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Sample records for fes science network

  1. FES Science Network Requirements - Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements Workshop Conducted March 13 and 14, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, Brian; Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In March 2008, ESnet and the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the FES Program Office. Most sites that conduct data-intensive activities (the Tokamaks at GA and MIT, the supercomputer centers at NERSC and ORNL) show a need for on the order of 10 Gbps of network bandwidth for FES-related work within 5 years. PPPL reported a need for 8 times that (80 Gbps) in that time frame. Estimates for the 5-10 year time period are up to 160 Mbps for large simulations. Bandwidth requirements for ITER range from 10 to 80 Gbps. In terms of science process and collaboration structure, it is clear that the proposed Fusion Simulation Project (FSP) has the potential to significantly impact the data movement patterns and therefore the network requirements for U.S. fusion science. As the FSP is defined over the next two years, these changes will become clearer. Also, there is a clear and present unmet need for better network connectivity between U.S. FES sites and two Asian fusion experiments--the EAST Tokamak in China and the KSTAR Tokamak in South Korea. In addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing the network requirements of the science endeavors funded by the FES Program Office, the workshop emphasized that there is a need for research into better ways of conducting remote

  2. FES Science Network Requirements - Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements Workshop Conducted March 13 and 14, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, Brian; Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2008-07-10

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In March 2008, ESnet and the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the FES Program Office. Most sites that conduct data-intensive activities (the Tokamaks at GA and MIT, the supercomputer centers at NERSC and ORNL) show a need for on the order of 10 Gbps of network bandwidth for FES-related work within 5 years. PPPL reported a need for 8 times that (80 Gbps) in that time frame. Estimates for the 5-10 year time period are up to 160 Mbps for large simulations. Bandwidth requirements for ITER range from 10 to 80 Gbps. In terms of science process and collaboration structure, it is clear that the proposed Fusion Simulation Project (FSP) has the potential to significantly impact the data movement patterns and therefore the network requirements for U.S. fusion science. As the FSP is defined over the next two years, these changes will become clearer. Also, there is a clear and present unmet need for better network connectivity between U.S. FES sites and two Asian fusion experiments--the EAST Tokamak in China and the KSTAR Tokamak in South Korea. In addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing the network requirements of the science endeavors funded by the FES Program Office, the workshop emphasized that there is a need for research into better ways of conducting remote

  3. Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In December 2011, ESnet and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), of the DOE Office of Science (SC), organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by FES. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  4. Human-FES cooperative control for wrist movement: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Gui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional electrical stimulation (FES sometimes applies to patients with partial paralysis, so human voluntary control and FES control both exist. Our study aims to build a cooperative controller to achieve human-FES cooperation. This cooperative controller is formed by a classical FES controller and an impedance controller. The FES controller consists of a back propagation (BP neural network-based feedforward controller and a PID-based feedback controller. The function of impedance controller is to convert volitional force/torque, which is estimated from a three-stage filter based on EMG, into additional angle. The additional angle can reduce the FES intensity in our cooperative controller, comparing to that in classical FES controller. Some assessment experiments are designed to test the performance of the cooperative controller.

  5. The end for FES?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koedijk, K.

    2009-01-01

    In 1993, the Dutch Economic Structure Enhancement Fund (FES) was implemented. One of its objectives was to use some of the returns from gas extraction for important national investments that strengthen the economic structure. Up till 2007 the fund financed investments to the amount of 22 bln euro. Keeping FES in its current shape will require some adjustments. A frequently mentioned alternative is to turn FES into a financial investment fund (Sovereign Wealth Fund of SWF), thus allowing the fund to serve future generation. [nl

  6. Molecular analysis of SmFes, a tyrosine kinase of Schistosoma mansoni orthologous to the members of the Fes/Fps/Fer family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludolf, Fernanda; Bahia, Diana; Andrade, Luiza F; Cousin, Alexandre; Capron, Monique; Dissous, Colette; Pierce, Raymond J; Oliveira, Guilherme

    2007-08-17

    A novel protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) was identified in Schistosoma mansoni and designated SmFes. SmFes exhibits the characteristic features of Fes/Fps/Fer (fes, feline sarcoma; fps, Fujinami poultry sarcoma; fer, fes related) PTKs, containing three coiled-coil regions, an SH2 (Src-homology-2) and a TK (tyrosine kinase catalytic) domain signature. SmFes is the first gene from the Fes/Fps/Fer family identified in S. mansoni, and is a single copy gene. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that SmFes is most closely related to its invertebrate orthologues. The assembly of the SmFes cDNA and genomic sequences indicated the presence of 18 introns in SmFes. Comparison of its genomic structure with those of human Fps/Fes and Drosophila Fps indicates that intron positions are conserved within the region encoding the kinase domain. Analysis of partial cDNA clones showed the presence of a 9 bp insertion at the 3' end of exon 10, producing two different cDNA populations, pointed as an alternative splicing event. In addition, an allele of SmFes containing a 15 bp insertion was observed in the genomic sequence. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that the overall transcription level of SmFes is rather low in all parasite developmental stages. Moreover, SmFes mRNA levels decrease progressively after cercarial transformation, consistent with a role for the corresponding protein in the early stages of infection.

  7. Fe-S Clusters Emerging as Targets of Therapeutic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Vernis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe-S centers exhibit strong electronic plasticity, which is of importance for insuring fine redox tuning of protein biological properties. In accordance, Fe-S clusters are also highly sensitive to oxidation and can be very easily altered in vivo by different drugs, either directly or indirectly due to catabolic by-products, such as nitric oxide species (NOS or reactive oxygen species (ROS. In case of metal ions, Fe-S cluster alteration might be the result of metal liganding to the coordinating sulfur atoms, as suggested for copper. Several drugs presented through this review are either capable of direct interaction with Fe-S clusters or of secondary Fe-S clusters alteration following ROS or NOS production. Reactions leading to Fe-S cluster disruption are also reported. Due to the recent interest and progress in Fe-S biology, it is very likely that an increasing number of drugs already used in clinics will emerge as molecules interfering with Fe-S centers in the near future. Targeting Fe-S centers could also become a promising strategy for drug development.

  8. Strategies for Rapid Muscle Fatigue Reduction during FES Exercise in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Abdul Wahab, Ahmad Khairi; Davis, Glen M

    2016-01-01

    Rapid muscle fatigue during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked muscle contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) is a significant limitation to attaining health benefits of FES-exercise. Delaying the onset of muscle fatigue is often cited as an important goal linked to FES clinical efficacy. Although the basic concept of fatigue-resistance has a long history, recent advances in biomedical engineering, physiotherapy and clinical exercise science have achieved improved clinical benefits, especially for reducing muscle fatigue during FES-exercise. This review evaluated the methodological quality of strategies underlying muscle fatigue-resistance that have been used to optimize FES therapeutic approaches. The review also sought to synthesize the effectiveness of these strategies for persons with SCI in order to establish their functional impacts and clinical relevance. Published scientific literature pertaining to the reduction of FES-induced muscle fatigue was identified through searches of the following databases: Science Direct, Medline, IEEE Xplore, SpringerLink, PubMed and Nature, from the earliest returned record until June 2015. Titles and abstracts were screened to obtain 35 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Following the evaluation of methodological quality (mean (SD), 50 (6) %) of the reviewed studies using the Downs and Black scale, the largest treatment effects reported to reduce muscle fatigue mainly investigated isometric contractions of limited functional and clinical relevance (n = 28). Some investigations (n = 13) lacked randomisation, while others were characterised by small sample sizes with low statistical power. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of emerging trends to improve fatigue-resistance during FES included (i) optimizing electrode positioning, (ii) fine-tuning of stimulation patterns and other FES parameters, (iii) adjustments to the mode and frequency of exercise training

  9. Strategies for Rapid Muscle Fatigue Reduction during FES Exercise in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morufu Olusola Ibitoye

    Full Text Available Rapid muscle fatigue during functional electrical stimulation (FES-evoked muscle contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI is a significant limitation to attaining health benefits of FES-exercise. Delaying the onset of muscle fatigue is often cited as an important goal linked to FES clinical efficacy. Although the basic concept of fatigue-resistance has a long history, recent advances in biomedical engineering, physiotherapy and clinical exercise science have achieved improved clinical benefits, especially for reducing muscle fatigue during FES-exercise. This review evaluated the methodological quality of strategies underlying muscle fatigue-resistance that have been used to optimize FES therapeutic approaches. The review also sought to synthesize the effectiveness of these strategies for persons with SCI in order to establish their functional impacts and clinical relevance.Published scientific literature pertaining to the reduction of FES-induced muscle fatigue was identified through searches of the following databases: Science Direct, Medline, IEEE Xplore, SpringerLink, PubMed and Nature, from the earliest returned record until June 2015. Titles and abstracts were screened to obtain 35 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review.Following the evaluation of methodological quality (mean (SD, 50 (6 % of the reviewed studies using the Downs and Black scale, the largest treatment effects reported to reduce muscle fatigue mainly investigated isometric contractions of limited functional and clinical relevance (n = 28. Some investigations (n = 13 lacked randomisation, while others were characterised by small sample sizes with low statistical power. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of emerging trends to improve fatigue-resistance during FES included (i optimizing electrode positioning, (ii fine-tuning of stimulation patterns and other FES parameters, (iii adjustments to the mode and frequency of exercise

  10. Strategies for Rapid Muscle Fatigue Reduction during FES Exercise in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Abdul Wahab, Ahmad Khairi; Davis, Glen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid muscle fatigue during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked muscle contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) is a significant limitation to attaining health benefits of FES-exercise. Delaying the onset of muscle fatigue is often cited as an important goal linked to FES clinical efficacy. Although the basic concept of fatigue-resistance has a long history, recent advances in biomedical engineering, physiotherapy and clinical exercise science have achieved improved clinical benefits, especially for reducing muscle fatigue during FES-exercise. This review evaluated the methodological quality of strategies underlying muscle fatigue-resistance that have been used to optimize FES therapeutic approaches. The review also sought to synthesize the effectiveness of these strategies for persons with SCI in order to establish their functional impacts and clinical relevance. Methods Published scientific literature pertaining to the reduction of FES-induced muscle fatigue was identified through searches of the following databases: Science Direct, Medline, IEEE Xplore, SpringerLink, PubMed and Nature, from the earliest returned record until June 2015. Titles and abstracts were screened to obtain 35 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Results Following the evaluation of methodological quality (mean (SD), 50 (6) %) of the reviewed studies using the Downs and Black scale, the largest treatment effects reported to reduce muscle fatigue mainly investigated isometric contractions of limited functional and clinical relevance (n = 28). Some investigations (n = 13) lacked randomisation, while others were characterised by small sample sizes with low statistical power. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of emerging trends to improve fatigue-resistance during FES included (i) optimizing electrode positioning, (ii) fine-tuning of stimulation patterns and other FES parameters, (iii) adjustments to the mode and

  11. An identity crisis for fps/fes: oncogene or tumor suppressor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangrar, Waheed; Zirgnibl, Ralph A; Gao, Yan; Muller, William J; Jia, Zongchao; Greer, Peter A

    2005-05-01

    Fps/Fes proteins were among the first members of the protein tyrosine kinase family to be characterized as dominant-acting oncoproteins. Addition of retroviral GAG sequences or other experimentally induced mutations activated the latent transforming potential of Fps/Fes. However, activating mutations in fps/fes had not been found in human tumors until recently, when mutational analysis of a panel of colorectal cancers identified four somatic mutations in sequences encoding the Fps/Fes kinase domain. Here, we report biochemical and theoretical structural analysis demonstrating that three of these mutations result in inactivation, not activation, of Fps/Fes, whereas the fourth mutation compromised in vivo activity. These results did not concur with a classic dominant-acting oncogenic role for fps/fes involving activating somatic mutations but instead raised the possibility that inactivating fps/fes mutations might promote tumor progression in vivo. Consistent with this, we observed that tumor onset in a mouse model of breast epithelial cancer occurred earlier in mice targeted with either null or kinase-inactivating fps/fes mutations. Furthermore, a fps/fes transgene restored normal tumor onset kinetics in targeted fps/fes null mice. These data suggest a novel and unexpected tumor suppressor role for Fps/Fes in epithelial cells.

  12. Generating Awareness on Disaster Management through the Science Festival

    OpenAIRE

    Irfana Begum

    2014-01-01

    Science festivals are the innovative method to introduce the scientific information for the children of various age groups. Every year Vigyan Prasar organize one national level live science festival in summer holidays through its EduSAT network and six virtual science festivals at various remote locations of the country. Through the science festival with the help of do yourself programme children can learn basic information about the science and technology. With the help of these science fes...

  13. Immobilization of aqueous Hg(II) by mackinawite (FeS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianrong; Valsaraj, Kalliat T.; Devai, Istvan; DeLaune, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    As one of the major constituents of acid volatile sulfide (AVS) in anoxic sediments, mackinawite (FeS) is known for its ability to scavenge trace metals. The interaction between aqueous Hg(II) (added as HgCl 2 ) and synthetic FeS was studied via batch sorption experiments conducted under anaerobic conditions. Due to the release of H + during formation of hydrolyzed Hg(II) species which is more reactive than Hg 2+ in surface adsorption, the equilibrium pH decreased with the increase in Hg(II)/FeS molar ratio. Counteracting the loss of FeS solids at lower pH, the maximum capacity for FeS to remove aqueous Hg(II) was approximately 0.75 mol Hg(II) (mol FeS) -1 . The comparison of X-ray power diffraction (XRPD) patterns of synthetic FeS sorbent before and after sorption showed that the major products formed from the interaction between FeS and the aqueous Hg(II) were metacinnabar, cinnabar, and mercury iron sulfides. With the addition of FeS at 0.4 g L -1 to a 1 mM Hg(II) solution with an initial pH of 5.6, Fe 2+ release was approximately 0.77 mol Fe 2+ per mol Hg(II) removed, suggesting that 77% of Hg(II) was removed via precipitation reaction under these conditions, with 23% of Hg(II) removed by adsorption. Aeration does not cause significant release of Hg(II) into the water phase

  14. Synthesis and electrical conductivity of nanocrystalline tetragonal FeS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Shu-Lin; Wang Hui-Xian; Dong Cheng

    2014-01-01

    A convenient method for synthesis of tetragonal FeS using iron powder as iron source, is reported. Nanocrystalline tetragonal FeS samples were successfully synthesized by reacting metallic iron powder with sodium sulfide in acetate buffer solution. The obtained sample is single-phase tetragonal FeS with lattice parameters a = 0.3767 nm and c = 0.5037 nm, as revealed by X-ray diffraction. The sample consists of flat nanosheets with lateral dimensions from 20 nm up to 200 nm and average thickness of about 20 nm. We found that tetragonal FeS is a fairly good conductor from the electrical resistivity measurement on a pellet of the nanosheets. The temperature dependence of conductivity of the pellet was well fitted using an empirical equation wherein the effect of different grain boundaries was taken into consideration. This study provides a convenient, economic way to synthesize tetragonal FeS in a large scale and reports the first electrical conductivity data for tetragonal FeS down to liquid helium temperature. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  15. Activated Fps/Fes tyrosine kinase regulates erythroid differentiation and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangrar, Waheed; Gao, Yan; Bates, Barbara; Zirngibl, Ralph; Greer, Peter A

    2004-10-01

    A substantial body of evidence implicates the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase Fps/Fes in regulation of myeloid differentiation and survival. In this study we wished to determine if Fps/Fes also plays a role in the regulation of erythropoiesis. Mice tissue-specifically expressing a "gain-of-function" mutant fps/fes transgene (fps(MF)) encoding an activated variant of Fps/Fes (MFps), were used to explore the in vivo biological role of Fps/Fes. Erythropoiesis in these mice was assessed by hematological analysis, lineage marker analysis, bone-marrow colony assays, and biochemical approaches. fps(MF) mice displayed reductions in peripheral red cell counts. However, there was an accumulation of immature erythroid precursors, which displayed increased survival. Fps/Fes and the related Fer kinase were both detected in early erythroid progenitors/blasts and in mature red cells. Fps/Fes was also activated in response to erythropoietin (EPO) and stem cell factor (SCF), two critical factors in erythroid development. In addition, increased Stat5A/B activation and reduced Erk1/2 phosphorylation was observed in fps(MF) primary erythroid cells in response to EPO or SCF, respectively. These data support a role for Fps/Fes in regulating the survival and differentiation of erythroid cells through modulation of Stat5A/B and Erk kinase pathways induced by EPO and SCF. The increased numbers and survival of erythroid progenitors from fps(MF) mice, and their differential responsiveness to SCF and EPO, implicates Fps/Fes in the commitment of multilineage progenitors to the erythroid lineage. The anemic phenotype in fps(MF) mice suggests that downregulation of Fps/Fes activity might be required for terminal erythroid differentiation.

  16. A gait stability investigation into FES-assisted paraplegic walking based on the walker tipping index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Dong; Bai, Yanru; Liu, Xiuyun; Qi, Hongzhi; Cheng, Longlong; Wan, Baikun; Hu, Yong; Wong, Yatwa; Luk, Keith D K; Leong, John C Y

    2009-12-01

    The gait outcome measures used in clinical trials of paraplegic locomotor training determine the effectiveness of improved walking function assisted by the functional electrical stimulation (FES) system. Focused on kinematic, kinetic or physiological changes of paraplegic patients, traditional methods cannot quantify the walking stability or identify the unstable factors of gait in real time. Up until now, the published studies on dynamic gait stability for the effective use of FES have been limited. In this paper, the walker tipping index (WTI) was used to analyze and process gait stability in FES-assisted paraplegic walking. The main instrument was a specialized walker dynamometer system based on a multi-channel strain-gauge bridge network fixed on the frame of the walker. This system collected force information for the handle reaction vector between the patient's upper extremities and the walker during the walking process; the information was then converted into walker tipping index data, which is an evaluation indicator of the patient's walking stability. To demonstrate the potential usefulness of WTI in gait analysis, a preliminary clinical trial was conducted with seven paraplegic patients who were undergoing FES-assisted walking training and seven normal control subjects. The gait stability levels were quantified for these patients under different stimulation patterns and controls under normal walking with knee-immobilization through WTI analysis. The results showed that the walking stability in the FES-assisted paraplegic group was worse than that in the control subject group, with the primary concern being in the anterior-posterior plane. This new technique is practical for distinguishing useful gait information from the viewpoint of stability, and may be further applied in FES-assisted paraplegic walking rehabilitation.

  17. A gait stability investigation into FES-assisted paraplegic walking based on the walker tipping index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Dong; Bai, Yanru; Liu, Xiuyun; Qi, Hongzhi; Cheng, Longlong; Wan, Baikun; Hu, Yong; Wong, Yatwa; Luk, Keith D. K.; Leong, John C. Y.

    2009-12-01

    The gait outcome measures used in clinical trials of paraplegic locomotor training determine the effectiveness of improved walking function assisted by the functional electrical stimulation (FES) system. Focused on kinematic, kinetic or physiological changes of paraplegic patients, traditional methods cannot quantify the walking stability or identify the unstable factors of gait in real time. Up until now, the published studies on dynamic gait stability for the effective use of FES have been limited. In this paper, the walker tipping index (WTI) was used to analyze and process gait stability in FES-assisted paraplegic walking. The main instrument was a specialized walker dynamometer system based on a multi-channel strain-gauge bridge network fixed on the frame of the walker. This system collected force information for the handle reaction vector between the patient's upper extremities and the walker during the walking process; the information was then converted into walker tipping index data, which is an evaluation indicator of the patient's walking stability. To demonstrate the potential usefulness of WTI in gait analysis, a preliminary clinical trial was conducted with seven paraplegic patients who were undergoing FES-assisted walking training and seven normal control subjects. The gait stability levels were quantified for these patients under different stimulation patterns and controls under normal walking with knee-immobilization through WTI analysis. The results showed that the walking stability in the FES-assisted paraplegic group was worse than that in the control subject group, with the primary concern being in the anterior-posterior plane. This new technique is practical for distinguishing useful gait information from the viewpoint of stability, and may be further applied in FES-assisted paraplegic walking rehabilitation.

  18. FES in Europe and beyond: Current Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Azevedo Coste

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Capacity of adult neural and muscle tissues to respond to external Electrical Stimulation (ES is the biological basis for the development and implementation of mobility impairment physiotherapy protocols and of related assistive technologies, e.g, Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES. All body tissues, however, respond to electrical stimulation and, indeed, the most successful application of FES is electrical stimulation of the heart to revert or limit effects of arrhythmias (Pace-makers and Defibrillators. Here, we list and discuss results of FES current research activities, in particular those presented at 2016 Meetings: the PaduaMuscleDays, the Italian Institute of Myology Meeting, the 20th International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society (IFESS conference held in Montpellier and the Vienna Workshop on FES. Several papers were recently e-published in the European Journal of Translational Myology as reports of meeting presentations. All the events and publications clearly show that FES research in Europe and beyond is alive and promisses translation of results into clinical management of a very large population of persons with deficiencies.

  19. Fe-S Cluster Biogenesis in Isolated Mammalian Mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Alok; Pain, Jayashree; Ghosh, Arnab K.; Dancis, Andrew; Pain, Debkumar

    2015-01-01

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are essential cofactors, and mitochondria contain several Fe-S proteins, including the [4Fe-4S] protein aconitase and the [2Fe-2S] protein ferredoxin. Fe-S cluster assembly of these proteins occurs within mitochondria. Although considerable data exist for yeast mitochondria, this biosynthetic process has never been directly demonstrated in mammalian mitochondria. Using [35S]cysteine as the source of sulfur, here we show that mitochondria isolated from Cath.A-derived cells, a murine neuronal cell line, can synthesize and insert new Fe-35S clusters into aconitase and ferredoxins. The process requires GTP, NADH, ATP, and iron, and hydrolysis of both GTP and ATP is necessary. Importantly, we have identified the 35S-labeled persulfide on the NFS1 cysteine desulfurase as a genuine intermediate en route to Fe-S cluster synthesis. In physiological settings, the persulfide sulfur is released from NFS1 and transferred to a scaffold protein, where it combines with iron to form an Fe-S cluster intermediate. We found that the release of persulfide sulfur from NFS1 requires iron, showing that the use of iron and sulfur for the synthesis of Fe-S cluster intermediates is a highly coordinated process. The release of persulfide sulfur also requires GTP and NADH, probably mediated by a GTPase and a reductase, respectively. ATP, a cofactor for a multifunctional Hsp70 chaperone, is not required at this step. The experimental system described here may help to define the biochemical basis of diseases that are associated with impaired Fe-S cluster biogenesis in mitochondria, such as Friedreich ataxia. PMID:25398879

  20. Anti-friction performance of FeS nanoparticle synthesized by biological method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lu Hai, E-mail: lhzhou@t.shu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Wei, Xi Cheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Ma, Zi Jian [Pipe and Bar Division of Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200941 (China); Mei, Bin [Shanghai Medical Instrumentation College, Shanghai 200093 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • FeS nanoparticles were successfully prepared by a biological method. • The anti-friction performance of prepared nanoparticle under oil lubricating and dry condition were analyzed. • The anti-friction mechanism of FeS nanoparticle was discussed. - Abstract: FeS nanoparticle is prepared by a biological method. The size, morphology and structure of the FeS nanoparticle are characterized by the means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The anti-friction behavior of the FeS nanoparticle as a lubricating oil additive is evaluated in the engine oil by using a face-to-face contact mode. The worn surface is characterized by using the scanning electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy in order to find the reasons resulting in the reduction of friction coefficient due to the addition of the FeS nanoparticle. The anti-friction mechanism of the FeS nanoparticle is elucidated based on the experimental results.

  1. The fps/fes proto-oncogene regulates hematopoietic lineage output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangrar, Waheed; Gao, Yan; Zirngibl, Ralph A; Scott, Michelle L; Greer, Peter A

    2003-12-01

    The fps/fes proto-oncogene is abundantly expressed in myeloid cells, and the Fps/Fes cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase is implicated in signaling downstream from hematopoietic cytokines, including interleukin-3 (IL-3), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and erythropoietin (EPO). Studies using leukemic cell lines have previously suggested that Fps/Fes contributes to granulomonocytic differentiation, and that it might play a more selective role in promoting survival and differentiation along the monocytic pathway. In this study we have used a genetic approach to explore the role of Fps/Fes in hematopoiesis. We used transgenic mice that tissue-specifically express a mutant human fps/fes transgene (fps(MF)) that was engineered to encode Fps/Fes kinase that is activated through N-terminal myristoylation (MFps). Hematopoietic function was assessed using lineage analysis, hematopoietic progenitor cell colony-forming assays, and biochemical approaches. fps(MF) transgenic mice displayed a skewed hematopoietic output reflected by increased numbers of circulating granulocytic and monocytic cells and a corresponding decrease in lymphoid cells. Bone marrow colony assays of progenitor cells revealed a significant increase in the number of both granulomonocytic and multi-lineage progenitors. A molecular analysis of signaling in mature monocytic cells showed that MFps promoted GM-CSF-induced STAT3, STAT5, and ERK1/2 activation. These observations support a role for Fps/Fes in signaling pathways that contribute to lineage determination at the level of multi-lineage hematopoietic progenitors as well as the more committed granulomonocytic progenitors.

  2. Network science

    CERN Document Server

    Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network sci...

  3. Automated synthesis of the estrogen receptors imaging agent 18F-FES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Shen; Chen Guobao; Dai Hongfeng; Lin Meifu; Chen Wenxin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: 18 F-16α-17β-fluoroestradiol ( 18 F-FES), an estrogen receptors imaging agent, is synthesized with Tracerlab FX FN system. Methods: 18 F-FES is obtained by two steps reactions, including the nucleophilic displacement reaction of no-carrier-added 18 F-fluoride with 3-O-methoxymethyl-16, 17-O-sulfuryl-16-epiesteriol, then the intermediate is evaporated and hydrolyzed with HCI and finally gives 18 F-FES. Results: The synthesis of 18 F-FES can be completed in about 80 min.The radiochemical yield and radio-chemical purity are about 10% and 95% respectively. Conclusion: The procedure of synthesis is simple and automatical. 18 F-FES has an extremely low toxicity, which suggests that 18 F-FES may be a safe, a nd effective estrogen receptors imaging agent. (authors)

  4. BCI-FES system for neuro-rehabilitation of stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jure, Fabricio A.; Carrere, Lucía C.; Gentiletti, Gerardo G.; Tabernig, Carolina B.

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, strokes are a growing cause of mortality and many people remain with motor sequelae and troubles in the daily activities. To treat this sequelae, alternative rehabilitation techniques are needed. In this article a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) system to control a Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) system is presented. It can be used as a novel tool in easy setup clinical routines, to improve the rehabilitation process by mean of detecting patient´s motor intention, performing it by FES and finally receiving appropriate feedback The BCI-FES system presented here, consists of three blocks: the first one decodes the patient´s intention and it is composed by the patient, the acquisition hardware and the processing software (Emotiv EPOC®). The second block, based on Arduino’s technology, transforms the information into a valid command signal. The last one excites the patient´s neuromuscular system by means of a FES device. In order to evaluate the cerebral activity sensed by the device, topographic maps were obtained. The BCI-FES system was able to detect the patient´s motor intention and control the FES device. At the time of this publication, the system it’s being employing in a rehabilitation program with patients post stroke.

  5. Subcellular localization analysis of the closely related Fps/Fes and Fer protein-tyrosine kinases suggests a distinct role for Fps/Fes in vesicular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirngibl, R; Schulze, D; Mirski, S E; Cole, S P; Greer, P A

    2001-05-15

    The subcellular localizations of the Fps/Fes and closely related Fer cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases were studied using green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions and confocal fluorescence microscopy. In contrast to previous reports, neither kinase localized to the nucleus. Fer was diffusely cytoplasmic throughout the cell cycle. Fps/Fes also displayed a diffuse cytoplasmic localization, but in addition it showed distinct accumulations in cytoplasmic vesicles as well as in a perinuclear region consistent with the Golgi. This localization was very similar to that of TGN38, a known marker of the trans Golgi. The localization of Fps/Fes and TGN38 were both perturbed by brefeldin A, a fungal metabolite that disrupts the Golgi apparatus. Fps/Fes was also found to colocalize to various extents with several Rab proteins, which are members of the monomeric G-protein superfamily involved in vesicular transport between specific subcellular compartments. Using Rabs that are involved in endocytosis (Rab5B and Rab7) or exocytosis (Rab1A and Rab3A), we showed that Fps/Fes is localized in both pathways. These results suggest that Fps/Fes may play a general role in the regulation of vesicular trafficking. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  6. A missed Fe-S cluster handoff causes a metabolic shakeup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteau, Olivier

    2018-05-25

    The general framework of pathways by which iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are assembled in cells is well-known, but the cellular consequences of disruptions to that framework are not fully understood. Crooks et al. report a novel cellular system that creates an acute Fe-S cluster deficiency, using mutants of ISCU, the main scaffold protein for Fe-S cluster assembly. Surprisingly, the resultant metabolic reprogramming leads to the accumulation of lipid droplets, a situation encountered in many poorly understood pathological conditions, highlighting unanticipated links between Fe-S assembly machinery and human disease. © 2018 Berteau.

  7. fps/fes knockout mice display a lactation defect and the fps/fes tyrosine kinase is a component of E-cadherin-based adherens junctions in breast epithelial cells during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, Peter F; Zirngibl, Ralph A; Francis, Sarah; Sangrar, Waheed; Greer, Peter A

    2009-10-15

    The fps/fes proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase implicated in vesicular trafficking and cytokine and growth factor signaling in hematopoietic, neuronal, vascular endothelial and epithelial lineages. Genetic evidence has suggested a tumor suppressor role for Fps/Fes in breast and colon. Here we used fps/fes knockout mice to investigate potential roles for this kinase in development and function of the mammary gland. Fps/Fes expression was induced during pregnancy and lactation, and its kinase activity was dramatically enhanced. Milk protein and fat composition from nursing fps/fes-null mothers was normal; however, pups reared by them gained weight more slowly than pups reared by wild-type mothers. Fps/Fes displayed a predominantly dispersed punctate intracellular distribution which was consistent with vesicles within the luminal epithelial cells of lactating breast, while a small fraction co-localized with beta-catenin and E-cadherin on their basolateral surfaces. Fps/Fes was found to be a component of the E-cadherin adherens junction (AJ) complex; however, the phosphotyrosine status of beta-catenin and core AJ components in fps/fes-null breast tissue was unaltered, and epithelial cell AJs and gland morphology were intact. We conclude that Fps/Fes is not essential for the maintenance of epithelial cell AJs in the lactating breast but may instead play important roles in vesicular trafficking and milk secretion.

  8. Monothiol glutaredoxin Grx5 interacts with Fe-S scaffold proteins Isa1 and Isa2 and supports Fe-S assembly and DNA integrity in mitochondria of fission yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Dong; Chung, Woo-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Chang; Roe, Jung-Hye

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial monothiol glutaredoxins that bind Fe-S cluster are known to participate in Fe-S cluster assembly. However, their precise role has not been well understood. Among three monothiol glutaredoxins (Grx3, 4, and 5) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe only Grx5 resides in mitochondria. The Δgrx5 mutant requires cysteine on minimal media, and does not grow on non-fermentable carbon source such as glycerol. We found that the mutant is low in the activity of Fe-S enzymes in mitochondria as well as in the cytoplasm. Screening of multi-copy suppressor of growth defects of the mutant identified isa1 + gene encoding a putative A-type Fe-S scaffold, in addition to mas5 + and hsc1 + genes encoding putative chaperones for Fe-S assembly process. Examination of other scaffold and chaperone genes revealed that isa2 + , but not isu1 + and ssc1 + , complemented the growth phenotype of Δgrx5 mutant as isa1 + did, partly through restoration of Fe-S enzyme activities. The mutant also showed a significant decrease in the amount of mitochondrial DNA. We demonstrated that Grx5 interacts in vivo with Isa1 and Isa2 proteins in mitochondria by observing bimolecular fluorescence complementation. These results indicate that Grx5 plays a central role in Fe-S assembly process through interaction with A-type Fe-S scaffold proteins Isa1 and Isa2, each of which is an essential protein in S. pombe, and supports mitochondrial genome integrity as well as Fe-S assembly.

  9. Can FES-rowing mediate bone mineral density in SCI: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, R S; McCarthy, I D; Gall, A; Stock, C G; Shippen, J; Andrews, B J

    2014-11-01

    A single case study. To compare proximal tibia trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) of a participant with complete spinal cord injury (SCI), long-termed functional electrical stimulation-rowing (FES-R) trained, with previously reported SCI and non-SCI group norms. To estimate lower limb joint contact forces (JCFs) in the FES-R trained participant. UK University and orthopaedic hospital research centre. Bilateral proximal tibial trabecular BMD of the FES-R trained participant was measured using peripheral quantitative computerised tomography, and the data were compared with SCI and non-SCI groups. An instrumented four-channel FES-R system was used to measure the lower limb JCFs in the FES-R trained participant. Structurally, proximal tibial trabecular BMD was higher in the FES-R trained participant compared with the SCI group, but was less than the non-SCI group. Furthermore, left (184.7 mg cm(-3)) and right (160.7 mg cm(-3)) BMD were well above the threshold associated with non-traumatic fracture. The knee JCFs were above the threshold known to mediate BMD in SCI, but below threshold at the hip and ankle. As pathological fractures predominate in the distal femur and proximal tibia in chronic SCI patients, the fact that the FES-R trained participant's knee JCFs were above those known to partially prevent bone loss, suggests that FES-R training may provide therapeutic benefit. Although the elevated bilateral proximal tibial BMD of the FES-R participant provides circumstantial evidence of osteogenesis, this single case precludes any statement on the clinical significance. Further investigations are required involving larger numbers and additional channels of FES to increase loading at the hip and ankle.

  10. Charge density study of two FeS2 polymorphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmøkel, Mette Stokkebro; Jørgensen, Mads Ry Vogel; Bjerg, Lasse

    Experimental charge density studies of inorganic solids have proven to be a difficult task due to systematic errors related to data collection such as absorption and extinction; however, the use of synchrotron radiation has the potential to minimize these problems. [1] One of the pioneering...... experimental electron density studies of an inorganic solid containing a transition metal was presented by Stevens et al. [2] who investigated the effect of crystal-field splitting of the partially filled iron d-orbitals in the pyrite structure of FeS2. Other studies of various FeS2 structures, including...... pyrite, has been performed by Gibbs et al. [3], however, these are all based on theoretical calculations rather than experiment. In the current study we revisit FeS2 through an experimental charge density study of the two low-spin iron FeS2 structures, pyrite and marcasite. High-quality, low...

  11. Comparison of FeS, FeS + S and solid superacid catalytic properties for coal hydro-liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhicai Wang; Hengfu Shui; Dexiang Zhang; Jinsheng Gao [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). College of Resource and Environment Engineering

    2007-03-15

    Catalyst plays an important role in direct coal liquefaction. This paper focuses on the catalytic behavior of a novel SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/ZrO{sub 2} superacid catalyst in coal hydro-liquefaction. A series of hydro-liquefaction experiments were conducted under mild conditions - 400{sup o}C, 30 min and H{sub 2} initial pressure 4 MPa in a batch autoclave with a volume of 100 ml. The catalytic property of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/ZrO{sub 2} was compared with FeS and FeS + S by Shenhua coal. The liquefaction products catalyzed by different catalysts were analyzed by FTIR spectrum, {sup 1}H NMR spectrum and element analysis. In addition, the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/ZrO{sub 2} solid superacid was characterized. The results indicated that the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/ZrO{sub 2} solid superacid shows outstanding catalytic property for direct liquefaction of coal and gives the highest coal conversion and gas + oil yield compared to other two catalysts. The THF conversion and the extraction yield of CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent of liquefied coal catalyzed with SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/ZrO{sub 2} are 76.3%, daf and 81.2%, daf respectively, and the yield of gas + oil is 62.5%, daf under the condition used in this study. The pyrolysis of coal macromolecular clusters can be promoted by catalysts such as FeS, FeS + S and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/ZrO{sub 2}. There may be only the pyrolysis of volatile matter and the relaxation of the structure of coal macromolecular clusters in non-catalytic liquefaction at 400{sup o}C. Added sulfur in FeS can improve the catalytic activity of hydrogenation. SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/ZrO{sub 2} is a notable catalyst in the study of coal direct liquefaction because it shows excellent catalytic activities for the pyrolysis and the hydrogenation. In addition, it has been found that the C-O bond is the most stable group in coal liquefaction reaction except for the covalent bond between carbon and carbon. 34 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Effect of mitochondrial complex I inhibition on Fe-S cluster protein activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mena, Natalia P. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Santiago (Chile); Millennium Institute of Cell Dynamics and Biotechnology, Santiago (Chile); Bulteau, Anne Laure [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMRS 975 - UMR 7725, Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences, ICM, Therapeutique Experimentale de la Neurodegenerescence, Hopital de la Salpetriere, F-75005 Paris (France); Inserm, U 975, Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences, ICM, Therapeutique Experimentale de la Neurodegenerescence, Hopital de la Salpetriere, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7225, Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences, ICM, Therapeutique Experimentale de la Neurodegenerescence, Hopital de la Salpetriere, F-75005 Paris (France); ICM, Therapeutique Experimentale de la Neurodegenerescence, Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris 75013 (France); Salazar, Julio [Millennium Institute of Cell Dynamics and Biotechnology, Santiago (Chile); Hirsch, Etienne C. [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMRS 975 - UMR 7725, Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences, ICM, Therapeutique Experimentale de la Neurodegenerescence, Hopital de la Salpetriere, F-75005 Paris (France); Inserm, U 975, Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences, ICM, Therapeutique Experimentale de la Neurodegenerescence, Hopital de la Salpetriere, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7225, Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences, ICM, Therapeutique Experimentale de la Neurodegenerescence, Hopital de la Salpetriere, F-75005 Paris (France); ICM, Therapeutique Experimentale de la Neurodegenerescence, Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris 75013 (France); Nunez, Marco T., E-mail: mnunez@uchile.cl [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Santiago (Chile); Millennium Institute of Cell Dynamics and Biotechnology, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} Mitochondrial complex I inhibition resulted in decreased activity of Fe-S containing enzymes mitochondrial aconitase and cytoplasmic aconitase and xanthine oxidase. {yields} Complex I inhibition resulted in the loss of Fe-S clusters in cytoplasmic aconitase and of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase. {yields} Consistent with loss of cytoplasmic aconitase activity, an increase in iron regulatory protein 1 activity was found. {yields} Complex I inhibition resulted in an increase in the labile cytoplasmic iron pool. -- Abstract: Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are small inorganic cofactors formed by tetrahedral coordination of iron atoms with sulfur groups. Present in numerous proteins, these clusters are involved in key biological processes such as electron transfer, metabolic and regulatory processes, DNA synthesis and repair and protein structure stabilization. Fe-S clusters are synthesized mainly in the mitochondrion, where they are directly incorporated into mitochondrial Fe-S cluster-containing proteins or exported for cytoplasmic and nuclear cluster-protein assembly. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of mitochondrial complex I by rotenone decreases Fe-S cluster synthesis and cluster content and activity of Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes. Inhibition of complex I resulted in decreased activity of three Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes: mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitases and xanthine oxidase. In addition, the Fe-S cluster content of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase and mitochondrial aconitase was dramatically decreased. The reduction in cytosolic aconitase activity was associated with an increase in iron regulatory protein (IRP) mRNA binding activity and with an increase in the cytoplasmic labile iron pool. Since IRP activity post-transcriptionally regulates the expression of iron import proteins, Fe-S cluster inhibition may result in a false iron deficiency signal. Given that

  13. Effect of mitochondrial complex I inhibition on Fe-S cluster protein activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mena, Natalia P.; Bulteau, Anne Laure; Salazar, Julio; Hirsch, Etienne C.; Nunez, Marco T.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Mitochondrial complex I inhibition resulted in decreased activity of Fe-S containing enzymes mitochondrial aconitase and cytoplasmic aconitase and xanthine oxidase. → Complex I inhibition resulted in the loss of Fe-S clusters in cytoplasmic aconitase and of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase. → Consistent with loss of cytoplasmic aconitase activity, an increase in iron regulatory protein 1 activity was found. → Complex I inhibition resulted in an increase in the labile cytoplasmic iron pool. -- Abstract: Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are small inorganic cofactors formed by tetrahedral coordination of iron atoms with sulfur groups. Present in numerous proteins, these clusters are involved in key biological processes such as electron transfer, metabolic and regulatory processes, DNA synthesis and repair and protein structure stabilization. Fe-S clusters are synthesized mainly in the mitochondrion, where they are directly incorporated into mitochondrial Fe-S cluster-containing proteins or exported for cytoplasmic and nuclear cluster-protein assembly. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of mitochondrial complex I by rotenone decreases Fe-S cluster synthesis and cluster content and activity of Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes. Inhibition of complex I resulted in decreased activity of three Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes: mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitases and xanthine oxidase. In addition, the Fe-S cluster content of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase and mitochondrial aconitase was dramatically decreased. The reduction in cytosolic aconitase activity was associated with an increase in iron regulatory protein (IRP) mRNA binding activity and with an increase in the cytoplasmic labile iron pool. Since IRP activity post-transcriptionally regulates the expression of iron import proteins, Fe-S cluster inhibition may result in a false iron deficiency signal. Given that inhibition of complex

  14. The Fps/Fes kinase regulates leucocyte recruitment and extravasation during inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sean A; Mewburn, Jeffrey D; Truesdell, Peter; Greer, Peter A

    2007-12-01

    Fps/Fes and Fer comprise a distinct subfamily of cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinases, and have both been implicated in the regulation of innate immunity. Previous studies showed that Fps/Fes-knockout mice were hypersensitive to systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, and Fer-deficient mice displayed enhanced recruitment of leucocytes in response to localized LPS challenge. We show here for the first time, a role for Fps in the regulation of leucocyte recruitment to areas of inflammation. Using the cremaster muscle intravital microscopy model, we observed increased leucocyte adherence to venules, and increased rates and degrees of transendothelial migration in Fps/Fes-knockout mice relative to wild-type animals subsequent to localized LPS challenge. There was also a decreased vessel wall shear rate in the post-capillary venules of LPS-challenged Fps/Fes-knockout mice, and an increase in neutrophil migration into the peritoneal cavity subsequent to thioglycollate challenge. Using flow cytometry to quantify the expression of surface molecules, we observed prolonged expression of the selectin ligand PSGL-1 on peripheral blood neutrophils from Fps/Fes-knockout mice stimulated ex vivo with LPS. These observations provide important insights into the observed in vivo behaviour of leucocytes in LPS-challenged Fps/Fes-knockout mice and provide evidence that the Fps/Fes kinase plays an important role in the innate immune response.

  15. sEMG Signal Acquisition Strategy towards Hand FES Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya Lourdes Toledo-Peral

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to damage of the nervous system, patients experience impediments in their daily life: severe fatigue, tremor or impaired hand dexterity, hemiparesis, or hemiplegia. Surface electromyography (sEMG signal analysis is used to identify motion; however, standardization of electrode placement and classification of sEMG patterns are major challenges. This paper describes a technique used to acquire sEMG signals for five hand motion patterns from six able-bodied subjects using an array of recording and stimulation electrodes placed on the forearm and its effects over functional electrical stimulation (FES and volitional sEMG combinations, in order to eventually control a sEMG-driven FES neuroprosthesis for upper limb rehabilitation. A two-part protocol was performed. First, personalized templates to place eight sEMG bipolar channels were designed; with these data, a universal template, called forearm electrode set (FELT, was built. Second, volitional and evoked movements were recorded during FES application. 95% classification accuracy was achieved using two sessions per movement. With the FELT, it was possible to perform FES and sEMG recordings simultaneously. Also, it was possible to extract the volitional and evoked sEMG from the raw signal, which is highly important for closed-loop FES control.

  16. Separating VNF and Network Control for Hardware‐Acceleration of SDN/NFV Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Duan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A hardware‐acceleration architecture that separates virtual network functions (VNFs and network control (called HSN is proposed to solve the mismatch between the simple flow steering requirements and strong packet processing abilities of software‐defined networking (SDN forwarding elements (FEs in SDN/network function virtualization (NFV architecture, while improving the efficiency of NFV infrastructure and the performance of network‐intensive functions. HSN makes full use of FEs and accelerates VNFs through two mechanisms: (1 separation of traffic steering and packet processing in the FEs; (2 separation of SDN and NFV control in the FEs. Our HSN prototype, built on NetFPGA‐10G, demonstrates that the processing performance can be greatly improved with only a small modification of the traditional SDN/NFV architecture.

  17. BES Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biocca, Alan; Carlson, Rich; Chen, Jackie; Cotter, Steve; Tierney, Brian; Dattoria, Vince; Davenport, Jim; Gaenko, Alexander; Kent, Paul; Lamm, Monica; Miller, Stephen; Mundy, Chris; Ndousse, Thomas; Pederson, Mark; Perazzo, Amedeo; Popescu, Razvan; Rouson, Damian; Sekine, Yukiko; Sumpter, Bobby; Dart, Eli; Wang, Cai-Zhuang -Z; Whitelam, Steve; Zurawski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  18. BES Science Network Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian; Biocca, A.; Carlson, R.; Chen, J.; Cotter, S.; Dattoria, V.; Davenport, J.; Gaenko, A.; Kent, P.; Lamm, M.; Miller, S.; Mundy, C.; Ndousse, T.; Pederson, M.; Perazzo, A.; Popescu, R.; Rouson, D.; Sekine, Y.; Sumpter, B.; Wang, C.-Z.; Whitelam, S.; Zurawski, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  19. Characterization of Glutaredoxin Fe-S Cluster-Binding Interactions Using Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albetel, Angela-Nadia; Outten, Caryn E

    2018-01-01

    Monothiol glutaredoxins (Grxs) with a conserved Cys-Gly-Phe-Ser (CGFS) active site are iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster-binding proteins that interact with a variety of partner proteins and perform crucial roles in iron metabolism including Fe-S cluster transfer, Fe-S cluster repair, and iron signaling. Various analytical and spectroscopic methods are currently being used to monitor and characterize glutaredoxin Fe-S cluster-dependent interactions at the molecular level. The electronic, magnetic, and vibrational properties of the protein-bound Fe-S cluster provide a convenient handle to probe the structure, function, and coordination chemistry of Grx complexes. However, some limitations arise from sample preparation requirements, complexity of individual techniques, or the necessity for combining multiple methods in order to achieve a complete investigation. In this chapter, we focus on the use of UV-visible circular dichroism spectroscopy as a fast and simple initial approach for investigating glutaredoxin Fe-S cluster-dependent interactions. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic studies on the catalytic region of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Fes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnemmi, Ilaria; Scotti, Claudia; Cappelletti, Donata; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Condorelli, Fabrizio; Rosano, Camillo

    2006-01-01

    The catalytic domain of human Fes tyrosine kinase has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The proto-oncogene tyrosine protein kinase c-fps/fes encodes a structurally unique protein (Fes) of the nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) family. Its expression has been demonstrated in myeloid haematopoietic cells, vascular endothelial cells and in neurons. In human-derived and murine-derived cell lines, the activated form of this kinase can induce cellular transformation; moreover, it has been shown that Fes is involved in the regulation of cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions mediated by adherens junctions and focal adhesions. The N-terminus of Fes contains the FCH (Fps/Fes/Fer/CIP4 homology) domain, which is unique to the Fes/Fer kinase family. It is followed by three coiled-coil domains and an SH2 (Src-homology 2) domain. The catalytic region (Fes-CR) is located at the C-terminus of the protein. The successful expression, purification and crystallization of the catalytic part of Fes (Fes-CR) are described

  1. Network science, nonlinear science and infrastructure systems

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Network Science, Nonlinear Science and Infrastructure Systems has been written by leading scholars in these areas. Its express purpose is to develop common theoretical underpinnings to better solve modern infrastructural problems. It is felt by many who work in these fields that many modern communication problems, ranging from transportation networks to telecommunications, Internet, supply chains, etc., are fundamentally infrastructure problems. Moreover, these infrastructure problems would benefit greatly from a confluence of theoretical and methodological work done with the areas of Network Science, Dynamical Systems and Nonlinear Science. This book is dedicated to the formulation of infrastructural tools that will better solve these types of infrastructural problems. .

  2. Resilient carbon encapsulation of iron pyrite (FeS2) cathodes in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Tara S.; Tussing, Matthew; Cloud, Jacqueline E.; Yang, Yongan

    2015-01-01

    Converting iron pyrite (FeS2) from a non-cyclable to a cyclable cathode material for lithium ion batteries has been an ongoing challenge in recent years. Herein we report a promising mitigation strategy: wet-chemistry based conformal encapsulation of synthetic FeS2 nanocrystals in a resilient carbon (RC) matrix (FeS2@RC). The FeS2@RC composite was fabricated by dispersing autoclave-synthesized FeS2 nanocrystals in an aqueous glucose solution, polymerizing the glucose in a hydrothermal reactor, and finally heating the polymer/FeS2 composite in a tube furnace to partially carbonize the polymer. The FeS2@RC electrodes showed superior cyclability compared with the FeS2 electrodes, that is, 25% versus 1% of retention at the 20th cycle. Based on electrochemical analysis, XRD study, and SEM characterization, the performance enhancement was attributed to RC's ability to accommodate volume fluctuation, enhance charge transfer, alleviate detrimental side reactions, and suppress loss of the active material. Furthermore, the remaining issues associated with the current system were identified and future research directions were proposed.

  3. NP Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. To support SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2011, ESnet and the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP), of the DOE SC, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by NP. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  4. Metal-semiconductor transition materials. FeS and VO2 thin films by RF reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Ganhua

    2007-06-01

    In the present work, two MST systems, FeS and VO 2 thin films were investigated. Iron sulfide thin films over a range of composition were prepared by reactive sputtering. The influence of the substrate, sputter power, substrate temperature and stoichiometry on the structure and MST of iron sulfide films was investigated. Iron sulfide films deposited at different temperatures show temperature dependent structure and MST. FeS films on float glass show (110) and (112) orientations when the substrate temperature is 200 and 500 C, respectively. The transition temperature and width of the hysteresis loop determined from the temperature dependent conductivity curves of iron sulfide films decrease with the substrate temperature. Fe and S excess in FeS films both result in the decrease of the transition temperature and width of the hysteresis loop. The vacuum-annealing affects the MST of FeS films significantly. When FeS films were annealed below the deposition temperature, the transition temperature decreases; otherwise increases. The residual stress plays an important role during the annealing process. The higher the residual stress inside the FeS films is, the higher the transition temperature of FeS films. With the increase of the annealing temperature, the residual stress in FeS films is first released and then enhances, which gives rise first to the decrease and then increase of the transition temperature of FeS films. At high substrate temperatures, the residual stress is higher. In addition, the MST of FeS films was influenced by the ambient aging. With the increase of the aging time, the transition temperature first increases and then decreases. FeS films with different thicknesses were prepared. The correlation between the film thickness (grain size) and the MST switching characteristics of FeS films was established. With the decrease of the grain size, the density of grain boundaries increases, causing the increase of the conductivity of the semiconducting phase

  5. BER Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alapaty, Kiran; Allen, Ben; Bell, Greg; Benton, David; Brettin, Tom; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Cotter, Steve; Crivelli, Silvia; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Richard; Tierney, Brian; Goodwin, Ken; Gregurick, Susan; Hicks, Susan; Johnston, Bill; de Jong, Bert; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Livny, Miron; Markowitz, Victor; McGraw, Jim; McCord, Raymond; Oehmen, Chris; Regimbal, Kevin; Shipman, Galen; Strand, Gary; Flick, Jeff; Turnbull, Susan; Williams, Dean; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-11-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2010 ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research, of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by BER. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section. A number of common themes emerged from the case studies and workshop discussions. One is that BER science, like many other disciplines, is becoming more and more distributed and collaborative in nature. Another common theme is that data set sizes are exploding. Climate Science in particular is on the verge of needing to manage exabytes of data, and Genomics is on the verge of a huge paradigm shift in the number of sites with sequencers and the amount of sequencer data being generated.

  6. Sliding mode closed-Loop control of FES: controlling the shank movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jezernik, Saso; Wassink, R.G.V.; Keller, Thierry

    2004-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) enables restoration of movement in individuals with spinal cord injury. FES-based devices use electric current pulses to stimulate and excite the intact peripheral nerves. They produce muscle contractions, generate joint torques, and thus, joint movements.

  7. ASCR Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2009-08-24

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2009 ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by ASCR. The ASCR facilities anticipate significant increases in wide area bandwidth utilization, driven largely by the increased capabilities of computational resources and the wide scope of collaboration that is a hallmark of modern science. Many scientists move data sets between facilities for analysis, and in some cases (for example the Earth System Grid and the Open Science Grid), data distribution is an essential component of the use of ASCR facilities by scientists. Due to the projected growth in wide area data transfer needs, the ASCR supercomputer centers all expect to deploy and use 100 Gigabit per second networking technology for wide area connectivity as soon as that deployment is financially feasible. In addition to the network connectivity that ESnet provides, the ESnet Collaboration Services (ECS) are critical to several science communities. ESnet identity and trust services, such as the DOEGrids certificate authority, are widely used both by the supercomputer centers and by collaborations such as Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Earth System Grid (ESG). Ease of use is a key determinant of the scientific utility of network-based services. Therefore, a key enabling aspect for scientists beneficial use of high

  8. Fps/Fes protein-tyrosine kinase regulates mast cell adhesion and migration downstream of Kit and beta1 integrin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie A; Samayawardhena, Lionel A; Craig, Andrew W B

    2010-03-01

    Activation of Kit receptor protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) by its ligand Stem Cell Factor (SCF) is required for the development of mast cells, and for the regulation of mast cell proliferation, migration and modulation of inflammatory mediator release. Recent studies have implicated the non-receptor PTK Fps/Fes (hereafter referred to as Fes) in signaling downstream of oncogenic Kit, however, the potential role of Fes in regulating Kit signaling is not well defined. In this study, we show that SCF induces transient tyrosine phosphorylation of wild-type Fes as well as kinase-dead Fes in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). The latter finding implicates an upstream kinase acting on Fes, which we identified as Fyn PTK. SCF treatment of BMMCs promoted recruitment of Fes to Kit, potentially via direct interaction of the Fes SH2 domain with phosphorylated Kit. While Fes was not required for SCF-induced signaling to Akt and Erk kinases, Fes-deficient (fes-/-) BMMCs displayed a defect in sustained p38 kinase activation, compared to control cells. SCF-treated Fes-deficient BMMCs also displayed elevated beta1 integrin-mediated cell adhesion and spreading on fibronectin, compared to control cells, and a reduction in cell polarization at later times of SCF treatment. Restoring Fes expression in fes-/- BMMCs by retroviral transduction was sufficient to rescue cell spreading and polarization defects. Interestingly, SCF-induced chemotaxis of BMMCs was also defective in Fes-deficient BMMCs, and restored in Fes-rescue BMMCs. Overall, these results implicate Fes in regulating cross-talk between Kit and beta1 integrins to promote cytoskeletal reorganization and motility of mast cells.

  9. Metal-semiconductor transition materials. FeS and VO{sub 2} thin films by RF reactive sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Ganhua

    2007-06-15

    In the present work, two MST systems, FeS and VO{sub 2} thin films were investigated. Iron sulfide thin films over a range of composition were prepared by reactive sputtering. The influence of the substrate, sputter power, substrate temperature and stoichiometry on the structure and MST of iron sulfide films was investigated. Iron sulfide films deposited at different temperatures show temperature dependent structure and MST. FeS films on float glass show (110) and (112) orientations when the substrate temperature is 200 and 500 C, respectively. The transition temperature and width of the hysteresis loop determined from the temperature dependent conductivity curves of iron sulfide films decrease with the substrate temperature. Fe and S excess in FeS films both result in the decrease of the transition temperature and width of the hysteresis loop. The vacuum-annealing affects the MST of FeS films significantly. When FeS films were annealed below the deposition temperature, the transition temperature decreases; otherwise increases. The residual stress plays an important role during the annealing process. The higher the residual stress inside the FeS films is, the higher the transition temperature of FeS films. With the increase of the annealing temperature, the residual stress in FeS films is first released and then enhances, which gives rise first to the decrease and then increase of the transition temperature of FeS films. At high substrate temperatures, the residual stress is higher. In addition, the MST of FeS films was influenced by the ambient aging. With the increase of the aging time, the transition temperature first increases and then decreases. FeS films with different thicknesses were prepared. The correlation between the film thickness (grain size) and the MST switching characteristics of FeS films was established. With the decrease of the grain size, the density of grain boundaries increases, causing the increase of the conductivity of the semiconducting

  10. Interactions of 16{alpha}-[{sup 18}F]-fluoroestradiol (FES) with sex steroid binding protein (SBP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewson, T.J. E-mail: ttewson@u.washington.edu; Mankoff, D.A.; Peterson, L.M.; Woo, I.; Petra, P

    1999-11-01

    Fluorine-18 16{alpha}-Fluoroestradiol ([{sup 18}F]- FES) is a positron-emitting tracer for the estrogen receptor that is used for positron emission tomography (PET) studies of tumor tissues rich in the estrogen receptor. The role of the sex steroid binding protein (SBP or SHBG) in the transport of the [{sup 18}F]-FES to the estrogen-receptor-rich tissue in breast cancer patients in vivo was investigated. To determine the extent to which [{sup 18}F]-FES is bound to SBP in the blood, we performed a series of studies using blood samples obtained from patients undergoing [{sup 18}F]-FES PET scans. The binding of [{sup 18}F]-FES to the SBP was measured using a simple protein precipitation assay. The binding of [{sup 18}F]-FES metabolites to SBP was also measured. These measurements showed that the tracer was distributed between albumin and SBP, and the binding capacity of SBP was sufficient to ensure that the protein was not saturated when the tracer was fully mixed with the plasma; however, local saturation of SBP may occur when [{sup 18}F]-FES is administered intravenously. Typically about 45% of [{sup 18}F]-FES in circulating plasma was bound to SBP, but this fraction was dependent on the concentration of SBP in plasma. The transfer of the tracer between the two proteins was rapid, complete in less than 20 s at 0 deg. C, suggesting that the equilibrium was maintained under most circumstances and that local saturation resolved quickly when blood from the injection site entered the central circulation. These data suggest that SBP binding of [{sup 18}F]-FES is significant and will affect the input function of the tracer for any model that is used for the quantitative evaluation of [{sup 18}F]-FES uptake in PET studies. Estimates of equilibrium binding in blood samples are sufficient to characterize [{sup 18}F]-FES binding to SBP in the circulation.

  11. Preparation of FeS2 nanotube arrays based on layer-by-layer assembly and their photoelectrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Mudan; Xue, Dongpeng; Qin, Haiying; Zhang, Lei; Ling, Guoping; Liu, Jiabin; Fang, Youtong; Meng, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amorphous Fe 2 O 3 nanotube arrays are prepared via layer-by-layer assembly. • Pyrite FeS 2 nanotube arrays are obtained by sulfurizing Fe 2 O 3 nanotube arrays. • Various electrochemical properties are characterized. • A comparison between FeS 2 nanotube and nanoparticle films is conducted. • Nanotube arrays show enhanced corrosion resistance and photoresponse. - Abstract: Well-aligned one-dimensional iron pyrite FeS 2 nanotube arrays have been fabricated via layer-by-layer assembly technique on ZnO nanorod arrays in combination with subsequent sulfurization. The as-prepared products were confirmed to be pure phase pyrite FeS 2 with Fe/S ratio approaching 1/2. Typical nanotube structure was observed for the FeS 2 with average outer diameter of 150 ± 20 nm and wall thickness of 50 ± 5 nm. Comparisons of photoelectrochemical properties between FeS 2 nanotubes and FeS 2 nanoparticles were conducted. Tafel polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicate that FeS 2 nanotubes possess high corrosion resistance and electrochemical stability. The J–V curves show that the photocurrent at 1.0 V for FeS 2 nanotubes is more than five times larger than that of FeS 2 nanoparticles, indicating enhanced photoresponse and rapid charge transfer performances of 1-D nanotube structure. The enhanced photoelectrochemical properties mainly benefit from the unique architecture features of nanotube array structure.

  12. Adaptação transcultural e avaliação das propriedades psicométricas da Falls Efficacy Scale - International em idosos Brasileiros (FES-I-BRASIL Cross-cultural adaptation and evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Falls Efficacy Scale - International Among Elderly Brazilians (FES-I-BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia F. O. Camargos

    2010-06-01

    : The instrument was translated into Brazilian Portuguese and culturally adapted to the Brazilian population (FES-I-Brazil as recommended by the Prevention of Falls Network Europe. FES-I-Brazil was applied to 163 elderly people (73.44±5.51 years, and the demographic data and history of falls were also collected. From this group, 58 participants were randomly distributed to evaluate reliability. The reliability was analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and the internal consistency, using Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α. The internal structure of FES-I-Brazil was evaluated by means of exploratory factor analysis. The logistic regression model was used to determine which tasks on the scale were more relevant for discriminating falls. To analyze the sensitivity and specificity of FES-I-Brazil, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used. RESULTS: The internal consistency of FES-I-Brazil was α=0.93, and the intra- and inter-examiner reliability were ICC=0.84 and 0.91, respectively. Factor analysis suggested two factors: concern about falling during social activities and activities of daily living (basic and instrumental, and postural control tasks. FES-I-Brazil scores >23 suggested an association with a previous history of sporadic falls, whereas scores >31 suggested an association with recurrent falls. CONCLUSIONS: FES-I-Brazil was shown to be semantically, linguistically and psychometrically appropriate to evaluate the fear of falling in the community-dwelling Brazilian elderly population.

  13. Hybrid FES-robot cooperative control of ambulatory gait rehabilitation exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del-Ama, Antonio J; Gil-Agudo, Angel; Pons, José L; Moreno, Juan C

    2014-03-04

    Robotic and functional electrical stimulation (FES) approaches are used for rehabilitation of walking impairment of spinal cord injured individuals. Although devices are commercially available, there are still issues that remain to be solved. Control of hybrid exoskeletons aims at blending robotic exoskeletons and electrical stimulation to overcome the drawbacks of each approach while preserving their advantages. Hybrid actuation and control have a considerable potential for walking rehabilitation but there is a need of novel control strategies of hybrid systems that adequately manage the balance between FES and robotic controllers. Combination of FES and robotic control is a challenging issue, due to the non-linear behavior of muscle under stimulation and the lack of developments in the field of hybrid control. In this article, a cooperative control strategy of a hybrid exoskeleton is presented. This strategy is designed to overcome the main disadvantages of muscular stimulation: electromechanical delay and change in muscle performance over time, and to balance muscular and robotic actuation during walking.Experimental results in healthy subjects show the ability of the hybrid FES-robot cooperative control to balance power contribution between exoskeleton and muscle stimulation. The robotic exoskeleton decreases assistance while adequate knee kinematics are guaranteed. A new technique to monitor muscle performance is employed, which allows to estimate muscle fatigue and implement muscle fatigue management strategies. Kinesis is therefore the first ambulatory hybrid exoskeleton that can effectively balance robotic and FES actuation during walking. This represents a new opportunity to implement new rehabilitation interventions to induce locomotor activity in patients with paraplegia.Acronym list: 10 mWT: ten meters walking test; 6 MWT: six minutes walking test; FSM: finite-state machine; t-FSM: time-domain FSM; c-FSM: cycle-domain FSM; FES: functional electrical

  14. Analysis of blood clearance and labeled metabolites for the estrogen receptor tracer [F-18]-16α-fluorestradiol (FES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankoff, David A.; Tewson, Timothy J.; Eary, Janet F.

    1997-01-01

    [F-18] 16α-Fluoroestradiol (FES) has been shown to be a tracer of estrogen receptor content in breast tumors; however, quantitative analysis of FES images is complicated by the rapid metabolism of the tracer in vivo. To optimize FES PET imaging studies and to provide an input function for the quantitative analysis of the tracer FES uptake in breast tumors, we studied the clearance and metabolism of FES in 15 breast cancer patients. FES clearance, protein binding, and metabolite production and limited assays to determine the identity of labeled metabolites were performed. These studies show that FES was rapidly cleared from the blood and metabolized; at 20 min only 20% of the circulating radioactivity was unmetabolized FES, and much of this was protein bound. The detectable metabolites in either blood or urine are conjugation products, largely the glucuronide and the sulfate of FES, and these are excreted through the kidneys at a rate comparable to their introduction into the circulation. After 20 min postinjection the blood levels of radioactivity remain fairly constant. Our results, the first report on human metabolites, are in close agreement with previous animal studies of FES metabolism. These studies show that because FES clearance is rapid and metabolite background is nearly constant, imaging starting at 20 to 30 min after injection may provide good visualization of estrogen-containing tissues. Labeled metabolites need to be accounted for in quantifying FES uptake

  15. The Science DMZ: A Network Design Pattern for Data-Intensive Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli; Rotman, Lauren; Tierney, Brian; Hester, Mary; Zurawski, Jason

    2013-08-13

    The ever-increasing scale of scientific data has become a significant challenge for researchers that rely on networks to interact with remote computing systems and transfer results to collaborators worldwide. Despite the availability of high-capacity connections, scientists struggle with inadequate cyberinfrastructure that cripples data transfer performance, and impedes scientific progress. The Science DMZ paradigm comprises a proven set of network design patterns that collectively address these problems for scientists. We explain the Science DMZ model, including network architecture, system configuration, cybersecurity, and performance tools, that creates an optimized network environment for science. We describe use cases from universities, supercomputing centers and research laboratories, highlighting the effectiveness of the Science DMZ model in diverse operational settings. In all, the Science DMZ model is a solid platform that supports any science workflow, and flexibly accommodates emerging network technologies. As a result, the Science DMZ vastly improves collaboration, accelerating scientific discovery.

  16. Interpretation of the photoelectron spectra of FeS(2)(-) by a multiconfiguration computational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clima, Sergiu; Hendrickx, Marc F A

    2007-11-01

    The ground states of FeS(2) and FeS(2)(-), and several low-lying excited electronic states of FeS(2) that are responsible for the FeS(2)(-) photoelectron spectrum, are calculated. At the B3LYP level an open, quasi-linear [SFeS](-) conformation is found as the most stable structure, which is confirmed at the ab initio CASPT2 computational level. Both the neutral and the anionic unsaturated complexes possess high-spin electronic ground states. For the first time a complete assignment of the photoelectron spectrum of FeS(2)(-) is proposed. The lowest energy band in this spectrum is ascribed to an electron detachment from the two highest-lying 3dpi antibonding orbitals (with respect to the iron-sulfur bonding) of iron. The next-lowest experimental band corresponds to an electron removal from nonbonding, nearly pure sulfur orbitals. The two highest bands in the spectra are assigned as electron detachments from pi and sigma bonding mainly sulfur orbitals.

  17. Enhanced endotoxin sensitivity in fps/fes-null mice with minimal defects in hematopoietic homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirngibl, Ralph A; Senis, Yotis; Greer, Peter A

    2002-04-01

    The fps/fes proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase implicated in growth factor and cytokine receptor signaling and thought to be essential for the survival and terminal differentiation of myeloid progenitors. Fps/Fes-null mice were healthy and fertile, displayed slightly reduced numbers of bone marrow myeloid progenitors and circulating mature myeloid cells, and were more sensitive to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). These phenotypes were rescued using a fps/fes transgene. This confirmed that Fps/Fes is involved in, but not required for, myelopoiesis and that it plays a role in regulating the innate immune response. Bone marrow-derived Fps/Fes-null macrophages showed no defects in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-, interleukin 6 (IL-6)-, or IL-3-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) and Stat5A or LPS-induced degradation of I kappa B or activation of p38, Jnk, Erk, or Akt.

  18. A Regulatory Circuit Composed of a Transcription Factor, IscR, and a Regulatory RNA, RyhB, Controls Fe-S Cluster Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandin, Pierre; Chareyre, Sylvia; Barras, Frédéric

    2016-09-20

    . coli ErpA is involved in the biogenesis of Fe-S clusters, an important class of cofactors involved in a plethora of cellular reactions. Interestingly, we show that RyhB and IscR repress expression of erpA under opposite conditions in regard to iron concentration, forming a regulatory circuit called an "incoherent network." This incoherent network serves to maximize expression of erpA at iron concentrations where it is most needed. Altogether, our study paves the way for a better understanding of mixed regulatory networks composed of RNAs and transcription factors. Copyright © 2016 Mandin et al.

  19. Emerging critical roles of Fe-S clusters in DNA replication and repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Jill O.; Tsai, Chi-Lin; Ishida, Justin P.; Tainer, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Fe-S clusters are partners in the origin of life that predate cells, acetyl-CoA metabolism, DNA, and the RNA world. The double helix solved the mystery of DNA replication by base pairing for accurate copying. Yet, for genome stability necessary to life, the double helix has equally important implications for damage repair. Here we examine striking advances that uncover Fe-S cluster roles both in copying the genetic sequence by DNA polymerases and in crucial repair processes for genome maintenance, as mutational defects cause cancer and degenerative disease. Moreover, we examine an exciting, controversial role for Fe-S clusters in a third element required for life – the long-range coordination and regulation of replication and repair events. By their ability to delocalize electrons over both Fe and S centers, Fe-S clusters have unbeatable features for protein conformational control and charge transfer via double-stranded DNA that may fundamentally transform our understanding of life, replication, and repair. PMID:25655665

  20. How Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae build Fe/S proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barras, Frédéric; Loiseau, Laurent; Py, Béatrice

    2005-01-01

    Owing to the versatile electronic properties of iron and sulfur, iron sulfur (Fe/S) clusters are perfectly suited for sensing changes in environmental conditions and regulating protein properties accordingly. Fe/S proteins have been recruited in a wide array of diverse biological processes, including electron transfer chains, metabolic pathways and gene regulatory circuits. Chemistry has revealed the great diversity of Fe/S clusters occurring in proteins. The question now is to understand how iron and sulfur come together to form Fe/S clusters and how these clusters are subsequently inserted into apoproteins. Iron, sulfide and reducing conditions were found to be sufficient for successful maturation of many apoproteins in vitro, opening the possibility that insertion might be a spontaneous event. However, as in many other biological pathways such as protein folding, genetic analyses revealed that Fe/S cluster biogenesis and insertion depend in vivo upon auxiliary proteins. This was brought to light by studies on Azotobacter vinelandii nitrogenase, which, in particular, led to the concept of scaffold proteins, the role of which would be to allow transient assembly of Fe/S cluster. These studies paved the way toward the identification of the ISC and SUF systems, subjects of the present review that allow Fe/S cluster assembly into apoproteins of most organisms. Despite the recent discovery of the SUF and ISC systems, remarkable progress has been made in our understanding of their molecular composition and biochemical mechanisms. Such a rapid increase in our knowledge arose from a convergent interest from researchers engaged in unrelated fields and whose complementary expertise covered most experimental approaches used in biology. Also, the high conservation of ISC and SUF systems throughout a wide array of organisms helped cross-feeding between studies. The ISC system is conserved in eubacteria and most eukaryotes, while the SUF system arises in eubacteria, archaea

  1. Activated Fps/Fes partially rescues the in vivo developmental potential of Flk1-deficient vascular progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Jody J; Ema, Masatsugu; Haigh, Katharina; Gertsenstein, Marina; Greer, Peter; Rossant, Janet; Nagy, Andras; Wagner, Erwin F

    2004-02-01

    Relatively little is known about the modulators of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)/Flk1 signaling cascade. To functionally characterize this pathway, VEGF-A stimulation of endothelial cells was performed. VEGF-A-mediated Flk1 activation resulted in increased translocation of the endogenous Fps/Fes cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase to the plasma membrane and increased tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting a role for Fps/Fes in VEGF-A/Flk1 signaling events. Addition of a myristoylation consensus sequence to Fps/Fes resulted in VEGF-A-independent membrane localization of Fps/Fes in endothelial cells. Expression of the activated Fps/Fes protein in Flk1-deficient embryonic stem (ES) cells rescued their contribution to the developing vascular endothelium in vivo by using ES cell-derived chimeras. Activated Fps/Fes contributed to this rescue event by restoring the migratory potential to Flk1 null progenitors, which is required for movement of hemangioblasts from the primitive streak region into the yolk sac proper. Activated Fps/Fes in the presence of Flk1 increased the number of hemangioblast colonies in vitro and increased the number of mesodermal progenitors in vivo. These results suggest that Fps/Fes may act synergistically with Flk1 to modulate hemangioblast differentiation into the endothelium. We have also demonstrated that activated Fps/Fes causes hemangioma formation in vivo, independently of Flk1, as a result of increasing vascular progenitor density.

  2. The Science DMZ: A Network Design Pattern for Data-Intensive Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Dart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing scale of scientific data has become a significant challenge for researchers that rely on networks to interact with remote computing systems and transfer results to collaborators worldwide. Despite the availability of high-capacity connections, scientists struggle with inadequate cyberinfrastructure that cripples data transfer performance, and impedes scientific progress. The Science DMZ paradigm comprises a proven set of network design patterns that collectively address these problems for scientists. We explain the Science DMZ model, including network architecture, system configuration, cybersecurity, and performance tools, that creates an optimized network environment for science. We describe use cases from universities, supercomputing centers and research laboratories, highlighting the effectiveness of the Science DMZ model in diverse operational settings. In all, the Science DMZ model is a solid platform that supports any science workflow, and flexibly accommodates emerging network technologies. As a result, the Science DMZ vastly improves collaboration, accelerating scientific discovery.

  3. Energy Sciences Network (ESnet)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energy Sciences Network is the Department of Energy’s high-speed network that provides the high-bandwidth, reliable connections that link scientists at national...

  4. Roles of Fe-S proteins: from cofactor synthesis to iron homeostasis to protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Debkumar; Dancis, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Fe-S cluster assembly is an essential process for all cells. Impairment of Fe-S cluster assembly creates diseases in diverse and surprising ways. In one scenario, the loss of function of lipoic acid synthase, an enzyme with Fe-S cluster cofactor in mitochondria, impairs activity of various lipoamide-dependent enzymes with drastic consequences for metabolism. In a second scenario, the heme biosynthetic pathway in red cell precursors is specifically targeted, and iron homeostasis is perturbed, but lipoic acid synthesis is unaffected. In a third scenario, tRNA modifications arising from action of the cysteine desulfurase and/or Fe-S cluster proteins are lost, which may lead to impaired protein synthesis. These defects can then result in cancer, neurologic dysfunction or type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fps/Fes and Fer non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinases regulate collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senis, Y A; Sangrar, W; Zirngibl, R A; Craig, A W B; Lee, D H; Greer, P A

    2003-05-01

    Fps/Fes and Fer proto-oncoproteins are structurally related non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinases implicated in signaling downstream from cytokines, growth factors and immune receptors. We show that Fps/Fes and Fer are expressed in human and mouse platelets, and are activated following stimulation with collagen and collagen-related peptide (CRP), suggesting a role in GPVI receptor signaling. Fer was also activated following stimulation with thrombin and a protease-activated receptor4 (PAR4)-activating peptide, suggesting a role in signaling downstream from the G protein-coupled PAR4. There were no detectable perturbations in CRP-induced activation of Syk, PLCgamma2, cortactin, Erk, Jnk, Akt or p38 in platelets from mice lacking Fps/Fes, Fer, or both kinases. Platelets lacking Fps/Fes, from a targeted fps/fes null strain of mice, showed increased rates and amplitudes of collagen-induced aggregation, relative to wild-type platelets. P-Selectin expression was also elevated on the surface of Fps/Fes-null platelets in response to CRP. Fer-deficient platelets, from mice targeted with a kinase-inactivating mutation, disaggregated more rapidly than wild-type platelets in response to ADP. This report provides the first evidence that Fps/Fes and Fer are expressed in platelets and become activated downstream from the GPVI collagen receptor, and that Fer is activated downstream from a G-protein coupled receptor. Furthermore, using targeted mouse models we show that deficiency in Fps/Fes or Fer resulted in disregulated platelet aggregation and disaggregation, demonstrating a role for these kinases in regulating platelet functions.

  6. Preparation of Carbon Nanotube/TiO2 Mesoporous Hybrid Photoanode with Iron Pyrite (FeS2) Thin Films Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Bayram; Turkdogan, Sunay; Astam, Aykut; Ozer, Oguz Can; Asgin, Mansur; Cebeci, Hulya; Urk, Deniz; Mucur, Selin Pravadili

    2016-05-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/TiO2 mesoporous networks can be employed as a new alternative photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). By using the MWCNT/TiO2 mesoporous as photoanodes in DSSC, we demonstrate that the MWCNT/TiO2 mesoporous photoanode is promising alternative to standard FTO/TiO2 mesoporous based DSSC due to larger specific surface area and high electrochemical activity. We also show that iron pyrite (FeS2) thin films can be used as an efficient counter electrode (CE), an alternative to the conventional high cost Pt based CE. We are able to synthesis FeS2 nanostructures utilizing a very cheap and easy hydrothermal growth route. MWCNT/TiO2 mesoporous based DSSCs with FeS2 CE achieved a high solar conversion efficiency of 7.27% under 100 mW cm-2 (AM 1.5G 1-Sun) simulated solar irradiance which is considerably (slightly) higher than that of A-CNT/TiO2 mesoporous based DSSCs with Pt CE. Outstanding performance of the FeS2 CE makes it a very promising choice among the various CE materials used in the conventional DSSC and it is expected to be used more often to achieve higher photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies.

  7. PID Controller Design for FES Applied to Ankle Muscles in Neuroprosthesis for Standing Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rouhani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Closed-loop controlled functional electrical stimulation (FES applied to the lower limb muscles can be used as a neuroprosthesis for standing balance in neurologically impaired individuals. The objective of this study was to propose a methodology for designing a proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller for FES applied to the ankle muscles toward maintaining standing balance for several minutes and in the presence of perturbations. First, a model of the physiological control strategy for standing balance was developed. Second, the parameters of a PID controller that mimicked the physiological balance control strategy were determined to stabilize the human body when modeled as an inverted pendulum. Third, this PID controller was implemented using a custom-made Inverted Pendulum Standing Apparatus that eliminated the effect of visual and vestibular sensory information on voluntary balance control. Using this setup, the individual-specific FES controllers were tested in able-bodied individuals and compared with disrupted voluntary control conditions in four experimental paradigms: (i quiet-standing; (ii sudden change of targeted pendulum angle (step response; (iii balance perturbations that simulate arm movements; and (iv sudden change of targeted angle of a pendulum with individual-specific body-weight (step response. In paradigms (i to (iii, a standard 39.5-kg pendulum was used, and 12 subjects were involved. In paradigm (iv 9 subjects were involved. Across the different experimental paradigms and subjects, the FES-controlled and disrupted voluntarily-controlled pendulum angle showed root mean square errors of <1.2 and 2.3 deg, respectively. The root mean square error (all paradigms, rise time, settle time, and overshoot [paradigms (ii and (iv] in FES-controlled balance were significantly smaller or tended to be smaller than those observed with voluntarily-controlled balance, implying improved steady-state and transient responses of FES

  8. Arsenic sorption to nanoparticulate mackinawite (FeS): An examination of phosphate competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Burton, Edward D

    2016-11-01

    Nanoparticulate mackinawite (FeS) can be an important host-phase for arsenic (As) in sulfidic, subsurface environments. Although not previously investigated, phosphate (PO 4 3- ) may compete with As for available sorption sites on FeS, thereby enhancing As mobility in FeS-bearing soils, sediments and groundwater systems. In this study, we examine the effect of PO 4 3- on sorption of arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) to nanoparticulate FeS at pH 6, 7 and 9. Results show that PO 4 3- (at 0.01-1.0 mM P) did not significantly affect sorption of either As(V) or As(III) to nanoparticulate FeS at initial aqueous As concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1.0 mM. At pH 9 and 7, sorption of both As(III) and As(V) to nanoparticulate FeS was similar, with distribution coefficient (K d ) values spanning 0.76-15 L g -1 (which corresponds to removal of 87-98% of initial aqueous As(III) and As(V) concentrations). Conversely, at pH 6, the sorption of As(III) was characterized by substantially higher K d values (6.3-93.4 L g -1 ) than those for As(V) (K d  = 0.21-0.96 L g -1 ). Arsenic K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy indicated that up to 52% of the added As(V) was reduced to As(III) in As(V) sorption experiments, as well as the formation of minor amounts of an As 2 S 3 -like species. In As(III) sorption experiments, XANES spectroscopy also demonstrated the formation of an As 2 S 3 -like species and the partial oxidation of As(III) to As(V) (despite the strictly O 2 -free experimental conditions). Overall, the XANES data indicate that As sorption to nanoparticulate FeS involves several redox transformations and various sorbed species, which display a complex dependency on pH and As loading but that are not influenced by the co-occurrence of PO 4 3- . This study shows that nanoparticulate FeS can help to immobilize As(III) and As(V) in sulfidic subsurface environments where As co-exists with PO 4 3- . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. TLR-activated repression of Fe-S cluster biogenesis drives a metabolic shift and alters histone and tubulin acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wing-Hang; Maio, Nunziata; Zhang, De-Liang; Palmieri, Erika M; Ollivierre, Hayden; Ghosh, Manik C; McVicar, Daniel W; Rouault, Tracey A

    2018-05-22

    Given the essential roles of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cofactors in mediating electron transfer in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and supporting heme biosynthesis, mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature in a growing list of human Fe-S cluster biogenesis disorders, including Friedreich ataxia and GLRX5-related sideroblastic anemia. Here, our studies showed that restriction of Fe-S cluster biogenesis not only compromised mitochondrial oxidative metabolism but also resulted in decreased overall histone acetylation and increased H3K9me3 levels in the nucleus and increased acetylation of α-tubulin in the cytosol by decreasing the lipoylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, decreasing levels of succinate dehydrogenase and the histone acetyltransferase ELP3, and increasing levels of the tubulin acetyltransferase MEC17. Previous studies have shown that the metabolic shift in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-activated myeloid cells involves rapid activation of glycolysis and subsequent mitochondrial respiratory failure due to nitric oxide (NO)-mediated damage to Fe-S proteins. Our studies indicated that TLR activation also actively suppresses many components of the Fe-S cluster biogenesis machinery, which exacerbates NO-mediated damage to Fe-S proteins by interfering with cluster recovery. These results reveal new regulatory pathways and novel roles of the Fe-S cluster biogenesis machinery in modifying the epigenome and acetylome and provide new insights into the etiology of Fe-S cluster biogenesis disorders.

  10. Exploring hierarchical FeS2/C composite nanotubes arrays as advanced cathode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, G. X.; Cao, F.; Xia, X. H.; Zhang, Y. J.

    2016-11-01

    Rational construction of advanced FeS2 cathode is one of research hotspots, and of great importance for developing high-performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein we report a facile hydrolysis-sulfurization method for fabrication of FeS2/C nanotubes arrays with the help of sacrificial Co2(OH)2CO3 nanowires template and glucose carbonization. Self-supported FeS2/C nanotubes consist of interconnected nanoburrs of 5-20 nm, and show hierarchical porous structure. The FeS2/C nanotubes arrays are demonstrated with enhanced cycling life and noticeable high-rate capability with capacities ranging from 735 mAh g-1 at 0.25 C to 482 mAh g-1 at 1.5 C, superior to those FeS2 counterparts in the literature. The composite nanotubes arrays architecture plays positive roles in the electrochemical enhancement due to combined advantages of large electrode-electrolyte contact area, good strain accommodation, improved electrical conductivity, and enhanced structural stability.

  11. Qualitative exploration of centralities in municipal science education networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von der Fehr, Ane; Sølberg, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the social nature of educational change by conducting a social network analysis of social networks involving stakeholders of science education from teachers to political stakeholders. Social networks that comprise supportive structures for development of science education ar...... of science education, especially if they are aware of their own centrality and are able to use their position intentionally for the benefit of science education.......This article examines the social nature of educational change by conducting a social network analysis of social networks involving stakeholders of science education from teachers to political stakeholders. Social networks that comprise supportive structures for development of science education...... are diverse and in order to understand how municipal stakeholders may support such development, we explored four different municipal science education networks (MSE networks) using three different measures of centrality. The centrality measures differed in terms of what kind of stakeholder functions...

  12. Defining the Architecture of the Core Machinery for the Assembly of Fe-S Clusters in Human Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gakh, Oleksandr; Ranatunga, Wasantha; Galeano, Belinda K; Smith, Douglas S; Thompson, James R; Isaya, Grazia

    2017-01-01

    Although Fe-S clusters may assemble spontaneously from elemental iron and sulfur in protein-free systems, the potential toxicity of free Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ , and S 2- ions in aerobic environments underscores the requirement for specialized proteins to oversee the safe assembly of Fe-S clusters in living cells. Prokaryotes first developed multiprotein systems for Fe-S cluster assembly, from which mitochondria later derived their own system and became the main Fe-S cluster suppliers for eukaryotic cells. Early studies in yeast and human mitochondria indicated that Fe-S cluster assembly in eukaryotes is centered around highly conserved Fe-S proteins (human ISCU) that serve as scaffolds upon which new Fe-S clusters are assembled from (i) elemental sulfur, provided by a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent cysteine desulfurase (human NFS1) and its stabilizing-binding partner (human ISD11), and (ii) elemental iron, provided by an iron-binding protein of the frataxin family (human FXN). Further studies revealed that all of these proteins could form stable complexes that could reach molecular masses of megadaltons. However, the protein-protein interaction surfaces, catalytic mechanisms, and overall architecture of these macromolecular machines remained undefined for quite some time. The delay was due to difficulties inherent in reconstituting these very large multiprotein complexes in vitro or isolating them from cells in sufficient quantities to enable biochemical and structural studies. Here, we describe approaches we developed to reconstitute the human Fe-S cluster assembly machinery in Escherichia coli and to define its remarkable architecture. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Vascular defects in gain-of-function fps/fes transgenic mice correlate with PDGF- and VEGF-induced activation of mutant Fps/Fes kinase in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangrar, W; Mewburn, J D; Vincent, S G; Fisher, J T; Greer, P A

    2004-05-01

    Fps/Fes is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that is abundantly expressed in the myeloid, endothelial, epithelial, neuronal and platelet lineages. Genetic manipulation in mice has uncovered potential roles for this kinase in hematopoiesis, innate immunity, inflammation and angiogenesis. We have utilized a genetic approach to explore the role of Fps/Fes in angiogenesis. A hypervascular line of mice generated by expression of a 'gain-of-function' human fps/fes transgene (fps(MF)) encoding a myristoylated variant of Fps (MFps) was used in these studies. The hypervascular phenotype of this line was extensively characterized by intravital microscopy and biochemical approaches. fps(MF) mice exhibited 1.6-1.7-fold increases in vascularity which was attributable to increases in the number of secondary vessels. Vessels were larger, exhibited varicosities and disorganized patterning, and were found to have defects in histamine-induced permeability. Biochemical characterization of endothelial cell (EC) lines derived from fps(MF) mice revealed that MFps was hypersensitive to activation by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). MFps mediates enhanced sensitization to VEGF and PDGF signaling in ECs. We propose that this hypersensitization contributes to excessive angiogenic signaling and that this underlies the observed hypervascular phenotype of fps(MF) mice. These phenotypes recapitulate important aspects of the vascular defects observed in both VEGF and angiopoietin-1 transgenic mice. The fps/fes proto-oncogene product therefore represents a novel player in the regulation of angiogenesis, and the fps(MF) line of mice constitutes a unique new murine model for the study of this process.

  14. Nueva era de CIESPAL: Proyecto CIESPAL-FES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Jaramillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta una breve descripción del Proyecto -CIESPAL-FES- sus objetivos y un resumen de la investigación que dio lugar al desarrollo del pensum para los becarios que habían de capacitarse en la televisión.

  15. PID Controller Design for FES Applied to Ankle Muscles in Neuroprosthesis for Standing Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Hossein; Same, Michael; Masani, Kei; Li, Ya Qi; Popovic, Milos R

    2017-01-01

    Closed-loop controlled functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied to the lower limb muscles can be used as a neuroprosthesis for standing balance in neurologically impaired individuals. The objective of this study was to propose a methodology for designing a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for FES applied to the ankle muscles toward maintaining standing balance for several minutes and in the presence of perturbations. First, a model of the physiological control strategy for standing balance was developed. Second, the parameters of a PID controller that mimicked the physiological balance control strategy were determined to stabilize the human body when modeled as an inverted pendulum. Third, this PID controller was implemented using a custom-made Inverted Pendulum Standing Apparatus that eliminated the effect of visual and vestibular sensory information on voluntary balance control. Using this setup, the individual-specific FES controllers were tested in able-bodied individuals and compared with disrupted voluntary control conditions in four experimental paradigms: (i) quiet-standing; (ii) sudden change of targeted pendulum angle (step response); (iii) balance perturbations that simulate arm movements; and (iv) sudden change of targeted angle of a pendulum with individual-specific body-weight (step response). In paradigms (i) to (iii), a standard 39.5-kg pendulum was used, and 12 subjects were involved. In paradigm (iv) 9 subjects were involved. Across the different experimental paradigms and subjects, the FES-controlled and disrupted voluntarily-controlled pendulum angle showed root mean square errors of controlled balance were significantly smaller or tended to be smaller than those observed with voluntarily-controlled balance, implying improved steady-state and transient responses of FES-controlled balance. At the same time, the FES-controlled balance required similar torque levels (no significant difference) as voluntarily

  16. Exploring social networks of municipal science education stakeholders in Danish Science Municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von der Fehr, Ane

    development in the science and technology industry. Therefore, much effort has been invested to improve science education. The importance of school external stakeholders in development of education has been an increasingly emphasised, also in the field of science education. This has led to a growing focus......Science education development is a field of many interests and a key interest is recruitment of students who wish to pursue an education in science. This is an urgent societal demand in Denmark as well as internationally, since highly skilled science graduates are needed for the continuous...... involved in science education development. These municipal science education networks (MSE networks) were identified as important for development of science education in the SM project. Therefore, it was a key interest to explore these networks in order to investigate how the central stakeholders affected...

  17. Are large-scale flow experiments informing the science and management of freshwater ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Julian D.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Melis, Theodore S.; Kennard, Mark J.; Freeman, Mary C.; Mims, Meryl C.; Bray, Erin N.; Gido, Keith B.; Hemphill, Nina P.; Lytle, David A.; McMullen, Laura E.; Pyron, Mark; Robinson, Christopher T.; Schmidt, John C.; Williams, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Greater scientific knowledge, changing societal values, and legislative mandates have emphasized the importance of implementing large-scale flow experiments (FEs) downstream of dams. We provide the first global assessment of FEs to evaluate their success in advancing science and informing management decisions. Systematic review of 113 FEs across 20 countries revealed that clear articulation of experimental objectives, while not universally practiced, was crucial for achieving management outcomes and changing dam-operating policies. Furthermore, changes to dam operations were three times less likely when FEs were conducted primarily for scientific purposes. Despite the recognized importance of riverine flow regimes, four-fifths of FEs involved only discrete flow events. Over three-quarters of FEs documented both abiotic and biotic outcomes, but only one-third examined multiple taxonomic responses, thus limiting how FE results can inform holistic dam management. Future FEs will present new opportunities to advance scientifically credible water policies.

  18. Muscle pathology in lower motor neuron paraplegia and h-b FES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Carraro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available After complete Spinal Cord Injury (SCI, causing complete disconnection between the muscle fibers and the nervous system, the denervated muscles become unexcitable with commercial electrical stimulators within several months and undergo severe atrophy and disorganization of contractile apparatus after 1-3 years. Years after the injury the surviving and regenerated myofibers are substituted with adipocytes and collagen. To counteract the progressive changes transforming muscle into an unexcitable tissue, we developed a novel therapy concept for paraplegic patients with complete lower motor neuron (LMN denervation of the lower extremities. The new stimulators for home-based functional electrical stimulation (h-b FES have been designed to reverse longstanding and severe atrophy of LMN denervated muscles by delivering high-intensity (up to 2,4 J and long-duration impulses (up to 150 ms able to elicit contractions of denervated skeletal muscle fibers in absence of nerve. Concurrent to the development of the stimulation equipment, specific clinical assessments and training strategies were developed at the Wilhelminenspital Wien, Austria. Main results of our clinical study on 20 patients, which completed a 2 years h-b FES program are: 1. significant +33% increase of muscle size and +75% of the mean diameter of muscle fibers, with striking improvements of the ultra-structural organization of contractile material; 2. recovery of the tetanic contractility with significant increase in muscle force output during electrical stimulation; 3. five subjects performed FES-assisted stand-up and stepping-in-place exercises;. 4. data from ultrastructural analyses indicating that the shorter the time span between SCI and the beginning of h-b FES, the larger were the number and the size of recovered fibers. The study demonstrates that h-b FES of permanent LMN denervated muscle is an effective home therapy that results in rescue of muscle mass, function and perfusion

  19. Synthesis, delivery and regulation of eukaryotic heme and Fe-S cluster cofactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barupala, Dulmini P; Dzul, Stephen P; Riggs-Gelasco, Pamela Jo; Stemmler, Timothy L

    2016-02-15

    In humans, the bulk of iron in the body (over 75%) is directed towards heme- or Fe-S cluster cofactor synthesis, and the complex, highly regulated pathways in place to accomplish biosynthesis have evolved to safely assemble and load these cofactors into apoprotein partners. In eukaryotes, heme biosynthesis is both initiated and finalized within the mitochondria, while cellular Fe-S cluster assembly is controlled by correlated pathways both within the mitochondria and within the cytosol. Iron plays a vital role in a wide array of metabolic processes and defects in iron cofactor assembly leads to human diseases. This review describes progress towards our molecular-level understanding of cellular heme and Fe-S cluster biosynthesis, focusing on the regulation and mechanistic details that are essential for understanding human disorders related to the breakdown in these essential pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychometric properties of the original and short versions of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) in people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Stina B; Nilsson, Maria H; Lexell, Jan

    2017-05-31

    Fear of falling is common in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) and is associated with an increased risk for future falls, activity limitations and a reduced quality of life. The Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) assesses fear of falling conceptualized as concerns about falling. The original FES-I has good psychometric properties in people with PD, but whether this applies also for the short version of FES-I remains to be shown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the short FES-I and to compare these with the original FES-I in the same sample of people with PD. The investigated psychometric properties included known groups validity, data completeness, scaling assumptions, targeting and reliability. A postal survey, which included the original, full-length FES-I, was distributed to 174 people with PD. Responders received a second survey after two weeks. From these data, short FES-I total scores were calculated by extracting the items that are included in the short version of the scale. Median age and PD duration of the 101 responders (43% women) were 73 and 5 years, respectively. The original as well as the short FES-I scores were able to discriminate (p falling, activity avoidance, falls, near falls, and with various self-rated PD severity, respectively. Both versions of FES-I had a high level of data completeness (0.7 to 0.9% missing item responses). Scaling assumptions were acceptable for the original as well as the short FES-I. While the short FES-I had 19% floor effect, the original version was better targeted. Both versions were reliable and obtained high values for internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.8) and test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient > 0.9). Both the original and short FES-I revealed generally good psychometric properties in people with PD, although the original scale was better targeted. Due to the higher floor effect in the short FES-I, the present findings favors

  1. Impact of FeS Mineralogy on TCE Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron- and sulfate-reducing conditions are often encountered in permeable reactive barrier (PRB) systems that are constructed to remove TCE from groundwater, which usually leads to the accumulation of FeS mineral phases in the matrix of the PRB. Poorly crystalline mackinawite (Fe...

  2. Developing networks to support science teachers work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillasen, Martin Krabbe; Valero, Paola

    2012-01-01

    In educational research literature constructing networks among practitioners has been suggested as a strategy to support teachers’ professional development (Huberman, 1995; Jackson & Temperley, 2007; Van Driel, Beijaard, & Verloop, 2001). The purpose of this paper is to report on a study about how...... networks provide opportunities for teachers from different schools to collaborate on improving the quality of their own science teaching practices. These networks exist at the meso-level of the educational system between the micro-realities of teachers’ individual practice and the macro-level, where...... to develop collaborative activities in primary science teacher communities in schools to improve individual teachers practice and in networks between teachers from different schools in each municipality. Each network was organized and moderated by a municipal science coordinator....

  3. Reduced Graphene Oxide-Wrapped FeS2 Composite as Anode for High-Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghong; Guo, Can; Zhu, Yuxuan; He, Jiapeng; Wang, Hongqiang

    2018-06-01

    Iron disulfide is considered to be a potential anode material for sodium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity. However, its applications are seriously limited by the weak conductivity and large volume change, which results in low reversible capacity and poor cycling stability. Herein, reduced graphene oxide-wrapped FeS2 (FeS2/rGO) composite was fabricated to achieve excellent electrochemical performance via a facile two-step method. The introduction of rGO effectively improved the conductivity, BET surface area, and structural stability of the FeS2 active material, thus endowing it with high specific capacity, good rate capability, as well as excellent cycling stability. Electrochemical measurements show that the FeS2/rGO composite had a high initial discharge capacity of 1263.2 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1 and a high discharge capacity of 344 mAh g-1 at 10 A g-1, demonstrating superior rate performance. After 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1, the discharge capacity remained at 609.5 mAh g-1, indicating the excellent cycling stability of the FeS2/rGO electrode.

  4. Using Network Science to Support Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parraguez Ruiz, Pedro; Maier, Anja

    2016-01-01

    and societal impact. This chapter contributes to the use of network science in empirical studies of design organisations. It focuses on introducing a network-based perspective on the design process and in particular on making use of network science to support design research and practice. The main contribution...... of this chapter is an overview of the methodological challenges and core decision points when embarking on network-based design research, namely defining the overall research purpose and selecting network features. We furthermore highlight the potential for using archival data, the opportunities for navigating...

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties testing of the Iconographical Falls Efficacy Scale (Icon-FES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Marcia Rodrigues; Pinto, Rafael Zambelli; Delbaere, Kim; Eto, Bianca Yumie; Faria, Maíra Sgobbi; Aoyagi, Giovana Ayumi; Steffens, Daniel; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo

    2018-02-14

    The Iconographical Falls Efficacy Scale (Icon-FES) is an innovative tool to assess concern of falling that uses pictures as visual cues to provide more complete environmental contexts. Advantages of Icon-FES over previous scales include the addition of more demanding balance-related activities, ability to assess concern about falling in highly functioning older people, and its normal distribution. To perform a cross-cultural adaptation and to assess the measurement properties of the 30-item and 10-item Icon-FES in a community-dwelling Brazilian older population. The cross-cultural adaptation followed the recommendations of international guidelines. We evaluated the measurement properties (i.e. internal consistency, test-retest reproducibility, standard error of the measurement, minimal detectable change, construct validity, ceiling/floor effect, data distribution and discriminative validity), in 100 community-dwelling people aged ≥60 years. The 30-item and 10-item Icon-FES-Brazil showed good internal consistency (alpha and omega >0.70) and excellent intra-rater reproducibility (ICC 2,1 =0.96 and 0.93, respectively). According to the standard error of the measurement and minimal detectable change, the magnitude of change needed to exceed the measurement error and variability were 7.2 and 3.4 points for the 30-item and 10-item Icon-FES, respectively. We observed an excellent correlation between both versions of the Icon-FES and Falls Efficacy Scale - International (rho=0.83, pmeasurement properties to evaluate concern about falling among the community-dwelling older population. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Cross-cultural validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) in Portuguese community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Daniela; Santos, Sónia

    The Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) is a highly reliable instrument to assess fear of falling among older population. This study aimed to develop a European Portuguese version of the FES-I (FES-I (P) ) and analyse its psychometric properties in terms of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent and convergent validity. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data collection integrated a socio-demographic questionnaire which included falls history and presence/absence of fear of falling, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Timed Up and Go (TUG) and the Five Times Sit to Stand Test (FTSST). Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed. A total of 100 Portuguese community-dwelling older people (74.27±8.7years old) have participated in the study. From these, 82 have participated in the reliability study. The FES-I (P) had excellent internal consistency (α=0,978) and test-retest reliability (ICC 2,1 =0,999). A significant negative correlation was found between the FES-I (P) and the ABC (r s =-0.85; pPortuguese community-living older people. Future studies should explore the FES-I (P) responsiveness to change over time and analyse its psychometric properties in samples of both non-community-dwelling and community-dwelling older adults with different health conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modern network science of neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Cornelis J

    2014-10-01

    Modern network science has revealed fundamental aspects of normal brain-network organization, such as small-world and scale-free patterns, hierarchical modularity, hubs and rich clubs. The next challenge is to use this knowledge to gain a better understanding of brain disease. Recent developments in the application of network science to conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury and epilepsy have challenged the classical concept of neurological disorders being either 'local' or 'global', and have pointed to the overload and failure of hubs as a possible final common pathway in neurological disorders.

  8. Contributions of F-BAR and SH2 domains of Fes protein tyrosine kinase for coupling to the FcepsilonRI pathway in mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Victor A; Everingham, Stephanie; Karisch, Robert; Smith, Julie A; Udell, Christian M; Zheng, Jimin; Jia, Zongchao; Craig, Andrew W B

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the roles of Fer-CIP4 homology (FCH)-Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (F-BAR) and SH2 domains of Fes protein tyrosine kinase in regulating its activation and signaling downstream of the high-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgE) receptor (FcepsilonRI) in mast cells. Homology modeling of the Fes F-BAR domain revealed conservation of some basic residues implicated in phosphoinositide binding (R113/K114). The Fes F-BAR can bind phosphoinositides and induce tubulation of liposomes in vitro. Mutation of R113/K114 to uncharged residues (RK/QQ) caused a significant reduction in phosphoinositide binding in vitro and a more diffuse cytoplasmic localization in transfected COS-7 cells. RBL-2H3 mast cells expressing full-length Fes carrying the RK/QQ mutation show defects in FcepsilonRI-induced Fes tyrosine phosphorylation and degranulation compared to cells expressing wild-type Fes. This correlated with reduced localization to Lyn kinase-containing membrane fractions for the RK/QQ mutant compared to wild-type Fes in mast cells. The Fes SH2 domain also contributes to Fes signaling in mast cells, via interactions with the phosphorylated FcepsilonRI beta chain and the actin regulatory protein HS1. We show that Fes phosphorylates C-terminal tyrosine residues in HS1 implicated in actin stabilization. Thus, coordinated actions of the F-BAR and SH2 domains of Fes allow for coupling to FcepsilonRI signaling and potential regulation the actin reorganization in mast cells.

  9. EMG based FES for post-stroke rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyus, Ceethal K.; Anjaly Cherian, V.; Nageswaran, Sharmila

    2017-11-01

    Annually, 15 million in world population experiences stroke. Nearly 9 million stroke survivors every year experience mild to severe disability. The loss of upper extremity function in stroke survivors still remains a major rehabilitation challenge. The proposed EMG Abstract—Annually, 15 million in world population experiences stroke. Nearly 9 million stroke survivors every year experience mild to severe disability. The loss of upper extremity function in stroke survivors still remains a major rehabilitation challenge. The proposed EMG based FES system can be used for effective upper limb motor re-education in post stroke upper limb rehabilitation. The governing feature of the designed system is its synchronous activation, in which the FES stimulation is dependent on the amplitude of the EMG signal acquired from the unaffected upper limb muscle of the hemiplegic patient. This proportionate operation eliminates the undesirable damage to the patient’s skin by generating stimulus in proportion to voluntary EMG signals. This feature overcomes the disadvantages of currently available manual motor re-education systems. This model can be used in home-based post stroke rehabilitation, to effectively improve the upper limb functions.

  10. Science, Society, and Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. S.; Lohwater, T.

    2009-12-01

    The increased use of social networking is changing the way that scientific societies interact with their members and others. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) uses a variety of online networks to engage its members and the broader scientific community. AAAS members and non-members can interact with AAAS staff and each other on AAAS sites on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, as well as blogs and forums on the AAAS website (www.aaas.org). These tools allow scientists to more readily become engaged in policy by providing information on current science policy topics as well as methods of involvement. For example, members and the public can comment on policy-relevant stories from Science magazine’s ScienceInsider blog, download a weekly policy podcast, receive a weekly email update of policy issues affecting the scientific community, or watch a congressional hearing from their computer. AAAS resource websites and outreach programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/) and Science Careers (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org) also provide tools for scientists to become more personally engaged in communicating their findings and involved in the policy process.

  11. Enhancing fire science exchange: The Northern Rockies Fire Science Network [poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita Wright

    2011-01-01

    The Joint Fire Science Program is developing a national network of knowledge exchange consortia comprised of interested management and science stakeholders working together to tailor and actively demonstrate existing fire science information to benefit management.

  12. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences: Target 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard

    2014-05-02

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,500 users working on some 650 projects that involve nearly 600 codes in a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In March 2013, NERSC, DOE?s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE?s Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) held a review to characterize High Performance Computing (HPC) and storage requirements for FES research through 2017. This report is the result.

  13. The Impact of FeS Mineralogy on TCE Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron- and sulfate-reducing conditions are often encountered in permeable reactive barrier (PRB) systems that are constructed to remove TCE from groundwater, which usually leads to the accumulation of FeS mineral phases in the matrix of the PRB. Poorly crystalline mackinawite (Fe...

  14. Using network science in the language sciences and clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitevitch, Michael S; Castro, Nichol

    2015-02-01

    A number of variables—word frequency, word length—have long been known to influence language processing. This study briefly reviews the effects in speech perception and production of two more recently examined variables: phonotactic probability and neighbourhood density. It then describes a new approach to study language, network science, which is an interdisciplinary field drawing from mathematics, computer science, physics and other disciplines. In this approach, nodes represent individual entities in a system (i.e. phonological word-forms in the lexicon), links between nodes represent relationships between nodes (i.e. phonological neighbours) and various measures enable researchers to assess the micro-level (i.e. the individual word), the macro-level (i.e. characteristics about the whole system) and the meso-level (i.e. how an individual fits into smaller sub-groups in the larger system). Although research on individual lexical characteristics such as word-frequency has increased understanding of language processing, these measures only assess the "micro-level". Using network science, researchers can examine words at various levels in the system and how each word relates to the many other words stored in the lexicon. Several new findings using the network science approach are summarized to illustrate how this approach can be used to advance basic research as well as clinical practice.

  15. Fusion Energy Sciences Program at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeper, Ramon J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-15

    This presentation provides a strategic plan and description of investment areas; LANL vision for existing programs; FES portfolio and other specifics related to the Fusion Energy Sciences program at LANL.

  16. Structure and property correlations in FeS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, S.J. [Materials Science & Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory , Oak Ridge , TN 37831 (United States); Department of Physics , University of Notre Dame , Notre Dame , IN 46556 (United States); Kidder, M.K. [Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory , Oak Ridge , TN 37831 (United States); Parker, D.S. [Materials Science & Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory , Oak Ridge , TN 37831 (United States); Cruz, C. dela [Quantum Condensed Matter Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory , Oak Ridge , TN 37831 (United States); McGuire, M.A.; Chance, W.M.; Li, Li [Materials Science & Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory , Oak Ridge , TN 37831 (United States); Debeer-Schmitt, L. [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory , Oak Ridge , TN 37831 (United States); Ermentrout, J. [Materials Science & Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory , Oak Ridge , TN 37831 (United States); Littrell, K.C. [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory , Oak Ridge , TN 37831 (United States); Eskildsen, M.R. [Department of Physics , University of Notre Dame , Notre Dame , IN 46556 (United States); Sefat, A.S. [Materials Science & Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory , Oak Ridge , TN 37831 (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Similar to other iron chalcogenides of FeSe and FeTe, the structure and composition of FeS is highly correlated to its superconductivity. For iron-sulfide (FeS), we report the correlation between the structural details with its magnetic and superconducting properties. • While our FeS with a = 3.6772(7) Å is a filamentary superconductor coexisting with an antiferromagnetic phase, previously reported samples with a > 3.68 Å are bulk superconductors with no magnetism, and those with a ≈ 3.674 Å show magnetic properties. The a lattice of ≥3.68 Å seem to be crucial for causing bulk superconductivity in the tetragonal phase, which is relevant to iron stoichiometry and sulfur height from the iron plane. • For Fe{sub 0.93}S, we report evidence for the coexistence of antiferromagnetism at T{sub N} = 116 and filamentary superconductivity below T{sub c} = 4 K. While temperature neutron diffraction data reveals antiferromagnetic commensurate ordering with wave vector k{sub m} = (0.25,0.25,0), our magnetization results shows shielding and diamagnetism. - Abstract: For iron-sulfide (FeS), we investigate the correlation between the structural details, including its dimensionality and composition, with its magnetic and superconducting properties. We compare, theoretically and experimentally, the two-dimensional (2D) layered tetragonal (“t-FeS”) phase with the 3D hexagonal ('h-FeS') phase. X-ray diffraction reveals iron-deficient chemical compositions of t-Fe{sub 0.93(1)}S and h-Fe{sub 0.84(1)}S that show no low-temperature structural transitions. First-principles calculations reveal a high sensitivity of the 2D structure to the electronic and magnetic properties, predicting marginal antiferromagnetic instability for our compound (sulfur height of z{sub S} = 0.252) with an ordering energy of about 11 meV/Fe, while the 3D phase is magnetically stable. Experimentally, h-Fe{sub 0.84}S orders magnetically well above room

  17. The Teen Science Café Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M.; Mayhew, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    The 'Teen Cafè' phenomenon grew out of an NSF-funded experiment to bring the Cafè Scientifique model for engagement of the public with science and scientists to high school teenagers. Cafè Scientifique New Mexico (cafènm.org), now in its seventh year, has proven highly popular with high school teens for much the same reason as for adult Cafè programs: the blend of socializing in an attractive venue and interaction with a scientist on an interesting science topic. Teen Cafés also include exploration of the topic with hands-on activities. The success of the model has led to the creation of the national Teen Science Cafè Network (teensciencecafe.org. This first year of the new program, four 'Founding Members' of the Network-- in Florida, Colorado, North Carolina, and the St. Louis, Missouri region--started up Teen Cafè programs. Each applied the model with a unique flair appropriate to local institutions and demographics. Each Member in the Network runs Cafès in multiple local venues. We are now gearing up for our second year, and the Network is growing. Our Teen Cafè topics have covered a very wide range, from belly-button biodiversity to cyber-security to patterns of mega-earthquakes to a day in the life of a teen dolphin to corals on acid to emergency room medicine to alternative fuel cars. Presenters have come from a great variety of local institutions. Though they are popular with teens because they are fun and interesting, our evaluations have demonstrated that the programs are having a significant impact on participating teens' understanding of the nature of science, the work that scientists do, and the importance of science to their daily lives. We are also having success in training scientists to communicate effectively with this public audience. Presenters report strong satisfaction with their resulting quality of science communication. A surprising number have reported that their experience with the program has led them to think in a new way about

  18. Optimization of FES-assisted rising motion in individuals with paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Fattal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate what would be the optimal strategy for voluntary trunk movement, which would minimize hip, knee and ankle torques demanding as well minimal upper limb participation during Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES-assisted sit to stand motion in person suffering from Spinal cord injury. Our results suggest that paraplegic patients should bend their body forward in order to use linear momentum of the trunk in sit off phase, i.e. they should generate the motion similar to the one of healthy subjects. Those results have been experimentally tested using a closed-loop controller for FES-assisted standing-up. The controller should automatically trigger leg stimulation in optimal moment with respect to the trunk motion in order to decrease arm participation during rising phase of the motion.

  19. Correction to: Fe-S cluster assembly in the supergroup Excavata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Diaz, Priscila; Lukeš, Julius

    2018-05-29

    The article "Fe-S cluster assembly in the supergroup Excavata", written by Priscila Peña‑Diaz, Julius Lukeš was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) without open access.

  20. Network biology: Describing biological systems by complex networks. Comment on "Network science of biological systems at different scales: A review" by M. Gosak et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2018-03-01

    I enjoyed reading Gosak et al. review on analysing biological systems from network science perspective [1]. Network science, first started within Physics community, is now a mature multidisciplinary field of science with many applications ranging from Ecology to biology, medicine, social sciences, engineering and computer science. Gosak et al. discussed how biological systems can be modelled and described by complex network theory which is an important application of network science. Although there has been considerable progress in network biology over the past two decades, this is just the beginning and network science has a great deal to offer to biology and medical sciences.

  1. FES Bike Race preparation to Cybathlon 2016 by EMA team: a short case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Araujo Guimarães

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available FES-assisted cycling has been recommended to people struggling to emerge from a disability to more functioning life after spinal cord injury. Recommendations issued by a gowing number of scientific papershas promised toimprove body composition and physical activity levels, as well as to controlinvoluntary muscle response; favoring activity and participation which break new grounds in expanding locomotion, leisure and occupational options for people with paraplegia and tetraplegia. In this report we described our experience to select and prepare a pilot to compete in the FES Bike Race modality at Cybathlon 2016 in Kloten (Zurick. He was a man, 38 years old, with a complete spinal cord injury, level T9, three years of injury. He took part in a two preparation phases lasting respectively 18 and 12 weeks each: (1st pre-FES-cycling and a (2nd FES-cycling. The 1st phase aimed to explore electrical stimulation response in the quadricps, hamstrings and gluteus muscles; searching for a standard muscular recruitment enable to propel the pedals of a trike. Following, in the 2nd phase, stationary to mobile FES-cycling was performed at the same time the development of the automation and control systems were being incorporated in the trike. We adapted a commercial tadpole trycicle anda pilot controlled system. Although we had planned a three session by week protocol, for reasons of term and time to finish the trike development and be prepared to compete, in the last two weeks before the Cybatlhon an intense level of exercise was maintained. After the race, we noticedinflammatory signs on the left knee which later revealed a patella fracture. The video footage analysis confirmed ithappened during the race’s first lap.

  2. Advertising Discourse Analysis of FES stores: Killing Love, Cowards Show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Venegas Ahumada

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to analyze the structural and photographic discourse of the Autumn-Winter campaign 2008 of FES stores for young people. This was done by a semiotic theory and a critical-structural methodology of discourse. An analysis of 4 advertising photographs was done, and at once an analysis of the discourse “FES says no to violence against Women”, which explains the campaign’s target. The result is: The discourse was subjected to production condition (society of control and makes advertising a way to homogenize subjectivity of masses to consume. Recognition conditions demonstrate that this advertising discourse of symbolic violence means a type of violation of Men and Women Rights. An action like this requires commitment of Psychology in order to promote the social humanizing change, by means of university teaching and professional tasks.

  3. Chain and network science: A research framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omta, S.W.F.; Trienekens, J.H.; Beers, G.

    2001-01-01

    In this first article of the Journal on Chain and Network Science the base-line is set for a discussion on contents and scope of chain and network theory. Chain and network research is clustered into four main ‘streams’: Network theory, social capital theory, supply chain management and business

  4. Network science and cybersecurity

    CERN Document Server

    Pino, Robinson E

    2014-01-01

    Network Science and Cybersecurity introduces new research and development efforts for cybersecurity solutions and applications taking place within various U.S. Government Departments of  Defense, industry and academic laboratories. This book examines new algorithms and tools, technology platforms and reconfigurable technologies for cybersecurity systems. Anomaly-based intrusion detection systems (IDS) are explored as a key component of any general network intrusion detection service, complementing signature-based IDS components by attempting to identify novel attacks.  These attacks  may not y

  5. A National Collaboratory to Advance the Science of High Temperature Plasma Physics for Magnetic Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissel, D.P.; Abla, G.; Burruss, J.R.; Feibush, E.; Fredian, T.W.; Goode, M.M.; Greenwald, M.J.; Keahey, K.; Leggett, T.; Li, K.; McCune, D.C.; Papka, M.E.; Randerson, L.; Sanderson, A.; Stillerman, J.; Thompson, M.R.; Uram, T.; Wallace, G.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the work of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing Program (SciDAC) to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. A five year project that was initiated in 2001, it built on the past collaborative work performed within the U.S. fusion community and added the component of computer science research done with the USDOE Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computer Research. The project was a collaboration itself uniting fusion scientists from General Atomics, MIT, and PPPL and computer scientists from ANL, LBNL, Princeton University, and the University of Utah to form a coordinated team. The group leveraged existing computer science technology where possible and extended or created new capabilities where required. Developing a reliable energy system that is economically and environmentally sustainable is the long-term goal of Fusion Energy Science (FES) research. In the U.S., FES experimental research is centered at three large facilities with a replacement value of over $1B. As these experiments have increased in size and complexity, there has been a concurrent growth in the number and importance of collaborations among large groups at the experimental sites and smaller groups located nationwide. Teaming with the experimental community is a theoretical and simulation community whose efforts range from applied analysis of experimental data to fundamental theory (e.g., realistic nonlinear 3D plasma models) that run on massively parallel computers. Looking toward the future, the large-scale experiments needed for FES research are staffed by correspondingly large, globally dispersed teams. The fusion program will be increasingly oriented toward the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) where even now, a decade before operation begins, a large

  6. FES-assisted Cycling Improves Aerobic Capacity and Locomotor Function Postcerebrovascular Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Stacey E; Vanderwerker, Catherine J; Embry, Aaron E; Newton, Jennifer H; Lee, Samuel C K; Gregory, Chris M

    2018-03-01

    After a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) aerobic deconditioning contributes to diminished physical function. Functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted cycling is a promising exercise paradigm designed to target both aerobic capacity and locomotor function. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effects of an FES-assisted cycling intervention on aerobic capacity and locomotor function in individuals post-CVA. Eleven individuals with chronic (>6 months) post-CVA hemiparesis completed an 8-wk (three times per week; 24 sessions) progressive FES-assisted cycling intervention. V˙O2peak, self-selected, and fastest comfortable walking speeds, gait, and pedaling symmetry, 6-min walk test (6MWT), balance, dynamic gait movements, and health status were measured at baseline and posttraining. Functional electrical stimulation-assisted cycling significantly improved V˙O2peak (12%, P = 0.006), self-selected walking speed (SSWS, 0.05 ± 0.1 m·s, P = 0.04), Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale score (12.75 ± 17.4, P = 0.04), Berg Balance Scale score (3.91 ± 4.2, P = 0.016), Dynamic Gait Index score (1.64 ± 1.4, P = 0.016), and Stroke Impact Scale participation/role domain score (12.74 ± 16.7, P = 0.027). Additionally, pedal symmetry, represented by the paretic limb contribution to pedaling (paretic pedaling ratio [PPR]) significantly improved (10.09% ± 9.0%, P = 0.016). Although step length symmetry (paretic step ratio [PSR]) did improve, these changes were not statistically significant (-0.05% ± 0.1%, P = 0.09). Exploratory correlations showed moderate association between change in SSWS and 6-min walk test (r = 0.74), and moderate/strong negative association between change in PPR and PSR. These results support FES-assisted cycling as a means to improve both aerobic capacity and locomotor function. Improvements in SSWS, balance, dynamic walking movements, and participation in familial and societal roles are important targets for rehabilitation of individuals

  7. The iron uptake repressor Fep1 in the fission yeast binds Fe-S cluster through conserved cysteines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo-Jin; Lee, Kang-Lok; Kim, Kyoung-Dong; Roe, Jung-Hye, E-mail: jhroe@snu.ac.kr

    2016-09-09

    Iron homeostasis is tightly regulated since iron is an essential but toxic element in the cell. The GATA-type transcription factor Fep1 and its orthologs contribute to iron homeostasis in many fungi by repressing genes for iron uptake when intracellular iron is high. Even though the function and interaction partners of Fep1 have been elucidated extensively In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the mechanism behind iron-sensing by Fep1 remains elusive. It has been reported that Fep1 interacts with Fe-S-containing monothiol glutaredoxin Grx4 and Grx4-Fra2 complex. In this study, we demonstrate that Fep1 also binds iron, in the form of Fe-S cluster. Spectroscopic and biochemical analyses of as isolated and reconstituted Fep1 suggest that the dimeric Fep1 binds Fe-S clusters. The mutation study revealed that the cluster-binding depended on the conserved cysteines located between the two zinc fingers in the DNA binding domain. EPR analyses revealed [Fe-S]-specific peaks indicative of mixed presence of [2Fe-2S], [3Fe-4S], or [4Fe-4S]. The finding that Fep1 is an Fe-S protein fits nicely with the model that the Fe-S-trafficking Grx4 senses intracellular iron environment and modulates the activity of Fep1. - Highlights: • Fep1, a prototype fungal iron uptake regulator, was isolated stably from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. • Fep1 exhibits UV–visible absorption spectrum, characteristic of [Fe-S] proteins. • The iron and sulfide contents in purified or reconstituted Fep1 also support [Fe-S]. • The conserved cysteines are critical for [Fe-S]-binding. • EPR spectra at 5 K and 123 K suggest a mixed population of [Fe-S].

  8. Upper Limb Rehabilitation Robot Powered by PAMs Cooperates with FES Arrays to Realize Reach-to-Grasp Trainings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chen; Jiang, Xiaobo

    2017-01-01

    The reach-to-grasp activities play an important role in our daily lives. The developed RUPERT for stroke patients with high stiffness in arm flexor muscles is a low-cost lightweight portable exoskeleton rehabilitation robot whose joints are unidirectionally actuated by pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs). In order to expand the useful range of RUPERT especially for patients with flaccid paralysis, functional electrical stimulation (FES) is taken to activate paralyzed arm muscles. As both the exoskeleton robot driven by PAMs and the neuromuscular skeletal system under FES possess the highly nonlinear and time-varying characteristics, iterative learning control (ILC) is studied and is taken to control this newly designed hybrid rehabilitation system for reaching trainings. Hand function rehabilitation refers to grasping. Because of tiny finger muscles, grasping and releasing are realized by FES array electrodes and matrix scan method. By using the surface electromyography (EMG) technique, the subject's active intent is identified. The upper limb rehabilitation robot powered by PAMs cooperates with FES arrays to realize active reach-to-grasp trainings, which was verified through experiments. PMID:29065566

  9. Upper Limb Rehabilitation Robot Powered by PAMs Cooperates with FES Arrays to Realize Reach-to-Grasp Trainings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xikai Tu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reach-to-grasp activities play an important role in our daily lives. The developed RUPERT for stroke patients with high stiffness in arm flexor muscles is a low-cost lightweight portable exoskeleton rehabilitation robot whose joints are unidirectionally actuated by pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs. In order to expand the useful range of RUPERT especially for patients with flaccid paralysis, functional electrical stimulation (FES is taken to activate paralyzed arm muscles. As both the exoskeleton robot driven by PAMs and the neuromuscular skeletal system under FES possess the highly nonlinear and time-varying characteristics, iterative learning control (ILC is studied and is taken to control this newly designed hybrid rehabilitation system for reaching trainings. Hand function rehabilitation refers to grasping. Because of tiny finger muscles, grasping and releasing are realized by FES array electrodes and matrix scan method. By using the surface electromyography (EMG technique, the subject’s active intent is identified. The upper limb rehabilitation robot powered by PAMs cooperates with FES arrays to realize active reach-to-grasp trainings, which was verified through experiments.

  10. Applications of neural networks in training science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Mark; Hohmann, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Training science views itself as an integrated and applied science, developing practical measures founded on scientific method. Therefore, it demands consideration of a wide spectrum of approaches and methods. Especially in the field of competitive sports, research questions are usually located in complex environments, so that mainly field studies are drawn upon to obtain broad external validity. Here, the interrelations between different variables or variable sets are mostly of a nonlinear character. In these cases, methods like neural networks, e.g., the pattern recognizing methods of Self-Organizing Kohonen Feature Maps or similar instruments to identify interactions might be successfully applied to analyze data. Following on from a classification of data analysis methods in training-science research, the aim of the contribution is to give examples of varied sports in which network approaches can be effectually used in training science. First, two examples are given in which neural networks are employed for pattern recognition. While one investigation deals with the detection of sporting talent in swimming, the other is located in game sports research, identifying tactical patterns in team handball. The third and last example shows how an artificial neural network can be used to predict competitive performance in swimming. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Municipal consultants’ participation in building networks to support science teachers’ work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillasen, Martin Krabbe; Valero, Paola

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses particularly on the role of municipal science consultants in developing and maintaining network activities and connections among primary school science teachers. The hypothesis is that consultants play a crucial role in supporting strategic planning, and sustaining contacts...... and activities within professional learning networks. The research is framed by a project that involved 80 primary science teachers in 20 schools. The aim of the project was to develop network activities that facilitate sustainable change of the participating schools’ collective culture and practice of science...... science consultants’ participation in supporting network activities enable the participants to share and develop teaching activities....

  12. Biomass carbon composited FeS2 as cathode materials for high-rate rechargeable lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Meng, Zhen; Zhu, Xueling; Zhang, Shunlong; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2018-03-01

    Pyrite FeS2 has long been used as commercial primary lithium batteries at room temperature. To achieve rechargeable FeS2 battery, biomass-carbon@FeS2 composites are prepared using green and renewable auricularia auricula as carbon source through the process of carbonization and sulfuration. The auricularia auricula has strong swelling characteristics to absorb aqueous solution which can effectively absorb Fe ions into its body. FeS2 homogeneously distributed in biomass carbon matrix performs high electronic and ionic conductivity. The specific capacity of biomass-carbon@FeS2 composites remains 850 mAh g-1 after 80 cycles at 0.5C and 700 mAh g-1 at the rate of 2C after 150 cycles. Biomass-carbon@FeS2 composites exhibit high-rate capacity in lithium-ion battery.

  13. Restoration of Movement using FES: An Introductory Study I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M.; Huq, M. S.; Ibrahim, B. S. K. K.

    2018-03-01

    FES has been applied for movement restoration, rehabilitation and therapy in spinal cord injury and nervous system failure subjects, whose number rise worldwide every year. Despite the increase, assist devices that are expected to aid healthcare delivery are not in abundance and could be as a result of standards imposed due to the sensitive condition of the subjects. Although closed loop control systems are expected to positively aid in that regards, the delicacy of the plant was a big constraint. An existing model from the works Ferrarin and Pedotti was elaborated from the knee swinging to the sit-to-stand movements and from the two mathematical models it can be inferred that even though similar higher level of excitation would be required for sit-to-stand manoeuvre. As part of research to improve on closed approach for the FES system, an appraisal was successfully done on the neuromuscular model together with fatigue models from the works on Lynch. The remodelled fatigue models to suit the research were presented.

  14. BER Science Network Requirements Workshop -- July 26-27,2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, Brian L.; Dart, Eli

    2008-02-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In July 2007, ESnet and the Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the BER Program Office. These included several large programs and facilities, including Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF), Bioinformatics and Life Sciences Programs, Climate Sciences Programs, the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at PNNL, the Joint Genome Institute (JGI). National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) also participated in the workshop and contributed a section to this report due to the fact that a large distributed data repository for climate data will be established at NERSC, ORNL and NCAR, and this will have an effect on ESnet. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in a 'case study' format, which summarizes the instruments and facilities necessary for the science and the process by which the science is done, with emphasis on the network services needed and the way in which the network is used. Participants were asked to consider three time scales in their case studies--the near term (immediately and up to 12 months in the future), the medium term (3-5 years in the future), and the long term (greater than 5 years in the future). In addition to achieving its goal of collecting and

  15. The Fps/Fes kinase regulates the inflammatory response to endotoxin through down-regulation of TLR4, NF-kappaB activation, and TNF-alpha secretion in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sean A; Greer, Peter A

    2006-12-01

    Fps/Fes and Fer are members of a distinct subfamily of cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases that have recently been implicated in the regulation of innate immunity. Previous studies showed that mice lacking Fps/Fes are hypersensitive to systemic LPS challenge, and Fer-deficient mice displayed enhanced recruitment of leukocytes in response to local LPS challenge. This study identifies physiological, cellular, and molecular defects that contribute to the hyperinflammatory phenotype in Fps/Fes null mice. Plasma TNF-alpha levels were elevated in LPS challenged Fps/Fes null mice as compared with wild-type mice and cultured Fps/Fes null peritoneal macrophages treated with LPS showed increased TNF-alpha production. Cultured Fps/Fes null macrophages also displayed prolonged LPS-induced degradation of IkappaB-alpha, increased phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB, and defective TLR4 internalization, compared with wild-type macrophages. Together, these observations provide a likely mechanistic basis for elevated proinflammatory cytokine secretion by Fps/Fes null macrophages and the increased sensitivity of Fps/Fes null mice to endotoxin. We posit that Fps/Fes modulates the innate immune response of macrophages to LPS, in part, by regulating internalization and down-regulation of the TLR4 receptor complex.

  16. The effect of electronic networking on preservice elementary teachers' science teaching self-efficacy and attitude towards science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Nishi Mary

    Preservice elementary teachers' science teaching efficacy and attitude towards science teaching are important determinants of whether and how they will teach science in their classrooms. Preservice teachers' understanding of science and science teaching experiences have an impact on their beliefs about their ability to teach science. This study had a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design (N = 60). Preservice elementary teachers in this study were networked through the Internet (using e-mail, newsgroups, listserv, world wide web access and electronic mentoring) during their science methods class and student practicum. Electronic networking provides a social context in which to learn collaboratively, share and reflect upon science teaching experiences and practices, conduct tele-research effectively, and to meet the demands of student teaching through peer support. It was hoped that the activities over the electronic networks would provide them with positive and helpful science learning and teaching experiences. Self-efficacy was measured using a 23-item Likert scale instrument, the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument, Form-B (STEBI-B). Attitude towards science teaching was measured using the Revised Science Attitude Scale (RSAS). Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data, with pretest scores as the covariate. Findings of this study revealed that prospective elementary teachers in the electronically networked group had better science teaching efficacy and personal science teaching efficacy as compared to the non-networked group of preservice elementary teachers. The science teaching outcome expectancy of prospective elementary teachers in the networked group was not greater than that of the prospective teachers in the non-networked group (at p < 0.05). Attitude towards science teaching was not significantly affected by networking. However, this is surmised to be related to the duration of the study. Information about the

  17. Network Science Center Research Team’s Visit to Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    TERMS Network Analysis, Economic Networks, Entrepreneurial Ecosystems , Economic Development, Data Collection 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...the Project Synopsis, Developing Network Models of Entrepreneurial Ecosystems in Developing Economies, on the Network Science Center web site.) A...Thomas visited Kampala, Uganda in support of an ongoing Network Science Center project to develop models of entrepreneurial networks. Our Center has

  18. HEP Science Network Requirements--Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, Jon; Barczyk, Artur; Blatecky, Alan; Boehnlein, Amber; Carlson, Rich; Chekanov, Sergei; Cotter, Steve; Cottrell, Les; Crawford, Glen; Crawford, Matt; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Ernst, Michael; Fisk, Ian; Gardner, Rob; Johnston, Bill; Kent, Steve; Lammel, Stephan; Loken, Stewart; Metzger, Joe; Mount, Richard; Ndousse-Fetter, Thomas; Newman, Harvey; Schopf, Jennifer; Sekine, Yukiko; Stone, Alan; Tierney, Brian; Tull, Craig; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-04-27

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2009 ESnet and the Office of High Energy Physics (HEP), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by HEP. The International HEP community has been a leader in data intensive science from the beginning. HEP data sets have historically been the largest of all scientific data sets, and the communty of interest the most distributed. The HEP community was also the first to embrace Grid technologies. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized below, and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section: (1) There will be more LHC Tier-3 sites than orginally thought, and likely more Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic than was envisioned. It it not yet known what the impact of this will be on ESnet, but we will need to keep an eye on this traffic. (2) The LHC Tier-1 sites (BNL and FNAL) predict the need for 40-50 Gbps of data movement capacity in 2-5 years, and 100-200 Gbps in 5-10 years for HEP program related traffic. Other key HEP sites include LHC Tier-2 and Tier-3 sites, many of which are located at universities. To support the LHC, ESnet must continue its collaborations with university and international networks. (3) While in all cases the deployed 'raw' network bandwidth must exceed the user requirements in order to meet the data transfer and reliability requirements, network engineering for trans

  19. HEP Science Network Requirements. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2009 ESnet and the Office of High Energy Physics (HEP), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by HEP. The International HEP community has been a leader in data intensive science from the beginning. HEP data sets have historically been the largest of all scientific data sets, and the communty of interest the most distributed. The HEP community was also the first to embrace Grid technologies. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized below, and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section: (1) There will be more LHC Tier-3 sites than orginally thought, and likely more Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic than was envisioned. It it not yet known what the impact of this will be on ESnet, but we will need to keep an eye on this traffic. (2) The LHC Tier-1 sites (BNL and FNAL) predict the need for 40-50 Gbps of data movement capacity in 2-5 years, and 100-200 Gbps in 5-10 years for HEP program related traffic. Other key HEP sites include LHC Tier-2 and Tier-3 sites, many of which are located at universities. To support the LHC, ESnet must continue its collaborations with university and international networks. (3) While in all cases the deployed 'raw' network bandwidth must exceed the user requirements in order to meet the data transfer and reliability requirements, network engineering for trans-Atlantic connectivity

  20. Fully automatic control of paraplegic FES pedaling using higher-order sliding mode and fuzzy logic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhoud, Aidin; Erfanian, Abbas

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a fully automatic robust control strategy is proposed for control of paraplegic pedaling using functional electrical stimulation (FES). The method is based on higher-order sliding mode (HOSM) control and fuzzy logic control. In FES, the strength of muscle contraction can be altered either by varying the pulse width (PW) or by the pulse amplitude (PA) of the stimulation signal. The proposed control strategy regulates simultaneously both PA and PW (i.e., PA/PW modulation). A HOSM controller is designed for regulating the PW and a fuzzy logic controller for the PA. The proposed control scheme is free-model and does not require any offline training phase and subject-specific information. Simulation studies on a virtual patient and experiments on three paraplegic subjects demonstrate good tracking performance and robustness of the proposed control strategy against muscle fatigue and external disturbances during FES-induced pedaling. The results of simulation studies show that the power and cadence tracking errors are 5.4% and 4.8%, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the proposed controller can improve pedaling system efficacy and increase the endurance of FES pedaling. The average of power tracking error over three paraplegic subjects is 7.4±1.4% using PA/PW modulation, while the tracking error is 10.2±1.2% when PW modulation is used. The subjects could pedal for 15 min with about 4.1% power loss at the end of experiment using proposed control strategy, while the power loss is 14.3% using PW modulation. The controller could adjust the stimulation intensity to compensate the muscle fatigue during long period of FES pedaling.

  1. An Automatic Identification Procedure to Promote the use of FES-Cycling Training for Hemiparetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Ambrosini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycling induced by Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES training currently requires a manual setting of different parameters, which is a time-consuming and scarcely repeatable procedure. We proposed an automatic procedure for setting session-specific parameters optimized for hemiparetic patients. This procedure consisted of the identification of the stimulation strategy as the angular ranges during which FES drove the motion, the comparison between the identified strategy and the physiological muscular activation strategy, and the setting of the pulse amplitude and duration of each stimulated muscle. Preliminary trials on 10 healthy volunteers helped define the procedure. Feasibility tests on 8 hemiparetic patients (5 stroke, 3 traumatic brain injury were performed. The procedure maximized the motor output within the tolerance constraint, identified a biomimetic strategy in 6 patients, and always lasted less than 5 minutes. Its reasonable duration and automatic nature make the procedure usable at the beginning of every training session, potentially enhancing the performance of FES-cycling training.

  2. Code 672 observational science branch computer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, D. W.; Shirk, H. G.

    1988-01-01

    In general, networking increases productivity due to the speed of transmission, easy access to remote computers, ability to share files, and increased availability of peripherals. Two different networks within the Observational Science Branch are described in detail.

  3. In vivo imaging of estrogen receptor concentration in the endometrium and myometrium using FES PET - influence of menstrual cycle and endogenous estrogen level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)]. E-mail: tsucchy@fmsrsa.fukui-med.ac.jp; Okazawa, Hidehiko [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Mori, Tetsuya [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masato [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Yoshida, Yoshio [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Itoh, Harumi [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: The goals of this study were to measure estrogen receptor (ER) concentration in the endometrium and myometrium using 16{alpha}-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-17{beta}-estradiol (FES) positron emission tomography (PET) and to investigate the relationship between changes in these parameters with the menstrual cycle and endogenous estrogen levels. Methods: Sixteen female healthy volunteers were included in this study. After blood sampling to measure endogenous estrogen level, FES PET image was acquired 60 min postinjection of FES. After whole-body imaging of FES PET, averaged standardized uptake values (SUVs) in the endometrium and myometrium were measured, and the relationship between FES uptake and menstrual cycle or endogenous estrogen level was evaluated. Results: Endometrial SUV was significantly higher in the proliferative phase than in the secretory phase (6.03{+-}1.05 vs. 3.97{+-}1.29, P=.022). In contrast, there was no significant difference in myometrial SUV when the proliferative and secretory phases were compared (P=.23). Further, there was no correlation between SUV and endogenous estrogen level in the proliferative phase. Conclusions: The change of ER concentration relative to menstrual cycle as characterized by FES PET was consistent with those from previous reports that used an immunohistochemical technique. These data suggest that FES PET is a feasible, noninvasive method for characterizing changes in ER concentration.

  4. In vivo imaging of estrogen receptor concentration in the endometrium and myometrium using FES PET - influence of menstrual cycle and endogenous estrogen level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Mori, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Masato; Yoshida, Yoshio; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Itoh, Harumi

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The goals of this study were to measure estrogen receptor (ER) concentration in the endometrium and myometrium using 16α-[ 18 F]fluoro-17β-estradiol (FES) positron emission tomography (PET) and to investigate the relationship between changes in these parameters with the menstrual cycle and endogenous estrogen levels. Methods: Sixteen female healthy volunteers were included in this study. After blood sampling to measure endogenous estrogen level, FES PET image was acquired 60 min postinjection of FES. After whole-body imaging of FES PET, averaged standardized uptake values (SUVs) in the endometrium and myometrium were measured, and the relationship between FES uptake and menstrual cycle or endogenous estrogen level was evaluated. Results: Endometrial SUV was significantly higher in the proliferative phase than in the secretory phase (6.03±1.05 vs. 3.97±1.29, P=.022). In contrast, there was no significant difference in myometrial SUV when the proliferative and secretory phases were compared (P=.23). Further, there was no correlation between SUV and endogenous estrogen level in the proliferative phase. Conclusions: The change of ER concentration relative to menstrual cycle as characterized by FES PET was consistent with those from previous reports that used an immunohistochemical technique. These data suggest that FES PET is a feasible, noninvasive method for characterizing changes in ER concentration

  5. Effectiveness of functional electrical stimulation (fes) versus conventional electrical stimulation in gait rehabilitation of patients with stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, F.; Ghulam, S.; Malik, A.N.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of functional electrical stimulation (FES) versus conventional electrical stimulation in gait rehabilitation of patients with stroke for finding the most appropriate problem-oriented treatment for foot drop patients in a shorter time period. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study:Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Rawalpindi, from July to December 2016. Methodology: Subjects with foot drop due to stroke were allotted randomly into 1 of 2 groups receiving standard rehabilitation with Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) or Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS). FES was applied on tibialis anterior 30 minutes/day, five days/week for six weeks. EMS was also applied on the tibialis anterior five days/week for six weeks. Outcome measures included Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale, Modified Ashworth Scale, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Time Up and Go Test (TUG) and Gait Dynamic Index (GDI). They were recorded at baseline, after 3 and 6 weeks. Pre- and post-treatment scores were analyzed between two groups on SPSS-20. Results: After six weeks of intervention, significant improvement was recorded in Fugl-Meyer Assessment score (p<0.001), modified Ashworth Scale score (p=0.027), Berg Balance Scale score (p<0.001), Time Up and Go Test (p<0.001) and Gait Dynamic Index (p=0.012) of the group subjected to FES. Conclusion: Gait training with FES is more effective than EMS in improving mobility, balance, gait performance and reducing spasticity in stroke patients. The research will help clinicians to select appropriate treatment of foot drop in stroke patients. (author)

  6. The medical science DMZ: a network design pattern for data-intensive medical science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peisert, Sean [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of computer Science; Corporation for Education Network Initiatives in California (CENIC), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). ESnet; Barnett, William [Indiana Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States). Indiana Clinical and Translational Sciences Inst., Regenstrief Inst.; Balas, Edward [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Global Research Network Operations Center; Cuff, James [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Research Computing; Grossman, Robert L. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Center for Data Intensive Science; Berman, Ari [BioTeam, Middleton, MA (United States); Shankar, Anurag [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Pervasive Technology Inst.; Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). ESnet

    2017-10-06

    We describe a detailed solution for maintaining high-capacity, data-intensive network flows (eg, 10, 40, 100 Gbps+) in a scientific, medical context while still adhering to security and privacy laws and regulations.High-end networking, packet-filter firewalls, network intrusion-detection systems.We describe a "Medical Science DMZ" concept as an option for secure, high-volume transport of large, sensitive datasets between research institutions over national research networks, and give 3 detailed descriptions of implemented Medical Science DMZs.The exponentially increasing amounts of "omics" data, high-quality imaging, and other rapidly growing clinical datasets have resulted in the rise of biomedical research "Big Data." The storage, analysis, and network resources required to process these data and integrate them into patient diagnoses and treatments have grown to scales that strain the capabilities of academic health centers. Some data are not generated locally and cannot be sustained locally, and shared data repositories such as those provided by the National Library of Medicine, the National Cancer Institute, and international partners such as the European Bioinformatics Institute are rapidly growing. The ability to store and compute using these data must therefore be addressed by a combination of local, national, and industry resources that exchange large datasets. Maintaining data-intensive flows that comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and other regulations presents a new challenge for biomedical research. We describe a strategy that marries performance and security by borrowing from and redefining the concept of a Science DMZ, a framework that is used in physical sciences and engineering research to manage high-capacity data flows.By implementing a Medical Science DMZ architecture, biomedical researchers can leverage the scale provided by high-performance computer and cloud storage facilities and national high

  7. The effectiveness of FES-evoked EMG potentials to assess muscle force and fatigue in individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Estigoni, Eduardo H; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Wahab, Ahmad Khairi Abdul; Davis, Glen M

    2014-07-14

    The evoked electromyographic signal (eEMG) potential is the standard index used to monitor both electrical changes within the motor unit during muscular activity and the electrical patterns during evoked contraction. However, technical and physiological limitations often preclude the acquisition and analysis of the signal especially during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked contractions. Hence, an accurate quantification of the relationship between the eEMG potential and FES-evoked muscle response remains elusive and continues to attract the attention of researchers due to its potential application in the fields of biomechanics, muscle physiology, and rehabilitation science. We conducted a systematic review to examine the effectiveness of eEMG potentials to assess muscle force and fatigue, particularly as a biofeedback descriptor of FES-evoked contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury. At the outset, 2867 citations were identified and, finally, fifty-nine trials met the inclusion criteria. Four hypotheses were proposed and evaluated to inform this review. The results showed that eEMG is effective at quantifying muscle force and fatigue during isometric contraction, but may not be effective during dynamic contractions including cycling and stepping. Positive correlation of up to r = 0.90 (p peak-to-peak amplitude of the eEMG and the decline in the force output during fatiguing isometric contractions has been reported. In the available prediction models, the performance index of the eEMG signal to estimate the generated muscle force ranged from 3.8% to 34% for 18 s to 70 s ahead of the actual muscle force generation. The strength and inherent limitations of the eEMG signal to assess muscle force and fatigue were evident from our findings with implications in clinical management of spinal cord injury (SCI) population.

  8. The Effectiveness of FES-Evoked EMG Potentials to Assess Muscle Force and Fatigue in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morufu Olusola Ibitoye

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The evoked electromyographic signal (eEMG potential is the standard index used to monitor both electrical changes within the motor unit during muscular activity and the electrical patterns during evoked contraction. However, technical and physiological limitations often preclude the acquisition and analysis of the signal especially during functional electrical stimulation (FES-evoked contractions. Hence, an accurate quantification of the relationship between the eEMG potential and FES-evoked muscle response remains elusive and continues to attract the attention of researchers due to its potential application in the fields of biomechanics, muscle physiology, and rehabilitation science. We conducted a systematic review to examine the effectiveness of eEMG potentials to assess muscle force and fatigue, particularly as a biofeedback descriptor of FES-evoked contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury. At the outset, 2867 citations were identified and, finally, fifty-nine trials met the inclusion criteria. Four hypotheses were proposed and evaluated to inform this review. The results showed that eEMG is effective at quantifying muscle force and fatigue during isometric contraction, but may not be effective during dynamic contractions including cycling and stepping. Positive correlation of up to r = 0.90 (p < 0.05 between the decline in the peak-to-peak amplitude of the eEMG and the decline in the force output during fatiguing isometric contractions has been reported. In the available prediction models, the performance index of the eEMG signal to estimate the generated muscle force ranged from 3.8% to 34% for 18 s to 70 s ahead of the actual muscle force generation. The strength and inherent limitations of the eEMG signal to assess muscle force and fatigue were evident from our findings with implications in clinical management of spinal cord injury (SCI population.

  9. Symposium Connects Government Problems with State of the Art Network Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-16

    Symposium Connects Government Problems with State-of-the- Art Network Science Research By Rajmonda S. Caceres and Benjamin A. Miller Network...the US Gov- ernment, and match these with the state-of-the- art models and techniques developed in the network science research community. Since its... science has grown significantly in the last several years as a field at the intersec- tion of mathematics, computer science , social science , and engineering

  10. "Getting Practical" and the National Network of Science Learning Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Georgina; Langley, Mark; Skilling, Gus; Walker, John

    2011-01-01

    The national network of Science Learning Centres is a co-ordinating partner in the Getting Practical--Improving Practical Work in Science programme. The principle of training provision for the "Getting Practical" programme is a cascade model. Regional trainers employed by the national network of Science Learning Centres trained the cohort of local…

  11. Preparation and development of FeS2 Quantum Dots on SiO2 nanostructures immobilized in biopolymers and synthetic polymers as nanoparticles and nanofibers catalyst for antibiotic degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Razavi, Razieh; Fakhri, Ali

    2018-03-22

    The FeS 2 Quantum Dots (QDs) decorated SiO 2 nanostructure were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis method. Chitosan and polypyrrole as polymers were used for the immobilization process. The characteristic structure of prepared samples was analyzed using several techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmittance electron microscopy, photoluminescence and UV-vis spectroscopy. The mean crystallite sizes of FeS 2 QDs/SiO 2 nanocomposites, FeS 2 QDs/SiO 2 -chitosan nanocomposites and FeS 2 QDs/SiO 2 -polypyrrole nanohybrids are 56.12, 76.38, and 83.24nm, respectively. The band gap energy of FeS 2 QDs/SiO 2 nanocomposites, FeS 2 QDs/SiO 2 -chitosan nanocomposites and FeS 2 QDs/SiO 2 -polypyrrole nanohybrids were found out to be 3.0, 2.8, and 2.7eV, respectively. The photocatalysis properties were investigated by degradation of ampicillin under UV light illumination. The effect of experimental variables, such as, pH and time, on photo-degradation efficiency was studied. The results show that the three prepared samples nanopowders under UV light was in pH3 at 60min. As it could be seen that the amount of ampicillin degradation was increased with the loading of FeS 2 QDs on SiO 2 and FeS 2 QDs/SiO 2 on chitosan nanoparticles and polypyrrole nanofiber. The antibacterial experiment was investigated under visible light illumination and the FeS 2 QDs/SiO 2 -chitosan nanocomposites and FeS 2 QDs/SiO 2 -polypyrrole nanohybrids demonstrate good antibacterial compared to FeS 2 QDs/SiO 2 nanocomposites. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The E. coli monothiol glutaredoxin GrxD forms homodimeric and heterodimeric FeS cluster containing complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, N; Gold, B; Liu, N L; Prathapam, R; Sterling, H J; Willams, E R; Butland, G

    2011-10-18

    Monothiol glutaredoxins (mono-Grx) represent a highly evolutionarily conserved class of proteins present in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to humans. Mono-Grxs have been implicated in iron sulfur (FeS) cluster biosynthesis as potential scaffold proteins and in iron homeostasis via an FeS-containing complex with Fra2p (homologue of E. coli BolA) in yeast and are linked to signal transduction in mammalian systems. However, the function of the mono-Grx in prokaryotes and the nature of an interaction with BolA-like proteins have not been established. Recent genome-wide screens for E. coli genetic interactions reported the synthetic lethality (combination of mutations leading to cell death; mutation of only one of these genes does not) of a grxD mutation when combined with strains defective in FeS cluster biosynthesis (isc operon) functions [Butland, G., et al. (2008) Nature Methods 5, 789-795]. These data connected the only E. coli mono-Grx, GrxD to a potential role in FeS cluster biosynthesis. We investigated GrxD to uncover the molecular basis of this synthetic lethality and observed that GrxD can form FeS-bound homodimeric and BolA containing heterodimeric complexes. These complexes display substantially different spectroscopic and functional properties, including the ability to act as scaffold proteins for intact FeS cluster transfer to the model [2Fe-2S] acceptor protein E. coli apo-ferredoxin (Fdx), with the homodimer being significantly more efficient. In this work, we functionally dissect the potential cellular roles of GrxD as a component of both homodimeric and heterodimeric complexes to ultimately uncover if either of these complexes performs functions linked to FeS cluster biosynthesis. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  13. SciDAC Fusiongrid Project--A National Collaboratory to Advance the Science of High Temperature Plasma Physics for Magnetic Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHISSEL, D.P.; ABLA, G.; BURRUSS, J.R.; FEIBUSH, E.; FREDIAN, T.W.; GOODE, M.M.; GREENWALD, M.J.; KEAHEY, K.; LEGGETT, T.; LI, K.; McCUNE, D.C.; PAPKA, M.E.; RANDERSON, L.; SANDERSON, A.; STILLERMAN, J.; THOMPSON, M.R.; URAM, T.; WALLACE, G.

    2006-08-31

    This report summarizes the work of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing Program (SciDAC) to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. A five year project that was initiated in 2001, it built on the past collaborative work performed within the U.S. fusion community and added the component of computer science research done with the USDOE Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computer Research. The project was a collaboration itself uniting fusion scientists from General Atomics, MIT, and PPPL and computer scientists from ANL, LBNL, Princeton University, and the University of Utah to form a coordinated team. The group leveraged existing computer science technology where possible and extended or created new capabilities where required. Developing a reliable energy system that is economically and environmentally sustainable is the long-term goal of Fusion Energy Science (FES) research. In the U.S., FES experimental research is centered at three large facilities with a replacement value of over $1B. As these experiments have increased in size and complexity, there has been a concurrent growth in the number and importance of collaborations among large groups at the experimental sites and smaller groups located nationwide. Teaming with the experimental community is a theoretical and simulation community whose efforts range from applied analysis of experimental data to fundamental theory (e.g., realistic nonlinear 3D plasma models) that run on massively parallel computers. Looking toward the future, the large-scale experiments needed for FES research are staffed by correspondingly large, globally dispersed teams. The fusion program will be increasingly oriented toward the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) where even now, a decade before operation begins, a large

  14. Setting the pace: insights and advancements gained while preparing for an FES bike race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, John; Lombardo, Lisa M; Foglyano, Kevin M; Marasco, Paul D; Triolo, Ronald J

    2017-11-17

    The reduction in physical activity following a spinal cord injury often leads to a decline in mental and physical health. Developing an exercise program that is effective and enjoyable is paramount for this population. Although functional electrical stimulation (FES) stationary cycling has been utilized in rehabilitation settings, implementing an overground cycling program for those with spinal cord injuries has greater technical challenges. Recently our laboratory team focused on training five individuals with compete spinal cord injuries utilizing an implanted pulse generator for an overground FES bike race in CYBATHLON 2016 held in Zurich, Switzerland. The advancements in muscle strength and endurance and ultimately cycling power our pilots made during this training period not only helped propel our competing pilot to win gold at the CYBATHLON 2016, but allowed our pilots to ride their bikes outside within their communities. Such a positive outcome has encouraged us to put effort into developing more widespread use of FES overground cycling as a rehabilitative tool for those with spinal cord injuries. This commentary will describe our approach to the CYBATHLON 2016 including technological advancements, bike design and the training program.

  15. Fe-S cluster coordination of the chromokinesin KIF4A alters its sub-cellular localization during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shimon, Lilach; Paul, Viktoria D; David-Kadoch, Galit; Volpe, Marina; Stümpfig, Martin; Bill, Eckhard; Mühlenhoff, Ulrich; Lill, Roland; Ben-Aroya, Shay

    2018-05-30

    Fe-S clusters act as co-factors of proteins with diverse functions, e.g. in DNA repair. Down-regulation of the cytosolic iron-sulfur protein assembly (CIA) machinery promotes genomic instability by the inactivation of multiple DNA repair pathways. Furthermore, CIA deficiencies are associated with so far unexplained mitotic defects. Here, we show that CIA2B and MMS19, constituents of the CIA targeting complex involved in facilitating Fe-S cluster insertion into cytosolic and nuclear target proteins, co-localize with components of the mitotic machinery. Down-regulation of CIA2B and MMS19 impairs the mitotic cycle. We identify the chromokinesin KIF4A as a mitotic component involved in these effects. KIF4A binds a Fe-S cluster in vitro through its conserved cysteine-rich domain. We demonstrate in vivo that this domain is required for the mitosis-related KIF4A localization and for the mitotic defects associated with KIF4A knockout. KIF4A is the first identified mitotic component carrying such a post-translational modification. These findings suggest that the lack of Fe-S clusters in KIF4A upon down-regulation of the CIA targeting complex contributes to the mitotic defects. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Photoelectrochemical energy conversion obtained with ultrathin organo-metallic-chemical-vapor-deposition layer of FeS2 (pyrite) on TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennaoui, A.; Fiechter, S.; Tributsch, H.; Giersig, M.; Vogel, R.; Weller, H.

    1992-01-01

    Ultrathin (10 to 20 nm thick), polycrystalline films of FeS 2 (pyrite) were grown on TiO 2 (anatase) by chemical vapor deposition. The FeS 2 films were characterized using optical absorption and high-resolution electron microscopy. Photoelectrochemical solar cells, using TiO 2 (anatase) coated with FeS 2 ultrathin films, generated high open-circuit photo-voltages, of up to 600 mV, compared with a single crystal of pyrite electrode (200 mV). The photoelectrochemical behavior shows a strong dependence of photovoltage and photocurrent on the pH of the solution. This paper reports that it is explained by electron injection from the conduction band of FeS 2 to the conduction band of TiO 2 . Regeneration of holes is taking place by electron transfer from the redox system in the electrolyte

  17. Participation to the first Cybathlon: an overview of the FREEWHEELS team FES-cycling solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Sijobert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a contribution to a special issue aiming at collecting data and documenting the different specificities of the teams which participated into Cybathlon 2016 FES-bike discipline. Our team prepared one paraplegic pilot over one year and developed a FES-cycling device based on existing commercial products. Our pilot (47 y.o, spinal cord lesion T3 AIS A since year 1995 was qualified for the final race and finished in 6th position over 12 participants in the discipline, covering a total distance of 750m at an average speed of 5.71km/h, propelled by his own quadriceps and hamstrings muscles.

  18. Structural coupling of SH2-kinase domains links Fes and Abl substrate recognition and kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Kofler, Michael; Hantschel, Oliver; Gish, Gerald D; Grebien, Florian; Salah, Eidarus; Neudecker, Philipp; Kay, Lewis E; Turk, Benjamin E; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Pawson, Tony; Knapp, Stefan

    2008-09-05

    The SH2 domain of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases can enhance catalytic activity and substrate recognition, but the molecular mechanisms by which this is achieved are poorly understood. We have solved the structure of the prototypic SH2-kinase unit of the human Fes tyrosine kinase, which appears specialized for positive signaling. In its active conformation, the SH2 domain tightly interacts with the kinase N-terminal lobe and positions the kinase alphaC helix in an active configuration through essential packing and electrostatic interactions. This interaction is stabilized by ligand binding to the SH2 domain. Our data indicate that Fes kinase activation is closely coupled to substrate recognition through cooperative SH2-kinase-substrate interactions. Similarly, we find that the SH2 domain of the active Abl kinase stimulates catalytic activity and substrate phosphorylation through a distinct SH2-kinase interface. Thus, the SH2 and catalytic domains of active Fes and Abl pro-oncogenic kinases form integrated structures essential for effective tyrosine kinase signaling.

  19. Coordinators for health science libraries in the Midwest Health Science Library Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtum, E A; McKloskey, J; Mahan, R

    1977-04-01

    In the summer of 1973 one resource library in each of the six states of the Midwest Health Science Library Network received funding from the National Library of Medicine to hire a coordinator for health science libraries. The development of the role of coordinator is examined and evaluated. The coordinators have proved valuable in the areas of consortium formation, basic unit development, communication facilitation, and program initiation. The function of the coordinators in the extensive planning effort now being undertaken by the network and the future need for the coordinator positions are discussed.

  20. Solar-Terrestrial and Astronomical Research Network (STAR-Network) - A Meaningful Practice of New Cyberinfrastructure on Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X.; Zou, Z.

    2017-12-01

    For the next decades, comprehensive big data application environment is the dominant direction of cyberinfrastructure development on space science. To make the concept of such BIG cyberinfrastructure (e.g. Digital Space) a reality, these aspects of capability should be focused on and integrated, which includes science data system, digital space engine, big data application (tools and models) and the IT infrastructure. In the past few years, CAS Chinese Space Science Data Center (CSSDC) has made a helpful attempt in this direction. A cloud-enabled virtual research platform on space science, called Solar-Terrestrial and Astronomical Research Network (STAR-Network), has been developed to serve the full lifecycle of space science missions and research activities. It integrated a wide range of disciplinary and interdisciplinary resources, to provide science-problem-oriented data retrieval and query service, collaborative mission demonstration service, mission operation supporting service, space weather computing and Analysis service and other self-help service. This platform is supported by persistent infrastructure, including cloud storage, cloud computing, supercomputing and so on. Different variety of resource are interconnected: the science data can be displayed on the browser by visualization tools, the data analysis tools and physical models can be drived by the applicable science data, the computing results can be saved on the cloud, for example. So far, STAR-Network has served a series of space science mission in China, involving Strategic Pioneer Program on Space Science (this program has invested some space science satellite as DAMPE, HXMT, QUESS, and more satellite will be launched around 2020) and Meridian Space Weather Monitor Project. Scientists have obtained some new findings by using the science data from these missions with STAR-Network's contribution. We are confident that STAR-Network is an exciting practice of new cyberinfrastructure architecture on

  1. The medical science DMZ: a network design pattern for data-intensive medical science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisert, Sean; Dart, Eli; Barnett, William; Balas, Edward; Cuff, James; Grossman, Robert L; Berman, Ari; Shankar, Anurag; Tierney, Brian

    2017-10-06

    We describe a detailed solution for maintaining high-capacity, data-intensive network flows (eg, 10, 40, 100 Gbps+) in a scientific, medical context while still adhering to security and privacy laws and regulations. High-end networking, packet-filter firewalls, network intrusion-detection systems. We describe a "Medical Science DMZ" concept as an option for secure, high-volume transport of large, sensitive datasets between research institutions over national research networks, and give 3 detailed descriptions of implemented Medical Science DMZs. The exponentially increasing amounts of "omics" data, high-quality imaging, and other rapidly growing clinical datasets have resulted in the rise of biomedical research "Big Data." The storage, analysis, and network resources required to process these data and integrate them into patient diagnoses and treatments have grown to scales that strain the capabilities of academic health centers. Some data are not generated locally and cannot be sustained locally, and shared data repositories such as those provided by the National Library of Medicine, the National Cancer Institute, and international partners such as the European Bioinformatics Institute are rapidly growing. The ability to store and compute using these data must therefore be addressed by a combination of local, national, and industry resources that exchange large datasets. Maintaining data-intensive flows that comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and other regulations presents a new challenge for biomedical research. We describe a strategy that marries performance and security by borrowing from and redefining the concept of a Science DMZ, a framework that is used in physical sciences and engineering research to manage high-capacity data flows. By implementing a Medical Science DMZ architecture, biomedical researchers can leverage the scale provided by high-performance computer and cloud storage facilities and national high

  2. Network support for e-Science in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, M.; Macahdo, I.; Faerman, M.; Moura, A. L.

    2007-01-01

    Computer networks in Latin America have connected scientists in the region to their peers in other parts of the world since 1986. Starting with the creation of Internet2 in 1996, a new global research network has been extended throughout the world, providing communications infrastructure for large-scale international scientific collaboration. With the creation of the RedCLARA network and its links to Europe and the US between 2004 and 2005, this global network reached the majority of Latin America countries, setting the stage for much closer collaboration between scientists in Latin America and their counterparts in other countries. In this article we describe the development of the research networking infrastructure currently available within the region together with its inter-regional connections, and how this infrastructure is being used for support of e-science. Particular attention is given to the role of the national research and education networks (NRENs) in the region, and of their association, CLARA, in providing networking support for e-science projects. CLARA and Latin American NRENs are active partners in the EU-supported EELA and RINGrid projects, and also are making significant supporting contributions to the success of other international projects with Latin American partners, in fields such as High-Energy Physics, Astronomy and Astrophysics and Space Geodesy, to single out the early adopters of advanced networking technologies. These contributions are described in the article. The article concludes describing future trends in networking infrastructure in the region, in order to meet foreseeable demands for e-science support. These include the widespread adoption of optical networking and support for grid-based applications, as well as the provisioning of significantly higher international bandwidth to meet the declared needs for international collaboration in a number of fields including those mentioned above. (Author)

  3. Supporting Scientific Research with the Energy Sciences Network

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Monga, Inder

    2016-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is a high-performance, unclassified national network built to support scientific research. Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science (SC) and managed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, ESnet provides services to more than 40 DOE research sites, including the entire National Laboratory system, its supercomputing facilities, and its major scientific instruments. ESnet also connects to 140 research and commercial networks, permitting DOE-funded scientists to productively collaborate with partners around the world. ESnet Division Director (Interim) Inder Monga and ESnet Networking Engineer David Mitchell will present current ESnet projects and research activities which help support the HEP community. ESnet  helps support the CERN community by providing 100Gbps trans-Atlantic network transport for the LHCONE and LHCOPN services. ESnet is also actively engaged in researching connectivity to cloud computing resources for HEP workflows a...

  4. Fe/S protein biogenesis in trypanosomes — A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukeš, Julius; Basu, Somsuvro

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1853, č. 6 (2015), s. 1481-1492 ISSN 0167-4889 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/12/2261; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-23986S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Fe/S cluster * Trypanosoma brucei * protists * Kinetoplastida Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.128, year: 2015

  5. Nuclear Physics Science Network Requirements Workshop, May 2008 - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, Ed., Brian L; Dart, Ed., Eli; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Ernest, Michael; Hitchcock, Daniel; Johnston, William; Kowalski, Andy; Lauret, Jerome; Maguire, Charles; Olson, Douglas; Purschke, Martin; Rai, Gulshan; Watson, Chip; Vale, Carla

    2008-11-10

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In May 2008, ESnet and the Nuclear Physics (NP) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the NP Program Office. Most of the key DOE sites for NP related work will require significant increases in network bandwidth in the 5 year time frame. This includes roughly 40 Gbps for BNL, and 20 Gbps for NERSC. Total transatlantic requirements are on the order of 40 Gbps, and transpacific requirements are on the order of 30 Gbps. Other key sites are Vanderbilt University and MIT, which will need on the order of 20 Gbps bandwidth to support data transfers for the CMS Heavy Ion program. In addition to bandwidth requirements, the workshop emphasized several points in regard to science process and collaboration. One key point is the heavy reliance on Grid tools and infrastructure (both PKI and tools such as GridFTP) by the NP community. The reliance on Grid software is expected to increase in the future. Therefore, continued development and support of Grid software is very important to the NP science community. Another key finding is that scientific productivity is greatly enhanced by easy researcher-local access to instrument data. This is driving the creation of distributed repositories for instrument data at collaborating institutions, along with a corresponding increase in demand for network-based data transfers and the tools

  6. Actor-network Theory and cartography of controversies in Information Science

    OpenAIRE

    LOURENÇO, Ramon Fernandes; TOMAÉL, Maria Inês

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The present study aims to discuss the interactions between the Actor-network Theory and the Cartography of Controversies method in Information Science research. A literature review was conducted on books, scholarly articles, and any other sources addressing the Theory-Actor Network and Cartography of Controversies. The understanding of the theoretical assumptions that guide the Network-Actor Theory allows examining important aspects to Information Science research, seeking to identif...

  7. In Brief: European Earth science network for postdocs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has launched a new initiative called the Changing Earth Science Network, to support young scientists undertaking leading-edge research activities aimed at advancing the understanding of the Earth system. The initiative will enable up to 10 young postdoctoral researchers from the agency's member states to address major scientific challenges by using Earth observation (EO) satellite data from ESA and its third-party missions. The initiative aims to foster the development of a network of young scientists in Europe with a good knowledge of the agency and its EO programs. Selected candidates will have the option to carry out part of their research in an ESA center as a visiting scientist. The deadline to submit proposals is 16 January 2009. Selections will be announced in early 2009. The Changing Earth Science Network was developed as one of the main programmatic components of ESA's Support to Science Element, launched in 2008. For more information, visit http://www.esa.int/stse.

  8. Network science of biological systems at different scales: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosak, Marko; Markovič, Rene; Dolenšek, Jurij; Slak Rupnik, Marjan; Marhl, Marko; Stožer, Andraž; Perc, Matjaž

    2018-03-01

    Network science is today established as a backbone for description of structure and function of various physical, chemical, biological, technological, and social systems. Here we review recent advances in the study of complex biological systems that were inspired and enabled by methods of network science. First, we present

  9. High Performance Networks for High Impact Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Mary A.; Bair, Raymond A.

    2003-02-13

    This workshop was the first major activity in developing a strategic plan for high-performance networking in the Office of Science. Held August 13 through 15, 2002, it brought together a selection of end users, especially representing the emerging, high-visibility initiatives, and network visionaries to identify opportunities and begin defining the path forward.

  10. COMPLEX NETWORKS IN CLIMATE SCIENCE: PROGRESS, OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — COMPLEX NETWORKS IN CLIMATE SCIENCE: PROGRESS, OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES KARSTEN STEINHAEUSER, NITESH V. CHAWLA, AND AUROOP R. GANGULY Abstract. Networks have...

  11. Preparation of Carbon Nanotube/TiO2 Mesoporous Hybrid Photoanode with Iron Pyrite (FeS2) Thin Films Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Bayram Kilic; Sunay Turkdogan; Aykut Astam; Oguz Can Ozer; Mansur Asgin; Hulya Cebeci; Deniz Urk; Selin Pravadili Mucur

    2016-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/TiO2 mesoporous networks can be employed as a new alternative photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). By using the MWCNT/TiO2 mesoporous as photoanodes in DSSC, we demonstrate that the MWCNT/TiO2 mesoporous photoanode is promising alternative to standard FTO/TiO2 mesoporous based DSSC due to larger specific surface area and high electrochemical activity. We also show that iron pyrite (FeS2) thin films can be used as an efficient counter electrode...

  12. Interaction between Nbp35 and Cfd1 proteins of cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly reveals a stable complex formation in Entamoeba histolytica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadab Anwar

    Full Text Available Iron-Sulfur (Fe-S proteins are involved in many biological functions such as electron transport, photosynthesis, regulation of gene expression and enzymatic activities. Biosynthesis and transfer of Fe-S clusters depend on Fe-S clusters assembly processes such as ISC, SUF, NIF, and CIA systems. Unlike other eukaryotes which possess ISC and CIA systems, amitochondriate Entamoeba histolytica has retained NIF & CIA systems for Fe-S cluster assembly in the cytosol. In the present study, we have elucidated interaction between two proteins of E. histolytica CIA system, Cytosolic Fe-S cluster deficient 1 (Cfd1 protein and Nucleotide binding protein 35 (Nbp35. In-silico analysis showed that structural regions ranging from amino acid residues (P33-K35, G131-V135 and I147-E151 of Nbp35 and (G5-V6, M34-D39 and G46-A52 of Cfd1 are involved in the formation of protein-protein complex. Furthermore, Molecular dynamic (MD simulations study suggested that hydrophobic forces surpass over hydrophilic forces between Nbp35 and Cfd1 and Van-der-Waal interaction plays crucial role in the formation of stable complex. Both proteins were separately cloned, expressed as recombinant fusion proteins in E. coli and purified to homogeneity by affinity column chromatography. Physical interaction between Nbp35 and Cfd1 proteins was confirmed in vitro by co-purification of recombinant Nbp35 with thrombin digested Cfd1 and in vivo by pull down assay and immunoprecipitation. The insilico, in vitro as well as in vivo results prove a stable interaction between these two proteins, supporting the possibility of its involvement in Fe-S cluster transfer to target apo-proteins through CIA machinery in E. histolytica. Our study indicates that initial synthesis of a Fe-S precursor in mitochondria is not necessary for the formation of Cfd1-Nbp35 complex. Thus, Cfd1 and Nbp35 with the help of cytosolic NifS and NifU proteins can participate in the maturation of non-mitosomal Fe-S proteins

  13. Fusion Energy Sciences Exascale Requirements Review. An Office of Science review sponsored jointly by Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Fusion Energy Sciences, January 27-29, 2016, Gaithersburg, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Choong-Seock [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Greenwald, Martin [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Riley, Katherine [Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne, IL (United States); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Coffey, Richard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dart, Eli [Esnet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dosanjh, Sudip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hack, James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Monga, Inder [Esnet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Papka, Michael E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Esnet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Straatsma, Tjerk [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wells, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Andre, R. [TRANSP Group, Princeton, NJ (United States); Bernholdt, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bhattacharjee, Amitava [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Bonoli, Paul [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Boyd, Iain [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bulanov, Stepan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cary, John R. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO (United States); Chen, Yang [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Curreli, Davide [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Ernst, Darin R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ethier, Stephane [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Green, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hager, Robert [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Hakim, Ammar [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Hassanein, A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Hatch, David [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Held, E. D. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Howard, Nathan [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Izzo, Valerie A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Jardin, Steve [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Jenkins, T. G. [Tech-X Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Jenko, Frank [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kemp, Andreas [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); King, Jacob [Tech-X Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Kritz, Arnold [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Krstic, Predrag [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Kruger, Scott E. [Tech-X Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Kurtz, Rick [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lin, Zhihong [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Loring, Burlen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nandipati, Giridhar [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pankin, A. Y. [Tech-X Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Parker, Scott [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Perez, Danny [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pigarov, Alex Y. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Poli, Francesca [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Pueschel, M. J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Rafiq, Tariq [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Rübel, Oliver [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Setyawan, Wahyu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sizyuk, Valeryi A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Smithe, D. N. [Tech-X Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Sovinec, C. R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Turner, Miles [Dublin City University, Leinster (Ireland); Umansky, Maxim [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vay, Jean-Luc [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Verboncoeur, John [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Vincenti, Henri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Voter, Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Weixing [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Wirth, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wright, John [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Yuan, X. [TRANSP Group, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The additional computing power offered by the planned exascale facilities could be transformational across the spectrum of plasma and fusion research — provided that the new architectures can be efficiently applied to our problem space. The collaboration that will be required to succeed should be viewed as an opportunity to identify and exploit cross-disciplinary synergies. To assess the opportunities and requirements as part of the development of an overall strategy for computing in the exascale era, the Exascale Requirements Review meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) community was convened January 27–29, 2016, with participation from a broad range of fusion and plasma scientists, specialists in applied mathematics and computer science, and representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its major computing facilities. This report is a summary of that meeting and the preparatory activities for it and includes a wealth of detail to support the findings. Technical opportunities, requirements, and challenges are detailed in this report (and in the recent report on the Workshop on Integrated Simulation). Science applications are described, along with mathematical and computational enabling technologies. Also see http://exascaleage.org/fes/ for more information.

  14. Permanent LMN denervation of human skeletal muscle and recovery by h-b FES: management and monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kern

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Denervation of a defined skeletal muscle is due to lower motor neuron (LMN or peripheral nerve lesions that have major consequences on the muscle tissue. After early atrophy, the mid- and late-phases presents two very contrasting myofibers populations: beside those severely atrophic with internalized groups of myonuclei, large fast-type muscle fibers continue to be present 4 to 6 years after Spinal Cord Injury (SCI. Recent results of rat experiments provides the rational basis for understanding the residual functional characteristics of the long-term denervated muscle and the molecular explanation of its ability to respond to home-base functional electrical stimulation (h-b FES using custom-designed electrodes and stimulators. Further outcomes of the Vienna-Padova ten-year collaboration are: 1. a world-unique Myo- Bank of muscle biopsies and 2. improved imaging procedures (Color Computer Tomography (CT scan and Functional Echomyography, all demonstrating that h-b FES induces improvements in muscle contractility, tissue composition and mass, despite permanent LMN denervation. The benefits of h-b FES could be extended from patents suffering with complete Conus-Cauda Syndrome to the numerous patients with incomplete LMN denervation of skeletal muscles to determine whether h-b FES reduces secondary complications related to disuse and impaired blood perfusion (reduction in bone density, risk of bone fracture, decubitus ulcers, and pulmonary thromboembolism. We are confident that translation of the results of a clinical experiment, the EU Project RISE, to the larger cohort of incomplete LMN denervated muscles will provide the wanted results.

  15. A Space Operations Network Alternative: Using Globally Connected Research and Education Networks for Space-Based Science Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Robert N.

    2006-01-01

    Earth based networking in support of various space agency projects has been based on leased service/circuits which has a high associated cost. This cost is almost always taken from the science side resulting in less science. This is a proposal to use Research and Education Networks (RENs) worldwide to support space flight operations in general and space-based science operations in particular. The RENs were developed to support scientific and educational endeavors. They do not provide support for general Internet traffic. The connectivity and performance of the research and education networks is superb. The connectivity at Layer 3 (IP) virtually encompasses the globe. Most third world countries and all developed countries have their own research and education networks, which are connected globally. Performance of the RENs especially in the developed countries is exceptional. Bandwidth capacity currently exists and future expansion promises that this capacity will continue. REN performance statistics has always exceeded minimum requirements for spaceflight support. Research and Education networks are more loosely managed than a corporate network but are highly managed when compared to the commodity Internet. Management of RENs on an international level is accomplished by the International Network Operations Center at Indiana University at Indianapolis. With few exceptions, each regional and national REN has its own network ops center. The acceptable use policies (AUP), although differing by country, allows any scientific program or project the use of their networks. Once in compliance with the first RENs AUP, all others will accept that specific traffic including regional and transoceanic networks. RENs can support spaceflight related scientific programs and projects. Getting the science to the researcher is obviously key to any scientific project. RENs provide a pathway to virtually any college or university in the world, as well as many governmental institutes and

  16. Loosening the shackles of scientific disciplines with network science. Reply to comments on "Network science of biological systems at different scales: A review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosak, Marko; Markovič, Rene; Dolenšek, Jurij; Rupnik, Marjan Slak; Marhl, Marko; Stožer, Andraž; Perc, Matjaž

    2018-03-01

    We would like to thank all the experts for their insightful and very interesting comments that have been submitted in response to our review "Network science of biological systems at different scales" [1]. We are delighted with the number of comments that have been written, and even more so with the positive opinions that these comments communicate to the wider audience [2-9]. Although methods of network science have long proven their value in relevantly addressing various challenges in the biological sciences, such interdisciplinary research often still struggles for funding and recognition at many academic levels.

  17. The National Cancer Institute's Physical Sciences - Oncology Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espey, Michael Graham

    In 2009, the NCI launched the Physical Sciences - Oncology Centers (PS-OC) initiative with 12 Centers (U54) funded through 2014. The current phase of the Program includes U54 funded Centers with the added feature of soliciting new Physical Science - Oncology Projects (PS-OP) U01 grant applications through 2017; see NCI PAR-15-021. The PS-OPs, individually and along with other PS-OPs and the Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers (PS-OCs), comprise the Physical Sciences-Oncology Network (PS-ON). The foundation of the Physical Sciences-Oncology initiative is a high-risk, high-reward program that promotes a `physical sciences perspective' of cancer and fosters the convergence of physical science and cancer research by forming transdisciplinary teams of physical scientists (e.g., physicists, mathematicians, chemists, engineers, computer scientists) and cancer researchers (e.g., cancer biologists, oncologists, pathologists) who work closely together to advance our understanding of cancer. The collaborative PS-ON structure catalyzes transformative science through increased exchange of people, ideas, and approaches. PS-ON resources are leveraged to fund Trans-Network pilot projects to enable synergy and cross-testing of experimental and/or theoretical concepts. This session will include a brief PS-ON overview followed by a strategic discussion with the APS community to exchange perspectives on the progression of trans-disciplinary physical sciences in cancer research.

  18. 75 FR 65363 - Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... public meeting to promote and publicize the Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (Opp... . Background: The Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet) is a trans-NIH initiative to expand the agency's funding of basic behavioral and social sciences research (b-BSSR). OppNet prioritizes...

  19. Coordinating Upper and Lower Body During FES-Assisted Transfers in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury in Order to Reduce Arm Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovic, Jovana; Azevedo Coste, Christine; Fraisse, Philippe; Henkous, Sonia; Fattal, Charles

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study is to minimize arm forces applied during sit-to-stand (STS) transfers in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) by using functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied to lower limbs muscles. A new FES system has been used to automatically trigger muscle stimulation of the lower limbs, at the desired moment in regards to trunk motion. The objective was to decrease arm participation during STS motion of a person with complete paraplegia and low-level tetraplegia. Six participants with chronic SCI participated in the study. Participants with SCI were recruited to complete STS movement using a new system for FES-assisted STS transfer. All participants attended one muscle mapping session to test their muscles condition, two training sessions to become familiarized with the experimental setup, and two measurement sessions using the proposed system for FES-assisted STS movement. The applied arm forces during STS movement were recorded and analyzed for different stimulation onset values with respect to the maximal trunk acceleration signal using one-way ANOVA statistical test. Post-hoc analysis was performed using Tukey's method. The results of this study showed that the moment of the stimulation onset has an influence on the arm forces applied during the STS motion. The lowest values of arm forces were obtained for STS movements where the electrical stimulation was triggered before and around the time corresponding to the maximal value of the trunk acceleration signal. Lowest arm forces values were obtained for STS motions that were similar to those of healthy persons in terms of trunk movements and beginning of lower limb movements in regards to maximal trunk acceleration signal. The FES system was able to mimic the rising motion of a healthy individual by triggering the FES at the appropriate moment. This method could prove useful for pivot transfer, therapeutic or functional verticalization. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  20. The Evolution of Research and Education Networks and their Essential Role in Modern Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, W.; Chaniotakis, E.; Dart, E.; Guok, C.; Metzger, J.; Tierney, B.

    2009-06-15

    ESnet - the Energy Sciences Network - has the mission of enabling the aspects of the US Department of Energy's Office of Science programs and facilities that depend on large collaborations and large-scale data sharing to accomplish their science. The Office of Science supports a large fraction of all U.S. physical science research and operates many large science instruments and supercomputers that are used by both DOE and University researchers. The network requirements of this community have been explored in some detail by ESnet and a long-term plan has been developed in order to ensure adequate networking to support the science. In this paper we describe the planning process (which has been in place for several years and was the basis of a new network that is just now being completed and a new set of network services) and examine the effectiveness and adequacy of the planning process in the light of evolving science requirements.

  1. Neural Networks In Mining Sciences - General Overview And Some Representative Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard

    2015-12-01

    The many difficult problems that must now be addressed in mining sciences make us search for ever newer and more efficient computer tools that can be used to solve those problems. Among the numerous tools of this type, there are neural networks presented in this article - which, although not yet widely used in mining sciences, are certainly worth consideration. Neural networks are a technique which belongs to so called artificial intelligence, and originates from the attempts to model the structure and functioning of biological nervous systems. Initially constructed and tested exclusively out of scientific curiosity, as computer models of parts of the human brain, neural networks have become a surprisingly effective calculation tool in many areas: in technology, medicine, economics, and even social sciences. Unfortunately, they are relatively rarely used in mining sciences and mining technology. The article is intended to convince the readers that neural networks can be very useful also in mining sciences. It contains information how modern neural networks are built, how they operate and how one can use them. The preliminary discussion presented in this paper can help the reader gain an opinion whether this is a tool with handy properties, useful for him, and what it might come in useful for. Of course, the brief introduction to neural networks contained in this paper will not be enough for the readers who get convinced by the arguments contained here, and want to use neural networks. They will still need a considerable portion of detailed knowledge so that they can begin to independently create and build such networks, and use them in practice. However, an interested reader who decides to try out the capabilities of neural networks will also find here links to references that will allow him to start exploration of neural networks fast, and then work with this handy tool efficiently. This will be easy, because there are currently quite a few ready-made computer

  2. Implementing e-network-supported inquiry learning in science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, John; Cowie, Bronwen; Khoo, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The successful implementation of electronically networked (e-networked) tools to support an inquiry-learning approach in secondary science classrooms is dependent on a range of factors spread between teachers, schools, and students. The teacher must have a clear understanding of the nature......-construct knowledge using a wide range of resources for meaning making and expression of ideas. These outcomes were, however, contingent on the interplay of teacher understanding of the nature of science inquiry and school provision of an effective technological infrastructure and support for flexible curriculum...... of inquiry, the school must provide effective technological infrastructure and sympathetic curriculum parameters, and the students need to be carefully scaffolded to the point of engaging with the inquiry process. Within this study, e-networks supported students to exercise agency, collaborate, and co...

  3. Advance Network Reservation and Provisioning for Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2009-07-10

    We are witnessing a new era that offers new opportunities to conduct scientific research with the help of recent advancements in computational and storage technologies. Computational intensive science spans multiple scientific domains, such as particle physics, climate modeling, and bio-informatics simulations. These large-scale applications necessitate collaborators to access very large data sets resulting from simulations performed in geographically distributed institutions. Furthermore, often scientific experimental facilities generate massive data sets that need to be transferred to validate the simulation data in remote collaborating sites. A major component needed to support these needs is the communication infrastructure which enables high performance visualization, large volume data analysis, and also provides access to computational resources. In order to provide high-speed on-demand data access between collaborating institutions, national governments support next generation research networks such as Internet 2 and ESnet (Energy Sciences Network). Delivering network-as-a-service that provides predictable performance, efficient resource utilization and better coordination between compute and storage resources is highly desirable. In this paper, we study network provisioning and advanced bandwidth reservation in ESnet for on-demand high performance data transfers. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent transport networks with bandwidth guarantees. We plan to improve the current ESnet advance network reservation system, OSCARS [3], by presenting to the clients, the possible reservation options and alternatives for earliest completion time and shortest transfer duration. The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) provides high bandwidth connections between research laboratories and academic institutions for data sharing and video/voice communication. The ESnet On-Demand Secure Circuits and Advance Reservation System (OSCARS) establishes

  4. 3rd International Winter School and Conference on Network Science

    CERN Document Server

    Barzel, Baruch; Puzis, Rami

    2017-01-01

    This book contains original research chapters related to the interdisciplinary field of complex networks spanning biological and environmental networks, social, technological, and economic networks. Many natural phenomena can be modeled as networks where nodes are the primitive compounds and links represent their interactions, similarities, or distances of sorts. Complex networks have an enormous impact on research in various fields like biology, social sciences, engineering, and cyber-security to name a few. The topology of a network often encompasses important information on the functionality and dynamics of the system or the phenomenon it represents. Network science is an emerging interdisciplinary discipline that provides tools and insights to researchers in a variety of domains. NetSci-X is the central winter conference within the field and brings together leading researchers and innovators to connect, meet, and establish interdisciplinary channels for collaboration. It is the largest and best known even...

  5. Dynamical networks: Finding, measuring, and tracking neural population activity using network science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Humphries

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems neuroscience is in a headlong rush to record from as many neurons at the same time as possible. As the brain computes and codes using neuron populations, it is hoped these data will uncover the fundamentals of neural computation. But with hundreds, thousands, or more simultaneously recorded neurons come the inescapable problems of visualizing, describing, and quantifying their interactions. Here I argue that network science provides a set of scalable, analytical tools that already solve these problems. By treating neurons as nodes and their interactions as links, a single network can visualize and describe an arbitrarily large recording. I show that with this description we can quantify the effects of manipulating a neural circuit, track changes in population dynamics over time, and quantitatively define theoretical concepts of neural populations such as cell assemblies. Using network science as a core part of analyzing population recordings will thus provide both qualitative and quantitative advances to our understanding of neural computation.

  6. Social Networking among Library and Information Science Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakpodia, Onome Norah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine social networking use among Library and Information Science students of the Delta State University, Abraka. In this study, students completed a questionnaire which assessed their familiarity with social networking sites, the purpose for which they use social networking site and their most preferred sites to…

  7. Networking Skills as a Career Development Practice: Lessons from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, M. G.; Kontak, R.; Holloway, T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Steiner, A. L.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Adams, A. S.; de Boer, A. M.; Staudt, A. C.; Fiore, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    Professional networking is often cited as an important component of scientific career development, yet there are few resources for early career scientists to develop and build networks. Personal networks can provide opportunities to learn about organizational culture and procedures, expectations, advancement opportunities, and best practices. They provide access to mentors and job placement opportunities, new scientific collaborations, speaker and conference invitations, increased scientific visibility, reduced isolation, and a stronger feeling of community. There is evidence in the literature that a sense of community positively affects the engagement and retention of underrepresented groups, including women, in science. Thus women scientists may particularly benefit from becoming part of a network. The Earth Science Women’s Network (ESWN) began in 2002 as an informal peer-to-peer mentoring initiative among a few recent Ph.D.s. The network has grown exponentially to include over 1000 women scientists across the globe. Surveys of our membership about ESWN report positive impacts on the careers of women in Earth sciences, particularly those in early career stages. Through ESWN, women share both professional and personal advice, establish research collaborations, communicate strategies on work/life balance, connect with women at various stages of their careers, and provide perspectives from cultures across the globe. We present lessons learned through the formal and informal activities promoted by ESWN in support of the career development of women Earth scientists.

  8. Networking Africa's science granting councils | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Networking Africa's science granting councils ... to support research and evidence-based policies that contribute to social and economic development. ... exchanges and forums, online training, on-site coaching, and collaborative research.

  9. Frataxin Is Localized to Both the Chloroplast and Mitochondrion and Is Involved in Chloroplast Fe-S Protein Function in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria R Turowski

    Full Text Available Frataxin plays a key role in eukaryotic cellular iron metabolism, particularly in mitochondrial heme and iron-sulfur (Fe-S cluster biosynthesis. However, its precise role has yet to be elucidated. In this work, we studied the subcellular localization of Arabidopsis frataxin, AtFH, using confocal microscopy, and found a novel dual localization for this protein. We demonstrate that plant frataxin is targeted to both the mitochondria and the chloroplast, where it may play a role in Fe-S cluster metabolism as suggested by functional studies on nitrite reductase (NIR and ferredoxin (Fd, two Fe-S containing chloroplast proteins, in AtFH deficient plants. Our results indicate that frataxin deficiency alters the normal functioning of chloroplasts by affecting the levels of Fe, chlorophyll, and the photosynthetic electron transport chain in this organelle.

  10. The interface of the ferromagnetic metal CoS2 and the nonmagnetic semiconductor FeS2

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, S.

    2010-11-05

    The electronic and magnetic properties of the cubic pyriteCoS2/FeS2interface are studied using the all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. We find that this contact between a ferromagneticmetal and a nonmagnetic semiconductor shows a metallic character. The CoS2 stays close to half-metallicity at the interface, while the FeS2 becomes metallic. The magnetic moment of the Co atoms at the interface slightly decreases as compared to the bulk value and a small moment is induced on the Fe atoms. Furthermore, at the interfaceferromagnetic ordering is found to be energetically favorable as compared to antiferromagnetic ordering.

  11. Network Science Based Quantification of Resilience Demonstrated on the Indian Railways Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Udit; Kumar, Devashish; Kodra, Evan; Ganguly, Auroop R.

    2015-01-01

    The structure, interdependence, and fragility of systems ranging from power-grids and transportation to ecology, climate, biology and even human communities and the Internet have been examined through network science. While response to perturbations has been quantified, recovery strategies for perturbed networks have usually been either discussed conceptually or through anecdotal case studies. Here we develop a network science based quantitative framework for measuring, comparing and interpreting hazard responses as well as recovery strategies. The framework, motivated by the recently proposed temporal resilience paradigm, is demonstrated with the Indian Railways Network. Simulations inspired by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami and the 2012 North Indian blackout as well as a cyber-physical attack scenario illustrate hazard responses and effectiveness of proposed recovery strategies. Multiple metrics are used to generate various recovery strategies, which are simply sequences in which system components should be recovered after a disruption. Quantitative evaluation of these strategies suggests that faster and more efficient recovery is possible through network centrality measures. Optimal recovery strategies may be different per hazard, per community within a network, and for different measures of partial recovery. In addition, topological characterization provides a means for interpreting the comparative performance of proposed recovery strategies. The methods can be directly extended to other Large-Scale Critical Lifeline Infrastructure Networks including transportation, water, energy and communications systems that are threatened by natural or human-induced hazards, including cascading failures. Furthermore, the quantitative framework developed here can generalize across natural, engineered and human systems, offering an actionable and generalizable approach for emergency management in particular as well as for network resilience in general. PMID:26536227

  12. Network Science Based Quantification of Resilience Demonstrated on the Indian Railways Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Udit; Kumar, Devashish; Kodra, Evan; Ganguly, Auroop R

    2015-01-01

    The structure, interdependence, and fragility of systems ranging from power-grids and transportation to ecology, climate, biology and even human communities and the Internet have been examined through network science. While response to perturbations has been quantified, recovery strategies for perturbed networks have usually been either discussed conceptually or through anecdotal case studies. Here we develop a network science based quantitative framework for measuring, comparing and interpreting hazard responses as well as recovery strategies. The framework, motivated by the recently proposed temporal resilience paradigm, is demonstrated with the Indian Railways Network. Simulations inspired by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami and the 2012 North Indian blackout as well as a cyber-physical attack scenario illustrate hazard responses and effectiveness of proposed recovery strategies. Multiple metrics are used to generate various recovery strategies, which are simply sequences in which system components should be recovered after a disruption. Quantitative evaluation of these strategies suggests that faster and more efficient recovery is possible through network centrality measures. Optimal recovery strategies may be different per hazard, per community within a network, and for different measures of partial recovery. In addition, topological characterization provides a means for interpreting the comparative performance of proposed recovery strategies. The methods can be directly extended to other Large-Scale Critical Lifeline Infrastructure Networks including transportation, water, energy and communications systems that are threatened by natural or human-induced hazards, including cascading failures. Furthermore, the quantitative framework developed here can generalize across natural, engineered and human systems, offering an actionable and generalizable approach for emergency management in particular as well as for network resilience in general.

  13. Network Science Based Quantification of Resilience Demonstrated on the Indian Railways Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udit Bhatia

    Full Text Available The structure, interdependence, and fragility of systems ranging from power-grids and transportation to ecology, climate, biology and even human communities and the Internet have been examined through network science. While response to perturbations has been quantified, recovery strategies for perturbed networks have usually been either discussed conceptually or through anecdotal case studies. Here we develop a network science based quantitative framework for measuring, comparing and interpreting hazard responses as well as recovery strategies. The framework, motivated by the recently proposed temporal resilience paradigm, is demonstrated with the Indian Railways Network. Simulations inspired by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami and the 2012 North Indian blackout as well as a cyber-physical attack scenario illustrate hazard responses and effectiveness of proposed recovery strategies. Multiple metrics are used to generate various recovery strategies, which are simply sequences in which system components should be recovered after a disruption. Quantitative evaluation of these strategies suggests that faster and more efficient recovery is possible through network centrality measures. Optimal recovery strategies may be different per hazard, per community within a network, and for different measures of partial recovery. In addition, topological characterization provides a means for interpreting the comparative performance of proposed recovery strategies. The methods can be directly extended to other Large-Scale Critical Lifeline Infrastructure Networks including transportation, water, energy and communications systems that are threatened by natural or human-induced hazards, including cascading failures. Furthermore, the quantitative framework developed here can generalize across natural, engineered and human systems, offering an actionable and generalizable approach for emergency management in particular as well as for network resilience in general.

  14. Instrumentation for Scientific Computing in Neural Networks, Information Science, Artificial Intelligence, and Applied Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    include Security Classification) Instrumentation for scientific computing in neural networks, information science, artificial intelligence, and...instrumentation grant to purchase equipment for support of research in neural networks, information science, artificail intellignece , and applied mathematics...in Neural Networks, Information Science, Artificial Intelligence, and Applied Mathematics Contract AFOSR 86-0282 Principal Investigator: Stephen

  15. A brief review of advances in complex networks of nuclear science and technology field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinqing

    2010-01-01

    A brief review of advances in complex networks of nuclear science and technology field at home and is given and summarized. These complex networks include: nuclear energy weapon network, network centric warfare, beam transport networks, continuum percolation evolving network associated with nuclear reactions, global nuclear power station network, (nuclear) chemistry reaction networks, radiological monitoring and anti-nuclear terror networks, and so on. Some challenge issues and development prospects of network science are pointed out finally. (authors)

  16. Low cost, Lightweight, FeS2-Based Photovoltaic Devices by On Demand Ink Jet Printing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research projects seeks to develop novel synthesis for iron pyrite, FeS2, nanocrystals and nanorods. The synthesis of the material includes investigating the...

  17. Multi-muscle FES force control of the human arm for arbitrary goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schearer, Eric M; Liao, Yu-Wei; Perreault, Eric J; Tresch, Matthew C; Memberg, William D; Kirsch, Robert F; Lynch, Kevin M

    2014-05-01

    We present a method for controlling a neuroprosthesis for a paralyzed human arm using functional electrical stimulation (FES) and characterize the errors of the controller. The subject has surgically implanted electrodes for stimulating muscles in her shoulder and arm. Using input/output data, a model mapping muscle stimulations to isometric endpoint forces measured at the subject's hand was identified. We inverted the model of this redundant and coupled multiple-input multiple-output system by minimizing muscle activations and used this inverse for feedforward control. The magnitude of the total root mean square error over a grid in the volume of achievable isometric endpoint force targets was 11% of the total range of achievable forces. Major sources of error were random error due to trial-to-trial variability and model bias due to nonstationary system properties. Because the muscles working collectively are the actuators of the skeletal system, the quantification of errors in force control guides designs of motion controllers for multi-joint, multi-muscle FES systems that can achieve arbitrary goals.

  18. Data and Network Science for Noisy Heterogeneous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Andrew Kent

    2013-01-01

    Data in many growing fields has an underlying network structure that can be taken advantage of. In this dissertation we apply data and network science to problems in the domains of systems biology and healthcare. Data challenges in these fields include noisy, heterogeneous data, and a lack of ground truth. The primary thesis of this work is that…

  19. The Role of Informal Support Networks in Teaching the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Benjamin C.; Olson, Joanne K.; Clough, Michael P.

    2017-06-01

    This study reports the participation of 13 secondary science teachers in informal support networks and how that participation was associated with their nature of science (NOS) teaching practices 2 to 5 years after having graduated from the same science teacher education program. The nine teachers who participated in informal support networks taught the NOS at high/medium levels, while the four non-participating teachers taught the NOS at low levels. The nine high/medium NOS implementation teachers credited the informal support networks for maintaining/heightening their sense of responsibility for teaching NOS and for helping them navigate institutional constraints that impede effective NOS instruction. Several high/medium NOS instruction implementers initially struggled to autonomously frame and resolve the complexities experienced in schools and thus drew from the support networks to engage in more sophisticated forms of teacher decision-making. In contrast, the NOS pedagogical decisions of the four teachers not participating in support networks were governed primarily by the expectations and constraints experienced in their schools. Implications of this study include the need for reconsidering the structure of teacher mentorship programs to ensure they do not promote archaic science teaching practices that are at odds with reform efforts in science education.

  20. Next-generation science information network for leading-edge applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urushidani, S.; Matsukata, J.

    2008-01-01

    High-speed networks are definitely essential tools for leading-edge applications in many research areas, including nuclear fusion research. This paper describes a number of advanced features in the Japanese next-generation science information network, called SINET3, and gives researchers clues on the uses of advanced high-speed network for their applications. The network services have four categories, multiple layer transfer, enriched virtual private network, enhanced quality-of-service, and bandwidth on demand services, and comprise a versatile service platform. The paper also describes the network architecture and advanced networking capabilities that enable economical service accommodation and flexible network resource assignment as well as effective use of Japan's first 40-Gbps lines

  1. Next-generation science information network for leading-edge applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urushidani, S. [National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8430 (Japan)], E-mail: urushi@nii.ac.jp; Matsukata, J. [National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8430 (Japan)

    2008-04-15

    High-speed networks are definitely essential tools for leading-edge applications in many research areas, including nuclear fusion research. This paper describes a number of advanced features in the Japanese next-generation science information network, called SINET3, and gives researchers clues on the uses of advanced high-speed network for their applications. The network services have four categories, multiple layer transfer, enriched virtual private network, enhanced quality-of-service, and bandwidth on demand services, and comprise a versatile service platform. The paper also describes the network architecture and advanced networking capabilities that enable economical service accommodation and flexible network resource assignment as well as effective use of Japan's first 40-Gbps lines.

  2. FES-Rowing versus Zoledronic Acid to Improve BoneHealth in SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public...no established treatment to prevent bone loss or to induce new bone formation following SCI. The goal of this clinical trial -- FES-Rowing versus...infusion at the VA Boston Healthcare-Jamaica Plain Campus. The nurse practitioner that administered the infusion made follow-up phone calls within 24

  3. Network Science Research Laboratory (NSRL) Discrete Event Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ARL-TR-7579 ● JAN 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Network Science Research Laboratory (NSRL) Discrete Event Toolkit by...Laboratory (NSRL) Discrete Event Toolkit by Theron Trout and Andrew J Toth Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL...Research Laboratory (NSRL) Discrete Event Toolkit 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Theron Trout

  4. On the synergy of network science and artificial intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocanu, D.C.

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally science is done using the reductionism paradigm. Artificial intelligence does not make an exception and it follows the same strategy. At the same time, network science tries to study complex systems as a whole. This Ph.D. research takes an alternative approach to the reductionism

  5. Computer Networking Strategies for Building Collaboration among Science Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, Ronald

    The development and dissemination of science materials can be associated with technical delivery systems such as the Unified Network for Informatics in Teacher Education (UNITE). The UNITE project was designed to investigate ways for using computer networking to improve communications and collaboration among university schools of education and…

  6. Building a Science Community of Effective Advocates: The Case of the Union of Concerned Scientists Science Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, M.; Worcester, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) Science Network is a community of over 20,000 scientists, engineers, economists, public health specialists, and technical experts that inform and advocate for science-based solutions to some of our nation's most pressing problems. The role of the community manager here is to train and prepare Science Network members to be effective advocates for science-based decision making, and also to identify opportunities for them to put their skills and expertise into action on science and public health issues. As an organizational asset, but also an important resource to its members, it is crucial that the Science Network demonstrate its impact. But measuring impact when it comes to engagement and advocacy can be difficult. Here we will define a glossary of terms relating to community management and scientist engagement, delve into tracking and measurement of actions taken within a community, and connect the dots between tracking metrics and measuring impact. Measuring impact in community management is a growing field, and here we will also suggest future research that will help standardize impact measurement, as well as bring attention to the growing and unique role that scientist communities can have on policy and public engagement goals. This work has been informed by the American Association for the Advancement of Science's inaugural cohort of the Community Engagement Fellows Program.

  7. Effect of capping ligands on the optical properties and electronic energies of iron pyrite FeS2 nanocrystals and solid thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Guangmei; Xie, Rongwei; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Jitao; Yang, Yongzhen; Wang, Hua; Li, Xuemin; Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Bingshe

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the optical and electronic properties of iron pyrite FeS 2 nanocrystals and solid thin films with various capping ligands were systematically investigated by UV–Vis–NIR absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and current density–voltage characteristic measurements. The iron pyrite nanocrystals with various ligands have an indirect band gap of around 1.05 eV and broad absorption spanning into the near-infrared region, exhibiting favorable optical properties for their photovoltaic applications. The electron affinities and ionization potentials of FeS 2 nanocrystals determined through cyclic voltammetry measurements show strong ligand dependence. An energy level shift of up to 190 meV was obtained among the pyrite nanocrystals capped with the ligands employed in this work. The iron pyrite nanocrystal films capped with iodide and 1,2-ethanedithiol exhibit the largest band edge energy shift and conductivity, respectively. Our results not only provide several useful optical and electronic parameters of pyrite nanocrystals for their further use in optoelectronic devices as active layers and/or infrared optical absorption materials, but also highlight the relationship between their surface chemistry and electronic energies. - Highlights: • The energy levels of FeS 2 nanocrystals with various ligands were determined via electrochemical measurements. • The energy levels of FeS 2 nanocrystals showed strong ligand-dependence. • An energy level shift of up to 190 meV was obtained for the pyrite nanocrystals studied in the work. • The conductivities of FeS 2 nanocrystals with different ligands were obtained by current density–voltage measurements.

  8. FY-2013 FES (Fusion Energy Sciences) Joint Research Target Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenstermacher, M. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Garofalo, A. M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Hubbard, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Maingi, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Whyte, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The H-mode confinement regime is characterized by a region of good thermal and particle confinement at the edge of the confined plasma, and has generally been envisioned as the operating regime for ITER and other next step devices. This good confinement is often interrupted, however, by edge-localized instabilities, known as ELMs. On the one hand, these ELMs provide particle and impurity flushing from the plasma core, a beneficial effect facilitating density control and stationary operation. On the other hand, the ELMs result in a substantial fraction of the edge stored energy flowing in bursts to the divertor and first wall; this impulsive thermal loading would result in unacceptable erosion of these material surfaces if it is not arrested. Hence, developing and understanding operating regimes that have the energy confinement of standard H-mode and the stationarity that is provided by ELMs, while at the same time eliminating the impulsive thermal loading of large ELMs, is the focus of the 2013 FES Joint Research Target (JRT): Annual Target: Conduct experiments and analysis on major fusion facilities, to evaluate stationary enhanced confinement regimes without large Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), and to improve understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms that allow acceptable edge particle transport while maintaining a strong thermal transport barrier. Mechanisms to be investigated can include intrinsic continuous edge plasma modes and externally applied 3D fields. Candidate regimes and techniques have been pioneered by each of the three major US facilities (C-Mod, D3D and NSTX). Coordinated experiments, measurements, and analysis will be carried out to assess and understand the operational space for the regimes. Exploiting the complementary parameters and tools of the devices, joint teams will aim to more closely approach key dimensionless parameters of ITER, and to identify correlations between edge fluctuations and transport. The role of rotation will be

  9. Dynamic optimization of walker-assisted FES-activated paraplegic walking: simulation and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekoukar, Vahab; Erfanian, Abbas

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a musculoskeletal model of walker-assisted FES-activated paraplegic walking for the generation of muscle stimulation patterns and characterization of the causal relationships between muscle excitations, multi-joint movement, and handle reaction force (HRF). The model consists of the lower extremities, trunk, hands, and a walker. The simulation of walking is performed using particle swarm optimization to minimize the tracking errors from the desired trajectories for the lower extremity joints, to reduce the stimulations of the muscle groups acting around the hip, knee, and ankle joints, and to minimize the HRF. The results of the simulation studies using data recorded from healthy subjects performing walker-assisted walking indicate that the model-generated muscle stimulation patterns are in agreement with the EMG patterns that have been reported in the literature. The experimental results on two paraplegic subjects demonstrate that the proposed methodology can improve walking performance, reduce HRF, and increase walking speed when compared to the conventional FES-activated paraplegic walking. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Innovations and advances in computing, informatics, systems sciences, networking and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Innovations and Advances in Computing, Informatics, Systems Sciences, Networking and Engineering  This book includes a set of rigorously reviewed world-class manuscripts addressing and detailing state-of-the-art research projects in the areas of Computer Science, Informatics, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering. It includes selected papers from the conference proceedings of the Eighth and some selected papers of the Ninth International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering (CISSE 2012 & CISSE 2013). Coverage includes topics in: Industrial Electronics, Technology & Automation, Telecommunications and Networking, Systems, Computing Sciences and Software Engineering, Engineering Education, Instructional Technology, Assessment, and E-learning.  ·       Provides the latest in a series of books growing out of the International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering; ·       Includes chapters in the most a...

  11. Network science landers for Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harri, A.M.; Marsal, O.; Lognonne, P.

    1999-01-01

    by the Mars Express Orbiter that is expected to be functional during the NetLander Mission's operational phase. Communication between the landers and the Earth would take place via a data relay onboard the Mars Express Orbiter. (C) 1999 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.......The NetLander Mission will deploy four landers to the Martian surface. Each lander includes a network science payload with instrumentation for studying the interior of Mars, the atmosphere and the subsurface, as well as the ionospheric structure and geodesy. The NetLander Mission is the first......, ionospheric, geodetic measurements and ground penetrating radar mapping supported by panoramic images. The payloads also include entry phase measurements of the atmospheric vertical structure. The scientific data could be combined with simultaneous observations of the atmosphere and surface of Mars...

  12. AmeriFlux Measurement Network: Science Team Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, B E

    2012-12-12

    Research involves analysis and field direction of AmeriFlux operations, and the PI provides scientific leadership of the AmeriFlux network. Activities include the coordination and quality assurance of measurements across AmeriFlux network sites, synthesis of results across the network, organizing and supporting the annual Science Team Meeting, and communicating AmeriFlux results to the scientific community and other users. Objectives of measurement research include (i) coordination of flux and biometric measurement protocols (ii) timely data delivery to the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC); and (iii) assurance of data quality of flux and ecosystem measurements contributed by AmeriFlux sites. Objectives of integration and synthesis activities include (i) integration of site data into network-wide synthesis products; and (ii) participation in the analysis, modeling and interpretation of network data products. Communications objectives include (i) organizing an annual meeting of AmeriFlux investigators for reporting annual flux measurements and exchanging scientific information on ecosystem carbon budgets; (ii) developing focused topics for analysis and publication; and (iii) developing data reporting protocols in support of AmeriFlux network goals.

  13. Social sciences via network analysis and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Kanduc, Tadej

    2015-01-01

    In recent years information and communication technologies have gained significant importance in the social sciences. Because there is such rapid growth of knowledge, methods and computer infrastructure, research can now seamlessly connect interdisciplinary fields such as business process management, data processing and mathematics. This study presents some of the latest results, practices and state-of-the-art approaches in network analysis, machine learning, data mining, data clustering and classifications in the contents of social sciences. It also covers various real-life examples such as t

  14. Nuclear Physics Science Network Requirements Workshop, May 6 and 7, 2008. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, Ed. Brian L; Dart, Ed. Eli; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Ernest, Michael; Hitchcock, Daniel; Johnston, William; Kowalski, Andy; Lauret, Jerome; Maguire, Charles; Olson, Douglas; Purschke, Martin; Rai, Gulshan; Watson, Chip; Vale, Carla

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In May 2008, ESnet and the Nuclear Physics (NP) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the NP Program Office. Most of the key DOE sites for NP related work will require significant increases in network bandwidth in the 5 year time frame. This includes roughly 40 Gbps for BNL, and 20 Gbps for NERSC. Total transatlantic requirements are on the order of 40 Gbps, and transpacific requirements are on the order of 30 Gbps. Other key sites are Vanderbilt University and MIT, which will need on the order of 20 Gbps bandwidth to support data transfers for the CMS Heavy Ion program. In addition to bandwidth requirements, the workshop emphasized several points in regard to science process and collaboration. One key point is the heavy reliance on Grid tools and infrastructure (both PKI and tools such as GridFTP) by the NP community. The reliance on Grid software is expected to increase in the future. Therefore, continued development and support of Grid software is very important to the NP science community. Another key finding is that scientific productivity is greatly enhanced by easy researcher-local access to instrument data. This is driving the creation of distributed repositories for instrument data at collaborating institutions, along with a corresponding increase in demand for network-based data transfers and the tools

  15. ESO Science Outreach Network in Poland during 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czart, Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    ESON Poland works since 2010. One of the main tasks of the ESO Science Outreach Network (ESON) is translation of various materials at ESO website, as well as contacts with journalists. We support also science festivals, conferences, contests, exhibitions, astronomy camps and workshops and other educational and outreach activities. During 2011-2013 we supported events like ESO Astronomy Camp 2013, ESO Industry Days in Warsaw, Warsaw Science Festival, Torun Festival of Science and Art, international astronomy olympiad held in Poland and many others. Among big tasks there was also translation of over 60 ESOcast movies.

  16. Benefits of Delay Tolerant Networking for Earth Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Faith; Marquart, Jane; Menke, Greg

    2012-01-01

    To date there has been much discussion about the value of Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) for space missions. Claims of various benefits, based on paper analysis, are good; however a benefits statement with empirical evidence to support is even better. This paper presents potential and actual advantages of using DTN for Earth science missions based on results from multiple demonstrations, conducted by the Communications, Standards, and Technology Laboratory (CSTL) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Demonstrations included two flight demonstrations using the Earth Observing Mission 1 (EO-1) and the Near Earth Network (NEN), a ground based demonstration over satellite links to the Internet Router in Space (IRIS) payload on Intelsat-14, and others using the NASA Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Real and potential findings include increased flexibility and efficiency in science campaigns, reduced latency in a collaborative science scenario, and improved scientist-instrument communication and control.

  17. Networking for large-scale science: infrastructure, provisioning, transport and application mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Nageswara S; Carter, Steven M; Wu Qishi; Wing, William R; Zhu Mengxia; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Veeraraghavan, Malathi; Blondin, John M

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale science computations and experiments require unprecedented network capabilities in the form of large bandwidth and dynamically stable connections to support data transfers, interactive visualizations, and monitoring and steering operations. A number of component technologies dealing with the infrastructure, provisioning, transport and application mappings must be developed and/or optimized to achieve these capabilities. We present a brief account of the following technologies that contribute toward achieving these network capabilities: (a) DOE UltraScienceNet and NSF CHEETAH network testbeds that provide on-demand and scheduled dedicated network connections; (b) experimental results on transport protocols that achieve close to 100% utilization on dedicated 1Gbps wide-area channels; (c) a scheme for optimally mapping a visualization pipeline onto a network to minimize the end-to-end delays; and (d) interconnect configuration and protocols that provides multiple Gbps flows from Cray X1 to external hosts

  18. Networking for large-scale science: infrastructure, provisioning, transport and application mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Carter, Steven M [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wu Qishi [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wing, William R [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Zhu Mengxia [Department of Computer Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Mezzacappa, Anthony [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Veeraraghavan, Malathi [Department of Computer Science, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Blondin, John M [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale science computations and experiments require unprecedented network capabilities in the form of large bandwidth and dynamically stable connections to support data transfers, interactive visualizations, and monitoring and steering operations. A number of component technologies dealing with the infrastructure, provisioning, transport and application mappings must be developed and/or optimized to achieve these capabilities. We present a brief account of the following technologies that contribute toward achieving these network capabilities: (a) DOE UltraScienceNet and NSF CHEETAH network testbeds that provide on-demand and scheduled dedicated network connections; (b) experimental results on transport protocols that achieve close to 100% utilization on dedicated 1Gbps wide-area channels; (c) a scheme for optimally mapping a visualization pipeline onto a network to minimize the end-to-end delays; and (d) interconnect configuration and protocols that provides multiple Gbps flows from Cray X1 to external hosts.

  19. Construction and discussion of the science and technology information network of SWIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Li; Zhang Yiming

    2010-01-01

    The digital library needs to be developed with the advancement of digitalisation and network, and the construction of digital information resource is more indispensable. This paper introduces the exploration and the work performed by the Research Office of Science and Technology Information of the Southwestern Institute of Physics with respect to preliminary construction of science and technology (S and T) information network resources and the magnitude alteration of S and T information service platform subsequently and the building of a dynamical network information service mode of its own characteristics. (authors)

  20. The YES Network: IYPE's Motto 'Earth Sciences for Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Leila; Keane, Christopher

    2010-05-01

    The YES Network is an international association of early-career geoscientists who are primarily under the age of 35 years and are currently engaged in the geosciences in organizations from across the world. The YES Network was formed as a result of the International Year of Planet Earth in 2007. The YES Network aims to establish an interdisciplinary global network of individuals committed to solving these challenges, and furthering the IYPE motto of "Earth Sciences for Society". In 2009, in collaboration with the IYPE and under the patronage of UNESCO, the YES Network organized its first international Congress at the China University of Geosciences in Beijing, China. The Congress focused on climate, environmental and geoscience challenges facing today's society, as well as career and academic pathway challenges faced by early-career geoscientists. More than 300 young geoscientists from across the world attended the conference to present their research and participate in the oral, poster, and roundtable symposia. The roundtable symposia engaged senior and early-career geoscientists via presentations, panel discussions, and working group sessions. These symposia were broadcast as ‘live' webinars to increase international participation. As a result, 41 "virtual" participants from 10 countries and 16 "virtual" speakers from 5 countries were able to participate in these discussions. Since October, the YES Network has continued to expand its membership and develop more projects aligned with the "Earth Sciences for Society" motto. The YES Network is continuing to develop its website and social media networks to increase communication between YES Network members on local, regional and international scales, and it is developing resources to aid early-career geoscientists with opportunities for professional development, international collaboration, and involvement in outreach activities. Members of the YES Network are actively forming connections between the YES Network

  1. Europlanet NA2 Science Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Szego, Karoly; Genzer, Maria; Schmidt, Walter; Krupp, Norbert; Lammer, Helmut; Kallio, Esa; Haukka, Harri

    2013-04-01

    Europlanet RI / NA2 Science Networking [1] focused on determining the major goals of current and future European planetary science, relating them to the Research Infrastructure that the Europlanet RI project [2] developed, and placing them in a more global context. NA2 also enhanced the ability of European planetary scientists to participate on the global scene with their own agenda-setting projects and ideas. The Networking Activity NA2 included five working groups, aimed at identifying key science issues and producing reference books on major science themes that will bridge the gap between the results of present and past missions and the scientific preparation of the future ones. Within the Europlanet RI project (2009-2012) the NA2 and NA2-WGs organized thematic workshops, an expert exchange program and training groups to improve the scientific impact of this Infrastructure. The principal tasks addressed by NA2 were: • Science activities in support to the optimal use of data from past and present space missions, involving the broad planetary science community beyond the "space club" • Science activities in support to the preparation of future planetary missions: Earth-based preparatory observations, laboratory studies, R&D on advanced instrumentation and exploration technologies for the future, theory and modeling etc. • Develop scientific activities, joint publications, dedicated meetings, tools and services, education activities, engaging the public and industries • Update science themes and addressing the two main scientific objectives • Prepare and support workshops of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern and • Support Trans National Activities (TNAs), Joined Research Activities (JRAs) and the Integrated and Distributed Information Service (IDIS) of the Europlanet project These tasks were achieved by WG workshops organized by the NA2 working groups, by ISSI workshops and by an Expert Exchange Program. There were 17 official WG

  2. Challenges in network science: Applications to infrastructures, climate, social systems and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Ben-Jacob, E.; Bunde, A.; Cohen, R.; Hermann, H.; Kantelhardt, J. W.; Kertész, J.; Kirkpatrick, S.; Kurths, J.; Portugali, J.; Solomon, S.

    2012-11-01

    Network theory has become one of the most visible theoretical frameworks that can be applied to the description, analysis, understanding, design and repair of multi-level complex systems. Complex networks occur everywhere, in man-made and human social systems, in organic and inorganic matter, from nano to macro scales, and in natural and anthropogenic structures. New applications are developed at an ever-increasing rate and the promise for future growth is high, since increasingly we interact with one another within these vital and complex environments. Despite all the great successes of this field, crucial aspects of multi-level complex systems have been largely ignored. Important challenges of network science are to take into account many of these missing realistic features such as strong coupling between networks (networks are not isolated), the dynamics of networks (networks are not static), interrelationships between structure, dynamics and function of networks, interdependencies in given networks (and other classes of links, including different signs of interactions), and spatial properties (including geographical aspects) of networks. This aim of this paper is to introduce and discuss the challenges that future network science needs to address, and how different disciplines will be accordingly affected.

  3. Citizen Science and Event-Based Science Education with the Quake-Catcher Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroot, R. M.; Sumy, D. F.; Benthien, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN, quakecatcher.net) is a collaborative, citizen-science initiative to develop the world's largest, low-cost strong-motion seismic network through the utilization of sensors in laptops and smartphones or small microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometers attached to internet-connected computers. The volunteer computers monitor seismic motion and other vibrations and send the "triggers" in real-time to the QCN server hosted at the University of Southern California. The QCN servers sift through these signals and determine which ones represent earthquakes and which ones represent cultural noise. Data collected by the Quake-Catcher Network can contribute to better understanding earthquakes, provide teachable moments for students, and engage the public with authentic science experiences. QCN partners coordinate sensor installations, develop QCN's scientific tools and engagement activities, and create next generation online resources. In recent years, the QCN team has installed sensors in over 225 K-12 schools and free-choice learning institutions (e.g. museums) across the United States and Canada. One of the current goals of the program in the United States is to establish several QCN stations in K-12 schools around a local museum hub as a means to provide coordinated and sustained educational opportunities leading up to the yearly Great ShakeOut Earthquake Drill, to encourage citizen science, and enrich STEM curriculum. Several school districts and museums throughout Southern California have been instrumental in the development of QCN. For educators QCN fulfills a key component of the Next Generation Science Standards where students are provided an opportunity to utilize technology and interface with authentic scientific data and learn about emerging programs such as the ShakeAlert earthquake early warning system. For example, Sunnylands Center in Rancho Mirage, CA leads Coachella Valley Hub, which serves 31 K-12 schools, many of

  4. A social network approach to understanding science communication among fire professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita Wright

    2012-01-01

    Studies of science communication and use in the fire management community suggest manager's access research via informal information networks and that these networks vary by both agency and position. We used a phone survey followed by traditional statistical analyses to understand the informal social networks of fire professionals in two western regions of the...

  5. Role of Network Science in the Study of Anesthetic State Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, UnCheol; Mashour, George A

    2018-04-23

    The heterogeneity of molecular mechanisms, target neural circuits, and neurophysiologic effects of general anesthetics makes it difficult to develop a reliable and drug-invariant index of general anesthesia. No single brain region or mechanism has been identified as the neural correlate of consciousness, suggesting that consciousness might emerge through complex interactions of spatially and temporally distributed brain functions. The goal of this review article is to introduce the basic concepts of networks and explain why the application of network science to general anesthesia could be a pathway to discover a fundamental mechanism of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. This article reviews data suggesting that reduced network efficiency, constrained network repertoires, and changes in cortical dynamics create inhospitable conditions for information processing and transfer, which lead to unconsciousness. This review proposes that network science is not just a useful tool but a necessary theoretical framework and method to uncover common principles of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness.

  6. Reconstruction of biological networks based on life science data integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormeier, Benjamin; Hippe, Klaus; Arrigo, Patrizio; Töpel, Thoralf; Janowski, Sebastian; Hofestädt, Ralf

    2010-10-27

    For the implementation of the virtual cell, the fundamental question is how to model and simulate complex biological networks. Therefore, based on relevant molecular database and information systems, biological data integration is an essential step in constructing biological networks. In this paper, we will motivate the applications BioDWH--an integration toolkit for building life science data warehouses, CardioVINEdb--a information system for biological data in cardiovascular-disease and VANESA--a network editor for modeling and simulation of biological networks. Based on this integration process, the system supports the generation of biological network models. A case study of a cardiovascular-disease related gene-regulated biological network is also presented.

  7. Transfer of sulfur from IscS to IscU during Fe/S cluster assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, H D; Silberg, J J; Hoff, K G; Vickery, L E

    2001-11-30

    The cysteine desulfurase enzymes NifS and IscS provide sulfur for the biosynthesis of Fe/S proteins. NifU and IscU have been proposed to serve as template or scaffold proteins in the initial Fe/S cluster assembly events, but the mechanism of sulfur transfer from NifS or IscS to NifU or IscU has not been elucidated. We have employed [(35)S]cysteine radiotracer studies to monitor sulfur transfer between IscS and IscU from Escherichia coli and have used direct binding measurements to investigate interactions between the proteins. IscS catalyzed transfer of (35)S from [(35)S]cysteine to IscU in the absence of additional thiol reagents, suggesting that transfer can occur directly and without involvement of an intermediate carrier. Surface plasmon resonance studies and isothermal titration calorimetry measurements further revealed that IscU binds to IscS with high affinity (K(d) approximately 2 microm) in support of a direct transfer mechanism. Transfer was inhibited by treatment of IscU with iodoacetamide, and (35)S was released by reducing reagents, suggesting that transfer of persulfide sulfur occurs to cysteinyl groups of IscU. A deletion mutant of IscS lacking C-terminal residues 376-413 (IscSDelta376-413) displayed cysteine desulfurase activity similar to the full-length protein but exhibited lower binding affinity for IscU, decreased ability to transfer (35)S to IscU, and reduced activity in assays of Fe/S cluster assembly on IscU. The findings with IscSDelta376-413 provide additional support for a mechanism of sulfur transfer involving a direct interaction between IscS and IscU and suggest that the C-terminal region of IscS may be important for binding IscU.

  8. Investigation of electronic and magnetic properties of FeS: First principle and Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouachraoui, Rachid; El Hachimi, Abdel Ghafour; Ziat, Younes; Bahmad, Lahoucine; Tahiri, Najim

    2018-06-01

    Electronic and magnetic properties of hexagonal Iron (II) Sulfide (hexagonal FeS) have been investigated by combining the Density functional theory (DFT) and Monte Carlo simulations (MCS). This compound is constituted by magnetic hexagonal lattice occupied by Fe2+ with spin state (S = 2). Based on ab initio method, we calculated the exchange coupling JFe-Fe between two magnetic atoms Fe-Fe in different directions. Also phase transitions, magnetic stability and magnetizations have been investigated in the framework of Monte Carlo simulations. Within this method, a second phase transition is observed at the Néel temperature TN = 450 K. This finding in good agreement with the reported data in the literature. The effect of the applied different parameters showed how can these parameters affect the critical temperature of this system. Moreover, we studied the density of states and found that the hexagonal FeS will be a promoting material for spintronic applications.

  9. Citizen science networks in natural history and the collective validation of biodiversity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnhout, Esther; Lawrence, Anna; Turnhout, Sander

    2016-06-01

    Biodiversity data are in increasing demand to inform policy and management. A substantial portion of these data is generated in citizen science networks. To ensure the quality of biodiversity data, standards and criteria for validation have been put in place. We used interviews and document analysis from the United Kingdom and The Netherlands to examine how data validation serves as a point of connection between the diverse people and practices in natural history citizen science networks. We found that rather than a unidirectional imposition of standards, validation was performed collectively. Specifically, it was enacted in ongoing circulations of biodiversity records between recorders and validators as they jointly negotiated the biodiversity that was observed and the validity of the records. These collective validation practices contributed to the citizen science character or natural history networks and tied these networks together. However, when biodiversity records were included in biodiversity-information initiatives on different policy levels and scales, the circulation of records diminished. These initiatives took on a more extractive mode of data use. Validation ceased to be collective with important consequences for the natural history networks involved and citizen science more generally. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Reconstruction of biological networks based on life science data integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kormeier Benjamin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available For the implementation of the virtual cell, the fundamental question is how to model and simulate complex biological networks. Therefore, based on relevant molecular database and information systems, biological data integration is an essential step in constructing biological networks. In this paper, we will motivate the applications BioDWH - an integration toolkit for building life science data warehouses, CardioVINEdb - a information system for biological data in cardiovascular-disease and VANESA- a network editor for modeling and simulation of biological networks. Based on this integration process, the system supports the generation of biological network models. A case study of a cardiovascular-disease related gene-regulated biological network is also presented.

  11. ESnet4: next generation network strategy, architecture, and implementation for DOE Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Michael; Burrescia, Joseph; Dart, Eli; Gagliardi, Jim; Guok, Chin; Johnston, William; Metzger, Joe; Oberman, Kevin; O'Connor, Mike

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science is the largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the US. It directly supports the research of 15,000 PhDs, PostDocs and Graduate Students, and operates major scientific facilities at DOE laboratories that serve the entire US research community: other Federal agencies, universities, and industry, as well as the international research and education (R and E) community. ESnet's mission is to provide the network infrastructure that supports the mission of the Office of Science (SC). ESnet must evolve substantially in order to continue meeting the Office of Science mission needs and this paper discusses the development of ESnet's strategy to meet these requirements through a new network architecture and implementation approach

  12. Regulation of human Nfu activity in Fe-S cluster delivery-characterization of the interaction between Nfu and the HSPA9/Hsc20 chaperone complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachnowsky, Christine; Liu, Yushi; Yoon, Taejin; Cowan, J A

    2018-01-01

    Iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis is a complex, but highly regulated process that involves de novo cluster formation from iron and sulfide ions on a scaffold protein, and subsequent delivery to final targets via a series of Fe-S cluster-binding carrier proteins. The process of cluster release from the scaffold/carrier for transfer to the target proteins may be mediated by a dedicated Fe-S cluster chaperone system. In human cells, the chaperones include heat shock protein HSPA9 and the J-type chaperone Hsc20. While the role of chaperones has been somewhat clarified in yeast and bacterial systems, many questions remain over their functional roles in cluster delivery and interactions with a variety of human Fe-S cluster proteins. One such protein, Nfu, has recently been recognized as a potential interaction partner of the chaperone complex. Herein, we examined the ability of human Nfu to function as a carrier by interacting with the human chaperone complex. Human Nfu is shown to bind to both chaperone proteins with binding affinities similar to those observed for IscU binding to the homologous HSPA9 and Hsc20, while Nfu can also stimulate the ATPase activity of HSPA9. Additionally, the chaperone complex was able to promote Nfu function by enhancing the second-order rate constants for Fe-S cluster transfer to target proteins and providing directionality in cluster transfer from Nfu by eliminating promiscuous transfer reactions. Together, these data support a hypothesis in which Nfu can serve as an alternative carrier protein for chaperone-mediated cluster release and delivery in Fe-S cluster biogenesis and trafficking. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  13. Magnetron-sputter deposition of Fe3S4 thin films and their conversion into pyrite (FeS2) by thermal sulfurization for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongfei; Chi Dongzhi

    2012-01-01

    The authors report on the fabrication of FeS 2 (pyrite) thin films by sulfurizing Fe 3 S 4 that were deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Under the selected sputtering conditions, Fe 3 S 4 nanocrystal films are obtained and the nanocrystals tend to locally cluster and closely pack into ricelike nanoparticles with an increase in film thickness. Meanwhile, the film tends to crack when the film thickness is increased over ∼1.3 μm. The film cracking can be effectively suppressed by an introduction of a 3-nm Cu intermediate layer prior to Fe 3 S 4 deposition. However, an introduction of a 3-nm Al intermediate layer tends to enhance the film cracking. By post-growth thermal sulfurization of the Fe 3 S 4 thin films in a tube-furnace, FeS 2 with high phase purity, as determined by using x ray diffraction, is obtained. Optical absorption spectroscopy was employed to characterize the resultant FeS 2 thin films, which revealed two absorption edges at 0.9 and 1.2 eV, respectively. These two absorption edges are assigned to the direct bandgap (0.9 eV) and the indirect allowed transitions (1.2 eV) of FeS 2 , respectively.

  14. Zinc and the iron donor frataxin regulate oligomerization of the scaffold protein to form new Fe-S cluster assembly centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, B K; Ranatunga, W; Gakh, O; Smith, D Y; Thompson, J R; Isaya, G

    2017-06-21

    Early studies of the bacterial Fe-S cluster assembly system provided structural details for how the scaffold protein and the cysteine desulfurase interact. This work and additional work on the yeast and human systems elucidated a conserved mechanism for sulfur donation but did not provide any conclusive insights into the mechanism for iron delivery from the iron donor, frataxin, to the scaffold. We previously showed that oligomerization is a mechanism by which yeast frataxin (Yfh1) can promote assembly of the core machinery for Fe-S cluster synthesis both in vitro and in cells, in such a manner that the scaffold protein, Isu1, can bind to Yfh1 independent of the presence of the cysteine desulfurase, Nfs1. Here, in the absence of Yfh1, Isu1 was found to exist in two forms, one mostly monomeric with limited tendency to dimerize, and one with a strong propensity to oligomerize. Whereas the monomeric form is stabilized by zinc, the loss of zinc promotes formation of dimer and higher order oligomers. However, upon binding to oligomeric Yfh1, both forms take on a similar symmetrical trimeric configuration that places the Fe-S cluster coordinating residues of Isu1 in close proximity of iron-binding residues of Yfh1. This configuration is suitable for docking of Nfs1 in a manner that provides a structural context for coordinate iron and sulfur donation to the scaffold. Moreover, distinct structural features suggest that in physiological conditions the zinc-regulated abundance of monomeric vs. oligomeric Isu1 yields [Yfh1]·[Isu1] complexes with different Isu1 configurations that afford unique functional properties for Fe-S cluster assembly and delivery.

  15. Utility of {sup 18}F-fluoroestradiol ({sup 18}F-FES) PET/CT imaging as a pharmacodynamic marker in patients with refractory estrogen receptor-positive solid tumors receiving Z-endoxifen therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Frank I. [National Cancer Institute, NIH, Cancer Imaging Program, Bethesda, MD (United States); National Cancer Institute, Molecular Imaging Program, Bethesda, MD (United States); Gonzalez, E.M.; Kurdziel, K.A.; Ton, A.; Turkbey, B.; Choyke, P.L.; Lindenberg, M.L. [National Cancer Institute, Molecular Imaging Program, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kummar, S.; Do, K.; Collins, J.M.; Doroshow, J.H. [National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis and Center for Cancer Research, Bethesda, MD (United States); Shih, J. [National Cancer Institute, NIH, Biometric Research Program, Bethesda, MD (United States); Adler, S. [Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., Clinical Research Directorate/Clinical Monitoring Research Program, Frederick, MD (United States); Jacobs, P.M. [National Cancer Institute, NIH, Cancer Imaging Program, Bethesda, MD (United States); Bhattacharyya, S. [Leidos Biomedical Research, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD (United States); Chen, A.P. [National Cancer Institute, Early Clinical Trials Development Program, DCTD, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Z-endoxifen is the most potent of the metabolites of tamoxifen, and has the potential to be more effective than tamoxifen because it bypasses potential drug resistance mechanisms attributable to patient variability in the expression of the hepatic microsomal enzyme CYP2D6. {sup 18}F-FES is a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agent which selectively binds to estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) and has been used for non-invasive in vivo assessment of ER activity in tumors. This study utilizes {sup 18}F-FES PET imaging as a pharmacodynamic biomarker in patients with ER+ tumors treated with Z-endoxifen. Fifteen patients were recruited from a parent therapeutic trial of Z-endoxifen and underwent imaging with {sup 18}F-FES PET at baseline. Eight had positive lesions on the baseline scan and underwent follow-up imaging with {sup 18}F-FES 1-5 days post administration of Z-endoxifen. Statistically significant changes (p = 0.0078) in standard uptake value (SUV)-Max were observed between the baseline and follow-up scans as early as 1 day post drug administration. F-FES PET imaging could serve as a pharmacodynamic biomarker for patients treated with ER-directed therapy. (orig.)

  16. In-Space Internet-Based Communications for Space Science Platforms Using Commercial Satellite Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Fabian, Theodore P.; Griner, James H.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Richard, Alan M.

    1999-01-01

    The continuing technological advances in satellite communications and global networking have resulted in commercial systems that now can potentially provide capabilities for communications with space-based science platforms. This reduces the need for expensive government owned communications infrastructures to support space science missions while simultaneously making available better service to the end users. An interactive, high data rate Internet type connection through commercial space communications networks would enable authorized researchers anywhere to control space-based experiments in near real time and obtain experimental results immediately. A space based communications network architecture consisting of satellite constellations connecting orbiting space science platforms to ground users can be developed to provide this service. The unresolved technical issues presented by this scenario are the subject of research at NASA's Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Assessment of network architectures, identification of required new or improved technologies, and investigation of data communications protocols are being performed through testbed and satellite experiments and laboratory simulations.

  17. 76 FR 4645 - Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ..., 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Tuesday, March 8, 2011, 8:30 a.m. to 12 p.m. ADDRESSES: Doubletree Bethesda Hotel... year (FY) 2012 budget submission to Congress and to conduct other committee business. Tentative Agenda Items: Office of Science FY 2012 Congressional Budget Request FES Program FY 2012 Congressional Budget...

  18. The interface of the ferromagnetic metal CoS2 and the nonmagnetic semiconductor FeS2

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, S.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2010-01-01

    semiconductor shows a metallic character. The CoS2 stays close to half-metallicity at the interface, while the FeS2 becomes metallic. The magnetic moment of the Co atoms at the interface slightly decreases as compared to the bulk value and a small moment

  19. ESnet4: next generation network strategy, architecture, and implementation for DOE Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Michael; Burrescia, Joseph; Dart, Eli; Gagliardi, Jim; Guok, Chin; Johnston, William; Metzger, Joe; Oberman, Kevin; O' Connor, Mike

    2006-09-15

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science is the largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the US. It directly supports the research of 15,000 PhDs, PostDocs and Graduate Students, and operates major scientific facilities at DOE laboratories that serve the entire US research community: other Federal agencies, universities, and industry, as well as the international research and education (R and E) community. ESnet's mission is to provide the network infrastructure that supports the mission of the Office of Science (SC). ESnet must evolve substantially in order to continue meeting the Office of Science mission needs and this paper discusses the development of ESnet's strategy to meet these requirements through a new network architecture and implementation approach.

  20. Conceptualizing the Science-Practice Interface: Lessons from a Collaborative Network on the Front-Line of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P. Kettle

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The gap between science and practice is widely recognized as a major concern in the production and application of decision-relevant science. This research analyzed the roles and network connections of scientists, service providers, and decision makers engaged in climate science and adaptation practice in Alaska, where rapid climate change is already apparent. Our findings identify key actors as well as significant differences in the level of bonding ties between network members who perceive similarity in their social identities, bridging ties between network members across different social groups, and control of information across roles—all of which inform recommendations for adaptive capacity and the co-production of usable knowledge. We also find that some individuals engage in multiple roles in the network suggesting that conceptualizing science policy interactions with the traditional categories of science producers and consumers oversimplifies how experts engage with climate science, services, and decision making. Our research reinforces the notion that the development and application of knowledge is a networked phenomenon and highlights the importance of centralized individuals capable of playing multiple roles in their networks for effective translation of knowledge into action.

  1. Insights into failed lexical retrieval from network science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitevitch, Michael S; Chan, Kit Ying; Goldstein, Rutherford

    2014-02-01

    Previous network analyses of the phonological lexicon (Vitevitch, 2008) observed a web-like structure that exhibited assortative mixing by degree: words with dense phonological neighborhoods tend to have as neighbors words that also have dense phonological neighborhoods, and words with sparse phonological neighborhoods tend to have as neighbors words that also have sparse phonological neighborhoods. Given the role that assortative mixing by degree plays in network resilience, we examined instances of real and simulated lexical retrieval failures in computer simulations, analysis of a slips-of-the-ear corpus, and three psycholinguistic experiments for evidence of this network characteristic in human behavior. The results of the various analyses support the hypothesis that the structure of words in the mental lexicon influences lexical processing. The implications of network science for current models of spoken word recognition, language processing, and cognitive psychology more generally are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Large-scale networks in engineering and life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Findeisen, Rolf; Flockerzi, Dietrich; Reichl, Udo; Sundmacher, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This edited volume provides insights into and tools for the modeling, analysis, optimization, and control of large-scale networks in the life sciences and in engineering. Large-scale systems are often the result of networked interactions between a large number of subsystems, and their analysis and control are becoming increasingly important. The chapters of this book present the basic concepts and theoretical foundations of network theory and discuss its applications in different scientific areas such as biochemical reactions, chemical production processes, systems biology, electrical circuits, and mobile agents. The aim is to identify common concepts, to understand the underlying mathematical ideas, and to inspire discussions across the borders of the various disciplines.  The book originates from the interdisciplinary summer school “Large Scale Networks in Engineering and Life Sciences” hosted by the International Max Planck Research School Magdeburg, September 26-30, 2011, and will therefore be of int...

  3. A social network approach to understanding science communication among fire professionals (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita Wright; Andrea Thode; Anne Mottek-Lucas; Jacklynn Fallon; Megan Matonis

    2012-01-01

    Studies of science communication and use in the fire management community suggest manager's access research via informal information networks and that these networks vary by both agency and position. We used a phone survey followed by traditional statistical analyses to understand the informal social networks of fire professionals in two western regions of the...

  4. Network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics: A scientific outline

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In present study, I proposed some new sciences: network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics. The aims, scope and scientific foundation of these sciences are outlined.

  5. Social networks and online environments: when science and practice co-evolve

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Devan; Barnett, George A.; Kim, Jang Hyun

    2011-01-01

    The science of social network analysis has co-evolved with the development of online environments and computer-mediated communication. Unique and precise data available from computer and information systems have allowed network scientists to explore novel social phenomena and develop new methods. Additionally, advances in the structural analysis and visualization of computer-mediated social networks have informed developers and shaped the design of social media tools. This article reviews som...

  6. Building a Global Ocean Science Education Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scowcroft, G. A.; Tuddenham, P. T.; Pizziconi, R.

    2016-02-01

    It is imperative for ocean science education to be closely linked to ocean science research. This is especially important for research that addresses global concerns that cross national boundaries, including climate related issues. The results of research on these critical topics must find its way to the public, educators, and students of all ages around the globe. To facilitate this, opportunities are needed for ocean scientists and educators to convene and identify priorities and strategies for ocean science education. On June 26 and 27, 2015 the first Global Ocean Science Education (GOSE) Workshop was convened in the United States at the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography. The workshop, sponsored by the Consortium for Ocean Science Exploration and Engagement (COSEE) and the College of Exploration, had over 75 participants representing 15 nations. The workshop addressed critical global ocean science topics, current ocean science research and education priorities, advanced communication technologies, and leveraging international ocean research technologies. In addition, panels discussed elementary, secondary, undergraduate, graduate, and public education across the ocean basins with emphasis on opportunities for international collaboration. Special presentation topics included advancements in tropical cyclone forecasting, collaborations among Pacific Islands, ocean science for coastal resiliency, and trans-Atlantic collaboration. This presentation will focus on workshop outcomes as well as activities for growing a global ocean science education network. A summary of the workshop report will also be provided. The dates and location for the 2016 GOES Workshop will be announced. See http://www.coexploration.net/gose/index.html

  7. Formation mechanism and yield of molecules ejected from ZnS, CdS, and FeS2 during ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikzad, S.; Calaway, W.F.; Pellin, M.J.; Young, C.E.; Gruen, D.M.; Tombrello, T.A.

    1994-01-01

    Neutral species ejected from single crystals of ZnS, CdS, and FeS 2 during ion bombardment by 3 keV Ar + were detected by laser post-ionization followed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. While metal atoms (Fe, Zn, Cd) and S 2 were the dominant species observed, substantial amounts of S, FeS, Zn 2 , ZnS, Cd 2 , and CdS were also detected. The experimental results demonstrate that molecules represent a larger fraction of the sputtered yield than was previously believed from secondary ion mass spectrometry experiments. In addition, the data suggest that the molecules are not necessarily formed from adjacent atoms in the solid and that a modified form of the recombination model could provide a mechanism for their formation

  8. Comparing the treatment of uncertainty in Bayesian networks and fuzzy expert systems used for a human reliability analysis application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraldi, Piero; Podofillini, Luca; Mkrtchyan, Lusine; Zio, Enrico; Dang, Vinh N.

    2015-01-01

    The use of expert systems can be helpful to improve the transparency and repeatability of assessments in areas of risk analysis with limited data available. In this field, human reliability analysis (HRA) is no exception, and, in particular, dependence analysis is an HRA task strongly based on analyst judgement. The analysis of dependence among Human Failure Events refers to the assessment of the effect of an earlier human failure on the probability of the subsequent ones. This paper analyses and compares two expert systems, based on Bayesian Belief Networks and Fuzzy Logic (a Fuzzy Expert System, FES), respectively. The comparison shows that a BBN approach should be preferred in all the cases characterized by quantifiable uncertainty in the input (i.e. when probability distributions can be assigned to describe the input parameters uncertainty), since it provides a satisfactory representation of the uncertainty and its output is directly interpretable for use within PSA. On the other hand, in cases characterized by very limited knowledge, an analyst may feel constrained by the probabilistic framework, which requires assigning probability distributions for describing uncertainty. In these cases, the FES seems to lead to a more transparent representation of the input and output uncertainty. - Highlights: • We analyse treatment of uncertainty in two expert systems. • We compare a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) and a Fuzzy Expert System (FES). • We focus on the input assessment, inference engines and output assessment. • We focus on an application problem of interest for human reliability analysis. • We emphasize the application rather than math to reach non-BBN or FES specialists

  9. A Regulatory Circuit Composed of a Transcription Factor, IscR, and a Regulatory RNA, RyhB, Controls Fe-S Cluster Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Mandin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fe-S clusters are cofactors conserved through all domains of life. Once assembled by dedicated ISC and/or SUF scaffolds, Fe-S clusters are conveyed to their apo-targets via A-type carrier proteins (ATCs. Escherichia coli possesses four such ATCs. ErpA is the only ATC essential under aerobiosis. Recent studies reported a possible regulation of the erpA mRNA by the small RNA (sRNA RyhB, which controls the expression of many genes under iron starvation. Surprisingly, erpA has not been identified in recent transcriptomic analysis of the iron starvation response, thus bringing into question the actual physiological significance of the putative regulation of erpA by RyhB. Using an sRNA library, we show that among 26 sRNAs, only RyhB represses the expression of an erpA-lacZ translational fusion. We further demonstrate that this repression occurs during iron starvation. Using mutational analysis, we show that RyhB base pairs to the erpA mRNA, inducing its disappearance. In addition, IscR, the master regulator of Fe-S homeostasis, represses expression of erpA at the transcriptional level when iron is abundant, but depleting iron from the medium alleviates this repression. The conjunction of transcriptional derepression by IscR and posttranscriptional repression by RyhB under Fe-limiting conditions is best described as an incoherent regulatory circuit. This double regulation allows full expression of erpA at iron concentrations for which Fe-S biogenesis switches from the ISC to the SUF system. We further provide evidence that this regulatory circuit coordinates ATC usage to iron availability.

  10. The Joint Fire Science Program Fire Exchange Network: Facilitating Knowledge Exchange About Wildland Fire Science Across the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, A.; Blocksome, C.; Cheng, T.; Creighton, J.; Edwards, G.; Frederick, S.; Giardina, C. P.; Goebel, P. C.; Gucker, C.; Kobziar, L.; Lane, E.; Leis, S.; Long, A.; Maier, C.; Marschall, J.; McGowan-Stinski, J.; Mohr, H.; MontBlanc, E.; Pellant, M.; Pickett, E.; Seesholtz, D.; Skowronski, N.; Stambaugh, M. C.; Stephens, S.; Thode, A.; Trainor, S. F.; Waldrop, T.; Wolfson, B.; Wright, V.; Zedler, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Joint Fire Science Program's (JFSP) Fire Exchange Network is actively working to accelerate the awareness, understanding, and adoption of wildland fire science information by federal, tribal, state, local, and private stakeholders within ecologically similar regions. Our network of 15 regional exchanges provides timely, accurate, and regionally relevant science-based information to assist with fire management challenges. Regional activities, through which we engage fire and resource managers, scientists, and private landowners, include online newsletters and announcements, social media, regionally focused web-based clearinghouses of relevant science, field trips and demonstration sites, workshops and conferences, webinars and online training, and syntheses and fact sheets. Exchanges also help investigators design research that is relevant to regional management needs and assist with technology transfer to management audiences. This poster provides an introduction to and map of the regional exchanges.

  11. Early career researchers and PhD students from the social sciences use of Social Networking Sites (SNS) for science communication: an affordances approach

    OpenAIRE

    Manco Vega, Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to understand the different practices and strategies early career researchers and PhD students from the social sciences have in Social Networking Sites (SNSs) for science communication in one particular country: Brazil. Following this purpose, the central research question is which are the motives and rationale of the researchers for using social networking sites for science communication. Two sub-questions arise from this general research question: How do practices and str...

  12. Effect of administration route on FES uptake into MCF-7 tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downer, Joanna B.; Jones, Lynne A.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Welch, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    We have observed that intraperitoneal administration of [ 18 F]fluoroestradiol (FES), a radiolabeled estrogen receptor ligand, results in higher abdominal organ uptake and slower blood clearance than intravenous administration in female mice. In SCID mice bearing MCF-7 human tumors SC, IP administration resulted in tumor uptake that was only about one third that obtained with IV administration. Thus, the route of administration of a radiopharmaceutical for imaging or radiotherapy of a tumor in the abdomen, an ovarian tumor, for example, could have a profound effect on the efficiency and selectivity of delivery of the agent to the tumor

  13. ACTINET: a European Network for Actinide Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard Boullis; Pascal Chaix

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The research in Actinide sciences appear as a strategic issue for the future of nuclear systems. Sustainability issues are clearly in connection with the way actinide elements are managed (either addressing saving natural resource, or decreasing the radiotoxicity of the waste). The recent developments in the field of minor actinide P and T offer convincing indications of what could be possible options, possible future processes for the selective recovery of minor actinides. But they point out, too, some lacks in the basic understanding of key-issues (such as for instance the control An versus Ln selectivity, or solvation phenomena in organic phases). Such lacks could be real obstacles for an optimization of future processes, with new fuel compounds and facing new recycling strategies. This is why a large and sustainable work appears necessary, here in the field of basic actinide separative chemistry. And similar examples could be taken from other aspects of An science, for various applications (nuclear fuel or transmutation targets design, or migration issues,): future developments need a strong, enlarged, scientific basis. The Network ACTINET, established with the support of the European Commission, has the following objectives: - significantly improve the accessibility of the major actinide facilities to the European scientific community, and form a set of pooled facilities, as the corner-stone of a progressive integration process, - improve mobility between the member organisations, in particular between Academic Institutions and National Laboratories holding the pooled facilities, - merge part of the research programs conducted by the member institutions, and optimise the research programs and infrastructure policy via joint management procedures, - strengthen European excellence through a selection process of joint proposals, and reduce the fragmentation of the community by putting critical mass of resources and expertise on

  14. AFRA Network for Education in Nuclear Science and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, O.N.; Wanjala, F.

    2017-01-01

    The Africa Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research Development and Training related to Science and Technology (AFRA) established the AFRA Network for Education in Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA-NEST) in order to implement AFRA strategy on Human Resource Development (HRD) and Nuclear Knowledge Management (NKM). The strategies for implementing the objectives are: to use ICT for web-based education and training; recognition of Regional Designated Centres (RDCs) for professional nuclear education in nuclear science and technology, and organization of harmonized and accredited programs at tertiary levels and awarding of fellowships/scholarships to young and brilliant students for teaching and research in the various nuclear disciplines

  15. Social networks as a tool for science communication and public engagement: focus on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Goñi, Ignacio; Sánchez-Angulo, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    Social networks have been used to teach and engage people about the importance of science. The integration of social networks in the daily routines of faculties and scientists is strongly recommended to increase their personal brand, improve their skills, enhance their visibility, share and communicate science to society, promote scientific culture, and even as a tool for teaching and learning. Here we review the use of Twitter in science and comment on our previous experience of using this social network as a platform for a Massive Online Open Course (MOOC) in Spain and Latin America. We propose to extend this strategy to a pan-European Microbiology MOOC in the near future. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Go Ask Alice: Uncovering the Role of a University Partner in an Informal Science Curriculum Support Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Doyle, Kira J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a study from the Linking Instructors Networks of Knowledge in Science Education project, which aims to examine the informal science curriculum support networks of teachers in a school-university curriculum reform partnership. We used social network analysis and qualitative methods to reveal characteristics of the informal…

  17. Biological mechanisms beyond network analysis via mathematical modeling. Comment on "Network science of biological systems at different scales: A review" by Marko Gosak et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2018-03-01

    Methods from network theory are increasingly used in research spanning from engineering and computer science to psychology and the social sciences. In this issue, Gosak et al. [1] provide a thorough review of network science applications to biological systems ranging from the subcellular world via neuroscience to ecosystems, with special attention to the insulin-secreting beta-cells in pancreatic islets.

  18. Complex network problems in physics, computer science and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, Radu Ionut

    There is a close relation between physics and mathematics and the exchange of ideas between these two sciences are well established. However until few years ago there was no such a close relation between physics and computer science. Even more, only recently biologists started to use methods and tools from statistical physics in order to study the behavior of complex system. In this thesis we concentrate on applying and analyzing several methods borrowed from computer science to biology and also we use methods from statistical physics in solving hard problems from computer science. In recent years physicists have been interested in studying the behavior of complex networks. Physics is an experimental science in which theoretical predictions are compared to experiments. In this definition, the term prediction plays a very important role: although the system is complex, it is still possible to get predictions for its behavior, but these predictions are of a probabilistic nature. Spin glasses, lattice gases or the Potts model are a few examples of complex systems in physics. Spin glasses and many frustrated antiferromagnets map exactly to computer science problems in the NP-hard class defined in Chapter 1. In Chapter 1 we discuss a common result from artificial intelligence (AI) which shows that there are some problems which are NP-complete, with the implication that these problems are difficult to solve. We introduce a few well known hard problems from computer science (Satisfiability, Coloring, Vertex Cover together with Maximum Independent Set and Number Partitioning) and then discuss their mapping to problems from physics. In Chapter 2 we provide a short review of combinatorial optimization algorithms and their applications to ground state problems in disordered systems. We discuss the cavity method initially developed for studying the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model of spin glasses. We extend this model to the study of a specific case of spin glass on the Bethe

  19. Networked Learning and Network Science: Potential Applications to Health Professionals' Continuing Education and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Alvaro; Parboosingh, John

    2015-01-01

    Prior interpersonal relationships and interactivity among members of professional associations may impact the learning process in continuing medical education (CME). On the other hand, CME programs that encourage interactivity between participants may impact structures and behaviors in these professional associations. With the advent of information and communication technologies, new communication spaces have emerged that have the potential to enhance networked learning in national and international professional associations and increase the effectiveness of CME for health professionals. In this article, network science, based on the application of network theory and other theories, is proposed as an approach to better understand the contribution networking and interactivity between health professionals in professional communities make to their learning and adoption of new practices over time. © 2015 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  20. Effect of surface Fe-S hybrid structure on the activity of the perfect and reduced α-Fe2O3(001) for chemical looping combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xianbin; Qin, Wu; Wang, Jianye; Li, Junhao; Dong, Changqing

    2018-05-01

    Sulfurization of the gradually reduced Fe2O3 surfaces is inevitable while Fe2O3 is used as an oxygen carrier (OC) for coal chemical looping combustion (CLC), which will result in formation of Fe-S hybrid structure on the surfaces. The Fe-S hybrid structure will directly alter the reactivity of the surfaces. Therefore, detailed properties of Fe-S hybrid structure over the perfect and reduced Fe2O3(001) surfaces, and its effect on the interfacial interactions, including CO oxidization and decomposition on the surfaces, were investigated by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The S atom prefers to chemically bind to Fe site with electron transfer from the surfaces to the S atom, and a deeper reduction of Fe2O3(001) leads to an increasing interaction between S and Fe. The formation of Fe-S hybrid structure alters the electronic properties of the gradually reduced Fe2O3(001) surfaces, promoting CO oxidation on the surfaces ranging from Fe2O3 to FeO, but depressing carbon deposition on the surfaces ranging from FeO to Fe. The sulfurized FeO acts as a watershed to realize relatively high CO oxidation rate and low carbon deposition. Results provided a fundamental understanding for controlling and optimizing the CLC processes.

  1. Weaving a knowledge network for Deep Carbon Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaogang; West, Patrick; Zednik, Stephan; Erickson, John; Eleish, Ahmed; Chen, Yu; Wang, Han; Zhong, Hao; Fox, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Geoscience researchers are increasingly dependent on informatics and the Web to conduct their research. Geoscience is one of the first domains that take lead in initiatives such as open data, open code, open access, and open collections, which comprise key topics of Open Science in academia. The meaning of being open can be understood at two levels. The lower level is to make data, code, sample collections and publications, etc. freely accessible online and allow reuse, modification and sharing. The higher level is the annotation and connection between those resources to establish a network for collaborative scientific research. In the data science component of the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO), we have leveraged state-of-the-art information technologies and existing online resources to deploy a web portal for the over 1000 researchers in the DCO community. An initial aim of the portal is to keep track of all research and outputs related to the DCO community. Further, we intend for the portal to establish a knowledge network, which supports various stages of an open scientific process within and beyond the DCO community. Annotation and linking are the key characteristics of the knowledge network. Not only are key assets, including DCO data and methods, published in an open and inter-linked fashion, but the people, organizations, groups, grants, projects, samples, field sites, instruments, software programs, activities, meetings, etc. are recorded and connected to each other through relationships based on well-defined, formal conceptual models. The network promotes collaboration among DCO participants, improves the openness and reproducibility of carbon-related research, facilitates accreditation to resource contributors, and eventually stimulates new ideas and findings in deep carbon-related studies.

  2. Nebraska Earth Science Education Network: Enhancing the NASA, University, and Pre-College Science Teacher Connection with Electronic Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, David C.

    1997-01-01

    The primary goals of this project were to: 1. Promote and enhance K-12 earth science education; and enhance the access to and exchange of information through the use of digital networks in K-12 institutions. We have achieved these two goals. Through the efforts of many individuals at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), Nebraska Earth Science Education Network (NESEN) has become a viable and beneficial interdisciplinary outreach program for K-12 educators in Nebraska. Over the last three years, the NASA grant has provided personnel and equipment to maintain, expand and develop NESEN into a program that is recognized by its membership as a valuable source of information and expertise in earth systems science. Because NASA funding provided a framework upon which to build, other external sources of funding have become available to support NESEN programs.

  3. ACTINET - EU network of excellence for actinide sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gompper, K.

    2006-01-01

    ACTINET, the Network of Excellence for Actinide Sciences within the 6th EU Framework Program, was launched in March 2004 for an initial period of four years. A number of tools are available in ACTINET to serve the purposes of the project, i.e. stimulate and coordinate actinide research in Europe, promote integration, train young scientists and, in this way, ensure and enhance European competence. The large European actinide laboratories with their unique experimental and analytical equipment are available to scientists from Europe as so-called 'pool facilities' within the framework of joint research projects. Setting up a 'theoretical user lab' has turned out to be a promising way of exploiting the synergies of theory and experiment in various fields of actinide science. Joint research projects are supported within the network, working with actinides being made possible in the pool facilities. Training and instruction are ensured by seminars, workshops, and schools organized annually. In familiarizing young scientists with actinide work, ACTINET exercises training functions and contributes to ensuring and enhancing European competence in the field on the medium and long term. Even after only half of its term, ACTINET is developing into a live network, thus decisively contributing towards promoting, coordinating and integrating European actinide research. As actinides play a key role in the use of nuclear power, this benefits European industries, research centers, operators of nuclear power plants and nuclear facilities as well as licensing and regulatory authorities. (orig.)

  4. Interactions of iron-bound frataxin with ISCU and ferredoxin on the cysteine desulfurase complex leading to Fe-S cluster assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kai; Frederick, Ronnie O; Tonelli, Marco; Markley, John L

    2018-06-01

    Frataxin (FXN) is involved in mitochondrial iron‑sulfur (Fe-S) cluster biogenesis and serves to accelerate Fe-S cluster formation. FXN deficiency is associated with Friedreich ataxia, a neurodegenerative disease. We have used a combination of isothermal titration calorimetry and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy to investigate interactions among the components of the biological machine that carries out the assembly of iron‑sulfur clusters in human mitochondria. Our results show that FXN tightly binds a single Fe 2+ but not Fe 3+ . While FXN (with or without bound Fe 2+ ) does not bind the scaffold protein ISCU directly, the two proteins interact mutually when each is bound to the cysteine desulfurase complex ([NFS1] 2 :[ISD11] 2 :[Acp] 2 ), abbreviated as (NIA) 2 , where "N" represents the cysteine desulfurase (NFS1), "I" represents the accessory protein (ISD11), and "A" represents acyl carrier protein (Acp). FXN binds (NIA) 2 weakly in the absence of ISCU but more strongly in its presence. Fe 2+ -FXN binds to the (NIA) 2 -ISCU 2 complex without release of iron. However, upon the addition of both l-cysteine and a reductant (either reduced FDX2 or DTT), Fe 2+ is released from FXN as consistent with Fe 2+ -FXN being the proximal source of iron for Fe-S cluster assembly. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Can multilayer brain networks be a real step forward?. Comment on "Network science of biological systems at different scales: A review" by M. Gosak et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldú, Javier M.; Papo, David

    2018-03-01

    Over the last two decades Network Science has become one of the most active fields in science, whose growth has been supported by four fundamental pillars: statistical physics, nonlinear dynamics, graph theory and Big Data [1]. Initially concerned with analyzing the structure of networks, Network Science rapidly turned its attention, focused on the implications of network topology, on the dynamics of and processes unfolding on networked systems, greatly improving our understanding of diffusion, synchronization, epidemics and information transmission in complex systems [2]. The network approach typically considered complex systems as evolving in a vacuum; however real networks are generally not isolated systems, but are in continuous and evolving contact with other networks, with which they interact in multiple qualitative different and typically time-varying ways. These systems can then be represented as a collection of subsystems with connectivity layers, which are simply collapsed when considering the traditional monolayer representation. Surprisingly, such an "unpacking" of layers has proven to bear profound consequences on the structural and dynamical properties of networks, leading for instance to counter-intuitive synchronization phenomena, where maximization synchronization is achieved through strategies opposite of those maximizing synchronization in isolated networks [3].

  6. Multilayer network modeling creates opportunities for novel network statistics. Comment on "Network science of biological systems at different scales: A review" by Gosak et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Sarah Feldt

    2018-03-01

    As described in the review by Gosak et al., the field of network science has had enormous success in providing new insights into the structure and function of biological systems [1]. In the complex networks framework, system elements are network nodes, and connections between nodes represent some form of interaction between system elements [2]. The flexibility to define network nodes and edges to represent different aspects of biological systems has been employed to model numerous diverse systems at multiple scales.

  7. Supply network science: Emergence of a new perspective on a classical field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brintrup, Alexandra; Ledwoch, Anna

    2018-03-01

    Supply networks emerge as companies procure goods from one another to produce their own products. Due to a chronic lack of data, studies on these emergent structures have long focussed on local neighbourhoods, assuming simple, chain-like structures. However, studies conducted since 2001 have shown that supply chains are indeed complex networks that exhibit similar organisational patterns to other network types. In this paper, we present a critical review of theoretical and model based studies which conceptualise supply chains from a network science perspective, showing that empirical data do not always support theoretical models that were developed, and argue that different industrial settings may present different characteristics. Consequently, a need that arises is the development and reconciliation of interpretation across different supply network layers such as contractual relations, material flow, financial links, and co-patenting, as these different projections tend to remain in disciplinary siloes. Other gaps include a lack of null models that show whether the observed properties are meaningful, a lack of dynamical models that can inform how layers evolve and adopt to changes, and a lack of studies that investigate how local decisions enable emergent outcomes. We conclude by asking the network science community to help bridge these gaps by engaging with this important area of research.

  8. Weaving a Knowledge Network for Deep Carbon Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Ma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Geoscience researchers are increasingly dependent on informatics and the Web to conduct their research. Geoscience is one of the first domains that take lead in initiatives such as open data, open code, open access, and open collections, which comprise key topics of Open Science in academia. The meaning of being open can be understood at two levels. The lower level is to make data, code, sample collections, and publications, etc., freely accessible online and allow reuse, modification, and sharing. The higher level is the annotation and connection between those resources to establish a network for collaborative scientific research. In the data science component of the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO, we have leveraged state-of-the-art information technologies and existing online resources to deploy a web portal for the over 1,000 researchers in the DCO community. An initial aim of the portal is to keep track of all research and outputs related to the DCO community. Further, we intend for the portal to establish a knowledge network, which supports various stages of an open scientific process within and beyond the DCO community. Annotation and linking are the key characteristics of the knowledge network. Not only are key assets, including DCO data and methods, published in an open and inter-linked fashion, but the people, organizations, groups, grants, projects, samples, field sites, instruments, software programs, activities, meetings, etc., are recorded and connected to each other through relationships based on well-defined, formal conceptual models. The network promotes collaboration among DCO participants, improves the openness and reproducibility of carbon-related research, facilitates accreditation to resource contributors, and eventually stimulates new ideas and findings in deep carbon-related studies.

  9. A Survey on Quality of Service Monitoring and Analysis of Network of Agricultural Science and Technology Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Jian , Ma

    2014-01-01

    International audience; First, current situation on Network of agricultural science and technology resources is described. Then we pay much attention to the quality of service monitoring and analysis system of network resources. And finally, we come to the conclusion that the construction of Quality of service monitoring, analysis of network of agricultural science and technology resources is in great need.

  10. Uranium mining and metallurgy library science and technology literature retrieval of network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lilei

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the network resources and characteristics retrieve service of Beijing research Institute of Chemical Engineering of Metallurgy library, Analyzes the problems often encountered in the literature retrieval in science and technology, And puts forward the solution, Puts forward the thinking and Suggestions of science and technology literature retrieval. (author)

  11. International earth science information network for global change decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autrey-Hunley, C.; Kuhn, W.R.; Kasischke, E.; Trichel, M.T.; Coppola, R.

    1991-01-01

    Effective environmental decision making depends upon the ability to predict physical changes in the environment, societal responses to these changes, and how both the physical changes and societal responses will be affected by changes in government regulations, public perceptions and the environment. Technological advances in remote sensing have provided a wealth of earth science data necessary to study global change problems; the Earth Observatory System will provide an unprecedented data source in the late 1990's. The Consortium for an International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) will combine earth science data (both satellite and ground-based) with data on the social sciences (e.g., economics, demographics, public health) to support informed policy decisions and to transfer knowledge on global change and its causes to the public.

  12. Network Science for Deterrence: Sheathing the Sword of the Terrorism/Nuclear Horseman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, Kathleen

    2010-03-01

    After 9/11, network analysis became popular as a way to connect and disconnect the dots. It was heralded as the new science with intrinsic value for understanding and breaking up terrorist groups, insurgencies and hostile foreign governments. The limit of the initially forwarded approach was that it focused on only the social network -- who talked to whom. However ,the networks of war, terror or nuclear or cyber, are complex networks composed of people, organizations, resources, and capabilities connected in a geo-temporal web that constrains and enables activities that are ``hidden'' in the web of everyday life. Identifying these networks requires extraction and fusion of information from cyber-mediated realms resulting in a network map of the hostile groups and their relations to the populations in which they are embedded. These data are at best a sample, albeit a very large sample, replete with missing and incomplete data. Geo-temporal considerations in addition to information loss and error called into question the value of traditional network approaches. In this talk, a new approaches and associated technologies that integrate scientific advances in machine learning, network statistics, and the social and organizational science with traditional graph theoretic approaches to social networks are presented. Then, examples, of how these technologies can be used as part of a deterrence strategy are described. Examples related to terrorism and groups such as al-Qaida and Hamas, cyber and nuclear deterrence are described. By taking this meta-network approach, embracing the complexity and simultaneously examining not just one network, but the connections among networks, it is possible to identify emergent leaders, locate changes in activities, and forecast the potential impact of various interventions. Key challenges, such as data-streaming and deception, that need to be addressed scientifically are referenced.

  13. Online and in-person networking among women in the Earth Sciences Women's Network at www.ESWNonline.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontak, R.; Adams, A. S.; De Boer, A. M.; Hastings, M. G.; Holloway, T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Steiner, A. L.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Earth Science Women's Network is an international peer-mentoring network of women in the Earth Sciences, many of whom are in the early stages of their careers. Membership is free and has grown through "word of mouth," and includes upper-level undergraduates, graduate students, professionals in a range of environmental fields, scientists working in public and private institutions. Our mission is to promote career development, build community, provide informal mentoring and support, and facilitate professional collaborations. Since 2002 we have accomplished this trough online networking, including over email and a listserv, on facebook, in-person networking events, and professional development workshops. Now in our 10th year, ESWN is debuting a new web-center that creates an online space exclusively for women in any discipline of the Earth (including planetary) sciences. ESWN members can connect and create an online community of support and encouragement for themselves as women in a demanding career. Many women in Earth Science fields feel isolated and are often the only woman in their department or work environments. ESWN is a place to meet others, discuss issues faced in creating work-life balance and professional success and share best practices through peer mentoring. Now on ESWN's new web-center, members can create and personalize their profiles and search for others in their field, nearby, or with similar interests. Online discussions in the members-only area can also be searched. Members can create groups for discussion or collaboration, with document sharing and password protection. Publicly, we can share gained knowledge with a broader audience, like lessons learned at our professional development workshops and collected recommendations from members. The new web center allows for more connectivity among other online platforms used by our members, including linked-in, facebook, and twitter. Built in Wordpress with a Buddpress members-only section, the new

  14. Automated sensor networks to advance ocean science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, O.; Orcutt, J. A.; Arrott, M.; Vernon, F. L.; Peach, C. L.; Meisinger, M.; Krueger, I.; Kleinert, J.; Chao, Y.; Chien, S.; Thompson, D. R.; Chave, A. D.; Balasuriya, A.

    2010-12-01

    The National Science Foundation has funded the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), which over the next five years will deploy infrastructure to expand scientist’s ability to remotely study the ocean. The deployed infrastructure will be linked by a robust cyberinfrastructure (CI) that will integrate marine observatories into a coherent system-of-systems. OOI is committed to engaging the ocean sciences community during the construction pahse. For the CI, this is being enabled by using a “spiral design strategy” allowing for input throughout the construction phase. In Fall 2009, the OOI CI development team used an existing ocean observing network in the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) to test OOI CI software. The objective of this CI test was to aggregate data from ships, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), shore-based radars, and satellites and make it available to five different data-assimilating ocean forecast models. Scientists used these multi-model forecasts to automate future glider missions in order to demonstrate the feasibility of two-way interactivity between the sensor web and predictive models. The CI software coordinated and prioritized the shared resources that allowed for the semi-automated reconfiguration of assett-tasking, and thus enabled an autonomous execution of observation plans for the fixed and mobile observation platforms. Efforts were coordinated through a web portal that provided an access point for the observational data and model forecasts. Researchers could use the CI software in tandem with the web data portal to assess the performance of individual numerical model results, or multi-model ensembles, through real-time comparisons with satellite, shore-based radar, and in situ robotic measurements. The resulting sensor net will enable a new means to explore and study the world’s oceans by providing scientists a responsive network in the world’s oceans that can be accessed via any wireless network.

  15. Network Science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leland, Will

    2006-01-01

    OVERVIEW: (1) A committee of technical experts, military officers and R&D managers was assembled by the National Research Council to reach consensus on the nature of networks and network research. (2...

  16. Na7 [Fe2S6 ] , Na2 [FeS2 ] and Na2 [FeSe2 ] : New 'reduced' sodium chalcogenido ferrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stüble, Pirmin; Peschke, Simon; Johrendt, Dirk; Röhr, Caroline

    2018-02-01

    Three new 'reduced' FeII containing sodium chalcogenido ferrates were obtained applying a reductive synthetic route. The mixed-valent sulfido ferrate Na7 [Fe2S6 ] , which forms bar-shaped crystals with metallic greenish luster, was synthesized in pure phase from natural pyrite and elemental sodium at a maximum temperature of 800 °C. Its centrosymmetric triclinic structure (SG P 1 bar , a = 764.15(2), b = 1153.70(2), c = 1272.58(3) pm, α = 62.3325 (7) , β = 72.8345 (8) , γ = 84.6394 (8) ° , Z = 3, R1 = 0.0185) exhibits two crystallographically different [Fe2S6 ] 7 - dimers of edge-sharing [FeS4 ] tetrahedra, with somewhat larger Fe-S distances than in the fully oxidized FeIII dimers of e.g. Na6 [Fe2III S6 ] . In contrast to the localized AFM ordered pure di-ferrates(III), the Curie-Weiss behavior of the magnetic susceptibility proves the rarely observed valence-delocalized S = 9/2 state of the mixed-valent FeIII /FeII dimer. The nearly spin-only value of the magnetic moment combined with the chemical bonding not generally differing from that in pure ferrates(II) and (III), provides a striking argument, that the reduction of the local Fe spin moments observed in all condensed sulfido ferrate moieties is connected with the AFM spin ordering. The two isotypic ferrates(II) Na2 [FeS2 ] and Na2 [FeSe2 ] with chain-like structural units (SG Ibam, a = 643.54(8)/ 660.81(1), b = 1140.2(2)/1190.30(2) c = 562.90(6)/585.59(1) pm, Z = 4, R1 = 0.0372/0.0466) crystallize in the K2 [ZnO2 ] -type structure. Although representing merely further members of the common series of chalcogenido metallates(II) Na2 [MIIQ2 ] , these two new phases, together with Na6 [FeS4 ] and Li2 [FeS2 ] , are the only examples of pure FeII alkali chalcogenido ferrates. The new compounds allow for a general comparison of di- and chain ferrates(II) and (III) and mixed-valent analogs concerning the electronic and magnetic properties (including Heisenberg super-exchange and double-exchange interactions

  17. Report on Computing and Networking in the Space Science Laboratory by the SSL Computer Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, D. L. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The Space Science Laboratory (SSL) at Marshall Space Flight Center is a multiprogram facility. Scientific research is conducted in four discipline areas: earth science and applications, solar-terrestrial physics, astrophysics, and microgravity science and applications. Representatives from each of these discipline areas participate in a Laboratory computer requirements committee, which developed this document. The purpose is to establish and discuss Laboratory objectives for computing and networking in support of science. The purpose is also to lay the foundation for a collective, multiprogram approach to providing these services. Special recognition is given to the importance of the national and international efforts of our research communities toward the development of interoperable, network-based computer applications.

  18. Local and Long Distance Computer Networking for Science Classrooms. Technical Report No. 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Denis

    This report describes Earth Lab, a project which is demonstrating new ways of using computers for upper-elementary and middle-school science instruction, and finding ways to integrate local-area and telecommunications networks. The discussion covers software, classroom activities, formative research on communications networks, and integration of…

  19. The Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN): A member-driven network approach to supporting women in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, M. G.; Kontak, R.; Adams, A. S.; Barnes, R. T.; Fischer, E. V.; Glessmer, M. S.; Holloway, T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Rodriguez, C.; Steiner, A. L.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Laursen, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN) is an organization of women geoscientists, many in the early stages of their careers. The mission of ESWN is to promote success in scientific careers by facilitating career development, community, informal mentoring and support, and professional collaborations. ESWN currently connects nearly 2000 women across the globe, and includes graduate students, postdoctoral scientists, tenure and non-tenure track faculty from diverse colleges and universities, program managers, and government, non-government and industry researchers. In 2009, ESWN received an NSF ADVANCE PAID award, with the primary goals to grow our membership to serve a wider section of the geosciences community, to design and administer career development workshops, to promote professional networking at scientific conferences, and to develop web resources to build connections, collaborations, and peer mentoring for and among women in the Earth Sciences. Now at the end of the grant, ESWN members have reported gains in a number of aspects of their personal and professional lives including: knowledge about career resources; a greater understanding of the challenges facing women in science and resources to overcome them; a sense of community and less isolation; greater confidence in their own career trajectories; professional collaborations; emotional support on a variety of issues; and greater engagement and retention in scientific careers. The new ESWN web center (www.ESWNonline.org), a major development supported by NSF ADVANCE and AGU, was created to facilitate communication and networking among our members. The web center offers a state-of-the-art social networking platform and features: 1) a public site offering information on ESWN, career resources for all early career scientists, and a 'members' spotlight' highlighting members' scientific and professional achievements; and 2) a password protected member area where users can personalize profiles, create and

  20. New trends in networking, computing, e-learning, systems sciences, and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sobh, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    This book includes a set of rigorously reviewed world-class manuscripts addressing and detailing state-of-the-art research projects in the areas of Computer Science, Informatics, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering. It includes selected papers form the conference proceedings of the Ninth International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering (CISSE 2013). Coverage includes topics in: Industrial Electronics, Technology & Automation, Telecommunications and Networking, Systems, Computing Sciences and Software Engineering, Engineering Education, Instructional Technology, Assessment, and E-learning.  • Provides the latest in a series of books growing out of the International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering; • Includes chapters in the most advanced areas of Computing, Informatics, Systems Sciences, and Engineering; • Accessible to a wide range of readership, including professors, researchers, practitioners and...

  1. Quality resource networks for young women in science: The role of Internet-facilitated ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Shana Cecile

    In communications, a new approach to the study of online interaction has been suggested by social network analysts. Garton, Haythornthwaite, and Wellman (1997) have outlined the importance of using network analysis to study how media are interconnected with other social aspects of a media user's world. As applied here, this approach to communication when combined with recent network studies from the fields of education and rural development, provides a method for looking at the role of Internet-facilitated ties in the development of resource networks in the learning communities of young women from seven rural schools across the state of Washington. Twenty-six young women (ages 14-16) from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds (approximately half of the participants are Hispanic or Native American, the other half are White) participated in the research. Participants were selected because they shared a common educational orientation through Rural Girls in Science, a NSF-funded program at the Northwest Center for Research on Women at the University of Washington. As part of the school-based component of the Rural Girls in Science program, all 26 participants designed and conducted year-long, community-based research projects in science. Each school in the program was provided an Internet workstation for communication and research. Through the Internet, students could conceivably maintain distant ties with mentors and research scientists whom they met at summer camp as well as seek additional information resources. Toward the conclusion of the long-term research projects, each student participant was interviewed using a participatory form of network analysis that included a combined qualitative and quantitative approach. Given the small number of participants and schools in the sample, the results from the analysis can not be generalized to a larger population. However the study of the structure and composition of networks among individuals and school groups provided

  2. Strong 3D and 1D magnetism in hexagonal Fe-chalcogenides FeS and FeSe vs. weak magnetism in hexagonal FeTe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David S

    2017-06-13

    We present a comparative theoretical study of the hexagonal forms of the Fe-chalcogenides FeS, FeSe and FeTe with their better known tetragonal forms. While the tetragonal forms exhibit only an incipient antiferromagnetism and experimentally show superconductivity when doped, the hexagonal forms of FeS and FeSe display a robust magnetism. We show that this strong magnetism arises from a van Hove singularity associated with the direct Fe-Fe c-axis chains in the generally more three-dimensional NiAs structure. We also find that hexagonal FeTe is much less magnetic than the other two hexagonal materials, so that unconventional magnetically-mediated superconductivity is possible, although a large T c value is unlikely.

  3. FIRST SOUND EVIDENCE OF MUSCLE REGENERATION IN RECOVERY OF FUNCTION OF HUMAN PERMANENT DENERVATED MUSCLES BY A LONG-LASTING FUNCTIONAL ELECTRICAL STIMULATION (FES TRAINING: BIOPSY FINDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kern

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to general believe, in one case of 18month cauda equina lesion four-month electrical stimulation of thigh muscles (impulse energy 1.92 Joule increased stimulation frequency from 2 to 20 Hz, i. e., up to tetanic contractions. After 2 years of treatment, CT-cross sectional area of quadriceps improved 58.3% (right and 44.4% (left with increased muscle density. Mean myofiber size was 37.2 ± 24.8 µm (right and 40.5 ±  24.9 µm (left. Improvement of stimulated knee torque, from zero to 12.0 Nm and 10.5 Nm, respectively, enabled to stand up trials. Surviving myofibers undergo re-growth (they show the chess board appearance of normal muscle, and dying myofibers continuously regenerate (up to 3% are embryonic myosin positive 3-year post-FES. Regeneration events are essential components of the FES rehabilitation protocol due to superior excitability of regenerated myofibers in comparison to long-term denervated, degenerated myofibers, which were almost not excitable before FES training.

  4. The Navajo Learning Network and the NASA Life Sciences/AFOSR Infrastructure Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The NSF-funded Navajo Learning Network project, with help from NASA Life Sciences and AFOSR, enabled Dine College to take a giant leap forward technologically - in a way that could never had been possible had these projects been managed separately. The combination of these and other efforts created a network of over 500 computers located at ten sites across the Navajo reservation. Additionally, the college was able to install a modern telephone system which shares network data, and purchase a new higher education management system. The NASA Life Sciences funds further allowed the college library system to go online and become available to the entire campus community. NSF, NASA and AFOSR are committed to improving minority access to higher education opportunities and promoting faculty development and undergraduate research through infrastructure support and development. This project has begun to address critical inequalities in access to science, mathematics, engineering and technology for Navajo students and educators. As a result, Navajo K-12 education has been bolstered and Dine College will therefore better prepare students to transfer successfully to four-year institutions. Due to the integration of the NSF and NASA/AFOSR components of the project, a unified project report is appropriate.

  5. Improving Neural Network Approximations in Applications: Case Study in Materials Science

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holeňa, Martin; Steinfeldt, N.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2009), s. 165-190 ISSN 1210-0552 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : artificial neural networks * approximation capability * crossvalidation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.475, year: 2009

  6. Structural studies of the Enterococcus faecalis SufU [Fe-S] cluster protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frazzon Jeverson

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron-sulfur clusters are ubiquitous and evolutionarily ancient inorganic prosthetic groups, the biosynthesis of which depends on complex protein machineries. Three distinct assembly systems involved in the maturation of cellular Fe-S proteins have been determined, designated the NIF, ISC and SUF systems. Although well described in several organisms, these machineries are poorly understood in Gram-positive bacteria. Within the Firmicutes phylum, the Enterococcus spp. genus have recently assumed importance in clinical microbiology being considered as emerging pathogens for humans, wherein Enterococcus faecalis represents the major species associated with nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to carry out a phylogenetic analysis in Enterococcus faecalis V583 and a structural and conformational characterisation of it SufU protein. Results BLAST searches of the Enterococcus genome revealed a series of genes with sequence similarity to the Escherichia coli SUF machinery of [Fe-S] cluster biosynthesis, namely sufB, sufC, sufD and SufS. In addition, the E. coli IscU ortholog SufU was found to be the scaffold protein of Enterococcus spp., containing all features considered essential for its biological activity, including conserved amino acid residues involved in substrate and/or co-factor binding (Cys50,76,138 and Asp52 and, phylogenetic analyses showed a close relationship with orthologues from other Gram-positive bacteria. Molecular dynamics for structural determinations and molecular modeling using E. faecalis SufU primary sequence protein over the PDB:1su0 crystallographic model from Streptococcus pyogenes were carried out with a subsequent 50 ns molecular dynamic trajectory. This presented a stable model, showing secondary structure modifications near the active site and conserved cysteine residues. Molecular modeling using Haemophilus influenzae IscU primary sequence over the PDB:1su0 crystal followed by a MD

  7. Path-Length and the Misperception of Speech: Insights from Network Science and Psycholinguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Goldstein, Rutherford; Johnson, Elizabeth

    Using the analytical methods of network science we examined what could be retrieved from the lexicon when a spoken word is misperceived. To simulate misperceptions in the laboratory, we used a variant of the semantic associates task—the phonological associate task—in which participants heard an English word and responded with the first word that came to mind that sounded like the word they heard, to examine what people actually do retrieve from the lexicon when a spoken word is misperceived. Most responses were 1 link away from the stimulus word in the lexical network. Distant neighbors (words >1 link) were provided more often as responses when the stimulus word had low rather than high degree. Finally, even very distant neighbors tended to be connected to the stimulus word by a path in the lexical network. These findings have implications for the processing of spoken words, and highlight the valuable insights that can be obtained by combining the analytic tools of network science with the experimental tasks of psycholinguistics.

  8. 77 FR 485 - Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ...: Doubletree Bethesda Hotel and Executive Meeting Center, 8120 Wisconsin Avenue Bethesda, Maryland 20814. FOR... Congressional Budget Request. FES perspective and FY 2013 Congressional Budget Request for FES. Briefing on the...

  9. [Nitrogen oxide is involved in the regulation of the Fe-S cluster assembly in proteins and the formation of biofilms by Escherichia coli cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'eva, S V; Streltsova, D A; Starostina, I A; Sanina, N A

    2013-01-01

    The functions of nitrogen oxide (NO) in the regulation of the reversible processes of Fe-S cluster assembly in proteins and the formation of Escherichia coli biofilms have been investigated. S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and crystalline nitrosyl complexes of iron with sulfur-containing aliphatic ligands cisaconite (CisA) and penaconite have been used as NO donors for the first time. Wild-type E. coli cells of the strain MC4100, mutants deltaiscA and deltasufA, and the double paralog mutant deltaiscA/sufA with deletions in the alternative pathways of Fe2+ supply for cluster assembly (all derived from the above-named strain) were used in this study. Plankton growth of bacterial cultures, the mass of mature biofilms, and the expression of the SoxRS[2Fe-2S] regulon have been investigated and shown to depend on strain genotype, the process of Fe-S cluster assembly in iron-sulfur proteins, NO donor structure, and the presence of Fe2+ chelator ferene in the incubation medium. The antibiotic ciprofloxacine (CF) was used as an inhibitor of E. coli biofilm formation in the positive control. NO donors regulating Fe-S cluster assembly in E. coli have been shown to control plankton growth of the cultures and the process of mature biofilm formation; toxic doses of NO caused a dramatic (3- to 4-fold) stimulation of cell entry into biofilms as a response to nitrosative stress; NO donors CisA and GSNO in physiological concentrations suppressed the formation of mature biofilms, and the activity of these compounds was comparable to that of CE Regulation of both Fe-S cluster assembly in iron-sulfur proteins and biofilm formation by NO is indicative of the connection between these processes in E. coli.

  10. Thermoluminescence kinetics of pyrite (FeS2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, A.N; Levy, P.W.; Kierstead, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Thermoluminescence of pyrite (FeS 2 ) has been investigated to study the kinetics of single peak glow curves. The material used normally exhibits one large and four small peaks. However a glow curve can be obtained with only the large single peak that is suitable for testing thermoluminescence kinetics. Glow curves from aliquots of a single natural pyrite crystal studied in detail contain two low intensity thermoluminescence (TL) peaks at ∼90 degree and ∼250 degree C, and two chemiluminescence (CL) peaks at ∼350 degree and ∼430 degree C. The CL peaks are largely removable by initially heating the sample chamber under vacuum, pumping through liquid nitrogen traps, and recording glow curves immediately after helium is introduced, procedures which reduce system contaminants that react with pyrite. The shape, the variation of the temperature of the peak maximum (T max ) with dose, and the retrapping to recombination cross section ratio σ of the large 250 degree C peak are better described by the general one trap (GOT) kinetic equation, the basic equation from which the 1st and 2nd order kinetic equations are obtained as special cases (see text), than by the 1st and 2nd order equations. 12 refs., 7 figs

  11. Strong 3D and 1D magnetism in hexagonal Fe-chalcogenides FeS and FeSe vs. weak magnetism in hexagonal FeTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, David S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-13

    We present a comparative theoretical study of the hexagonal forms of the Fe-chalcogenides FeS, FeSe and FeTe with their better known tetragonal forms. While the tetragonal forms exhibit only an incipient antiferromagnetism and experimentally show superconductivity when doped, the hexagonal forms of FeS and FeSe display a robust magnetism. We show that this strong magnetism arises from a van Hove singularity associated with the direct Fe-Fe c-axis chains in the generally more three-dimensional NiAs structure. We also find that hexagonal FeTe is much less magnetic than the other two hexagonal materials, so that unconventional magnetically-mediated superconductivity is possible, although a large Tc value is unlikely.

  12. Networks of Practice in Science Education Research: A Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sonya N.; Siry, Christina

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we employ cultural sociology and Braj Kachru's model of World Englishes as theoretical and analytical tools for considering English as a form of capital necessary for widely disseminating research findings from local networks of practice to the greater science education research community. We present a brief analysis of recent…

  13. The Next Generation of Scientists: Examining the Experiences of Graduate Students in Network-Level Social-Ecological Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Romolini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available By integrating the research and resources of hundreds of scientists from dozens of institutions, network-level science is fast becoming one scientific model of choice to address complex problems. In the pursuit to confront pressing environmental issues such as climate change, many scientists, practitioners, policy makers, and institutions are promoting network-level research that integrates the social and ecological sciences. To understand how this scientific trend is unfolding among rising scientists, we examined how graduate students experienced one such emergent social-ecological research initiative, Integrated Science for Society and Environment, within the large-scale, geographically distributed Long Term Ecological Research (LTER Network. Through workshops, surveys, and interviews, we found that graduate students faced challenges in how they conceptualized and practiced social-ecological research within the LTER Network. We have presented these conceptual challenges at three scales: the individual/project, the LTER site, and the LTER Network. The level of student engagement with and knowledge of the LTER Network was varied, and students faced different institutional, cultural, and logistic barriers to practicing social-ecological research. These types of challenges are unlikely to be unique to LTER graduate students; thus, our findings are relevant to other scientific networks implementing new social-ecological research initiatives.

  14. Exploring ideation: Knowledge development in science through the lens of semantic and social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moser, C.; Birkholz, J.M.; Deichmann, D.; Hellsten, I.; Wang, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we explore changes in both structural and semantic characteristics of a scientific social network. We trace the emergence of knowledge, what we refer to as ideation, through publication data from two conferences in a sub-field of Computer Science. Social network analysis is used to

  15. Science of the science, drug discovery and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jigneshkumar

    2013-03-01

    Drug discovery process many times encounters complex problems, which may be difficult to solve by human intelligence. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are one of the Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies used for solving such complex problems. ANNs are widely used for primary virtual screening of compounds, quantitative structure activity relationship studies, receptor modeling, formulation development, pharmacokinetics and in all other processes involving complex mathematical modeling. Despite having such advanced technologies and enough understanding of biological systems, drug discovery is still a lengthy, expensive, difficult and inefficient process with low rate of new successful therapeutic discovery. In this paper, author has discussed the drug discovery science and ANN from very basic angle, which may be helpful to understand the application of ANN for drug discovery to improve efficiency.

  16. Collaboration patterns in the German political science co-authorship network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifeld, Philip; Wankmüller, Sandra; Berger, Valentin T Z; Ingold, Karin; Steiner, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    Research on social processes in the production of scientific output suggests that the collective research agenda of a discipline is influenced by its structural features, such as "invisible colleges" or "groups of collaborators" as well as academic "stars" that are embedded in, or connect, these research groups. Based on an encompassing dataset that takes into account multiple publication types including journals and chapters in edited volumes, we analyze the complete co-authorship network of all 1,339 researchers in German political science. Through the use of consensus graph clustering techniques and descriptive centrality measures, we identify the ten largest research clusters, their research topics, and the most central researchers who act as bridges and connect these clusters. We also aggregate the findings at the level of research organizations and consider the inter-university co-authorship network. The findings indicate that German political science is structured by multiple overlapping research clusters with a dominance of the subfields of international relations, comparative politics and political sociology. A small set of well-connected universities takes leading roles in these informal research groups.

  17. The role of Social Networks on Academic Achievement of Gonabad University of Medical Science\\' students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisam Dastani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social networks are the most important means of communication in the societies as well as in the world, so the use of virtual social networks among students is important. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of virtual social networks among students in Gonabad University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this descriptive study, 277 students were randomly selected from  Gonabad University of  Medical Sciences. They completed a questionnaire which its validity and reliability were obtained in earlier studies. Then the data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. Results: The findings showed that 87 percent of the students were aware of virtual social networks, and 52 percent were members of these social networks. Students spend about an hour and eleven minutes (SD=2.20771 on the virtual networks. There was no significant difference between academic achievement of students in the groups. Conclusion: The results showed that more than half of the students were members of social networks. Students are not familiar with all of the effects of these social networks since they are recently emerged, so performing more research on other aspects of their impact on the life and health of students are necessary.

  18. International environmental and occupational health: From individual scientists to networked science Hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Joshua; Jessup, Christine; Felknor, Sarah; Humble, Michael; Bader, Farah; Bridbord, Kenneth

    2012-12-01

    For the past 16 years, the International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health program (ITREOH) has supported projects that link U.S. academic scientists with scientists from low- and middle-income countries in diverse research and research training activities. Twenty-two projects of varied duration have conducted training to enhance the research capabilities of scientists at 75 institutions in 43 countries in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America, and have built productive research relationships between these scientists and their U.S. partners. ITREOH investigators and their trainees have produced publications that have advanced basic sciences, developed methods, informed policy outcomes, and built institutional capacity. Today, the changing nature of the health sciences calls for a more strategic approach. Data-rich team science requires greater capacity for information technology and knowledge synthesis at the local institution. More robust systems for ethical review and administrative support are necessary to advance population-based research. Sustainability of institutional research capability depends on linkages to multiple national and international partners. In this context, the Fogarty International Center, the National Institute of Environmental Sciences and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, have reengineered the ITREOH program to support and catalyze a multi-national network of regional hubs for Global Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (GEOHealth). We anticipate that these networked science hubs will build upon previous investments by the ITREOH program and will serve to advance locally and internationally important health science, train and attract first-class scientists, and provide critical evidence to guide policy discussions. Published in 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. The AGING Initiative experience: a call for sustained support for team science networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Tullika; Anzuoni, Kathryn; Landyn, Valentina; Hajduk, Alexandra; Waring, Stephen; Hanson, Leah R; Whitson, Heather E

    2018-05-18

    Team science, defined as collaborative research efforts that leverage the expertise of diverse disciplines, is recognised as a critical means to address complex healthcare challenges, but the practical implementation of team science can be difficult. Our objective is to describe the barriers, solutions and lessons learned from our team science experience as applied to the complex and growing challenge of multiple chronic conditions (MCC). MCC is the presence of two or more chronic conditions that have a collective adverse effect on health status, function or quality of life, and that require complex healthcare management, decision-making or coordination. Due to the increasing impact on the United States society, MCC research has been identified as a high priority research area by multiple federal agencies. In response to this need, two national research entities, the Healthcare Systems Research Network (HCSRN) and the Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Centers (OAIC), formed the Advancing Geriatrics Infrastructure and Network Growth (AGING) Initiative to build nationwide capacity for MCC team science. This article describes the structure, lessons learned and initial outcomes of the AGING Initiative. We call for funding mechanisms to sustain infrastructures that have demonstrated success in fostering team science and innovation in translating findings to policy change necessary to solve complex problems in healthcare.

  20. Interaction of J-protein co-chaperone Jac1 with Fe-S scaffold Isu is indispensible in vivo and conserved in evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Szymon; Schilke, Brenda; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Bigelow, Lance; Mulligan, Rory; Majewska, Julia; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Marszalek, Jaroslaw; Craig, Elizabeth A.; Dutkiewicz, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitous mitochondrial J-protein Jac1, called HscB in Escherichia coli, and its partner Hsp70 play a critical role in the transfer of Fe-S clusters from the scaffold protein Isu to recipient proteins. Biochemical results from eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems indicate that formation of the Jac1-Isu complex is important for both targeting of the Isu for Hsp70 binding and stimulation of Hsp70’s ATPase activity. However, in apparent contradiction, we previously reported that an 8 fold decrease in Jac1’s affinity for Isu1 is well tolerated in vivo, raising the question as to whether the Jac1:Isu interaction actually plays an important biological role. Here we report the determination of the structure of Jac1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Taking advantage of this information and recently published data from the homologous bacterial system, a total of eight surface exposed residues were determined to play a role in Isu binding, as assessed by a set of biochemical assays. A variant having alanines substituted for these eight residues was unable to support growth of a jac1-Δ strain. However, replacement of three residues caused partial loss of function, resulting in a significant decrease in the Jac1:Isu1 interaction, a slow growth phenotype and a reduction in the activity of Fe-S cluster containing enzymes. Thus, we conclude that the Jac1:Isu1 interaction plays an indispensible role in the essential process of mitochondrial Fe-S cluster biogenesis. PMID:22306468

  1. Interaction of J-protein co-chaperone Jac1 with Fe-S scaffold Isu is indispensable in vivo and conserved in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Szymon J; Schilke, Brenda A; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Bigelow, Lance; Mulligan, Rory; Majewska, Julia; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Marszalek, Jaroslaw; Craig, Elizabeth A; Dutkiewicz, Rafal

    2012-03-16

    The ubiquitous mitochondrial J-protein Jac1, called HscB in Escherichia coli, and its partner Hsp70 play a critical role in the transfer of Fe-S clusters from the scaffold protein Isu to recipient proteins. Biochemical results from eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems indicate that formation of the Jac1-Isu complex is important for both targeting of the Isu for Hsp70 binding and stimulation of Hsp70's ATPase activity. However, in apparent contradiction, we previously reported that an 8-fold decrease in Jac1's affinity for Isu1 is well tolerated in vivo, raising the question as to whether the Jac1:Isu interaction actually plays an important biological role. Here, we report the determination of the structure of Jac1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Taking advantage of this information and recently published data from the homologous bacterial system, we determined that a total of eight surface-exposed residues play a role in Isu binding, as assessed by a set of biochemical assays. A variant having alanines substituted for these eight residues was unable to support growth of a jac1-Δ strain. However, replacement of three residues caused partial loss of function, resulting in a significant decrease in the Jac1:Isu1 interaction, a slow growth phenotype, and a reduction in the activity of Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes. Thus, we conclude that the Jac1:Isu1 interaction plays an indispensable role in the essential process of mitochondrial Fe-S cluster biogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Melting phase relations in the Fe-S and Fe-S-O systems at core conditions in small terrestrial bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, Anne; Laurenz, Vera; Davies, Christopher J.; Frost, Daniel J.

    2018-05-01

    We report an experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Fe-S and Fe-S-O systems. Experiments were performed at high temperatures (1400-1850 °C) and high pressures (14 and 20 GPa) using a multi-anvil apparatus. The results of this study are used to understand the effect of sulfur and oxygen on core dynamics in small terrestrial bodies. We observe that the formation of solid FeO grains occurs at the Fe-S liquid - Fe solid interface at high temperature ( > 1400 °C at 20 GPa). Oxygen fugacities calculated for each O-bearing sample show that redox conditions vary from ΔIW = -0.65 to 0. Considering the relative density of each phase and existing evolutionary models of terrestrial cores, we apply our experimental results to the cores of Mars and Ganymede. We suggest that the presence of FeO in small terrestrial bodies tends to contribute to outer-core compositional stratification. Depending on the redox and thermal history of the planet, FeO may also help form a transitional redox zone at the core-mantle boundary.

  3. A rural math, science, and technology elementary school tangled up in global networks of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, Heidi B.; Kimmel, Sue; Tschida, Christina

    2010-06-01

    This is an ethnographic study of a newly created math, science, and technology elementary magnet school in a rural community fiercely committed to cultural preservation while facing unprecedented economic instability brought on by massive loss of manufacturing jobs. Our goal was to understand global- and community-level contexts that influenced the school's science curriculum, the ways the school promoted itself to the community, and the implicit meanings of science held by school staff, parents and community members. Main sources of data were the county's newspaper articles from 2003 to 2006, the school's, town's, and business leaders' promotional materials, and interviews with school staff, parents, and community members. A key finding was the school's dual promotion of science education and character education. We make sense of this "science with character" curriculum by unpacking the school and community's entanglements with historical (cultural preservation), political (conservative politics, concerns for youth depravity), and economic (globalization) networks. We describe the ways those entanglements enabled certain reproductive meanings of school science (as add-on, suspect, and elitist) and other novel meanings of science (empathetic, nurturing, place-based). This study highlights the school as a site of struggle, entangled in multiple networks of practice that influence in positive, negative, and unpredictable ways, the enacted science curriculum.

  4. The ESWN network as a platform to increase international collaboration between women in the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braker, Gesche; Wang, Yiming; Glessmer, Mirjam; Kirchgaessner, Amelie

    2014-05-01

    The Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN; ESWNonline.org) is an international peer-mentoring network of women in the Earth Sciences, many in the early stages of their careers. ESWN's mission is to promote career development, build community, provide opportunities for informal mentoring and support, and facilitate professional collaborations. This has been accomplished via email and a listserv, on Facebook, at in-person networking events, and at professional development workshops. In an effort to facilitate international connections among women in the Earth Sciences, ESWN has developed a password protected community webpage supported by AGU and a National Science Foundation ADVANCE grant where members can create an online presence and interact with each other. For example, groups help women to connect with co-workers or center around a vast array of topics ranging from research interests, funding opportunities, work-life balance, teaching, scientific methods, and searching for a job to specific challenges faced by women in the earth sciences. Members can search past discussions and share documents like examples of research statements, useful interview materials, or model recommendation letters. Over the last 10 years, ESWN has grown by word of mouth to include more than 1600 members working on all 7 continents. ESWN also offers professional development workshops at major geologic conferences around the world and at ESWN-hosted workshops mostly exclusively throughout the United States. In 2014, ESWN offers a two day international workshop on communication and networking skills and career development. Women working in all disciplines of Earth Sciences from later PhD level up to junior professors in Europe are invited to the workshop that will be held in Kiel, Germany. The workshop offers participants an individual personality assessment and aims at providing participants with improved communication and networking skills. The second focus will be to teach them how to

  5. Science Objectives and Design of the European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, H.; Géli, L.; Karstensen, J.; Colaço, A.; Lampitt, R.; Greinert, J.; Phannkuche, O.; Auffret, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The needs for a network of ocean observing systems cross many applied and research areas of earth and marine science. Many of the science areas that can be examined using such systems have direct impacts on societal health and well being and our understanding of ocean function in a shifting climate. The European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET) Network of Excellence has been evaluating ocean observatory design requirements, data management needs, standardization and interoperability concerns, social implications, outreach and education, as well as financial and legal aspects of developing such a system. ESONET has great potential to address a growing set of Earth science questions that require a broad and integrated network of ocean and seafloor observations. ESONET activities are also importantly integrating researchers in the European Community, as well as internationally. There is now wide recognition that research addressing science questions of international priority, such as understanding the potential impacts of climate change or geohazards like earthquakes and tsunamis should be conducted in a framework that can address questions across adequate temporal and spatial scales. We will present the relevant science priorities in the four interconnected fields of geoscience, physical oceanography, biogeochemistry, and marine ecology, and some of the practical ways in which these questions can be addressed using ESONET. Several key questions persist that will require comprehensive interdisciplinary approaches including: How can monitoring of factors such as seismic activity, fluid pore chemistry and pressure, improve seismic, slope failure, and tsunami warning? To what extent do seabed processes influence ocean physics, biogeochemistry, and marine ecosystems? How are physical and biogeochemical processes that occur at differing scales related? What aspects of physical oceanography and biogeochemical cycling will be most sensitive to climate change? What will the

  6. The Benefits of Peer-to-Peer Mentoring: Lessons from The Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T.; Steiner, A.; Fiore, A.; Hastings, M.; McKinley, G.; Staudt, A.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN) is a grassroots organization that began with the meeting of six women graduate students and recent Ph.D.s at the Spring 2002 AGU meeting in Washington, DC. Since then, the group has grown to over 400 members, completely by word of mouth. We provide an informal, peer-to-peer network developed to promote and support careers of women in the Earth sciences. Through the network, women have found jobs, established research collaborations, shared strategies on work/life balance, and built a community stretching around the world. We maintain an email list for members to develop an expanded peer network outside of their own institution, and we have recently launched a co-ed jobs list to benefit the wider geoscience community. We will present a summary of strategies that have been discussed by group members on how to transition to a new faculty position, build a research group, develop new research collaborations, and balance career and family.

  7. Aging brain from a network science perspective: something to be positive about?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle W Voss

    Full Text Available To better understand age differences in brain function and behavior, the current study applied network science to model functional interactions between brain regions. We observed a shift in network topology whereby for older adults subcortical and cerebellar structures overlapping with the Salience network had more connectivity to the rest of the brain, coupled with fragmentation of large-scale cortical networks such as the Default and Fronto-Parietal networks. Additionally, greater integration of the dorsal medial thalamus and red nucleus in the Salience network was associated with greater satisfaction with life for older adults, which is consistent with theoretical predictions of age-related increases in emotion regulation that are thought to help maintain well-being and life satisfaction in late adulthood. In regard to cognitive abilities, greater ventral medial prefrontal cortex coherence with its topological neighbors in the Default Network was associated with faster processing speed. Results suggest that large-scale organizing properties of the brain differ with normal aging, and this perspective may offer novel insight into understanding age-related differences in cognitive function and well-being.

  8. Virtual half-metallicity at the CoS2/FeS2 interface induced by strain

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, Safdar

    2013-01-01

    Spin polarized ab initio calculations based on density functional theory are performed to investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of the interface between the ferromagnetic metal CoS2 and the nonmagnetic semiconductor FeS2. Relaxation of the interface structure is taken into account by atomic force minimization. We find that both Co and Fe are close to half-metallicity at the interface. Tensile strain is shown to strongly enhance the spin polarization so that a virtually half-metallic interface can be achieved, for comparably moderate strain. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. In-situ Density and Thermal Expansion Measurements of Fe and Fe-S Alloying Liquids Under Planetary Core Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Z.; Chantel, J.; Yu, T.; Sakamaki, T.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Liquid iron is likely the dominant constituent in the cores of terrestrial planets and icy satellites such as Earth, Mars, Mercury, the Moon, Ganymede, and Io. Suggested by geophysical and geochemical observations, light elements such as S, C, Si, etc., are likely present in planetary cores. These light elements can significantly reduce the density and melting temperature of the Fe cores, and hence their abundances are crucial to our understanding of the structure and thermal history of planetary cores, as well as the generation of intrinsic magnetic fields. Knowledge on the density of Fe-light element alloying liquids at high pressures is critical to place constraints on the composition of planetary cores. However, density data on liquid Fe-light element alloys at core pressures are very limited in pressure and composition and are sometimes controversial. In this study, we extend the density dataset for Fe-rich liquids by measuring the density of Fe, Fe-10wt%S, Fe-20wt%S, Fe-27wt%S, and FeS liquids using the X-ray absorption technique in a DIA-type multianvil apparatus up to 7 GPa and 2173 K. An ion chamber (1D-detector) and a CCD camera (2D-detector) were used to measure intensities of transmitted monochromatic X-rays through molten samples, with the photon energy optimized at 40 keV. The densities were then determined from the Beer-Lambert law using the mass absorption coefficients, calibrated by solid standards using X-ray diffraction. At each pressure, density measurements were conducted at a range of temperatures above the liquidus of the samples, enabling the determination of thermal expansion. Combined with our previous results on the sound velocity of Fe and Fe-S liquids at high pressures (Jing et al., 2014, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 396, 78-87), these data provide tight constraints on the equation of state and thermodynamic properties such as the adiabatic temperature gradient for Fe-S liquids. We will discuss these results with implications to planetary

  10. Evaluating Career Development Resources: Lessons from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.

    2010-12-01

    Retention of geoscientists throughout the professional pipeline is especially challenging in the case of groups that are already underrepresented in science, including racial minorities and women. The Earth Science Women’s Network (ESWN) is a professional network of early-career female geoscientists that provides its members with a variety of career resources, through both informal, online and in-person networking and formal career development workshops. The group’s members are of diverse nationalities and racial/ethnic backgrounds, of various age cohorts and career stages, but primarily graduate students, postdocs, and early-career researchers. With funding from an NSF ADVANCE grant to ESWN, we have conducted a detailed survey of ESWN members as part of an evaluation-with-research study that aims to determine the career needs of young geoscientists. The survey data provide information about members’ personal and professional situations, their professional development needs, and obstacles they face as young women scientists. ESWN members indicated a variety of areas of professional growth that would advance their scientific careers, but at all career stages, members chose expanding their professional networks as among their top career needs. Professional networking has established benefits for retention of people from groups underrepresented in science, including women: it introduces young scientists to career best practices and advancement opportunities, provides access to role models, and creates a sense of community. ESWN members strongly indicate that their professional networks benefited from their involvement with the Network. The community aspect of network-building is especially important for people from underrepresented groups, as they often feel alone due to the lack of role models. The intimate character of the ESWN discussion list greatly contributes to its members’ sense of community. Moreover, personal concerns and professional success are

  11. Network workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Evans, Robert Harry

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the background for, realisation of and author reflections on a network workshop held at ESERA2013. As a new research area in science education, networks offer a unique opportunity to visualise and find patterns and relationships in complicated social or academic network data....... These include student relations and interactions and epistemic and linguistic networks of words, concepts and actions. Network methodology has already found use in science education research. However, while networks hold the potential for new insights, they have not yet found wide use in the science education...... research community. With this workshop, participants were offered a way into network science based on authentic educational research data. The workshop was constructed as an inquiry lesson with emphasis on user autonomy. Learning activities had participants choose to work with one of two cases of networks...

  12. Defect of Fe-S cluster binding by DNA polymerase δ in yeast suppresses UV-induced mutagenesis, but enhances DNA polymerase ζ - dependent spontaneous mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepchenkova, E I; Tarakhovskaya, E R; Siebler, H M; Pavlov, Y I

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are duplicated by a complex machinery, utilizing high fidelity replicative B-family DNA polymerases (pols) α, δ and ε. Specialized error-prone pol ζ, the fourth B-family member, is recruited when DNA synthesis by the accurate trio is impeded by replication stress or DNA damage. The damage tolerance mechanism dependent on pol ζ prevents DNA/genome instability and cell death at the expense of increased mutation rates. The pol switches occurring during this specialized replication are not fully understood. The loss of pol ζ results in the absence of induced mutagenesis and suppression of spontaneous mutagenesis. Disruption of the Fe-S cluster motif that abolish the interaction of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the catalytic subunit of pol ζ with its accessory subunits, which are shared with pol δ, leads to a similar defect in induced mutagenesis. Intriguingly, the pol3-13 mutation that affects the Fe-S cluster in the CTD of the catalytic subunit of pol δ also leads to defective induced mutagenesis, suggesting the possibility that Fe-S clusters are essential for the pol switches during replication of damaged DNA. We confirmed that yeast strains with the pol3-13 mutation are UV-sensitive and defective in UV-induced mutagenesis. However, they have increased spontaneous mutation rates. We found that this increase is dependent on functional pol ζ. In the pol3-13 mutant strain with defective pol δ, there is a sharp increase in transversions and complex mutations, which require functional pol ζ, and an increase in the occurrence of large deletions, whose size is controlled by pol ζ. Therefore, the pol3-13 mutation abrogates pol ζ-dependent induced mutagenesis, but allows for pol ζ recruitment for the generation of spontaneous mutations and prevention of larger deletions. These results reveal differential control of the two major types of pol ζ-dependent mutagenesis by the Fe-S cluster present in replicative pol δ. Copyright © 2016

  13. A proposal to establish an international network in molecular microbiology and genetic engineering for scientific cooperation and prevention of misuse of biological sciences in the framework of science for peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The conference on 'Science and Technology for Construction of Peace' which was organized by the Landau Network Coordination Center and A. Volta Center for Scientific Culture dealt with conversion of military and technological capacities into sustainable civilian application. The ideas regarding the conversion of nuclear warheads into nuclear energy for civilian-use led to the idea that the extension of this trend of thought to molecular biology and genetic engineering, will be a useful contribution to Science for Peace. This idea of developing a Cooperation Network in Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering that will function parallel to and with the Landau Network Coordination in the 'A. Volta' Center was discussed in the Second International Symposium on Science for Peace, Jerusalem, January 1997. It is the reason for the inclusion of the biological aspects in the deliberations of our Forum. It is hoped that the establishment of an international network in molecular biology and genetic engineering, similar to the Landau Network in physics, will support and achieve the decommissioning of biological weapons. Such a network in microbiology and genetic engineering will contribute to the elimination of biological weapons and to contributions to Science for Peace and to Culture of Peace activities of UNESCO. (author)

  14. Outcomes from the GLEON fellowship program. Training graduate students in data driven network science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, H.; Hanson, P. C.; Weathers, K. C.

    2016-12-01

    In the water sciences there is a massive need for graduate students who possess the analytical and technical skills to deal with large datasets and function in the new paradigm of open, collaborative -science. The Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON) graduate fellowship program (GFP) was developed as an interdisciplinary training program to supplement the intensive disciplinary training of traditional graduate education. The primary goal of the GFP was to train a diverse cohort of graduate students in network science, open-web technologies, collaboration, and data analytics, and importantly to provide the opportunity to use these skills to conduct collaborative research resulting in publishable scientific products. The GFP is run as a series of three week-long workshops over two years that brings together a cohort of twelve students. In addition, fellows are expected to attend and contribute to at least one international GLEON all-hands' meeting. Here, we provide examples of training modules in the GFP (model building, data QA/QC, information management, bayesian modeling, open coding/version control, national data programs), as well as scientific outputs (manuscripts, software products, and new global datasets) produced by the fellows, as well as the process by which this team science was catalyzed. Data driven education that lets students apply learned skills to real research projects reinforces concepts, provides motivation, and can benefit their publication record. This program design is extendable to other institutions and networks.

  15. Activation and dissociation of CO2 on the (001), (011), and (111) surfaces of mackinawite (FeS): A dispersion-corrected DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzade, N Y; Roldan, A; de Leeuw, N H

    2015-09-07

    Iron sulfide minerals, including mackinawite (FeS), are relevant in origin of life theories, due to their potential catalytic activity towards the reduction and conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to organic molecules, which may be applicable to the production of liquid fuels and commodity chemicals. However, the fundamental understanding of CO2 adsorption, activation, and dissociation on FeS surfaces remains incomplete. Here, we have used density functional theory calculations, corrected for long-range dispersion interactions (DFT-D2), to explore various adsorption sites and configurations for CO2 on the low-index mackinawite (001), (110), and (111) surfaces. We found that the CO2 molecule physisorbs weakly on the energetically most stable (001) surface but adsorbs relatively strongly on the (011) and (111) FeS surfaces, preferentially at Fe sites. The adsorption of the CO2 on the (011) and (111) surfaces is shown to be characterized by significant charge transfer from surface Fe species to the CO2 molecule, which causes a large structural transformation in the molecule (i.e., forming a negatively charged bent CO2 (-δ) species, with weaker C-O confirmed via vibrational frequency analyses). We have also analyzed the pathways for CO2 reduction to CO and O on the mackinawite (011) and (111) surfaces. CO2 dissociation is calculated to be slightly endothermic relative to the associatively adsorbed states, with relatively large activation energy barriers of 1.25 eV and 0.72 eV on the (011) and (111) surfaces, respectively.

  16. Can FES-augmented active cycling training improve locomotion in post-acute elderly stroke patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Peri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies advocated the use of active cycling coupled with functional electrical stimulation to induce neuroplasticity and enhance functional improvements in stroke adult patients. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether the benefits induced by such a treatment are superior to standard physiotherapy. A single-blinded randomized controlled trial has been performed on post-acute elderly stroke patients. Patients underwent FES-augmented cycling training combined with voluntary pedaling or standard physiotherapy. The intervention consisted of fifteen 30-minutes sessions carried out within 3 weeks. Patients were evaluated before and after training, through functional scales, gait analysis and a voluntary pedaling test. Results were compared with an age-matched healthy group. Sixteen patients completed the training. After treatment, a general improvement of all clinical scales was obtained for both groups. Only the mechanical efficiency highlighted a group effect in favor of the experimental group. Although a group effect was not found for any other cycling or gait parameters, the experimental group showed a higher percentage of change with respect to the control group (e.g. the gait velocity was improved of 35.4% and 25.4% respectively, and its variation over time was higher than minimal clinical difference for the experimental group only. This trend suggests that differences in terms of motor recovery between the two groups may be achieved increasing the training dose. In conclusion, this study, although preliminary, showed that FES-augmented active cycling training seems to be effective in improving cycling and walking ability in post-acute elderly stroke patients. A higher sample size is required to confirm results.

  17. Improving accountability through alignment: the role of academic health science centres and networks in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovseiko, Pavel V; Heitmueller, Axel; Allen, Pauline; Davies, Stephen M; Wells, Glenn; Ford, Gary A; Darzi, Ara; Buchan, Alastair M

    2014-01-20

    As in many countries around the world, there are high expectations on academic health science centres and networks in England to provide high-quality care, innovative research, and world-class education, while also supporting wealth creation and economic growth. Meeting these expectations increasingly depends on partnership working between university medical schools and teaching hospitals, as well as other healthcare providers. However, academic-clinical relationships in England are still characterised by the "unlinked partners" model, whereby universities and their partner teaching hospitals are neither fiscally nor structurally linked, creating bifurcating accountabilities to various government and public agencies. This article focuses on accountability relationships in universities and teaching hospitals, as well as other healthcare providers that form core constituent parts of academic health science centres and networks. The authors analyse accountability for the tripartite mission of patient care, research, and education, using a four-fold typology of accountability relationships, which distinguishes between hierarchical (bureaucratic) accountability, legal accountability, professional accountability, and political accountability. Examples from North West London suggest that a number of mechanisms can be used to improve accountability for the tripartite mission through alignment, but that the simple creation of academic health science centres and networks is probably not sufficient. At the heart of the challenge for academic health science centres and networks is the separation of accountabilities for patient care, research, and education in different government departments. Given that a fundamental top-down system redesign is now extremely unlikely, local academic and clinical leaders face the challenge of aligning their institutions as a matter of priority in order to improve accountability for the tripartite mission from the bottom up. It remains to be

  18. Activation and dissociation of CO2 on the (001), (011), and (111) surfaces of mackinawite (FeS): A dispersion-corrected DFT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dzade, N.Y.; Roldan, Alberto; de Leeuw, N.H.

    2015-01-01

    Iron sulfide minerals, including mackinawite (FeS), are relevant in origin of life theories, due to their potential catalytic activity towards the reduction and conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to organic molecules, which may be applicable to the production of liquid fuels and commodity chemicals.

  19. Agricultural science in the wild: a social network analysis of farmer knowledge exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brennon A; Blair, Hugh T; Gray, David I; Kemp, Peter D; Kenyon, Paul R; Morris, Steve T; Sewell, Alison M

    2014-01-01

    Responding to demands for transformed farming practices requires new forms of knowledge. Given their scale and complexity, agricultural problems can no longer be solved by linear transfers in which technology developed by specialists passes to farmers by way of extension intermediaries. Recent research on alternative approaches has focused on the innovation systems formed by interactions between heterogeneous actors. Rather than linear transfer, systems theory highlights network facilitation as a specialized function. This paper contributes to our understanding of such facilitation by investigating the networks in which farmers discuss science. We report findings based on the study of a pastoral farming experiment collaboratively undertaken by a group of 17 farmers and five scientists. Analysis of prior contact and alter sharing between the group's members indicates strongly tied and decentralized networks. Farmer knowledge exchanges about the experiment have been investigated using a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. Network surveys identified who the farmers contacted for knowledge before the study began and who they had talked to about the experiment by 18 months later. Open-ended interviews collected farmer statements about their most valuable contacts and these statements have been thematically analysed. The network analysis shows that farmers talked about the experiment with 192 people, most of whom were fellow farmers. Farmers with densely tied and occupationally homogeneous contacts grew their networks more than did farmers with contacts that are loosely tied and diverse. Thematic analysis reveals three general principles: farmers value knowledge delivered by persons rather than roles, privilege farming experience, and develop knowledge with empiricist rather than rationalist techniques. Taken together, these findings suggest that farmers deliberate about science in intensive and durable networks that have significant implications for theorizing

  20. Agricultural science in the wild: a social network analysis of farmer knowledge exchange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennon A Wood

    Full Text Available Responding to demands for transformed farming practices requires new forms of knowledge. Given their scale and complexity, agricultural problems can no longer be solved by linear transfers in which technology developed by specialists passes to farmers by way of extension intermediaries. Recent research on alternative approaches has focused on the innovation systems formed by interactions between heterogeneous actors. Rather than linear transfer, systems theory highlights network facilitation as a specialized function. This paper contributes to our understanding of such facilitation by investigating the networks in which farmers discuss science. We report findings based on the study of a pastoral farming experiment collaboratively undertaken by a group of 17 farmers and five scientists. Analysis of prior contact and alter sharing between the group's members indicates strongly tied and decentralized networks. Farmer knowledge exchanges about the experiment have been investigated using a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. Network surveys identified who the farmers contacted for knowledge before the study began and who they had talked to about the experiment by 18 months later. Open-ended interviews collected farmer statements about their most valuable contacts and these statements have been thematically analysed. The network analysis shows that farmers talked about the experiment with 192 people, most of whom were fellow farmers. Farmers with densely tied and occupationally homogeneous contacts grew their networks more than did farmers with contacts that are loosely tied and diverse. Thematic analysis reveals three general principles: farmers value knowledge delivered by persons rather than roles, privilege farming experience, and develop knowledge with empiricist rather than rationalist techniques. Taken together, these findings suggest that farmers deliberate about science in intensive and durable networks that have significant

  1. Power and Networks in Worldwide Knowledge Coordination: The Case of Global Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The article considers the global governance of knowledge systems, exploring concepts of power, networks, standards (defined as normative practices), and structuration. The focus is on science as a form of predominantly private global governance, particularly the self-regulatory and collaborative processes stretching across time and space. These…

  2. Which fault destroyed Fes city (Morocco) in 1755? A new insight from the Holocene deformations observed along the southern border of Gibraltar arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poujol, Antoine; Ritz, Jean-François; Vernant, Philippe; Huot, Sebastien; Maate, Soufian; Tahayt, Abdelilah

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we present the first estimate of the Holocene deformation along the southern front of Gibraltar arc (Morocco) and the first field constraints on the local 1755 CE Fes-Meknes surface rupturing earthquake which could be associated to the "Great Lisbon Earthquake" (M > 8.5) in November 1st, 1755. Using satellite imagery, aerial photographs and field investigations, we carried out a morphotectonic study along the 150 km-long Southern Rif Front (SRF) to identify the most recent evidences of tectonic activity. Analyzed offset alluvial deposits confirm that (i) the last 5 ka cumulative deformation leading to a slip rate of 3.5 ± 1 mm/yr for this segment of the SRF is consistent with the GPS derived horizontal shortening rate of 2-4 mm/yr and (ii) a recent major earthquake ruptured a 30 km-long segment along the SRF. Based on deposits dating and historical seismicity we propose that this seismic event occurred in 1755 as a local earthquake. Even though this 1755 local event cannot be considered as a strong aftershock of the main Lisbon seismic event (M > 8.5), their temporal closeness, their occurrence under the same convergent stress regime ( NNW-SSE-oriented compression) and the fact that Fes-Meknes area was strongly shaken during the Lisbon earthquake, raises the question of the possible triggering of the Fes earthquake. Anyway, our new results suggest that most of the Nubia-Rif belt convergence is accommodated by the SRF, making it potentially the most destructive structure of the Rif.

  3. The intermembrane space protein Erv1 of Trypanosoma brucei is essential for mitochondrial Fe-S cluster assembly and operates alone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindrich, Alexander C.; Boudova, M.; Vancová, Marie; Peña-Diaz, Priscila; Horáková, Eva; Lukeš, Julius

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 214, JUN (2017), s. 47-51 ISSN 0166-6851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-21974S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-18699S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trypanosoma * Erv1 * Fe-S cluster assembly * mitochondrion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 2.536, year: 2016

  4. A Survey on Density and Size of Co-authorship Networks in Information Science Journals

    OpenAIRE

    Faramarz Soheili; Farideh Osareh

    2014-01-01

    Scientific collaboration has always been of interest to researchers. The analyses of data relating to scientific collaboration is one of the techniques by which we can evaluate research activities. Co-authorship network analysis can represent good information regarding the patterns and structures of co-authorship. Social network analysis was used as the research method. The research population included twenty journals of Information Science which had an impact factor of 0...

  5. Network Science Center Research Teams Visit to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Network Science Center, West Point www.netscience.usma.edu 845.938.0804 Corporation as a gift from the Government of China, and consists of a 2,500...first glimpse into what became a common thread throughout the trip: the presence of a gap between microfinance and large corporate investments in the...cutting out other middlemen and increasing their own profits. Some even sell directly to major coffee names (such as Starbucks ). In our discussion it

  6. Science Information Programs: The Argentine Telex Network for Scientific and Technical Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    This document reports on two projects jointly sponsored by the National Academy of Science (NAS) (USA) and the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (ARGENTINA). The first is the creation of a telex network for scientific libraries and documentation centers in Argentina, designed to improve access to, and delivery…

  7. FeS2-doped MoS2 nanoflower with the dominant 1T-MoS2 phase as an excellent electrocatalyst for high-performance hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xue; Ma, Xiao; Lu, Qingqing; Li, Qun; Han, Ce; Xing, Zhicai; Yang, Xiurong

    2017-01-01

    Well-established methods to improve the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) performances include, but are not limited to, tailoring the morphology and electronic structure of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and doping of earth abundant chemicals such as iron pyrite FeS 2 into existing TMDs. In this work, MoS 2 nanoflowers with the majority being octahedral MoS 2 (1T-MoS 2 ) and doped with FeS 2 were prepared and applied to HER. The as-prepared catalysts were characterized by X-ray absorption fine structure at the K-edge of Mo, S, and Fe to probe the local electronic structures. The resulting nanomaterial was identified to be FeS 2 doped MoS 2 nanoflower (denoted as Fe-MoS 2 NF) with 66% 1T-MoS 2 which was the metallic phase and could drastically boost the HER properties. The Fe-MoS 2 NF exhibited high HER performance with a Tafel slope of 82 mV dec −1 and it needs 136 mV to achieve a current density of 10 mA cm −2 . The synthesis of Fe-MoS 2 NF with refined morphology and active electronic structure is expected to open a new era for improving the catalytic activity and stability of MoS 2 .

  8. Enhancing Use of Learning Sciences Research in Planning for and Supporting Educational Change: Leveraging and Building Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuel, William R.; Bell, Philip; Bevan, Bronwyn; Buffington, Pam; Falk, Joni

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores practical ways to engage two areas of educational scholarship--research on science learning and research on social networks--to inform efforts to plan and support implementation of new standards. The standards, the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS; NGSS Lead States in Next generation science standards: For…

  9. AFRA Network for Education in Nuclear Science and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, N.; Wanjala, F.

    2017-01-01

    AFRA-NEST was Conceived at the AFRA Ministerial Conference held in Aswan in 2007. The main objective of AFRA-NEST is to facilitate operation and networking in higher education, training and related research in Nuclear Science (NS&T) in the African Region through: • Sharing of information and materials of nuclear education and training. The strategies for implementing the objectives are: the use ICT for web-based education and training,; recognition of Regional Designated Centres (RDCs) for professional nuclear education in nuclear science and technology, and organization of harmonized and accredited programs at tertiary levels for teaching and research in the various nuclear disciplines. The main function of the AFRA-NEST is to; foster sustainable human resource development and nuclear knowledge management; host the Cyber Learning Platform for Nuclear Education and Training for the AFRA region and to integrate all available higher education capabilities in Africa

  10. Wildland fire science and management in the U.S.: Spanning the boundaries through the regional knowledge exchange network (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susie Kocher; Eric Toman; Sarah Trainor; Vita Wright

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the federal Joint Fire Science Program (JFSP) initiated a national network of regional fire science consortia to accelerate awareness, understanding and use of wildland fire science. This presentation synthesizes findings from initial needs assessments conducted by consortia in eight regions of the United States. The assessments evaluated how fire science is...

  11. Recovery of supraspinal control of leg movement in a chronic complete flaccid paraplegic man after continuous low-frequency pelvic nerve stimulation and FES-assisted training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Possover, Marc; Forman, Axel

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: More than 30 years ago, functional electrical stimulation (FES) was developed as an orthotic system to be used for rehabilitation for SCI patients. In the present case report, FES-assisted training was combined with continuous low-frequency stimulation of the pelvic somatic nerves...... in a SCI patient. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on unexpected findings in a 41-year-old man with chronic complete flaccid paraplegia, since he was 18 years old, who underwent spinal stem cell therapy and a laparoscopic implantation of neuroprosthesis (LION procedure) in the pelvic lumbosacral nerves....... The patient had complete flaccid sensomotoric paraplegia T12 as a result of a motor vehicle accident in 1998. In June 2011, he underwent a laparoscopic implantation of stimulation electrodes to the sciatic and femoral nerves for continuous low-frequency electrical stimulation and functional electrical...

  12. Designing a CTSA-Based Social Network Intervention to Foster Cross-Disciplinary Team Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, Raffaele; McCarty, Christopher; Conlon, Michael; Nelson, David R

    2015-08-01

    This paper explores the application of network intervention strategies to the problem of assembling cross-disciplinary scientific teams in academic institutions. In a project supported by the University of Florida (UF) Clinical and Translational Science Institute, we used VIVO, a semantic-web research networking system, to extract the social network of scientific collaborations on publications and awarded grants across all UF colleges and departments. Drawing on the notion of network interventions, we designed an alteration program to add specific edges to the collaboration network, that is, to create specific collaborations between previously unconnected investigators. The missing collaborative links were identified by a number of network criteria to enhance desirable structural properties of individual positions or the network as a whole. We subsequently implemented an online survey (N = 103) that introduced the potential collaborators to each other through their VIVO profiles, and investigated their attitudes toward starting a project together. We discuss the design of the intervention program, the network criteria adopted, and preliminary survey results. The results provide insight into the feasibility of intervention programs on scientific collaboration networks, as well as suggestions on the implementation of such programs to assemble cross-disciplinary scientific teams in CTSA institutions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Curriculum Framework (CF) Implementation Conference. Report of the Regional Educational Laboratory Network Program and the National Network of Eisenhower Mathematics and Science Regional Consortia (Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, January 26-27, 1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jackie; Powell, Mary Jo

    The Laboratory Network Program and the National Network of Eisenhower Mathematics and Science Regional Consortia, operating as the Curriculum Frameworks Task Force, jointly convened a group of educators involved in implementing state-level mathematics or science curriculum frameworks (CF). The Hilton Head (South Carolina) conference had a dual…

  14. Structural, optical, and hydrogenation properties of ZnO nanowall networks grown on a Si (1 1 1) substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, S.C.; Lu, Y.M.; Zhang, Z.Z.; Li, B.H.; Shen, D.Z.; Yao, B.; Zhang, J.Y.; Zhao, D.X.; Fan, X.W.

    2008-01-01

    ZnO nanowall networks were grown on a Si (1 1 1) substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (P-MBE) without using catalysts. Scanning electronic microscopy (FE-SEM) confirmed the formation of nanowalls with a thickness of about 10-20 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the ZnO nanowall networks were crystallized in a wurtzite structure with their height parallel to the direction. Photoluminescence (PL) of the ZnO nanowall networks exhibited free excitons (FEs), donor-bound exciton (D 0 X), donor-acceptor pair (DAP), and free exciton to acceptor (FA) emissions. The growth mechanism of the ZnO nanowall networks was discussed, and their hydrogenation was also studied

  15. Towards a Versatile Tele-Education Platform for Computer Science Educators Based on the Greek School Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, Michael; Zarouchas, Thomas; Angelopoulos, Panagiotis; Perikos, Isidoros

    2013-01-01

    Now days the growing need for highly qualified computer science educators in modern educational environments is commonplace. This study examines the potential use of Greek School Network (GSN) to provide a robust and comprehensive e-training course for computer science educators in order to efficiently exploit advanced IT services and establish a…

  16. A novel motion sensor-driven control system for FES-assisted walking after spinal cord injury: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, Gustavo P; Russold, Michael F; Fornusek, Che; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Smith, Richard M; Davis, Glen M

    2016-11-01

    This pilot study reports the development of a novel closed-loop (CL) FES-gait control system, which employed a finite-state controller that processed kinematic feedback from four miniaturized motion sensors. This strategy automated the control of knee extension via quadriceps and gluteus stimulation during the stance phase of gait on the supporting leg, and managed the stimulation delivered to the common peroneal nerve (CPN) during swing-phase on the contra-lateral limb. The control system was assessed against a traditional open-loop (OL) system on two sensorimotor 'complete' paraplegic subjects. A biomechanical analysis revealed that the closed-loop control of leg swing was efficient, but without major advantages compared to OL. CL automated the control of knee extension during the stance phase of gait and for this reason was the method of preference by the subjects. For the first time, a feedback control system with a simplified configuration of four miniaturized sensors allowed the addition of instruments to collect the data of multiple physiological and biomechanical variables during FES-evoked gait. In this pilot study of two sensorimotor complete paraplegic individuals, CL ameliorated certain drawbacks of current OL systems - it required less user intervention and accounted for the inter-subject differences in their stimulation requirements. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Application Architecture of Avian Influenza Research Collaboration Network in Korea e-Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoon; Lee, Junehawk

    In the pursuit of globalization of the AI e-Science environment, KISTI is fostering to extend the AI research community to the AI research institutes of neighboring countries and to share the AI e-Science environment with them in the near future. In this paper we introduce the application architecture of AI research collaboration network (AIRCoN). AIRCoN is a global e-Science environment for AI research conducted by KISTI. It consists of AI virus sequence information sharing system for sufficing data requirement of research community, integrated analysis environment for analyzing the mutation pattern of AI viruses and their risks, epidemic modeling and simulation environment for establishing national effective readiness strategy against AI pandemics, and knowledge portal for sharing expertise of epidemic study and unpublished research results with community members.

  18. Irradiation of FeS: Implications for the Lifecycle of Sulfur in the Interstellar Medium and Presolar FeS Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Loeffler, M. J.; Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C.; Rahman, Z.; Baragiola, R.

    2010-01-01

    Fe(Ni) sulfides are ubiquitous in chondritic meteorites and cometary samples where they are the dominant host of sulfur. Despite their abundance in these early solar system materials, their presence in interstellar and circumstellar environments is poorly understood. Fe-sulfides have been reported from astronomical observations of pre- and post-main sequence stars [1, 2] and occur as inclusions in bonafide circumstellar silicate grains [3, 4]. In cold, dense molecular cloud (MC) environments, sulfur is highly depleted from the gas phase [e.g. 5], yet observations of sulfur-bearing molecules in dense cores find a total abundance that is only a small fraction of the sulfur seen in diffuse regions [6], therefore the bulk of the depletion must reside in an abundant unobserved phase. In stark contrast, sulfur is essentially undepleted from the gas phase in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) [7-9], indicating that little sulfur is incorporated into solid grains in this environment. This is a rather puzzling observation unless Fe-sulfides are not produced in significant quantities in stellar outflows, or their lifetime in the ISM is very short due to rapid destruction. The main destruction mechanism is sputtering due to supernova shocks in the warm, diffuse ISM [10]. This process involves the reduction of Fe-sulfide with the production of Fe metal as a by-product and returning S to the gas phase. In order to test this hypothesis, we irradiated FeS and analyzed the resulting material using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  19. Toward a Mexican eddy covariance network for carbon cycle science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Rodrigo; Yépez, Enrico A.

    2011-09-01

    First Annual MexFlux Principal Investigators Meeting; Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, 4-8 May 2011; The carbon cycle science community has organized a global network, called FLUXNET, to measure the exchange of energy, water, and carbon dioxide (CO2) between the ecosystems and the atmosphere using the eddy covariance technique. This network has provided unprecedented information for carbon cycle science and global climate change but is mostly represented by study sites in the United States and Europe. Thus, there is an important gap in measurements and understanding of ecosystem dynamics in other regions of the world that are seeing a rapid change in land use. Researchers met under the sponsorship of Red Temática de Ecosistemas and Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT) to discuss strategies to establish a Mexican eddy covariance network (MexFlux) by identifying researchers, study sites, and scientific goals. During the meeting, attendees noted that 10 study sites have been established in Mexico with more than 30 combined years of information. Study sites span from new sites installed during 2011 to others with 9 to 6 years of measurements. Sites with the longest span measurements are located in Baja California Sur (established by Walter Oechel in 2002) and Sonora (established by Christopher Watts in 2005); both are semiarid ecosystems. MexFlux sites represent a variety of ecosystem types, including Mediterranean and sarcocaulescent shrublands in Baja California; oak woodland, subtropical shrubland, tropical dry forest, and a grassland in Sonora; tropical dry forests in Jalisco and Yucatan; a managed grassland in San Luis Potosi; and a managed pine forest in Hidalgo. Sites are maintained with an individual researcher's funds from Mexican government agencies (e.g., CONACYT) and international collaborations, but no coordinated funding exists for a long-term program.

  20. The science, technology and research network (STARNET) a searchable thematic compilation of web resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blados, W.R.; Cotter, G.A.; Hermann, T.

    2007-01-01

    International alliances in space efforts have resulted in a more rapid diffusion of space technology. This, in turn, increases pressure on organizations to push forward with technological developments and to take steps to maximize their inclusion into the research and development (R&D) process and the overall advancement and enhancement of space technology. To cope with this vast and rapidly growing amount of data and information that is vital to the success of the innovation, the Information Management Committee (IMC) of the Research Technology Agency (RTA) developed the science, technology and research network (STARNET). The purpose of this network is to facilitate access to worldwide information elements in terms of science, technology and overall research. It provides a virtual library with special emphasis on international security; a "one stop" information resource for policy makers, program managers, scientists, engineers, researchers and others. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  1. The gender of science: reflections on the actor-network theory and the feminist perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Pugliese Cardoso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some of the principles that guide the descriptive forms of the actor-network theory (ANT of Bruno Latour and feminist standpoint theory formulated by Sandra Harding and Evelyn Fox Keller, through my research on the "Marie Curie Case". As a singular case between gender and science, the goal of thispaper is to play with ANT certainties against feminist perspective uncertainties. In the other hand, the certainties of feminist perspective are put against the uncertainties of ANT. With this counterpoint we intend to promote a reaction - in the chemical sense of the word – to the descriptive forms of the actor-network theory and feminist perspective taking away the obviousness of some of their assumptions. Doing that, we explore the moves of those reactions and their effects to the description which we do about science.

  2. Emerging Fabric of Science: Persistent Identifiers and Knowledge Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, W.

    2017-12-01

    There is an increasing emphasis on the use of persistent identifiers in the description of scientific activity, whether this is done to cite scholarly publications and research output, reliably identify role players such as funders and researchers, or to provide long-lasting references to controlled vocabulary. The ICSU World Data System has been promoting the establishment of a "Knowledge Network" to describe research activity, realising that parts of the network will be established as a federated `system', based on linkages between registries of persistent identifiers. In addition, there is a growing focus on not only the relationship between these major role players and associated digital objects, but also on the processes of science: provenance, reproducibility, and re-usability being significant topics of discussion. The paper will focus on description of the `Fabric of Science' from the perspectives of both structure and processes, review the state of implementation of real services and infrastructure in support of it. A case is made for inclusion of persistent identifiers into the mainstream activities of scientists and data infrastructure managers, and for the development of services, such as Scholix, to make better use of the relationships between digital objects and major role players. A proposal is made for the adoption of a federated system of services that are based on a hybrid graph-object framework similar to Scholix for recording the activity of scientific research. Finally, links to related ideas are explored: novel ways of representing of knowledge (such as Nanopublications) and the possibility that the publication paradigm currently in use may have to be amended.

  3. Study of co-authorship network of papers in the Journal of Research in Medical Sciences using social network analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Zare-Farashbandi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Co-authorship is one of the most tangible forms of research collaboration. A co-authorship network is a social network in which the authors through participation in one or more publication through an indirect path have linked to each other. The present research using the social network analysis studied co-authorship network of 681 articles published in Journal of Research in Medical Sciences (JRMS during 2008-2012. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out with the scientometrics approach and using co-authorship network analysis of authors. The topology of the co-authorship network of 681 published articles in JRMS between 2008 and 2012 was analyzed using macro-level metrics indicators of network analysis such as density, clustering coefficient, components and mean distance. In addition, in order to evaluate the performance of each authors and countries in the network, the micro-level indicators such as degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality as well as productivity index were used. The UCINET and NetDraw softwares were used to draw and analyze the co-authorship network of the papers. Results: The assessment of the authors productivity in this journal showed that the first ranks were belonged to only five authors, respectively. Furthermore, analysis of the co-authorship of the authors in the network demonstrated that in the betweenness centrality index, three authors of them had the good position in the network. They can be considered as the network leaders able to control the flow of information in the network compared with the other members based on the shortest paths. On the other hand, the key role of the network according to the productivity and centrality indexes was belonged to Iran, Malaysia and United States of America. Conclusion: Co-authorship network of JRMS has the characteristics of a small world network. In addition, the theory of 6° separation is valid in this network was also true.

  4. Networks in science: the JAE in the exile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naranjo Orovio, Consuelo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Junta para Ampliación de Estudios created different academic centers and laboratories in Spain. In this way, JAE helped to create a intellectual network. These centers not only blessed interchanges, debates and the modernization of Spanish science and culture, but also contributed to establish a platform that worked as a bridge in the aftermath of the Spanish Civil War. This network made possible for republican scientists and intellectuels, to find new positions abroad, when the time for exile came.

    Las relaciones e intercambios académicos con el extranjero, impulsados por los distintos centros y laboratorios creados por Junta para Ampliación de Estudios, dieron lugar al forjamiento de unas redes intelectuales que propiciaron no sólo el intercambio, el debate y la modernización de la ciencia y la cultura españolas deseadas, sino que también generaron unas plataformas que actuaron de puentes en los años siguientes a la Guerra Civil española. Las redes intelectuales ayudaron a que los hombres y mujeres, los científicos y pensadores republicanos, encontraran trabajo en otras latitudes cuando tuvieron que exiliarse.

  5. Enhancing the actinide sciences in Europe through hot laboratories networking and pooling: from ACTINET to TALISMAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourg, S.; Poinssot, C.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2004, Europe supports the strengthening of the European actinides sciences scientific community through the funding of dedicated networks: (i) from 2004 to 2008, the ACTINET6 network of excellence (6. Framework Programme) gathered major laboratories involved in nuclear research and a wide range of academic research organisations and universities with the specific aims of funding and implementing joint research projects to be performed within the network of pooled facilities; (ii) from 2009 to 2013, the ACTINET-I3 integrated infrastructure initiative (I3) supports the cost of access of any academics in the pooled EU hot laboratories. In this continuation, TALISMAN (Trans-national Access to Large Infrastructures for a Safe Management of Actinides) gathers now the main European hot laboratories in actinides sciences in order to promote their opening to academics and universities and strengthen the EU-skills in actinides sciences. Furthermore, a specific focus is set on the development of advanced cutting-edge experimental and spectroscopic capabilities, the combination of state-of-the art experimental with theoretical first-principle methods on a quantum mechanical level and to benefit from the synergy between the different scientific and technical communities. ACTINET-I3 and TALISMAN attach a great importance and promote the Education and Training of the young generation of actinides scientists in the Trans-national access but also by organizing Schools (general Summer Schools or Theoretical User Lab Schools) or by granting students to attend International Conference on actinide sciences. (authors)

  6. Detangling complex relationships in forensic data: principles and use of causal networks and their application to clinical forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Thomas; Lepresle, Aude; Chariot, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The search for complex, nonlinear relationships and causality in data is hindered by the availability of techniques in many domains, including forensic science. Linear multivariable techniques are useful but present some shortcomings. In the past decade, Bayesian approaches have been introduced in forensic science. To date, authors have mainly focused on providing an alternative to classical techniques for quantifying effects and dealing with uncertainty. Causal networks, including Bayesian networks, can help detangle complex relationships in data. A Bayesian network estimates the joint probability distribution of data and graphically displays dependencies between variables and the circulation of information between these variables. In this study, we illustrate the interest in utilizing Bayesian networks for dealing with complex data through an application in clinical forensic science. Evaluating the functional impairment of assault survivors is a complex task for which few determinants are known. As routinely estimated in France, the duration of this impairment can be quantified by days of 'Total Incapacity to Work' ('Incapacité totale de travail,' ITT). In this study, we used a Bayesian network approach to identify the injury type, victim category and time to evaluation as the main determinants of the 'Total Incapacity to Work' (TIW). We computed the conditional probabilities associated with the TIW node and its parents. We compared this approach with a multivariable analysis, and the results of both techniques were converging. Thus, Bayesian networks should be considered a reliable means to detangle complex relationships in data.

  7. Activation of lower back muscles via FES for pressure sores prevention in paraplegia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanoncini, M; Holderbaum, W; Andrews, B J

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the feasibility of the use of functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied to the lower back muscles for pressure sores prevention in paraplegia. The hypothesis under study is that FES induces a change in the pressure distribution on the contact area during sitting. Tests were conducted on a paraplegic subject (T5), sitting on a standard wheelchair and cushion. Trunk extensors (mainly the erector spinae) were stimulated using surface electrodes placed on the skin. A pressure mapping system was used to measure the pressure on the sitting surface in four situations: (a) no stimulation; (b) stimulation on one side of the spine only; (c) stimulation on both sides, at different levels; and (d) stimulation at the same level on both sides, during pressure-relief manoeuvres. A session of prolonged stimulation was also conducted. The experimental results show that the stimulation of the erector spinae on one side of the spine can induce a trunk rotation on the sagittal plane, which causes a change in the pressure distribution. A decrease of pressure on the side opposite to the stimulation was recorded. The phenomenon is intensified when different levels of stimulation are applied to the two sides, and such change can be sustained for a considerable time (around 5 minutes). The stimulation did not induce changes during pressure-relief manoeuvres. Finally, from this research we can conclude that the stimulation of the trunk extensors can be a useful tool for pressure sores prevention, and can potentially be used in a routine for pressure sores prevention based on periodical weight shifts.

  8. Network on veterinary medicines initiated by the European Federation For Pharmaceutical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochel, J P; Tyden, E; Hellmann, K; Vendrig, J C; Şenel, S; Dencker, L; Cristina, R T; Linden, H; Schmerold, I

    2018-06-01

    The European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences (EUFEPS) was founded 25 years ago by more than 20 national pharmaceutical societies and faculty members. As a pan-European organization, it brings together pharmaceutical societies as well as academic, industrial and regulatory scientists engaged in drug research and development, drug regulation and education of professionals working in these fields. EUFEPS represents pharmaceutical sciences in Europe and is recognized as such by both the European Commission and the European Medicines Agency. EUFEPS cooperates with the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and other European organizations and maintains global connections with agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists. EUFEPS has established specified networks forming the basis of its activities. The creation of a Network on Veterinary Medicines is prompted by the manifold problems resulting from the use of veterinary drugs and its inherent interconnections with human medicine, environmental and public health. A long-term goal of this initiative was to expand the spectrum of available therapeutics for use in animals, including the development of innovative delivery systems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Iron Isotopic Compositions of Troilite (FeS) Inclusions from Iron Meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David L.; Schönbächler, Maria, E-mail: david.cook@erdw.ethz.ch [Institut für Geochemie und Petrologie, ETH Zürich, Clausiusstrasse 25, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2017-10-01

    We report non-mass-dependent Fe isotopic data for troilite (FeS) inclusions from 10 iron meteorites, representing both non-magmatic (IAB) and magmatic groups (IIAB, IIIAB, IVA). No resolvable variations are present in the most neutron-rich isotope ({sup 58}Fe), but small deficits (≈−0.1 ε ) in {sup 56}Fe were observed in several inclusions. With the exception of several Ca–Al-rich inclusions in primitive meteorites, these are the first reported non-mass-dependent variations in Fe isotopes for material formed in the early solar system. Nucleosynthetic variations in Ni isotopes were previously reported in these same samples. The effects in Fe isotopes are not correlated with those in Ni, which suggests that the origins of the isotopic variations are decoupled from one another. The {sup 56}Fe deficits may represent incomplete mixing of the precursor dust in the protoplanetary disk. Alternatively, a parent body process (e.g., irradiation by galactic cosmic rays) may have modified the Fe isotopic compositions of some inclusions, which initially had homogeneous Fe isotopic compositions.

  10. The Intellectual Structure of Research on Educational Technology in Science Education (ETiSE): A Co-citation Network Analysis of Publications in Selected Journals (2008-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kai-Yu; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the intellectual structure of the research on educational technology in science education (ETiSE) within the most recent years (2008-2013). Based on the criteria for educational technology research and the citation threshold for educational co-citation analysis, a total of 137 relevant ETiSE papers were identified from the International Journal of Science Education, the Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Science Education, and the Journal of Science Education and Technology. Then, a series of methodologies were performed to analyze all 137 source documents, including document co-citation analysis, social network analysis, and exploratory factor analysis. As a result, 454 co-citation ties were obtained and then graphically visualized with an undirected network, presenting a global structure of the current ETiSE research network. In addition, four major underlying intellectual subfields within the main component of the ETiSE network were extracted and named as: (1) technology-enhanced science inquiry, (2) simulation and visualization for understanding, (3) technology-enhanced chemistry learning, and (4) game-based science learning. The most influential co-citation pairs and cross-boundary phenomena were then analyzed and visualized in a co-citation network. This is the very first attempt to illuminate the core ideas underlying ETiSE research by integrating the co-citation method, factor analysis, and the networking visualization technique. The findings of this study provide a platform for scholarly discussion of the dissemination and research trends within the current ETiSE literature.

  11. Constructing "Authentic" Science: Results from a University/High School Collaboration Integrating Digital Storytelling and Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olitsky, Stacy; Becker, Elizabeth A.; Jayo, Ignacio; Vinogradov, Philip; Montcalmo, Joseph

    2018-02-01

    This study explores the implications of a redesign of a college course that entailed a new partnership between a college neuroscience classroom and a high school. In this course, the college students engaged in original research projects which included conducting brain surgery and behavioural tests on rats. They used digital storytelling and social networking to communicate with high school students and were visited by the students during the semester. The aims of the redesign were to align the course with science conducted in the field and to provide opportunities to disseminate scientific knowledge through emerging technologies. This study investigates the impact of these innovations on the college and high school students' perceptions of authentic science, including their relationship with science-centred communities. We found that these collaborative tools increased college students' perceptions that authentic science entailed communication with the general public, in addition to supporting prior perceptions of the importance of conducting experiments and presenting results to experts. In addition, the view of science as high-status knowledge was attenuated as students integrated non-formal communication practices into presentations, showing the backstage process of learning, incorporating music and youth discourse styles, and displaying emotional engagement. An impact of these hybrid presentation approaches was an increase in the high school students' perceptions of the accessibility of laboratory science. We discuss how the use of technologies that are familiar to youth, such as iPads, social networking sites, and multimedia presentations, has the potential to prioritize students' voices and promote a more inclusive view of science.

  12. The Intellectual Structure of Metacognitive Scaffolding in Science Education: A Co-Citation Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kai-Yu; Wang, Chia-Yu; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Sufen; Lo, Hao-Chang; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2016-01-01

    The issues of metacognitive scaffolding in science education (MSiSE) have become increasingly popular and important. Differing from previous content reviews, this study proposes a series of quantitative computer-based analyses by integrating document co-citation analysis, social network analysis, and exploratory factor analysis to explore the…

  13. Network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.

  14. Image Quality Assessment of JPEG Compressed Mars Science Laboratory Mastcam Images using Convolutional Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, H. R.; Bell, J. F., III; Ben Amor, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Mastcam color imaging system on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover acquires images within Gale crater for a variety of geologic and atmospheric studies. Images are often JPEG compressed before being downlinked to Earth. While critical for transmitting images on a low-bandwidth connection, this compression can result in image artifacts most noticeable as anomalous brightness or color changes within or near JPEG compression block boundaries. In images with significant high-frequency detail (e.g., in regions showing fine layering or lamination in sedimentary rocks), the image might need to be re-transmitted losslessly to enable accurate scientific interpretation of the data. The process of identifying which images have been adversely affected by compression artifacts is performed manually by the Mastcam science team, costing significant expert human time. To streamline the tedious process of identifying which images might need to be re-transmitted, we present an input-efficient neural network solution for predicting the perceived quality of a compressed Mastcam image. Most neural network solutions require large amounts of hand-labeled training data for the model to learn the target mapping between input (e.g. distorted images) and output (e.g. quality assessment). We propose an automatic labeling method using joint entropy between a compressed and uncompressed image to avoid the need for domain experts to label thousands of training examples by hand. We use automatically labeled data to train a convolutional neural network to estimate the probability that a Mastcam user would find the quality of a given compressed image acceptable for science analysis. We tested our model on a variety of Mastcam images and found that the proposed method correlates well with image quality perception by science team members. When assisted by our proposed method, we estimate that a Mastcam investigator could reduce the time spent reviewing images by a minimum of 70%.

  15. A Network Enabled Platform for Canadian Space Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, R.; Boteler, D. R.; Jayachandran, T. P.; Mann, I. R.; Sofko, G.; Yau, A. W.

    2008-12-01

    The internet is an example of a pervasive disruptive technology that has transformed society on a global scale. The term "cyberinfrastructure" refers to technology underpinning the collaborative aspect of large science projects and is synonymous with terms such as e-Science, intelligent infrastructure, and/or e- infrastructure. In the context of space science, a significant challenge is to exploit the internet and cyberinfrastructure to form effective virtual organizations (VOs) of scientists that have common or agreed- upon objectives. A typical VO is likely to include universities and government agencies specializing in types of instrumentation (ground and/or space based), which in deployment produce large quantities of space data. Such data is most effectively described by metadata, which if defined in a standard way, facilitates discovery and retrieval of data over the internet by intelligent interfaces and cyberinfrastructure. One recent and significant approach is SPASE, which is being developed by NASA as a data-standard for its Virtual Observatories (VxOs) programs. The space science community in Canada has recently formed a VO designed to complement the e-POP microsatellite mission, and new ground-based observatories (GBOs) that collect data over a large fraction of the Canadian land-mass. The VO includes members of the CGSM community (www.cgsm.ca), which is funded operationally by the Canadian Space Agency. It also includes the UCLA VMO team, and scientists in the NASA THEMIS mission. CANARIE (www.canarie.ca), the federal agency responsible for management, design and operation of Canada's research internet, has recently recognized the value of cyberinfrastucture through the creation of a Network-Enabled-Platforms (NEPs) program. An NEP for space science was funded by CANARIE in its first competition. When fully implemented, the Space Science NEP will consist of a front-end portal providing access to CGSM data. It will utilize an adaptation of the SPASE

  16. Simultaneous depletion of Atm and Mdl rebalances cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly but not heme import into the mitochondrion of Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáková, Eva; Changmai, Piya; Paris, Zdeněk; Salmon, D.; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 282, č. 21 (2015), s. 4157-4175 ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/2179; GA ČR GJ15-21450Y; GA MŠk LH12104 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Atm * Fe-S cluster * heme * Mdl * Trypanosoma Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.237, year: 2015

  17. Network Science Center Research Team’s Visit to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    by China State Construction Engineering 3 | P a g e Network Science Center, West Point www.netscience.usma.edu 845.938.0804 Corporation as a...between microfinance and large corporate investments in the business market. The creative environment in Ethiopia is energetic, with a large population...coffee names (such as Starbucks ). In our discussion it seemed that TechnoServe emphasized the business aspect of their organization model over

  18. Latin American Network of students in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Ramirez, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Latin American Network of Students in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology (RedLAtM) is a civil nonprofit organization, organized by students from Mexico and some Latin- American countries. As a growing organization, providing human resources in the field of meteorology at regional level, the RedLAtM seeks to be a Latin American organization who helps the development of education and research in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology in order to engage and promote the integration of young people towards a common and imminent future: Facing the still unstudied various weather and climate events occurring in Latin America. The RedLAtM emerges from the analysis and observation/realization of a limited connection between Latin American countries around research in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology. The importance of its creation is based in cooperation, linking, research and development in Latin America and Mexico, in other words, to join efforts and stablish a regional scientific integration who leads to technological progress in the area of Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology. As ultimate goal the RedLAtM pursuit to develop climatic and meteorological services for those countries unable to have their own programs, as well as projects linked with the governments of Latin American countries and private companies for the improvement of prevention strategies, research and decision making. All this conducing to enhance the quality of life of its inhabitants facing problems such as poverty and inequality.

  19. Youth Science Ambassadors: Connecting Indigenous communities with Ocean Networks Canada tools to inspire future ocean scientists and marine resource managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; Hale, C.; McLean, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation describes Ocean Networks Canada's (ONC) Youth Science Ambassador Program. The Youth Science Ambassadors are a growing network of youth in Canadian coastal communities whose role is to connect ocean science, ONC data, and Indigenous knowledge. By directly employing Indigenous youth in communities in which ONC operates monitoring equipment, ONC aims to encourage wider participation and interest in ocean science and exploration. Further, the Youth Science Ambassadors act as role models and mentors to other local youth by highlighting connections between Indigenous and local knowledge and current marine science efforts. Ocean Networks Canada, an initiative of the University of Victoria, develops, operates, and maintains cabled ocean observatory systems. These include technologies developed on the world-leading NEPTUNE and VENUS observatories as well as community observatories in the Arctic and coastal British Columbia. These observatories, large and small, enable communities, users, scientists, teachers, and students to monitor real-time and historical data from the local marine environment from anywhere on the globe. Youth Science Ambassadors are part of the Learning and Engagement team whose role includes engaging Indigenous communities and schools in ocean science through ONC's K-12 Ocean Sense education program. All of the data collected by ONC are freely available over the Internet for non-profit use, including disaster planning, community-based decision making, and education. The Youth Science Ambassadors support collaboration with Indigenous communities and schools by facilitating educational programming, encouraging participation in ocean data collection and analysis, and fostering interest in ocean science. In addition, the Youth Science Ambassadors support community collaboration in decision-making for instrument deployment locations and identify ways in which ONC can help to address any areas of concern raised by the community. This

  20. Proceedings of the workshop cum symposium on applications of neural networks in nuclear science and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Workshop cum Symposium on Application of Neural Networks in Nuclear Science and Industry was held at Bombay during November 24-26. 1993. The past decade has seen many important advances in the design and technology of artificial neural networks in research and industry. Neural networks is an interdisciplinary field covering a broad spectrum of applications in surveillance, diagnosis of nuclear power plants, nuclear spectroscopy, speech and written text recognition, robotic control, signal processing etc. The objective of the symposium was to promote awareness of advances in neural network research and applications. It was also aimed at conducting the review of the present status and giving direction for future technological developments. Contributed papers have been organized into the following groups: a) neural network architectures, learning algorithms and modelling, b) computer vision and image processing, c) signal processing, d) neural networks and fuzzy systems, e) nuclear applications and f) neural networks and allied applications. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately. (M.K.V.)

  1. Online Matchmaking: It's Not Just for Dating Sites Anymore! Connecting the Climate Voices Science Speakers Network to Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Kristin; Herrin, Sara; Schmidt, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Scientists play an integral role in the development of climate literacy skills - for both teachers and students alike. By partnering with local scientists, teachers can gain valuable insights into the science practices highlighted by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), as well as a deeper understanding of cutting-edge scientific discoveries and local impacts of climate change. For students, connecting to local scientists can provide a relevant connection to climate science and STEM skills. Over the past two years, the Climate Voices Science Speakers Network (climatevoices.org) has grown to a robust network of nearly 400 climate science speakers across the United States. Formal and informal educators, K-12 students, and community groups connect with our speakers through our interactive map-based website and invite them to meet through face-to-face and virtual presentations, such as webinars and podcasts. But creating a common language between scientists and educators requires coaching on both sides. In this presentation, we will present the "nitty-gritty" of setting up scientist-educator collaborations, as well as the challenges and opportunities that arise from these partnerships. We will share the impact of these collaborations through case studies, including anecdotal feedback and metrics.

  2. Functional Echomyography: thickness, ecogenicity, contraction and perfusion of the LMN denervated human muscle before and during h-bFES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Zanato

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Permanent denervated muscles were evaluated by ultrasound to monitor changes in morphology, thickness, contraction-relaxation kinetics and perfusion due to the electrical stimulation program of the Rise2-Italy project. In a case of monolateral lesion, morphology and ultrasonographic structure of the denervated muscles changed during the period of stimulation from a pattern typical of complete denervation-induced muscle atrophy to a pattern which might be considered “normal” when detected in an old patient. Thickness improved significantly more in the middle third of the denervated muscle, reaching the same value as the contralateral innervated muscle. Contraction-relaxation kinetics, measured by recording the muscle movements during electrical stimulation, showed an abnormal behavior of the chronically denervated muscle during the relaxation phase, which resulted to be significantly longer than in normal muscle. The long-term denervated muscles analyzed with Echo Doppler showed at rest a low resistance arterial flow that became pulsed during and after electrical stimulation. As expected, the ultra sound measured electrical stimulation-induced hyperemia lasted longer than the stimulation period. The higher than normal energy of the delivered electrical stimuli of the Vienna home-based Functional Electrical Stimulation strategy (h-b FES demonstrate that the explored muscles were still almost completely denervated during the one-year of training. In conclusion, this pilot study confirms the usefulness of Functional Echomyography in the follow-up and the positive effects of h-b FES of denervated muscles.

  3. Las Cumbres Observatory 1-Meter Global Science Telescope Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Andrew; Dubberley, M.; Haldeman, B.; Haynes, R.; Posner, V.; Rosing, W.; staff, LCOGT

    2009-05-01

    We present the optical, mechanical and electronic design of the LCOGT 1-m telescope. These telescopes are planned to go in pairs to each of 6 sites worldwide, complementing 0.4m telescopes and 2-m telescopes at two existing sites. This science network is designed to provide continuously available photometric monitoring and spectroscopy of variable sources. The 1-m optical design is an f/8 quasi-RC system, with a doublet corrector and field flattener to provide good image quality out to 0.8 degrees. The field of view of the Fairchild 4K science CCD is 27 arcmin, with 0.39 arcsec pixels. The mechanical design includes a stiff C-ring equatorial mount and friction drive rollers, mounted on a triangular base that can be adjusted for latitude. Another friction drive is coupled at the Declination axis to the M1 mirror cell, that forms the main Optical Tube Assembly (OTA) structural element. The OTA design includes a stiff carbon fiber truss assembly, with offset vanes to an M2 drive that provides remote focus, tilt and collimation. The tube assembly weighs about 600 Kg, including Hextek mirrors, 4K science CCD, filter wheel, autoguiders and medium resolution spectrograph pick-off fiber. The telescopes will be housed in domes at existing observatory sites. They are designed to operate remotely and reliably under centralized control for automatic, optimized scheduling of observations with available hardware.

  4. Working Memory Modulation of Frontoparietal Network Connectivity in First-Episode Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Duemose; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Wang, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Working memory (WM) impairment is regarded as a core aspect of schizophrenia. However, the neural mechanisms behind this cognitive deficit remain unclear. The connectivity of a frontoparietal network is known to be important for subserving WM. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the curr......Working memory (WM) impairment is regarded as a core aspect of schizophrenia. However, the neural mechanisms behind this cognitive deficit remain unclear. The connectivity of a frontoparietal network is known to be important for subserving WM. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging......, the current study investigated whether WM-dependent modulation of effective connectivity in this network is affected in a group of first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients compared with similarly performing healthy participants during a verbal n-back task. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) of the coupling...... between regions (left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), left inferior parietal lobe (IPL), and primary visual area) identified in a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis was performed to characterize effective connectivity during the n-back task. The PPI analysis revealed that the connectivity...

  5. The Mathematics of Networks Science: Scale-Free, Power-Law Graphs and Continuum Theoretical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Janice

    2012-01-01

    When hoping to initiate or sustain students' interest in mathematics teachers should always consider relevance, relevance to students' lives and in the middle and later years of instruction in high school and university, accessibility. A topic such as the mathematics behind networks science, more specifically scale-free graphs, is up-to-date,…

  6. In vivo fluorescent detection of Fe-S clusters coordinated by human GRX2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Kevin G; Culler, Stephanie J; Nguyen, Peter Q; McGuire, Ryan M; Silberg, Jonathan J; Smolke, Christina D

    2009-12-24

    A major challenge to studying Fe-S cluster biosynthesis in higher eukaryotes is the lack of simple tools for imaging metallocluster binding to proteins. We describe the first fluorescent approach for in vivo detection of 2Fe2S clusters that is based upon the complementation of Venus fluorescent protein fragments via human glutaredoxin 2 (GRX2) coordination of a 2Fe2S cluster. We show that Escherichia coli and mammalian cells expressing Venus fragments fused to GRX2 exhibit greater fluorescence than cells expressing fragments fused to a C37A mutant that cannot coordinate a metallocluster. In addition, we find that maximal fluorescence in the cytosol of mammalian cells requires the iron-sulfur cluster assembly proteins ISCU and NFS1. These findings provide evidence that glutaredoxins can dimerize within mammalian cells through coordination of a 2Fe2S cluster as observed with purified recombinant proteins. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Executive attention impairment in first-episode schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orellana Gricel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared the attention abilities of a group of first-episode schizophrenia (FES patients and a group of healthy participants using the Attention Network Test (ANT, a standard procedure that estimates the functional state of three neural networks controlling the efficiency of three different attentional behaviors, i.e., alerting (achieving and maintaining a state of high sensitivity to incoming stimuli, orienting (ability to select information from sensory input, and executive attention (mechanisms for resolving conflict among thoughts, feelings, and actions. Methods We evaluated 22 FES patients from 17 to 29 years of age with a recent history of a single psychotic episode treated only with atypical neuroleptics, and 20 healthy persons matched with FES patients by sex, age, and educational level as the control group. Attention was estimated using the ANT in which participants indicate whether a central horizontal arrow is pointing to the left or the right. The central arrow may be preceded by spatial or temporal cues denoting where and when the arrow will appear, and may be flanked by other arrows (hereafter, flankers pointing in the same or the opposite direction. Results The efficiency of the alerting, orienting, and executive networks was estimated by measuring how reaction time was influenced by congruency between temporal, spatial, and flanker cues. We found that the control group only demonstrated significantly greater attention efficiency than FES patients in the executive attention network. Conclusions FES patients are impaired in executive attention but not in alerting or orienting attention, suggesting that executive attention deficit may be a primary impairment during the progression of the disease.

  8. Unified functional network and nonlinear time series analysis for complex systems science: The pyunicorn package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Jonathan; Heitzig, Jobst; Beronov, Boyan; Wiedermann, Marc; Runge, Jakob; Feng, Qing Yi; Tupikina, Liubov; Stolbova, Veronika; Donner, Reik; Marwan, Norbert; Dijkstra, Henk; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    We introduce the pyunicorn (Pythonic unified complex network and recurrence analysis toolbox) open source software package for applying and combining modern methods of data analysis and modeling from complex network theory and nonlinear time series analysis. pyunicorn is a fully object-oriented and easily parallelizable package written in the language Python. It allows for the construction of functional networks such as climate networks in climatology or functional brain networks in neuroscience representing the structure of statistical interrelationships in large data sets of time series and, subsequently, investigating this structure using advanced methods of complex network theory such as measures and models for spatial networks, networks of interacting networks, node-weighted statistics, or network surrogates. Additionally, pyunicorn provides insights into the nonlinear dynamics of complex systems as recorded in uni- and multivariate time series from a non-traditional perspective by means of recurrence quantification analysis, recurrence networks, visibility graphs, and construction of surrogate time series. The range of possible applications of the library is outlined, drawing on several examples mainly from the field of climatology. pyunicorn is available online at https://github.com/pik-copan/pyunicorn. Reference: J.F. Donges, J. Heitzig, B. Beronov, M. Wiedermann, J. Runge, Q.-Y. Feng, L. Tupikina, V. Stolbova, R.V. Donner, N. Marwan, H.A. Dijkstra, and J. Kurths, Unified functional network and nonlinear time series analysis for complex systems science: The pyunicorn package, Chaos 25, 113101 (2015), DOI: 10.1063/1.4934554, Preprint: arxiv.org:1507.01571 [physics.data-an].

  9. Research@ARL: Network Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    function in concert. Consider the behavior of social insects, such as bees and ants. Fish and birds are other examples of animals whose collective...Tropical Watershed, Springer/Kluwer, 83–95, 2005. Lehner, B. and Döll, P.: Development and validation of a global database of lakes, reservoirs and wetlands ...what it would be in an unperturbed network. A biological network with this sensitivity to error would not survive for very long in the wild . For

  10. [Acute myocardial infarction in Morocco: FES-AMI registry data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoudad, H; El Khorb, N; Sekkali, N; Mechrafi, A; Zakari, N; Ouaha, L; Lahlou, I

    2015-12-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is the most dangerous complication of coronary atherothrombosis. There are several disparities in regard to its management around the world. The aim of this study is to analyze the specificities of management of acute myocardial infarction in Morocco. FES-AMI (Fès Acute Myocardial Infarction) is a prospective monocentric registry conducted in cardiology department of Hassan II university hospital in Fès. In this registry, we enrolled patients with acute myocardial infarction who presented within 5 days after symptom onset. From January 2005 to August 2015, we enrolled 1835 patients. Seventy-five percent of patients were males and mean age was 60 years old. Fifty-one percent of patients were smokers, 27% were hypertensives and 14% were diabetics. Sixty-six percent of patients had more than 2 risk factors. Time from symptom onset to hospital admission was less than six hours for 40% of the patients. Thirty-six percent of patients were admitted more than twelve hours after the onset of chest pain. Only 37% of patients received reperfusion therapy, 31% with in-hospital thrombolysis and 6% with primary angioplasty. In-hospital mortality was 7.6%. The patients enrolled in our registry have late presentation of acute myocardial infarction and less rate of reperfusion therapy. Furthermore, the majority of our patients have multiple risk factors and this result underlines the failure of preventive interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Citizen Science in Planetary Sciences: Intersection of Scientific Research and Amateur Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.

    2014-11-01

    The Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy (PACA) project evolved from the observational campaign of C/2012 S1 or C/ISON in 2013. Following the success of the professional-amateur astronomer collaboration in scientific research via social media, it is now implemented in other comet observing campaigns. While PACA identifies a consistent collaborative approach to pro-am collaborations, given the volume of data generated for each campaign, new ways of rapid data analysis, mining access and storage are needed. Several interesting results emerged from the synergistic inclusion of both social media and amateur astronomers:(1) the establishment of a network of astronomers and related professionals, that canbe galvanized into action on short notice to support observing campaigns;(2) assist in various science investigations pertinent to the campaign;(3) provide an alert-sounding mechanism should the need arise;(4) immediate outreach and dissemination of results via our media/blogger members;(5) provide a forum for discussions between the imagers and modelers to helpstrategize the observing campaign for maximum benefit.In 2014, two new comet observing campaigns involving pro-am collaborations have been initiated: (1) C/2013 A1 (C/SidingSpring) and (2) 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG), target for ESA/Rosetta mission. The evolving need for individual customized observing campaigns has been incorporated into the evolution of PACA portal that currently is focused on comets: from supporting observing campaigns of current comets, legacy data, historical comets; interconnected with social media and a set of shareable documents addressing observational strategies; consistent standards for data; data access, use, and storage, to align with the needs of professional observers. The integration of science, observations by professional and amateur astronomers, and various social media provides a dynamic and evolving collaborative partnership between professional and amateur astronomers. The

  12. Relationship between the climbing up and climbing down stairs domain scores on the FES-DMD, the score on the Vignos Scale, age and timed performance of functional activities in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian A. Y. Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowing the potential for and limitations of information generated using different evaluation instruments favors the development of more accurate functional diagnoses and therapeutic decision-making. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the number of compensatory movements when climbing up and going down stairs, age, functional classification and time taken to perform a tested activity (TA of going up and down stairs in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. METHOD: A bank of movies featuring 30 boys with DMD performing functional activities was evaluated. Compensatory movements were assessed using the climbing up and going down stairs domain of the Functional Evaluation Scale for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (FES-DMD; age in years; functional classification using the Vignos Scale (VS, and TA using a timer. Statistical analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: There is a moderate relationship between the climbing up stairs domain of the FES-DMD and age (r=0.53, p=0.004 and strong relationships with VS (r=0.72, p=0.001 and TA for this task (r=0.83, p<0.001. There were weak relationships between the going down stairs domain of the FES-DMD-going down stairs with age (r=0.40, p=0.032, VS (r=0.65, p=0.002 and TA for this task (r=0.40, p=0.034. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the evaluation of compensatory movements used when climbing up stairs can provide more relevant information about the evolution of the disease, although the activity of going down stairs should be investigated, with the aim of enriching guidance and strengthening accident prevention. Data from the FES-DMD, age, VS and TA can be used in a complementary way to formulate functional diagnoses. Longitudinal studies and with broader age groups may supplement this information.

  13. Building a Network to Support Girls and Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Jacqueline D.; Dyer, Ruth A.; Franks, Suzanne E.; Montelone, Beth A.

    Women today constitute over half of the U.S. population and almost half of its overall workforce, yet they make up less than a quarter of the science and engineering workforce. Many historical and social factors contribute to this discrepancy, and numerous individual, institutional, and governmental attempts have been made to redress it. However, many of the efforts to promote, include, and engage girls and women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and professions have been made in isolation. At Kansas State University, the authors have begun a systemic effort to increase the participation of girls and women in STEM. This article describes the creation and initial activities of a network of partners that includes universities, school districts, corporations, governmental agencies, and nonprofit organizations, assembled under the aegis of a project supported by funding from the National Science Foundation.

  14. The Earth Science Women's Network: The Principles That Guide Our Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. S.; Steiner, A. L.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN) began informally in 2002 as a way for six early career female atmospheric chemists to stay in contact and support each other. Twelve years later (2014), the ESWN formally became a non-profit organization with over 2000 members. The ESWN includes scientists from all disciplines of the geosciences with members located in over 50 countries. The ESWN is dedicated to career development, peer mentoring and community building for women in the geosciences. The mentoring philosophy of ESWN has evolved to include five main principles: 1.) Support community-driven mentoring, 2.) Encourage diverse mentoring approaches for diverse individuals, 3.) Facilitate mentoring across career phases, 4.) Promote combined personal and professional mentoring, 5.) Champion effective mentoring in a safe space. Surveys of ESWN members report gains in areas that are often considered barriers to career advancement, including recognition that they are not alone, new understanding of obstacles faced by women in science, and access to professional resources.

  15. Advanced Scientific Computing Research Network Requirements: ASCR Network Requirements Review Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Charles [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bell, Greg [ESnet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Canon, Shane [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dart, Eli [ESnet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dattoria, Vince [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR); Goodwin, Dave [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR); Lee, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hicks, Susan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holohan, Ed [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Klasky, Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lauzon, Carolyn [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR); Rogers, Jim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shipman, Galen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Skinner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [ESnet, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-08

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In October 2012, ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the ASCR program office. The requirements identified at the review are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  16. Fragmentation, integration and macroprudential surveillance of the US financial industry: Insights from network science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandica, Yerali; Geraci, Marco Valerio; Béreau, Sophie; Gnabo, Jean-Yves

    2018-01-01

    Drawing on recent contributions inferring financial interconnectedness from market data, our paper provides new insights on the evolution of the US financial industry over a long period of time by using several tools coming from network science. Relying on a Time-Varying Parameter Vector AutoRegressive (TVP-VAR) approach on stock market returns to retrieve unobserved directed links among financial institutions, we reconstruct a fully dynamic network in the sense that connections are let to evolve through time. The financial system analysed consists of a large set of 155 financial institutions that are all the banks, broker-dealers, insurance and real estate companies listed in the Standard & Poors' 500 index over the 1993-2014 period. Looking alternatively at the individual, then sector-, community- and system-wide levels, we show that network sciences' tools are able to support well-known features of the financial markets such as the dramatic fall of connectivity following Lehman Brothers' collapse. More importantly, by means of less traditional metrics, such as sectoral interface or measurements based on contagion processes, our results document the co-existence of both fragmentation and integration phases between firms independently from the sectors they belong to, and doing so, question the relevance of existing macroprudential surveillance frameworks which have been mostly developed on a sectoral basis. Overall, our results improve our understanding of the US financial landscape and may have important implications for risk monitoring as well as macroprudential policy design.

  17. Biological and Environmental Research Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaji, V. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Earth Science Grid Federation (ESGF); Boden, Tom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cowley, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dart, Eli [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Dattoria, Vince [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Desai, Narayan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Egan, Rob [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Foster, Ian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Goldstone, Robin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gregurick, Susan [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Biological Systems Science Division; Houghton, John [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program; Izaurralde, Cesar [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnston, Bill [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Joseph, Renu [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Climate and Environmental Sciences Division; Kleese-van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lipton, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Monga, Inder [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Pritchard, Matt [British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC), Oxon (United Kingdom); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Strand, Gary [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Stuart, Cory [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tatusova, Tatiana [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Thomas, Brian [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zurawski, Jason [Internet2, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In November 2012, ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the BER program office. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1) The scale of data sets available to science collaborations continues to increase exponentially. This has broad impact, both on the network and on the computational and storage systems connected to the network. 2) Many science collaborations require assistance to cope with the systems and network engineering challenges inherent in managing the rapid growth in data scale. 3) Several science domains operate distributed facilities that rely on high-performance networking for success. Key examples illustrated in this report include the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and the Systems Biology Knowledgebase (KBase). This report expands on these points, and addresses others as well. The report contains a findings section as well as the text of the case studies discussed at the review.

  18. Cascading Failures and Recovery in Networks of Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, Shlomo

    Network science have been focused on the properties of a single isolated network that does not interact or depends on other networks. In reality, many real-networks, such as power grids, transportation and communication infrastructures interact and depend on other networks. I will present a framework for studying the vulnerability and the recovery of networks of interdependent networks. In interdependent networks, when nodes in one network fail, they cause dependent nodes in other networks to also fail. This is also the case when some nodes like certain locations play a role in two networks -multiplex. This may happen recursively and can lead to a cascade of failures and to a sudden fragmentation of the system. I will present analytical solutions for the critical threshold and the giant component of a network of n interdependent networks. I will show, that the general theory has many novel features that are not present in the classical network theory. When recovery of components is possible global spontaneous recovery of the networks and hysteresis phenomena occur and the theory suggests an optimal repairing strategy of system of systems. I will also show that interdependent networks embedded in space are significantly more vulnerable compared to non embedded networks. In particular, small localized attacks may lead to cascading failures and catastrophic consequences.Thus, analyzing data of real network of networks is highly required to understand the system vulnerability. DTRA, ONR, Israel Science Foundation.

  19. A National Collaboratory to Advance the Science of High Temperature Plasma Physics for Magnetic Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schissel, David P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Abla, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Burruss, J. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Feibush, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Fredian, T. W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Goode, M. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Greenwald, M. J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Keahey, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Leggett, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Li, K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); McCune, D. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Papka, M. E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Randerson, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Sanderson, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Stillerman, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Thompson, M. R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Uram, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Wallace, G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2012-12-20

    This report summarizes the work of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. The original objective of the NFC project was to develop and deploy a national FES Grid (FusionGrid) that would be a system for secure sharing of computation, visualization, and data resources over the Internet. The goal of FusionGrid was to allow scientists at remote sites to participate as fully in experiments and computational activities as if they were working on site thereby creating a unified virtual organization of the geographically dispersed U.S. fusion community. The vision for FusionGrid was that experimental and simulation data, computer codes, analysis routines, visualization tools, and remote collaboration tools are to be thought of as network services. In this model, an application service provider (ASP provides and maintains software resources as well as the necessary hardware resources. The project would create a robust, user-friendly collaborative software environment and make it available to the US FES community. This Grid's resources would be protected by a shared security infrastructure including strong authentication to identify users and authorization to allow stakeholders to control their own resources. In this environment, access to services is stressed rather than data or software portability.

  20. A National Collaboratory to Advance the Science of High Temperature Plasma Physics for Magnetic Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissel, David P.; Abla, G.; Burruss, J. R.; Feibush, E.; Fredian, T. W.; Goode, M. M.; Greenwald, M. J.; Keahey, K.; Leggett, T.; Li, K.; McCune, D. C.; Papka, M. E.; Randerson, L.; Sanderson, A.; Stillerman, J.; Thompson, M. R.; Uram, T.; Wallace, G.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the work of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. The original objective of the NFC project was to develop and deploy a national FES Grid(FusionGrid) that would be a system for secure sharing of computation, visualization, and data resources over the Internet. The goal of FusionGrid was to allow scientists at remote sites to participate as fully in experiments and computational activities as if they were working on site thereby creating a unified virtual organization of the geographically dispersed U.S. fusion community. The vision for FusionGrid was that experimental and simulation data, computer codes, analysis routines, visualization tools, and remote collaboration tools are to be thought of as network services. In this model, an application service provider (ASP) provides and maintains software resources as well as the necessary hardware resources. The project would create a robust, user-friendly collaborative software environment and make it available to the US FES community. This Grid's resources would be protected by a shared security infrastructure including strong authentication to identify users and authorization to allow stakeholders to control their own resources. In this environment, access to services is stressed rather than data or software portability.

  1. Social Networking Addiction among Health Sciences Students in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Masters

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Addiction to social networking sites (SNSs is an international issue with numerous methods of measurement. The impact of such addictions among health science students is of particular concern. This study aimed to measure SNS addiction rates among health sciences students at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU in Muscat, Oman. Methods: In April 2014, an anonymous English-language six-item electronic self-reporting survey based on the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale was administered to a non-random cohort of 141 medical and laboratory science students at SQU. The survey was used to measure usage of three SNSs: Facebook (Facebook Inc., Menlo Park, California, USA, YouTube (YouTube, San Bruno, California, USA and Twitter (Twitter Inc., San Francisco, California, USA. Two sets of criteria were used to calculate addiction rates (a score of 3 on at least four survey items or a score of 3 on all six items. Work-related SNS usage was also measured. Results: A total of 81 students completed the survey (response rate: 57.4%. Of the three SNSs, YouTube was most commonly used (100%, followed by Facebook (91.4% and Twitter (70.4%. Usage and addiction rates varied significantly across the three SNSs. Addiction rates to Facebook, YouTube and Twitter, respectively, varied according to the criteria used (14.2%, 47.2% and 33.3% versus 6.3%, 13.8% and 12.8%. However, addiction rates decreased when workrelated activity was taken into account. Conclusion: Rates of SNS addiction among this cohort indicate a need for intervention. Additionally, the results suggest that addiction to individual SNSs should be measured and that workrelated activities should be taken into account during measurement.

  2. Social Networking Addiction among Health Sciences Students in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Ken

    2015-08-01

    Addiction to social networking sites (SNSs) is an international issue with numerous methods of measurement. The impact of such addictions among health science students is of particular concern. This study aimed to measure SNS addiction rates among health sciences students at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in Muscat, Oman. In April 2014, an anonymous English-language six-item electronic self-reporting survey based on the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale was administered to a non-random cohort of 141 medical and laboratory science students at SQU. The survey was used to measure usage of three SNSs: Facebook (Facebook Inc., Menlo Park, California, USA), YouTube (YouTube, San Bruno, California, USA) and Twitter (Twitter Inc., San Francisco, California, USA). Two sets of criteria were used to calculate addiction rates (a score of 3 on at least four survey items or a score of 3 on all six items). Work-related SNS usage was also measured. A total of 81 students completed the survey (response rate: 57.4%). Of the three SNSs, YouTube was most commonly used (100%), followed by Facebook (91.4%) and Twitter (70.4%). Usage and addiction rates varied significantly across the three SNSs. Addiction rates to Facebook, YouTube and Twitter, respectively, varied according to the criteria used (14.2%, 47.2% and 33.3% versus 6.3%, 13.8% and 12.8%). However, addiction rates decreased when work-related activity was taken into account. Rates of SNS addiction among this cohort indicate a need for intervention. Additionally, the results suggest that addiction to individual SNSs should be measured and that work-related activities should be taken into account during measurement.

  3. Additional Insights Into Problem Definition and Positioning From Social Science Comment on "Four Challenges That Global Health Networks Face".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quissell, Kathryn

    2017-09-10

    Commenting on a recent editorial in this journal which presented four challenges global health networks will have to tackle to be effective, this essay discusses why this type of analysis is important for global health scholars and practitioners, and why it is worth understanding and critically engaging with the complexities behind these challenges. Focusing on the topics of problem definition and positioning, I outline additional insights from social science theory to demonstrate how networks and network researchers can evaluate these processes, and how these processes contribute to better organizing, advocacy, and public health outcomes. This essay also raises multiple questions regarding these processes for future research. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  4. Topology of the European Network of Earth Observation Networks and the need for an European Network of Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masó, Joan; Serral, Ivette; McCallum, Ian; Blonda, Palma; Plag, Hans-Peter

    2016-04-01

    ConnectinGEO (Coordinating an Observation Network of Networks EnCompassing saTellite and IN-situ to fill the Gaps in European Observations" is an H2020 Coordination and Support Action with the primary goal of linking existing Earth Observation networks with science and technology (S&T) communities, the industry sector, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), and Copernicus. The project will end in February 2017. ConnectinGEO will initiate a European Network of Earth Observation Networks (ENEON) that will encompass space-based, airborne and in-situ observations networks. ENEON will be composed of project partners representing thematic observation networks along with the GEOSS Science and Technology Stakeholder Network, GEO Communities of Practices, Copernicus services, Sentinel missions and in-situ support data representatives, representatives of the European space-based, airborne and in-situ observations networks. This communication presents the complex panorama of Earth Observations Networks in Europe. The list of networks is classified by discipline, variables, geospatial scope, etc. We also capture the membership and relations with other networks and umbrella organizations like GEO. The result is a complex interrelation between networks that can not be clearly expressed in a flat list. Technically the networks can be represented as nodes with relations between them as lines connecting the nodes in a graph. We have chosen RDF as a language and an AllegroGraph 3.3 triple store that is visualized in several ways using for example Gruff 5.7. Our final aim is to identify gaps in the EO Networks and justify the need for a more structured coordination between them.

  5. A Collaborative Diagonal Learning Network: The role of formal and informal professional development in elementary science reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke-Nieves, Natasha Anika

    Science education research has consistently shown that elementary teachers have a low self-efficacy and background knowledge to teach science. When they teach science, there is a lack of field experiences and inquiry-based instruction at the elementary level due to limited resources, both material and pedagogical. This study focused on an analysis of a professional development (PD) model designed by the author known as the Collaborative Diagonal Learning Network (CDLN). The purpose of this study was to examine elementary school teacher participants pedagogical content knowledge related to their experiences in a CDLN model. The CDLN model taught formal and informal instruction using a science coach and an informal educational institution. Another purpose for this research included a theoretical analysis of the CDLN model to see if its design enabled teachers to expand their resource knowledge of available science education materials. The four-month-long study used qualitative data obtained during an in-service professional development program facilitated by a science coach and educators from a large natural history museum. Using case study as the research design, four elementary school teachers were asked to evaluate the effectiveness of their science coach and museum educator workshop sessions. During the duration of this study, semi-structured individual/group interviews and open-ended pre/post PD questionnaires were used. Other data sources included researcher field notes from lesson observations, museum field trips, audio-recorded workshop sessions, email correspondence, and teacher-created artifacts. The data were analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach. Themes that emerged included increased self-efficacy; increased pedagogical content knowledge; increased knowledge of museum education resources and access; creation of a professional learning community; and increased knowledge of science notebooking. Implications for formal and informal

  6. Feedback error learning controller for functional electrical stimulation assistance in a hybrid robotic system for reaching rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Resquín

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid robotic systems represent a novel research field, where functional electrical stimulation (FES is combined with a robotic device for rehabilitation of motor impairment. Under this approach, the design of robust FES controllers still remains an open challenge. In this work, we aimed at developing a learning FES controller to assist in the performance of reaching movements in a simple hybrid robotic system setting. We implemented a Feedback Error Learning (FEL control strategy consisting of a feedback PID controller and a feedforward controller based on a neural network. A passive exoskeleton complemented the FES controller by compensating the effects of gravity. We carried out experiments with healthy subjects to validate the performance of the system. Results show that the FEL control strategy is able to adjust the FES intensity to track the desired trajectory accurately without the need of a previous mathematical model.

  7. Data Linkage Graph: computation, querying and knowledge discovery of life science database networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange Matthias

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available To support the interpretation of measured molecular facts, like gene expression experiments or EST sequencing, the functional or the system biological context has to be considered. Doing so, the relationship to existing biological knowledge has to be discovered. In general, biological knowledge is worldwide represented in a network of databases. In this paper we present a method for knowledge extraction in life science databases, which prevents the scientists from screen scraping and web clicking approaches.

  8. A User Driven Dynamic Circuit Network Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guok, Chin; Robertson, David; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Thompson, Mary; Johnston, William; Tierney, Brian

    2008-10-01

    The requirements for network predictability are becoming increasingly critical to the DoE science community where resources are widely distributed and collaborations are world-wide. To accommodate these emerging requirements, the Energy Sciences Network has established a Science Data Network to provide user driven guaranteed bandwidth allocations. In this paper we outline the design, implementation, and secure coordinated use of such a network, as well as some lessons learned.

  9. Science and Technology Networks : A Helping Hand to Boost Implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trogrlić, RobertŠakić; Cumiskey, Lydia; Triyanti, Annisa; Duncan, Melanie J.; Eltinay, Nuha; Hogeboom, Rick J.; Jasuja, Mansi; Meechaiya, Chinaporn; Pickering, Christina J.; Murray, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 underlines the importance of Science and Technology (S&T) and S&T networks for effective disaster risk reduction (DRR). The knowledge of existing S&T networks and their exact role in DRR, however, is limited. This opinion piece initiates a

  10. Integrated Hydrologic Science and Environmental Engineering Observatory: CLEANER's Vision for the WATERS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, J. L.; Minsker, B. S.; Schnoor, J.; Haas, C.; Bonner, J.; Driscoll, C.; Eschenbach, E.; Finholt, T.; Glass, J.; Harmon, T.; Johnson, J.; Krupnik, A.; Reible, D.; Sanderson, A.; Small, M.; van Briesen, J.

    2006-05-01

    With increasing population and urban development, societies grow more and more concerned over balancing the need to maintain adequate water supplies with that of ensuring the quality of surface and groundwater resources. For example, multiple stressors such as overfishing, runoff of nutrients from agricultural fields and confined animal feeding lots, and pathogens in urban stormwater can often overwhelm a single water body. Mitigating just one of these problems often depends on understanding how it relates to others and how stressors can vary in temporal and spatial scales. Researchers are now in a position to answer questions about multiscale, spatiotemporally distributed hydrologic and environmental phenomena through the use of remote and embedded networked sensing technologies. It is now possible for data streaming from sensor networks to be integrated by a rich cyberinfrastructure encompassing the innovative computing, visualization, and information archiving strategies needed to cope with the anticipated onslaught of data, and to turn that data around in the form of real-time water quantity and quality forecasting. Recognizing this potential, NSF awarded $2 million to a coalition of 12 institutions in July 2005 to establish the CLEANER Project Office (Collaborative Large-Scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research; http://cleaner.ncsa.uiuc.edu). Over the next two years the project office, in coordination with CUAHSI (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc.; http://www.cuahsi.org), will work together to develop a plan for a WATer and Environmental Research Systems Network (WATERS Network), which is envisioned to be a collaborative scientific exploration and engineering analysis network, using high performance tools and infrastructure, to transform our scientific understanding of how water quantity, quality, and related earth system processes are affected by natural and human-induced changes to the environment

  11. Exploring biological and social networks to better understand and treat diabetes mellitus. Comment on "Network science of biological systems at different scales: A review" by Gosak et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgardt, Bengt-Frederik; Jarasch, Alexander; Lammert, Eckhard

    2018-03-01

    Improvements and breakthroughs in computational sciences in the last 20 years have paralleled the rapid gain of influence of social networks on our daily life. As timely reviewed by Perc and colleagues [1], understanding and treating complex human diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), from which already more than 5% of the global population suffer, will necessitate analyzing and understanding the multi-layered and interconnected networks that usually keep physiological functions intact, but are disturbed in disease states. These networks range from intra- and intercellular networks influencing cell behavior (e.g., secretion of insulin in response to food intake and anabolic response to insulin) to social networks influencing human behavior (e.g., food intake and physical activity). This commentary first expands on the background of pancreatic beta cell networks in human health and T2D, briefly introduces exosomes as novel signals exchanged between distant cellular networks, and finally discusses potential pitfalls and chances in network analyses with regards to experimental data acquisition and processing.

  12. Agent-based modeling and network dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Namatame, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The book integrates agent-based modeling and network science. It is divided into three parts, namely, foundations, primary dynamics on and of social networks, and applications. The book begins with the network origin of agent-based models, known as cellular automata, and introduce a number of classic models, such as Schelling’s segregation model and Axelrod’s spatial game. The essence of the foundation part is the network-based agent-based models in which agents follow network-based decision rules. Under the influence of the substantial progress in network science in late 1990s, these models have been extended from using lattices into using small-world networks, scale-free networks, etc. The book also shows that the modern network science mainly driven by game-theorists and sociophysicists has inspired agent-based social scientists to develop alternative formation algorithms, known as agent-based social networks. The book reviews a number of pioneering and representative models in this family. Upon the gi...

  13. Semantic Network Analysis on Terms related Mantle in Earth Science 2 Textbooks of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Duk Ho; reum Cho, Ah; Park, Seon Ok

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate if freshmen's cognitive frame about 'Crisis of the Earth' upon taking the Earth science 1 in high school reflects the school curriculum. The data was collected from 67 freshmen who'd graduated high school in formal education. They expressed 'Crisis of the Earth' as a painting with explanation and then we extracted units of meaning from paintings, respectively. We analyzed the words and frame using the Semantic Network Analysis. The result is as follows; First, as every participant forms the cognitive frame for the crisis of the Earth, it is shown that they connect each part which that composes the global environment and realize it as the changing relation with interaction. Secondly, forming a cognitive frame regarding crisis of the Earth, both groups connect it with human endeavor. Especially, it seems that the group of participants who finished Earth Science I fully reflects the course of the formal education. It is necessary to make the students recognize it from a universal point of view, not only from the Earth. Also, much effort is required in order to enlighten about the appropriateness regarding problem-solving of the Earth and expand their mind as time changes. Keywords : Earth ScienceⅠ, cognitive frame, crisis of the earth, semantic network analysis

  14. Aggregated journal–journal citation relations in scopus and web of science matched and compared in terms of networks, maps, and interactive overlays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; de Moya-Anegón, F.; de Nooy, W.

    We compare the network of aggregated journal–journal citation relations provided by the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) 2012 of the Science Citation Index (SCI) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) with similar data based on Scopus 2012. First, global and overlay maps were developed for the 2

  15. 6th Workshop on Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Simini, Filippo; Uzzo, Stephen; Wang, Dashun

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the spatial and temporal dynamics of how things connect has become one of the most important areas of research in the 21st century. Network science now pervades nearly every science domain, resulting in new discoveries in a host of dynamic social and natural systems, including: how neurons connect and communicate in the brain, how information percolates within and among social networks, the evolution of science research through co-authorship networks, the spread of epidemics, and many other complex phenomena. Over the past decade, advances in computational power have put the tools of network analysis in the hands of increasing numbers of scientists, enabling more explorations of our world than ever before possible. Information science, social sciences, systems biology, ecosystems ecology, neuroscience and physics all benefit from this movement, which combines graph theory with data sciences to develop and validate theories about the world around us. This book brings together cutting-edge research ...

  16. Office of Fusion Energy Sciences. A ten-year perspective (2015-2025)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-01

    The vision described here builds on the present U.S. activities in fusion plasma and materials science relevant to the energy goal and extends plasma science at the frontier of discovery. The plan is founded on recommendations made by the National Academies, a number of recent studies by the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC), and the Administration’s views on the greatest opportunities for U.S. scientific leadership.This report highlights five areas of critical importance for the U.S. fusion energy sciences enterprise over the next decade: 1) Massively parallel computing with the goal of validated whole-fusion-device modeling will enable a transformation in predictive power, which is required to minimize risk in future fusion energy development steps; 2) Materials science as it relates to plasma and fusion sciences will provide the scientific foundations for greatly improved plasma confinement and heat exhaust; 3) Research in the prediction and control of transient events that can be deleterious to toroidal fusion plasma confinement will provide greater confidence in machine designs and operation with stable plasmas; 4) Continued stewardship of discovery in plasma science that is not expressly driven by the energy goal will address frontier science issues underpinning great mysteries of the visible universe and help attract and retain a new generation of plasma/fusion science leaders; 5) FES user facilities will be kept world-leading through robust operations support and regular upgrades. Finally, we will continue leveraging resources among agencies and institutions and strengthening our partnerships with international research facilities.

  17. 1st Hands-on Science Science Fair

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Manuel F. M.; Esteves. Z.

    2017-01-01

    In school learning of science through investigative hands-on experiments is in the core of the Hands-on Science Network vision. However informal and non-formal contexts may also provide valuable paths for implementing this strategy aiming a better e!ective science education. In May 2011, a "rst country wide “Hands-on Science’ Science Fair” was organized in Portugal with the participation of 131 students that presented 38 projects in all "elds of Science. In this communication we will pr...

  18. Coordinated Multi-layer Multi-domain Optical Network (COMMON) for Large-Scale Science Applications (COMMON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vokkarane, Vinod [University of Massachusetts

    2013-09-01

    We intend to implement a Coordinated Multi-layer Multi-domain Optical Network (COMMON) Framework for Large-scale Science Applications. In the COMMON project, specific problems to be addressed include 1) anycast/multicast/manycast request provisioning, 2) deployable OSCARS enhancements, 3) multi-layer, multi-domain quality of service (QoS), and 4) multi-layer, multidomain path survivability. In what follows, we outline the progress in the above categories (Year 1, 2, and 3 deliverables).

  19. ANZA Seismic Network- From Monitoring to Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, F.; Eakin, J.; Martynov, V.; Newman, R.; Offield, G.; Hindley, A.; Astiz, L.

    2007-05-01

    The ANZA Seismic Network (http:eqinfo.ucsd.edu) utilizes broadband and strong motion sensors with 24-bit dataloggers combined with real-time telemetry to monitor local and regional seismicity in southernmost California. The ANZA network provides real-time data to the IRIS DMC, California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN), other regional networks, and the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS), in addition to providing near real-time information and monitoring to the greater San Diego community. Twelve high dynamic range broadband and strong motion sensors adjacent to the San Jacinto Fault zone contribute data for earthquake source studies and continue the monitoring of the seismic activity of the San Jacinto fault initiated 24 years ago. Five additional stations are located in the San Diego region with one more station on San Clemente Island. The ANZA network uses the advance wireless networking capabilities of the NSF High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network (http:hpwren.ucsd.edu) to provide the communication infrastructure for the real-time telemetry of Anza seismic stations. The ANZA network uses the Antelope data acquisition software. The combination of high quality hardware, communications, and software allow for an annual network uptime in excess of 99.5% with a median annual station real-time data return rate of 99.3%. Approximately 90,000 events, dominantly local sources but including regional and teleseismic events, comprise the ANZA network waveform database. All waveform data and event data are managed using the Datascope relational database. The ANZA network data has been used in a variety of scientific research including detailed structure of the San Jacinto Fault Zone, earthquake source physics, spatial and temporal studies of aftershocks, array studies of teleseismic body waves, and array studies on the source of microseisms. To augment the location, detection, and high frequency observations of the seismic source spectrum from local

  20. Exploring Vietnamese co-authorship patterns in social sciences with basic network measures of 2008-2017 Scopus data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tung Manh; Nguyen, Ha Viet; Vuong, Thu-Trang; Dam, Quang-Minh; Pham, Hiep-Hung; Vuong, Quan-Hoang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Collaboration is a common occurrence among Vietnamese scientists; however, insights into Vietnamese scientific collaborations have been scarce. On the other hand, the application of social network analysis in studying science collaboration has gained much attention all over the world. The technique could be employed to explore Vietnam's scientific community. Methods: This paper employs network theory to explore characteristics of a network of 412 Vietnamese social scientists whose papers can be found indexed in the Scopus database. Two basic network measures, density and clustering coefficient, were taken, and the entire network was studied in comparison with two of its largest components. Results: The networks connections are very sparse, with a density of only 0.47%, while the clustering coefficient is very high (58.64%). This suggests an inefficient dissemination of information, knowledge, and expertise in the network. Secondly, the disparity in levels of connection among individuals indicates that the network would easily fall apart if a few highly-connected nodes are removed. Finally, the two largest components of the network were found to differ from the entire networks in terms of measures and were both led by the most productive and well-connected researchers. Conclusions: High clustering and low density seems to be tied to inefficient dissemination of expertise among Vietnamese social scientists, and consequently low scientific output. Also low in robustness, the network shows the potential of an intellectual elite composed of well-connected, productive, and socially significant individuals.

  1. Applications of artificial neural networks in medical science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jigneshkumar L; Goyal, Ramesh K

    2007-09-01

    Computer technology has been advanced tremendously and the interest has been increased for the potential use of 'Artificial Intelligence (AI)' in medicine and biological research. One of the most interesting and extensively studied branches of AI is the 'Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs)'. Basically, ANNs are the mathematical algorithms, generated by computers. ANNs learn from standard data and capture the knowledge contained in the data. Trained ANNs approach the functionality of small biological neural cluster in a very fundamental manner. They are the digitized model of biological brain and can detect complex nonlinear relationships between dependent as well as independent variables in a data where human brain may fail to detect. Nowadays, ANNs are widely used for medical applications in various disciplines of medicine especially in cardiology. ANNs have been extensively applied in diagnosis, electronic signal analysis, medical image analysis and radiology. ANNs have been used by many authors for modeling in medicine and clinical research. Applications of ANNs are increasing in pharmacoepidemiology and medical data mining. In this paper, authors have summarized various applications of ANNs in medical science.

  2. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-03-14

    Mar 14, 2018 ... Cloud security; network security; anomaly detection; network traffic analysis; DDoS attack detection. ... Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667, India; Department of Applied Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology ...

  3. The LCO Follow-up and Characterization Network and AgentNEO Citizen Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Tim; Greenstreet, Sarah; Gomez, Edward; Christensen, Eric J.; Larson, Stephen M.

    2017-10-01

    NEOexchange software which is used to schedule, analyze and report observations taken with the LCO Network. In addition, we describe a Citizen Science project, AgentNEO, which uses LCO data to allow the public to find and learn about asteroids.

  4. AGI's Earth Science Week and Education Resources Network: Connecting Teachers to Geoscience Organizations and Classroom Resources that Support NGSS Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, E.; Camphire, G.; Brendan, S.; Celia, T.

    2016-12-01

    There exists a wide array of high quality resources to support K-12 teaching and motivate student interest in the geosciences. Yet, connecting teachers to those resources can be a challenge. Teachers working to implement the NGSS can benefit from accessing the wide range of existing geoscience resources, and from becoming part of supportive networks of geoscience educators, researchers, and advocates. Engaging teachers in such networks can be facilitated by providing them with information about organizations, resources, and opportunities. The American Geoscience Institute (AGI) has developed two key resources that have great value in supporting NGSS implement in these ways. Those are Earth Science Week, and the Education Resources Network in AGI's Center for Geoscience and Society. For almost twenty years, Earth Science Week, has been AGI's premier annual outreach program designed to celebrate the geosciences. Through its extensive web-based resources, as well as the physical kits of posters, DVDs, calendars and other printed materials, Earth Science Week offers an array of resources and opportunities to connect with the education-focused work of important geoscience organizations such as NASA, the National Park Service, HHMI, esri, and many others. Recently, AGI has initiated a process of tagging these and other resources to NGSS so as to facilitate their use as teachers develop their instruction. Organizing Earth Science Week around themes that are compatible with topics within NGSS contributes to the overall coherence of the diverse array of materials, while also suggesting potential foci for investigations and instructional units. More recently, AGI has launched its Center for Geoscience and Society, which is designed to engage the widest range of audiences in building geoscience awareness. As part of the Center's work, it has launched the Education Resources Network (ERN), which is an extensive searchable database of all manner of resources for geoscience

  5. Integrating Social Science into the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network: Social Dimensions of Ecological Change and Ecological Dimensions of Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles L. Redman; J. Morgan Grove; Lauren H. Kuby; Lauren H. Kuby

    2004-01-01

    The integration of the social sciences into long-term ecological research is an urgent priority. To address this need, a group of social, earth, and life scientists associated with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network have articulated a conceptual framework for understanding the human dimensions of ecological change...

  6. Visual thinking networking promotes long-term meaningful learning and achievement for 9th grade earth science students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Palma Joni

    2001-12-01

    An experimental and interview-based design was used to test the efficacy of visual thinking networking (VTN), a new generation of metacognitive learning strategies. Students constructed network diagrams using semantic and figural elements to represent knowledge relationships. The findings indicated the importance of using color in VTN strategies. The use of color promoted the encoding and reconstruction of earth science knowledge in memory and enhanced higher order thinking skills of problem solving. Fifty-six ninth grade earth science students (13--15 years of age) in a suburban school district outside New York City were randomly assigned to three classes with the same instructor. Five major positive findings emerged in the areas of problem solving achievement, organization of knowledge in memory, problem solving strategy dimensionality, conceptual understanding, and gender differences. A multi-covariate analysis was conducted on the pre-post gain scores of the AGI/NSTA Earth Science Examination (Part 1). Students who used the color VTN strategies had a significantly higher mean gain score on the problem solving criterion test items than students who used the black/white VTN (p = .003) and the writing strategies for learning science (p color VTN strategies: (1) significantly recalled more earth science knowledge than students who used the black/white VTN (p = .021) and the writing strategies (p color VTNs had a significantly higher mean number of conceptually accurate propositions than students who used the black/white VTN (p = .018) and the writing strategies (p = .010). Gender influenced the choice of VTN strategy. Females used significantly more color VTN strategies, while males used predominately black/white VTN strategies (p = .01). A neurocognitive model, the encoding activation theory of the anterior cingulate (ENACT-AC), is proposed as an explanation for these findings.

  7. Public and private science at home and abroad: networks among chemists, physicians and industrialists in the 1780s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levere, Trevor H

    2002-09-01

    The tensions between public and private science, so familiar to us today, were alive in the science of the industrial revolution. These tensions confronted the members of a society of chemists and natural philosophers, physicians, industrialists and instrument makers who met in London from 1780 to 1787. Their meetings, held in private rooms in coffee houses, provided an ideal forum for their blend of public and private science, reinforced by a vital international network of scientific intelligence. The records of those meetings tell us a good deal about communication among natural philosophers in the 1780s, and show that some, at least in Britain, were well-informed about the latest foreign developments.

  8. Evaluación de la dinámica de conservación del producto final de un alimento obtenido por fermentación en estado sólido de la papa (Fes-papa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Borras-Sandoval

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se expone el efecto de la fermentación en estado sólido sobre un alimento preparado a base del tubérculo de la papa (Solanum tuberosum, y su posible utilización en la alimentación animal. La papa fresca y picada se mezcló con un material fibroso secante (harina de alfalfa, melaza, urea, un preparado microbiano, premezcla mineral, carbonato de calcio y sulfato de sodio, y se dejó fermentar, acorde con el tiempo y la temperatura previamente establecidos (48 h y 20°C, en bolsas plásticas de 50 kg. El producto Fes-papa se muestreó el día uno de elaboración y a los treinta y noventa días. El producto Fes-papa presentó modificaciones significativas en los indicadores fermentativos evaluados. El pH descendió constantemente desde el inicio (6.3 hasta terminar la evaluación (pH 4.86; algo similar ocurrió con la materia seca (MSI y el componente fibroso (FDN-FDA, los cuales descendieron con el tiempo de fermentación, mejorando sensiblemente la digestibilidad del producto. La Fes-papa es un proceso biotecnológico sencillo para aprovechar los tubérculos de los residuos de cosecha y generar un alimento energético-proteico que, acorde con los indicadores fermentativos y contenido en MS, pudiera ser empleado en la alimentación animal; además, contrarrestaría la contaminación ambiental.

  9. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. A K Bajpai. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 28 Issue 6 October 2005 pp 529-534 Review—Polymers. Morphological, thermal and annealed microhardness characterization of gelatin based interpenetrating networks of polyacrylonitrile: A hard biopolymer.

  10. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. S Prasannakumar. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 24 Issue 5 October 2001 pp 535-538 Polymers. Interpenetrating polymer networks based on polyol modified castor oil polyurethane and poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate): Synthesis, chemical, ...

  11. Communications among data and science centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James L.

    1990-01-01

    The ability to electronically access and query the contents of remote computer archives is of singular importance in space and earth sciences; the present evaluation of such on-line information networks' development status foresees swift expansion of their data capabilities and complexity, in view of the volumes of data that will continue to be generated by NASA missions. The U.S.'s National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) manages NASA's largest science computer network, the Space Physics Analysis Network; a comprehensive account is given of the structure of NSSDC international access through BITNET, and of connections to the NSSDC available in the Americas via the International X.25 network.

  12. Collaborative Technologies for Distributed Science - Fusion Energy and High-Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissel, D.P.; Abla, G.; Burruss, J.R.; Gottschalk, E.

    2006-01-01

    The large-scale experiments, needed for fusion energy sciences (FES) and high-energy physics (HEP) research, are staffed by correspondingly large, geographically dispersed teams. At the same time, theoretical work has come to rely increasingly on complex numerical simulations developed by distributed teams of scientists and applied mathematicians and run on massively parallel computers. These trends will only accelerate. Operation of the most powerful accelerator ever built, the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, will begin next year and will dominate experimental high-energy physics. The fusion program will be increasingly oriented toward the ITER where even now, a decade before operation begins, a large portion of national programs efforts are organized around coordinated efforts to develop promising operational scenarios. While both FES and HEP have a significant track record for developing and exploiting remote collaborations, with such large investments at stake, there is a clear need to improve the integration and reach of the tools available. These challenges are being addressed by the creation and deployment of advanced collaborative software and hardware tools. Grid computing, to provide secure on-demand access to data analysis capabilities and related functions, is being deployed as an alternative to traditional resource sharing among institutions. Utilizing public-key based security that is recognized worldwide, numerous analysis and simulation codes are securely available worldwide in a service-oriented approach. Traditional audio teleconferencing is being augmented by more advanced capabilities including videoconferencing, instant messaging, presentation sharing, applications sharing, large display walls, and the virtual-presence capabilities of Access Grid and VRVS. With these advances, remote real-time experimental participation has begun as well as remote seminars, working meetings, and design review meetings. Work continues to focus on reducing the

  13. Establishing a Social Media Presence and Network for the Pennsylvania Earth Science Teachers Association (PAESTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, L. A.; Merkel, C.

    2011-12-01

    In Spring 2011, the Pennsylvania Earth Science Teachers Association (PAESTA) became an official state chapter of the National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA). Established with funds from the National Science Foundation, PAESTA is focused on advancing, extending, improving, and coordinating all levels of Earth Science education in Pennsylvania. Our goal is to reach earth science educators across Pennsylvania and beyond who are not physically co-located. An early priority of this new organization was to establish a web presence (http://www.paesta.psu.edu/) and to build an online community to support PAESTA activities and members. PAESTA exists as a distributed group made up of educators across Pennsylvania. Many initial members were participants in summer Earth and space science workshops held at Penn State University, which has allowed for face-to-face connections and network building. PAESTA will hold sessions and a reception at the Pennsylvania Science Teachers Association annual conference. The work of the group also takes place virtually via the PAESTA organizational website, providing professional development opportunities and Earth Science related teaching resources and links. As PAESTA is still in the very early days of its formation, we are utilizing a variety of social media tools to disseminate information and to promote asynchronous discussions around Earth and space science topics and pedagogy. The site features discussion boards for members and non-members to post comments along a specific topic or theme. For example, each month the PAESTA site features an article from one of the National Science Teacher's Association (NSTA)'s journals and encourages teachers to discuss and apply the pedagogical approach or strategy from the article to their classroom situation. We send email blasts so that members learn about organizational news and professional development opportunities. We also leverage in-person training sessions and conference sessions

  14. Extracting information from multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ ˜ S for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.

  15. Rural Alaska Science and Mathematics Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brunk, Blanche R

    2005-01-01

    ...), are awarded to Alaska Native students. Academic preparation, lack of exposure to science careers in rural Alaska, and little connection between western science and Native traditional life have combined to impede Native students' interest...

  16. So ware-Defined Network Solutions for Science Scenarios: Performance Testing Framework and Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Settlemyer, Bradley [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Kettimuthu, R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Boley, Josh [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Katramatos, Dimitrios [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Sen, Satyabrata [ORNL; Liu, Qiang [ORNL

    2018-01-01

    High-performance scientific work flows utilize supercomputers, scientific instruments, and large storage systems. Their executions require fast setup of a small number of dedicated network connections across the geographically distributed facility sites. We present Software-Defined Network (SDN) solutions consisting of site daemons that use dpctl, Floodlight, ONOS, or OpenDaylight controllers to set up these connections. The development of these SDN solutions could be quite disruptive to the infrastructure, while requiring a close coordination among multiple sites; in addition, the large number of possible controller and device combinations to investigate could make the infrastructure unavailable to regular users for extended periods of time. In response, we develop a Virtual Science Network Environment (VSNE) using virtual machines, Mininet, and custom scripts that support the development, testing, and evaluation of SDN solutions, without the constraints and expenses of multi-site physical infrastructures; furthermore, the chosen solutions can be directly transferred to production deployments. By complementing VSNE with a physical testbed, we conduct targeted performance tests of various SDN solutions to help choose the best candidates. In addition, we propose a switching response method to assess the setup times and throughput performances of different SDN solutions, and present experimental results that show their advantages and limitations.

  17. Vulnerability and controllability of networks of networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xueming; Peng, Hao; Gao, Jianxi

    2015-01-01

    Network science is a highly interdisciplinary field ranging from natural science to engineering technology and it has been applied to model complex systems and used to explain their behaviors. Most previous studies have been focus on isolated networks, but many real-world networks do in fact interact with and depend on other networks via dependency connectivities, forming “networks of networks” (NON). The interdependence between networks has been found to largely increase the vulnerability of interacting systems, when a node in one network fails, it usually causes dependent nodes in other networks to fail, which, in turn, may cause further damage on the first network and result in a cascade of failures with sometimes catastrophic consequences, e.g., electrical blackouts caused by the interdependence of power grids and communication networks. The vulnerability of a NON can be analyzed by percolation theory that can be used to predict the critical threshold where a NON collapses. We review here the analytic framework for analyzing the vulnerability of NON, which yields novel percolation laws for n-interdependent networks and also shows that percolation theory of a single network studied extensively in physics and mathematics in the last 50 years is a specific limited case of the more general case of n interacting networks. Understanding the mechanism behind the cascading failure in NON enables us finding methods to decrease the vulnerability of the natural systems and design of more robust infrastructure systems. By examining the vulnerability of NON under targeted attack and studying the real interdependent systems, we find two methods to decrease the systems vulnerability: (1) protect the high-degree nodes, and (2) increase the degree correlation between networks. Furthermore, the ultimate proof of our understanding of natural and technological systems is reflected in our ability to control them. We also review the recent studies and challenges on the

  18. Experimental studies on the electronic structure of pyrite FeS2 films prepared by thermally sulfurizing iron films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Wang Baoyi; Zhang Rengang; Zhang Zhe; Wei Long; Qian Haijie; Su Run; Kui Rexi

    2006-01-01

    Pyrite FeS 2 films have been prepared by thermally sulfurizing iron films deposited by magnetron sputtering. The electronic structures were studies by X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray photoemission spectrum. The results show that an S 3p valence band with relatively higher intensity compared to the calculation exists in 2-10 eV range and a high density below the Fermi level of Fe 3d states were detected. A second gap of 2.8 eV in the unoccupied density of states was found above the conduction band which was 2.4 eV by experimentally calculation. The difference between t 2g and e g which were formed in an octahedral crystal field was computed to be 2.1 eV. (authors)

  19. Rural Alaska Science and Mathematics Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brunk, Blanche R

    2005-01-01

    ... and progress in math and science education. The goal of this project was to develop and deliver, both on-site and through distance learning, a comprehensive program of developmental and college preparatory math and science courses at minority...

  20. Chapitre 14. Networking Project: available S&T resources in the United States for networking with home countries

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Some science and technology (S&T) policies and programs of the United States would facilitate the networking of the foreign-born scientists and engineers (S&Es) with their home countries to contribute to development. These policies and programs would mainly facilitate networking to build up S&T infrastructure. The Director of the National Science Foundation (NSF) has encouraged the U.S. science community to become even further engaged in the world, and has elevated international science withi...

  1. As Long as You Are Here, Can I Interest in You Some Science? Increasing Student Engagement by Co-Opting a Social Networking Site, Facebook for Science Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi; Cole, Megan; Kovacs, Jennifer; Lee, Mark; Stovall, Kyndra; McGinnis, Gene

    2017-01-01

    We adopted Facebook as part of a large enrollment science discussion class in a bid to exploit students' time on this social networking site and tested the effectiveness of this "co-option" strategy of creating education-related activity on Facebook for our students. We used a "Facebook Group" to create an online avenue for…

  2. 8th Conference on Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Menezes, Ronaldo; Sinatra, Roberta; Zlatic, Vinko

    2017-01-01

    This book collects the works presented at the 8th International Conference on Complex Networks (CompleNet) 2017 in Dubrovnik, Croatia, on March 21-24, 2017. CompleNet aims at bringing together researchers and practitioners working in areas related to complex networks. The past two decades has witnessed an exponential increase in the number of publications within this field. From biological systems to computer science, from economic to social systems, complex networks are becoming pervasive in many fields of science. It is this interdisciplinary nature of complex networks that CompleNet aims at addressing. The last decades have seen the emergence of complex networks as the language with which a wide range of complex phenomena in fields as diverse as physics, computer science, and medicine (to name a few) can be properly described and understood. This book provides a view of the state-of-the-art in this dynamic field and covers topics such as network controllability, social structure, online behavior, recommend...

  3. Percolation of interdependent network of networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene; Bashan, Amir; Gao, Jianxi; Kenett, Dror Y.

    2015-01-01

    Complex networks appear in almost every aspect of science and technology. Previous work in network theory has focused primarily on analyzing single networks that do not interact with other networks, despite the fact that many real-world networks interact with and depend on each other. Very recently an analytical framework for studying the percolation properties of interacting networks has been introduced. Here we review the analytical framework and the results for percolation laws for a Network Of Networks (NONs) formed by n interdependent random networks. The percolation properties of a network of networks differ greatly from those of single isolated networks. In particular, because the constituent networks of a NON are connected by node dependencies, a NON is subject to cascading failure. When there is strong interdependent coupling between networks, the percolation transition is discontinuous (first-order) phase transition, unlike the well-known continuous second-order transition in single isolated networks. Moreover, although networks with broader degree distributions, e.g., scale-free networks, are more robust when analyzed as single networks, they become more vulnerable in a NON. We also review the effect of space embedding on network vulnerability. It is shown that for spatially embedded networks any finite fraction of dependency nodes will lead to abrupt transition

  4. DOE Network 2025: Network Research Problems and Challenges for DOE Scientists. Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-02-01

    The growing investments in large science instruments and supercomputers by the US Department of Energy (DOE) hold enormous promise for accelerating the scientific discovery process. They facilitate unprecedented collaborations of geographically dispersed teams of scientists that use these resources. These collaborations critically depend on the production, sharing, moving, and management of, as well as interactive access to, large, complex data sets at sites dispersed across the country and around the globe. In particular, they call for significant enhancements in network capacities to sustain large data volumes and, equally important, the capabilities to collaboratively access the data across computing, storage, and instrument facilities by science users and automated scripts and systems. Improvements in network backbone capacities of several orders of magnitude are essential to meet these challenges, in particular, to support exascale initiatives. Yet, raw network speed represents only a part of the solution. Indeed, the speed must be matched by network and transport layer protocols and higher layer tools that scale in ways that aggregate, compose, and integrate the disparate subsystems into a complete science ecosystem. Just as important, agile monitoring and management services need to be developed to operate the network at peak performance levels. Finally, these solutions must be made an integral part of the production facilities by using sound approaches to develop, deploy, diagnose, operate, and maintain them over the science infrastructure.

  5. NSI customer service representatives and user support office: NASA Science Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Science Internet, (NSI) was established in 1987 to provide NASA's Offices of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) missions with transparent wide-area data connectivity to NASA's researchers, computational resources, and databases. The NSI Office at NASA/Ames Research Center has the lead responsibility for implementing a total, open networking program to serve the OSSA community. NSI is a full-service communications provider whose services include science network planning, network engineering, applications development, network operations, and network information center/user support services. NSI's mission is to provide reliable high-speed communications to the NASA science community. To this end, the NSI Office manages and operates the NASA Science Internet, a multiprotocol network currently supporting both DECnet and TCP/IP protocols. NSI utilizes state-of-the-art network technology to meet its customers' requirements. THe NASA Science Internet interconnects with other national networks including the National Science Foundation's NSFNET, the Department of Energy's ESnet, and the Department of Defense's MILNET. NSI also has international connections to Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Chile, and several European countries. NSI cooperates with other government agencies as well as academic and commercial organizations to implement networking technologies which foster interoperability, improve reliability and performance, increase security and control, and expedite migration to the OSI protocols.

  6. The Relationship Between the Use of Virtual Social Networks with Academic Achievement and Students' Confidence in Interpersonal Relations at Birjand University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aliakbar ajam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the use of mobile based virtual social networks with academic achievement and trust in interpersonal relations of university students Of Medical Sciences was conducted. Materials and Methods: This study was descriptive correlational. The study population included college of Public Health students and students of medicine at Birjand University of Medical Sciences. Based on purposive sampling method, 150 students were selected. For data collection Scale of trust in interpersonal relations of Rempel & Holmes was used. The researchers made use of social networks and academic achievement. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 20. Result: There was a significant negative relationship between the time allotted to the network and the number of virtual memberships in social groups and academic achievement of students(P <0.01. Academic achievement of students who used virtual social networks for scientific purposes was higher than those who used it for non-scientific purposes. There was a significant negative correlation between the time allocated to social networks and factors such as capability of trust, predictability and loyalty (P <0.05. Conclusion: It is recommended that workshops and training courses be held for practical learning of virtual networks.

  7. First-principles studies of electronic, transport and bulk properties of pyrite FeS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipendra Banjara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present results from first principle, local density approximation (LDA calculations of electronic, transport, and bulk properties of iron pyrite (FeS2. Our non-relativistic computations employed the Ceperley and Alder LDA potential and the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO formalism. The implementation of the LCAO formalism followed the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams (BZW method, as enhanced by Ekuma and Franklin (BZW-EF. We discuss the electronic energy bands, total and partial densities of states, electron effective masses, and the bulk modulus. Our calculated indirect band gap of 0.959 eV (0.96, using an experimental lattice constant of 5.4166 Å, at room temperature, is in agreement with the measured indirect values, for bulk samples, ranging from 0.84 eV to 1.03 ± 0.05 eV. Our calculated bulk modulus of 147 GPa is practically in agreement with the experimental value of 145 GPa. The calculated, partial densities of states reproduced the splitting of the Fe d bands to constitute the dominant upper most valence and lower most conduction bands, separated by the generally accepted, indirect, experimental band gap of 0.95 eV.

  8. Export Control Requirements for Tritium Processing Design and R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, William Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maynard, Sarah-Jane Wadsworth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-05

    This document will address requirements of export control associated with tritium plant design and processes. Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working in the area of tritium plant system design and research and development (R&D) since the early 1970’s at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA). This work has continued to the current date with projects associated with the ITER project and other Office of Science Fusion Energy Science (OS-FES) funded programs. ITER is currently the highest funding area for the DOE OS-FES. Although export control issues have been integrated into these projects in the past a general guidance document has not been available for reference in this area. To address concerns with currently funded tritium plant programs and assist future projects for FES, this document will identify the key reference documents and specific sections within related to tritium research. Guidance as to the application of these sections will be discussed with specific detail to publications and work with foreign nationals.

  9. Export Control Requirements for Tritium Processing Design and R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, William Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maynard, Sarah-Jane Wadsworth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-30

    This document will address requirements of export control associated with tritium plant design and processes. Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working in the area of tritium plant system design and research and development (R&D) since the early 1970’s at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA). This work has continued to the current date with projects associated with the ITER project and other Office of Science Fusion Energy Science (OS-FES) funded programs. ITER is currently the highest funding area for the DOE OS-FES. Although export control issues have been integrated into these projects in the past a general guidance document has not been available for reference in this area. To address concerns with currently funded tritium plant programs and assist future projects for FES, this document will identify the key reference documents and specific sections within related to tritium research. Guidance as to the application of these sections will be discussed with specific detail to publications and work with foreign nationals.

  10. Creatividad e inteligencia emocional en alumnos de posgrado en Arquitectura de la FES Aragón, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

    OpenAIRE

    Velázquez Vázquez, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    A la población de alumnos de la Maestría en Arquitectura de la Facultad de Estudios Superiores (FES) Aragón de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), se le aplicó el Emotional Intelligence Test de Meyer-Salovey-Caruso (MSCEIT) que evalúa el Coeficiente de Inteligencia Emocional (CIE) a través de los siguientes cuatro criterios: percepción, comprensión y manejo de las emociones y si éstas son utilizadas para facilitar el pensamiento. Asimismo, se les aplicó los instr...

  11. The USA National Phenology Network: A national science and monitoring program for understanding climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, J.

    2009-04-01

    Patterns of phenology for plants and animals control ecosystem processes, determine land surface properties, control biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and affect food production, health, conservation, and recreation. Although phenological data and models have applications related to scientific research, education and outreach, agriculture, tourism and recreation, human health, and natural resource conservation and management, until recently there was no coordinated effort to understand phenology at the national scale in the United States. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org), established in 2007, is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to establish a national science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology. The first year of operation of USA-NPN produced many new phenology products and venues for phenology research and citizen involvement. Products include a new web-site (www.usanpn.org) that went live in June 2008; the web-site includes a tool for on-line data entry, and serves as a clearinghouse for products and information to facilitate research and communication related to phenology. The new core Plant Phenology Program includes profiles for 200 vetted local, regional, and national plant species with descriptions and (BBCH-consistent) monitoring protocols, as well as templates for addition of new species. A partnership program describes how other monitoring networks can engage with USA-NPN to collect, manage or disseminate phenological information for science, health, education, management or predictive service applications. Project BudBurst, a USA-NPN field campaign for citizen scientists, went live in February 2008, and now includes over 3000 registered observers monitoring 4000 plants across the nation. For 2009 and beyond, we will initiate a new Wildlife Phenology Program, create an on-line clearing-house for phenology education and outreach, strengthen

  12. Full Wave Function Optimization with Quantum Monte Carlo and Its Effect on the Dissociation Energy of FeS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi Mood, Kaveh; Lüchow, Arne

    2017-08-17

    Diffusion quantum Monte Carlo calculations with partial and full optimization of the guide function are carried out for the dissociation of the FeS molecule. For the first time, quantum Monte Carlo orbital optimization for transition metal compounds is performed. It is demonstrated that energy optimization of the orbitals of a complete active space wave function in the presence of a Jastrow correlation function is required to obtain agreement with the experimental dissociation energy. Furthermore, it is shown that orbital optimization leads to a 5 Δ ground state, in agreement with experiments but in disagreement with other high-level ab initio wave function calculations which all predict a 5 Σ + ground state. The role of the Jastrow factor in DMC calculations with pseudopotentials is investigated. The results suggest that a large Jastrow factor may improve the DMC accuracy substantially at small additional cost.

  13. Building the team for team science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Emily K.; O'Rourke, M.; Hong, G. S.; Hanson, P. C.; Winslow, Luke A.; Crowley, S.; Brewer, C. A.; Weathers, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to effectively exchange information and develop trusting, collaborative relationships across disciplinary boundaries is essential for 21st century scientists charged with solving complex and large-scale societal and environmental challenges, yet these communication skills are rarely taught. Here, we describe an adaptable training program designed to increase the capacity of scientists to engage in information exchange and relationship development in team science settings. A pilot of the program, developed by a leader in ecological network science, the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON), indicates that the training program resulted in improvement in early career scientists’ confidence in team-based network science collaborations within and outside of the program. Fellows in the program navigated human-network challenges, expanded communication skills, and improved their ability to build professional relationships, all in the context of producing collaborative scientific outcomes. Here, we describe the rationale for key communication training elements and provide evidence that such training is effective in building essential team science skills.

  14. A Blueprint for Expanding the Mentoring Networks of Undergraduate Women in the Earth and Environmental Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, E. V.; Adams, A. S.; Barnes, R.; Bloodhart, B.; Burt, M. A.; Clinton, S. M.; Godfrey, E. S.; Pollack, I. B.; Hernandez, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    Women are substantially underrepresented in the earth and environmental sciences, and that underrepresentation begins at the undergraduate level. In fall 2015, an interdisciplinary team including expertise in the broader geosciences as well as gender and quantitative educational psychology began a project focused on understanding whether mentoring can increase the interest, persistence, and achievement of undergraduate women in the geosciences. The program focuses on mentoring 1st and 2nd year female undergraduate students from five universities in Colorado and Wyoming and four universities in North and South Carolina. The mentoring program includes a weekend workshop, access to professional women across geoscience fields, and both in-person and virtual peer networks. We have found that undergraduate women with large mentoring networks, that include faculty mentors, are more likely to identify as scientists and are more committed to pursuing the geosciences. Our presentation will provide an overview of the major components of our effective and scalable program. We will include a discussion of our first published results in the context of larger social science research on how to foster effective mentoring relationships. We will offer a list of successes and challenges, and we will provide the audience with online links to the materials needed to adopt our model (https://geosciencewomen.org/materials/).

  15. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. B P Singh. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 23 Issue 1 February 2000 pp 11-16 Molecular Magnets. Synthesis and magnetic properties of one-dimensional metal oxalate networks as molecular-based magnets · B P Singh B Singh · More Details Abstract ...

  16. Introduction to neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlopoulos, P.

    1996-01-01

    This lecture is a presentation of today's research in neural computation. Neural computation is inspired by knowledge from neuro-science. It draws its methods in large degree from statistical physics and its potential applications lie mainly in computer science and engineering. Neural networks models are algorithms for cognitive tasks, such as learning and optimization, which are based on concepts derived from research into the nature of the brain. The lecture first gives an historical presentation of neural networks development and interest in performing complex tasks. Then, an exhaustive overview of data management and networks computation methods is given: the supervised learning and the associative memory problem, the capacity of networks, the Perceptron networks, the functional link networks, the Madaline (Multiple Adalines) networks, the back-propagation networks, the reduced coulomb energy (RCE) networks, the unsupervised learning and the competitive learning and vector quantization. An example of application in high energy physics is given with the trigger systems and track recognition system (track parametrization, event selection and particle identification) developed for the CPLEAR experiment detectors from the LEAR at CERN. (J.S.). 56 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab., 1 appendix

  17. A boundary-spanning organization for transdisciplinary science on land stewardship: The Stewardship Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paige. Fischer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although people and organizations in the Great Lakes region, USA take seriously their role as stewards of natural resources, many lack capacity to fulfill that role in a meaningful way. Stepping into that gap, The Stewardship Network (TSN envisions "a world of empowered, connected communities caring for land and water, now and forever," and fulfills that vision through its mission to "connect, equip, and mobilize people and organizations to care for land and water in their communities." TSN uses a scalable model of linked local and regional capacity building, science communication, civic engagement, and on-the-ground stewardship activities to achieve these goals. The model engages local and regional groups in an ongoing process of learning around conservation and restoration that improves social and ecological knowledge. I share the story of TSN to demonstrate how transdisciplinary science can take hold locally and expand regionally to bring people from diverse disciplines and functional roles together to solve common problems. I demonstrate how researchers and practitioners can collaborate to create enduring mechanisms of social and ecological change.

  18. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Shamsuddin Shahid. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 124 Issue 6 August 2015 pp 1325-1341. Multilayer perceptron neural network for downscaling rainfall in arid region: A case study of Baluchistan, Pakistan · Kamal Ahmed Shamsuddin Shahid ...

  19. The Community Seismic Network: Enabling Observations Through Citizen Science Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, M. D.; Clayton, R. W.; Heaton, T. H.; Bunn, J.; Guy, R.; Massari, A.; Chandy, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Community Seismic Network is a dense accelerometer array deployed in the greater Los Angeles area and represents the future of densely instrumented urban cities where localized vibration measurements are collected continuously throughout the free-field and built environment. The hardware takes advantage of developments in the semiconductor industry in the form of inexpensive MEMS accelerometers that are each coupled with a single board computer. The data processing and archival architecture borrows from developments in cloud computing and network connectedness. The ability to deploy densely in the free field and in upper stories of mid/high-rise buildings is enabled by community hosts for sensor locations. To this end, CSN has partnered with the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD), the NASA-Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and commercial and civic building owners to host sensors. At these sites, site amplification estimates from RMS noise measurements illustrate the lateral variation in amplification over length scales of 100 m or less, that correlate with gradients in the local geology such as sedimentary basins that abut crystalline rock foothills. This is complemented by high-resolution, shallow seismic velocity models obtained using an H/V method. In addition, noise statistics are used to determine the reliability of sites for ShakeMap and earthquake early warning data. The LAUSD and JPL deployments are examples of how situational awareness and centralized warning products such as ShakeMap and ShakeCast are enabled by citizen science participation. Several buildings have been instrumented with at least one triaxial accelerometer per floor, providing measurements for real-time structural health monitoring through local, customized displays. For real-time and post-event evaluation, the free-field and built environment CSN data and products illustrate the feasibility of order-of-magnitude higher spatial resolution mapping compared to what is currently

  20. Inequalities in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Inequalities in scientists’ contributions to science and their rewards have always been very high. There are good reasons to propose that inequalities in science across research institutions and across individual scientists have increased in recent years. In the meantime, however, globalization and internet technology have narrowed inequalities in science across nations and facilitated the expansion of science and rapid production of scientific discoveries through international collaborative networks. PMID:24855244

  1. Molecular network topology and reliability for multipurpose diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil MA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available MA Jalil1, N Moongfangklang2,3, K Innate4, S Mitatha3, J Ali5, PP Yupapin41Ibnu Sina Institute of Fundamental Science Studies, Nanotechnology Research Alliance, University of Technology Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 2School of Information and Communication Technology, Phayao University, Phayao, Thailand; 3Hybrid Computing Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand; 4Nanoscale Science and Engineering Research Alliance, Advanced Research Center for Photonics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand; 5Institute of Advanced Photonics Science, Nanotechnology Research Alliance, University of Technology Malaysia, Johor Bahru, MalaysiaAbstract: This investigation proposes the use of molecular network topology for drug delivery and diagnosis network design. Three modules of molecular network topologies, such as bus, star, and ring networks, are designed and manipulated based on a micro- and nanoring resonator system. The transportation of the trapping molecules by light in the network is described and the theoretical background is reviewed. The quality of the network is analyzed and calculated in terms of signal transmission (ie, signal to noise ratio and crosstalk effects. Results obtained show that a bus network has advantages over star and ring networks, where the use of mesh networks is possible. In application, a thin film network can be fabricated in the form of a waveguide and embedded in artificial bone, which can be connected to the required drug targets. The particular drug/nutrient can be transported to the required targets via the particular network used.Keywords: molecular network, network reliability, network topology, drug network, multi-access network

  2. Globalization of Stem Cell Science: An Examination of Current and Past Collaborative Research Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingyuan; Matthews, Kirstin R. W.

    2013-01-01

    Science and engineering research has becoming an increasingly international phenomenon. Traditional bibliometric studies have not captured the evolution of collaborative partnerships between countries, particularly in emerging technologies such as stem cell science, in which an immense amount of investment has been made in the past decade. Analyzing over 2,800 articles from the top journals that include stem cell research in their publications, this study demonstrates the globalization of stem cell science. From 2000 to 2010, international collaborations increased from 20.9% to 36% of all stem cell publications analyzed. The United States remains the most prolific and the most dominant country in the field in terms of publications in high impact journals. But Asian countries, particularly China are steadily gaining ground. Exhibiting the largest relative growth, the percent of Chinese-authored stem cell papers grew more than ten-fold, while the percent of Chinese-authored international papers increased over seven times from 2000 to 2010. And while the percent of total stem cell publications exhibited modest growth for European countries, the percent of international publications increased more substantially, particularly in the United Kingdom. Overall, the data indicated that traditional networks of collaboration extant in 2000 still predominate in stem cell science. Although more nations are becoming involved in international collaborations and undertaking stem cell research, many of these efforts, with the exception of those in certain Asian countries, have yet to translate into publications in high impact journals. PMID:24069210

  3. Smooth Information Flow in Temperature Climate Network Reflects Mass Transport

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlinka, Jaroslav; Jajcay, Nikola; Hartman, David; Paluš, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2017), č. článku 035811. ISSN 1054-1500 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP103/11/J068; GA MŠk LH14001 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : directed network * causal network * Granger causality * climate network * information flow * temperature network Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 2.283, year: 2016

  4. Neural Networks: Implementations and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Vonk, E.; Veelenturf, L.P.J.; Jain, L.C.

    1996-01-01

    Artificial neural networks, also called neural networks, have been used successfully in many fields including engineering, science and business. This paper presents the implementation of several neural network simulators and their applications in character recognition and other engineering areas

  5. Magnetic ordering in tetragonal FeS: Evidence for strong itinerant spin fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, K.D.; Refson, K.; Bone, S.; Qiao, R.; Yang, W.; Liu, Z.; Sposito, G.

    2010-11-01

    Mackinawite is a naturally occurring layer-type FeS mineral important in biogeochemical cycles and, more recently, in the development of microbial fuel cells. Conflicting results have been published as to the magnetic properties of this mineral, with Moessbauer spectroscopy indicating no magnetic ordering down to 4.2 K but density functional theory (DFT) predicting an antiferromagnetic ground state, similar to the Fe-based high-temperature superconductors with which it is isostructural and for which it is known that magnetism is suppressed by strong itinerant spin fluctuations. We investigated this latter possibility for mackinawite using photoemission spectroscopy, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and DFT computations. Our Fe 3{sub s} core-level photoemission spectrum of mackinawite showed a clear exchange-energy splitting (2.9 eV) consistent with a 1 {micro}{sub B} magnetic moment on the Fe ions, while the Fe L-edge x-ray absorption spectrum indicated rather delocalized Fe 3{sub d} electrons in mackinawite similar to those in Fe metal. Our DFT computations demonstrated that the ground state of mackinawite is single-stripe antiferromagnetic, with an Fe magnetic moment (2.7 {micro}{sub B}) that is significantly larger than the experimental estimate and has a strong dependence on the S height and lattice parameters. All of these trends signal the existence of strong itinerant spin fluctuations. If spin fluctuations prove to be mediators of electron pairing, we conjecture that mackinawite may be one of the simplest Fe-based superconductors.

  6. Canadian Geoscience Education Network (CGEN): Fostering Excellence in Earth Science Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidl, F. M.; Vodden, C.; Bates, J. L.; Morgan, A. V.

    2009-05-01

    CGEN, the outreach arm of the Canadian Federation of Earth Sciences, is a network of more than 270 individuals from all over Canada who work to promote geoscience education and public awareness of science. CGEN's priorities are threefold: to improve the quality of Earth science education delivered in our primary and secondary schools; to raise public awareness about the Earth sciences and their impact on everyday life; and to encourage student interest in the Earth sciences as a career option. These priorities are supported by CGEN's six core programs: 1) The national EdGEO program (www.edgeo.org), initiated in the 1970s, supports Earth science workshops for teachers. These workshops, organized by teams of local educators and geoscientists, provide teachers with "enhanced knowledge, classroom resources and increased confidence" to more effectively teach Earth science. In 2008, a record 521 teachers attended 14 EdGEO workshops. 2) EarthNet (www.earthnet-geonet.ca) is a virtual resource centre that provides support for teachers and for geoscientists involved in education and outreach. In 2008, EarthNet received a $11,500 grant from Encana Corporation to develop energy-related content. 3) The new Careers in Earth Science website (www.earthsciencescanada.com/careers), launched in October 2008, enhances CGEN's capacity to encourage students to pursue a career in the Earth sciences. This project exemplifies the value of collaboration with other organizations. Seven groups provided financial support for the project and many other organizations and individuals contributed in-kind support. 4) Geoscape Canada and Waterscape Canada, programs led by the Geological Survey of Canada, communicate practical Earth science information to teachers, students, and other members of communities across Canada through a series of electronic and hard-copy posters and other resources. Many of the resources created from 1998 to 2007 are available online (www.geoscape.nrcan.gc.ca). A northern

  7. Professional Development in Climate Science Education as a Model for Navigating the Next Generations Science Standards - A High School Science Teacher's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, C.; Buhr, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards attempt to move the American K12 education system into the 21st century by focusing on science and engineering practice, crosscutting concepts, and the core ideas of the different disciplines. Putting these standards into practice will challenge a deeply entrenched system and science educators will need significant financial support from state and local governments, professional development from colleges and universities, and the creation of collegial academic networks that will help solve the many problems that will arise. While all of this sounds overwhelming, there are proven strategies and mechanisms already in place. Educators who tackle challenging topics like global climate change are turning to scientists and other like-minded teachers. Many of these teachers have never taken a class in atmospheric science but are expected to know the basics of climate and understand the emerging science as well. Teachers need scientists to continue to reach out and provide rigorous and in-depth professional development opportunities that enable them to answer difficult student questions and deal with community misconceptions about climate science. Examples of such programs include Earthworks, ICEE (Inspiring Climate Education Excellence) and ESSEA (Earth System Science Education Alliance). Projects like CLEAN (Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network) provide excellent resources that teachers can integrate into their lessons. All of these benefit from the umbrella of documents like Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science. Support from the aforementioned networks has encouraged the development of effective approaches for teaching climate science. From the perspective of a Geoscience master teacher and instructional coach, this presentation will demonstrate how scientists, researchers, and science education professionals have created models for professional development that create long-term networks supporting

  8. Direct2Experts: a pilot national network to demonstrate interoperability among research-networking platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Griffin M; Barnett, William; Conlon, Mike; Eichmann, David; Kibbe, Warren; Falk-Krzesinski, Holly; Halaas, Michael; Johnson, Layne; Meeks, Eric; Mitchell, Donald; Schleyer, Titus; Stallings, Sarah; Warden, Michael; Kahlon, Maninder

    2011-01-01

    Research-networking tools use data-mining and social networking to enable expertise discovery, matchmaking and collaboration, which are important facets of team science and translational research. Several commercial and academic platforms have been built, and many institutions have deployed these products to help their investigators find local collaborators. Recent studies, though, have shown the growing importance of multiuniversity teams in science. Unfortunately, the lack of a standard dat...

  9. Zombie projects, negative networks, and multigenerational science: The temporality of the International Map of the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, William

    2017-06-01

    The International Map of the World was a hugely ambitious scheme to create standardized maps of the entire world. It was first proposed in 1891 and remained a going concern until 1986. Over the course of the project's official life, nearly every country in the world took part, and map sheets were published showing all but a few areas of the planet. But the project ended quite unceremoniously, repudiated by cartographers and mapping institutions alike, and it is now remembered as a 'sad story' of network failure. How can we evaluate this kind of sprawling, multigenerational project? In order to move beyond practitioners' (and historians') habit of summarizing the entire endeavor using the blunt categories of success and failure, I propose a more temporally aware reading, one that both disaggregates the (persistent) project from the (always changing) network and sees project and network as invertible, with the possibility of zombie projects and negative networks that can remain robust even when disconnected from their original goals. I therefore see the abandonment of the International Map of the World as resulting from vigorous collaboration and new norms in cartography, not from lack of cooperation or other resources. New categories are required for analyzing science over the long durée.

  10. Swiss Life Sciences - a science communication project for both schools and the wider public led by the foundation Science et Cité.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthlisberger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The foundation Science et Cité was founded 1998 with the aim to inform the wider Swiss public about current scientific topics and to generate a dialogue between science and society. Initiated as an independent foundation by the former State Secretary for Science and Research, Dr. Charles Kleiber, Science et Cité is now attached to the Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences as a competence center for dialogue with the public. Due to its branches in all language regions of the country, the foundation is ideally suited to initiate and implement communication projects on a nationwide scale. These projects are subdivided into three categories: i) science communication for children/adolescents, ii) establishing a dialogue between science and the wider public, and iii) conducting the role of a national center of competence and networking in science communication. Swiss Life Sciences is a project that fits into all of these categories: a year-round program for schools is complemented with an annual event for the wider public. With the involvement of most of the major Swiss universities, the Swiss National Science Foundation, the foundation Gen Suisse and many other partners, Swiss Life Sciences also sets an example of national networking within the science communication community.

  11. U-Science (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borne, K. D.

    2009-12-01

    The emergence of e-Science over the past decade as a paradigm for Internet-based science was an inevitable evolution of science that built upon the web protocols and access patterns that were prevalent at that time, including Web Services, XML-based information exchange, machine-to-machine communication, service registries, the Grid, and distributed data. We now see a major shift in web behavior patterns to social networks, user-provided content (e.g., tags and annotations), ubiquitous devices, user-centric experiences, and user-led activities. The inevitable accrual of these social networking patterns and protocols by scientists and science projects leads to U-Science as a new paradigm for online scientific research (i.e., ubiquitous, user-led, untethered, You-centered science). U-Science applications include components from semantic e-science (ontologies, taxonomies, folksonomies, tagging, annotations, and classification systems), which is much more than Web 2.0-based science (Wikis, blogs, and online environments like Second Life). Among the best examples of U-Science are Citizen Science projects, including Galaxy Zoo, Stardust@Home, Project Budburst, Volksdata, CoCoRaHS (the Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow network), and projects utilizing Volunteer Geographic Information (VGI). There are also scientist-led projects for scientists that engage a wider community in building knowledge through user-provided content. Among the semantic-based U-Science projects for scientists are those that specifically enable user-based annotation of scientific results in databases. These include the Heliophysics Knowledgebase, BioDAS, WikiProteins, The Entity Describer, and eventually AstroDAS. Such collaborative tagging of scientific data addresses several petascale data challenges for scientists: how to find the most relevant data, how to reuse those data, how to integrate data from multiple sources, how to mine and discover new knowledge in large databases, how to

  12. Inter-organizational relations for regional development: an expansion policy promoted by the federal network of professional education, science & technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleidson Nogueira Dias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper examines the importance of inter-organizational network management as a government policy tool to promote regional development. This pattern requires Federal Government intervention so as to compensate for the imbalance that this causes and to guarantee that economic growth resulting from government actions leads to development in all regions of the country, thereby avoiding the traditional mechanisms of wealth concentration. For this, a methodology of content analysis was used based on a relevant public policy aimed at promoting development within Brazil and by analyzing the data collected in relation to the current theory related to strategy, local development and inter-organizational networks in general.  The analysis results show that, when the policy studied in this work, applied in the federal network of professional education, science & technology, was implemented the networks had a positive influence on the outcome of the policy objectives and represented an extremely powerful support tool, being one of the most important factors to boost development.

  13. Students' Awareness of Science Teachers' Leadership, Attitudes toward Science, and Positive Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying-Yan; Chen, Hsiang-Ting; Hong, Zuway-R.; Yore, Larry D.

    2016-01-01

    There appears to be a complex network of cognitive and affective factors that influence students' decisions to study science and motivate their choices to engage in science-oriented careers. This study explored 330 Taiwanese senior high school students' awareness of their science teacher's learning leadership and how it relates to the students'…

  14. Mon Océan & Moi : Network and Teamwork to Better Connect People, Science and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurle, C.

    2016-02-01

    The project « mon océan & moi » can be described as a platform hosting several outreach activities. Some of these address non-scientific audiences in an international/national context and are specifically developed to reach out into school environments. The multidisciplinary team composed of senior and early-career scientists, science communicators and facilitators, school teachers and educators etc. shares common objectives based on (net-)work in a participatory way, so as to propose science-based dissemination with a long-term vision as well as to stimulate critical thinking, ideas and exchanges. Within this context, Internet is certainly an extremely useful tool accompanying the manifold efforts to "best" inform and communicate with the targeted audiences. However, it remains challenging to create opportunities for dialogue at the interface of science and education … and to encourage this dialogue to carry on. « mon océan & moi » covers a few successful outreach activities ("adopt a float" and "MEDITES") that involve scientists and teachers as well as students from universities and schools. Encouraged by the local school authority, these activities aim at different educational levels and suggest a continuous "workflow" combined with specific events (such as training courses, science fairs) during which particular contributions are highlighted. As their approach principally favors teamwork, the most positive outcome observed has been the creation of partnerships truly connecting the people …

  15. Representing Social Network and Research Diversity of Library and Information Science in Taiwan Using Thesis Advisory Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    董采維 Tsai-Wei Tung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from thesis committee membership data, the study took a social analytical approach toanalyze the social and intellectual structure of the field of LIS (Library and Information Science inTaiwan. Specifically, the study attempt to study: firstly, the faculty collaboration network; andsecondly, the degree and nature of inter-disciplinary collaboration, as reflected in the compositionof the thesis committees. A total 751 Master’s theses published by the eight LIS in the periodsfrom 2006 to 2011 were analyzed. Data extracted included the composition of each committeemember-ship and research topics covered in these theses. Furthermore, data about the faculty’sbackground were also collected, including gender, seniority, department affiliation, highest degreereceived, with which the faculty’s degree of interdisciplinary collaboration, as reflected in the thesiscommittee they appeared, could be analyzed. With the theses committee composition data, networksof faculty collaboration were generated where each faulty member were represented by a node,and the strength of their collaboration was represented by the frequency of their co-appeared inthese committees. Various network measures, such as centrality, clustering coefficient, E-I indexwere used to study the cohesion of each department and the LIS filed as a whole. Three diversitymeasures: Shannon, Simpson, and Gini coefficient, were used to assess the degree of interdisciplinarityof each department and faculty. Regression analyses showed that the number of these advised,seniority, and thesis topic diversity were the significant predictor of a faculty’s centrality in the LISnetwork.

  16. Development of the South African Network for Nuclear Education, Science and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cilliers, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: South Africa has long been regarded as an active country in the nuclear industry with two operating power reactors and a research reactor. In recent years’ research and development projects, such as the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor, has established additional expertise in the country situated at various institutions. After the PBMR project was stopped, the expertise became fragmented throughout the country and some experts even left the country. A number of training and research facilities have also completed their research cycle and are in the process of being decommissioned. With the renewed interest in nuclear technology and the states position to complete the procurement of 9600 MW of nuclear power before the end of the year, nuclear knowledge gap has been identified and the need to capture all nuclear education and research in an educational network as well as to establish new nuclear training and research facilities such as small training reactors and research laboratories to support the national new build programme. This expertise and research facilities were combined into SAN-NEST (South African Network for Nuclear Education, Science and Technology) for South Africa and the African continent, with links to AFRA-NEST. The paper reports on the successes and challenges of the establishment and operation of SAN-NEST. (author

  17. Networks in social policy problems

    CERN Document Server

    Scotti, marco

    2012-01-01

    Network science is the key to managing social communities, designing the structure of efficient organizations and planning for sustainable development. This book applies network science to contemporary social policy problems. In the first part, tools of diffusion and team design are deployed to challenges in adoption of ideas and the management of creativity. Ideas, unlike information, are generated and adopted in networks of personal ties. Chapters in the second part tackle problems of power and malfeasance in political and business organizations, where mechanisms in accessing and controlling informal networks often outweigh formal processes. The third part uses ideas from biology and physics to understand global economic and financial crises, ecological depletion and challenges to energy security. Ideal for researchers and policy makers involved in social network analysis, business strategy and economic policy, it deals with issues ranging from what makes public advisories effective to how networks influenc...

  18. Do-it-yourself networks: a novel method of generating weighted networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafelt, D W; Salau, K R; Baggio, J A

    2017-11-01

    Network theory is finding applications in the life and social sciences for ecology, epidemiology, finance and social-ecological systems. While there are methods to generate specific types of networks, the broad literature is focused on generating unweighted networks. In this paper, we present a framework for generating weighted networks that satisfy user-defined criteria. Each criterion hierarchically defines a feature of the network and, in doing so, complements existing algorithms in the literature. We use a general example of ecological species dispersal to illustrate the method and provide open-source code for academic purposes.

  19. Strategic petroleum reserve, Byran Mound Salt Dome, Brazoria County, Texas. Final environmental impact statement (final supplement to FEA FES 76/77-6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    On January 7, 1977, the Federal Energy Administration issued a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the development of the Bryan Mound salt dome as a storage site for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (FES 76/77-6). On October 1, 1977, the U.S. Department of Energy was created and the programs of the Federal Energy Administration were transferred to the new Department. As such, this final supplement is being issued by the Department of Energy. The salt dome is located in Brazoria County, Texas. Since the EIS was published, it has been determined that this arrangement would be inadequate to meet the long term requirements for filling and withdrawing oil at the site, although the disposal of brine to Dow Chemical would be utilized to the maximum extent possible. Therefore, on July 15, 1977, a Draft Supplement to FES 76/77-6 was issued addressing the environmental impacts of construction and operation of two types of brine disposal systems and a new water supply system. This final supplement addresses a brine injection well system and a water intake system. Construction of this new system component would cause temporary disruption to land use, water quality, air quality, and terrestrial and aquatic ecology. The new facilities would permanently change 17 acres of land from its present use. Operation of the systems would have relatively small, short-term impacts. Use of the brine surge pit could adversely affect air quality by emitting hydrocarbon vapors (maximum rate of 51.4 tons per year). Operation of the disposal wells would increase the salinity of an already saline aquifer. All operational impacts would be relatively minor and short-term, occurring only during periods of fill or withdrawal of the storage facility.

  20. Analysis and logical modeling of biological signaling transduction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongyao

    The study of network theory and its application span across a multitude of seemingly disparate fields of science and technology: computer science, biology, social science, linguistics, etc. It is the intrinsic similarities embedded in the entities and the way they interact with one another in these systems that link them together. In this dissertation, I present from both the aspect of theoretical analysis and the aspect of application three projects, which primarily focus on signal transduction networks in biology. In these projects, I assembled a network model through extensively perusing literature, performed model-based simulations and validation, analyzed network topology, and proposed a novel network measure. The application of network modeling to the system of stomatal opening in plants revealed a fundamental question about the process that has been left unanswered in decades. The novel measure of the redundancy of signal transduction networks with Boolean dynamics by calculating its maximum node-independent elementary signaling mode set accurately predicts the effect of single node knockout in such signaling processes. The three projects as an organic whole advance the understanding of a real system as well as the behavior of such network models, giving me an opportunity to take a glimpse at the dazzling facets of the immense world of network science.

  1. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. A K Singh. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 125 Issue 5 July 2016 pp 899-908. A study on precursors leading to geomagnetic storms using artificial neural network · Gaurav Singh A K Singh · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Space weather ...

  2. Using the Critical Zone Observatory Network to Put Geology into Environmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    The use of observatories to study the environment in the U.S.A. arguably began in 1910. Since then, many environmental observatories were set up to study impacts of land use change. At that time, observatories did not emphasize geological structure. Around 2004, scientists in the U.S.A. began to emphasize the need to study the Earth's surface as one integrated system that includes the geological underpinnings. In 2007, the Geosciences Directorate within the U.S. National Science Foundation established the Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) program. Today the CZO network has grown to 9 observatories, and 45 countries now host such observatories. A CZO is an observatory that promotes the study of the entire layer of Earth's surface from vegetation canopy to groundwater as one entity. The observatories are somewhat similar to other NSF-funded observatories such as Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites but they differ in that they emphasize the history of the landscape and how it mediates today's fluxes. LTERs largely focus on ecological science. The concepts of CZ science and CZOs - developed by the Geosciences Directorate - have been extraordinarily impactful: we now have deeper understanding of how surficial processes respond to tectonic, climatic, and anthropogenic drivers. One reason CZOs succeed is that they host scientists who make measurements in one place that cross timescales from that of the meteorologist to the geologist. The NSF Geosciences Directorate has thus promoted insights showing that many of the unexplained mysteries of "catchment science" or "ecosystem science" can be explained by the underlying geological story of a site. The scientific challenges of this endeavor are dwarfed, however, by cultural challenges. Specifically, while both CZOs and observatories such as LTERs struggle to publish many types of data from different disciplines in a continually changing cyber-world, only CZO scientists find they must repeatedly explain why such

  3. Chaotic diagonal recurrent neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Zhang Yi

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel neural network based on a diagonal recurrent neural network and chaos, and its structure and learning algorithm are designed. The multilayer feedforward neural network, diagonal recurrent neural network, and chaotic diagonal recurrent neural network are used to approach the cubic symmetry map. The simulation results show that the approximation capability of the chaotic diagonal recurrent neural network is better than the other two neural networks. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  4. Collaborative technologies for distributed science: fusion energy and high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissel, D P; Gottschalk, E E; Greenwald, M J; McCune, D

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines a strategy to significantly enhance scientific collaborations in both Fusion Energy Sciences and in High-Energy Physics through the development and deployment of new tools and technologies into working environments. This strategy is divided into two main elements, collaborative workspaces and secure computational services. Experimental and theory/computational programs will greatly benefit through the provision of a flexible, standards-based collaboration space, which includes advanced tools for ad hoc and structured communications, shared applications and displays, enhanced interactivity for remote data access applications, high performance computational services and an improved security environment. The technologies developed should be prototyped and tested on the current generation of experiments and numerical simulation projects. At the same time, such work should maintain a strong focus on the needs of the next generation of mega-projects, ITER and the ILC. Such an effort needs to leverage existing computer science technology and take full advantage of commercial software wherever possible. This paper compares the requirements of FES and HEP, discuss today's solutions, examine areas where more functionality is required, and discuss those areas with sufficient overlap in requirements that joint research into collaborative technologies will increase the benefit to both

  5. Heterogeniety and Heterarchy: How far can network analyses in Earth and space sciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, A.; Fox, P. A.; Eleish, A.; Li, C.; Pan, F.; Zhong, H.

    2017-12-01

    The vast majority of explorations of Earth systems are limited in their ability to effectively explore the most important (often most difficult) problems because they are forced to interconnect at the data-element, or syntactic, level rather than at a higher scientific, or conceptual/ semantic, level. Recent successes in the application of complex network theory and algorithms to minerology, fossils and proteins over billions of years of Earth's history, raise expectations that more general graph-based approaches offer the opportunity for new discoveries = needles instead of haystacks. In the past 10 years in the natural sciences there has substantial progress in providing both specialists and non-specialists the ability to describe in machine readable form, geophysical quantities and relations among them in meaningful and natural ways, effectively breaking the prior syntax barrier. The corresponding open-world semantics and reasoning provide higher-level interconnections. That is, semantics provided around the data structures, using open-source tools, allow for discovery at the knowledge level. This presentation will cover the fundamentals of data-rich network analyses for geosciences, provide illustrative examples in mineral evolution and offer future paths for consideration.

  6. Proceedings of the 1999 Sustainable Forest Management Network conference: science and practice : sustaining the boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeman, S.; Smith, D.W.; Purdy, B.G.; Salkie, F.J.; Larkin, G.A. [eds.

    1999-05-01

    The wide range and complex nature of research in sustainable forest management, supported cooperatively by the forest products industry, governments, the universities, First Nations and other groups, is reflected in the 128 papers presented at this conference. The range of topics discussed include historical perspectives of forest disturbances, including fires and harvesting, biological diversity, gaseous, liquid and solid wastes, community sustainability, public involvement, land aquatic interfaces, forest management planning tools, contaminant transfer, First Nations issues, certification, monitoring and resource trade-offs. The theme of the conference {sup S}cience and practice: sustaining the boreal forest` was selected to identify the key efforts of the Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) Network on boreal forest research. The objective of the conference was to exchange knowledge and integrate participants into a better working network for the improvement of forest management. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Limitations of Shallow Networks Representing Finite Mappings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kůrková, Věra

    submitted 5.1. (2018) ISSN 0941-0643 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-18108S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : shallow and deep networks * sparsity * variational norms * functions on large finite domains * concentration of measure * pseudo-noise sequences * perceptron networks Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 2.505, year: 2016

  8. The making of citizen science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser

    This dissertation is the result of a PhD project entitled The Making of Citizen ScienceNetwork Alliances between Science Shops and CSOs Engaging in Science and Air Pollution. The PhD project was carried out at Department of Management Engineering, Section for Innovation and Sustainability...... of effects: effects on the CSOs’ original problems, and/or other forms of effects. It is interesting to note that these other forms of effects can result in both cases that affected the CSOs’ original problems as well as cases that failed to do so. It can be concluded that CSOs can influence such actors...... as industry and local authorities and their practices through alliances with Science Shops and scientists. It is further concluded that the Science Shops’ role can have decisive impact on whether networks succeed in influencing the problems experienced by the CSOs. When the Science Shops apply an impact...

  9. Analyzing Earth Science Research Networking through Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, S.; Stephan, R.; Narock, T.

    2017-12-01

    Using D3.js we visualize collaboration amongst several geophysical science organizations, such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU) and the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP). We look at historical trends in Earth Science research topics, cross-domain collaboration, and topics of interest to the general population. The visualization techniques used provide an effective way for non-experts to easily explore distributed and heterogeneous Big Data. Analysis of these visualizations provides stakeholders with insights into optimizing meetings, performing impact evaluation, structuring outreach efforts, and identifying new opportunities for collaboration.

  10. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Models Core Technologies Clinical Innovation Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network Patient ... to our monthly e-newsletter. About Translation Translational Science Spectrum Explore the full spectrum of translational science, ...

  11. Earth and environmental science in the 1980's: Part 1: Environmental data systems, supercomputer facilities and networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Overview descriptions of on-line environmental data systems, supercomputer facilities, and networks are presented. Each description addresses the concepts of content, capability, and user access relevant to the point of view of potential utilization by the Earth and environmental science community. The information on similar systems or facilities is presented in parallel fashion to encourage and facilitate intercomparison. In addition, summary sheets are given for each description, and a summary table precedes each section.

  12. The Community-based Organizations Working Group of the Space Science Education Support Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, J. H.; Lowes, L. L.; Asplund, S.

    2004-12-01

    The NASA Space Science Support Network Community-based Organizations Working Group (CBOWG) has been working for the past two years on issues surrounding afterschool programs and programs for youth (e.g., Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, Boys and Girls Clubs, 4-H, summer camps, afterschool and weekend programs for various ages, programs with emphases on minority youth). In this session the co-leaders of the CBOWG will discuss the challenges of working with community-based organizations on a regional or national level. We will highlight some ties that we have forged with the National Institute for Out of School Time (NIOST) and the National Afterschool Association (NAA). We will also talk about efforts to coordinate how various entities within NASA cooperate with community-based organizations to serve the best interests of these groups. We will give a couple of examples of how NASA space science organizations have partnered with community-based organizations. The session will include some handouts of information and resources that the CBOWG has found useful in developing an understanding of this segment of informal education groups. We would like to thank NASA for providing resources to support the work of the CBOWG.

  13. Fps/Fes and Fer protein-tyrosinekinases play redundant roles in regulating hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senis, Yotis A; Craig, Andrew W B; Greer, Peter A

    2003-08-01

    The highly related protein-tyrosine kinases Fps (also called Fes) and Fer are sole members of a subfamily of kinases. In this study, knock-in mice harboring kinase-inactivating mutations in both fps and fer alleles were used to assess functional redundancy between Fps and Fer kinases in regulating hematopoiesis. Mice harboring kinase-inactivating mutations in fps and fer alleles were generated previously. Compound homozygous mice were bred that lack both Fps and Fer kinase activities and progeny were analyzed for potential defects in viability and fertility. Potential differences in hematopoiesis were analyzed by lineage analysis of bone marrow cells, peripheral blood counts, and hematopoietic progenitor cell colony-forming assays. Mice devoid of both Fps and Fer kinase activities were viable and displayed reduced fertility. Circulating levels of neutrophils, erythrocytes, and platelets were elevated in compound mutant mice compared to wild-type controls, suggesting that hematopoiesis is deregulated in the absence of Fps and Fer kinases. Compound mutant mice also showed reduced overall bone marrow cellularity, and lineage analysis revealed elevated CD11b(hi)Ly-6G(lo) myeloid cells, which may reflect increased granulocyte progenitors. Although no differences in the overall number of granulocyte/monocyte colony-forming progenitors were observed, qualitative differences in myeloid colonies from compound mutant mice suggested a role for Fps and Fer kinases in regulating cell-cell adhesion or a skewing in cellularity of colonies. Mice lacking both Fps and Fer kinase activities develop normally, show reduced fertility, and display defects in hematopoiesis, thus providing evidence for functional redundancy between Fps and Fer kinases in regulating hematopoiesis.

  14. E-SCIENCE: AN INTRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    , Sarhan M. Musa

    2017-01-01

    E-science refers to the type of scientific research that uses large-scale computing infrastructure to process very large amount of data. It is an interdisciplinary branch of science that explores and implements information technology platforms, which include computer networks, computer information technology, telecommunication, and computational methods. This paper provides a brief introduction to e-science.

  15. Study of co-authorship in the nets and the interdisciplinarity in the scientific production on the basis of social network analysis methods: evaluation of the posgraduation program in information science - PPGCI / UFMG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Braz de Oliveira e Silva

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the Social Network Analysis (SNA as a method to be broadly applied in researches in the Information Scienc (IS field. This science is, normally, presented as an interdisciplinary filed, but the reseaches lines conducted in Brazil have differents relationship with other disciplines, and doing so, dis-similars interdisciplinaries characteristics. The analysis of the co-authorship network of the professors of the PPGCI/UFMG emphasizes both, the strenght of the methodology and the characteristics of the colaboration in the IS. The article gives an overview of the theoretical basis of the SNA, and presents studies about subjects related to the Information Science field that are done applying SNA, mainly the coauthorship network analysis. Finally, the methodological approach of this research and the main results are presented.

  16. Networks of networks – An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenett, Dror Y.; Perc, Matjaž; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Interdependent network reciprocity. Only those blue cooperative domains that are initially present on both networks survive. Abstract: This is an introduction to the special issue titled “Networks of networks” that is in the making at Chaos, Solitons & Fractals. Recent research and reviews attest to the fact that networks of networks are the next frontier in network science [1–7]. Not only are interactions limited and thus inadequately described by well-mixed models, it is also a fact that the networks that should be an integral part of such models are often interconnected, thus making the processes that are unfolding on them interdependent. From the World economy and transportation systems to social media, it is clear that processes taking place in one network might significantly affect what is happening in many other networks. Within an interdependent system, each type of interaction has a certain relevance and meaning, so that treating all the links identically inevitably leads to information loss. Networks of networks, interdependent networks, or multilayer networks are therefore a much better and realistic description of such systems, and this Special Issue is devoted to their structure, dynamics and evolution, as well as to the study of emergent properties in multi-layered systems in general. Topics of interest include but are not limited to the spread of epidemics and information, percolation, diffusion, synchronization, collective behavior, and evolutionary games on networks of networks. Interdisciplinary work on all aspects of networks of networks, regardless of background and motivation, is very welcome.

  17. Applications of neural networks in environmental and energy sciences and engineering. Proceedings of the 1995 workshop on environmental and energy applications of neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashem, S.; Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Kangas, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    These proceedings contain edited versions of the technical presentations of the Workshop on Environmental and Energy Applications of Neural Networks, held on March 30--31, 1995, in Richland, Washington. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for discussing environmental, energy, and biomedical applications of neural networks. Panels were held to discuss various research and development issues relating to real-world applications in each of the three areas. The applications covered in the workshop were: Environmental applications -- modeling and predicting soil, air and water pollution, environmental sensing, spectroscopy, hazardous waste handling and cleanup; Energy applications -- process monitoring and optimization of power systems, modeling and control of power plants, environmental monitoring for power systems, power load forecasting, fault location and diagnosis of power systems; and Biomedical applications -- medical image and signal analysis, medical diagnosis, analysis of environmental health effects, and modeling biological systems. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. The ASCI Network for SC 2000: Gigabyte Per Second Networking; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRATT, THOMAS J.; NAEGLE, JOHN H.; MARTINEZ JR., LUIS G.; HU, TAN CHANG; MILLER, MARC M.; BARNABY, MARTY L.; ADAMS, ROGER L.; KLAUS, EDWARD J.

    2001-01-01

    This document highlights the Discom's Distance computing and communication team activities at the 2000 Supercomputing conference in Dallas Texas. This conference is sponsored by the IEEE and ACM. Sandia's participation in the conference has now spanned a decade, for the last five years Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Lab and Lawrence Livermore National Lab have come together at the conference under the DOE's ASCI, Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiatives, Program rubric to demonstrate ASCI's emerging capabilities in computational science and our combined expertise in high performance computer science and communication networking developments within the program. At SC 2000, DISCOM demonstrated an infrastructure. DISCOM2 uses this forum to demonstrate and focus communication and pre-standard implementation of 10 Gigabit Ethernet, the first gigabyte per second data IP network transfer application, and VPN technology that enabled a remote Distributed Resource Management tools demonstration. Additionally a national OC48 POS network was constructed to support applications running between the show floor and home facilities. This network created the opportunity to test PSE's Parallel File Transfer Protocol (PFTP) across a network that had similar speed and distances as the then proposed DISCOM WAN. The SCINET SC2000 showcased wireless networking and the networking team had the opportunity to explore this emerging technology while on the booth. This paper documents those accomplishments, discusses the details of their convention exhibit floor. We also supported the production networking needs of the implementation, and describes how these demonstrations supports DISCOM overall strategies in high performance computing networking

  19. Using data- and network science to reveal iterations and phase-transitions in the design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piccolo, Sebastiano; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Maier, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the role of iterations is a prevalent topic in both design research and design practice. Furthermore, the increasing amount of data produced and stored by companies leaves traces and enables the application of data science to learn from past design processes. In this article, we...... analyse a documentlog to show the temporal evolution of a real design process of a power plant by using exploratory data analysis and network analysis. We show how the iterative nature of the design process is reflected in archival data and how one might re-construct the design process, involving...

  20. Complex networks principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Latora, Vito; Russo, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Networks constitute the backbone of complex systems, from the human brain to computer communications, transport infrastructures to online social systems and metabolic reactions to financial markets. Characterising their structure improves our understanding of the physical, biological, economic and social phenomena that shape our world. Rigorous and thorough, this textbook presents a detailed overview of the new theory and methods of network science. Covering algorithms for graph exploration, node ranking and network generation, among the others, the book allows students to experiment with network models and real-world data sets, providing them with a deep understanding of the basics of network theory and its practical applications. Systems of growing complexity are examined in detail, challenging students to increase their level of skill. An engaging presentation of the important principles of network science makes this the perfect reference for researchers and undergraduate and graduate students in physics, ...

  1. Development process and achievements of China nuclear agricultural sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xianfang

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines the creation of our nuclear agricultural sciences and the development process as well as the main results for agricultural applications of nuclear technology. Nuclear agricultural sciences in China began in 1956, after 50 years of development, the collaborative research network, the academic exchange network, and the international exchange network have been formatted. These three networks comprehensively have promoted the formation and development of China nuclear agricultural sciences. Remarkable results have been achieved in the fields of radiation mutation breeding, space mutation breeding, isotope tracer technique application in agriculture, agricultural products storage and preservation of irradiation processing, irradiation sterile insect technique, low-doses of radiation to stimulate output. In addition, the concept of suggestions on the future development of China nuclear agricultural sciences, as well as the priorities of research fields are put forward. (authors)

  2. Communication on the structure of biological networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Over the past few years, network science has drawn attention from a large number of ... The qualitative properties of biological networks cannot ... Here, we study the underlying undirected structure of empirical biological networks.

  3. World science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the Third World Network of Scientific Organizations (TWNSO), established last year with its headquarters in Trieste, Italy, is to promote the role of science and technology in developing countries. TWNSO, under the presidency of Abdus Salam, is an offshoot of the Third World Academy of Sciences, which has pushed the cause of international scientific collaboration since its establishment in 1983. (orig./HSI).

  4. Learning Errors by Radial Basis Function Neural Networks and Regularization Networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman; Vidnerová, Petra

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2009), s. 49-57 ISSN 2005-4262 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : neural network * RBF networks * regularization * learning Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.sersc.org/journals/IJGDC/vol2_no1/5.pdf

  5. Network Layer Protocol Activation for Packet Data Access in UMTS WCDMA Laboratory Network

    OpenAIRE

    Lakkisto, Erkka

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor’s Thesis was to set up the UMTS WCDMA network in the laboratory environment of Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences and to study the network layer protocol activation for packet data access. The development of 3G technology has been very rapid and it can be considered as one of the main technologies in telecommunication. Implementing the laboratory network in Metropolia enables teaching and researching of the modern network technology. Labora...

  6. Role of Social Networks in Developing Religious and Social Values of the Students of the World Islamic Sciences & Education University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mosa, Nosiba Ali

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the role of Social Networks in the social and religious values of The World Islamic Sciences & Education University students. The study applied the survey and descriptive Approach. The population of the study represents all BA students who enrolled in the first academic semester for the year 2014-2015. The sample of…

  7. On Real-Time Systems Using Local Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    87-35 July, 1987 CS-TR-1892 On Real - Time Systems Using Local Area Networks*I VShem-Tov Levi Department of Computer Science Satish K. Tripathit...1892 On Real - Time Systems Using Local Area Networks* Shem-Tov Levi Department of Computer Science Satish K. Tripathit Department of Computer Science...constraints and the clock systems that feed the time to real - time systems . A model for real-time system based on LAN communication is presented in

  8. Communication network for decentralized remote tele-science during the Spacelab mission IML-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Uwe; Schulz, Klaus-Juergen; Incollingo, Marco

    1994-01-01

    The ESA communication network for decentralized remote telescience during the Spacelab mission IML-2, called Interconnection Ground Subnetwork (IGS), provided data, voice conferencing, video distribution/conferencing and high rate data services to 5 remote user centers in Europe. The combination of services allowed the experimenters to interact with their experiments as they would normally do from the Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at MSFC. In addition, to enhance their science results, they were able to make use of reference facilities and computing resources in their home laboratory, which typically are not available in the POCC. Characteristics of the IML-2 communications implementation were the adaptation to the different user needs based on modular service capabilities of IGS and the cost optimization for the connectivity. This was achieved by using a combination of traditional leased lines, satellite based VSAT connectivity and N-ISDN according to the simulation and mission schedule for each remote site. The central management system of IGS allows minimization of staffing and the involvement of communications personnel at the remote sites. The successful operation of IGS for IML-2 as a precursor network for the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF) has proven the concept for communications to support the operation of the COF decentralized scenario.

  9. Social Network Methods for the Educational and Psychological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Tracy M.

    2016-01-01

    Social networks are especially applicable in educational and psychological studies involving social interactions. A social network is defined as a specific relationship among a group of individuals. Social networks arise in a variety of situations such as friendships among children, collaboration and advice seeking among teachers, and coauthorship…

  10. Applications of neural networks to real-time data processing at the Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Kangas, L.J.

    1993-06-01

    Detailed design of the Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is nearing completion and construction is scheduled to begin later this year. This facility will assist in the environmental restoration and waste management mission at the Hanford Site. This paper identifies several real-time data processing applications within the EMSL where neural networks can potentially be beneficial. These applications include real-time sensor data acquisition and analysis, spectral analysis, process control, theoretical modeling, and data compression

  11. Data-Driven Design of Intelligent Wireless Networks: An Overview and Tutorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merima Kulin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Data science or “data-driven research” is a research approach that uses real-life data to gain insight about the behavior of systems. It enables the analysis of small, simple as well as large and more complex systems in order to assess whether they function according to the intended design and as seen in simulation. Data science approaches have been successfully applied to analyze networked interactions in several research areas such as large-scale social networks, advanced business and healthcare processes. Wireless networks can exhibit unpredictable interactions between algorithms from multiple protocol layers, interactions between multiple devices, and hardware specific influences. These interactions can lead to a difference between real-world functioning and design time functioning. Data science methods can help to detect the actual behavior and possibly help to correct it. Data science is increasingly used in wireless research. To support data-driven research in wireless networks, this paper illustrates the step-by-step methodology that has to be applied to extract knowledge from raw data traces. To this end, the paper (i clarifies when, why and how to use data science in wireless network research; (ii provides a generic framework for applying data science in wireless networks; (iii gives an overview of existing research papers that utilized data science approaches in wireless networks; (iv illustrates the overall knowledge discovery process through an extensive example in which device types are identified based on their traffic patterns; (v provides the reader the necessary datasets and scripts to go through the tutorial steps themselves.

  12. Synchronization in complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.

    2007-12-12

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  13. The Medical Science DMZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisert, Sean; Barnett, William; Dart, Eli; Cuff, James; Grossman, Robert L; Balas, Edward; Berman, Ari; Shankar, Anurag; Tierney, Brian

    2016-11-01

    We describe use cases and an institutional reference architecture for maintaining high-capacity, data-intensive network flows (e.g., 10, 40, 100 Gbps+) in a scientific, medical context while still adhering to security and privacy laws and regulations. High-end networking, packet filter firewalls, network intrusion detection systems. We describe a "Medical Science DMZ" concept as an option for secure, high-volume transport of large, sensitive data sets between research institutions over national research networks. The exponentially increasing amounts of "omics" data, the rapid increase of high-quality imaging, and other rapidly growing clinical data sets have resulted in the rise of biomedical research "big data." The storage, analysis, and network resources required to process these data and integrate them into patient diagnoses and treatments have grown to scales that strain the capabilities of academic health centers. Some data are not generated locally and cannot be sustained locally, and shared data repositories such as those provided by the National Library of Medicine, the National Cancer Institute, and international partners such as the European Bioinformatics Institute are rapidly growing. The ability to store and compute using these data must therefore be addressed by a combination of local, national, and industry resources that exchange large data sets. Maintaining data-intensive flows that comply with HIPAA and other regulations presents a new challenge for biomedical research. Recognizing this, we describe a strategy that marries performance and security by borrowing from and redefining the concept of a "Science DMZ"-a framework that is used in physical sciences and engineering research to manage high-capacity data flows. By implementing a Medical Science DMZ architecture, biomedical researchers can leverage the scale provided by high-performance computer and cloud storage facilities and national high-speed research networks while preserving privacy and

  14. Why Failing Terrorist Groups Persist Revisited: A Social Network Approach to AQIM Network Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    the approach and methods used in this analysis to organize, analyze, and explore the geospatial, statistical , and social network data...requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION STRATEGY AND POLITICAL WARFARE from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL December...research utilizes both descriptive statistics and regression analysis of social network data to explore the changes within the AQIM network 2012

  15. Development and Evaluation of a City-Wide Wireless Weather Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ben; Wang, Hsue-Yie; Peng, Tian-Yin; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2010-01-01

    This project analyzed the effectiveness of a city-wide wireless weather sensor network, the Taipei Weather Science Learning Network (TWIN), in facilitating elementary and junior high students' study of weather science. The network, composed of sixty school-based weather sensor nodes and a centralized weather data archive server, provides students…

  16. La mitocondria como fábrica de cofactores: biosíntesis de grupo hemo, centros Fe-S y nucleótidos de flavina (FMN/FAD)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexa Villavicencio-Queijeiro

    2012-01-01

    Los cofactores hemo, centros Fe-S y los nucleótidos de flavina (FMN y FAD) son esenciales para muchos organismos, existen un gran número de proteínas que dependen de ellos para llevar a cabo sus funciones biológicas. Estos cofactores han sido reconocidos como esenciales para las reacciones de óxido-reducción, pero también están involucrados en otros procesos celulares como la catálisis química, la regulación, la señalización y la detección de señales intra y extra celulares. Diversos grupos d...

  17. Social Network Analysis as an Organizational Diagnostic Tool: The Case of Small Business in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Rasskazov, Sergey; Rubtcova, Mariia; Derugin, Pavel; Pruel, Nikolay; Malychev, Valeriy

    2016-01-01

    The science of social networks is at the intersection of computer science, communication studies, mathematics and sociology. The first area is already ‘invested’ by communications networks, hardware and software, and has attracted many users. Communication science studies the network not only as a computer network, but also as a network of discourse. Contributions of mathematics; the Theory of Graphs and various related calculations. ‘Weak’ in this triad is a sociological interpretation of qu...

  18. Response to FESAC survey, non-fusion connections to Fusion Energy Sciences. Applications of the FES-supported beam and plasma simulation code, Warp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Grote, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vay, J. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-29

    The Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee’s subcommittee on non-fusion applications (FESAC NFA) is conducting a survey to obtain information from the fusion community about non-fusion work that has resulted from their DOE-funded fusion research. The subcommittee has requested that members of the community describe recent developments connected to the activities of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences. Two questions in particular were posed by the subcommittee. This document contains the authors’ responses to those questions.

  19. Exploring Vietnamese co-authorship patterns in social sciences with basic network measures of 2008-2017 Scopus data [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung Manh Ho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Collaboration is a common occurrence among Vietnamese scientists; however, insights into Vietnamese scientific collaborations have been scarce. On the other hand, the application of social network analysis in studying science collaboration has gained much attention all over the world. The technique could be employed to explore Vietnam’s scientific community. Methods: This paper employs network theory to explore characteristics of a network of 412 Vietnamese social scientists whose papers can be found indexed in the Scopus database. Two basic network measures, density and clustering coefficient, were taken, and the entire network was studied in comparison with two of its largest components. Results: The networks connections are very sparse, with a density of only 0.47%, while the clustering coefficient is very high (58.64%. This suggests an inefficient dissemination of information, knowledge, and expertise in the network. Secondly, the disparity in levels of connection among individuals indicates that the network would easily fall apart if a few highly-connected nodes are removed. Finally, the two largest components of the network were found to differ from the entire networks in terms of measures and were both led by the most productive and well-connected researchers. Conclusions: High clustering and low density seems to be tied to inefficient dissemination of expertise among Vietnamese social scientists, and consequently low scientific output. Also low in robustness, the network shows the potential of an intellectual elite composed of well-connected, productive, and socially significant individuals.

  20. Networking of institutions in India to promote research and education in nuclear science and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, R.R.

    2007-01-01

    broader areas of interest to it. The desire of DAE in strengthening university system is reflected in yet another of its visionary initiative which is the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC)-DAE consortium for Scientific Research which is aimed at opening up DAE advanced research facilities to academic institutions. Providing post-doctoral fellowships for carrying research in its laboratories is another step that DAE has taken to strengthened research-technology linkage. Furthermore, the BARC Training School Programme has been keeping pace with emerging demands of the expanding Indian NEA Programme by educating and training manpower in diverse specializations at newer centres. Having established R and D centers and institutions for basic research, DAE has taken the next logical step of weaving them in to a network for advancing the pace of research in nuclear science on one hand and, on the other, for accelerating the process of transforming R and D into technology products and their applications. This end is sought to be achieved by bringing the academic programmes of the R and D centers and the grant-in-aid institutes of DAE under one umbrella institute named Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI) having the status of a Deemed to be University. The status of a Deemed to be University was conferred upon HBNI on June 3, 2005 by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India. Its academic programmes are scheduled to start from August-September 2006. The HBNI is a network of ten institutions in DAE. Called its constituent Institutions (CIs), four of them are the R and D centers and six are the grant-in-aid institutions. The HBNI would conduct academic programmes in Engineering, Physical, Chemical, Life and Mathematical Sciences and also in Strategic Studies for the award of Masters and Doctoral degrees and Post Graduate Diploma with its curricula and research oriented to the needs of the nuclear science and technology and related fields. HBNI

  1. Understanding Social Networks: Theories, Concepts, and Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadushin, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Despite the swift spread of social network concepts and their applications and the rising use of network analysis in social science, there is no book that provides a thorough general introduction for the serious reader. "Understanding Social Networks" fills that gap by explaining the big ideas that underlie the social network phenomenon.…

  2. Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Date of birth: 1 July 1959. Specialization: Game Theory & Mechanism Design, Electronic Commerce Internet and Network Economics Address: Department of Computer Science & Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560 012, Karnataka Contact: Office: (080) 2293 2773. Residence: (080) 2331 0265

  3. Climate Science's Globally Distributed Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. N.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is primarily funded by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Science (the Office of Biological and Environmental Research [BER] Climate Data Informatics Program and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research Next Generation Network for Science Program), the National