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Sample records for fertilization yield components

  1. Effect of sulfur and iron fertilizers on yield, yield components and ...

    Jane

    2011-06-13

    Jun 13, 2011 ... per plant. Interaction between water stress and combination of iron and sulfur fertilizers had significant .... Results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) of water stress (W), sulfur (B) and iron (C), and their interaction with gain yield, yield components and ... the soil structure and it increased the usefulness of other.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENT FORMATION OF SOYBEAN VARIETIES

    Eva CANDRÁKOVÁ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2005 and 2006, the influence of fertilization was investigated on forming of yield components and yield of three soybean varieties in sugar beet growing area. Varieties Korada, Supra and OAC Vision were grown. Number of plants per m2, number of pods per plant, number of seeds in pod, thousand seeds weight, yield of seeds, yield of stems and harvest index were examined. Variants of fertilization: I. non-fertilized control, II. LAV 27 % (40 kg ha-1 net nutrient of N in growing stage of first pair of true leaves unfolded, III. Humix komplet (rate 8 l.ha-1 applied in growing stage of first pair of true leaves unfolded (4 l.ha-1 and in growing stage of first flower buds visible (4 l.ha-1, IV. Humix komplet in rate 8 l.ha-1 applied in growing stage of first pair of true leaves unfolded. The yields of seeds and stems were high significantly influenced by variety, fertilization and year. The significantly highest yield of seeds was achieved by Korada variety (4,04 t.ha-1. Varieties OAC Vision and Supra reached yields in interval 3,74-3,84 t.ha-1. Split rate of Humix komplet (III var significantly influenced yield of seeds and stems. The fertilization have increased weight of seeds in proportion to aboveground phyto-mass weight, what was expressed by harvest index.

  3. Effect of Organic Fertilizers on Yield and Yield Components of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.

    S. M Azimzadeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soil organic matters impose direct and indirect effect on crop production through providing of nutrients and also improvement of soil physical condition and stimulation of plant growth. It also seems that plant production based on application of organic fertilizers is more stable than application of chemical fertilizers. So, there has been lots of attention from agronomists, ecologists and consumers toward organic fertilizers. In organic farming, agricultural ecosystem is considered as a living thing and integrated totality, so in this system, soil, crop, microorganisms and micro-climate affect on each other and also are under the effect of each other. For better performance of this system, each component should be in its appropriate condition. Periodical reverse of organic matter to soil and crop rotation will improve biological and physical characteristics of soil. However, balance of nutrients in organic matter which is available for plant is important because causes less dependence to chemical fertilizers. Indeed, nutrients balance is more important than application of chemical fertilizers that can lead to water pollution and decreasing quality of food products. Application of chemical fertilizers caused considerable increasing of farmer's income in last decade. These fertilizers also imposed ecological and environmental problems. In Iran like most of the countries, overusing of chemical inputs like fertilizers has caused destruction of water and soil resources. In addition, leaching of soluble chemical fertilizers specially nitrogen fertilizers has caused pollution of drinking water and overfilling of the water of lakes and ponds in some regions. So researchers have done a lot of effort to replace organic and biological fertilizers with chemical one. The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of organic fertilizers on safflower production. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the effect of organic fertilizers and

  4. Effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

    parviz rezvani moghadam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean, an experiment was conducted at Experimental station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in years 2004-2005. The experimental treatments comprised all combinations of four sowing dates (11 April, 25 April, 8 May and 22 May and three different fertilizers (cow manure (30 tons/ha, compost (30 tons/ha, chemical fertilizers (100 kg/ha N and 250 kg/ha of super phosphate and no fertilizer as control. Different characteristics such as plant height, main inflorescence height, number of inflorescence per plant, number of secondary stems per plant, number of capsules per plant, number of grain per plant, grain weight per plant, 100 seed weight, grain yield, oil percentage and oil yield were recorded. A factorial arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The results showed by delaying sowing date grain yield, seed oil percentage and oil yield were decreased, but there was no significant differences between 25 April, 8 May and 22 May sowing dates. Harvest index and 100 seed weight did not affect by neither sowing dates nor fertilizer treatments. The highest number of branches per plant, number of fertile inflorescences per plant, number of fertile capsules per plant, number of grain per plant, grain weight per plant and biological yield were obtained at 8 May sowing date on chemical fertilizer. Percentage of seed oil, grain yield and oil yield was higher at the first sowing date (11 April in compost and chemical fertilizer treatments. Keywords: Castor bean, sowing date, fertilizer, grain yield, oil percentage.

  5. The organic fertilizers in pepper (Capsicum annuum L. and the impact on yield and its components

    Juan José Reyes Pérez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic fertilizers in the fertilization of crops is an alternative to the problems generated by the intensive use of chemical fertilizers. The objective of this research was to evaluate the application to soil of organics fertilizers compared with a control treatment with chemical fertilization on the yield and its components in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. Treatments consisted in to apply worm humus, water hyacinth compost, a mixture with 50 % worm humus and 50 % of water hyacinth compost, and a chemical control. It was evaluated fruits quantity per harvest, fruit length, diameter and fruit weight per harvest and yield. Results showed that the plants that were supplemented with worm humus, followed by worm humus + water hyacinth they had significantly better response with respect to the length, diameter and weight of the fruits.

  6. Effect of Coated Urea Fertilizer on Yield and Yield Components of Sweet Corn (KSC 403 under Deficit Irrigation

    N Farid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the effect of coated urea fertilizer on yield and yield components of sweet corn (KSC 403 under different irrigation regimes, in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Sciences University, Iran by using strip split plot in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Three levels of deficit irrigation (100%, 80 and 60% of calculated water requirement of sweet corn were assigned as vertical factor and six sources of urea fertilizer (without urea, un-coated urea, sulfur-coated urea fertilizer, starch-coated urea, agar-coated urea and chitin-coated urea were assigned to horizontal factor. Effects of deficit water and source of fertilizer were statistically significant on plant height, 1000 kernel weight, ear diameter, and number of rows per ear, ear yield, biological yield and harvest index. Maximum of plant height (153.23 cm, 1000 kernel weight (104.51 g, grain yield (9853.3 kg/ha and biological yield (12471.6 kg/ha were obtained in chitin coated urea fertilizer. Maximum of ear diameter (4.67 cm and number of row per ear (13.22 were achieved in agar coated urea fertilizer and that of harvest index (45.79% was indicated by starch-coated urea. Maximum of length of ear, number of kernels per row and grain yield were 23.65cm, 25.83 and 7142 kg/ha, respectively, and were obtained with the using of chitin-coated urea fertilizer and 100% water requirement. Minimum values of these traits were 13.54 cm, 5.56 and 871 kg/ha, respectively, and were obtained by using of control (no urea application and 60% water requirement. Results showed that biopolymer coated urea is potent to improve some morphological characteristics and increase grain yield of sweet corn.

  7. The effects of vermicompost and chemical fertilizers on yield and yield components of marshmallow (Altheae officinalis L.)

    A.A. Sadeghi; K. Bakhsh Kelarestaghi; K. Hajmohammadnia Ghalibaf

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of vermicompost and chemical fertilizers on growth characteristics, yield and yield components of marshmallow (Altheaeofficinalis L.), a field experiment was conducted as factorial layout based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during growing season of 2012. Experimental treatments were designed based on 3 levels of vermicompost (0, 5 and 10 t ha-1) and 5 levels of ...

  8. Effect of Different Sources of Nitrogen and Organic Fertilizers on Yield and Yield Components of Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi L.

    zahra saydi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi L. is an annual medicinal plant of the family Apiaceae which can reach 30 -100 cm in height. and its growth is highly depended on the availability of mineral nutrients in the soil. But, it has been shown that utilization of chemical fertilizers for growth promotion of Ajown could have negative impacts on environment and ecological systems. Nowadays, sustainable agriculture is the best approach to overcome such problems and prevent the excess accumulation of chemical fertilizers deposited within the soil. Application of bio-fertilizers as an alternative to chemical fertilizers is a new sustainable approach which have been raised in the new era of Agriculture. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the application of various source of biological fertilizers such as Vermicompost, Alkazotplus and Humic Acid in combination with nitrogen fertilizers on growth behavior, yield and yield components of Ajowan under Ahvaz growing condition. Materials and methods This research was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station of Shahid Chamran University in 2014-2015 to determine the effects of different sources of nitrogen and organic fertilizers on the yield and yield components of Ajowan based on two way randomized complete block design with three replications. The first factor of the experiment was Application of four different nitrogen sources including: Urea (U, Sulfur-coated Urea (SCU, %50 Sulfur-coated urea (1/2 SCU + Alkazot Plus biological fertilizer and Control (no nitrogen source used. Organic fertilizers were also applied at four levels, consisting of Humic Acid, Vermicompost, %50 Vermicompost + Humic Acid and Control (no organic Fertilizer as the second factor. After soil preparation, approximately four Kg.ha-1 of the seeds were planted on the rows with 30 cm distance. Plant height, number of sub branches, number of umbels per plant, number of seeds per umbel , 1000 seeds weight, biological

  9. The effects of vermicompost and chemical fertilizers on yield and yield components of marshmallow (Altheae officinalis L.

    A.A. Sadeghi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of vermicompost and chemical fertilizers on growth characteristics, yield and yield components of marshmallow (Altheaeofficinalis L., a field experiment was conducted as factorial layout based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during growing season of 2012. Experimental treatments were designed based on 3 levels of vermicompost (0, 5 and 10 t ha-1 and 5 levels of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of 200 kg N ha-1. Results indicated that applied vermicompost had significant effects on increasing leaf area, flower weight per plant and grain yield of marshmallow. Flower weight per plant and grain yield of marshmallow was increased by 2 to 3 times by applying vermicompost at 10 t. ha-1, as compared to control treatment. In addition, nitrogen fertilizer had a significant effect on increasing flower weight per plant and grain, mucilage and oil yields of marshmallow. It seems that applying vermicompost can be suitable strategy in reducing the problems caused by excessive using of chemical fertilizers.

  10. Effect of different fertilizer resources on yield and yield components of grain maize (Zea mays L. affected by tillage managements

    Ahmad Ghasemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Due to the development of sustainable agriculture and the reduction of utilizing chemical fertilizers, it is essential to use organic fertilizer. Organic matter is vital to soil fertility and its productivity. To maintain the level of fertility and the strength of soil, organic matter levels should be maintained at an appropriate level. Unfortunately, the level of organic matter in soil is generally less than 1%. One solution to increase the soil’s organic matter content is to use organic fertilizers such as animal manure, green manure, and vermicompost (Nuralvandy, 2011. As a correction factor, green manure can increase water supply and nutrient soil conservation (Tajbakhsh et al., 2005. Materials and methods In order to assess the effects of fertilizer sources (green manure, cow manure, and chemical fertilizer on maize yield and yield components (KSC 704 under tillage management, a field experiment was carried out at Zahak Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Station in two years (from 2013 to 2014. Before corn planting, barley was planted as green manure in the fall of each year. The experiment was conducted as a split plot arranged in a completely randomized block design with three replications. The main plots were tillage and no tillage, whereas the sub plots were: 1-barley green manure (without application of fertilizer, 2-barley green manure with applying 100% chemical fertilizer (NPK to the barley during cultivation, tillering and stemming stages, 3- green manure with 2/3 of chemical fertilizer to the barley and 1/3 to the maize, 4- green manure with 1/3 of chemical fertilizer to the barley and 2/3 to the maize, 5- barley green manure with 50% animal and chemical manures, 6- barley green manure with 40 t ha-1 of animal manure, 7-control (non-fertilizer application. Corn was planted on 15 March each year. Phosphorus, potassium fertilizer, and animal manure were added to the soil as the base fertilizers. At full

  11. Effects of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Yield Component of Tomato (Lycopersicon sculentum L.

    R Mirzaei Talarposhti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Although using animal manures and crop residues as a traditional method for increasing soil fertility and crop yield has a long history but Conventional agricultural systems rely on the use of chemical fertilizer due to its immediate availability of nutrients. In many of modern agricultural systems using chemical fertilizers as a fast and easiest way to reduce nutrient deficiency and increasing soil fertility is considered. Intensive and continuous use of chemical fertilizers leads to decreasing the stability and sustainability of agricultural systems and also poses major threat to environment and human health. Organic fertilizers have positive effects on physiochemical and biological attributes of soil and could be classified in three different groups (i.e. Animal manures, green manure and composts.Using animal manure not only increase soil fertility but also could result in increasing infiltration, aeration and water holding capacity of soil. The main role of these fertilizers is related to physical change in soil. Different types of composts such as municipal waste compost and vermicompost also have similar positive effects, but usually the farmers observe the main effect of these organic fertilizers in long term. In order to investigate the effects of different types of organic fertilizers on growth indexes, yield and yield component of tomato (Lycopersicon sculentum L. current experiment was conducted. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications and six treatments in the research station of Shahid Beheshti University. The experimental treatments were: Control or no fertilizer (NF, chemical fertilizer (CF, cow manure (CM, poultry manure (PM, vermicompost (VC and municipal waste compost (MC. Considering nitrogen concentration in all of the treatments different amounts of these fertilizers were used based on nitrogen recommendation for the field, so in

  12. The Effects of Organic, Chemical and Biological Fertilizers on Seed Yield and Yield Components of Dwarf Chicory (Cichorium pumilum Jacq.

    Farima Doaei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to response to greater demand for wild medicinal plants consumption, it has been recommended that wild medicinal plants can be brought into cultivation systems. Cichorium pumilum Jacq. is an annual species of Asteraceae family, that has a long history of herbal use and is especially of great value for its tonic effects upon the liver and digestive tract. The root and the leaves of chicory are digestive, hypoglycemic, diuretic, laxative and tonic. Using chemical fertilizers can be easily lost from soils through fixation, leaching or gas emission that can lead to reduced fertilizer efficiency. The applications of organic fertilizers such as compost and vermicompost can be considered as a good management practice to increase cropping system sustainability, reducing soil erosion and improving soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Soil microorganisms have a significant role in regulating the dynamics of organic matter breakdown and the availability of plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphate and sulfur. Materials and Methods: For evaluating the effects of organic, mineral and biological fertilizers on seed yield and yield components of dwarf chicory (Cichorium pumilum Jacq., a field experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (36016/ N, 59036/ E, elevation 985 m during growing season of 2011-2012. The experimental layout was factorial based on randomized complete block design with four replications. The experimental treatments were all combination of organic and chemical fertilizers (compost 4 t/ha, vermicompost 4 t/ha, urea fertilizer 130 kg/ha and control and biological fertilizer (biosulfur biofertilizer + pure sulfur 100 kg/ ha and control. Before conducting the experiment, soil sample were taken from the depth of 0-30 cm, and physical and chemical characteristics of the soil and also used compost and vermicompost were determined. All fertilizer

  13. SELECTED YIELD COMPONENTS IN WHITE MUSTARD (SINAPIS ALBA VERSUS SULFUR FERTILIZATION

    Bożena BARCZAK

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available As shown by the research made based on the four-year field experiment, sulfur fertilization, in general, significantly differentiated the white mustard yield components. Of all the factors (sulfur application method, its form and dose, the greatest effect on the yield structure components was demonstrated for the sulfur dose. The use of 40 kg S·ha-1, regardless of the form applied and the sulfur application method, resulted in significant increases in most of the characters, as compared with the control. The application of sulfur into soil showed a significantly more favorable effect on the seed weigh and number per silique and on the weight of seeds of the entire plant than the foliar application of this nutrient. The white mustard seed yield size was most correlated with the number of siliques per plant, and successively less with the thousand seed weight.

  14. Effect of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer levels on yield and yield components of dill (Anethum graveolens L.

    S. Madadi Bonab

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and yield components of (Anethum graveolens L., a field experiment was performed in Agricultural Research Farm of the University of Tabriz, Iran, during growing season of 2009-2010. The experiment was carried out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Irrigation treatments (irrigation after 70, 100, 130 mm evaporation from class A pan and nitrogen levels (0, 40, 80, 120 kg.ha-1 were allocated to main and sub-plots, respectively. The results showed that nitrogen fertilizer had significant (p≤0.05 effect on minor diameter umbrella, 1000-seed weight, seed yield and harvest index. However, irrigation and effect between irrigation and nitrogen were not affected any of the traits. The greatest minor diameter umbrella was obtained with control nitrogen treatment and maximum 1000-seed weight, harvest index and seed yield were obtained from 40 kg.ha-1 nitrogen. There was no any significant difference between 40 and 80 kg.ha-1 nitrogen levels. Therefore, it seems that for producing the highest yield application of 40 kg.ha-1 nitrogen is suitable. As water deficit no significant effects on this traits, of dill, it can be concluded that dill is a tolerant plant to drought stress.

  15. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Organic Fertilizers Application on Yield Components of Two Wheat Cultivars

    A. Gholamalizadeh Ahangar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted in order to evaluate the direct effects of organic and bio - fertilizers on yield components of two native wheat cultivars, Bolani and cross - Bolani. The experiment conducted as a factorial in a completely randomized design with three replications. Treatment includes fertilizer factor: vermicompost (F1, vermicompost + compost (F2, vermicompost + mycorrhiza (F3, compost + vermicompost + mycorrhiza (F4, compost (F5, mycorrhiza + compost (F6, mycorrhiza (F7 and control (no fertilizer application F8 and cultivar factor includes two cultivar Bolani (C1 and cross - Bolani (C2. The results showed that the interaction effect of combined treatments (F7C2 of high yield (1.13 g.pot-1 obtained. The treatment combination (F7C2 of (0.355 was highest harvest index. The high correlation between weight per plant with plant height, spike length, grain yield and harvest index were observed. Generally the combined application of vermicompost and mycorrhiza cultivar cross - Bolani is more suitable for grain production.

  16. The Effect of Crop Residue and Different NPK Fertilizer Rates on yield Components and Yield of Wheat

    fatemeh khamadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Integrated nutrient management involving crop residue/green manures and chemical fertilizer is potential alternative to provide a balanced supply of nutrients, enhance soil quality and thereby sustain higher productivity. The present experiment was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different crop residue management practices and NPK levels on yield components and yield of wheat. Materials and methods Field experiments were conducted during 2012-2014 at department of agronomy, Chamran University. Experiment was laid out in a randomized block designs in split plot arrangement. With three replications. Crop residues were assigned to main plot consistent CR1: wheat residue; CR2: rape residue; CR3: barley residue; CR4: barley residue + vetch; CR5: wheat straw + mungbean; CR6: vetch residue; CR7: mungbean residue; CR8: No residue incorporation as main plot and three NPK fertilizer rates: F1: (180N-120P-100K kg.ha-1; F2: (140N-90P-80K kg.ha-1; F3: (90N-60P-40K kg.ha-1 as sub plots. Twelve hills were collected at physiological maturity for measuring yield components from surrounding area of grain yield harvest area. Yield components, viz. number of spike per m2, seed per spike, 1000- grain weight, plant height were measured. Grain and straw yields were recorded from the central 5 m2 grain yield harvest area of each treatment and harvest index was calculated. Data were subjected to analysis by SAS and mean companions were performed using the Duncan multiple range test producer. Also, graphs were drawn in Excel software. Results and discussion The result of analysis variance showed significant difference between crop residues for evaluated traits. The result indicated that the highest biological and grain yield was obtained when wheat treated with CR5: wheat straw + mungbean (green manure and CR4: barley straw + vetch (green manure. Biological and grain yield increased 31 and 26% respectively by CR5 comparing with control. The highest

  17. The Effect of Different Fertilizer Management on Yield and Yield Components of Black Seed (Nigella sativa L.

    P rezvani moghaddam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Given the importance of nitrogen for improving the quantitative and qualitative yield of crops (Rodrigues et al., 2006 and the need for application of chemical fertilizers in intensive agriculture to get the maximum production, nitrogen supply in adequate amounts by ecologically avowed resources is known as one of the main challenges during transition from conventional to organic farming (Rodrigues et al., 2006. Considering the sustainable nitrogen management, reconstruction and rehabilitation of agroecosystems depends on reduction the nitrogen losses due to leaching, soil erosion and volatilization (Kizilkaya, 2008. For this purpose, the use of eco-friendly bio based fertilizers that are derived from natural origin, known as effective and enforceable approaches. In this regards, the proper use of manure and free-living aerobic bacteria of soils, such as Azotobacter and Azospirillum as well as mycorrhizal inoculation which can be used as a biological fertilizers, can particularly be considered (Kizilkaya, 2008. With regard to all mentioned above, the current study was aimed to evaluate the effects of biological, organic and inorganic resources of nitrogen on yield and yield components of black seed (Nigella sativa L.. Materials and methods The field experiment was conducted at Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in years of 2009-2010. Experimental site was located in a semi-arid region, Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran. The soil texture was silty loam, pH 8.36, electrical conductivity 3.72 dS.m-1, total N 0.095% and 0.195% organic carbon. The available P and K contents were 5.76 and 0.378 ppm, respectively. Experimental design was arranged by using a completely randomized block design with three replications. Experimental treatments included chemical fertilizer (urea, urea + nitroxin, urea + mycorrhizae, urea + nitroxin + mycorrhizae, urea + biosulfur, manure, manure + nitroxin, manure + mycorrhizae

  18. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Weeds Growth and Emergence and Yield and Yield Components of Corn (Zea mays L.

    M. Gholamshahi

    2017-01-01

    components of corn and weeds growth and emergence, a field study was conducted in research Station of Natural Resources Research Centre, Kerman province. Materials and Methods: This experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of different levels of nitrogen in four levels (0, 80, 160, 240 kg ha-1 urea fertilizer (46%. In addition, for assessment the effect of experimental treatments, each plot separated into two parts (complete control and non-control of weeds. Preparing the field was done with autumn plowing and spring disc. Corn seeds (single cross 704 were planted on rows in the spring with hand and with the density of 71000 plants per hectare with row spacing of 70 cm and 20cm. Irrigation was performed on average every7 days. Weeds in the control treatment were weeding by hand twice during the growing season. Results and Discussion: The results showed that nitrogen application in combination with weeds control increased yield and yield components of corn and the other growth traits, significantly. The maximum corn yield observed 12/8 kg under high nitrogen treatment (240 kg ha-1 with 88/82% increase compare with non-fertilizer treatment. Moreover, increase in nitrogen imposed a significant positive affect on height, yield and yield components including (Length and ear diameter and ear dry matter, the number of grains in row and the number of rows in ear, hundred grain weight. Nitrogen is one of the factors affecting the development of leaf area per plant and therefore, the development of the corn canopy. It seems that the increase of nitrogen during the tassel stage and seed formation which are the most sensitive stages to nitrogen absorption and photosynthesis, increased the length of ear. In addition, results of the experiment indicated that control of weeds had significant effect on different growth factors. Furthermore, the increase nitrogen rate caused to weeds emergence rate and dry weight

  19. Effect of Chemical Fertilizer, Cow Manure and Municipal Compost on Yield, Yield Components and Oil Quantity of three Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. Cultivars in Mashhad

    P Rezvani Moghaddam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of different organic and chemical fertilizers on yield, yield components and seed oil content of sesame an experiment was conducted in a split plot layout based on randomized complete block design with four replications at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in year 2006. Four types of fertilizer, including chemical fertilizer, cow manure, municipal compost and no fertilizer (control were allocated as main plots and three sesame cultivars (two local varieties of Kalat and Esfarayen, and Oltan cultivar were used as sub plots. The results showed that fertilizer treatments had significant effect (P

  20. THE EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION ON YIELD COMPONENTS AND QUALITY PARAMETERS OF SOYBEANS [(GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERR.] SEEDS

    Macák, Milan; Candráková, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Field experiment was carry out at experimental farm Oponice (West Slovakia, 48° 28´N, 18° 9´E) ) in 2004-2007. The aim of the work was to evaluate the influence of nitrogen fertilization treatments on yield and yield component and selected quality parameters (proteins, oil, fibre, isoflavones) of soybeen seeds variety Korada, in agri-environmental condition of western part of Slovakia. The fertilization treatments were as follows: (I) unfertilized treatment; (II) application of nitrogen ferti...

  1. Residual Effect of Chemical and Animal Fertilizers and Compost on Yield, YieldComponents, Physiological Characteristics and Essential Oil Content of Matricaria chamomilla L. under Drought Stress conditions

    a Ahmadian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The residual effect of inorganic and organic fertilizers on growth and yield of plants is one of the important problems in nutrition. This study was conducted to determine the residual effect of different fertilizers on yield, yield components, physiological parameters and essential oil percentage of Matricaria chamomilla under drought stress. A split plot arrangement based on randomized completely block design (RCBD with three replication was conducted in 2009, at the University of Zabol. Treatments included W1 (non stress, W2 (75% FC and W3 (50% FC as main plot and three types of residual’s fertilizers: F1 (non fertilizer, F2 (chemical fertilizer, F3 (manure fertilizer and F4 (compost as sub plot. Results showed that water stress at W3 treatment reduced dry flower yield. Low water stress increased essential oil percentage and the highest oil was obtained in W2. In this experiment, free proline and total soluble carbohydrate concentration were increased under water stress. The residual’s manure and compost enhanced flower yield, percentage and yield of essential oil of chamomile at the second year. At a glance, animal manure application and light water stress (75% FC was recommended to obtain best quantitative and qualitative yield. Keywords: Water Stress, Fertilizer, Carbohydrate, Proline, Chamomile

  2. Effect of Irrigation with Wastewater and Foliar Application of Complete Fertilizer on Forage Yield and Yield Components of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica

    A Ahmadi Aghtape

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study effect of irrigation with wastewater and foliar application of complete fertilizer on forage yield and seed yield and yield components of foxtail millet (Setaria italica. A split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at the Agriculture Institute of Zabol University in year 2009. Treatments included three levels of irrigation: Irrigation with well water at all stages of grows (control, Irrigation with wastewater and tap water alternately, Irrigation with wastewater for all growing stages, as the main plot and sprayed with three levels of complete fertilizer (NATBA-LIB: Non spraying (control, sprayed with 600 and 1200 gram of complete fertilizer in each hectare, as were the subplots. Results showed that irrigation with wastewater and complete fertilizer sprayed had significant effect on all traits except leaf to stem ratio. Furthermore, among the irrigation treatments, irrigation with wastewater in total growing period, and wastewater and tap water alternately lead to significant increase in grain yield, forage yield and yield components. Among the sprayed treatments, sprayed with 1200 gram of complete fertilizer had highest forage yield and grain.

  3. Effect of Seed Priming, Sowing methods and Bio-fertilizers on Yield and Yield Components of Seedy Watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus

    M Zarandi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus is one of the most important fresh fruits in Iran particularly during summer. After China, in terms of production and cultivation area, Iran placed second in the world. Research conducted in different regions (especially in arid and semi-arid regions, like Iran indicated that poor germination and establishment of seedlings in the field causes low yield, particularly in vegetables. Seed priming, (to increase the percentage and rate of germination and transplanting to increase plant establishment and use of bio-fertilizers to increase food availability during the growing season are inevitable to transfer to ecological agriculture. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of seeds osmopriming, transplanting and bio-fertilizers on watermelon grain yield. Materials and Methods This experiment was conducted at split plot based on complete block design with three replications in the Laboratory, Greenhouse and the Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2013. First factor was seed priming in two levels (unprimed and primed, the second factor was transplanting in two levels (direct sowing and transplantation and the third factor was bio-fertilizers containing pseudomonas and Azotobacter in two levels (non bio-fertilizers and bio-fertilizers. Leaf area index (LAI, number of fruits per plant, number of seeds per fruit, 1000 seed weight, grain yield and total dry matter were determined. Results and Discussion Transplants produced using osmoprimed seeds that had been sprayed with bio-fertilizers on the field (T2P2K2 had higher LAI than the other treatments (Table 3. Bio-fertilizers in both transplanting and direct sowing produced more LAI, but osmopriming of seeds with PEG 6000 had little impact on LAI (Table 3. LAI is one of the growth parameters which had a great effect to achieve maximum yield that needs to be at higher level before flowering. Izadkhah et al. (2010 and

  4. Effect of Application of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Organic Fertilizers on Yield and Yield Components of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Lahijan, Northern Iran

    K. Mansour Ghanaei Pashaki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of application of nitrogen, phosphorus and biologic fertilizers on yield and yield components of native bean, an experiment was conducted as factorial in randomized complete block design with three replications in Lahijan, northern Iran in 2013. Treatments consisted of chemical nitrogen fertilizer (0, 60 and 120 kg ha-1 urea, chemical phosphorus fertilizer (0, 40 and 80 kg ha-1 P2O5 and mixture of rhizobium, bacillus and pseudomonas biofertilizers (application and on application. The maximum and minimum seed yields (1556 kg ha-1and 451 kg ha-1 were obtained at the presence of 120 kg ha-1 urea with 80 kg ha-1 P2O5 and control (no fertilizers, respectively. The results showed that seed yield was significantly affected by interactions of nitrogen and phosphorus, and phosphorus with bio-fertilizers. The triple interaction effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and biofertilizers was significant on pod number per plant, seed number per pod, seed number per plant and 100 seed weight. The maximum pod number per plant, seed number per pod and 100 seed weight were found in interaction of 120 kg ha-1 urea and 40 kg ha-1 P2O5 with biological fertilizers. Overall, it seems that application of biological phosphorus with both N and P chemical fertilizers is more beneficial to bean; however, the present one-year study needs to be continued in years ahead to ascertain our results.

  5. Evaluation of Effect of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers on Growth Characteristics, Yield and Yield components of three Sesame Ecotypes (Sesamum indicum L.

    M Goldani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Using organic fertilizers is cause increase soil fertility, improving crop growth and production. For this purpose a greenhouse experiment was carried out in factorial arrangement based on a completely randomized design with three replications during 2011 year. First factor included: three sesame ecotype (MSC3, MSC6, MSC7 and second factor was 6 fertilizer treatments that included: Incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer (216 g manure and 1 gram chemical fertilizer NPK, Chemical fertilizer (2 g NPK, Vermicompost (192 g, Manure ( 228 g, Compost Sulfur granules (192 g per vase and Control (without any manure or fertilizer. Results indicated that different manure treatments had significant effect on morphological and yield components traits, as the most number and length branch per plant was obtained from incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer treatment. Appling incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer treatment had the most biomass in MSC3 ecotype that in comparison of control treatment was increased almost 73 percent. Consuming incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer treatment in MSC3 ecotype was also obtained the most capsule per plant (21.2, number seed per capsule (54.4, 100-seed weight (0.257 g and seed per plant with (1.95 g. The least seed weight per plant with 0.450 g was observed in MSC7 ecotype from application of control treatment. Response of three sesame ecotype (MSC3, MSC6, MSC7 to applied vermin-compost manure was similar; as the amount of seed weight per plant was increased more than 1 g per plant in all these ecotypes and in others fertilizer treatments was not observed this trend. There was significant positive correlation between seed weight per plant and number of capsule per plant (r=0.83**, height (r=0.68** and biomass (r=0.51**. The results showed that incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer was improved on growth and yield characteristics of sesame plant.

  6. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Oilseed Rape in the Wheat-Oilseed Rape Strip Intercropping Influenced by Chemical and Biological Fertilizers

    R Amirmardfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of wheat (Triticum aestivum and oilseed rape (Brassica napus strip intercropping on yield components, seed and biological yields of oilseed rape, field experiments were carried out as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research Farm of Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran during 2010-2012 cropping seasons. The first factor consisted of four types of wheat and oilseed rape cropping system, sole crop of oilseed rape (A1,: strip intercropping with 8:3 (A2, 12:4 (A3 and 16:5 (A4 of wheat and oilseed rape rows, respectively and the other factor consisted of two fertilizer levels, B1: 100% chemical fertilizers (urea and triple superphosphate and B2: 50% chemical fertilizers + biofertilizers (Nitrazhin and Barvar2. The results showed that strip intercropping of wheat- oilseed rape resulted in significant increase in yield components, seed yield per occupied unit area and biological yield per occupied unit area of oilseed rape as compared with mono-cropping. The number of silique per plant in intercropping systems was significantly higher than that of mono-cropping. The highest seed yield was obtained in the 16:5 rows of wheat-oilseed rape with 343.76 g.m-2 and the lowest mean was observed in mono-cropping of oilseed rape with 260.21 g.m-2. Biological yield per occupied unit area and seed yield per intercropped unit area in B1 were significantly greater than that of B2, but this treatment had no significant effect on the other traits. Because, B1 and B2 had no significant difference in seed yield per occupied unit area and due to the importance of reduction in chemical fertilizers consumption and food and environmental health care, strip intercropping of wheat-oilseed rape under 50% chemical fertilizers + biofertilizers can be recommended as a suitable cultural method.

  7. Assessing the Effect of Organic Compounds, Biofertilizers and Chemical Fertilizers on Morphological Properties,yield and Yield Components of Forage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor

    A.H Saeidnejad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, using the source of organic fertilizers and biofertilizers in sustainable crop production is growing. In order to evaluate the effect of organic compounds, biofertilizers and chemical fertilizer on morphological properties, yield and yield components of forage Sorghum (sorghum bicolor a field experiment was conducted in the Research Farm, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2008.The treatments were seed inoculation with the combination of Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense, Compost (15 t/ha, Vermicompost (10 t/ha, seed inoculation with Azotobacter and Azospirillum and compost (10t/ha, seed inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense and Vermicompost (7t/ha, seed inoculation with Pseudomonas flurescence, seed inoculation with Pseudomonas flurescence and Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense combination, seed inoculation with Pseudomonas flurescence and compost (15t/ha, chemical fertilizer (80 kg/h urea fertilizer and 50 kg/h super phosphate fertilizer and control. Harvesting was performed in 2 cuts in flowering stage. Plant height, number of tiller per plant and SPAD reading was significantly affected by the treatments. Stem diameter was not affected by any treatments. There was a significant difference among all treatments in terms of fresh and dry forage yield. There were no significant differences among all treatments in terms of stem and leaf dry matter. In general, result of this experiment indicated that organic amendments and biofertilizers could be acceptable alternatives for chemical fertilizers.

  8. The effect of organic fertilizers and different sowing dates on yield and yield components of flower and grain of Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.

    P Rezvani moghaddam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to find out suitable organic fertilizers for elimination of chemical fertilizers usage and the optimum sowing date in Pot Marigold cultivation, an experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2007 growing season. For this purpose a split plot experiment based on completely randomized block design with three replications was used. The main factor consist of four different fertilizers (50 kg.ha-1 N, 40 t.ha-1 Cow manure, 20 t.ha-1 Compost fertilizer and 10 t.ha-1 Hen manure beside control (without fertilizer and three sowing dates (10th April, 1th May and 21th May were allocated as sub factor. The results showed that the length time of emergence to budding, budding to flowering and flowering to ripening decreased by delay in sowing date, significantly. By delay in sowing date, plant height and dry matter also decreased because of reduction of vegetative growing duration. The various fertilizers had not significant effect on developmental stages and morphological characteristics of Pot Marigold. Nitrogen fertilizer and Hen manure in compare of other treatments had significantly (p≤0.05 higher level in number of inflorescences, yield of inflorescences, yield of petal and seed yield. Thus, Hen manure can be a suitable replacement of chemical fertilizers in Pot Marigold cultivation. The various sowing dates showed significant effect on the most measured characteristics of seed and inflorescences yield components of Pot Marigold. The highest of all studied characteristics were obtained in 10th April and 1th May than 21th May sowing dates.

  9. Yield and Yield Components of Vetch (Vigna radiata as Affected by the Use of Vermicompost and Phosphate Bio-fertilizer

    Mohammad Mehdi Rahimi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects different levels of phosphate biofertilizer barvar-2 and vermi compost on yield and yield components of vetch plant (Vigna radiata L.in Yasouj a factorial experiments was performed in completely randomized design in crop year of 2013. Experimental treatments were phosphate biofertilizer barvar-2 at 3 levels (0, 50, 100 gram per hectare and vermicompost at 4 levels (0, 10, 20, 30 ton per hectare. In this study stem height, root length, biological yield, seed yield and harvest index was measured. ANOVA and comparison of means showed that vermicompost significantly increased stem height, economic and biological yields. Results, also, indicated that highest yield and biomass, 4.3 and 18.8 g/plant, observed respectively when 100 g/ha of barvar-2 and 30 t/ha of vermi compost were used. Using both of phosphate biofertilizer barvar-2 and vermicompost was better than their individnal usage. This indicates that combined use of these 2 factors would produce higher yield. It can be concluded that application of 100 g/ha of barvar-2 and 30 t/ha of vermicompost would a proper recommendation.

  10. THE EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION ON YIELD COMPONENTS AND QUALITY PARAMETERS OF SOYBEANS [(GLYCINE MAX (L. MERR.] SEEDS

    Milan Macak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was carry out at experimental farm Oponice West Slovakia, 48 28 N, 18 9E in 2004 2007. The aim of the work was to evaluate the influence of nitrogen fertilization treatments on yield and yield component and selected quality parameters proteins, oil, fibre, isoflavones of soybeen seeds variety Korada, in agri environmental condition of western part of Slovakia. The fertilization treatments were as follows I unfertilized treatment; II application of nitrogen fertilizers LAV 27 ammonium nitrate with lime 40 kg ha 1 nitrogen in the vegetative stage V2; III Humix complet in split application of total dose 4 +4 L ha 1 applied in growth stage of V2 and in reproductive growth stage of R1 beginning bloom. Humix complet contain bioactive ingredient and nutrients for plant nutrition with 2.5 of humic acids, 4.0 total N, 0.5 P2O5, 3 K2O, and micronutrients. Result showed the highest variation of pods per plant in dependence of year condition range 17.8-24.7. No significant differences between numbers of seeds were noted 2.13-2.29. The split application of Humic complet significantly influence the higher number of pods per plant 24.8 while keeping the number of seeds per pod 2.13. The yield of seeds was significantly influenced by weather conditions 2.84 t ha 1 4.68 t ha 1 and by fertilization treatments. Supplemental ammonium nitrate with lime treatments II in the vegetative stage of V2 or Humix complet treatment III applied in V2 and R1 stages significantly increased yield of soybean seeds up to 3.91 t ha 1 and 4.27 t ha 1 with comparison to control treatment 3.49 t ha 1. Content of protein, oil and fibre was not significantly differing between fertilization treatments. In spite of significantly higher soybean yield in Humic complet treatment, content of protein 37.67, oil 15.83 and fibre 9.47 was at the same level as lower yielded treatments. Soybean seeds from higher yielded fertilization treatments have significantly less content of

  11. Investigation of Yield and Yield Components of Canary Seed Forage (Phalaris canariensis L. in Response to Different Levels of Irrigation, Organic and Chemical Fertilizers and their integration

    V Varnaseri Ghandali

    2016-12-01

    application on the yield and yield components of the forge of canary seed plant on the path of sustainable agriculture. Materials and Methods To investigate the effects of different levels of irrigation water and integrated management of chemical and organic fertilizers on growth indices, yield and yield components of the Canary seed forage, an experiment was conducted as split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during growing season of 2013-2014. Different regimes of irrigation were in three levels (60, 80 and 100 percent of water requirement in main plots and fertilizer treatments were in six levels (chemical fertilizer, vermicompost fertilizer, manure, chemical fertilizer + vermicompost fertilizer, chemical fertilizer + manure and control in sub-plots. The amounts of treatment of nitrogen chemical fertilizer (200 kg ha-1 of urea source and 150 kg ha-1 of triple super phosphate were applied in corresponding plots. The amounts of manure fertilizers (30 ton ha-1 and vermicompost (6 ton. ha-1 were determined and applied based on recommended amount of nitrogen. Water requirement of canary seed was estimated by the OPTIWAT software in continental condition of Mashhad . The volume of irrigation water for irrigation treatments was estimated based on 60, 80 and 100 percent of water requirement and was recorded as applied in each round of irrigation. In order to harvest the forage in the emergence stage of 50% spikes of the Canary seed, 10 plants per plot were randomly chosen before harvest and traits such as per plant height and the number of tillers were recorded. Then, considering marginal effects from a surface equivalent to 1.4 m-2, plants were harvested from the height 3-5 cm and the weight of forage produced in each plot was measured and determined by weighing. Then, the harvested forage was transferred to the laboratory and two samples with

  12. Investigating the Effect of Cultivate Lines Direction, Bio-Fertilizer Nitroxin and Superabsorbent Materials on Yield and Yield Components of Broad Leaf Vetch (Vicia narbonensis

    E Latifinia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The excessive use of fertilizers has caused severe damages to the bio-cycle in the fields and has destroyed the sustainable agricultural machinery. These destructive effects have led to the recommended use of bio-fertilizers. Biodiversity is one of the key sources of supplying nutrients in sustainable agriculture. The use of biological fertilizers in a sustainable agricultural system leads to sustained yield in plant production. Biological fertilizer of nitroxin has increased biological yield and grain yield in fodder corn. Water shortage as a limiting factor has limited vegetation growth and development in these areas. Considering that Iran is a dry country, the use of super adsorbent is one of the ways to reduce water consumption. Investigators in the study of superabsorbent showed that superabsorbent had a significant and positive effect on the yield of forage plants. Crop directions can affect the amount of the product by increasing the leaf area and absorbing light. Proper orientation of crop lines increases the photosynthetic efficiency and increases the yield and yield components of the plant. Research has shown that yields are much higher in plants planted on the north-south lines compared with plants planted on east-west lines. Materials and Methods In order to investigate the effect of nitroxin and superabsorbent fertilizer on yield and yield components of broad leaf vetch in a research field of agricultural faculty, Lorestan University, as a split plot factorial based on a complete block design randomization was performed in three replicates. In this research, for main lines, the main factors were considered in the North-South and East-West directions in the main plots. Sub-factors In this experiment, nitroxin biosynthesis and superabsorbent materials were applied at two levels of consumption and non-consumption in sub plots. Nitroxin fertilizer was used as a seed lot at a rate of 1 liter per hectare and the stockosorb

  13. Effects of Mineral N and P Fertilizers on Yield and Yield Components of Flooded Lowland Rice on Vertisols of Fogera Plain, Ethiopia

    Heluf Gebrekidan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite its very recent history of cultivation in Ethiopia, rice is one of the potential grain crops that could contribute to the efforts for the realization of food security in the country. However, the scientific information available with regards to the response of flooded rice to N and P fertilizers for its optimum production on Vertisols of Fogera Plain is very limited. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted on Vertisols of Fogera plain, northern Ethiopia to study the yield and yield components response of rice and to establish the optimum N and P fertilizer levels required for improved grain yield of flooded rice. Six levels of N (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg ha−1 and five levels of P (0, 13.2, 26.4, 39.6 and 52.8 kg ha−1 laid down in a randomized complete block design with four replications were used as treatments. Nitrogen was applied in two equal splits (50% basal and 50% at maximum tillering as urea and the entire dose of P was applied basal as triple super phosphate at sowing. The main effects of N and P fertilizer levels showed significant differences (P ≤ 0.01 for all yield and yield components studied. The effects of N by P interaction were significant only for grain yield (P ≤ 0.05, number of panicles per m2 (P ≤ 0.01, number of spikelets per panicle (P ≤ 0.05 and plant height (P ≤ 0.01 among the different yield and yield components studied. Application of N and P significantly (P ≤ 0.01 increased grain yield of rice up to the levels of 60 kg N and 13.2 kg P ha−1. However, maximum grain yield (4282 kg ha−1 was obtained with the combined application of 60 kg N and 13.2 kg P ha−1, and the yield advantage over the control was 38.49% (1190 kg ha−1. Moreover, application of both N and P fertilizers have increased the magnitudes of the important yield attributes including number of panicles per m2, number of spikelets per panicle, panicle length, dry matter accumulation, straw yield and plant height

  14. Effect of Different Level of Water Stress and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield and Yield Components of Barley in Badjgah (Fars province

    ali asghar ghaemi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Barley is very important to feed humans, livestock, medical, industrial uses, especially in fermentation industries. In Iran, barley crop cultivation was nearly 1.4 million hectares withits production of 1.3 million tons in 2003 (2. Barelyis the oldest crops to environmental stresses such as drought and salinity resistance (3.The different barely growth stages with extreme water requirement can benoted in germination stage, stem elongation, heading the production stage, the stage of flowering and seed production. Typically, for spring and autumn barely respectively 3 and 4 to 5 times irrigation is done during the growing season. The barley water requirement over its life is between 4 and 7 thousand cubic meters and 518 liters of water is needed to produce one kilogram of dry matter. Due to limited water resources and low rainfall in Iran, efficient use of water is absolutely essential and the maximum water utilization must be achieved by applying a minimum amount of water in agriculture. One of the ways to increase productivity in agricultural water is deficit irrigation.Deficit irrigation is an optimization strategy for water use efficiency in irrigation.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the simultaneous effect of fertilizer treatments (150, 225 and 75 kg/ ha and water at three different levels (100%, 75% and 50% of crop water requirement at different growth stages on leaf area index, weight fresh and dried herb and plant nitrogen concentration and the effect of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer on yield, yield components and productivity of water use. Materials and Method: This research was conducted in Shiraz University in fall 2012 to study the effect of interaction of deficit irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer on yield, yield component and water use efficiency and nitrogen concentration in different stages of barley (Bahman species growth. This experiment were evaluated using a randomized complete block design with s

  15. Investigating the Effect of Cultivate Lines Direction, Bio-Fertilizer Nitroxin and Superabsorbent Materials on Yield and Yield Components of Broad Leaf Vetch (Vicia narbonensis)

    E Latifinia; N Akbari; F Nazarian Firozabadi; S Heidari

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The excessive use of fertilizers has caused severe damages to the bio-cycle in the fields and has destroyed the sustainable agricultural machinery. These destructive effects have led to the recommended use of bio-fertilizers. Biodiversity is one of the key sources of supplying nutrients in sustainable agriculture. The use of biological fertilizers in a sustainable agricultural system leads to sustained yield in plant production. Biological fertilizer of nitroxin has increased ...

  16. Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on Yield and Yield Components of Garlic Medicinal Plant (Allium sativum L. under the Conditions of Different Organic and Chemical Fertilizers Application

    Yaser Esmaeilian

    2018-03-01

    often underestimated. Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. Garlic cloves are used for consumption (raw and cooked or for medicinal purposes. They have a pungent characteristic, spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the effect of biofertilizers and organic and chemical fertilizers on yield and yield components of garlic (Allium sativum L., a split plot experiment based on RCBD with three replications was conducted in 2015-2016 growing seasons, in Gonabad University, Iran. Main plot included different organic and chemical fertilizers (1- vermicompost, 2- cow manure, 3- chemical fertilizer and 4- control and sub plot included plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (nitroxin, biophosphorous and control. In order to determine physic-chemical properties of soil, sampling was performed at the depth of 0 to 30 cm. Before cultivation, 7 and 30 t.ha-1 vermicompost and cow manure were added to the soil, respectively. Nutrient requirement of garlic for nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium from the chemical source was considered 40, 50 and 60 kg.ha-1. For application of biofertilizers, bulblets inoculated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for 15 minutes. Distance in and between rows was considered 10 and 20 cm, respectively. Weeds were controlled manually three times. At the end of the growing season, economic yield, biological yield, plant height, shoot dry weight, bulb diameter, bulblet weight per plant, bulblet volume per plant and bulblet number per plant were measured. Analysis of data variance was performed by using SAS software (Ver 9.1. Results and Discussion: The results showed that simple effect of chemical fertilizer on bulb diameter was not significant but combined application of chemical fertilizer and biophosphorous increased bulb diameter as much as 18% compared to control. Combined application of nitroxin and cow manure increased bulblet weight per plant by 41

  17. Effects of Vermi-compost Fertilizer Application and Foliar Spraying on Yield and Yield Component of Isabgol (Plantago ovate L. Medicinal Plant

    Asghar Rahimi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vermi-compost is the ability of some species of earthworms to consume and break down a wide range of organic residues such as sewage sludge, animal wastes, crop residues and industrial refuse. Vermi-composts are usually more stable than their parent materials with increased availability of nutrients and improved physicochemical and microbiological properties. Aerial compost tea contains high populations of live microorganism consisting of rhizobactria, trichoderma and pseudomonas species which increase the growth and yield of the plant. Acid humic is the main humic substance and the important ingredient of soil organic matter (humus which causes increase of yield and quality of crop. The aim of this research is evaluating the effect of vermi-compost and foliar application of compost tea and acid humic on yield, yield component and mucilage content of isabgol. Vermiwash as the extract of vermi-compost is liquid organic fertilizer obtained from unit of vermiculture and vermi-compost as drainage. It is used as a foliar spraying on the leaf. Vermiwash stimulate and increase the yield of crop products and foliar application of vermiwash can be caused of plant resistance to different factors and can prevent leaf necrosis. Material and Methods In order to study the effect of vermi-compost and foliar application of tea compost and acid humic on growth indices of isabgol (Plantago ovata, an experiment was conducted as a factorial based on complete randomized design with three replications in agricultural research farm at Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan. Treatments were included application of vermi-compost (0 (control, 4, 8, 12 and 16 t.ha-1 and 3 levels of foliar application (distilled water as control, acid humic and compost tea. Samples for evaluating of yield, yield components and mucilage content were taken from 1 m2 area of each treatment. Tea compost solution prepared using mix of vermi-compost, acid humic, yeast and alga extract

  18. Evaluation the effects of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on morphological traits, yield and yield components of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    S. M.K Tahhami Zarandi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic manure and biofertilizers containing beneficial microorganisms instead of chemical fertilizers are known to improve plant growth through supply of plant nutrients and can help sustain environmental health and soil productivity. Because of special priority of the medicinal plants production in sustainable agricultural systems and lack of studies on assessment of different sources of fertilizer on basil plants, an experiment was conducted at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2009. A complete randomize block design with ten treatments, and three replications was used. The treatments were: 1cow manure, 2sheep manure, 3hen manure, 4compost 5vermicompost, 6biological fertilizer nitroxin (consisting of Azotobacter and Azospirillum, 7biological fertilizer consisting of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (Pseudomonas and Bacillus, 8mixture of biological fertilizer nitroxin and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria 9NPK fertilizers, and 10control (no fertilizer. Results showed plant height in sheep manure was higher than other treatments. Number of branches in vermicompost and number of inflorescence in cow manure were significantly higher than other treatments. The number of whorled flowers in compost, sheep and cow manure were more than other treatments. Highest leaf and green area index was observed in nitroxin treatment and biological yield in sheep manure have significant difference with other treatments (except cow manure. The highest seed yield were obtained from plants treated with compost (1945 kg/h and the lowest of that observed in NPK fertilizer and control treatments. In all measured traits (except number of inflorescence NPK fertilizer and control treatment did not have any significant difference.

  19. The Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR and Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganism (PSM on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat (cv. N80 under Different Nitrogen and Phosphorous Fertilizers Levels in Greenhouse Condition

    S. H Bahari saravi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and phosphate solubilizing microorganism (PSM on yield and yield components of wheat a pot experiment was conducted at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during 2009. Experiment was arranged in factorial based on completely randomized design in three replicates. Treatments were included bio-fertilizer in four levels (non-inoculation control, Phosphate Barvare 2 (Pseudomonas fluorescens+Bacillus subtilis, Supernitroplus (Azotobacter brasilense+Azospirillum lipoferum and Nitroxine (Azospirillum + Pseudomona + Bacillus, three levels of chemical nitrogen fertilizer (0, 75 and 150 kg urea/ha and three levels of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 60 and 120 kg super phosphate triple/ha. Results showed that the studied treatments (biofertilizer, nitrogen and phosphate inorganic fertilizers had significant effect on grain number per spike, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, straw yield, biological yield and harvest index. Interaction effect between biofertilizer and chemical fertilizers was significant in terms of grain yield. The maximum grain yield was resulted from simultaneously applying of Nitroxine and 75 kg ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer. By contrast, the highest straw yield was obtained when 150 kg nitrogen fertilizer was used. Grain yield had the maximum correlation with biological yield (r=0.85**. Grain yield positively and significantly correlated with grain number per spike (r=0.73**, 1000 grain weight (r=0.68**, straw yield (r=0.56** and harvest index (r=0.69**. In conclusion biofertilizer inoculations could reduce application of nitrogen and phosphorus chemical fertilizers and increase plant performance.

  20. The effect of application of chemical and organic fertilizers on yield and yield components of sesame (Sesamum indicum L. in different plant densities

    P. Rezvani Moghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the effect of plant density and different fertilizers on sesame (Sesamum indicum L. production, an experiment was conducted as a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized block design with three replications. The experimental treatments were fertilizers in four levels (cow manure (30 t.ha-1, municipal compost (30 t.ha-1, chemical fertilizer (250 kg ammonium phosphate + 100 kg urea and control (no-fertilizer and plant density in four levels (20, 30, 40 and 50 plant.m-2. The results showed that all treatments increased the plant height, number of capsule per plant, plant biomass, seed yield, seed weight and number of seed per plant compared to control, significantly. The highest amount of the traits was obtained in manure treatment. The seed yield was increased by increasing plant density, but decreased the plant height, number of capsule per plant, plant biomass, seed yield and weight and number of seed per plant, significantly. 1000-seed weight, harvest index and weight of seed per capsule had no affected by treatments. Our result indicated that the density of 40 plant.m-2 among using manure was the most appropriate of cropping pattern in our experiment.

  1. The effect of biological fertilizers on yield, yield components and seed oil contents of three cultivars of canola (Brassica napus L.

    A Koocheki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Canola is the world third oil crop with 25 to 55 percent oil content (Hezbavi & Minaei, 2008. In recent years, tendency towards expansion of the acreage of canola in Iran has been increasing and for the years 2010-2011 an area of 93000 ha with a total production of 190000 tons has been reported (Ministry of Jihad of Agriculture, 2013. Application of biological fertilizers which are environmentally friendly agents have been reported to enhance yield and quality of different crops (Shoghi Kalkhoran et al., 2012; Afrasiabi et al., 2011. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of biological fertilizers on quantitative and quality criteria of canola. Material and methods For this study, a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design and three replicates was used. The experimental treatments were three canola cultivars namely Okapi, Zarfam and Modena which was combined with four levels of biological fertilizers: Nitroxin, Phosphat solubilizing bacteria (PSB, Nitroxin+PSB and a control. Seeds were planted in plots of 2×3 m2. All field managements were carried out based on conventional practices. The measured criteria were plant height, number of pods per plant, 1000- seed weight, biomass yield, harvest index, oil content and yield. Results and discussion The results showed that in all studied criteria except 1000- seed weight there were significant differences between cultivars. Different fertilizer treatments had a significant effect on all criteria except 1000- seed weight and HI. Modena cultivar had the highest oil yield and quantitative characteristics. Composition of phosphate solubilizing bacteria+nitroxin also had the highest oil yield and quantitative characteristics. The interactions between biofertilizer treatments and cultivars in all criteria were not significant. The result of this experiment indicated the effectiveness of use of biofertilizers. References Afrasiabi, M., Amini

  2. The Effect of Application of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Nano-Organic Manure on Yield, Yield Components and Essential Oil of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgar Mill.

    S Khoshpeyk

    2017-03-01

    emergence. The rest of irrigation was done every 5 days. The spacing between plants were 20 cm that was achieved by thinning plants in 3-4 leaves stage .Weeding was done manually tree times. Fennel harvesting was done in early September at the time of physiological maturity. At the first five plants harvested randomly from each plot for measurement of plant height, the number of lateral branches per plant, the number of umbels per plant, the number of seeds per umbel, the number of seeds per plant, weight of 1000 seed and fresh and dry weight of plant. Then for measurement of biomass, grain yield and harvest index, one m-2 of center of each plot was harvested. Seed and straw essence were measured using distillation method with distilled water by Clevenger apparatus. The data was analyzed using the SAS software. Means comparisons were done with Duncan’s multiple rang test at 5% probability. Results and Discussion Results showed that height, the number of lateral branches, the number of umbels per plants, the number of seeds per plant, 1000 seed weight, dry weight, seed yield, straw yield, biological yield, harvest index, and essence yield were affected by nano-organic manure. Nitrogen fertilizers had significant effect on height, the number of seeds per umbrella, the number of seeds per plant, plant fresh and dry weight, seed yield, straw yield, biological yield and essence yields while the number of lateral branches, umbels per plant, seed weight and harvest index was not affected by this factor. The interaction of nano- organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer had not significant effect on the measurement characteristics. While the application of 10 ton ha-1 of nano-organic manure or 25 kg ha-1 of nitrogen fertilizer could increase biological, seed, straw and essential oil yield, higher amount utilization values of each treatment had no effect .Consumption of 25 kg ha-1 of nitrogen fertilizer increased seed yield by increasing the biological yield, while 10 tons ha-1 nano

  3. Response of Cotton to Irrigation Methods and Nitrogen Fertilization: Yield Components, Water-Use Efficiency, Nitrogen Uptake, and Recovery

    Janat, M.

    2009-01-01

    Efficient crop use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer is critical from economic and environmental viewpoints, especially under irrigated conditions. Cotton yield parameters, fiber quality, water- and N-use efficiency responses to N, and irrigation methods in northern Syria were evaluated. Field trials were conducted for two growing seasons on a Chromoxerertic Rhodoxeralf soil. Treatments consisted of drip fertigation, furrow irrigation, and five different rates of N fertilizer (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg N /ha). Cotton was irrigated when soil moisture in the specified active root depth was 80% of the field capacity as indicated by the neutron probe. Seed cotton yield was higher than the national average (3,928 kg/ha) by at least 12% as compared to all treatments. Lint properties were not negatively affected by the irrigation method or N rates. Water savings under drip fertigation ranged between 25 and 50% of irrigation water relative to furrow irrigation. Crop water-use efficiencies of the drip-fertigated treatments were in most cases 100% higher than those of the corresponding furrow-irrigated treatments. The highest water demand was during the fruit-setting growth stage. It was also concluded that under drip fertigation, 100 -150 N kg/ha was adequate and comparable with the highest N rates tested under furrow irrigation regarding lint yield, N uptake, and recovery. Based on cotton seed yield and weight of stems, the overall amount of N removed from the field for the drip-fertigated treatments ranged between 101-118 kg and 116-188 N/ha for 2001 and 2002, respectively. The N removal ranged between 94-113 and 111-144 kg N/ha for the furrow-irrigated treatments for 2001 and 2002, respectively. (author)

  4. Effect of cotton leaf-curl virus on the yield-components and fibre properties of cotton genotypes under varying plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer

    Ahmad, S.; Hayat, K.; Ashraf, F.; Sadiq, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Cotton leaf-curl virus (CLCu VB. Wala strain) is one of the major biotic constraints of cotton production in Punjab. Development of resistant cotton genotype is the most feasible, economical and effective method to combat this hazardous problem, but so far no resistant genotype has been reported. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare yield and yield-components and fiber traits of different genotypes/varieties under different plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer as a management strategy to cope with this viral disease. Field experiment was conducted during 2006-07 to evaluate the effect of genotype, plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer on cotton. Five genotypes (MNH-786, MNH-789, MNH- 6070, CIM- 496, and BH-160), three plant-spacings (15, 30 and 45 cm) and three nitrogen fertilizer-levels (6.5, 8.6 and 11 bags Urea / ha) were studied. Results showed that significant differences exist for plant height, no. of bolls/m/sup -2/, seed-cotton yield (kg/ha) due to genotype, interaction of genotype with plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer level. Whereas boll weight, ginning out-turn, staple length and fiber fineness were not affected significantly by the plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer, the effect due to genotype was significant for these traits. CLCuV infestation varied significantly with genotypes, while all other factors, i.e., plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizers, have non-significant effect. As the major objective of cotton cultivation is production of lint for the country and seed- cotton yield for the farmers, it is noted that genotypes grown in narrow plant-spacing (15 cm) and higher nitrogen fertilizer level (11.0 bags of urea/ha) produced maximum seed-cotton yield under higher CLCu V infestation in case of CIM-496, MNH-789 and BH-I60, while the new strain MNH-6070 gave maximum yield under 30cm plant-spacing and 8.6 bags of urea/ha has the 2.3% CLCu V infestation was observed in this variety. From the present study, it is concluded that

  5. Cattle manure fertilization increases fig yield

    Leonel,Sarita; Tecchio,Marco Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Fertilization using organic compounds is complementary to chemical fertilization, being essential to integrated fruit production. Reports on fig tree (Ficus carica L.) organic fertilization and mineral nutrition are worldwide scarce, especially in Brazil. This experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of cattle manure fertilization on the yield and productivity of the fig tree 'Roxo de Valinhos' in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, during the 2002/03, 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06 crop cycles....

  6. 7755 EFFECT OF NPK FERTILIZER ON FRUIT YIELD AND YIELD ...

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... peasant farmers in Nigeria. With the increased ... did not significantly (p=0.05) increase the fruit yield nor the seed yield. Key words: NPK fertilizer, Fruit ..... SAS (Statistical Analysis System) Version 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, ...

  7. Interrelationship of pollination conditions, fertilization and sunflower seed yield

    Joksimović Jovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Four commercially important sunflower hybrids (NS-H-45, NS-H-l 11, NS-H-702 and Velja and their parental components (Ha-74B, Ha-98B, CMS-3-8B, Ha-26B, RHA-583, RHA-R-PI-2/1 and RHA-113N were used over a period of two years to study the following traits: disk flower corolla length, nectar content, pollen viability, bee visitation, fertilization percentage and seed yield. Relations among the traits were determined by path coefficient analysis. The simple correlation coefficients showed that fertilization percentage and bee visitation had a highly significant influence on seed yield. The corolla length had a positive effect on nectar content, while nectar content had a significant negative influence on pollen viability. The highest significant direct influence on seed yield was that of fertilization percentage, while the effect on nectar content on seed yield was negative but not significant. The coefficient of determination was 0.8071.

  8. Effect of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on Growth and Yield of Tef ...

    toshiba

    Results showed that tef yield, some yield components and soil chemical properties are ... integrated soil fertility management is an approach that attempts to make the best use of .... organic fertilizers applied were based on the recommended N equivalent rate for the test ..... Science and engineering of composting: Design,.

  9. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorous Biofertilizers on Yield and Yield Components of Corn AS71 in Dareh-shahr, Iran

    A. Fathi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Biofertilizers are inputs that naturally supplement replace chemical fertilizers and they are recommended in sustainable agriculture. To study the effects of biological fertilizers on yield and yield components of corn, a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications were conducted at Dareh-shahr, Iran in 2010. Biological factors were 4 levels of nitrogen biofertilizers (nitroxin, nitrokara, supernitroplus and control and 4 levels of phosphorus biofertilizers (biophosphore, phosphate fertilized 2, MC1 and control. Results showed that biological nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers had significant effects on all traits under study. Interaction of nitrogen biological fertilizer × phosphate biological fertilizer was significant on 100 seed weight (P

  10. Effects of nitrogen application method and weed control on corn yield and yield components.

    Sepahvand, Pariya; Sajedi, Nurali; Mousavi, Seyed Karim; Ghiasvand, Mohsen

    2014-04-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilizer application and different methods for weed control on yield and yield components of corn was evaluated in Khorramabad in 2011. The experiment was conducted as a split plot based on randomized complete block design in 3 replications. Nitrogen application was as main plot in 4 levels (no nitrogen, broadcasting nitrogen, banding nitrogen and sprayed nitrogen) and methods of weed control were in 4 levels (non-control weeds, application Equip herbicide, once hand control of weeds and application Equip herbicide+once time weeding) was as subplots. Result illustrated that effects of nitrogen fertilizer application were significant on grain and forage yield, 100 seeds weight, harvest index, grain number per row and cob weight per plant. Grain yield increased by 91.4 and 3.9% in application banding and broadcasting for nitrogen fertilizer, respectively, compared to the no fertilizer treatment. The results show improved efficiency of nitrogen utilization by banding application. Grain yield, harvest index, seed rows per cob, seeds per row and cob weight were increased by weed control. In the application of Equip herbicide+ hand weeding treatment corn grain yield was increased 126% in comparison to weedy control. It represents of the intense affects of weed competition with corn. The highest corn grain yield (6758 kg h(-1)) was related to the application banding of nitrogen fertilizer and Equip herbicide+once hand weeding.

  11. Path and ridge regression analysis of seed yield and seed yield components of Russian wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) under field conditions

    Wang, Quanzhen; Zhang, Tiejun; Cui, Jian

    2011-01-01

    The correlations among seed yield components, and their direct and indirect effects on the seed yield (Z) of Russina wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) were investigated. The seed yield components: fertile tillers m-2 (Y1), spikelets per fertile tillers (Y2), florets per spikelet- (Y3), seed...

  12. Phosphate fertilizer and weed control effects on growth and yield of ...

    Soil acidity and the associated low phosphorus availability and poor crop management practices are among the major factors constraining field pea productivity in the highlands of Ethiopia. The effect of phosphate fertilizer and weed control on yield and yield components of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) were studied on ...

  13. Effects of application boron on yields, yield component and oil ...

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of five boron (B) doses; 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kg B ha-1 in B-deficient calcareous soils on yield and some yield components of four sunflower genotypes. Genotypes have shown variations with respect to their responses to B applications. AS-615 and Coban had the ...

  14. Principal component regression for crop yield estimation

    Suryanarayana, T M V

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the estimation of crop yield in Central Gujarat, especially with regard to the development of Multiple Regression Models and Principal Component Regression (PCR) models using climatological parameters as independent variables and crop yield as a dependent variable. It subsequently compares the multiple linear regression (MLR) and PCR results, and discusses the significance of PCR for crop yield estimation. In this context, the book also covers Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a statistical procedure used to reduce a number of correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components (PC). This book will be helpful to the students and researchers, starting their works on climate and agriculture, mainly focussing on estimation models. The flow of chapters takes the readers in a smooth path, in understanding climate and weather and impact of climate change, and gradually proceeds towards downscaling techniques and then finally towards development of ...

  15. Genotype variation in grain yield response to basal N fertilizer ...

    user

    2012-07-24

    Jul 24, 2012 ... identify the variation of grain yield response to basal fertilizer among 199 rice varieties with different genetic background, and finally choose the suitable rice varieties for us to ... proper timing, rate, placement, and use of modified forms ... sowed in seedling-bed with uniform nutritional conditions until 3-leaf.

  16. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers on growth, fruit yield ...

    Akanbi W B

    2015-08-05

    Aug 5, 2015 ... TC and control (non-fertilized plant) on the growth, fruit yield, nutritional and lycopene contents of .... and gaps of 1 m separated all the sub and main plots. ..... Solanum macrocarpon to plant spacing and maize stover compost.

  17. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on yield and chlorophyll ...

    The effects of amending soil with organic (poultry manure) and inorganic fertilizer on yield and chlorophyll content of maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench) was carried out at the Teaching and Research (T&R) Farm of the Obafemi Awolowo University, (O.A.U.) Ile - Ife, Nigeria. The experiment ...

  18. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers on growth, fruit yield ...

    Fruit yield obtained with Ogbomoso local was 45 and 56% higher than what was obtained for Roma VF and Califonia wonder, respectively. In terms of vitamin C content, Roma VF fertilized with 50% NPK + 50% TC gave the highest value which is 23 to 67% higher than values obtained from the other treatment combinations.

  19. Effect of fertilizer application on yield of oil palm

    Eksomtramage, T.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fertilizer application rates on leaf nutrient contents and yield of oil palm were investigated at the Agricultural and Technological College Plantation in Trang province during May 1998 - June 2001. A five-year-old oil palm plantation, planted on the Na Tham soil series (Fine loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic Oxic Plinthudults with spacing 9x9x9 m, was selected for study. A randomized complete block designwith three replications with 20 palms/replication was used. The treatments included six different rates of fertilizer application. The rates of fertilizer were as follows: T1 (farmer practice, T2 (40% of application rate in T4, T3 (70% of application rate in T4, T4 (urea 2,750 g/plant; triple super phosphate 1,500 g/plant; potassium chloride 4,000 g/plant; kieserite 1,000 g/plant; borate 80 g/plant, T5 (130% of application rate in T4 and T6 (170% of application rate in T4. The high leaf nutrient contents of N, P and K at the range of 2.6-2.8%, 0.16-0.18% and 1.13-1.18%, respectively, were found in the high nutrient application rate treatments (T5, T6. However, the amounts of leaf Ca and Mg in T5 and T6 decreased from 0.75-0.80% and 0.33- 0.37% at the beginning of experiment to 0.65-0.70% and 0.22-0.24%, respectively, at the end of the experiment. Small increases of leaf sulphur and boron up to about 0.20-0.22% and 16-19 mg/kg were also found in the high rate of fertilizer treatments. Accumulated fresh fruit bunch yield (FFB increased according to increasing rate of fertilizer application. Accumulated FFB yield of 268.4 kg/plant in the low fertilizer rate (T1 (farmer practice and 278.8 kg/plant in T2 were found compared with the highest yield of 370.2 kg/plant in the highest fertilizer application treatment (T6 for the 3 years experiment. Regarding the economic return, the medium rate of fertilizer application (T3 which achieved an accumulated FFB yield of 338.0 kg/ plant gave the highest profit with the VCR (Value: Cost ratio of 2.53.

  20. ORGANIC FERTILIZER: THE UNDERESTIMATED COMPONENT IN ...

    Osondu

    Abstract. Emphasis on increase agricultural productivity of small holder rural peasants from the perspective of soil ... a reward system for farmers and researchers who utilize inorganic fertilizers. .... Some are deregulation of seed and fertilizer.

  1. FOLIAR APPLICATION OF SILICON ON YIELD COMPONENTS OF WHEAT CROP

    THOMAS NEWTON MARTIN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is a major winter crop in southern Brazil. To maximize its productivity, there should be no biotic or abiotic restrictions that can affect the yield components. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the changes caused in the wheat crop yield components by silicon foliar application. The experiment was conducted in two growing seasons. In the first year, five wheat cultivars (Quartzo, Campo Real, Onix and Fundacep Lineage were assessed and in the second year four were assessed (Mirante, Campo Real, Horizonte and Quartzo. In both years the crops were subjected to three doses of silicon (0, 3 and 6 L of silicon ha -1. The silicon was applied during the tillering, booting and anthesis stages. The yield components assessed were the number of plants, number of ears, number of fertile tillers, dry matter per plant, hectoliter weight, number of spikelets, number of grains per spike, weight of hundred grains, grain yield and harvest index. Most yield components did not respond to the silicon foliar application. The harvest index (first year and the number of tillers (second year however presented a quadratic relationship with the supply of silicon. The remaining differences were attributed to variations among the wheat cultivars.

  2. [Effects of Chemical Fertilizers and Organic Fertilizer on Yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong Rhizome].

    Liang, Qin; Chen, Xing-fu; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Meng, Jie; Peng, Shi-ming

    2015-10-01

    To study the effects of different N, P, K and organic fertilizer (OF) on yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome, in order to provide the theoretical foundation for the establishment of standardization cultivation techniques. The field plot experiments used Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome which planted in Pengshan as material, and were studied by the four factors and five levels with quadratic regression rotation-orthogonal combination design. According to the data obtained, a function model which could predict the fertilization and yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome accurately was established. The model analysis showed that the yields of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome were significantly influenced by the N, P, K and OF applications. Among these factors, the order of increase rates by the fertilizers was K > OF > N > P; The effect of interaction between N and K, N and OF, K and OF on the yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome were significantly different. High levels of N and P, N and organic fertilizer, K and organic fertilizer were conducive to improve the yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome. The results showed that the optimal fertilizer application rates of N was 148.20 - 172.28 kg/hm2, P was 511.92 - 599.40 kg/hm2, K was 249.70 - 282.37 kg/hm2, and OF was 940.00 - 1 104.00 kg/hm2. N, P, K and OF obviously affect the yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome. K and OF can significantly increase the yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome. Thus it is suggested that properly high mount of K and OF and appropriate increasing N are two favorable factors for cultivating Ligusticum chuanxiong.

  3. The observation of soybean yield components in Ml generation

    Muryono, H.

    1978-01-01

    Some properties of the soybean yield component in Ml generation were investigated. Soybean seed variety of Taichung were irradiated with gamma rays from the cobalt source at the Gamma Atomic Energy Research Centre, Yogyakarta. Seven different doses at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 krads were used. Subsequent growth of the irradiated seed was carried out in the field and the ages of flowering, seedling height number of pods, number of fertile and infertile pods and percentage of sterility were recorded. It was found that the significant effect on the above variables was observed due to the gamma radiation doses between 8-12 krads. (author)

  4. Effect of Biofertilizers on the Yield and Yield Components of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.

    S Khorramdel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Application of biological fertilizers is one of the most important methods for plant nutrition in ecological agriculture. In order to investigate the effect of biofertilizers on yield and yield components of black cumin (Nigella sativa L., a field experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications during 2007 growing season at the Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments included: (A Azotobacter paspali, (B Azospirillum brasilense, (C the fungus of Glomus intraradaices, C+A, C+B, A+B, A+B+C, and control without no biofertilizers. In all treatments except control, the amounts of 15 mg of each biofertilizer were applied to 110 g of seeds. Results indicated that application of biofertilizers enhanced yield and yield components and decreased percentage of hollow capsules. Plant performance was better with application of Azospirillum plus mycorrhiza and a mixture of Azotobacter, Azospirillum and mycorrhiza in terms of yield determining criteria. The maximum and minimum amounts of seed yield were recorded in the B+C treatment with 41.4 gm-2, and control with 24.1 gm-2, respectively. There was no significant correlation between number of capsules per plant and seed yield, but the positive and significant correlation between number of branches per plant, number of seeds per capsule, 1000-seed weight and seed yield was observed. This study showed that application of suitable biofertilizers could increase yield and yield components of black cumin. Keywords: Biofertilizer, Ecological agriculture, Medicinal plants, Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria

  5. Effect of Application of Pseudomonas fluorescent Strains on Yield and Yield Components of Rapeseed Cultivars

    R Najafi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria has been identified as an alternative to chemical fertilizer to enhance plant growth and yield directly and indirectly. Use of rhizosphere free living bacteria is one of the methods for crop production and leads to improvement of resources absorption. In order to study of yield, yield components and radiation use efficiency, under application of PGPR condition, an experiment was carried out in 2008 growing season at Agriculture and natural resources research station of Mashhad. The cultivars selected from three rapeseed species belong to Brassica napus, Brassica rapa and Brassica juncea (landrace, BP.18، Goldrush، Parkland، Hyola330، Hyola401. Experimental factorial design was randomized in complete block with three replications. Treatments included six varieties of Rapeseed and inoculations were four levels as non–inoculation, inoculation with P. fluorescens169, P. putida108 and use then together. Results showed that strains of fluorescent pseudomonas bacteria had greatest effects on yield and yield components cultivars. A significant difference in the number of pods per plant and 1000 seed weight observed. The cultivars were different in all treats except 1000 seed weight. Overall results indicated that application of growth stimulating bacteria in combination with different cultivars, had a positive effect growth, yield characteristics of plant varieties of rapeseed plants.

  6. Effects of commercial organic fertilizers on the yield and yield structure of potato cultivars

    Filipović Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research work has dealt with investigations of two type commercial organic fertilizers (DCM ECO-MIX 4 NPK 7:7:10 i GUANITO NPK 6:15:3 effects on the yield and yield structure of three potato cultivars (Cleopatra, Carrera and Sylvana. The control variant was used in plots without the use of organic fertilizers. The field experiment was performed in 2012. in a populated area Dobrica (N 45° 13’, E 20° 51’, 78 m.s.l. at the experimental farm plot Belča on which is certified organic production, on anthropogenic soil subtype chernozem on carbonate terrace. The results of research showed that the lowest tuber yield was determined in the control treatment (20,87 t ha-1, while the highest yield was achieved with a commercial organic fertilizer DCM ECO-MIX 4 (23,96 t ha-1. Number of tubers per plant corresponded to the characteristics of the studied cultivars. The largest number of tubers per plant was correlated with yield. Specifically, individual variants of the two greatest yields had the highest average number of tubers per plant. Cultivar Cleopatra of variant with GUANITO achieved 17,51 tubers per plant, while cultivar Sylvana of variant with DCM ECO-MIX 4 achieved 17,38 tubers per plant.

  7. Organic Fertilizer: The Underestimated Component in Agricultural ...

    ... been on chemical fertilizer while the impact of the bio-organic input has been neglected. ... Key words: Organic input, environmental remediation, food security, small-holder rural farmers, sustainable agriculture, agricultural transformation ...

  8. Effects of Salinity and Nitrogen Application Methods on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    R Farshid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate interaction of salinity stress and nitrogen use methods on yield and yield components, in experiment was conducted in split plot in randomized complete block with 3 replications. Treatments included: salinity of irrigation water levels 1.5, 4.4 and 7.9 ds/m as main plots, and nitrogen treatments 1. using N fertilizer at 3 stage in soil, 2. using two third N fertilizer in soil at planting and tillering and heading and one third in form of foliar application of N at tillering, 4. using and one third in form of foliar application at heading, 3. Using two third of N fertilizer in soil at planting one third of N fertilizer in soil at planting and two third in form of foliar application at tillering and heading, as sub plots. Results this study showed that increased in salt stress significant decreased total yield components such that showed decrease 41/5 kg/h in yield with increase in per unite salinity. Also methods of nitrogen application in salinity condition, have significant effects on total yield components. At the tillering, one stage of foliar with soil application of urea could increase spike no. m-2 and kernels of spike compared with other treatments. Foliar application of urea at heading stage increased kernels weight.

  9. Impact of water-fertilizer interaction on yields of crops

    Kahlown, M.A.; Iqbal, M.; Junejo, M.R.; Ghaffar, A.

    2002-01-01

    Water-fertilizer interaction was studied on wheat and cotton during crop seasons of 1995 to 1998 in the Fordwah Eastern Sadiqia (south), Irrigation and Drainage Project. Irrigation levels applied included 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 times the evapotranspiration (ET), while fertilizer doses were 75, 100 and 125 percent of recommendations of NPK for district Bahawalnagar. The experiment was conducted at four different locations of the project, where soil was medium textured, free from salinity/alkalinity and sufficiently drained, with water table in the range of 2-3m from the soil surface. Wheat variety Inqalab-91 and cotton variety CLM-109 were sown at their recommended time of sowing, seed rate and management practices. Irrigation was applied in consideration of open-pan evaporation and crop co-efficient for the respective crop, when sum total of the products of pan-evaporation and KC values reached 7.5 cm. Irrigation was applied to all the plots according to treatment allowance, i.e. , with 25 percent cut and addition to .75 and 1.25 Et levels, respectively. The results indicated that irrigation levels had non-significant effect on wheat and cotton yields. The results clearly negate the concept of heavy irrigation, generally exercised by our farming community. Light irrigation as a results of 0.75 Et indication were equally effective: rather, these were economical and efficient under the scarce water availability. Fertilizer had somewhat significant response. Irrigation and fertilizer did not exhibit much significant interaction. In case of wheat, the two inputs were independent, while cotton had significant inter-dependence of the two variables. The experiment gave the conclusion that both wheat and cotton crops should be applied lighter irrigation and NPK fertilizer must be applied in compliance to recommendations, for efficient and economical use of the available crop-production resources. (author)

  10. Effect of NS-nitragin application on soybean yield and yield components

    Marinković Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soils of Serbia are low in soybean symbiotic bacteria and application of bacteriological preparations has been introduced as a regular cultivation practice when growing soybean. A trial was set up on experimental field of Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops from Novi Sad on chernozem soil using a randomized block design with four replicates. Mineral nitrogen fertilizers were used in rates of 0, 30, 60, and 90 kg ha-1 in the experiment. Each of the nitrogen treatments had two variations, with and without inoculation. The effects of inoculation and different nitrogen fertilizer rates on yield and yield components were determined based on the pod number, seed number, 1000 seed mass and protein and oil content in seeds. Significantly higher pod number was observed in inoculated plants with the application of 30 kg N ha-1. Inoculation with NS-Nitragin increased seed number per plant. In treatment with no mineral nitrogen applied and with application of 30 kg N ha-1 and 60 kg N ha-1, 1000 seed mass was statistically higher in inoculated plants than in uninoculated ones. Inoculation produced statistically significant difference in soybean yield only in the treatment with no mineral nitrogen applied. Inoculation and applied mineral nitrogen rates had no significant effect on protein content in soybean grain.

  11. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. yield as affected by nitrogen fertilization and different water regimes

    Reginaldo Ferreira-Santos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to its origin and hardiness, safflower is usually cultivated in low-fertility soils with few inputs and no irrigation. In Brazil, little is known about its response to nitrogen (N and irrigation. This study was carried out near the city of Engenheiro Coelho, SP, Brazil, in 2014, in order to determine the effect of increasing nitrogen application rates (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600 kg ha-1 on safflower cultivation under irrigation and rainfed conditions. The use of irrigation during drought periods allowed stress reduction and significantly increased yield components and grain yield. Safflower yield was influenced by the interaction between water regimes and nitrogen rates. Grain yield may vary depending on several factors, however, maximum yield was achieved with rates of 208 and 214 kg N ha-1 under irrigation and rainfed conditions, respectively. For oil yield, 200 kg N ha-1 were sufficient, regardless of the water regime.

  12. VARIABILITY OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN “EGUSI ...

    journal

    Estimate of expected genetic advance in seed yield plant-1 ranged between. 25.90-48.40%. ..... values in fruit and seed yield characters have been reported in culinary melon, ... and Khund, A. 2004. Extent of heterosis and heritability in some.

  13. Response of Yield and Yield Components of Tef [Eragrostis Tef ...

    The partial budget analysis also indicates that applications of 46 kg. N ha-1 and 10 kg P ha-1 are ..... (1994) indicated that where the grain yield response is negative, yield reduction is primarily caused by a .... An Economic Training. Manual.

  14. Effects of Source and Rate of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield, Yield Components and Quality of Winter Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Efecto de la Fuente y Dosis de Fertilizantes Nitrogenados en el Rendimiento, Componentes de Rendimiento y Calidad de Semilla de Canola (Brassica napus L.

    Özden Öztürk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L. has potential to become an alternate oilseed crop both for edible oil production and energy agriculture (biofuel production for Turkey. This study was conducted to determine the effect of year, N sources and doses on the yield and quality traits of winter rapeseed in a cereal system in calcareous soils over two seasons, 2000-2001 and 2001-2002, in Central Anatolia. Three N sources, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and urea, were applied as hand broadcast on the soil surface at five doses (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg N ha-1. The traits investigated were plant height, number of branches and pods per plant, number of seed per pod, thousand seed weight, seed yield, oil and protein content. There were significantly effects on seed yield, oil and protein content, and other yield components due to N sources and rates. In general, ammonium sulfate and urea gave higher seed yield than ammonium nitrate. Mean values of both seasons indicated that 100 and 150 kg N ha-1 rate increased significantly yield and quality traits with regard to other N treatments. The present results highlight the practical importance of adequate N fertilization and true N source in seed yield in winter rapeseed and suggest that ammonium sulfate at 150 kg N ha-1 will be about adequate to meet crop N requirements.El raps (Brassica napus L. tiene potencial para convertirse en un cultivo oleaginoso alternativo para producción de aceite comestible y agricultura energética (producción de biodiesel en Turquía. Este estudio fue conducido para determinar el efecto del año, fuente y dosis de N en las características de rendimiento y calidad de raps en un sistema cerealero en suelos calcáreos en dos temporadas, 2000-2001 y 2001-2002, en Anatolia Central. Se aplicaron al voleo tres fuentes de N (sulfato de amonio, nitrato de amonio y urea en cinco dosis (0, 50, 100, 150 y 200 kg N ha-1. Las características investigadas fueron altura de planta, n

  15. Heterosis and combining ability for grain yield and yield component ...

    ... ranged from 0 to -13% indicating that the hybrids tend to be earlier in maturity than the parents. The mean squares due to GCA for days to maturity, ear diameter, member of kernels per row, 1000 kernel weight and grain yield were significant, indicating the importance of additive genetic variance in controlling these traits.

  16. Rice yield prediction from yield components and limiting factors

    Casanova, D.; Goudriaan, J.; Catala Former, M.M.; Withagen, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    This article aims to quantify growth at field level in relation to crop status and soil properties in irrigated direct-seeded rice. Forty fields were selected in the Ebro Delta (Spain). Rice growth was monitored and soil properties measured. Yield was related to soil properties by a deductive

  17. Correlation Analysis of some Growth, Yield, Yield Components and ...

    three critical growth stages which was imposed by withholding water (at ... November, 5th December, 19th December and 2nd January) laid out in a split ... Simple correlation coefficient ® of different crop parameters and grain yield ... The husk bran and germ are rich sources of ..... heat in 2009/2010 dry season at Fadam a ...

  18. The Effects of Different Nitrogen Sources on Yield and Yield Components of Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. saccharata

    ali mojab ghasroddashti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sweet corn (Zea mays L. saccharata is one of the tropical cereals of graminae which is cultivated in order to use for ear. Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients and key factors to achieve desirable yield. Fertilizers play a major role in crop productivity. However, nowadays, excessive use of fertilizers have been found to have a negative impact on yield and environment. Introducing new management methods based on nitrogen and water use efficiency showed some improvements in the quality and quantity of crop production in association with the health of the community. In fact, soil organic matter content should be maintained in the appropriate level to improve fertility. Using municipal solid waste compost and poultry manure are appropriate solutions. They can increase soil organic matter, modify physicochemical properties and improve crop production. Moreover, they are able to solve problems caused by the accumulation of municipal solid waste compost and poultry manure. Material and Methods In order to investigate the impact of different sources of nitrogen on yield and yield components of sweet corn, a field experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications in Marvdasht in 2013. Treatments included different resources of fertilizer: 200 kg.ha-1 net nitrogen (T1, 300 kg.ha-1 net nitrogen (T2, 8 ton.ha-1 poultry manure (T3, 24 ton.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost (T4, 150 kg net nitrogen + 2 ton municipal solid waste compost (T5, 100 kg net nitrogen + 4 ton poultry manure (T6, 150 kg net nitrogen + 6 ton municipal solid waste compost (T7, 100 kg.ha-1 net nitrogen + 12 ton municipal solid waste compost (T8 and fertilizer free (control (T9. At the time of crop maturity, two square meters from middle of each plot were harvested to measure yield and yield components. Statistical analysis was performed using the SAS statistical software. Least significant difference (LSD test at the five

  19. Effects of organic fertilizers on yield and quality of potato tubers in organic farming

    Kolbe, Hartmut

    2006-01-01

    In this lecture, an overview was given over effects of organic fertilizers (compost, farmyard manure, slurry, organic commercial fertilizers) on yield and quality (DM, starch, contents of N, P, K) of potato tubers in organic farming.

  20. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN ...

    ACSS

    2017-11-16

    Nov 16, 2017 ... used different genotypes and the environmental conditions under which their ... and Jinks (1971):. Y = m + aa + βd + a2aa + 2aβad +β2dd … .... /plant, 100-grain weight per plant and Grain yield per plant (g) of six generations in IET6279 X IR70445-146-3-. 3 cross. Traits. Generation. Mean. Standard. Range.

  1. Effect of Nutritional Management on Yield and Yield Components of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa as a Medicinal Plant in Mashhad Condition

    P Rezvani Moghaddam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa is an annual plant with a height of about 64 to 429 cm belongs to Malvaceae family. Roselle is self-pollinated and sensitive to cold. Sepals of Roselle are used in food and pharmaceutical industries. It has been reported that Roselle is not native to Iran but it is cultivated extensively in Sistan and Baluchistan province, Iran. In order to achieve high quality and quantity yield of Roselle sepal it is necessary to improve nutritional systems of plant. Proper management of soil fertility and plant nutrition can preserve environment, improve biodiversity and also increase inputs efficiency. Results showed that use of nutritional resources will improve plant growth. Organic fertilizers such as compost can improve soil fertility as an important source of food that increase yield of plants. Nabila and Aly (2002 observed that use of hen and cow manure increased plant height, number of lateral branches, numbers of fruit and sepal yield of Roselle. Each plant species has the maximum potential in favorable conditions. Therefore, evaluation the effect of climatic and agronomic factors and nutritional management for plants is essential. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the yield and yield components of Roselle in response to use of single and combined nutritional resources. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of single and combined organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on yield and yield components of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa, a field experiment was conducted with 12 treatments based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013-2014. Treatments included: 1- mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices, 2- cow manure, 3- chemical fertilizer, 4- vermicompost, 5- chemical fertilizer + cow manure, 6- chemical fertilizer + vermicompost, 7- chemical fertilizer + mycorrhiza, 8- cow manure

  2. Evaluation of Yield, Yield Components and Essential Oil Content of Marigold (Calendula officinalis L. with the Use of Nitrogen and Vermicompost

    Alireza Pazoki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmenal problems resulting from application of nitrogen fertilizers in the production plant materials led agricultural specialists to use clean and alternative methods to towards the organic farming and use of organic fertilizers. In this study, thus, the effect of nitrogen and vermicompost fertilizer rates on yield, yield components, essential oil content and some morphological traits of marigold was studied in a split plot experiment based on completely randomized blocks design with 3 replications in Shahr-e-Rey region during 2013 growing season. Nitrogen rates with 3 levels (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg.ha-1 were assigned to main plots and vermicompost with 3 levels (0, 10, and 20 t.ha-1 to the sub plots. Mean comparison of simple effects indicated that the plants treated with 120 kg.ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer and 20 t.ha-1 organic fertilizer vermicompost produced higher trait values under study than control (non application of vermincompost. Interaction effect of experimented factors was significant on all traits under evaluation. Thus, highest seed yield (1567 kg.ha-1, biological yield (6664 kg.ha-1 and essential oil yield (8.85 kg.ha-1 obtained by the application of 120 kg.ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer and 20 t.ha-1 varmicompost. Based on the results obtained it could be said that nitrogen and vermicompost may improve seed and biological yield and yield components of marigold.

  3. The effects of 15N-fertilizer on the yields of wheat

    Zhou Dechao

    1985-01-01

    By using 15 N-fertilizer, the effects of increasing yield and the utilization of nitrogen of N-fertilizer applied at different periods and by different methods on wheat were studied. The results were as follows: The utilization of N-fertilizer by winter wheat is dependent on the fertilizer of soil before or after winter. Strong seedlings were obtained in the high fertility soils and the application of N-fertilizer in spring is recommended. In soils of low fertility, however, application of a part of N-fertilizer before winter is recommded in order to get strong seedlings. Application of a part of N-fertilizer as base manure for spring wheat is more advantageous. Deep application of N-fertilizer losses less NH 3 than surface broadcast does

  4. Influence of micronutrients and their method of application on yield and yield components of sunflower

    Baraich, A.A.K.; Gandahi, A.W.

    2016-01-01

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been recognized as a crop with high potentials that can successfully meet future oil requirements of the country. Formulation of micronutrients (MN) based fertilizer, in terms of application rate and method, and uptake of MN by sunflower has the ability not only to ensure nutrients availability to plants particularly in MN-limiting environments but also can manipulate the environmental hazards associated with over inorganic fertilization. To support this view, clear experimental evidence is still lacking. In addition, the current experiments aimed to evaluate the influence of MN and its method of application on yield and yield components of sunflower cultivars/hybrids. Three sunflower cultivars (HO-1, Hysun-39 and Ausigold-62) along with three MN (Z, B and Fe) and two application methods (soil and foliar) were used in the experiment. Three Zn application rate (3, 5 and 8 kg ha-1) along with 0.75 kg ha-1 B and 0.30 kg Fe ha-1 were used in four combinations such as 0-0-0, 0-0.75-0.30, 0-0.75-0.30, 3-0.75-0.30, 5-0.75-0.30, 8-0.75-0.30 kg Z, B and Fe ha-1, respectively. A control (no MN) treatment was also included for comparison. Two year averaged study exhibited that foliar application of Zn, B and Fe at rate of 8-0.30-0.75 kg ha-1 increased stem girth, head diameter, number of seeds head-1, seed weight head-1, seed index, oil content and seed yield by 21%, 27%, 13%, 34%, 19%, 24 and 31%, respectively over control. Among cultivars/hybrids, the hybrids HO-1 and Hysun-39 had taller plants, seed weight head-1, seeds head-1 and earlier in flowering and maturity. Flowering and maturity was delayed in Ausi Gold-62 with higher seed index and oil content. It is concluded that foliar application of micronutrients at the rate of 8+0.75+0.30 Zn, B and Fe kg ha-1 had substantially improved yield and yield related traits of sunflower cultivars HO-1, Hysun-39 and Ausi gold-62. (author)

  5. Effect of Bio-fertilizers in Combination with Different Rates of Chemical Fertilizers on the Growth Characters and Sepals Yield of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    roghayeh mohammadpour vashvaei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Roselle or Maki tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a subtropical medicinal and aromatic plant belongs to the family Malvaceae that sepals of it's due to its medicinal properties and culinary uses. To evaluate the effect of bio-fertilizers in combination with different rates of chemical fertilizers on the growth characters, sepals yield and yield components of roselle, an experiment was conducted in randomized coplete block design with three replications, at the Research Station in Zabol University, during 2012 and 2013. Experimental treatments were plant nutrition with NPK, biophosphate, biophosphate+25% NPK, biophosphate+50% NPK, biophosphate+ 100% NPK, nitroxin, nitroxin+25%NPK, nitroxin+50%NPK, nitroxin+100%NPK, nitroxin+biophosphate, nitroxin+ biophosphate+25% NPK, nitroxin+biophosphate+50% NPK, nitroxin+biophosphate+100% NPK and control (non-use of any fertilizer. Plant traits such as plant height, no. of branches.plant-1, fresh and dry weight of vegetative, roots fresh and dry weight, calyx no.plant-1, sepal dry weight, sepals yield of roselle were measured. The results of combined analysis of variance showed that the effect of fertilizer were significant (P≤0.01 for all studied traits. Calyx no.plant-1 was the most important component in determining the sepals yield. The highest of all studied triates belong to nitroxin+biophosphate+100% NPK treatment that its difference with nitroxin+ biophosphate+50% NPK treatment was not significant. Thus, with respect to the production of medicinal plants in cropping systems and attention to the cultivation of these plants in low input systems, to improve plant growth and increase the sepals yield of roselle, 50% of the recommended dose of fertilizers with bio-fertilizers is recommended.

  6. Seed yield response to N fertilization and potential of proximal sensing in Italian ryegrass seed crops

    Vleugels, Tim; Rijckaert, Georges; Gislum, René

    2017-01-01

    Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) seed crops are often routinely fertilized with a predetermined amount of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in spring. However, nitrate leaching and increasing N fertilizer prices require rationalized fertilizer applications without compromises in seed yield....... The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the seed yield response to N fertilization, and (2) to evaluate if NDVI values can reliably predict the N status in Italian ryegrass seed crops. During eight years, field trials were conducted with two cultivars ‘Melclips’ and ‘Melquatro’, and seven N strategies...... applied after the forage cut as single or split application: 0, 60, 60 + 30, 90, 90 + 30, 120 and 150 kg N ha−1. NDVI values were obtained with a ‘GreenSeeker’ optical sensor. Maximum seed yield was attained at 141 kg N ha−1 total available N (92 kg N ha−1 fertilized). Higher fertilizations only increased...

  7. 70-79 Effects of Crop Rotation and NP Fertilizer Rate on Grain Yield a

    amendment enabled maize yields and soil fertility to be maintained at a higher level. Multiple ... Higher grain yield and high net return of maize were realized following Niger seed, ...... Generation, Transfer and Gap Analysis Workshop. Nekemt ...

  8. The use of alternative fertilizers to increase soil fertility and yield of sunflower in North-Eastern Kazakhstan

    Kulzhanova S.M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available the article contains data from studies conducted in 2015–2016 in the North-Еastern part of Kazakhstan. In the experiments the effect of various doses of non-traditional fertilizer together with mineral fertilizer on the yield of sunflower was investigated. Various doses and ratios of mineral fertilizers have been applied, which can affect the yield of sunflower. As a source material, varieties of sunflower of Russian breeding Zarya and a hybrid of Fortimi USA breeding and non-traditional fertilizers – zeolite are taken. In order to determine the effect on the fertility of soils, the agrochemical characteristics of soils in land areas and the content of mobile forms of nutrients were studied. The main agrochemical characteristics and content of mobile forms of nutrients for soil of land plots are investigated in the article.

  9. Growth and Yield Components of Tomato as Influenced by Nitrogen ...

    yield of tomato, and later application in the growing stages favours fruit development, thus nitrogen has a dramatic effect on tomato growth and development ..... CRBD design in factorial experiment using SAS analytical Software. ..... with relatively fertile soil experimental conditions there is no existence of joint factor.

  10. Paths of Influence Among Components of Yield in Sorghum ...

    yard manure (FYM); shallow depth ... fertilizer; deep depth of tillage with ... lYY6 at a spacing of 30 x 100 cm in deep tillage ridges and 40 x 75 cm in shallow ..... grain weight was neither related nor was tant in influencing the yield of sor-.

  11. Understanding cassava yield response to soil and fertilizer nutrient supply in West Africa

    Ezui, K.S.; Franke, A.C.; Ahiabor, B.D.K.; Tetteh, F.M.; Sogbedji, J.; Janssen, B.H.; Mando, A.; Giller, K.E.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Enhanced understanding of plant and nutrient interactions is key to improving yields. We adapted the model for QUantitative Evaluation of the Fertility of Tropical Soils (QUEFTS) to assess cassava yield response to soil and fertilizer nutrients in West Africa. Methods: Data

  12. Efficiency of mineral fertilizers and mucuna on the improvement of the yield of maize in zimbabwe

    Pieterse, P.J.; Agenbag, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    In Zimbabwe farmers use sub-optimal amounts of fertilizers due to cash limitations and poor access to fertilizer markets, hence the need to integrate legumes like mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) into their cropping systems. In this study, the effect of P and N along with different mucuna management options was investigated on the yield and yield components of maize. The experimental design was a split - split- plot with two P rates (0 and 40 kg P ha/sup -1/) applied to a preceding mucuna crop, four mucuna management options 1) fallow (F), 2) mucuna ploughed in at flowering (MF), 3) all mucuna above ground biomass removed at maturity and only roots were ploughed in (MAR) and 4) mucuna pods removed and the residues ploughed in (MPR 3 and four N treatments (N0 = 0, N1 =40, N2 = 80 and N3 = 120 kg N ha/sup -1/ respectively) applied to a subsequent maize crop. The various crop parameters like grain yield, cob length, number of grains per cob, cob diameter, 1000 dry grain weight, stalk weight and harvest index of maize were determined. Phosphorous application improved mean maize grain yield from 2.29 t ha/sup -1/ to 2.34 t ha/sup -1/. The MF and N3 treatment combination resulted in the highest maize grain yield. The MF and MPR and N0 treatment combinations resulted in similar grain yields when compared with F and MAR management options and N3. Other parameters followed similar trends. The MF and MPR management options could, therefore, save 80 and 120 kg N ha/sup -1/for smallholder farmers without sacrificing yield. (author)

  13. Effect of Nitrogen Rates and Split Nitrogen Fertilization on Grain Yield and its Components in Flooded Rice Efecto de Dosis de Nitrógeno y Parcialización de la Fertilización Nitrogenada sobre el Rendimiento de Grano y Componentes de Rendimiento en Arroz

    Juan Hirzel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional management in rice (Oryza sativa L. crops is mainly associated with N fertilization, which is difficult to adjust in field conditions due to variations in soil type and climatic conditions. Between 28 000 and 46 000 ha per year is dedicated to rice production in Chile and profits depend on fertilization. A field experiment determine the effect of N rates and split N fertilization on grain yield and its components was carried out in two locations during two consecutive seasons (2007 to 2009, where five N rates and five split N fertilizations were evaluated. The locations were in Parral (36º2’ S; 72º08’ W, Vertisol and San Carlos (36º19’ S; 71º59’ W, Inceptisol, with N rates of 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 kg ha-1 applied in different development stages, such as sowing, tillering, panicle initiation, and boot. Results indicate an important seasonal effect on grain yield. Yield increased with N rates higher than 120 and 140 kg ha-1 in San Carlos and Parral, respectively. Moreover, higher productivity with split N fertilization was (1 33% of N at sowing, 33% at tillering, and 34% at panicle initiation or (2 50% of N at sowing and 50% at panicle initiation. Yield components with the highest effect on productivity were affected by the evaluated split N. On the other hand, higher N rates increased the percentage of both stained and sterile grains per panicle.El manejo nutricional del cultivo de arroz (Oryza sativa L. está principalmente asociado con la fertilización nitrogenada, difícil de ajustar en condiciones de campo debido a variaciones en tipo de suelo y condiciones climáticas. El área cultivada con arroz en Chile comprende entre 28000 y 46000 ha por año y como los beneficios económicos dependen del costo de fertilización. Se realizó un experimento de campo en dos localidades durante dos temporadas consecutivas (2007 a 2009 para determinar el efecto de la dosis y parcialización del N sobre el rendimiento de grano y

  14. Effect of increased plant density and fertilizer dose on the yield of rice variety IR-6

    Amin, M.; Khan, M.A.; Khan, E.A.; Ramazan, M.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment to evaluate the effect of increased plant density and fertilizer dose on yield of rice variety IR-6 was conducted at the farm of Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University Dera Ismail Khan. Increase plant density significantly increase number of panicles per square meter, sterility and straw yield while increased fertilizer dose of NPK increase plant height, sterility, normal kernels, and 1000 grain weight. Interaction of increased plant density and fertilizer dose was found to be non significant except sterility percentage and straw yield. However efforts are required for increasing yield per unit area of rice. (author)

  15. [Effect of different fertilization treatments on yield and secondary metabolites of Codonopsis pilosula].

    Hu, Jia-Dong; Mao, Ge; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Ma, Cun-de; Liang, Zong-Suo; Xia, Guang-Dong; Dong, Juan-E

    2017-08-01

    The research studies the effect of different fertilization treatments on yield and accumulation of secondary metabolites of Codonopsis pilosula by using single factor randomized block design, in order to ensure reasonable harvesting time and fertilization ratio, and provide the basis for standardized cultivation of C. pilosula. According to the clustering results, the nitrogen fertilizer benefitted for the improvement of root diameter and biomass of C. pilosula. The phosphate fertilizer could promote the content of C. pilosula polysaccharide. The organic fertilizers could increase the content of lobetyolin. With the time going on, C. pilosula's yield, polysaccharide and ehanol-soluble extracts increased while the content of lobetyolin decreased. According to various factors, October is a more reasonable harvest period. Organic fertilizers are more helpful to the yield and accumulation of secondary metabolites of C. pilosula. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Grain, milling, and head rice yields as affected by nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application

    Saeed FIROUZI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application on grain, milling, and head rice yields, a field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Station of Tonekabon, Iran, in 2013. The experimental design was a factorial treatment arrangement in a randomized complete block with three replicates. Factors were three N rates (0, 75, and 150 kg ha-1 and two bio-fertilizer applications (inoculation and uninoculation with Nitroxin, a liquid bio-fertilizer containing Azospirillum spp. and Azotobacter spp. bacteria. Analysis of variance showed that rice grain yield, panicle number per m2, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, grains N concentration and uptake, grain protein concentration, and head rice yield were significantly affected by N rate, while bio-fertilizer application had significant effect on rice grain yield, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, harvest index, grains N concentration and uptake, and grain protein concentration. Results showed that regardless of bio-fertilizer application, rice grain and biological yields were significantly increased as N application rate increased from 0 to 75 kg ha-1, but did not significantly increase at the higher N rate (150 kg ha-1. Grain yield was significantly increased following bio-fertilizer application when averaged across N rates. Grains N concentration and uptake were significantly increased as N rate increased up to 75 kg ha-1, but further increases in N rate had no significant effect on these traits. Bio-fertilizer application increased significantly grains N concentration and uptake, when averaged across N rates. Regardless of bio-fertilizer application, head rice yield was significantly increased from 56 % to 60 % when N rate increased from 0 to 150 kg ha-1. Therefore, this experiment illustrated that rice grain and head yields increased with increasing N rate, while bio-fertilizer application increased only rice grain

  17. Benefits of inoculation, P fertilizer and manure on yields of common bean and soybean also increase yield of subsequent maize

    Rurangwa, Edouard; Vanlauwe, Bernard; Giller, Ken E.

    2018-01-01

    Common bean and soybean yield poorly on smallholder farms in Rwanda. We evaluated the benefits of inoculation combined with P fertilizer and manure on yields of common bean and soybean in three agro-ecological zones (AEZs), and their residual effects on a subsequent maize crop. In the first season,

  18. Optical crop sensor for variable-rate nitrogen fertilization in corn: II - indices of fertilizer efficiency and corn yield

    Jardes Bragagnolo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Generally, in tropical and subtropical agroecosystems, the efficiency of nitrogen (N fertilization is low, inducing a temporal variability of crop yield, economic losses, and environmental impacts. Variable-rate N fertilization (VRF, based on optical spectrometry crop sensors, could increase the N use efficiency (NUE. The objective of this study was to evaluate the corn grain yield and N fertilization efficiency under VRF determined by an optical sensor in comparison to the traditional single-application N fertilization (TSF. With this purpose, three experiments with no-tillage corn were carried out in the 2008/09 and 2010/11 growing seasons on a Hapludox in South Brazil, in a completely randomized design, at three different sites that were analyzed separately. The following crop properties were evaluated: aboveground dry matter production and quantity of N uptake at corn flowering, grain yield, and vegetation index determined by an N-Sensor® ALS optical sensor. Across the sites, the corn N fertilizer had a positive effect on corn N uptake, resulting in increased corn dry matter and grain yield. However, N fertilization induced lower increases of corn grain yield at site 2, where there was a severe drought during the growing period. The VRF defined by the optical crop sensor increased the apparent N recovery (NRE and agronomic efficiency of N (NAE compared to the traditional fertilizer strategy. In the average of sites 1 and 3, which were not affected by drought, VRF promoted an increase of 28.0 and 41.3 % in NAE and NRE, respectively. Despite these results, no increases in corn grain yield were observed by the use of VRF compared to TSF.

  19. Soil Fertility Status, Nutrient Uptake, and Maize (Zea mays L.) Yield Following Organic Matters and P Fertilizer Application on Andisol

    Minardi, S.; Harieni, S.; Anasrullah, A.; Purwanto, H.

    2017-04-01

    Objective of this study were to elucidate effects of organic matters and P fertilizer application on soil fertility status, nutrient uptake and maize yield in the Andisol. This experiment consisted of two factors. The first factor comprised of four levels of organic matters input (without organic matter, manure, rice straw, and Gliricidia sepium leaves), with the application dosage 10 t.ha-1 and the second factor comprised of three levels of P fertilizer application (without P addition (control), 50 kg P2O5 ha-1, 100 kg P2O5 ha-1). Results of this study showed that organic matters and P fertilizer application improved soil fertility status, especially pH, soil organic C, cation exchange capacity (CEC), available P which resulted in an increase in P uptake that improve yield of maize. The highest yield of maize (corn cob) was obtained through application Gliricida sepium (8.40 t.ha-1), followed by manure (6.02 t.ha-1) and rice straw (5.87 t.ha-1). Application of 50 kg P2O5 Ha-1 yield was (5.76 t.ha-1) and application of 100 Kg P2O5 Ha-1 yield was (6.12 t.ha-1).

  20. Yields, Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activities of Ziziphus jujube Mill. in Response to Different Fertilization Treatments

    Min Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for more jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill. production requires understanding the specific fertilization needs of jujube trees. This study was conducted to compare fruit yields, phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of jujube in response to different fertilizers. Application of organic fertilizer appeared to enhance the phenolics and antioxidant activity accumulation of jujubes, compared to conventional fertilized jujubes. Amongst inorganic fertilizers, supplemental potassium as an individual nutrient improved the accumulation of phenolics in jujubes. Our results demonstrate that phenolics levels and antioxidant activity of jujube can be manipulated through fertilizer management and tracked by following proanthocyanidin concentrations. In a practical production context, the combination of organic fertilizers and inorganic fertilizers such as more supplemental individual potassium, and less supplemental individual nitrogen and phosphorus, might be the best management combination for achieving higher phenolic concentration, stronger antioxidant activity and a good harvest.

  1. Variation in yield gap induced by nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer in North China Plain.

    Xiaoqin Dai

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted under a wheat-maize rotation system from 1990 to 2006 in North China Plain (NCP to determine the effects of N, P and K on yield and yield gap. There were five treatments: NPK, PK, NK, NP and a control. Average wheat and maize yields were the highest in the NPK treatment, followed by those in the NP plots among all treatments. For wheat and maize yield, a significant increasing trend over time was found in the NPK-treated plots and a decreasing trend in the NK-treated plots. In the absence of N or P, wheat and maize yields were significantly lower than those in the NPK treatment. For both crops, the increasing rate of the yield gap was the highest in the P omission plots, i.e., 189.1 kg ha(-1 yr(-1 for wheat and 560.6 kg ha(-1 yr(-1 for maize. The cumulative omission of P fertilizer induced a deficit in the soil available N and extractable P concentrations for maize. The P fertilizer was more pivotal in long-term wheat and maize growth and soil fertility conservation in NCP, although the N fertilizer input was important for both crops growth. The crop response to K fertilizers was much lower than that to N or P fertilizers, but for maize, the cumulative omission of K fertilizer decreased the yield by 26% and increased the yield gap at a rate of 322.7 kg ha(-1 yr(-1. The soil indigenous K supply was not sufficiently high to meet maize K requirement over a long period. The proper application of K fertilizers is necessary for maize production in the region. Thus, the appropriate application of N and P fertilizers for the growth of both crops, while regularly combining K fertilizers for maize growth, is absolutely necessary for sustainable crop production in the NCP.

  2. Variation in yield gap induced by nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer in North China Plain.

    Dai, Xiaoqin; Ouyang, Zhu; Li, Yunsheng; Wang, Huimin

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted under a wheat-maize rotation system from 1990 to 2006 in North China Plain (NCP) to determine the effects of N, P and K on yield and yield gap. There were five treatments: NPK, PK, NK, NP and a control. Average wheat and maize yields were the highest in the NPK treatment, followed by those in the NP plots among all treatments. For wheat and maize yield, a significant increasing trend over time was found in the NPK-treated plots and a decreasing trend in the NK-treated plots. In the absence of N or P, wheat and maize yields were significantly lower than those in the NPK treatment. For both crops, the increasing rate of the yield gap was the highest in the P omission plots, i.e., 189.1 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) for wheat and 560.6 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) for maize. The cumulative omission of P fertilizer induced a deficit in the soil available N and extractable P concentrations for maize. The P fertilizer was more pivotal in long-term wheat and maize growth and soil fertility conservation in NCP, although the N fertilizer input was important for both crops growth. The crop response to K fertilizers was much lower than that to N or P fertilizers, but for maize, the cumulative omission of K fertilizer decreased the yield by 26% and increased the yield gap at a rate of 322.7 kg ha(-1) yr(-1). The soil indigenous K supply was not sufficiently high to meet maize K requirement over a long period. The proper application of K fertilizers is necessary for maize production in the region. Thus, the appropriate application of N and P fertilizers for the growth of both crops, while regularly combining K fertilizers for maize growth, is absolutely necessary for sustainable crop production in the NCP.

  3. Effect of tillage fertilizer treatments on maize fodder yield under rainfed conditions of Pakistan

    Khaliq, P.; Cheema, N.M.; Malik, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of deep and shallow tillage and fertilizer treatments i.e., recommended dose of fertilizer (RF), farm yard manure (FYM) and recommended dose of fertilizer plus farmyard manure (RF+FYM) on maize fodder yield was studied under rainfed conditions of Pakistan. It was observed that the emergence count m-2, maize fodder biomass, plant height, number of leaves per plant and maize fodder yield enhanced, with the application of RF+FYM. However, the effect of FYM+RF and recommended dose of fertilizer was statistically non-significant and on average basis RF+FYM treatment produced higher green fodder (19971.5 kg ha/sup -1/) than fodder yield of 18349.1 kg ha/sup -1/ produced by applying recommended dose of fertilizer. However, green fodder yield produced with these two fertilizer treatments were significantly higher than that of the FYM and control treatments. The FYM treatment gave lowest fodder yield (16997 kg ha/sup -1/) and was significantly lower than the fodder yield (17278.7 kg ha/sup -1/) obtained in control treatment. The nutrient availability in RF+FYM treatment significantly increased the biomass production, however, application of FYM promoted the weed infestation that reduced the green fodder yield of maize, but it improved the overall forage yield as recorded in RF+FYM treatment. The effect of deep tillage on maize fodder yield was non-significant. (author)

  4. Growth and Yield Responses of Cowpea to Inoculation and Phosphorus Fertilization in Different Environments

    Kyei-Boahen, Stephen; Savala, Canon E. N.; Chikoye, David; Abaidoo, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a major source of dietary protein and essential component of the cropping systems in semi-arid regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. However, yields are very low due to lack of improved cultivars, poor management practices, and limited inputs use. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of rhizobia inoculant and P on nodulation, N accumulation and yield of two cowpea cultivars in Mozambique. Field study was conducted in three contrasting environments during the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 seasons using randomized complete block design with four replications and four treatments. Treatments consisted of seed inoculation, application of 40 kg P2O5 ha-1, inoculation + P, and a non-inoculated control. The most probable number (MPN) technique was used to estimate the indigenous bradyrhizobia populations at the experimental sites. The rhizobia numbers at the sites varied from 5.27 × 102 to 1.07 × 103 cells g-1 soil. Inoculation increased nodule number by 34–76% and doubled nodule dry weight (78 to 160 mg plant-1). P application improved nodulation and interacted positively with the inoculant. Inoculation, P, and inoculant + P increased shoot dry weight, and shoot and grain N content across locations but increases in number of pods plant-1, seeds pod-1, and 100-seed weight were not consistent among treatments across locations. Shoot N content was consistently high for the inoculated plants and also for the inoculated + P fertilized plants, whereas the non-inoculated control plants had the lowest tissue N content. P uptake in shoot ranged from 1.72 to 3.77 g kg-1 and was higher for plants that received P fertilizer alone. Inoculation and P either alone or in combination consistently increased cowpea grain yield across locations with yields ranging from 1097 kg ha-1 for the non-inoculated control to 1674 kg ha-1 for the inoculant + P treatment. Grain protein concentration followed a similar trend as grain yield and ranged from 223 to

  5. Effectiveness of Commercial Biofertilizer on Fertilization Efficiency in Ultisols for the Growth and Yield of Caisim

    Ea Kosman Anwar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of Commercial Biofertilizer 1 (CBF1 on the growth and yield of caisim (Brassica sp. was examined in the greenhouse of Indonesian Soil Research Institute in Bogor. The completely randomized design (CRD was performed to examine the effects of Commercial Biofertilizer 1 (CBF1 on Fertilization Efficiency in Ultisols. The treatments were consists of 10 combinations between NPK-recommendation (NPK-rec and CBF1, with six replications. The experiment was conducted from August to October 2009. The result showed that CBF I increased the yields of caisim when combining by fertilizer NPK-rec, while giving CBF1 alone did not significantly increases yields compare to control (without fertilizer. Giving ¾ dosage NPK-rec. + CBF1 had RAE value 163%, indicating the effectiveness of CBF1 was optimum, that it reduce the need of NPK fertilizer by 25% by providing the increasing of yield 63% compared to NPK rec. The higher the level of NPK-rec. the lower the efficiency of fertilization. CBF1 had given effectives on yields when it was combined by inorganic fertilizer. However, when it was not combined with inorganic fertilizers, it would harm plants and decreased the soil nutrients. The influence of biofertilizer in plants were predictable unpredictable, while the influent of inorganic fertilizers were predictable.

  6. mineral fertilizer Application on growth and yield of French- beans

    The main constraints to sustainable crop production in arid environment are mainly inherent low fertility of the soil and moisture deficit. A study was conducted at Mekelle University, Tigray Region in Ethiopia to test the hypothesis that Integrated soil management practices consisting of manure (Cow dung) and Inorganic ...

  7. Using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to estimate sugarcane yield and yield components

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) yield and yield components are important traits for growers and scientists to evaluate and select cultivars. Collection of these yield data would be labor intensive and time consuming in the early selection stages of sugarcane breeding cultivar development programs with a ...

  8. Effects of cutting frequency on alfalfa yield and yield components in ...

    Effects of cutting frequency on alfalfa yield and yield components in Songnen Plain, Northeast China. J Chen, F Tang, R Zhu, C Gao, G Di, Y Zhang. Abstract. The productivity and quality of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is strongly influenced by cutting frequency (F). To clarify that the yield and quality of alfalfa if affected by F, ...

  9. The Effect of Different Fertilizer Applications on Plant and Fruit Yield in Greenhouse Organic Tomato Growing

    Funda Ulusu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse tomato production is in the first place in Turkey, 34% of total tomato production (3.614.472 tonnes is under greenhouse conditions. The increase in yield in Turkey is due to the spread of undergrowth cultivation besides the use of qualified varieties and seeds. Synthetic fertilizers can’t be used to obtain economic efficiency in underground organic tomato growing Therefore, the application of alternative fertilizers (barn stubble, green manure, organic fertilizer, vermicompost etc. needs to be improved. For this purpose, effect of the eight different fertilizer combination including organic and worm liquid fertilizer, humic acid and mycorrhizae applications on tomato plant and fruit yield were investigated in the study. Negative check without any fertilizer application growing and a positive check; a synthetic liquid fertilizer application was included. Experiment was set up according to completely randomised block design with 3 replications under greenhouse conditions. Tomato fruit length, diameter and weight was determined as fruit yield and fresh and dry weight as plant yield. There was not any statistical difference among fertilizer applications for fruit and plant yield. However, the highest tomato fruit yield was obtained in the treatments of organic (7.17 kg/ plot and worm fertilizers (4,80 kg/ plot in combination with mycorrhizae. The results were similar for fruit diameter and length. Plant fresh and dry weight was between 2.01 to 5.92 and 0.368 to 1.153 kg, respectively. The highest plant weight was belong to mycorrhizae and organic fertilizer application.

  10. YIELD AND QUALITY OF YELLOW PASSION FRUITS ACCORDING TO ORGANIC FERTILIZATION AND ALTERNATIVE PHYTOSANITARY MANAGEMENT

    Anália Lúcia Vieira Pacheco

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Growing yellow passion fruit is a profitable activity, with a high demand for labor, and it is practiced especially by family-based farmers. However, the production cost is rather high and a significant part of this cost is associated with the expenses related to fertilization and phytosanitary treatments necessary for obtaining satisfactory yields and high commercial quality fruit. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of using organic compound in fertilization of plants and alternative products in phytosanitary treatments on the yield and quality of fruits. Yellow passion fruits were submitted to three types of fertilization (mineral, organic and organic-mineral and two types of phytosanitary treatment (‘conventional’ and ‘alternative’. This experiment evaluated fruit yield (kg/plant and fruit quality by using the following evaluations: seedless pulp yield, soluble solids content (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/TA ratio and vitamin C content. The different types of fertilization did not interfere in fruit yield, however, plants under conventional phytosanitary treatment displayed higher yields. The SS content and TA of the fruits were influenced only by fertilization, where plants that received mineral and organic-mineral fertilization produced fruit with higher contents of SS and TA. Pulp yield, SS/TA ratio and vitamin C content were not influenced by any of the evaluated factors. Regarding cultivation of passion fruit, it is possible to substitute some mineral fertilizers for organic fertilizers with no negative effects on the fruit yield or quality. However, the substitution of pesticides for alternative products compromises fruit yield.

  11. Complementary Use of NPK Fertilizer and Zinc on Growth and Yield ...

    A study was carried out at the research farm, National Root Crops Research Institute, Sub-station Igbariam to determine the effect of NPK fertilizer and zinc on growth and yield of cocoyam. The study was a factorial type fitted into a randomized complete block design (RCBD) replicated three times. Five levels of NPK fertilizer ...

  12. Effects Of Organic Fertilizer And Spacing On Growth And Yield Of ...

    NIHORT), Ibadan to investigate the effects of maize-stover compost fertilizer and plant spacing on the growth and shoot yield of Celosia argentea L. var. TLV8. Plants were spaced 15x 15cm; 20 x 20cm and 25 x 25cm and the compost fertilizer was ...

  13. Effect of zinc fertilization on growth and yield of cocoyam ( Colocasia ...

    Effect of zinc fertilization on growth and yield of cocoyam ( Colocasia spp ) in Anambra East ... research farm of the National Root Crops Research Institute, Igbariam Sub-Station. ... Zinc fertilizer was applied at 5 levels 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 kg ha-1.

  14. Effects of the nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on the yield and ...

    enoh

    2012-04-05

    Apr 5, 2012 ... soil by hand broadcasting. Fertilizer applications were done at sowing. Fertilizer treatments were ... They were oven- dried at 78°C for 48 h and weighed, then dry weight percentages were calculated. Dry matter yield of each plot was calculated by multiplying the fresh weight of each plot with its dry weight.

  15. Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Yield and Yield Components of Sesame (Sesamumindicum L.)

    Muhammad Ibrahim; Manzoor Hussain; Ahmad Khan; Yousaf Jamal; Muhammad Ali; Muhammad Faisal Anwar Malik

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen is a structural component of chlorophyll and protein therefore adequate supply of nitrogen is beneficial for both carbohydrates and protein metabolism as it promotes cell division and cell enlargement, resulting in more leaf area and thus ensuring good seed and dry matter yield. Theexperiment entitled effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on yield and yield components of sesame were conducted at New Developmental Farm of the University of Agriculture Peshawar during kharif 2013. Randomiz...

  16. [Effects of mechanical transplanting of rice with controlled release bulk blending fertilizer on rice yield and soil fertility].

    Zhang, Xuan; Ding, Jun-Shan; Liu, Yan-Ling; Gu, Yan; Han, Ke-Feng; Wu, Liang-Huan

    2014-03-01

    Abstract: A 2-year field experiment with a yellow-clay paddy soil in Zhejiang Province was conducted to study the effects of different planting measures combined with different fertilization practices on rice yield, soil nutrients, microbial biomass C and N and activities of urease, phosphatase, sucrase and hydrogen peroxidase at the maturity stage. Results showed that mechanical transplanting of rice with controlled release bulk blending (BB) fertilizer (BBMT) could achieve a significantly higher mean yield than traditional manual transplanting with traditional fertilizer (TFTM) and direct seeding with controlled release BB fertilizer (BBDS) by 16.3% and 27.0%, respectively. The yield by BBMT was similar to that by traditional manual transplanting with controlled release BB fertilizer (BBTM). Compared with TFTM, BBMT increased the contents of soil total-N, available N, available P and microbial biomass C, and the activities of urease, sucrase and hydrogen peroxidase by 21.5%, 13.6%, 41.2%, 27.1%, 50.0%, 22.5% and 46.2%, respectively. Therefore, BBMT, a simple high-efficiency rice cultivation method with use of a light-weighted mechanical transplanter, should be widely promoted and adopted.

  17. EFFECT OF SOIL SULFUR FERTILIZER AND SOME FOLIAR FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF BROCCOLI IN SALINE SOIL

    Ali Husain JASIM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Factorial experiment was conducted in the open fields of Agricultural College, Al-Qasim Green University during the agricultural seasons of 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 to study the effect of adding two levels of agricultural sulfur (control and add 100 kg.ha-1 and four levels of nutrient spray (without spray, high-potash fertilizer, high-phosphorus fertilizer and humic acid on growth and yield of broccoli under drip irrigation and polyethylene soil mulching in saline soil (9.6 dS.m-1. Randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. The results showed that agricultural sulfur led to increase number of leaves, leaf area, leaves chlorophyll content, diameter and weight of flower head compared to control. Spraying foliar fertilizer and its interaction with sulfur fertilizer also led to increase all of parameters above (except leaves chlorophyll content significantly compared to control treatment.

  18. Studies on fertilization of dill (Anethum graveolens L. and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.: II Oil yield of dill affected by fertilization

    S. Hälvä

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different levels of basic fertilization and nitrogen top-dressing on the herb and oil yield of dill (Anethum graveolens L. was studied in 1984 and 1985 in Finland. The total nitrogen doses were 0, 15, 30, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg/ha. The crop in 1984 yielded 12 000—34 000 kg/ha fresh dill herb and 10.3—21.1 kg/ha essential oil. The figures in 1985 were 10600—21 000 and 9.4—16.6 kg/ha, respectively. Of the 22 volatile components identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry, the four most abundant compounds were analysed quantitatively. These compounds were a-phellandrene, 3,6-dimethyl-2,3,3a,4,5,7a-hexahydrobenzofuran, β-phellandrene and limonene, composing 70—95 % of the total aroma content. The optimum basic fertilization for the herb yield proved to be a compound fertilizer of the rate of 40-16-68 kg NPK/ha. The small nitrogen doses (30—40kg N/ha gave also good results in respect to oil yield and the amount of 3,6-dimethyl-2,3,3a,4,5,7a-hexahydrobenzofuran, the most important aroma compound in the dill herb.

  19. Effect of Localities and organic Fertilizers on Yield in Conditions of Organic Farming

    Jiri Antosovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization cannot be used by actual needs of plants during vegetation in organic farming. The proper crop rotation and harmonic nutrition are necessary for good and quality products. The methods of treatment are mainly realized by cultivation of green manure crop and fertilizing by organic fertilizers. The aim of the long-term experiment was to evaluate the effect of different localities and different organic fertilizers on crop yield in organic farming. Variants of fertilization included in the experiment are: 1. Unfertilized control, 2. Green manure, 3. Green manure + renewable external sources, 4. Green manure + renewable external sources + auxiliary substances, 5. Green manure + farm fertilizers, 6. Green manure + farm fertilizers + auxiliary substances. The experiment started by sowing of winter wheat so green manure crop was not grown in the first experimental year. The highest yield of winter wheat grain coming from the first year of the experiment was observed on the variant with renewable external sources (digestate. Average grain yield on this variant was about 7.12 t/ha (up to 0.74 t/ha increased than the unfertilized control. Average yield of potatoes from the second year of the experiment was the highest after combination with green manure + renewable external sources (compost + digestate + auxiliary substances. This variant achieved yield about 34.08 t/ha, which is increased by 9.35 t/ha compared to the control variant. Results from this two-year experiment showed that the most suitable combination of fertilization with or without green manure crop is compost + digestate. These results were probably caused by higher content of nitrogen in organic fertilizers (compost + digestate used in this variant compared to other variants. Statistical difference of achieved yields was observed between each experimental station in both experimental years.

  20. Responses of Pea (Pisum sativum Growth and Yield to Residual Effects of Organic and Urea Fertilizers from Previous Crop

    S. Fallah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of organic manure in organic farming and long-term mineralization may lead to residual effects on the succeeding crop. So, residual effects of combined cattle manure and urea fertilizer of previous crop (black cumin on growth and yield of pea were examined in a randomized complete block design. Treatments included of  cattle manure (CM, urea (U, three ratios of CM+U full dose application (2:1; 1:1; 1:2 and three ratios of CM+U split application (2:1; 1:1; 1:2, and unfertilized control to previous crop (black cumin in 2012. Pea planted without any fertilizer in 2013. There was no significant difference between control and residual of urea treatment for some parameters including dry matter in flowering stage, plant nitrogen and phosphorus concentration, plant height, yield components, grain yield and biological yield of pea. Biological and grain yields were greater under both residual of cattle manure treatment and integrated treatments compared to residual of urea treatment. The highest grain yield (4000 kg ha-1 was observed in residual of CM:U full dosed application treatment, to the extent that grain yield in this treatment indicated a 1.5-fold increase in comparison with residual of urea treatment. The highest biological yield (8325 kg ha-1 was obtained in residual of CM treatment, though it was not significant different from that of residual of CM:U (1:2 treatments. In general, although residual of urea fertilizer did not leave a notable effect on pea production, but production of this crop relying on residual of cattle manure deems effective to lowering of fertilization cost and ameliorating environmental contaminations.

  1. [Effects of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers on rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency].

    Zhang, Xiao-li; Meng, Lin; Wang, Qiu-jun; Luo, Jia; Huang, Qi-wei; Xu, Yang-chun; Yang, Xing-ming; Shen, Qi-rong

    2009-03-01

    A field experiment was carried to study the effects of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers on rice yield, nitrogen (N) use efficiency, soil N supply, and soil microbial diversity. Rapeseed cake compost (RCC), pig manure compost (PMC), and Chinese medicine residue compost (MRC) were mixed with chemical N, P and K fertilizers. All the treatments except CK received the same rate of N. The results showed that all N fertilizer application treatments had higher rice yield (7918.8-9449.2 kg x hm(-2)) than the control (6947.9 kg x hm(-2)). Compared with that of chemical fertilizers (CF) treatment (7918.8 kg x hm(-2)), the yield of the three organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers treatments ranged in 8532.0-9449.2 kg x hm(-2), and the increment was 7.7%-19.3%. Compared with treatment CF, the treatments of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers were significantly higher in N accumulation, N transportation efficiency, N recovery rate, agronomic N use efficiency, and physiological N use efficiency. These mixed fertilizers treatments promoted rice N uptake and improved soil N supply, and thus, increased N use efficiency, compared with treatments CF and CK. Neighbor joining analysis indicated that soil bacterial communities in the five treatments could be classified into three categories, i.e., CF and CK, PMC and MRC, and RCC, implying that the application of exogenous organic materials could affect soil bacterial communities, while applying chemical fertilizers had little effect on them.

  2. Effect of Different Levels of Sulphur Bentonite on Yield and Yield Components of Canola (Brassica napus L.

    B Rahimi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of different levels of sulfur bentonite on yield and yield components of canola a factorial experiment was conducted on the basis of randomized complete block design with three replications in Mashhad in 2009-2010 growing season. Factors included four levels of sulfur bentonite (0, 300, 400 and 500 kg.h-1 and two varieties of canola (Modena and Zarfam. The result showed that the increase in sulfur increased some vegetative traits such as leaf area index and plant height. Using sulfur caused increased pod number, seed weight, in addition of oil and protein content and seed yield. Grain yield increase was due to seed weight and LAI. Two varieties were different to responses the sulfur. While in no sulfur application there was no significant difference in seed yield, in 500 Kg sulfur application yield of Zarfam compared to Modena increased about 29.63. According to the results there are significant differences between cultivars in terms of response to the sulfur fertilizer. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate effect of sulfur application of canola productivity in different climate conditions of Iran.

  3. Effect of saline irrigation water on yield and yield components of rice ...

    vaio

    2013-05-29

    May 29, 2013 ... levels at different growth stages of rice on yield and its components. Treatments included ... Therefore, irrigation with saline water at the early growth stages has more negative effect on ...... diversification. Land Degrad. Dev.

  4. The effects of seed coating treatment on yield and yield components ...

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... 2University of Adnan Menderes, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Mechanization, ... Key words: Fuzzy cotton seed, seed coating, yield components. .... gin turnout (%) characteristics are statistically important.

  5. Seed yield and some yield components of sesame as affected by ...

    In order to study the effect of different irrigation, N and superabsorbent levels on yield and yield components of sesame, a field experiment was conducted in Khosf Region, Birjand, Iran in 2009 as a split-split plot design based on a randomized complete block design. The treatments included irrigation interval at three levels ...

  6. Effect of water stress on yield and yield components of sunflower ...

    A field experiment during year 2009 was conducted in the research station of the University of Tehran, College of Abouraihan in Pakdasht region, Iran. The study was aimed to investigate the effect of water stress on seed yield, yield component and some quantitative traits of four sunflower hybrids namely Azargol, Alstar, ...

  7. Production and morphological components of sunflower on soil fertilized with cassava wastewater

    Mara Suyane Marques Dantas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Agroindustrial residues, such as cassava wastewater, have been used as soil fertilizers, reducing environmental pollution and recovering nutrients. The objective of this work was to evaluate production and morphological components and oil yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, hybrid Helio-250, fertilized with cassava wastewater. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of the Instituto Agronomico de Pernambuco, Vitória de Santo Antão, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. A randomized block experimental design was used, with six cassava wastewater rates (0, 8.5, 17.0, 34.0, 68.0 and 136 m3 ha-1 and four replications. The variables evaluated were shoot fresh and dry weight, capitulum fresh and dry weight, capitulum diameter, seed yield, oil yield and seed oil content. The use cassava wastewater as soil fertilizer improved the production and morphological variables evaluated, except the seed oil content, which decreased with application of cassava wastewater rates above 25 m3 ha-1.

  8. YIELDING AND CONTENT OF SELECTED MICROELEMENTS IN MAIZE FERTILIZED WITH VARIOUS ORGANIC MATERIALS

    Jerzy Wieczorek

    2017-07-01

    On the basis of conducted research it was found that various fertilizer combinations applied in the experiment had a significant influence on the test plant yielding. All compared fertilizer variants allowed maize to produce statistically significantly higher yield in comparison with the yield harvested from the unfertilized soils. Fertilization with sewage sludge I supplemented with mineral treatment and application of solely mineral salts proved the most beneficial for the maize yield. Applied fertilizer combinations affected the content of microelements. The highest concentrations of nickel in maize green mass were assessed in plant samples from the unfertilized object, whereas zinc and copper from mineral fertilization variant. Except of zinc, introducing additional metal doses did not influence their increased content in plant organs. Soil enrichment with zinc contained in sewage sludge I and II (respectively 77.4 mg and 49.9 mg ∙ pot-1 contributed to its elevated concentration in maize roots but at the same time this metal content statistically significantly decreased in maize shoots in comparison with the amounts determined in plants fertilized with mineral materials.

  9. Effect of NPK fertilization and elemental sulphur on growth and yield of lowbush blueberry

    M. STARAST

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the effect of fertilizers on the pH of former arable soils and on the growth and the yield of the lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.. Lowbush blueberry fertilization experiments were established in 1999 at two locations – at Kärla, Saaremaa, West Estonia and at Vasula, Tartu County, South Estonia. Experimental sites were situated on different soils: soil pHKCl at Kärla was 5.5 and at Vasula 6.2. Elemental sulphur and acidifying fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate and superphosphate were used in both plantations. Fertilizers were applied based on nutrient in the soil and sulphur was applied at 100 g m–2. Plant growth was recorded in 2001, 2002 and 2003. A positive influence of NPK fertilization on yield was found in both Kärla and Vasula, and yield were 336 g and 41 g higher compared to the control, respectively. The vegetative growth and yield of blueberry depended significantly on soil pH. Elemental sulphur increased soil acidity and on loamy sand soil did not increase plant productivity. The sulphur effect on soil pH began to decrease three years after application. Sulphur can be recommended to increase soil acidity in nutrient-rich soil but, not nutrient poor soil with light texture, where only NPK fertilizers were effective.;

  10. Influence of planting density and nitrogen fertilization on the yield of Morus alba var. tigreada

    Noda, Yolai; Martín, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of planting density (12 500, 25 000 and 37 500 plants/ha) and nitrogen fertilization (100, 300 and 500 kg N/ha/year) on the yield and bromatological composition of Morus alba var. tigreada. The dry matter yield of the total (DMYTB) and edible biomass (DMYEB), and the yield of the leaves (DMYL) and the fresh stems (DMYFS) were measured during two years. The crude fiber (CF) and crude protein (CP) percentages were also calculated. There was interaction of the factors (p < 0,05) in the DMYFS; the highest values were obtained when the maximum planting density was combined with the three doses of N (0,37; 0,35 and 0,32 kg DM/plant), as well as when combining 25 000 plants/ha with 300 and 500 kg N/ha/year (0,27 and 0,34 kg DM/plant, respectively). In the variables DMYTB, DMYEB and DMYL there was no interaction of the studied factors. The highest values of total and edible biomass and leaves were reached with 37 500 plants (4,43; 2,37 and 2,03 kg DM/plant ) and the maximum dose of N (3,16;1,89 and 1,68 kg DM/plant). It is concluded that the best results regarding the yield of mulberry were obtained with the density of 37 500 plants/ha; its combination with the lowest dose of N produced high yields of fresh stems, which constitutes an important component of the biomass consumed by livestock. (author)

  11. Effect of integrated plant nutrition and irrigation scheduling on yield and yield components of maize (zea mays l.)

    Randhawa, M.S.; Maqsood, M.; Wajid, S.A.; Haq, A.U.

    2012-01-01

    Effect of three irrigation schedules (4-6 irrigations) and seven integrated plant nutrition levels (control, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 10 t ha/sup -1/, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farm yard manure at the rate 15 t ha-1, 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha-1, 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ -K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 10 t ha-1 and 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 15 t ha/sup -1/) on grain yield and its components in maize were studied during 2009 and 2010. Plant height, number of cobs plant-1, number of grain rows cob-1, number of grains cob-1, 1000-grain weight, grain weight cob-1, grain yield, stover yield and biological yield were significantly affected by irrigation schedules and integrated plant nutrition levels during both years. The crop applied with six irrigations and fertilized by integrated application of chemical fertilizers (250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/) and farmyard manure (15 t ha/sup -1/) produced the highest grain yield of 8.47 t ha/sup -1/ and 8.22 t ha/sup -1/ during 2009 and 2010, respectively. (author)

  12. Grain filling parameters and yield components in wheat

    Brdar Milka; Kobiljski Borislav; Balalić-Kraljević Marija

    2006-01-01

    Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is influenced by number of grains per unit area and grain weight, which is result of grain filling duration and rate. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between grain filling parameters in 4 wheat genotypes of different earliness and yield components. Nonlinear regression estimated and observed parameters were analyzed. Rang of estimated parameters corresponds to rang of observed parameters. Stepwise MANOVA indicated that the ...

  13. Okra yield fertilized with bovine manure and biofertilizer

    Ademar Pereira de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of bovine manure becomes an useful and economic practice for the small and medium producers of vegetables, and the okra plant normally demands high doses of organic fertilizers. This study was carried out, from January to July 2011, at the Federal University of Paraíba, in Areia city - PB, aiming to evaluate the effect of bovine manure and biofertilizer on the productive behavior of the okra plant. The experimental design used was randomized blocks, with four repetitions in factorial scheme 6 x 2, with the doses factors of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1 with and without biofertilizer. The average mass of commercial fruit of okra, with and without biofertilizer was 18 and 16.5 g, respectively, in the doses of 27.5 and 60 t ha-1 of manure. The number of fruit plant-1 without biofertilizer was 30 fruits plant-1 of okra in the dose of 60 t ha-1 and with biofertilizer, the number of fruits plant-1 was 33 fruits in the dose of 28 t ha-1 of bovine manure. The productivity of commercial fruits of okra without biofertilizer was 20.4 t ha-1 and 22 t ha-1 with biofertilizer, respectively, in the doses of 60 and 31 t ha-1 of bovine manure.

  14. The Effect Different Fertilizers, on Germination, Yield, of Vicia vilosa Roth

    R Kamaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the interaction of germination, yield of Vicia vilosa Roth to use of biological fertilizer, chemical, and manure, an experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications at Research greenhouse, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013-2014 growing season. The experimental treatments was included three kinds of bio fertilizers and their integration with each other and vermicompost and chemical fertilizer as following : 1- mycorhhizaarbuscular species Glomus mosseae+vermicompost2- mycorhhiza+Nitrocsin (included bacteries Azospirillum sp. and Azotobacter sp. 3- mycorhhiza arbuscular+ Rhizobium (Rhizobium sp. 4-mycorhhiza arbuscular + Chemical fertilizer NPK 5- mycorhhizaarbuscular (Glomus moseae 6-control. The results showed that, although the treatments has not significant effects on height of stem , it has significant effects on characteristics of root length colonization percent, number the root node, Root dry weight, soggy yield, yield dry and protein Percent. The results showed that the highest percent of root length colonization(76 percent, number the root node (20, Root dry weight (.94 g, soggy yield (1894.5 g m-2, yield dry (473.63 g m-2 and protein Percent (27.33 percent was gained in integrated mycorhhiza and nitrocsine treatment. On the basis of results, the integration of mycrhhoriza and biological rhizobium is suggested as the best fertilizer treatment for Vicia vilosa Roth.

  15. Effect of Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Oil, Seed Yield and some Agronomic Traits of Safflower under Different Irrigation Regimes

    Hamidreza Fanaei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Safflower Carthamus tinctorius L. is a tolerant plant to water deficit due to long roots and capability for high water absorption from soil deeper parts. Safflower can growth successfully in regions with low soil fertility and temperature. Behdani and Mosavifar (2011 reported that drought stress affect on yield by reducing yield components and agronomic traits. Biofertilizer during a biological process chanced the nutrients from unusable to usable form for plants in soils (Aseretal, 2008. Mirzakhani et al. (2008 found that inoculation of seed with free-living bacterium azotobacter and a symbiotic fungus productive mycorrhiza addition to increasing oil and seed cause increasing resistance against two factors of unfavorable environmental and to improve quality of product. In order to study the effect of biological and chemical fertilizers on oil, seed yield and some of agronomic traits of Safflower under irrigation of different regimes an experimental design was conducted. Materials and methods In order to study the effect of biological and chemical fertilizers on oil, seed yield and some of agronomic traits of safflower under irrigation of different regimes an experiment was carried out split plot based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in experimental farm of payame-Noor university of Zabol during 2012-2013 growing season. Irrigation regime in three levels include: I1 (control irrigation in all growth stages, I2 stop irrigation from sowing to flowering (irrigation in growth stages flowering, and seed filling, I3 irrigation in growth stages rosset, stem elongation, heading and stop irrigation in flowering, and seed filling were as main plots and fertilizer resources in five levels included: F1 non application chemical fertilizer (control, F2 pure application chemical fertilizer (NPK 99, 44 and 123 kg.ha-1 respectively, F3 Nitroxin application (2 L.ha-1 F4 Azotobacter application (2 L.ha-1 and F5

  16. EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION ON THE YIELD OF RED BEET

    M. Sh. Gaplaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment has revealed that application of green manure and mulching of seedlings by organic matters and zeolite-containing clay increases the amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, and improves agro-physical parameters of soil. As consequence the yield of red beet has increased up to 14-34%, the root weight has increased up to 11-16 g, and the standard output has increased up to 3-7%. The improvement of biochemical and phytosanitary quality of roots was revealed.

  17. Evaluation of Yield, Yield Components and Growth Indices of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. in Conventional and Organic Farming Systems

    Mahdieh Hajghani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Application of organic fertilizers in sustainable agriculture systems improves yield sustainability of field crop. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is native to Middle East and belongs to the Asteraceae family. It is resistant to saline conditions, water stress, and can reach the deep-lying water of soil. The humic acid (HA mentioned as an environmentally friendly, organic matter with low levels of hormonal-like compounds is useful in improving agriculture production (Samavat and Malakuti 2006. The HA influence on plant growth depends on the source, concentration and molecular weight of the substance. Vermicompost is produced by earthworms, mainly Eisenia foetida, it has higher levels of available nutrients compared to the original materials of composts produced by other methods. Recent evidences suggest that using different amounts of vermicompost increased vegetative traits and concentration of minerals in sunflower. However, there has been little discussion about organic farming of safflower. The main objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of organic treatments on yield, yield components, and growth indices of safflower and to compare it with conventional agriculture. Materials and methods This research was conducted in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station in Kerman, Iran during 2012–2013. It was carried out in a randomized complete block (RCB design and had three replications. The current research has been performed to investigate the effects of two different sources of organic fertilizer on spring safflower. Four levels of vermicompost (V: 0, 3, 6 and 9 t ha-1 were considered in the main plots. Liquid humic acid at four different concentrations (HA: 0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm were examined and kept in the subplots. Humic acid as a foliar treatment on leaf surface was applied twice at the beginning of stem elongation and at flowering times. In this study, aimed to compare organic farming

  18. Yield of castor bean fertilized with sewage sludge and potassium and magnesium sulphate

    Thâmara F. M. Cavalcanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate the yield and nutrition of castor bean in response to fertilization with sewage sludge and potassium (K and magnesium (Mg sulphate. The experiment was carried out from January to July 2011. The treatments, in a randomized block design with three replicates, in a Nitosol, corresponded to a factorial scheme (2 x 4 +1: two doses of K and Mg sulphate combined with four doses of sewage sludge (0, 2.60, 5.20 and 10.40 t ha-1, dry basis, applied based on its nitrogen (N content and the N requirement for the crop and an additional treatment with NPK. The castor bean grain yield fertilized with sewage sludge did not differ from conventional fertilization, with the maximum value achieved at a dose of 7.5 t ha-1 of sewage sludge. The fertilization with sewage sludge increased zinc and copper levels in the soil to values close to or higher than those in conventional fertilization, without any influence on the concentrations in the leaf. Fertilization with K and Mg sulphate increased the levels of these cations in the soil without affecting the concentrations in the leaves. The fertilization with sewage sludge increased the contents of organic matter, sulfur, zinc, iron, copper and boron in the soil, and manganese and boron in castor bean leaves.

  19. The Growth and Yield of Sweet Corn Fertilized by Dairy Cattle Effluents Without Chemical Fertilizers in Inceptisols

    Yudi Sastro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Several research has proven the role of dairy cattle effluents in improving the growth and yield of some crops. However, its role in supporting the growth and yield of sweet corn, especialy in Inceptisols, has not been reported. The study aims to determine the effect of dairy cattle effluents on growth and yield of sweet corn in Inceptisols. The pot study was conducted in a greenhouse of the Assessment Institute for Agriculture Technology of Jakarta. The treatments were fertilization using dairy cattle effluents (without dilution, dilution with water 1:1 and 1:2, a mixture of Urea, SP-36 and KCl (NPK, and without fertilizer. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five replications. Compared to a without fertilizer treatment, dairy cattle effluents were significantly increased plant height (114%, leaf number (136%, cob weight (131%, cob length (124%, and cob diameters (128%. Base on cob weight, relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE of dairy cattle effluents reached 38.4% (without dilution, 47.5% (dilution with water 1:1, and 62.1% (dilution with water 1:2.

  20. Appraisal of pressmud and inorganic fertilizers on soil properties yield and sugarcane quality

    Sarwar, M.A.; Ibrahim, M.; Tahir, M.; Ahmad, K.; Khan, Z.I.; Valeem, E.E.

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted under semi-arid climatic conditions to evaluate the response of pressmud in combination with inorganic fertilizers and alone (only inorganic fertilizers) on the yield and sugarcane quality parameters besides a value-added product (locally called Gur). It is obvious from the results that inorganic fertilizer use (T2) has increased the tillers per plant, number of millable canes, stripped cane yield, sugar yield and juice present cane by 38.95 %, 38.66 %, 51.96 %, 54.92 % and 21.9 5% respectively, over the control (T1). Similarly when higher dose of pressmud was applied in integration with inorganic fertilizers (in T3), it increased total soluble solids, sucrose, purity, CSS and sugar recovery of juice by 7.83 %, 10.42 %, 2.80 %, 12.06 %, and 12.07 %, over the control (T1). The studies concluded that higher doses of mineral fertilizers increased gur % juice but it did not improve gur quality as done by higher doses of organic manures. Soil properties were also investigated before and after crop harvest. Maximum fertilizer use efficiency (124.29) was recorded in T2. (author)

  1. Sulphur uptake and yield of soybean as influenced by sulphur fertilization

    Shamima, N.; Farid, A. T. M.

    2005-01-01

    Effect of sulphur fertilization (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg/ha) on sulphur uptake and seed yield was studied in sohag and Bangladesh soybean-4 varieties in the field of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur during the winter (rabi) seasons of 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 in grey Terrace soil (Albaquept). Addition of slphur fertilizer exerted significant influence on the yield attributes of soybean varieties. Sulphur uptake also significantly responded to the application of sulphur fertilizer. Variety Bangladesh soybean-4 was found superior to sohag in respect of sulphur uptake and yield. Greater sulphur utilization was observed at lower levels of fertilizer application. Seed yield and sulphur uptake were increased with the application of 40 kg/ ha for sohag and 60 kg/ha for Bangladesh soybean-4. Response of seed yield to added sulphur was quadratic. The economic optimum doses were found to be 49 kg s/ha for sohag and 52 kg s/ha for Bangladesh soybean-4, yielding 2060 and 2354 kg/ha, respectively. (author)

  2. Yield of Peas Treated with Compost and Chemical Fertilizer Using 15N Technique

    El-Degwy, S.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the yield of peas treated with organic compost and mineral N fertilizer under sandy soil conditions. The obtained results showed that all the tested vegetative growth parameters, i.e. fresh and dry weight of leaves, root and pods of pea plants, were significantly increased with increasing the levels of mineral N fertilizer from 20 up to 50 kg N ha-1 either solely or in combination with compost. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake by pea plants were ranked as follow: chemical N fertilize > compost + chemical N fertilize > compost. Organic additives either alone or in combination with chemical fertilizer had enhanced Ndff uptake by pods over aerial parts and roots while reversible trend was noticed with sole application of chemical fertilizer. Nitrogen derived from compost (Ndfc) and uptake by aerial parts followed by pods were enhanced by addition of organic plus chemical fertilizers comparable to sole addition of organic compost. In other term, chemical fertilizer had enhanced the portion of N derived from organic compost

  3. Inter cropping and population density effects on yield component ...

    Thus the objective of this study was to determine the influence of intercropping and population density on protein and oil yield components, photosynthesis of sorghum and Soybean at the canopy closure. The study was conducted at the University of Nairobi farm during the long rains. There was a significant increase in the ...

  4. Effects of heterosis for yield and yield components obtained by crossing divergent alfalfa populations

    Katić Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When breeding alfalfa for yield performance, it is necessary to use high-yielding parents obtained by different breeding methods. The assumption at the onset of this research was that crossing highest-yielding domestic cultivars with divergent populations from geographically distant breeding centers could result in the expression of heterotic effects in their hybrids contributing to increased alfalfa yield. The objective of this study was to determine yield and yield components and heterotic effects in hybrid progenies obtained by crossing the domestic cultivars NS Banat ZMS II and NS Mediana ZMS V with the cultivars Pella, Dolichi and Hyliki from Greece, UMSS 2001 from Bolivia and Jogeva 118 from Estonia in two series. The field trial planted in 2006, included 13 F1 hybrids and 6 of 7 initial parents in both series. Heterotic effects for yields of forage and hay were observed in 4 combinations (C NS Banat ZMS II x E Hyliki; C NS Banat ZMS II x E UMSS 2001; C NS Mediana ZMS V x E Hyliki; C NS Mediana ZMS V x E Dolichi. The populations that exhibited heterosis in a set of crossings are recommended for use as parent components for development of high-yielding synthetic alfalfa cultivars. .

  5. Effect of Salinity and Silicon on Seed Yield and Yield Components of Purslane Portulaca oleracea L.(

    Z Rahimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effects on salinity and silicon application on yield and yield components of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L., an experiment was conducted in a completely randomized desgin with three replications and two factors consisted of four different levels of salinity using NaCl (0, 7, 14, 21dS/m and two levels of silicon (application of one mMol sodium silicate and not application. Increasing salinity concentration significantly caused a negative effect on seed yield. But yield components such as number and weight of seed were more sensitive than number of capsul in main stem in final seed yield. Application of silicon increased seed yield in control but was not significant in salinity levels and leaves and stem biomass. Seed yield and total seed weight in branches was significantly decresed. Weight of 1000 seed in main stem and branches was not significantly different in salinity levels. As a result, purslane could be extremely tolerated to saline conditions, so it seems that it can be cultivated in saline soils and arid regions. Also applied silicon can be increase yield and plant tolerance to environmental stress. Keywords: 1000 seed, Branches, Capsul, Dry weight

  6. Response of maize varieties to nitrogen application for leaf area profile, crop growth, yield and yield components

    Akmal, M.; Hameed-urRehman; Farhatullah; Asim, M.; Akbar, H.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, to study maize varieties and Nitrogen (N) rates for growth, yield and yield components. Three varieties (Azam, Jalal and Sarhad white) and three N rates (90, 120, 150, kg N ha/sup -1/) were compared. Experiment was conducted in a Randomized Complete Block design; split plot arrangement with 4 replications. Uniform and recommended cultural practices were applied during the crop growth. The results revealed that maize variety 'Jalal' performed relatively better crop growth rate (CGR) and leaf area profile (LAP) at nodal position one to six as compared to the other two varieties (Sarhad white and Azam). This resulted higher radiation use efficiency by the crop canopy at vegetative stage of development and hence contributed higher assimilates towards biomass production. Heavier grains in number and weight were due to higher LAP and taller plants of Jalal which yielded higher in the climate. Nitrogen applications have shown that maize seed yield increase in quadratic fashion with increased N to a plateau level. Considering soil fertility status and cropping system, the 150 kg ha/sup -1/ N application to maize variety Jalal in Peshawar is required for maximum biological and seed production. (author)

  7. The Effect of Mycorrhizal Fungi and Humic Acid on Yield and Yield Components of Sunflower

    Hamideh Veysi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cultivated sunflower is one of the largest oilseed crops in the world. Sunflower seed is the third largest source of vegetable oil worldwide, following soybean and canola. Nitrogen is one of the most important elements for crops to achieve optimum yields and quality. Phosphorus (P, next to nitrogen, is often the most limiting nutrient for crop and forage production. Phosphorus availability is controlled by three primary factors: soil pH, amount of organic matter and plant species (Reddy et al., 2003. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are one of the most important microorganisms in majority of the undamaged soils so that about 70% of the soil microbial biomass is formed by the mycelium of these fungi. Mycorrhizal association promotes plant absorption of scarce or immobile minerals, especially phosphorus, resulting in enhanced plant growth. Humic acids are dark brown to black, and are soluble in waterunder neutral and alkaline conditions. They are complex aromatic macromolecules with amino acid, amino sugar, peptide and aliphatic compounds linked to the aromatic groups. Humic acid contains nitrogen, phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, sulphur, copper and zinc (Subramanian et al., 2009. Materials and methods Experiment was conducted as split plot factorial based on randomized block design with three replications in 2011-2012. The main plots consisted of nitrogen and phosphorus application levels (zero percent or no chemical fertilizer application, 50% equivalent to 37.5 kg.ha-1 urea + 25 kg.ha-1 super phosphate triple and 100% equivalent to 75 kg.ha-1 urea + 25 kg.ha-1 super phosphate triple. Two species of mycorrhizal include (G. mosseae and (G. interaradices with three levels of humic acid (0, 8 and 16 kg.ha-1 were placed in subplots. The measured traits were: plant height, seed number per head, head diameter, seed oil content, thousand seed weight and seed yield. The data were analyzed using the Mstat-C statistical software. Mean comparison

  8. Genetic analysis of yield and yield components in Oryza sativa x ...

    ... inheritance of yield and yield components and to estimate the heritabilities of important quantitative traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Six generations viz., P1, P2, F1, F2, BCP1 and BCP2 of a cross between IET6279 and IR70445-146-3-3 were used for the study. Generation mean analysis suggested that additive effects had a ...

  9. Evaluation of soil and foliar fertilization on wheat yield and quality

    Ndiema, A.C.; Maina, M.P.D.; Kamundia, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally wheat farmers in Kenya apply basal compound fertilizer like diammonium phosphate (DAP), Triple super phosphate (TSP). Plants require a considerable number of different elements for optimal growth. One way of supplying these micronutrients is through foliar fertilization. However there was an increase of 71.7% for 40kg N/ha plus bayfolan in Njoro over the control, 61.8% for bayfolan alone a foliar fertilizer, which contain a wide range of plant nutrients. In Molo the control out-yielded all the treatments indicating that planting the crop with DAP is sufficient. Foliar fertilizer was applied directly to the plant leaves to enhance crop yield due to their rapid absorption. The potential of improving yields comes as a result of increase in number of seeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of foliar fertilizer on wheat yield when used alone or in combination with soil-applied fertilizers. Byfolan is a fast acting fertilizer with nutrients rapidly becoming available to the plant. The composition of Bayfolan includes N (11%), P (8%), K (6%), Fe (0.019%), Mn (0.016%). Zn (0.0061% ), Co (0.00035%), Mo (0.00009%), sodium, sulphur, vitamin B 1 and growth hormones. The design was RCBD with nine (9) treatments and three (3) replications. The treatments included control, 20kg N/ha, 40kg N/ha, 80kg N/ha, Bayfolan foliar, 20kg N/ha + Baylon a foliar, 40kg N/ha + Bayfolan foliar, 20kg N/ha urea in solution form, 20kg N/ha urea in solution form + Bayfolan foliar. DAP was applied at the rate of 130kg/ha, as a blanket treatment at planting timeto provide N and P for initial growth. Significant difference in spike density and kernel weight at 5% level was observed at farms in Njoro but not at farms in Molo. (author)

  10. The Effect of Rate and Application Method of Potassium on Yield and Yield Components of Cotton in Saline Condition

    A Ardakani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Salinity is a major abiotic stress that affects approximately 7% of the world’s total land area. Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. is considered as one of the most important cash crops which is widely used for agricultural and industrial purposes. Although, cotton is classified as one of the most salt-tolerant major crops but its growth and development are adversely affected by soil or water salinity. Understanding salinity and fertilizer interaction can mitigate salinity stress and improving crop yield. Potassium (K is an essential nutrient that affects most of the biochemical and physiological processes that are involved in plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Proper management of K fertilizer is especially important in saline soils where K application might reduce the adverse effects of salinity on plant growth and yield. There is a little information about rate and application method of K on yield and yield component of cotton in saline condition. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rate and application method of K on yield and yield component of cotton in soil and water saline condition. Materials and Methods The experiment was carried out at Sabzevar Agriculture and Natural Resources Research center (Haresabad, 30km southwest of Sabzevar (32◦32N, 51◦23E and 1630 above mean sea level,in 2014.This experiment was conducted as split plot design based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Factors were: K rate (75 and 150kg ha-1 Solopotash (containing 50% K2O and 18% S comprising the main plot and application method (25%at planting+25% at first flowering and 50%at early boll development (25P+25F+50B, 25%at planting+50% at first flowering and 25%at early boll development (25P+50F+25B, 25%at planting+25% at vegetative stage (5-8 leaves stage, 25% at first flowering and 25% at early boll development (25P+25V+25F+50B, 25% at planting+25% at vegetative stage and 50% at first

  11. Yield, yield components and dry matter digestibility of alfalfa experimental populations

    Katić Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is the most important forage crop grown in the temperate regions. It is cultivated for production of vegetative aerial mass used fresh or as hay, and recently as haylage and silage. In many centres worldwide, efforts are made to breed and create new alfalfa cultivars with both higher yields and of higher nutritional value. The aim of this paper was to determine yield and digestibility of 12 experimental populations of alfalfa, and to compare their results to the yields of well-known domestic alfalfa commercial cultivars. The results show significant differences in yield of green forage and dry matter among alfalfa populations, as well as in yield components, height, proportion of leaves in yield and growth rate (tab. 1, 2 and 3. Differences between in vitro digestible dry matter (% and yields of in vitro digestible dry matter (t ha-1 were also significant (tab. 5 and 6. Yield and quality of experimental populations were at the same level or higher than of control cultivars. Synthetic SINUSA exceeded the control cutivars (NS Mediana ZMS V and Banat VS in yield and quality of dry matter. .

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Some Khorasanian Sesame Ecotypes (Sesamum indicum L.

    A. Nezami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In most region of Khorasan, sesame ecotypes have been planted for many years, but there is little information about seed yield and yield components of them. Therefore a field experimental was conducted to investigation of yield parameters of 14 sesame ecotypes (MSC1, MSC2, MSC3, MSC4, MSC5, MSC6, MSC7, MSC8, MSC9, MSC10, MSC11, MSC12, MSC13 and MSC14 in randomized complete block design with three replications at experimental station, Collage of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during 2009. Results showed that there were significant difference (P

  13. Increasing yield and nitrogen use efficiency of rice through multiple-split fertilizer application

    Rallos, R.V.; Rivera, F.G.; Samar, E.D.; Rojales, J.S.; Anida, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    The low availability of nitrogen (N) is one of the most important limiting factors impeding the increase in rice yield among the various factors. Split N fertilizer applications can play an important role in nutrient management strategy that is productive, profitable and environmentally responsible. In this study, the recoveries and efficiencies of a multiple-split N fertilizer application of were determined using 15N labeled fertilizer, in order to provide science-based foundation for the nitrogen management in sustainable rice production. A lysimeter experiment with five treatments in four replications was set-up T0 (control). T1 (45 kg N ha“- “1), T2 (90 kg N ha“- “1), T3 (135 kg N ha“- “1) and T4 (180 kg N ha“- “1). 15N tracer analysis showed that, on average, only 30% of applied N is recovered by the crop following one time basal application. In contrast, higher fertilizer nitrogen use efficiencies (FNUE) (>50%) were observed following multiple-split N application. The result of FNUE also corroborates with the significant increase in rice grain yield. Many crops, however, have different nutrient requirements, therefore as in all fertilization strategies, it is highly recommended that source, rate, time and place of application should be considered in making split fertilization decisions. (author)

  14. Organics and mineral fertilizers and biological control on the incidence of stalk rot and corn yield

    Elena Blume

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of area under maize (Zea mays L. and the use of no tillage have favored the incidence of stalk rot on this crop. The study aimed to evaluate the organic fertilizers and the treatment of corn seeds with Trichoderma spp. on the production of dry matter (DM of shoot, incidence of stalk rot and corn yield. The experiment consisted in a factorial with split-plot in strips, on the randomized block design with four replicates, and the fertilization treatments (pig slurry; swine deep bedding; cattle slurry; mineral fertilizer; control treatment were applied to the plots and the seeds treatment (with and without Trichoderma spp. in the subplots. At the flowering stage, three corn plants per subplot were collected for the assessment of DM production. At physiological maturity stage, the incidence of stalk rot was assessed, and the ears of corn harvested for productivity assessment. The organic and mineral fertilizers increased the production of DM and productivity of corn. Trichoderma spp. increased the production of DM of corn, but had no reflection on productivity. The incidence of stalk rot in corn was higher in treatments with organic and mineral fertilization. Organic fertilizers increase dry matter production of shoot and corn yield, and Trichoderma spp. provides an increase in dry matter production of shoot.

  15. Influence of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizations on triticale yield under dry conditions

    Goekmen, S.; Tasyuerek, T.; Demir, M.

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of N and P fertilizations on grain yield of triticale. Field experiments were conducted at three locations and four locations of Sivas province during 1996-97 and 1997-98 growing seasons, respectively. The experiment was designed in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Five rates of nitrogen (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg N ha -1 ) and phosphorus (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 ) were applied. The trials of nitrogen and phosphorus were conducted separately. Nitrogen application significantly increased the grain yield all sites in both years. Grain yield was significantly increased by P application at all locations in the first year and at only Uzunyayla in the second year. The highest grain yield was obtained from different fertilizer applications depending upon sites and years. Refs. 17 (author)

  16. Effect of Foliar Application of Phosphorus and Water Deficit on Yield and Yield Components of Winter Wheat (Cultivar Alvand

    M. Vafapour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of foliar application of phosphorus (P and water deficit on yield and yield components of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Alvand, a split-plot experiment, with completely randomized blocks design and three replications, was carried out at the Research Farm of Boyer Ahmad Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station, 13 km west of Yasouj, in 2008-2009. The main plots were irrigation at three levels (1- full irrigation (control, 2- deficit irrigation from the stem elongation to booting stage, and 3- deficit irrigation from booting stage to the end of growth period and the subplots were five levels of foliar application of P fertilizer (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 kg/ha KH2PO4. The results showed that the effects of different irrigation regimes and foliar application of P were significant on all traits, and their interaction was significant on plant height, number of grain per spike, grain yield and biological yield. Full irrigation and foliar application of 6 kg/ha P produced the highest grain and biological yield (6000 and 14170 kg/ha, respectively and deficit irrigation from the stem elongation to booting stage without foliar application of P produced the lowest grain and biological yield (2920 and 8219 kg/ha, respectively. Foliar application of P affects significantly the evaluated traits only in drought-stress treatments and its effect was not significant in full irrigation treatment. In general, foliar application of 9 kg/ha P compensated the losses in wheat due to drought stress.

  17. Path Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield Components and Some Agronomic Traits in Bread Wheat

    Mohsen Janmohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new bread wheat cultivars needs efficient tools to monitor trait association in a breeding program. This investigation was aimed to characterize grain yield components and some agronomic traits related to bread wheat grain yield. The efficiency of a breeding program depends mainly on the direction of the correlation between different traits and the relative importance of each component involved in contributing to grain yield. Correlation and path analysis were carried out in 56 bread wheat genotypes grown under field conditions of Maragheh, Iran. Observations were recorded on 18 wheat traits and correlation coefficient analysis revealed grain yield was positively correlated with stem diameter, spike length, floret number, spikelet number, grain diameter, grain length and 1000 seed weight traits. According to the variance inflation factor (VIF and tolerance as multicollinearity statistics, there are inconsistent relationships among the variables and all traits could be considered as first-order variables (Model I with grain yield as the response variable due to low multicollinearity of all measured traits. In the path coefficient analysis, grain yield represented the dependent variable and the spikelet number and 1000 seed weight traits were the independent ones. Our results indicated that the number of spikelets per spikes and leaf width and 1000 seed weight traits followed by the grain length, grain diameter and grain number per spike were the traits related to higher grain yield. The above mentioned traits along with their indirect causal factors should be considered simultaneously as an effective selection criteria evolving high yielding genotype because of their direct positive contribution to grain yield.

  18. Effect of Fertilization on Yield and Quality of Oil Sunflower in Salted Soil of Ningxia, China

    QIAN Yin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Combining field trial with test analysis, a nitrogen(N, phosphorus(P2O5 and potassium(K2O fertilizer experiment of oil sunflowers was set to explore the influence of different ratio of N, P, K fertilizer on dry matter accumulation of oil sunflowers, nutrient absorption and accumulation, the yield and quality, etc in salted soil of the northern Ningxia, in order to provide scientific evidence for regulating and controlling of fertilization in the salted soil and enhancing the yields and quality of oil sunflowers. The results showed that: in the salted soil, the plant which had been disposed by N, P, K fertilizer had more advantages, the 1 000-grain weight, fruit quantity of each oil sunflower and yield per plant and hectare all increased significantly. Treatment of adding the organic fertilizer on the basis of N, P, K fertilizer could also increase the amount of N, P, K absorption significantly. At the same time, the application of N, P, K fertilizer would increase the fat content and reduce the protein, increase the oleic acid and stearic acid, reduce the content of linoleic acid and palmitic acid. The needs of nitrogen (N, phosphorus(P2O5 and potassium(K2O absorption of oil sunflower seeds were averagely 6.1~9.6, 3.2~3.8 kg and 12.3~13.7 kg, about 1:0.40~0.55:1.43~2.09 in ratio, 1:0.49:1.79 averagely in ratio.

  19. IMPROVING NITROGEN FERTILIZER ABSORPTION AND ITS EFFECT ON QUALITY AND SEED YIELD OF CORN (Zea mays

    Kuswanto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Improving nitrogen uptake by pyraclostrobin application in maize under green house and field conditions were investigated. There were three series experiments conducted in dry season, 2011 and 2012. The research conducted using nested design and three replications. Nested design applied to get information as careful as possible about the role of treatment, especially the main factor. The first and second experiments hold at field and green house and the third experiment hold at green house. They had two factors, pyraclostrobin application and nitrogen fertilizer. Vegetative growth, flowering and earing age, chlorophyll content, yield, amylose and protein content evaluated. Application of pyraclostrobin, significantly increase nitrogen fertilizer efficiency. Amylose content and fresh yield were different on nitrogen and pyraclostrobin application. Application of pyraclostrobin 400 ml/ha significantly increase amylose 10.85-18.5%. Both of amylose and protein content were increased by nitrogen fertilizer application. Vegetative growth and chlorophyll content were affected by nitrogen and pyraclostrobin.

  20. Quantitative Genetic Analysis for Yield and Yield Components in Boro Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine genotypes of boro rice (Oryza sativa L. were grown in a randomized block design with three replications in plots of 4m x 1m with a crop geometry of 20 cm x 20 cm between November-April, in Regional Agricultural Research Station, Nagaon, India. Quantitative data were collected on five randomly selected plants of each genotype per replication for yield/plant, and six other yield components, namely plant height, panicles/plant, panicle length, effective grains/panicle, 100 grain weight and harvest index. Mean values of the characters for each genotype were used for analysis of variance and covariance to obtain information on genotypic and phenotypic correlation along with coheritability between two characters. Path analyses were carried out to estimate the direct and indirect effects of boro rice�s yield components. The objective of the study was to identify the characters that mostly influence the yield for increasing boro rice productivity through breeding program. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive genotypic correlation of yield/plant with plant height (0.21, panicles/plant (0.53, panicle length (0.53, effective grains/panicle (0.57 and harvest index (0.86. Path analysis based on genotypic correlation coefficients elucidated high positive direct effect of harvest index (0.8631, panicle length (0.2560 and 100 grain weight (0.1632 on yield/plant with a residual effect of 0.33. Plant height and panicles/plant recorded high positive indirect effect on yield/plant via harvest index whereas effective grains/panicle on yield/plant via harvest index and panicle length. Results of the present study suggested that five component characters, namely harvest index, effective grains/plant, panicle length, panicles/plant and plant height influenced the yield of boro rice. A genotype with higher magnitude of these component characters could be either selected from the existing genotypes or evolved by breeding program for genetic

  1. Optimization of Application of Nitrogen Fertilizers for Growth and Yield of Forage Sorghum under Low-Input and Conventional Farming Systems

    M. Pourazizi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain sustainable agriculture and prevent excessive use of chemical fertilizers, supplying part of the plant needs by organic fertilizers is necessary. In this respect, effects of nitrogen (N source and rate on yield and yield components of forage sorghum was evaluated as a factorial experiment arranged in randomized complete blocks design with three replications at the Research Farm of Shahrekord University in 2010. Treatments consisted of three N sources (urea fertilizer, cow manure and equal combination of urea fertilizer + cow manure and three N levels 80, 160 and 240 kg/ha N, equivalent to 174, 348 and 522 kg/ha urea and 26.2, 52.5 and 78.7 Mg/ha of cow manure and equal combination of urea fertilizer + cow manure at each nitrogen level, respectively. The results showed that increase of N utilization, with increase in leaf, stem and panicle weights and stem diameter, caused a linear increase of forage yield in urea fertilizer and cow manure treatments and a quadratic increase in the combined fertilizer. The highest leaf, stem and panicle weight (600, 3789 and 823 g/m2 and also fresh forage yield (44 Mg/ha were observed in 240 kg/ha N treatment in combined treatment. But, there was no significant difference in forage yield between this treatment and the 160 kg/ha N treatment. Overall, the results indicated that the potential of sorghum production can be increased by conjunctive use of animal manure and chemical fertilizers, even in low levels of these fertilizers, or low-input agriculture.

  2. Effect of N-fertilizer rates on Dry Matter Yield (DMY) and quality of ...

    Effect of N-fertilizer rates on Dry Matter Yield (DMY) and quality of pinapple propagules (Ananas comosus) in the acid sands of cross river. W Ubi, M W Ubi, VE Osedeke. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Physics Vol. 14 (1) 2008 pp. 1-4. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ...

  3. Developing a Coffee Yield Prediction and Integrated Soil Fertility Management Recommendation Model for Northern Tanzania

    Maro, G.P.; Mrema, J.P.; Msanya, B.M.; Janssen, B.H.; Teri, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and quantitative system for coffee yield estimation and nutrient input advice, so as to address the problem of declining annual coffee production in Tanzania (particularly in its Northern coffee zone), which is related to declining soil fertility. The

  4. The effect of different replications of humic acid fertilization on yield ...

    Jane

    2011-06-22

    Jun 22, 2011 ... herbage yield (3045 kg ha-1) and plant height (61 cm) was obtained from soil 100% ... Key words: Crude protein, fertilization, fulvic acid, humic acid and vetch. .... The treatment material used in this study is liquid humic acid.

  5. Effect of time of fertilizer application on growth and yield of maize ...

    An experiment was carried out during the 2006 growing season, between June and November, to investigate the growth and yield responses of four varieties of maize (SUWAN-1-Y, TZSR-Y, DMESR-W and ACROSS-97 TZL) to time of fertilizer application (2,4 and 6 weeks after planting). The experiment was laid out in a 3 x ...

  6. Gamma radiation induced mutant for improved yield components in sunflower

    Elangovan, M.

    2001-01-01

    Sunflower has become an important oilseed in the Indian vegetable oil pool following its introduction from Russia in 1969. It can be used for all quality products useful to humans. The need for genetic variability and new useful gene sources has necessitated that sunflower breeders and geneticists utilize a wide range of germplasm in their breeding programmes. The induction of mutations in sunflower by physical and chemical mutagens has been practiced quite intensively in the last two decades. The results recorded to date suggest that utilization of mutagenesis could be a great advantage in improving the sunflower crop. An induced mutation programme was undertaken to generate variability in the variety 'Morden' using gamma rays. The certified and genetically pure seeds were irradiated with 50, 100, and 150 Gy gamma rays and used for further studies. Selection in M 2 generations, raised from different treatments, revealed the presence of an erectophylly leaf mutant from 50 Gy treatment. The isolated mutant showed improved yield components like head diameter, 100- seed weight and yield per plant. The mutant was a plant with short petiole length and erect leaves. This type of leaf get sunlight throughout the day. From morning to afternoon, the first half of the leaf gets sunlight, and from afternoon to evening the second half of the leaf gets sunlight. As a result of getting sunlight the whole day, the plant had more photosynthetic products and grew vigorously. Plant height, head diameter and 100-seed weight had direct effect on seed yield, and the number of leaves and stem diameter influenced the seed yield indirectly. In the M 3 generation, the mutant showed an almost two-fold increase over the parent variety for all investigated characters, except that of the yield per plant where there was a three-fold increase. The present investigation has shown that there are remarkable possibilities of increasing the yield components in sunflower by induced mutations

  7. Effect of potassium fertilization on yield and nutrition of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis

    Delmar Santin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis is a tree species native to the subtropical regions of South America, and is found in Brazil predominantly in the southern region. Despite the historical importance in this region, so far, studies on crop nutrition to improve yields are scarce. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of potassium rates on K soil availability, and the yield and nutritional status of yerba mate. The experiment was conducted in São Mateus do Sul, State of Paraná, on a Humox soil, where K2O rates of 0, 20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 kg ha-1 were tested on 7-year-old plantations. The experiment was harvested 24 months after installation by removing approximately 95 % of the canopy that had sprouted from the previous harvest. The soil was evaluated for K availability in the layers 0-10, 0-20, 10-20, and 20-40 cm. The plant parts leaf fresh matter (LM, twigs (TW, thick branches (BR and commercial yerba mate (COYM, i.e., LM+TW, were analyzed. In addition, the relationship between fresh matter/dry matter (FM/DM and K concentration in LM, AG and BR were evaluated. The fertilization increased K availability in all evaluated soil layers, indicating good mobility of the nutrient even at low rates. Yerba mate responded positively to increasing K2O rates with higher yields of all harvested components. The crop proved K-demanding, with a maximum COYM yield of 28.5 t ha-1, when 72 mg dm-3 K was available in the 0-20 cm layer. Yerba mate in the plant production stage requires soil K availability at medium to high level; in clayey soil with low K availability, a rate of 300 kg ha-1 K2O should be applied at 24 month intervals to obtain high yields. A leaf K concentration of 16.0 g ha-1 is suitable for yerba mate in the growth stage.

  8. Physiology, phenology and yield of sunflower (autumn) as affected by NPK fertilizer and hybrids

    Bakht, J.; Shah, S.U.

    2010-01-01

    The present field studies investigate the effect of NPK fertilizer on the physiology, phenology and yield response of sunflower hybrids at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan during autumn, 2000 and 2001. The response of sunflower hybrids (SF-187 and Parsun-1) were studied using low medium and high rate of NPK (0, 50, 100,150 kg ha/sup -1/) in factorial design with split plot arrangements. Days to R1 (button stage), R4 (inflorescence begins to open), R5.8 (80% anthesis) and R9 (physiological maturity) stages significantly (P<0.05) increased with an increase in fertilizer levels. Among the hybrids, Parsun-1 matured 4-5 days later than SF-187. Similarly, leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), and dry matter accumulation (DMA) also significantly (P<0.05) increased with an increase in fertilizer levels. Maximum LAI, CGR, DMA and seed yield was produced by fertilizer treatments of 150:100:100 kg ha/sup -1/ during both the seasons. Oil content also varied with different combinations of NPK fertilizers which ranged from 37 to 39% during both the seasons. (author)

  9. Common bean grain yield as affected by sulfur fertilization and cultivars

    Adriano Stephan Nascente

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A better understanding of the differential growth of common bean cultivars with increasing soil sulfur (S availability can indicate how to improve common bean grain yield in soils of Savannas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of sprinkler-irrigated common bean cultivars to sulfur fertilization in a no-tillage system. The experiment was designed as a randomized block in a split-plot scheme with sulfur rates (0, 10, 20, 40, and 60 kg ha-1 as main plots and common bean cultivars (BRS Requinte, BRS Cometa, Diamante Negro, BRS Grafite, BRS Valente, and Corrente as subplots, with three replications. Common bean cultivars did not differ regarding grain yield response to sulfur rates, which fitted to a quadratic equation. Among the cultivars tested, only BRS Requinte and BRS Valente differed in grain yield for S fertilization, the first being more productive. Moreover, S fertilization allows significant increases in common bean grain yield in average of six cultivars and must be considered in cropping systems aiming for high yields.

  10. Nitrogen management and nitrification inhibitor effects on nitrogen-15 urea: 1. Yield and fertilizer use efficiency

    Walters, D.T.; Malzer, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Nitrification inhibitors (NI) are sometimes recommended for use with ammoniacal fertilizers in corn (Zea mays L.) production to improve fertilizer N use efficiency (FUE). The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the effects of the NI nitrapyrin [2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl) pyridine] application on yield and FUE of irrigated corn, and to monitor the fate of a single application of 15 N-enriched urea during a multiyear period in both soil and plant. Treatments included a factorial combination of two N rates (90 or 180 kg urea-N ha -1 yr -1 ) applied during a 3-yr period, with or without a NI and with or without incorporation, plus a zero-N control. Twenty-seven nonweighing lysimeters were used to quantify leaching load. Treatment effects on yield and FUE differed each year due to interactions of climate and N-management variables. Nonincorporated urea + NI reduced grain yield when leaching load was low and increased yield at the 90 kg ha -1 N rate when leaching load was low. The NI increased FUE only at the 90 kg ha -1 N rate when leaching load was high. Incorporation of urea + NI reduced plant recovery of fertilizer-derived N (FDN) in the year of application, but resulted in increased uptake of residual FDN in subsequent years. Incorporation of NI with moderate N rates coupled with conservative irrigation management should reduce the risk of yield loss and minimize NO 3 movement to groundwater

  11. Effect of organic matter and Si liquid fertilizer on growth and yield of sugar cane

    Djajadi Djajadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is known to absorb more Si than any other nutrient from the soil; therefore continuous cropping of the plant at the same soil would bring consequences of more Si and organic matter depletion. Silicon (Si is considered as a beneficial nutrient for sugarcane production while organic matter is well known as soil amendment. Field study was carried out to know the effect of organic and Si liquid fertilizer on growth, Si and N uptake, and yield of cane variety of PSBM 901. The study field was located at Kempleng village, Purwoasri, East Java and the study was done from May 2013 up to September 2014. Split plot design with three replicates was employed to arrange treatments. Organic matter types (no organic matter, Crotalaria juncea and manure were set as main plots while Si liquid fertilizer concentration (0, 15% Si and 30% S were arranged as sub plots. C juncea was planted at 15 days before planting of sugar cane, and after 35 days the C juncea were chopped and mixed into the soil. Manure was added one week before sugar cane was planted. Si liquid fertilizer was sprayed to the whole part of sugar cane plant at 30 and 50 days after sugar cane was planted. All treatments received basal fertilizer of 800 kg ZA/ha, 200 kg SP 36/ha and 300 kg KCl/ha. Results showed that interaction between organic matter and Si liquid fertilizer significantly affected on Si and N absorption, length of stem, yield and rendement of sugar cane. Addition of manure and followed by spraying of 30% Si liquid fertilizer gave the highest value of S and N absorption (869 g SiO2/plant and 720 g N/plant, cane yield (155.74 tons/ha and rendement (8.15%.

  12. Effects of different mechanized soil fertilization methods on corn nutrient accumulation and yield

    Shi, Qingwen; Bai, Chunming; Wang, Huixin; Wu, Di; Song, Qiaobo; Dong, Zengqi; Gao, Depeng; Dong, Qiping; Cheng, Xin; Zhang, Yahao; Mu, Jiahui; Chen, Qinghong; Liao, Wenqing; Qu, Tianru; Zhang, Chunling; Zhang, Xinyu; Liu, Yifei; Han, Xiaori

    2017-05-01

    Aim: Experiments for mechanized corn soil fertilization were conducted in Faku demonstration zone. On this basis, we studied effects on corn nutrient accumulation and yield traits at brown soil regions due to different mechanized soil fertilization measures. We also evaluated and optimized the regulation effects of mechanized soil fertilization for the purpose of crop yield increase and production efficiency improvement. Method: Based on the survey of soil background value in the demonstration zone, we collected plant samples during different corn growth periods to determine and make statistical analysis. Conclusions: Decomposed cow dung, when under mechanical broadcasting, was able to remarkably increase nitrogen and potassium accumulation content of corns at their ripe stage. Crushed stalk returning combined with deep tillage would remarkably increase phosphorus accumulation content of corn plants. When compared with top application, crushed stalk returning combined with deep tillage would remarkably increase corn thousand kernel weight (TKW). Mechanized broadcasting of granular organic fertilizer and crushed stalk returning combined with deep tillage, when compared with surface application, were able to boost corn yield in the in the demonstration zone.

  13. Application of Bioorganic Fertilizer Significantly Increased Apple Yields and Shaped Bacterial Community Structure in Orchard Soil.

    Wang, Lei; Li, Jing; Yang, Fang; E, Yaoyao; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2017-02-01

    Application of bioorganic fertilizers has been reported to improve crop yields and change soil bacterial community structure; however, little work has been done in apple orchard soils where the biological properties of the soils are being degraded due to long-term application of chemical fertilizers. In this study, we used Illumina-based sequencing approach to characterize the bacterial community in the 0-60-cm soil profile under different fertilizer regimes in the Loess Plateau. The experiment includes three treatments: (1) control without fertilization (CK); (2) application of chemical fertilizer (CF); and (3) application of bioorganic fertilizer and organic-inorganic mixed fertilizer (BOF). The results showed that the treatment BOF increased the apple yields by 114 and 67 % compared to the CK and CF treatments, respectively. The treatment BOF also increased the soil organic matter (SOM) by 22 and 16 % compared to the CK and CF treatments, respectively. The Illumina-based sequencing showed that Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the predominant phyla and Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant classes in the soil profile. The bacterial richness for ACE was increased after the addition of BOF. Compared to CK and CF treatments, BOF-treated soil revealed higher abundance of Proteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, Rhizobiales, and Xanthomonadales while Acidobacteria, Gp7, Gp17, and Sphaerobacter were found in lower abundance throughout the soil profile. Bacterial community structure varied with soil depth under different fertilizer treatments, e.g., the bacterial richness, diversity, and the relative abundance of Verruccomicrobia, Candidatus Brocadiales, and Skermanella were decreased with the soil depth in all three treatments. Permutational multivariate analysis showed that the fertilizer regime was the major factor than soil depth in the variations of the bacterial community composition. Two groups, Lysobacter

  14. Responsiveness of cold tolerant chickpea characteristics in fall and spring planting: II. yield and yield components

    ahmad nezami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research in Mashhad collection chickpeas (MCC has shown that there are some cold tolerant genotypes for fall planting in the highlands. To obtain more detailed information about the reaction of these genotypes to fall and spring planting, the yield and yield component responses of 33 chickpea genotypes (32 cold tolerant genotypes and one susceptible genotypes to four planting dates (28 Sep., 16 Oct., 2 Nov., and 7 Mar. were evaluated in 2000-2001 growing season. The experiment was conducted at the experimental field of college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad as a split plot design with two replications. The planting dates were imposed as main plot and chickpea genotypes as subplot. Effects of planting date and genotype on percent of plant survival (PPS after winter, number. of pod per plant, 100 seed weight, yield and Harvest Index (HI were significant (p

  15. Yield and fruit quality of four sweet corn hybrids (Zea mays) under conventional and integrated fertilization with vermicompost.

    Lazcano, Cristina; Revilla, Pedro; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-05-01

    Vermicompost has been proposed as a valuable fertilizer for sustainable agriculture. The effects of vermicompost on yield and quality of sweet corn were evaluated in this study. In two field trials, sweet corn plants were grown under (i) a conventional fertilization regime with inorganic fertilizer, and integrated fertilization regimes in which 75% of the nutrients were supplied by the inorganic fertilizer and 25% of the nutrients were supplied by either (ii) rabbit manure, or (iii) vermicompost. All three types of fertilization regime were supplied at two doses. Two pairs of nearly isogenic sweet corn hybrids homozygous for sugary1 and shrunken2 mutants were included in the trials to explore fertilizer × genotype interactions. Growth, yield and ear quality of the plants were evaluated in relation to the three fertilization regimes. In general, the integrated regimes yielded the same productivity levels as the conventional treatment. Moreover, both vermicompost and manure produced significant increases in plant growth and marketable yield, and also affected the chemical composition and quality of the marketable ear. Nevertheless, most of the observed effects of the organic fertilizers were genotype-dependent. The results confirm that the use of organic fertilizers such as vermicompost has a positive effect on crop yield and quality. Nevertheless, these effects were not general, indicating the complexity of the organic amendment-plant interactions and the importance of controlling genetic variation when studying the effects of vermicompost on plant growth. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Effect of Irrigation Methods, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer Rates on Sugar Beet Yield and Quality

    Janat, M.; Abudlkareem, J.

    2007-01-01

    The experiment was conducted at a research station near Adlib. Two irrigation methods, sprinkler irrigation and drip fertigation, two phosphorus rates and four nitrogen rates 0, 70, 140 and 210 kg N/ha were tested. All N fertilizers were injected for drip irrigation or broadcasted for the sprinkler-irrigated treatments in six equally split applications. Neutron probe Results revealed that the introduction of drip fertigation was not proved to be a water saving relative to sprinkler irrigation. Dry matter production was slightly increased for the drip-fertigated treatments relative to sprinkler irrigated treatments. Nitrogen use efficiency was not improved under drip fertigation relative to that of sprinkler irrigation. Application of phosphorus fertilizer improved sugar beet yield as well as N uptake. No significant differences in sugar beet yield were observed due to the application of N fertilizer under drip fertigation. On the other hand, there was a trend toward increasing sugar beet yield grown under sprinkler irrigation. Drip fertigation had no negative effects on sugar content and other related properties, furthermore some of those properties were enhanced due to the employment of drip fertigation. Field water-use efficiency followed a similar trend and was increased under sprinkler irrigation relative to drip-fertigation for sugar beet yield parameter.

  17. Potassium fertilization and sowing seasons on protein yield in soybean cultivars

    Maria D. de Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was conducted in order to determine the effects of potassium (K fertilizer doses on the protein yield of different soybean cultivars, sown in two seasons, in the agricultural year 2013/14 (12/05/13 and 01/23/14, in Palmas-TO, Brazil. The experimental design, in each sowing season, was randomized blocks with 60 treatments and three replicates. The treatments were arranged in a 10 × 6 factorial scheme, represented by ten cultivars (BRS 325RR, M 9144RR, BRS 33871RR, TMG 1288RR, BRS 333RR, P 98Y70RR, TMG 1180RR, BRS 9090RR, M 8766RR and BRS 8990RR and six doses of K fertilizer (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 kg ha-1 K2O. The late sowing decreased the protein yield. K fertilization increased the protein yield in soybean cultivars. The BRS 9090RR, BRS 33871RR and BRS 333RR cultivars, at high and low K doses, were the most promising for the protein yield, and their cultivation is strategic from the economic and environmental point of view.

  18. Enhancing water and fertilizer saving without compromising rice yield through integrated crop management

    Wardana, I.P.; Gani, A.; Abdulrachmann, S.; Bindraban, P.S.; Keulen, van H.

    2010-01-01

    Water and fertilizer scarcity amid the increasing need of rice production challenges today’s agriculture. Integrated crop management (ICM) is a combination of water, crop, and nutrient management that optimizes the synergistic interaction of these components aiming at improving resource use

  19. Effect of different methods of soil fertility increasing via application of organic, chemical and biological fertilizers on grain yield and quality of canola (Brassica napus L.

    K. Mohammadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Different resource of fertilizers had an effect on grain yield, oil and grain quality. Information regarding the effect of simultaneous application of organic, chemical and biological fertilizers on canola (Brassica napus L. traits is not available. In order to study the effect of different systems of soil fertility on grain yield and quality of canola (Talayeh cultivar, an experiment was conducted at experimental farm of Agricultural Research Center of Sanandaj, Iran, during two growing seasons of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. The experimental units were arranged as split plots based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Main plots consisted of five methods for obtaining the basal fertilizers requirement including (N1: farm yard manure; (N2: compost; (N3: chemical fertilizers; (N4: farm yard manure + compost and (N5: farm yard manure + compost + chemical fertilizers; and control (N6. Sub plots consisted four levels of biofertilizers were (B1: Bacillus lentus and Pseudomonas putida; (B2: Trichoderma harzianum; (B3: Bacillus lentus and Pseudomonas putida and Trichoderma harzianum; and (B4: control, (without biofertilizers. Results showed that basal fertilizers and biofertilizers have a significant effect on grain yield. The highest grain yield was obtained from N5 treatment in which organic and chemical fertilizers were applied simultaneously applied. Basal fertilizers, biofertilizers have a significant effect on leaf chlorophyll. The highest nitrogen content (42.85 mg.g-1 and least amount of (N/S were obtained from N5 treatment. The highest oil percent was obtained from N1 and N2 treatments and highest oil yield was obtained from N5 treatment. Finally, application of organic manure and biofertilizers with chemical fertilizer led to an increase in yield and quality of canola grain.

  20. Effects of Plant Density on Sweet and Baby Corn (Hybrid KSC 403 Yield and Yield Components

    H Bavi

    2016-07-01

    GlM procedure. Means of all treatments were comprised using least significant difference (LSD at 5 % probability level. Results and Discussion The effects of plant density on yield components of baby corn was significant. Increasing the plant densities increased the ear number and percentage of non-standard ears. The Highest yield of ear without husk, standard and non-standard were obtained (2649.5, 766.97, and 3043.9 kg.ha-1, respectively with 13 plants.m-2. In sweet corn, increasing plant density from 7 to 13 plants.m-2, decreased row per ear, grain per row and thousand grain weight. Highest grain yield (1232.5 kg ha-1 and green ear (12607.2 kg ha-1 of sweet corn were obtained with plant density of 9.m-2. Conclusions Analysis of correlation showed that in both baby and sweet corn, there were positive and significant correlations between yield and its components. There was the high number of non-standard ears in all experimental treatments. In sweet corn, the standard ear without husk yield has positive and significant correlation with all traits except the percentage of standard ear and sheathed ear weight. In addition, unsuitable climate conditions during silking stage reduced the yield of sweet corn through the high number of aborted florets. Yield of sweet corn yield showed negative and significant correlation with grain row per ear and grain per row. However, increasing the ear number.m-2 increased yield in higher plant densities up to 9 plant.m-2 density. Generally, the baby corn had high yield with good quality in this region, but, standard ear percent of the baby corn of the hybrid KSC 403 was very low. On the other hand, sweet corn grain yield was low due to high air temperatures during pollination and maturity stages.

  1. Study on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat Genotypes under Different Moisture Regimes

    E. Mogtader

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study grain yield and yield components of 16 advanced wheat lines under rainfed and supplementary irrigation conditions, this research was conducted in randomized block design with 3 replications at Maragheh Research Station during 2008-09 seasons. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences for date to heading, plant height, 1000 kernel weight, tiller number, spike length, seed number per spike, spikelet number per spike, peduncle length, harvest index, leaf, sheath length and grain yield. Results also showed that the lines No. 4 (91-142 a 61/3/F35.70/MO73//1D13.1/MLT and 16 (Azar2 with 1895 and 1878 Kg/ha, lines No. 4 and 7 (YUMAI13/5/NAI60/3/14.53/ODIN//CI13441 with 2132 and 2285 Kg/ha had highest grain yield under rainfed and supplementary irrigated conditions respectively. Based on results these 16 lines and cultivars were grouped in 4 and 3 distinct classes using Ward’s Method of cluster analysis under rainfed and irrigated conditions. Path analysis indicated that vigor at shooting stage, seed number per spike and HI were positive important traits to select lines for high yielding potential in this study. HI and TKW had also positive effects on grain under supplementary irrigation.

  2. The Effect of Chemical, Biological and Organic Nutritional Treatments on Sunflowers Yield and Yield Components under the Influence of Water Deficit Stress

    fatemeh soleymani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction To achieve the higher economic yield of crop plants, supplying enough nutrients to plants is very important. Moreover, nutrient uptakes by plants is influenced by the soil water contents. However, nowadays chemical fertilizer application is important agronomic factor that has significant effects on growth and quantity and quality of final yield, but traditional nutrient management and excessive use of chemical fertilizers may cause the environmental problems such as contamination of soil and water resources, low quality of agricultural products and reduction of soil fertility. These factors have drawn attention to health and ecological sustainable farming systems (Sharma, 2002. In this context, usage of organic and biological products for plant nutrition is considered as one of the solutions to achieve the goals of sustainable agriculture. Materials and methods To evaluate the effect of various feeding systems on yield and yield components of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. under the influence of water deficit stress, a split-plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications, was carried out in the Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University during the growing season of 2013-2014. Main plots consisted of two irrigation levels: optimum irrigation and deficit irrigation stress (irrigation after 60 and 120 mm evaporation from evaporation pan, class A, respectively and sub-plots included of nine nutrition systems: 1- no bio or chemical fertilizer application, 2- 100% of the recommended chemical fertilizer , 3- vermicompost, 4- phospho nitro kara, 5- vermicompost+ phospho nitro kara, 6- vermicompost+ ½ chemical fertilizer, 7- phospho nitro kara+ ½ chemical fertilizer, 8- vermicompost+ phospho nitro kara+ ½ chemical fertilizer, 9- ½ proposed chemical fertilizer. Phospho-nitro-kara which contains phosphate solubilizing and nitrogen fixing bacteria (Bacillus coagulans, azotobactr chroocuccum and

  3. Effect of Soybean and Wheat as Cover Crops on Corn Yield and Weed Control using Different Fertilizer Sources

    F. Dadashi

    2016-02-01

    . The dominant weed species were velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic., johnson grass (Sorghum halepense (L. Pers., wild melon (Cucumis melo var. agrestis and giant foxtail (Setaria glauca L. in the field. In order to determine the dry weight and density of weeds, three-stage sampling was performed from the middle rows of corn. Corn yield was also measured by mechanical harvesting in middle rows and adjusting to 14% moisture. A week before the final harvest, ten plants of corn were selected randomly from the three middle rows of each plot and yield components including the number of rows in corn, number of kernels per row, weight of 1000 grains was measured. Results and Discussion: The results showed that soybean cover crop reduced weed density compared to control in weed infestated plots, but wheat was not successful in suppressing weeds and reducing their density due to poor biomass and dying at the end of growing season . So, the lowest dry matter of velvetleaf, wild melon and other weeds were related to planted corn with soybean and compost and the maximum was related to monoculture of corn with weed infestation. Results of analysis of variance indicated treatments had significant effect on grain yield. The lowest yield of corn (2733.3 Kg ha-1 was in weed-infestation control while the highest one (12124.0 and 8351.3 Kg ha-1 respectively was in weed-free control and soybean’ cover crop plus compost. For both cover crops between fertilizer treatments, compost and chemical fertilizer had more corn biological yield than no fertilizer and differences between this two fertilizer treatments wasn’t significant. Reduction of yield under no fertilizer treatments was due to competition for nutrients, light between weed and corn. The maximum and minimum number of rows in corn and number of kernels per row respectively was obtained with monoculture of corn in weed free and weed infestation, while the maximum weight of 1000 grains was observed in soybean with applying

  4. Responses of root physiological characteristics and yield of sweet potato to humic acid urea fertilizer.

    Xiaoguang Chen

    Full Text Available Humic acid (HA, not only promote the growth of crop roots, they can be combined with nitrogen (N to increase fertilizer use efficiency and yield. However, the effects of HA urea fertilizer (HA-N on root growth and yield of sweet potato has not been widely investigated. Xushu 28 was used as the experimental crop to investigate the effects of HA-N on root morphology, active oxygen metabolism and yield under field conditions. Results showed that nitrogen application alone was not beneficial for root growth and storage root formation during the early growth stage. HA-N significantly increased the dry weight of the root system, promoted differentiation from adventitious root to storage root, and increased the overall root activity, total root length, root diameter, root surface area, as well as root volume. HA-N thus increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, and Catalase (CAT as well as increasing the soluble protein content of roots and decreasing the malondialdehyde (MDA content. HA-N significantly increased both the number of storage roots per plant increased by 14.01%, and the average fresh weight per storage root increased by 13.7%, while the yield was also obviously increased by 29.56%. In this study, HA-N increased yield through a synergistic increase of biological yield and harvest index.

  5. Effect of fertilization and harvest frequency on floristic composition and yields of meadow stand

    Josef Raus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fertilization and the harvest frequency on production and floristic characteristics of a meadow stand were assessed in a small plot trial established in 2003 in Vatín, Vysočina Region, the Czech Republic. Four levels of fertilization (none; N0 + P30 + K60 kg∙ha−1; N90 + P30 + K60 kg∙ha−1; N180 + P30 + K60 kg∙ha−1 were combined with four treatments of exploitation intensity (4 cuts per year, first cut on 15th May, every next after 45 days; 3 cuts per year, first cut on 30th May, every next after 60 days; 2 cuts per year, first cut on 15th June, next after 90 days; 2 cuts per year, first cut on 30th June, next after 90 days. Production of dry matter and proportions of guilds (grasses, legumes, and other species were evaluated. Data from 2009–2011 were used in this paper. Yields of the dry matter increased along with increasing amounts of nutrients supplied and ranged from 3.8 t∙ha−1 (non-fertilized to 9.1 t∙ha−1 (N180PK. The nutrition level had a significant effect on spread of grasses, which reached maximal proportion of 52.3 % under N180PK fertilization compared to 42.1% on non-fertilized plots. On the contrary, legumes flourished well in treatments without N-supply, attaining proportion of 6.8 % and 5.1 % on PK-fertilized and non-fertilized plot, respectively. With regard to the exploitation intensity grasses profited from extensive management by contrast to the group of other species which reached its maximum in swards harvested four times a year. Proportions of legumes did not show significant dependence on the cutting frequency.

  6. Effect of fertilization at sowing on nutrition and yield of crambe in second season

    Rogério Peres Soratto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest in crambe (Crambe abyssinica cultivation in Brazil is on the rise, whereas information on the nutrient requirements for this crop is scarce. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (N-P2O5-K2O formula 8:28:16 fertilization (0, 150, and 300 kg ha-1 on crambe shoot biomass production, grain and oil yields, and nutrient extraction and exportation in the second growing season after soybean. The experiment with a Haplorthox (Dystroferric Red Latosol was carried out for two years in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. A randomized complete block design with eight replications was used. Fertilization with NPK at sowing increased the shoot biomass production, grain yield, grain oil content, as well as nutrient extraction and exportation at harvest. In the fertilized treatments, the average amounts of nutrients extracted per hectare were 91 kg K, 71 kg N, 52 kg Ca, 9.4 kg P, 9.4 kg Mg, 7.9 kg S, 2,348 g Fe, 289 g Zn, 135 g Mn, and 18.2 g Cu; while the average values of nutrient exportation per hectare were 54 kg N, 20 kg K, 12.3 kg Ca, 10 kg P, 6.6 kg S, 3.2 kg Mg, 365 g Zn, 60 g Fe, 50 g Mn, and 7.3 g Cu, with NPK fertilizer application.

  7. Role of np fertilizer under different application methods on seed yield of sunflower

    Khan, R.U.; Khan, R.A.; Khan, R.A.; Muendal, H.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of different application methods of nitrogen and phophorus fertilizers were studied on the sunflower hybrid NK-212 during spring and kharif seasons at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. Nitrogen and phosphorus were applied at the rate 90 and 60 kg P 2 degree 5 ha-1 in a different proportions i.e. all broadcast and disked, 3/4 broadcast disked + 1/4 side banded, 1/2 broadcast disked + 1/2 side banded, 1/4 broadcast disked + 3/4 side banded and all side banded. Fertilizer applied in equal proportions of side banded and broadcast at the time of planting gave maximum (1525 and 1348 kg ha-1) seed yield and largest (14.3 cm and 10.15 cm) head diameter of sunflower in spring seasons during (1987 and 1988), and seed yield of 1206 kg ha-1 and 11.0 cm head diameter during kharif 1987. A significant increase in the 1000 seed weight was also observed in all the treatments receiving different split applications of N and P over all broadcast applied fertilizer. Plant height was not increased by split applications, with lowest height to be associated with most side banding of fertilizers. (author)

  8. Effects of Watering and Nitrogen Fertilization on Yield and Water and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Cropping Oil Sunflower

    TAN Jian-xin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment with split-plot design was conducted to study the effects of the interaction of water and nitrogen fertilization on the growth and yield of oil sunflower, water and nitrogen use efficiency of cropping oil sunflower. This experiment set three irrigation rate treatments, including high irrigation treatment (5 250 m3·hm-2, middle irrigation treatment (3 750 m3·hm-2, low irrigation treatment (2 250 m3·hm-2, and four nitrogen application rate treatments, covering no nitrogen fertilization treatment (0 kg·hm-2, low nitrogen application treatment (120 kg·hm-2, middle nitrogen application treatment (240 kg·hm-2 and high nitrogen application treatment (360 kg·hm-2. The results showed that the nitrogen absorption and nitrogen use efficiency of cropping oil sunflower increased as the irrigation rate increased. With the nitrogen application rate increased, the yield of cropping oil sunflower was increased when the nitrogen application rate was 0~240 kg·hm-2, but beyond the 240 kg·hm-2, there was no significant increase. With the irrigation rate increased, the water consumption amount of cropping oil sunflower increased all the time, but the water use efficiency increased first, and hen decreased. Besides there was no significant difference between 240 kg·hm-2 and 360 kg·hm-2 treatment. Under our experiment condition, during the cropping oil sunflower growth period, when the irrigation rate was 5 250 m3·hm-2 (high irrigation rate and the nitrogen ertilization was 360 m3·hm-2 (high nitrogen application rate, the yield of cropping oil sunflower was 3 598 kg·hm-2. When the irrigation rate was 3 750 m3·hm-2 (middle irrigation rate and the nitrogen fertilization was 240 m3·hm-2 (middle nitrogen application rate, the yield was 3 518 kg·hm-2, with the yield components similar with the high irrigation rate and high nitrogen application rate treatment. Considering various factors, middle irrigation rate and middle nitrogen

  9. Comparing the performance of 11 crop simulation models in predicting yield response to nitrogen fertilization

    Salo, T J; Palosuo, T; Kersebaum, K C

    2016-01-01

    Eleven widely used crop simulation models (APSIM, CERES, CROPSYST, COUP, DAISY, EPIC, FASSET, HERMES, MONICA, STICS and WOFOST) were tested using spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) data set under varying nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates from three experimental years in the boreal climate of Jokioinen......, Finland. This is the largest standardized crop model inter-comparison under different levels of N supply to date. The models were calibrated using data from 2002 and 2008, of which 2008 included six N rates ranging from 0 to 150 kg N/ha. Calibration data consisted of weather, soil, phenology, leaf area...... ranged from 170 to 870 kg/ha. During the test year 2009, most models failed to accurately reproduce the observed low yield without N fertilizer as well as the steep yield response to N applications. The multi-model predictions were closer to observations than most single-model predictions, but multi...

  10. Improvement of Faba Bean Yield Using Rhizobium/Agrobacterium Inoculant in Low-Fertility Sandy Soil

    Sameh H. Youseif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility is one of the major limiting factors for crop’s productivity in Egypt and the world in general. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF has a great importance as a non-polluting and a cost-effective way to improve soil fertility through supplying N to different agricultural systems. Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is one of the most efficient nitrogen-fixing legumes that can meet all of their N needs through BNF. Therefore, understanding the impact of rhizobial inoculation and contrasting soil rhizobia on nodulation and N2 fixation in faba bean is crucial to optimize the crop yield, particularly under low fertility soil conditions. This study investigated the symbiotic effectiveness of 17 Rhizobium/Agrobacterium strains previously isolated from different Egyptian governorates in improving the nodulation and N2 fixation in faba bean cv. Giza 843 under controlled greenhouse conditions. Five strains that had a high nitrogen-fixing capacity under greenhouse conditions were subsequently tested in field trials as faba bean inoculants at Ismaillia Governorate in northeast Egypt in comparison with the chemical N-fertilization treatment (96 kg N·ha−1. A starter N-dose (48 kg N·ha−1 was applied in combination with different Rhizobium inoculants. The field experiments were established at sites without a background of inoculation under low fertility sandy soil conditions over two successive winter growing seasons, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. Under greenhouse conditions, inoculated plants produced significantly higher nodules dry weight, plant biomass, and shoot N-uptake than non-inoculated ones. In the first season (2012/2013, inoculation of field-grown faba bean showed significant improvements in seed yield (3.73–4.36 ton·ha−1 and seed N-yield (138–153 Kg N·ha−1, which were higher than the uninoculated control (48 kg N·ha−1 that produced 2.97 Kg·ha−1 and 95 kg N·ha−1, respectively. Similarly, in the second season (2013

  11. Yield and nutritional efficiency of corn in response to rates and splits of nitrogen fertilization

    Amado, Telmo Jorge Carneiro; Villalba, Enrique Oswin Hahn; Bortolotto, Rafael Pivotto; Nora, Douglas Dalla; Bragagnolo, Jardes; León, Enrique Asterio Benítez

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite its relevance, nitrogen is poorly utilized by the plants when improperly applied. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in corn in response to doses and split application of nitrogen fertilization. The experimental design was a randomized block design, with three replications. Doses of nitrogen of 0, 30, 60 and 180 kg ha-1 were applied at sowing in order to create different nutritional status of corn plants and to obtain...

  12. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on growth and yield of fluted ...

    PAT

    (p<0.05). Increase in fertilizer led to increase in growth and yield parameters. The ... (1997), T. Occidentalis thrives well within the temperature range of 30 - 50. 0. C while ... values of about 86ml water, .9g protein, 1.8g fat, 7.0g carbohydrate and 1.7g fibre. Its seed ... E, with mean altitude of 38.1m above sea leave). Uyo has.

  13. Genetic correlations among body condition score, yield and fertility in multiparous cows using random regression models

    Bastin, Catherine; Gillon, Alain; Massart, Xavier; Bertozzi, Carlo; Vanderick, Sylvie; Gengler, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Genetic correlations between body condition score (BCS) in lactation 1 to 3 and four economically important traits (days open, 305-days milk, fat, and protein yields recorded in the first 3 lactations) were estimated on about 12,500 Walloon Holstein cows using 4-trait random regression models. Results indicated moderate favorable genetic correlations between BCS and days open (from -0.46 to -0.62) and suggested the use of BCS for indirect selection on fertility. However, unfavorable genetic c...

  14. Effect of Different Tillage Methods and Cover Crop Types on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat

    Z Sharefee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Conservation agriculture is an appropriate strategy for maintaining and improving agricultural resources which increases crop production and stability and also provides environmental protection. This attitude contributes to the conservation of natural resources (soil, water, and air and is one of the most effective ways to overcome the drought crisis, water management and compensation of soil organic matter in arid and semi-arid regions. The practice of zero-tillage decreases the mineralization of organic matter and contributes to the sequestration of organic carbon in the soil. Higher amounts of organic matter in the soil improve soil structure and root growth, water infiltration and retention, and cation exchange capacity. In addition, zero-tillage reduces soil compaction and crop production costs. Cover crops are cultivated to protect the soil from erosion and elements loss by leaching or runoff and also improve the soil moisture and temperature. Given that South Khorasan farmers still use traditional methods of cultivation of wheat, and cover crops have no place in their farming systems, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cover crops types and tillage systems on yield and yield components of wheat in Birjand region. Materials and Methods A split plot field experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Farm of the University of Birjand over the growing season of 2014-2015. The main factor was the type of tillage (no-till, reduced tillage and conventional tillage and cover crop type (chickling pea (Lathyrus sativus, rocket salad (Eruca sativa, triticale (X Triticosecale witmack, barley (Hordeum vulgaris and control (no cover crop was considered as sub plots. Cover crops were planted on July 2014. Before planting wheat, cover crops were dried through spraying paraquat herbicide using a backpack sprayer at a rate of 3 L ha-1. Then the three tillage

  15. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer and gamma radiation on the morophological character and yield of flax

    Baker, R.H.; Salman, A.A.; El-Hariri, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    This work was carried out in the field of agriculture college, in split plot design to investigate the influence of different levels of fertilizer and different doses of gamma radiation on the morphological characters and yield of flax. The results could be summarized as follow:1-Plant height and number of basal branches/plant responded significantly to nitrogen. 2-Nitrogen at the rate of 80 and 60 Kg/ha increased both seed yield/donum and capsules yield/plant over control treatment and the superiority a mounted to 18.6 and 10.2 for seed yield while 16 and 36 for capsule yield. 3-Radiation caused stimulating significant effect on a number of capsules and weight of 1000 seeds. 4-Radiation significantly inhibited seed yield/donum and caused insignificant effect on total yield capsules yield and straw yield/plant. 5-Flowering zone length responded signicantly to the interraction of nitrogen and gamma doses and attained its maximum value at 80 Kg N/ha and 60 Kilorad of gamma radiation.(7 tabs., 23 refs.)

  16. Residual recovery and yield performance of nitrogen fertilizer applied at sugarcane planting

    Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe low effectiveness of nitrogen fertilizer (N is a substantial concern that threatens global sugarcane production. The aim of the research reported in this paper was to assess the residual effect of N-fertilizer applied at sugarcane planting over four crop seasons in relation to sugarcane crop yield. Toward this end three field experiments were established in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, during February of 2005 and July of 2009, in a randomized block design with four treatments: 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha−1 of N applied as urea during sugarcane planting. Within each plot, a microplot was established to which 15N-labeled urea was applied. The application of N at planting increased plant cane yield in two of the three sites and sucrose content at the other, whereas the only residual effect was higher sucrose content in one of the following ratoons. The combined effect was an increase in sugar yield for three of the 11 crop seasons evaluated. Over the crop cycle of a plant cane and three ratoon crops, only 35 % of the applied N was recovered, split 75, 13, 7 and 5 % in the plant cane, first, second and third ratoons, respectively. These findings document the low efficiency of N recovery by sugarcane, which increases the risk that excessive N fertilization will reduce profitability and have an adverse effect on the environment.

  17. Stalk and sucrose yield in response to nitrogen fertilization of sugarcane under reduced tillage

    Caio Fortes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the agroindustrial production of sugarcane (millable stalks and sucrose yield after successive nitrogen fertilizations of plant cane and ratoons in a reduced tillage system. The experiment was carried out at Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, on a Rhodic Eutrustox soil, during four consecutive crop cycles (March 2005 to July 2009. Plant cane treatments consisted of N-urea levels (control, 40, 80, and 120 kg ha-1 N + 120 kg ha-1 P2O5 and K2O in furrow application. In the first and second ratoons, the plant cane plots were subdivided in N-ammonium nitrate treatments (control, 50, 100, and 150 kg ha-1 N + 150 kg ha-1 K2O as top dressing over rows. In the third ratoon, N fertilization was leveled to 100 kg ha-1 in all plots, including controls, to detect residual effects of previous fertilizations on the last crop's cycle. Sugarcane ratoon was mechanically harvested. A weighing truck was used to evaluate stalk yield (TCH, and samples were collected in the field for analysis of sugar content (TSH. Increasing N doses and meteorological conditions promote significant responses in TCH and TSH in cane plant and ratoons, in the average and accumulated yield of the consecutive crop cycles.

  18. The Effect of Soil Fertilizers on Yield and Growth Traits of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor

    R Kamaei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Since the use of chemical fertilizers causes environmental pollution and ecological damage, so application of biological fertilizers and selection the effective and compatible species in an special area, could be beneficial for sustainability of agroecosystems there. Nowadays, attention to the interrelation of plant-organism tended to interrelations between plant-organism-organism. Such nutritional relations, have ecological importance and important application in agriculture. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of chemical, organic and bio fertilizers on sorghum performance. Materials and Methods A field experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experimental treatments include three kinds of biofertilizers and their integrations and vermicompost and chemical fertilizer as follow: 1- mycorhhiza arbuscular (G.mosseae + vermicompost 2- mycorhhiza+ Nitroxine® (included bacteria Azospirillum sp. and Azotobacter sp. 3- mycorhhiza arbuscular+ Rhizobium (Rhizobium sp. 4-mycorhhiza arbuscular + Chemical fertilizer NPK 5- mycorhhiza arbuscular 6-control. Mycorhhiza and chemical fertilizer were mixed with soil at the depth of 30 cm before planting. Seeds were inoculated with bio fertilizers and dried at shadow. First irrigation applied immediately after planting. In order to improve seedling emergence second irrigation was performed after 4 days and other irrigation was applied at regular intervals of 10 days. Studied traits were: height and percentage of root colonization, specific root length, seed yield, number of seeds in panicle, thousands seeds weight. To determine the specific root length (root length in a certain volume of soil at the end of the growing season, plants in each plot were sampled. Then the length of root of each sample was determined. Results and Discussion The results showed that although the treatments did not affect the height of stem significantly

  19. Yield and nutritional efficiency of corn in response to rates and splits of nitrogen fertilization

    Telmo Jorge Carneiro Amado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Despite its relevance, nitrogen is poorly utilized by the plants when improperly applied. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE in corn in response to doses and split application of nitrogen fertilization. The experimental design was a randomized block design, with three replications. Doses of nitrogen of 0, 30, 60 and 180 kg ha-1 were applied at sowing in order to create different nutritional status of corn plants and to obtain different values of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI measured with “Greenseeker®” optical sensor. The subplots with nitrogen doses in topdressing of 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg ha-1 at V8 and a dose of 60 kg ha-1 at V12 were placed in experimental plots with doses of 0, 30, 60 and 180 kg ha-1 of nitrogen at sowing. Moreover, NUE was calculated in the experiment using agronomic indexes determined by applications of nitrogen in late topdressing (V8 and V12 and contrasted to the possible combinations at doses of 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1 of total N applied. The results showed the occurrence of a linear relationship between nitrogen fertilizer dose and NDVI at V8 as well as at V12 stages. Late topdressing fertilizations (V12 did not cause a decrease in grain yield when combined with nitrogen fertilization at sowing, moreover resulted in higher NUE. Split the nitrogen dose showed better NUE than the combinations where nitrogen was not applied at sowing or in topdressing. The delay of nitrogen topdressing can be an alternative for the planning of the moment of the N fertilization according to the climate forecast in each region.

  20. Yields, market values and n use efficiency (15n) in flue-cured tobacco influenced by basal fertilization time and n fertilizer

    Xie Zhijian; Tu Shuxin; Li Jinping; Chen Zhenguo; Xu Rubing; Cao Shiming; Li Jianping; Wang Xuelong; Chen Liangcun; Guo Li; Cao Xianglian; Hu Gongjun; Zhang Yunzheng

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment with 15 N isotope tracing micro-plots was carried out to study the effects of basal N fertilizer application time (0 d, 15 d, 30 d before the transplanting) on the yields, market values and N uptake, utilization and distribution in different organs of flue-cured tobacco (FCT) in two ecological tobacco production areas Zhaojiashan (N 31 degree 28', E 111 degree 15', 903 m above sea level) and Laowan (N 31 degree 27', E 111 degree 14', 1 130 m above sea level)] of Xiangfan city, Hubei province. The results showed that supplying N fertilizer significantly increased the yields and market values of FCT by 13%-40% and 14%-35% for the experimental site of Zhaojiashan (lower altitude ) and Laowan (higher altitude), respectively. Compared to applying basal fertilizer at 0 d before transplanting, applying basal fertilizer at 15-30 d before transplanting increased the market values by 10%-30% (P<0.05). And early application of basal N fertilizer (30 d before transplanting) increased N accumulation by 8%-26% as compared with that of applying basal N fertilizer at 0 d or 15 d before transplanting in the two ecological areas. There was no significant effects of basal N application time on N fertilizer efficiency in lower altitude site, but increasing by 3%-6% in higher altitude site. The proportion of fertilizer N to total N in FCT decreased by 8%-32% in lower altitude, but increased by 25%-32% in higher altitude when basal N fertilizer was supplied at 30d before transplanting., These results indicated that properly earlier supplication of basal N fertilizer could improve the N fertilizer efficiency, and thus increase the yields and market values of FCT, especially in higher altitude areas with less sunshine and lower temperature. (authors)

  1. Increasing Growth and Yield of Upland Rice by Application of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae and Potassium Fertilizer

    Dedi Natawijaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment with a split plot design has been carried out in order to assess the growth characteristics andyields, and effectiveness of MVA upland rice which were given potassium fertilizer in two growing seasons. MVAinoculation consisted of three treatments (without MVA, Glomus sp. and Gigaspora sp. while potassium fertilizerconsisted of five levels (0, 12.5, 25, 37.5, and 50 kg ha-1 K. The results showed that plant growth variable which wasinoculated by MVA at any levels of K fertilizer was higher in the dry season than that in the wet season, whereas theopposite occurred for net assimilation rate. Potassium content of leaf tissue, shoot/root ratio, and grain weight perhill was determined and mutually dependent on genus MVA, dosages of K fertilizer, and growing season. Harvestindex and grain dry weight per hill were influenced by the growing season and the genus MVA but the effect did notdepend on each other. At all dosages of K fertilizer and any MVA genera, Gigaspora sp. inoculation was better thanthat of Glomus sp. Dry weight of grains per hill was affected by the contribution of grain content per hill, weight of1000 grains and number of productive seedlings per hill. The optimum dosage of K fertilizer in the dry season was32.4 kg ha-1 K with grain yield 3.12 Mg ha-1 for inoculation of Gigaspora sp., whereas the optimum dosage in the wetseason was 34.2 kg ha-1 K for the treatment Glomus sp. inoculation with Gigaspora sp. in the wet season did notreach dosages of optimum K fertilizer.

  2. The effect of water deficit stress and nitrogen fertilizer levels on morphology traits, yield and leaf area index in maize

    Moosavi, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effect of water deficit stress at different growth stages and N fertilizer levels on morphological traits, yield and yield components of maize cv. Single Cross 704, an experiment was conducted as a split-plot based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The main plot included irrigation at four levels (irrigation stop at 10-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages and optimum irrigation) and the sub-plot was N fertilizer at three levels (75, 150 and 225 kg N/ha). The results of analysis of variance showed that water-deficit stress and N fertilizer level significantly affected leaf area index at silking stage, ear length, grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Stem diameter, ear diameter and harvest index were only affected by irrigation treatments and the interaction between irrigation and N level did not significantly affect the studied traits. Means comparison indicated that ear diameter under optimum irrigation was higher than that under the treatments of irrigation stop at 8-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages by 29.9, 19.1 and 33.5%, respectively; and ear length was higher than them by 38.1, 28.9 and 25.2%, respectively. Moreover, the highest grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were obtained under optimum irrigation treatment, and irrigation stop at 10-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages decreased grain yield by 52.8, 66.4 and 44.9%, respectively; and it decreased grain number/ear by 45.9, 59.3 and 30.1%, respectively. In addition, optimum irrigation treatment with mean 1000-grain weight of 289.2 g was significantly superior over other irrigation stop treatments by 27.6-42.8% and produced the highest leaf area index at silking stage (4.1). Means comparison of traits at different N levels indicated that N level of 225 kg/ha produced the highest ear length (17.82 cm), grain number per ear (401.9), 1000-grain weight (258.8 g), leaf area index at silking stage (4

  3. Ascribing soil erosion of hillslope components to river sediment yield.

    Nosrati, Kazem

    2017-06-01

    In recent decades, soil erosion has increased in catchments of Iran. It is, therefore, necessary to understand soil erosion processes and sources in order to mitigate this problem. Geomorphic landforms play an important role in influencing water erosion. Therefore, ascribing hillslope components soil erosion to river sediment yield could be useful for soil and sediment management in order to decrease the off-site effects related to downstream sedimentation areas. The main objectives of this study were to apply radionuclide tracers and soil organic carbon to determine relative contributions of hillslope component sediment sources in two land use types (forest and crop field) by using a Bayesian-mixing model, as well as to estimate the uncertainty in sediment fingerprinting in a mountainous catchment of western Iran. In this analysis, 137 Cs, 40 K, 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and soil organic carbon tracers were measured in 32 different sampling sites from four hillslope component sediment sources (summit, shoulder, backslope, and toeslope) in forested and crop fields along with six bed sediment samples at the downstream reach of the catchment. To quantify the sediment source proportions, the Bayesian mixing model was based on (1) primary sediment sources and (2) combined primary and secondary sediment sources. The results of both approaches indicated that erosion from crop field shoulder dominated the sources of river sediments. The estimated contribution of crop field shoulder for all river samples was 63.7% (32.4-79.8%) for primary sediment sources approach, and 67% (15.3%-81.7%) for the combined primary and secondary sources approach. The Bayesian mixing model, based on an optimum set of tracers, estimated that the highest contribution of soil erosion in crop field land use and shoulder-component landforms constituted the most important land-use factor. This technique could, therefore, be a useful tool for soil and sediment control management strategies. Copyright

  4. Genetic characterisation of seed yield and fertility traits in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    Studer, Bruno; Jensen, Louise Bach; Hentrup, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    A population. Path analysis partitioned the direct and indirect effects of seed yield components on seed yield per plant. Seed yield per panicle showed the highest effect on total seed yield. The adjusted mean values of each trait and a genetic linkage map consisting of 97 anonymous and 85 gene associated DNA......Seed yield is a trait of major interest for the key grassland species Lolium perenne L. An F2 mapping population of perennial ryegrass (VrnA), recently characterised for vernalisation response, was assessed in a glasshouse for traits related to seed yield based on a lattice design with four...... replications over 2 years. The traits heading date, plant height, length of panicles, number of panicles per plant, seed yield per panicle, flag leaf length, flag leaf width and seed yield per plant revealed repeatabilities ranging from 41 to 76% and a considerable amount of genetic variation in the Vrn...

  5. Prenatal maternal effects on body condition score, female fertility, and milk yield of dairy cows.

    Banos, G; Brotherstone, S; Coffey, M P

    2007-07-01

    In this study, maternal effects were described as age of dam at first and second calving, first-lactation body condition score (BCS) of the dam during gestation, and milk yield of the dam. The impact of these effects on first-lactation daughter BCS, fertility, and test-day milk yield was assessed. The effect of milk yield of dam on daughter 305-d yield in the latter's first 3 lactations was also investigated. The proportion of total phenotypic variance in daughter traits accounted for by maternal effects was calculated. Dams calving early for the first time (18 to 23 mo of age) had daughters that produced 4.5% more first-lactation daily milk, had 7% higher BCS, and had their first service 3 d earlier than cows whose dams calved late (30 to 36 mo). However, daughters of dams that calved early had difficulties conceiving as they needed 7% more inseminations and had a 7.5% higher return rate. Cows from second calvings of relatively young (36 to 41 mo) dams produced 6% more first-lactation daily milk, had 2% higher BCS, and showed a significantly better fertility profile than cows whose dams calved at a late age (47 to 55 mo). High maternal BCS during gestation had a favorable effect on daughter BCS, nonreturn rate, and number of inseminations per conception. However, it was also associated with a small decrease in daughter daily milk yield. Changes in dam BCS during gestation did not affect daughter performance significantly. Maternal effects of milk yield of the dam, expressed as her permanent environment during lactation, adversely affected daughter 305-d milk, fat, and protein yield. However, although the effect was significant, it was practically negligible (<0.3% of the mean). Finally, overall maternal effects accounted for a significant proportion of the total phenotypic variance of calving interval (1.4 +/- 0.6%) and nonreturn rate (1.1 +/- 0.5%).

  6. [Effect of long-term application of NPK fertilizer on maize yield and yellow soil nutrients sustainability in Guizhou, China].

    Liu, Yan Ling; Li, Yu; Zhang, Ya Rong; Huang, Xing Cheng; Zhang, Wen An; Jiang, Tai Ming

    2017-11-01

    A long-term fertilization field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilizer on maize relative yield, yield-increasing effect and the changes of nutrients in yellow soil in Guizhou Province. Five fertilizer combinations were evaluated, including balanced fertilization (NPK) and nutrient deficiency treatments (N, NK, NP, and PK). The maize relative yield, contribution efficiency of N, P, K fertilizer application, sustainability index of soil N, P, K nutrients, and other indicators were measured. The results revealed that the balanced fertilization (NPK) significantly increased maize yield, and the average yield under each treatment ranked as: NPK>NP>NK>PK>CK. The contribution efficiency and agronomic efficiency of N, P, K fertilizer application was N>P>K. The fertilization dependence was ranked as: combined application of N, P and K>N>P>K. But in the lack of P treatment (NK), the maize relative yield significantly decreased at a speed of 1.4% per year, with the contribution efficiency and fertilization dependence of applied P significantly increasing at a speed of 2.3% per year and 1.4% per year, respectively. Over time, the effect of P fertilizer on maize yield gradually became equal to that of N fertilizer. The pH and soil organic matter content were the lowest in the P-lack treatment (NK), while they were higher in the N-lack treatment (PK). The application of chemical P significantly improved the sustainability index of soil P, but the application of chemical N and K did not significantly change the sustainability index of soil N and K nutrients compared to the N- and K-lack treatments, respectively. In summary, the use of balanced fertilizer application is critical for achieving high maize yield in typical yellow soil regions in Guizhou Province. P and N fertilizers are equally important for improving maize yield, and long-term application of unbalanced chemical fertilizer, especially the lack

  7. Econometric Analysis of Effects of Nitrogenous Fertilizer Usage on Tomato Yield in Tokat, Turkey

    Bilge Gözener

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of nitrogen fertilizer application on tomato yield by using econometric models. The data obtained by questionnaire from 53 farmers who produce tomatoes in Tokat province constitute the main material of the study. The Simple Random Sampling Method was used to determine the sample size with a 90% confidence interval and 10% margin of error. Nine models were tried to determine the best model to explain the effect of nitrogenous fertilizer usage in tomato cultivation. The data in the models were used to calculate the growers’ optimal fertilizer amount of use (physical optimum and economical optimum values were calculated and the results were compared to the ones suggested by the experts. As a result, through the statistical studies, quadratic model was found to be the most suitable one. It has been determined that tomato farmers use less (10.54 kg da-1 or excess (23.48 kg da-1 N fertilizer than the level at which economic optimum is achieved.

  8. Effect of fertilization methods on growth of pear trees, yielding and fruit quality

    Tomasz Lipa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in the commercial orchard near Lublin on five-year old pear trees of two cultivars: ‘Conference’and ‘Lukasowka’, planted on Quince MA. The objective of the study was evaluated the reaction of pear on the method of application of fertilizers. In the early spring the surface broadcasting of fertilizers was used (N – 71,5 kg, P 2O5 – 33,0 kg, K 2 O – 114,0 kg and from the May to the middle of August the fertigation was applied (N – 76,4 kg, P 2O5 – 49,5 kg, K 2 O – 84,2 kg. Method of fertilizer’s applications had no significant effect on the growth of evaluated trees. There were no differences in quantity of yield in dependence on the method of fertilization. In the case of cv. ‘Lukasowka’the beneficial influence of the way of fertilization on morphology of fruits (their diameter, height and mass was stated. Such an effect was not observed in the case of the ‘Conference’.

  9. The impact of mineral fertilization and atmospheric precipitation on yield of field crops on family farms

    Munćan Mihajlo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The field crop production, as the most important branch of plant production of the Republic of Serbia, in the period 2002-2011, was carried out on an average of over 2.7 million hectares, 82.7% of which took place on the individual farms/family holdings. Hence, the subject of research in this paper covers yields of major field crops realized on family farms in the region of Vojvodina in the period 1972-2011. The main objective of the research is to study the interdependence of utilization of mineral fertilizers and atmospheric precipitation during the vegetation period and realized yields of major field crops on family farms in the observed period. The regression analysis was applied in order to verify dependencies and determine the form of dependence of achieved yields from examined variables. The results showed that the main limiting factors for obtaining high and stable yields of field crops is inadequate use of fertilizers and the lack of precipitation during the vegetation period.

  10. Combination of inoculation methods of Azospirilum brasilense with broadcasting of nitrogen fertilizer increases corn yield

    Tânia Maria Müller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is the most limiting nutrient for corn production. Thereby, the goal of the paper was to evaluate inoculation methods of Azospirillum brasilense in order to partially supply N required by the crop. The experiment was carried out in Guarapuava, PR, Brasil, in 2011/2012 growing season. Randomized blocks with factorial 3 inoculation methods (seed treatment, planting furrow and non-inoculated control x 5 doses of nitrogen (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300kg ha-1 x 8 replications was used as the experimental design. Leaf are index, foliar nitrogen content, total chlorophyll, grains per ear and yield were evaluated. There was significant interaction between inoculation methods and nitrogen fertilization to leaf area index, but not for yield. Inoculation with the diazotrophic bacteria provided yield increase of 702kg ha-1 for inoculation in seeding furrow and 432kg ha-1 for inoculation in seed treatment compared to the control, but both treatments did not differ between each other. Furthermore, total chlorophyll, grains per ear and yield were positively affected, with quadratic response, by the nitrogen fertilization in broadcasting

  11. Managing tile drainage, subirrigation, and nitrogen fertilization to enhance crop yields and reduce nitrate loss.

    Drury, C F; Tan, C S; Reynolds, W D; Welacky, T W; Oloya, T O; Gaynor, J D

    2009-01-01

    Improving field-crop use of fertilizer nitrogen is essential for protecting water quality and increasing crop yields. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of controlled tile drainage (CD) and controlled tile drainage with subsurface irrigation (CDS) for mitigating off-field nitrate losses and enhancing crop yields. The CD and CDS systems were compared on a clay loam soil to traditional unrestricted tile drainage (UTD) under a corn (Zea Mays L.)-soybean (Glycine Max. (L.) Merr.) rotation at two nitrogen (N) fertilization rates (N1: 150 kg N ha(-1) applied to corn, no N applied to soybean; N2: 200 kg N ha(-1) applied to corn, 50 kg N ha(-1) applied to soybean). The N concentrations in tile flow events with the UTD treatment exceeded the provisional long-term aquatic life limit (LT-ALL) for freshwater (4.7 mg N L(-1)) 72% of the time at the N1 rate and 78% at the N2 rate, whereas only 24% of tile flow events at N1 and 40% at N2 exceeded the LT-ALL for the CDS treatment. Exceedances in N concentration for surface runoff and tile drainage were greater during the growing season than the non-growing season. At the N1 rate, CD and CDS reduced average annual N losses via tile drainage by 44 and 66%, respectively, relative to UTD. At the N2 rate, the average annual decreases in N loss were 31 and 68%, respectively. Crop yields from CDS were increased by an average of 2.8% relative to UTD at the N2 rate but were reduced by an average of 6.5% at the N1 rate. Hence, CD and CDS were effective for reducing average nitrate losses in tile drainage, but CDS increased average crop yields only when additional N fertilizer was applied.

  12. Wheat Yield Trend and Soil Fertility Status in Long Term Rice-Rice-Wheat Cropping System

    Nabin Rawal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A long-term soil fertility experiment under rice-rice-wheat system was performed to evaluate the long term effects of inorganic fertilizer and manure applications on soil properties and grain yield of wheat. The experiment began since 1978 was laid out in randomized complete block design with 9 treatments replicated 3 times. From 1990 onwards, periodic modifications have been made in all the treatments splitting the plots in two equal halves of 4 x 3 m2 leaving one half as original. In the original treatments, recent data revealed that the use of Farm Yard Manure (FYM @10 t ha-1 gave significantly (P≤0.05 higher yield of 2.3 t ha-1 in wheat, whereas control plot gave the lowest grain yield of 277 kg ha-1. Similarly, in the modified treatments, the use of FYM @10 t ha-1 along with inorganic Nitrogen (N and Potassium oxide (K2O @ 50 kg ha-1 produced significantly (P≤0.05 the highest yield of 2.4 t/ha in wheat. The control plot with an indigenous nutrient supply only produced wheat yield of 277 kg ha-1 after 35th year completion of rice-rice-wheat system. A sharp decline in wheat yields was noted in minus N, phosphorus (P, Potassium (K treatments during recent years. Yields were consistently higher in the N:P2O5:K2O and FYM treatments than in treatments, where one or more nutrients were lacking. The application of P2O5 and K2O caused a partial recovery of yield in P and K deficient plots. There was significant (P≤0.05 effect of use of chemical fertilizers and manure on soil properties. The soil analysis data showed an improvement in soil pH (7.8, soil organic matter (4.1%, total N content (0.16%, available P (503.5 kg P2O5 ha-1 and exchangeable K (137.5 kg K2O ha-1 in FYM applied treatments over all other treatments. The findings showed that the productivity of the wheat can be increased and sustained by improving nutrient through the integrated use of organic and inorganic manures in long term.

  13. Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on Phenological Traits, Grain Yield and Yield Components of Three Maize (Zea mays L. Cultivars

    A Soleimani Fard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of bio-fertilize on yield and its components in maize cultivars, an split plot experiment based on randomized complete bock design with three replications in was conducted in Payam-noor University of Ilam, Iran, in 2009-2010. Treatments were cultivar (SC604, SC704 and SC807 assigned to main plots and bio-fertilizer (non- inoculation, inoculation with Azetobacter, Azospirillum and dual inoculation ofAzotobacterand Azospirillum to subplots. The effect of cultivar on days to maturity, plant height, dry matter, ear length, stem diameter, number of grain per ear row, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and protein content was significant cultivar. SC 704 had the highest dry matter (259.5 g.m-2, plant height (201.1 cm, number of grain per ear row (42.8 grain, grain yield (10850 kg.m-2, and biological yield (22040 kg.m-2. The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on all traits expect harvest index was significant. Dual inoculation ofAzotobacterand Azospirillum had the longest days to ear initiation (71.2 days, days to maturity (115.4 day, number of leaves above ear (5.6 ear, dry matter (240.4 g.m-2, ear length (24.3 cm, plant height (212.4 cm, seed number of rows per ear (14.5 row, number of grains per row (44.2 grain, grain yield (10190 kg.m-2, biological yield (21320 kg.m-2 and protein content (10.7%. Interaction effect of cultivar× plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on grain yield was significant. The highest and lowest grain yield was obtained from SC 704 and application of dual inoculation ofAzotobacterand Azospirillum (12320 kg.ha-1 and lowest from SC 604 when inoculation treatments were not used 7570 kg.ha-1 respectively.

  14. Influences of shading and fertilization on on-farm yields of cocoa in Ghana

    Richard, Asare; Asare, Rebecca Ashley; Asante, Winston Adams

    2017-01-01

    Most cocoa farms in Ghana are cultivated in complex agroforest systems, with plant growth and cocoa productivity being affected. The objective of this study was to investigate how shade trees affect cocoa yield, temperature and soil nutrients in low-input cocoa systems. Establishing plots on 24...... farms in four locations (districts) in Ghana, we assessed the influence of varying canopy cover and fertilization on cocoa yields. Results showed no relationship between canopy cover and cocoa yields in the light crop season (February to August). For the main crop season (September to January...... recorded in the cocoa canopies were above the recommended range for this species. Although shade trees had a slight modifying effect on peak temperatures, the magnitude appeared too small to have any practical effects....

  15. Evaluation of the Effect of Crop Rotations on Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Darya)

    H. A. Fallahi; U. Mahmadyarov; H. Sabouri; M. Ezat-Ahmadi4

    2013-01-01

    Grain yield in wheat is influenced directly and indirectly by other plant characteristics. One of the main goals in wheat breeding programs is increase of grain yield. Considering the role of crop rotation in increasing grain yield, and in order to study the difference between crop rotations for wheat yield and yield components (Darya cultivar), an experiment was conducted with six rotation treatments (wheat-chickpea-wheat, wheat-cotton-wheat, wheat-watermelon-wheat, wheat-wheat-wheat, wheat-...

  16. The Balance of N, P, and Manure Fertilizer Dosage on Growth and Yield of Peanuts in Alfisols Dryland

    Suryono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peanuts cultivation in Alfisols dryland limited by low levels of soil fertility. An agricultural intensification that could be done is application of organic and inorganic fertilizer. This research aimed to study the balance of N, P, and manure fertilizer dosage on growth and yield of peanuts in alfisols dryland. The research was done in April 2014 - September 2014 in Sukosari, Jumantono, Karanganyar. This research was compiled using a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD factorial with three factors, there are dose of urea, SP-36 and cow manure fertilizer. The results showed that the dose combinations of urea, SP-36, and cow manure fertilizer have no interaction affected all of variable plant. The application of 300 kg ha-1 SP-36 fertilizer increased the number of pods and weight of pods, while the weight of 1000 seeds was improved by application of 150 kg ha-1 urea fertilizer.

  17. The Effect of Foliar Application of Humic Acid and Nano Fertilizer (Pharmks® on Morphological Traits, Yield, Essential Oil Content and Yield of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.

    majid azizi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The ever-increasing tendency to the use of medicinal plants in the world has grown concerns about their cultivation and production processes. As medicinal plants are more compatible with the nature, special interest and attention have recently been given to herb therapy, and use of medicinal plants, being limited by the rise of pharmaceutical drugs, has become again common and widespread due to a number of reasons. In a sustainable agriculture system, application of the fertilizers which are nature friendly and suitable for plants is essential. This becomes more important when dealing with medicinal plants. Doing studies over the effect of nano¬pharmax and humic acid fertilizer on the plant, no research findings were obtained. So, in order to use less chemical fertilizers to prevent environmental pollution and encourage farmers to use more organic fertilizer, the present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of foliar application of humic acid and nano-pharmax fertilizer on the growth index, yield, yield components, essential oil content of N. sativa. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2012-2013. Land preparation was done in October. The land area was 80 square meters in which three blocks were designed. Eight plots were prepared within each block and each plot was planted with 4 lines. Furrow sowing operations were carried out on October 29. The plants were thinned in 4-6 leaf stage. First irrigation after planting, and subsequent ones were done every 7 days until the end of the growing season. No herbicides were applied in this plan and weeding was done by hand. The test treatments included humic acid and nano¬pharmax fertilizer with the levels of 0, 1, 3 and 6 mg per liter and 0 and 1 ml per liter, respectively. Fertilizer treatments was applied at the 8-10 leaf stage and continued once every two weeks, three times

  18. Yields, market values and n use efficiency in flue-cured tobacco influenced by time of basal n fertilization

    Xie Zhijian; Tu Shuxin; Li Jinping; Xu Rubing; Chen Zhenguo; Wang Xuelong

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment with 15 N isotope tracing micro-plots was carried out to study the effects of basal N fertilizer application time (0 d, 15 d, 30 d before the transplanting) on the yields, market values and N uptake, utilization and distribution in different organs of flue-cured tobacco (FCT) in two ecological tobacco production areas (Zhaojiashan and Laowan) of Xiangfan City, Hubei Province. The results showed that supplying N fertilizer significantly increased the yields and market values of FCT by 13% ∼ 40% and 14% ∼ 35% for the experimental site of Zhaojiashan (lower altitude) and Laowan (higher altitude), respectively. Compared to applying basal fertilizer at 0 d before transplanting, applying basal fertilizer at 15 d or 30 d before transplanting increased the market values by 10% ∼ 30% (P < 0.05). And early application of basal N fertilizer (30 d before transplanting) increased N accumulation by 8% ∼ 26% as compared with that of applying basal N fertilizer at 0 d or 15 d before transplanting in the two ecological areas. There was no significant effects of basal N application time on N fertilizer efficiency in lower altitude site, but increasing by 3% ∼ 6% in higher altitude site. These results indicated that properly earlier (15 d for example) supplication of basal N fertilizer could improve the N fertilizer efficiency, and thus increase the yields and market values of FCT, especially in higher altitude areas with less sunshine and lower temperature. (authors)

  19. Balance sheet method assessment for nitrogen fertilization in bread wheat: I. yield and quality

    Maria Corbellini

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union the production of high quality wheat is mainly located in the Mediterranean regions where the climatic conditions positively affect protein concentration in the grain. High quality wheat calls for proper management of nitrogen fertilization, thus there is a need to verify whether the limitations imposed by local governments on maximum rate of nitrogen fertilization admitted may affect bread making quality. Trials were conducted in fourteen environments (E to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilizations on eight cultivars (C, belonging to four quality grades (Q. Nitrogen (N was applied to crops according to three rates/modalities: N1 corresponding to the maximum rate admitted calculated according to a balance sheet method and distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N2 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1, also distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N3 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1 but distributed at the stage of flag leaf appearance. The effects of environment, nitrogen and cultivar were significant for grain yield, test weight, 1000 kernel weight, heading time, plant height and for quality traits (protein content and alveograph indices. The existence of variability among cultivars and quality grades in the response to rate and timing of nitrogen fertilization was demonstrated by the significance of NxC and NxQ interactions. Dry matter and nitrogen contents of plant at anthesis and at harvest were significantly affected by the main sources of variation. High quality cultivars yielded more grain of better quality with higher N rates (N2 and N3 as compared to the maximum rate of nitrogen admitted by the local government (N1. These results demonstrated that the adopted balance sheet method for the calculation of N requirements of wheat crop adversely affects the full potential expression of the cultivars belonging to superior bread making quality grades.

  20. Balance sheet method assessment for nitrogen fertilization in bread wheat: I. yield and quality

    Mario Monotti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union the production of high quality wheat is mainly located in the Mediterranean regions where the climatic conditions positively affect protein concentration in the grain. High quality wheat calls for proper management of nitrogen fertilization, thus there is a need to verify whether the limitations imposed by local governments on maximum rate of nitrogen fertilization admitted may affect bread making quality. Trials were conducted in fourteen environments (E to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilizations on eight cultivars (C, belonging to four quality grades (Q. Nitrogen (N was applied to crops according to three rates/modalities: N1 corresponding to the maximum rate admitted calculated according to a balance sheet method and distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N2 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1, also distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N3 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1 but distributed at the stage of flag leaf appearance. The effects of environment, nitrogen and cultivar were significant for grain yield, test weight, 1000 kernel weight, heading time, plant height and for quality traits (protein content and alveograph indices. The existence of variability among cultivars and quality grades in the response to rate and timing of nitrogen fertilization was demonstrated by the significance of NxC and NxQ interactions. Dry matter and nitrogen contents of plant at anthesis and at harvest were significantly affected by the main sources of variation. High quality cultivars yielded more grain of better quality with higher N rates (N2 and N3 as compared to the maximum rate of nitrogen admitted by the local government (N1. These results demonstrated that the adopted balance sheet method for the calculation of N requirements of wheat crop adversely affects the full potential expression of the cultivars belonging to superior bread making quality grades.

  1. Seed Yield of Long Fiber Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. Plants Depending on Rates of Sawing of Seed and Mineral Fertilization

    М. Ф. Рибак

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Impact of rates of sawing of seed and fertilization on seed productivity of Kameniar and Irma Long Fiber Flax in the conditions of Ukrainian Woodlands are highlighted. A trustworthy proportion is established of factors influence, in particular, of the sawing and fertilization rates, on Long Fiber Flax yield formation.

  2. The Effect of Zinc Fertilizer Application on Grain Yield of Different Zinc-Efficient Spring and Winter Wheat Cultivars

    M. Malian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available These field trials were carried out to investigate the effect of various zinc (Zn fertilizer application treatments on grain yield of some spring (Isfahan and Neishabour and winter wheat cultivars (Mashhad and Jolge-e-Rokh with different Zn efficiency during 2009-2010 growth seasons. Five Zn fertilizer treatments were applied including: no added Zn (control, soil application of Zn-sulfate, and foliar spray of Zn-sulfate, Omex1, and Omex2. Omex1 and Omex2 contained 4 and 17% Zn, respectively. Foliar spray was performed at the anthesis stage. Both spring and winter wheat genotypes significantly differed in grain yield. The results showed that wheat genotypes largely varied in their grain yield response to different Zn application treatments. Some spring (Sholeh in Isfahan and winter (Sabalan in Jolg-e-Rokh wheat genotypes had greater response to Zn fertilization so that Zn addition increased grain yield of Sholeh by 48% and Sabalan by 17% as compared with no added Zn control. In contrast, Zn addition had no effect on grain yield of some other genotypes. Yield response of wheat genotypes to Zn application treatments significantly varied upon location. According to the results obtained from this study, the efficacy of Zn fertilizer treatments on grain yield of wheat is dependent on the genotype and location. Therefore, this concern should be considered in fertilizer recommendation programs that a specific Zn fertilizer treatment may not be recommended for all wheat cultivars and locations.

  3. Effect of fertilizer and inoculation on the growth and yield of soybean cv.williams-82 in pot culture

    Achakzai, A.K.K.; Kayani, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    A pot culture experiment in response to different levels of added N fertilizer on soybean cv.Williams-82 was conducted in clay loam soil under the climatic conditions of Quetta. Fertilizer treatments were applied at the rate zero (control); 23; 25; 50; 75; 100 and 125 kg N/ha plus a constant dose of 60 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ha and 30 kg K/sub 2/O/ha in all treatments (except control). These seven fertilizer treatments were applied to both non-inoculated and inoculated pot culture crop. Results showed that nodules were found to be absent in both set of experiments which could be indirectly attributed to either sufficient level of soil NO/sub 3/ (5.10 mm) or deficient level of total Fe (8.25 ppm) and Cu (below detection limit) or might be directly due to any other edaphic or climatic factor(s). Results also showed that in general petiole length, middle leaflet area,' plant height, yield, 100 seed weight (except inoculated fertilized), total number of pods/plant (except non-inoculated fertilized) and pod both set of experiment are significantly different (P > 0.05) as compared with their respective control treatment. While remaining yield attributes viz., one-seeded, two-seeded and three-seeded pods are found as non-significantly different in response to both fertilizer and inoculum treatments. Results further revealed that pots receiving N fertilizer without inoculum mathematically out-yielded (1718 kg/ha) in fertilizer dose of 100+60+30 kg NPK/ha, but inoculated pots out-yielded (1912 kg/ha) in fertilizer dose of 125+60+30 kg NPK/ha. It was also revealed that all growth parameters and most of the yield attributes exhibited significant positive correlation with yield. However, number of seedless and one-seeded pods also exhibited significant but negative association with yield. (author)

  4. Warming and nitrogen fertilization effects on winter wheat yields in northern China varied between four years

    Liu, Liting; Hu, Chunsheng; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    per m2. This suggests that the wheat yield loss may be related to reduction of spike number, which was affected by decreased soil water content under warming. Warming tended to give larger yield reductions at higher nitrogen fertilizer rates, and this may be related to larger water consumption...... with both higher nitrogen and temperature leading to water shortages. These effects indicate that wheat yield loss from warming was primarily associated with more severe water shortage from greater evapotranspiration under warming. The large crop canopy in the fertilized plot may further have enhanced......). The volumetric water content decreased significantly before heading by 9.3, 3.9, 2.4 and 1.2 vol% in the soil depth of 0.10, 0.20, 0.40, 0.60 m in N2 and by 5.9, 1.4, 1.3 and 1.2 vol% in N1 from heating compared with no heating. The duration of the entire growth period was shortened by on average 7 days...

  5. Climate change impacts on crop yield and quality with CO2 fertilization in China

    Erda, Lin; Wei, Xiong; Hui, Ju; Yinlong, Xu; Yue, Li; Liping, Bai; Liyong, Xie

    2005-01-01

    A regional climate change model (PRECIS) for China, developed by the UK's Hadley Centre, was used to simulate China's climate and to develop climate change scenarios for the country. Results from this project suggest that, depending on the level of future emissions, the average annual temperature increase in China by the end of the twenty-first century may be between 3 and 4 °C. Regional crop models were driven by PRECIS output to predict changes in yields of key Chinese food crops: rice, maize and wheat. Modelling suggests that climate change without carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilization could reduce the rice, maize and wheat yields by up to 37% in the next 20–80 years. Interactions of CO2 with limiting factors, especially water and nitrogen, are increasingly well understood and capable of strongly modulating observed growth responses in crops. More complete reporting of free-air carbon enrichment experiments than was possible in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Third Assessment Report confirms that CO2 enrichment under field conditions consistently increases biomass and yields in the range of 5–15%, with CO2 concentration elevated to 550 ppm Levels of CO2 that are elevated to more than 450 ppm will probably cause some deleterious effects in grain quality. It seems likely that the extent of the CO2 fertilization effect will depend upon other factors such as optimum breeding, irrigation and nutrient applications. PMID:16433100

  6. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on tomato yield and nutrient uptake under different fertilization levels

    Ľudovít Nedorost

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the arbuscular mycorrhiza on tomato plants (Lycopersicon lycopersicum in the pot experiment was studied. Three different fertilization regimes (optimum – H1, stress a – H2, stress b - H3 and three different mycorrhizal treatments (control – Ctrl, Glomus mossae – Gm, Glomus intraradices – Gi were used. Economical parameter (yield, nutritional characteristic (vitamin C content, phosphates and minerals content, total antioxidant capacity, and level of root colonization were studied. The yield of the tomatoes was influenced by the basic dose of the fertilization, especially in the H2 and H3 treatment. The highest yield was in the H2 treatment in Gm (938 g per plant. The positive effect of the inoculation resulted in the increased content of the vitamin C. The highest significant influence was observed in the H2 treatment (plants inoculated with Gi with the average content of the vitamin C 289 mg.kg−1. The average rate of the colonization was in the range from 39 % to 65 %.

  7. Fertilization effect on yield and nitrate content in organically produced lettuce

    Čabilovski Ranko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of applying different organic materials (OM on yield and nitrate content in lettuce was studied in a field experiment on a farm registered for organic production during two years (2007 and 2008. Treatments were: farmyard manure (ST, guano (G, milled soybean (Glicine hispida seed (S; milled forage pea (Pisum sativum seed (P and control treatment (q. Biannual average fresh matter (FM yield of lettuce on fertilized plots ranges from 45.44 t ha-1 (P to 46,38 t ha-1 (ST and was significantly higher than fresh matter yield of the control (39.34 t ha-1, while the differences between fertilized treatments were not significant. Nitrate content in the fresh mass of lettuce in all treatments in both years was below the maximum allowed content (2.500 mg kg-1 regulated by the EU (Commission Regulation (EC, No 466/2001. In both years, the lowest nitrate content in the fresh mass of lettuce was recorded with the control treatment (q and highest with S treatment. Nitrate contents with G, P and S treatments were significantly higher than that recorded with FYM and q, whereas the differences between FYM and q were not significant in either the first or the second year of research. Linear correlation (r = 0.83**in 2007; r = 0.91** in 2008 was found between the content of mineral N in the soil and nitrate content in the FM of lettuce at the moment of harvesting in both years. .

  8. Broiler litter and inorganic nitrogen fertilizers influence on earliness and yield on strawberry and cabbage

    Chehab, Abed Elghani

    1996-01-01

    Author.Comparison of broiler litter (BL) rates to inorganic nitrogen fertilizers was studied during 1994-1995 as to its effect on earliness and yield of strawberry and cabbage grown on a calcareous soil. Strawberry (Frag aria x ananassa Duch.cv.Oso Grande) was grown using BL at rates which supplied 100 (BL1) or 200 (BL2) Kg N/ha, ammonium nitrate or nitrogen+trace elements applied at 150 Kg N/ha in six equally split applications throughout the growing season. Crop yield was higher (P 0.05) under the litter treated plots especially the BL2 rate. Leaf Fe was comparable among treatments (P>0.05) and no Fe chlorosis symptoms were observed, even though the soil is calcareous. Residual soil nitrate-nitrogen was comparable (P>0.05) among all the treatments with the ammonium nitrate and the BL2 having the highest values, indicating that BL at 200 Kg N/ha apparently released an amount of N equivalent to that from the 150 Kg N/ha of ammonium nitrate. Available soil P (water soluble), although comparable among treatments (P>0.05), was higher under the BL treated plots especially at the 200 Kg N/ha rate reflecting the P content of the manure. It is recommended to apply BL at a rate of 200 Kg N/ha to fertilize strawberry over the use of inorganic N fertilizers at similar rates. O-S-Cross cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata) was tested using the same rates of BL described previously, ammonium nitrate or nitrogen+trace elements at 125 Kg N/ha split as 25 Kg N/ha early in the season, 50 Kg N/ha just before heading, and 50 Kg N/ha at heading. Total yield and marketable yield were higher under the inorganic treated plots than under BL (P 2 . The higher yields under the inorganic N fertilizer treated plots were also reflected in leaf nitrate-nitrogen. Leaf blade P was comparable (P>0.05) among all treatments indicating a high soil P level at the beginning of all treatments before heading (P>0.05) and at heading, where as at first harvest it was higher (P<0.05) under the nitrogen

  9. Effect of Biofertilizers and Irrigation Intervals on Yield Component and Yield of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum- graecum L.

    M. Jaberi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought is one of the most important factors whichdecrease crop production in arid and semi-arid regions of the world (1, 20. Appropriate nutritional management has an effective role in the resistance to environmental stresses on crops (7. An important issue about sustainability of food production is the maintenance of soil fertility through the use of organic matter and biofertilizers. One option to increase agricultural production is the use of beneficial soil microorganisms such as PGPR and fungi (45. This group of bacteria through biological fixation of nitrogen, increase phosphorus and potassium solubility, an increasethe availability of mineral elements in the soil, inhibits pathogen appearance and producehormones that regulate the growth of plants to affect crop yield (18, 47. Mycorrhiza enablesymbiosis with the roots of most crop plants, through the availability of phosphorus, nitrogen and other nutrients and thus increases water absorption and produces plant hormones, increases resistance to pathogens and environmental stresses, strengthens the soil microbial community and induces improving the growth and performance of plants in agricultural systems (5, 32, 37, 40.Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum- graecum L.is an annual herbaceous plant that reaches a height of 50 cm (14. Since limited water is at very critical level now, the importance of further research in this area is felt. So, the study of medicinal plants considring water management and organic food is very important. Therefore, the aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of organic and biofertilizers and irrigation on yield and yield components of fenugreek in Birjand. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of irrigation intervals and biofertilizers on quantitative traits and yield of fenugreek, an experiment was carried out in a split plot based on a complete randomized block design with 3replications at the research station, Faculty of Agriculture

  10. Genetic Analysis of Seed Yield Components and its Association with Forage Production in Wild and Cultivated Species of Sainfoin

    A. Najafipoor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about genetic variation of seed related traits and their association with forage characters in sainfoin. In order to investigate the variation and relationship among seed yield and its components, 93 genotypes from 21 wild and cultivated species of genus Onobrychis were evaluated using a randomized complete block design with four replications at Isfahan University of Technology Research Farm, Isfahan, Iran. Analysis of variance showed that there was significant difference among genotypes, indicating existence of considerable genetic variation in this germplasm. Panicle fertility and panicle length had the most variation in cultivated and the wild genotypes, respectively. Results of correlation analysis showed that seed yield was positively correlated with number of stems per plant and number of seeds per panicle and negatively correlated with panicle length and days to 50% flowering. Seed yield had positive correlation with forage yield in wild species while this correlation was not significant in cultivated one. Cluster analysis classified the genotypes into three groups which separate wild and cultivated species. Based on principal component analysis the first component was related to seed yield and the second one was related to components of forage yield which can be used for selection of high forage and seed yielding genotypes.

  11. Analyzing and modelling the effect of long-term fertilizer management on crop yield and soil organic carbon in China.

    Zhang, Jie; Balkovič, Juraj; Azevedo, Ligia B; Skalský, Rastislav; Bouwman, Alexander F; Xu, Guang; Wang, Jinzhou; Xu, Minggang; Yu, Chaoqing

    2018-06-15

    This study analyzes the influence of various fertilizer management practices on crop yield and soil organic carbon (SOC) based on the long-term field observations and modelling. Data covering 11 years from 8 long-term field trials were included, representing a range of typical soil, climate, and agro-ecosystems in China. The process-based model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model) was used to simulate the response of crop yield and SOC to various fertilization regimes. The results showed that the yield and SOC under additional manure application treatment were the highest while the yield under control treatment was the lowest (30%-50% of NPK yield) at all sites. The SOC in northern sites appeared more dynamic than that in southern sites. The variance partitioning analysis (VPA) showed more variance of crop yield could be explained by the fertilization factor (42%), including synthetic nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) fertilizers, and fertilizer NPK combined with manure. The interactive influence of soil (total N, P, K, and available N, P, K) and climate factors (mean annual temperature and precipitation) determine the largest part of the SOC variance (32%). EPIC performs well in simulating both the dynamics of crop yield (NRMSE = 32% and 31% for yield calibration and validation) and SOC (NRMSE = 13% and 19% for SOC calibration and validation) under diverse fertilization practices in China. EPIC can assist in predicting the impacts of different fertilization regimes on crop growth and soil carbon dynamics, and contribute to the optimization of fertilizer management for different areas in China. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Effects of N Fertilizer Sources and Tillage Practices on NH3 Volatilization, Grain Yield, and N Use Efficiency of Rice Fields in Central China.

    Liu, Tianqi; Huang, Jinfeng; Chai, Kaibin; Cao, Cougui; Li, Chengfang

    2018-01-01

    Tillage practices and nitrogen (N) sources are important factors affecting rice production. Few studies, however, have examined the interactions between tillage practices and N fertilizer sources on NH 3 volatilization, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and rice grain yield. This study aimed to investigate the effects of N fertilizer sources (no N fertilizer, inorganic N fertilizer, organic N fertilizer alone, organic N fertilizer plus inorganic N fertilizer, and slow-release N fertilizer plus inorganic N fertilizer) and tillage practices (no-tillage [NT] and conventional intensive tillage [CT]) on NH 3 flux, grain yield, and NUE in the rice field of central China. N sources significantly affected NH 3 volatilization, as the cumulative volatilization from the treatments of inorganic N fertilizer, organic N fertilizer, organic N fertilizer plus inorganic N fertilizer, slow-release N fertilizer plus inorganic N fertilizer was 4.19, 2.13, 3.42, and 2.23 folds in 2013, and 2.49, 1.68, 2.08, and 1.85 folds in 2014 compared with that under no N fertilizer treatment, respectively. The organic N fertilizer treatment had the lowest grain yield and NUE among all N fertilizer treatments, while slow-release N fertilizer plus inorganic N fertilizer treatment led to relatively higher grain yield and the greatest N use efficiency. Moreover, NT only markedly increased NH 3 volatilization from basal fertilizer by 10-14% in average compared with CT, but had no obvious effects on total volatilization during the whole seasons. Tillage practices had no significant effects on grain yield and NUE. Our study suggested that the combination of slow-release N fertilizer plus inorganic N fertilizer and NT might be a sustainable method for mitigating greenhouse gas and NH 3 emissions and improving grain yield and NUE in paddy fields of central China.

  13. Effects of N Fertilizer Sources and Tillage Practices on NH3 Volatilization, Grain Yield, and N Use Efficiency of Rice Fields in Central China

    Tianqi Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tillage practices and nitrogen (N sources are important factors affecting rice production. Few studies, however, have examined the interactions between tillage practices and N fertilizer sources on NH3 volatilization, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE, and rice grain yield. This study aimed to investigate the effects of N fertilizer sources (no N fertilizer, inorganic N fertilizer, organic N fertilizer alone, organic N fertilizer plus inorganic N fertilizer, and slow-release N fertilizer plus inorganic N fertilizer and tillage practices (no-tillage [NT] and conventional intensive tillage [CT] on NH3 flux, grain yield, and NUE in the rice field of central China. N sources significantly affected NH3 volatilization, as the cumulative volatilization from the treatments of inorganic N fertilizer, organic N fertilizer, organic N fertilizer plus inorganic N fertilizer, slow-release N fertilizer plus inorganic N fertilizer was 4.19, 2.13, 3.42, and 2.23 folds in 2013, and 2.49, 1.68, 2.08, and 1.85 folds in 2014 compared with that under no N fertilizer treatment, respectively. The organic N fertilizer treatment had the lowest grain yield and NUE among all N fertilizer treatments, while slow-release N fertilizer plus inorganic N fertilizer treatment led to relatively higher grain yield and the greatest N use efficiency. Moreover, NT only markedly increased NH3 volatilization from basal fertilizer by 10–14% in average compared with CT, but had no obvious effects on total volatilization during the whole seasons. Tillage practices had no significant effects on grain yield and NUE. Our study suggested that the combination of slow-release N fertilizer plus inorganic N fertilizer and NT might be a sustainable method for mitigating greenhouse gas and NH3 emissions and improving grain yield and NUE in paddy fields of central China.

  14. Effect of Combined Application of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria and Phosphrous Fertilizer on Growth and Yield of Sesame

    S. Nikmehr

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phosphorus (P is considered to be one of the most essential macro elements required for growth and development of plants, but, due to low solubility and fixation in soils, only a small fraction of phosphorus in soil (1 ppm or 0.1% is readily available to plants. chemical fertilizers are widely used in meeting the phosphorous need of crops. However, as the fertilizer production is dependent upon fossil energy sources, continuous use of chemical fertilizers has become a matter of great concern, not only because of the diminishing availability of costly inputs but environmental concerns also. Under this background, it has obviously brought the subject of mineral phosphate solubilization in the forefront. A group of soil microorganisms is recognized to be involved in microbial phosphate solubilization mechanisms through which insoluble forms of inorganic and organic phosphates convert into soluble forms (HPO4-2 or H2PO4-. Acidification of the medium, chelating, exchange reactions and production of various acids has been discussed as the key processes attributed to the conversion. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB are a group of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR that convert unavailable forms of phosphorus to available forms and it helps to the growth and yield of plant. The use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR is considered one of the most important factors increasing sesame yields. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the interactive effects of PGPR and phosphorus fertilizer on some growth parameters and components of yield and also phosphorus and Zinc uptake in sesame. Materials and Methods: In order to investigation of the effect of combined application of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and phosphorus fertilizer on growth and yield of Sesame, a greenhouse experiment was conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design with three replications including five levels of

  15. [Milk yield and environmental factors: Multiple regression analysis of the association between milk yield and udder health, fertility data and replacement rate].

    Fölsche, C; Staufenbiel, R

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between milk yield and both fertility and general animal health in dairy herds is discussed from opposing viewpoints. The hypothesis (1) that raising the herd milk yield would decrease fertility results, the number of milk cells as an indicator for udder health and the replacement rate as a global indicator for animal health as well as increasing the occurrence of specific diseases as a herd problem was compared to the opposing hypotheses that there is no relationship (2) or that there is a differentiated and changing relationship (3). A total of 743 herd examinations, considered independent, were performed in 489 herds between 1995 and 2010. The milk yield, fertility rate, milk cell count, replacement rate, categorized herd problems and management information were recorded. The relationship between the milk yield and both the fertility data and animal health was evaluated using simple and multiple regression analyses. The period between calving and the first service displayed no significant relationship to the herd milk yield. Simple regression analysis showed that the period between calving and gestation, the calving interval and the insemination number were significantly positively associated with the herd milk yield. This positive correlation was lost in multiple regression analysis. The milk cell count and replacement rate using both the simple and multiple regression analyses displayed a significant negative relationship to the milk yield. The alternative hypothesis (3) was confirmed. A higher milk yield has no negative influence on the milk cell count and the replacement rate in terms of the udder and general health. When parameterizing the fertility, the herd milk yield should be considered. Extending the resting time may increase the milk yield while preventing a decline in the insemination index.

  16. Yield of castor bean fertilized with sewage sludge and potassium and magnesium sulphate

    Cavalcanti,Thâmara F. M.; Zuba,Geraldo R.; Sampaio,Regynaldo A.; Carneiro,João P.; Oliveira,Ely S. A. de; Rodrigues,Márcio N.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate the yield and nutrition of castor bean in response to fertilization with sewage sludge and potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) sulphate. The experiment was carried out from January to July 2011. The treatments, in a randomized block design with three replicates, in a Nitosol, corresponded to a factorial scheme (2 x 4 +1): two doses of K and Mg sulphate combined with four doses of sewage sludge (0, 2.60, 5.20 and 10.40 t ha-1, dry basis), applied base...

  17. Effects of Drought Stress on Canola (Brassica napus L. Genotypes Yield and Yield Components

    R Khani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Canola (Brassica napus L. genotypes with wide adaptability to environmental conditions could play a major role in Iran’s oilseed crop production. Selection of high performing genotypes is very important for developing canola cultivation. Water stress can reduce crop yield by affecting both source and sink for assimilation. Canola yield depends on genotype and environmental conditions and response of genotypes to environmental factors. Canola genotypes response to stress depends on the developmental stage and the events occurring prior to and during flowering stage. Resistance to water stress is divided to avoidance and tolerance. Some species are tolerable against water stress. In a while, other species respond ending life cycle, falling leaves and other reactions into water stress. Therefore, investigation of canola genotypes response to water stress in phenological growth stages can be valuable in order to determine resistant or tolerant genotypes. Materials and Methods In order to study the effect of drought stress on canola genotypes yield and its components, an experiment was conducted in 2013-2014 as a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the research farm, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of East-Azarbaijan, Tabriz-Iran. Three levels of drought stress were considered as main plot (No-stress, stress at the flowering and pod setting growth stages and 18 canola genotypes including HW113, RS12, Karaj1, KR18, L73, L72, HW101, L146, L210, L183, SW101, L5, L201, HW118, KR4, Karaj2, Karaj3 and KS7 as subplots. Flood irrigation was scheduled at 50% field capacity, 30 and 30% field capacity for no-stress, stress at the flowering and pod setting growth stages, respectively; i.e. soil moisture capacity was maintained at 30% by irrigating to 100% field capacity when available moisture reached 30% in drought stress treatments. An ANOVA was conducted using the PROC-GLM procedure

  18. Effect of Zeolite, Selenium and Silicon on Yield, Yield Components and Some Physiological Traits of Canola under Salt Stress Conditions

    A Bybordi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Canola can be cultivated in large areas of the country due to its specific characteristics such as suitable composition of the fatty acids, its germination ability under low temperature, as well as its good compatibility with different climates. Canola is a high demanding crop in terms of fertilizers so that it uptakes considerable amount of nutrients from the soil during the growing season. Canola cultivation in poor soils or application of imbalanced fertilizers, especially nitrogen, can reduce qualitaty and quantity of final yield. On the other hand, salinity is known as one of the major limiting factors in canola production. Therefore, the aim of this study is the application of zeolite, selenium and silicon treatments to amend soil and increasing salinity tolerance in canola. Materials and Methods In order to study the effect of soil applied zeolite and foliar application of selenium and silicon on yield, yield components and some physiological traits of canola grown under salinity stress, a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design was conducted in Agriculture and Natural Resource Research Center in East Azerbaijan during 2011-2013 cropping seasons. Zeolite was applied at three levels (0, 5 and 10 ton ha-1 and foliar selenium and silicon were applied at three levels as well (each one zero, 2 and 4 g l-1. For this purpose, seedbed was prepared using plow and disk and then plot were designed. Canola seeds, cultivar Okapi, were sown in sandy loam soil with 4 dS.m-1 salinity at the depth of 2-3 cm. Irrigation was performed using local well based on 60% field capacity using the closed irrigation system. Potassium selentae and potassium silicate were used for selenium and silicon treatments. Treatments at rosette and stem elongation stages were sprayed on plants using a calibrated pressurized backpack sprayer. At flowering stage, photosynthesis rate was recorded. Then leaf samples were randomly collected to assay

  19. Nitrogen uptake dynamics, yield and quality as influenced by nitrogen fertilization in Piel de sapo melon

    Castellanos, M. T.; Cabello, M. J.; Cartagena, M. C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Arce, A.; Ribas, F.

    2012-11-01

    The need to reduce nitrogen (N) fertilizer pollution strengthens the importance of improving the utilization efficiency of applied N to crops. This requires knowledge of crop N uptake characteristics and how fertilization management affects it. A three-year field experiment was conducted from May to September in central Spain to investigate the influence of different N rates, which ranged from 11 to 393 kg ha{sup -}1, applied through drip irrigation, on the dynamics of N uptake, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), fruit yield and quality of a Piel de sapo melon crop (Cucumis melo L. cv. Sancho). Both N concentration and N content increased in different plant parts with the N rate. Leaves had the highest N concentration, which declined by 40-50% from 34-41 days after transplanting (DAT), while the highest N uptake rate was observed from 30-35 to 70-80 DAT, coinciding with fruit development. In each year, NUE declined with increasing N rate. With N fertilizer applications close to the optimum N rate of 90-100 kg ha -1, the fruits removed approximately 60 kg N ha -1, and the amount of N in the crop residue was about 80 kg N ha -1; this serves to replenish the organic nutrient pool in the soil and may be used by subsequent crops following mineralization. (Author) 36 refs.

  20. Effect of Drought Stress During Phenological Stage and Biofertilizer and Nitrogen Application on Yield and Yield Components of Corn (KSC 704

    M. Ashkavand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of cutting irrigation and application of biofertilizer and nitrogen on yield and yield components of corn single cross hybrid, an experiment was carried out in Satloo Agricultural and Natural resources Research Station of west Azarbaijan, 2009-2010. This experiment was arranged as split plot based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications.Four irrigation factors including I1, I2, I3 and I4, respectively: cutting irrigations at stem elongation, blossom and seed filling stages and normal irrigation assigned to main plots and fertilizer treatments consisted of Nitoxin + 50% urea (F1 , Niragin + 50% urea (F2 , and without biofertilizer application + 100% urea (F3 were allocated to sub plots.Results indicated that the effect of cutting irrigations had negative and significant effects on all characteristics; Fertilizer treatments on the other hand had significant effect only on seed numbers per ear, 100 seeds weight and seed yield. The highest seed yield was obtained under normal irrigation and treatment of Nitragin + 50% urea (12320.7 kg/ha and 11100.5 kg/ha respectively.

  1. The Effect of Nitroxin Biofertilizer and Foliar Applicatin of Micronutrients Time Consumption on Yield and Yield Components of New Wheat Cultivars under Khorramabad Climatic Conditions

    A. Vaez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In order to study the effects of Nitroxin biofertilizer and foliar application of micronutrients time consumption on yield and yield components of new wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum & T. durum under Khorramabad climatic conditions, an experiment was conducted as factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the research farm khorramabad during growing season of 2012-2013. Considering the positive effect of inoculation with bio-fertilizer and foliar Nitroxin micronutrients and reaction of cultivars to this type of fertilizer instead of chemical fertilizers and the importance of wheat as one of the main crops, this study aims to determine the most appropriate time for foliar and Nitroxin application of micronutrients at the different stages of plant growth and bio-fertilizer application on yield and yield components. Materials and Methods The first factor was considered in six levels: N0: The lack of the seed insemination with nitroxin biofertilizer and without the foliar application of micronutrients (control, N1: the seed inoculation with the nitroxin biofertilizer, N2: the foliar application of micronutrients at the jointing stage, N3: the foliar application of micronutrients at the heading stage, N4: the seed insemination with nitroxin biofertilizer and foliar application of micronutrients at the jointing stage, N5: the seed insemination with nitroxin biofertilizer and foliar application of micronutrients at the heading stage. The second factor was considered at two levels, consisting: V1: Parsi cultivar and V2: Dena cultivar. MSTATC Software was used for data analysis and means were compared by Duncan's multiple range test at the 5% level. Results and Discussion In this experiment the grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, 1000- grain weight, spike number per m-2, grain number per spike and spikelet number per spike of wheat were studied. The results of the data variance analysis has

  2. Effect of different transplanting leaf age on rice yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency and fate of 15N-fertilizer

    Fan Hongzhu; Lu Shihua; Zeng Xiangzhong

    2010-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study rice yield, N uptake and fate by using 15 N-urea at transplanting leaf age of 2-, 4-and 6-leaf, respectively. The results showed that rice yield significantly decreased with delay of transplanting leaf age, and 15 N-fertilizer uptake by grain and straw of rice, nitrogen utilization and residue also decreased, but loss of 15 N-fertilizer increased. Under different transplanting leaf age, N absorption by rice mainly came from the soil. Almost 1/3 of total N was supplied by fertilizer, and 2/3 came from soil. The efficiency of fertilizer was 20.8% ∼ 25.7%, 15 N-fertilizer residue ratio was 17.9% ∼ 32.2%, and 15 N-fertilizer loss was 42.1% ∼ 61.3%. 15 N-fertilizer residue mainly distributed in 0 ∼ 20 cm top soil under different treatments. The results indicated that transplanting young leaf age could increase rice yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency, and decrease loss of nitrogen fertilizer and pollution level on environment. (authors)

  3. Dryland Winter Wheat Yield, Grain Protein, and Soil Nitrogen Responses to Fertilizer and Biosolids Applications

    Richard T. Koenig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Applications of biosolids were compared to inorganic nitrogen (N fertilizer for two years at three locations in eastern Washington State, USA, with diverse rainfall and soft white, hard red, and hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars. High rates of inorganic N tended to reduce yields, while grain protein responses to N rate were positive and linear for all wheat market classes. Biosolids produced 0 to 1400 kg ha−1 (0 to 47% higher grain yields than inorganic N. Wheat may have responded positively to nutrients other than N in the biosolids or to a metered N supply that limited vegetative growth and the potential for moisture stress-induced reductions in grain yield in these dryland production systems. Grain protein content with biosolids was either equal to or below grain protein with inorganic N, likely due to dilution of grain N from the higher yields achieved with biosolids. Results indicate the potential to improve dryland winter wheat yields with biosolids compared to inorganic N alone, but perhaps not to increase grain protein concentration of hard wheat when biosolids are applied immediately before planting.

  4. Effects on Brassica napus L. Yield and Yield Components of Super Absorbent Polymer under Different Irrigation Regimes

    Alireza PIRZAD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For evaluation of the effects of super absorbent polymer under different irrigation regimes on the yield and yield components of Brassica napus L., a factorial experiment was carried out, based on randomized complete block design with four replicas. Treatments included super absorbent polymer (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g/kg soil and induced drought stress (irrigation at 25, 50 and 75 mm evaporation from class A pan. The experiment was conducted in pots with 5 kg of soil. Data analysis of variance showed the significant interaction effect between polymer and irrigation on the stem length, width and weight, the number of seeds per sheath, number of seeds per plant, the number of sterile and fertile sheath per plant, fertile sheath percentage (fertile sheath/ total sheath ×100, 1000 seeds weight, seed weight per plant, sheath weight per plant and the number of total sheath. The present study revealed that indifferent from the applied amounts of the super absorbent polymer, in all cases the measured characters have been more affected by induced drought stress.

  5. Evaluation of the Effect of Irrigation and Fertilization by Drip Fertigation on Tomato Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Greenhouse

    Wang Xiukang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The water shortage in China, particularly in Northwest China, is very serious. There is, therefore, great potential for improving the water use efficiency (WUE in agriculture, particularly in areas where the need for water is greatest. A two-season (2012 and 2013 study evaluated the effects of irrigation and fertilizer rate on tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., cv. “Jinpeng 10” growth, yield, and WUE. The fertilizer treatment significantly influenced plant height and stem diameter at 23 and 20 days after transplanting in 2012 and 2013, respectively. As individual factors, irrigation and fertilizer significantly affected the leaf expansion rate, but irrigation × fertilizer had no statistically significant effect on the leaf growth rate at 23 days after transplanting in 2012. Dry biomass accumulation was significantly influenced by fertilizer in both years, but there was no significant difference in irrigation treatment in 2012. Our study showed that an increased irrigation level increased the fruit yield of tomatoes and decreased the WUE. The fruit yield and WUE increased with the increased fertilizer rate. WUE was more sensitive to irrigation than to fertilization. An irrigation amount of 151 to 208 mm and a fertilizer amount of 454 to 461 kg·ha−1 (nitrogen fertilizer, 213.5–217 kg·ha−1; phosphate fertilizer, 106.7–108 kg·ha−1; and potassium fertilizer, 133.4–135.6 kg·ha−1 were recommended for the drip fertigation of tomatoes in greenhouse.

  6. Seed yield, N-uptake and oil quality in Helianthus annuus as affected by N-fertilizer

    Kurdali, F.; Al-Ain, F.; Attar, J.

    2008-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the impact of different nitrogen fertilizer rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N/ha as urea) on dry matter yield, N uptake, seed yield, grain oil content and properties of sunflower Helianthus annuus using the 15 N labeling technique. Sunflower plants responded strongly to increasing N supply with respect to growth performance. Dry matter yield and total N uptake were significantly increased with increasing N-supply. Partitioning of N yield in different plant parts showed that capitulum was the principle sink of N (60%) followed by leaves (30%) and stem (10%) regardless of N-fertilizer rates. Seed yield of sunflower was significantly increased at higher N-supply. However, oil concentration was significantly reduced in the N-fertilized treatments. Decreasing of grain oil content due to N addition was overcompensated by the seed yield increase. Consequently, no significant effect of N supply on oil yield was observed. The effect of N supply on iodine number was small, and only a small trend towards lower iodine value in the N100 was observed. No clear trend of the effect of N supply on other oil quality parameters was observed. Nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff) was significantly increased with increasing N-supply. Recovery of fertilizer 15 N was of 64% regardless of N-rates. This efficiency was less pronounced in stem and leaves than that in capitulum which had a greater value at higher N-supply. (Author)

  7. Growth and yield of corn hybrids in response to association with Azospirillum brasilense and nitrogen fertilization

    Deniele Marini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in optimizing the positive effects of the association between Azospirillum bacteria and corn crop in order to reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. This study aimed to evaluate the inoculation efficiency of an A. brasilense-based commercial product in association with different rates of nitrogen fertilization in two corn genotypes. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 2 x 5 factorial randomized block design, with four replications. The treatments consisted of two corn hybrids (30F53 and CD386; with and without inoculation with a commercial product based on A. brasilense and five nitrogen rates (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha-1. The variables plant height, basal stem diameter, leaf area, shoot dry matter, leaf nitrogen content, length and diameter of the cob, weight of 100 grains and grain yield were evaluated. Inoculation with A. brasilense provided increases of 11 and 12% in leaf area and shoot dry matter, respectively. There were differences in the response of the corn hybrids for most variables and the increase in nitrogen supply provided increments in the growth and yield of corn.

  8. Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2 and N Fertilization on Yield and Quality of Tomato Grown Under Reduced Irrigation Regimes

    Zhenhua Wei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The interactive effects of CO2 elevation, N fertilization, and reduced irrigation regimes on fruit yield (FY and quality in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. were investigated in a split-root pot experiment. The plants were grown in two separate climate-controlled greenhouse cells at atmospheric [CO2] of 400 and 800 ppm, respectively. In each cell, the plants were fertilized at either 100 or 200 mg N kg-1 soil and were either irrigated to full water holding capacity [i.e., a volumetric soil water content of 18%; full irrigation (FI], or using 70% water of FI to the whole pot [deficit irrigation (DI] or alternately to only half of the pot [partial root-zone irrigation (PRI]. The yield and fruit quality attributes mainly from sugars (sucrose, fructose, and glucose and organic acids (OAs; citric acid and malic acid to various ionic (NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NO3-, SO42-, and PO43- concentrations in fruit juice were determined. The results indicated that lower N supply reduced fruit number and yield, whereas it enhanced some of the quality attributes of fruit as indicated by greater firmness and higher concentrations of sugars and OAs. Elevated [CO2] (e[CO2] attenuated the negative influence of reduced irrigation (DI and PRI on FY. Principal component analysis revealed that the reduced irrigation regimes, especially PRI, in combination with e[CO2] could synergistically improve the comprehensive quality of tomato fruits at high N supply. These findings provide useful knowledge for sustaining tomato FY and quality in a future drier and CO2-enriched environment.

  9. Impact of humic acid and chemical fertilizer application on growth and grain yield of rainfed wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    Khan, R.U.; Khan, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The high cost of inorganic fertilizer, use of natural fertilizer resources for increasing crop production on sustainable basis has become imperative. Two field experiments were conducted to study the potential of humic acid (HA) as a low-cost natural fertilizer and to determine its effect on the yield of rainfed wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Naseer) at the research farm of Arid Zone Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan during two successive winter seasons, 2007-08 and 2008-09. The treatments consisted of HA alone (3 kg ha/sup -1/ or 1.5 kg ha/sup -1/) and in combination with full (60:40 kg ha/sup -1/) and half (30:20 kg ha/sup -1/) the recommended rates of NP fertilizers. Results showed that in the first growing season (2007-08), the combination of 3 kg ha/sup -1/ HA with half (30:20 kg ha-1) rate of NP produced the highest grain yield (1314 kg ha/sup -1/) and increased the yield by 46.9% over the control. In the second growing season (2008-09), application of 3 kg ha/sup -1/ HA alone produced significantly (P<0.05) higher grain yield (2999.9 kg ha/sup -1/) and increased the yield by 24% over the control and saved 100% cost of the chemical fertilizer. Results suggested that HA applied alone at 3 kg ha/sup -1/ or in combination with half (30:20 kg ha/sup -1/) rate of NP fertilizers appeared to be the most economical rate to obtain the maximum yield of wheat under the rainfed conditions of Dera Ismail Khan. HA has great potential as a low cost natural fertilizer to improve soil fertility on sustainable basis. (author)

  10. Effects of sawdust and organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effect on the yield of maize on degrades soil

    Dania, S.O.; Fagbola, O.; Isitekhale, H.H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional mineral fertilizer alone cannot sustain arable crop production in soil which top layer has been eroded hence it is necessary to employ the application of organic base fertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sawdust, organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effects on the growth and yield of maize. Organo mineral fertilizer is the combination of organic manure and mineral fertilizer. Simulated degraded soil was used and the experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The factors investigated were: two levels of organo mineral fertilizer (with and without), two levels of soil amendment (with and without sawdust) and three levels of application methods. The methods of organo mineral fertilizer used were ring, subsurface and mixed methods. The amendment of soil to sawdust was ratio 1:1 by volume. The growth and yield of maize was significantly (p = 0.05) higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust with or without OMF application. Ring method of application of OMF in non-amended soil significantly increased the growth and yield of maize compared to other methods of OMF application. The residual effect of OMF and sawdust on the growth and yield of maize was significantly higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust. Addition of sawdust to soil does not improve the growth and yield of maize with or without OMF and under different application methods. Organo mineral fertilizer using ring and subsurface application methods has a beneficial effect in improving the growth and yield of maize in degraded soil where the top layer has been eroded. (author)

  11. Effects of sawdust and organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effect on the yield of maize on degraded soil

    Dania, S.O.; Fagbola, O.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional mineral fertilizer alone cannot sustain arable crop production in soil which top layer has been eroded hence it is necessary to employ the application of organic base fertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sawdust, organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effects on the growth and yield of maize. Organo mineral fertilizer is the combination of organic manure and mineral fertilizer. Simulated degraded soil was used and the experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The factors investigated were: two levels of organo mineral fertilizer (with and without), two levels of soil amendment (with and without sawdust) and three levels of application methods. The methods of organo mineral fertilizer used were ring, subsurface and mixed methods. The amendment of soil to sawdust was ratio 1: 1 by volume. The growth and yield of maize was significantly (p = 0.05) higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust with or without OMF application. Ring method of application of OMF in non-amended soil significantly increased the growth and yield of maize compared to other methods of OMF application. The residual effect of OMF and sawdust on the growth and yield of maize was significantly higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust. Addition of sawdust to soil does not improve the growth and yield of maize with or without OMF and under different application methods. Organo mineral fertilizer using ring and subsurface application methods has a beneficial effect in improving the growth and yield of maize in degraded soil where the top layer has been eroded. (author)

  12. Nitrogen fertilization of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines: yield, total nitrogen content in the leaves and must composition

    Felipe Lorensini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Grapevines grown on sandy soils are subjected to the application of supplemental nitrogen (N; however, there is little information available regarding the impact of these applications on yield, plant nutritional state and must composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield, nutritional state and must composition of grapevines subjected to N fertilization. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines were subjected to annual applications of 0, 10, 15, 20, 40, 80 and 120 kg N ha-1 in 2008, 2009 and 2010. During the 2008/09, 2009/10 and 2010/11 harvest seasons, leaves were collected during full flowering and when the berries changed color, and the total N content was analyzed. The grape yield and the enological characteristics of the must were evaluated. The response to applied N was low, and the highest Cabernet Sauvignon grape yield was obtained in response to an application of 20 kg N ha-1 year-1. The application of N increased the nutrient content in the leaf collected at full flowering, but it had little effect on the total nutrient content in the must, and it did not affect the enological characteristics of the must, such as soluble solids, pH, total acidity, malic acid and tartaric acid.

  13. Evaluation of indigenous rhizobacterial strains with reduced dose of chemical fertilizer towards growth and yield of mustard (Brassica campestris under old alluvial soil zone of West Bengal, India

    Shampa Dutta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment had been carried out in the Crop Research and Seed Multiplication Farm of The University of Burdwan, West Bengal, India during the two consecutive winter seasons of 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 to study the effect of indigenous rhizospheric bacterial strains on growth, physiology and yield of mustard variety. Pseudomonas putida, Burkholderia cepacia, Burkholderia sp. and their mixture were used as seed inoculants for mustard cultivation. The experiment was laid down in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. Results revealed that indigenous inoculation (with reduced dose of chemical fertilizer significantly increased (p < 0.05 the yield of mustard as compared to uninoculated control (full recommended dose of NPK fertilizers. A combination treatment of biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer also increased plant height, plant biomass and other yield components compared to control. The comprehensive approach of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR in agriculturally important crops should be carried out to explore the hidden potential of PGPR and to promote the quality and yield of crop under field conditions. Keywords: Indigenous rhizobacteria, Mustard, PGPR, Yield

  14. Inheritance of grain yield and its correlation with yield components in ...

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... 7 × 7 incomplete diallel cross of seven wheat parents during the crop season of 2009 to 2010. Mean square of general ... Genetic background and yield traits of the seven parents. Parent. Pedigree. Released year ..... Correlation and path analysis for yield and yield contributing characters in wheat (Triticum ...

  15. Effect of Pseudomonas and Bacillus bacteria on Yield and Nutrient Uptake in Comparison with Chemical and Organic Fertilizers in Wheat

    A. Fallah Nosrat Abad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The high cost of fertilizers in farming systems, soil pollution and degradation of soil are factors that caused to full use of available renewable nutrient sources of plant (organic and biological with optimal application of fertilizers in order to maintain fertility, structure, biological activity, exchange capacity and water-holding capacity of the water in soil. Therefore, in recent years, according to investigators biofertilizers and organic farming as an alternative to chemical fertilizers has been drawn. Through this study, we examined the effects of triple superphosphate, organic matters and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms on quantitative and qualitative yield of wheat and nutrient uptake. The experiment was carried out in the factorial based on randomized complete block design. The factors were: 1-phosphate solubilizing bacteria in three levels including control, Pseudomonas Putida and Bacillus Coagulans bacteria, 2- triple superphosphate in five levels of 0, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% and 3-organic matter in 2 levels of 0 and 15 ton/ha in the soil with high phosphorous accessibility (13 mg/kg soil but lower than sufficient limit for plant 15 mg/kg soil. The results showed that the highest amount of yield has been recorded in Pseudomonas Putida bacteria treatment with organic matter and 25% phosphate fertilizer. As a result, at the conditions of this experiment phosphate solubilizing bacteria and organic matter significantly had higher yield than control and their combination with phosphate fertilizer had significant effect on reducing phosphate fertilizer use.

  16. No-tillage and fertilization management on crop yields and nitrate leaching in North China Plain

    Huang, Manxiang; Liang, Tao; Wang, Lingqing; Zhou, Chenghu

    2015-01-01

    A field experiment was performed from 2003 to 2008 to evaluate the effects of tillage system and nitrogen management regimes on crop yields and nitrate leaching from the fluvo-aquic soil with a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–maize (Zea mays L.) double-cropping system. The tillage systems consisted of conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT). Three nitrogen management regimes were included: 270 kg N ha−1 of urea for wheat and 225 kg N ha−1 of urea for maize (U), 180 kg N ha−1 of urea and 90 kg N ha−1 of straw for wheat and 180 kg N of urea and 45 kg N ha−1 of straw for maize (S), 180 kg N ha−1 of urea and 90 kg N ha−1 of manure for wheat and 180 kg N ha−1 of urea and 45 kg N ha−1 of manure for maize (M). An array of tension-free pan lysimeters (50 cm × 75 cm) were installed (1.2 m deep) to measure water flow and -N movement. No significant effect of the N management regime on yields of winter wheat and maize grain was found in the 5-year rotation. Tillage systems had significant influences on -N leaching from the second year and thereafter interacted with N management regimes on -N loads during all maize seasons. The average yield-scaled -N leaching losses were in order of CTS leaching losses while sustaining crop grain yields. Considering the lower costs, NTS could be a potential alternative to decrease yield-scaled -N leaching losses and improve soil fertility while maintaining crop yield for the winter wheat–maize double-cropping systems in the North China Plain. PMID:25859321

  17. Decomposition and fertilizing effects of maize stover and chromolaena odorata on maize yield

    Tetteh, F.M.; Safo, E.Y.; Quansah, C.

    2008-01-01

    The quality, rates of decomposition and the fertilizing effect of chromolaena odorata, and maize stover were determined in field experiments as surface application or buried in litter bags. Studies on the effect of plant materials of contrasting qualities (maize stover and C. odorata) applied sole (10 Mg ha -1 ) and mixed, on maize grain and biomass yield were also conducted on the Asuansi (Ferric Acrisol) soil series. Total nitrogen content of the residues ranged from 0.85% in maize stover to 3.50% in C. odorata. Organic carbon ranged from 34.90% in C. odorata to 48.50% in maize stover. Phosphorus ranged from 0.10% in maize stover to 0.76% in C. odorata. In the wet season, the decomposition rate constants (k) were 0.0319 day -1 for C. odorata, and 0.0081 for maize stover. In the dry season, the k values were 0.0083 for C. odorata, and 0.0072 day -1 for maize stover. Burying of the plant materials reduced the half-life (t 50 ) periods from 18 to 10 days for C. odorata, and 45 to 20 days for maize stover. Maize grain yield of 2556 kg ha -1 was obtained in sole C. odorata (10 Mg ha -1 ) compared with 2167 kg ha -1 for maize stover. Mixing of maize stover and C. odorata residues improved the nutrient content as well as nutrient release by the mixtures resulting in greater maize grain yields in the mixtures than the sole maize stover treatment. It is recommended that C. odorata be used as green manure, mulching or composting material to improve fertility. (au)

  18. Effect of Nitrogen and biological Fertilizers on Seed Yield and Fatty acid Composition of Sesame cultivars under Yazd conditions

    E Shakeri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and biofertilizers Azotobacter sp. and Azosprillum sp. on seed yield, oil yield and its percent and fatty acid composition in three sesame (Sesamum indicum L. cultivars an experiment was conducted using splite plot factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Agricultural and Natural Resources Reasearch Center of Yazd in 2009 cropping season. The treatments included : cultivars ( Darab-14, Jiroft and Yazdi assigned to main plots, nitrogen fertilizer (0, 25 and 50 kg ha-1 and biofertilizer (inoculation and no-inoculation as factorial were randomized in sub-plots. Oil percent was measured using the Soxhlet method and fatty acid composition was measured using GC method. Results showed the significant differenc among three varieties concerning seed yield, oil yield and four fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, palmetic and stearis acid. Seed yield, oil yield, Oleic, Linolenic and Arasshidic acid significantly increased with applying N fertilizer. Seed yield, oil yield and linolenic acid percent significantly increased with applying biofertilizer. Oleic acid percent had negative and significant correlation with Linoleic acid (r = -0.759** and stearic acid (r=-0.774** percent. Generally, results showed the importance of applying biofertilizers against chemical fertilizers to protect the environment from harmful chemical pollution.

  19. Genetic Parameters for Body condition score, Body weigth, Milk yield and Fertility estimated using random regression models

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk yield, and fertility were estimated using a random regression animal model extended to multivariate analysis. The data analyzed included 81,313 BCS observations, 91,937 BW observations, and 100,458 milk test-day yields

  20. Pea yield and its components in different crop rotations

    Seibutis, Vytautas; Deveikytė, Irena

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the crop rotations (2-4 course) differing in duration on the formation of pea productivity elements and the yield were investigated in stationary field experiments in Dotnuva during 1997-2004. Averaged experimental data showed that the highest pea yield (3.70 t ha-1) was recorded in the three-course crop rotation (sugar beet-spring barley-pea), in the four-course (pea-winter wheat-sugar beet-spring barley) and two-course (pea-winter wheat) crop rotations the grain yield consist...

  1. Effect of Row Intercropping Patterns on Yield, Yield Components, and Weed Control of Fenugreek (Trigonellafoenumgreacum L. and Anise (Pimpinellaanisum L.

    F Mardani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Due to population growth and food shortage agricultural production is on increasing demand. In this order increasing cultivation area and yield per unit area are two ways of obtaining higheragricultural production (20. There is another important way that without incurring additional costs and use of water and fertilizer could result in higher production. This approach is increasing agricultural production per unit area by growing more than one crop in a year. Intercropping will be successful when competition for sources issless than competition within a species. Plants in the mixture can be chosen in a way that a species benefits from environmental changes caused by other species in mixed cultures directly (7, 15. Intercropping inhibits the growth and development of weeds and leads to increased production. Since the system will reduce the pesticide use, environmental pollution will be also less proportionally (37. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the yield, yield components and potential weeds control under intercropping fenugreek and anise, an experiment was carried out based on a randomized complete block design with three replicationsat the Agricultural Research Field of Yasouj University during growing season of 2012-2013. Treatments included pure cultures of fenugreek and anise, single-row, double-row and three-tier intercropping of fenugreek and anise at no weed control and weed control conditions. Results and Discussion The results showed that different intercropping treatments had significant effects on pod number per plant, grain weight and grain and biological yield of fenugreek and also, on number of lateral branches, number of grains per plant and grain and biological yield of anise. There were nosignificant effects on plant height, number of lateral branches, number of grain per pod, harvest index of fenugreek, as well as plant height, number of umbel let per plant, seed weight and harvest index of anise. The

  2. Seasonal temperatures have more influence than nitrogen fertilizer rates on cucumber yield and nitrogen uptake in a double cropping system

    Guo Ruiying; Li Xiaolin; Christie, Peter; Chen Qing; Zhang Fusuo

    2008-01-01

    Two-year greenhouse cucumber experiments were conducted to investigate seasonal effects on fruit yield, dry matter allocation, and N uptake in a double-cropping system with different fertilizer management. Seasonal effects were much greater than fertilizer effects, and winter-spring (WS) cucumber attained higher fruit yields and N uptake than autumn-winter (AW) cucumber due to lower cumulative air temperatures during fruit maturation in the AW season. Fertilizer N application and apparent N loss under recommended N management (Nmr) decreased by 40-78% and 33-48% without yield loss compared to conventional N management (Nmt) over four growing seasons. However, there were no seasonal differences in N recommendations, taking into consideration seasonal differences in crop N demand, critical nutrient supply in the root zone and N mineralization rate. - Nitrogen inputs can be reduced to minimize N losses to the environment while maintaining yields but N recommendations must reflect seasonal temperature effects

  3. Seasonal temperatures have more influence than nitrogen fertilizer rates on cucumber yield and nitrogen uptake in a double cropping system

    Guo Ruiying; Li Xiaolin [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100094 (China); Christie, Peter [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100094 (China); Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Chen Qing [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100094 (China)], E-mail: qchen@cau.edu.cn; Zhang Fusuo [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2008-02-15

    Two-year greenhouse cucumber experiments were conducted to investigate seasonal effects on fruit yield, dry matter allocation, and N uptake in a double-cropping system with different fertilizer management. Seasonal effects were much greater than fertilizer effects, and winter-spring (WS) cucumber attained higher fruit yields and N uptake than autumn-winter (AW) cucumber due to lower cumulative air temperatures during fruit maturation in the AW season. Fertilizer N application and apparent N loss under recommended N management (Nmr) decreased by 40-78% and 33-48% without yield loss compared to conventional N management (Nmt) over four growing seasons. However, there were no seasonal differences in N recommendations, taking into consideration seasonal differences in crop N demand, critical nutrient supply in the root zone and N mineralization rate. - Nitrogen inputs can be reduced to minimize N losses to the environment while maintaining yields but N recommendations must reflect seasonal temperature effects.

  4. Effect of Water Stress and Sulfur Fertilizer on Grain Yield, Chlorophyll and Nutrient Status of Black Cumin (Nigella Sativa L.

    M. Heidari

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of water stress and different amounts of sulfur fertilizer on grain yield, nutrient status and chlorophyll content in black cumin (Nigella sativa L. a field experiment as split plot design with three replications was conducted at Ghaen city in 2009. Treatments included three levels of irrigation after 50, 100 and 150 mm evaporation from Class A pan as main plot and four levels of sulfur fertilizer including 0, 75, 150 and 225 kg/ha from bentonite-sulfur source as sub-plot. Statistical analysis of the results showed that water stress has significant effect on grain yield and essential oil of black cumin. At the level of 150 mm evaporation from Class A pan, the grain yield decreased by 22.8% and essential oil by 27.6%. Application of 225 kg/ha sulfur fertilizer increased grain yield up to 7.2%. Water stress and sulfur fertilizer treatments had only significant effect on chlorophyll a content. However, water stress decreased chlorophyll a content, but sulfur fertilizer application up to 225 kg/ha increased the content of chlorophyll a. In this study, water stress decreased potassium content in black cumin leaves, but increased the sodium and calcium accumulation. Although application of sulfur fertilizer affected significantly the potassium and magnesium contents in shoots, but did not have significant effect on sodium and calcium contents.

  5. Path and correlation analysis of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) seed yield components

    Abel, Simon; Gislum, René; Boelt, Birte

    2017-01-01

    Maximum perennial ryegrass seed production potential is substantially greater than harvested yields with harvested yields representing only 20% of calculated potential. Similar to wheat, maize and other agriculturally important crops, seed yield is highly dependent on a number of interacting seed...... yield components. This research was performed to apply and describe path analysis of perennial ryegrass seed yield components in relation to harvested seed yields. Utilising extensive yield components which included subdividing reproductive inflorescences into five size categories, path analysis...... was undertaken assuming a unidirectional causal-admissible relationship between seed yield components and harvested seed yield in six commercial seed production fields. Both spikelets per inflorescence and florets per spikelet had a significant (p seed yield; however, total...

  6. Effects of low doses of gamma rays on yield, yield components, and other characters of two maize varieties

    Yousif, Z. B.; Jabbo, N. F.; Khalaf, M. Z.; Majid, A. H.; Ali, H. J.

    1994-01-01

    The study was conducted during the fall of 1991 and 1992 at Al-Latyfia Experimental Station to determine the effect of low doses of gamma rays on yield, yield components, and other characters of two maize varieties. Five doses were used in addition to control. A factorial experiment with randomized complete block design in three replications was used in the study. Results revealed that there was significant difference between varieties in plant and ear height in 1992. However, differences between varieties were also significantly affected by most yield component characters. Low doses significantly affected plant height, weight of 500 kernels in 1991, and kernel row number in 1992. Grain yield was affected significantly in 1991 and 1992 by low doses. Results showed that 2.0 krad was the most useful low dose to increase grain yield, whereas there was no significant effect between varieties in grain yield. 7 refs., 6 tabs

  7. PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL COMPONENTS OIL YIELD IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.

    A. MIjić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of investigation was to analyse oil yield components and their relations by simple coefficient correlations as well as direct and indirect effects to oil yield by path analysis. Twenty-four sunflower hybrids were included in the investigation and their seven traits (plant height, head diameter, 1000 seed weight, hec- tolitar mass, grain yield, oil content and oil yield. Very strong positive correlation was estimated between grain yield and oil yield, strong positive correlation between hectolitar mass and oil yield, and middle corre- lation among oil yield and: 1000 seed weight, plaint height and oil content. There was no correlation between grain yields and oil content. Grain yield showed the strongest effect to oil yield. Oil content had lower effect to oil yield. Other traits showed no significant effect to oil yield, and their effect to oil yield was covered by indirect effect of grain yield.

  8. Exploring the Nutrient Release Potential of Organic Materials as Integrated Soil Fertility Management Components Using SAFERNAC

    Maro, G.P.; Mrema, J.P.; Msanya, B.M.; Janssen, B.H.; Teri, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the nutrient release potential of different organic materials and assess their role in integrated soil fertility management for coffee using the new coffee yield model SAFERNAC. It involved an incubation experiment conducted at TaCRI Lyamungu Screenhouse for

  9. Monitoring and evaluation of need for nitrogen fertilizer topdressing for maize leaf chlorophyll readings and the relationship with grain yield

    Maria Anita Gonçalves da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out for two years in maize in succession to the wheat using no tillage system in a distroferric Red Latosol (Hapludox. Methods of management nitrogen fertilizer (120 kg ha-1 with ammonium sulphate were studied; the fertilizer was applied in maize sowing or in maize topdressing, and N with previous application in wheat sowing. In addition, leaf chlorophyll reading was used as an indicator for the need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen supply index (NSI was shown to be effective at predicting need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer for maize. The application of N improved the yield of the maize independent of the management system. The flowering stage was carried out at the appropriate time in order to estimate the nitrogen nutrition state and yield of maize using the relative chlorophyll level (RIC.

  10. Silicon fertilization and soil water tensions on rice development and yield

    Jakeline R. de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The cultivation of upland rice (Oryza sativa in Brazil occurs mainly in the Cerrado, a region with adverse weather conditions. The use of silicon in its cultivation becomes important, since this nutrient provides higher rigidity, lower transpiration and higher resistance to dry spells in rice plants. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of silicon fertilization and soil water tensions on upland rice development and yield in a Cerrado Oxisol. A 5 x 5 fractionated factorial with five soil water tensions (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 kPa and five silicon doses (0, 120, 240, 480 and 960 mg dm-3 was used, which were distributed in a randomized block design, with four replicates. Plant height, number of tillers, number of panicles, number of grains per panicle, numbers of full and empty grains and percentage of empty grains were evaluated. Silicon fertilization promotes increased tillering in rice plants at the dose of 960 mg dm-3. The numbers of tillers and panicles decreased with the application of silicon up to the doses of 460 and 490 mg dm-3, respectively. The increase in soil water tensions reduced plant height and the number of full grains, and increased the percentage of empty grains of upland rice.

  11. Nitrogen fertilization of switchgrass increases biomass yield and improves net greenhouse gas balance in northern Michigan, U.S.A

    Nikiema, Paligwende; Rothstein, David E.; Min, Doo-Hong; Kapp, Christian J.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization can increase bioenergy crop production; however, fertilizer production and application can contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, potentially undermining the GHG benefits of bioenergy crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of N fertilization on GHG emissions and biomass production of switchgrass bioenergy crop, in northern Michigan. Nitrogen fertilization treatments included 0 kg ha -1 (control), 56 kg ha -1 (low) and 112 kg ha -1 (high) of N applied as urea. Soil fluxes of CO 2 , N 2 O and CH 4 were measured every two weeks using static chambers. Indirect GHG emissions associated with field activities, manufacturing and transport of fertilizer and pesticides were derived from the literature. Switchgrass aboveground biomass yield was evaluated at the end of the growing season. Nitrogen fertilization contributed little to soil GHG emissions; relative to the control, there were additional global warming potential of 0.7 Mg ha -1 y -1 and 1.5 Mg ha -1 y -1 as CO 2 equivalents (CO 2 eq), calculated using the IPCC values, in the low and high N fertilization treatments, respectively. However, N fertilization greatly stimulated CO 2 uptake by switchgrass, resulting in 1.5- and 2.5-fold increases in biomass yield in the low and high N fertilization treatments, respectively. Nitrogen amendments improved the net GHG benefits by 2.6 Mg ha -1 y -1 and 9.4 Mg ha -1 y -1 as CO 2 eq relative to the control. Results suggest that N fertilization of switchgrass in this region could reduce (15-50%) the land base needed for bioenergy production and decrease pressure on land for food and forage crop production. -- Highlights: → We examine the effects of N fertilization of switchgrass on GHG emissions. → Effects of N fertilization on biomass production of switchgrass bioenergy crop. → N fertilization contributed little to greenhouse gas emissions. → N fertilization greatly stimulated CO 2 uptake by the switchgrass. → N

  12. Density responses and spatial distribution of cotton yield and yield components in jujube (Zizyphus jujube)/cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) agroforestry

    Wang, Qi; Han, Shuo; Zhang, Lizhen; Zhang, Dongsheng; Werf, van der Wopke; Evers, Jochem B.; Sun, Hongquan; Su, Zhicheng; Zhang, Siping

    2016-01-01

    Trees are the dominant species in agroforestry systems, profoundly affecting the performance of understory crops. Proximity to trees is a key factor in crop performance, but rather little information is available on the spatial distribution of yield and yield components of crop species under the

  13. Genetic basis of some yield components in gossypium hirsutum l

    Javed, A.; Azhar, F.M.; Khan, I.A.; Rana, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    A 5 * 5 diallel analysis was conducted to study the inheritance of seed cotton yield, number of bolls and boll weight in Gossypium hirsutum L. using combining ability technique. The analysis of the data revealed that variance due to specific combining ability was significant for all the three traits signifying the importance of non additive gene action. The comparison of the parents showed that NF-801-2-37 was the best general combiner for seed cotton yield, number of bolls and boll weight followed by Acala-63-75. Best hybrid combinations identified were Acala-63-75 * NF-801-2-37 for seed cotton yield and DPL-61 * NF-801-2-37 for number of bolls and boll weight. Higher proportion of dominance variance in all three traits suggested delayed selection or use of heterosis breeding in crop improvement programs. (author)

  14. Effects of Sowing Date and Limited Irrigation on Yield and Yield Components of Five Rainfed Wheat Varieties in Maragheh Region

    A. R. Tavakkoli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of sowing date (SD and single irrigation (SI amounts on yield and yield components of rainfed wheat varieties, a field experiment was conducted as split-split plots arranged in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications during 2002-2004 at main station of Dryland Agricultural Research Institute in Maragheh, Iran. Treatments included three sowing dates (early, normal and late, three levels of single irrigation (rainfed, 50 mm and 100 mm only at planting time and five wheat varieties (three numbered lines, Azar2 and double-cross Shahi. Results revealed that interactions of SD, SI and wheat varieties were significant for grain yield, number of kernels per spike and water productivity (P≤0.01. Single irrigation at normal planting time increased grain yield, straw, biomass, harvest index, and water productivity. Grain yield and water productivity were increased by 131% and 84.8%, respectively. Single irrigation at late planting time was not significant on agronomic traits and produced low water productivity. Regarding the reaction of wheat to planting date and single irrigation, results showed that normal single irrigation can improve yield, yield components and water productivity index. The effectiveness of single irrigation under dryland conditions can be observed in all wheat cultivars. Although this effectiveness on yield and yield components is observable, but it is necessary to select the time of irrigation properly.

  15. Inheritance of grain yield and its correlation with yield components in ...

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... average yield of wheat in China is 4.75 t ha-1, which is low compared to other .... Analysis of variance for combining ability for grain yield plant-1. Source of variation ..... Hayman BI (1954). The theory and analysis of diallel crosses. .... Analysis and prospect of China wheat market in 2011. Food and Oil.

  16. Lowland Rice Yield And Fertilizer Nitrogen Contribution Affected By Zeolite And Sesbania Green Manure Application

    Haryanto; Idawati and Las, Tamsil

    2000-01-01

    A pot experiment has been conducted in P3TIR greenhouse, pasar jumat, south jakarta to study nitrogen uptake and contribution of fertilizer for lowland rice affected by zeolite and sesbania green manure application. To study the N contribution of fertilizer, 15N isotope was used. The zeorea fertilizer was made from the mixture of zeolite and 15N labelled urea having 4.0% atom. Ten treatments of N fertilization were tried : zeorea I was applied once at transplanting (ZI IX), zeorea I was applied twice I.e at transplanting and at 30 days after transplanting - DAT (ZI 2X), zeorea I was applied at transplanting and at 30 DAT (ZI + ZII), zeorea II was applied once at transplanting (ZII IX), zeorea II was applied twice I.e at transplanting and at 30 DAT (ZII 2X), zeolit was applied twice I.e at transplanting and at 30 DAT (ZO 2X), half rate of urea was applied at transplanting and another half rate at 30 DAT ( U 1/2+1/2), sesbania green manure was applied at 30 DAT and zeorea II applied at transplanting (sesbania + ZII), one tate of urea was applied at transplanting (U IX), and half rate of urea was applied at transplanting and sesbania was applied at 30 DAT (sesbania + U 1/2). Result obtained from this experiment showed that the application of zeorea I at tran planting followed by zeorea II at 30 DAT resulted the highest yield of dry grain even though it contained nitrogen only 60% of the nitrogen content of the recommended rate. The highest nitrogen contribution of zeorea I.e 75.22 mg/pot was obtained by applying zeorea II at transplanting and at 30 DAT. Urea half dose (U 1/2) combined with sesbania green manure could be effectuated if given in zeorea from even more effective than urea full dose given at transplanting time (U IX). Impact of sesbania green manure seemed to be more positive if combined with zeolite

  17. Climate Change: Natural Water and Fertilization Effects on Winter Rye (Secale cereale L.) Yield in Monoculture

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Interaction of rainfall on crop fertilization factors, such as macronutrients and yield, were studied during a long-term field experiment on a calcareous sandy soil with a low humus content in north Hungary at Örbottyán Experimental Station of RISSAC-HAS from 1961 to 2004. When the experiment was commenced (1959) the plowed portion of experimental soil (top soil) had a pH (H2O) 7.5-7.8, pH(KCl) 6.9-7.1, humus content of 0.6-1.0%, clay content about 5%, CaCO3 content 3-7%, AL (ammonium-lactate) soluble P2O5 content 40-60 mg . kg-1 and AL soluble K2O content 50-100 mg . kg-1. The experiment consisted of ten treatments in five replications, giving a total of 50 plots arranged in a Latin square design. The gross plot size was 35 m2. From the 1st to the 25th year the fertilization rates were 0, 50, 100 kg . ha-1 . year-1 nitrogen, 0, 54 kg . ha-1 . year-1 P2O5 and 0, 80 kg . ha-1 . year-1 K2O and their combinations. From the 26th year onwards these rates were 0, 120 kg . ha-1 . year-1 nitrogen, 0, 60, 120 kg . ha-1 . year-1 P2O5 and 0, 60, 120 kg . ha-1 . year-1 K2O. The major results were as follows: i., In average years the yield in the control plots stabilised at around 0.8 t . ha-1. The yield doubled (1.8-1.9 t . ha-1) in the N, NP and NK treatments, while the full NPK doses gave the maximum yield of 2.1 t . ha-1. ii., In dry years yields of 0.7 t . ha-1 could be harvested in the control plots. These was a yield reduction of 13% compared with the many years' mean. Yield depressions of 33, 16, 21 and 20% were caused by drought in the N, NP, NK and NPK treatments. iii., In wet years the yield was little more than 0.5 t . ha-1 (0.6 t . ha-1) in the control plots, representing a yield loss of 25% compared with average years. The N, NP, NK and NPK treatments led to yield depressions of 28, 26, 26 and 26%. Rye grown in a monoculture has approx. 5% less tolerance of wet years than of drought. iv., Depending on the nutrient supplies, significant quadratic correlations

  18. Yields Components and 48-H Rumen Dry Matter Degradation of ...

    Two experiments were conducted to study the influence of harvesting date on three sweet potato varieties (TIS-87/0087, TIS-8164 and TIS-2532.OP.1.13). Fodder yields and leaf-to-stem ratio decreased (P < 0.05), while harvest index and 48-h rumen DM degradation increased with maturity from 12 to 20 weeks after ...

  19. Evaluation of Maturity Characteristics and of Yield Components of ...

    podjilling period. Yield was genetically and negatively corrected with days to first flower, ... production in the tropics is the pattern of climate in the ... been a major concern in many crops. In ... grain.yieldsare low ranging between 200 and 670 ... performance and stability at two loca- ... The analysis of variance was conducted.

  20. Effect of Fertilizer Types on the Growth and Yield of Amaranthus caudatus in Ilorin, Southern Guinea, Savanna Zone of Nigeria

    Olowoake Adebayo Abayomi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of Kwara State University, Malete, Ilorin, to evaluate the effect of compost, organomineral, and inorganic fertilizers on the growth and yield of Amaranthus caudatus as well as its residual effects. Amaranthus was grown with compost Grade B (unamended compost, organomineral fertilizer Grade A (compost amended with mineral fertilizer, and NPK 15-15-15 and no fertilizer (control. All the treatments except control were applied at the rate of 100 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the Amaranthus yield of 18.9 t/ha produced from Grade A was significantly (P<0.05 higher than 17.6 t/ha obtained from NPK fertilizer. Residual effect of Amaranthus growth parameters such as plant height, number of leaves, and yield values obtained from Grade A was also significantly (P<0.05 higher than that of NPK, compost, and control values. Thus, organomineral fertilizer could be used in cultivation of Amaranthus caudatus in Ilorin and in similar type of soil in similar agroecology.

  1. Effect of Treated Wastewater Combined with Various Amounts of Manure and Chemical Fertilizers on Nutrient Content and Yield in Corn

    Abolfazal Tavassoli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of treated wastewater combined with manure and chemical fertilizers on the nutrients content and forage yield in corn, field experiments were conducted in 2007. The experiments were conducted in a split plot design with three replications. The treatments were comprised of two levels of irrigation water (W1= well water and W2= wastewater in the main plot and five levels of fertilizer (F1= unfertilized, F2 = 100% manure, F3= 50% manure, F4= 100% fertilizer, and F5= 50% fertilizer in the subplot. Results showed that, compared to ordinary water, irrigation with treated wastewater significantly increased fresh and dry forage yield of corn. The treatment using treated wastewater also had a significant effect on N, P, and K contents in corn forage. However, wastewater had no significant effect on plant Fe, Mn, and Zn contents. Among the fertilizer treatments, the highest fresh and dry forage yields and the highest N, P and K contents belonged to the treatments using 100% fertilizer. The highest Fe, Mn, and Zn contents were observed in plants in the treatment with 100% manure.

  2. The effect of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization on the yield and content of sulforaphane and nitrates in cauliflower

    Nina Čekey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field experiment with cauliflower, we investigated the effect of four different variants of nitrogen and suplhur fertilization on quantity and quality of cauliflower in the term of sulforaphane content and nitrate accumulation. The influence of fertilization was statistically significant between control variant and fertilization variants and in both experimental years within all parameters of cauliflower yield. The highest yield of cauliflower was reached at the variant 4 when it was fertilized on the level of nutrients N:S = 250:60 kg.ha−1. The increase of yield against control variant represented value 26.6%. The applied fertilization positively affected on the accumulation sulforaphane in the cauliflower. Its highest content was determined at the variant 4 (N:S = 250:60 kg.ha−1. In comparison with control variant, the sulforaphane content was increased about 18.4%. On the other side, applied nutrition resulted in increased accumulation of nitrates in the cauliflower. The most increase of nitrate content, compared to the control variant, was also ascertained at the variant 4 (about 31.4%.The gathered data point towards to the possibility and way how we could effect on the increased accumulation of sulforaphane in cauliflower florets. This sphere of fertilization effect on the sulforaphane content is not sufficiently explored well. Our aim is to continue in this research subject and to find way how to cultivate vegetables with higher content of health-promoting compounds.

  3. Effect of Different Treatments of Mixed and Row Intercropping on Yield and Yield Components of Sesame and Bean

    Sh Ghale Noyee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Intercropping is a kind of multi-culture system where two or more plants are cultivated in a piece of land simultaneously. The aim of intercropping is optimizing the use of space, time and physical resources in both the top and under of the soil surface through maximizing positive relationship and minimizing negative relationship between the components of agricultural ecosystems. In intercropping due to better use of available resources such as land, labor, time, light, water and nutrients, as well as reducing damages caused by pests and diseases and socio-economic advantages, increase in production per unit area can be expected. In this study, yield and yield components of sesame and bean in additive and replacement intercropping with mixed and row planting type was evaluated and the possible advantages of intercropping to monoculture as well as the types of intercropping were compared. Materials and Methods This experiment was conducted in Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, located in 10 kilometers south-east of the city of Mashhad, Iran (latitude 36° 17′ N, longitude 59° 35′ E and 985 m elevation in 2013 and 2014. Climate of the area is cold and dry. A Split-Plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was used with the factor of cropping system (as main plot and intercropping proportions (as sub plot. The cropping system was included; mixed and row cropping and intercropping proportions were included; monoculture of bean (100b, 25% sesame- 75% bean (25s75b, 50% sesame- 50% bean (50s50b, 75% sesame- 25% bean (75s25b, monoculture of sesame (100s, 10% bean- 100% sesame (10b100s, 20% bean- 100% sesame (20b100s, 30% bean- 100% sesame (30b100s, 100% bean- 10% sesame (100b10s, 100% bean- 20% sesame (100b20s, and 100% bean- 30% sesame (100b30s. Planting was done using common varieties of the region (Esfarayen and Derakhshan varieties for sesame and bean

  4. Comparison the effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on yield and essential oil percentage of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    S.M.K. Tahami

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to have a sustainable agriculture it is necessary to use environmental friendly inputs to improve ecological aspects of environment. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. is a medicinal and vegetable crop which is cultivated in different parts of the world. An experiment was conducted at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in year 2009. A complete randomized block design with six treatments, and three replications was used. The treatments were: control (no fertilizer, cow manure, sheep manure, hen manure, vermin-compost and NPK fertilizers. Results showed that all studied organic manures were high in measured characters in compare with chemical fertilizer. The highest plant height, leaf yield, fresh and dry matter were obtained at vermicompost. Treatments have no significant affect on Essential oil percentage. The highest essential oil yield was obtained in cow manure treatments. Third cut and the first cut had the maximum and the minimum of leaf yield, fresh and dry shoot yield, respectively. Essential oil percentage in the first cut was significantly more than other cuts, but essential oil yield, were the highest in third cut because this cut produced highest leaf yield. There was no significant difference between chemical fertilizers and control treatment in all characters except green area index and fresh and dry leaf weight in a plant.

  5. Effect of Low Doses of Gamma Radiation and Nitrogen Fertilization on Growth and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Moussa, H.R.; Khodary, S.E.A.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of gamma radiation at the rates of 0.0, 5, 10 and 20 Gy on growth characteristics and total yield of wheat fertilized with 40,80 and 100 kg ha of urea as a source of nitrogen. The application of 100 kg N ha -1 produced 8170 kg ha 1 of grain and 10477 kg ha of straw yield. The nitrogen fertilization increased significantly plant height, 1000-grain weight grain and straw yield. Nitrogen at 100 kg ha -1 produced 8170 kg ha -1 of grain and 10477 kg ha -1 of straw yield. Also, the radiation dose (20 Gy) produced 4895 kg ha -1 of grain and 9150 kg ha 1 of straw yield. The interaction of both radiation dose (20 Gy) and nitrogen fertilization (100 kg ha -1 ) increased significantly the spike length, 1000-grain weight and consequently the total grain and straw yield. It can be concluded from the present study that pretreatment of wheat grain by gamma radiation dose (20 Gy) before.planting and using nitrogen fertilization (100 kg ha -1 ) may be considered as promising useful in increasing the efficiency of wheat productivity, which is very important crop in Egypt

  6. Effects of drought stress and bio-fertilizers inoculation on growth, essential oil yield and constituents of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.

    roghayeh mohammadpour vashvaei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. is perennial aromatic shrub belonging to the mint family which has anti-spasmodic, antiseptic, carminative, anti-cough, sputum and antioxidant properties. In order to study the effects of drought stress and bio-fertilizer on plant growth, essential oil yield and constituents of thyme plant, an experiment was conducted in a split plot based on randomized complete block design with two replications, at the Research Farm of Zabol University, during growing season of 2012 and 2013. Main plots consisted of irrigation with 30, 50, 70 and 90% field capacity and subplots including plant inoculation with nitroxin, bio-phosphorus and mycorrhiza. Plant traits such as plant height, fresh and dry weight of herb per plant, essential oil percentage, yield and constituents of Thyme were measured. Effects of drought stress, bio-fertilizer and their interactions on all studied traits were significant at the 1% probability level. The highest plant height (35.09 cm, fresh and dry weight of herb per plant (103.52 and 43,27 g.plant-1, respectively and essential oil yield (0.350 ml.plant-1 belong to treatment of irrigation with 90% field capacity and nitroxin bio-fertilizer. The maximum essential oil percentage with 0.413% was obtained by irrigation with 70% field capacity and nitroxin bio-fertilizer. Fresh weight of herb per plant was the most crucial component in determining essential oil yield in Thyme. Plants irrigated with 70% filed capacity gave the highest relative percentage of thymol, which reached 71.32, 50.68 and 47.71% in nitroxin, biophosphorus and mycorrhiza biofertilizer, respectively. This effect was accompanied with decrease in -cymene content. Inoculation with nitroxin bio-fertilizer as compared to other fertilizers could further amend drought stress and improved the plant growth, essential oil percentage and yield and phenolic compound thymol of Thyme. Thus, it appears that in order to achieve sustainable agriculture

  7. Yield, Quality, and Nutrient Concentrations of Strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch. cv. 'Sonata') Grown with Different Organic Fertilizer Strategies.

    Pokhrel, Bhaniswor; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Petersen, Karen Koefoed

    2015-06-17

    Four combinations of two solid organic fertilizers (Monterra Malt and chicken manure) applied before planting and two liquid organic fertilizers (broad bean and Pioner Hi-Fruit/K-Max) given through drip irrigation (fertigation) were compared with inorganic fertilization regarding growth, yield, nutrient concentration, and fruit quality of strawberries. Broad bean fertigation combined with Monterra Malt resulted in a similar fruit yield as inorganic fertilizer and a higher yield than Monterra Malt combined with Pioner; however, total soluble solids, firmness, and titratable acid were improved with Pioner fertigation, although these parameters were more affected by harvest time than the applied fertilizers. The concentrations of most nutrients in fruits and leaves were higher in inorganically fertigated plants. The reductions in fruit yield in three of four treatments and fruit weight in all organic treatments may be due to a combination of the following conditions in the root zone: (1) high pH and high NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio; (2) high EC and/or high NaCl concentration; (3) cation imbalance; and (4) nutrient deficiency.

  8. Effect of drought stress and sulphur fertilizer on quantity and quality yield of psyllium (Plantago ovata L. in Baluchestan

    M. Mousavi nik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Management of chemical fertilizers application is very important issues on environment and plant yield especially in arid and-semi arid region. In order to determine the effects of drought stresses and fertilizer levels on quantity and quality yields of psyllium (Plantago ovata L., a study was conducted as split plot based on randomized complete block design with four replications at the Natural Resources and Agriculture Researches Center of Balouchestan, Iran, during growing season of 2009-2010. Treatments included different irrigation regimes (three, five and eight times irrigation during the growing season as main plots and four levels of sulphur fertilizer (0, 75, 150 and 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur as sub plot. The results showed that the irrigation regimes and sulphur fertilizer had significant effects on seed and biological yield of psyllium, so the highest seed and biological yields obtained in eight times irrigation. Also, the maximum of these factors were achieved in 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur. The highest harvest index and 1000- seed weight, No. seed per spike and No. spike per plant were observed in eight times irrigation and 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur. The highest plant height was obtained in eight times irrigation and 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur and the maximum mucilage percentage and proline content were obtained in three times irrigation. The maximum mucilage yield and carbohydrate content were achieved in eight times irrigation. Among sulphur fertilizer, the highest amounts for all factors were achieved in 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur. There was positive and significant correlation between seed yield with spike No. per plant, Seed No. per spike, 1000-Seed, biological yield and mucilage yield.

  9. Amendment of Tephrosia Improved Fallows with Inorganic Fertilizers Improves Soil Chemical Properties, N Uptake, and Maize Yield in Malawi

    Maggie G. Munthali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize production in Malawi is limited mainly by low soil N and P. Improved fallows of N-fixing legumes such as Tephrosia and Sesbania offer options for improving soil fertility particularly N supply. The interactions of Tephrosia fallows and inorganic fertilizers on soil properties, N uptake, and maize yields were evaluated at Chitedze Research Station in Malawi. The results indicated that the level of organic matter and pH increased in all the treatments except for the control. Total N remained almost unchanged while available P decreased in all plots amended with T. vogelii but increased in T. candida plots where inorganic P was applied. Exchangeable K increased in all the plots irrespective of the type of amendment. The interaction of N and P fertilizers with T. vogelii fallows significantly increased the grain yield. The treatment that received 45 kg N ha−1 and 20 kg P ha−1 produced significantly higher grain yields (6.8 t ha−1 than all the other treatments except where 68 kg N ha−1 and 30 kg P ha−1 were applied which gave 6.5 t ha−1 of maize grain. T. candida fallows alone or in combination with N and P fertilizers did not significantly affect grain yield. However, T. candida fallows alone can raise maize grain yield by 300% over the no-input control. Based on these results we conclude that high quality residues such as T. candida and T. vogelii can be used as sources of nutrients to improve crop yields and soil fertility in N-limited soils. However, inorganic P fertilizer is needed due to the low soil available P levels.

  10. Interaction Effects of Planting Date and Weed Competition on Yield and Yield Components of Three white Bean Cultivars in Semirom

    A. Yadavi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable planting and weed competition are the most important factors that greatly reduce the yield of bean. In order to study the effect of planting date on yield and yield components of three white bean cultivars in weed infest and weed free condition a factorial experiment with randomized complete block design and three replications was carried out at Semirom in 2009. The treatments were planting date (May10, May 25 and June 9 and white bean cultivars (Shekofa, Pak and Daneshkade and two levels of weed infestation (weedy and weed free. Results showed that planting date, weed competition and cultivars had significant effects on yield and yield components of white bean. The 30-day delay in planting date reduced the number of pods per plant, seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and biological yield of white bean cultivars, 22.5, 18, 20.1 and 22.5 percent respectively. Also weed competition, reduced the number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and biological yield respectively by 13.5, 5.7 and 27.1 percent. Result of planting date and weed competition interaction effects indicated that the weed competition decreased grain yield (53% in third planting date more than others and delay in planting date was companion with increasing weed density and dry weight in flowering stage of bean. Also Shekofa cultivar had highest grain yield (3379 kg/ha at the first planting date and weed free condition.

  11. Understanding N timing in corn yield and fertilizer N recovery: An insight from an isotopic labeled-N determination

    de Almeida, Rodrigo Estevam Munhoz; Pierozan Junior, Clovis; Lago, Bruno Cocco; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze

    2018-01-01

    Early fertilizer nitrogen (N) application on cover crops or their residues during the off-season is a practice adopted in Brazil subtropical conditions under no-tillage corn (Zea mays L.) systems. However, the effect of early N application on yield, plant N content, and N recovery efficiency (NRE) for corn is not yet well documented. Five fertilizer N timings in an oat-corn system were evaluated in two studies utilizing an isotopic-labeled N determination, 15N isotope. The N fertilization timings were: (i) oat tillering, (ii) 15 days before corn planting time, over the oat residues, (iii) at corn planting time, (iv) in-season at the three-leaf growth stage (V3), and (v) in-season split application at V3 and six-leaf (V6) growth stages. Based on the statistical analysis, the N fertilization timings were separated into three groups: 1) N-OATS, designated to N applied at oat; 2) N-PLANT, referred to pre-plant and planting N applications; and 3) N-CORN, designated to in-season corn N applications. Corn yield was not affected by the N fertilization timing. However, the N-CORN N fertilization timings enhanced NRE by 17% and 35% and final N recovery system (plant plus soil) by 16% and 24% all relative to N-OATS and N-PLANT groups, respectively. Overall, N-OATS resulted in the largest N derived from fertilizer (NDFF) amount in the deeper soil layer, in overall a delta of 10 kg N ha-1 relative to the rest of the groups. Notwithstanding corn yield was not affected, early N fertilization under subtropical conditions is not a viable option since NRE was diminished and the non-recovery N increased relative to the in-season N applications. PMID:29462178

  12. Effect of multi-nutrient complex fertilizers on growth and tuber yield of very early potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivars

    Wanda Wadas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the effect of multi-nutrient complex fertilizers (HydroComplex, Nitrophoska Blue Special and Viking 13 from the nitrophoska group, and Polimag S from the amophoska group and single-nutrient fertilizers on the growth and tuber yield of very early potato cultivars (‘Aster’, ‘Fresco’, ‘Gloria’. The field experiment was carried out on podzolic soil in mid-eastern Poland during 2005–2007. The study showed a greater beneficial effect of HydroComplex and Nitrophoska Blue Special on the growth of very early potato cultivars than that of Viking 13 and Polimag S. The application of HydroComplex and Nitrophoska Blue Special resulted in greater above-ground plant biomass and assimilation leaf area compared with single-nutrient fertilizers; the leaf area index (LAI was higher by 0.28 and 0.32, respectively. The differences were smaller and not statistically confirmed with the use of Polimag S and Viking 13. When the multi-nutrient complex fertilizers were applied, leaf weight ratio (LWR, leaf area ratio (LAR and specific leaf area (SLA were similar to the single-nutrient fertilizers. Of the multi-nutrient complex fertilizers, only Nitrophoska Blue Special resulted in higher tuber yield, on average by 2.40 t × ha-1, compared with the single-nutrient fertilizers. The studied cultivars showed a similar response to applied fertilizers. LAI for ‘Gloria’ was higher than for ‘Aster’ and ‘Fresco’, with smaller LAR found in ‘Gloria’. LWR for ‘Fresco’ was smaller than for ‘Aster’ and ‘Gloria’, with higher SLA found in ‘Fresco’. The tuber yield of ‘Aster” (24.04 t × ha-1 was higher on average by 3 t × ha-1 than for ‘Fresco’ and ‘Gloria’.

  13. Understanding N timing in corn yield and fertilizer N recovery: An insight from an isotopic labeled-N determination.

    Maciel de Oliveira, Silas; Almeida, Rodrigo Estevam Munhoz de; Ciampitti, Ignacio A; Pierozan Junior, Clovis; Lago, Bruno Cocco; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Favarin, José Laércio

    2018-01-01

    Early fertilizer nitrogen (N) application on cover crops or their residues during the off-season is a practice adopted in Brazil subtropical conditions under no-tillage corn (Zea mays L.) systems. However, the effect of early N application on yield, plant N content, and N recovery efficiency (NRE) for corn is not yet well documented. Five fertilizer N timings in an oat-corn system were evaluated in two studies utilizing an isotopic-labeled N determination, 15N isotope. The N fertilization timings were: (i) oat tillering, (ii) 15 days before corn planting time, over the oat residues, (iii) at corn planting time, (iv) in-season at the three-leaf growth stage (V3), and (v) in-season split application at V3 and six-leaf (V6) growth stages. Based on the statistical analysis, the N fertilization timings were separated into three groups: 1) N-OATS, designated to N applied at oat; 2) N-PLANT, referred to pre-plant and planting N applications; and 3) N-CORN, designated to in-season corn N applications. Corn yield was not affected by the N fertilization timing. However, the N-CORN N fertilization timings enhanced NRE by 17% and 35% and final N recovery system (plant plus soil) by 16% and 24% all relative to N-OATS and N-PLANT groups, respectively. Overall, N-OATS resulted in the largest N derived from fertilizer (NDFF) amount in the deeper soil layer, in overall a delta of 10 kg N ha-1 relative to the rest of the groups. Notwithstanding corn yield was not affected, early N fertilization under subtropical conditions is not a viable option since NRE was diminished and the non-recovery N increased relative to the in-season N applications.

  14. Yield gains of coffee plants from phosphorus fertilization may not be generalized for high density planting

    Samuel Vasconcelos Valadares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Inconclusive responses of the adult coffee plant to phosphorus fertilization have been reported in the literature, especially when dealing with application of this nutrient in high density planting systems. Thus, this study was carried out for the purpose of assessing the response of adult coffee plants at high planting density in full production (in regard to yield and their biennial cycle/stability to the addition of different sources and application rates of P in the Zona da Mata region of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The experiment with coffee plants of the Catucaí Amarelo 6/30 variety was carried out over four growing seasons. Treatments were arranged in a full factorial design [(4 × 3 + 1] consisting of four P sources (monoammonium phosphate, simple superphosphate, natural reactive rock phosphate from Algeria (Djebel-Onk, and FH 550®, three P rates (100, 200, and 400 kg ha-1 year-1 of P2O5, and an additional treatment without application of the nutrient (0 kg ha-¹ year-¹. A randomized block experimental design was used with three replicates. The four seasons were evaluated as subplots in a split plot experiment. The P contents in soil and leaves increased with increased rates of P application. However, there was no effect from P application on the yield and its biennial cycle/stability regardless of the source used over the four seasons assessed.

  15. Effects of Single and Combined Application of Organic and Biological Fertilizers on Quantitative and Qualitative Yield of Anisum (Pimpinella anisum

    N Kamayestani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of single and combined applications of biofertilazer and organic fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of anisum (Pimpinella anisum, an experiment was conducted based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications and fifteen treatments at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2011 year. Treatments were: (1 mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices, (2 mycorrhiza + cow manure, (3 mycorrhiza + vermicompost, (4 mycorrhiza+ compost, (5 mycorrhiza + chemical fertilizer, (6 biosulfur (Thiobacillus sp. + Bentonite, (7 biosulfur + chemical fertilizer, (8 biosulfur + cow manure, (9 biosulfur + vermicompost, (10 biosulfur+compost,11 (cow manure, (12 vermicompost, (13 chemical fertilizer (NPK, (14compost and (15 control. The results showed that application of fertilizer treatments had significant effect on most characteristics of anisum. The highest number of seed per umbelet (7.24, economic yield (1263.4kg/ha were obtained fram biosulfur treatment. The highest dry matter yield (4504.1 kg/ha resulted from combined application of biosulfur + chemical fertilizer and the highest harvest index (25.97% observed in biosulfur+cow manure. The combined application of mycorrhiza affected some qualification traits, as the highest number of umbel per plant (65.7, 1000 seed-weight (3.24 g and essential oil percentage (5.3% resulted from combined application of mycorrhiza+chemical fertilizer. In general, it can be concluded that application of organic and biological fertilizer particularly mycorrhiza and biosulfur had a significant effect on improving of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of anisum. Furthermore, the combined application of organic and biological fertilizer had higher positive effects than their single application.

  16. Effect of Gamma Irradiation, Organic and Mineral Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Sweet Pepper

    Fath El-Bab, T.Sh.

    2014-01-01

    Field experiment was carried out for two successive seasons 2011 and 2012, on sweet pepper ( Capsicum annuum L. ) cv. California wonder in the Research Station of Atomic Energy Authority at Inshas, Egypt. This research aimed to evaluate response of sweet pepper to chemical and organic manure (poultry or sheep) fertilizers. Organic manures were treated with gamma rays at the dose of 10 KGy to keep it free from pathogenic organism pests and weed seeds. Growth characters such as plant height, num - ber of leaves, number of stems and dry weight per plant in the two seasons were significantly respond to tested factors. The highest vegetative growth characters were induced by 100% mineral fertilizer. Meanwhile, the lowest vegetative growth characters were recorded by using 100% organic manure as compared to mineral fertilizer. On the other hand dry weight of plants treated with organic manure treatment significantly decreased as compared to mineral fertilizer in the two seasons. Furthermore, using organic manure had enhanced or improved the quality of sweet pepper fruits. In conclusion, mineral fertilizers combined with organic fertilizers were the best treatment resulted in the highest vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of sweet pepper. This treatment resulted in not only higher total chlorophyll in leave content compared to control plants, but also the highest chemical properties values of fruits, total soluble solids, acidity, vitamin C. and carotenoids in the two seasons. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content non significantly increased with all treatments except that of 100% chemical fertilizer. The improvement of plant growth and production recorded with the irradiated organic manure as compared to the unirradiated one. All parameters were higher in sweet pepper fertilized with poultry manure as compared to that fertilized with sheep manure. Although the treatment of organic manure only gave to some extent, less total yield, it has great impact on the

  17. Seed yield components and their potential interaction in grasses - to what extend does seed weigth influence yield?

    Boelt, B; Gislum, R

    2010-01-01

     In a first-year seed crop of red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) the degree of lodging was controlled by the use of Moddus (Trinexapac-ethyl). Seed weight was found to increase by the decreasing degree of lodging prior to harvest. The higher seed weights were accompanied by higher yields even though...... the number of reproductive tillers and floret site utilization (FSU) were unaffected by the treatments. Seed yield is affected by several yield components and reflects the interaction between the seed yield potential (e.g. number of reproductive tillers, number of spikelets and florets/spikelet per...... reproductive tiller), the utilization of the potential (e.g. seed set, seed weight) and the realization of the seed yield potential, defined as the number of florets forming a saleable seed. The realization of the seed yield potential is affected by seed retention, seed weight and other traits associated...

  18. Genetic parameters for body condition score, body weight, milk yield, and fertility estimated using random regression models.

    Berry, D P; Buckley, F; Dillon, P; Evans, R D; Rath, M; Veerkamp, R F

    2003-11-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk yield, and fertility were estimated using a random regression animal model extended to multivariate analysis. The data analyzed included 81,313 BCS observations, 91,937 BW observations, and 100,458 milk test-day yields from 8725 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows. A cubic random regression was sufficient to model the changing genetic variances for BCS, BW, and milk across different days in milk. The genetic correlations between BCS and fertility changed little over the lactation; genetic correlations between BCS and interval to first service and between BCS and pregnancy rate to first service varied from -0.47 to -0.31, and from 0.15 to 0.38, respectively. This suggests that maximum genetic gain in fertility from indirect selection on BCS should be based on measurements taken in midlactation when the genetic variance for BCS is largest. Selection for increased BW resulted in shorter intervals to first service, but more services and poorer pregnancy rates; genetic correlations between BW and pregnancy rate to first service varied from -0.52 to -0.45. Genetic selection for higher lactation milk yield alone through selection on increased milk yield in early lactation is likely to have a more deleterious effect on genetic merit for fertility than selection on higher milk yield in late lactation.

  19. Nitrogen fertilization and yield formation of potato during a short growing period

    L. MUSTONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects various rates of nitrogen application on accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. were studied during a short growing period of 140–180 days, at MTT Agrifood Research Finland in 2000–2001. The treatments were 0, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1 and the potato cultivars tested were Van Gogh and Nicola. Four successive harvests were made during the course of the experiment to monitor changes in the accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen over the season. Applications of nitrogen substantially increased haulm dry matter accumulation and to an even greater extent their nitrogen contents. The highest dry matter values were generally registered at 120 kg N ha-1. Dry matter and nitrogen content of haulms started to decline during the later part of season and most nitrogen was relocated to tubers. The results suggest that an application of only 60 kg N ha-1 was sufficient to promote rapid canopy development and there were only small reductions in dry matter and nitrogen accumulation until late in the season when the canopy started to senesce as nitrogen supply diminished. Tuber yield, plant dry matter and nitrogen accumulation at maturity were related to crop nitrogen supply. Although application of the high rate, 120 N kg ha-1, resulted in a significant increase in dry matter accumulation, this was not reflected in the profit because the higher nitrogen application reduced dry matter content of tubers by 2.6% in 2000 and by 1.1% in 2001 relative to the use of 60 kg N ha-1. Apparent fertilizer nitrogen recovery values on a whole plant basis ranged from 53 to 75%. The proportion of fertilizer recovered in tubers clearly declined with increase in nitrogen supply.;

  20. Impact of Inter-Row Spacing on Yield and Yield Components of several Annual Medics Species

    Mahnaz BAGHERI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted in Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran to evaluate the effects of three within-row spacing treatments (20, 30 and 40 cm on forage and seed production of five species of annual medics (Medicago scutellata cv. Sava; M. littoralis cv. Herald; M. polymorpha cv. Santiago; M. minima cv. Orion and M. truncatula cv. Mogul. The experiment was carried out in Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. The results of the experiment indicated that M. polymorpha had the highest forage yield out of the highest plant population. Latter with average 443.09 Kg ha-1 and M. scutellata with average 409.99 Kg ha-1 produced the highest seed yield. Also, the last species with 1306.78 Kg ha-1 had the highest pod yields. The highest seed yield and pod yield were produced at 20 cm within-row spacing because there were not adequate plants for maximum seed and pod yields in 30 and 40 cm within-row spacing. The tested plant densities did not affect on seeds number per pod, 1000 seeds weight and seeds to burr pod weight ratio. The M. truncatula and M. minima have the highest seeds number per pod. In addition, M. scutellata had the highest 1000 seeds weight with an average of 12.57 g. The highest seeds to burr pod ratio was observed in M. polymorpha. The most pod numbers were obtained in 20 and 30 cm within-row spacing and M. polymorpha while, the least pod numbers was observed in M. scutellata. Plant densities did not affect on pod numbers of the mentioned species. The highest dry forage yield was produced in 20 cm within-row spacing. Among the tested tested species, M. truncatula had the highest forage yield with average 870.07 Kg ha-1. This experiment indicated that there is possibility for seed and forage production of tested annual medics in the mentioned zone with the considering suitable plant densities.

  1. Effects of mulch practices on fresh ear yield and yield components of sweet corn

    KARA, Burhan; ATAR, Bekir

    2013-01-01

    The experiment was carried out in the vegetation seasons of 2010 and 2011. The main purpose of the study was to determine the effects of mulch practices (a control-unmulched treatment, a plastic mulch treatment, and a straw mulch treatment) on fresh ear yield and some yield-related traits of sweet corn according to 3 sowing dates: 1 April, 15 April, and 1 May, respectively. The main effects of sowing dates were significant for the harvest period, the emerging rate from soil, the fresh ear yie...

  2. Liming and Fertilization Effects on Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Yield Between 1999 and 2006

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Precipitation amount, distribution and nitrogen (N)-, phosphorus (P2O5)-, potassium (K2O)-, calcium (CaO)-, and magnesium (MgO) fertilization interaction effects were studied on a sandy acidic lessivated brown forest soil; WRB: Haplic Luvisol in the 44 year old Nyírlugos Field Trial (NYFT) in a Hungarian fragile agro-ecosystem in Nyírség region (N: 470 41' 60'' and E: 220 2' 80'') on triticale (X Triticosecale W.) yield from 1999 to 2006. At the trial set up in 1962, the soil had the following agrochemical properties: pH (H2O) 5.9, pH (KCl) 4.7, hydrolytic acidity 8.4, hy1 0.3, humus 0.7%, total N 34 mg kg-1, ammonlactate (AL) soluble-P2O5 43 mg kg-1, AL-K2O 60 mg kg-1 in the plowed (0-25 cm) layer. From 1980 to 2006, the experiment consisted of 32x4=128 plots in randomised block design. The gross plot size was 10x5=50 m2. The average fertilizer rates in kg ha-1 year-1 were nitrogen 75, phosphorus 90 (P2O5), potassium 90 (K2O), calcium 437.5 (CaCO3) and magnesium 140 (MgCO3). The groundwater table has had at a depth of 2-3 m below the surface. The main results are as follows. During drought conditions the respective yield of the control areas was -25% less than for average years. The application of N alone, or of NP and NK treatments, led to yield reduction of -19.7%, while that of NPK, NPKCa, NPKMg or NPKCaMg caused an -28.3% drop during these types of years. In the wet years, the yield decreased by -22.2% on the unfertilized soils; in the case of N, NP, or NK nutrition with an -14.1%; and increased at 13.8% on NPK, NPKCa, NPKMg and NPKCaMg treated plots. In the very wettest year, the yields were dropped -43.1% on control soils, -39.3% of N, NP, or NK loadings and -35.8% on NPK, NPKCa, NPKMg and NPKCaMg treatments to those in the average year. The relationships between rainfall quantitiy during the vegetation period N, P, K, Ca and Mg nutrition and yield were characterised by polynomial correlations (control: R= 0.7212***, N: R = 0.7410***, NP: R = 0

  3. Decomposition rate of organic fertilizers: effect on yield, nitrogen availability and nitrogen stock in the soil

    Opheusden, van A.H.M.; Burgt, van der G.J.H.M.; Rietberg, P.I.

    2012-01-01

    The nitrogen of organic fertilizers does not fully mineralize within a season, and hence will partly become available in later years. This effect is taken into account for the first year but generally not in later fertilizer applications. If it would be taken into account, fertilizer use could be

  4. Effects of Organic and Waste-Derived Fertilizers on Yield, Nitrogen and Glucosinolate Contents, and Sensory Quality of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Øvsthus, Ingunn; Breland, Tor Arvid; Hagen, Sidsel Fiskaa; Brandt, Kirsten; Wold, Anne-Berit; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Seljåsen, Randi

    2015-12-23

    Organic vegetable production attempts to pursue multiple goals concerning influence on environment, production resources, and human health. In areas with limited availability of animal manure, there is a need for considering various off-farm nutrient resources for such production. Different organic and waste-derived fertilizer materials were used for broccoli production at two latitudes (58° and 67°) in Norway during two years. The fertilizer materials were applied at two rates of total N (80 and 170 kg ha(-1)) and compared with mineral fertilizer (170 kg ha(-1)) and no fertilizer. Broccoli yield was strongly influenced by fertilizer materials (algae meal fertilizer). Yield, but not glucosinolate content, was linearly correlated with estimated potentially plant-available N. However, extruded shrimp shell and mineral NPK fertilizer gave higher glucosinolate contents than sheep manure and no fertilizer. Sensory attributes were less affected by fertilizer material and plant-available N.

  5. Effects of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers on Leaf Yield, Essential Oil Content and Composition of Lemon Verbena (Lippia citriodora Kunth

    Mohammad Taghi Ebadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organic fertilizers with beneficial effects on soil structure and nutrient availability help maintain yield and quality, and they are less costly than synthetic fertilizers. Vermicompost and vermiwash are two organic fertilizers that they contain a biologically active mixture of bacteria, enzymes and phytohormones, also these organic fertilizers can supply the nutritional needs of plants. Lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora Kunth, Verbenaceae is an evergreen perennial aromatic plant. The lemon-scented essential oil from the lemon verbena has been widely used for its digestive, relaxing, antimalarial and lemony flavor properties. In order to decrease the use of chemical fertilizers for reduction of environmental pollution, this research was undertaken to determine effects of vermicompost and vermiwash in comparison with chemical fertilizer on leaf yield, essential oil content and composition of lemon verbena. Materials and Methods: A pot experiment based on a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replications on Lemon verbena was carried out in the experimental greenhouse of the Department of Horticulture Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, 2012. Treatments consisted of 10, 20 and 30 % by volume of vermicompost and vermiwash (with an addition to irrigation in three steps, including: two weeks after the establishment of plants in pots, the appearing of branches and three weeks before harvest, complete fertilizer and control without any fertilizer. Each replication contained six pots and each pot contained one plant of Lemon verbena provided from Institute of Medicinal Plants, Karaj, therefore 108 pots were used in this experiment. The pots were filled up by a mixture contained 3/5 soil and 2/5 sand (v/v. After three months, plant aerial parts were harvested concomitantly at starting of the flowering stage. Aerial parts were dried at room temperature for 72 hours and dry weights of dried branches and leaves were

  6. The effect of sowing date and plant density on yield and yield components of safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L. in Rokh plateau .

    seyd fazel fazeli kakhaki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of sowing date and plant density on yield and yield components of safflower ( Carthamus tinctorious as well as evaluating the possibility of the second sowing of the plant in Torbat Heidariyeh , a field experiment was conducted in Rokh, Cold Season Cereal Research Station 2005 . The experiment was conducted in split plot arrangement in complete randomized block design with four replications . Main plots were sowing date in five levels including 9 April, 10 May, 31 May, 20 June, 11 July and sub plots were plant density in three levels including 300000, 400000, 500000 plants per hectar. Some charactristics such as the number of capitulum per square meter, seed number in capitulum, seed weight, harvest index and seed yeild was evaluated.The highest seed yield was obtained in first sowing date in 3347 kg/ha and a delay in sowing date resulted a decrease in yield. The cold weather in (05/11/2005 caused flower fertility not accured, consequently, sowing was not successful . Results showed that the effect of sowing date on yield depends on the number of capitulum per unit area and the number of grains per capitulum. These two characteristics in th first sowing date in respect of the other dates were higher. The effect of density on yield was significant resulted on yield increase due to capitulum increase in unit area. As a result, the first sowing date with the highest density is recommended. However, The third and fourth sowing date can be considered as the second planting in a sequeational cropping system .

  7. [Nutrient use efficiency and yield-increasing effect of single basal application of rice specific controlled release fertilizer].

    Chen, Jiansheng; Xu, Peizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Zhang, Fabao; Xie, Chunsheng

    2005-10-01

    A series of pot and field experiments and field demonstrations showed that in comparing with the commonly used specific-fertilizers containing same amounts of nutrients, single basal application of rice-specific controlled release fertilizer could increase the use efficiency of N and P by 12.2% - 22.7% and 7.0% - 35.0%, respectively in pot experiment, and the use efficiency of N by 17.1% in field experiment. In 167 field demonstrations successively conducted for 3 years in various rice production areas of Guangdong Province, single basal application of the fertilizer saved the application rate of N and P by 22.1% and 21.8%, respectively, and increased the yield by 8.2%, compared with normal split fertilization.

  8. Genetic variance of sunflower yield components - Heliantus annuus L.

    Hladni Nada

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goals of sunflower breeding in Yugoslavia and abroad are increased seed yield and oil content per unit area and increased resistance to diseases, insects and stress conditions via an optimization of plant architecture. In order to determine the mode of inheritance, gene effects and correlations of total leaf number per plant, total leaf area and plant height, six genetically divergent inbred lines of sunflower were subjected to half diallel crosses. Significant differences in mean values of all the traits were found in the F1 and F2 generations. Additive gene effects were more important in the inheritance of total leaf number per plant and plant height, while in the case of total leaf area per plant the nonadditive ones were more important looking at all the combinations in the F1 and F2 generations. The average degree of dominance (Hi/D1/2 was lower than one for total leaf number per plant and plant height, so the mode of inheritance was partial dominance, while with total leaf area the value was higher than one, indicating super dominance as the mode of inheritance. Significant positive correlation was found: between total leaf area per plant and total leaf number per plant (0.285* and plant height (0.278*. The results of the study are of importance for further sunflower breeding work.

  9. The Role of Iron and Zinc on Tuber Yield and Yield Components of Potato

    Elham Jam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The soils of potato production fields in Ardabil due to alkalinity and not having a proper crop rotations are deficient in micronutrients. To evaluate the effect of these micronutrients on the yield and some traits affecting potato tubers an experiment was conducted in a complete randomized block design with three replications in Ardabil during 2012. Micronutrient treatments used were the various concentrations of iron and zinc (0.002, 0.004 and 0.008 concentrations of these elements as Fe1Zn1, Fe1Zn2, Fe1Zn3, Fe2Zn1, Fe2Zn2, Fe2Zn3, Fe3Zn1 and Fe3Zn2 and a control treatment (Fe0Zn0. Analysis of variance of traits under study showed statistically significant differences among treatments in terms of tuber yield, number of tubers per plant, tuber size, skin thickness and volumetric weight and dry weight of tubers. The highest tuber yield (48.10 t.ha-1 and maximum skin thickness were obtained from Fe1Zn3 treatment. The highest tuber number belonged to Fe2Zn1 (0.004 and 0.002 concentrations of iron and zinc and Fe1Zn3 (0.002 and 0.008 concentrations of iron and zinc. Tuber weights higher than 35 grams and higest volumetric tuber weight were produced by using Fe3Zn2. The conclusion is this that using Fe1Zn3 traetment (0.002 and 0.008 concentrations resulted in highest tuber yield and thickness of tuber skin.

  10. Effect of Limited Drip Irrigation Regime on Yield and Yield Components of Sesame under Mediterranean Conditions

    Panayiota PAPASTYLIANOU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sesame is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world. Irrigation is of great importance to sesame production due to its positive effect on growth parameters. Although sesame has good drought tolerance compared with many other crops, it is particularly susceptible to drought damage during the seedling, flowering and seed filling stages and this can lead to yield loss. The aim of this study was to determine the response of sesame landraces to different irrigation applications during the 2015 growing season. The experiment was set up as a split plot design with three replicates, four main plots (irrigation treatments, designated as 100%, 75% 50% and 0 of the daily crop evapotranspiration and two sub-plots (sesame landraces, Limnos and Evros. Different characteristics such as plant height, number of seeds per capsule, and number of capsules per plant, seed yield, 1000-seed weight and % capsules without seeds, were recorded. The results indicated that all traits except 1000-seed weight were significantly affected by irrigation regimes. Plant height, shattering losses and number of capsules per plant decreased with increasing water shortage. Seed yield and number of seeds per capsule were less affected by irrigation level and showed higher values in the 50% of the daily crop evapotranspiration treatment. Limnos produced higher seed yield and number of seeds per capsule under all irrigation regimes. Evros showed higher plant height and shattering losses than Limnos. The results of this study suggest that sesame landraces can use water efficiently, are locally adapted and associated with traditional farming systems.

  11. Genetic relationships among linear type traits, milk yield, body weight, fertility and somatic cell count in primiparous dairy cows

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.P.; Evans, R.D.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    Phenotypic and genetic (co)variances among type traits, milk yield, body weight, fertility and somatic cell count were estimated. The data analysed included 3,058 primiparous spring-calving Holstein-Friesian cows from 80 farms throughout the south of Ireland. Heritability estimates for the type

  12. Biochar improves fertility of a clay soil in the Brazilian Savannah: short term effects and impact on rice yield

    Melo Carvalho, de M.T.; Madari, B.E.; Bastiaans, L.; Oort, van P.A.J.; Heinemann, A.B.; Silva, da M.A.S.; Maia, A.H.N.; Meinke, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report single season effects of wood biochar (char) application coupled with N fertilization on soil chemical properties, aerobic rice growth and grain yield in a clayey Rhodic Ferralsol in the Brazilian Savannah. Char application effected an increase in soil pH,

  13. Genetic correlations between body condition score, yield and fertility in Holstein heifers estimated by random regression models

    Veerkamp, R.F.; Koenen, E.P.C.; Jong, de G.

    2001-01-01

    Twenty type classifiers scored body condition (BCS) of 91,738 first-parity cows from 601 sires and 5518 maternal grandsires. Fertility data during first lactation were extracted for 177,220 cows, of which 67,278 also had a BCS observation, and first-lactation 305-d milk, fat, and protein yields were

  14. Effect of different intercropping patterns on yield and yield components of dill and fenugreek

    Behzad Shokati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted based on randomized complete blocks design (RCBD in three replications during 2011 at the research farm of university of Tabriz, Iran. In this study two medicinal plants, dill (Anethum graveolens L. and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum intercropped at different additive (1:20, 1:40 and 1:60 and different replacement (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 series. Results showed that dill plant at additive treatment especially in 1:20 and 1:60 series had maximum plant fresh and dry weights, umbels per plant, 1000 seed weight, seeds per plant, biological yield and harvest index. However, fenugreek plant at replacement treatment especially in 1:3 and 1:2 series had maximum biological yield, pod in main stem, pod in branches, seeds per pod, seed weights and grain yield. Fenugreek as a medicinal, forage and legume crop promote dill grows characters and could be an effective plant in intercropping systems.

  15. Effect of Limited Irrigation on Yield and Yield Component of Several Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.var Saccharata Varieties

    Sh Ghazian Tafrishi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design with four replications and a split plot arrangement was conducted in 2010, in order to study the effect of limited irrigation on yield and yield component of sweet corn. Water levels were (100%, 80%, and 60% replacement of plant water requirement which served as main plots. Subplot was a factorial arrangement of three different sweet corn varieties (Merit, Obsession and KSC403 with two planting methods (raised bed and furrow planting. The evaluated traits were ear length, ear diameter, kernels number per row, seed rows per ear, kernel depth, seed thousands weight, kernel yield, shoot biomass, harvest index and Anthesis- silking interval. Results show that limited irrigation significantly decreased all measured characteristics but harvest index. Effect of varieties was significant on evaluated traits too. Kernel weight and seed depth were significantly affected by interaction between variety and planting method. The highest yield was found for 100% replacement of water requirement irrigation level whit 15.2 tones per hectare kernel weight and the lowest belongs to 60% replacement of water requirement by 8.6 tones per hectare kernel weight. Merit and KSC 403 produces the highest (15.9 ton/ha and lowest (8.8 ton/ha seed yield, respectively. Harvest index of different varieties were not affected by irrigation regime. Results show that, in whole, limited irrigation, decreased seed yield in all varieties by affecting diverse yield component.

  16. Effect of time course application of nitrogen fertilizer on the N-fertilizer use efficiency, lint properties and seed cotton yield using 15N isotopic dilution technique

    Janat, M.; Khalifa, Kh

    2001-12-01

    Field experiment was carried out at Der El-Hajar research station during 1998 growing season to evaluate the effect of time course application of nitrogen fertilizer on N-recovery, seed cotton yield and lint properties using 15 N isotope dilution technique. Aleppo 40 variety was tested, irrigation scheduling was set up at 80% of field capacity. Phosphorus fertilizer was applied as TSP 46% before planting at a rate of 180 kg/ha. N fertilizer was applied as urea (46%) in four different applications follows: one application 180 kg N/ha before planting (T1), two split application 180 (90 + 90) kg N/ha (T2), three equally split applications 180 (60 + 60 + 60) kg N/ha (T3), and four equally split applications 180 (45 + 45 + 45 + 45) kg N/ha (T4). Labeled N-fertilizer (5.09 a.e%) was also applied as urea 46% to the subplots (1.0 m 2 each) of the corresponding treatments. All agricultural practices were carried out as the common practices locally employed. Soil samples were analyzed for CEC, ph, EC, OM, total N, available P, and CaCO 3 as outlined by our laboratory standard procedure. Plant samples were collected at physiological maturity and analyzed for 15 N enrichment to assess N recovery. Lint samples were analyzed for lint properties. the results showed no significant effect of the nitrogen fertilizer time course application on the tested parameters such as dry matter production, seed cotton yield, N uptake and lint properties. on the other hand the T2, T3 and T4 treatments where shown to have a positive significant response toward time course application relative to T1 treatment. (authors)

  17. Effect of Supplementary Irrigation on Yield, Yield Components and Protein Percentages of Chickpea Cultivars in Ilam, Iran

    A. Maleki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of supplementary irrigation on yield, yield components and protein percentages of three cultivars of chickpea an experiment carried out as split plot, based on randomized complete blocks design, with three replications in Ilam, in 2009-2010 growing season. Irrigation treatments were: control, without irrigation (I0, irrigation at the stage of %50 blooming, irrigation at the stage of %50 flowering, irrigation at the stage of pods filling, which were allocated to main plots and genotypes, ILC482, Filip93-93 and local variety to sub plots. Irrigation treatments had significantly effect on seed and biological yields, harvest index, pod numbers per plant, seed numbers per pod and 100 seed weight. The Filip93-93 produced highest (1140.51 kg/ha and the local variety lowest seed yields (1056.98 kg/ha.Irrigation at the stage of pod filling and blooming increased by seed yield %41.3 and %29.3 respectively as  compared to control .Irrigation at the pod filling period produced the highest seed yield. The Filip93-93 produced highest yield (1263.31 kg/ha when the field irrigated at pod filling stage and the local variety at control treatment (without irrigation the lowest seed yield (893.26 kg/ha.

  18. Exploring a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure rice yields in paddy fields

    Zhong, Yiming; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jingping, E-mail: jpyang@zju.edu.cn; Zhao, Xing; Ye, Xinyi

    2016-09-15

    The application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was believed to dramatically influence greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy fields. Thus, providing a suitable nitrogen fertilization rate to ensure rice yields, reducing GHG emissions and exploring emission behavior are important issues for field management. In this paper, a two year experiment with six rates (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375 kg N/ha) of nitrogen fertilizer application was designed to examine GHG emissions by measuring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) flux and their cumulative global warming potential (GWP) from paddy fields in Hangzhou, Zhejiang in 2013 and 2014. The results indicated that the GWP and rice yields increased with an increasing application rate of nitrogen fertilizer. Emission peaks of CH{sub 4} mainly appeared at the vegetative phase, and emission peaks of CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O mainly appeared at reproductive phase of rice growth. The CO{sub 2} flux was significantly correlated with soil temperature, while the CH{sub 4} flux was influenced by logging water remaining period and N{sub 2}O flux was significantly associated with nitrogen application rates. This study showed that 225 kg N/ha was a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to minimize GHG emissions with low yield-scaled emissions of 3.69 (in 2013) and 2.23 (in 2014) kg CO{sub 2}-eq/kg rice yield as well as to ensure rice yields remained at a relatively high level of 8.89 t/ha in paddy fields. - Highlights: • Exploiting co-benefits of rice yield and reduction of greenhouse gas emission. • Global warming potential and rice yield increased with nitrogen fertilizer rate up. • Emission peaks of CH{sub 4,} CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O appeared at vegetative and reproductive phase. • 225 kg N/ha rate benefits both rice yields and GWP reduction.

  19. Effects of sowing date and plant density on morphological triats, yield and yield components of sweet corn (Zea mays L.

    A. Rahmani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of sowing date and plant density on the morphological triats, yield and yield components of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var SC. 403 an experiment was conducted at the Khorasan Razavi Agricultural Research and Natural Resources Center, Mashhad, Iran during 2008. This experiment was carried out as split plot based on RCBD with four replications. The sowing date (14th June, 3th July and 24th July and plant densities (66600, 83300 and 111000 plants.ha-1 were arranged in main and sub plots, respectively. The results showed significant differences between different sowing dates for plant height, ear height, and no. of leaves/plant, no. of leaves above ear, stem diameter, dehusked ear yield, can grains yield, no. of grain rows/ear, ear length, ear diameter, kernel depth, no. of ear.plant-1, 1000 kernel weight, ear harvest index and plant harvest index. The highest and the lowest can grains yield with 18.27 and 0.930 ton ha-1 was belonged to 14th June and 24th July sowing date, respectively. Although, delay in sowing date, led to decrease of growth period and also decrease of temperature can lead to improper transfer of photosynthetic materials and cause to grains yield decrease. The plant density had significant effects on husked ear yield, dehusked ear yield and forage yield. The highest can grains yield was harvested from the highest plant density (8.862 t.ha-1 and the lowest can grains yield derived from the lowest plant density (66600 plants.ha-1 with 7.692 t.ha-1. Finally, the interaction of sowing date and plant density was significant only for harvest index. Therefore, the sowing date 14th June and the highest plant density (111000 plants.ha-1, is recommended for summer sowing date of sweet corn in Mashhad with maximum and better can grains production.

  20. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L. under different Plant Density and Limited Irrigation Condition

    Sh Rezvan Beidokhti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on crop response to deficit irrigation is important to reduce agriculture water use in areas where water is limited resource. Using drought resistant landraces with irrigation scheduling based on phenological stages in semi-arid and arid regions may provide an opportunity to optimize irrigation efficiency and water savings in these regions. In order to evaluate of yield and yield components of black cumin under different plant density and limited irrigation condition an experiment was conducted in Research Farm of Islamic Azad University of Damghan during growing season of 2007-2008. The experimental treatments were arranged in split plots based on a complete randomized block design with three replications. The limited irrigation (based on phenological stages treatments were included: cutting irrigation at blooming (folded flowers, cutting irrigation at flowering stage, cutting irrigation at seed formation and normal weekly irrigation (control were allocated to the main plots and different plant density: 100, 150, 200 and 250 plant per square meter (m2 were allocated to sub plots. The results showed that the effect of limited irrigation, plant density and their interaction on plant height, number of follicle, follicle weight, number of seed, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index Black Cumin. The highest yield and yield components was obtained in normal irrigation (control and 200 plant density and the lowest yield were obtained when irrigation cut at the blooming stage and 250 plant density. There was a significant correlation between seed yield and number (r=0.90, 1000 seed weight (r=0.95 and biological yield (r=0.97. Optimum plant density of black cumin was decreased under limited irrigation treatments. Under normal (control and limited irrigation, optimum plant density was 200 and 150 plant per (m2 respectively.

  1. Evaluation of Irrigation Regimes and Use of Organic Fertilizers on Qualitive and Quantitive Yield of Borage (Borago officinalis L.

    Rana Gholinezhad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of irrigation regimes and organic fertilizers (compost and vermicompost on mucilage percentage and some quality characteristics of borago (Borago officinalis a field experiment was conducted in a split plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Iran during 2012. Irrigation regimes were S1: 100% FC, as control, S2: 80% FC (moderate stress and S3: 60% FC (severe stress and application of organic fertilizers: N1: without fertilizer as control, N2: 40 t.ha-1 compost, N3: 4 t.ha-1 vermicompost were assigned to main plots and sub plots, respectively. The results showed that N, P and K, as well as the amount of chlorophyll a, carotenoid and total chlorophyll content decreased with increasing drought stress, but decreasing effects of fertilizers levels on traits were not high. Stress conditions and application of compost increased sodium percentage. By increasing drought stress, soluble carbohydrates and mucilage percent also increased. Highest mucilage percent (2.37 was obtained from moderate stress treatment. Highest total dry yield (13.48 t.ha-1 was also due to non-stress conditions. This was not significantly different mild stress. Application of organic fertilizers, particularly compost, resulted in greater performance. It can be concluded that acceptable yield of dry borage and higher mucilage percent can be obtained from irrigation at 80 percent field capacity and use of compost in Zabol climatic condition.

  2. Genetic correlations among body condition score, yield, and fertility in first-parity cows estimated by random regression models.

    Veerkamp, R F; Koenen, E P; De Jong, G

    2001-10-01

    Twenty type classifiers scored body condition (BCS) of 91,738 first-parity cows from 601 sires and 5518 maternal grandsires. Fertility data during first lactation were extracted for 177,220 cows, of which 67,278 also had a BCS observation, and first-lactation 305-d milk, fat, and protein yields were added for 180,631 cows. Heritabilities and genetic correlations were estimated using a sire-maternal grandsire model. Heritability of BCS was 0.38. Heritabilities for fertility traits were low (0.01 to 0.07), but genetic standard deviations were substantial, 9 d for days to first service and calving interval, 0.25 for number of services, and 5% for first-service conception. Phenotypic correlations between fertility and yield or BCS were small (-0.15 to 0.20). Genetic correlations between yield and all fertility traits were unfavorable (0.37 to 0.74). Genetic correlations with BCS were between -0.4 and -0.6 for calving interval and days to first service. Random regression analysis (RR) showed that correlations changed with days in milk for BCS. Little agreement was found between variances and correlations from RR, and analysis including a single month (mo 1 to 10) of data for BCS, especially during early and late lactation. However, this was due to excluding data from the conventional analysis, rather than due to the polynomials used. RR and a conventional five-traits model where BCS in mo 1, 4, 7, and 10 was treated as a separate traits (plus yield or fertility) gave similar results. Thus a parsimonious random regression model gave more realistic estimates for the (co)variances than a series of bivariate analysis on subsets of the data for BCS. A higher genetic merit for yield has unfavorable effects on fertility, but the genetic correlation suggests that BCS (at some stages of lactation) might help to alleviate the unfavorable effect of selection for higher yield on fertility.

  3. Effects of mycorrhiza inoculation and different irrigation levels on yield, yield components and essential oil contents of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.

    A Koocheki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fertilizers are the key components which provide plant nutrients' needs in recent years (Omid Jangir & Sing, 1996; Kapoor et al., 2007. In many cases, using chemical fertilizers has different negative environmental effects such as soil, water and air pollution, which increase environmental hazardous and production costs (Jangir & Sing, 1996; Kapoor et al., 2007. Biological activities are markedly enhanced by microbial interactions in the rhizosphere of plants (Kapoor et al., 2007. Many investigators have successfully used mycorrhiza to increase the availability of immobilized phosphate and thus minimize the use of mineral fertilizers. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF can better enable a plant to withstand environmental stresses such as drought and salinity. AMF interacts with pathogens and other rhizosphere inhabitants which affect plant health and nutrition. More importantly, mycorrhizal fungi are capable of dissolving weakly soluble soil minerals, especially phosphate, by releasing acids or increasing CO2 partial pressure (Gupta et al., 2002; Gosling et al., 2006; Kapoor et al., 2007. Therefore, they have the ability to enhance host plant uptake of relatively immobile nutrients particularly P, S and Zn. Limited water supply is also another major environmental constraint in the productivity of crop and medicinal plants. Moisture deficiency induces various physiological and metabolic responses such as stomatal closure, decline in growth rate and photosynthesis (Flexas and Medrano, 2002. The results of Baher et al. (2002 showed that greater soil water stress decreased plant height and total fresh and dry weight of Satureja hortensis. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of mycorrhiza inoculation and different irrigation levels on the growth, quantitative and qualitative yield of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L., a field experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized

  4. Climate and N-Mineral Fertilization Changes on Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Yield

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    Ecological quality has a well established dependence on climate-rainfall changes because the water problems are pressing. There is, therefore, growing concern about the potentially wide ranging risks that climate change would have on these key industries as the nature and extent of anticipated changes have become more evident. It also includes changes in land use and in plant production and their management. These changes are unprecedented in terms of both their rate and their spatial extent. Changes in land use (agrotechnics, soil, cultivation, fertility, quality, protection etc.) and in plant production (plant nutrition-, rotation-, protection-, etc.) are currently the main manifestations. As an interdisciplinary problem it is necessary to study such a complex matter in terms of agricultural production. Generally among natural catastrophes, droughts and floods cause the greatest problems in field crop production. The droughts and the floods that were experienced in Hungary in the early 1980's have drawn renewed attention to the analyses of these problems. New research on climate change-soil-plant systems are focused on yield and yield quality. This paper reports the climate change (rainfall) x soil (acidic sandy brown forest) x mineral N-fertilisation x plant interactions on triticale yields in a long term field experiment set up at Nyírlugos in north-eastern Hungary under temperate climate conditions in 1962. The agrochemical parameters of the soil were as follows: pH (H2O) 5.9, pH (KCl) 4.7, hydrolytic acidity 8.4, hy1 0.3, humus 0.7%, CEC 5-10 mgeq 100*g-1, total N 34 mg*kg-1, AL-P2O5 43 mg*kg-1, AL-K2O 60 mg*kg-1. From 1962 to 1980 the experiment consisted of 2x16x4x4=512 plots and from 1980 of 32x4=128 plots in split-split plot and factorial random block design. The gross plot size was 10x5=50 m2. The average fertiliser rates in kg*ha-1*year-1 were nitrogen 45, phosphorus 24 (P2O5), potassium 40 (K2O), magnesium 7.5 (MgO) until 1980 and nitrogen 75

  5. Influence of a Phospho-Potassic fertilizer solution on yield and quality of Wheat Crops

    Ordonez, C.; Tejada, M.; Gonzalez, J. L.; Benitez, C.

    2009-07-01

    There is currently interest in the use of industrial by-products to reduce the use of synthetic fertilizers. For this reason, in this paper the influence of a phospho-potassic fertilizer solution obtained from a aminoacid production process on wheat crops is studied. The positive influence on leaf potassium contents was most significant when the dosage of phospho-potassic fertilizer solution was applied to bread wheat. (Author)

  6. Evolution of increased competitiveness in cows trades off with reduced milk yield, fertility and more masculine morphology.

    Sartori, Cristina; Mazza, Serena; Guzzo, Nadia; Mantovani, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    In some species females compete for food, foraging territories, mating, and nesting sites. Competing females can exhibit morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations typical of males, which are commonly considered as secondary sexual traits. Competition and the development of traits increasing competitiveness require much energy and may exert adverse effects on fecundity and survival. From an evolutionary perspective, positive selection for increased competitiveness would then result in evolution of reduced values for traits related to fitness such as fecundity and survival. There is recent evidence for such evolutionary trade-offs involving male competition, but no study has considered competing females so far. Using data from competitions for dominance in cows (Bos taurus), we found negative genetic correlations between traits providing success in competition, that is, fighting ability and fitness traits related to milk production and with fertility (the inverse of parity-conception interval). Fighting ability also showed low but positive genetic correlations with "masculine" morphological traits, and negative correlations with "feminine" traits. A genetic change in traits over time has occurred due to selection on competitiveness, corresponding to an evolutionary process of "masculinization" counteracting the official selection for milk yield. Similar evolutionary trade-off between success in competition and fitness components may be present in various species experiencing female competition. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Proper Management Of Irrigation Water And Nitrogen Fertilizer To Improve Spinach Yield And Reserve Environment Using 15N Tracer Technique

    GADALLA, A.M.; GALAL, Y.G.M.; ISMAIL, M.M.; EL DEGWY, S.A.; HAMDY, A.; HAMED, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of water regime and N-fertilizer application rate and modality of its application were studied by the aim of identifying the most proper and effective combination of the above studied variables that provide a satisfactory spinach yield as well as to minimize the rational use of chemical nitrogen fertilizers to save the surrounding environment and to achieve a good water saving. The results indicated that reasonable production of spinach crop could be achieved by using 75% of the recommended rate of nitrogen fertilizer combined with 80% of the required water. It means that 20% of the required water could be saved as well as 25% of the required quantity of N-fertilizer. Similarly, the splitting of N-fertilizer into two equal doses prevented the excess of nitrate to be moved to the underground water lowering its concentration in the blades and plant leaves. Drip irrigation system accompanied with proper water scheduling regime and good fertilizer application practices is considered as a useful management practice that could be applied to improve the sandy soil productivity.

  8. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Some Pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genotypes under Late Season Water Deficit Conditions

    somayyeh soheili movahhed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought or water deficit stress is the most important environmental factor which has severe negative impacts on crop yields, especially when the water stress occurs in the flowering stage. Iran is located in arid and semi-arid areas, therefore, attention to the effects of water deficit stress in different stages of plants growth seems necessary. Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is one of the most important legumes that has a major contribution to human diet and provides an important part of the human protein. According to studies, cultivation areas of legumes in Iran are about 97300 hectares and its total production is about 208350 tons of grain. Bean is a fast-growing plant (Tran and Singh, 2002, thus soil water must be sufficiently available to ensure its desirable growth and yield. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of drought stress on yield and yield components of some pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivated in Zanjan province. Materials and methods An experiment was conducted as spilt plot based on randomized complete block design with four replications in Zanjan university research farm. Irrigation levels (control and drought stress and genotypes (Local khomein, Sadri, Ks21193 and Ks21189 were set in the main and subplot, respectively. Water deficit stress was applied during flowering stage (50% of the plants were at anthesis. Sampling was performed to measure yield and yield components at the end of the growth period and final maturity. In this experiment number of pod per Plant, numberof grain per pod, 100 grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index were measured. Results and Discussion In this experiment it was observed that drought stress, genotype and interact irrigation×genotyps were significantly for all traits except biological yield. Drought stress reduced number of pod perplant, number of grain per pod, 100 grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and Harvest Index. Results

  9. The effect of different nitrogen fertilization rates on yield and quality of marigold (Calendula officinalis L. 'Tokaj' raw material

    Beata Król

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. is an annual ornamental plant which is also grown for herbal raw material (flower heads used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. A field experiment was carried out in the years 2006-2008 in the Experimental Farm of the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The study was conducted on loess soil with the granulometric composition of silt loam. The aim of the experiment was to determine the effect of different nitrogen rates (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 kg N × ha-1 on some morphological features of flower heads as well as on yield and quality of pot marigold raw material. Flowering of pot marigold was shortest in the control treatment (32 days and longest (43 days in the plot where nitrogen fertilization had been applied at the highest rate (160 kg N × ha-1. Nitrogen fertilization had a significant influence on the number of flower heads per plant, but no significant difference was found in diameter as well as in ligulate flowers and tubular flowers in the flower head. It was found to increase significantly raw material yield after the application of 80 kg N × ha-1, compared to the control treatment. Yield of flower heads did not differ markedly for fertilization rates from 80 to 160 kg N × ha-1. Nitrogen fertilization modified slightly essential oil content (this content increased with increasing nitrogen rates, but at the same time it decreased the percentage of flavonoid compounds.

  10. Effect of Water Stress and Sulfur Fertilizer on Grain Yield, Chlorophyll and Nutrient Status of Black Cumin (Nigella Sativa L.)

    M. Heidari; A. R. Rezapor

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the effects of water stress and different amounts of sulfur fertilizer on grain yield, nutrient status and chlorophyll content in black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) a field experiment as split plot design with three replications was conducted at Ghaen city in 2009. Treatments included three levels of irrigation after 50, 100 and 150 mm evaporation from Class A pan as main plot and four levels of sulfur fertilizer including 0, 75, 150 and 225 kg/ha from bentonite-sulfur source a...

  11. Effect of ecological management of weed control on economical income, yield and yield components of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    A. Zare Feizabadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare of ecological management of weed control on economical income, yield and yield components of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., a Randomized Complete Block design with 12 treatments and four replications was conducted in Mahvelat of Khorasan Razavi province, Iran. Treatments consisted of weeding, harrowing, burning, two times weeding, weeding + harrowing, weeding + burning, harrowing + harrowing, harrowing + weeding, harrowing + burning, weeding+ harrowing+ burning, weed free and weedy as a check treatment. Investigated traits were plant height, number of boll in plant, 20 boll weight, 20 boll cotton lint weight, cotton lint yield per plant, cotton yield, number and biomass of weeds, outcome, net and gross income. The result showed that treatments had significant effect (p

  12. Effect of sowing dates on yield and yield components on mutant-cum-hybrid lines of bread wheat

    Sial, M.A.; Arain, M.A.; Dahot, M.U.; Laghari, K.A.; Naqvi, M.H.; Markhand, G.S.; Mangrio, S.M.; Mirbahar, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-one stable wheat mutant lines along with four check varieties viz., Sarsabz, Kiran-95, T.J.83 and Khirman were evaluated under normal and late sowing dates. The observations were recorded on phenological, morphological and meteorological parameters. Higher yield and improvement in various yield components were recorded at normal sowing as compared to late sowing. Six mutant lines showed superiority in yield than check varieties at normal sowings while three mutants produced more yield than check varieties except Sarsabz at late sowings. At normal sowing eleven mutant lines matured earlier than all check varieties including short duration variety T.J-83 whereas two mutant lines were earlier than Sarsabz and Kiran-95 and thirteen than T.J-83 and Khirman. (author)

  13. Effect of cow manure and empty fruit bunches application treated with different fertilizers on growth and yield of chili (Capsicum annum)

    Ghazali, Mohd Rashdan; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Abdullah, Aminah

    2016-11-01

    Study on the comparison of cow manure (CM) and empty fruit bunches (EFB) compost application as planting medium was conducted using four different treatments of fertilizer (without fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, organic fertilizer, and both fertilizer) on growth and yield of chili (Capsicum annum). The experiment started on August until December 2014 which consisted of eight treatments and were laid in a completely randomized block design (CRBD) with three replications. Variety chili that was used was Cilibangi 3. The seed was planted inside the tray for one week and transferred into the polybag containing growth media consisted of soil, compost (CM or EFB compost) and sand with ratio 3:2:1. Treatments without fertilizer were acted as a control. Throughout the study, plant growth performance and yield were recorded. The highest height of the plants for CM compost was 100.8 cm using chemical fertilizer and have significant different between the groups. For EFB compost was 92.7 cm using also chemical fertilizer but no significant different between the groups. The highest fruits weight per plant for CM compost was 485.67 g treated with both fertilizers and for EFB compost was 420.17 g treated with chemical fertilizer. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) table stated that fruits weight per plant has significant different for both planting medium with the fertilizer treatment. For the highest total fruits per plant, CM compost recorded about average 55 fruits per plant using both fertilizers and EFB compost recorded around 45 fruit per plant using chemical fertilizer. There was significantly different for total fruits per plant for both planting medium with the fertilizer treatment according to the ANOVA table. For CM, the ripening time was around 102-112 days and for EFB compost was around 96-110 days. Thus, application of CM compost treated with both chemical and organic fertilizers demonstrated better growth and fruit yield. While EFB compost was better growth and fruit

  14. Investigation of Tolerance, Yield and Yield Components of Wheat Cultivars to Salinity of Irrigation Water at Sensitive Stages of Growth

    B Saadatian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research in order to study of tolerance ability of wheat cultivates yield and yield components to salinity of irrigation water at sensitive stages of growth, was carried out as a factorial based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications at greenhouse of Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University, in 2009. Treatments were included wheat cultivars of Alvand, Tous, Sayson and Navid and salinity of irrigation water induced by sodium chloride at five levels of 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 dS m-1. The results showed that percentage and rate of emergence, plant height, 1000-grain weight, number of seed per spike, number of spike per pot, biological and grain yield reduced by increasing salinity level. At all stress levels Navid cv. had highest emergence percentage. In non-stress and 4 dS m-1, Alvand cv. and at higher levels of stress, Tous cv. had high height in reproductive phase. At control and 4 dS m-1, Sayson cv. and at 8, 12 and 16 dS m-1, Tous cv. in majority of yield and yield components traits had significant superior than other cultivars. Tolerance index of Sayson cv. at 4 and 8 dS m-1 was more than other cultivars but at 12 and 16 dS m-1, maximum value of this index was belonged to Tous cv. At all salinity levels, Alvand cv. had least tolerance index to stress. Number of spike per pot had maximum direct effect on grain yield of wheat cultivars in stress condition. Also indirect effect of biological yield via number of spike per pot than other its indirect effects, had maximum share in wheat seed yield.

  15. Influence of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on grain yield and some baking quality characteristics of spring wheat

    Paavo Elonen

    1975-05-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1967—70 twelve irrigation experiments of spring wheat were carried out in southern Finland (60-62° N, 22-26° E. Sprinkler irrigation (2 X 30 mm increased the grain yields on an average by 1240±470kg/ha (from 2740 to 3980 kg or 45±17 %. The increases in yield were significant on clay soils (9 trials and loam (1 trial but insignificant on fines and (1 trial and mould (1 trial. Additional nitrogen fertilization (from 76 to 143kg/ha N increased the grain yields on an average by 350± 200 kg/ha or 11±6 %. The ripening of wheat was significantly promoted by irrigation in one year but slightly retarded in three years. Nitrogen fertilization slightly retarded ripening every year The falling number of grains tended to be slightly improved by irrigation (from 285 to 321, on an average, but in most trials irrigation and nitrogen fertilization had no significant influence on the falling number. Irrigation decreased the crude protein content of grains in all trials, on an average by 2.2 ± 0.7 %-units (from 16.3 to 14.1%. This unfavourable effect was, however, avoided with additional nitrogen which increased the protein content by 1.9±0.4%-units (from 14,3 to 16.2 %. The effects of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on those characteristics of wheat that are correlated with protein, were similar to the effects on the protein content. Thus, irrigation decreased the zeleny value (from 64 to 53 ml, cold viscosity (from 214 to 114 seconds, water absorption (from 66.5 to 64.9 % and the valorimeter value (from 68 to 60, while these characteristics were improved by nitrogen fertilization. Irrigation did not decrease the Pelshenke value but increased significantly the ratio of the Pelshenke value/protein content (from 5,1 to 6.1. This indicates that the quality of protein was improved by irrigation, while the effect of nitrogen fertilization was the reverse. In fact, irrigation and additional nitrogen fertilization affected the quantity and

  16. Effects of a certified organic fertilizer on the yield and market quality ...

    The researched fertilizer quantities were at the rates of 500, 1.000, 2.000 and 3.500 kg ha-1 and the control treatment was a plot where no organic fertilizer was applied. Field trials were conducted in the spring cycle of parsley growing, from 2005 to 2008, in Starcevo, on anthropogenic soil of subtype chernozem with signs of ...

  17. Genetic relationships among Body condition score, Body weight, Milk yield and Fertility in Dairy Cows

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk production, and fertility-related traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 8591 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, milk production, and/or fertility from 78 seasonal calving

  18. Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on Yield and Yield Components of Sesame (Sesamum indicum l. with Emphasize on Environmental Friendly Operations

    P Rezvani Moghaddam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of different plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on yield and yield components of sesame, an experiment was conducted in the form of Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in year 2009. Treatments were: 1 Nitragin (containing of Azotobacter sp., Azospirillum sp. and Pseudomonas sp., 2 Nitroxin (containing of Azotobacter sp. and Azospirillum sp., 3 Super nitro plus (containing of Azospirillum sp., Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., 4 Phosphate suloblizing bacteria (containing of Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., 5 Bio Phosphate (containing of Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., 6 Nitroxin + Phosphate suloblizing bacteria, 7 Nitroxin + Bio Phosphate and control. The results showed that seed yield affected by PGPR and Nitroxin + Phosphate suloblizing bacteria treatment had superior effect on seed yield compared to other treatments. Superior effect of Nitroxin + Phosphate suloblizing bacteria treatment also was shown on plant seed weight and harvest index. Nitragin, Nitroxin + Bio Phosphate, Nitroxin + Phosphate suloblizing bacteria, Bio Phosphate, Phosphate suloblizing bacteria, Nitroxin treatments increased dry weight of capsules per plant of 62, 53, 51, 36 and 30 percent compared to control, respectively. Although, the effect of PGPR was not significant on sesame seed oil content but Bio Phosphate and Nitragin treatments increased seed oil content by 1 and 1.5 percent, respectively. In general, results showed utilization of PGPR can improve seed yield and seed oil content, which can decrease dependence of sesame seed production to chemical fertilizer, decrease negative environmental impacts and as an ecofriendly inputs can help to produce crops and sustainable agriculture guidlines.

  19. Ammonia volatilization and yield components after application of polymer-coated urea to maize

    Eduardo Zavaschi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A form of increasing the efficiency of N fertilizer is by coating urea with polymers to reduce ammonia volatilization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymer-coated urea on the control of ammonia volatilization, yield and nutritional characteristics of maize. The experiment was carried out during one maize growing cycle in 2009/10 on a Geric Ferralsol, inUberlândia, MG, Brazil. Nitrogen fertilizers were applied as topdressing on the soil surface in the following urea treatments: polymer-coated urea at rates of 45, 67.5 and 90 kg ha-1 N and one control treatment (no N, in randomized blocks with four replications. Nitrogen application had a favorable effect on N concentrations in leaves and grains, Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD chlorophyll meter readings and on grain yield, where as coated urea had no effect on the volatilization rates, SPAD readings and N leaf and grain concentration, nor on grain yield in comparison to conventional fertilization.

  20. Effects of plant densities on yield, yield components and some morphological characters of two cultivators of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Al-Barzinjy, M.; Stölen, O.; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog

    2003-01-01

    Effects of Plant Densities on Yield, Yield Components and some Morphological Characters of two Cultivators of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)......Effects of Plant Densities on Yield, Yield Components and some Morphological Characters of two Cultivators of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)...

  1. Genotypic Variation in Yield, Yield Components, Root Morphology and Architecture, in Soybean in Relation to Water and Phosphorus Supply

    He, Jin; Jin, Yi; Du, Yan-Lei; Wang, Tao; Turner, Neil C.; Yang, Ru-Ping; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.; Li, Feng-Min

    2017-01-01

    Water shortage and low phosphorus (P) availability limit yields in soybean. Roots play important roles in water-limited and P-deficient environment, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study we determined the responses of four soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotypes [Huandsedadou (HD), Bailudou (BLD), Jindou 21 (J21), and Zhonghuang 30 (ZH)] to three P levels [applied 0 (P0), 60 (P60), and 120 (P120) mg P kg-1 dry soil to the upper 0.4 m of the soil profile] and two water treatment [well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS)] with special reference to root morphology and architecture, we compared yield and its components, root morphology and root architecture to find out which variety and/or what kind of root architecture had high grain yield under P and drought stress. The results showed that water stress and low P, respectively, significantly reduced grain yield by 60 and 40%, daily water use by 66 and 31%, P accumulation by 40 and 80%, and N accumulation by 39 and 65%. The cultivar ZH with the lowest daily water use had the highest grain yield at P60 and P120 under drought. Increased root length was positively associated with N and P accumulation in both the WW and WS treatments, but not with grain yield under water and P deficits. However, in the WS treatment, high adventitious and lateral root densities were associated with high N and P uptake per unit root length which in turn was significantly and positively associated with grain yield. Our results suggest that (1) genetic variation of grain yield, daily water use, P and N accumulation, and root morphology and architecture were observed among the soybean cultivars and ZH had the best yield performance under P and water limited conditions; (2) water has a major influence on nutrient uptake and grain yield, while additional P supply can modestly increase yields under drought in some soybean genotypes; (3) while conserved water use plays an important role in grain yield under drought

  2. Altura de planta e componentes do rendimento do feijoeiro em função de população de plantas, adubação e calagem Common bean plant height and primary yield components affected by plant population, fertilization and liming

    Antonio Barbara de Souza

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar os efeitos de populações de plantas e níveis de adubação e calagem sobre a altura e os componentes do rendimento de grãos do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em um solo Podizólico Vermelho Amarelo distrófico, de baixa fertilidade natural, foram conduzidos três experimentos de campo em Lavras - MG. Nos dois primeiros, utilizaram-se a cv. Pérola e delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, no arranjo fatorial 4x4, envolvendo quatro populações: 120, 180, 240 e 300 mil plantas.ha-1 e quatro níveis de adubação e calagem: 0, 1/3, 2/3 e 3/3 das doses de fertilizantes e calcário recomendadas para o nível 2 de tecnologia pela Comissão de Fertilidade do Solo do Estado de Minas Gerais. No terceiro ensaio, o arranjo fatorial foi 2x4x4, envolvendo duas cultivares, Pérola e Carioca, quatro populações, 100, 200, 300 e 400 mil plantas.ha-1; e quatro níveis de adubação e calagem 0, 1/2, 2/2 e 3/2 das doses. O incremento da população de plantas reduziu a altura e o número de vagens por planta e o incremento dos níveis de adubação e calagem elevou a altura, o número de vagens por planta, o número de grãos por vagem e a massa média do grão.With a view to defining the plant density and level of fertilization and liming for the bean crop ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a natural low fertility soil (distrophic Red Yellow Podzolic, three field experiments were carried out in Lavras - MG. In the two first experiments the cultivar Pérola was utilized and the randomized block experimental design, with four replications and 4x4 factorial arrangement, involving four populations (120, 180, 240 and 300 thousand plants.ha-1 and four levels of fertilization and liming (0, 1/3, 2/3 and 3/3 of the recommended doses of fertilizers and limistone for the level 2 of technology by the Comissão de Fertilidade do Solo do Estado de Minas Gerais was adopted. In the third trial, the factorial

  3. Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources and Application Timing Affects Wheat and Inter-Seeded Red Clover Yields on Claypan Soils

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Controlled-release N fertilizer, such as polymer-coated urea (PCU, may be a fall N management option for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in poorly-drained claypan soils. Field research evaluated (1 urea release from fall-applied PCU in 2006 and 2007; (2 broadcast fall-spring split (25%:75% of N sources; and (3 a single fall (100% application of PCU, urea, urea plus NBPT (N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide] (U + NBPT, ammonium nitrate (AN, or urea ammonium nitrate (UAN at 0, 56, 84, and 112 kg·N·ha−1 on wheat yield, wheat biomass, N uptake by wheat, and frost-seeded red clover (FSC (Trifolium pratense L. forage yield (2004–2007. PCU applied in fall released less than 30% urea by February. Urea released from PCU by harvest was 60% and 85% in 2006 and 2007, respectively. In poorly-drained soils, wheat yields ranked PCU > AN > U + NBPT > urea ≥ UAN over the rates evaluated for fall-only application. PCU was a viable fall-applied N source, with yields similar to or greater than urea or U + NBPT split-applied. Split-N applications of AN, urea, UAN, and U + NBPT generally resulted in greater wheat yields than a fall application. Enhanced efficiency fertilizers provide farmers with flexible options for maintaining high yielding production systems.

  4. The Effects of Soil Amendments and Bio-fertilizers Inoculation on Morphological Characteristics and Yield of Echium amoenum

    M.B. Amiri

    2017-10-01

    one of the most important medicinal plants in Iranian traditional medicine. Petals of Iranian oxtongue have been advocated for a variety of effects such as demulcent, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, especially for common cold, anxiolytic, sedative and other psychiatric symptoms including obsession in folk medicine of Iran. Despite many research on the effects of organic acids and bio-fertilizers on different crops, there is scarce information on the effects of these factors for many medicinal plants. Therefore, in this study effect of organic acids and bio-fertilizers on morphological characteristics and yield of Echium amoenum in a low input cropping system was studied. Materials and methods: In order to evaluate the effects of soil amendments and different bio-fertilizers on morphological characteristics and seed yield of Echium amoenum, an experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications during 2011-2013 growing seasons, at the Research Farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Treatments were eight different types of soil amendments and bio-fertilizers concluding: 1 Humic acid, 2 Fulvic acid, 3 Nitroxin® (Azotobacter spp. and Azospirillum spp., 4 Biophosphorous® (Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., 5 Biosulfur® (Thiobacillus spp., 6 Mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae, 7 Mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices, and 8 no fertilizer as control. Result and Discussion: The results showed that mycorrhiza species increased flower yield compared with control, as the flower yield in treatments of G. mosseae and G. intraradices were 24 and 11 percent more than control, respectively. Soil amendments and different bio-fertilizers increased the number of flower cycle per plant compared with control. Although the effect of biophosphorous® was more pronounced, as the number of flower cycle per plant increased from 342 to 1322 cycles in control and biophosphorous® , respectively. Humic acid treatment increased seed yield, biological yield, seed

  5. Effect of microbiological fertilizer and soil additive on yield of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moenchunder high altitude conditions

    Oljača Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of microbiological fertilizer (Slavol and soil additives (zeolite and hydrogel on buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench yield was investigated in this paper. Trial was set up in the village of Radijevići, Serbia in agroecological conditions of mountain Zlatar (altitude 1,065 m during a two-year period 2009 and 2010. A randomized complete block design with four replications was set up. In organic cropping system three combinations of microbiological fertilizer (Slavol with zeolite and hydrogel were used prior to sowing. Different combinations of the microbiological fertilizer and the soil additives gave positive results especially in the second year of the trial. The best combination in organic cropping system was Slavol+hydrogel with foliar application of the microbiological fertilizer, which resulted in the greatest yield of buckwheat and this treatment can be recommended to producers. Buckwheat performed very well under limited conditions of acidic soil on high altitude in organic cropping system and it can be recommended as a very suitable crop for organic producers.

  6. Produtividade e componentes de produção da soja adubada com diferentes doses de fósforo, potássio e zinco Yield and production components of soybean fertilized with different doses of phosphorus, potassium and zinc

    Affonso Celso Gonçalves Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O correto incremento da produtividade agrícola deve estar aliado ao avanço tecnológico no conhecimento das exigências nutricionais de cada cultura, proporcionando, dessa forma, o correto uso de insumos na propriedade agrícola. Com o objetivo de estudar a resposta de plantas de soja ao zinco (Zn em relação a diferentes doses de fósforo (P e potássio (K, foi realizado este experimento no município de Palotina-PR. O solo foi classificado como Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo eutrófico. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 3x3, constituindo três formas de adubação com P2O5 e K2O: sem adubação, uma vez e duas vezes a recomendação de adubação pela análise de solo e três doses de Zn (0; 2 e 4 kg ha-1. Como fonte de nutrientes, foram utilizados fosfato bicálcico para P, cloreto de potássio para K e sulfato de zinco para Zn. As doses de Zn aplicadas não influenciaram, significativamente, a produtividade, não sendo justificada a sua suplementação na forma de adubação de base. Já a adubação com P2O5 e K2O provocou significativo aumento da produtividade e aumento do número de legumes por planta, com aumento das doses desses nutrientes no solo.The correct productivity increment must be allied to the technological advance in the knowledge of the nutritional requirements of each culture, thus allowing for the correct use of the inputs in the agricultural property. With the objective of studying the plants of soybean reply to zinc (Zn in relation to the different doses of phosphorus (P and potassium (K, this experiment was performed in the municipality of Palotina-PR. The soil was classified as typic hapludalf. The treatments were arranged in a 3x3 factorial scheme, constituting three fertilization forms with P2O5 e K2O: without fertilization, recommended dose and twice the recommended fertilization dose by the soil analysis and three Zn doses (0; 2 and 4 kg ha-1. Nutrient sources used were bicalcic phosphate for P

  7. Yield and Yield Components of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. as Affected by Micronutrient Application and Vermicompost in Two Kerman and Bardsir Regions

    Alireza Karimi Gogheri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Despite the importance of oily crops in development of Iran, there are few studies on nutrition with micronutrient in these crops, especially for safflower. Safflower, a deep rooted oilseed crop, is grown in many areas of world because it can be used as oil crop, vegetable, birdfeed and spices. To achieve the acceptable growth and yield of safflower, it needs the sufficient micro- and macronutrient, so that recently, there has been an increased interest in evaluation of nutrient role in quality and quantity of safflower. Application of vermicompost in oil crop production systems of Iran has been increased; which it can improve soil structure by increasing aggregate stability as well as increase in water holding capacity and aeration. On the other hand, micronutrients are nutrients required by plants in small quantities to organize a range of physiological functions. The deficiency micronutrients is widespread in many parts of the country due to cultivation of high yielding varieties, intensive agriculture and increasing use of sulphur free fertilizers in large quantities with concomitant decrease in use of organic manures. There is little information on interaction of vermicompost and micronutrients combination on safflower. thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of combinations of three important micronutrient consisted of sulphur, zinc and boron on yield and yield components as well as dry forage production of safflower in different vermicompost treatments. Material and Methods In this research, the effect of micronutrient application and vermicompost was examined on yield and yield components of safflower in Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Kerman Province in two Kerman and Bardsir regions. The treatments were included vermicompost factor at two levels (0 and 6 t ha-1 and micronutrients combinations at 12 levels (no use, 100 kg ha-1 S, 200 kg ha-1 S, 3 ml L-1 Zn, 2 ml L-1 B, four twofold and two

  8. Sewage sludge used as organic manure in Moroccan sunflower culture: Effects on certain soil properties, growth and yield components.

    Mohamed, Bourioug; Mounia, Krouna; Aziz, Abouabdillah; Ahmed, Harraq; Rachid, Bouabid; Lotfi, Aleya

    2018-06-15

    The wastewater treatment and sludge production sectors in Morocco are recent. Considered as waste, no management strategy for sewage sludge (SS) has been implemented. Thus, its disposal definitely represents a major environmental problem since sludge is either incinerated, used as landfill or simply deposited near wastewater treatment plants. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dehydrated SS on certain soil properties (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), Mineral nitrogen, available phosphate P 2 O 5 , and soluble potassium K 2 O), and also on growth and yield components of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). An experiment was conducted using six treatment rates (0; 0 + NPK; 15; 30; 60 and 120 t ha -1 ). The results showed that soil pH was significantly affected by SS, becoming less alkaline compared to the control, while electrical conductivity increased significantly when the applied doses were above 30 t ha -1 . Also, a significant enrichment in mineral N and available phosphorus was detected in amended soil. However, no differences were found between pots having received the mineral fertilization and the SS at 15 t ha -1 . Stem height growth of the sunflower seedlings receiving SS increased significantly compared to the two controls. For both the aerial and root parts, significant increases in dry biomass accumulation were observed compared to the unamended plants. Net CO 2 assimilation (A n ) increased, while stomatal conductance (g sw ) and transpiration rates (T r ) decreased with increasing SS rates. SS application at 15 t ha -1 presented similar values of the yield components compared to plants fertilized chemically. However, grain yield (in quintals ha -1 ) was noted to be 2.4, 5 and 8 times higher in treatments receiving SS respectively at the rate of 30, 60 and 120 t ha -1 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk assessment of replacing conventional P fertilizers with biomassash: Residual effects on plant yield, nutrition, cadmium accumulation and mycorrhizal status

    Cruz-Paredes, Carla; Lopez Garcia, Alvaro; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2017-01-01

    in biomass ashes in a barley crop grown on soil with adequate P status. Two contrasting doses of three different types of ashes were applied to an agricultural field with spring barley and compared to similar doses of triple-superphosphate fertilizer. In the second growing season after biomass ash......Reutilizing biomass ashes in agriculture can substitute inputs of P from finite primary sources. However, recycling of ashes is disputed due to their content of toxic substances such as heavy metals. This study evaluates the potential risk of replacing easily soluble inorganic P fertilizer with P...... application, grain, straw and root dry matter yield, and P and Cd uptake were determined. Resin-extractable P was measured in soil and the symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal activity, colonization, and community composition were assessed. Crop yield was not affected by ash application, while P...

  10. Effect of Foliar Application of Chelate Iron in Common and Nanoparticles Forms on Yield and Yield Components of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. under Drought Stress Conditions

    A Nasiri Dehsorkhi

    2018-05-01

    minimum height, number of umbels, number of grain per umbel, 1000-grain weight, biological and grain yield. Abd El-Kader et al, (2010 reported that decrease in fruit and seed yield of okra occurred by increasing the irrigation interval. Also the results suggested that spraying application of Fe chelate in common and Nano forms increased the yield and yield components on cumin in comparison to control. The maximum and minimum height by 27 and 21.3 cm was observed in 4 g.L-1 Nano-iron chelate and control (no spraying treatments respectively. The mean comparison of interaction effects showed that the minimum 1000-grain weight (1.5 g, grain (610.7 kg ha-1 and biological yield (1767 kg ha-1 was obtained in control × irrigation by 15 days interval. The maximum effects of iron chelate on increasing of traits was found by foliar application of 4 grams per liter Nano iron chelate. Liu et al, (2005 reported that Nano-Fe2O3 promoted the growth and photosynthesis of peanut. Sheykhbaglou et al, (2010 showed that application of Nano-iron oxide particles increased soybean yield. Reduction of particle size results in increased number of particles per unit of weight and specific surface area of a fertilizer that should increase contact of fertilizer with plant leading to increase in nutrient uptake. Nano-particles have high reactivity because of more specific surface area, more density of reactive areas, or increased reactivity of these areas on the particle surfaces. Below 100 nm Nano-particles could make plants use fertilizer more efficiently, reduced pollution and more environmentally friendly, dissolve in water more effectively thus increase their activities. Conclusions Overall, the results showed that water deficit decreased the yield and yield components of cumin but foliar application of Fe chelate in Nano and common forms increased investigated traits. The results indicated that no significant difference was observed in most of the traits between the foliar application of 2 g

  11. Broccoli yield in response to top-dressing fertilization with green manure and biofertilizer

    Gilberto Bernardo de Freitas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the productive performance of broccoli under different top-dressing organic fertilizations. The experiment was conducted under protected cultivation, in a completely randomized design with four replications, with two plants per experimental unit. Broccoli seedlings were produced in a commercial substrate in styrofoam trays. The seedlings were transplanted to plastic pots containing 10.0 L of substrate made up of subsoil and organic compost at the ratio of 3:1 (v/v, respectively, which is equivalent to about 20.0 t ha-1 of organic compost at planting. After seedling establishment, the top-dressing fertilization treatments were applied: gliricidia biomass associated or not with liquid biofertilizer of cattle manure to the soil and bokashi. Two control treatments were established: one with mineral fertilization recommended for the crop and the other without top-dressing fertilization. The broccoli production was evaluated (commercial standard. Plants that received mineral fertilizer were more productive, however, they were not significantly different (p>0.05, by Dunnet test, from the plants fertilized with 2.5 t ha-1 gliricidiabiomass (dry mass associated with liquid biofertilizer (2.0 L m-2 applied to soil. Top-dressing fertilizations with only gliricidia, at 2.5 and 5.0 t ha-1 of biomass (dry mass, resulted in no significant increase in production of broccoli inflorescence. The use of bokashi in addition to gliricidia biomass and liquid biofertilizer reduced the efficiency of the fertilization compared with plants that received only gliricidia and liquid biofertilizer.

  12. Influence of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Vermicompost Application on Flower Yield and Essential Oil of Chamomile (Matricaria Chamomile L.)

    Mohammad Reza Haj Seyed Hadi; Mohsen Abarghooei Fallah; Mohammad Taghi Darzi

    2015-01-01

       This study was performed to assess the effects of nitrogen fertilizer and vermicompost on qualitative and quantitative yield of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). It was conducted at the Research Fields of Ran Company located in Firouzkouh, Iran, in 2013. Treatments were consisted of 1) Control, 2) 100% nitrogen from urea, 3) 100% nitrogen from ammonium nitrate, 4) 75% nitrogen from urea and 25% from vermicompost, 5) 75% nitrogen from ammonium nitrate and 25% from vermicompost, 6) 50% n...

  13. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer application timing on nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield of winter wheat in Ireland

    Efretuei A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to determine the effects of initiating application of fertilizer nitrogen (N to winter wheat at different growth stages (GSs on grain yield and N use efficiency (NUE. A factorial experiment was carried out in two growing seasons (2011 and 2012 with five timings of first N application (GS 24/26 [tillering], GS 30, GS 31, GS 32 or GS 37 and an unfertilized control, two sowing densities (100 and 400 seeds/m2 and a cattle slurry treatment (with or without slurry. The latter was included to simulate variation in soil N supply (SNS. Delaying the first application of N from the tillering stage until GS 30 had no significant effect on grain yield in either year. Further delaying the initial N application until GS 31 caused a significant yield reduction in 2011, in comparison to GS 30 application, but not in 2012. Differences in efficiency of recovery and use of fertilizer N by the crop among the first three application timings were small. There was no evidence to support alteration in the timing of the first application of N in response to low plant density. Slurry application did not influence SNS, so the interaction between SNS and fertilizer N application timing could not be determined. It is concluded that in order to maximise yield and NUE, the first N application should be applied to winter wheat between late tillering and GS 30 and that delaying the first N until GS 31 can lead to yield reductions compared to the yield obtained with earlier application.

  14. Effect of different phosphorus fertilizer rates on N-uptake, N-efficiency and zea maize yield in irrigated soils

    Khalifa, Kh.

    1993-01-01

    Effect of different rates of P fertilizer on N-uptake, N-efficiency and zea mays (C.V.Lg 11) were studied by use of 15 N technique. The main objectives of this study were to study effect of different level of P on N-utilization and determine the interaction between P and N on zea mays yield, and the efficiency of N-fertilizer during different stages of plant growth. The field experiment was conducted for two years 1985 and 1986. The treatments were 0, 80, 160 Kg N, as urea Co( 15 NH 2 ) 2 and 0, 40, 80, 160 Kg P 2 O 5 as triplsuperphophate. The experiment design was randomized block of four replicates for each treatment. Yield (grain and dry matter), utilization of urea, N-uptake, total N, N-yield, Ndff%, NDF% and A-values were determined. All results indicate that zea mays responds to the addition of nitrogen and the yield increases with the increase of added nitrogen. The highest yield was for N 2 (160 Kg) level during two seasons. Also zea mays responds clearly to phosphorus especially at stages 1 and 2, where dry matter yield increases with the increase of phosphorus rate. The highest yield was for P 3 (160 Kg) rate. While in grain stage the response was for rate P 1 (40 Kg) and P 2 (80 Kg) in comparison with control. However P 1 , rate was dominant over P 2 and P 3 . The effect of P 2 rate on grain yield was very little in comparison with P 1 , while P 3 decreases the grain yield during two seasons in comparison with control. There is an effect of N and P when added both or separately. There is also effect for interaction between them on the yield (grain and dry matter). Generally, from the previous data we can conclude that the rate 160 Kg N/ha and 40 Kg P 2 O 5 /ha were optimum rate for zea mays fertilization in Deir-Ezzor (Syria) and similar areas for grain yield. (author). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  15. Interaction Effect Of Irradiation And Fertilization On Grain Yield, Kernel Weight And Severity Of Wheat To Septoria Tritici Blotch

    Arabi, M. A.; Jawhar, M.

    2004-01-01

    Field research was undertaken, for two growing seasons, to investigate the effects of soil fertilization with potassium (K 2 SO 4 , 36% K) and nitrogen (urea, 46% N), seed irradiation with gamma rays (0, 5, 10 and 15 Gy) and their combinations on the grain yield, 1000-kernel weight and severity of Mycosphaerella graminicola on wheat. Two Syrian wheat cultivars; Bohuth 6 (Triticum aestivum L.) and Bohuth 5 (T. turgidum var durum Desf.) were used in this study. Plants were inoculated with a mixture of 15 virulent isolates of the pathogen at the growth stage (GS) 33-34. Results indicated that the average response to fertilizer application and irradiation treatments was dependent on the susceptibility level of cultivars compared with the control. The level of infection of the combined NK and 15 Gy treatment was reduced by 9 and 46 % in 1998 and by 6 and 42 % in 1999 for Bohuth 5 and Bohuth 6, respectively. This was associated with increased grain yield by 68 and 59% in 1998 and 59 and 33% in 1999, respectively. Highest yield losses from M. graminicola occurred in the treatment of nil fertilization and irradiation. Grain weight was increased by various treatments applied, but such an increase was highest in the combined NK and 15 Gy treatment. This combined treatment appeared to be more effective on calcareous soils, which are typical of Mediterranean environments. (Authors)

  16. Effects of organic and biological fertilizers on fruit yield and essential oil of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce)

    Moradi, R.; Rezvani Moghaddam, P.; Nasiri Mahallati, M.; Nezhadali, A.

    2011-07-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of different organic and biological fertilizers on quantity and quality of fennel essential oil, an experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three replications. The experimental treatments included two organic (compost and vermicompost) and two biological (Pseudomonas putida and Azotobacter chroococcum) fertilizers, their all twin combinations (Ps. putida + A. chroococcum, Ps. putida + compost, Ps. putida + vermicompost, A. chroococcum + compost, A. chroococcum + vermicompost and compost + vermicompost) and control (non fertilized). There were significant differences between treatments in terms of seed essential oil percentage, essential oil yield; anethole, fenchone, limonene and straggle content in seed essential oil. Results showed that the highest and the lowest percentages of essential oil were obtained in control (2.9%) and A. chroococcum + vermicompost (2.2%) treatments, respectively. The highest essential oil yield (29.9 L ha{sup -}1) and anethole content of essential oil (69.7%) and the lowest contents of fenchone (6.14%), limonene (4.84%) and estragole (2.78%) in essential oil were obtained in compost + vermicompost treatment. It seems that compost + vermicompost treatment compared to other treatments supplied the highest equilibrium of nutrients and water in the root zone of sweet fennel which is led to increasing the anethole content, there upon, decreasing other compounds. Essential oil yield and percentage of anethole content in essential oil were significantly higher in all organic and biological treatments compared with control. (Author) 43 refs.

  17. Reduced soil cultivation and organic fertilization on organic farms: effects on crop yield and soil physical traits

    Surböck, Andreas; Gollner, Gabriele; Klik, Andreas; Freyer, Bernhard; Friedel, Jürgen K.

    2017-04-01

    A continuous investment in soil fertility is necessary to achieve sustainable yields in organic arable farming. Crucial factors here besides the crop rotation are organic fertilization and the soil tillage system. On this topic, an operational group (Project BIOBO*) was established in the frame of an European Innovation Partnership in 2016 consisting of organic farmers, consultants and scientists in the farming region of eastern Austria. The aim of this group is the development and testing of innovative, reduced soil cultivation, green manure and organic fertilization systems under on-farm and on-station conditions to facilitate the sharing and transfer of experience and knowledge within and outside the group. Possibilities for optimization of the farm-specific reduced soil tillage system in combination with green manuring are being studied in field trials on six organic farms. The aim is to determine, how these measures contribute to an increase in soil organic matter contents, yields and income, to an improved nitrogen and nutrient supply to the crops, as well as support soil fertility in general. Within a long-term monitoring project (MUBIL), the effects of different organic fertilization systems on plant and soil traits have been investigated since 2003, when the farm was converted to organic management. The examined organic fertilization systems, i.e. four treatments representing stockless and livestock keeping systems, differ in lucerne management and the supply of organic manure (communal compost, farmyard manure, digestate from a biogas plant). Previous results of this on-station experiment have shown an improvement of some soil properties, especially soil physical properties, since 2003 in all fertilization systems and without differences between them. The infiltration rate of rainwater has increased because of higher hydraulic conductivity. The aggregate stability has shown also positive trends, which reduces the susceptibility to soil erosion by wind and

  18. The Effect of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM on Yield and Yield Components of Three Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Cultivars

    A. Mehraban

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the influence of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM on yield and yield components of three sorghum cultivars, a factorial experiment based randomized complete block design with four replications was carried out in 2007, at the Agricultural Research Center of Zahak, Iran. The treatments were different mycorrhiza species in three levels: without mycorrhiza (M1, Glomus etanicatum (M2 and G. mosseae(M3 and three cultivars of sorghum: local cultivars (C1, KGS25 (C2 and KGS29 (C3. The results showed that all of the traits measured were increased by inoculation of cultivars with mycorrhiza. The highest plant height (165.1 cm, stem diameter (1.61 cm, flag leaf length (27.22 cm, flag leaf width (3.67 cm and ear width (5.00 cm was obtained by inoculation of seed with Glumus etanicatum, and highest ear length (19.21 cm, ear number (2.51, seed number per ear (10252.11, 1000-seed weight (17.56 g and grain yield (1967.32 kg/ha by using Glumus mossea. The highest leaf width and length belonged to local cultivar, and the highest seed yield to KGS 29 cultivar. However, differences of other traits among sorghum cultivars were not significant. Based on the experimental results it can be concluded that highest grain yield may be obtained by inoculating seeds of KGS 29 with Glumus mossea.

  19. Modelling of seed yield and its components in tall fescue (Festuca ...

    AJL

    2011-10-03

    Oct 3, 2011 ... Ridge regression analysis was used to derive a steady algorithmic .... included three replicates [3 × 6 = 18 plots (treatments), stochastic ..... The parameter estimates of the five seed yield components of a total of 327 samples.

  20. Application of Spent Mushroom Compost and Mycorrhiza on Yield and Yield Components of Garlic (Allium sativum L. in the Low Input Cropping System

    P rezvani moghaddam

    2017-10-01

    , manganese and copper and water. In return, the plant provides carbohydrates for the fungi. Materials and methods In order to study the effect of mushroom compost and mycorrhiza on yield of garlic (Allium sativum L., a split plot experiment based on RCBD design with three replications was conducted in 2010-11 growing season in research farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae (use and non-use and spent mushroom compost levels (SMC (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 t ha-1 were considered as the main and sub factors. In order to determine the physic-chemical properties of soil, sampling was done at a depth of 0 to 30 cm. Distance on and between rows was considered 10 and 20 cm, respectively. In order to weeds control, manual weeding was done three times. At the end of the growing season, economic yield, biological yield, plant height, shoot dry weight, bulb diameter, bulblet weight per plant, bulblet volume per plant and bulblet number per plant were measured. Analysis of variance was done with SAS Ver 9.1 software. Result and discussion The results showed that the effect of different levels of mushroom compost was significant on the most studied traits, but mycorrhiza had no significant effect on yield and yield components of garlic. Based on the results, highest diameter and length of the bulb and bulblets were observed in application of 100 t ha-1 SMC. The highest economic yield (12760 kg ha-1 was observed in application of 100 t ha-1 SMC, so that the application of SMC increased economic yield by 48 percent compared to control. The highest dry matter production and harvest index also were observed in application of 100 t ha-1 SMC. Organic and biological fertilizers are among the most significant resources for development of agricultural soil quality and increase in the yield of different medicinal plants. It has been reported that this ecological inputs provide favorable conditions for plant growth and development through improvement of physical

  1. Effect of different N fertilizer forms on antioxidant capacity and grain yield of rice growing under Cd stress

    Jalloh, Mohamed Alpha; Chen Jinghong; Zhen Fanrong; Zhang Guoping

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium contamination in soil has become a serious issue in sustainable agriculture production and food safety. A pot experiment was conducted to study the influence of four N fertilizer forms on grain yield, Cd concentration in plant tissues and oxidative stress under two Cd levels (0 and 100 mg Cd kg -1 soil). The results showed that both N form and Cd stress affected grain yield, with urea-N and NH 4 + -N treatments having significantly higher grain yields, and Cd addition reducing yield. NO 3 - -N and NH 4 + -N treated plants had the highest and lowest Cd concentration in plant tissues, respectively. Urea-N and NH 4 + -N treatments had significantly higher N accumulation in plant tissues than other two N treatments. Cd addition caused a significant increase in leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities for all N treatments, except for NO 3 - -N treatment, with urea-N and NH 4 + -N treated plants having more increase than organic-N treated ones. The results indicated that growth inhibition, yield reduction and Cd uptake of rice plants in response to Cd addition varied with the N fertilizer form

  2. Effect of different N fertilizer forms on antioxidant capacity and grain yield of rice growing under Cd stress.

    Jalloh, Mohamed Alpha; Chen, Jinghong; Zhen, Fanrong; Zhang, Guoping

    2009-03-15

    Cadmium contamination in soil has become a serious issue in sustainable agriculture production and food safety. A pot experiment was conducted to study the influence of four N fertilizer forms on grain yield, Cd concentration in plant tissues and oxidative stress under two Cd levels (0 and 100 mg Cd kg(-1)soil). The results showed that both N form and Cd stress affected grain yield, with urea-N and NH(4)(+)-N treatments having significantly higher grain yields, and Cd addition reducing yield. NO(3)(-)-N and NH(4)(+)-N treated plants had the highest and lowest Cd concentration in plant tissues, respectively. Urea-N and NH(4)(+)-N treatments had significantly higher N accumulation in plant tissues than other two N treatments. Cd addition caused a significant increase in leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities for all N treatments, except for NO(3)(-)-N treatment, with urea-N and NH(4)(+)-N treated plants having more increase than organic-N treated ones. The results indicated that growth inhibition, yield reduction and Cd uptake of rice plants in response to Cd addition varied with the N fertilizer form.

  3. Effect of different N fertilizer forms on antioxidant capacity and grain yield of rice growing under Cd stress

    Jalloh, Mohamed Alpha; Chen Jinghong; Zhen Fanrong [Department of Agronomy, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhang Guoping [Department of Agronomy, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)], E-mail: zhanggp@zju.edu.cn

    2009-03-15

    Cadmium contamination in soil has become a serious issue in sustainable agriculture production and food safety. A pot experiment was conducted to study the influence of four N fertilizer forms on grain yield, Cd concentration in plant tissues and oxidative stress under two Cd levels (0 and 100 mg Cd kg{sup -1} soil). The results showed that both N form and Cd stress affected grain yield, with urea-N and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N treatments having significantly higher grain yields, and Cd addition reducing yield. NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N treated plants had the highest and lowest Cd concentration in plant tissues, respectively. Urea-N and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N treatments had significantly higher N accumulation in plant tissues than other two N treatments. Cd addition caused a significant increase in leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities for all N treatments, except for NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N treatment, with urea-N and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N treated plants having more increase than organic-N treated ones. The results indicated that growth inhibition, yield reduction and Cd uptake of rice plants in response to Cd addition varied with the N fertilizer form.

  4. The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, nitrogen and phosphorus on relative agronomic efficiency of fertilizers, growth parameters and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivar N-80-19 in Sari

    Z. Saber

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the efficiency of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR plus nitrogen and phosphorous chemical fertilizers on relative agronomic efficiency of P and N fertilizers and some agronomic parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivar N-80-19, an experiment was conducted at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during growing season of 2008-2009. Experiment was arranged in split-split plot based on randomized complete block design with three levels (0, 25 and 50 kg.ha-1 and sub-plots were considered PGPR at four levels (control, inoculation with nitrogen fixing bacteria (PFB, phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB and dual inoculation with PFB and PSB with three replications. Results showed that the application of biofertilizers significantly increased relative agronomic efficiency of N and P fertilizers, spike number, plant height, flag leaf area, grain yield and grain weight of wheat. Application of biofertilizers increased wheat grain yield as much as 46.6% as compared to control. Double inoculation of biofertilizers improved relative agronomic efficiency of fertilizers by 58.4 and 76.5% as compared to control, respectively. Integrated treatments showed higher performance compared to separate treatments. Generally, biofertilizers with low levels of P and N fertilizers significantly improved yield components of wheat without any reduction in yield related parameters.

  5. Nitrogen Fertilizer Deep Placement for Increased Grain Yield and Nitrogen Recovery Efficiency in Rice Grown in Subtropical China

    Meng Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Field plot experiments were conducted over 3 years (from April 2014 to November 2016 in a double-rice (Oryza sativa L. cropping system in subtropical China to evaluate the effects of N fertilizer placement on grain yield and N recovery efficiency (NRE. Different N application methods included: no N application (CK; N broadcast application (NBP; N and NPK deep placement (NDP and NPKDP, respectively. Results showed that grain yield and apparent NRE significantly increased for NDP and NPKDP as compared to NBP. The main reason was that N deep placement (NDP increased the number of productive panicle per m-2. To further evaluate the increase, a pot experiment was conducted to understand the N supply in different soil layers in NDP during the whole rice growing stage and a 15N tracing technique was used in a field experiment to investigate the fate of urea-15N in the rice–soil system during rice growth and at maturity. The pot experiment indicated that NDP could maintain a higher N supply in deep soil layers than N broadcast for 52 days during rice growth. The 15N tracing study showed that NDP could maintain much higher fertilizer N in the 5–20 cm soil layer during rice growth and could induce plant to absorb more N from fertilizer and soil than NBP, which led to higher NRE. One important finding was that NDP and NPKDP significantly increased fertilizer NRE but did not lead to N declined in soil compared to NBP. Compared to NPK, NPKDP induced rice plants to absorb more fertilizer N rather than soil N.

  6. Maintaining yields and reducing nitrogen loss in rice–wheat rotation system in Taihu Lake region with proper fertilizer management

    Xue, Lihong; Yu, Yingliang; Yang, Linzhang

    2014-01-01

    In the Tailake region of China, heavy nitrogen (N) loss of rice–wheat rotation systems, due to high fertilizer-N input with low N use efficiency (NUE), was widely reported. To alleviate the detrimental impacts caused by N loss, it is necessary to improve the fertilizer management practices. Therefore, a 3 yr field experiments with different N managements including organic combined chemical N treatment (OCN, 390 kg N ha −1 yr −1 , 20% organic fertilizer), control–released urea treatment (CRU, 390 kg N ha −1 yr −1 , 70% resin-coated urea), reduced chemical N treatment (RCN, 390 kg N ha −1 yr −1 , all common chemical fertilizer), and site-specific N management (SSNM, 333 kg N ha −1 yr −1 , all common chemical fertilizer) were conducted in the Taihu Lake region with the ‘farmer’s N’ treatment (FN, 510 kg N ha −1 yr −1 , all common chemical fertilizer) as a control. Grain yield, plant N uptake (PNU), NUE, and N losses via runoff, leaching, and ammonia volatilization were assessed. In the rice season, the FN treatment had the highest N loss and lowest NUE, which can be attributed to an excessive rate of N application. Treatments of OCN and RCN with a 22% reduced N rate from FN had no significant effect on PNU nor the yield of rice in the 3 yr; however, the NUE was improved and N loss was reduced 20–32%. OCN treatment achieved the highest yield, while SSNM has the lowest N loss and highest NUE due to the lowest N rate. In wheat season, N loss decreased about 28–48% with the continuous reduction of N input, but the yield also declined, with the exception of OCN treatment. N loss through runoff, leaching and ammonia volatilization was positively correlated with the N input rate. When compared with the pure chemical fertilizer treatment of RCN under the same N input, OCN treatment has better NUE, better yield, and lower N loss. 70% of the urea replaced with resin-coated urea had no significant effect on yield and NUE improvement, but

  7. Effects of Row Spacing and Plant Density on Yield and Yield Components of Sweet Corn in Climatic Conditions of Isfahan

    N. Khodaeian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of row spacing and plant density on yield and yield components of sweet corn, variety KSC403, an experiment was conducted in Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran, in 2007, as randomized complete block design with a split-plot layout and three replications. The main plots were allocated to two row spacing (60 and 75 cm and the sub-plots accommodated four levels of plant density (50000, 70000, 90000 and 110000 plants per ha. There was significant increase in leaf area index, shoot dry weight, 100-grain fresh weight and grain fresh yield, as row width was decreased from 75 to 60 cm but the plant height was decreased. There was no significant effect of row spacing on number of rows per ear, number of grains per row and number of grains per ear. Plant height, leaf area index, shoot dry weight per m2 and number of ears per m2 were increased with an increase in plant density. The number of rows per ear, number of grains per row, number of grains per ear, 100-grain fresh weight and grain fresh yield were significantly higher under plant densities of 90000 and 110000 as compared to 50000 and 70000 plants per ha. There was significant interaction between row spacing and plant density for leaf area index, shoot dry weight, number of grains per ear, 100-grain fresh weight and grain fresh yield. Under all plant densities, the grain fresh yield was higher in 60-cm row width compared to 70-cm row width. However, the difference between these two row spacing was not significant in plant densities of 50000 and 110000 plants per ha. The highest grain fresh yield (33940 kg/ha was achieved under row spacing 60 cm and 70000 plants per ha and the least grain fresh yield (20750 kg/ha was obtained in under 75 cm row width and 110000 plants per ha. Considering the obtained results of this experiment, to have maximum grain fresh yield of sweet corn under Isfahan climate, the row spacing of 60 cm and plant density of

  8. The Effect of Irrigation Intervals and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Chlorophyll Index, Yield and Yield Components of Grain Sorghum

    J. Hamzei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effect of irrigation intervals and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on chlorophyll index, yield and yield components of grain sorghum. A factorial experiment was done based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications at the Agriculture Research Station faculty of Agriculture, Bu- Ali Sina University in growing season of 2011. Irrigation intervals (7, 14 and 21 days with three levels of seed inoculation (control without inoculation, inoculation with Glomus mossea and inoculation with G. intraradices were the experimental treatments. Results indicated that the effect of irrigation intervals and mycorrhizal fungi were significant for traits of chlorophyll index, percentage of root symbiosis (PRS, number of grain per panicle, 1000 seed weight, grain yield and harvest index (HI. Maximum value for each trait was observed at G. mossea treatment. G. mossea treatment in comparison with G. intraradices and control treatment can increase the grain yield of sorghum up to 6.80 and 23.10%, respectively. Also, with increasing irrigation interval from 7 to 21 days, PRS increased up to 27.9%. Maximum value for grain yield (755 g m-2 was achieved at irrigation every 14 days and application of G. mossea treatment. But, there was no significant difference between irrigation sorghum plants every 14 days and application of G. mossea and irrigation every 7 days and application of either G. mossea or G. intraradices. In general, irrigation of sorghum plants every 14 days and supplying of G. mossea can produce the highest grain yield, while decreasing water consumption for sorghum production.

  9. Effects of Methanol Spraying on Qualitative traits, Yield and Yield Components of Soybean (Glycine max L. under Drought Stress Conditions

    J Esazadeh Panjali Kharabasi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soybean (Glycin max L. is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world. It can provide oil and vegetable protein suitable for feeding humans as well as animals. The productivity Increasing of this crop in Iran has been the subject of continuous investigation over the past few years. It is well known that adequate water supply is considered as a very important factor to affect the accumulation of dry matter in the plant as well as vegetative growth of most crops. Irrigation is an important factor affecting soybean growth and yield and its related components. Exposing soybean plants to soil moisture stress at any phase of its life cycle may lead to a detrimental effect on growth, yield and its components. The methanol spraying can lead to increase in yield, expediting in maturity and reduction in drought stress impacts and water requirement of crops. Material and Methods The experiment was conducted as split plots based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture of Moghan, Iran, in 2011. Treatments included three levels of drought stress as follows irrigation after, 40 (control, 55 and 70 percentage of available soil moisture depletion as main plots, and four levels of methanol spraying including 0 (control, 7, 21 and 35 volumetric percentage as sub plots. The studied traits were included plant height, leaf area, number of pod and seed per plant, 1000 seed weight, biological and seed yield, stomatal conductance and proline contents. Statistical analysis was carried out using SAS version 9.1 software. Significant difference was set at p ≤ 0.05 by using Duncan’s multiple range test. Results and Discussion The results showed that the plant height, leaf area, number of pod and seed per plant, 1000 seed weight, biological and seed yield, stomatal conductance and proline contents as well as number of leaf per plant significantly affected by drought stress and methanol

  10. Effect of Organic and Biological Fertilizers on Growth and Yield of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and Bacterial Colonization

    H. Makarian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent decades, excessive use of chemical fertilizers causes environmental problems such as water resource pollution and decrease in soil fertility. Organic matters are excellent sources of plant-available nutrients and their addition to soil could maintain high microbial populations and activities. In crop studies, Prabha et al. (2007 reported that there was excellent plant growth as well as yield in garlic plants that received vermicompost as nutrient in the field (28. Recent studies confirmed that, a number of bacterial species mostly associated with the plant rhizosphere, are found to be beneficial for plant growth, yield and crop quality. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the growth promoting effects of organic and bio-fertilizers on tomato growth and yield. Materials and Methods: A factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at the College of Agricultural, University of Shahrood in 2011. Geographically, the site is located in Bastam (36° 25’E, 54° 58’N, 1349 m a.s.l..The climate of this region is semi-arid. Treatments included three levels of organic fertilizers: vermicompost (1300 kgha-1, cow manure (3350 kgha-1, and control, biological fertilizer in four levels (Pseudomonas putyda, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Azotobacter chrococcum and control. The bacterial suspension for each species was applied at a rate of 3 liters per hectare. Metribuzin herbicide (wettable 80% powder was used at a rate of 1000 gr. ha-1. Petopride No. 2' variety of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. was used in the present experiment. At the time of harvesting, the plant characteristics namely lengths and diameter of stem, number and weight of fruit, weight of stem and leaf were also registered. Statistical analyses of data were performed with statistical software Mstatc. Significant differences between means refer to the probability level of 0.05 by LSD test. Results

  11. Effect of Drought Stress onYield and Yield Components of Sesame cultivars under Kerman conditions (Sesamum indicum L.

    S Farahbakhsh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate effects of drought stress on yield and yield components of sesame in Kerman region a split-plot experiment based onn compelet randomised block design with three replications was carried out in 1388. Irrigation levels (Normal irrigation in all growth stages, witholding water after 50% flowering, witholding water after 50% pod setting and differen t sesame landraces (Jiroft, Shiraz, Ardestan, Dezful, Shahr babak, Gorgan, Sirjan, Markazi, Birjand and Orzueieh were considered as main plots and sub-plots respectively. Plant height, the biggest pod length, noumber of grain per pod, noumber of pod per plant, grain weight per plant, thousand grain weight and grain yield were the measured traits. Results showed all the measured traits were significantly affected by the irrigation treatments. The effects of different landraces on all traits except noumber of grain per plant were significant. Irrigation × landraces interaction affected all measured traits except the biggest pod length significantly. The highest grain yield was recorde for Markezi landrace (845.2 kg –ha under normal irrigation and the lowest one was obtained from Jiroft landrace (104.8 kg –ha with witholding irrigation after 50% flowering.

  12. Effect of irrigation water salinity and zinc application on yield, yield components and zinc accumulation of wheat

    mohamad ahmadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is one of the most important problems of agriculture in crop production in arid and semi arid regions. Under these conditions, in addition to management strategies, proper and adequate nutrition also has an important role in crop improvement. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of 4 different irrigation water salinities (blank, 4, 8 and 12 dS m-1, prepared with 1:1 molar ratio of chlorides of calcium and sodium and magnesium sulphate salts. and 5 different zinc applications (0, 10, 20, 30 mg Kg-1 soil and foliar application of salt of zinc sulphate on yield, yield components and zinc concentration of wheat, using a completely randomized design, factorial with three replications. Plant height, spike length, 1000 grain weight, number of grain per spike, grain and straw yield was decreased by Irrigation water salinity. And all of these parameters were improved by zinc application except 1000 grain weight. Zinc absorption and concentration in straw and grain was decreased by Saline water compared to blank. And concentration of zinc significantly was increased in straw and grain by increase zinc application. The results indicated that, zinc application under low to medium salinity conditions improved growth and yield of wheat due to decreasing the impacts salinity.

  13. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays is widely well know that the potato is an important vegetable crop at Brazíl. It is grown on about 173.000 ha, with total yield of 2.6 million tons year-1. The average yield is 15 t ha-1. This level is very low because degeneration of crop is rapid under high temperature and high viruses pressure. Therefore seed potato propagation and production is principal on consumption potato production. This is why we found it necessary to develop it. The latossolo vermelho soil-farmyard manure- burnt rice straw-fertilizer 4N:14P:8K greenhouse pot trial was set up at the National Vegetable Crops Research Center, Brasília-DF, Brazíl in 1990. The methods of the experiments were soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw, soil x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer and soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer on randomized block design in total 29 combination of treatments in 5, 5 and 3 repetitions with in a total parcel of 116. According to chemical analysis of the a., soil, b., farmyard manure and c., burnt rice straw the agrochemistry parameters were as follows (estimated datas): a., latossolo vermelho soil: CaCO3 0.3-0.7%, humo 0.9-1.0%, pH (H2O) 5.3, pH (KCl) 4.5, AL- P2O5 3.2-3.5 mg kg-1, AL- K2O 180 mg kg-1, Mg (KCl) 70 mg kg-1, EDTA-Zn 0.5-0.8 mg kg-1, EDTA-Cu 0.5-0.6 mg kg-1, b., farmyard manure: N 1.8 g kg-1, P2O5 2.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.0 g kg-1, c., burnt rice straw: N 0.8 g kg-1, P2O5 7.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.5 g kg-1. The experimental datas were estimated by analysis of variance, ANOVA and MANOVA. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. Mixture of 80% latossolo vermelho, 10% burnt rice straw and 10% farmyard manure were shown best performance on seed potato productivity. The piece of tubers with a 0-20 mm (consumption seeds) was increased by 77%. 2. Total seed potato number was reached maximum at 10.8 g pot-1 4N:14P:8K fertilizer regarding to average of treatments with a 33%. 3. Dry biomassa production plant-1 was decreased by high dose of 4N:14P:8K

  14. Effect of irrigation and fertilization on crop yield and fruit quality of the Tahiti lime Citrus latifolia Tanaka (Rutaceae

    Diana Dorado Guerra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a seven years old citrus grove of Tahiti lime Citrus latifolia Tanaka (Rutaceae located in El Espinal, Tolima, Colombia, which has a predominantly negative water balance throughout the year, we evaluated the effect of irrigation and fertilization on yield and fruit quality in 2009 and 2011. Trees were subjected to three levels of water based on the evapotranspiration reference (ETo: L1=100 %, L2=70 % and L3=50 %. We applied three nitrogen treatments: N1=nitrogen required by the nutritional balance, N2=twice the level of nitrogen used in N1, and N3=fertilizer application used by the common farmer. We evaluated the performance, fruit weight, polar and equatorial diameter of fruit, shell thickness, weight and percentage of juice, acidity, soluble solids and vitamin C. The experiment was conducted under a randomized complete block design in a split plot arrangement; the variance and means of the data were statistically analyzed with SAS. And optimal response is between irrigation and fruit quality interaction was obtained with irrigation L1 and fertilization N2. We obtained the highest values in the response variables when the highest amount of water was applied L1, regardless of fertilizer applications, indicating that a lower water supply not only affects the performance of the plant, but also the quality of the fruit, minimizing market opportunities.

  15. Effects of organic fertilizers on soil physicochemistry and on the yield and botanical composition of forage over 3 years.

    Matos-Moreira, Mariana; López-Mosquera, M Elvira; Cunha, Mario; Sáinz Osés, María Jesús; Rodríguez, Teresa; Carral, Emilio V

    2011-07-01

    Organic wastes have been reported to reduce saturation of the exchange complex by Al in Al-rich acid soils. For 3 years, the main soil fertility properties were studied in plots sown with mixed pasture species. These plots were fertilized with cattle slurry, dairy sludge (DS), or granulated broiler litter (BL) in comparison with mineral fertilizer. Al saturation levels were low after the initial inorganic liming treatment (19.00-33.71%) but tended to rise under all treatments (21.09-61.37%) except BL (8.45-30.98%), which was also associated with the highest average soil pH and the highest average levels of exchangeable Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+. Treatment DS performed similarly to mineral fertilizer in most respects, but it led to greater available P levels. Under the dry conditions of the second and third years of the study, BL and DS treatments were associated with significantly greater forage yields than the other treatments. Under DS treatment, available P levels were too low to allow the maintenance of mixed pasture, clover being eliminated by the less P-dependent species.

  16. Growth and yield of patchouli (Pogostemon cablin, Benth) due to mulching and method of fertilizer on rain-fed land

    Nasruddin; Harahap, E. M.; Hanum, C.; Siregar, L. A. M.

    2018-02-01

    The drought stress that occurs during growth results in a drastic reduction in growth and yield. This study was aimed to study the effect of mulching and method of fertilizer application in reducing the impact of drought stress on patchouli plants. The experiment was conducted from July to December 2016 using a split plot design into three replications with two treatment factors. The first factor was mulch factor with three levels, i.e. M0 (without mulch), M1 (rice straw mulch) and M2 (silver black plastic mulch). The second factor was the method of fertilizer application consisting of three stages: C1 (once), C2 (twice), C3 (three times). The parameters included plant height, number of branches, number of leaves, root length, wet weight of plant, root canopy ratio, total of chlorophyll, soil temperature and soil moisture content. The results showed the use of straw mulch reduce the impact of drought stress on patchouli plants. Two times fertilizer application gave better growth and yield. The use of straw mulch produced lower temperature degrees and maintained soil moisture content.

  17. FORMATION OF BACTERIAL AND ZOOPLANKTON COMPONENT OF NATURAL FOOD BASE UNDER EFFECT OF TRADITIONAL ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

    S. Krazhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Characterization of bacteria and zooplankton in rearing ponds using traditional fertilizers: cattle manure and bird droppings in modern conditions for fish farming. Methodology. Material collection and processing were carried out according to conventional hydrochemical and hydrobiological methods. Findings. We consider forming of bacteria and zooplankton component of natural food base of Irkliiv herbivorous fish nursery rearing ponds under the influenced of traditional organic fertilizers such as bird droppings (0,12 t/ha and cattle manure (2,0 t/ha. Each pond was planted by ongrowing Nyvka carp larvae (40,0 thousand ind./ha with silver carp (1,0 thousand ind./ha and grass carp larvae (1,0 thousand ind./ha. Qualitative and quantitative development of bacteria and zooplankton in fish-breeding ponds was investigated. The results show that in the development of the studied invertebrate groups of zooplankton in production ponds had no significant differences, except for rotifers, which group prevailed by the biomass to 3,6 times in the pond with the introduction of humus. Originality. The parameters of bacteria and zooplankton by the application of traditional organic fertilizers at present fish farming are studied. Practical value. These quantitative indicators of bacteria and zooplankton of fish-rearing ponds with water supply from Kremenchug reservoir, the application of cattle manure and bird droppings could be offered as an optimum data at present fish production stage.

  18. Long-term Miscanthus Yields Influenced by Location, Genotype, Row Distance, Fertilization and Harvest Season

    Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe; Kjeldsen, Jens Bonderup

    2014-01-01

    Long-term yield studies in perennial crops like miscanthus are important to determine mean annual energy yield and the farmer’s economy. In two Danish field trials, annual yield of two miscanthus genotypes was followed over a 20-year period. The trials were established in 1993 on loamy sand...

  19. Effects of different fertilizer inputs on the growth and yield of soybean ...

    ... at 30 kg Pha-1 and urea at 20 kg N ha-1. The experiment was arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 replicates. Result revealed that TGX 1448-2E plants supplied with sole phosphorus or in combination with either agrolyzer or urea produced better response compared with zero fertilizer application.

  20. Effect of plant population and N fertilizer on the growth and yield of ...

    Responses of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc) to 3 levels of fertilizer N (0, 50, and 100 kg N/ha) and seven plant populations (55555, 63492, 74074, 88888, 111111, 148148 and 222222 plants/ha) were studied under field conditions in Nsukka, Nigeria. The experimental design was a randomized ...

  1. Brachiaria sp yield and nutrient contents after nitrogen and sulphur fertilization

    Reges Heinrichs

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the production factors, adequate fertilization is an important tool to raise the productivity of pastoral systems and consequently increase the share of Brazil in the supply chain of primary agricultural products at the global level. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization in BRACHIARIA DECUMBENS: Stapf. The experiment in pots with Dystrophic Oxisol was evaluated in a completely randomized design with four replications in a 5 x 3 factorial arrangement, involving five N doses (0, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg dm-3 in the form of ammonium nitrate and three S doses (0, 20 and 80 mg dm-3 in the form of calcium sulfate, with a total of 15 treatments. In the treatments with low S dose, calcium was provided as calcium chloride, to ensure a homogeneous Ca supply in all treatments. The results showed that the tiller production and dry weight of green leaves and of stems + sheaths and total dry weight were favored by the combination of N and S fertilizer, while the proportion of dry leaves was reduced. Nitrogen fertilization raised the N contents in green leaves and stems + sheaths and reduced K contents in fresh and dry leaves. The response to S rates in the N content of green leaves was quadratic.

  2. Assessing yield and fertilizer response in heterogeneous smallholder fields with UAVs and satellites

    Schut, Antonius G.T.; Traore, Pierre C.S.; Blaes, Xavier; By, de Rolf A.

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural intensification and efficient use and targeting of fertilizer inputs on smallholder farms is key to sustainably improve food security. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate how high-resolution satellite and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images can be used to assess the spatial

  3. Genetic relationships among body condition score, body weight, milk yield, and fertility in dairy cows.

    Berry, D P; Buckley, F; Dillon, P; Evans, R D; Rath, M; Veerkamp, R F

    2003-06-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk production, and fertility-related traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 8591 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, milk production, and/or fertility from 78 seasonal calving grass-based farms throughout southern Ireland. Of the cows included in the analysis, 4402 had repeated records across the 2 yr of the study. Genetic correlations between level of BCS at different stages of lactation and total lactation milk production were negative (-0.51 to -0.14). Genetic correlations between BW at different stages of lactation and total lactation milk production were all close to zero but became positive (0.01 to 0.39) after adjusting BW for differences in BCS. Body condition score at different stages of lactation correlated favorably with improved fertility; genetic correlations between BCS and pregnant 63 d after the start of breeding season ranged from 0.29 to 0.42. Both BW at different stages of lactation and milk production tended to exhibit negative genetic correlations with pregnant to first service and pregnant 63 d after the start of the breeding season and positive genetic correlations with number of services and the interval from first service to conception. Selection indexes investigated illustrate the possibility of continued selection for increased milk production without any deleterious effects on fertility or average BCS, albeit, genetic merit for milk production would increase at a slower rate.

  4. 70-79 Effects of Crop Rotation and NP Fertilizer Rate on Grain Yield a

    Primary nutrient (N, P and K) composition of the ... Crop rotation with fertilizer amendment improved the pH of the soil. Crop rotation and ..... Soil organic carbon contents declined regardless of inputs application for continuously cultivated land (Kapkiyai, 1996). Higher. Organic carbon content next to before planting (1.98 %).

  5. Estimation of genotype × environment interaction for yield, health and fertility in dairy cattle

    Calus, M.P.L.

    2006-01-01

    In dairy cattle breeding,health and fertility traits have recently been included in a large number of national breeding goals.

  6. Effects of Chemical Fertilizer, Algea Compost and Zeolite on Green Bean Yield

    Aysun Türkmen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study used chemical fertilizer, brown algae compost and zeolite carried out in the field of Giresun Hazelnut Research Center between May-November 2014 in pots according to randomized blog design as three replicate each. Treatment groups were consist of eight different combinations as follow; G1-Control, G2-Zeolite, G3-Compost, G4-Chemical Fertilizer, G5-Zeolite+Compost, G6-Zeolite+Chemical Fertilizer, G7-Compost+ Chemical Fertilizer, G8-Compost+Zeolite+ Chemical Fertilizer. The brown algae (Cystoseira sp. were used as compost material. These combinations were applied to green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris. The green beans were seeded by hand to arrange planting depth of 5-6 cm and 20 seeds/m2. Except control group, each treatment was added fertilizers as 50 g zeolite, 50 g compost, and 25 g chemical according to treatment design. Half of the chemical fertilizers were added at seeding time and the rest after two weeks. Collected soil samples were analyzed right after harvest, the greatest values of treatment groups were determined as; Carbon% G1: 5.08, nitrogen G3: 0.09 ppm, sodium G5: 139 ppm, potassium G6 and G8: 5 ppm, magnesium G2: 1865 ppm, calcium G6: 8.33 ppm, manganese G2: 359 ppm, iron G6 : 16070 ppm, cobalt G6 and G7: 7.91 ppm, copper G2: 17.5 ppm, zinc G8: 28.0 ppm, selenium G7: 4.17 ppm, cadmium G5: 0.08 ppm, lead G4: 5.31 ppm. The greatest harvest value as g/m2 was obtained from zeolite only group G2 with 273 while the lowest was obtained from Compost only group G3 with 113 g/m2, obviously showing the effectiveness of zeolite only application moreover, also thinking that better results may get if the present study run for longer period.

  7. Effect of Mycorrhizal Fungus (Glomus spp on Wheat (Triticumaestivum Yield and Yield Components with Regard to Irrigation Water Quality

    S Habibi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Decrease in water quality affected by salinization of the water resources due to the drought is one of the limiting factors of plant production. Using mycorrhizal fungi is an important approach to deal with damaging effects during stress conditions. The symbiosis of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM with the host plant and hence, the production of a very extensive network of hypha, enhances nutrient acquisition and improves water uptake in the host plant. The specialized network of hypha raises the uptake and translocation of nutrients to the plant, whereas it inhibits high uptake of Na and Cl and their transport to plant shoots compared with plant roots. Hence, AM can alleviate the stress of salinity on plant growth and increases their tolerance to the stresses. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on yield and yield components of wheat, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in research farm of Shahid Chamran Ahvaz University. Experimental design was a randomized complete block design arranged in split factorial with three replications. The factors were water salinity (water quality including filtered water (EC ≥ 1 dS m-1, tap water (EC = 1/7-3 ds m-1, tap water plus NaCl and filtered water plus NaCl (EC = 8 ds m-1. Soil sterilization included sterilized and non-sterilized soil and mycorrhizal inoculation were in five levels (non-inoculated, inoculated with ‌Glomusmosseae, G. intraradices, G. geosporum and mixture of them. Yield and yield components were measured at crop maturity and colonization percentage of root was determined at flowering stage. Root colonization by AM was determined through preparing root samples at 1 g in each experimental unit, and roots were stained using the Gridline- Intersect Method. The harvest index and mycorrhizal dependency were also measured. Salinity levels determined approximate the threshold of wheat –tolerate- salinity before the results would rather

  8. Effects of genetic selection for milk yield on energy balance, levels of hormones, and metabolites in lactating cattle, and possible links to reduced fertility

    Veerkamp, R.F.; Beerda, B.; Lende, van der T.

    2003-01-01

    Selection for a higher milk yield increases metabolic load via a higher yield per se and/or via physiological processes that facilitate milk yield, and it is difficult to differentiate between these two. Here, we aim to identify important pathways that contribute to the reduction in fertility

  9. IMPACT OF LIME, BIOMASS ASH AND COMPOST AS WELL AS PREPARATION OF EM APPLICATIONS ON GRAIN YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF WHEAT

    Sławomir Stankowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in 2013 in Duninowo (54o539’ N, 16o830’ E. The experimental factors were: I. factor - 6 variants of fertilization, and II. - two level of EM preparations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of ash from biomass by comparing its effect with the calcium fertilizer and compost BIOTOPE in conjunction with the preparation of microbiological Effective Microorganisms (EM. The impact of ash from biomass introduced into the soil on yield and yield structure and physiological parameters of spring wheat was analyzed No significant impact of the various variants of fertilizer application on the yielding of spring wheat cv.Bombona was confirmed. As a result of the form of compost fertilizer BIOTOPE, an increase in the content of chlorophyll in leaves of wheat cv Bombona (SPAD and the size of canopy assimilation area per unit area of the field (LAI. The application of EM did not affect the physiological parameters (yield, the number of ears per area unit, SPAD, LAI characterizing the spring wheat cv. Bombona.

  10. Milk yield and composition, nutrition, body conformation traits, body condition scores, fertility and diseases in high-yielding dairy cows--Part 1.

    Aeberhard, K; Bruckmaier, R M; Kuepfer, U; Blum, J W

    2001-03-01

    Twenty-nine pairs of high-yielding dairy cows (HC; > or = 45 kg/day reached at least once during lactation) and corresponding control cows (CC; with milk yields representing the average yield of the herds) were examined on 29 Swiss farms from March 1995 to September 1996. The hypotheses were tested that there are differences in feed intake, body-conformation traits, body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), fertility status and disease incidence between HC and CC cows. Cows were studied 2 weeks before and at 5, 9, 13, 17 and 40 weeks post-partum. HC cows produced more energy-corrected milk (ECM) than CC cows (10,670 +/- 321 kg in 293 +/- 5 days and 8385 +/- 283 kg in 294 +/- 4 days, respectively; P cows (46.2 +/- 1.1 and 36.2 +/- 1.0 kg ECM/day, respectively; P cows (7.6 +/- 0.5 and 5.7 +/- 0.5 kg/day, respectively) and dry matter intakes (measured in week 5 of lactation over 3 days on six farms) were greater in HC than in CC cows (24.0 +/- 1.1 and 20.3 +/- 1.1 kg/day, respectively; P cows were taller than CC cows (wither heights 143.3 +/- 0.8 and 140.1 +/- 0.8 cm, respectively; P cows was greater than in CC cows throughout the study, differences and decreases of BW during lactation were not significant. BCS at the end of pregnancy and decrements during lactation were similar in HC and CC cows. Fertility parameters were similar in HC and CC cows. Incidences of mastitis, claw and feet problems, hypocalcemia/downer cow syndrome, ovarian cysts and abortions were similar in HC and CC cows, but there were more indigestion problems in HC than in CC cows.

  11. Effects of Nano-Zinc oxide and Seed Inoculation by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on Yield, Yield Components and Grain Filling Period of Soybean (Glycine max L.

    R. Seyed Sharifi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Utilizing biological fertilizer is a proper and cheap method for crop production. Potentially, soybean can be used as biological fertilizers and seed inoculation. Zinc is an essential element that have positive effects on plant growth and its development. Canola, sunflower, soybean and safflower are the main cultivated oilseeds in Iran. Soybean production in Iran is very low as compared to other countries. One of the most effective factor in increasing the soybean yield is seed inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and application of Zinc fertilizer. Some of the benefits provided by PGPR are the ability to produce gibberellic acid, cytokinins and ethylene, N2 fixation, solubilization of mineral phosphates and other nutrients (56. Numerous studies have shown a substantial increase in dry matter accumulation and seed yield following inoculation with PGPR. Seyed Sharifi (45 reported that seed inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum strain 5 increased all of the growth indices such as total dry matter, crop growth rate and relative growth rate. Increasing and extending the role of biofertilizers such as Rhizobium can reduce the need for chemical fertilizers and decrease adverse environmental effects. Therefore, in the development and implementation of sustainable agricultural techniques, biofertilization has great importance in alleviating environmental pollution and deterioration of the nature. As a legume, soybean can obtain a significant portion (4-85% of its nitrogen requirement through symbiotic N2 fixation when grown in association with effective and compatible Rhizobium strains. Since there is little available information on nano-zinc oxide and seed inoculation by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on yield in the agro-ecological growing zones of Ardabil province of Iran. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate the effects of nano-zinc oxide and seed inoculation with plant growth

  12. Anaerobic digestate from biogas production as a resource for improving soil fertility: effects on crop yield and soil properties

    Pastorelli, Roberta; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Papini, Rossella; Fabiani, Arturo; Simoncini, Stefania; Mocali, Stefano; Piccolo, Raimondo

    2013-04-01

    Soil fertility is fundamental in determining crops productivity in all farming systems. Production of biogas through anaerobic digestion of energy crops generates residues that can represent a valuable resource to sustain and improve soil fertility and to increase soil organic matter content. Residues from anaerobic digestion contain organic fractions and available nutrients, that can thus be returned to the cultivation soil as fertilizer and soil conditioner. However, some unknown aspects of digested residues utilization remain to explore: i) the nutrient supply and the real potential for mineral fertilization substitution, ii) the impact on the structure and functioning of soil microbial communities, iii) the direct and indirect effects on soil structure, organic matter and C mineralization. The aim of the present research was to gain a better understanding of these aspects, evaluating the effects of anaerobic digestate application on soil properties and maize yield. With the main focus of comparing mineral fertilization (250 Kg N ha-1) with digested residues addition (at the dose of 25 % and 50 % of mineral fertilizer), a triplicate sets of plots were designed in a field experiment on a silty-clay loam soil in the southern Po Valley (Italy). The amount of applied residues was calculated according to its N content in order to fertilizer each plots with the same amount of total nitrogen. Residues from digestion showed a N content of 0.4 % (60 % as N-NH4) and a C/N ratio of 3. Changes in soil quality after residues application were studied with a holistic approach, involving microbiological, physical and chemical aspects of soil fertility. In particular, we determined: the abundance and diversity of bacterial and fungal soil communities; the soil organic matter content, its distribution within soil aggregates and the C mineralization potential; cation exchange capacity; the main macro and micro nutrients; bulk density; aggregate stability. No significant

  13. Evaluation of Chitosan Nanoparticles Effects on Yield and Yield Components of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. under Late Season Drought Stress

    Faride Behboudi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a step towards the profitable employment of nanoparticles (NPs in agriculture, effects of chitosan NPs was probed on barley plants under late season drought stress. A factorial experiment was performed based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experimental factors included the chitosan NPs concentrations (0 (control, 30, 60 and 90 ppm, application methods (foliar and soil application and irrigation regimes (well-watered and withholding of irrigation for 15 days after pollination. The barley seeds were separately planted in pots. Then, the NPs were added to them through the soil and foliar application at three stages. The results indicated that using the chitosan NPs, especially 60 and 90 ppm, significantly increased the leaf area (LA, the leaf color (SPAD, the number of grain per spike, the grain yield and the harvest index compared to the control. Also, drought stress significantly decreased the yield and yield components compared to the well-watered plants. In contrast, using the chitosan NPs in plants under drought stress significantly increased the relative water content (RWC, the 1000-grain weight, the grain protein, the proline content, the catalase (CAT and the superoxide dismutase (SOD compared to the control. There was no a significant difference between two methods of using NPs in most studied traits. The results highlighted that using the chitosan NPs, especially 60 and 90 ppm, in both irrigation regimes can significantly improve the majority of the studied traits compared to the control and mitigate the harmful effects of drought stress.

  14. Yield and resource use efficiency of Plukenetia volubilis plants at two distinct growth stages as affected by irrigation and fertilization.

    Gong, He-De; Geng, Yan-Jing; Yang, Chun; Jiao, Dong-Ying; Chen, Liang; Cai, Zhi-Quan

    2018-01-08

    This study is to test how seedlings (vegetative) and large plants (reproductive) of an oilseed crop (Plukenetia volubilis) responded to regulated deficit irrigation techniques (conventional deficit irrigation, DI; alternative partial root-zone irrigation, APRI) in a tropical humid monsoon area. Seedlings were more sensitive to water deficit than large plants. Although APRI did better than DI in saving water for both seedlings and large plants at the same amount of irrigation, full irrigation (FI) is optimal for faster seedling growth at the expense of water-use efficiency (WUE). The seed number per unit area was responsible for the total seed oil yield, largely depending on the active process of carbon and nitrogen storages at the whole-plant level. The magnitude of the increase in total seed and seed oil yield by fertilization was similar under different irrigation regimes. Compared with FI, DI can save water, but reduced the total seed yield and had lower agronomic nutrient-use efficiency (NUE agr ); whereas APRI had similar total seed yield and NUE agr , but reduced water use greatly. Although the dual goal of increasing the yield and saving water was not compatible, maintaining a high yield and NUEagr at the cost of WUE is recommended for P. volubilis plantation in t he water-rich areas.

  15. Study the effects of bio and organic fertilizers on growth characteristics and yield of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgar

    A. Gholami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the strategies for improving the quality of agricultural products is using bio-fertilizers. So in order to study the effects of mycorrhizal fungi, vermicompost and humic acid on growth characteristics and yield of Fennel, an experiment was studied on research farm of agricultural college of Shahrood University. This study was conducted as factorial experiment based on completely randomized block design with three replications. Factors include: mycorrhizal fugi( inoculated with Glomus intraradices and without inoculated, vermicompost(0,4,8 ton.ha-1 and humic acid( foliar and non-foliar application. Results of this study showed, the main effects of mycorrhizal fungi, vermicompost and humic acid on height, no. of umbels, seed weight per plant, biological and grain yield were significant. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased biological and grain yield compared with control plots about 8.5 and 20%, respectively. In this study 1000 seed weight significantly was affected by vermicompost and humic acid application. Interaction effects of mycorrhizal fungi, vermicompost on no. of seed per umbel, 1000 seed weight and grain yield was significant. So , the highest 1000 seed weight and grain yield were obtained from combination of mycorrhizal inoculation and 8 ton vermicompost( about 21 and 45 % increase in compare with control. Also the effects of combination of mycorrhizal fungi, vermicompost and humic acid on plant height and biological yield of fennel were significant.

  16. The effect of nitrogen fertilizing and fungicide application on the yield and selected parameters of grain quality of winter wheat

    Alena Bezdíčková

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2001–2004 an influence of gradually increased portions of nitrogen (100–130–160 kg/N.ha–1 applied on the wheat variety Ebi in combination with the modified fungicidal protection in the yield and the selected quality grain parameters were observed within the small-plot field trials. Nitrogenous fertilizers according to the amount of nitrogen contained were applied in 2–4 terms during vegetation in regeneration (55kg/N.ha–1, 1st production (45kg/N.ha–1, 2nd production (30kg/N.ha–1 and qualitative portion (30kg/N.ha–1. The fungicidal protection was based on the equal treatment in the phase of BBCH 37 and with regard to the varieties different treatment in the phase of BBCH 55. The dependence on the year was proved at all observed parameters. Higher intensity of nitrogenous fertilization had no decisive impact on the yields. From the point of view of increased yields, the second production nitrogenous fertilization had the strongest impact; it increased the grain yields by 0.084–0.461 t./ha–1. Higher intensity of nitrogenous fertilization positively influenced the baker’s grain quality. The increased portions of nitrogen decisively increased the volume of N-substances in all trial years. The second production nitrogenous fertilization increased the N-substances volume from 0.1 to 0.8%. Qualitative additional fertilization increased their volume from 0.26 to 1.38%. Higher N portions increased sedimentation in most cases. The falling number was not considerably influenced. The mechanical grain qualities (volume weight, number full grains, and GTW were relatively less influenced than the baker’s quality by the nitrogenous fertilization. The application of fungicides positively influenced not only the yields but also mechanical qualities of the grain, i.e. volume weight, thousand grains weight and portion of Full grains. On the contrary the baker’s quality was not decisively influenced. It was proved that the decisive

  17. Effects of Plant Density and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Dry Flower Yield and Essential Oil Content of Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla

    Gh. Sharafi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chamomile is a valuable medicinal plant and is used as spice and herbal medicine. Application of agronomical methods has important role in increasing quantitative and qualitative traits of this medicinal plant. Fertilizer management is an important factor in successful cultivation of medicinal plants, which could have positive effects on their quantitative and qualitative indices. This experiment was conducted in order to determine the effects of plant density and nitrogen (N fertilizer on dry flower yield and essential oil content of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla using factorial randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Three N rates from urea source (0, 100 and 200 kg/ha and three plant densities (28.6, 40 and 66.7 plants per m2 were considered. The results showed that the highest single plant yield was produced in the lowest plant density (28.6 plants per m2 and application of 100 kg/ha N. The highest dry flower yield of 474.1 kg/ha and essential oil content of 0.2% was produced in 25 cm row width and fixed plant spacing of 10 cm (40 plants per m2 and application of 100 kg/ha N.

  18. Evaluation of Foliar Spraying of Zinc and Calcium Fertilizers on Yield and Physiological Traits of Safflower under Lead Stress

    P Jamshidi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In order to evaluate the effect of foliar spraying of zinc and calcium on yield and physiological traits of safflower under lead stress, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design was performed in Kerman agricultural and natural resource research and education center in 2014-2015 with three replications. The first factorial included three levels (control, and 0.5 and 1 μM lead spraying, whereas the second and third factorials were spraying zinc sulfate at three concentrations (zero, and 10 and 20 μM and spraying calcium chloride at two levels (zero and 20 μM, respectively. According to the results, grain yield, the 1000-grain weight, leaf dry weight, number of seeds per head, head weight and chlorophyll content decreased. On the other hand, a significant increase was observed in the activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase enzymes and amount of malondialdehyde in plants. Moreover, spraying zinc fertilizer in lead treatment resulted in a significant increase in activity of catalase enzyme, reduction of membrane lipid peroxidation, prevention of chlorophyll destruction and maintenance of grain yield. However, the effect of spraying calcium fertilize in lead treatment was only significant on chlorophyll content. According to the results of the research, it seems that spraying zinc fertilizer had more effects on improved growth of safflower under lead stress, compared to spraying calcium fertilizer. Therefore, in air pollution with heavy metals (lead, application of zinc sulfate fertilizer can be an effective approach to maintain the growth and production of plants. Among the various heavy metals, lead (Pb is a major anthropogenic pollutant that has been released to the environment since the industrial revolution and accumulated in different terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems These elements will transfer to leaves in polluted areas and will rapidly uptake and cause irreparable damages to the most

  19. Monoculture Maize (Zea mays L. Cropped Under Conventional Tillage, No-tillage and N Fertilization: (I Three Year Yield Performances

    Vincenzo Tabaglio

    Full Text Available A three-year (2004-2006 field trial was carried out to compare two agricultural land management systems, in the Po Valley (Northern Italy. Conventional tillage and No-tillage (hereafter indicated as CT and NT, respectively were compared for maize treated with three levels of nitrogen. The soil was a fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Ultic Haplustalf, that had been under processing tomato in the previous year. Experimental design was a split-plot with four replicates, with the management system as the main factor and nitrogen fertilization (0, 250 and 300 kg N ha-1 year-1 as the secondary factor. Cumulative 3-yr yields of grain and total biomass of NT maize plants were 8% lower than those obtained under CT management, but not significantly different. No N starter was distributed in the first conversion year, causing 17% less grain yield in the NT plots compared with the CT plots. The N fertilizing with 250 and 300 kg N ha-1 year-1 determined statistically equal grain yields, demonstrating the waste of the extra 50 kg N at the N2 rate. Overall, the results for the three years indicate that on an Ultic Haplustalf conversion from a ploughed regime to mature NT conditions could be achieved over a relatively short period.

  20. The effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on light interception and dry matter yield in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.

    mohamad reza asghari poor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on canopy light interception and on flowering was investigated in hemp (Cannabis sativa L. cv. ‘Kompolti’ Crop grown at initial densities of 50, 150 and 250 plants/m2 at the Mashhad and 30, 90 and 150 plants/m2 at the Shirvan. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied before and 45 days after sowing at a rates of 50 and 200 kg/ha at the Mashhad, and 50, 150 and 250 kg/ha at the Shirvan. Rate of canopy development increased with increasing plant density and nitrogen fertilizer in both sites. At the Mashhad, interception of 90% of light was attained at 380 to 665 degree days (base 2°C from emergence for the crop grown at different densities. At Shirvan, rate of canopy development was slower. Interception of 90% of light was attained at 586 degree days from emergence for the crop grown at 30 plants/m2 and at 712 degree days for the crop grown at 150 plants/m2, probably as a result of cold weather. Nitrogen fertilizer in a similar way as plant density increased light interception. Maximum light interception did not depend on plant density and nitrogen fertilizer and was about 95%. In both sites, the flowering date was later with increasing plant density. Dates of 75% flowering for the initial densities of 50, 150 and 250 plants/m2 in Mashhad and 30, 90 and 150 plants/m2 in Shirvan were, respectively 26 August, 1, 6, 6, 11 and 12 September. Independent of plant density, canopy light interception started to decline at about 150 degree days after flowering, reaching 58 to 75% at about 700 degree days post-flowering. Morphological characteristics at both sites were highly correlated with plant sexual, plant population and nitrogen fertilizer. Highest stem, leaf and inflorescence yield were obtained in Mashhad at 250 plant/m-2 and in Shirvan at 150 plant m-2 when 200 kg N ha-1 in Mashhad and 250 kg N/ha in Shirvan was used. Above ground dry matter increased at both sites with increasing plant density and

  1. Improving the reliability of female fertility breeding values using type and milk yield traits that predict energy status in Australian Holstein cattle.

    González-Recio, O; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to propose changing the selection criteria trait for evaluating fertility in Australia from calving interval to conception rate at d 42 after the beginning of the mating season and (2) to use type traits as early fertility predictors, to increase the reliability of estimated breeding values for fertility. The breeding goal in Australia is conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season. Currently, the Australian model to predict fertility breeding values (expressed as a linear transformation of calving interval) is a multitrait model that includes calving interval (CVI), lactation length (LL), calving to first service (CFS), first nonreturn rate (FNRR), and conception rate. However, CVI has a lower genetic correlation with the breeding goal (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) than conception rate. Milk yield, type, and fertility data from 164,318 cow sired by 4,766 bulls were used. Principal component analysis and genetic correlation estimates between type and fertility traits were used to select type traits that could subsequently be used in a multitrait analysis. Angularity, foot angle, and pin set were chosen as type traits to include in an index with the traits that are included in the multitrait fertility model: CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and conception rate at d 42 (CR42). An index with these 8 traits is expected to achieve an average bull first proof reliability of 0.60 on the breeding objective (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) compared with reliabilities of 0.39 and 0.45 for CR42 only or the current 5-trait Australian model. Subsequently, we used the first eigenvector of a principal component analysis with udder texture, bone quality, angularity, and body condition score to calculate an energy status indicator trait. The inclusion of the energy status indicator trait composite in a multitrait index with CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and CR42 achieved a 12-point increase in

  2. Organic fertilization and conservation practices on the yield of rainfed sorghum

    Espinosa Ramirez, M.; Castro Meza, B.; River Ortiz, P.; Andrade Limas, E.; Belmonte Serrato, F.

    2009-01-01

    The interrelations between climatic and soil conditions present in the agroecosystems of the dry zone of northern Mexico, have significant impact on the development of crops that results in impact on agricultural productivity. Soil degradation by excessive use of mechanical practices, has caused severe physical and chemical changes such as deterioration of the natural structure, loss of fertility, increased soil compaction and bulk density, and serious problems of erosion by wind and water. In order to know the influence of three organic fertilizers and soil preparation practices in the production of sorghum in San Fernando, Tamaulipas, was conducted this study. The experimental area present Vertisol soil type, and covers an area of 6 ha, which was subdivided into plots of one hectare. (Author) 6 refs.

  3. The Effect of Phosphorus and Zinc Fertilizers on Nutrient Content and Essential Oil Yield of German Chamomile under Drought Stress (Matricaria recutita L.

    M. Ghaedi Jeshni

    2016-07-01

    drought stress that this is maybe because of the critical role of that in plant nutrition and production. Conclusion: In general, the results suggested that irrigation based on 50% of field capacity with application of 150 kg phosphorus fertilizer ha-1 and 30 kg zinc fertilizer ha-1 can improve essential oil yield and medicine components of German chamomile essential oil.

  4. Comparing the performance of 11 crop simulation models in predicting yield response to nitrogen fertilization

    Salo , Tapio J.; Palosuo , Taru; Kersebaum , Kurt Christian; Nendel , Claas; Angulo , Carlos; Ewert , Frank; Bindi , Marco; Calanca , Pierluigi; Klein , Tommy; Moriondo , Marco; Ferrise , Roberto; Olesen , Jørgen Eivind; Patil , Rasmi H.; Ruget , Francoise; Takac , Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Eleven widely used crop simulation models (APSIM, CERES, CROPSYST, COUP, DAISY, EPIC, FASSET, HERMES, MONICA, STICS and WOFOST) were tested using spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) data set under varying nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates from three experimental years in the boreal climate of Jokioinen, Finland. This is the largest standardized crop model inter-comparison under different levels of N supply to date. The models were calibrated using data from 2002 and 2008, of which 2008 included si...

  5. Evaluation of the Effect of Different Irrigation Levels of Drip Irrigation (Tape on Yield and Yield Components of Corn

    mohammad karimi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the serious problems in the further development of maize cultivation is increasing irrigation efficiency. Using conventional irrigation causes a shortage of water resources to increase the acreage of the crop. With regard to the development of maize cultivation, agronomic and executable methods must be studied to reduce water consumption. Using drip irrigation system is most suitable for row crops. Hamedi et al. (2005 compared drip (tape and surface irrigation systems on yield of maize in different levels of water requirement and indicated that drip irrigation increases the amount of yield to 2015 kg/ha and water use efficiency to 3 time. Kohi et al. (2005 investigated the effects of deficit irrigation use of drip (tape irrigation on water use efficiency on maize in planting of one and two rows. The results showed that maximum water use efficiency related to crop density, water requirement and planting pattern 85000, 125% and two rows, respectively with 1.46 kg/m3. Jafari and Ashrafi (2011 studied the effects of irrigation levels, plant density and planting pattern in drip irrigation (tape on corn. The results showed that the amount of irrigation water and crop density on the level of 1% and their interactions and method of planting were significant at the 5 and 10% on water use efficiency, respectively. The yield was measured under different levels of irrigation, crop density and method of planting and the difference was significant on the level of 1%. Lamm et al. (1995 studied water requirement of maize in field with silt loam texture under sub drip irrigation and reported that water use reduced to 75%; but yield of maize remained at maximum amount of 12.5 t/ha. The objective of this study was to evaluate the drip (tape irrigation method for corn production practices in the Qazvin province in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, yield and yield components of corn (SC 704 were investigated under different levels of

  6. Agro-Economic Optimization of Fertilizer Level and Rhizobium Strains for Enhanced Grain Yield in Mungbean (Vigna Radiata L.)

    Mansoor, M.; Elahi, M. E.; Islam, Z.; Ali, A.

    2016-01-01

    To explore the effect of PGPR for improvement in grain yield of mungbean, different levels of fertilizer (00:00, 20:50 and 20:70 kg N:P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ kg ha/sup -1/) were tested on four strains (CB 1015 Australia, Vm-L1, Vm-M1 and Vm-M2) at Agricultural Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan. A Randomized Complete Block Design with split plot arrangement was used to conduct the experiment by keeping three fertilizer levels in the main plot and Rhizobium strains in sub-plot. The data were recorded for different parameters like number of branches plant/sup -1/, number of clusters plant/sup -1/, number of pods plant/sup -1/., number of grain pod/sup -1/, pod length (cm) and grain yield kg ha/sup -1/. The response of fertilizer levels and inoculation with Rhizobium strains were found significant in most of the parameters under study. The strain Vm-M1 produced the highest number of branches plant/sup -1/(5.42), number of clusters plant/sup -1/(22.92), number of pods plant/sup -1/(77.64), pod length (8.37 cm) when applied in combination of N:P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ at the rate of 20:70 and 20:50 kg ha/sup -1/. Although the grain yield (1421 kg ha/sup -1/) recorded in treatment (20:70 kg N:P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ ha/sup -1/ + Inoculation with strain Vm M1) was highest but economically the treatment (20:50 kg N:P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ ha/sup -1/ + inoculation with strain Vm M1) with net return of Rs. 13618 ha/sup -1/ and BCR of 2.52 was on top. (author)

  7. Evaluation of Relationship Between Auxin and Cytokinine Hormones on Yield and Yield Components of Maize under Drought Stress Condition

    A Mahrokh

    2016-10-01

    , Karaj, Iran, in 2013. Indole-3-butyric acid and N6-benzyladenin were used as auxin and cytokinin hormones, respectively. Concentration of auxine and cytokinine hormones were 10 and 50 mg per liter, respectively. Harvesting was done from 4.5 m2 at field maturity stage with 14 % grain moisture for estimating grain yield and yield components. SAS software (version 9.1 was used for statistical analysis. Traits means were compared by Duncan's multiple range tests in 5% probably level. Results and Discussion Drought stress effect was significant (P≤0.01 for ear number per plant, row/ear, grain number per m2, 1000 kernels weight and grain yield and it wasn’t significant for kernels/row. Spraying cytokinine hormone was significant (P≤0.01 on ear number per plant, row/ear, grain number per m2 and it was also (P≤0.05 significant for 1000 kernels weight but it wasn’t significant for kernels/row and grain yield. Spraying auxine hormone was significant (P≤0.01 for1000 kernels weight and grain yield and it wasn’t significant forother yield components. The maximum yield was obtained 12.80 and 12.24 tons per hectare in non-stress environment and using auxin hormone in silk emergence stage, respectively. Grain yield was decreased 49.21% under reproductive drought stress and grain yield difference between non drought stress and vegetative drought stress was not significant. Spraying cytokinine hormone increased ear number by 10% in V8-V10 stage. The maximum row/ear was 16.16 kernels per row which was obtained by spraying cytokinine hormone in V8-V10 stage. Spraying cytokinine hormone increased grain number per m2 up to 20.75% in V8-V10 stage but it decreased 1000 kernels weight up to 13.76% in the same stage. The maximum 1000 kernels weight was 313.87 gr that was obtained by spraying auxine hormone in silk emergence stage. Spraying auxine hormone increased grain yield up to 23.38% in silk emergence stage. Conclusions Based on the results of this experiment, maize was

  8. Influence of conventional biochar and ageing biochar application to arable soil on soil fertility and plant yield

    Dvořáčková, Helena; Záhora, Jaroslav; Elbl, Jakub; Kynický, Jindřich; Hladký, Jan; Brtnický, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Biochar represents very controversial material which is product of pyrolysis. According to many studies biochar has positive effect on physical and chemical properties such as pH, conductivity, aggregates stability etc. Unfortunately biochar is product of combustion, so it can content toxic substance as are aromatic compound. These substances may have a negative effect on yield and microbial activities in soil. Our aim was eliminated concentration of toxic compound but preserved positive effect of biochar on soil properties. We was ageing/ activating of biochar in water environment and for soil inoculum we used native soil from landscape. Moreover two types of biochar was tested by pot experiment with seven variants, where conventional biochar from residual biomass and ageing biochar were applied in different doses: 10 t/ha, 20t/ha and 50 t/ha. Pots were placed in green house for 90 days and after the end of experiment the following parameters of soil fertility, health and quality were evaluated: content of soil organic matter, arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of Lactuca sativa L. roots, leaching of mineral nitrogen, changes in plant available nutrient content, EC and pH. Above all the total yield of indicator plant was observed. The significant (P plant yield and soil properties were found. The application of conventional biochar didn't have positive effect on plant yield in comparison with ageing biochar. The positive effect of ageing biochar addition on soil fertility was directly proportional to the dose which were applied - increasing in dose of ageing biochar resulted in increase of plant yield. Moreover the special experimental containers were used, where we was able to monitor the development of root in soil with and without addition of biochar (conventional or ageing). The positive influence of ageing biochar addition into soil on development of Lactuca sativa L. roots was observed.

  9. Effects of Nutrient Antagonism and Synergism on Yield and Fertilizer Use Efficiency

    Rietra, René P.J.J.; Heinen, Marius; Dimkpa, Chistian O.; Bindraban, Prem S.

    2017-01-01

    Interaction among plant nutrients can yield antagonistic or synergistic outcomes that influence nutrient use efficiency. To provide insight on this phenomenon, peer-reviewed articles were selected that quantified the interaction effects of nutrients on crop yield levels. In total 94 articles were

  10. The effects of maxicrop leaf fertilizer on the yield and quality of ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... doses lead to an increase in seed yield. The highest seed yield ... or small amount of vegetable oil deficit occurs in Turkey. (Arslan et al., 1993). .... Akçin et al. reported that the plant hormone Alar 85, which they applied on four ...

  11. Drought mitigation in perennial crops by fertilization and adjustments of regional yield models for future climate variability

    Kantola, I. B.; Blanc-Betes, E.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Masters, M. D.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2017-12-01

    Increased variability and intensity of precipitation in the Midwest agricultural belt due to climate change is a major concern. The success of perennial bioenergy crops in replacing maize for bioethanol production is dependent on sustained yields that exceed maize, and the marketing of perennial crops often emphasizes the resilience of perennial agriculture to climate stressors. Land conversion from maize for bioethanol to Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus) increases yields and annual evapotranspiration rates (ET). However, establishment of miscanthus also increases biome water use efficiency (the ratio between net ecosystem productivity after harvest and ET), due to greater belowground biomass in miscanthus than in maize or soybean. In 2012, a widespread drought reduced the yield of 5-year-old miscanthus plots in central Illinois by 36% compared to the previous two years. Eddy covariance data indicated continued soil water deficit during the hydrologically-normal growing season in 2013 and miscanthus yield failed to rebound as expected, lagging behind pre-drought yields by an average of 53% over the next three years. In early 2014, nitrogen fertilizer was applied to half of mature (7-year-old) miscanthus plots in an effort to improve yields. In plots with annual post-emergence application of 60 kg ha-1 of urea, peak biomass was 29% greater than unfertilized miscanthus in 2014, and 113% greater in 2015, achieving statistically similar yields to the pre-drought average. Regional-scale models of perennial crop productivity use 30-year climate averages that are inadequate for predicting long-term effects of short-term extremes on perennial crops. Modeled predictions of perennial crop productivity incorporating repeated extreme weather events, observed crop response, and the use of management practices to mitigate water deficit demonstrate divergent effects on predicted yields.

  12. Effect of Azolla Based - Organic Fertilizer, Rock Phosphate and Rice Hull Ash on Rice Yield and Chemical Properties of Alfisols

    Sudadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of chemical fertilizer for long time may adverse soil environment. Organic agriculture, for example combination use of azolla based-organic fertilizer, phosphate rock and rice hull ash, was one of ways that able to recover it. Research was conducted in Sukosari, Jumantono, Karanganyar while soi chemical properties analysis was analysed in Soil Chemistry and Fertility Laboratory, Fac. of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University April to November 2013. Research design used was RAKL with 5 treatments, each repeated 5 times. The treatments applied were P0 (control, P1 ( azola inoculum dosage 250 g/m2 + phosphate rock + rice hull ash equal to 150 kg/ha KCl, P2 (azola inoculum dosage 500 g/m2 + phosphate rock equal to 150kg/ha, SP-36 + rice hull ash equal to 100 kg/ha KCl, P3 (manure dosage of 5 ton/ha,P4 (Urea 250 kg/ha + SP-36 150 kg/ha + KCl 100 kg/ha. Data analysed statistically by F test (Fisher test with level of confident 95% followed by DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test if any significant differences. The result showed that the treatment combination of azolla, phosphate rock and rice hull ash increase soil organic matter content, cation exchange capacity, available-P and exchangeable-K as well as rice yield ( (at harvest-dry grain weight and milled-dry grain weight.

  13. Yields and content of ursolic acid in pearl grass (Hedyotis corymbosa) when utilizing cow manure fertilizer in different shades

    Jayanti, L. D.; Yunus, A.; Pujiasmanto, B.; Widyastuti, Y.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to examine the intensity of shade and proper dosage of fertilizer to maximize the content of ursolic acid and pearl grass yield. The field-run study was carried out at the Medicinal Plant Garden of the Research and Development of Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicines (B2P2TOOT) and the laboratory research was conducted at the B2P2TOOT Phytochemistry Laboratory. The experiment design was Randomized Complete Block Design with Split Plot pattern with the intensity (three levels) as main plot and fertilizer dosage (four levels) as sub plot. The data obtained were analyzed using the variance analysis, if there were significant differences tested further by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) with 95% confidence level. The results showed that shade treatment gave significant effects on plant height, number of branches, root length, fresh weight and dry weight. The treatment of a fertilizer dosage 15 tons/ha gave the best results on fresh weight and dry weight. The combination of N0K0 treatment (without shade, without cow manure) resulted in the highest quality of ursolic acid as it featured a light blue color when detected under UV366 light.

  14. Biomass Yield and N Uptake in Tall Fescue and Reed Canary Grass Depending on N and PK Fertilization on Two Marginal Sites in Denmark

    Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    areas with limited suitability for cereal production. Plots with TF and RCG were sown in April 2011, and fertilization trials were established in spring 2012 with three factors: (a) grass species, (b) PK fertilization (either no P and K or 24 and 250 kg ha−1 y−1 of P and K, respectively), and (c) N...... fertilization (0, 150, 300, or 450 kg ha−1 y−1 N). Three cuts were taken annually from 2012 to 2014. Both species responded strongly to N fertilization. In TF, 450 kg ha−1 y−1 N combined with PK fertilization gave DM yields of 19.3, 12.1, and 14.2 t ha−1 y−1 in the 3 years, respectively, and corresponding...... yields for RCG were 17.3, 14.4, and 14.3 t ha−1 y−1. Without PK fertilization yields were significantly lower: 15.2, 7.5, and 7.3 t ha−1 y−1 in TF and 16.3, 8.7, and 4.8 ha−1 y−1 in RCG. When fertilized with PK, N uptake in harvested biomass balanced with N fertilization at rates of 244, 187, and 172 kg...

  15. Dry land Winter Wheat Yield, Grain Protein, and Soil Nitrogen Responses to Fertilizer and Bio solids Applications

    Koenig, R.T.; Cogger, C.G.; Bary, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    Applications of bio solids were compared to inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizer for two years at three locations in eastern Washington State, USA, with diverse rainfall and soft white, hard red, and hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. High rates of inorganic N tended to reduce yields, while grain protein responses to N rate were positive and linear for all wheat market classes. Bio solids produced 0 to 1400 kg ha -1 (0 to 47%) higher grain yields than inorganic N. Wheat may have responded positively to nutrients other than N in the bio solids or to a metered N supply that limited vegetative growth and the potential for moisture stress-induced reductions in grain yield in these dry land production systems. Grain protein content with bio solids was either equal to or below grain protein with inorganic N, likely due to dilution of grain N from the higher yields achieved with bio solids. Results indicate the potential to improve dry land winter wheat yields with bio solids compared to inorganic N alone, but perhaps not to increase grain protein concentration of hard wheat when bio solids are applied immediately before planting.

  16. Biomass yield and greenhouse gas emissions from a drained fen peatland cultivated with reed canary grass under different harvest and fertilizer regimes

    Kandel, Tanka Prasad; Elsgaard, Lars; Karki, Sandhya

    2013-01-01

    Reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinacea L.) is a suitable energy crop for cultivation in northern peatlands. However, the atmospheric impact of RCG cultivation as influenced by harvest frequency and fertilization is not clear. Here, we compared the biomass yield and greenhouse gas (GHG......) balance for RCG cultivation in peatlands affected by cutting frequency and fertilizer managements. The managements included one-cut (OC) and two-cut (TC) systems that were either fertilized (TC-F) or unfertilized (TC-U) after the first cut in summer. Biomass yield of OC, TC-F and TC-U were 12, 16 and 11...

  17. Responses of yield and N use of spring sown crops to N fertilization, with special reference to the use of plant growth regulators

    L. PIETOLA; R. TANNI; P. ELONEN

    2008-01-01

    The role of plant growth regulators (PGR) in nitrogen (N) fertilization of spring wheat and oats (CCC), fodder barley (etephon/mepiquat) and oilseed rape (etephone) in crop rotation was studied in 19931996 on loamy clay soil. Carry over effect of the N fertilization rates (0180 kg ha-1 ) was evaluated in 1997. N fertilization rate for the best grain/seed yield (120150 kg ha-1 ) was not affected by PGRs. The seed and N yields of oilseed rape were improved most frequently by recommended use of ...

  18. The effect of different tillage methods and organic fertilizers on soil physical state and crop yield

    Ožeraitienė, Danutė; Čiuberkis, Steponas

    2006-01-01

    The present paper summarises the data of field and laboratory trials conducted in Lithuania (Vežaiciai Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture) during the period 2003-2006. The effects of primary soil tillage: 1) deep (22-25 cm) ploughing; 2) shallow (10-12 cm) ploughing; 3) shallow (8-10 cm) tillage with a disc harrow as well as the effects of different organic fertilizers (farmyard manure, green manure and straw) on the main physical indicators of moraine loam soil (structure, bul...

  19. EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF WATERMELON, CV. TOP GUN

    NOWAKI, RODRIGO HIYOSHI DALMAZZO; CECÍLIO FILHO, ARTHUR BERNARDES; FARIA, ROGÉRIO TEIXEIRA DE; WAMSER, ANDERSON FERNANDO; CORTEZ, JUAN WALDIR MENDONZA

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nitrogen (N) is the second most important nutrient required by watermelons that can limit their growth and affect fruit quality when deficient. We evaluated the soil (N-nitrate) and foliar N contents and soluble-solid content of the watermelon 'Top Gun' in Brazil at six rates of N fertilization (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kg ha-1). N-nitrate and foliar N levels increased linearly with rate. Number of total and marketable fruit, weight of total and marketable fruit and total and mar...

  20. EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF WATERMELON, CV. TOP GUN

    RODRIGO HIYOSHI DALMAZZO NOWAKI; ARTHUR BERNARDES CECÍLIO FILHO; ROGÉRIO TEIXEIRA DE FARIA; ANDERSON FERNANDO WAMSER; JUAN WALDIR MENDONZA CORTEZ

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the second most important nutrient required by watermelons that can limit their growth and affect fruit quality when deficient. We evaluated the soil (N-nitrate) and foliar N contents and soluble-solid content of the watermelon 'Top Gun' in Brazil at six rates of N fertilization (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kg ha-1). N-nitrate and foliar N levels increased linearly with rate. Number of total and marketable fruit, weight of total and marketable fruit and total and marketable y...

  1. Biological N2-FIXATION and Mineral N-Fertilization Effects on Soybean (Glicine max L. Merr.) Yield Under Temperate Climate Conditions

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    -fundamental processes and how to control them. Conference at the Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry. April 12th. 1999. (Ed's Jan Persson). 9-23. Kungl Skogs-och Lantbruksakademiens Tidskrift. Stockholm. Kádár, I. & Márton, L., 1999. Mineral Nutrient Cycle of Soya. Agrochemistry and Soil Science. 48:67-82. Kováts, A., Márton, L. & Szabó, L., 1985. Analysis of the relation between humus and pH on the ground of results of soil investigations on farm-scale plots. Plant Production. 34:507-512. László, M., Silva, J.B.C. & José, A.B., 2001. Ecological friendly dragée technics on different crops and vegetables seeds. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 43:9-13. László, M., & Jose, E.M., 2001. Effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH on soil fertility and siol conservation in Hungary. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 43:1-8. Márton, L., 2000. Effect of NPK fertilization on potao (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield. Ph.D dissertation. University of Veszprém, Keszthely, 136. p. Márton, L., 2001. Climate change and N, P, K, Mg fertilization effect analysis at Tisza-river basin in a long term field experiment. Szent István University, Gödöllő, 21. p. Márton, L. & Kádár, I., 1998. Effect of nitrogen supplies on the yield components of soya. Plant production. 47:677-687. Reeves, T.G., 1998. Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center. Mexico city. Mexico. Wilcox, J.R., 1987. Soybeans: Improvement, Production, and Uses. Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

  2. Effect of Integrated Weed Management Methods on Yield and Yield Components of Corn (Zea mays L. in Kermanshah Province, Iran

    R. Amini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Corn (Zea mays L. is cultivated widely throughout the world and has the highest production among the cerealsafter rice and wheat. In Iran the total production of corn in 2013 was more than 2540000 tons. Weeds are one of the greatest limiting factors to decrease corn yield in Iran as the average yield loss due to weeds in the fields of Kermanshah in 2009 was 17.32 %. The herbicides are the main weed control method in conventional cropping systems but their application has been increased herbicide resistant weeds and environmental pollution. Integrated weed management combines all applicable including chemical and non-chemical methods to reduce the effect of weeds in the cropping systems. Thus, Weed control strategies such as tillage, mulch, cover crops and intercropping could be used for integrated weed management of corn. Previous studies showed that crop residues such as rye (Secale sereal L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and clover (Trifolium sp., cover crops and living mulch could inhibit weed germination and growth. Therefore the objective of this study was evaluating the effects of some integrated weed management treatments on weed characteristics, yield components and grain yield of corn. Materials and methods: In order to evaluate the effect of some weed management treatments on corn (Zea mays L. yield an experiment was conducted in 2014 in Ravansar, Kermanshah, Iran. This study was arranged based on randomized complete block design with 10 treatments and three replications. The weed management treatments were including 1-chemical control followed by mechanical control (application of nicosulfuron at a dose of 80 g.a.i.ha-1 + cultivator 40 days after emergence 2- chemical control followed by mechanical control (application of 2,4-D+MCPA at a dose of 675 g.a.i.ha-1 + cultivator 40 days after emergence 3- cultural control followed by mechanical control (planting hairy vetch (Vicia villosa in the fall

  3. Effectiveness of Reducing P Fertilizer and Adding Fish Pond Mud Waste on Growth and Yield of Soybean in Peatland

    Riak Asie Erina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of P fertilizer reduction and the addition of fish pond sludge waste on the growth and yield of soybean crop in peatland. Research used Complete Randomized Design factorial with two factors. The first factor was the reduction of P fertilizer from the dose of 150 kg.ha-1 consisting of 4 levels, namely P0: 100% (2.944 g/polybag, P1: 75% (2.208 g/polybag, P2: 50% (1.472 g/polybag, and P3: 25% (0.736 g/polybag. The second factor was the addition of fish pond mud waste (L from the dose of 15 ton.ha-1 consisting of 4 levels, namely L0: 25% (73.595 g/polybag, L1: 50% (147.19 g/polybag, L2: 75% (220.78 g/polybag, and L3: 100% (294.38 g/polybag. Each treatment combination was replicated 3 times to obtain 48 experimental units. The results showed that (1 fish pond mud waste was effective to reduce the use of P fertilizer, (2 the reduction of P fertilizer up to 50% from recommendation dosage by addition of fish pond sludge waste at 75% dose of 15 ton/ha was the best combination due to providing the best plant growth and the highest P concentration of plant tissue. The highest number of pods and weight of seed obtained in the combination were 60.33 pods/plant and 7.30 g/plant, respectively.

  4. Effectiveness of Reducing P Fertilizer and Adding Fish Pond Mud Waste on Growth and Yield of Soybean in Peatland

    Asie, Erina Riak; Rumbang, Nyahu; Winarti, Sih; Sinaga, Soaloon

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of P fertilizer reduction and the addition of fish pond sludge waste on the growth and yield of soybean crop in peatland. Research used Complete Randomized Design factorial with two factors. The first factor was the reduction of P fertilizer from the dose of 150 kg.ha-1 consisting of 4 levels, namely P0: 100% (2.944 g/polybag), P1: 75% (2.208 g/polybag), P2: 50% (1.472 g/polybag), and P3: 25% (0.736 g/polybag). The second factor was the addition of fish pond mud waste (L) from the dose of 15 ton.ha-1 consisting of 4 levels, namely L0: 25% (73.595 g/polybag), L1: 50% (147.19 g/polybag), L2: 75% (220.78 g/polybag), and L3: 100% (294.38 g/polybag). Each treatment combination was replicated 3 times to obtain 48 experimental units. The results showed that (1) fish pond mud waste was effective to reduce the use of P fertilizer, (2) the reduction of P fertilizer up to 50% from recommendation dosage by addition of fish pond sludge waste at 75% dose of 15 ton/ha was the best combination due to providing the best plant growth and the highest P concentration of plant tissue. The highest number of pods and weight of seed obtained in the combination were 60.33 pods/plant and 7.30 g/plant, respectively.

  5. Effects of NPK Fertilizer Application on the Growth and Seed Yield of ...

    ... and Seed Yield of Cowpea in Ilorin, Southern Guinea Savanna Zone Of Nigeria. ... was done using Least Significance Difference (LSD) at 5% probability level. ... IAR- 48 in Ilorin, a location in the Northern Guinea Savanna Zone of Nigeria.

  6. Influence of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Vermicompost Application on Flower Yield and Essential Oil of Chamomile (Matricaria Chamomile L.

    Mohammad Reza Haj Seyed Hadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available    This study was performed to assess the effects of nitrogen fertilizer and vermicompost on qualitative and quantitative yield of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.. It was conducted at the Research Fields of Ran Company located in Firouzkouh, Iran, in 2013. Treatments were consisted of 1 Control, 2 100% nitrogen from urea, 3 100% nitrogen from ammonium nitrate, 4 75% nitrogen from urea and 25% from vermicompost, 5 75% nitrogen from ammonium nitrate and 25% from vermicompost, 6 50% nitrogen from urea and 25% from vermicompost , 7 50% nitrogen from ammonium nitrate and 25% from vermicompost, 8 25% nitrogen from urea and 25% from vermicompost, 9 25% nitrogen from ammonium nitrate and 25% from vermicompost, and 10 100% nitrogen from vermicompost. The maximum plant height (67.03 cm and plant weight (93.21 g/plant were obtained at N2 treatment (200 kg ha-1 urea. N5 treatment (202.5 kg ha-1 ammonium nitrate + 1.5 ton vermicompost ha-1 caused maximum flower diameter. The highest fresh flower yield (7539.45 kg ha-1, dry flower yield (1715.93 kg ha-1 and essential oil yield (6.95 kg ha-1 obtained in plots, which received 135 kg ha-1 nitrate ammonium + 3 ton vermicompost ha-1. It seems using biofertilizers such as vermicompost could enhance quantitative and qualitative characteristics of chamomile. Moreover, by substituting chemical fertilizers by biofertilizers, ecosystem health and quality of life will increase which it is the most important goals of sustainable developments. 

  7. Responses of yield and N use of spring sown crops to N fertilization, with special reference to the use of plant growth regulators

    L. PIETOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of plant growth regulators (PGR in nitrogen (N fertilization of spring wheat and oats (CCC, fodder barley (etephon/mepiquat and oilseed rape (etephone in crop rotation was studied in 1993–1996 on loamy clay soil. Carry over effect of the N fertilization rates (0–180 kg ha-1 was evaluated in 1997. N fertilization rate for the best grain/seed yield (120–150 kg ha-1 was not affected by PGRs. The seed and N yields of oilseed rape were improved most frequently by recommended use of PGR. The yields of oats were increased in 1995–96. Even though PGR effectively shortened the plant height of spring wheat, the grain yield increased only in 1995. N yield of wheat grains was not increased. Response of fodder barley to PGR was insignificant or even negative in 1995. The data suggest that PGRs may decrease some N leaching at high N rates by improving N uptake by grain/seeds, if the yield is improved. The carryover study showed that in soils with no N fertilization, as well as in soils of high N rates, N uptake was higher than in soils with moderate N fertilization (60–90 kg ha-1 , independent of PGRs. According to soil mineral N contents, N leaching risk is significant (15–35 kg ha-1 only after dry and warm late seasons. After a favourable season of high yields, the N rates did not significantly affect soil mineral N contents. ;

  8. Grain yield and crop N offtake in response to residual fertilizer N in long-term field experiments

    Petersen, Jens; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Mattsson, L.

    2010-01-01

    in four long-term (>35 yr) field experiments, we measured the response of barley (grain yield and N offtake at crop maturity) to six rates (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg N/ha) of mineral fertilizer N (Nnew) applied in subplots replacing the customary long-term plot treatments of fertilizer inputs (Nprev......). Rates of Nprev above 50-100 kg N/ha had no consistent effect on the soil N content, but this was up to 20% greater than that in unfertilized treatments. Long-term unfertilized plots should not be used as control to test the residual value of N in modern agriculture with large production potentials....... Although the effect of mineral Nprev on grain yield and N offtake could be substituted by Nnew within a range of previous inputs, the value of Nprev was not eliminated irrespective of Nnew rate. Provided a sufficient supply of plant nutrients other than N, the use-efficiency of Nnew did not change...

  9. The effects of nitrogen rates on phenology and yield components of ...

    The effects of nitrogen rates on phenology and yield components of early maturing maize cultivars. DT Gungula, AO Togun, JG Kling. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol. 13 (3) 2007: pp.319-324. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  10. Atmospheric CO2 fertilization effects on biomass yields of 10 crops in northern Germany

    Jan F. Degener

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality and quantity of the influence that atmospheric CO2 has on cropgrowth is still a matter of debate. This study's aim is to estimate if CO2 will have an effect on biomass yields at all, to quantify and spatially locate the effects and to explore if an elevated photosynthesis rate or water-use-efficiency is predominantly responsible. This study uses a numerical carbon based crop model (BioSTAR to estimate biomass yields within theadministrative boundaries of Niedersachsen in Northern Germany. 10 crops are included (winter grains: wheat, barley,rye, triticale - early, medium, late maize variety - sunflower, sorghum, spring wheat, modeled annuallyfor the entire 21st century on 91,014 separate sites. Modeling was conducted twice, once with an annually adaptedCO2 concentration according to the SRES-A1B scenario and once with a fixed concentration of 390 ppm to separate the influence of CO2 from that of the other input variables.Rising CO2 concentrations will play a central role in keeping future yields of all crops above or aroundtoday's level. Differences in yields between modeling with fixed or adapted CO2 can be as high as60 % towards the century's end. Generally yields will increase when CO2 rises and decline whenit is kept constant. As C4-crops are equivalently affected it is presumed that anelevated efficiency in water use is the main responsible factor for all plants.

  11. Effect of Black and Clear Polyethylene Mulch on Yield and Yield Components of Melon in Salinity Stress Condition

    Peyman Jafari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The term of Mulch, is the German word (Molsh means the soft, however, not soft, and made of plant debris or synthetic substances. Many positive effects attributed to the use of plastic mulch such as adjusting the temperature in the root environment, conserve moisture, reduce weeds, increase root growth, reduce soil erosion, and soil condensation and improve germination and early plant establishment. The use of mulch can reduce the harmful effects of salt in plants. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effects of black and clear polyethylene mulch on yield and yield components of melon in salinity stress condition, a study was conducted in 2011 using split plot randomized based on complete block design with three replications in Varamin region. Three salinity levels of irrigation water of 2, 5 and 8 dS-1 as main factor and three plastic mulch treatments (no mulch, clear mulch and black mulch were considered as sub-plots. At harvest and after determining the yield and number of fruits harvested from each plot, the average number of fruits per plant was measured and fruit pulp thickness was recorded with calipers. Results Discussion The results showed interactive effects of salinity and mulch on fruit yield, number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight, fruit length, days to first harvest and fruit soluble solids percentage were statistically significant. In salinity levels of 2, 5 and 8 dS m-1, fruit yield increased, respectively, 19.6, 59, and 45.4 %in clear mulch compared to control. Similarly these increases for the black mulch were equal to 15.7, 41.9, and 21.4 percent, respectively. With 2, 5 and 8 dS m-1 salinity levels, fruit yield in the first harvest were 7.44, 7.72, and 6.98 t ha -1, respectively, which was significantly higher than without mulch and black mulch. Mulch can reduce evaporation and increase the level of moisture in the soil and thereby dilute the salt and reduce the harmful effects of salinity. Some

  12. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on biomass yield and quality in large fields of established switchgrass in southern Iowa, USA

    Lemus, Roque [Department of Agricultural Sciences, Texas A and M University, Commerce, TX 75429 (United States); Charles Brummer, E. [Center for Applied Genetic Technologies, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Lee Burras, C.; Moore, Kenneth J.; Barker, Michael F. [Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Molstad, Neil E. [USDA-NRCS Hawaii Resource Office, 101 Aupuni Street Suite 229, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a potential biofuel crop in the midwestern United States. The objective of this experiment was to test the effect of nitrogen application on biomass dry matter yield and fiber and mineral concentrations in large field plots in Lucas and Wayne counties in southern Iowa. Two established switchgrass fields with a previous history of limited management were evaluated from 1998 through 2002. Nitrogen was applied in the spring at rates of 0, 56, 112, and 224 kg N ha{sup -1}, and a single biomass harvest was made in autumn. Biomass production averaged across locations and N levels increased by 3.6 mg ha{sup -1} between 1998 and 2002 to 6.5 mg ha{sup -1}. Nitrogen improved yields, with the response declining as N levels increased. The highest yield throughout the experiment was 8.5 mg ha{sup -1} at the Lucas location in 2002. Changes in fiber and mineral concentrations did not follow any trend over years but were likely due to differences in harvest date among years. Nitrogen fertilization had no meaningful effect on the quality of the biofuel produced. This study clearly shows that nitrogen application and proper agronomic management can substantially increase the yield of established switchgrass fields over time without affecting the quality of the feedstock. As this experiment was conducted in large plots using commercial farm machinery, the results should be broadly applicable to real world situations. (author)

  13. A comparative ideotype, yield component and cultivation value analysis for spring wheat adaptation in Finland

    Heikki Laurila

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study Mixed structural covariance, Path and Cultivation Value analyses and the CERES-Wheat crop model were used to evaluate vegetation and yield component variation affecting yield potential between different high-latitude (> 60° N lat. and mid-European (< 60° N lat. spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes currently cultivated in southern Finland. Path modeling results from this study suggest that especially grains/ear, harvest index (HI and maximum 1000 kernel weight were significant factors defining the highest yield potential. Mixed and Cultivation value modeling results suggest that when compared with genotypes introduced for cultivation before 1990s, modern spring wheat genotypes have a significantly higher yielding capacity, current high yielding mid-European genotypes even exceeding the 5 t ha-1 non-potential baseline yield level (yb. Because of a forthcoming climate change, the new high yielding wheat genotypes have to adapt for elevated temperatures and atmospheric CO2 growing conditions in northern latitudes. The optimized ideotype profiles derived from the generic high-latitude and mid-European genotypes are presented in the results. High-latitude and mid-European ideotype profiles with factors estimating the effects of concurrent elevated CO2 and temperature levels with photoperiodical daylength effects can be utilized when designing future high yielding ideotypes adapted to future growing conditions. The CERES-Wheat ideotype modeling results imply, that with new high yielding mid-European ideotypes, the non-potential baseline yield (yb would be on average 5150 kg ha-1 level (+ 108 % vs. new high-latitude ideotypes (yb 4770 kg ha-1, 100% grown under the elevated CO2(700ppm×temperature(+3ºC growing conditions projected by the year 2100 climate change scenario in southern Finland.

  14. Grain Yield, Its Components, Genetic Diversity and Heritability in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    M. Kakaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current research was carried out to investigate grain yield and components and their genetic diversity and heritability of some important agronomic traits, in 19 chickpea genotypes, based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications in Research Field of Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran in 2011-2012 growing seasons. The ANOVA results showed that, there were highly significant differences (p < 0.01 among genotypes for the SPAD number, number of sub-branch per plant, pod number per plant, 100-kernel weight, grain yield, biological yield, and harvest index. The mean comparisons results indicated that the genotypes 14, 12, 4 and 19 (with 234.7, 240, 250.3 and 259.4 kilogram of grain yield per ha, respectively and the genotypes 18, 8, 15, and 6 (with 151.01, 167.6, 167.8 and 189 kilogram of grain yield per ha, respectively had the maximum and minimum economic yield, respectively. According to phonotypical correlation results, there were positive and significant (p < 0.01 correlations between grain yield and pod number per plant (0.623**, plant height (0.432**, harvest index (0.425** and biomass (0.349**. Step-wise regression indicated that the pod number per plant, harvest index, biomass, number of sub-branch per plant, and plant height were the most effective traits on economic yield and they explained 84.68 percent of the variation in economic yield. Furthermore, harvest index and seed number per plant had the maximum and minimum heritability, respectively, indicating that they could be hired as sources of variation for improving the grain yield and selecting superior genotypes.

  15. EFFECT OF SPACING AND NPK 20:10:10 FERTILIZER ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF WATER MELON (CITRULLUS LANATUS IN ENUGU, SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment to investigate the effect of spacing and NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer on the growth and yield of watermelon was conducted at the teaching and Research Farm of Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Enugu State University of Science and Technology. The experiment was carried out in a 2 x 3 factorial in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with six (6 treatments replicated three (3 times using and ldquo;crimson sweet and rdquo; as a test crop. Parameters measured were vine length, number of fruits per plant, days to 50% flowering, fruit yield (ton/ha, and number of marketable fruits. 400kg/ha fertilizer in spacing 30cm x 30cm plots recorded the highest vine length of 193.8 cm which significantly deferred from the other treatment means. This was followed by 200kg/ha fertilizer in spacing of 30 cm x 30 cm which recorded vine length of 151.50 cm that significantly deferred from the rest of the treatment means. There were no significant differences between 400kg/ha fertilizer in 15 cm x 15 cm plots and 200kg/ha fertilizer in 15 cm x 15cm plots, O kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm pots and O kg/ha fertilizer in 15cm x 15 cm plots on vine length. 400kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots recorded the highest mean number of 34.33 fruits per plant which deferred significantly from the rest of the treatment means. The following treatments produced the same effects on the number of fruits per plant and ndash; 200kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots and 400kg/ha fertilizer in 15 cm x 15 cm plots, O kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots and O kg/ha fertilizer in 1 5cm x 15cm plots. On fruit yield (ton/ha 400kg/ha fertilizer in 30cm x 30cm plots, and 200kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots produced the highest yield of 13.44 ton/ha and 13.22 ton/ha respectively which were not significantly different except the controls and ndash; O kg/ha fertilizer in 15cm x 15cm and O kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots which

  16. Cultivar e adubação NPK na produção de tomate salada Cultivar and NPK fertilization on yield of fresh market tomato

    Paulo Renato Z. Santos

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito de cultivar, da adubação NPK e da interação desses fatores na produção de tomate salada tutorado. O experimento foi conduzido em Pelotas (RS no ano agrícola 1995/96. Foram utilizadas cinco cultivares (Flora-Dade, Max, Empire, Pacific e Diva e três níveis (2,0, 3,5 e 5,0 t/ha de adubação NPK (3,6-7,2-10. Os tratamentos foram dispostos sob esquema fatorial em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. As cultivares Empire e Pacific apresentaram frutos com maior peso médio do que Flora-Dade, Max e Diva. O número de frutos por planta aumentou com a elevação do nível de adubação de 2,0 para 3,5 t/ha, enquanto que o peso médio de frutos diminuiu, sem alterar a produção. As cultivares apresentaram respostas diferenciais aos níveis de adubação, em relação ao peso médio de frutos.The objective of this work was to study the effect of cultivar, NPK fertilization and the interaction on yield components of fresh market tomatoes. The experiment was carried out in Pelotas, Brazil, in 1995/96 season. Five cultivars (Flora-Dade, Max, Empire, Pacific and Diva and three fertilization levels (2.0, 3.5 and 5.0 t/ha of NPK (3.6-7.2-10 were used. The treatments were displayed under a factorial scheme, in a randomized complete block design, with three repetitions. Empire and Pacific cultivars showed higher average fruit weight than Flora-Dade, Max and Diva. The number of fruits per plant increased with the elevation of fertilization levels from 2.0 to 3.5 t/ha, while the average fruit weight diminished, without changing yield. The cultivars showed differential response to fertilization levels, in relation to average fruit weight.

  17. Design and integration of components for site specific control of fertilizer application

    Bergeijk, van J.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: Precision Agriculture, Site Specific Agriculture, Global Positioning System, GPS, Fertilizer Application, Information System.

    Spatial and temporal variability in soil, crop and climate characteristics results in non optimal use of fertilizers when the application

  18. Investigation the Effects of Different Doses Organic Fertilizers and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterias on Yield and Nutrient Contents in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Ferit SÖNMEZ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (N2; Bacillus megaterium M-3, TV-6I; Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, TV-34A; Hafnia Alve, TV-69E; Acetobacter pasteurianus and TV-83F; Bacillus cereus and organic fertilizer (0, 10 and 20 ton / ha on the seed yield and nutrient content of chickpea under field conditions in 2010 and 2011 growing seasons. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria used in this study were determined by the separate investigation conducted in chamber room by using ten phosphate solubilizing bacteria and organic fertilizer (control, %5,%10. The tiral were laid out with a factorial design in randomized complete block with three replications. In this study, plant height, primary branches, secondary branches and number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, grain yield and biological yield and nutrient content of stem and seed were determined. According to the results of the study bacteria applications increased significantly biological and seed yield. Bacteria applications without organic fertilizer increased nutrient contents of seed and steed except cupper content. In case of inoculation with organic fertilizer provided more increases in biological and seed yields. The highest seed yield were obtained from application of 20 ton/ha + N2 (Bacillus megaterium M-3 with 1020 kg/ha and 1793 kg/ha in 2010 and 2011 years, respectively. Bacteria without organic fertilizer application were more active in terms of phosphorus uptake in both years. 

  19. Genotype × environment interaction for fertility and milk yield traits in Canadian, Mexican and US Holstein cattle

    Montaldo, H.H.; Pelcastre-Cruz, A.; Castillo-Juárez, H.; Ruiz-López, F.J.; Miglior, F.

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate genotype × environment interaction (G×E) between Canada, the United States and Mexico for fertility and milk yield traits using genetic correlations between countries estimated from genetic evaluations of sires. Genetic correlation between Mexican and Canadian Holsteins for age at first calving was ≤ 0.48 and lower than the simulated value obtained accounting for data structure and selection effects. For calving interval, genetic correlation between Mexico and Canada ranged from 0.48 to 0.69. Genetic correlation between calving interval in Mexico (multiplied by -1) and daughter pregnancy rate in the United States ranged from 0.64 to 0.73, and was lower than simulated and actual Canada-United States values. Genetic correlations between Mexico and Canada and the United States for milk yield traits were ≥ 0.83, similar to simulated genetic correlations, but lower than Canada-United States values (≥ 0.93). Heritability estimates for age at first calving, calving interval, milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat content, and protein content for the Mexican Holstein population were 0.06, 0.03, 0.18, 0.20, 0.19, 0.46, and 0.49, respectively. G×E interaction effects between Canada and Mexico for age at first calving were high, whereas G×E interaction effects between Canada and Mexico for calving interval and between daughter pregnancy rate in the United States and calving interval in Mexico were moderate. G×E interaction effects for milk yield traits between Canada or the United States with Mexico in registered Holsteins were low.

  20. Genotype × environment interaction for fertility and milk yield traits in Canadian, Mexican and US Holstein cattle

    Montaldo, H.H.; Pelcastre-Cruz, A.; Castillo-Juárez, H.; Ruiz-López, F.J.; Miglior, F.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate genotype × environment interaction (G×E) between Canada, the United States and Mexico for fertility and milk yield traits using genetic correlations between countries estimated from genetic evaluations of sires. Genetic correlation between Mexican and Canadian Holsteins for age at first calving was ≤ 0.48 and lower than the simulated value obtained accounting for data structure and selection effects. For calving interval, genetic correlation between Mexico and Canada ranged from 0.48 to 0.69. Genetic correlation between calving interval in Mexico (multiplied by -1) and daughter pregnancy rate in the United States ranged from 0.64 to 0.73, and was lower than simulated and actual Canada-United States values. Genetic correlations between Mexico and Canada and the United States for milk yield traits were ≥ 0.83, similar to simulated genetic correlations, but lower than Canada-United States values (≥ 0.93). Heritability estimates for age at first calving, calving interval, milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat content, and protein content for the Mexican Holstein population were 0.06, 0.03, 0.18, 0.20, 0.19, 0.46, and 0.49, respectively. G×E interaction effects between Canada and Mexico for age at first calving were high, whereas G×E interaction effects between Canada and Mexico for calving interval and between daughter pregnancy rate in the United States and calving interval in Mexico were moderate. G×E interaction effects for milk yield traits between Canada or the United States with Mexico in registered Holsteins were low.

  1. Effect of seed inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense and nitrogen fertilization rates on maize plant yield and silage quality

    Fernando Reimann Skonieski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Azospirillum brasilense inoculation and different nitrogen (N rates applied as topdressing on the productivity of a maize crop and the nutritional value of maize silage. Two experiments were conducted in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 harvests. Treatments were distributed in a randomized block design in a factorial arrangement, which consisted of two maize hybrids (AS 1572 and Defender coupled with nitrogen rates (0, 60, 120, 240, and 480 kg ha-1, inoculated or uninoculated with A. brasilense. Inoculated seeds were treated with the A. brasilense strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6. Inoculation with A. brasilense showed interaction with the hybrids, agricultural years, and nitrogen rates for the maize plant yield. In the 2012/2013 agricultural year, inoculation increased the AS 1572 hybrid silage yield by 6.16% and, in the 2013/2014 harvest, A. brasilense inoculation produced an increase of 16.15% for the Defender hybrid. Nitrogen fertilization applied at 0, 60, and 120 kg ha-1 N benefited the plants inoculated with A. brasilense. The statistical equations revealed that N rates between 0 and 184 kg ha-1 in A. brasilense inoculated plants raised the plant productivity for silage when compared with the control plants. Regarding the nutritional value of the silage, inoculation with A. brasilense increased the ether extract levels and total digestible nutrients and reduced the amount of acid detergent fiber. For all this, positive results with inoculation for silage yield are dependent on nitrogen fertilization rate. Inoculation with A. brasilense can promote changes in the maize silage quality, but with obtained results it is not possible to definitely conclude upon nutritive value of maize silage.

  2. The effects of time of disease occurrence, milk yield, and body condition on fertility of dairy cows.

    Loeffler, S H; de Vries, M J; Schukken, Y H

    1999-12-01

    The associations between occurrence of diseases, milk yield, and body condition score on conception risk after first artificial insemination (AI) were analyzed in an observational study on a convenience sample of 43 farms participating in a herd health program. Data were taken from 9369 lactations, from 4382 cows inseminated between 20 and 180 d in milk from 1990 to 1996. Two logistic regression models, one containing data from all lactations and a subset containing data from 1762 lactations with body condition scoring, were used to determine pregnancy risk at first AI. The effects of herd deviation in test-day milk yield, body condition score loss, and milk fat to protein ratio changes in early lactation were significant predictors of pregnancy risk, independent of disease; days in milk; farm; and seasonal factors. Three different methods of disease parameterization (incidence rates, binomial classes dependent on the interval in days since last occurrence with respect to AI, and a linear variable weighted for this interval) produced similar results. Metritis, cystic ovarian disease, lameness, and mastitis gave odds ratios for pregnancy risk ranging from 0.35 to 1.15, largely dependent on the interval in days from final disease occurrence to first AI. Displaced abomasum, milk fever, and retained fetal membranes resulted in odds ratios for pregnancy risk of 0.25, 0.85, and 0.55, respectively. These diseases showed little relationship between fertility and the number of days since last occurrence. Results of this study confirm the negative effects of milk yield, body score condition loss, and disease on dairy cow fertility. The effects of some diseases on first service conception were strongly dependent on the interval since last disease occurrence. This was especially valid for clinical mastitis, which has an extremely weak effect on conception if occurring prior to AI and is associated with > 50% reduction in pregnancy risk if occurring in the 3 wk directly after

  3. Effect of 15n-labeled hairy vetch and nitrogen fertilization on maize nutrition and yield under no-tillage

    Almeida Acosta, Jose Alan de; Amado, Telmo Jorge Carneiro; Silva, Leandro Souza da; Silveira Nicoloso, Rodrigo da

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) as cover crop on maize nutrition and yield under no tillage using isotope techniques. For this purpose, three experiments were carried out: quantification of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in hairy vetch; estimation of the N release rate from hairy vetch residues on the soil surface; quantification of 15 N recovery by maize from labeled hairy vetch under three rates of mineral N fertilization. This two year field experiment was conducted on a sandy Acrisol (FAO soil classification) or Argissolo Vermelho distrofico arenico (Brazilian Soil Classification), at a mean annual temperature of 18 deg C and mean annual rainfall of 1686 mm. The experiment was arranged in a double split-plot factorial design with three replications. Two levels of hairy vetch residue (50 and 100 % of the aboveground biomass production) were distributed on the surface of the main plots (5 x 12 m). Maize in the sub-plots (5 x 4 m) was fertilized with three N rates (0, 60, and 120 kg ha -1 N), with urea as N source. The hairy vetch-derived N recovered by maize was evaluated in microplots (1.8 x 2.2 m). The BFN of hairy vetch was on average 72.4 %, which represents an annual input of 130 kg ha -1 of atmospheric N. The N release from hairy vetch residues was fast, with a release of about 90 % of total N within the first four weeks after cover crop management and soil residue application. The recovery of hairy vetch 15 N by maize was low, with an average of 12.3 % at harvest. Although hairy vetch was not directly the main source of maize N nutrition, the crop yield reached 8.2 Mg ha -1 , without mineral fertilization. There was an apparent synergism between hairy vetch residue application and the mineral N fertilization rate of 60 kg ha -1 , confirming the benefits of the combination of organic and inorganic N sources for maize under no tillage. (author)

  4. Comparison of the effect of liquid humic fertilizers on yield of maize ...

    PC

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... humic substances can be useful for living creatures in developing organisms (as ... as catalysts of biochemical reactions; and in antioxidant ... group of heterogeneous organic materials which occur .... application of humic acid led to increased phosphorus ... Humic acid leads to increased plant yield through.

  5. Exploring the effects of nitrogen fertilization management alternatives on nitrate loss and crop yields in tile-drained fields in Illinois.

    Jeong, Hanseok; Bhattarai, Rabin

    2018-05-01

    It is vital to manage the excessive use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in corn production, the single largest consumer of N fertilizer in the United States, in order to achieve more sustainable agroecosystems. This study comprehensively explored the effects of N fertilization alternatives on nitrate loss and crop yields using the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) in tile-drained fields in central Illinois. The RZWQM was tested for the prediction of tile flow, nitrate loss, and crop yields using eight years (1993-2000) of observed data and showed satisfactory model performances from statistical and graphical evaluations. Our model simulations demonstrated the maximum return to nitrogen (MRTN) rate (193 kgha -1 ), a newly advised N recommendation by the Illinois Nutrient Loss Reduction Strategy (INLRS), can be further reduced. Nitrate loss was reduced by 10.3% and 29.8%, but corn yields decreased by 0.3% and 1.9% at 156 and 150 kgha -1 of N fertilizer rate in the study sites A and E, respectively. Although adjustment of N fertilization timing presented a further reduction in nitrate loss, there was no optimal timing to ensure nitrate loss reduction and corn productivity. For site A, 100% spring application was the most productive and 40% fall, 10% pre-plant, and 50% side dress application generated the lowest nitrate loss. For site E, the conventional N application timing was verified as the best practice in both corn production and nitrate loss reduction. Compared to surface broadcast placement, injected N fertilizer in spring increased corn yield, but may also escalate nitrate loss. This study presented the need of an adaptive N fertilizer management due to the heterogeneity in agricultural systems, and raised the importance of timing and placement of N fertilizer, as well as further reduction in fertilizer rate to devise a better in-field N management practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Grapevine yield components and composition of Isabel grape produced according to the organic and conventional systems

    Miele Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for organic grapes by the juice industry of Serra Gaúcha, Brazil. This region presents a humid and hot summer, ideal climatic conditions for the development of a number of diseases. To control such diseases and problems brought about by other organisms, growers apply pesticides on the grapevines which may leave residues in grapes. However, in general, grapes produced by organic system have lower yield, but there is a lack of research data on this subject. Thus, an experiment was carried out over three years in order to compare the yield components and the physicochemical composition of the must of Isabel grapes conducted in both production systems. When the grapes were ripe, variables related to yield components were evaluated, such as the number of clusters/vine, yield/vine and weight/cluster. Then the grapes were sampled and taken to the laboratory where they were crushed and the musts were centrifuged and analyzed. The 3-year data mean were submitted to correlation analysis and Principal Component Analysis. The results show that conventional grapevines produced 2.18 times more than organic. However, the grapes from the organic system had higher density, Brix, pH, Brix/titratable acidity ratio, P and Mg but lower K, and Ca varied little between both production systems.

  7. Estimation of variation and correlation analysis for yield components in black currant cultivars

    Rakonjac Vera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Creating genotypes that will be characterized by high yields, good quality and other favorable agronomic characters is a major objective of most currant breeding programs worldwide. For easier and faster achievement of these goals and identification of superior genotypes suitable for use as parents in future hybridization programs, study of genetic parameters seems to be obligatory. In this regard, the aims of our study were to estimate components of variability and heritability, and do correlation analysis for yield components in order to determine efficient strategies for improving yield in black currant breeding programs. Significant differences between cultivars were established for all studied traits. A high proportion of genotypic variance was found with bush width, no. of shoots per bush, bunch weight and berry weight indicating that genetic improvement for these traits through breeding was achievable. Opposite, seasonal variance was high for bush height, no. of bunch per bush and yield. The high heritability coefficients (0.80-0.94 detected for all traits studied reflect the close agreement between their phenotypic and genotypic values. Also, most pairs of traits were similarly correlated at both phenotypic and genotypic levels. So, yield was significantly and positively correlated with bush height, no of bunch per bush and bunch weight. These results imply a rapid response of black currants to selection. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46013 i FP7 Project AREA 316004

  8. Interrelationship and path coefficient analysis of yield components in F4 progenies of tef (Eragrostis tef).

    Debebe, Abel; Singh, Harijat; Tefera, Hailu

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted at Debre Zeit and Akaki during 2004-2005 cropping season on F2-derived F4 bulk families of three crosses, viz, DZ-01-974 x DZ-01-2786, DZ-01-974 x DZ-Cr-37 and Alba x Kaye Murri. To estimate the correlations and path coefficients between yield and yield components, 63 F4 families were taken randomly from each of the three crosses. The 189 F4 families, five parents and two checks were space planted following in 14 x 14 simple lattice design. Study of associations among traits indicated that yield was positively associated with shoot biomass, harvest index, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at phenotypic level at Debre Zeit. At Akaki, yield had significant positive correlation with shoot biomass, harvest index, plant height, panicle length and panicle weight. At genotypic level, grain yield per plot exhibited positive association with harvest index, shoot biomass, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at Debre Zeit. By contrast, days to heading, days to maturity, plant height and panicle length showed negative association with yield. At Akaki, kernel yield per plot was positively correlated at genotypic level with all the traits considered where lodging index had the highest correlation followed by shoot biomass, panicle kernel weight and harvest index. Path coefficient analysis at both phenotypic and genotypic levels for both the locations suggested those shoot biomass and harvest indexes are the two important yield determining traits. These two traits might be useful in indirect selection for yield improvement in the material generated from the three crosses under consideration.

  9. Estimation of Corn Yield and Soil Nitrogen via Soil Electrical Conductivity Measurement Treated with Organic, Chemical and Biological Fertilizers

    H. Khalilzade

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Around the world maize is the second crop with the most cultivated areas and amount of production, so as the most important strategic crop, have a special situation in policies, decision making, resources and inputs allocation. On the other side, negative environmental consequences of intensive consumption of agrochemicals resulted to change view concerning food production. One of the most important visions is sustainable production of enough food plus attention to social, economic and environmental aspects. Many researchers stated that the first step to achieve this goal is optimization and improvement of resources use efficiencies. According to little knowledge on relation between soil electrical conductivity and yield of maize, beside the environmental concerns about nitrogen consumption and need to replace chemical nitrogen by ecological inputs, this study designed and aimed to evaluate agroecological characteristics of corn and some soil characteristics as affected by application of organic and biological fertilizers under field conditions. Materials and Methods In order to probing the possibility of grain yield and soil nitrogen estimation via measurement of soil properties, a field experiment was conducted during growing season 2010 at Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. A randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications was used. Treatments included: 1- manure (30 ton ha-1, 2-vermicompost (10 ton ha-1, 3- nitroxin (containing Azotobacter sp. and Azospirillum sp., inoculation was done according to Kennedy et al., 4- nitrogen as urea (400 kg ha-1 and 5- control (without fertilizer. Studied traits were soil pH, soil EC, soil respiration rate, N content of soil and maize yield. Soil respiration rate was measured using equation 1: CO2= (V0- V× N×22 Equation 1 In which V0 is the volume of consumed acid for control treatment titration, V is of the volume of consumed acid for sample treatment

  10. The Effects of Drought Stress on Yield, Yield Components and Anti-oxidant of Two Garlic (Allium sativum L. Ecotypes with Different Planting Densities

    shiva akbari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought stress reduces plant growth by affecting various physiological and biochemical processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, translocation, ion uptake, carbohydrates, nutrient metabolism and growth promoters. Garlic (Allium sativum L. is an annual bulb crop that has been cultivated since ancient times and was used as a spice and condiment for many centuries. Garlic is an important plant because of its pharmaceutical properties. The optimum yield of this bulb crop depends on well-managed irrigation, fertilization and cultivation practices. In the final and middle stages of growth, garlic is sensitive to water stress and low irrigation is unsuitable in these stages. This experiment was established to study the influence of drought stress and planting density on yield and its components and the non-enzymatic anti-oxidant content of two different garlic ecotypes. Materials and methods This study was conducted in 2011-2012 in a farmland at the south east of Semnan city. The experimental layout was a split-plot factorial with a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments were comprised of three factors: irrigation rates (60%, 80% and 100% of estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETC as the main plot and the factorial combination of three levels of planting density (30, 40 and 50 plants.m-2 and two ecotypes (Tabas and Toroud as the sub-plots. To estimate the crop water requirement, different meteorological parameters were collected from Semnan weather station and were used based on FAO-56 water irrigation calculation instructions. After harvesting, ten garlic plants were sampled randomly in each plot and bulb yield components were measured. To calculate the leaves anti-oxidant content, DPPH method was used. The statistical significances of mean values were assessed by analysis of variance and LSD tests at p≤0.05. All calculations were performed using SAS and Mstat-C softwares. Results and discussion

  11. Effect of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers on Yield and Essential Oil of Two Ecotypes of Savory (Satureja hortensis L. under Normal and Drought Stress Conditions

    O Akrami nejad

    2016-02-01

    height, grain and biological yield, chlorophyll index, ionic leakage, relative water content, number of branches, essence percentage and essence amount were evaluated. Data were analyzed with SAS and MSTAT-C software and mean comparison was done using Duncan test at %5 level. Results and Discussion The results showed that drought stress reduced plant height, number of branches, oil yield, relative water content, SPAD index and increased ion leakage. Meanwhile, it had no significant effect on the percent of oil. Fertilizers increased plant height, number of branches, yield, chlorophyll index and oil yield, while it decreased ion leakage in contrast with control. Baher et al (2002 have reported that drought stress reduced plant height, grain yield, and branches number of Savory. As nutrients deficit is one of the main factors in control of plant height and yield, plant that were treated with control had the lowest growth. Organic fertilizers provide appropriate plant growth via gradual release of nutrients during growth season and saving water. Two ecotypes had significant differences for yield, number of branches and ionic leakage. Kerman ecotype showed better yield performance. The results showed that water stress reduced yield, number of branches and plant height of savory. Meanwhile fertilizers (especially cow and hen manure could reduce the effects of drought. Conclusions Generally, organic fertilizers, especially cow manure, produced higher yield and showed a better response to drought stress. It might be for higher moisture maintenance in contrast with chemical fertilizers. It seems that, using cow manure could be helpful to overcome the negative effects of drought stress.

  12. Comparative economics, monetary and yield advantages from NPK fertilization to onion

    Khokhar, K.M.; Khokhar, M.A.; Mahmood, T.; Hussain, S.I.; Hidayat-Ullah; Laghari, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    An onion variety Swat-l was raised with different combinations of N (50 to 125 kg/ha) and K/sub 2/O (25 to 75 kg/ha) with constant rate of P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ (75 kg/ha). The bulb yield increased to the maximum of 20.0 and 34.3 t/ha during 2000-01 and 2001-02, respectively with NPK at the rate 100-75-50 kg/ha giving 87 and 94% increase over control. Further increase in nitrogen and potash levels did not significantly increase bulb yield. Maximum cost benefit ratio (1: 7.07 and 1: 7.98) was observed with NPK application at the rate100-75-50 kg/ha during2000-01 and 2001-02 respectively. The corresponding per hectare yield and net return were also maximum of 20.0 and 34.3 tonnes and Rs. 42609 and Rs. 48112, respectively. (author)

  13. Evaluation of Two Mycorrhiza Species and Nitroxin on Yield and Yield Components of Garlic (Allium sativum L. in an Ecological Agroecosystem

    P Rezvani Moghaddam

    2016-02-01

    biofertilizers on different crops, information on the effects of these factors for many medicinal plants such as garlic is scarce; therefore, in this study the effects of mycorrhiza and biofertilizers on quantitative characteristics of garlic in a low input cropping system were studied. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of two mycorrhiza species and nitroxin on yield and yield components of garlic (Allium sativum L., an experiment was conducted in a factorial arrangement based on a randomized completed block design with three replications in the growing seasons of 2010 at the experimental farm of College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. The experimental factors were all combination of two mycorrhiza species (Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices and control and also inoculation with and without nitroxin (include Azotobacter sp. and Azospirillum sp. as a biofertilizer. Results and Discussion The results showed that both two mycorrhiza species had superior effects on most of the study traits compared with control. Bulb weight per plant was significantly affected by mycorrhiza species. Glomus mosseae، and Glomus intraradices increased bulb weight per plant by 48 and 29 percent compared with control, respectively. Nitroxin had a significant effect on length and diameter of bulbs. Length and diameter of bulbs were increased by 13 and 8 percent using nitroxin compared with control, respectively. Interactive effects of mycorrhiza and nitroxin on all study traits also were significant. Interactive effects of study treatments showed that Glomus mosseae had better effect on most of study traits at with and without nitroxin treatments. On the other hand, nitroxin had synergistic effect on mycorrhiza treatments compared when these treatments were used without nitroxin. Highest (4306 kg ha-1 and lowest (1665 kg ha-1 economic yield (bulb yield were obtained from Glomus mosseae + Nitroxin and control (without mycorhiza and nitroxin, respectively. In

  14. Soil fertility, nutrition and yield of maize and barley with gypsum application on soil surface in no-till

    Leandro Michalovicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Annual crop yield and nutrition have shown differentiated responses to modifications in soil chemical properties brought about by gypsum application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gypsum application rates on the chemical properties of a Latossolo Bruno (Clayey Oxisol, as well as on the nutrition and yield of a maize-barley succession under no-till. The experiment was set up in November 2009 in Guarapuava, Parana, Brazil, applying gypsum rates of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 Mg ha-1 to the soil surface upon sowing maize, with crop succession of barley. Gypsum application decreased the levels of Al3+ and Mg2+ in the 0.0-0.1 m layer and increased soil pH in the layers from 0.2-0.6 m depth. Gypsum application has increased the levels of Ca2+ in all soil layers up to 0.6 m, and the levels of S-SO4(2- up to 0.8 m. In both crops, the leaf concentrations of Ca and S were increased while Mg concentrations have decreased as a function of gypsum rates. There was also an effect of gypsum rates on grain yield, with a quadratic response of maize and a linear increase for barley. Yield increases were up to 11 and 12 % in relation to control for the maximum technical efficiency (MTE rates of 3.8 and 6.0 Mg ha-1 of gypsum, respectively. Gypsum application improved soil fertility in the profile, especially in the subsurface, as well as plant nutrition, increasing the yields of maize and barley.

  15. Increasing water productivity, nitrogen economy, and grain yield of rice by water saving irrigation and fertilizer-N management.

    Aziz, Omar; Hussain, Saddam; Rizwan, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; Bashir, Saqib; Lin, Lirong; Mehmood, Sajid; Imran, Muhammad; Yaseen, Rizwan; Lu, Guoan

    2018-06-01

    The looming water resources worldwide necessitate the development of water-saving technologies in rice production. An open greenhouse experiment was conducted on rice during the summer season of 2016 at Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China, in order to study the influence of irrigation methods and nitrogen (N) inputs on water productivity, N economy, and grain yield of rice. Two irrigation methods, viz. conventional irrigation (CI) and "thin-shallow-moist-dry" irrigation (TSMDI), and three levels of nitrogen, viz. 0 kg N ha -1 (N 0 ), 90 kg N ha -1 (N 1 ), and 180 kg N ha -1 (N 2 ), were examined with three replications. Study data indicated that no significant water by nitrogen interaction on grain yield, biomass, water productivity, N uptake, NUE, and fertilizer N balance was observed. Results revealed that TSMDI method showed significantly higher water productivity and irrigation water applications were reduced by 17.49% in TSMDI compared to CI. Thus, TSMDI enhanced root growth and offered significantly greater water saving along with getting more grain yield compared to CI. Nitrogen tracer ( 15 N) technique accurately assessed the absorption and distribution of added N in the soil crop environment and divulge higher nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) influenced by TSMDI. At the same N inputs, the TSMDI was the optimal method to minimize nitrogen leaching loss by decreasing water leakage about 18.63%, which are beneficial for the ecological environment.

  16. Early sowing increases nitrogen uptake and yields of winter wheat grown with cattle slurry or mineral fertilizers

    Suarez, Alfonso; Rasmussen, Jim; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2018-01-01

    of the two cultivars did not differ consistently with respect to the effect of early sowing on crop yield, N concentration and offtake, or ANR. Within the north-west European climatic region, moving the sowing time of winter wheat from mid-September to mid-August provides a significant yield and N offtake......The current study evaluated the effect of sowing date (early, mid-August or timely, mid-September) on two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Hereford, Mariboss) with different rates of nitrogen (N) (0–225 kg total N/ha) applied as animal manure (AM; cattle slurry) or mineral fertilizers...... (N: phosphorus: potassium; NPK). Overwinter plant N uptake and soil mineral N content were determined during 2014/15, while harvest yields (grain, straw, N content) were determined during 2014/15 and 2015/16. Overwinter uptake of N was 14 kg N/ha higher in early than in timely-sown wheat. Despite...

  17. The influence of benefit microorganisms on yield and quality of soybean grains under conditions of reduced nitrogen fertilization

    Suzana Kristek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility to reduce the application of mineral nitrogen fertilizers through the application of beneficial microorganisms (genus Bradyrhizobium, Azotobacter, bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus spp., etc.. Research was conducted during 2013 and 2014 on Eutric brown soil. The experiment was set up in a split-block scheme with 12 different variants in 4 repetitions: two soybean cultivars were used; two different treatments of nitrogen fertilizers and three different treatments of microbiological preparation were applied. Analysed parameters were soybean grain yield (kg/ha based on 13% moisture, protein content (%, oil content (% and hectolitre mass (kg. Given that the climatic conditions in the second year of research were more favourable than in the first year of research, all the elements of research, including control variants, achieved better results in the second year of research. All variants treated with microbiological preparations, either by application in soil or by application in soil combined with foliar treatments, also achieved statistically significant differences compared to the control variants.

  18. Influence of top dressing on yield and seed quality components of oilseed rape

    Vujaković Milka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape is an agronomically important species grown for seed that contains 40-48% oil and 18-25% proteins. Oilseed rape has high demands for nitrogen. The research was performed on four varieties of oilseed rape (Banaćanka, Valeska, Slavica and Express developed at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, during vegetative seasons 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. During vegetation, top dressing was applied with different amounts of KAN: control (0 kg N ha-1, 50 kg N ha-1, 100 kg N ha-1, 150 kg N ha-1 and the N quantity determination were performed applying the balancing method (also known as N-min method. Yield, 1000-seed weight, seed germination, oil and protein content were determined after harvest. Yield and seed germination depended on seed production year. 1000-seed weight depended on seed production year and genotype. Oil and protein content in seed depended on production year, genotype and amount of the N-fertilizer applied by top dressing.

  19. Yield and environmental effects of organic and inorganic fertilizer applications on mixed-season perennial forages

    Although primarily a research project, this study included a training component whereby undergraduate research assistants gained practical knowledge in plant, soil and soil-water sampling and analysis, and learned about the environmental impact of nutrient loading in ground and surface waters. The ...

  20. Genotype x environment interactions for yield components of broomcorn [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Sikora Vladimir

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to study the ecological stability of yield components (weight of undressed and trashed panicle and seed weight per panicle in fourteen varieties of broomcorn. Our current varieties was compared with our old, Hungarian and American varieties. Investigations were carried out under field conditions in a micro trial set up in a randomized block design providing five replications in seven ecologically different years. Stability parameters were computed using the model of Eberhart and Russell (1966. The results of this investigation showed that the genotypes differed in stability parameters for the characters studied. Variety Sava show good stability in all growing conditions. Variety Neoplanta plus was adapted to favorable and variety Reform to unfavorable conditions. Varieties with best performances in regard to yield components did not also show best stability. .

  1. The application dosage of Azolla pinnata in fresh and powder form as organic fertilizer on soil chemical properties, growth and yield of rice plant

    Setiawati, Mieke Rochimi; Damayani, Maya; Herdiyantoro, Diyan; Suryatmana, Pujawati; Anggraini, Derisfha; Khumairah, Fiqriah Hanum

    2018-02-01

    The yield of rice plants is strongly influenced by N fertilizer. Nitrogen in rice plants has roles in vegetative growth, tiller formation and increasing yield through rice protein formation. Nitrogen supplied from organic fertilizers is better than inorganic fertilizers that may have environmental problem effects. Organic fertilizers from Azolla pinnata water fern contain higher N than other organic fertilizers. Symbiosis between A. pinnata and the N-fixing cyanobacteria results in high content of nitrogen, 3 to 5%. A. pinnata can be added to the rice field as organic fertilizer in form of fresh biomass or composted. Composted form can be ground into powder which passes through 100 mesh sieve. Preparation of compost powder of A. pinnata is done to reduce the constraints of voluminous application of organic fertilizers and to improve the efficiency of its use. The objective of this research was to compare the effect of the use of fresh A. pinnata and compost powder of A. pinnata on some soil and plant chemical properties and rice yield. The treatments applied were fresh A. pinnata at the dose of 0, 10 and 20 ton ha-1 and A. pinnata compost powder at 12.5 and 25 kg ha-1. The results showed that incorporation of fresh A. pinnata at 20 tons ha-1 and its compost powder at 25 kg ha-1 increased the available P of soil, plant P content and tiller number, but did not affect the content of organic-C, total soil N, plant N content and rice yield. This study suggested the benefits of A. pinnata compost powder technology in organic fertilization of soil to increase the nutrient content of soil and rice plants.

  2. Effect of Foliar Application of Iron, Zinc and Manganese Micronutrients on Yield and Yield Components and Seed Oil of Pot Marigold Calendula officinalis L.

    E. Rezaei Chiyaneh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although micronutrients effect on growth and yield of different plants has been intensively investigated, but there is limited information on its effect on grain yield and seed oil content of pot marigold Calendula officinalis L.. In order to investigate the effects of micronutrients (Fe, Zn and Mn spraying on yield and yield components and seed oil of pot marigold, a field experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Farm of Payame Noor University of Nagadeh in 2010. Treatments included Fe, Zn, Mn, mixed solutions of these elements (Fe+Zn, Fe+Mn, Zn+Mn, Fe+Zn+Mn and control (water. Treatments were applied in 2 g/litter twice at stem elongation and early flowering stages. Different traits such as plant height, number of capitol per plant, number seed per capitol, thousand seed weight, biological yield, seed yield, seed oil percentage and oil Yield were recorded. The results showed that foliar application of micronutrients had significant effects on all of these traits. Yield components, seed yield, oil percentage and yield were enhanced by foliar application, compared with control (untreated plants. The maximum number seed per capitol, thousand seed weight and biological yield were relevant to Fe treatment. The highest numbers of capitol per plant and seed yield (643.33 kg.ha-1 were relevant to Zn+Fe treatment and the maximum oil yield (124.20 kg.ha-1 was produced by Zn+ Fe+ Mn treatment. Seed yield and oil yield increased by 31.27% and 44.18% yields more than control, respectively. It can be concluded that, foliar application of micronutrients had positive effects to obtain high yield and oil of pot marigold.

  3. Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Yield and Yield ...

    Declining soil fertility is one of the major problems causing yield reduction of barley ... (VC) with inorganic NP on growth, yield and yield components of food barley. ... The experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with ...

  4. NPK, protein content and yield of broccoli as affected by gamma rays seeds irradiation and phosphorus fertilizer rates

    El-Desoki, S.A.; Abdallah, A.A.G.; Awad, S.M.; Aboel-Kheir, O.H.

    2005-01-01

    Two field experiments were carried out during 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 winter growing seasons at the experimental farm of Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of pre sowing-seeds irradiation with different doses of gamma rays (0, 2, 3 and 4 Gy) and different phosphorus fertilizer application rates, 0, 30, 60 and 90 k P 2 O 5 /fed) on NPK content of leaves and spear, and protein content in spears at maturity, spear diameter, main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spear fresh weight per plant and total spear yield. In general, exposing broccoli seeds to different gamma ray doses up to 4 Gy prior to sowing increased the above mentioned parameters with different magnitudes comparing with the non-irradiated control plants. The highest percentage of increase was obtained by exposing broccoli seeds to 3 Gy. There were non-significant differences between 3 and 4 Gy treatments during the two growing seasons. With respect to the effect of phosphorus fertilizer application rates on the studied parameters, increasing phosphorus application rates up to 90 kg P 2 O 5 /fed increased the above mentioned parameters. The highest percentage of increase was obtained by applying 90 kg P 2 O 5 /fed. The interaction, gamma ray and P level showed phosphorus there were significant differences in main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spear yield and spear diameter in first season. The highest value was obtained by 3 Gy and 90 kg P 2 O 5 /fed. Also there were significant effects on NPK content in broccoli leaves at 90 days after transplanting (DAT) except P in second season and nonsignificant values of broccoli spear at harvest except N, K in first season. The highest protein content of broccoli spears at harvest was obtained with 2 Gy and 30 kg P 25 /fed

  5. Yield and its components and some agronomic characters of four mungbean mutants induces by gamma ray

    Al-Mosawi, A. R. A.; Ibrahim, A. F.; Azzo, F. Z.; Khadim, A. A.; Ibrahim, W. H.; Abdul-Al-majed, A.

    2012-12-01

    A field experiment was carried out at the Tuwaitha research station / Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission (past) Ministry of science and Technology (now) in Agricultural seasons 2000 - 2001 to evaluate four mungbean mutants induced by gamma ray compared with local variety and Australian pedigree. The results showed that mutants AMU-45 was superiority on anther mutants and the local in date of flowering (41.50 days), maturity (71.25 days), yield (1609.88 kg/ha) and its components. (Author)

  6. Growth and yield of broccoli fertilized with doses of velvet bean in greenhouse

    Ellen Rúbia Diniz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dose effects of green manure in vegetable crops production are still poorly understood. There are few scientific studies indicate that increasing the dose may influence plants characteristics. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of doses of velvet bean green manure on growth and yield, the partitioning of dry matter and nitrogen (N in plants of broccoli, as well as determine the apparent recovery and physiological efficiency of use N. We established four treatments plus a control. The treatments consisted of four levels of green manure: 0, 3, 6, 9 t ha-1 on a dry matter basis, with the addition of 12 t ha-1 of compost. Doses of green manure applied influenced the growth and yield of broccoli. The distribution of dry matter between plant parts of broccoli is not influenced by the doses of green manure. Doses of green manure influenced the amount of N accumulated in the inflorescence and whole plant of broccoli. The apparent recovery of N from green manure and efficiency of N use by plants of broccoli are positively associated with the applied doses.

  7. Effect of Plant Density and Weed Interference on Yield and Yied Components of Grain Sorghum

    S. Sarani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Weed control is an essential part of all crop production systems. Weeds reduce yields by competing with crops for water, nutrients, and sunlight. Weeds also directly reduce profits by hindering harvest operations, lowering crop quality, and producing chemicals which are harmful to crop plants. Plant density is an efficient management tool for maximizing grain yield by increasing the capture of solar radiation within the canopy, which can significantly affect development of crop-weed association. The response of yield and yield components to weed competition varies by crop and weeds species and weeds interference duration. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of weed interference periods and plant density on the yield and yield components of sorghum. Materials and Methods In order to study the effect of plant density and weeds interference on weeds traits, yield and yield components of sorghum (Var. Saravan, an experiment was conducted as in factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the research field of Islamic Azad University, Birjand Branch in South Khorasan province during year of 2013. Experimental treatments consisted of three plant density (10, 20 and 30 plants m-2 and four weeds interference (weed free until end of growth season, interference until 6-8 leaf stage, interference until stage of panicle emergence, interference until end of growth season. Measuring traits included the panicle length, number of panicle per plant, number of panicle per m2, number of seed per panicle, 1000-seed weight, seed yield, biological yield, number and weight of weeds per m2. Weed sampling in each plot have done manually from a square meter and different weed species counted and oven dried at 72 °C for 48 hours. MSTAT-C statistical software used for data analysis and means compared with Duncan multiple range test at 5% probability level. Results and Discussion Results showed that