evaluate 2 grazing strategies (heifers grazed alone [HO] or heifers co-grazed with goats [HG]). In addition, 6 goats were assigned to 2 paddocks and grazed alone (GO) each year to estimate goat pasture forage intake and compare Haemonchus contortus infection to co-grazed goats. Forage samples were taken monthly to assess DM yield and botanical composition. Samples collected for botanical composition were manually sorted into grass, legume, and weed species. Forage DMI was estimated using a rising plate meter before and after grazing. Heifer BW at the conclusion of yr 1 and yr 2 did not differ between HO and HG (P = 0.40 and P = 0.12, respectively). Likewise, overall ADG did not differ between HO and HG, averaging 0.65 kg/d and 0.63 kg/d over both grazing seasons (P = 0.70). Grazing strategy did not affect forage or total DMI in yr 1; however, HO consumed 2.3 kg/d more forage DM than HG (P < 0.01), resulting in greater total DMI for HO in yr 2 (P < 0.01). Heights at the hip and withers were greater for HO than for HG during both grazing seasons (P < 0.05). Weed presence did not differ between grazing strategies over both grazing seasons as determined by manual harvesting, but visual estimation

  3. Fructan metabolism in tall fescue calli under different environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Academic Journals

    2012-06-19

    Jun 19, 2012 ... development, since their utilization occur during regrowth, either after defoliation .... One 4.1.0 Program (Bio-Rad, Hercules CA, USA). Fructan quantification ..... A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram ...

  4. Evaluation of alfalfa-tall fescue mixtures across multiple environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binary grass-legume mixtures can benefit forage production systems in different ways helping growers cope both with increasing input costs (e.g., N fertilizer, herbicides) and potentially more variable weather. The main objective of this study was to evaluate alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tall f...

  5. Leaf litter variation influences invasion dynamics in the invasive wetland grass Phalaris arundinacea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaproth, M.A.; Eppinga, M.B.; Molofsky, J.

    2013-01-01

    High litter mass is hypothesized to produce an invader-directed invasion by changing ecosystem properties such as nutrient cycling rates and light availability. An invasive plant species that stimulates litter accumulation may induce a positive feedback when it benefits from high litter conditions.

  6. Characterization of Chemical and Physical Properties of Hydroxypropylated and Cross-linked Arrowroot (Marantha arundinacea Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijanti Rahaju Maulani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern food industry and a variety of food products require tolerant starch as raw material for processing in a broad range of techniques, from preparation to storage and distribution. Dual modification of arrowroot starch using hydroxypropylation and cross-linking was carried out to overcome the lack of native arrowroot starch in food processing application. The modifications applied were: combined propylene oxide (8%, 10%, and 12%; sodium tri meta phosphate/STMP (1%, 2%, and 3%; and sodium tri poly phosphate/STPP (4%, 5%, and 6%. These modifications significantly affected the composition of the amylose and amylopectin and the amount of phosphorus in the granules. Higher amounts of phosphate salt gave a higher phosphorus content, which increased the degree of substitution (DS and the degree of cross-link. Arrowroot starch that was modified using a concentration of 8-10% propylene oxide and 1-2% STMP : 3-5% STPP produced a starch with < 0.4% phosphorus content. A higher concentration of propylene oxide provided a higher degree of hydroxypropyl. The changed physical properties of the modified granular arrowroot starch were examined through SEM testing, and its changed crystalline patterns through X-ray diffraction measurements. Especially, provision of a high concentration of propylene oxide (12% combined with 3% STMP : 6% STPP affected the granular morphology and the crystallinity.

  7. Phenetic relationships among Lolium s.l. (Poaceae in Iran based on flavonoids spot profiles and quantitative morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Raeisi Chehrazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between species of Lolium and Festuca have long been an interesting subject in taxonomy of the subtribe Loliineae. This study was concerned with the phenetic relationships of Lolium s.l. (including Festuca subgen. Schedonorus using flavonoids spot profiles and quantitative morphological characters. Measurement of morphological characters and densitometry of flavonoids spots and their profile plots were performed by using calibrated digital images and ImageJ software package. Multivariate analyses (clustering and ordination performed by using NTSYS-pc software package. Each species was described based on its flavonoid spot profile, and Rf values and percentage of each spot in the corresponding profile were reported. Variation in flavonoid spot profiles of Lolium rigidum, L. perenne and Festuca pratensis revealed that flavonoids spot profiles revealed that they may be useful characters for further studying the variations within the species level. Cluster analysis of quantitative morphological characters separated the species in well defined groups and further separated L. persicum population Ardabil from other L. persicum populations. Separation of F. arundinacea populations into two distinct groups was also interesting which suggested that the existence of two forms of this species in Iran is probable.

  8. Endophyte isolate and host grass effects on Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Olivier J P; Gwinn, Kimberly D; Pless, Charles D; Popay, Alison J

    2011-04-01

    Endophytic fungi belonging to the genus Neotyphodium, confer resistance to infected host grasses against insect pests. The effect of host species, and endophtye species and strain, on feeding and survival of the corn flea beetle, Chaetocnema pulicaria Melsheimer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was investigated. The grass-endophyte associations included natural and artificially derived associations producing varying arrays of common endophyte-related alkaloids or alkaloid groups, peramine, lolitrem B, ergovaline, and the lolines. Preference and nonpreference tests showed that C. pulicaria feeding and survival were reduced by infection of tall fescue with the wild-type strain of N. coenophialum, the likely mechanism being antixenosis rather than antibiosis. In the preference tests, endophyte and host species effects were observed. Of the 10 different Neotyphodium strains tested in artificially derived tall fescue associations, eight strongly deterred feeding by C. pulicaria, whereas the remaining two strains had little or no effect on feeding. Infection of tall fescue with another fungal symbiont, p-endophyte, had no effect. Perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L., infected with six strains of endophyte, was moderately resistant to C. pulicaria compared with endophyte-free grass, but four additional strains were relatively inactive. Six Neotyphodium-meadow fescue, Festuca pratensis Huds., associations, including the wild-type N. uncinatum-meadow fescue combination, were resistant, whereas three associations were not effective. Loline alkaloids seemed to play a role in antixenosis to C. pulicaria. Effects not attributable to the lolines or any other of the alkaloids examined also were observed. This phenomenon also has been reported in tests with other insects, and indicates the presence of additional insect-active factors.

  9. Minimizing N2O fluxes from full-scale municipal solid waste landfill with properly selected cover soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills emit nitrous oxide (N2O) gas. Assuming that the soil cover is the primary N2O source from landfills,this study tested, during a four-year project, the hypothesis that the proper use of chosen soils with fine texture minimizes N2O emissions. A full-scale sanitary landfill, a full-scale bioreactor landfill and a cell planted with Nerium indicum or Festuca arundinacea Schreb, at the Hangzhou Tianziling landfill in Hangzhou City were the test sites. The N2O emission rates from all test sites were considerably lower than those reported in the published reports. Specifically, the N2O emission rate was dependent on soil water content and nitrate concentrations in the cover soil. The effects of leachate recirculation and irrigation were minimal. Properly chosen cover soils applied to the landfills reduced N2O flux.

  10. Heavy Metal Accumulation and Ecological Responses of Turfgrass to Rubbish Compost with EDTA Addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-An DUO; Yu-Bao GAO; Shu-Lan ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    Domestic rubbish compost is a complex-polluted system, containing multiple heavy metals,which limits its application. In the present study, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb accumulation and ecological responses of turfgrass to rubbish compost were investigated following the addition of EDTA. The results showed that the addition of EDTA significantly increased heavy metal accumulation in Lolium perenne L.and Festuca arundinacea L. Most heavy metal concentrations in L. perenne increased with increasing EDTA supply. The concentrations of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Cd in L. perenne were highest following the addition of 30 mmol/kg EDTA and the concentrations of Cr and Ni at this point reached concentrations of1914.17 and 521.25 μg/g, respectively. When the EDTA level was < 20 mmol/kg, the accumulation of most heavy metals in F. arundinacea increased with increasing EDTA supply, but showed a tendency to decrease at EDTA concentrations >20 mmol/kg. The highest concentrations of Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn in F.arundinacea reached 268.01, 110.94, 161.52 and 1 354.97 μg/g, respectively, following the addition of 20mmol/kg EDTA. The EDTA-induced increase in the accumulation of heavy metals in turfgrass was plantand metal-specific. L. perenne had a relatively high ability to accumulate Cr, Ni, and Zn. The highest Zn concentration was 2 979.58 μg/g and, following the addition of EDTA, the concentrations of the three metals were increased 26.23, 20.03, and 10.49-fold, respectively, compared with control. However, F. arundinacea showed a high ability to accumulate Cr, with the highest concentration (596.02 μg/g) seen following the addition of 30 mmol/kg EDTA; the concentration of Cr increased 15.51-fold compared with control. With EDTA addition, ecological responses of both turfgrass species showed that EDTA at concentrations <10mmol/kg increased seed germination and aboveground net primary production (ANP) of L. perenne and slightly inhibited those of F.arundinacea, but EDTA at

  11. The Influence of Acid Rain on the Growth and Physiological Metabolism of Two Turf Grasses%酸雨对2种草坪草生长及生理代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈高峰

    2011-01-01

    为了解酸雨污染对草坪草生长的影响,以高羊茅和多年生黑麦草为材料,通过盆栽试验,研究不同pH酸雨条件下对草坪草生长和代谢的影响.分别测定生物量、叶绿素含量、超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化物酶、丙二醛和电导率等指标.结果表明,高羊茅和多年生黑麦草鲜重、叶绿素含量等在高酸度、长时间胁迫下整体呈降低趋势,氧化物歧化酶、过氧化物酶则先高后低,丙二醛和电导率则随酸雨pH减小而有增加趋势.%For the sake of understanding acid rain influence of the pollution upon the turfgrass growth, With the material of Fescue arundinacea and Lolium perenne, this paper studied on the physiological characteristics of turf grass under different pH values of simulated acid rain. It measured indicators like fresh weight,chlorophyll content, SOD, POD, MDA and electric conductivity. The result indicated that, under conditions of high acidity and long period of time, the fresh weight of Fescue arundinacea and Lolium perenne, and chlorophyll content entirely showed a reduced trend, while the contents of SOD and POD first rose and then fell down. The pH value of acid rain decreased, there was an increasing trend of MDA and electric conductivity.

  12. Tolerance of Grasses to Heavy Metals and Microbial Functional Diversity in Soils Contaminated with Copper Mine Tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Ying; LUO Yong-Ming; HUANG Chang-Yong; LONG Jian; LI Zhen-Gao; P.CHRISTIE

    2008-01-01

    Copper (Cu) mine tallings,because of their high content of heavy metals,are usually hostile to plant colonization.A pot experiment was conducted to determine the tolerance of four forage grasses to heavy metals in Cu mine tailings and to examine the variation in the microbial functional diversity of soils from the tailing sites in southern China.All the four grass species survived on Cu mine tailings and Cu mine tailing-soil mixture.However,on pure mine tailings,the growth was minimal,whereas the growth was maximum for the control without mine railings.The tolerance of grasses to heavy metals followed the sequence: Paspalum notatum >Festuca arundinacea >Lolium perenne >Cynodon dactylon.The planting of forage grasses enhanced the soil microbial biomass.The Biolog data indicated that the soil microbial metabolic profile values (average well color development,community richness,and Shannon index) of the four forage grasses also followed the sequence: P.notatum > F.arundinacea > L.perenne > C.dactylon.Thus,P.notatum,under the experimental conditions of this study,may be considered as the preferred plant species for revegetation of Cu mine tailing areas.

  13. Allelochemicals in the rhizosphere soil of Euphorbia himalayensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Lu, Dengxue; Jin, Hui; Yan, Zhiqiang; Li, Xiuzhuang; Yang, Xiaoyan; Guo, Hongru; Qin, Bo

    2014-08-27

    Weed infestation has been known to cause considerable reductions in crop yields, thereby hindering sustainable agriculture. Many plants in genus Euphorbia affect neighboring plants and other organisms by releasing chemicals into the environment. In view of the serious threat of weeds to agriculture, the allelochemicals of Euphorbia himalayensis and their allelopathic effects were investigated. The extract of root exudates from rhizosphere soil exhibited allelopathic activities against crops (wheat, rape, and lettuce) and grasses (Poa annua, Festuca rubra, and red clover). Bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation from the root extract of E. himalayensis led to the characterization of two ellagic acid derivatives and a jatrophane diterpene, which observably showed phytotoxic activities against lettuce, Festuca arundinacea, and F. rubra. They were further confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to have concentrations of 3.6, 3.8, and 8.99 nmol/g in the rhizospere soil, respectively. Bioassay indicated that the combination of the allelochemicals could be selective plant growth regulator in agriculture.

  14. O-feruloylated, O-acetylated oligosaccharides as side-chains of grass xylans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wende, G; Fry, S C

    1997-03-01

    Partial acid hydrolysis of cell wall material from Festuca arundinacea cell cultures yielded a novel O-feruloylated trisaccharide (3). Treatment of 3 with Driselase, which contains beta- but not alpha-D-xylosidase, released xylose plus the known compound, beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-(5-O-feruloyl)-L-arabinose. Since 3 contained one NaIO4-resistant xylose residue, it was concluded to be beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1--> 2)-(5-O-feruloyl)-L-arabinose. Partial acid hydrolysis of Festuca cell walls also yielded several higher-M(r) feruloylated oligosaccharides, including a feruloylated pentasaccharide, 4 (sugar composition: Ara + Xyl2 + two non-pentose residues) and a feruloylated heptasaccharide, 5 (Ara + Xyl3 + three non-pentose residues). Compounds 4 and 5 were endogenously O-acetylated but 3 was not. Similar or identical compounds were found in hydrolysates of 20 additional species of the Gramineae. These products represent a series of complex side-chains which, in vivo, are attached via Araf residues to the parent xylan. Their possible biological roles are discussed.

  15. MODIFIKASI PATI GARUT (Marantha arundinacea) DENGAN PERLAKUAN SIKLUS PEMANASAN SUHU TINGGI-PENDINGINAN ( AUTOCLAVING-COOLING CYCLING) UNTUK MENGHASILKAN PATI RESISTEN TIPE III [Arrowroot (Marantha arundinacea) Starch Modification Through Autoclaving-Cooling Cycling Treatment to Produce Resistant Starch Type III

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyono*; Ratih Pratiwi2); Didah Nur Faridah

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to modify arrowroot starch to produce resistant starch type III by autoclaving-cooling cycling and to characterize the modified arrowroot starches according to their chemical properties. The research consisted of three steps : arrowroot extraction, starch modification, and chemical characterization. The extraction of arrowroot produced 10.78% starch. Starch modification by autoclaving-cooling cycle(s) was run in 6 different treatments with the aim of obser...

  16. MODIFIKASI PATI GARUT (Marantha arundinacea DENGAN PERLAKUAN SIKLUS PEMANASAN SUHU TINGGI-PENDINGINAN ( AUTOCLAVING-COOLING CYCLING UNTUK MENGHASILKAN PATI RESISTEN TIPE III [Arrowroot (Marantha arundinacea Starch Modification Through Autoclaving-Cooling Cycling Treatment to Produce Resistant Starch Type III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyono1

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to modify arrowroot starch to produce resistant starch type III by autoclaving-cooling cycling and to characterize the modified arrowroot starches according to their chemical properties. The research consisted of three steps : arrowroot extraction, starch modification, and chemical characterization. The extraction of arrowroot produced 10.78% starch. Starch modification by autoclaving-cooling cycle(s was run in 6 different treatments with the aim of observing optimal yield of resistant starch. Resistant starch (RS was produced through 1, 3, 5 cycle(s of autoclaving-cooling treatment with different gelatinization periods (15 and 30 minutes autoclaving for each cycle. Properties analyzed were starch digestibility, fat content, protein content, resistant starch content, and dietary fiber content. Native starch and commercial RS type III (Novelose 330 were also analyzed as a comparison. Based on the starch digestibility, modified starch from 5 cycles, 15 minutes gelatinization period had the lowest digestibility while modified starch from 3 cycles, 15 minutes gelatinization period had no significant difference with commercial RS type III. Those two modified starches, native starch, and Novelose 330 were chosen for further chemical analysis. The fat content and protein content of the four samples were below 1% (db. Low fat and protein content were required to optimize the RS yield. The modification treatment increased the dietary fiber content. The RS content of native starch, Novelose 330, modified starch 3 cycles, 15 minutes gelatinization period, and modified starch 5 cycles, 15 minutes gelatinization period were 2.12% (db, 20.80% (db, 10.91% (db, and 12.15% (db, respectively. It means that repeating autoclaving-cooling cycling could increase RS yield up to 6 times.

  17. PERUBAHAN STRUKTUR PATI GARUT (Maranta arundinaceae SEBAGAI AKIBAT MODIFIKASI HIDROLISIS ASAM, PEMOTONGAN TITIK PERCABANGAN DAN SIKLUS PEMANASAN-PENDINGINAN [Structure Changes of Arrowroot (Maranta arundinaceae Starch as Influenced by Acid Hydrolysis, Debranching and Autoclaving-Cooling Cycle Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didah Nur Faridah1*

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of lintnerization (2.2 N HCl, 2 hours, debranching with pullulanase (1.3 U/g and 10.4 U/g starch and/or three-auctoclaving-cooling cycles at 121oC for 15 minutes on the changes of arrowroot starch structures were studied. The structural modifications of amylose and amylopectin were measured by Gel Permiation Chromatography (GPC, and the distribution of degree of polimerization (DP was analyzed by Fluorophore-Assisted Capillary Electrophoresis (FACE. The GPC profile of native starch using Toyopearl HW-65S gel gave mainly two fractions. Fraction I (Fr. I was a high molecular weight component and Fraction II (Fr. II was a low molecular weight component. After acid modification, the carbohydrate content of Fr. II increased while that of Fr. I decreased. The amount of DP of 6 to 8 increased in all modified arrowroot starches. The GPC and FACE analyses showed that all starch modification techniques caused the structural changes of amylopectin molecules to form short chain amyloses.

  18. Chemistry of flyash scrubber sludge components in plant-soil-water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Flyash scrubber sludge (FASS) is a by-product from coal combustion at power plants. Land application and burial beneath wetlands have been suggested as more cost efficient disposal methods than burial in old mines. The FASS from the Associated Electric Power Plant at Thomas Hill, MO was added, 2.5 or 5.0% FASS by weight, to an acidic topsoil. FASS increased soil pH and salt level, and increased growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) and tall fescue (Festuca aroundinacea L.). Concentrations of Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Ni, P, Si, Sr, Ti, and Zn in plant tissues were either unaffected or reduced due to FASS addition. The concentrations of B, Cl, Mo, Mn, and S were higher in tissues of plants grown on FASS treated than untreated soil. Boron content limited the amount of FASS that could be applied to soil.

  19. Effects of certain atmospheric pollutants (SO2, NO2 and CO) on the soluble amino acids, molecular weight and antigenicity of some airborne pollen grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, J; Liu, M Y; Sessoms, R; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, U C

    1986-01-01

    The pure pollen grains of Red Oak (Quercus rubra), Meadow Fescue (Festuca elatior) and Chinese Elm (Ulmas pumila) were exposed to carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). After exposure, the soluble free amino acids were determined from the extracts using two-dimensional thin layer chromatography, and the molecular weight of the extracts were determined by SDS-gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The results indicated that after contamination, both the amino acids and molecular weight profiles were changed. In addition, the double immunodiffusion method was used against rabbit-antisera to determine the antigenicity of contaminated and non-contaminated pollen grain extracts. The results also showed that there were antigenic changes after contamination.

  20. How nitrogen and sulphur addition, and a single drought event affect root phosphatase activity in Phalaris arundinacea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robroek, B.J.M.; Adema, E.B.; Venterink, H.O.; Leonardson, L.; Wassen, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Conservation and restoration of fens and fen meadows often aim to reduce soil nutrients, mainly nitrogen (N) andphosphorus (P). The biogeochemistry of P has received much attention as P-enrichment is expected to negatively impact on species diversity in wetlands. It is known that N, sulphur (S) and

  1. Ground flora, small mammal and bird species diversity in miscanthus (Miscanthusxgiganteus) and reed canary-grass (Phalaris arundinacea) fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.M. [Cardiff University, School of Biosciences, Llysdinam Field Centre, Newbridge-on-Wye, Llandrindod Wells, Powys LD1 6NB (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    Wildlife monitoring of two miscanthus and two reed canary-grass fields in Herefordshire, England was carried out in 2002, 2003 and 2004 to investigate the ecological impact of perennial biomass grass crops on ground flora, small mammals and birds. Quadrats were used to record percentage ground vegetation cover within and around the periphery of each crop. Small mammals were sampled by live trapping using Longworth traps. The common bird census technique was used to monitor populations of birds. Miscanthus fields were richer in weed vegetation than reed canary-grass or arable fields. Bird use of the biomass crop fields varied depending on species. There were considerably more open-ground bird species such as skylarks (Alauda arvensis), lapwings (Vanellus vanellus) and meadow pipits (Anthus pratensis) within miscanthus than within reed canary-grass fields. There was no particular crop-type preference by the small mammal species, but rather a preference for good ground cover and little land disturbance, which was provided by both biomass crops. Ground flora, small mammals and most of the bird species (except open-ground birds) were found more abundantly within field margins and boundaries than in crop fields indicating the importance of retaining field structure when planting biomass crops. The miscanthus work relates entirely to young crops, which may be representative of part of the national crop if large areas are cultivated for rhizomes. The findings from the current project indicate that perennial biomass grass crops can provide substantially improved habitat for many forms of native wildlife, due to the low intensity of the agricultural management system and the untreated headlands. (author)

  2. Evolutionary origins and ecological consequences of endophyte symbiosis with grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Keith; Schardl, Christopher

    2002-10-01

    Over the past 20 yr much has been learned about a unique symbiotic interaction between fungal endophytes and grasses. The fungi (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycota) grow intercellularly and systemically in aboveground plant parts. Vertically transmitted asexual endophytes forming asymptomatic infections of cool-season grasses have been repeatedly derived from sexual species that abort host inflorescences. The phylogenetic distribution of seed-transmitted endophytes is strongly suggestive of cocladogenesis with their hosts. Molecular evidence indicates that many seed-transmitted endophytes are interspecific hybrids. Superinfection may result in hyphal fusion and parasexual recombination. Most endophytes produce one or more alkaloid classes that likely play some role in defending the host plant against pests. Hybridization may have led to the proliferation of alkaloid-production genes among asexual endophytes, favoring hybrids. The ergot alkaloid ergovaline, lolitrems, and lolines are produced by only a single sexual species, Epichloë festucae, but they are common in seed-transmitted endophytes, suggesting that E. festucae contributed genes for their synthesis. Asexual hybrids may also be favored by the counteracting of the accumulation of deleterious mutations (Muller's rachet). Endophyte infection can provide other benefits, such as enhanced drought tolerance, photosynthetic rate, and growth. Estimates of infection frequency have revealed variable levels of infection with especially high prevalence in the subfamily Pooideae. Longitudinal studies suggest that the prevalence of seed-transmitted endophytes can increase rapidly over time. In field experiments, infected tall fescue suppressed other grasses and forbs relative to uninfected fescue and supported lower consumer populations. Unlike other widespread plant/microbial symbioses based on the acquisition of mineral resources, grass/endophyte associations are based primarily on protection of the host from biotic and

  3. Presencia y distribución de micofilas en gramíneas de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugo, Mónica A.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The mycophyllas were studied in grasses (Poaceae from natural Argentinian grasslands. Festuca fiebrigii Pilg., F. hieronymi Hack. var. expansa (St. Yves Türpe, F. parodii St. Yves, Melica macra Nees, M. stuckertii Hack., Poa hieronymi Hack.. P. holciformis J. Presl, P. lilloi Hack., P. plicata Hack, and P. stuckertii (Hack. Parodi are reponed as new hosts and the distribution área of the association for Festuca arundinacea Schreb., F. hieronymi Hack, var. hieronymi and F. tucumanica E.B. Alexeev, has been extended. The interaction was a mutualistic symbiosis. Most of the species had both the culm parenchyma and the fruits colonized, except in Melica macra. Poa hieronymi and P. plicata, where the symbiont was only observed in the parenchyma. On the other hand, variation in the association was observed in relation to the host species, location and altitude.Se realiza un estudio de las micofilas encontradas en gramíneas (Poaceae de pastizales naturales de Argentina. La búsqueda del simbionte fúngico se efectuó en plantas vivas y herborizadas. Se dan a conocer como nuevos hospedantes a Festucafiebrigii Pilg., F. hieronymi Hack, var. expanda (St. Yves Türpe, F. parodii St. Yves, Melica macra Nees, M. stuckertii Hack., Poa hieronymi Hack., P. holciformis J. Presl, P. lilloi Hack., P. plicata Hack, y P. stuckertii (Hack. Parodi, y se amplía el área de distribución de la asociación para Festuca arundinacea Schreb., F. hieronymi Hack. var. hieronymi y F. tucumanica E.B. Alexeev. El tipo de interacción observada corresponde a una simbiosis mutualista. En la mayoría de las especies analizadas el endófito colonizó el parenquima de las cañas y los frutos, salvo en Melica macra. Poa hieronymi y P. alicata, en las que solo se observó en el parenquima. Por otro lado, la presencia de micofilas presentó variaciones con relación a la especie del hospedante, altitud y localidad de procedencia.

  4. Ungulate saliva inhibits a grass-endophyte mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanentzap, Andrew J; Vicari, Mark; Bazely, Dawn R

    2014-07-01

    Fungal endophytes modify plant-herbivore interactions by producing toxic alkaloids that deter herbivory. However, studies have neglected the direct effects herbivores may have on endophytes. Antifungal properties and signalling effectors in herbivore saliva suggest that evolutionary pressures may select for animals that mitigate the effects of endophyte-produced alkaloids. Here, we tested whether saliva of moose (Alces alces) and European reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) reduced hyphal elongation and production of ergot alkaloids by the foliar endophyte Epichloë festucae associated with the globally distributed red fescue Festuca rubra. Both moose and reindeer saliva reduced the growth of isolated endophyte hyphae when compared with a treatment of distilled water. Induction of the highly toxic alkaloid ergovaline was also inhibited in plants from the core of F. rubra's distribution when treated with moose saliva following simulated grazing. In genotypes from the southern limit of the species' distribution, ergovaline was constitutively expressed, as predicted where growth is environmentally limited. Our results now present the first evidence, to our knowledge, that ungulate saliva can combat plant defences produced by a grass-endophyte mutualism.

  5. Designing hybrid grass genomes to control runoff generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, C.; Binley, A.; Humphreys, M.; King, I. P.; O'Donovan, S.; Papadopoulos, A.; Turner, L. B.; Watts, C.; Whalley, W. R.; Haygarth, P.

    2010-12-01

    Sustainable management of water in landscapes requires balancing demands of agricultural production whilst moderating downstream effects like flooding. Pasture comprises 69% of global agricultural areas and is essential for producing food and fibre alongside environmental goods and services. Thus there is a need to breed forage grasses that deliver multiple benefits through increased levels of productivity whilst moderating fluxes of water. Here we show that a novel grass hybrid that combines the entire genomes of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne - the grass of choice for Europe’s forage agriculture) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) has a significant role in flood prevention. Field plot experiments established differences in runoff generation with the hybrid cultivar reducing runoff by 50% compared to perennial ryegrass cultivar, and by 35% compared to a meadow fescue cultivar (34 events over two years, replicated randomized-block design, statistically significant differences). This important research outcome was the result of a project that combined plant genetics, soil physics and plot scale hydrology to identify novel grass genotypes that can reduce runoff from grassland systems. Through a coordinated series of experiments examining effects from the gene to plot scale, we have identified that the rapid growth and then turnover of roots in the L. perenne x F. pratensis hybrid is likely to be a key mechanism in reducing runoff generation. More broadly this is an exciting first step to realizing the potential to design grass genomes to achieve both food production, and to deliver flood control, a key ecosystem service.

  6. Hybridization of Neotyphodium endophytes enhances competitive ability of the host grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, S; Faeth, S H

    2012-07-01

    • Associations with microbial symbionts may lead to niche differentiation of their host. Vertically transmitted Neotyphodium endophytes of grasses often hybridize in nature. Infection by these hybrid symbionts may result in different host-plant phenotypes from those caused as a result of infection by nonhybrid symbionts. Observations of wild Arizona fescue (Festuca arizonica) populations show that hybrid Neotyphodium-infected (H+) grasses dominate in resource-poor environments, whereas nonhybrid endophyte-infected (NH+) grasses dominate in environments with more resources. We studied the hypothesis that hybridization of endophytes increases stress tolerance of the host. • To test whether hybridization of Neotyphodium affects performance and competitive abilities of the host depending on resources, we conducted a glasshouse experiment where competition, nutrients and watering were manipulated. • H+ plants had greater wet biomass than NH+ and endophyte-free plants, when grown in competition, but only in low-water and low-nutrient treatments. By contrast, NH+ plants did not perform better than H+ or endophyte-free plants regardless of the treatment combination. • Our results suggest that hybridization of symbiotic Neotyphodium endophytes may increase competitive potential of the host in stressful environments and that this hybridization may be underlying niche expansion of Arizona fescue in the environments with low resources.

  7. The use of cover crops to control tree invasion on a right-of-way near Tobermory. IV. Crop persistance and tree invasion in the third growing season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.

    1992-04-08

    A study was carried out to determine the ability of grasses, legumes, and the natural right-of-way vegetation cover to interfere with tree invasion. The location, in the Tobermory area of the Bruce Peninsula, was used to test 6 treatments at 6 sites, consisting of: soil scarification and seeding with creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra); soil scarification and seeding with juno orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata); soil scarification and seeding with birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus); soil scarification and seeding with a mixture of penngift crown vetch (Coronilla varia) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum); soil scarification with no seeding; and no soil scarification and no seeding. A design change in 1991 involved the addition of a slow release fertilizer and planting of green ash (Flaxinus pennsylvanica), sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and hybrid poplar (Populus sp.) to directly measure the interference potential of the crops. Orchard grass had the highest frequency (93[plus minus]3%), the largest cover (32[plus minus]7%) and the tallest canopy. Red fescue was present with a similarly high frequency and cover but did not appear to be as vigorous as the orchard grass. The frequencies of birdsfoot trefoil and crown vetch declined, and had extremely poor covers. The density of incompatible trees varied at each site but was not affected by the treatments. 41 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Phytoextraction and phytostabilisation of metal-contaminated soil in temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathiamma, P. K.; Li, L. Y.

    2009-04-01

    This research addressed the phytoremediation of roadside soils subjected to multi-component metal solutions. A typical right of way for roads in Canada is around 30 m, and at least 33% of that land in the right of way is unpaved and can support animal life. Thus, land associated with 12,000 km of roads in the province of British Columbia and millions of kilometres around the world represent a substantial quantity of wildlife habitat where metal contamination needs to be remediated. Phytostabilisation, requires least maintenance among different phytoremediation techniques, and it could be a feasible and practical method of remediating in roadside soils along highways and for improving highway runoff drainage. The suitability of five plant species was studied for phytoextraction and phytostabilisation in a region with temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada. Pot experiments were conducted using Lolium perenne L (perennial rye grass), Festuca rubra L (creeping red fescue), Helianthus annuus L (sunflower), Poa pratensis L (Kentucky bluegrass) and Brassica napus L (rape) in soils treated with three different metal (Cu, Pb, Mn and Zn) concentrations. The bio-metric characters of plants in soils with multiple-metal contaminations, their metal accumulation characteristics, translocation properties and metal removal were assessed at different stages of plant growth, 90 and 120 DAS (days after sowing). Lolium was found to be suitable for the phytostabilisation of Cu and Pb, Festuca for Mn and Poa for Zn. Metal removal was higher at 120 than at 90 days after sowing, and metals concentrated more in the underground tissues with less translocation to the above-ground parts. Bioconcentration factors indicate that Festuca had the highest accumulation for Cu, Helianthus for Pb and Zn and Poa for Mn.

  9. Effects of water application intensity of microsprinkler irrigation on water and salt environment and crop growth in coastal saline soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Lin-lin; KANG Yao-hu; WAN Shu-qin

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory and ifeld experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of water application intensity (WAI) on soil salinity management and the growth ofFestuca arundinacea (festuca) under three stages of water and salt management strategies using microsprinkler irrigation in Hebei Province, North China. The soil water content (è) and salinity of homogeneous coastal saline soils were evaluated under different water application intensities in the laboratory experiment. The results indicated that the WAI of microsprinkler irrigation inlfuenced theè, electrical conductivity (ECe) and pH of saline soils. As the WAI increased, the average values ofè and ECe in the 0–40 cm proifle also increased, while their average values in the 40–60 cm proifle decreased. The pH value also slightly decreased as depth increased, but no signiifcant differences were observed between the different treatments. The time periods of the water redistribution treatments had no obvious effects. Based on the results forè, ECe and pH, a smaler WAI was more desirable. The ifeld experiment was conducted after being considered the results of the technical parameter experiment and evaporation, wind and leaching duration. The ifeld experiment included three stages of water and salt regulation, based on three soil matric potentials (SMP), in which the SMP at a 20-cm depth below the surface was used to trigger irrigation. The results showed that the microsprinkler irrigation created an appropriate environment for festuca growth through the three stages of water and salt regulation. The low-salinity conditions that occurred at 0–10 cm depth during the ifrst stage (−5 kPa) continued to expand through the next two stages. The average pH value was less than 8.5. The tiler number of festuca increased as SMP decreased from the ifrst stage to the third stage. After the three stages of water and salt regulation, the highly saline soil gradualy changed to a low-saline soil. Overal, based on the

  10. Contributions to knowledge of taxonomic subunits Festuca valesiaca schleich., F. pseudovina hack. and F. rupicola heuff. microspecies spreading in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antal NYARADY

    1966-08-01

    Full Text Available Die Arbeit umfasst Angaben uber die Verbreitung der taxonomischen Untereinheiten derim Titel angefuhrten Kleinarten auf Grund des untersuchten und bischer nicht veroffentlichten Herbarien-Materials, sowie eine Reihe neuer nomenklatorischer Kombinationen.

  11. 基于蒸渗仪实测的参考作物蒸散发模型北京地区适用性评价%Applicability assessment of reference evapotranspiration models in Beijing based on lysimeter measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁小环; 杨学军; 陈超; 武菊英

    2014-01-01

    /d(日)、0.087mm/h(时),d值分别为0.96(月)、0.89(日)、0.87(时)。Penman-Monteith模型的计算准确性比Penman-van Bavel模型略低,d值为0.73~0.93。%Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is the basic parameter for the vegetation evapotranspiration calculation, the regional water balance analysis, and the water resources management. The ET0models have different adaptability for different regions because of the difference in meteorological conditions among regions. Measurement using lysimeter is the classical method for ET0model evaluation in European and American areas, but is seldom used in China, and no research reported for North China. Assessment of four ET0 models, Penman-Monteith (FAO-56), Hargreaves-Samani, Priestley-Taylor, and Penman-van Bavel were conducted in Beijing using tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceaL.) turf evapotranspiration measurement by auto-weighing lysimeter during the growing season (April - October) of 2012. Two lysimeters were established in cold-season grass tall fescue for standard ET0. The weather station (Dynamet, Dynamax Co. Ltd.) was set up in the experiment site to measure and record automatically the meteorological data of air temperature, air relative humidity, solar radiation and wind speed at 2 meter height above ground for the ET0 calculation by the models. The linear regression and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and the index of agreement (d) were used for assessing the prediction accuracy of the different models. The results indicated that the solar radiation showed a linear relationship (R2=0.95,p=2.72×10-7) with the monthly reference evapotranspiration, indicating that the solar radiation energy was the main force to drive water from the vegetation to the atmosphere in SPAC system. The accuracy of the models declined with the time scale. The models showed different deviations in ET0 calculation because of the different parameters input. The monthly ET0was underestimated by Priestley-Taylor model

  12. Ergot alkaloids produced by endophyte-infected tall fescue decrease rumen epithelial blood flow of cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids have been shown to induce vasoconstriction of both peripheral and ruminal vessels. Constriction of ruminal vessels could lead to a reduction in epithelial blood flow thereby reducing nutrient absorption. The objectives of this experiment were to determine if steers receiving endophyt...

  13. Reduced nitrogen leaching by intercropping maize with red fescue on sandy soils in North Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manevski, Kiril; Børgesen, Christen Duus; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2015-01-01

    Aim To study maize (Zea mays L.) growth and soil nitrogen (N) dynamics in monocrop and intercropped systems in a North European climate and soil conditions with the support of a simulation model. Methods Field data for 3 years at two sites/soil types in Denmark and three main factors: (i) cropping...

  14. Utilizing a dihaploid-gamete selection strategy for tall fescue development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamete selection as originally defined by Stadler is based on the principal that selection exerted at the gametophytic level can increase desirable allelic frequencies detectable at the sporophytic level. If superior gametes can be recognized with certainty through a selection cycle, then such a sy...

  15. A validated method for gas chromatographic analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tall fescue herbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in animals that is also found in plants and has been associated with plant responses to stress. A simple and relatively rapid method of GABA separation and quantification was developed from a commercially available kit for serum amino...

  16. Preplanting tall fescue grass for controlling Meloidogyne incognita in a young peach orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preplant fumigant nematicides have traditionally been used to control Meloidogyne spp. in peach in the southeastern United States. The current preplant nematicides recommended for managing Meloidogyne spp. in peach include the soil fumigants, 1,3-dichloropropene and metam sodium. Because the econo...

  17. Management of Meloidogyne incognita with tall fescue grass rotations prior to peach orchard establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are important pests of peach in the USA. Preplant fumigant nematicides have been used to control Meloidogyne spp. associated with Southeastern peach production. Unfortunately, growers have increasingly faced economic challenges, making it difficult for them t...

  18. Host susceptibility of tall fescue grass to Meloidogyne spp. and Mesocriconema xenoplax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preplant fumigant nematicides have traditionally been used to control Meloidogyne spp. and Mesocriconema xenoplax in peach in the Southeast. In recent years growers have faced economic hardships, making it difficult to afford costs associated with these chemicals. Finding an alternative to control...

  19. Effects of different grasses between rows of apple trees on soft characteristics of 1-year-old orchard%行间种植不同草种对幼龄苹果园土壤特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇建村; 杨文权; 程国亭; 韩明玉

    2012-01-01

    . Furthermore, the effects of grasses on soil fertility varied from its depths. The effect on 0 ~ 10 cm soil layer was consitent with that on 10-20 cm for Dkhondra repent on soil N and P, Cynodon dactylon and Festuca rubra on organic matter. The effect on 0 ~ 10 cm was more than 10 ~ 20 cm for Lolium perenne, Cynodon dactyion, Festuca rubra on soil available N, total N and P, and Trifolium pratense , Festuca rubra on organic matter. But, it reversed for Lolium perenne , Festuca arundi-nacea, Festuca rubra, Trifolium pretense, Trifolium repens on available P, Trifolium pretense , Festuca arundinacea on available and total N, Dkhondra repens, Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens on the soil organic matter. And for Trifolium repens, the increase of the 10 ~ 20 cm available N was more than 0 ~ 10 cm, but total N reversed. At the same time, different grasses had various effects on soil. Dkhondra repens was most efficient to improve soil fertility, Trifolium repens and Trifolium pretense followed while Cynodon dactyion and Festuca arundinacea was the lest. In conclusion, the orchard-grown grasses can improve soil fertility, and the species of grass was the key factor for the efficiency.

  20. Effect of simulated acid rain stress on germination of four turf grass seeds%模拟酸雨胁迫对4种草坪草种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田如男; 张培东; 程澄

    2011-01-01

    以中性溶液(pH =7.0)为对照,研究了模拟酸雨(pH为2.0、2.5、3.0、3.5、4.0、5.0)胁迫对黑麦草(Lolium perenne)、高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea)、匍匐剪股颖(Agrostis palustris)和狗牙根(Cynodon dactylon)4种多年生草坪草种子萌发的影响.结果表明:酸雨胁迫对4种草坪草种子萌发的影响不同,pH =2.0的酸雨完全抑制了4种草坪草种子的萌发,表现为发芽率、发芽势、活力指数均为零.黑麦草、高羊茅种子能在pH:≥2.5的酸雨胁迫下正常萌发,匍匐剪股颖种子能在pH≥3.0的酸雨胁迫下正常萌发,狗牙根种子在不同程度酸雨胁迫下均萌发不良.此外,酸雨胁迫还延缓了4种草坪草种子的萌发进程.应用主成分分析和隶属函数分析法对4种草坪草种子抗酸雨胁迫能力进行综合评定,得出4种草坪草种子抗酸雨胁迫能力由强到弱的顺序依次为高羊茅、黑麦草、匍匐剪股颖、狗牙根.%The seeds of Lolium perenne, Festuca arundinacea, Agrostis palustris and Cynodon dactylon were treated with simulated acid rain at pH 2.0,2.5,3.0,3.5,4. 0,5.0 and 7. 0(as control) to study the effects of acid rain on their germination. The results showed that the seeds germination of four turf grass under acid rain stress were affected at different levels. Acid rain intensity pH 2.0 completely inhibited the seed germination of turf grass, showing no germination was observed and germination energy and vigor index was 0.0. The seeds of L. Perenne and F. Arundinacea could germinate normally under acid rain stress (pH^2. 5) ,and the seeds of A. Paluslris could germinate normally under acid rain stress (pH^3.0).The seeds of C. Dactylon germinated poorly under acid rain stress. In addition, the process of germination became slow under acid rain stress. The comprehensive evaluation results derived from principal components analysis and subordinate function analysis showed the order (from strong to weak) of anti-acid rain ability

  1. Defending the leaf surface: intra- and inter-specific differences in silicon deposition in grasses in response to damage and silicon supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Elaine Hartley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding interactions between grasses and their herbivores is central to the conservation of species-rich grasslands and the protection of our most important crops against pests. Grasses employ a range of defenses against their natural enemies; silicon-based defenses have been shown to be one of the most effective. Silicon (Si is laid down on the leaf surface as spines and other sharp bodies, known as phytoliths, making grasses abrasive and their foliage indigestible to herbivores. Previous studies on Si defenses found that closely related species may have similar levels of Si in the leaves but differ markedly in abrasiveness. Here we show how the number, shape and distribution of Si-rich phytoliths and spines differ within and between different grass species and demonstrate that species also differ in their ability to change the deposition and distribution of these defenses in response to damage or increases in Si supply. Specifically, we tested the response of two genotypes of Festuca arundinacea known to differ in their surface texture and 3 different grass species (F. ovina, F. rubra and Deschampsia cespitosa differing in their abrasiveness to combined manipulation of leaf damage and Si supply. F.arundinacea plants with a harsh leaf surface had higher Si content and more spines on their leaf surface than soft varieties. F. ovina and D. cespitosa plants increased their leaf Si concentration and produced an increase in the number of leaf spines and phytoliths on the leaf surface in response to Si addition. F rubra also increased leaf Si content in response to treatments, particularly in damaged leaves, but did not deposit this in the form of spines or increased densities of phytoliths. We discuss how the form in which grasses deposit Si may affect their anti-herbivore characteristics and consider the ecological and agricultural implications of the differences in allocation to Si-based defenses between grass species.

  2. Defending the leaf surface: intra- and inter-specific differences in silicon deposition in grasses in response to damage and silicon supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sue E; Fitt, Rob N; McLarnon, Emma L; Wade, Ruth N

    2015-01-01

    Understanding interactions between grasses and their herbivores is central to the conservation of species-rich grasslands and the protection of our most important crops against pests. Grasses employ a range of defenses against their natural enemies; silicon-based defenses have been shown to be one of the most effective. Silicon (Si) is laid down on the leaf surface as spines and other sharp bodies, known as phytoliths, making grasses abrasive and their foliage indigestible to herbivores. Previous studies on Si defenses found that closely related species may have similar levels of Si in the leaves but differ markedly in abrasiveness. Here we show how the number, shape and distribution of Si-rich phytoliths and spines differ within and between different grass species and demonstrate that species also differ in their ability to change the deposition and distribution of these defenses in response to damage or increases in Si supply. Specifically, we tested the response of two genotypes of Festuca arundinacea known to differ in their surface texture and three different grass species (F. ovina, F. rubra, and Deschampsia cespitosa) differing in their abrasiveness to combined manipulation of leaf damage and Si supply. F. arundinacea plants with a harsh leaf surface had higher Si content and more spines on their leaf surface than soft varieties. F. ovina and D. cespitosa plants increased their leaf Si concentration and produced an increase in the number of leaf spines and phytoliths on the leaf surface in response to Si addition. F rubra also increased leaf Si content in response to treatments, particularly in damaged leaves, but did not deposit this in the form of spines or increased densities of phytoliths. We discuss how the form in which grasses deposit Si may affect their anti-herbivore characteristics and consider the ecological and agricultural implications of the differences in allocation to Si-based defenses between grass species.

  3. Direct uptake of organic carbon by grass roots and allocation in leaves and phytoliths: 13C labeling evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, A.; Balesdent, J.; Cazevieille, P.; Chevassus-Rosset, C.; Signoret, P.; Mazur, J.-C.; Harutyunyan, A.; Doelsch, E.; Basile-Doelsch, I.; Miche, H.; Santos, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the rhizosphere, the uptake of low molecular weight carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) by plant roots has been well documented. While organic N uptake relatively to total uptake is important, organic C uptake is supposed to be low relatively to the plant's C budget. Recently, radiocarbon analyses demonstrated that a fraction of C from the soil was occluded in amorphous silica micrometric particles that precipitate in plant cells (phytoliths). Here, we investigated whether and in which extent organic C absorbed by grass roots, under the form of either intact amino acids (AAs) or microbial metabolites, can feed the organic C occluded in phytoliths. For this purpose we added 13C- and 15N-labeled AAs to the silicon-rich hydroponic solution of the grass Festuca arundinacea. The experiment was designed to prevent C leakage from the labeled nutritive solution to the chamber atmosphere. After 14 days of growth, the 13C and 15N enrichments (13C-excess and 15N-excess) in the roots, stems and leaves, and phytoliths, as well as the 13C-excess in AAs extracted from roots and stems and leaves, were quantified relatively to a control experiment in which no labelled AAs were added. The net uptake of 13C derived from the labeled AAs supplied to the nutritive solution (AA-13C) by Festuca arundinacea represented 4.5 % of the total AA-13C supply. AA-13C fixed in the plant represented only 0.13 % of total C. However, the experimental conditions may have underestimated the extent of the process under natural and field conditions. Previous studies showed that 15N and 13C can be absorbed by the roots in several organic and inorganic forms. In the present experiment, the fact that phenylalanine and methionine, that were supplied in high amount to the nutritive solution, were more 13C-enriched than other AAs in the roots and stems and leaves strongly suggested that part of AA-13C was absorbed and translocated in its original AA form. The concentration of AA-13C represented only 0.15 % of the

  4. COMPOSICIÓN QUIMICA DE LA LECHE, DIGESTIBILIDAD in vitro DE LA MATERIA SECA Y PRODUCCIÓN EN VACAS ALIMENTADAS CON GRAMÍNEAS SOLAS O ASOCIADAS CON Lotus uliginosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Morales

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar el uso de la leguminosa Lotus uliginosus como alternativa de inclusión dentro de las praderas en dos ecorregiones estratégicas de la sabana de Bogotá. en cada finca se evaluaron cuatro tratamientos: 1 kikuyo solo (P. clandestinum, 2 kikuyo asociado con trébol pata de pájaro ( P.clandes-tinum + L. uliginosus, 3 festuca alta sola (F. arundinacea y 4 Festuca alta asociada con trébol pata de pájaro (F. arundinacea + L. uliginosus. el número de bovinos varió de acuerdo a la capacidad de carga de cada finca. se utilizaron animales que se encontraban en el segundo tercio de lactancia durante un período experimental de siete días. en cada tratamiento se determinó la producción (L/día y calidad de leche (% de grasa, proteína y sólidos totales; en la pastura se evaluó la composición química (Ms, Fdn, Fda y la digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (divMs. se midió el consumo voluntario. en la finca Megaleche la producción de biomasa presentó diferencias significativas (P<0,05 entre los tratamientos destacándose el tratamiento del kikuyo solo; la calidad nutricional de las pasturas también presentó diferencias (P<0,04 destacándose el tratamiento de kikuyo + trébol pata de pájaro, asociación que también se destacó en consumo voluntario (P< 0.05 y producción de leche (P<0,05. en la finca Colega el contenido de proteína del forraje presentó diferencias cuando las gramíneas se asociaron con el trébol pata de pájaro (P<0,001. se concluyó que la introducción del Lotus en las praderas mejoró la producción de leche y consumo de materia seca en los animales.

  5. Usability value and heavy metals accumulation in forage grasses grown on power station ash deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Aleksandar S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of five forage grasses (Lolium multiflorum, Festuca rubra, Festuca arundinacea, Arrhenatherum elatius and Dactylis glomerata was conducted on an uncontaminated cultivated land, of leached chernozem type, and on “Nikola Tesla A” (TENT A thermal power station ash deposit. The concentrations of: As, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, Fe i Cu in grasses grown on two media were compared. Grass samples have been collected in tillering stage, when they were in full development. During the vegetative period three replications cut was conducted at about 3-5 cm height, imitating mowing and grazing. The concentrations of As and Ni were elevated in media samples collected from TENT A ash deposit, while the level of all studied elements in soil samples collected from cultivated land were within allowed limits. The variance of certain elements amounts in plant material collected from TENT A ash deposit was less homogeneous; the concentrations of As, Fe and Ni were higher in grasses collected from ash deposit, but Pb and Cu concentrations were higher in grasses grown on cultivated land. The concentrations of Zn were approximately the same in plants collected from the sites, whereas Cd concentrations were slightly increased in grasses grown on ash deposit. In general, it can be concluded from the results of this study that the concentrations of heavy metals in plants collected from both sites do not exceed maximal tolerant levels for fodder. The use of grasses grown on ash deposit for forage production should be taken with reserve. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31016: Unapređenje tehnologije gajenja krmnih biljaka na oranicama i travnjacima

  6. Produtividade e composição de uva e de vinho de videiras consorciadas com plantas de cobertura Productivity and composition of grapes and wine of vines intercropped with cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovani Zalamena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de plantas de cobertura verde sobre a produtividade das videiras e sobre a composição da uva e do vinho. Durante duas safras, foram feitas avaliações de três tipos de consórcio, dois manejos das coberturas e de um tratamento controle, com plantas espontâneas controladas por herbicidas e roçagem. Utilizou-se vinhedo de uvas 'Cabernet Sauvignon', localizado a 1.130 m de altitude, em um Cambissolo Húmico distrófico, em São Joaquim, SC. Os consórcios foram realizados com a sucessão de cultivos anuais de moha (Setaria italica com azevém (Lolium multiflorum e de trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum com aveia‑branca (Avena sativa, bem como com a planta perene festuca (Fetusca sp.. Os manejos consistiram da transferência ou não do resíduo cultural da linha para a entrelinha. As videiras apresentaram maior produtividade de uva no consórcio com as plantas anuais, em comparação ao tratamento controle, ou com a planta perene festuca. O manejo da cobertura verde não teve influência sobre as variáveis avaliadas. Os consórcios não influenciaram de forma consistente os teores de N da uva nem a composição do mosto, embora, na última safra, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais do mosto tenha sido maior nos tratamentos com consórcio, em comparação ao controle. Além disso, as videiras consorciadas com festuca podem proporcionar vinho com maior teor de antocianinas e polifenóis totais.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of green cover crops on vine productivity and on grape and wine composition. For two growing seasons, evaluations were done for three intercrops, two managements of the cover crops, and for a control treatment with weeds controlled by herbicides and mowing. A vineyard of 'Cabernet Sauvignon', located at 1,130 m altitude in a Haplumbrept soil, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil was used. Intercropping was done with a succession of the cover crops moha

  7. DIFFERENCES IN WETLAND PLANT COMMUNITY ESTABLISHMENT WITH ADDITIONS OF NITRATE-N AND INVASIVE SPECIES (PHALARIS ARUNDINACEA AND TYPHA X GLAUCA). (R825335)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  8. PRODUCTIVIDAD DE PASTURAS Y PRODUCCIÓN DE LECHE BOVINA BAJO PASTOREO DE GRAMÍNEA Y GRAMÍNEA + LOTUSULIGINOSUS EN MOSQUERA, CUNDINAMARCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RE Castro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available en el presente estudio se determinó y evaluó la producción de biomasa aérea (g Ms/m2, composición botánica, calidad nutricional, y producción y calidad de leche en dos tipos de pasturas para clima frío. el ensayo se realizó en el centro agropecuario Marengo de la Universidad nacional en Mosquera, Cundinamarca, donde se evaluaron dos pasturas, una de mezcla de kikuyo (Pennisetum clandestinum y festuca alta (Festuca arundinacea la segunda, una mezcla de festuca alta y la leguminosa trébol pata de pájaro (Lotus uligino-sus con un área de 1 ha cada una. se empleó un diseño al azar con la vaca como unidad experimental y la pastura como tratamiento. se usaron 5 vacas Holstein (Pv 580 kg entre 2 y 4 partos de segundo tercio de lactancia para cada tratamiento durante un periodo experi-mental de 14 días, 7 de acostumbramiento y 7 de mediciones. en cada pastura se determinó la producción de biomasa aérea (g Ms/m2, composición botánica (%, calidad nutricional (PC, Fdn, Fda, divMs, y se evaluó la producción (lt/día y calidad de leche (porcentaje de grasa, proteína, caseína, sólidos. aunque no se realizó comparación estadística para la producción de biomasa, la mayor producción fue observada en la pastura asociada; también en cuanto a la calidad nutricional la principal diferencia se observó en el contenido de pro-teína, siendo mayor en la pastura asociada. se observaron mayores valores en producción de leche, caseína y proteína en la pastura de gramínea más leguminosa (P 0,05. se puede concluir que las pasturas asociadas de gramínea más leguminosa mejoran los valores de producción y proteína en la leche.

  9. Soil and fertilizer amendments and edge effects on the floral succession of pulverized fuel ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, P. [Roehampton University, London (United Kingdom). Whitelands College

    2009-01-15

    Plots of fresh pulverized fuel ash (PFA, an industrial waste) were inoculated with soils from existing PFA sites and fertilizers in a factorial design, then left unmanaged for 12 years during which time the floral development and soil chemistry were monitored annually. For the first 3 years, the site supported a sparse mix of chenopods (including the scarce Chenopodium glaucum) and halophytes. As salinity declined, ruderals, legumes, and grasses plus the fire-site moss Funaria hygrometrica colonized, followed by Festuca arundinacea grassland (NVC community MG12) and Hippophae rhamnoides scrub. Dactylorhiza incarnata (orchidacea) appeared after 7 years, but only in plots that had received soil from existing orchid colonies. Four years later, a larger second generation of Dactylorhiza appeared, but only in the central zone of the site where vegetation was thinnest. By year 12, the site was dominated by coarse grasses and scrub, with early successional species persisting only in the sparsely vegetated center, where nitrate levels were lowest. This edge effect is interpreted as centripetal encroachment, a process of potentially wider concern for the conservation of low-fertility habitat patches. Overall, seed bank inoculation seems to have introduced few but desirable species (D. incarnata, Pyrola rotundifolia, some halophytes, and annuals), whereas initial application of organic fertilizer had long-lasting ({ge} 10 years) effects on cover and soil composition.

  10. Negative and positive interactions among plants: effects of competitors and litter on seedling emergence and growth of forest and grassland species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loydi, A; Donath, T W; Otte, A; Eckstein, R L

    2015-05-01

    Living plant neighbours, but also their dead aboveground remains (i.e. litter), may individually exert negative or positive effects on plant recruitment. Although living plants and litter co-occur in most ecosystems, few studies have addressed their combined effects, and conclusions are ambivalent. Therefore, we examined the response in terms of seedling emergence and growth of herbaceous grassland and forest species to different litter types and amounts and the presence of competitors. We conducted a pot experiment testing the effects of litter type (grass, oak), litter amount (low, medium, high) and interspecific competition (presence or absence of four Festuca arundinacea individuals) on seedling emergence and biomass of four congeneric pairs of hemicryptophytes from two habitat types (woodland, grassland). Interactions between litter and competition were weak. Litter presence increased competitor biomass. It also had positive effects on seedling emergence at low litter amounts and negative effects at high litter amounts, while competition had no effect on seedling emergence. Seedling biomass was negatively affected by the presence of competitors, and this effect was stronger in combination with high amounts of litter. Litter affected seedling emergence while competition determined the biomass of the emerged individuals, both affecting early stages of seedling recruitment. High litter accumulation also reduced seedling biomass, but this effect seemed to be additive to competitor effects. This suggests that live and dead plant mass can affect species recruitment in natural systems, but the mechanisms by which they operate and their timing differ.

  11. Heavy metal accumulation of urban domestic rubbish compost in turfgrass by DTA chelating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUO Lian; GAO Yu-bao; ZHAO Shu-lan

    2005-01-01

    Seven kinds of heavy metal accumulation of rubbish compost in turfgrass by EDTA chelating were investigated. With EDTA application, heavy metal accumulation by two species of turfgrass was increased significantly. The enrichment coefficients of Lolium perenne L(L) and Festuca arundinacea L(F) to Cr reached 9.45 and 6.15 respectively. In the range of EDTA dosages given, heavy metal accumulation in turfgrass increased with increasing EDTA level. There were significant differences in remediation of different metals by applying EDTA. L had high ability to accumulate Cr, Cd, Ni and Zn, showing better remediation to heavy metals of rubbish compost.In contrast, F showed high ability to accumulate Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn. Low EDTA level increased aboveground net primary production (ANP) of turfgrass, but EDTA would considerably inhibit it when EDTA was higher than 20 mmol/kg. The results demonstrated that the optimum dosage of EDTA for remediating heavy metals in rubbish compost by turfgrass was between 10 mmol/kg and 20 mmol/kg.

  12. Differentiation of vegetation in a saline grassland in the vicinity of Inowrocław soda plants at Mątwy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Piernik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of two growing seasons (1992 and 1993 there was investigated the zonation of vegetation with reference to soil conditions at the saline grassland in the vicinity of Inowrocław Soda Plants at Mątwy town. In data analysis there were used: classification method - hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis and as well as two ordination techniques: Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA. As a result of the classification analysis five vegetation zones were distinguished, related to the following communities: community with Festuca rubra, Potentillo Festucetum arundinaceae, community with Euphorbia lucida and Phragmites australis, Triglochino-Glaucetum maritimae and Puccinellio distantis-Salicornietum brachystachyae. The ordination techniques used in the analysis have demonstrated that out of the measured soil properties the most essential part, in the formation of the grassland vegetation zonation, played the content of chloride ions (which was used here as the main salinity measure, while moisture and pH were of minor importance. All the measured environmental factors accounted for only a low percentage (26.5% in 1992 and 17.2% in 1993 of the total vegetation variation, what might suggest that besides chloride ions another factor might have affected the development of zonation.

  13. Dependence of anatomical structure features on morphological form of branching of grass shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontyna Olszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of different shoot forms in Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Holcus lanatus L., Avena fatua L. and other grass species was observed in investigations on vegetative reproduction modes deviating from normal. The relationship between the morphological and anatomical structure of these shoots, depends on the grass species as well as on ecological and biotic factors. The anatomical structure of elongated vegetative tillers and pseudostolons as well as underground rooting stems regrowing in the soil approximates that of stolons in Poa trivialis L. Branching generative shoots show the same arrangement of tissues as that encountered in non-branching ones. Shoots with such a structure are resistant to bending and, therefore, their contact with the soil and rooting of aerial tillers meet, as a rule, with difficulties. All kinds of parental branching shoots under study, irrespective of whether they developed above or in the soil, are usually short lived, provided with sheaths and leaf blades, similarly as stolons. It was found that in many grass species different tillering forms occur generally in vegetative reproduction what would require a definition and unification of names of such differentiated shoots.

  14. 紫花苜蓿化感作用的研究%Study on the allelopathy of alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志华; 沈益新

    2005-01-01

    通过培养皿砂培法的生物检测方法研究3种浓度(5%,7.5%,10% w/v)的紫花苜蓿Medicago sativa茎叶浸提液对受体植物黑麦草Lolium multiflorum cv.barspectra,高羊茅Festuca arundinacea cv.vegas,白三叶Trifolium repeus cv.haifa,红三叶T.pratense cv.common,萝卜Raphanus sativus cv.sijihong和紫花苜蓿浸提液自身幼苗生长及发芽的影响,以探明紫花苜蓿的化感作用.结果表明:7.5%和10%的紫花苜蓿茎叶浸提液对受体苗长、根长均产生明显的抑制作用,且随浓度的升高,抑制作用加强;适宜浓度处理的紫花苜蓿茎叶浸提液对黑麦草、高羊茅、红三叶、白三叶种子萌发具有明显的影响,发芽率明显降低.

  15. Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals from Soil Polluted with Waste Mining by Using Forage Plants in Successive Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Pricop

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available During two years, was studied the phytoextraction potential of some perennial species (Medicago sativa and Trifolium pretense, Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne, for Zn, Cd, and Pb from soils polluted with waste mining. The experiment was done on kernozem soil with adding of 20 kg waste mining/m2 and 8 kg biosolid/m2. The results showed that in all experiments, rye-grass is a good extractor for Zn and Cd, and leguminous species for Pb. Both leguminous species, especially M. sativa, presented a high tolerance for lead toxicity, even with 3-4 times greater values than maximum allowable level from actual legislation. In all cases, regardless of the experimental variant, raygrass (Lolium perenne is a good accumulator of Zn and Cd, and red clover (Trifolium pratense of Pb. The values of metal bioaccumulation increase gradually with their concentration in soil. Quality of very good extractor of Pb displayed by Trifolium pratense species are kept even in case of excessive pollution with Pb, when it exceed 3.4 times the maximum permissible norms. This proves, as Medicago sativa species, a good tolerance and resistance to toxicity of this metal. In case of addition of natural zeolite-volcanic tuff there was no increase in the rate of Zn bioaccumulation. Only in case of Cd at Lolium perenne and Pb at Trifolium pratense appear the favourable effect of metallic ions bioavailability in soil for plants.

  16. 几种真菌对3种常见冷季型草坪草的致病性测定%Pathogenicity of ten fungi affecting three common cool-season turfgrasses of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春杰; 南志标; 崔嵩; 胡玉骄; 李东明; 李强; 李悦; 李舟

    2003-01-01

    以我国北方常见的冷季型草坪草高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea)、多年生黑麦草(Lolium perenne)和草地早熟禾(Poa pratensis)为材料,将细交链孢(Alternaria alternata)、根腐离蠕孢(Bipolaris sorokiniana)、枝孢(Cladosporium herbarum)、新月弯孢(Curvularia lunata)、德氏霉(Drechslera sp.)、燕麦镰孢(Fusari-um avenaceum)、锐顶镰孢(F.acuminatum)、尖镰孢(F.oxysporum),腐皮镰孢(F.solani)和粉红粘帚霉(Gliocldium roseum)10种分离自草坪草的真菌接种,进行离体叶片的致病性测定.结果表明:细交链孢、根腐离蠕孢、德氏霉、腐皮镰孢、粉红粘帚霉和枝孢对高羊茅具有明显的致病性;根腐离蠕孢、燕麦镰孢和锐顶镰孢对黑麦草有明显的致病性;而仅根腐离蠕孢对早熟禾有较明显的致病性.

  17. Investigation into the Effect of Molds in Grasses on Their Content of Low Molecular Mass Thiols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Nawrath

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of molds on levels of low molecular mass thiols in grasses. For this purpose, the three grass species Lolium perenne, Festulolium pabulare and Festulolium braunii were cultivated and sampled during four months, from June to September. The same species were also grown under controlled conditions. High-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was used for quantification of cysteine, reduced (GSH and oxidized (GSSG glutathione, and phytochelatins (PC2, PC3, PC4 and PC5. Data were statistically processed and analyzed. Thiols were present in all examined grass species. The effect of fungicide treatments applied under field conditions on the content of the evaluated thiols was shown to be insignificant. Species influenced (p < 0.05 PC3 and GSSG content. F. pabulare, an intergeneric hybrid of drought- and fungi-resistant Festuca arundinacea, was comparable in PC3 content with L. perenne and F. braunii under field conditions. Under controlled conditions, however, F. pabulare had higher (p < 0.05 PC3 content than did L. perenne and F. braunii. Under field conditions, differences between the evaluated species were recorded only in GSSG content, but only sampling in June was significant. F. pabulare had higher (p < 0.05 GSSG content in June than did L. perenne and F. braunii.

  18. 干热河谷草地灌草组合模式的研究%Study on shrub-grass combined mode in the hot-arid valley grassland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕玉芬; 姜华; 许岳飞

    2009-01-01

    以7种灌草的8种组合模式为研究对象,以退化灌草地为对照,对各种组合模式灌草的保存率、水土保持功能及地上生物量进行了研究,结果表明:木豆Cajanus cajan、银合欢Leucaena leucocephala以及禾本科的非洲狗尾草Setaria sphacelata cv. Narok和豆科大翼豆Macroptilum atropurpureum的各种生物学性状表现优异,而禾本科草高羊茅Festuca arundinacea cv. Fine Lawn以及豆科的白三叶Trifolium repens cv. Haifa、杂三叶T. hybridum不能很好地在金沙江干热河谷山地生长,不能越过干热季;通过不同灌草组合的水土保持功能和地上生物量的研究,筛选出木豆+非洲狗尾草+高羊茅+大翼豆+白三叶+杂三叶为干热河谷最佳灌草组合模式.

  19. Soils and waste water purification from oil products using combined methods under the North conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evdokimova, Galina A; Gershenkop, Alexander Sh; Mozgova, Natalia P; Myazin, Vladimir A; Fokina, Nadejda V

    2012-01-01

    Oil and gas production and transportation in Russia is increasingly moving to the north regions. Such regions are characterized by relatively low self-purification capacity of the natural environments from the contaminants due to slow character of the energy exchange and mass transfer processes. Off-shore field development in the Barents Sea and oil product transportation can result in contamination, as confirmed by the national and international practice of the developed oil and gas regions. The research aims at development of the soil bioremediation methods and industrial waste water purification contaminated by oil products in the north-western region of Russia. The dynamics of oil products carry-over have been investigated under the field model experiments in podzolic soils: gas condensate, diesel fuel and mazut from oil and the plants were selected for phyto-remediation of contaminated soils under high north latitudes. It is shown that soil purification from light hydrocarbons takes place during one vegetation period. In three months of the vegetation period the gas condensate was completely removed from the soil, diesel fuel - almost completely (more than 90%). Residual amounts of heavy hydrocarbons were traced, even 1.5 later. The following plants that were highly resistant to the oil product contamination were recommended for bioremediation: Phalaroides arundinacea, Festuca pratensis, Phleum pratense, Leymus arenarius. There has been developed and patented the combined method of treatment of waste water contaminated with hydrocarbons based on inorganic coagulants and local oil-oxidizing bacteria.

  20. Drought regulates the C and N cycling in soil depending on plant community composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaullah, Muhammad; Chabbi, Abad; Rumpel, Cornelia

    2015-04-01

    Drought consequences on carbon (C) and nutrients cycling have been well explored, but little is known about interactions in the rhizosphere under various plant community composition. We compared drought effects on microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and on enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of three plants grown individually or in mixture: two grasses (Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea) and one legume (Medicago sativa). The activities of extracellular enzymes involved in C cycle (xylanase, β-cellobiosidase and β-glucosidase) and nitrogen (N) cycle (chitinase and Leucine-aminopeptidase) were compared to MBC changes. The MBC was highly correlated with root biomass. MBC increased in response to drought in soil under the plant mixture, whereas it showed variable trends under monocultures. Drought and plant species composition were responsible for more than 90% of the variation of enzyme activities. Most enzyme activities decreased in unplanted soil in response to drought. The activity of the enzyme involved in the N cycle increased strongly under mixture and two out of three monocultures, indicating an increased N demand under drought conditions. The activities of enzymes involved in the C cycle in soil under mixture (1) generally were lower during drought compared to soil under monocultures and (2) were unchanged or tended to decrease, while they were more likely to increase under monocultures. This has an important ecological consequence: the decomposition of plant residues and soil organic matter will be slower under drought when plants are grown in mixture compared to monocultures.

  1. 混播草皮缓冲带对农田径流氮磷去除效果研究%Study on Removal Efficiency of Mixed-sown Grass Buffer Strip on Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Farmland Runoff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何聪; 刘璐嘉; 王苏胜; 周明耀

    2014-01-01

    Grass buffer strip has been more and more widely used as an effective technology for prevention and control on agri -cultural non-point-source pollution .In this paper , aiming at the best efficiency of removing nitrogen and phosphorus , we brought forward that the grass mixed -sowing technology could be used in the construction of grass buffer strip , and screened out a reasona-ble proportion of mixed -sown grass seeds .According to the compatibility of leguminous forage and gramineous pasture , we selected Trifolium repens and Festuca arundinacea as the tested vegetations , which are the local herbs with promotional value in Yangzhou , and studied the removal efficiency of the grass buffer strip mixed -sown in different proportions on the farmland runoff pollutants . The results indicated that:under the test conditions that the influent concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were 7.78~27.22 mg/L and 0.47~1.61 mg/L respectively, the presence of mixed -sown grass significantly improve the removal efficiency of buffer strip on pollutants , and its removal efficiency on pollutants in vadose water was obviously higher than that in runoff .When the ratio of sown Trifolium repens seeds to sown Festuca arundinacea seeds was 1∶3, the mixed-sown grass buffer strip had better efficiency of removing the total nitrogen and total phosphorus in runoff and vadose water , and the grasses grew well and had a better environmental adaptability .%草皮缓冲带作为防治农业面源污染的一种有效技术得到越来越广泛的应用。以去除氮磷效果最佳为目标,提出了将草皮混播技术运用到缓冲带的构建中,并筛选出了合理的草种混播比例。根据豆科牧草和禾本科牧草的相容性,选择扬州本地具有推广价值的草坪草本植物白花三叶草( Trifolium repens)与高羊茅( Festuca arundinacea)作为供试植被,研究不同草种混播比例下草皮缓冲带对农田径流污染物的去

  2. Remnant Oak Savanna Acts as Refugium for Meadow Fescue Introduced During 19th Century Human Migrations in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1990, an unknown forage grass was discovered growing in the shade of a remnant oak savanna in southwestern Wisconsin. Over 12 years, the practice of feeding mature hay on winter pastures spread this grass onto over 500 ha via seedling recruitment. Analysis of amplified fragment length polymorph...

  3. Interaction of isoflavones and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract on vasoactivity of bovine mesenteric vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was hypothesized that isoflavones may attenuate ergot alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and possibly alleviate diminished contractility of vasculature after exposure to ergot alkaloids. The objective of this study was to determine if prior incubation of bovine mesenteric vasculature with the isof...

  4. Transcriptome sequencing identifies novel persistent viruses in herbicide resistant wild-grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbadin, Federico; Glover, Rachel; Stafford, Rebecca; Rozado-Aguirre, Zuriñe; Boonham, Neil; Adams, Ian; Mumford, Rick; Edwards, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Herbicide resistance in wild grasses is widespread in the UK, with non-target site resistance (NTSR) to multiple chemistries being particularly problematic in weed control. As a complex trait, NTSR is driven by complex evolutionary pressures and the growing awareness of the role of the phytobiome in plant abiotic stress tolerance, led us to sequence the transcriptomes of herbicide resistant and susceptible populations of black-grass and annual rye-grass for the presence of endophytes. Black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides; Am) populations, displaying no overt disease symptoms, contained three previously undescribed viruses belonging to the Partititiviridae (AMPV1 and AMPV2) and Rhabdoviridae (AMVV1) families. These infections were widespread in UK black-grass populations and evidence was obtained for similar viruses being present in annual rye grass (Lolium rigidum), perennial rye-grass (Lolium perenne) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis). In black-grass, while no direct causative link was established linking viral infection to herbicide resistance, transcriptome sequencing showed a high incidence of infection in the NTSR Peldon population. The widespread infection of these weeds by little characterised and persistent viruses and their potential evolutionary role in enhancing plant stress tolerance mechanisms including NTSR warrants further investigation. PMID:28165016

  5. Effects of Hybrid and Non-hybrid Epichloë Endophytes and Their Associated Host Genotypes on the Response of a Native Grass to Varying Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tong; Oberhofer, Martina; Shymanovich, Tatsiana; Faeth, Stanley H

    2016-07-01

    Asexual Epichloë endophytes are prevalent in cool season grasses, and many are of hybrid origin. Hybridization of asexual endophytes is thought to provide a rapid influx of genetic variation that may be adaptive to endophyte-host grass symbiota in stressful environments. For Arizona fescue (Festuca arizonica), hybrid symbiota are commonly found in resource-poor environments, whereas non-hybrid symbiota are more common in resource-rich environments. There have been very few experimental tests where infection, hybrid and non-hybrid status, and plant genotype have been controlled to tease apart their effects on host phenotype and fitness in different environments. We conducted a greenhouse experiment where hybrid (H) and non-hybrid (NH) endophytes were inoculated into plant genotypes that were originally uninfected (E-) or once infected with either the H or NH endophytes. Nine endophyte and plant genotypic group combinations were grown under low and high water and nutrient treatments. Inoculation with the resident H endophyte enhanced growth and altered allocation to roots and shoots, but these effects were greatest in resource-rich environments, contrary to expectations. We found no evidence of co-adaptation between endophyte species and their associated host genotypes. However, naturally E- plants performed better when inoculated with the hybrid endophyte, suggesting these plants were derived from H infected lineages. Our results show complex interactions between endophyte species of hybrid and non-hybrid origin with their host plant genotypes and environmental factors.

  6. Transcriptome sequencing identifies novel persistent viruses in herbicide resistant wild-grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbadin, Federico; Glover, Rachel; Stafford, Rebecca; Rozado-Aguirre, Zuriñe; Boonham, Neil; Adams, Ian; Mumford, Rick; Edwards, Robert

    2017-02-06

    Herbicide resistance in wild grasses is widespread in the UK, with non-target site resistance (NTSR) to multiple chemistries being particularly problematic in weed control. As a complex trait, NTSR is driven by complex evolutionary pressures and the growing awareness of the role of the phytobiome in plant abiotic stress tolerance, led us to sequence the transcriptomes of herbicide resistant and susceptible populations of black-grass and annual rye-grass for the presence of endophytes. Black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides; Am) populations, displaying no overt disease symptoms, contained three previously undescribed viruses belonging to the Partititiviridae (AMPV1 and AMPV2) and Rhabdoviridae (AMVV1) families. These infections were widespread in UK black-grass populations and evidence was obtained for similar viruses being present in annual rye grass (Lolium rigidum), perennial rye-grass (Lolium perenne) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis). In black-grass, while no direct causative link was established linking viral infection to herbicide resistance, transcriptome sequencing showed a high incidence of infection in the NTSR Peldon population. The widespread infection of these weeds by little characterised and persistent viruses and their potential evolutionary role in enhancing plant stress tolerance mechanisms including NTSR warrants further investigation.

  7. Plants growing on contaminated and brownfield sites appropriate for use in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development terrestrial plant growth test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnett, Danielle E; Lawrence, Victoria K; Hutchings, Tony R; Hodson, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) terrestrial plant test is often used for the ecological risk assessment of contaminated land. However, its origins in plant protection product testing mean that the species recommended in the OECD guidelines are unlikely to occur on contaminated land. Six alternative species were tested on contaminated soils from a former Zn smelter and a metal fragmentizer with elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The response of the alternative species was compared with that of two species recommended by the OECD: Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) and Trifolium pratense (red clover). Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Poa annua (annual meadowgrass) had low emergence rates in the control soil and so may be considered unsuitable. Festuca rubra (Chewings fescue), Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire fog), Senecio vulgaris (common groundsel), and Verbascum thapsus (great mullein) offer good alternatives to the OECD species. In particular, H. lanatus and S. vulgaris were more sensitive to the soils with moderate concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than the OECD species.

  8. Allelopathic Effect of Leaf Water Extract of Hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana L. at Rosette Stage on Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Madani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic effects of leaves at rosette stage of the hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana L. against some associated grasses like, prairie June grass (Koeleria macrantha, Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis, blue-bunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata and cheat grass (Bromus tectorum and its own were investigated. The experiment al materials used were the leaf extracts and its allelopathic effects on seed germination and seedling emergence of the abave mentioned grasses in Petri dishes. According to our study, leaves of hoary alyssum rosettes at stage have the potential to reduce germination rate, root and shoot growth of pasture grasses and hoary alyssum itself due to its allelopathic effect. The leaf leachate solution bioassays also showed that the germination of cheat grass was more susceptible to 4% solution of allelopathic extract of leaves. Hoary alyssum leaf extract also exhibited allelopathic self-inhibition, in both seedling root and shoot growth at 2 and 4% concentrations. Self- inhibitory allelopathic effects of hoary alyssum could also be important in preventing seed germination and seedling establishment of neighboring plant.

  9. Do shallow soil, low water availability, or their combination increase the competition between grasses with different root systems in karst soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yajie; Li, Zhou; Zhang, Jing; Song, Haiyan; Liang, Qianhui; Tao, Jianping; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Liu, Jinchun

    2017-03-11

    Uneven soil depth and low water availability are the key limiting factors to vegetation restoration and reconstruction in limestone soils such as in vulnerable karst regions. Belowground competition will possibly increase under limited soil resources. Here, we investigate whether low resource availability (including shallow soil, low water availability, and shallow soil and low water availability combined) stimulates the competition between grasses with different root systems in karst soil, by assessing their growth response, biomass allocation, and morphological plasticity. In a full three-way factorial blocked design of soil depth by water availability by neighbor identity, we grew Festuca arundinacea (deep-rooted) and Lolium perenne (shallow-rooted) under normal versus shallow soil depth, high versus low water availability, and in monoculture (conspecific neighbor) versus mixture (neighbor of the other species). The key results were as follows: (1) total biomass and aboveground biomass in either of the species decreased with reduction of resources but were not affected by planting patterns (monoculture or mixture) even at low resource levels. (2) For F. arundinacea, root biomass, root mass fraction, total root length, and root volume were higher in mixture than in monoculture at high resource level (consistent with resource use complementarity), but lower in mixture than in monoculture at low resource levels (consistent with interspecific competition). In contrast for L. perenne, either at high or low resource level, these root traits had mostly similar values at both planting patterns. These results suggest that deep-rooted and shallow-rooted plant species can coexist in karst regions under current climatic regimes. Declining resources, due to shallow soil, a decrease in precipitation, or combined shallow soil and karst drought, increased the root competition between plants of deep-rooted and shallow-rooted species. The root systems of deep-rooted plants may be

  10. Can species-specific differences in foliar chemistry influence leaf litter decomposition in grassland species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaullah, M.; Chabbi, A.; Rumpel, C.

    2009-04-01

    The influence of litter quality on its rate of decomposition is a crucial aspect of C cycle. In this study we concentrated on grassland ecosystems where leaf litter is one of the major sources of C input. To quantify the contribution of initial leaf chemistry within different plant species, the decomposition of chemically different leaf litter of three grassland species (Lolium perenne, Festuca arundinacea and Dactylis glomerata) was monitored, using the litter bag technique. Litter of different maturity stages i.e. green (fresh leaves) and brown litter (brown leaves were still attached to the plant), were incubated on bare soil surface. Samples were taken at different time intervals (0, 2, 4, 8, 20 and 44 weeks) and were analyzed for mass loss, organic C and N contents and stable isotopic signatures (C and N). Changes in litter chemistry were addressed by determining lignin-derived phenols after CuO oxidation and non-cellulosic polysaccharides after acid hydrolysis followed by gas chromatography. Green litter was chemically different from brown litter due to higher initial N and lower lignin contents. While in grassland species, both L. perenne and D. glomerata were similar in their initial chemical composition compared with F. arundinacea. Green litter showed higher rate of degradation. In green litter, Percent lignin remaining of initial (% OI) followed the similar decomposition pattern as of C remaining indicating lignin as controlling factor in decomposition. Constant Acid-to-Aldehyde ratios of lignin-derived phenols (vanillyl and syringyl) did not suggest any transformation in lignin structures. In green litter, increase in non-cellulosic polysaccharides ratios (C6/C5 and deoxy/C5) proposed microbial-derived sugars, while there was no significant increase in these ratios in brown litter. In conclusion, due to the differences in initial chemical composition (initial N and lignin contents), green litter decomposition was higher than brown litter in all

  11. IDENTIFYING GENES CONTROLLING FERULATE CROSS-LINKING FORMATION IN GRASS CELL WALLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de O Buanafina, Marcia Maria

    2013-10-16

    improve their degradability as it might be more effective than the fungal enzymes at degrading maize lignocellulose if overexpressed in the cell wall. Publications supported by this grant: Buanafina, M.M. de O. (2009). Feruloylation in Grasses: Current and Future Perspectives. Molecular Plant, 2:861-872. Buanafina, M. M. de O., Langdon, T., Hauck, B., Dalton, S., Timms-Taravella, E. and Morris, P. (2010). Targeting expression of a fungal ferulic acid esterase to the apoplast, endoplasmic reticulum or golgi can disrupt feruloylation of the growing cell wall and increase the biodegradability of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea): Plant Biot. J. 8:316-33. Michael L. Robbins, Ansuman Roy, Po-Hao Wang, Iffa Gaffoor, Rajandeep S. Sekhon, Marcia M. de O. Buanafina, Jai S. Rohila, Surinder Chopra (2013). Comparative Proteomics Analysis by DIGE and iTRAQ Provides Insight into the Regulation of Phenylpropanoids in Maize. Journal of Proteomics (In Press http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2013.06.018)) Publications in Preparation Marcia M. de O. Buanafina, Sue Dalton, Tim Langdon, Emma-Timms-Tavarella, Erica A. Shearer, and Phillip Morris. Improved post harvest cell wall deconstruction of tall fescue by co-expression of a fungal ferulic acid esterase with a 1-4-endoxylanase. Marcia M. de O. Buanafina, Mandeep Sharma, Howard W. Fescemyer and Erica A. Shearer. Functional testing of two PF02458 homologues of putative rice arabinoxylan feruloyl transferase genes in Brachypodium distachyon. Marcia M. de O. Buanafina and Erica A. Shearer. Novel protein identified in maize and other grasses. Presentations/ Posters presented at major scientific meetings: Identifying genes controlling feruloylation in grass cell walls. Genomics: GTL Annual Contractor-Grantee Workshop held jointly with the USDA-DOE Plant Feedstock Genomics for Bioenergy awardees meeting. February 8-11/2009, Bethesda, Maryland. Identifying genes controlling feruloylation in grass cell walls. The American Society of Plant

  12. Avaliação da progênie de ovelhas Merino Australiano cruzadas com carneiro Dorper ou Southdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bianchi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito do genótipo do carneiro (Dorper ou Southdown, do sexo e do tipo de parto sobre características de crescimento de 268 cordeiros filhos de ovelhas Merino Australiano. Até o desmame, todos os animais permaneceram sobre pastagem de trevo-vermelho (Trifolium pratense , chicória (Cychorium intibus , trevo-branco (Trifolium repens , festuca (Festuca arundinacea e azevém (Lolium multiflorum , com carga animal de 10 ovelhas com seus cordeiros/ha. A partir do desmame (29,95±4,94kg de peso vivo e 109,45±7,41 dias de idade, os cordeiros permaneceram sobre a mesma pastagem utilizada durante a lactação, sendo terminados posteriormente sobre um cultivo de soja (Glycine max , com carga animal de 30 cordeiros/ha. Não foi verificado efeito do genótipo do carneiro (P>0,05 sobre nenhuma das variáveis analisadas. Por outro lado, do nascimento ao desmame e do desmame até o embarque dos cordeiros para abate, os machos (criptorquidas apresentaram ganhos de peso diário superiores (241 e 212g/dia; 121 e 94g/dia, para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente; P≤0,001, o que proporcionou um peso vivo ao embarque 14,9% superior em relação às fêmeas (40,89 e 35,59kg, para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente; P≤0,001. Os cordeiros de parto simples apresentaram maiores (P≤0,001 pesos vivos e medidas corporais ao nascimento, bem como maior velocidade de crescimento até o desmame (239 e 214g/dia, parto simples e duplo, respectivamente; P≤0,001. Porém, após o desmame, os cordeiros de parto duplo apresentaram maior ganho de peso (98 e 117g/dia (P≤0,05 e uma superioridade (P≤0,001 em quilogramas de cordeiros desmamados (26,80 e 49,61kg ou embarcados (33,91 e 64,69kg por ovelha parida. Independentemente do sexo e do tipo de parto, todos os cordeiros superaram as exigências de peso e condição corporal mínima requerida para comercialização de cordeiros pesados no Uruguai, na metade do tempo que em média ocorre

  13. Designing Resilient and Productive Grasses with Plasticity to Extreme Weather Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loka, D.; Humphreys, M.; Gwyn Jones, D.; Scullion, J.; Doonan, J.; Gasior, D.; Harper, J.; Farrell, M.; Kingston-Smith, A.; Dodd, R.; Chadwick, D.; Hill, P.; Robinson, D.; Jones, D.

    2016-12-01

    Grasslands occupy more than 70% of the world's agricultural land and are major providers of healthy feed for livestock and for ecosystem services. Global warming is projected to increase the intensity and frequency of extreme weather events such as drought and flooding and will reduce persistency of currently productive but stress sensitive forage grass varieties, thereby challenging global food security and compromising on their existing ecosystem functionality. New perennial grass varieties, tolerant to the onsets of more than one abiotic stresses, are required in order to achieve sustainable grassland production and function over years under adverse environmental conditions. Identifying and selecting reliable morphological and physiological traits associated with increased resistance to multiple stress conditions is a prerequisite to ensure future grasslands resilience. The objectives of our study were to select from diverse and novel Festulolium (ryegrass spp. x fescue spp. hybrids) grass populations capable of providing optimal combinations of good forage production together with resilience to multiple stresses and to monitor morphological and physiological responses under multiple stress conditions. The grasses were: Festulolium variety Prior (L. perenne x F. pratensis), shown to alter soil structure and hydrology to mitigate run-off and flooding; two advanced breeding populations of diploid L. perenne with genes for drought tolerance derived from the Mediterranean fescue species F. arundinacea and F. glaucescens; two tetraploid hybrid populations involving L. perenne in combination with F. glaucescens and F. mairei (from North Africa), respectively. As controls, Festulolium variety AberNiche and L. perenne variety AberWolf varieties, were used. Treatments consisted of: A) Control; plants maintained at optimum conditions, B) Flood; plants were flooded for 6 weeks followed by a 4-week recovery, C) Drought; plants received limited quantity of water for 12 weeks

  14. Nitrogen Losses under Different Cattle Grazing Frequencies and Intensities in a Volcanic Soil of Southern Chile Pérdidas de Nitrógeno bajo Diferentes Frecuencias e Intensidades de Pastoreo en un Suelo Volcánico del Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Núñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chilean livestock production systems have intensified over the last years, with increasing amounts of N fertilizer inputs creating the potentiality for environmental damage through N pollution of water and air, so that alternative production strategies have been developed to reduce such environmental impacts. This study assesses N losses under different grazing frequencies and intensities on permanent pasture (Lolium perenne L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Dactylis glomerata L., and Trifolium repens L. on an Andisol in Southern Chile. Four grazing strategies were evaluated: frequent-heavy (FH, frequent-light (FL, infrequent-heavy (IH, infrequent-light (IL, and a no grazing control (C treatment, and each with three replicates in a randomized complete block design. Results of the experiment indicate that N leaching losses were greater in the FH treatment (58.7 kg available N ha-1; p Los sistemas chilenos de producción ganadera se han intensificado en los últimos años con el uso creciente de fertilizantes que aportan nitrógeno (N, creando el potencial de daño ambiental a través de la contaminación del agua y el aire con N, de manera que se han diseñado estrategias alternativas de producción con el objetivo de reducir este potencial impacto. El presente estudio busca determinar las pérdidas de N bajo diferentes frecuencias e intensidades de pastoreo en una pradera permanente (Lolium perenne L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Dactylis glomerata L., y Trifolium repens L. en un Andisol del sur de Chile. Se evaluaron cuatro estrategias de pastoreo: frecuente-intenso (FH, frecuente-laxo (FL, infrecuente-intenso (IH, infrecuente-laxo (IL, y un control (C o tratamiento sin pastoreo, cada uno con tres repeticiones en un diseño de bloques completos al azar. Las pérdidas de N por lixiviación fueron mayores en el tratamiento FH (59 kg N disponible ha-1; P ≤ 0,05 donde la mayor parte de las pérdidas ocurrieron en la primavera (39%. En promedio

  15. Study on protective enzyme activity and drought resistance of 8 introduced American forage species%8种美国引进禾本科牧草保护酶活性与抗旱性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨顺强; 任广鑫; 杨改河; 冯永忠

    2009-01-01

    通过盆栽控水试验,研究了猫尾草(Phleum Pratense L.)、扁穗冰草(Agropyron desertorum)、苇状羊茅(Festuca arundinacea Schreber)等8种引进禾本科牧草在不同水分胁迫下叶片丙二醛(MDA)含量及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性的动态变化.结果表明:MDA含量随水分胁迫加深而增加,在轻微水分胁迫下增加剧烈,而在中度和严重水分胁迫下增加缓慢;SOD、CAT和POD的总体变化趋势是:随水分胁迫加深酶活性先升高后降低;SOD活性在轻微和中度水分胁迫下变化平缓,在严重水分胁迫下急剧降低;CAT活性在所有处理下变化平缓,且维持较高活性;POD活性变化幅度较大,但在严重水分胁迫下仍能维持较高活性;运用模糊隶属法进行抗旱性综合评价,得出抗旱性强弱顺序为:苇状羊茅>高冰草>细茎披碱草>猫尾草>扁穗冰草>新麦草>披碱草>无芒雀麦.%Pot experiment was adopted to study the activity change of MDA, SOD, CAT and POD in 8 forage species introduced from USA. The results indicated that MDA content increased greatly under low water stress, but the increase tended to slow when water stress became moderate and high. As to SOD, CAT and POD, with the increasing water stress, enzyme activity increased first and then began to decrease. Under low and moderate stress conditions the ac-tivity of SOD had no significant change but sharply decreased when water stress became high. The activity of CAT was comparatively high and changed slightly under all treatments. Although the activity of POD changed significantly, it still maintained a relatively high level even under serious stress conditions. At last, fuzzy subordination method was used for comprehensive evaluation of grass drought resistance and the result of the 8 species was Festuca arundinacea Schreber > Agropyron elongalum > Elymus junceus Fischer > Phleum Pratense L. > Agropyron desertorum>Agropyron trachy

  16. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae on the growth characteristics of Festucaarundinacea under salt stress conditions%AM真菌摩西球囊霉对盐胁迫条件下高羊茅生长特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海霞; 刘润进; 郭绍霞

    2014-01-01

    随着全球变化,土壤次生盐渍化日益加重,直接影响到植物的生长发育。高羊茅是重要草坪绿化植物,如何提高其耐盐性是当前亟待解决的问题之一。本研究旨在前期试验的基础上,评价丛枝菌根(arbuscular mycorrhi-zal,AM)真菌改善高羊茅耐盐性的效应,探索AM真菌增强高羊茅耐盐性的作用机制。在盆栽条件下,对高羊茅接种摩西球囊霉并用不同浓度NaCl(0%,0.8%,1.2%和1.6%)溶液进行处理。结果表明,接种摩西球囊霉能增加高羊茅叶片抗氧化酶(SOD、POD和CAT)活性和抗氧化剂(抗坏血酸)含量、渗透调节物质(可溶性糖和脯氨酸)含量、矿质元素(N、P、S、Zn、K、Ca和 Mg)含量、K/Na、Mg/Na、Ca/Na和植物内源激素脱落酸(ABA)、细胞分裂素(IPA)、吲哚乙酸(IAA)和赤霉素(GA)含量;降低丙二醛(MDA)、Na+、Cl-含量和膜透性。认为 AM 真菌能通过增强植物抗氧化系统的反应,降低氧化胁迫造成的伤害,减缓Na+和Cl-毒害,改善养分的吸收,强化渗透调节作用,维持激素平衡等来提高其耐盐能力。%As the global changes,the soil salinization becomes more and more serious and directly impacts plant growth.Festuca arundinacea is one of important lawn plants influenced with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and soil salinization.So how to improve the salt tolerance of F. arundinacea,is one of the urgent prob-lems to be solved.The purpose of the present research was to evaluate the effects of AM fungi on improving salt tolerance of F. arundinacea,and to explore the mechanism of increasing salt tolerance of F. arundinacea by AM fungi.F. arundinacea seeds were inoculated with AM fungus Glomus mosseae and treated with differ-ent NaCl concentration (0%,0 .8%,1 .2% and 1 .6%)under pot conditions in a greenhouse.The activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD,POD and CAT),contents of

  17. Impact of drought on C forms and fluxes in the soil - plant continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpel, Cornelia; Sanaullah, Muhammad; Chabbi, Abad

    2016-04-01

    Global change is likely to increase the drought periods, which may have significant consequences for the turnover of SOM, in particular through their effect on plants. The aim of the study was to assess different compartments of the soil - plant continuum for their response to drought stress by combining field and laboratory experiments. We focused on three common grassland species (Lolium perenne, Festuca arundinacea and Dactylis glomerata) found to constitute grasslands of the temperate climate. We investigated drought impact on (1) plant biochemistry and potential mineralization of this material in soil, (2) decomposition of aboveground plant leaf litter of different quality, (3) plant-mediated soil C fluxes including (4) soil microbial biomass and their enzyme activities in the rhizosphere. Plant elemental and biochemical composition showed contrasting changes depending on the species in response to drought stress. The changes in elemental and biochemical composition of leaf litter, ultimately influenced its mineralization in soil. Drought stress highly modified the decomposition dynamics of litter from the three grassland species as a function of litter quality. Moreover, drought stress resulted in significant decrease in both shoot and root biomass in monocultures, while root biomass did not change when they were grown in mixture. Under drought stress, we observed higher belowground allocation of photosynthates and the drought had reduced root-derived respiration. This resulted in significant changes of soil enzyme activities. Our results suggested that plant species and community composition strongly influenced the drought effects in the rhizosphere. Thus, plant community composition and in particular the introduction of legumes might be used as a tool to attenuate drought stress not only because of different water use efficiency by plants, but also by their indirect effects on soil microbial activities affecting C and N cycles.

  18. Evolution of the beta-amylase gene in the temperate grasses: Non-purifying selection, recombination, semiparalogy, homeology and phylogenetic signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaya, Miguel; Díaz-Pérez, Antonio; Mason-Gamer, Roberta; Pimentel, Manuel; Catalán, Pilar

    2015-10-01

    Low-copy nuclear genes (LCNGs) have complex genetic architectures and evolutionary dynamics. However, unlike multicopy nuclear genes, LCNGs are rarely subject to gene conversion or concerted evolution, and they have higher mutation rates than organellar or nuclear ribosomal DNA markers, so they have great potential for improving the robustness of phylogenetic reconstructions at all taxonomic levels. In this study, our first objective is to evaluate the evolutionary dynamics of the LCNG β-amylase by testing for potential pseudogenization, paralogy, homeology, recombination, and phylogenetic incongruence within a broad representation of the main Pooideae lineages. Our second objective is to determine whether β-amylase shows sufficient phylogenetic signal to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the Pooid grasses. A multigenic (ITS, matK, ndhF, trnTL, and trnLF) tree of the study group provided a framework for assessing the β-amylase phylogeny. Eight accessions showed complete absence of selection, suggesting putative pseudogenic copies or other relaxed selection pressures; resolution of Vulpia alopecuros 2x clones indicated its potential (semi) paralogy; and homeologous copies of allopolyploid species Festuca simensis, F. fenas, and F. arundinacea tracked their Mediterranean origin. Two recombination events were found within early-diverged Pooideae lineages, and five within the PACCMAD clade. The unexpected phylogenetic relationships of 37 grass species (26% of the sampled species) highlight the frequent occurrence of non-treelike evolutionary events, so this LCNG should be used with caution as a phylogenetic marker. However, once the pitfalls are identified and removed, the phylogenetic reconstruction of the grasses based on the β-amylase exon+intron positions is optimal at all taxonomic levels.

  19. 污泥水解残渣对植物生长的影响%Effects of residues hydrolyzed from sludge on plant growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍苗; 陈玉辉; 陈婷; 李亚东

    2008-01-01

    以生石灰水解污泥所剩残渣为材料,研究该残渣直接使用、被水冲洗后(降低pH)使用以及将残渣与自然土按不同比例混合后再使用对金盏菊(Calendula of ficinalis L.)、油菜(Brassica napus)、高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea)以及七彩椒((Capsicum annuum)种子的发芽影响以及残渣在自然状态下的pH值变化、残渣的堆放对周围植物生长的影响.结果表明:残渣对种子的发芽实验中,金盏菊种子的发芽比正常状况下的种子发芽慢2 d;油菜和高羊茅种子在被水冲洗后的残渣中的最终发芽率均达到100%;将残渣与自然土按不同比例混合使用,随着自然上比例的加大,植物种子的发芽时间缩短2-4 d,最终发芽率增大20%-40%,差异显著;残渣在室内经过20 d堆放后pH≥7,而室外残渣经过同样时问的堆放后pH≤7;残渣与自然土按不同比例混合后分别装在大小相同的花盆中置于室内,并种不同植物种子,15 d后pH≈7.

  20. Temperaturas cardinales de desarrollo en la etapa siembra- emergencia de 11 pastos forrajeros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Durán Puga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron determinar las temperaturas cardinales de desarrollo (temperatura umbral mínima Tb, temperatura óptima To y temperatura umbral máxima Tu, e identificar un método que estime con precisión los requerimientos térmicos para la etapa siembra-emergencia (E de 11 pastos forrajeros. Ciento veinte (120 semillas de cada uno se sembraron en recipientes en condiciones controladas con un diseño experimental completamente al azar y tres repeticiones a temperaturas constantes de 15 hasta 46 ºC, en cámaras de ambiente controlado del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP en Guadalajara, Jalisco, México. Las temperaturas cardinales y requerimiento térmico se estimaron mediante el método bilineal (MB y el método curvilíneo (MC, se evaluó su ajuste mediante comparación directa con los valores de desarrollo observados en ambiente controlado y coeficiente de variación de la duración de E expresada en términos de unidades calor acumuladas (UCA. Los resultados mostraron que el MB fue mejor para estimar Tb y To, y el MC fue mejor para estimar Tu. Los valores de Tb, To, Tu y UCA, fueron, Lolium perenne 9, 31, 41, 80, Festuca arundinacea 10, 31, 41, 78, Hyparrhenia rufa 12, 32, 42, 62, Eragrostis curvula 13, 32, 47, 40, Chloris gayana 13, 31, 47, 40, Melinis minutiflora 13, 31, 43, 50, Pennisetum clandestinum 12, 32, 43, 65, Brachiaria mutica 14, 32, 43, 57, Andropogon gayanus 12, 37, 48, 66, Cynodon dactylon 14, 29, 44, 48, Pennicetum ciliare 13, 30, 42, 61.

  1. Positive responses of coastal dune plants to soil conditioning by the invasive Lupinus nootkatensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslin, Hans Martin; Kollmann, Johannes

    2016-11-01

    Invasive nitrogen-fixing plants drive vegetation dynamics and may cause irreversible changes in nutrient-limited ecosystems through increased soil resources. We studied how soil conditioning by the invasive alien Lupinus nootkatensis affected the seedling growth of co-occurring native plant species in coastal dunes, and whether responses to lupin-conditioned soil could be explained by fertilisation effects interacting with specific ecological strategies of the native dune species. Seedling performance of dune species was compared in a greenhouse experiment using field-collected soil from within or outside coastal lupin stands. In associated experiments, we quantified the response to nutrient supply of each species and tested how addition of specific nutrients affected growth of the native grass Festuca arundinacea in control and lupin-conditioned soil. We found that lupin-conditioned soil increased seedling biomass in 30 out of 32 native species; the conditioned soil also had a positive effect on seedling biomass of the invasive lupin itself. Increased phosphorus mobilisation by lupins was the major factor driving these positive seedling responses, based both on growth responses to addition of specific elements and analyses of plant available soil nutrients. There were large differences in growth responses to lupin-conditioned soil among species, but they were unrelated to selected autecological indicators or plant strategies. We conclude that Lupinus nootkatensis removes the phosphorus limitation for growth of native plants in coastal dunes, and that it increases cycling of other nutrients, promoting the growth of its own seedlings and a wide range of dune species. Finally, our study indicates that there are no negative soil legacies that prevent re-establishment of native plant species after removal of lupins.

  2. Taking ecological function seriously: soil microbial communities can obviate allelopathic effects of released metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harleen Kaur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allelopathy (negative, plant-plant chemical interactions has been largely studied as an autecological process, often assuming simplistic associations between pairs of isolated species. The growth inhibition of a species in filter paper bioassay enriched with a single chemical is commonly interpreted as evidence of an allelopathic interaction, but for some of these putative examples of allelopathy, the results have not been verifiable in more natural settings with plants growing in soil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: On the basis of filter paper bioassay, a recent study established allelopathic effects of m-tyrosine, a component of root exudates of Festuca rubra ssp. commutata. We re-examined the allelopathic effects of m-tyrosine to understand its dynamics in soil environment. Allelopathic potential of m-tyrosine with filter paper and soil (non-sterile or sterile bioassays was studied using Lactuca sativa, Phalaris minor and Bambusa arundinacea as assay species. Experimental application of m-tyrosine to non-sterile and sterile soil revealed the impact of soil microbial communities in determining the soil concentration of m-tyrosine and growth responses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here, we show that the allelopathic effects of m-tyrosine, which could be seen in sterilized soil with particular plant species were significantly diminished when non-sterile soil was used, which points to an important role for rhizosphere-specific and bulk soil microbial activity in determining the outcome of this allelopathic interaction. Our data show that the amounts of m-tyrosine required for root growth inhibition were higher than what would normally be found in F. rubra ssp. commutata rhizosphere. We hope that our study will motivate researchers to integrate the role of soil microbial communities in bioassays in allelopathic research so that its importance in plant-plant competitive interactions can be thoroughly evaluated.

  3. Low pasture allowance until late gestation in ewes: behavioural and physiological changes in ewes and lambs from lambing to weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-de-Melo, A; Ungerfeld, R; Hötzel, M J; Orihuela, A; Pérez-Clariget, R

    2017-02-01

    Low pasture allowance during gestation affects ewes' BW at parturition, the bond with their lamb, lamb development, and thus also may affect their responses to weaning. The objectives were to determine if native pasture allowance from before conception until late pregnancy affects ewe-lamb behaviours at lambing, ewes' milk yield, lambs' BW, and the behavioural and physiological changes of ewes and lambs at weaning. From 23 days before conception until 122 days of pregnancy, 24 ewes grazed on two different native pasture allowances: high (10 to 12 kg of dry matter (DM)/100 kg of BW per day; HPA treatment; n=12) or low (5 to 8 kg of DM/100 kg of BW per day; LPA treatment; n=12). Thereafter, all ewes grazed on Festuca arundinacea and received rice bran and crude glycerine. Ewes' body condition score (BCS) and BW were recorded during pregnancy and postpartum periods. Milk yield was determined on days 32, 41 and 54 after lambing. Lambs' BW was recorded from birth until 72 days after lambing. Latency from parturition until the ewe licked her lamb, maternal behaviour score (a test that evaluates maternal attachment to the lamb) and latency for lamb to stand up and suckle were determined. The behaviour of the lambs and ewes was recorded before and after weaning (at 65 days). The ewes' serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were measured before and after weaning. The HPA ewes presented greater BW (Plate pregnancy, this did not affect the behaviours that lead to the establishment of the mother-young bond, nor the ewes' behavioural responses at weaning. Lambs reared by ewes that grazed on low pasture allowance during pregnancy presented fewer behavioural changes and a lower decrease of albumin concentration after weaning. Lambs' BW was not affected by the feeding received by their mothers.

  4. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on soil nutrient concentration and phosphatase activity and forage nutrient uptake from a grazed pasture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Sandra Leanne; Wood, Charles Wesley; Wood, Brenda Hall; Feng, Yucheng; Owsley, Walter Frank; Muntifering, Russell Brian

    2015-05-01

    Over a 3-year period, the effect of differing N-application regimes on soil extractable-P concentration, soil phosphatase activity, and forage P uptake in a P-enriched grazed-pasture system was investigated. In the fall of each year, six 0.28-ha plots were overseeded with triticale ( × Triticosecale rimpaui Wittm.) and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum) into a tall fescue (Lolium arundinacea)/bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) sod and assigned to 1 of 3 N-fertilizer treatments (n = 2): 100% of N recommendation in a split application (100N), 50% in a single application (50N), and 0% of N recommendation (0N) for triticale. Cattle commenced grazing the following spring and grazed until May. In the summer, plots were overseeded with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), fertilized at the same rates by reference to N recommendations for bermudagrass, and grazed by cattle until September. There were no effects of N fertilization on soil phosphatase activity, electrical conductivity, or concentrations of water-soluble P. Concentrations of extractable P decreased in plots receiving 50N, but increasing N fertilization to 100N resulted in no further reduction in extractable P. Forage biomass, foliar P concentrations, and forage P mass were not affected by N fertilization rates at the plant-community level, but responses were observed within individual forage species. Results are interpreted to mean that N fertilization at 50% of the agronomic recommendation for the grass component can increase forage P mass of specific forages and decrease soil extractable P, thus providing opportunity for decreasing P losses from grazed pasture.

  5. Comparison and overlap of sympatric wild ungulate diet in Cazorla, segura and las Villas Natural Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Martínez, T.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the trophic relationships and the degree of overlap between the diet of Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica, red deer (Cervus elaphus, fallow deer (Dama dama and mouflon (Ovis musimon in the Cazorla, Segura and Las Villas National Park (Southeastern of Spain. Stomach content was used as the basis for diet evaluation. The most heavily consumed plant species by the four herbivores were Quercus rotundifolia, Phillyrea latifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Oryzopsis paradoxa and Festuca arundinacea. Spanish ibex and red deer were the ungulates with the most similar diet (53.7% overlap, both were browsers and consumed large amounts of woody matter. Fallow deer and mouflon had similar feeding habits, both are grazers and have a high intake of grasses. There were very low levels of overlap between the ibex and red deer diet with that of fallow deer and mouflon, respectively. Mouflon was the largest forbs consumer, fallow deer consumed most camephytes and red deer consumed most trees and shrubs. None of the four ungulates had absolutely definitive diets that could class them strictly as browsers or grazers, however certain trends suggested that ibex and red deer primarily behave as browsers while fallow deer and mouflon are grazers, although this was not a strict division.

    [fr]
    Nous avons étudié le degré de superposition entre la diète du bouquetin (Capra pyrenaica, cerf (Cervus elaphus, daim (Dama dama et mouflon (Ovis musimon dans le Parc National de Cazorla, Segura et Las Villas (SE de l'Espagne. Pour l'évaluation de la diète, nous nous sommes basés sur les contenus stomachaux. Les espèces les plus consommées par les quatre herbivores étaient Quercus rotundifolia, Phillyrea latifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Oryzopsis paradoxa et Festuca arundinacea. Le bouquetin et le cerf montraient la diète la plus semblable (53,77o de

  6. First Record of the European Rusted Flea Beetle, Neocrepidodera ferruginea (Scopoli, 1763, in North America (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent LeSage

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The European rusted flea beetle Neocrepidodera ferruginea (Scopoli, 1763 is reported for the first time from Québec and Ontario, Canada. It was likely introduced into southern Ontario at an international port on the Great Lakes in early 1970s, or possibly earlier in the 1960s. However, the exact location and date of introduction could not be precisely determined. The flea beetle has since dispersed northeastwards and reached Aylmer, north of Ottawa River, in Québec, by 2003. This is about 375 km from Niagara Falls, where the oldest known specimens were collected in 1977. In 2009, various wild habitats and cultivated areas of Aylmer were surveyed. The host plants of the larvae could not be determined, but adults were swept from many plant species including various weeds and cultivated grasses: Alopecurus pratense (meadow foxtail, Dactylis glomerata (orchard-grass, Festuca rubra (red fescue-grass, and Poa pratensis (Kentucky blue-grass. Adults were also collected from flowers of several weeds: Aster sp. (undetermined species, Aster novae-angliae (New England aster, Ambrosia artemisiifolia (small ragweed, Echium vulgare (viper’s bugloss, Nasturtium officinale (water cress, Melilotus alba (white sweet-clover, Hypericum perforatum (common St. John’s-wort, Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife, Ranunculus acris (buttercup, and Solidago spp. (goldenrods. Since larvae are known to develop inside the roots and central stems of cereals, this new alien species represents a threat to Canadian agriculture, particularly if it reaches the Prairies in western Canada, where cereals represent a considerable part of their economy. European rusted flea beetle and Altise ferrugineuse européenne are suggested for the English and French common names of this flea beetle, respectively.

  7. Long-term ungulate exclusion reduces fungal symbiont prevalence in native grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudgers, Jennifer A; Fletcher, Rebecca A; Olivas, Eric; Young, Carolyn A; Charlton, Nikki D; Pearson, Dean E; Maron, John L

    2016-08-01

    When symbionts are inherited by offspring, they can have substantial ecological and evolutionary consequences because they occur in all host life stages. Although natural frequencies of inherited symbionts are commonly endophytes can improve resistance to herbivory, growth under drought, and competitive ability. We evaluated whether native ungulate herbivory increased the prevalence of a fungal endophyte in the common, native bunchgrass, Festuca campestris (rough fescue, Poaceae). We used large-scale (1 ha) and long-term (7-10 year) fencing treatments to exclude native ungulates and recorded shifts in endophyte prevalence at the scale of plant populations and for individual plants. We characterized the fungal endophyte in F. campestris, Epichloë species FcaTG-1 (F. campestris taxonomic group 1) for the first time. Under ungulate exclusion, endophyte prevalence was 19 % lower in plant populations, 25 % lower within plant individuals, and 39 % lower in offspring (seeds) than in ungulate-exposed controls. Population-level endophyte frequencies were also negatively correlated with soil moisture across geographic sites. Observations of high within-plant variability in symbiont prevalence are novel for the Epichloë species, and contribute to a small, but growing, literature that documents phenotypic plasticity in plant-endophyte symbiota. Altogether, we show that native ungulates can be an important driver of symbiont prevalence in native plant populations, even in the absence of evidence for direct mechanisms of mammal deterrence. Understanding the ecological controls on symbiont prevalence could help to predict future shifts in grasslands that are dominated by Epichloë host plants.

  8. Does an asexual endophyte symbiont alter life stage and long-term survival in a perennial host grass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeth, Stanley H; Hamilton, Cyd E

    2006-11-01

    Asexual, seedborne endophytic fungi in perennial grasses are often viewed as strong mutualists because fitness of the symbiont and host grass are closely coupled. However, at least for some native grasses, the asexual endophyte, Neotyphodium, acts parasitically, yet remains at high frequencies in natural populations. Most previous studies of Neotyphodium effects on host survival have been short term relative to the long life span of the perennial grass host. We therefore tested the hypothesis that Neotyphodium alters the survival in various life stages and long-term survival of adult native Arizona fescue (Festuca arizonica). To test the former, we planted 40 infected (E+) and 40 uninfected (E-, endophyte removed) seeds from four different maternal plants in the field under ambient conditions. We followed survival of seeds, seedlings, and adult plants over a 5-year period. To test the latter, we determined the infection of 1633 adult plants and followed their survival over the next 5-7 years. E+ seeds did not differ from uninfected seeds in terms of overall survival from seed germination to seedling to adult. However, the shape of the survival curve differed, with E+ plants showing higher mortality in early life stages. E+ adult plants did not differ from E- plants in long-term survival. Survival was generally very high during the study, which included a severe and prolonged drought. Infection by asexual Neotyphodium does not increase survival in early life stages or that of adult plants. Because asexual, vertically transmitted symbionts are predicted by evolutionary theory to be strong mutualists, the persistence of high infection frequencies in natural populations without long-term benefits to the host remains enigmatic. One possible explanation is that the long life span of the perennial host and low seedling recruitment may obscure either the costs or benefits of endophyte infection.

  9. Variation in the expression of ergot alkaloids between individual tillers of perennial ryegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Wade; Lunn, Kristy; Lloyd-West, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Epichloë fungal endophytes of cool season grasses are well known to produce a range of alkaloids of benefit to the host. Some of these compounds are advantageous to agriculture due to qualities that promote pasture persistence (e.g. the loline class of alkaloids confer insect protection) while others are detrimental to the wellbeing of grazing livestock. The ergot alkaloids (e.g. ergovaline), produced in ryegrass and tall fescue associations, causes poor animal health in farming regions in many countries around the world and further study is required to improve our knowledge on this class of compounds. Here we present the application of a quantitative LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry) method measuring eight ergot alkaloids (chanoclavine, agroclavine, elymoclavine, lysergol, lysergic acid, ergine, lysergyl alanine, ergovaline) produced by endophyte infected grasses, to monitor levels in individual tillers from multiple plants of a single cultivar of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. ‘Grasslands Samson’) infected with a common toxic endophyte strain (Epichloë festucae var. lolii). Monitoring the expression in individual tillers allows an estimation of the variability within a plant (between tillers) as well as between plants. The study showed that there is significant variation in the concentration of the ergot alkaloids between tillers of a single plant, at or exceeding the level of variation observed between individual plants of a population. This result emphasizes the fundamental importance of robust experimental design and sampling procedures when alkaloid expression assessment is required and these need to be rigorously tailored to the hypothesis being tested.

  10. Variation in the expression of ergot alkaloids between individual tillers of perennial ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade Jeffray Mace

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Epichloë fungal endophytes of cool season grasses are well known to produce a range of alkaloids of benefit to the host. Some of these compounds are advantageous to agriculture due to qualities that promote pasture persistence (e.g. the loline class of alkaloids confer insect protection while others are detrimental to the wellbeing of grazing livestock. The ergot alkaloids (e.g. ergovaline, produced in ryegrass and tall fescue associations, causes poor animal health in farming regions in many countries around the world and further study is required to improve our knowledge on this class of compounds. Here we present the application of a quantitative LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry method measuring eight ergot alkaloids (chanoclavine, agroclavine, elymoclavine, lysergol, lysergic acid, ergine, lysergyl alanine, ergovaline produced by endophyte infected grasses, to monitor levels in individual tillers from multiple plants of a single cultivar of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. ‘Grasslands Samson’ infected with a common toxic endophyte strain (Epichloë festucae var. lolii. Monitoring the expression in individual tillers allows an estimation of the variability within a plant (between tillers as well as between plants.The study showed that there is significant variation in the concentration of the ergot alkaloids between tillers of a single plant, at or exceeding the level of variation observed between individual plants of a population. This result emphasizes the fundamental importance of robust experimental design and sampling procedures when alkaloid expression assessment is required and these need to be rigorously tailored to the hypothesis being tested.

  11. Fragments of the key flowering gene GIGANTEA are associated with helitron-type sequences in the Pooideae grass Lolium perenne

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    Langdon Tim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helitrons are a class of transposable elements which have been identified in a number of species of plants, animals and fungi. They are unique in their proposed rolling-circle mode of replication, have a highly variable copy-number and have been implicated in the restructuring of coding sequences both by their insertion into existing genes and by their incorporation of transcriptionally competent gene fragments. Helitron discovery depends on identifying associated DNA signature sequences and comprehensive evaluation of helitron contribution to a particular genome requires detailed computational analysis of whole genome sequence. Therefore, the role which helitrons have played in modelling non-model plant genomes is largely unknown. Results Cloning of the flowering gene GIGANTEA (GI from a BAC library of the Pooideae grass Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass identified the target gene and several GI pseudogene fragments spanning the first five exons. Analysis of genomic sequence 5' and 3' of one these GI fragments revealed motifs consistent with helitron-type transposon insertion, specifically a putative 5'-A↓T-3' insertion site containing 5'-TC and CTAG-3' borders with a sub-terminal 16 bp hairpin. Screening of a BAC library of the closely related grass species Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue indicated similar helitron-associated GI fragments present in this genome, as well as non-helitron associated GI fragments derived from the same region of GI. In order to investigate the possible extent of ancestral helitron-activity in L. perenne, a methylation-filtered GeneThresher® genomic library developed from this species was screened for potential helitron 3' hairpin sequences associated with a 3'-CTRR motif. This identified 7 potential helitron hairpin-types present between at least 9 and 51 times within the L. perenne methylation-filtered library. Conclusion This represents evidence for a possible ancestral role for helitrons

  12. Symbiotic grasses: A review of basic biology of forage grass fungal endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungal endophytes associated with grasses are the fundamental reason for the basic successes of several pasture grasses, notable tall fescues, and perennial ryegrass. Tall fescue and perennial ryegrass fungal endophytes, Neotyphodium coenophialum and N. lolii, respectively, and their relatives ...

  13. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period and lactation affects mammary gland gene expression in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and reduce milk production when fed to lactating cows. However, we have shown this affect is temporal in that pre-partum consumption of inflected seed throughout the dry period does not inhibit subsequent milk productio...

  14. Annual grasses in crop rotations with grass seed production - A survey with special focus on Vulpia spp. in red fescue production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kryger; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of grass weeds in grass seed crops in Denmark. The survey is based on an analysis of data from a database containing monitoring of grass weeds in the period from 2004 to 2009 on an acreage of approximately 400,000 ha. The survey is based on weed monitoring carried out...... during a mandatory field inspection of grass seed crops. All fields grown with grasses for seed production are monitored shortly before harvest at a time when the weeds present are a result of a combination of the cropping history of the field, competition from the crop and the weed control carried out...... in the field. The survey showed that Poa annua, Elytrigia repens and Poa trivialis were the three most frequent grass weeds in grass seed crops. Furthermore, Bromus hordeaceus, Bromus sterilis, P. trivialis and Vulpia spp. showed an increasing frequency in the study period. The perennial weed, E. repens...

  15. Prolactin genomics and biology in herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circulating prolactin concentrations are typically reduced in animals suffering from tall fescue toxicosis, and have become a standard biological marker for tall fescue toxicosis. Wild-type endophyte infestations of tall fescue pastures result in forage containing ergot alkaloids. Ergot alkaloids ...

  16. 3种钠盐胁迫对中华羊茅种子萌发的影响%Effects of Three Sodium Salt Stress on Seed Germination of Festuca sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王康英

    2013-01-01

    为了探明不同钠盐胁迫中华羊茅种子的萌发特性,采用实验室发芽试验研究了不同中性盐(NaCl)和碱性盐(NaHCO3和Na2CO3)胁迫对中华羊茅种子发芽率、胚芽长、胚根长等的影响.结果表明:1)3种钠盐胁迫下,中华羊茅种子的发芽率、发芽势、发芽指数和活力指数均随着盐浓度的升高而降低.2)当NaC1浓度≤200 mmol/L、NaHCO3≤100 mmol/L、Na2CO3≤50 mmol/L时,中华羊茅种子可正常萌发;当NaCl浓度为300 mmol/L、NaHCO3为150 mmol/L、Na2CO3为100 mmol/L时,种子萌发明显受到抑制;当NaC1浓度为500 mmol/L、NaHCO3为300 mmol/L、Na2CO3为150 mmol/L时,种子不发芽,并且随着3种盐浓度的继续增高,胚芽生长迅速下降,而胚根的生长也呈下降趋势;在NaC1浓度为50 mmol/L时,种子的胚根生长较对照略高.%The influence of NaC1 stress,NaHCO3 stress and Na2CO3 stress on seed germination rate,plumule length and radical length of F.sinensis was studied through a germination test in the laboratory to explore the seed germination characteristics of F.sinensis under different sodium salt stress.Results:1) The F.sinensis seeds could germinate naturally when NaCl concentration≤ 200 mmol/L,NaHCO3 concentration≤ 100 mmol/L and Na2 CO3 concentration ≤ 50 mmol/L.The seed germination was significantly inhibited when NaC1 concentration=300 mmol/L,NaHCO3 concentration=150 mmol/L and Na2CO3 concentration=100 mmol/L.And the seeds did not germinate when NaC1 concentration=500 mmol/L,NaHCO3 concentration=300 mmol/L and Na2 CO3 concentration=150 mmol/L.The plumule length and radical length decreased rapidly with the increasing of sodium salt concentration.The radical growth was slightly higher than the control when NaC1 concentration was 50 mmol/L.

  17. Using /sup 15/N tracer technique to determine the nitrogen effect of slurry fractions in pot experiments with Festuca pratensis. 1. Nitrogen effect of slurry fractions in comparison with raw slurry in different soil substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, P. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig-Potsdam. Inst. fuer Duengungsforschung)

    1983-08-01

    Rising amounts of cattle and pig slurry dimensioned on the basis of its nitrogen content, and liquid and solid slurry fractions obtained after mechanical fractionation were tested on sandy, loess and low-bog soils. The dry matter yields and nitrogen utilization rates determined in a 2-years test show clear correlations with the soil class and the nitrogen amount, but also with the form of slurry nitrogen bond, the carbon/nitrogen ratio of the organic manures and their content of mineral substances. The nitrogen utilization rates are influenced and vary considerably in the variants under review. On the average of the variants 'soil' and 'nitrogen increase' more than 50% of the mineral nitrogen were utilized by the plants. About 30 to 40% of the raw slurry and liquid slurry nitrogen were taken up by the plants. About 18% of the nitrogen from the solid cattle slurry fraction was utilized on the average, the figure for solid pig slurry fraction was 32%.

  18. Using /sup 15/N tracer technique to determine the nitrogen effect of slurry fractions in pot experiments with Festuca pratensis. 2. Nitrogen effect of slurry solid matter at rising mineral fertilizer rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, P. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig-Potsdam. Inst. fuer Duengungsforschung)

    1983-01-01

    A combination of organic manuring and mineral fertilization had positive effects on crop yields, first of all on sandy soils, particularly after high nitrogen applications (up to a maximum of 4 g N/pot). These effects correlate with a higher utilization of the mineral nitrogen. Rising mineral fertilizer rates, soil substrate, and parameters of slurry solid matter, especially their C:N ratio, influence the mobility of soil nitrogen as well as the uptake of organic manure nitrogen. The solid matter nitrogen of pig slurry was more easily available to plants on sandy and loess soils. Slurry solid matter applied in addition to mineral nitrogen had positive effects on the quality of the harvested products.

  19. 盐胁迫对7种草本地被植物生长及光合特性的影响%Effects of salt stress on growth and physiological characteristic of seven herbaceous ground cover plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆建霞; 柴慈江; 史燕山; 徐雯; 俞佳佳

    2006-01-01

    采用盆栽试验法,研究了不同浓度NaCl盐胁迫对二色补血草(Limonium bicolor)、佛甲草(Sedum lineare Thunb.)、千叶蓍(Achillea millefolium)、丛生福禄考(Phlox subulata)、百里香(Thymus mongolicus Ronn)、地被石竹(Dianthus acicularis)和高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea Schreb)等7种地被植物生长及光合特性的影响.结果表明,盐胁迫使参试植物生长受到抑制,但受抑制程度有明显区别,相对生长量由大至小依次为高羊毛(86.52%)>二色补血草(78.78%)>千叶蓍(65.38%)>地被石竹(56.68%)>百里香(41.05%)>佛甲草(32.25%)>丛生福禄考(0.00%);盐胁迫下7种植物的光合速率(Pn)和气孔导度(Gs)均下降,但下降幅度在各种植物间差异较大,高羊茅和二色补血草的下降幅度较小,佛甲草和丛生福禄考的较大;7种植物胞间CO2浓度(Ci)的变化规律较复杂.综合分析7种草本地被植物的相对生长量和光合指标可知,其耐盐性由强至弱依次为:二色补血草>高羊茅>千叶蓍>地被石竹>百里香>佛甲草>丛生福禄考.

  20. 杨凌4种冷地型草坪草观赏特性评价%Evaluation on Ornamental Characters of Four Cool-season Turf Grasses in Yangling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁锐

    2012-01-01

    本研究选用密度、质地、颜色、盖度、均一性、高度、绿期、草坪组成、成坪速度等9项指标,采用层次分析法(AHP)及模糊数学综合评判方法,对杨凌栽植的4种冷地型草坪草的观赏特性进行了综合评价。将这9项指标作为评价指标进行数量化测定,采用层次分析法(AHP)通过构建权重矩阵,对几种观赏草坪配以指标权重,然后结合模糊数学综合评价方法,给出草坪质量的评价等级。从而在观赏效果方面为杨凌示范区建坪草种的选择提供一些参考。实验结果表明杨凌地区冷地型草坪草观赏效果好坏程度依次是匍匐翦股颖、高羊茅、草地早熟禾、黑麦草。养护管理水平不够是这些草坪普遍存在的问题,影响草坪的观赏效果。%Four kinds of cool-season turf grasses were compared in terms of 9 factors:their density,texture,color,coverage,evenness,height,period of green,components as well as the speed of turf formulation.AHP and fuzzy mathematics evaluation were applied for quantity the factors and evaluate the quality of turfs.The experiment showed that Agrostis stolonifera has the best quality of ornamentation,followed by Festuca arundinacea,Poa pratensis and Lolium perenne is the lowest one.The general problems for all kinds of turf is inadequate management and maintenance.

  1. Gray-correlation analysis on ornamental value of thirteen ornamental grasses during summer and autumn in Nanjing area%13种观赏草在南京地区夏秋两季观赏价值的灰色关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀玲; 刘君; 宋海鹏; 赵海明; 杨志民

    2010-01-01

    观赏草作为一种新型的植物造景材料,日益成为城市园林绿化的重要组成部分,对其观赏性的综合评价也变得尤为重要.以成活率、生长状况、植株观赏价值、花序美感及叶片颜色为评价指标,采用灰色关联分析对13种多年生观赏草夏秋两季的观赏价值进行了综合评价.结果表明:狼尾草Pennisetum alopecuroides、红叶白茅Imperata cylindrical cv.'Red Baron'、花叶虉草Phalaris arundinacea var. picta、香茅Cymbopogon citratus、花叶蒲苇Cortaderia selloana cv.'Silver Comet'、金叶苔草Carex oshimensis cv.'Vergold'和欧根金线蒲Acorus gramineus cv.'Ogon'7种观赏草观赏价值较高,且夏秋两季观赏价值变化不大;斑叶芒Miscanthus sinensis cv.'Zebrinus'、蒲苇C. selloana、细叶芒M. sinensis cv.'Gracillimus'、花叶芒M. sinensis cv.'Variegatus'4种观赏草秋季花序盛开,观赏价值较夏季有较大幅度的提高;蓝羊茅Festuca ovina var.glauca叶片银蓝色,叶形色泽美观,初夏观赏价值较高,但随着时间的推进出现枯黄现象导致其观赏价值明显降低;细茎针茅Stipa tenuissima夏秋两季的观赏性评价均较低,不适合用于夏秋两季南京地区的景观绿化.

  2. Leaf dynamics of Festulolium and Dactylis glomerata L. at the end of the growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Skládanka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the assessment of leaf extension rate (LER, leaf appearance rate (LAR and leaf senescence rate (LSR in the Festulolium (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. × Lolium multiflorum Lam. and in the Dactylis glomerata L. at the end of the growing season from the end of September to the beginning of December. In summer, the swards were used for a single cut (beginning of June or for a double cut (beginning of June and end of July. Measurements were made in three periods from 14 Sept. to 11 Oct., from 11 Oct. to 29 Oct., and from 29 Oct. to 6 Dec. In the first period, LER was higher in Dactylis glomerata L. (3.770 mm tiller−1 d−1 than in Festulolium (2.376 mm tiller−1 d−1. In the second and third period, LER was higher in Festulolium (0.859 resp. 0.271 mm tiller−1 d−1 than in Dactylis glomerata L. (0.694, resp. 0.199 mm tiller−1 d−1. LAR values measured in Festulolium in the studied pe­riods were 0.277 leaf tiller−1 d−1, 0.079 leaf tiller−1 d−1 and 0.038 leaf tiller−1 d−1 and LAR values of Dactylis glomerata L. were 0.225 leaf tiller−1 d−1, 0.054 leaf tiller−1 d−1 and 0.027 leaf tiller−1 d−1. In the course of the whole pe­riod of study, LSR showed the highest values in Dactylis glomerata L. (7.869 mm til­ler−1 d−1, 5.947 mm til­ler−1 d−1 and 4.757 mm tiller−1 d−1 while the LSR values of Festulolium were lower (2.904 mm tiller−1 d−1, 2.375 mm tiller−1 d−1 and 1.205 mm tiller−1 d−1. The influence of both the species and the period of measurement on the LER, LAR and LSR values was statistically highly significant (P < 0.01 to very highly significant (P < 0.001. The interaction between the species and the period of measurement was very highly significant (P < 0.001 in the LER characteristic. The influence of the intensity of sward use in summer on the LSR values was very highly significant (P < 0.001, too.

  3. Direct uptake of organically derived carbon by grass roots and allocation in leaves and phytoliths: 13C labeling evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Anne; Balesdent, Jérôme; Cazevieille, Patrick; Chevassus-Rosset, Claire; Signoret, Patrick; Mazur, Jean-Charles; Harutyunyan, Araks; Doelsch, Emmanuel; Basile-Doelsch, Isabelle; Miche, Hélène; Santos, Guaciara M.

    2016-03-01

    In the rhizosphere, the uptake of low-molecular-weight carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) by plant roots has been well documented. While organic N uptake relative to total uptake is important, organic C uptake is supposed to be low relative to the plant's C budget. Recently, radiocarbon analyses demonstrated that a fraction of C from the soil was occluded in amorphous silica micrometric particles that precipitate in plant cells (phytoliths). Here, we investigated whether and to what extent organically derived C absorbed by grass roots can feed the C occluded in phytoliths. For this purpose we added 13C- and 15N-labeled amino acids (AAs) to the silicon-rich hydroponic solution of the grass Festuca arundinacea. The experiment was designed to prevent C leakage from the labeled nutritive solution to the chamber atmosphere. After 14 days of growth, the 13C and 15N enrichments (13C excess and 15N excess) in the roots, stems and leaves as well as phytoliths were measured relative to a control experiment in which no labeled AAs were added. Additionally, the 13C excess was measured at the molecular level, in AAs extracted from roots and stems and leaves. The net uptake of labeled AA-derived 13C reached 4.5 % of the total AA 13C supply. The amount of AA-derived 13C fixed in the plant was minor but not nil (0.28 and 0.10 % of total C in roots and stems/leaves, respectively). Phenylalanine and methionine that were supplied in high amounts to the nutritive solution were more 13C-enriched than other AAs in the plant. This strongly suggested that part of AA-derived 13C was absorbed and translocated into the plant in its original AA form. In phytoliths, AA-derived 13C was detected. Its concentration was on the same order of magnitude as in bulk stems and leaves (0.15 % of the phytolith C). This finding strengthens the body of evidences showing that part of organic compounds occluded in phytoliths can be fed by C entering the plant through the roots. Although this experiment was done in

  4. Diseño y prestaciones de un prototipo de siembra directa para intersiembra de pasturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRINCIPI, M.A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo compara, en siembras de festuca alta (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. efectuadas en otoño sobre praderas de alfalfa (Medicago sativa sp. degradadas, un prototipo de intersiembra de pasturas diseñado por la Cátedra Maquinaria Agrícola de la Facultad de Agronomía y Veterinaria de la Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, cuyo tren de siembra posee, además de las cuchillas circulares dura flute, un conjunto de timones con azadones cortos provistos de pequeñas aletas laterales en su parte inferior para la apertura de la faja de siembra, con una máquina para intersiembra de pasturas difundida en el mercado (testigo, con sistema de siembra y fertilización con abresurcos de discos. Se utilizó un diseño de parcelas divididas que incluye al prototipo descrito, a éste con una variante constituida por un conjunto de siembra clásico similar a la intersembradora testigo, y a esta última máquina, las cuales se utilizaron con y sin fertilización en la siembra.El objetivo de efectuar la labranza de la línea de siembra con azadón corto provisto de aletas es eliminar la compactación superficial producida por el pisoteo de los animales, mejorar la preparación de la cama de siembra y colocar el fósforo a mayor profundidad (150 mm por debajo de la semilla.En los tres años de experimentación se pudo constatar a los 30 días de las siembras que existieron diferencias significativas en la eficiencia de implantación a favor del prototipo con azadón, con respecto al testigo y al prototipo con líneas de siembra similares a éste, lo cual es de relevancia dado que la velocidad de germinación es fundamental para el caso que después de la siembra no llueva hasta la primavera, retrasándose la germinación y el 1.º corte de forraje. Lo expuesto también se constató a los 180 días de la siembra para el año 2003, en el cual no se registraron lluvias a posterior de la siembra y hasta fines de ese año, mientras que el 2002 y 2004 los

  5. تعیین بهترین مدل پرایمینگ بذر برای بهبود جوانه زنی و بنیه گیاهچه گندمیان پایا

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    علی گزانچیان

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available در اصلاح و احیاء مراتع توجه به مرحله جوانه زنی و استقرارگراس های پایا که حساس به تنشهای محیطی می باشد ضروری به نظر می رسد. بدین منظور تکنیک پرایمینگ بذر جهت بهبود سرعت جوانه زنی و بنیه گیاهچه پنج گراس چند ساله  فصل سرد مرتعی شامل Bromus confinis، Elymus elongatum، Agropyron pectiniform، Festuca ovinaو  Festuca arundinaceae با استفاده از ماده اسمتیک پلی اتیلن گلایکول (PEG 8000 در غلظتهای 0، 5/0 ، 1،  5/1 ، 2 و 5/2 مگاپاسکال (MP  برای دوره­های نگهداری صفر، 2، 4، 6 و 8 روز (D مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. این آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی در 4 تکرار اجرا شد. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که تفاوت بین تمامی عوامل مورد مطالعه و اثرات متقابل آنها برای سرعت جوانه زنی و اجزاء گیاهچه بسیار معنی داربود (P

  6. Study of Selection of Shrub and Grass Species for Protection of Slope Plants of Unconsolidated Deposits of Hydropower Station%水电站渣场松散堆积物边坡植物措施防治灌草种选择研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智慧; 王石贵

    2014-01-01

    The selection of plant species is key to plant protection measures of the slope land , and should be considered from the aspects of ecological adaptability ,integrated functionality ,resistance and so on .Taking the slag field with open cut and hole cut in Jin'anqiao Hydropower Station for an example , this article determines the appropriate shrubs and grasses through the analysis of vegetation and adaptability of shrubs and grasses .The results of shrub and grass seeds planting germination experiment show that the highest natural germination rate among the ten kinds of selected shrub and grass seeds in the test is tall fescue ,accounting for 80 .89% ,and except Pyracantha fortuneana ,the natural germination rate of the other nine shrubs are higher than 75% .As the hole cut has too much abandon stone ,the survival rate of the shrub and grass seeds is less than 30% ,and the hole cut should be covered with soil before taking the plant measures .The gerination rates of shrub and grass seeds in the open cut and spoil overburden are higher than 60% and there are five kinds of shrub and grass seeds which preserving rates of 56d seedlings are higher than 60% ,including Festuca rubra Linn ,T rifolium repens Linn .,Lolium perenne L .,Festuca elate Keng and Trifolium repens Linn .,and also ,after 6 months of planting ,they have good growing height . Therefore ,these five kinds of shrubs and grass can meet the requirements of slope protection .%指出了植物品种选择是工程边坡植物防护措施关键,应从生态适应性、功能综合性、抗逆性等方面考虑选择。以金安桥水电站同时具有明挖和洞挖弃渣的渣场为研究对象,通过植被分析及灌草种适应性分析确定了适宜灌草种。灌草种发芽播种实验结果表明:选择的10种参试灌草种自然发芽率最高的为高羊茅80.89%,除火棘外其余9种灌草种自然发芽率均大于75%;洞挖弃渣块石过多,灌草种保存率均低于30%

  7. Research about Turf Mixtures in South Transition Zone%南过渡带混播草坪组合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵连春; 张晓庆

    2012-01-01

    Under the environment and the management measures in south transition zone,we studied species mixed ratio of turfgrass, and the designed mixtures had been compared to each other. The results were as follows: The mixture of Barlexas 40%+Barrera 30%+Baronie 20%+Pinnacle 10% was the best ,the other mixtures were second to it. The variety of density and the speed of growth were according to the logic curve. From the expression of the mixtures during seeding stage,we could conclude that the higher proportion of Tall fescue or Perennial ryegrass in the mixtures the better it would be.But the proportion of Perennial ryegrass would be better to be less than 20 percent .With the growth of the turfgrass ,the propotion of the Tall rescue was steady,while the proportion of Perennial ryegrass and Kentucky bluegrass had been on the decline .But after some time about one year ,the proportion of Kentucky bluegrass had been becoming more and more again.The Creeping bent grass would be better to be seeded singly.Bermuda grass could be mixed with Tall rescue or Kentucky bluegrass.but in winter the view of it was not good. Finally,in the view of turf formation speed,quality of turf ,insectpest and disease etc ,the ideal ratio of Tallfescue,Kentucky bluegrass and Perennial ryegrass was 7:2:1,and it would be better if the Tall fescue consisted of defferent species.%在南过渡带的生境及一定的养护条件下,对多种混播草坪组合设计进行了评比,结果表明:混播组合高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea)凌志40%+高羊茅锐步30%+早熟禾(Poapratensis)男爵20%+黑麦草(Loliumperenne)顶峰10%表现最好。其次为高羊茅凌志30%+高羊茅锐步30%+早熟禾巴润20%+黑麦草顶峰20%;其余表现不好。从苗期表现来看,黑麦草及高羊茅的比例高者表现好。从成坪后期来看,黑麦草的比例不宜过多,最好不超过20%。混播组合中,随着草坪利用年限的延

  8. Persistence of biological nitrogen fixation in high latitude grass-clover grasslands under different management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanakakis, Vasileios; Sturite, Ievina; Dörsch, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) can substantially contribute to N supply in permanent grasslands, improving N yield and forage quality, while reducing inorganic N inputs. Among the factors critical to the performance of BNF in grass-legume mixtures are selected grass and legume species, proportion of legumes, the soil-climatic conditions, in particular winter conditions, and management practices (e.g. fertilization and compaction). In high latitude grasslands, low temperatures can reduce the performance of BNF by hampering the legumés growth and by suppressing N2 fixation. Estimation of BNF in field experiments is not straightforward. Different methods have been developed providing different results. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of BNF, in a newly established field experiment in North Norway over four years. The grassland consisted of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) sawn in three proportions (0, 15 and 30% in total) together with timothy (Pheum pretense L.) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis L.). Three levels of compaction were applied each year (no tractor, light tractor, heavy tractor) together with two different N rates (110 kg N/ha as cattle slurry or 170 kg N/ha as cattle slurry and inorganic N fertilizer). We applied two different methods, the 15N natural abundance and the difference method, to estimate BNF in the first harvest of each year. Overall, the difference method overestimated BNF relative to the 15N natural abundance method. BNF in the first harvest was compared to winter survival of red and white clover plants, which decreased with increasing age of the grassland. However, winter conditions did not seem to affect the grassland's ability to fix N in spring. The fraction of N derived from the atmosphere (NdfA) in white and red clover was close to 100% in each spring, indicating no suppression of BNF. BNF increased the total N yield of the grasslands by up to 75%, mainly due to high

  9. 放牧强度对高寒草地产草量及羊体质量增加的影响%Effects of different grazing intensities on aboveground biomass and body weight of sheep on Alpine grasslands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓潮洲; 储少林; 李瑞年; 李晓敏; 艾山江

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the impact of grazing on the aboveground biomass of alpine grasslands and the gaining effect of sheep were investigated. Tuoyun pasture was selected as a study area. Three grazing plots were set as treatment plots and a natural growth grasslands was set as the control plot. The results showed that 1) Tuoyun pasture is an alpine meadow with Leucopoa all)ida, Fescue arioides, Androsace umbellata and Oxytropis falcatae as the dominant speeies; 2) aboveground biomass of alpine grassland was very low, even in the prohibited graze area in July, and the aboveground biomass (dry matter) was merely 830 kg . ha-1 ; 3) grazing activities have a great impact on the aboveground biomass of the pasture, and heavy grazing can significantly reduce the aboveground biomass; 4) using the effect of liveweight gain as an evaluation index, a better weight gain was obtained under the stocking rates of 1 sheep unit (i. e. an ewe and a lamb) per hectare in this alpine pasture.%以托云牧场高寒草地为研究对象,通过设置3个放牧样地,一个对照样地,研究不同强度放牧对草地地上生物量的影响以及在不同放牧压力下羊体质量增加的效果。结果表明,1)托云牧场是以银穗草(Leucopoa albida)、羊茅(Festuca arioides)、点地梅(Androsace umbellata)和棘豆(Oxytropis falcatae)为优势种的高山草地;2)高寒草地地上生物量较低,禁牧区7月地上生物量(干物质)仅830kg·hm-2;3)放牧活动对地上生物量有较大影响,重度放牧能显著降低牧场地上生物量;4)以羊体质量增加值为评价指标,该高寒牧场在载畜量为1.05羊单位·hm-2时能获得较好的体质量增加效果。

  10. Application of Industrial Waste CaF2 for Vegetative Covering of Phosphogypsum Disposal Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leaković, S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogypsum, i.e. calcium sulphate dihydrate is generated as a by-product in the phosphoric acid production during reaction between phosphate rock and sulphuric acid. It is stored as nonhazardous waste in a disposal site. Since 1983, when the phosphoric acid plant started operation, about 8 140 000 t of phosphogypsum have been disposed there. The disposal site consists of four separate ponds (compartments which are bounded by 6 meter high embankments of earth. According to a special design, it is possible to build layers upon the existing disposal site using phosphogypsum for making embankments. So far, the first 6-meter high level has been built with a 1:3 side slope of phosphogypsum embankments. Formation of the second level with 1:5 side slope is currently in progress. Another byproduct of phosphoric acid production is fluoride- and phosphorus-polluted wastewater. Before being discharged into the natural recipient, this wastewater is treated with calcium hydroxide. The product of neutralisation is calcium fluoride (CaF2 which is deposited in separate lagoons as nonhazardous waste. The application of calcium fluoride as a substrate for plants in the process of vegetative covering of the phosphogypsum disposal site is a new method of its usage. This way, a significant financial benefit is achieved because it is not necessary to build a new lagoon for calcium fluoride disposal. Regarding the environmental aspect, usage for vegetative covering is far better than the standard process of calcium fluoride disposal because residual phosphorus from CaF2 is utilised for enhanced growth of the plants. At the same time, the necessity for natural soil covering of the disposal site is reduced by 500 000 m3. Apart from the natural grass species, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., grass mixtures with high content of red fescue (Festuca rubra L. and false indigo bush (Amorpha fruticosa L. displayed the best growth on the

  11. Aploneura lentisci (Homoptera: Aphididae) and Its Interactions with Fungal Endophytes in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popay, Alison J.; Cox, Neil R.

    2016-01-01

    Aploneura lentisci Pass. is endemic to the Mediterranean region where it is holocyclic, forming galls on its primary host, Pistacia lentiscus and alternating over a 2-year period between Pistacia and secondary hosts, principally species of Gramineae. This aphid is widely distributed in Australia and New Zealand on the roots of the common forage grasses, ryegrass (Lolium spp.) and tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix) where it exists as permanent, anholocyclic, parthenogenetic populations. Previous studies have indicated that infestations of A. lentisci significantly reduce plant growth and may account for differences in field performance of Lolium perenne infected with different strains of the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae var. lolii. These obligate biotrophs protect their host grasses from herbivory via the production of alkaloids. To confirm the hypothesis that growth of L. perenne is associated with the effect of different endophyte strains on aphid populations, herbage and root growth were measured over time in two pot trials that compared three fungal endophyte strains with an endophyte-free control. In both pot trials, aphid numbers were lowest on plants infected with endophyte strain AR37 at all sampling times. In plants infected with a common toxic strain naturalized in New Zealand, aphid numbers overall were lower than on uninfected plants or those infected with strain AR1, but numbers did not always differ significantly from these treatments. Populations on AR1-infected plants were occasionally significantly higher than those on endophyte-free. Cumulative foliar growth was reduced in AR1 and Nil treatments relative to AR37 in association with population differences of A. lentisci in both trials and root dry weight was reduced in one trial. In four Petri dish experiments survival of A. lentisci on plants infected with AR37 declined to low levels after an initial phase of up to 19 days during which time aphids fed and populations were similar to those on

  12. Aploneura lentisci (Homoptera: Aphididae and its interactions with fungal endophytes in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Jean Popay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aploneura lentisci Pass. is endemic to the Mediterranean region where it is holocyclic, forming galls on its primary host, Pistacia lentiscus and alternating over a 2 year period between Pistacia and secondary hosts, principally species of Graminae. This aphid is widely distributed in Australia and New Zealand on the roots of the common forage grasses, ryegrass (Lolium spp. and tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix where it exists as permanent, anholocyclic, parthenogenetic populations. Previous studies have indicated that infestations of A. lentisci significantly reduce plant growth and may account for differences in field performance of Lolium perenne infected with different strains of the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae var lolii. These obligate biotrophs protect their host grasses from herbivory via the production of alkaloids. To confirm the hypothesis that growth of L. perenne is associated with the effect of different endophyte strains on aphid populations, herbage and root growth were measured over time in two pot trials that compared three fungal endophyte strains with an endophyte-free control. In both pot trials, aphid numbers were lowest on plants infected with endophyte strain AR37 at all sampling times. In plants infected with a common toxic strain naturalized in New Zealand, aphid numbers overall were lower than on uninfected plants or those infected with strain AR1, but numbers did not always differ significantly from these treatments. Populations on AR1-infected plants were occasionally significantly higher than those on endophyte-free. Cumulative foliar growth was reduced in AR1 and Nil treatments relative to AR37 in association with population differences of A. lentisci in both trials and root dry weight was reduced in one trial. In four Petri dish experiments survival of A. lentisci on plants infected with AR37 declined to low levels after an initial phase of up to 19 days during which time aphids fed and populations were

  13. The Key Point on Conservation and Managent of Tall fescue Turf-grass in Nanjing Region%南京地区高羊茅草坪草的养护管理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古长标; 郭成宝; 唐泉; 张宁宁; 张礼浩

    2000-01-01

    高羊茅草坪草的养护管理,是一项复杂的系统工程,通过精心养护,在南京地区可有效增强高羊茅草坪草的抗逆性,延长绿色期及其使用寿命;管理不力,则易出现“夏枯”现象,严重影响其观赏功能.

  14. Annual balances and extended seasonal modelling of carbon fluxes from a temperate fen cropped to festulolium and tall fescue under two-cut and three-cut harvesting regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka; Elsgaard, Lars; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2017-01-01

    as biomass proxies. The sensitivity of the models was also tested on partial datasets including only alternate measurement campaigns and on datasets only from the crop growing period. Use of Ft in GPP models effectively corrected GPP overestimation in cold periods, and this approach was used throughout....... Annual fluxes obtained with ER models including RVI or GPP parameters were similar, and also annual GPP and ER fluxes obtained with full and partial datasets were similar. Annual CO2 fluxes and biomass yield were not significantly different in the crop/management combinations although the individual...... collars (n = 12) showed some variations in GPP (−1818 to −2409 g CO2-C m−2), ER (1071 to 1738 g CO2-C m−2), net ecosystem exchange (NEE, −669 to −949 g CO2-C m−2) and biomass yield (556 to 1044 g CO2-C m−2). Net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB), as the sum of NEE and biomass carbon export, was only...

  15. 高羊茅和多年生黑麦草内生真菌的分子检测%Molecular Detection of Endophytic Fungi in Tall Fescue and Perennial Ryegrass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁玮莎; 易建平; 周而勋

    2006-01-01

    根据GenBank上报道的内生真菌Neotyphodium coenophialum和N.lolii的Nc25基因序列,设计了2对特异性引物FM1/R1和F3/R652,建立了一套适合于从高羊茅和多年生黑麦草种子中检测内生真菌N.coenophialum和N.lolii的常规PCR和巢式PCR方法.

  16. Effect of Foliar Application of Fe on Some Nutrient in Tall Fescue%叶面喷施铁制剂对高羊茅养分因子的影响(简报)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武小钢; 杨秀云; 赵姣

    2007-01-01

    铁是植物正常生理代谢所必需的微量营养元素之一,虽然在植物体内的含量甚微,但它作为多种酶的重要组成成份参与氧化还原反应,在植物生长发育中起着非常重要的作用;此外,铁的供应水平和绿色植物叶绿素含量之间常常有良好的相关性。

  17. Mechanisms of Photosynthetic Eco-physiology in Two Turf-type Tall Fescue Cultivars%两种草坪型高羊茅光合生理生态机理的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐胜; 李建龙; 宋星刚; 李夺; 李静

    2005-01-01

    在自然状态下利用Licor-6400便携式光合测定系统测定了两种草坪型高羊茅(凌志和交战Ⅱ)在南京夏季光合生理生态参数的日变化.结果表明,两者在各光合生理生态参数的日变化中存在明显的差异.凌志叶片净光合速率的日变化呈典型的双峰曲线,有明显的光合"午睡"现象.分析表明,这种光合"午睡"属于非气孔限制.与交战Ⅱ相比,凌志在午后表现出较高的净光合速率和水分利用效率以及较低的蒸腾速率,表明凌志比交战Ⅱ高羊茅更能适应炎热夏季.

  18. Effect of acute exposure to ergot alkaloids on short-chain fatty acid absorption and barrier function of isolated bovine ruminal epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids present in endophyte-infected tall fescue are the causative agents for fescue toxicosis in cattle. Ergot alkaloids have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption from the washed rumen of ste...

  19. Ergot Alkaloid Effects on Animal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fescue Toxicosis” continues to be a major problem in temperate climates, especially within the “Fescue Belt” of the Eastern half of the USA. This syndrome has been estimated to cost the USA cattle industry nearly one billion dollars annually. The equine and small ruminant industries also suffer sig...

  20. From the lab bench: Mixtures of grasses and legumes; a good or bad thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A column was written to discuss the advantages of complex mixtures of grasses and legumes. Historically, Kentucky pastures have been primarily composed of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue, but Kentucky bluegrass and other grasses are presently encroaching tall fescue pastures. These other gras...

  1. Ergot alkaloids decrease rumen epithelial blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if ergot alkaloids affect blood flow to the absorptive surface of the rumen of steers. Steers (n=8 total) were pair-fed alfalfa cubes at 1.5× NEM and received ground endophyte-infected tall fescue seed (E+) or endophyte-free tall fescue seed (E-) via rumen...

  2. Variation among black walnut seedling families in resistance to competition and allelopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Rink; J.W. Van Sambeek

    1985-01-01

    Of three environmental variables affecting black walnut seedling establishment, moisture stress overshadowed the effects of fescue leachate and fertilizer. Interactions between moisture stress and family and between fescue leachate and moisture stress for both seedling height and dry weight suggested that selection for tolerance to moisture stress is possible, whereas...

  3. Variation among four white ash families in response to competition and allelopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Rink; J.W. Van Sambeek

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of three environmental variables affecting seedling growth of four half-sib white ash families was dominated by a three-way interaction between soil moisture stress, fescue leachate, and family. Of these, soil moisture stress contributed by far the most to the interaction and resulted in an average growth decline of 62%. Although fescue leachate appeared to be...

  4. Influence of mycorhization and soil organic matters on lead and antimony transfers to vegetables cultivated in urban gardens: environmental and sanitary consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierart, Antoine; Braud, Armelle; Lebeau, Thierry; Séjalon-Delmas, Nathalie; Dumat, Camille

    2014-05-01

    . References: Feng, R., Wei, C., Tu, S., Ding, Y., Wang, R., Guo, J., 2013. The uptake and detoxification of antimony by plants: a review. Environ. Exp. Bot. 96, 28-34. Foucault, Y., Lévêque, T., Xiong, T., Schreck, E., Austruy, A., Shahid, M., Dumat, C., 2013. Green manure plants for remediation of soils polluted by metals and metalloids: Ecotoxicity and human bioavailability assessment. Chemosphere 93, 1430-1435. Gu, H.H., Li, F.P., Yu, Q., Gao, Y.Q., Yuan, X.T., 2013. The Roles of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus mosseae and Festuca arundinacea in Phytostabilization of Lead/Zinc Tailings. Adv. Mater. Res. 699, 245-250. Lebeau, T., Braud, A., Jézéquel, K., 2008. Performance of bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction applied to metal contaminated soils: A review. Environ. Pollut. 153, 497-522. Sharma, A., Sharma, H., 2013. Role of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza in the Mycoremediation of Heavy Toxic Metals From Soil. Int J LifeSc Bt Pharm Res 2, 2418-2431. Wu, F., Fu, Z., Liu, B., Mo, C., Chen, B., Corns, W., Liao, H., 2011. Health risk associated with dietary co-exposure to high levels of antimony and arsenic in the world's largest antimony mine area. Sci. Total Environ. 409, 3344-3351. Xiong, T., Austruy, A., Dappe, V., Leveque, T., Sobanska, S., Foucault, Y., Dumat, C., 2013. Phytotoxicity and bioaccessibility of metals for vegetables exposed to atmosphere fine particles in polluted urban areas". Urban Environmental Pollution, Asian Edition, 17-20, Beijing, China.

  5. Soil and Water Conservation Function of Composite Shrub Grasslands on the Hot Arid Valley in Yunnan Province%干热河谷区灌草草地的水土保持效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕玉芬; 车伟光; 许岳飞

    2009-01-01

    为了恢复干热河谷退化山区草地的生态环境.提高草地的水土保持能力,于2004~2007年在金沙江干热河谷区的云南省永胜县设置样点.在退化严重的草地上建植了7个组合模式的灌草复合型草地,以凋落物量、最大持水量、有效截流量、草地盖度、草地土壤崩解时间为指标.对建植3年的灌草草地的水保效果进行研究.结果表明."灌+草+藤"最适宜金沙江干热河谷区的植被重建.其中"木豆+非洲狗尾草+高羊茅+大翼豆"建植模式显著地提高草地植被盖度和凋落物重量.凋落物的持水能力与凋落物重量呈显著的正相关;土壤根量与土体崩塌时间呈显著的正相关.灌草草地植被盖度、凋落物量和根系重量的显著提高,有效地提高草地的持水量和有效截流量,推迟草地土壤崩解时间,增加了土体的稳定性,对防止水土流失和泥石流的形成具有重要作用.%In order to recover ecological environment and enhance soil and water conservation capacity of degraded mountainous grasslands in the hot arid va